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To the Members of the Medical Association of the State of 
Alabama : 
We herewith present you the volume of the Transac- 
tions of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama 
for 1894. We have used all due haste to have this volume 
read}^ for a much earlier delivery than in any previous 

We hope our endeavors have been crowned with success. 
Very respectfully, 

James Reid Jordan, M. D., Montgomery, 
George Platt Waller, M. D., Montgomery, 
Robert Sommerville IIii>l, M. D., Mongomery, 

Publishiitf/ Com mitlce. 







Birmingham, Tuesday, April 17. 


The Association convened in Seal's Music Hall at 12 M., 
Tuesday, April 17th. 

The following Counsellors, Delegates and Visitors ap- 
peared and registered: 


Cochran, Jekome, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Jackson, Robert Dandridg^, Brookwood, Tuscaloosa county. 
Jackson, Walter Clark, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
McKiTTRicK, Adam Alexander, Evergreen, Conecuh county. 
Michel, Richard Fraser, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden, Wilcox county. 
Total, 6. 


Abernetiiy, William Henry, Tinela, ^lonroe county. 
Brogkway, Dudley Samuel, Livingston, Sumter county. 
Cason, Davis Elmore, Ashville, St. Clair county. 
Cross, Bex.tamin Franklin, Decatur, Morgan county. 
Fletcher, Richard Matthew, Madison, Madison county. 
Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs, Bullock county. 
Gaston, John Brown, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
GoGGANS, James Adrian, Alexander City, Tallapoosa county. 
Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, Jasper, Walker county. 
Hoqan, Samuel Mardis, Union Springs, Bullock county. 
HuGGiNS, Jaooh, Newbern, Hale county. 
Jay, Andrew, Evergreen, Conecuh county. 
Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 


•Tonics, Capkrs Capkiiakt, East Lako, Jefferson county. 
LucKiB, Jamks Buc'icNEK, Birniiiighuni, Jeffersou county. 
Mc-KiNNox, John Alicxandkk, Selma, Dallas county. 
MooDV, JosKiMi, Franconia, Pickens county. 
Prince, Fhancis Mahion, Bessemer, Jefferson county. 
Robertson, TuADDEUs Lindlay, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Sanhkus, William Henry, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa county. 
Sears, John William, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Seelye, Samuel Dibhle, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
SiioLL, Edward IIexry, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Stovall, Andrew jNIcAdams, Jasper, Walker county. 
Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega, Talladega county. 
Thomas, James Grey, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Trent, Powhatan Green, Rock Mills, Randolph county. 
Total, 28. 


Baldwin, Ben.iamin James, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville, Calhoun county. 
Harlan, John Jefferson, Hackneyville, Tallapoosa county. 
' Inge, Henry Tutwiler, Mobile, Mobile county. 
LeGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston, Calhoun county. 
Marecual, Edwin JjESLey, Mobile, Mobile county. 
Redden, Robert James, SuUigent, Lamar county. 
Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega, Talladega county. 
Whaley, Lewis, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville, Madison county. 
Whelan, Charles, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Total, 11. 


Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 

Blake, Wyatt Heflin, Lineville, Clay county. 

Boyd, Andrew, Scottsboro, Jackson county. 

Cameron, Matthew Bunyan, Sumterville, Sumter county. 

Carson, Shelby Chadwick, Bessemer, Jefferson county. 

Cunningham, Russell McWhorter, Pratt City, Jefferson county. 

DowLiNG, Oscar, Columbia, Henry county. 

DuGGAR, Reuben Henry, Gallion, Hale county. 

Heflin, Wyatt, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 

Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Union Springs, Bullock county. 

Jordan, James Reid, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 

McCants, Robert Bell, Faunsdale, Marengo county. 

Moon, William Henry, Goodwater, Coosa county. 


Parke, Thomas Duke, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
PuRDON, John Edward, Huntsville, Madison county. 
Watkins, Isaac LaFayette, Montgomery, Montgomery county. 
Whitfield, Bryan Watkixs, Galloway, Walker county. 
Total, 17. 


Barbour County — Benjamin Smart Warren, Clayton. 

Bibb County — J. W. Pratt, Scottsville, and Charles .M. Wooley, llan- 

Blount County — Hayden Henry Byars, Blount Springs. 

Bullock County — James Pickett Colvin, Fitzpatrick's. 

Butler County — Henry Gaither Perry, Greenville. 

Calhoun County — H. L. Isom, Weaver's, and John Howard ;\Iurj)liy, 

CJiambers County — W. D. Gaines, Milltown. 

Cherokee County — Hugh Lounze Appleton, Cedar Bluff. 

Chilton County — Joseph Samuel Johnson, Jr., Clanton. 

Cleburne County — Walter Howard Bell, Belltown, and James H. 
Ligon, Oakfuskee. 

Coosa County — Eugene Argo, Goodwater, and Cecil Kelly Maxwell, 

Cullman County — John H. AValling, Cullman. 

Dale County — Robert Franklin Harper, Ozark. 

Dallas County — Robert Lee Sutton, Orrville, and Edward Burton 
Ward, Selma. 

DeKalb County — William Everett Quin, Fort Payne. 

Elmore County — Richard Daniel Howe, Elmore, and Xeal B. Sewoll, 

Etowah County — J. W. D. Lawrence, Turkeytown. 

Fayette County — Alexander Washington Agnew, Fayette C. H., and 
John Gardner Smith, Bankston. 

Greene County — Le Vert Snoddy, Forkland, and Alexander namilton 
Byrd, Eutaw. 

Henry County — James R. G. Howell, Dothan. 

Jackson County . 

Jefferson County — James Monroe Killough, Huffman, and Edward 
Parish Lacy, Bessemer. 

Lamar County — Daniel Dixie HoUis, Sulligent. 

lAmderdale County — Henry Altaiuont Moody, Bailey Springs. 

Macon County — Francis Clarion Letcher, Shorter's. 

M(iilis(»t ('(HDity — David Hubbard McLain, Guricy, and .riilius Till- 
man Haney, Madison. 

Marion. County — John Carroll Jolmson, Glen .\il(>n. 

Marshall County — AVilliam Levi Thomason, Cuntersville. 


.l/o/,;/-' rr»H/////— Tucker Henderson Frazer, Mobile, and Sidney Stew- 
art Pngh, ^Mobile. 

MunUinmn-ii C'o» /////— Robert Sommerville Hill, Montgomery, and 
Charles Alston Thigpen, Montgomery. 

Morgan County— John Murry Kitchens, Danville. 

Peril Coitnt II— John Milton Sadler, Uniontown, and James Benton 
Hatchett, JNIarion. 

Pirkcnn Co »//7</— Gilbert Beebe AVimberly, Reform. 

J'ikr ('ci«»/*/— AVilliam Shelby Sanders, Milo. 

Randolph Cijanttj—ll. T. Hefllin, Roanoke, and W. H. Mitchell, 


Shelby County— John Harford Williams, Columbiana. 

St. Clair County— Jeimes Madison McLaughlin, Springville, and Oli- 
ver Marshall Steadham, Esonville. 

Tallnth-ya County— Benjamin Britt Simms, Talladega, and AVilliam 
Drayton Caldwell, Kymulga. 

Tallapoom County— Aaron LaFayette Harlan, Alexander City. 

Tuftcaloosa County — William Glassell Somerville, Tuscaloosa, and 
Ruffin Ashe Wright, Tuscaloosa. 

1IV;/A7'/- C'o'(/(/(y— Daniel M. Davis, Horse Creek. 

Total number of counties sending delegates, 41. 
Total number of delegates, 58. 


Arbery, W. B., Anniston ; Curtis, A. B., Lower Peach Tree ; 

Ayers, Thomas AV., Jacksonville ; Dabney, J. D., Birmingham ; 

Barclay, J. AV., Birmingham ; Davis, J. D. S., Birmingham ; 

Barclift, AV. A., Hartselle ; Davis, Jeff. S., Montevallo ; 

Barnes, Ella E., Birmingham ; Davis, ^V. E. B., Birmingham ; 

Bevill, S. D., Guin ; Donald, J. M., Marion Junction ; 

Bondurant, E. D., Tuscaloosa ; Douglass, A. G., Birmingham ; 

Borden, R. F., Gilmore ; Dryer, T. E., Birmingham ; 

Brown, George S., Pratt City ; Eaton, B G., Stanton ; 

Brown, George AA"., Birmingham ; Evins, Thomas E., AA'^oodward ; 

Brown, T. J., Pratt City ; Gamble, AV. M., East Lake ; 

Caffee, S. R., Birmingham; Gibson, J. D., Birmingham; 

Caine, V. H., Central Mills ; Gillespie, F. A., Hanceville ; 

Chapman, G. C, Birmingham ; Gillespie, J. S., Birmingham ; 

Chapman, W. R., Monroeville; Givhan, E. G , Jemison ; 

Clifton, J. M., Cottondale ; Glass, E. T., Birmingham ; 

Cole, AV. M., Blountsville ; GrifRn, R. J., Moundville ; 

Collins, James A., AVarrior ; Henley, A. T., Birmingham ; 

Cotton, Robert, Birmingham ; Hill, George A., Sylacauga ; 

Crowe, P. P., Coalburg ; Hill, S. H.. Carrollton ; 

Cunningham, AV. M., Corona ; Hudson, AV. H., LaFayette ; 


Jenkins, L. A., Brookside ; Pitchford, L. W., Arbacoochee ; 

Johnson, M. L., Cullman ; Ransom, W. ^V., Birmingham ; 

Jones, D. D., Woodlawn ; Reed, J. II., Epes ; 

Kendall, "W. Q., Berlin ; Riggs, E. P., Birmingham ; 

Kennedy, J. O., Kennedy ; Ritter, Clement. Selma ; 

Killion, iM. E., ; Robbins, J. E., Brookside; 

Ledbetter, S. L., Birmingham ; Rogers, ]\Iack, Birmingham ; 

Lusk, Percy B., Lewisburg ; Rosser, II. X., Birmingham ; 

Martin, H. L., Avondale ; Self, George W., Selfville ; 

Martin, J. P., Birmingham ; Simnis, A. G., Renfroe ; 

McDairmid, A. K., Ilollins ; Smith. M. D.,Nixburg; 

McGlathery, F. S., Woodlawn ; Smith, R. K., Pratt City ; 

McAVhorter, R. L , Galesville ; Stafford, H. E., N. Y. Polyclinic ; 

Miller, J. M., Blossburg ; Stallings, T. D., Hayneville ; 

Mitchell, H. E., Oneonta ; Statum, Job X., Blossburg ; 

Mobley, R. V., Birmingham ; Talley, D. F., Birmingham ; 

Moore, John A , Birmingham ; Turney, W. M., Birmingham ; 

Moore, John T., Orrville ; Watson, B. W., Furman ; 

Munn, C. E., Major and Surgeon Wilder, AV. H., Birmingham ; 

U. S. A.,Mt. Yernon Barracks ; Whorton, J. P., Blue Spring ; 

Murphy, T. E , Bethany ; AVilson,Cunningham,Birmii]gliam ; 

Murray, W. D., New Decatur ; "Williams, H. I., Columbiana ; 

Nolen, Isaac D., Xew Site ; Wyman, B. L., Birmingliam. 
Payne, John, Hillman ; Total, 89. 

Peck, C. F.. Stringer ; 


Grand Senior Life Counsellors 6 

Grand Senior Counsellors 28 

Senior Counsellors 11 

Junior Counsellors 17 

Delegates 58 

Visitors 89 

Total 209 

The following ex-presidents attended the meeting of the Associa- 
tion : Benjamin James Baldwin, Montgomery, ^lontgomery county; 
John Brown Gaston, Montgomery, Montgomery county; Charles 
lliggs Franklin, Union Springs, Bullock county ; William Henry San- 
ders, [Mobile, ^lobile county ; James Thomas Searcy, Tuscaloosa, Tus- 
caloosa county; Samuel Dibble Seelye, Montgomery. ^Montgomery 
county ; Edward Henry Slioll, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Total, 7. 


The Association was called to order promptly at 12 o'clock, 
noon, by the President, Dr. Tliaddens Lindlay Robertson, 
oi liirniingham, and was opened with prayer by Rev. B. D. 
Gray, of Birniiugham. 

The President then introduced Hon. D. J. Fox, Mayor of 
the city, who proceeded to deliver the following : 


Gentlemen of the State Medical Association: 

Binninghiiinwelcomps you. We recognize in your profession a great 
panacea for every ill under the sun— financial, social, sentimental and 
physical. You afford tone to the stomach and the liver awakens to 
combat threatened financial depression. By your peculiar ethics you 
heigliten the elevation of the social being ; by your gentleness you 
touch and sweeten the sentimental chord, and by your skill you build 
up and strengthen the physical being. Hence I say yours is a most 
noble and elevating calling, and all mankind must bow before the M. 
D.'s. We, who are of the common people outside of the realm of 
your investigation and studies, who know nothing of the rules of 
medical diagnosis, can not but observe the rapid strides made by your 
profession. While men and women still die and pass away under the 
call of Providence and the unyielding laws of nature, your alleviating 
power has grown and strengthened as the years of observation and 
experience pass and go, and we wonder in amazement at the results 
of your skill. 

All praise to the medical profession. To such a body as this I can, 
in behalf of our people, welcome you to Birmingham. The keys of 
the city are in your hand ; make yourselves at home in the pantry 
and at the sideboard. 

Dr. Sa]MUEL L. Ledbetter, President of Jefferson County 
Medical Society, was then introduced to the Association by 
President Robertson, and proceeded to deliver, in the name 
of his Society, the following 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

We are reminded by a resolution adopted by this Association at 
its last annual session in Selma, that this is not an affair of pleasure, 
but an Association whose object is work ; but a work which, on account 
of its variation from the ordinary routine of professional rounds' 
becomes a physiological rest. You are assembled in this hall for the 
purpose of discussing such measures and enacting such laws as will 


subserve the best interests of the medical profession ami the general 
public; and incidentally to liave a pleasant social rtMinion. To the 
accomplishment of this end, the Jefferson County Medical Society 
has taken upon itself the very pleasant duty of acting the host. 

We desire that every visitor should receive his full share of the ben- 
efits to be derived from attending this Association ; we therefore 
place ourselves at your service. We have no axes to grind, but will 
be glad to turn the grind-stone, or, you touch the button and we will 
do the rest. 

Nearly fifteen years ago I became a member of the .Tefferson 
County Medical Society when it had less than a dozen members. To- 
day I stand before you, the representative of a society which num- 
bers a hundred. In behalf of Jefferson's one hundred, I bid you wel- 

Welcome to the mysterious and learned administrator of calomel, 
quinine and ipecac ; to the solemn and dignified manipulator of the 
scalpel and curette, and to the patient searcher after latent hyper- 
metropia, and astigmatism. AVelcome to the grave and serious 
visaged explorer of the abdominal cavity, the mighty hunter of the 
obstreperous appendix vermiformis and volcanic pus tube. Welcome 
to those who have come from chasing the typhoid bacillus over the 
mountains of AVinston, Walker and Blount, or from a still-hunt for 
the Plasmodium malarise, along the water-courses and lowlands of 
Dallas, Greene, Sumter and Marengo. And to those who have stood 
guard along the gulf coast and border lines in their efforts to frighten 
away the subtle and aggressive yellow fever germ ; and to those en- 
gaged in an unsuccessful warfare against the hydra-headed bacillus 
tuberculosis, in a vain attempt to ])ickle him with creosote and the 
turpentine vapors of the balmy southern districts ; and also to the 
microscopist in search of the pneumococcus, the streptococcus, the 
amoeba coli dysentericus and Klebs-LoefHer bacillus. To all alike we 
extend a hearty welcome. 

The Iron Mountains catch the strain, 
And from the rock-ribbed hills around 

Is echod back the glad refrain 
Of — Welcome ! 




Gnind Senior Counsellor of the Medical Assocication of the State of 


Gentlemen of the Medical Association 

of the State of Alabama: 

I Avish to extend to you a liearty greeting, and to tliank 
you for your presence, and for the interest you manifest in 
our annual meetings. Your presence here is a good omen ; 
it is a pledge of devotion to the duties incumbent upon 
every member of this Association. 

I also wish to again most sincerely thank you for the 
honor 3'ou have conferred upon me in selecting me as your 
presiding oflficer. You could have conferred no more marked 
distinction-, I could not desire more. My predecessors 
have been men of high attainments in our profession, and 
worthy of your marked confidence. 

Amidst these surroundings, I am not unmindful of my own 
unworthiness and inability to meet the requirements of the 
office. For my shortcomings I beg your indulgence. 

This has been a year remarkable for disaster to life, com- 
merce and trade ; wrecks on land and sea have claimed many 
lives beyond the average. Storm and flood on our Southern 
coasts have claimed their victims by the thousands. The 
loss of property has mounted up into the millions. 
The murderer's hand has not been stayed. 

The great Columbian Exposition, while at the zenith of 
its glory, and upon the eve of a successful and happy ter- 
mination, was overshadowed by a cloud of mourning, because 
of the assassin's work ; and the doors were closed in sad- 
ness and sorrow because of the tragic ending of one of its 
most zealous friends and devoted patrons, 


The long prevailing financial crisis whicli has hovered 
over our whole laud and country has been no respecter of 
person, place or condition. Modest estates and princely 
fortunes have been swept by its blight, and poverty and dis- 
tress left in its wake. 

The many failures among banks and merchants, together 
with the closing of furnaces and factories, three hundreds 
of thousands out of employment, has led to much suffering 
and destitution, especially in the regions and cities where in- 
terests center mainly in mining and manufacturing. 

During these disturbed and demoralized conditions the 
doctor, everywhere, has felt the chilling blight, for ivHk him 
money is always earned with difiiculty ; but during the past 
year it has been almost impossible to obtain it. The average 
doctor has doubtless had to exert his energies with consid- 
erable activity to procure even a comfortaVjle living. I, 
therefore, more sincerely congratulate you for the zeal and 
devotion to our association which prompts the presence of 
so many of you here to-day. 

But in the dim vista hope encourages us to helieve that we 
shall soon behold an era of permanent prosperity gladden- 
ing our land again, and bringing in its train every blessing 
upon us from Him who "doeth all things well." 

The wealth of our soil will again respond to our energies 
in abundant returns, and we shall be victorious in the battle 
of life. But as I am not here to deliver a dissertation on 
hard times, I will endeavor to meet the duties of the 

Our constitution and by-laws provide that the annual 
message of the President shall be strictly devoted to the 
discussi(m of the interests, objects and business of the As- 

The annual discussion of these subjects necessitates much 
of a rehearsal of an old story, but as ours is a progressive 
work, not only seeking higher perfection but new fields of 
usefulness, we may hope to make some footprints beyond 
the old beaten paths. 

In 1868, in the city of Selma, after a devastating civil war 


Lad decimated our ranks and left confusion and disaster 
t]iron«^di()ut the laud, a few earnest and determined doctors 
nit't and re-establislied the Medical Association of the State 
of Alabama, declaring, as a basis of organization, that "The 
objects of this Association shall be to organize the medical 
profession of the State of Alabama in the most efficient 
manner possible ; to encourage a high standard of profes- 
sional ethics; to combine the influence of all the medical 
men in the State so as to secure, by legislative enactment, 
their own legitimate rights and privileges, and the protection 
of the people against all medical ignorance and dishonesty ; 
to encourage the study of medical botany, medical topog- 
raphy, and medical chemistry of the State ; to secure careful 
and reliable accounts of all the endemic and epidemic dis- 
eases of the State ; in a ivord, to watch over and protect, en- 
courage and aggrandise all the interests of the medical pro- 
fession of the State." 

The magnitude of the work here projected is appalling, 
and could not have been conceived or contemplated except 
by men of great courage and ability. A majority of these 
great spirits are on the other shore ; others are here with 
us battling on. In our presence, seated, we behold an illus- 
trious example — that indefatigable man — Jerome Cochran, 
who has guided us through all trials and difficulties to a 
flattering success. As has been said of the great commoner : 
"With him there is no reposing under the shade of his 
laiirels, no living upon the resources of past reputation; 
but with burning zeal and active energy he keeps himself in 
the hottest of the fight, preferring to go down, if go down 
he must, amid the smoke of conflict, to remaining in inglo- 
rious ease." Let us all emulate that noble example! Time 
will determine when the mantle must fall upon another; 
who among us will be worthy to wear it? 


No enterprise, however commendable in itself, was ever 
undertaken that did not meet with opposition ; ours is no 
exception to the rule. 


After twenty-six years of patient, earnest work, wliicli 
ends with tins session of the State Association, we have 
secured a membership of approximately eleven hundred 
physicians, out of a whole of eighteen hundred in the State, 
leaving outside the pale of our organization seven hundred. 
We can not too highly estimate the importance of attaining 
the greatest degree of excellence possible in the various 
county societies. The members of these societies should 
strive to enlarge their usefulness by bringing into them all 
reputable physicians who reside within their jurisdiction. 
This can best be done by demonstrating to outsiders, 
through the excellence of their work, the importance and 
practical use of becoming members of the county societies 
and inducing them to feel that to keep abreast of the times 
it is necessary to mingle with others of the profession. 
Emphasize the fact that every physician owes it to himself, 
his patients, the jirofession and the public to be actively en- 
gaged in the sessions of at least one medical society. 

Lord Bacon has said : "I hold every man a debtor to his 
profession, by the which, as men of course do seek to receive 
countenance and profit; so ought they of duty, to endeavor 
themselves, by way of amends, to be a help and ornament 
thereunto." The profession, as a profession, needs the help 
of all its members, from the highest to the most humble. 
There must be an end to the "flocking all by one's self." 
"This attitude of everlasting criticism by the disgruntled is 
silly and arrogant." "An aroused profession must sweep it 
aside, or else an aroused public sentiment wall sweep an un- 
worthy profession aside." It is evident that every physi- 
cian in the State can be of immense service in any commu- 
nity, and likewise the science of medicine and themselves, by 
taking an active part in the State Medical Association. It 
is to be regretted that there are not less than three hundred 
members who do not pay the dollar annual dues, and take 
our annual Transactions. I do not understand why this is so. 
The value of the book is several times equal to the price of 
it. It is of especial value to every member of the Associa- 


tion for information that can not be obtained anywhere else, 
and knowledge necessary to a proper understanding of, and 
interest in our work. No physician can be sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the progress of the Association, so as to make 
a useful member, without identifying himself to that extent 
at least with our work. The valuable medical papers by the 
physicians of our State deal with diseases and conditions 
common to us all ; they should be read and preserved in 
all our libraries, for reference and as mementoes. I earn- 
estly entreat all members in future to pay their dollar an- 
nual dues, and to take the Transactions, for their own inter- 
est and for that of the Association. 

Our worthy Vice-Presidents, to whom I wish to make my 
acknowledgments for valuable services, and to whom the suc- 
cess of the year's work is largely due, have had more than 
usual to contend with this year, but by commendable energy 
and perseverance will be able to show, in their detailed 
reports of this work, a prosperous condition of our organi- 
zation. Whatever of shortcomings will be compensated for 
in improved discipline. 


One serious obstacle in the way of our progress is the 
wonderful indifference, on the part of our members, to the 
appeals and repeated appeals, by letter, for information. 
Many such letters may seem of trivial consequence to the 
person addressed, but every one of them calls for items of 
information necessary to the successful performance of some 
detail of our work. I suppose every member of our Associa- 
tion understands that the honorable positions held by its 
officers carry with them many responsibilities and duties, 
many of which have to be discharged by correspondence 
with the members through the State. If these efforts on 
the part of the officers are treated with indifference, the 
objects sought are not only defeated, but the officer is hu- 
miliated at not being accorded the common courtesy due 
him. We are an army organized to work in a common 


caiTse, and should be equally interested, and ready at all 
times to contribute to the prosperity and success in all our 

We are engaged in a work not only to promote our 
professional interest, but also the interest of the peo- 
ple at large, I wish here to emphasize the statement, 
that every physician in the State owes it to himself, to his 
profession, and to the people, to do his share in the promo- 
tion of every enterprise of this Association. Some may not 
aj)prove all the plans and details of our organization, but in 
answer I can assure them they are not making any improve-' 
ments by their absence or indifference. 

I would recommend that the members thoughout the 
State be requested to bring this subject before their respect- 
ive societies, and urge the importance of prompt, full and 
intelligent replies to all communications from the officers 
and members of this Association. 


"An act to regulate the practice of medicine in the State 
of Alabama," which was approved by the Governor on the 
9th day of February, A. D. 1877, constituting and empower- 
ing Boards of Medical Examiners to determine the qualifi- 
cation of persons proposing to practice medicine in the 
State of Alabama, was a step in advance of any other State 
in the Union, and naturally attracted much attention, com- 
ment and opposition. As years have passed by, the law has 
been enforced, and a practical demonstration of its effects 
have been observed ; and the promises of the advocates of 
the measure have been more than fulfilled. "The situation 
fumed at by the charlatan, fretted over by the frightened 
student, and fought against by some college professors, has 
long been a matter of fact;" and we hear of no one other 
than the barnacle that fattens in the absence of restraining 
influences, who is Avilling to return to the old order of things. 
The distinctions which, at first, were so very much misun- 
derstood by the laity, have now become plain, and I hope 


properly appreciated. The profession in many other States 
liave followed our example, elevating their standard of edu- 
cational qualification much above ours. In others, the 
Icnslators have not heeded the appeals of the profession 
for the enactment of laws to regulate the practice, and the 
old order of things continues to prevail. But by force of 
example, it is but a question of time when all will fall into 
line. Colleges, realizing the importance of having their 
graduates well prepared for passing these examinations, have 
adopted improved methods of teaching and prolonged terms 
of study. Hence, our professional standard is in every way 
elevated, and the people are having a better medical service 
than they had under former conditions. To this Association 
is due the credit for the initial step in that reformation. 
While a great deal has been accomplished in this line in 
Alabama, we are yet far from an ideal standard. Some six- 
teen years ago a rule was adopted to the effect "that no 
member of this Association should receive into his oflfice as 
a student of medicine any person who had not received a 
certificate of educational qualification." Had this rule been 
strictly observed, very much would have been accomplished. 
But for the want of proper observance, the results have 
fallen very far short of what was to be desired or reasona- 
bly expected. 

Another possible, if not very probable, avenue under 
former construction of the obligation is the requirement by 
the State of the Medical College of Alabama, to receive one 
beneficiary student from each county in the State annually. 
These beneficiary students are selected by the judges of 
probate and commissioners' court, on good moral character 
and proof of insufiicient means to procure a medical edu- 
cation ; no preliminary educational qualification of scholar- 
ship required. The probability is that many have and will 
continue to join the roll wholl}^ unprepared for the under- 
taking. As a result few of them can ever develop into that 
character of physician that will add most to the dignity and 
honor of the profession, to say nothing of the embarrassment 
and inconvenience to themselves through a whole pro- 


fessional life. In justice to these beneficiaries, the profes- 
sion, and the pul)lic, nnder a recent legal opinion, the faculty 
of the Medical College of Alabama, has the right to pass 
uj^on their qualification as upon otlier students. It is there- 
fore to be hoped that this avenue will be more securely 
guarded in the future, as I believe it will. 


The perversity of human character that pervades every 
avenue and grade of society, and plays such a conspicuous 
part in all human association, has suggested the necessity 
for the adoption of definite laws for the guidance of those 
who wish to act on friendly terms with others in their res- 
pective professions and avocations. It has been said that 
"codes of ethics could be dispensed with if all men were 
honest." The assertion is perhajDS too broad. Men biased 
by one or another circumstance honestly reach very different 
conclusions on many questions ; those pertaining to our 
professional relation are no exception. In view of these 
facts, and in order to preserve the most friendly relation, 
and promote the dignity and standing of the profession of 
medicine, a written code to guide our conduct toward each 
other, and settle our differences, has for many years been 
in effect ; when its precepts are proj^erly understood and 
observed, there is not likely to be the slightest friction or 
conflict, however intimate the relation. "Unfortunately the 
masses too often look upon our ethics as a sort of a safe- 
guard thrown around us by ourselves to protect us in 
conspiracies, and that our Medical Societies are organized 
to carry out conspiracy against them." "These erroneous 
ideas should be corrected by instilling into their minds, that 
our code is our law, and that by it Ave govern oiir actions to 
our professional brothers, and by it our patients and the 
public interests are protected, and that in it lies their safety 
and protection, as well as ours." 

The question of either a revision or total abolition of tlio 
written code has been agitated in the American Medical 


Association, juuI will come up for consideration at its next 

The profession unfortunately lias in its ranks many restive 
and recalcitrant members, who would cheerfully unite with 
the laity and puhlic press in seeking its destruction. Nor 
can they allege stronger reasons for their ambition, than an 
unwillingness to yield obedience to its discipline. I think 
our associati(m should express, in earnest terms the impor- 
tance of resisting all such encroachment. I would especially 
emphasize that sentiment in these days of so great esteem 
for methods, commanding as they do in the market a high 
commercial value. How often seconded by the public press, 
do we see the good intentions of the regular and ethical 
physician ignored for the flaming advertisements of the 
crafty quack, onh/ for a money consideration. 

Truthfully can it be said of almost all reputable journals 
of the land, that in every issue the first and most promi- 
nent feature of its columns is the picture of the quack ; 
emblazoned with Ji ashing headlines, reciting his miraculous 
cures. Behold in these same dignified public journals the 
patent medicine nostrum, showing its magical transforma- 
tion from disease to health in the twinkling of an eye, 
with one-half to a column of commendatory editorials 
thrown in for good measure. Nor does this crusade upon 
the public credulity sto^D here. Certificates of the wonder- 
ful curative powers of different patent nostrums, from the 
professor, the clergy, the judiciary, etc., are bandied before 
the public as conclusive evidence that the whole fabrication 
is true. By these methods self-imagined invalids and the 
public generally are made easy victims and gulp down an- 
nually millions of dollars worth of "blood purifiers," and 
"liver pills," and "panaceas ad infinitum," for all ills, to the 
destruction of health and happiness. How long before our 
government can be invoked to protect her people against 
such frauds? It is felony to obtain money under false pre- 
tenses ; why then, these quacks and secret nostrum vendors, 
who make chattel of the forlorn hope and desperation of the 
incurable sufferers, for the purpose of fraudulently obtain- 


ing money on promises of cures that never come? Why 
should they not be hekl accountable to the law, as other 
criminals for less grave offenses ? These fascinating fellows, 
by the glitter of golden promises, have decoyed some mem- 
bers from our ranks. A desire to make money, or extreme 
necessity has usually been the extenuating plea. The vent- 
ure, in most instances, ends in sad disappointment, and a 
seriously compromised professional character, which the 
profession will not hasten to condole. Secrecy lends a charm 
that is delusive, especially does it seem to be true in re- 
lation to secret remedies ; remove the secret and the charm 
vanishes. France has a statute requiring the formula of 
every proprietarj^ medicine offered for sale, to be printed 
in plain language and pasted on each bottle. I would 
suggest that this association secure such an enactment in 
this State for the protection of the people against danger 
and fraud. 


The execution of the health laws of the State of Alabama 
are largely delegated to the State and County "Boards of 
Health," and with us rests the responsibility of an efficient 
enforcement of their provisions and penalties. The statutes 
of the State seem to be sufficiently comprehensive and ex- 
acting, if properly observed, to afford ample protection to 
the profession and the people. The law, however, is of no 
avail when not enforced against violation of its statutes, and 
it is evidently too common all over the State for county 
Boards of Health to treat with indifference many of its most 
important requirements. Whether from indifference, care- 
lessnes, or willful negligence in the performance of duty pre- 
scribed under our plan of organization, it is equally repre- 
hensible. If for no other reason, the spirit of philanthropy 
which has always characterized our profession, should 
prompt us to work in the interest of the health and happi- 
ness of the human race. These laws were enacted at the 
suggestion and instance of some of the Avise and good men 
of our profession, not, as some have supposed, for our 


own selfish purposes, but for professional advancement and 
Iminiin ])r()toction, not only against tlie quack and charlatan, 
l)nt the nund)ers of preventable diseases which afflict and 
decimate the ranks of our people, such as scarlet fever, 
di])htheria, sniall-pox, yellow fever, typhoid fever, and, in 
fact, daily revelations add daily to the list. Should we, in 
our commendable efforts, succeed in expelling these dreaded 
scourges, we will have bestowed a boon of inestimable value 
uptm our State, not only lengthening the span of human life, 
but at the same time property value would be enhanced be- 
yond the most extravagant estimate of imagination. To ac- 
complish these desirable results, a few simple duties devolve 
upon us in which every member of our organization has a part 
to perform ; and on the faithful performance of every indi- 
vidual dut}- depends, in a great measure, the accomplishment 
of our purposes. The collection of vital and mortuary sta- 
tistics, at which so many have revolted, is a matter of so 
much importance to the profession and State, that no obsta- 
cle should deter from a faithful discharge of the duty. The 
undertaking has proven to be practicable, and has reached 
a fair state of perfection in many counties in this State, It 
is to be sincerely hoped that a sense of duty will prompt a 
more earnest effort in the performance of this duty. To se- 
cure careful and reliable accounts of all endemic and epi- 
demic diseases of the State, is another important duty de- 
volving u]ion us, and if thoroughly and intelligently done, 
will afford a wide field for study, and lead to knowledge and 
methods of exterminating diseases and saving human life* 
(See report of the extermination of a malignant epidemic of 
croupous pneumonia at Pratt Mines, in a paper read by Dr. 
Jerome Cochran, before the Health Congress, at Chicago, 
and published in the Alabama Medical and Surgical Age, 
November, 1893.) "Doctors who neglect these duties, and 
decry their importance are men who enter the profession 
without a love for it, but simply to make a living, without 
respect for its honor or high standing, and do their share 
toward lowering it in public respect, even though they do 
not intend it." But it is largely true that the inefficiency in 


tlie administration of the healtli laws is mainly duo to tlio, 
careless and indifferent methods of the County IJoards of 
Health. The election of a health officer without seeing to it 
that he does his duty, is not enough. He is a servant of the 
Board, and they ought to see to it that he does his duty and 
makes his reports monthly directly to the Board, that the 
quality of the work may be determined, and all defects and 
deficiencies pointed out, with suggestions for improvement. 
A little attention to details will secure good results. The 
importance of vaccination has been considered by this Asso- 
ciation on other occasions ; there is a rule of the Associa- 
tion providing for the purchase of virus, once a year, for 
the use of physicians, etc. There being no law to enforce 
submission to its use, few consent. In the larger cities, 
where there are three or four thousand children of all classes 
congregated daily in the public schools, the necessity of 
vaccination seems almost imperative, in order to reasonable 
security against the daily liability to the introduction of 
small-pox. While I do not insist upon a general compulso- 
ry vaccination law for the State, I would recommend that an 
effort be made to secure legislation that will confer upon 
city corporations power to make vaccination, or satisfactory 
evidences of the same, a pre-requisite to entering the public 
schools ; evidence of successful vaccination being deter- 
mined by the County Health Officer or other competent au- 


We have had no visitation of pestilential or infectious dis- 
ease in epidemic or other form during the past 3'oar, except 
LaGrippe, which made its usual annual incursion, but in 
rather a mild form. On the 21st of June, the captain of a 
sailing bark was taken sick with yellow fever at a lumber 
camp near Brunswick, Georgia. From that case the infec- 
tion spread, a local epidemic followed, and with it a general 
stampede, which seemed liable to distribute the much dread- 
ed disease over a wide area of country. In consideration of 



these menaciug conditions, the Governor of the State pro- 
chiimeil quarantine against the city of Brunswick and all 
other infected places. The municipal authorities of the cities 
of the State, in consonance with the State authorities, did 
likewise. For a time, State and local Boards were doing 
quarantine service independent of each other, without, how- 
ever, any serious conflict. But after a careful consideration 
of the situation, and in view of the number of commanding 
oflicers in the field, each acting without concert, it was deem- 
ed a wiser course to commit the quarantine service to the 
State authorities. Only (does it occur to us noiv as then) in 
that icay could be avoided conflict and confusion, detrimental 
to the public good, and the unnecessary expenditure of 
money. The entire control and administration of the quar- 
antine laws was wisely directed by the executive head of the 
State Board of Health (Dr. Jerome Cochran), and through 
his wise and sagacious course, our State was spared the 
horror of so dread a pestilential invasion. When we con- 
sider the number of railroads radiating, as it were, from this 
center, and closely communicating with those from the in- 
fected district, it would not be a, difiicult task to estimate 
the number of employees necessary to execute the laws, or 
the amount of daily ex23enditure of money. But with all 
these environments, the service was conducted successfully 
for three or four months, at an expense far less than could 
be conceived of, when compared to that expended on similar 
and former occasions, conducted under and by other au- 
thority. But even with an economical administration of this 
service, it is necessaril}' expensive. Another commendable 
feature worthy of mention connected with our recent quar- 
antine, was the marked absence of sensational reports, and 
consequent excitement, and the slight disturbance to travel 
and commerce. The General Assembly of Alabama, at its 
session in 1887, set apart the sum of five thousand ($5,000.00) 
dollars, for an available fund, to meet such an emergency. 
It was, at the time, considered by those best informed on 
such work, to be inadequate to meet the reasonable require- 
ments, should a quarantine service be very protracted or 


dangers threaten from many directions. Should such pesti- 
lential disease find lodgement on our soil, it would require no 
stretch of the imagination to perceive the necessity for quite 
a large outlay of money for the prompt and efficient protec- 
tion of our people, and in the necessary care of the sick which 
would naturally follow. But the State and municipal au- 
thorities everywhere, either from jealousy or skepticism as 
to our skill and ability to more successfully cope with ques- 
tions of sanitation and matters pertaining to public health, 
have hesitated to delegate to the profession adequate au- 
thority to efficiently meet these great emergencies. A wise 
man, having a suit at law involving valuable property rights, 
or large sums of money, naturally seeks the service of an 
attorney to represent his interests. It is equally reasonable 
that questions involving the health and hap2)iness of com- 
munities, or for the preservation of human life, to say noth- 
ing of commercial interests, should be intrusted to onhi 
those qualified by experience and education to solve them. 
But political aggrandisement, and conceit begotten bv "a 
little brief authority," often unwisely bestowed, not infre- 
quently proves disastrous to human prosperity, health and 
hapj)iness. Political fanaticism subordinates science, health, 
home, life, country, everything, to its own preferment. 
Politics is the parent of tramps and the author of the finan- 
cial crisis that has driven to beggary one-fourth of our popu- 
lation. Political intrigues have sacrificed hundreds of thou- 
sands of human lives and billions of dollars worth of property 
to gratify vain ambition. But when we, as philanthropists, 
appeal in the interest of starving, sick and suffering people, 
there is but little to spare from an already over-depleted 
treasury. But let us not contrast for a moment, the machi- 
nations and laethods of the average politician with the higher 
purposes and noble ends of the profession of medicine. 
Some one has said, "It is directly within the physician's 
sphere of action to interest himself in all movements that tend 
to prevent disease and improve the health of the community 
in general." "Whilst it is undoubtedly the principal func- 
tion of the physician to cure particular cases of disease, a 


large conceptiou of liis duty makes it plain that lie should 
act as a preventor of disease in general." Such is our tra- 
dition ! It has been said that "no other profession is doing 
so much toward ending its own existence as the profession 
of medicine." In view of dangers constantly threatening us 
by invasions from other States, requiring our prompt and 
speedy interference, we need not emphasize the importance 
of am]ile means for defense. Under the most economical 
administration of the quarantine laws last summer, there 
was expended $3,800.00, leaving the beggarly sum to our 
credit of only $1,200.00. I would recommend that the next 
General As.sembly be memorialized to make tlie available 
fund for such purposes not less than ten thousand ($10,000.00) 


This is a class of pers')ns that have been with us from our 
earliest history to the present time, and have ever engaged the 
attention of State and municipal governments, philanthro- 
pists, and all charitably disposed persons. The question 
of their care has been under consideration from time beyond 
the memory of man. Many of the wisest statesmen, both 
in Europe and in this country, have given the subject their 
most earnest consideration. Ideas and plans have been 
evolved, diverse ways and methods have from time to time 
been inaugurated, to be again condemned for other experi- 
ments, which, in their turn, have not proven to be satisfac- 
tory. Legislators, ahroad and in this country, have enacted 
and re-enacted statutes, ad infinitum, until the embarrass- 
ment from the conflict has added only consternation and 
despair. The only settled conclusion, up to the present 
time, is that they are an expensive luxury, and not a desira- 
ble class of citizens to have with us. But the fad remains, 
that we do have them, in no diminishing numbers, and the 
question of their proper care confronts us. That they must 
be cared for no one denies, and that our present system is a 
failure, a travesty on charity, I assume to assert, and expect 
to be sustained by items of information which are to follow. 


True, it is not all of our duty, as an organized profession, to 
take care of the poor ; but believing a fruitful field for useful 
service was engaging our attention, I have brought the sub- 
ject before you. The ordinances of our Association provide 
that our county boards of health shall inspect jails, poor- 
houses and other public institutions of their respective 
counties. That is a duty rarely performed, and when it is, 
the criticisms and recommendations, if any, are only advis- 
ory, and are seldom respected by the authorities. From 
answers to a circular that I have distributed to physicians 
in the several counties in the State, I gleaned the following 
items of information : 

1. There are thirty counties in the State that have pro- 
vided comfortable quarters, with ample room for their poor. 

2. Nine counties have uncomfortable quarters and inade- 
quate room. 

3. Twenty-seven counties give no information as to char- 
acter of quarters or sufficiency of room. 

4. Poor houses in all the counties, located in healthy 

5. Thirty-one counties own their poor-houses, some with 
small farms attached. 

6. Seventeen are owned by the overseer or keeper. 

7. Eighteen not stated. 

8. The keeper, or overseer, is selected in all the counties 
by the Commissioners' Court for from one to four years, or 

9. In thirty-nine counties to the lowest bidder, with (in 
most counties) some regard for the supposed fitness of the 
individual for the position. 

10. Supported directly by the county, in ten counties. 

11. Farmed out, in seven— that is, placed here and there, 
with friends or relations, or whoever may be willing to take 
them for the consideration offered. 

12. The plan of disposing of the poor not stated, in ten. 

13. Employed at work, in thirty-one counties. In twelve 
of these the profits go to the county and their own support ; 
in nineteen to the keeper, or overseer. 


11. Ill most of the counties the commissioners seem to 
hiivo full jurisdiction, and visit their poor-houses once or 
twice u year. In some of the counties the grand jury also 
take cognizance of it. 

15. The county health officer, in the capacity of county 
physician, has charge in fourteen counties. 

1(). Officially inspected by county boards of health in 
fourteen counties, 

17. Whites and negroes not separated, in four. Sexes 
n(^t so})aratcHl, in nine; in six of these scandal attaches. In 
one pt)or-liouso in the State three babies have been born 
during the past year — one of them a negro by a white woman. 
Babies born, and pregnancies, occurred in others. 

18. Liberty to stroll at will, in seven. 

19. Not kept cleanly, in three ; clotliing and bedding not 
sufficient, in eight. 

20. Troublesome insane confined in jail, in three ; cells 
or special rooms, in fifteen ; chained in eleven. Others re- 
port none on hand, guarded, sent to Bryce's Hospital for the 
Insane, etc. 

21. In eight counties the number receiving support not 
given. Four not heard from. In five, too indefinite to 

From forty-nine counties, somewhat definitely reported, 
we have seven hundred and fifty paupers. 
Of that number, there are — 

Whitt' males 131 

AVhite females 267 

Negro males 163 

Negro females 121 

White children 57 

Negro children 11 

Total 750 

Of this number, there are — 

Idiots 79 

Insane 48 

Paralyzed 47 

Epileptics 46 


Other sick 170 

Helpless 190 

Able to work 170 

Natives 725 

Foreign born 25 

Allowinf^ fifteen and a fraction paii])ers (which woukl be 
an average number) to each of the seventeen counties not 
definitely reported, we have two hundred and sixty addi- 
tional, making, in the aggregate, one thousand and ten pau- 
pers receiving entire support from charity. From most 
reliable information, not very short of that number are 
receiving partial support from their respective counties, and 
many others from the charitable institutions of the country. 
My report shows that the price, per head, per month, runs 
from five and a half to twelve and a half dollars per month 
per person, aggregating 07ie hundred and ninety thousand and 
eighty ($190,080.00) dollars annually to the people in the sev- 
eral counties in the State. Estimating that a sum equal to 
half that amount, or ninety-five thousand and forty ($95,040) 
dollars, is expended in the partial suj^port of many outside 
the houses, we have a sum total of two hundred and eighty- 
five thousand, one hundred and twenty-five ($285,125) dol- 
lars expended for the care of our dependent and partially 
dependent poor by the State annually, leaving out of the 
question sums donated by city municipalities and private 
charities, which are not very inconsiderable amounts. 
From the foregoing estimates, you may reasonably cal- 
culate that an amount equal to about one-seventh of the 
entire annual revenue for the State from all taxable 
properties is expended for the care of those entirely de- 
pendent. Add to this sums used for the partial support of 
others, and we have an expenditure equal to about one-fifth. 

These expenditures seem liberal and adequate to secure a 
comfortable support to the estimated number of dependents 
in the State, and crr/« /?;/// should, under /rwjal and honest 
management, but it falls far short, as the sequel shows. 
The thirty counties reported as having comfortable cpiarters 
and ample room for their poor is not conclusive evidence 


that sui'h is the case. lu some iustaucos, the description of 
the liouses would preclude the possibility of the literal ac- 
curacy of the statement. In many instances the statement 
"comfortable," etc., is used in a comparative sense, and qual- 
ified by the expression "as good as many homes in the 
vicinity," which, in many instances, would not signify any 
very great excellence. Some of those reported favorably 
are the property of the keeper, and are liable to annual 
changes. The nine counties reporting unfavorable condi- 
tions have miserable hovels where their unfortunates pro- 
tract a miserable existence. The twenty-seven counties 
failing to give any information as to the character of the 
homes most likely have such conditions as they would not 
take ])ride in reporting. From evidence in my possession, 
I suspect there are very few comfortable homes for the poor 
in our State ; none are conducted with any respect for the 
laws of hygiene. Without, perhaps, a single exception, the 
sick and well are housed and sleep in the same apartments, 
Avith no regard for the dangers of infection and contagion 
and propagation of disease. In a few instances the county 
boards of health have taken cognizance of these conditions 
and made vigorous efforts to have them corrected, but too 
often to have their protests ignored. It is too frequently 
the pleasure of the average citizen to ignore the advice and 
opinions of the physician except when in imminent danger. 
Tlicn he becomes an important and highly respected factor 
in affairs, but often too late to avert a calamity to the pub- 
lic. The medical profession of the State are not blameless ; 
they have not done their duty under the law. The county 
boards of health, save in a few instances, have not seemed 
to recognize the duty of inspecting the poor houses or other 
public institutions within their jurisdiction. In every case 
reported by the county health officer, where inspections have 
been made, he is at the same time acting in the capacity of 
the county physician. I can easily imagine the conflict be- 
tween conscience and personal interest in that dual role, for 
lie is not likely to jeopardize his pecuniary interest or his 
favor with the county officials to whom he is indebted for 


the position. The very common custom of annually auc- 
tioning off the worthy and dependent poor at the doors of 
the sites of justice to the lowest bidder, with little ref^ard to 
the fitness of the purchaser for the responsible position, is 
reprehensible in the extreme. And to add insult to injury, 
they become virtually the property of the keeper, to be 
controlled, worked and fed, in the interest of his own 
avarice. This inhuman custom should invoke the condem- 
nation of every good citizen in the State, and be relegated 
to the history of the past. Imagine the old and decrepit 
mother, who perhaps sacrificed husband, sons, money and 
home, through patriotism for her country ; or the old soldier 
bowed down with age and infirmities, battle-scarred in her 
service, mocked and tantalized by such charity as the great 
State of Alabama affords ! How long will an incensed and 
offended people withhold their indignation? How long will 
an angered God suspend his wrath ? In some of the counties 
these justly stigmatized "poor houses" are situated as re- 
motely as possible from the light of civilization, beyond 
reasonable access to a physician to soothe and palliate 
their afflictions ; even denied the minister or priest to com- 
fort and administer the last sad rites in the hour of death. 
It is not denied that the conditions are reasonably good in 
a few counties, but in the majority, bad; in some, dis- 
graceful in the extreme. The present system is not only 
defecti\e from a humanitarian standpoint, but necessarily 
expensive, and not susceptible of the best results under any 
kind of management. To solve the question, the State 
should take direct control and establish homes, as few in 
number as would meet the requirements of convenience and 
justice to all parts of the State. For the location of each 
home, a farm should be purchased adapted to the groAvth of 
such products as would enter into the support of the insti- 
tution. Such reasonable employment should be assigned 
the inmates as suited their respective condition, together 
with such other labor as might be found necessary to the suc- 
cessful operation of the farm. Cattle and such other stock 
necessary to meet the demands of a well appointed home 


shoukl bo kept. Under this system sucli supplies as should 
be bouf^dit iu the markets would be purchased iu large quanti- 
ties, at wholesale, and at a far better price than when bought 
at retail in small quantities. At Pratt Mines, where a large 
number of convicts are worked in the mines by the Tennes- 
see Coal, Iron & Railroad Company, they have a farm on 
which they grow vegetables, raise hogs and cattle, and j^ro- 
duce almost everything necessary to a good and comfortable 
living. These convicts, who are healthy, able-bodied, labor- 
ing people, under this management, are supported and 
clothed at an expense of three dollars and fifty cents per 
month per head. Their food is good and sufficient in quan- 
tity and variety to meet all demands of health and nutrition. 
The Jefferson county alms-house (which is not by any means 
a model, but far superior to the average) has a farm and 
such stock as is necessary to the equipment of a comfortable 
home. It has, perhaps, an average of fifty inmates; they 
are supported at an expense of six dollars and fifty cents 
per month per head, including every expense. It is believed 
that if such a system was adopted that the dependent poor 
of the State would be far better provided for, and at one- 
half of the present cost to the people. The arrangement 
and construction of the homes should be in accord with 
modern views of sanitation. Due regard should be paid to 
the separation of the sexes and classes. Suitable accom- 
modation should be had for such old indigent married 
couples as might become worthy objects of charity, without 
the inhumanity of forced separation. I would provide hos- 
pitals at each of these homes, and so construct them, as to 
prevent the propagation of infectious diseases. With 
suitable retreats for convalescents, homes for epileptics, the 
incurable insane, and all others entitled to charitable con- 
sideration, much of the misery of the class we are discuss- 
ing would be ameliorated. It is evident that the executive 
head of such an institution should be a physician competent 
in all tlie branches of his profession, and of good business 
capacity. The negro problem, in this, as in everything w^ith 
us, complicates and adds additional expense, in providing 


for their separate care; but tliey are ivith us, aud must be 
cared for, whether at separate aud iudepeudeut homes, or 
otherwise, I leave for others to determiue. 

There is a class of dependents whose demands are of short 
duration, from protracted sickness, accident, or prolonged 
and unavoidable idleness, whos.e necessities can be best met 
at their homes. But the State should, through proper au- 
thority, also take cognizance of them, and furnish necessary- 
relief ; and thereby exempt charitably disposed persons, 
who in their goodness and zeal dispense much unworthily, 
only to encourage idleness and vagrancy. In view of the 
many reasons adduced why the State should take the wor- 
thy poor under her jurisdiction, I would recommend that 
the next General Assembly be memorialized upon the ne- 
cessity^ of taking favorable action for the consummation of 
these plans. 


The laws of Alabama provide that each county shall es- 
tablish a prison or jail, for the safe-keeping of all persons 
committed. In very many instances such abodes for pris- 
oners are veritable lazar-houses — dark holes of Calcutta, fitting 
emblems to remind us of everything revolting to our better na- 
ture. In their construction, every idea seems to be lost sight 
of, except security against escape. Questions of sanitation or 
comfort, means of classifying or separating prisoners/or rea- 
sons, are strictly ignored. Inadequate ventilation, absence 
of sunlight, with a minimum air space for breathing, coupled 
with exposure to the effluvia from loathsome diseases, and 
and accumulating filth, constitute no uncertain focus for the 
propagation and spread of disease. Few constitutions, how- 
ever robust, can withstand, with impunity, such dangerous 
influences. To add to the horrors of these miserably con- 
structed places, the management, as a rule, is exceedingly 
bad; thus contributing its s/iare to the baneful influence of 
the environment. The officer to whom the care and safe- 
keeping of prisoners is entrusted has a wide scope of au- 
thority, with few restraining influences. The profits of his 


office are dependent upon fees for prescribed service. The 
opportunity for exceeding bis prescribed limit of duty, as 
promises most remuneration to him, is unlimited, and in 
many instances leads to grave abuses. Many are arrested 
upon unwarranted suspicion, or frivolous charges, for the 
fees alone, and incarcerated to await the slow process of 
law. The sheriffs of the several counties of the State are 
the chief custodians of the respective jails and their inmates, 
for which they receive thirty cents a day per capita, cost of 
feeding prisoners, with unlimited discretion as to when or 
how- they are to be fed, or what the diet shall be. For many 
reasons such authority is dangerous and should be abridged. 
Ignorance of every dietetic law, persevered in often through 
greed of money, or by reason of a proper knowledge of 
the needs of the system, is responsible for the scurvy, mal- 
nutrition and cachexias, visible in the countenances of that 
unfortunate class. Prisoners are human beings, and are 
not all criminals, but wdien arrested and imprisoned are de- 
prived of self protection. The State becomes responsible 
for their care and protection, and should in every way dis- 
pense such treatment to them as will at least conduce to 
good health. To do less is criminal, and a disgrace to the 
State. There are many evidences that this obligation to 
prisoners in Alabama is not strictly observed, as is shown 
by their ph^^sical condition when received at the convict 

The present system contains so many temptations and 
rewards for wTong-doing, that it is not believed to be pro- 
ductive of good results. In the more populous counties, 
where there are at all times a considerable number of pris- 
oners, they should be supported directly by the State, under 
the supervision of a responsible person, appointed by the 
Governor at a stated salary. There should also be a com- 
petent "Inspector of Jails" appointed by the Governor, 
whose duty should be to examine the jails, and report their 
sanitary and other conditions to the State health officer, who 
should be empowered to enforce such improvements as the 
conditions demand. 


These recommendations are submited because of the ur- 
gent demand for reformation. Bearing directly upon this 
subject, I submit an appendix to my message, containing 
questions propounded by me and answered by Dr. K. M. 
Cunningham of Pratt Mines. His large experience in the 
medical and surgical treatment of the convicts of the Ala- 
bama penitentiary entitle his opinions to more than ordi- 
nary consideration. I shall therefore hope that the Asso- 
ciation will, as I do, regard its matter a most important part 
of my message, and publish it, in connection with it, in the 
forthcoming volume of the Transactions. I would read it 
at length, but for the fear of wearying your patience longer. 
Suffice it to say, that the statistics fully warrant my stric- 
tures on the jails ; and I support the conclusion also, ad- 
vanced by Dr. Cunningham, that "jail confinement has a 
great deal to do with the bad physical condition of the con- 

In conclusion, I thank you again for the high honor you 
have conferred upon me, and I beg your charitable criticism 
for every shortcoming, of which I know there are many, in 
my message. 

Office of T. L. Robertson, M. D., 
212)^ N. Twentieth Street, 

Birmingham, Ala., March 3, 1894. 

Dear Doctor — Will you kindly answei" the following questions, 
and also give me sucli other information as to condition of convicts 
when received at the mines, and the probable causes, etc.? 

1. What is the usual physical condition of convicts wlien received 
at the mine prison? 

2. Does their condition indicate that they are well nourished, as 
to quantity and kind of food? 

3. Are there frequent acute tubercular developments or other 
manifestations probably due to insufficient food or to bad hygienic 
environments, in the new convicts? 

4. Are such conditions manifest that would lead to a strong proba- 
bility that their i)rison or jail life had been unnecessarily bad? 

5. Have you any suggestions for the bettfrment of our jail system 
in Alabama? 


6. Any information or suggestion that may occur to your mind 
will be thankfully received. Answer promptly. 
Very truly, 

(Signed) T. L. Robertson, 

Pres. M. A. S. A. 

Dr. T. L. Robertson, 

President M. A. S. A. : 

My De.\r Sir— In answer to your letter of March the 3d, submitting 
certain enquiries, I respectfully submit the following: 

1st. Touching the physical condition of convicts when received 
from jails — 

From an analysis of the records and the compilation of data from 
them of 1,229 convicts, when examined, we have the following : 

Frame large, 296 ; medium, 780 ; small, 181. Muscular development : 
good, 390; ordinary, 617; slight, 222. Adipose envelope: good, 52; 
ordinary, 911 ; poor, 266. General condition : good, 791 ; moderately 
good, 354 ; bad, 80 ; avoirdupoise : good, 1,004 ; doubtful, 198 ; bad, 35- 

Family history :. consumption, 276; heart disease, 69; dropsy, 67; 
rheumatism, 7 ; cancer, 22 ; miscellaneous hereditary diseases, 17. 

Medical history : 1,635 cases of illness before convicted. 

Surgical history : 450 cases of injury before convicted. 

Special condition : diseased when received, 250 ; crippled, 80, or 
26.02 per cent, of the whole number received. 

From the foregoing facts it will be seen that the average physical 
condition of convicts, w'hen received from jail, is not as good as the 
general average, but how much of this is due to jail confinement is 
the question. On this point, I respectfully submit the following, 
from an analysis of 230 county convicts, and 371 State convicts — 
total, 601 : 


Under one month 12.66 46.12 

One to two months 15.36 20.43 

Two to four months 26 41 72.60 

Four to six months 24.25 10.43 

Six to eight months 8.35 4.34 

Eight to ten months 4.04 .86 

Ten to twelve months ■ 3.23 ^ .43 

Over twelve months 5.33 0.00 

From these figures are observed that nearly one-half the county 
convicts were in jail under one month, while only about one-eighth 
of the State convicts were in jail under one month. Four months 


and under, 70.15 county convicts and 53.43 per cent. State convicts, 
and so on. 

The one fact established being that there is a much longer average 
period spent in jails by State convicts than county convicts prior to 
conviction. This is due mainly to the fact that they are in prison for 
graver offenses. 

We will not compare the percentages of diseased, diseased and 
crippled and crippled of State and county convicts when received 
from jails — 

State convicts, 43.44 ; county convicts, 27.23. 

A ditTerence of 16.21 per cent, in favor of the county convicts. 

The only rational explanation of this difference is the greater time 
in jail of the State convicts. Hence we conclude that jail confine- 
ment has a great deal to do with the physical and morbid condition 
of convicts. 

2. In regard to the second question, the above answers the main 
points, to-wit., that there is not, as a rule, sufficient food, either in 
quantity or variety. 

3. Pulmonary diseases, particularly tubercular, constitute the 
most frequent disease — frequently acute. 

4. 5 and 6. I group these questions, and will remark in a general 

There are many convicts received who have no demonstrable or- 
ganic disease, but are nevertheless "under par," as shown by the gen- 
eral physical condition. Slight muscular development, poor adipose, 
etc. The pathological condition in these cases is amviuia. To cover 
thegroup of symptoms in these case?, which are mainly those refer- 
able to anamiia, debility, etc., etc., I have coined a name, to-wit., "jail 
cachexia." In some cases, though rare, there are evidences of scor- 
butic tendencies. In a few instances, well established cases of scurvy. 
Body lice are frequently found on the convicts, and their persons un- 
usually filthy. Acute diseases among those from jails are rare. We 
have had some cases, however: one of strangulated hernia; one or 
two of pneumonia; a few with typhoid fever; a large number with 
malarial fever, clapp, syphilis, etc. Also a few cases of rheumatism. 
Chronic diseases mainly exist, and of these pulmonary, particularly 
tubercular, lead. Ulcers, wounds, etc., are common. 

From my observation, taken altogether, I am of the opinion that 
the sanitation of our jails is not what it should be, the main points 
being want of a sufficient variety and quantity of food, overcrowding, 
want of ventilation, filth, want of sunlight and exercise. 

The remedy for all this is to have a competent "inspector of jails," 
ai)point('d by the Governor, whose duty it should be to examine the 
jails and report their sanitary condition to the State IU)ard of Health, 
who, in turn, should order the necessary improvements. 



There is no question whatever in my mind that many cases of tu- 
bercuLax and other diseases are developed in the; that many 
ca es o chronic disease are aggravated; and that some are con- 


Ho^ng you will excuse my delay in answering, and this imperfect 

sketch, I i-e'iiain 

Your obd't serv't, 
^gjg^g^) R. M.Cunningham, M.D. 



By Barckley Wallace Toole, M. D., Talladega. 
Senior Counselloi* of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

In complying, at this time, with one of my official duties, 
required by an ordinance of this Association, viz : "To make 
a report at the Annual Session, showing the work done by 
him and the status of the County Societies," your forbearance 
and patience is earnestly invoked. The report will be con- 
densed and made as brief as it can reasonably be made. Or- 
dinary facts and familiar details cannot 2cell be made enter- 
taining. The ordinance defines, to some extent, the charac- 
ter of this report, which says : "It shall include a special 
section for every one of the County Societies, giving a brief 
but comprehensive and accurate account of its status and 
work, during the preceding year; and shall be devoted 
strictly to business, and should not be made the vehicle for 
sanitary and medical discussions." To some before me such 
a report will seem dull and void of interest. Let me say to 
them it is in the line of duty — it is a part of that plan and 
system which, to-day, places the medical profession of Ala- 
bama as one of the best and most thoroughly organized bodies 
of medical men in the United States, making a body equipped 
of and qualified to advance the great and beneficent aims 
of one of the most useful of all professions, as well as to pro- 
tect and relieve the people, when danger from disease is 
threatened, or iqion them. 

This report will show advancement in some of the factors 
of this well organized medical profession, and it will also 
show there is yet icork to do, a need for Iiiylier and more u)t- 
seljish icorh in various parts of the State. Though these 
details may be uninteresting, they may prove beneficial iu 


causing us not to relax our efforts to make each and every 
County Society, "an ideal County Society," equipped, drilled 
and iciUitig to do the wovh asshjiwd (o it and ilesignedior it to 
do, in that "Medical Military Text Book, The Book of Kules," 
Avhoso author still lives, seeing the theory and plan of twenty 
years ago, developing year by year into a powerful, useful 
and well-nigh perfect organization. 

I cannot claim that I have done all that was possible for 
me to have done in the year just past, but much labor and 
thought have been given to my work. Whether the results 
accomplished have been beneficial, it is not for me to say. 
I shall pass in alphabetical review the several County So- 
cieties in my division, thus giving some idea of the general 
condition of these organizations, indicating where 7uork and 
improvtment is needed, hoping, also, the advanced and active 
work of some of the societies may prove incentives to others 
to attain a higher and more enviable position in the great 
work of the regeneration and advancement of the medical 
profession of our State, and the lasting and untold benefi- 
cent results to the people of Alabama coming therefrom. 

Bibb. — This society, for the past year, has shown very 
little life, having only a name to live ; but I am pleased to 
state that, in the twelfth month and near the eleA'enth hour, 
when the symptoms were exceedingly unpropitious, reaction 
was established, new hopes instilled, and the outlook is now 
favorable that this body will become a healthy d,nd useful 

This marked change is due largely, no doubt, to the pres- 
ence in this county about one month ago of that untiring 
worker, our respected Senior Censor. The membership is 
now eleven; the Society is to meet quarterly. There are 
three physicians in the county eligible for membership who 
are not members, and perhaps one or two illegal practition- 
ers. The county commissioners do not allow any salary to 
the county health officer. It may be, when the "Board of 
Censors," as "the Committee of Public Health," and their 
official agent, the county health officer, give reasonable evi- 


dence that tliey are discharfying their duty, then tlie county 
cominissiouers will do theirs, aud allow a salary. 

Blount. — The condition of this society is about the same 
as the year before, which was not very good. Meniberslii]) 
seventeen, meet quarterly with an average attendance of six. 
There has been an increase of five or six in membershi}), 
chiefl}^ from recent graduates locating in the county. The 
salary of the county health officer is $75. The work in this 
department is not thoroughly or efficiently done. Strange to 
say, a large proportion of the members of this society fail to 
make monthly reports to the county health officer. There are 
in this county some seven or eight physicians eligible for 
membership who are not members, and perhaps one illegal 

Calhoun. — The condition of the society in this large and 
good old county may be classed as good. The work in the 
various departments has gone along regularly, and the gen- 
eral outlook is fully as favorable as it was last year. Mem- 
bership thirty, meet quarterly. Profitable and interesting 
papers have been read at the meetings. There are eighteen 
physicians in the county not members who are eligible for 
membership. There are no illegal practitioners. The count}' 
health officer receives a salary of $200.00. Good and effi- 
cient work is being done in this department. There is, 
perhaps, only one physician in the county who fails to make 

Chambers. — I regret the expectations for good which were 
entertained a year ago, and expressed in my report, based 
upon an apparent revival of interest then, have not been 
realized. I have had great difficulty in obtaining any infor- 
mation in regard to this society for the past year. I have 
addressed polite, earnest, and almost imi)ortunate coninin- 
nications to various former and supposed ttj be present offi- 
cials, with no reponse. I have done all that I could well 
have done, unless I had made a visit to the county and a 
personal appeal to the members, or rather to the profession. 
I do not think even that would have accomplished much. 
Within the last few days, I have been able to {gather some 


iuformatiou through a comparatively young member of the 
profession, who is now the chairman of the board of censors 
in that county. With a promptness and a courtesy I appre- 
ciate, he responded to a recent communication from me. 
Coming as this information does, almost at the eleventh hour, 
it is inspiring, giving evidence that the "Chambers County 
Medical Society" still lives, and gives an "earnest" that for 
the present and the future this society will do better A 
meeting was held on the 31st uli, new officers were elected, 
new rules and regulations were adopted, and they resolved 
to meet quarterly instead of annually. 

There are eleven members and about three physicians in 
the county eligible for membership who are not members. 
There are six illegal practitioners in the county. The grand 
jury found a true bill against one of these at the last session 
of the court. These j)ractitiouers, or at least part of them, 
are "illegal" because they have not appeared before the 
"Medical Examining Board" of their county since their 
graduation in 1892. It is perhaps the fault, to some extent, 
of the "Medical Examining Board" that some of these exam- 
inations haA^e not been made. Now that a new Board of 
Censors have been elected, all residing at LaFayette, it is 
probable these physicians will undergo their examinations. 
In fact two have very recently gone through with this exam- 
ination. The county health officer receives no salary. The 
work in this department is very deficient and has been of 
little value. A new health officer was also elected and 
promises to do better. Delegates were selected to attend 
the State Association, and I trust they are here to-day. 

Cherokee. — Taken altogether, and as compared with the 
condition of one year ago, this Society is doing fairly well, 
and the outlook is more favorable than it has been for a 
good while. The membership is thirteen. The Society has 
lost by death two members during the past year, one suc- 
ceeding the other as county health officer. From this cause, 
as well as other reasons, the work in this department has 
not been systematically or thoroughly done. Dr. R. L. 
McWhorter has recently been elected county health officer, 


and througli liim we expect a decided improvement. His 
salary is $150. There is a condition in this county to 
which I woukl call your attention, viz., the number of physi- 
cians in the county, fourteen, not memljers of the Society. 
I am aware that there are in every county some practi- 
tioners who are legally eligible for membership, who, for 
good reasons, it is perhajis best for them not to be members. 
Some, as members, would be a source of weakness rather 
than of strength. It is a matter to be considered, and if 
possible a wise and judicious course should be adopted by 
each County Society, subject to, and in harmony with, the 
rules of the State Association, by which a large per cent, (jf 
these physicians outside could be induced to become inter- 
ested members of their County Societies. 

Cleburne. — It is with pleasure that I can refer to this 
Society, which, two years ago, was practically dead. For 
something over eighteen months it has been making progress, 
and to-day it occupies a good position in the great and 
essential work of elevating the medical profession of the 
State. The membership is nineteen, which embraces about 
all the physicians in the county with one exception, and he 
is an "irregular." Quarterly meetings are held; papers 
are read and cases are reported and discussed, and these 
meetings have developed great interest and resiilted in 
benefit to the members. There has existed in this county, 
some discord with some of the members of the profession, 
which, of course, produced unpleasant results, as must 
always ensue when that fraternal and unselfish feeling is 
absent. How true, severe and cutting is the criticism, when 
it can truthfully be made against the members of the medi- 
cal profession, whose work is philanthropy itself, whose 
followers have as their exemplar tlie most perfect and ex- 
alted type of manhood, "Him who went about doing good 
and healing all manner of diseases." 

The discord referred to has retarded tlie work of the 
county health officer, preventing until recently th»' recogni- 
tion, by the county commissioners, of such an official and 
of the importance of his work. I am glad to say, that 


very recently, the commissioners have made a small appro- 
priation as a salary for the county health officer who has 
recently been elected, and he promises that the work shall 
be attended to. The Society has, possibly, before me to- 
day its two delegates. It is usually not in good taste to 
make personal allusions, but I trust the gentlemen, if present, 
will i^ardon me when I state, that although several members 
of the Cleburne County Medical Society have taken decided 
interest in its rehabilitation, that perhaps more credit for 
this good work is due to Dr. W. H. Bell than to any other 
one member. 

Clay. — The condition of this Society is good, a gradual 
improvement over that of last year. Membership, nineteen ; 
meet quarterly. All the physicians in the county who are 
eligible for membership are members. The county health 
officer, Dr. Thos. Northern, receives only the small salary of 
$25, yet he is doing his work well, and hopes to make it 
well nigh perfect in the near future. Considering the 
broken and mountainous character of the territory' of this 
county, the absence of railroads, and the difficulty of at- 
tending the meetings, we can truthfully say the interest and 
attention given to Society work is worthy of comment. 

Colbert. — I regret that the facts do not warrant me in 
saying pleasant things of this Society. There seems to be 
very little life there. It is very rarely a meeting is held. 
Apathy has possession of the members. The membership 
is eight, and there are about nine physicians in the county 
eligible for membership who are not members. There are 
also some illegal practitioners in the county. The salary 
of the county health officer is $100. The condition of this 
department is bad and the general outlook quite un- 

Coosa. — The condition of this Society is good. The in- 
terest in Society work has been steadily growing, and we 
might say that the present status is better than ever before 
in its history. Membership, fifteen ; leaving only about two 
physicians in the county not members, and they are per- 
haps not eligible. Meetings are held quarterly, the two 


places for meetiup;, Goodwater aud Rockford, ei^litoen milo.s 
apart, make it difficult for a large uumber of the nioud)(!r.s 
to be present at the meetings, as it requires considerable 
time in going and returning. During the past year there 
were several papers read before the Society, and cases of 
interest reported and discussed. The salary of the county 
health officer is $100, aud the work in tliis department is 
quite good. 

CxJLLMAN. — The condition here is fully as good as it was 
a year ago. Membership, ten; meetings, monthly. Tliere 
are five phj^sicians in the county eligil)le for menibersliip 
who are not members. There are no illegal practitioners in 
the county. The county health officer's salary is 8100.00. 
The work is fairly well done, but not altogether satis- 

DeK^ulb. — The information from tliis Society is not as 
full and as satisfactory as it ought to be. Taken as a 
whole, the condition is tolerably good, and about the same 
as it was last year. Membership, fourteen ; meet quarterly. 
County health officer's salary i^l'li). The condition in this 
department is moderately good. There are, perhaps, two or 
three illegal doctors in the county. 

Etowah. — The facts warrant me in reporting this Society 
as being now in a more healthy condition than it was a year 
ago. There is more harmony and unity of purpose, and 
although the membership, which is fourteen, is not as great 
as it should be, the members are active and ready to work. 
Monthly meetings is the rule. There are too many physi- 
cians, fourteen, eligible for membership who are not mem- 
bers. The salary of the county health officer is 81'2o, and 
the work is fairly well done, the Board of Censors assisting 
in this important work. 

Fayette. — The information in regard to this Society, after 
diligent efibrt to obtain it, is meagre. The condition is quite 
unfavorable, perhaps worse than it was a year ago. Mem- 
l)ersliip only three or four, and some nine doctors in the 
county eligible for membership nc^t members. Th»» salary 
of the county health officer was 850, but this has probably 


been witlidrawn. The work in this department is very im- 
perfectly done ; apathy seems to have full sway with the 
profession in this county, so far as regards any interest in 
Society matters. 

Franklin. — What has been said of Fayette County Medi- 
cal Society could be repeated and taken as a picture of 
Franklin County Medical Society. The condition is bad, 
the outlook very unfavorable. The enrolled membership is 
twelve, and the rule or by-law is to meet every two months. 
Instead of this there has been but one meeting in the past 
twelve months. The county health officer receives no salary, 
and only four or five doctors report to him. The health 
officer is a Counsellor, elected one year ago. He writes me 
that he "really can not see any life in the Society." 

Jackson. — And now, let me transfer your thoughts from 
Frankliu, that name illustrious in history, Avhich glows with 
such a brilliancy as only the lightning's flash can impart, to 
another name, Jackson, immortal and imperishable, carved 
high on the enduring scroll of fame, by the glittering steel, 
nerved, guided and upheld by an iron will and a magnetic 

It is a pleasure to consider the live, energetic, working 
Medical Society of Jackson county. We need more socie- 
ties like it. The membership is sixteen, and the meetings 
are monthly, with an average attendance of eight. At these 
meetings there are always one or more essays read, cases 
reported and discussed. The work is so regulated that every 
member is induced to take part during the year, and thereby 
add something to the pleasure of others and bring benefit 
to himself. 

The county health officer's salary is $150,. and the condi- 
tion of this department is very good and the work becoming 
year by year more thoroughly systematized. There is one 
condition in this county which ought not to exist, and yet, 
not knowing all of the surroundings, it might be unjust to 
criticise severely. It is this, there are fifteen physicians in 
the county eligible for membership who are not members. 

Now let me give a word of commendation to this Society 


for the course pursued at their annual meeting in January, 
one very seldom followed, but one well suited to overcome 
the condition just referred to, as to outside physicians. I 
received a polite invitation from the Secretary of this so- 
ciety to be present on the 2d of January, in the public hall 
in their county capitol, to attend the regular meeting of the 
society, and also to attend a supper or banquet afterwards. 
I regretted I could not be with these brethren, for I was to 
be similarly engaged on the same day and night in ray own 
society and county town. These social gatherings of medi- 
cal men should be more frequent. A broader, better and 
more fraternal spirit is developed by them, which, allow 
me to say, is one of the most urgent needs in some counties 
of our State. 

Jeffekson. — And now we call another name, perhaps as 
illustrious as the one mentioned a few moments ago, a fame 
and an immortality secured through a different avenue. 
We will say a few words now of the strong, the active, 
the open-hearted County Medical Society of Jefferson, the 
banner society of the now famous Medical Association of 
the State of xHabama! 

But since we are in your midst and can see and feel, 
many words would be superfluous. This well equipped and 
well managed society is one of our strongholds — a bulwark 
— one capable of resisting attack, and also with the ability 
to show to the world the benefits of our local and State 
organizations in the advancement of the profession and the 
protection of the people. With her one hundred members 
she occupies the position of being the largest society in the 
State. Twice a month are regular meetings held, often 
times being full of interest and benefit to those attending. 
The county health officer is a very important official here. 
His duties are many and responsibility great. The salary, 
$1,000, is such as to require a capable man. The work in 
this department, so far as I can ascertain, may be classed 
as good! There are no "illegal" doctors reported in this 
county, but there are yet quite a number of ]>hysiciaus, 
about fifty, not members who are eligible for membership. 


It is more tliau probable, that upon investigating and 
analyzing the facts, we would find that the material for mem- 
bershi}) outside was more apparent than real. It is my 
belief tliat while there are some physicians not members 
who ought to be, that perhaps many who are yet outside 
would not add strength or character to their several county 
societies where they reside. 

Lamar. — The condition of this society can not be classed 
as very good. It is about the same as for the year previous. 
Membership, eight; a part of these only take interest in 
society matters. The meetings are intended to be quar- 
terly. There are about ten physicians in the county eligible, 
but not members. There are no "illegal" practitioners re- 
ported. The county health officer's salary is $25, and the 
work is very imperfectly done. 

Lauderdale. — It is uncertain what should be said in 
regard to this society. Facts require me to say that the 
condition is very far from being good. The membership is 
eight and the rule is to meet quarterly. Apathy seems 
to pervade, and discordant and unfriendly feelings exist 
with a portion of the members. There is no health officer. 
There are, as we might expect, several "illegal" practitioners 
in this county. 

Lawrence. — The condition about the same as last year. 
No special interest is taken by the members. The county 
is a large one and it requires a long ride for part of the mem- 
bers to attend place of meeting. The membership is seven- 
teen, and the meetings are intended to be quarterly. There 
are eight physicians eligible for membership who are not 
members, and two "illegal" practitioners. The salary of the 
county health officer is $175, and the work in that depart- 
ment is tolerably well done. 

Limestone. — There is no improvement in this society. It 
has a name to live and still retains its charter, but exhibits 
very little evidence of its vitality. It meets about once a 
year and has a membership of seven. There are about 
twelve physicians in the county who might become members, 
but are not. No "illegal" doctors are reported. The county 


lie;iltli officer's salary is $150. There seems some improve- 
ment iu this department, but it is still not what it slicnihl Ijo. 
Madison. — This society occupies about the same status it 
has for several years past, which may be classed as fairly 
good. It meets monthly, and has a membership of tAventy. 
There is a fair attendance at the meetings, and usually 
essays are read and cases of interest reported and discussed. 
The salary of the county health officer is 8200. The work 
in this department cannot be described as first-class, or what 
it should be. It is expected that there will be improvement 
in it this 3'ear. The same fact exists in this county, w^hich 
has been noticed elsewhere as existing to a marked degree 
in a few of the counties, viz : the large number of physicans 
in the county not members, but w^ho are eligible. The 
number in Madison is eighteen, or nearly equal to the mem- 
bership of the society. There are no "illegal doctors" 
reported. It is proper, perhaps, to allude to a subject which 
comes within the domain of my official duties, a part of these 
duties being, as stated, "to report as to the status, work and 
business of .the county society" during the preceding year. 
A condition ct)nfronted this society last year, or more prop- 
erly speaking, during the medical year now about to close, 
which had to be met, as it was believed that this condition, 
or the results from it, would materially affect the very life 
of the society. Doubtless all befpre me are familiar with 
the facts, and it will not be necessary to go into details. I 
allude to the arraignment, before the Board of Cens(jrs, of 
Dr. P. L. Brouillette, a member of the Madison county med- 
ical society, and subsequently before the society, as a court, 
on the charge of violating the Code of Ethics, iu that ho 
was in the employ of the Hagey Institute, using secret nos- 
trums, contrary to the long and well-established law of 
Ethics on that matter. He resisted the charge with consid- 
erable vehemence, ably assisted by two or three members of 
the society. Dr. Jerome Cochran alone made an argument 
in behalf of the board of censors, or for the prosecution. 
The result was, by a vote of three to one. Dr. I'), was ex- 
pelled. Dr. Lipscomb, his warm and devoted advocate, theu 


withdrew his membership from the society. So far as can 
be ascertained this action of the society has not weakened 
it, but on the contrary has added strength. The unpleasant 
feelings engendered in that community, and with the mem- 
bers of the profession, have well-nigh disappeared. It was 
clearly a matter of self-preservation for the board of censors 
to take the course they did. Demoralization, loss of profes- 
sional self-respect, and disintegration must have followed 
non-action in a matter so important as this. It can be said by 
some of us, who occupied the position of spectators of this 
transaction, and by those who have, during their many years 
of professional life, cherished and supported those well- 
known principles and rules embodied in the system of med- 
ical ethics ; from such persons the "Madison County Medi- 
cal Society" have received and will continue to receive words 
of approbation. 

If a similar condition shall confront any one of our county 
societies, I trust its members will have the manhood to 
meet it at once, and uphold the honor and prestige of that 
profession which has given to the world so many men who 
are illustrious and renowned as philanthopists and benefac- 

Marion. — I regret to say I can not report this society as 
being in good condition. It certainly is not. The member- 
ship is nominally ten. ^Perhaps about three meetings are 
held during the year. The county health officer receives no 
salary, and there is very little done in this department. 
There is great need of improvement in this county. Possi- 
bly only years of time, with the gradual progress and ad- 
vancement we hope for, will work out a better state in the 
medical profession in this county. 

Marshall. — This still continues one of the laggard, life- 
less county societies. It still has a legal, passive sort of 
existence. The membership is nominally ten. Very little 
interest is manifested, except by one or two members. 
Meetings are far apart and devoid of interest. There are 
some eight physicians in the county who are not connected 
with the society, and probably two illegal practitioners. 


The county health officer receives uo salary, aud very little 
is done in this department. 

Morgan. — I regret the facts do not sustain me, in saying 
something good and encouraging about this society. Last 
year I was only able to say that promises were made to do 
better, and that a better and brighter course would ensue. 
This does not seem to have come true. I endeavored through 
the Vice-President, and then through the Secretary of this 
society, to learn the condition and the difficulties and what 
could be d-me, if anything, to help them. But no answer 
was received to my communications. I then turned to one 
of the "body guard," the one and only Counsellor of Mor- 
gan, and he replied, making as favorable a statement as the 
facts warrant. 

The condition is, as stated, unfavorable, and the outlook 
not hopeful. This brother writes, "that they are trying to 
work up a better interest, and hope in the future they will 
do better, as all of the members have promised to attend 
regularly, and each one has said he would do his best for 
the good of the society." So it is, promises aud hope, both 
good in their place, but to be of value must be realized in a 
reasonable time. Let me remind our brothers in Morgan 
that the present is the time for action, and that we have no 
assurance that there will be a probationary period for medi- 
cal societies in the great unknown future, in which to 
fulfil the promises of to-day. 

Pickens. — The condition of this society is fair, perhaps as 
good as it was a year ago. Membership, seventeen ; meet 
quarterly, with the interest at the meetings somewhat in- 
creased. There are seven physicians in the county eligible 
who are not members, and one or two "illegal" practitioners 
in the county. The county health officer receives no salary, 
and the work in this department is imperfectly done. The 
hope entertained aud expressed as to improvement in this 
work a year ago, has not been realized. 

EANDOLni.— This society can be placed higher u]> on 
the roll than it was a year ago. The condition is fair and 
the work has advanced. There is a membership of twenty- 


four, wliicli is an increase of three for the year. Quar- 
terly meetiugs are held, with a fair degree of interest. There 
are no physicians in the county eligible for membership 
who are not members. There are perhaps one or two "ille- 
gal" doctors, but it is expected that this can not be said in 
a short time. The county health ofl&cer only receives a 
salary of $50. No work of value was accomplished in this 
department in the year 1893, but since the beginning of 
1894, the prospect is favorable for a better condition. 

Shelby. — There is no improvement in any respect so far 
as my information goes, in the condition, work or outlook of 
this society. Very little interest is manifested by any of 
the members, and the monthly meetings are not well at- 
tended. When such is the condition of a society, we would 
expect there would be a good many physicians in the county 
not members, which is the case, there being fourteen, and 
also about two illegal doctors. The county health officer 
receives no salary, and no work of value is accomplished in 
this department. 

St. Clair, — The condition of this society is fairly good. 
The peculiar topography of certain counties, which in some 
cases amounts to barriers and obstacles, has considerable 
influence upon the full and active work of a county society. 
St. Clair county is one of that kind. A ledge of mountains, 
running east and west through it, divides it into two nearly 
equal parts, which makes it difficult and laborious for phy- 
sicians from one side to ride twenty to thirty miles to attend 
a meeting on the other side. This prevents a large or gen- 
eral attendance at the quarterly meetings. The membership 
is eleven, with nine j^hysicians in the county eligible for 
membership who are not members. There are no illegal 
doctors in this county. The county health officer's salary 
is only $50.00, and although this is the case, the work is, 
perhaps, in a more satisfactory condition than ever before. 

Talladega. — The facts warrant me in saying, that the 
condition of this society is good, and that in more than one 
direction there has been progress and good results during 
the past year. The membership is twenty-four. There are 


not more than four or five physicians iu tlie county elif,'ible 
for membership who are not members. The meetings are 
hehl quarterly, with an average attendance of about twelve. 
These meetings have been of interest and benefit. At every 
meeting last year (and all the regular meetings were held), 
there were papers read, prepared by members appointed by 
the president at a preceding meeting, and also cases of in- 
terest reported. The Board of Censors, especially as a 
Board of Medical Examiners, have been faithful to a large 
degree in the performance of their duties. The society has 
lost one member by removal to another county, and one by 
death, and has received three new members, within the past 
year. The noble life and honored memory of him who was 
removed by death, deserve a brighter tribute than the time 
and the occasion will allow. He was a member of whom 
the profession of the State could be justly proud. Dr. 
Joseph Henry Johnson died May 5, 1893, after months of 
peculiar suffering. He was a physician of acknowledged 
ability. He was a charter member of the Talladega county 
medical society, and a member of its first board of censors. 
He was the founder and builder of those eleemosynary insti- 
tutions of the State of Alabama, "The Deaf and Dumb and 
Blind Academies," for white and black. He was to these 
grand and worthy institutions what the lamented Peter 
Bryce was to the Hospital for the insane. The' work of 
collecting vital and mortuary statistics in this county has 
improved, but has not reached the high standard it should. 
The county health officer's salary is S125.00, aud he is earn- 
estly striving to discharge his dut}'. The difliculty in this 
work, in this county, as well as many others, is too often a 
neglect of duty on the part of physicians, these same physi- 
cians, perhaps, being members of their county society, wlui 
know full well their duty. It does seem that nothing but 
the imposition of the full penalty of the law will awaken 
many doctors to the importance aud duty of complying with 
this legal requirement. 

Tallapoosa. — It is pleasant to continue to look at the 
bright spots on our medical map. This society is also duing 


well ; condition improved over that of last year. The mem- 
bership is twenty-three. Quarterly meetings are held, at- 
tended with interest and profit. It is the rule here also for the 
president to appoint at least two members to read papers at 
next meeting, and the subject to be announced by the secre- 
tary before the meeting. There are only three physicians in 
the county eligible for membership who are not members, and 
there is one illegal practitioner. Three new members have 
been received during the past year, and a fair prospect of 
inducing the three outsiders to become members. The 
county health ofiicer receives a salary of $100.00. The work 
in this department a year ago was not satisfactory. A 
change of the chief official has resulted in very considerable 
improvement of the work, and it is now believed that it is 
not far from being full and satisfactory. 

Tuscaloosa. — The condition of this society may be stated 
as being about the same as it was a year ago, — moderately 
good. Not a great deal of interest is manifested in the work 
or business. Membership, twenty-four. The rule is to meet 
monthly, but it is not observed punctually. There are no 
Illegal doctors in the county, and only a very few physicians 
in the county who are eligible and not members. The county 
health officer's salary is $100.00, and the work in this de- 
partment is in pretty fair and satisfactory condition. 

Walker. — This society holds about the same position it 
did a year ago, which may be classed as fairly good. Mem- 
bership the same, sixteen, and the rule is monthly meet- 
ings. I am not able to report how many physicians in the 
county who are eligible for membershij) and are not mem- 
bers. The number of illegal practitioners is rather large, 
eight, showing a weak place somewhere. It may be in the 
solicitor, or from misplaced sympathy in the grand juries, or 
in the board of censors. The salary of the county health 
officer is $100.00, and the condition in that department not 

Winston. — The condition of this society is quite as good 
now as it was a year ago. More interest is taken in society 
matters, and the outlook somewhat more favorable. Mem- 


bersbip nine, being an increase of two during tlie past year. 
Quarterly meetings are held. The county health officer's 
salary is $50.00, and the work and condition in that depart- 
ment is somewhat improved over that of last year. Only 
one illegal doctor is reported. 

After persistent efforts and in different ways, I have suc- 
ceeded in obtaining some information, either through an 
official or private member, from every one of the thirty-three 
county societies in the Northern Division, and have brought 
in brief review their condition, work, salient points and out- 
look. The review is imjjerfect, and perhaps has been unin- 
teresting to some who have listened to it. Allow me to 
make a few deductions, and I will have completed this part 
of my duty. 

First, the unpleasant fact, which has l)een so imj^ressed 
upon me during the two years of my present official position, 
is the strange and unjust result occurring so fretpiently 
when one gentleman writes j^olitely and in the discharge of 
a duty imposed upon him by his associates, to another gen- 
tleman, and his letter is treated with neglect, not answered, 
which is almost the same as to be treated with contempt. 
My letter book, especially prepared for this work, shows 
very many cases of this kind during the past two 3'ears. In 
my rather extensive correspondence with these thirty odd 
counties, I addressed letters to various officials who failed to 
honor me with a response. No personal disrespect was 
probably intended. It was an official duty I was discharg- 
ing, and was for the good and advantage of those addressed 
rather than for myself. We all, doubtless, have an idea of 
courtesy, politeness and gentlemanly behavior. As there 
seems to be a want of uniformity of action on these points 
in our professi(m, I would suggest that the State Board of 
Censors, at this session, in their report, define "What is 
official medical courtesy and gentlemanly bearing," as it re- 
lates to the members of the Medical Association of the State 
of Alabama. 


Second, the report in regard to various county societies 
sliow there is still need of improvement, and that a higher, 
intellectual, moral and professional plane should be attained. 
In the discharge of the duties of my office, I am free to con- 
fess it has not been in my power to make those personal 
visitations and give that missionary sort of labor with the 
members of the profession in some of the counties where the 
conditions are unfavorable, which probably the literal in- 
structions defining the "duties of the Vice-President" would 
require me to do. 

It is simply impossible for any physician who is still engaged 
in the practice of his profession, to devote his time to that kind 
of work. Besides, if it could be done, no great amount of 
good would likely result. That reform and a higher stand- 
ard is much needed, is plainly evident to those who have 
made even a limited investigation of the present status, or 
personnel of the members of the profession. Much has 
been done by this body in the past twenty years in this 

My belief is that great and valuable advancement can be 
brought about by and through the Board of Censors, county 
and State, and more successfully than through any other 
source. Let energy, thought and action be brought to bear 
on this essential feature of our organization. Let this, the 
"gateway" to the profession, be well guarded, and in twenty 
years there would be a wonderful change for the better. 
Then the incompetent ones, the many unqualified ones, now 
on the stage, will have passed away, and if the useful life of 
the grand organizer, the "Von Moltke" of the medical pro- 
fession of the State of Alabama, could be prolonged twenty 
years, instead of using that steel-pointed pen, which now and 
then cuts to the quick, as he rei^lies to the imperfect reports 
which monthly come to his office, or criticises the examina- 
tion papers of the doctors turned loose upon the people, 
then he could sit quietly in a comfortable office in the capi- 
tol of the State, and as he receives these "monthly reports" 
from the seventy or seventy-five counties then existing, and 
the well arranged and neatly prepared examination papers, 


giving evidence of tliorougli qualifications and liigli pro- 
fessional attainments of tlio applicants, be would, throngli 
his amanuensis, reply on the type-writer, in golden-tinted 
letters, in soft and loving Avords, to tlie count}' liealtli offi- 
cers and the Chairman of the Board of Censors, in tliis 
form : "Dear Sir — Your report and papers have been re- 
ceived and examined. They are as nearly perfect as poor 
erring humanity can approach in this world. Your reward 
may not be received here, but in the great 'hereafter' fidel- 
ity, true merit and duty well performed, will bring 30U 
peace, contentment, happiness." 



By John Alexander McKinnon, M. D., Selma. 

Grand Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State 

of Alabama. 

In compliance with the mandates of our Constitution, I 
herewith submit my report, as Vice-President, to the Asso- 
ciation from the Southern Division of our State, a limited 
surveillance over which I have had for the past twelve 

The duties incumbent on this office are varied, interesting 
and pleasant. It is true that doctors differ, and have their 
differences and dissensions, but when you round them up, 
no bigger-hearted beings live. 

During my service, at first I often met with embarrass- 
ments, which were soon overcome by a proper understanding 
with the doctors. 

With only one exception, I have succeeded in getting the 
desired information from communications addressed by me 
to them. 

I assure you that this office is no sinecure ; it requires 
continual and persistent work ; and though this is the fact, the 
kindly relations cultivated through this medium, compensate 
for the required duty. 

It is pleasant to know that our doctors are laboring har- 
moniously for the best interests of our organization. Those 
counties which seem derelict would no doubt do better ser- 
vice, if the system adopted by us in carrying on this work 
was properly explained to them ; they require this to enthuse 

My observation is, that very much depends upon having 


the proper men for boards of censors, and for secretaries of 
the local societies, for they are the very life and send of the 
bodies. If they are indifferent to the interests of their 
organization, naturally the members are lukewarm and care- 
less, but if these officers are wide awake and active, the 
result of their work will always show "the silver lining of 
the cloud," reflecting further lustre on this grand organiza- 
tion, making it conspicuous for its good and thorough 

The necessity for examining boards, I can demonstrate by 
a few illustrations, — before our Dallas Couuty Board, to 
one applicant who is a graduate, the following question 
was asked: "What are peptones?" Answer: "They are 
things sometimes found in the stomach of a man, but gen- 
erally, in the sweet-bread of the hog." Another applicant 
was asked, " What is rectal alimentation?" Answer: "A 
process of removing scibula) with a syringe." Another, 
"Give the best method of amputating at the hip joint, and 
subsequent treatment." Answer: "Liston's, and then send for 
the undertaker." One of these men has been practicing 
medicine in a sister state for many years. Suffice it to 
say that he is not practicing in Alabama at present. H(nv 
can our people understand that we are watchmen on the 
citadel of health, unless we explain to them what we are 
doing in the way of protecting them against charlatanism, 
fraud and humbuggery ? Why will our doctors hesitate to 
enter into this glorious cause heartily? We must tight 
these quacks and robbers from the doors of our communi- 
ties ; how can we do it? Only by concert of action, stand- 
ing shoulder to shoulder, assisting each other, and by lielp- 
ing him especially, who has fought our battles so long for 
us, — may I say single-handed ? Ahnosf at times ; althougli 
generally he could count on rallying around him, to assist 
him under all circumstances, men with the will, brains and 
discretion to carry out laws and rules salutary to the furth- 
erance of the interest of each and ever}' count}- society in the 
State. The "Book of Kules" directs that the communica- 
tions of the Vice-President of the State Association should 


be addressed to tlie Vice-President of tlie several county 
societies in order to obtain required information ; I must 
confess, that with a few exceptions, this method has proved 
a miserable failure with me. Ptepeated letters and circulars 
were answered by only these few exceptions. The secreta- 
ries of the societies, as a rule, gave ready replies and gave 
satisfactory answers to questions asked. While many soci- 
eties are what they ought to be, otliers are dragging along, 
and some are almost dead, without much hope of resuscita- 
tion. Burdensome dues, I find, in some county societies, 
seem to embarrass doctors in holding membership ; feeling 
unable to pay these dues, they let the payment go by default, 
and thereby lose their membership. Some of our best doc- 
tors, as the lamented Riggs once said, are very poor men, — 
the onerous dues ought to be remedied. 

Autauga. — This county has a meeting every three 
months. The average attendance is eight. While that en- 
thusiasm does not exist, which is so desirable yet the doc- 
tors meet and cultivate each others social qualities in an 
enjoyable manner intellectually improving to each other, 
and when they separate, it is always with regrets. They 
generally discuss subjects which are interesting and improv- 
ing to each member. The collection of vital statistics is 
only moderate in degree, with a promise of improvement. 
The statistics are collected through physicians and midwives. 
The society meets in Prattville, the county seat, a thriving 
little town, whose citizens always give the country doctors 
a hearty welcome. Dr. John E. Wilkinson is probably the 
most active member in this society and merits much credit 
for his zeal in keeping in harmonious accord the members 
of the society. Dr. E. A. King, the courteous secretary has 
extended to me all the facilities possible in acquiring the 
above information. 

Baldwin. — There are four doctors members of the society, 
and one who does not belong to the society. This county 
covers a broad area of country, and these doctors who are 
members of the society hold meetings four or five times 
annually, with an average attendance of three or four. 


Tlieir meetings are "highly iuteresting." Pap(;rs are read 
aud discussed. The collection of vital statistics is satisfac- 
tory, because these doctors have so endeared themselves to 
the citizens that the latter feel liighl}' honored in serving 
them in assisting in the collection of vital statistics, *fec. 
The society meets at Bay Minette. Drs. Lovelady, Coghlan 
and Hodgson is the grand trio. We say grand, because in 
order to get a meeting. Dr. Coghlan is compelled to ride 
sixteen miles and Dr. Lovelady sixty-five miles. Tell me 
another three doctors who exhibit so much zeal in the 
State. The secret between the lines, is, these gentlemen 
are of the high order and will sacrifice anything to do 
tlieir duty. They are glorious fellows, and wo all would 
like to give them a hearty and warm hand-shake and 
pronounce the plaudit "well done thou good and faithful 
servant, etc." 

Barbour. — This society meets quarterly and with an aver- 
age attendance of six to ten members. There is an apathy, 
I am sorry to say, in this grand old county in medical society 
interest, they neither read nor discuss papers at their meet- 
ings. The collection of vital statistics is not as thorough 
as it should be, although the health officer endeavors to carry 
out the method adopted by this Association. The society 
meets alternately in Eufaula and Clayton. Drs. Copelaud, 
Holt, Simpson, Goodwin, Winn and Robertson seem to be 
the faithful to uphold and carry out its purposes. With 
this array of medical talent, it seems that papers road and 
discussed would very much enhance the interest. I fool 
quite satistiod that wdtli a little energy aud concert of action 
the bright star of hope would soon illumine the pathway to 
fields of fruition, bounteously compensating thorn for thoir 
extra effort. 

Bullock. — The medical society of this county meets once 
per month with an average attendance of seven. The in- 
terest manifested in these meetings is not vor}' eucourjiging, 
although there is a hopeful feature, it is that i)apers are 
read at about half their meetings. The collection of vital 
statistics is so thoroughly managed that this county stands 


at the head of the list on this point. The system carried 
out is that adopted by this Association, viz.: Assistant 
health officers in each beat. The meetings are held 
monthly, usually at Union Springs. The old guaM with a 
few recruits, seem to hold the fort, viz.: Drs. Hayes, Frank- 
lin, Hogan, Darnell, Walker, Hunter and Cowan bear the 
heat and burden of the day congenially. Hard times have 
had influence on this noble band, but there lingers in the 
past the solace of having under the circumstances done well, 
which I hope will give inspiration to these faithful men that 
will stir them up and put them to work with renewed 

Butler. — This society meets monthly with a small aver- 
age attendance. The interest taken is very little, and papers 
are read only occasionally, the discussion of which is usually 
participated in by the members present. The collection of 
vital statistics is fairly good, and the system of collecting 
the same is by assistant health officers in each beat. The 
lamented Dr. Job Thigpen read the last paper before the 
society on "Relation of the teeth to the general system." Dr. 
Thigpen's death is a severe loss to the society, as he could 
always be relied upon in doing his part to the furtherance 
of its interest. Greenville is the place of meeting. This 
thriving little town always welcomes doctors and treats them 
most hospitably. The Board of Censors manage to keep 
out undesirable and ignorant doctors, and awards with 
pleasure certificates to the educated and worthy. The future 
of this society depends largely upon the efforts made by the 
younger men in the profession. 

Chilton. — Through the continued efforts of our Senior 
Censor and Dr. W. E. Stewart this society has been reor- 
ganized with a new set of officers. It is to be hoped that 
the renewed efforts will succeed and be crowned with entire 
success. The present hard times has its influence on the 
doctors, and when remuneration for services is meagre or 
nothing, it is quite difficult to get them together for the pur- 
pose of cultivating medical science by the interchange of 


opinion in society meeting. "Where there is life there is 

Choctaw. — This county society is not " booming " so to 
speak, but lives, moves and has its being, meeting twice a 
year, with an average attendance of eight doctors. Papers 
are read and discussed sometimes. The collection of vital 
statistics is very poor — these are collected by beat health 
officers. The society meets at Butler on the first Wednesday 
of court, which is March and October. Drs. Knighton, 
Granberrj', Phillips, McCall and Clarke seem to be the old 
guard around whom the society rallies. The number of 
doctors in the county ought to give a better showing; it 
seems as if some of them would take more interest in the 
societ3^ They keep up the organization of the Board of 
Censors — this is an evidence of faith and a desire to do 
well. From this little spark it is to be hoped that ere long 
a great conflagration will take place, arousing an enthusiasm 
that will bring into the fold every M. D. in this county. 

Claeke. — This society has regular meetings quarterly, 
and occasionally called meetings. The interest is very little, 
except by a very few who pilot the craft along over the 
breakers. There are indications of considerable life in the 
society yet, in that they read paj^ers at their meetings. 
The average attendance at the meetings is fifty per cent, of 
the membership. The collection of vital statistics is not 
good ; there seems to be no organized system in this work, 
only doctors reporting. My observation is that a fair salary 
is a good incentive to make an efficient health officer ; men 
will not work at an expense without compensation. The 
quarterly meetings are held at the court house, and called 
meetings at any place most convenient to the members. 
The doctors are derelict in paying annual dues, owiug partly 
to the scarcity of money and partly on account of careless- 

Coffee. — There is an apathy that exists in this county 
society that should* not be. The medical talent located in 
this county ought to give at least an assurance of more hope 


in the future. There are eight members of the society, with 
an average attendance at the meetings of three. There are 
four of the eight doctors who live at Elba, the place of meet- 
ing. The society meets every second Friday in each month, 
manifesting very little interest in its deliberations. The 
success of vital statistics is very poor; this work is done 
through the doctors and midwives. There has not been a 
2:)aper read before the society in twelve months. I am quite 
sure if papers were read and discussed as Dr. Francis M. 
Eushing suggests, it would have a fine effect in reviving in- 
terest ; there is nothing like it to stir up a society, it causes 
every member to post himself, and in this way much 
practical knowledge is disseminated and acquired. 

Conecuh. — The status of this society is not such as would 
create much enthusiasm, but, "as the darkest hour is just 
before day," behind the cloud we hope lingers a bright light. 
With an average attendance of seventy-five per cent, of 
the total membership bodes well for the future; just one 
active man could start the machinery which in the end might 
accomplish much. No papers are read or discussed. A 
very encouraging feature is the success in collecting vital 
statistics, which my informant, Dr. Kichard T. Holland, 
states is very good. "There is life in the old land yet," 
and all they want is "three cheers and a tiger" to rally them ; 
we don't mean by this that we fepect them to fight the tiger 
in three chairs — not so — ^we only write in soldier parlance. 

Covington — Covington Medical Society labors under many 
disadvantages, in that fifty per cent, of the doctors in the 
county do not belong to the society. The fifty per cent, 
out of the society are non-graduates. "The loyal legion," 
so to speak, meets every three months, with an average at- 
tendance of four members, or fifty per cent, of the total 
membership. "While comparatively little interest is shown 
in some respects, the fact that they have meetings quar- 
terly is encouraging, besides the county health officer reports 
very fair success in collecting vital statistics ; his method I 
have not been able to obtain. The society meets at the 


tliriving little town of Andalusia. Dr. W. H. Stinsou, tlio 
courteous secretary, gave me the above information. 

Crenshaw. — This society meets every two months, with an 
average attendance of ten members; this is four-fifths of 
the entire membership, which speaks well. In reply to the 
question, "What degree of interest is taken l)y members 
in your meetings?" the reply is "very good." This so- 
ciety, like many others, is derelict in duty, in that no papers 
are read and discussed by members ; this is one of the most 
important factors in keeping up a healthy enthusiasm in a 
society. The collection of vital statistics is "tolerably good," 
the method is that adopted by the State Association. The 
The society meets at the prosperous little town of Luverne. 
There is an active degree of interest taken; it seems to me 
that it only needs proper direction, and as this section of 
our State is prospering we hope ere long to see this marked 
"A number 1." 

Dale. — This society has monthly meetings, at which good 
interest is manifested. There is a congeniality existing 
among the Dale doctors that naturally attracts them to go 
to the medical society meetings. Seventy-five per cent, of 
the members attend the meetings. Dr. R. F. Harper read a 
paper on Phthisis, and it was thoroughly discussed by Drs. 
Sands, Reynolds and Ord. The society meets at Ozark, a 
splendid little town on the Midland Railroad. The col- 
lection of vital statistics is ver}' poor; the reason is not 
assigned. This is a lamentable fact, and it should not 1)0 
so, where there are so many good doctors. Tlie statistics 
are collected by beat officers. Dr. Weld, the Vice-Presi- 
dent of the county society, writes in a very hopeful spirit 
of the future of the society. 

Dallas. — Dallas county is a working society, which meets 
monthly, and has frequent called meetings. The attendance 
averaged eighty per cent, during the past year. Interest at 
times was exceedingly great. Papers are read and discussed ; 
interesting cases are related and discussed; questions of 
ethics are discussed ; doctors are tried for causes and ac- 
quitted. Examinations for license to practice medicine were 


nine, one rejected, the balance successful. The collection of 
vital statistics is fairly good ; the system is that adopted by 
the State Association — owing to the population being five 
negroes to each white man, it is difficult to carry out this 
work perfectly. It is to be regretted that perfect harmony 
does not exist, which is so much desired, yet it is to be 
hoped that time will assauge the differences and mellow the 
feelings to a reflecting medium which will eventually make 
all things pleasant. The country members are taking greater 
interest in the society deliberations than ever before. It is 
to be hoped their zeal will continue. 

Elmore. — This county society is rather unique, from the 
fact that seventy-five per cent, of the membership attend the 
meetings, which are quarterly, which is good ; no papers 
are read at the meetings, except occasionally, which is bad. 
Any society which requires members to read papers at its 
meetings, and then the members to discuss them, will create 
an interest that nothing else wilL It seems that a very few 
do the work of the society in holding it together and fur- 
thering its interest. Dr. W. A. Huddleston reports the col- 
lection of vital statistics very good ; beat officers and mid- 
wives are utilized in their collection. The society meets in 
Wetumpka. The board of censors seems to be active. That 
is a most healthy feature in any society. 

Escambia. — The most cheering news comes from Escambia. 
Their meetings are quarterly, with an average attendance of 
seventy-five per cent, of the membership. Much interest is 
manifested in the meetings. Papers are read and discussed 
as a rule, which gives life and zest to the society. Yital sta- 
tistics are collected satisfactorily by widwives and assistant 
health officers to the health officer. Dr. E. T. Parker read a 
paper on "Cancer of the Stomach ;" all present participated in 
the discussion. The society meets at Brewton. It is pleasant 
to see how well the doctors of Escambia carry out the so- 
ciety work. It evinces a social status of the membership 
which is so essential to success. 

Geneva. — The horizon is not very bright over this county ; 
still there is life. With a society with an average attendance 


of tlie total membership, we must not consider it moribund, 
there is life there. It needs only direction by a live secre- 
tary and board of censors. Then there ought to be a stated 
time to meet. It is to be hoped that some of the members 
will put their heads together and start the macliinery roll- 
ing. Drs. S. r. Latimer, A. B. Chapman, J, H. Ard and H. 
P. Treadwell seem to be the most active members. If they 
were to get together, lay out a plan and work to it, no doubt 
Geneva medical society would soon be numbered among 
the best. 

Greene. — There are thirteen doctors in this county who are 
members of the medical society. The average attendance 
is fifty per cent. The degree of interest taken by its mem- 
bers is not very great. Occasionally papers are read and 
discussed. The board of censors have their work well in 
hand. The collection of vital statistics is not satisfactory. 
The system is that of beat officers who report to the county 
health officer. The medical talent in this county ought to 
insure us a better report. The society meets at Eutaw. 
The most active members of the society are Drs. Duncan, 
Barclay, A. H. Bird, Smith and Hatter. Delegates from 
this county will be sent to this meeting of the Association. 

Hale. — Dr. Jacob Huggins, my predecessor, than whom 
no cleverer gentleman ever lived, gives the following infor- 
mation from his county : The society meets quarterl}-, and 
its meetings have an average attendance of sixty per cent, of 
its members. The degree of interest in the meetings is sat- 
isfactory. Papers are generally read and discussed, much 
to the entertainment and edification of those present. The 
collection of vital statistics is very poor, attributable to the 
letharg}^ of the average doctor. Several interesting cases 
were reported at the meetings, which give the deliberations 
of the society a practical interest. The society meets in 
Greensboro. Drs. Peterson, Inge, Ward, Young, Griffin 
and Hucilins are the most active members. There is no 
doubt in my mind, if these doctors could be induced t<» meet 
oftener, it Avould have a salutary eflfect. The personnel of 
the doctors in this county will compare favorably in uc- 


quirements of knowledge and moral status witli any in the 
State, They are Avliat we call thoroughly educated physi- 

Henry. — This medical society meets every three months, 
with an average attendance of seventy-five per cent, of its 
membership. The interest in the meetings is improving. 
Papers are read and discussed at each meeting. The suc- 
cess of the county health officer in collecting vital and mor- 
tuary statistics is bad. The beat officers will not respond. 
There was a paper read on Ovarian Tumor at last meeting 
which elicited much speculation and discussion. The usual 
place of meeting is Dothan. Indications are that this so- 
ciety in future will be numbered among the best. It was 
represented at this Association meeting by three members. 

Lee. — On the 12th day of April, in company with Dr. Je- 
rome Cochran, I visited Opelika, and several of the doctors 
of Lee met with us in Dr. J. H. Drake's office, where, after 
a pleasant conference, the Lee county medical society was 
re-organized and elected officers. Indications are that the 
society is now on a permanent basis, and will in future be 
numbered with our best. The personnel of the society is 
good, and a good degree of interest with the members is all 
that is required to get it in good working order, harmoniously 
blending the social with the useful. 

Lowndes. — The society meets monthly with an average 
attendance of seven. There are twenty-five members be- 
longing to the society. "The meetings are always interest- 
ing and instructive," is what Dr. C E. Marlette writes. It 
is certainly singular that the meetings are not more largely 
attended. It may be that the county members feel slighted ; 
doctors, give them a showing, and fill up your meetings. 
While papers are not read generally, subjects are discussed 
with much interest; this is good. The collection of vital 
statistics is "good." This shows what salary paid will do. 
The health officer of this county is well paid and does good 
work. The method of collecting vital statistics is that 
adopted by the Association. Drs. J. A. Pritchett, Shirley 
Bragg, T. D. Stallings and D. S. Hopping are the moving 
spirits in this well organized and working society. 


Macon. — This society holds its meetings quarterly, with 
an average attendance of seventy-five per cent, of its mem- 
bership. Sorry to state a lukewarmness prevails, and the 
fire of stimulation is necessary to warm up the members to 
more activity. In sympathy with the financial condition of 
this country is the zeal or interest of our societies more or 
less influenced. The environments of many of our societies 
are such as to depress rather than to stimulate the mem- 
bers, and Macon is no exception to the rule. The collection 
of vital statistics is a complete failure, and Dr. John S. 
Lightfoot, ni}' informant, writes that he thinks that the 
health ofiicer "has quit altogether trying." To invigorate 
such societies is the question ; could the court of county 
commissioners by any means be induced to pay the health 
officer an adequate salary? This it seems to me is the 
starting jjoint in reviving this society to its past good 

Marengo. — Dr. J. W. Todd, the accommodating secretary, 
gives the following information in reply to interrogatories 
sent him. Marengo society meets quarterly, with an aver- 
age attendance of fifty per cent, of membership. The degree 
of interest is about the average. Papers are read occasion- 
ally and discussed by the members. The collection of vital 
statistics is not as satisfactory as might be expected. The 
difficulty of collecting exists in this county as is in all other 
counties in the "Black Belt." The health ofiicer I know 
personally, and I feel satisfied that it is not his fault that 
perfect returns are not made. The society meets at De- 
mopolis. I would suggest for the good of the society, that 
an effort be made to get in more of the country members and 
urge them to take an active part in its deliberations. There 
is no disguising the fact, country doctors often feel embar- 
rassed in participating in the meetings, because fre(iueutly 
they apparently are given back seats. A prudent president 
will never permit this, but with an argus eye will see that 
they are especially cared for. 

Mobile. — Mobile medical society, one of the grand jnllars 
on which the superstructure of this Association was erected, 


stautls out still the ideal society of our State. Meeting once 
a week, every Saturday night, with an average attendance of 
fourteen nienibers. The interest in the society work partic- 
ipated in l)y the members is good. Papers are read and 
discussed every other meeting. The collection of vital and 
mortuary statistics is fair. Drs. Frazer, Sanders, Seals, 
Jackson, 011i})haut and Ketchum form the j)ower behind the 
throne. With these and others managing the ship, we have 
no apprehension of its foundering on breakers. The status 
of this society is evidence of what frequent meetings, reading 
papers and discussing subjects will do for a society. It is 
stimulating to the younger and a source of information 
to the older. 

Monroe. — This medical society averages up very well. 
While the attendance at the meetings is not so large as 
desirable, the faithful few seem to feel the responsibility 
and to do their work well. Occasionally papers are read at 
the meetings. By the assistance of active beat health offi- 
cers, the health officer makes his report perfectly satisfac- 
tory. Papers are read. Dr. Burroughs read one on "Dys- 
mennorhea" at the last meeting, which was discussed gen- 
erally to the profit of all. Three-fourths of the doctors in 
the county belong to the society, even if they do not take an 
active part at the meetings, sympathy is shown as in the 
collection of vital statistics, etc. All the country doctors are 
working with the town doctors, and the result is no friction, 
but a healthy condition. 

Montgomery. — Montgomery medical society we all look 
up to as the bulwark between this Association and troubles 
incident to the politics of the State. We always rely on her 
in the hours of trial. She has alwaj's come up satisfactorily 
in every emergency. The younger men seem to have been 
inspired to good and faithful work by the attrition and ab- 
sorption from those now stooped in age. This society meets 
every week, with an average attendance of twelve members. 
The degree of interest taken by the members is fair. Papers 
are read and discussed and cases reported. The collection 
of vital and mortuary statistics is fairly good. The method 


is that adopted l)y this Associatiou. Tlie society inocts in 
the city of Mout^'omery. Drs. J. It. Jordan, J. H. lihic, Jj. 
L. Hill, I. L. WatkiDs,"^G. P. Waller, 13. S. Chapman, ('. A. 
Thigpeu, S. D. Seelye, J. H. Henry, K. F. :Michel, W. M. 
Wilkerson and R. 8. Hill, are the active members. AN'c have 
become accustomed to look upon this society as the leader 
iu matters pertaiuinfj; to onr Association. They have alwavs 
been loyal to the cause. 

Perry. — This society meets in April and October, with an 
average attendance of tifty per cent, of its membershiji. Dr. 
G. K. Johnson, who has kindly given the required informa- 
tion, states that the interest and membership is increasing. 
Informal discussions at every meeting. No papers rea<l. 
The discussions beget interest, which enlivens the occasions 
and subsec^uent study by members. The collection of vital 
statistics is very poor indeed, a want of harmony among the 
doctors iu a measure accounting for this. It is a pity that 
all brethren cannot dwell in peace at all times and under all 
circumstances. The society meets in Marion. The board 
of censors are vigilant and active. In response to the ques- 
tion, ""Will you please suggest anything that will jjromote 
or increase interest in your society?" the answer is, "The 
cultivation of fraternal feelings, harmony between members, 
less criticism at the higher centers, and a fair salary for the 
health officer." 

Pike. — Pike county medical society comes to the front 
with Hying colors. I am jjroud of it, for it was there I first 
saw the light of day. The society meets once a month with 
a fair attendance ; all are very much inten^sted wlu-n they 
meet. While no papers are read, lively disi-ussions are the 
rule on subjects proposed or suggested in the reporting of 
cases of interest. The collei-tion of vital statistics is very 
good. The board of censors discharge thcii- duties satisfac- 
torily. As only tifty per cent, of the doctors in tlie county 
belong to the societv, an etTort sjiould be made to increase 
the membershi]). Enco\irage country mrndters to join. 
Drs. Brown, Beard, Crossley, Hilliard and .lolm \. Mc- 
Eachern, are the most active members. The society meets 

74 Al.\l•..\^r.\ state medical assoctatton. 

ill Troy on tlio first TuoHdjiy iu each montli. The meetings 
are iilwuvs iiitcrt'stinj^, ])h'iisiint and profitable. 

KussKLi,. — This nicdit-al society meets quarterly with an 
average attendance of fifty per cent, of the members. There 
seems to be a cloud hovering over the brethren iu this 
county; there seems to be no electrifying influence about 
their society hall. But there is life iu the old land yet; 
////■// ninf : while there is life there is hope. The vital 
and mortuary statistics iire in .statu quo. Dr. R. N. Pitts 
read a paper at the last meeting which was both entertain- 
ing and instructive. Dr. W. 13. Hendricks states that "in 
order to get up a revival, it will be necessary to send a new 
set of doctors into the county." This is not good logic. It 
might be like the man who moved from Wisconsin to Flor- 
ida. The first two j^ears he lived there he did nothing but 
"cuss" the natives for their laziness, the third and last year 
he was there, he was too lazy to "cuss." You see, my 
friend, the disease is contagious. Drs. H. H. Allen, R. N. 
Pitts, W. R Joiner, W. B. Hendricks, W. B. Prather and R. 
A. Smith are the active members. 

SuMTEU. — This society meets quarterly with an average 
attendance of fifty per cent, of its membership. There is 
not that warmth of spirit in the society that should exist. 
It is a kind of "eternal spring." Papers are in preparation 
by four doctors, after a dead calm (jf over a year ; this por- 
tends good, and looks as if they are going to have one of 
the old-fashioned revivals, to have a regular house-warming, 
and we say, "so mote it be." The county health official has 
"very meagre" success iu his work. The system adopted is 
that of this Association. The society meets in Livingston. In 
response to the question, "Will you please suggest anything 
that wall promote or increase interest in your society?" Dr 
J. McCain replies, "Preparation of essays for each meeting 
and discussion thereof," and / would suggest to meet 

Wilcox. — Wilcox, is all right, it cheers the heart, makes the 
soul feel good when we know that Dr. John Paul Jones is 
in char-ce of the craft. AVe know success is assured. This 


society meets every quarter witli an average attendance of 
thirty-throe and a third per cent. This may not h)ok so 
well, but you must take into consideration that eveiy doctor 
in the county belongs to the society, except foui-, that is, 
the membership numbers 32 out of 30 doctors in the 
county. The interest taken in society matters is "consid- 
erable." Papers are read at nearly every meeting and dis- 
cussed. The vital statistics reported "not ver}' good." Dr. 
L. E. Starr read a paper and Dr. J. W. Jones related a case 
of Phlegmonous Erysipelas. The society meets in Camden. 
Drs. L. E. Starr, J. P. and T. W. Jones, E. Gaillard, 
K Coleman, J. P. Benson, J. C. Jones, D. L, Watson and 
R. H. Kilpatrick are the active members. 



Mr. President : 

I have never appreciated tlie inagnitiide of the work of 
the Secretary of this Association until within the past few 
days, when I have undertaken to post up the Book of the 
Rolls. Much has been omitted in previous years that is 
hard to obtain now and what has been inserted, has been 
obtained after considerable research. 

I think the volume of our Transactions of 1893 is full of 
errors, but who is to blame? Certainly not the Publishing 
Committee, for the duties of this committee are almost en- 
tirely confined to the reading and correcting of proof, as they 
must go upon the supposition that the copy sent them is 

Many errors have been due to my own inexperience, being 
my first year of service as Secretary ; others are due to the 
incorrect and imperfect reports received from the county 
societies, while not a few are due to the fact that the individ- 
ual members (including some of our counsellors) have shown 
an entire disregard of the letters written them by the Sec- 
retary for correct information, for their portraits, &c. 

The Correspondents have replied to almost all of my letters, 
and I have quite a full history of most of them and the fact 
that their history does not appear in the Book of the Rolls, 
is due to the fact that I have lately been absent in a distant 
city and have, therefore, been compelled to leave this work 

I do not, Mr. President, consider the volume of Transac- 
tions for 1893 more incorrect than those of previous years, 
and this I say without a reflection upon any of my prede- 
cessors and without any inclination to apologize for the 
errors of this volume ; but it seems to me that unless some 
measures be adopted to impress uj)on all those, who are 


interested iu the makiup; up of our Transactions, tlio im- 
portance of fnll and correct reports, it will 1)e })racticallv 
impossible to have anything appnjaching a satisfactory 

A large percentage of the society reports I receive have 
to be re-written entirely, and the information for the revised 
reports has, in many cases, to be obtained by private letter, 
or rather letters. 

This cannot be laid at the door of the secretaries (of the 
county societies) who make up the reports, exce})t in some 
instances; but the errors must be due to the fact that many 
physicians, (both members and non-members) for some rea- 
son, which is totally inexplicable, either directly refuse to 
reply to the questions of the secretary of their county society, 
or else procrastinate, and leave the secretary to guess as best 
he can. 

The office of secretary of a county society is a most ard- 
uous one. This I learned while secretary of my own county 

With this rather lengthy preamble, I beg leave to state 
that the Book of the Rolls is as nearly complete as I could 
make it. 

The Book of Portraits (Book of the Living) lacks many 
faces that it should contain, notwithstanding my perscjual 
appeal to each one, whose portrait is conspicuous l)v its 

The Book of the Dead, our Grand Roll of Honor, now 
contains twenty-four (24) portraits, those of Dr. Job Thigpen 
of Greenville, and Dr. Robert Dickens Webb of Birming- 
ham, having been transferred from the Book of the Living, 
since our meeting iu Selma last year. 

"Twenty-four" represents a small percentage of the m.>n' 
number of those avIio have enjoyed the honor of memborship 
in our college of counsellors, but lohat a percentage of irort/i 
and aJiiJif)/ .' 

The Book of the Rolls is now tilled up in the depart nuMit 
of the College of Counsellors, while there remain tliroe 
names of those trentlemen elected at the Selma session. I 


respectfully request that tlie proper recommendations be 
made iu regard to the Book of the Rolls, 

I have been unable to obtain any record of Dr. William 
Thomas McAllister of Marion, Perry county, except that 
which appears on page 184 of the Book of the Rolls. His por- 
trait will be found in the Book of the Dead, and I would 
greatly appreciate any information that any member of 
the Association could give me in regard to him. 

I beg leave to apologize in the presence of the Association 
to Dr. Reginal K. Smith of Pratt City, for the unfortunate 
error that occurs in his name on page 213 of the Transac- 
tions of 1893. The error was due to the fact that "Col." in 
the county society report was mistaken by the printers for 
"colored," while, of course, it was intended for "college." 
His name, however, appears correctly on page 209 of the 
same volume. 

Of the counsellors elected at Selma session all have ac- 
cepted and signed the pledge except Dr. Louis Willoughby 
Desprez, Russellville, and Dr. Thomas Northen, Ashland, 
both of whom have declined. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. R. Jordan, M. D., 




We beg to suhinit the rollowiiig report, as the result of our work 
for the past year : 

Eleven hundred copies of the Transactions at a cost of — 

Printing $ 669 80 

Binding 187 00 

Shipping, including postage, &c 110 65 — $ 967 15 

650 postal cards and printing 9 00 

250 copies counsellors' pledge blanks 3 50 

Repairing Book of Portraits 2 00 

1500 note heads 3 50 

500 examination blanks 3 50 

250 return blanks 9 00 

1700 annual circulars 7 00 — $ 37 5<i 

Total expenditures !^l,0(i4 !t5 

Publications received through the State Board of Health Library 
during the year 1893 — 

Transactions State Medical Societies 22 

Annual Reports State Boards Health 23 

Annual Reports City Boards Health 13 

Monthly Statements State Boards Health 9 

Monthly Statements City Boards Health 13 

"Weekly Statements Boards of Health 2 

Monthly Medical and Surgical Journals (regular) ... 9 

Miscellaneous Med. Journals, Essays, Lectures, M'onographs.&c. 150 

Government Publications 138 

Total 379 

In addition to the above publications received by the State Board 
of Health Library, the follow ing were contributed by Dr. S. I). Seelye, 
Montgomery, Ala. : 

Transactions Medical Association State of Alabama, f..r tli.- years 

Reports State Board Health Ala. 1871, 1883, 1884. 


Transactions New York Medical Society for the years 1868-'69-'70- 

Transactions American Medical i^sssociation, 1876, (2 vols.) 
Reports Agricnltural Department, Washington, D. C, 1865,-'66-'67- 

Census Reports U. S., 1860-'70-'80. 
The Medical Record, 1882-'83-'84. 
The Medical News, 1882-'83-'84. 
Miscellaneous Publications, (7 vols.)- 
Medical and Surgical Periodicals that came regularly :— 
Alabama Medical and Surgical Age, (Anniston). 
Atlanta Medical and Surgical Journal, (Atlanta, Ga.). 
Virginia Medical Monthly, (Richmond) 
Texas Sanitarian, (Austin). 
Sanitary Inspector, (Augusta, Me.). 
Sanitary Record. (Columbus, O.). 
Monthly Bulletin, (Rhode Island). 
The Doctor of Hygiene (New York). 
The Analyst (Semi-monthly), (New York). 
Monthly and Weekly Statements of Boards of Health that came reg- 
ularly : 


For the City of Mobile, Ala. 

" " " " Pensacola, Fla. 

" " " " Tampa, Fla. 

" " " " Davenport, Iowa. 

" " " " DesMoines, Iowa. 

" " " " Portland, Me. 

" " " " St. Louis, Mo. 

" " " " Columbus, Ga. 

" " " " Nashville, Tenn. 

" " " " Chicago, 111. 

" " " " New Heaven, Conn. 

" " " " St. Paul, Minn. 

" " " " Mansfield, Ohio. 

Bulletin State Board of Health, Tennessee. 

" " " Florida. 

" " " California. 

" " " Iowa. 

" " " North Carolina. 

" " " New York. 

" " " Connecticut. 

" " " Minnesota. 

" " " Rhode Island. 



For the City of New Orleans, La. 

Abstract Sanitary Report, Washinf,'t(jn, D. C. 

Of tlie eleven hundred copies of the Transactions published, there 

were distributed — 

To County Societies g34 

Delegates 90 

Counsellors 1 76 

Correspondents 16 

Exchanges— State Boards of Health 38 

" Medical Associations 10 

Federal Government 8 

State Government 6 

Miscellaneous— Honors 2 

Alabama State Board of Health Library 119 

Secretary's office 1 

Total distribution 1,100 

Note. — Of the 119 copies sent to the office of State Board of Health 
there have been sent out to various parties twenty (20) copies, be- 
tween November 28th, 1893, and February 26th, 1894, leaving ninety- 
nine (99) copies in the Library. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. R. Jordan, 


G. P. Waller, 

Publishing Committee. 



Walter Clark Jackson, M. D.. Treasurer, 

In Account with the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, 

from April 18th, 1893, to April 17th, 1894. 

To Annual Dues of Counsellors — 


Abernethy, "William Henry, Tinela % 10 00 

Baldridge, Milton Columbus, Huntsville 10 00 

Brockway, Dudley Samuel, Livingston 10 00 

Brown, Pugh H., Troy 

Cason, Davis Elmore, Ashville 10 00 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, Decatur 10 00 

DuBose, Wilds Scott, Columbiana 10 00 

Fletcher, Richard Matthew, Madison 10 00 

Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs 10 00 

Furniss, John Perkins, Selma 10 00 

Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, Mobile 10 00 

Gaston, John Brown, Montgomery 10 00 

Goggans, James Adrian, Alexander City 10 00 

Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, Jasper 10 00 

Hayes, Robert Hughes, Union Springs 10 00 

Hendrick, Gustavus, Brundidge 10 00 

Hogan, Samuel Mardis, Union Springs 10 00 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles, Letohatchie 10 00 

Jay, Andrew, Evergreen 10 00 

Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham 10 00 

Jones, Capers Capehart, East Lake 10 00 

Kendrick, Joel Cloud, Greenville 10 00 

Kendrick, William Toulmin, ]Montgomery 10 00 

Luckie, James Buchner, Birmingham 10 00 

McKinnon, John Alexander, Selma 10 00 

Moody, Joseph, Franconia 10 00 

Peterson, Francis Marion, Greensboro 10 00 

Prince, Francis Marion, Bessemer 10 00 

Pritchett, John Albert, Hayneville 10 00 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, Birmingham 10 00 

Sanders, William Henry, Mobile 10 00 


Sears, John William, Birmingham | 10 00 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery 10 00 

Sholl, Edward Henry, Birmingham 10 00 

Sledge, "William Henry, Mobile 10 00 

Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden 10 00 

Stovall, Andrew McAdams, Jasper 10 00 

Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega 10 00 

Thigpen, Job, Greenville 10 00 

Thomas, James Grey, Mobile 10 00 

Wall, Conrad, Forest Home 10 00 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, Montgomery 10 00 

Total paid, 41 $ 410 00 


Baldwin, Benjamin .Tames, Montgomery $ 10 00 

Bragg, Shirley, Lownde'sboro 10 00 

Goodwin, Albert, Eufaula 10 00 

Harlan, John Jefferson, Hackney ville 10 00 

Hill, Luther Leonidas, ^lontgomery 10 00 

Huggins, Jacob, New Berne 10 00 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler, ^Mobile 10 00 

Kendrick, Joel Beder, Greenville 10 00 

Lowry, Samuel Hickman, Huntsville 10 00 

Nolen, Abner Jackson, New Site 10 00 

Redden, Robert James, Sulligent 10 00 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa*. 10 00 

Trent, Powhatan Green, Rock Mills 10 00 

Whaley, Lewis, Birmingham 10 00 

Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville 10 00 

AVhelan, Charles, Birmingham 10 00 

Wilkinson, James Anthony, Flomaton 10 00 

Total paid. 17 $ 170 00 


Binford, Peter, Somerville $ 10 00 

Blake, Wyatt Heflin, Lineville 10 00 

Camp, Erasmus Taylor, Gadsden 

Coley, Andrew^ Jackson, Alexander City 10 00 

Copeland, William Preston, Eufaula 10 00 

Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville 10 00 

Deweese, Thomas Peters, Gamble Mines 10 00 

Dowling, Oscar, Columbia 10 00 

Duggar, Reuben Henry, Gallion 10 00 


Goode, Rhett, Mobile $ 10 00 

Hatchett, James Benton, Athens 

Heacock, John William, Alpine, 10 00 

Jordan, James Reid, Montgomery 10 00 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston 10 00 

Marechal, Edwin Leslie, Mobile 10 00 

McWhorter, George Tighlman, Riverton 10 00 

Purdon, John Edward, Huntsville 10 00 

Rand, Edgar, Leighton 10 00 

Robinson, Christopher Americus, Huntsville 10 00 

Stewart, John Pope, Attalla 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega 10 00 

Thomason, AVilliam Levi, Gun tersville 

Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, Demopolis 10 00 

Wilkerson, Charles A., Marion 10 00 

Wilkinson, John Edward, Prattville 10 00 

Total paid, 21 $ 210 00 


Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery .$ 5 00 

Boyd, Andrew, Scottsboro 5 00 

Cameron, Matthew Bunyan, Sumterville 10 00 

Carson, Shelby Chadwick, Bessemer 10 00 

Cunningham, Russell McWhorter, Pratt City 10 00 

Gay, Samuel Gilbert, Selma 10 00 

Heflin, Wyatt, Birmingham 5 00 

Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Union Springs 5 00 

King, Goldsby, Selma 10 00 

McCants, Robert Bell, Faunsdale 5 00 

Moon, William Henry, Goodwater 5 00 

Parke, Thomas Duke, Birmingham 10 00 

Watkins, Isaac LaFayette, Montgomery 5 00 

White, Thomas Noel, Spring Garden 5 00 

Total, 14 $ 100 00 

To total from 79 counsellors and 14 counsellors elect .$ 890 00 

To Dues from the County Medical Societies — 

Autauga $ 6 00 

Barbour 14 00 

Baldwin 3 00 


Blount 9 00 

Bullock 14 00 

Butler 7 00 


Calhoun $ 20 fK) 

Chambers 8 00 


Choctaw 8 00 

Cherokee 10 00 

Clarke 14 00 

Clay U 00 

Cleburne 11 00 

Cofifee 4 00 

Colbert 8 00 

Conecuh 8 00 

Coosa 6 00 


Crenshaw 4 00 


Dale 13 00 

Dallas 19 00 

DeKalb 12 00 

Elmore 16 00 

Escambia 10 00 

Etowah 7 00 


Franklin U 00 


Greene 5 00 

Hale 9 00 

Henry 13 00 

Jackson 13 00 

Jefferson 73 00 

Lamar 7 00 

Lauderdale 2 00 

Lawrence ^ ^ 



Lowndes ^^ OO 

Macon ^- ^ 

Madison 1'2 ^ 

Marengo '' '^ 

Marion ^^ ^ 



Mobile 21 00 

Monroe ^^ ^ 

Montgomery - *® 

Morgan 0^0 

Perry ^^ •^ 

Pickens * *^ 



Pike $ 13 00 

Randolph 3 00 

Russell 4 00 

St. Clair 10 00 

Shelby 5 00 

Sumter 13 00 

Talladega 15 00 

Tallapoosa 5 00 

Tuscaloosa 12 00 

Walker 14 00 


Wilcox 5 00 

Winston 7 00 

Total paid by 57 counties $ 654 00 

To Dues from Delegates — 

Autauga. — none $ 

Baldwin. — none 

Barbour. — Brannon, Hugh Lee, Harris 5 00 

Bibb. — none 

Blount. — Hendricks, Joseph Franklin, Clarence 5 00 

Bullock. — Darnell, Benjamin Franklin, Inverness 5 00 

Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Union Springs 5 00 

Butler. — none 

Calhoun. — none 

Chambers. — Rea, Benjamin Franklin, Jr., LaFayette 5 00 

Cherokee. — AVhite, Thomas Noel, Spring Garden 5 00 

Chilton. — none 

Choctaw. — none 

Clarke.— Jeffrey, James Grey, Whatley 5 00 

Clay. — Northen, Thomas, Ashland 5 00 

Cleburne.— Bell, Walter Howard, Belltown 5 00 

Coffee. — none 

Colbert. — none 

Conecuh. — none 

Coosa. — Moon, AVilliam Henry, Goodwater 5 00 

Covington. — none 

Crenshaw. — Belcher, William Ree, Brantley 5 00 

Cullman. — none 

Dale. — none 

Dallas. — Groves, Joseph Asbury, Brown's Station 5 00 

Ritter, Clement, Selma 

DeKalb. — none 

Elmore. — Rushin, James Thomas, Tallassee 5 00 


Escambia. — none 

Etowah. — McConnell, Robert Franklin, Attalla 5 00 

Fayette. — none 

Franklin.— Desprez, Louis V/illoughby, Russellville 5 00 

Geneva.— none 

Greene. — Byrd, Alexander Hamilton, Eutaw 5 00 

Snoddy, LeVert, Forkland 5 00 

Hale. — Griffin, Ruf us Jackson, Carthage 5 00 

Henry. — none 

Jackson. — Boyd, Andrew, Scottsboro 5 00 

Jefferson. — Rosser, Henry Nollner, Birmingham 5 00 

Heflin, Wyatt, Birmingham 5 00 

Lamar. — Burns, William Arthur, Vernon 5 00 

Lauderdale. — none 

Lawrence. — none 

Lee. — McCoy, Charles Breckenridge, Opelika 

Limestone. — none 

Lowndes. — Crum, William Barton, Farmersville 5 00 

Macon. — Atkeson, Clarence Lee Crawford, Notasulga 5 00 

^ladison. — none 

Marengo. — McCants, Robert Bell, Faunsdale 5 (t<) 

Marion. — Bevill, Simeon David, Guin o 00 

Marshall. — none 

Mobile. — Beck, Frank King Kowalovvski, ]\Iobile 5 00 

Sewell, Joshua D., Mobile 5 Lk3 

Monroe. — Wiggins, James Monroe, Monroeville 5 00 

Montgomery. — Thigpen, Charles Alston, Montgomery 5 00 

Waller, (xeorge Piatt, ^lontgomery 5 00 

Morgan. — Kitchens, Joliii ^lurray, Danville 5 00 

Murray, ^Michael William, New Decatur 5 00 

Perry. — Sadler, John Milton, Uniontown 5 00 

Pickens. — none 

Pike. — none 

Randolph. — none 

Russell. — Hendricks, Walter Branham, Hurtsboro 5 00 

St. Clair.— Cason, Eugene Presley, Ashville 5 00 

Shelby. — Williams, Jolin Harford, Columbiana 5 00 

Sumter.— Cameron, Mattliew Hunyan, Sumterville 5 00 

(rilmore, Jolin Xeil, (Jaston 6 00 

Talladega.— Donaldson, John Tliaddeus, Enstaboga 5 00 

Sims, Albert Gallatin, Renfro 5 00 

Tallapoosa. — none 

Tuscaloosa. — Somerville, AVilliam Glassell, Tuscaloosa & 00 

Walker. — none 

Washington. — none 


Wilcox. — Kilpatrick, liufus Hall, Camden 5 00 

Winston. — Bounds, William Riley, Houston 5 00 

To total from delegates $ 220 00 


By balance last meeting $ 50 GO 

dues from counsellors 890 00 

dues from delegates 220 00 

dues from county medical societies 654 00 

receipts from sale of Transactions 4 00 

Total receipts $ 1,818 00 


To Brown Printing Co $ 1,005 95 

J. R. Jordan, Secretary 250 00 

" " postage stamps 32 00 

expenses at Selma 97 00 

W. C. Jackson, Treasurer : 100 00 

" " j)ostage stamps 6 00 

Total disbursements $ 1,490 95 

Balance on hand $ 327 05 


The following counsellors have failed to pay their annual dues : 
Brown, Pugh H., Troy ; Camp, Erasmus Taylor, Gadsden ; Hatchett, 
James Benton, Marion ; Stewart, John Pope, Attalla ; Thomason, Wil- 
liam Levi, Guntersville. 

The following county societies have failed to pay their annual dues : 
Bibb, Chambers, Covington, Cullman, Fayette, Greene, Lee, Lime- 
stone and Washington. 

The following delegates have paid the delegate's fee, but are not in 
the printed list of delegates in the last volume of Transactions : 
Davis, J. S., county not known ; Murray, Michael William, Morgan 
county ; Gilmore, John Neal, Sumter county ; Williams, John Har. 
ford, Shelby county. 

The following names are on the published list of delegates, but have 
not paid the delegate's fee : McCoy, Charles Breckenridge, Lee 
county ; Eitter, Clement, Dallas county. 


The following names arson the published list of delegates hut were 
not in attendance at the meeting : Jackson, Charles Beaufort, Walker 
county; Sanders, William Shelby, Pike county, 

The following counties were not represented by delegates : Au- 
tauga, Baldwin, Bibb, Butler, Chilton, Choctaw, Coffee, Colbert, Con- 
ecuh, Covington, Cullman, Dale, DeKalb, Fayette, Ceneva, Henry, 
Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lee, Limestone, ^Madison, Marshall, I'ickens, 
Randolph, Tallapoosa, Walker and Washington. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

W. C. Jackson, M. D., 

Miscellaneous business being next in order, the Secretary 
read a number of communications, after which, at 2:45 r. M., 
the Association, on motion, adjourned until o p. M. 

Evening Session — Seals' Hall. 

The President called the Association to order at 8:15 p. m. 

After prayer by Kev. Mr. Fitzsimmons of Birmingham, 
the President introduced the Orator of the Association, Dr. 
Wyatt Heflin Blake, of Lineville. 

(This address will be found in the Appendix of Medical 
and Sanitary Dissertations and Reports). 

As the Monitor, Dr. W. M. AVilkerson, of Montgomery, 
was unable to attend the session of the Association, his 
address was passed over. 

The President then introduced to the audience Dr. 
Reuben Henry Duggar, of Gallion, who proceeded to de- 
liver the Historian's Address. 

(This address will be found in the Appendix of the Medi- 
cal and Sanitary Dissertations and Reports). 

After this address the Association, on motion, adjourned, 
at 9:30 p. m. 



Wednesday, Apeil 18 — Morning Session. 


The Association was called to order by the President at 
9 a. m., and was opened with prayer by Rev. L. S. Handley, 
D. D., of Birmingham. There being no miscellaneous busi- 
ness, beyond a few unimportant announcements by the 
Secretary, the President proceeded to call the schedule of 
the Regular Reporters in the following order : 

(1) Wyatt Heflin, M. D., Birmingham ; Recent Progress 
in Gynaecology. 

Discussed by Dr. S. C. Carson, Bessemer. 
Dr. R. S. Hill, Montgomery. 
Dr. E. P. Riggs, Birmingham. 
Dr. J. A. Goggans, Alexander City. 
Dr. H. A. Moody, Bailey Springs. 
Dr. I. L. Watkins, Montgomery. 
Dr. M. W. Murray, New Decatur. 

(2) Robert Sommerville Hill, M. D., Montgomery ; Re- 
cent Progress in Surgery. 

Discussed by Dr. Jerome Cochran, Montgomery. 
Dr. R. F. Michel, Montgomery. 
Dr. J. D. S. Davis, Birmingham. 
Dr. J. E. Purdon, Huntsville. 
Dr. E. P. Riggs, Birmingham. 
Dr. W. E. B. Davis, Birmingham. 
Dr. Wyatt Heflin, Birmingham. 

(3) Jacob Huggins, M. D., Newbern ; Eruptive Eevers 
in Alabama. 

Discussed by Dr. J. E. Purdon, Huntsville. 
Dr. R. H. Duggar, Gallion. 
Dr. H. T. Inge, Mobile. 
Dr. E. B, Ward, Selma. 


(4) Henry Mitchell Hunter, M. D,, Union Springs ; 
Therapeutic Uses of the Coal Tar Derivatives. 
Discussed by Dr. Dr. J. E. Purdon, Huntsville. 
Dr. D. H. McLaiu, Madison. 
Dr. E. L. Marechal, Mobile. 
Dr. R. M. Fletcher, Madison. 
Dr. R. M. Cunningham, Pratt City. 
Dr. J. R. Jordan, Montgomery. 
Dr. W. L. Thomasou, Guntersville. 
After the discussion of Dr. Hunter's paper was closed, 
the Association, on motion, adjourned at 1:45 p. m., to meet 
again at 8 p. m. 

Evening Session. 

The Association was called to order at 8 p. m. by the 
Senior Vice-President, Dr. B. W. Toole. 

The reading and discussion of the Regular Reports being 
still in order, the chair continued the regular order as fol- 
lows : 

(5) Samuel Leonidas Ledbetter, M. D., Birmingham ; 
Myopia in the Birmingham Public Schools. 

Discussed by Dr. J. E. Purdon, Huntsville. 

Dr. L. G. Woodson, Birmingham. 

Dr. C. A. Thigpen, Montgomery. 

Dr. H. E. Stafford, New York Polyclinic. 

(6) Henry Altamont Moody, M. D., Bailey Springs; 
The Extent of the Diseases Affecting the Kidneys of the 
People of Alabama. 

Discussed by Dr. J. A. Reeves, Chattanooga. 
Dr. J. E. Purdon, Huntsville. 
Dr. R. M. Cunniugham, Birmingham. 
Dr. H. E. Stafford, New York IN.lyclini'-. 
Dr. M. W. Murray, New Decatur. 
Dr. C. A. Thigpen, Montgomery. 
Dr. AV. E. B. Davis, Birmingham. 


(7) Edwin Leslie Marechal, M. D., Mobile ; The Medico- 
Legal Aspect of Criminal Abortion in Alabama. 

Discussed by Dr. E. H. ShoU, Birmingham. 

Dr. J. D. S. Davis, Birmingham. 
Dr. J. H. McCarty, Birmingham. 
Dr. R. M. Cunningham, Birmingham. 
Dr. Ella E. Barnes, Birmingham. 
Dr. R. H. Duggar, Gallion. 
Dr. P. G. Trent, Rock Mills. 

(8) William Glassell Somerville, M. D., Tuscaloosa ; 
Recent Progress in Bacteriology. 

Discussed by Dr. C. E. Munn, U. S. Army, Mt. Vernon, Ala. 
Dr. C. Wilson, Birmingham. 

On the close of the discussion, the Association adjourned 
to meet at 9 A. M., Thursday. 

THE o:mnibus discussion. 93 


Thuksday, ArRiL 19 — Morning Session. 


The Association was called to order at 9:20 a. m. ])y Vice- 
President B. W. Toole, and was opened with prayer by Rev. 
Dr. J. C. Morris, of Birmingham. 

The following list of volunteer papers was then called and 
responded to : 

(1) James A. Reeves, M. D., Chattanooga, Tennessee ; 

(2) M. B. Cameron, M. D., Sumterville; Some Forms of 
Sexual Disability in the Male. 

(3) Charles A. Thigpen, M. D., Montgomery; Sarcoma of 
the Choroid, with Report of Cases. 

(4) Glenn Andrews, M. D., Montgomery ; Effects of Sul- 
phate of Morphine on Some of the LoAver Animals. 

(5) J. D. S. Davis, M. D., Birmingham ; Best Methods of 
Repairing Intestinal Continuity. 

• (6) R. M. Fletcher, M. D., Madison; Abortion, with a 

After the reading of this paper the Association, on motion, 
adjourned until 8 o'clock. 

Thursday, April 19— Evening Session. 

The Association was called to order promptly at 8 o'clock 
by President T. L. Robertson, and the reading of volunteer 
papers was declared to be still in order ; the regular order 
was therefore continued from the morning session, as fol- 
lows : 

(7) J. D. S. Davis, M. D., Birmingham; Continued 



(8) T. H. Frazer, M. D., Mobile ; The Pathology of Ca- 
tarrhal, Suppurative and Diphtheritic luflamraations of 
Mucous Membranes. Their Differential Dia<^nosis and 

After the reading of this paper the Senior Censor, Dr. 
Cochran, moved that the President and Vice-President, (both 
or one, as happened to be present), shall appoint a com- 
mittee of five (5) from the Grand Senior and the Senior 
Counsellors, as a committtee for the nomination of proper 
members to fill the vacancies in the College of Counsellors ; 
no one of the said nominating committee to be a member of 
the Board of Censors, and the recommendations of the com- 
mittee being understood to be simply suggestive and not 

This motion was unanimously adopted. 

The President and Yice-President then announced the 
following as the nominating committee: Drs. R. M. Fletcher, 
Jacob Huggins, W. F. Thetford, A. M. Stovall, and D. S. 

The volunteer papers were then continued as follows : 

(9) L. G. Woodson, M. D., Birmingham ; Ophthalmia 
Neonatorum ; Its Treatment and Legislation for the Pre- 
vention of Blindness from this cause in the United States. 

(10) W. H. Hudson, M. D., LaFayette; Some Notes on 
the Cerebral Cortex and its Relation to the Skull. 

(li) A. M. Stovall, M. D., Jasper ; Infant Feeding. 

Note — Each of the papers above mentioned was fully discussed, but 
according to rule, neither the papers nor the discussions are pub- 
lished in this volume. 

After the completion of the Omnibus discussion the Asso- 
ciation, on motion, at 10:30 P. M. adjourned. 



Friday, April 20. 


The Association was called to order at 9:20 a. m. by Vice- 
President Toole, and opened with pra3'er by Rev. Dr. 
Stainbach, of Birmingham. 

Miscellaneous business being in order, the Secretary 
made a number of announcements in regard t(j the pro- 
gramme of the coming meeting of the American Medical 
Association, &c., &c., after which Dr. Chapman, of Birmiug- 
ham, presented for the inspection of the members an instru- 
ment sent by Dr. Nathan Bozeman, of New York, and fully 
described its uses and workings. 

The following resolution was then introduced by Dr. 
James Grey Thomas, of Mobile : 

liesolred, That the propriety of changing the time of meeting of 
this Association be considered, eitlier by advancing or postponing it, 
so as to prevent conflict witli anotlier body that liad previously lixed 
upon the date recently appointed for our lueeting. 

After considerable discussion it was decided not to change 
the present date of the meeting of the Association. 

At this point Dr. H. A. Moody, of Bailey Springs, moved 
the following 


WiiKREAS, We, the members of the Medical Association of the 
State of Alabama, recognizing that the annual session of tiie Associa- 
tion just held at Birmingham has been one of the most pleasant and 
profitable to the Association, therefore, 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be, and are. hereby 
tendered to the citizens of Birmingham for their hospitable enter- 

Kcsolved, That the thanks of the Association are hereby extended 


to the various railroads centering in this city for their reduction of 

EeKoIved, That the thanks of the Association are hereby extended to 
the Press of the city for their full and interesting reports of our pro- 
ceedings, and for other courtesies extended us. 


Resolved, That our thanks are especially due to the Jefferson County 
Medical Society, whose members have so ministered to our pleasure 
and assisted us in our efforts, and that we shall each and all of us 
carry to our homes a grateful remembrance of the personal kindness 
of its members. 

The above resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

The report of the Board of Censors was then read as 
follows : 








Part I. The Report of the Board of Censors. The Work of the 
State Association — The President's ]Message — The Reports of the 
Vice Presidents — The Report of the Secretary and the Book of 
the Rolls — The Report of the Publishing Committee — The Report 
of the Treasurer and the Book of Accounts — The Roll of the Cor- 
respondents — Revision of the Minutes of 18i»3 — Delinquent County 
Societies — Appendix to the Book of the Rules — Book of Rules Ac- 
count — Discussion of the Regular Reports — The Printing of the 
Volunteer Papers — Change in the Annual Order of Business — 
Amendment to the Constitution — The Case of Dr. N. F. Randall. 

Part II. The Report of the State Board of Medical P^xami.seh.s* 
The Work of the State Board— Examination of Non-graduntes— 
Written Examinations Only— Suggestions for the Examining 
Boards— New and Important Rules — The Louisville Medical College 
— Examination Papers Account — Remarks on the Examination Pa- 
pers — The Work of the County Boards. 

Part III. The Report of the State Board of Health. The Work 
of the State Board — (Quarantine — Sketch of New Quarantine Law — 
The ^Mobile (Quarantine- New Orleans (Quarantine Conference- 
Secretary of I'ublic Health— Bill to Establish a Dei>artment of 
Public Health— Financial Statement— (^larantine Expenses State- 
ment No. 1— (Quarantine Expenses Statement No. 2— (^larantine 
Expenses Statement No. 3— The Work of the County Hoards of 

Part IV. Supplementary Papers. History of ^>uarant ine in 1803' 
by the State Health OtHcer— Petition to Congress Praying the Es- 
tablishment of a Department of Public Health- Re«iuirements of 
Southern Medical Colleges. 




Under tliis head we can not do better than to repeat what 
we said in our report for last year : "We have again to re- 
port that the Association is in a condition of prosperous 
and progressive activity. Our aggregate membership con- 
tinues to increase, and the auxiliary county societies, taking 
them all together, have improved in organization and effi- 
ciency. At the same time, as has been the case at all periods 
of our history, there are several of our county societies that 
have not reached any high standard in the discharge of their 
responsible duties under the law of the state and under the 
rules of the Association. These less prosperous societies 
are mostly to be found in counties where the members of 
the profession are greatly scattered, and where attendance 
on society meetings involves considerable inconvenience. 
Such societies should be assiduously fostered and encour- 
aged, and should be watched over with untiring solicitude 
by the officers of the Association. The existence of these 
societies that do not prosper furnishes the special field in 
which can be best utilized the efforts of our presidents and 
vice-presidents. These officers are in command and should 
look after the efficiency of every company and regiment of 
the great association army. They should stimulate the offi- 
cers of the county societies to the prompt, constant, and 
energetic discharge of the duties generally incumbent upon 
them ; and should know no rest or weariness until they are 
able to report every society in the State in good working 
order. In this way the spirit and power of our organization 
and discipline will be made gradually to pervade the entire 
rank and file of the profession of the State. But in spite 
of the fact that some of the county societies are not as pros- 
perous as they ought to be, we have good reason to con- 
gratulate ourselves on the progress that has been achieved. 
The points of greatest weakness — those that stand most in 
need of energetic and wise management — will be specially 
mentioned in subsequent sections of this report. 



We have duly considered tlie suggestions and recommen- 
dations of the president's message and proceed to discuss 
them seriatim: 

21ie First Becommendation. 

The president first calls attention to tlie imp(jrtance <jf 
the observance of the rules that have been established to 
promote the discipline and efficiency of the Association and 
of its affiliated county societies ; and we find his suggestions 
in this regard worthy of careful consideration. It is to be 
regretted that there are still some members of the county 
societies who do not pay the dollar dues ; and this for two 
reasons : first, because every member is expected to con- 
tribute something towards the payment of the Association's 
necessary expenses; and, secondly, because without the 
Transactions which members receive in return for the small 
contribution of one dollar, they are not able to keep them- 
selves informed as to what the Association has done and 
what it still desires to do, and so are not able intelligently 
to give it any assistance in the accomplishment of its high 
and noble aims. It is believed that if the presidents of the 
count}' societies would exert themselves properly in regard 
to this matter that this evil would soon be corrected. 

The Second Recommendation. 

One would hardly believe without good proof of the fact 
that members of a liberal profession, who are always pre- 
sumed to be gentlemen, would be guilty of the discourtesy 
of failing to answer courteous letters addressed to them by 
even casual correspondents, and it is still more difficult to 
understand how this sort of discourtesy should be exhibited 
by officers of county societies towards officers of the State 
Association writing letters in the line of official duty. But 
the testimony of the president, and also the testinKniy of 
the two vice-presidents shows that this sort of discourtesy 


is not at all uncommon. While this may seem a trivial 
matter to many it involves such embarrassing consequences 
that it rises to a condition of practical importance, and it is 
certainly without any reasonable excuse. 

The Third Recommendation. 

We commend to the approval of the Association all that 
the president has to say about the importance of a good 
literary education as a prerequisite to the admission of 
medical students into the medical colleges of the country. 
This Association has always exerted its influence in favor of 
higher standards than have heretofore obtained amongst us ; 
and within a few years the American Association of Medical 
Colleges, and the Southern Association of Medical Colleges 
have established fairly satisfactory minimum standards of 
scholarship without which, as they publish to the world, 
medical students will not be allowed to matriculate in their 
several institutions. It is perhaps a necessity of the times, 
but it is not flattering to our southern pride that the Ameri- 
can Association is higher than that of our southern colleges. 
In the meantime, members of our examining boards have 
occasion to know that very imperfectly educated men still 
manage to get medical diplomas. Here in Alabama, we have 
had a special difficulty to contend with in the beneficiary 
system of the Medical College of Alabama, which contem- 
plates the admission of one beneficiary every year from every 
one of the sixty-six counties of the State. All of these ben- 
eficiaries are men of small means, and hence many of them 
have been able to acquire only the rudiments of a literary 
education. In past years, the faculty of the college were of 
the opinion that they had no right to inquire into the edu- 
cational fitness Qf these beneficiaries to engage in the study 
of medicine ; but that they were bound to accept any man 
sent them by any of the boards of county commissioners. 
Last year at our Selma session, as the president has stated, 
we were instructed to get, in reference to this matter, the 
written opinion of Col. H. C. Tompkins. This we did, and 
the opinion was published in the last volume of Transactions, 


and holds that the college has the full legal right to require 
beneficiary students to conform to the same standard of edu- 
cational fitness for matriculation that they preseril)o for 
other students. In order to set this question at rest, we 
recommend that a copy of the legal opinion of Col. Tomj)- 
kins be oflicially communicated to the faculty of the Medi- 
cal College of Alabama; that in view of this opinion they 
be respectfully requestsd to require of beneficiary students 
conformity to the same conditions for matriculation as they 
require of other students; and that the answer made by 
them shall be published in the Transactions for this year if 
it is received in time. 

Note. — The foregoing action of the Association, with a 
copy of the letter of CoL Tompkins, was communicated to 
the Dean of the Faculty of the Medical College of Alabama, 
who returned the following reply : 

Mobile, May 18th, 1894. 
To R. M. Fletcher, .V. D., President of the Medical Association of the 
State of Alabama : 

Dear Doctor — In reply to your communication of the 17th nit., in 
reference to the literary qualifications to be required of beneficiary 
students as a prerequisite to matriculation in the Medical College of 
Alabama, I would beg to quote from the Rules and Regulations as 
adopted by the Southern Medical College Association, of whicli this 
college is a member : 

'•Every student applying for matriculation must possess the follow- 
ing qualifications ; He must hold a certificate as the puj)il of some 
reputable physician, showing his moral character and general fitness 
to enter upon the study of medicine. He must possess a diploma of 
graduation from some literary or scientific institution of learning ; 
or a certificate from some legally constituted high school, general 
superintendent of State education, or superintendent of some county 
board of public education, attesting the fact that he is possessed of 
at least the educational attainments required of second grade teach- 
ers of public schools; /Vor/r/fv/, however, if a student so applying is 
unable to furnish the above mentioned and foregoing evidence of lit- 
erary qualifications, he may be permitted to matriculate and receive 
medical instruction as other students, and (lualify himself in the 
required literary departments, and stand his re<iuirfd ••xaminations 
as above specified, prior to offering himself for a second course of 


You will tliorel'ore observe that no distiiu'Lioii is made between 
beneficiary and other students in regard to their literary qualifica- 

Very respectfully yours,- 

(Signed) Geo. A. KETonuM, M. D., 

Dean Medical College oi" Alabama. 

Tlie Fourth Recommendation. 

We recommend to tlie favorable consideration of the Asso- 
ciation what the president has to say in regard to the impor- 
tance of upholding the ancient and established ethics of the 
medical profession. The itching for newspaper notoriety, 
and the disposition to tolerate the methods of medical char- 
latans are unfortunately too common. There can be no 
doubt that the Frenchlaw, which prescribes that the formula 
of every patent or proprietary medicine shall be printed on 
the bottle or package before it can be sold, would remove 
many of the evils connected with the use of such medicines. 

Tlie Fifth Recommendation. 

We recommend to the approval of the Association all 
that the president has to say about the duties and respon- 
sibilities of our county boards of health, and of our county 
health officers. In the meantime there has been much im- 
provement during the last few years in the administration 
of the health laws, and we are convinced that this improve- 
ment will continue. 

The Sixth Recommendaiion. 

We are not in accord with the president in his opinion 
that municipal authorities should be empowered to make 
vaccination a prerequisite to admission to the public 
schools. In the great Northwest smallpox is greatly dreaded 
and frequently assumes epidemic dimensions ; but it is 
much less formidable in the South', and while during the 
past twenty years we have had in various parts of the State 
occasional sporadic cases, still during all that time we have 
had no serious outbreak. Experience teaches, and in the 


light of our experience, it does not seem to us that compul- 
sory vaccination is needed in Alabama. 

The Seventh Recommendation. 

We recommend to the favorable consideration of the As- 
sociation the president's discussion of the quarantine ques- 
tion. Our experience last year was in every way satisfactory 
in its results. But at the same time it demonstrated the 
need of a more comprehensive and circumstantial law than 
that which is now in force, and which is for the most part 
a survival of ante helium legislation and not adequate to our 
present needs. In a subsequent part of our report we will 
submit for' the consideration of the Association the draft of 
a new quarantine law. 

The Eiglith Recommendation. 

The plan outlined by the president for the management 
of the dependent poor, is undoubtedly far in advance of our 
present system. We might recommend it to the favorable 
consideration of the next general assembly, but in our 
judgment any such movement at the present time is almost 
sure to result in failure. 

The Ninth Recommendation. 

We are not altogether in accord with the president in 
regard to the management of the county jails. Especially 
would we hesitate to recommend the appointment of a jail 
inspector. Under existing laws, it is the duty of the county 
boards of health to inspect jails and poor houses ; and they 
can invoke the assistance of the state health officer if they 
see fit to do so. If there are any great abuses in the sani- 
tary management of the county jails, the county boards of 
health must be chiefly to blame. The remedy is f<ir these 
boards to mate themselves more efficient in the disclmrgo 
of their responssible duties. For the rest, we do not con- 
sider it to be wise polic}- to disturb in auy way the obliga- 
tions and responsibilities of t)ur boards of health. 



We have duly considered the reports of tlie vice-presi- 
dents. They show that these officers have earnestly en- 
deavored to discharge the important duties imposed upon 
them, and in the main, with an encouraging measure of 
success, although in some of the counties they have been 
able to accomplish very little. One of the principle diffi- 
culities they encountered was the inefficiency and negligence 
of the county vice-presidents who were often guilty of the 
discourtesy of failing to answer repeated letters. It would 
almost seem that the county societies were in the habit of 
selecting efficient men for vice-presidents. But the position 
is one of importance as well as one of honor, and any man 
who accepts it should diligently attend to the duties con- 
nected with it. It is rather embarrassing for our vice-pres- 
idents to have to deal with men who will not answer their 
letters ; but by imdomitable perseverance in their laudable 
efforts they will at last overcome all the obstacles that be in 
their way. These reports show that botli of the vice-presi- 
dents have been at work actively and unselfishly, and both 
are entitled to the thanks of the Association; and to 
the plaudit, "Well done, good and faithful servants." In 
the meantime we beg leave to impress on the vice-presidents 
the importance of making very special efforts to secure the 
active cooperation of the vice-presidents of the county so- 
cieties in their important work. 


We have examined the report of the secretary and find it 
satisfactory. We therefore recommend its approval by the 
Association. We have, also, examined the Book of the 
Rolls and find it written up to date. 



We have dul}^ examined the report of the pul)lisliinf; 
committee aud find it to be satisfactory. We therefore 
recommend that it be approved by the Association. 


We have duly examined the report of the treasurer aud 
find it satisfactory. We therefore recommend that it be 
approved by the Association. We have also examined the 
Book of Accounts, and find it written up to date. 

It has come to our knowledge that there are some half a 
dozen counsellors who are in the habit of neglecting to pay 
their annual dues in advance as the rules require. Coun- 
sellors who attend the meetings of the Association must 
pay their dues before they can vote or in anyway take part 
in the business of the session. Counsellors who are not 
in attendance on a session are allowed sixty days after 
adjournment in which to make payment, aud any such 
counsellor who fails to pay within this time is delinquent. 
Such negligence on the part of counsellors in discharging 
their pecuniary obligations to the Association is on their 
part a breach of faith, and puts the treasurer aud secre- 
tary to considerable embarrassment. Sometimes, also, by 
removal from the state or by reason of death the Associa- 
tion is subjected to pecuniary loss. It would be better for 
all concerned that counsellors who fail to pay their duos in 
advance as the rules require should resign their member- 
ship in the college of counsellors so that their places may 
be filled by more desirable men. And we recommend that 
the treasurer be instructed to quote what is here said when 
he writes to delinquents after the sixty days have elapsed. 

We have duly considered the Roll of the Corres]-.ondcut8 
and in regard to that Roll have no changes to recommend — 
no names to add and none to strike ofL 



There are some minor errors in the minutes of our Last 
session, but none of sufficient magnitude to require special 
mention ; except that by an accidental oversight the resolu- 
tions of thanks were omitted. With this exception we 
recommend that the minutes as published be approved by 
the association. 


At the last annual revision of the roll of the county 
medical societies the societies of Covington, Pickens, and 
"Washington were referred to us for investigation. We have 
endeavored to comply with this order and beg leave to report 
as follows : 

Covington County Society. — The society of Covington 
county ought to be in a more prosperous condition than it 
ever was in former times, and this for the reason that it has 
on its roll of members a larger number of graduated doctors. 
But our correspondence with its officers has not been satis- 
factory. The society, however, keeps up its organization 
and we hope it will develop greater efficiency in the near 
future. Under the circumstances we recommend that the 
Covington County Society be retained on the rolls, and that 
we be authorized to continue the investigation for another 

Pickens County Society. — This society was delinquent at 
our Selma session through a concurrence of accidents. It 
has a good membership, but not as large as it should be 
considering the number of doctors in the county. Its annual 
report was made after the adjournment, and its dues partly 
paid. We therefore recommend that the Pickens County 
Society be retained on the roll, and that we be dismissed 
from the further consideration of this case. 

Wasliington County Society. — This society is in a very un- 
satisfactory condition and has not held a meeting during 


the past year so far as we kuow. A meeting, however, had 
been called to convene on the 11th of this month, with wliat 
success this effort was attended we have not heard. In the 
meantime the examining board has examined several appli- 
cants, which shows that the organization still has some 
vitality. The doctors of the county are so few that it is very 
difficult for them to meet together. In view of all these 
facts we recommend that the Washington County Society 
be retained on the roll, and that it be continued under inves- 
tigation for another year. 


At the last session of the association we Avere instructed 
to have prepared and printed 1,000 copies of an appendix 
to the Book of the Rules. This work was promptly done 
at a cost of forty dollars and forty cents ($i0.40). The 
Book of Rules fund was not sufficient to make this amount, 
so that we will have to call on the association to make gfjod 
a deficiency of eighteen dollars and ninety-eight cents 
($18.98). Copies of the Appendix have been sent to all per- 
sons who had previously received the Book .of Rules— and 
copies are now furnished with all copies of the I'.x.k of 
Rules sent out. 


Ajml Isf, 1803, to April Isf, 1S04. 


To balance on hand at last statement ?-"> "<^' 

" twenty-five copies sold past year (<" .50c.) 1-50 

Total ^-^^ -<• 



By postage ou 104 copies {(^ ,11c.) $11 44 

By postage ou 360 copies Appendix (@ 01c.) 3 60 

By 350 envelopes for mailing Appendix 1 40 

By cash to Brown Printing Co. for 1,000 copies Ap- 
pendix 40 40 

Total $57 24 


By total expenditures $57 24 

To total receipts 38 28 

To balance due State Health Officer 18 98 

To balance 18 98 


The above amount of $18.98 was advanced by the State 
Health Officer, and has since been refunded to him. 

Seventy-nine copies were sent gratis or complimentary to 
the various State Boards of Health and other Institutions. 


Experience has shown that even in the discussion of the 
Regular Pteports there is not time for long speeches. Ex- 
perience has also shown that our members can usually con- 
dense what they may have to say with manifest advantage 
to themselves and to the association. We therefore recom- 
mend that in rule seven (7) in the Ordinance in relation to 
Reports and Discussions, on page 30 of the Book of Rules, 
the words "ten minutes" be substituted for the words "thirty 



Under existing rules it is left to the discretion of the Pub- 
lishing Committee whether to print or not to print in tlio 
Transactions the volunteer papers read at our annual ses- 
sions. Experience shows that our funds have n(H hereto- 
fore been sufficient to print all the volunteer papers. If the 
Publishing Committee were to make selections of such as 
they might deem the more excellent, this course would im- 
pose on them a very large amount of labor in the reading 
and critical discussion of all of these papers, and wouhl be 
certain to provoke dissatisfaction on the part of those whose 
papers were not printed. In the meantime the authors of 
these papers have no occasion to feel that they have not 
been treated with due consideration because their papers 
are not printed in the Transactions. They have liad tlie 
opportunity to read them before the association, and to have 
them discussed by the leading physicians of the state, and 
they are left free to have them given to the great medical 
public by their publication in medical periodicals much 
more widely circulated than our Transactions are. In order 
to relieve the Publishing Committee of embarrassment, and 
to set this whole question permanently at rest, we recom- 
mend the adoption by the association of the following rule : 

The volunteer papers read at the annual session shall not 
be printed in the annual volumes of Transactions, l>ut shall 
remain the property of their authors, who may ])uV)lish tliom 
in any way they see fit, with the statement that any such 
paper had been read before the Medical Association of tlio 
State of Alabama. 

The adoption of this rule of course involves the repeal of 
rule seven (7) on page 32 of the Book of Rules in the soi-tiou 
relating to the Omnibus discussion. 


There has never been in the rules of the association any 
prohibition of entertainments, except the prohibition t)f ban- 


quets. On the contrary, the association has always been 
free to accept any entertainments offered them, except ban- 
quets; provided that such entertainments were arranged 
so as not to conflict with the business of the association. 
In this way the afternoons of the first three days have 
always been available for any hospitalities that might be 
deemed advisable by the Committee of Arrangements ; and 
there has been no rule to interfere with receptions after the 
adjournment of the association on the evening devoted to the 

In order that there may be no misunderstanding of the 
rules in this regard ; and also in order to allow greater free- 
dom to the Committee of Arrangements, we have decided to 
recommend a revision of the existing rules to the following 
effect : 

(1) That the program for the morning session on Tuesday 
shall remain as at present; provided that at the discretion 
of the Committee of Arrangements the Address of the Mon- 
itor and the Address of the Historian, one or both, may be 
transferred to this session. 

(2) That the Oration, without amatuer music or recita- 
tions, shall be transferred to the evening session of Wednes- 
day; provided, again, that at the discretion of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements the Monitor's Address, or the Histo- 
rian's Address, one or both, may follow the Oration. 

(3) The reading and discussion of the Regular Reports 
shall begin on Tuesday evening, and shall be continued at 
the Wednesday morning session ; Thursday to remain Om- 
nibus day as at present, and Friday to remain for executive 
business as at present. 

These changes do not conflict with the order of business 
laid down in section 80 of the Constitution of tlie Associa- 


It was moved by Dr. Jerome Cochran that Article 13 of 
the Constitution be amended so as to read as follows : 


Art. 13. All vacancies existing in the Century of Active Counsel- 
lors shall be iilled at the regular sessions of the association l)y joint 
ballot of the counsellors and delegates who are in attendance. As a. 
basis for this joint ballot, a ticket shall be prepared containing the 
necessary number of names at eacli annual session of the association 
by a Committee on the Nomination of Counsellors, which said com- 
mittee shall be composed of five counsellors belonging to the rolls of 
the senior and the grand senior counseUors to be selected by the 
president and the two vice-presidents of tlie association, or such of 
these three officers as may be present at the session, and shall be an- 
nounced on the second day of each session. This committee shall 
hold such meetings as they may deem advisable, and shall invite sug- 
gestions fi'om such members as may desire to urge the claims of their 
friends. The nominations must be made from members in attend- 
ance on the session who have been members of tlie association for fi\-e 
consecutive years; and must be distributed geographically amongst 
the several congressional districts of the State as nearly hs circiun- 
stances may permit, respect being had to the fitness of those nomi- 
nated for the i)osition of counsellor. The Committee on the Nomi- 
nation of Counsellors shall make their annual report on the last day 
of each annual session, when in tli6 order of the revision of the rolls 
the time comes for the election of counsellors, and shall keep secret 
all the names selected l)y tliem until their formal rei)ort is read ; but 
tlie ticket thus pre[)ared shall not be binding on the association, it 
being the privilege of members to vote for other names. 


By accident the Seuior Censor lias misplaced tlio papers 
in this case. (Note. — The papers have since been reco\ ered.) 
For this reason, and because the defendant was not present, 
although it was understood that there was no conHict in the 
testimony, it has been deemed best to have this case continued 
so that the board may be quite certain of the gnnuids upon 
which to base its decision. 

We therefore recommend that this case lie over until our 
next annual meeting. 




During the past year no applicants have come before the 
State Board of Medical Examiners, either for original exam- 
ination, or on appeal. 

We are glad to be able to state that, while a few of the 
county board have not come up to the full measure of their 
duty under the law, and under the rules of state medical asso- 
ciation, we are greatly pleased to find that the large majority 
of them seem to appreciate the importance of the position 
occupied by them as the guardians of the honor of the pro- 
fession and of the best interests of the people. 

In the meantime, we have a few suggestions to make in 
the following sections of this report which we believe, if 
sanctioned by the association, will secure greater uniform- 
ity and efficiency in the conduct of the county boards. 


There were so many inconveniences attending the exam- 
ination of non-graduates, and so few non-graduates were 
able to pass satisfactory examinations, that at our session 
in'Montgomery two years ago a general rule was passed pro- 
hibiting the examination by any of our boards of any person 
not a graduate of some reputable medical college. — Seep. 130 
of Transactions for 1892. There can be no doubt that in itself 
this is a good rule ; but one of our circuit judges has ex- 
pressed the opinion that under our law every man who de- 
sires an examination is entitled to have it ; and that at least 
one board in the state should be allowed to examine non- 
graduates. In order to avoid any legal complications in 
this regard, we recommend to the association the repeal of 
the said ordinance on page 130 of the Transactions of 1892. 
This will leave the state board free to examine non-gaduates, 
as was formerly the rule. 



For reasons that seem to us conclusive, wo also recom- 
mend the repeal of the rule adopted at Seluia last year to 
allow oral examinations in certain cases. 


It is the opinion of all the members of this board wlio 
have studied the examination papers sent up from the county 
boards of examiners that these boards are gradually becom- 
ing more and more efficient, that they are learning to do the 
important work entrusted to them by the state with more 
intelligent care and thoroughness, and that they are ap- 
proximating more and more to a proper standard of med- 
ical qualifications. It is still true, however, that some ex- 
aminations are conducted in a very slovenly and inadequate 
fashion, and that some applicants are admitted to the prac- 
tice of medicine who ought to be rejected and required 
either to abandon the profession of medicine or to spend 
some further time in the study of its various branches. It 
may not be amiss, therefore, to emphasize some of the rules 
that are most frequently violated, and which it is most 
important to observe. 

(1) No one should be allowed to begin the practice of 
medicine at all until he has complied with the law, and if 
anyone should undertake to do this ho should \)o i-ortainly 
and promptly prosecuted. 

(2j No one should be allowed to practice while his ex- 
amination is in progress, but should be rei|uired to devote 
himself exclusively to attendance on the oxamination until 
it is completed. 

(3) No one should be granted the privilege of under- 
going his examination at his homo or in the neighborhood 
of his home unless he happens to live at the place where 
the examinations can be conducted with most convenience 
to the examining board. It is the Ijoard's convenionco that 


should always be consulted and never the convenience of 
the applicant. 

(4) A competent and trustworthy supervisor should 
always be selected, and should be carefully instructed as to 
how he is expected to conduct the examination ; and some 
member of the board should carefully supervise the super- 
visor. It is the examining board that is responsible to the 
Association and to the state, while the supervisor is respon- 
sible to the board, and the board should hold him up to the 
full measure of his responsibility. 

(5) The applicant should always be required to finish his 
part of the examination in one week at the most. If the 
applicant, because he has business to attend to, or because 
he gets sick or tired, or for any reason whatever, interrupts 
the regular progress of the examination, and more par- 
ticularly if the interruption is at all prolonged, then the 
pending examination should be set aside and an entirely 
new examination ordered, with new questions, and an addi- 
tional supervisor's fee. It is neither just nor expedient that 
time and convenience of members of the examining board, 
or of the supervisor, should be trifled with or disregarded 
for the accommodation of the applicant. 

(6) The members of the board should prepare their 
questions promptly, and in accordance with the rules laid 
down on pages 17 and 18 of the Appendix to the Book of 
Rules, so as not to keep the applicant waiting, and should 
prepare them with the deliberation and circumspection be- 
fitting so important an occasion. If the questions are not 
written by members of the board on paper of the proper 
size they should be copied by the supervisor. 


At the last session of the Association we w^ere authorized 
to have a fine engraving made for printing the certificates 
used b}^ the boards of medical examiners. The performance 
of this duty we have now in hand and will soon have the 
engraving done. In [^the meantime, it has occurred to us 


that with an engraved certificate equal in artistic appear- 
ance to the diplomas of the medical colleges, and more im- 
portant to its possessor, it would be well to have the neces- 
sary lettering of these certificates done in artistic and 
handsome style. Such lettering would have to he done by 
an expert, and such experts can usually be found only in 
cities. Again, it has occurred to us that it is desirable that 
certificates prepared with so much care should be enclosed 
in tin cases to protect them against crushing and other dam- 
aging influences. 

Still further. In sj^ite of all our efforts we have not been 
able to get all of the examining boards to use exclusively 
the proper legal cap paper, and this negligence interferes 
very much with the appearance and binding of the examina- 
tion papers. A work of so much importance deserves to 
be more carefully done, and papers that are to be bound 
and handed down to future generations should at the least 
be put into good shape. To secure this result we recom- 
mend that we be authorized to have prepared and to keep 
on hand a supply of paper of good quality, and of proper 
size and properly ruled and printed, which said paper 
shall be used exclusively by all supervisors in the con- 
duct of all examinations made by our boards. 

To carry these suggestions into effect we recommend the 
adoption by the Association of the following new rules : 

(1) That whenever an examination is to be made for the 
practice of medicine the supervisor appointed to conduct 
such examination shall apply to the senior censor for 
such supply of the official examination paper as be may 
presumably need, and in response to such application the 
senior censor shall furnish to such supervisor by mail or by 
express the amount of paper needed ; and the supervisor 
shall see to it that no other paper is used for any part 
of the examination. 

(2) That whenever an examination has been fiuisliod 
the supervisor shall promptly forward the jiapers properly 
arranged and rated to the senior censor, who shall have 
them properly bound and kept on file in the office of the 


State Board of Health ; and shall at the same time notify 
the senior censor whether or not the applicant passed a suc- 
cessful examination. 

(3) If the examination is successful the senior censor 
shall promptly have a certificate properly filled out with 
the name and college of the applicant, and the full desig- 
nation of the examining board, and such other lettering 
as may be necessary, and shall enclose said certificate in 
a suitable tin case and so forward it to the supervisor, 
who shall see that it is properly signed by the members 
of the board, and delivered to the applicant. 

(4) In payment for the official paper for each examina- 
tion, and for the certificate and the lettering thereof, and for 
the tin case enclosing the same, the supervisor shall send 
with the letter ordering the paper the sum of two dollars 
which shall be placed to the credit of the examination fund. 
If the examination is successful all of this sum of two dol- 
lars is to be retained for the cost of the materials mentioned 
and for binding. But if the examination is not successful 
so that no certificate has to be issued then one dollar in each 
instance shall be returned to the supervisor. 

(5) Nothing is to be written on the margins of the ex- 
amination papers except remarks by the examiners, and the 
numbers, also to be written by the examiners, indicating the 
ratings of the answers. The regular schedules of the ratings 
are to be filled out by the supervisor. 


A certificate issued, or purporting to be issued, by the 
Louisville Medical College to a medical student in Choctaw 
county has fallen under our notice. It is in the following 
words : 

"To whom it may concern: This is to state that Mr. G. E. Gavin at- 
tended a full course of lectures at the Louisville Medical College, 
session 1893-94. He succeeded in winning the Rice metal on anatomy 
and first honors of undergraduates after a severe examination by the 
entire faculty. We can heartily recommend the gentlemen as in 
every way worthy of the entire confidence of the community who 


may seek his services. We deem him conscientious and compet(Mit 
to engage in the practice of his profession. 

This certificate. is signed by Geo. M. Warner, Sec. L. M. C, and 
sealed with the seal of the college." 

If this certificate was in fact issued by this college it 
seems to us to be of very questionable propriety, and well 
calculated to exert a mischievous influence. Indeed, this 
young man came home, and thought that it was a great in- 
justice that he was not allowed to practice medicine on the 
strength of this certificate. It is now generally agreed that 
at least three courses of medical lectures are necessary to 
qualify a student of medicine to take upon himself the 
grave responsibility of engaging in the practice of this pro- 
fession. And yet here is an ofiicial document issued by a 
medical college certifj'iug that a student who has taken only 
one course of lectures is worthy of the entire confidence of 
any community and competent to engage in the practice of 
his profession. If this is true, why should he be required 
to attend two more courses of lectures before he is allowed 
to graduate ? What more can be said in his favor in the 
diploma he expects to obtain as the reward of his final ex- 

We therefore recommend that we be authorized to enter 
into correspondence with the Louisville Medical College, 
and if we find this document to be genuine to communicate 
to the college the views we have herein expressed. 

Post scrlptum. In answer to a letter addressed to him by 
the senior censor, the secretary of the Louisville Medical 
College admitted that he had written and signed the certificate 
quoted above. Whereupon he was furnished with a copy 
of the views of the Association in regard to it. 

April, 1893, to Ai>uil, 1894. 


To balance on hand at last statement ? 88 10 

dues received past year on 87 sets papers (jt ^1 . . 87 00 


<!:.'s 10 



By cash to Brown Printing Co., binding 128 sets papers @ 50c.. $ 64 00 
" for expi-essage 3 10 

Total $ 67 10 


To total receipts $175 10 

By total expenditures 67 10 

To balance on hand $108 00 


One member has this to say : 

On the whole there is improvement that is decided in the character 
of the examinations. The boards should be urged to a closer study 
of the Book of Rules, and observance of the best methods of ex- 
amination. There should be some way of arousing the spirit of the 
corps, by which the profession of the state should be brought to a 
cnception of the necessity of rigidly enforcing a preliminary educa- 
tion to keep out of che ranks of a learned profession so many unlet- 
tered and unqualified men, to kindle in the breasts of aspirants a 
noble ambition to excel the illustrious glories of the past and dying 
day of scholarly and cultured men, and whose influence might be po- 
tential for good in every community and justly entitle them to the 
rewards that cling to him who is armed at every point. 

Another member writes : 

I enclose report of the papers condensed from tolerably copious 
notes made after a patient examination of all of them. They aver- 
age better both on the part of the examining boards and the young 
doctors than those of several years ago. We are making progress. 
Still it is a surprise that after so many years the boards do not all follow 
the rules to the letter. Another thing I notice with pleasure is that 
the graduates from the Medical College of Alabama rank higher than 
those from most of the other schools. They are better taught — a fact 
that ought to be made known in some way. 


The whole number of examinations last year for the prac- 
tice of medicine reported to us by the county examining 


boards was niiiety-five (95). Of these eighty-four (84) rep- 
resent cases in which the certificate was awarded ; and eleven 
(11) cases in which the certificate was refused ; the faihires 
thus amounting to 11.57 per centum of the examinations. 
The colleges of graduation of those rejected are as folhnvs : 
Memphis Medical College, 1 ; Southern Medical Coll(>g(! of 
Atlanta, 1 ; Jefferson Medical College, 1 ; University of Ten- 
nessee, 1 ; Medical College of Atlanta, 1 ; Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, 2; U. S. Grant University (Chattanooga Medical 
College), 4. It is the signal distinction of the Chattanooga 
college that out of a total of five of its graduates examined 
by our boards four were rejected, and each examination was 
by a different board. 

It is undoubtedly true that most of our boards are doing 
very fair work. Perhaps not more than half a do/eu a})pli- 
cauts were passed during the past year who should have 
been rejected. We have good reasons, therefore, to be sat- 
isfied with the practical workings of our system. We doubt 
if any other state can show a better average result. Not 
only are our boards doing better work, but it is certainly 
true that the young doctors who present themselves now for 
examination present on an average a notably higher range 
of qualifications than was the case a few years ago. The 
reports from the several county boards are as follows : 

Autauga ConnUj Board.— For the study of mediciiit*, none. For the 
practice of medicine- 
George Alpheus Dennis, M. D., Southern Mfdical CoUege, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Seaborn Tayku- Carter, M. TX, Univ.'rsity of T.-nnessee, 1S"1 C-r- 
tificate refused. 

Dr. Dennis shows a fair knowledge of nu'dicini-, but his aiisw.T- an- 
too brief. On the part of tlie board this examination \v..uhl have 
been better if they had given fewer (juestions and re(iuired fuller 

On the part of the board and the supervisor the examination I'f Dr. 
Carter was so badly managed that it is not easy to find wonls of 
reprobation equal to the occasion. The answers are written o!i slips 
of paper of various sizes, and these had to be pasted on larger sheets 
before they could be bound. The api)licant was properly rejected. 


Baldwin CuuhIi/ Board. — For the study of medicine — 

Mr. Herman Feist. Certificate granted. 

This is an excellent preliminary examination, and is creditable both 
to the board and to the applicant. 

For the practice of medicine — 

Charles Lester Howe, M. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

The papers in this case come up in good shape ; the board has done 
its work well. The ratings are not too high. The applicant acquits 
himself very well. 

Barbour County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Benjamin Franklin Bennett, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

William Henry Harrison, M. D., Chattanooga Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Both of these applicants have acquitted themselves fairly, although 
one of them gives evidence of a defective literary education. On the 
part of the board the questions are usually well chosen, but are too 
elementary in some branches, especially in physical diagnosis. The 
papers are generally in good order, but there are no separate schedules 
of the valuations of the answ^ers in the different branches. 

Bibb County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Jacob Usry Ray, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1873. Certificate 

Columbus Morgan Wooley, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

These examinations are barely passable and reflect no special 
credit on the board. The separate schedules of questions and of the 
valuations of answers in the different branches are omitted. 

Blount County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

This board has sent up no examination papers for several years- 
In the meantime it is known to have conducted several examinations 
and to have issued several certificates to practice medicine. The 
conduct of this board in this regard is very reprehensible. It seems 
to be obstinately resolved to continue to neglect its plain and simple 
duty under the law. 

Bullock County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Butler County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 


Louis Edward Broughton, M. T)., Tulane University, 1893. (Jertili- 
cate granted. 

John Patell Buchanan, M. D., Medical College of Alahanui, 1K93. 
Certificate granted. 

Erskine Green Donald, M. D., Medical College of Alahania, IH93. 
Certificate granted. 

William Peter Knight, M. D.,8out]u'rn ]\Iedical College, of Atlanta, 

1892. Certificate granted. 

AVilliam W. Mangum, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

William Henderson Reynolds, 31. D., Medical College of Alabama, 

1893. Certificate granted. 

All of these papers are fairly satisfactory, both on the part of the 
board and on the part of the applicants. All of them except two 
were sent in several months after the examinations were made. 

CaUiovn Counti/ Bmird. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Frederick Woodhull Buckalew, M. D.,(yhattanooga Medical College* 
1893. Certificate refused. 

Forney Caldwell Stevenson, M. D., College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York, 1893. Certificate granted. 

Both of these examinations were well conducted on the part of the 
board. Dr. Buckalew was righteously rejected. The wonder is how 
he ever succeeded in getting a diploma. Dr. Stevenson ac(iuittt'd 
himself with credit. 

Chambers Conntij Board.— Yor the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine, none. 

Cherokee Countij Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

John Columbus Bankson, M. D., Chattanooga Medical College, 1H93. 
Certificate refused. 

George Barnes Sharp, 31. I)., Southern Medical College of Atlanta, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

Samuel Carat Tatum, M. D., Vaiiderbilt University, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

On the part of the ])oard these examinations nuiy be allowed to 
pass, although some defects might be pointed out, as that the paper is 
not all of the same si/e, and that several of the schedules of valua- 
tions in the different branches are omitted. Dr. Haiikson's answers 
allowed the board to do nothing else but reject him. Dr. Sharp's ex- 
amination entitled him to the certificate; so did Dr. Tatum's. 

Chilton Count!/ />'(>((n/.— For the study of medicine, noni'. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 


Choctaw Count II Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none reported. 

It is known however that this board examined, contrary to the rulesi 
Mr. Lee Armistead, an undergraduate, and gave him a certificate. It 
is believed that this certificate is illegal ; but it would require a suit 
of quo warranto to set it aside. It is hoped that this board will not 
blunder in this way any more. The papei'S were not sent up, presum- 
ably because they were so defective. 

Clarke Countij Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

A. N. Robinson, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

There was great remissness on the part of the board in making this 
examination. Certainly they could not have referred to the Book of 
Rules. There is no supervisor's certificate, no application, no sched- 
ules of valuations. There are examinations in obstetrics, materia, 
medica and therapeutics, none of which are now allowed. The appli- 
cant's preliminary education is not good. 

Clay County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the prac- 
tice of medicine- 
Jesse Alonzo Gray, M. D., Southern Medical College of Atlanta. 
1893. Certificate granted. 

In this examination the board made some effort to observe the 
rules, but has not succeeded remarkably well The applicant acquits 
himself only moderately well. 

Cleburne County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

James David Creamer, M. D., Soutliern Medical College of Atlanta, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

Joseph M. Harrison, M. D., Medical College of Atlanta, 1880. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Morgan Magond Howie, M.D.. Southern Medical College of Atlanta, 
1892. Certificate granted. 

Thomas Jefferson Johns, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1888. 
Certificate granted. 

These examinations are very defective both on the part of the board 
and on the part of the applicants. But as they were made under 
circumstances of special embarrassment there is no need to discuss 
them in detail. 

Coffee County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
pi'actice of medicine, none. 

Colbert County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 


James Frederick AlexaiuiiM-, :M. I).. Vaiiderljill University, 1K93. 
Certificate granted. 

Humphrey Bate Tliom])S()n, .M. I)., Louisville -Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Francis Eugene Smith, M. 1)., University uf New York. 1891. Cer- 
tificate granted. » 

These examinations are fairly satisfactory on the part of tlie hom-il 
and of all the applicants ; except that the board has made the strange 
mistake of substituting "Obstetrics" in the place of "Mechanism of 
Labor" as one of the schedule branches in two of the examinations. 

Conecuh ('ountij Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Watson, M. D , Medical College of Alabama. 1S93. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

This examination does no credit to the board. There is no ai)i>li- 
cation ; the paper is of different sizes; the two required branches, 
mechanism of labor and obstetric operations, are left out, while ob- 
stetrics, which is not a schedule branch, is included ; the ratings are 

Coosa County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. Fort lie 
practice of medicine — 

Eugene Patrick McKinney, M. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

This is a very poor examination both on the part of the board and 
on the part of the applicant. The schedule branches are not all 
included ; the questions are too numerous ; the answers are too brief ; 
the spelling is not good ; and the paper is not all of the same size. 

Corington Count;/ Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Crenshau: Countu Board.— For the study of medicine, nom-. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Cullman County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Dalr County Board. — For the study of medicine, rume. Kor tiie 
practice of medicine — 

Charles Lee Guice, M. D., U. S. Orant University, (^lialtanooga, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

This is a satisfactory examination on the part of all concerned. 

D<tUas County Board.— For the study of m<'dicine, Jione. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Samuel Beekman Allison, :\r. D., Kentucky School of Medicine, 1889. 
Certificate granted. 


Robert P. Chisolm, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

John Elbert Hanna, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Murray Sims Hitchcock, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Catesby ap Catesby Jones, M. I)., Baltimore jNIedical College, 1893. 
Certicate granted. 

Watt Samuel Riggs, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Baltimore, 1893. Certificate granted. 

D. E. Thrash, M. D., Jefferson Medical College, 1893. Certificate 

Paul Turner Vaughn,. Jr., M. D., Baltimore Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

On the part of the board these examinations are of varying degrees 
of excellence. Several of them are too voluminous with too many 
questions, fifteen to eighteen in some branches "While the tendency 
of the board is to too many questions, in Dr. Thrash's examination 
two whole branches are missing, and there are other omissions. In 
several of the examinations the work of supervision is faulty. 

How Dr. Thrash ever got a diploma at Jefferson Medical College, 
or anywhere else, is a mystery. He was properly rejected. Dr. Riggs' 
examination is not entirely satisfactory. The other six applicants 
acquit themselves with credit. 

DeKalb County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Foster Bradly Crutcher, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1887-1898. 
Certificate granted. 

Joseph J. Harrison, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1893. Certificate 

Joshua E. Howard, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1893. Certificate 

Charles Wesley Wright, M. D , Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

These papers come up in proper form. The board has endeavored 
to do its duty, but has shown a disposition to be too liberal in its 

Dr. Howard was rejected on an average rating of 42, and that was 
more than he merited. Dr. Harrison's answers are very defective 
and hardly entitle him to the certificate. Dr. Wright got just marks 
enough to pass him, but was rated too high. Dr. Crutcher did better. 

Elmore County Board. --For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Osceola Judkins Brooks, M. D., Tulane University, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 


Allen Jefferson Garrett, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

This board has been in the habit of doing vfry pcjor work. 'i'li.'Sf 
examinations, without being models, are better. Many of the (|iii's- 
tions are rudimentary, and not well calculated to test the knowleilge 
of the applicant. The examination of Dr. Brooks is not up to a 
high standard, although he got just marks enough to pass. Dr. (Jar- 
rett's examination is more satisfactory, but he docs not write tin- 
questions above the answers. 

Escambia County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine none. 

Etoirah County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

AVilliam Lucky Knox, M. 1)., Vanderbilt University, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

This examination is entirely too elaborate. In most of the branches 
the number of questions ranges from twelve to twenty-six. The pa- 
pers are in good order. The applicant was fully entitled to his cer- 

Fayette County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Jefferson McCrary, ]\I. D., Memphis Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

This examination was conducted in utter defiance of the Book of 
Rules. There is no supervisor's certificate ; no application ; no sched- 
ules of valuations; the questions in the main are very simple; ob- 
stetrics, practice, and materia med ca are all included in violation of 
the estabished schedule; and five schedule branches are omitted. 
It would have been very diliicult for either the board or the applicant 
to have acquitted themselves with less credit. 

Frnnklin County Board. — For the study of mt-dicice, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

No examinations were reported by this board, but it is uiuh-rstooii 
that two or three examinations were made. The board is greatly to 
be blamed for not sending them up. 

firnerii Comity Board.— YoT the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

No examinations were reported by this board, but it is understood 
that two or three examinations were made. The board is greatly to 
be blamed for not sending them up. 

Crrrni- County Hoard.— VoT the study of medicine, none, lor tlie 
practice of medicine: Two examimitions made but papers not i^cnt 


Hale ('(Kintji J>(>((r<L — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Henry Coiinti/ Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Charles VV. Lee, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1893. Certificate 

William Baker Watkins, M. D., Atlanta Medical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

These papers are in good order, and fairly satisfactory. In Dr. 
Lee's examination there are twenty-eight questions in surgery ; and 
in Dr. Watkin's examination there are only two questions in mechan- 
ism labor. These are examples of opposite extremes. 

Dr. Lee made some very brief answers, but deserved his certificate, 
Dr. Watkins, notwithstanding he liberally rated in some of the 
branches, got through only by the skin of his teeth. 

Jackson County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

James Robert Reid, M. D., Medical Co'lege of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

T. D. AValker, M. D., University of Tennessee, 1893. Certificate re- 

The work of the board was fairly well done, although some of the 
questions are too elementary. 

Dr. Reid acquitted himself very well, and was entitled to the cer- 
tificate. Dr. Walker's knowledge of medicine is defective in all the 
departments, and he was justly refused the certificate. 

Jefferson County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Ella Elizabeth Barnes, M. D., Woman's IVIedical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Joseph Berry Greene, M. D., University of Virginia, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Louis Coleman Morris, M. D., University of Virginia. 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

James Samuel Moore, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Baltimore, 1893. Certificate granted. 

Oscar Roland Tomlinson, M. D., Knoxville Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Edward D. Ward, M. D., Chatta,nooga INIedical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate refused. 

This board continues to make more examinations than any other 
board in the state ; and as usual its work is well done. All of the 
applicants acquitted themselves creditably except Dr. Ward who wag 
righteously rejected. 


Lamar Coatitu BoanL-For the study of medicine, lunie. For tlie 
practice of medicine — 

James Robert Black, M. D., Mempliis Medical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Robert James Hays, 'SI. D., Knoxville Medical College, 1892. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

On the part of the board about half of the (juestions are not well 
calculated to test the knowledge of the applicants — are in a word too 
easy and elementary. Dr. Hays' papers were not sent up until nearly 
a year after the examination was made ; and as a consequence of tin's 
culpable negligence the papers in surgery and physiology have been 
lost. Both applicants did fairly well. 

Laiiderdah' Coioit)/ Hoard. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine — 

This board is understood to have made two or three examinations, 
but has sent up no papers. 

Laurence Countij Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none 

Lee Coiudj/ Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the prac- 
tice of medicine, none. 

This board has been on the verge of disorganization, but has been 
recently revived. There are four or five young men in the country 
awaiting examination. 

Limestone Coanty Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Loi'-ndes ('oxufi/ Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Macon Coinifi/ Fxiard. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

B. Wilbur Breedlove, M. D., Atlanta Medical College. 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

In the main this examination is well conducted and iiue.-^l imis wtll 

Madison Connfif Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Marengo County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Marion C'ounti/ Board.— For the study oi medicln.>, moih'. Fortlie 
practice of medicine, none. 

Marsliatl Cninil;/ Hoard.— For the Study of medicine, none. Kor the 
practice of medicine — 


John Wil on Boggers, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1892. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Daniel Larkin Kirby, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Millard Filmore Patterson, M. D., Vanderbilt Uuniversity, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

In these examinations the board has shown a disposition to use too 
many questions, and many of the questions are too easy and simple. 
From this it results that while the papers are quite elaborate the ex- 
aminations are not of special excellence. On the part of all the ap- 
plicants there are evidences of defective literary education. 

Mobile CoHnty Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Gabriel Charles Bondonsquie, M. D., IMedical College of Alabama, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

Charles A. Mohr, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1884. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

Herman B. Mohr, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1891. Cer- 
tificate granted 

Thaddeus Jefferson Pruett, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 
1893. Certificate granted. 

George Augustus Sheldon, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 

1892. Certificate granted. 

These examinations are creditable to all concerned — to the Board, 
the Supervisor, and the applicants. 

Monroe County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine-- 

Clarence Eugene Bizzell, M. D., Vanderbilt University, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

James Wallace Rutherford, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 

1893. Certificate granted. 

W. A. Stallworth, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

The questions put by the board are, as a rule, well selected to test 
the knowledge of the applicants, and the supervisor's work is good. 
On the part of the applicants the answers, as a rule, are too short. 
With more elaboration they would have done themselves more 
credit. They deserved the certificates, but at the same time the 
ratings of the board are entirely too high. 

Montgomery County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine — 

Phileas Frank Lea Bell, M. D., University of Vermont, 1882. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

On the part of the board this examination was well conducted, 
except for the faulty character of the questions in Anatomy and 


Physiology. None of these questions, except one, contains any verb, 
thus leaving them very inadequately expressed. Take this question 
for example : "Muscles of the perineum." Is the applicant expected 
to give only the names of these muscles? Or is he expected to give 
their origins, insertions, and relations? There is absolutely nothing 
to show. Several other questions are just as indefinite as this. One 
of the questions in Physiology is this : "Development of the impreg- 
nated ovum." A whole book might be written in answer to this 
question, and there is nothing to limit it in any way. Tiie applicant 
acquitted himself well. 

Morgan Countii Board.— For tlie study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Perry County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Elisha Newton Driver, M. D., Louisville Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Edgar P. McCallum, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

While the general scope of these examinations on the part of the 
board is fairly satisfactory, tliere is a very culpable want of attention 
to details. There is no supervisor's certificate; no tables of the 
ratings ; ratings in some branches on the back of the sheet, etc. Dr- 
McCallum's penmanship is execrable, and it is difficult to read his 

Pickens County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Pike County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

William Aaron Allen, M. D., Southern Medical College of Atlanta, 
1893. Certificate refused. 

James Wiley Robertson, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Austin Flint Townsend, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

These examinations are fairly satisfactory on the part of the board, 
but with some defects that could have been avoided easily. Some of 
the questions are too elementary to thoroughly te,><t the medical 
knowledge of the applicant. In one of the examinations "Obstet- 
rics" is improperly included. Dr. Allen's supervisor was so careless 
as to allow him access to books, but even with that his answers were 
rated too high when he got an average of 70. 

Randolph County Board. — For the study of medicine, noni". For the 
practice of medicine — 


Pierce Elliot Dean, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

William Herschell Mitchell, ^1. D., Georgia ISIedical College, 1891. 
Certificate granted. 

James Madison Welch, M. D., Southern Medical College, Atlanta, 

1892. Certificate granted. 

This board has been very slow to begin and to finish examinations ; 
and has not been fortunate in its selection of supervisors ; paper of 
different sizes being used, etc. 

Dr. Mitchell and Dr. AVelch were examined in 1892, but their papers 
were not sent up until a year later. Dr. Dean's examination is some- 
vphat voluminous, but a very good one. 

Russell County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

St. Clair County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Eobert Franklin Alverson,M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

William Albert Beason, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

1893. Certificate granted. 

Robert Preston Steadham, M. D., Chattanooga Medical College, 
1893. Certificate refused. 

This board has done its work very well ; questions are well selected ; 
ratings fair ; papers in good order. But there are some questions in- 
volving treatment that should have been left out. Dr. Steadham was 
properly rejected. 

Shelby County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

Joseph Franklin Curtis, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Thomas Greene Nelson, M. D., National Normal University, Leba- 
anon, O., 1893. Certificate granted. 

These papers came up in very bad order — no applications, no super- 
visor's certificates, no ratings. 

Sumter County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine — 

James Alexander McNair, M. D., Memphis Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate refused. 

Joseph Bolivar Perkins, M. D., Vandei'bilt University, 1888. Cer- 
tificate granted. 

This board, while committing some minor blunders, has done its 
w^ork very well. The questions are mostly well chosen, and ratings, 
as a rule, just. Dr. Perkins acquits himself with credit. Dr. McNair 
was properly rejected. It is difficult to understand how he ever got 
a diploma. 


Talladega County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For tin- 
practice of medicine — 

Frank Goodwin DuBose, M. D., Tulano University, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Augustine Williamson Thompson, M. D., University of New York, 

1892. Certificate granted. 

Samuel Wallace Welch, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Baltimore, 1893. Certificate granted. 

These examinations are creditable to the board and to the appli- 
cants. The questions ai*e well chosen, are not too numerous, and the 
answers are full and well expressed. 

Tallapoosa County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine — 

Orlando Velpean Langley, M. D., Baltimore Medical College, 1893. 
Certificate granted. 

Robinson Herman Salmon, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 

1893. Certificate granted. 

On the whole the board has acquitted itself very well in these ex- 
aminations, except that some of the examiners asked questions in 
therapeutics in violation of the rules ; and the schedules of valua- 
tions are omitted except in Chemistry and Anatomy ; and there are 
no schedules of questions by the examiners or the supervisor. Dr. 
Langley's examination was creditable to him. Dr. Salmon's examin- 
ation is worthy of special commendation. He properly refused to 
answer questions on treatment. 

Tuscaloosa County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For 
the practice of medicine — 

Frank Oscar Auxford, M. D., Atlanta :\redical College, 1893. Cer- 
tificate refused. 

Frank Hausman, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, 1893. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

On the part of the board these examinations are well done. The 
questions are well selected and of ample scope to elicit the knowl- 
edge of the applicant. Dr. Auxford's answers are sadly defective, 
and he was proi)erly rejected. Dr. Hausman deserves special com- 
mendation for the excellence of his answers. 

Walker County Board.— For the study of medicine, none. For the 

practice of medicine, none. 

Washington County Board.— Fov the study of medicine, none. For 

the practice of medicine- 
Julius Franklin Peavy, M. D., .Medical College of Alabanm. 1888. 

Certificate granted. 

Francis Asberry Webb, M. D., Medical College of Alabama, I8ftl. 

Certificate granted. 


H. F. Wilkins, M. D. Certificate granted. 

These papers came up in bad order, but the questions are fairly 
good. The ratings in some of the branches are a little too high ; but 
the applicants were fairly entitled to the certificates. 

Wilcox Count;/ Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 

Winston County Board. — For the study of medicine, none. For the 
practice of medicine, none. 



We are glad to be able to state that tlie State Board of 
Health is making encouraging progress in the discharge of 
all the important duties entrusted to its administrative 

The work for the collection of vital statistics is on a firmer 
footing than ever before, and in that regard a larger number 
of counties than ever before are doing good work. Where- 
ever, indeed, any proper effort is made by the county boards 
success follows as a matter of course. Wherever the county 
boards have been negligent of their duty, unless they have 
been fortunate enough to select an unusually competent man 
for county health oificer, the work has dragged along in an 
unsatisfactory fashion. In several counties they have done 
nothing, and in several others they have accomplished little. 
It has been up to this time the general policy of the county 
boards of health to depend almost entirely on persuasive 
methods to secure salaries for the county health ofl&cers, and to 
secure returns of births and deaths from the doctors and mid- 
wives. These methods have been sufiicientin the majority of 
the counties, but by no means in all. In several counties the 
county commissioners have made no appropriations at all 
for the payment of the county health officers ; and in some 
the appropriations made have not been sufficient to consti- 
tute a reasonable compensation for the work done. This 
condition of things should not be allowed to continue. The 


provisions of the law are ample and they ouglit to be en- 
forced ; and it is the duty of the county hoards of houltli to 
see that they are enforced. We therefore recommend the 
adoption by the Association of the following instructions to 
the county boards of health : 

(1) That the county boards of health must in accordance 
with the requirements of the law undertake the active super- 
vision of the collection of vital statistics ; must see that the 
county health officers come up to the full measure of the 
duties incumbent on them in regard to this work ; and must 
promptly remove any county health officer who proves to 
be incompetent or inefficient and supply his place with a 
better man. 

(2) That the county boards of health must appeal to the 
count}^ commissioners to grant such salaries to the county 
health officers as will constitute reasonable compensation for 
the work they have to do ; and that if any boards of county 
commissioners fails to do this it is the duty of the county 
boards of health in such counties to proceed in the courts 
to compel compliance with the law in this regard. 

(3) That if any doctors or midwives cannot be induced 
in any other way to report their births and deaths as the 
law requires, then the county boards of health must in- 
struct the county health officers to prosecute such doctors 
and midwives and compel them to obey the law. 


During the prevalence of yellow fever last year in Florida 
aud Georgia the State Board of Health for the first time 
in its history undertook the administration of a state quar- 
antine. TVe may be allowed to say that the result was ex- 
tremely gratifying both to us aud to the people of the state. 
All the details of the quarantine went on with military 
smoothness, celerity, and efficiency. There was no serious 
interference with travel aud traffic ; and the expenses of 
quarantine administration were reduced to a minimum. As 


is well known not a case of yellow fever occurred in the 

While success thus crowned our efforts the experience of 
actual work on a large scale served to show us that there 
are many defects in our present quarantine law. We have, 
therefore, jDrepared a bill for presentation to the next gen- 
eral assembly intended to provide an efficient and compre- 
hensive quarantine law for the state ; and for this bill we 
ask the approval of the Association; and that the members 
of the Association throughout the state be requested to use 
their influence with their senators and representatives to 
secure its passage. 


Section 1. Be it enacted hy the General Assembly of Alabama, That 
the governor, on the recommendation of the state board of health, 
or whenever he deems it necessary for the protection of the health of 
the people of this state, or any portion thereof, may proclaim, declare, 
and establish, and through the state board of health and the state 
health officer conduct and enforce such quarantine measui-es and 
regulations not inconsistent with the constitution of the state or 
United States and laws thereof, as to him may seem expedient ; and 
the state board of health under the direction and control of the 
governor may from time to time take such preliminai-y steps and 
make such investigations as may be deemed necessary to guard the 
health of the people. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the probate judge of any county, 
or the mayor of any city, or the intendant of any town in this state 
may on the recommendation of the county board of health, or when- 
ever he deems it necessary for the protection of the health of his peo- 
ple, proclaim, declare and establish, and through the county board of 
health and the county or city health officer, conduct and enforce such 
quarantine measures and regulations as to him may seem expedient; 
provided that said quarantine measures and regulations are not in- 
consistent or in conflict with the rules and regulations prescribed 
by the state board of health. 

Sec. 3. Be it furth,er enacted, That the health authorities of the state, 
or of any county or city or town, may appoint, employ and dismiss 
all such officers and agents and employes as may be needed for the 
conduct and enforcement of quarantine, and may prescribe their du- 


ties and the salaries and pay they are to receive ; provided, that uU 
this is done in accordance with the general health hiws of the state 
and especially in accordance with sections 1284 and 1285 of the Code 
of Alabama; and provided furtlier, that the regular police force of 
any city or town or the town marshal may be employed to enforce 
quarantine regulations; and the said quarantine officers siiall be 
sworn into the quarantine service and to the faitliful performance of 
their official duties, and when so sworn in they are hereby autiiorizcd 
to administer oaths and make arrests of persons violating the quar- 
antine regulations. 

Sec. 4. Be it farther enacted, That any person resisting any quaran- 
tine officer in the discharge of his duty, or refusing to answer ques- 
tions put by a quarantine officer in the discharge of his duty, or to 
swear to or affirm the same ; or any person violating any of the quar- 
antine regulations, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on cor.vic- 
tion thereof before any court of competent jurisdiction shall be lined 
not more than one hundred dollars, or imprisoned nut more than ten 
days, or both at the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, That any railroad or transportation 
company, agents or employes, or any other person bringing into this 
state any person or any baggage or merchandise in violation of quar- 
antine, or refusing or failing promptly to remove such person or 
baggage or merchandise out of the state on the order of any quaran- 
tine officer, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and siiall on conviction 
thereof before any court of competent jurisdiction be lined not more 
than one thousand dollars at the discretion of the court. 

Note.— It is understood that this bill may be amended in any way 
that may be deemed expedient after consultation with our attorney. 


It is known to the members of the association that for 
many years the medical management of the maritime quar- 
antine at Mobile was in the hands of the Mobih> Board of 
Health. It is also known that in the session of the general 
assembly in 1889-90 a special act was passed, against tlie ex- 
pressed wishes of this association, creating the (^uarantino 
Board of Mobile Bay— said board being composed in largo 
part of commercial men, with one or two doctors; the doc- 
tors being selected in such way as to make it entirely a mat- 
ter of chance whether they are quarantine experts or not. 
By an oversight, doubtless, on the part of the lawyers who 


drew up the bill, the jurisdiction of this board is confined 
to the bay of Mobile, and as soon as a vessel leaves the bay 
and passes into the river on which is situated the city of 
Mobile, she passes into the jurisdiction of the Mobile 
Board of Health — an embarrassing and undesirable condi- 
tion of things. In the meantime, also, the Mobile Board of 
Health has jurisdiction of all quarantine for the special 
protection of Mobile city and county from epidemic inva- 
sion by land. In other words, there are two distinct sys- 
tems of quarantine — systems now legally in force in Mobile 
under the direction of two separate boards. 

Towards the building of the maritime quarantine station 
at Mobile the state contributed the sum of twenty-five 
thousand dollars, on the ground that this quarantine was 
for the protection of the whole State of Alabama as well as 
for the protection of the city of Mobile. And this is true. 
While it is primarily for the protection of Mobile, it is also 
for the protection of the state ; and hence the state is 
deeply interested in having it properly managed. 

It is therefore only natural that this association should 
regard the special legislation indicated with emphatic rep- 
robation. Accordingly at the annual session of 1891, the 
first session after the passage of the act referred to, the 
association, onthe recommendation of President Sanders, put 
itself on record as pledged to use every legitimate influence 
in its power to secure a modification of the obnoxious legis- 
lation. Similar action was taken at the Selma session of 
1893, in accordance with the recommendation of President 

We therefore recommend that the association pledge itself 
anew to use all the influence its members can bring to bear 
on the members of the next general assembly to restore 
the maritime quarantine of Mobile to the Mobile Board of 
Health under the quarantine and health laws of the state; 
and that to this end we be authorized to prepare, in conjunc- 
tion with our attorney, CoL H. C. Tompkins, a bill covering 
the principles indicated to be presented to the general as- 
sembly when it meets next fall. 



In accordauce witli au iuvitation issued by the Louisiana 
State Board of Healtli, a conference of the liealtli officials 
of the gulf states met in New Orleans on the 2d of F(;l)i-u- 
ary, 1894, to consider what regulations were necessary in 
connection with the iin})ortatiou of fruits from tropical coun- 
tries to protect the gulf ports from invasion by yellow fever. 
The boards represented were the Alabama Htate Board of 
Health, the Florida State Board of Health, the Board of 
Health of Escambia county, Florida, and the Louisiana 
State Board of Health. The State of Texas was not repre- 
sented, but the health officer of Texas sent a letter expres- 
ing his willingness to abide by the results of the Conference. 
Alabama was represented by the state health officer. After 
thorough discussion, the following conclusions were readied, 
which we recommend to the favorable consideration of the 
association : 

Quarantine Measures recommended and adopted hij a Cotifer- 
ence of Health and Quarantine Authorities held at A^eiv Or- 
leans, Fehruarij, 1894. 

1st. In order to secure prompt and reliable infornmtion as to the 
existence of yellow fever in the various ports of the West Indies. 
Central and South America, from which fruit is sliip|)ed, it is deemed 
essential that medical inspectors should be stationed at said i)()rts 
with understanding that the inspectors stationed in the larger towns 
may have jurisdiction over smaller places within the district. 

2d. The duties of the inspectors shall be to report by each and 
every vessel, and if necessary by cable, where practicable, on the 
sanitary condition of their respective districts, on the existence of 
contagious or infectious diseases within the same, on compliance by 
vessels with the regulations issued for their guidance, and to perform 
such other duties as may from time to be required of them. 

3d. It is recommended that vessels engaged in this trade shall, 
whenever practicable, be manned by acclimated crews. 

4th. In the absence of yellow fever, it is considered unnecessary 
to place any restrictions upon the manner of loading vessels, or upon 
the character of the cargo carried, further than to rigidly exclude 
hou.-;ehold effects, personal baggage, hides, hams, bones and fertili- 


5th. After the discharge of the cargo, every vessel shall be sub- 
jected to mechanical cleansing by washing and afterward thoroughly 

6th. In the event of yellow fever occurring at any fruit port, trade 
with that port may be continued under the following additional pre- 
cautions : J]ach vessel to be required to carry a duly accredited medi- 
cal officer, whose duty it shall bo to see that quarantine regulations 
are strictly carried out ; no member of the crew shall be allowed to 
go ashore, nor any one, except an acclimated loading crew, to come 
on board ; the loading crew to be kept isolated in a locality suffi- 
ciently remote from the infected district, and while on board the 
vessel to be kept separate from the vessel's crew. Vessels are not 
allowed to remain at any wharf or near shore after sunset, but must 
anchor in the open bay at such distance from shore as may be pre- 
scribed by the medical officer in charge and must not return before 
sunrise. The cargo carried shall be restricted to fruit, rubber, specie, 
rubber not to be packed in textile fabrics and specie to be disinfect- 
ed by immersion in boiling water. 

7th. Should a vessel having yellow fever on board arrive with a cargo 
of fruit at a quarantine station, the cargo may be discharged into 
lighters by acclimated laborers or by the crew, after which the 
vessel shall be subjected to the usual detention and disinfection, the 
clothing of the laborers to be disinfected by steam heat after the dis- 
charge of the cargo shall have been completed. 

8th. Any vessel engaged in the fruit trade which carries passengers 
shall forfeit all privileges and be subjected to the same quarantine 
restrictions as other vessels carrying passengers. 

9th. Inasmuch as the quarantine laws and regulations of the United 
States, as promulgated by the Secretary of the Treasury, April 4th, 
1893, are not in accord with certain of the foregoing propositions, it 
is recommended that such modifications be made in said laws as shall 
make them coincide with the views expressed by this conference. 


At the meeting of the American Medical Association in 
Washington a committee was appointed to memoralize the 
Congress of the United States in favor of the establishment 
as a member of the Cabinet of the President a Medical 
Secretary of Public Health. To this end a bill was duly 
prepared and was introduced into the 52nd Congress. 

In 1892, at Detroit, and in 1893, at Milwaukee, the Ameri- 


can Medical Association, renewed its approval of tliis move- 
ment, and instructed the committee to contiiuie to j)roHH it 
on the attention of Congress. The l)ill is to l)e i)resented 
to the Congress now in session. This proptjst'd h-gistaticju 
is of great importance to the welfare of th(i jx-ople, and 
would add greatl}' to the intlueuce and usofuhnss of the 
medical profession. The text of the hill is, as follows : 

To Establish a Department of ruhlit- Ht-nltli. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and Jloitxe of Jifjirfttentallvea 
of the United States of America in Congress assemlded. That there shall 
be established a department of public health. There shall be ap- 
pointed bj- the President from the medical profession, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Senate, a secretary of public ln-alth, 
who shall be intrusted with the management of the departnu-nt 
herein established. He sliall be paid an annual salary of eiglit 
thousand dollars. There shall be appointed by the President, with 
the aj)proval of the Senate, an assistant secretary of public health, at 
an annual salary of five thousand dollars. The secretary of i)ul>]ic 
health sliall, with the approval of the President, provide suitable 
offices for the department, and sliall employ such assistants and clerks 
as may be necessary. 

Sec. 2. That it shall be the duty of the secretary of public health 
to obtain through all accessible sources, including State boards of 
health, municipal authorities, and the Surgeon-Cienerals of the Army, 
Navy, and ^Marine Hosjjital Service of the United States, weekly re- 
ports of the sanitary condition of all ports and places within their 
territories and departments, and he shall publish weekly abstracts of 
the information thus obtained and other pertinent matters received 
by his department. The said department also shall, as far as possiiile, 
by means of the voluntary co-operation of State and municipal 
authorities, of various general and special hospitals, sanilariums. 
public associations and private persons, jirocure ami tabulate statistics 
of marriages, births (in)ting those that are illegitimate), and tlenths 
from epidemic, endemic, and all other diseases, specifying tliose of n 
degenerative character, such as mulignant growths, anti alTections of 
the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, seerelory, digestive, and repro- 
ductive organs, and from violence, accidents, suicide, murder, aiuldata 
concerning the fruit of consanguineous marriages and the IrMnsniiH.xi- 
bility of insane. alc<.holic, syphilitic, nervous, and malignant types of 
constitution of olTspring. and to r\i\> of ra<'e miscegenation . He 
shall also procure information relating to climatic and other con- 


ditions beneficial to health, and especially in reference to the most 
favorable regions in the United States for the cure or relief of chronic 
diseases, particularly tubercular consumption. He shall also procure 
information as to the prevalence and ruinous effects upon the body 
and mind of intemperance and prostitution. He shall endeavor to 
ascertain the extent, the origin, and classification of insanity in the 
several States and Territories of the country. He shall investigate 
the state of comfort of the laboring classes in respect to their lodg- 
ment, their trades, occupations, the healthfulness of their work-shops, 
and the contents of the atmosphei'e they habitually breathe, and 
the prevalence of premature degeneration of the nervous and 
muscular systems by the exactions of piece-work employment. 
He shall obtain information in I'egard to the soundness of 
their food and purity of w^ater supply. He shall ascertain the 
ages at which the children of the poor are put to work, and its hind- 
rance to their physical development, and their lack of common-school 
education. He shall seek, through the State boards of healtli, infor- 
mation of the hygienic state of public school buildings respecting 
their illumination, ventilation, and presence of noxiovis elements in 
the circumambient air. He shall seek information in regard to the 
pollution of streams and navigable waters and public and private 
wells. He shall attempt, through the co-operation of the authorized 
medical schools in all the States, to promote the most extended and 
thorough training of students in order to fit them for the responsible 
duties that devolve upon practitioners of medicine. He shall, when- 
ever an epidemic disease is spreading abroad or in any country which 
by commercial or other relations may endanger the health of the 
inhabitants of the United States, have power to call a conference of 
the Surgeon-Generals of the Army, Navy, and Marine Hospital Ser- 
vice, and the executive officer or officers of the various State boards 
of health throughout the country, to consider and advise with him in 
regard to the best methods to be pursued to protect the country 
against the invasion of any such epidemic disease, and the results of 
such conference shall be, by the secretary of public health, commu- 
nicated to the President and his Cabinet for such action as they may 
deem wise and expedient. Besides the reports of the state of the 
public health which he shall make from time to time, the secretary 
shall make an annvial report to Congress with such recommendations 
as he may deem important to the public welfare, and the report, if 
ordered printed by Congress, shall be done under the direction of the 
department. The necessary printing of the department shall be done 
at the Government Printing Office, upon the requisition of the secre- 
tary, in the same manner and subject to the provisions as that of 
other printing for the several Dejiartments of the Government. 

Sec. 3. That the President is autliorized, wlien requested by the 
secretary of public health, and when the same can be done without 


prejudice to the public service, to detail officers from the si-vcnil 
l)e])artinents of tlie Government for temporary dutj', to act under the 
department of public health to carry out the provisions of this Act, 
and such officers shall receive no additional compensation exee|)t for 
actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of sucjj 
duties. AVhen a detail of such officers can not be made, the secretary, 
approved by the President, may employ such experts, and for sucli 
time and in such manner as the funds at the disposal of the dejiart- 
ment may warrant. 

Sec. 4. That to defray the expenses in carrying out the provisions 
of this Act the sum of fifty thousand dollars, or as much tiiereof as 
may be necessary, is hereby appropriated to be disbursed with the 
approval of the President, under the secretary of said department. 

Sec. 5. That this Act shall take effect sixty days after its passage, 
within which time the secretary and assistant secretary may be 

This bill seems not to have met Avith much favor in con- 
gress; but it is to be hoped that the united and continuous 
efforts of all the medical organizations in the country may, 
in the course of time, obtain for it the consideration to whicli, 
from the importance of the question at issue, it is justly en- 

While we approve of the bill in its present form we be- 
lieve that it can be greatly improved by the insertion of a 
provision requiring the proposed secretary of public health 
to call together, once in every year, a conference of the 
representatives of all the State Boards of Health to moot in 
the city of Washington for the discussion of sanitary ([ues- 
tions of current interest. 

In accordance with these suggestions we recommend tlio 
adoption by the association of the following resolutions: 

Rrsnhrd, That the :Medical Association of the State of Ahilmina, 
which is also the State Board of Health, is earnestly in favor of the 
pas.sageof the bill now pending in Congress to establish a department 
of public health, and recommends said bill to the favorable onsidera- 
tion and support of the members of Congress, senators and rei>re- 
sentatives, from Alabama. 

Rrxoln-iJ, That we believe tiie bill w-.iild l»e materially iniproviHl by 
the insertion of an additional clause in the following wortJ;* : "Uv 
shall once in every year call to meet in tliecity of Washington b Con- 
ference of State Boards of Health, to be composed of one delegate 



from every state board of health in the United States, and to be for 
the purpose of discussing questions of public health and for concert- 
ing plans of sanitary administration. 

We further recommend that the Secretary of the Associa- 
tion be instructed to furnish a copy of these resolutions to 
each member of the Alabama delegation in congress. Also, 
that our delegate to the approaching session of the American 
Medical Association be instructed to endeavor to secure the 
approval of the amendment here proposed to the pending 

The State Board of Health, 


April 29. 

May 31. 

June 30. 

July 31. 

Aug. 31. 

Sept. 30. 

Oct. 1. 

Oct. 31. 

Nov. 30. 


Jan. 10. 

Jan. 31. 

Feb. 28. 

Mar. 31. 

In account with The State of Alabama; 

To cash from Treasurer. 

250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
100 00 
150 00 
250 00 
250 00 

250 00 
250 00 
250 00 
250 00 

Total .$ 3,000 00 


Apr. 12. 


By cash drayage $ 25 

" " box rent 150 

" " postage 5 00 

" " telegram to New York 80 

" " telegram to Ozark, Ala 35 

" " health officer's salary (April) 150 00 

" " clerk's salary (April) 41 67 


May 11. By cash postage !|! 

" expressage 

" telegram 

" envelopes and stumps 

" twine 

" postage 

" health officer's salary (May) 

" clerk's salary (May) 

" 1,000 stamj)ed envelopes (2c.) 

" postage 

" postage (Book of Rules) 

" health officer's salary (June) 

" clerk's salary (June) 

" P. O. box rent 

" Joel White (stationery) 

" postage 

" health officer's salary (July) 

" clerk's salary (July) 

" postage 

" Brown Printing Co 

" postage (Book of Rules) 

" health officer's salary (August) 

*' clerk's salary (August) 

" Joel White, stationery 

" Holt & Ik>ykin, stationery 

" Brown Printing Co 

" stamped envelopes (Ic.) 

" health officer's salary (September) 

" clerk's salary (September) 

'■ postage 

" 1,000 stamped envelopes (2c.) 

" health officer's salary (October) 

" clerk's salary (October) 

" health ollicer's expenses to La Fayette. 

" P. O. box rent 

" postage 

" health officer's salary (November) 

" clerk's salary (November) 

" postage 

" expressage 

" stami)ed envelopes He.) 

" healtli officer's salary (December). 

" clerk's salary (December) 

" stamps and envelopes 

" health officer's salary (January) 














































. 3. 












































10 CO 



15 00 


5 GO 

150 00 

41 67 

22 00 

5 00 


15fJ Ofj 

41 87 

1 50 

4 55 

11 20 

150 00 

41 67 

2 00 

150 00 


150 00 

41 67 



23 66 

5 50 

150 00 

41 67 

3 00 

22 fX) 

150 00 

41 67 

6 08 

1 60 

5 00 

150 (X) 

41 87 

5 DO 

1 0<J 

5 50 

150 00 

41 67 

15 00 

160 W 


Jan. 30. By cash clerk's salary (January) $ 41 67 

Feb. 9. " " Holt & Boykin 25 

9. " " White & Woodruff, stationery 1 50 

" 20. " " P. O. box rent 150 

" 23. " " expressage 25 

" 24. " " expressage 25 

" 26. " " expressage 25 

" 26. " " postage ' 7 50 

■' 28. " " health officer's salary (February) 150 00 

" 28. " " clerk's salary (February) 4167 

Mar. 2. " " expressage 25 

" 2. " " one Eyelet Pi-ess and Punch 5 00 

" 3. " " one frame for map 1 40 

3. " " White, Woodruff & Fowler 195 

" 4. " '• expressage 55 

" 6. " " expressage 35 

" 9. " " telegram 25 

" 10. " " Romer & Co., wrapping paper 2 98 

" 13. " " drayage 25 

" 20. " " Saffold, mimeograph paper and ink 1 80 

" 24. " " 1,000 stamped envelopes (2c.) 22 00 

" 31. " " stamps and envelopes 18 03 

" 31. " " Brown Printing Co 302 50 

" 31. " " health officer's salary (March) 150 00 

" 31. " " clerk's salary (March) 4163 

Total .$ 3,000 00 


To total receipts from April 1, 1893, to April 1, 1894 ,$ 3,000 00 

By total expenditures from April 1, 1893, to April 1, 1894. . . 3,000 00 

General Recapitulation. 

By health officer's salary April 1, 1893, to April 1, 1894 $ 1,800 00 

By clerk's salary April 1, 1893, to April 1, 1894 500 00 

By cash for postage and envelopes 184 73 

By cash to Brown Printing Co 476 13 

By cash, miscellaneous 39 11 

. Total ". $ 3,000 00 



Au act was passed by the last General Assembly appro- 
priating four hundred (S400) dollars a year for the payment 
of the clerk of the State Board of Health. This act was 
approved February 18, 1893. The clerk's salary, which was 
before six hundred ($600) dollars, all paid out of our general 
fund, was then fixed at nine hundred ($900) dollars, of which 
five hundred ($500) dollars are paid out of our general fund 
and four hundred ($400) dollars out of the special appropri- 
ation. In this way the clerk receives a monthly salary of 
seventy-five dollars, of which $41. 66| are paid from the gen- 
eral fund and $33.33^ are paid from the special appropria- 
tion. But it is not the duty of the Board of Health to audit 
payments from the special appropriation. This statement, 
however, is made for the information of all concerned. 


[Statement No. 1.] 

State Board of Health, 

In account with The State of Alabama : 

1893. Debits. 

Aug. 14. To cash from Treasurer $ 500 00 

" 28. " " " " 500 00 

Sept. 11. " " " " 262 16 

Total receipts ■ $ 1,26 2 16 

1893. Credits. 

Aug. 10. By one dozen Advertisers $ 50 

" 10. " telegrams 2 19 

"10. " " 1 10 

" 10. " " 60 

<< iQ '< " 80 

" 16. cash to Wolff, mattresses, &c 48 00 

" 16. " '• Holt&Boykin 2 65 

" 17. " " Brown Printing Co 34 50 

" 17. "telegrams 1« ^ 




Aug. 17. 


By hack hire (B. & G.) $ 2 50 

cash to S. J. Jones, quarantine officer 11 GO 

" B. J. Fitzpatrick, quarantine officer. . . 4 00 

" M. Dotzheimer, quarantine officer. ... 14 00 

" J. A. Whiting, quarantine officer 20 00 

" R. J. Chambers, quarantine officer. . . 19 00 

" L. J. Owen, quarantine officer 18 00 

" O. 0. Nelson, quarantine officer 15 00 

" J. M. Powell, quarantine officer 27 50 

" J. B. Foster, quarantine officer 20 00 

" W. J. Reynolds, quarantine officer. ... 13 00 

" T. W. Lee, quarantine officer 19 00 

*' E.R.Shannon, quarantine officer.... 13 00 

" W. A. Peet, quarantine officer 15 00 

" M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer. ... 48 00 

" J. A. McTyeire, quarantine officer. ... 17 00 

" E. O. Boiling, quarantine officer 13 00 

" F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 13 00 

" C. H. Franklin 3 65 

" expenses at Flomaton 35 90 

" Emile Scheurman 7 05 

" W. H. Taylor, quarantine officer 17 00 

" Dave Westcott, quarantine officer. ... 13 00 

" W. J. Reynolds, quarantine officer. ... 14 00 

" E. R. Shannon quarantine officer. ... 14 00 

" O. 0. Nelson, quarantine officer 20 00 

" W. A. Peet, quarantine officer 20 00 

" J. H. Wilkins, quarantine officer 25 00 

" J. Pou, quarantine officer 37 00 

" W. H. Taylor, quarantine officer 24 00 

" E. O. Boiling, quarantine officer 24 00 

" W. H. Sanders, quarantine officer. ... 12 97 

" Western Union Telegraph Co 28 61 

" W. J. Reynolds, quarantine officer. ... 12 00 

" L. J. Owen, quarantine officer 26 00 

" M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer. ... 40 00 

" R. E. Lee, quarantine officer 18 00 

" F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 27 00 

" R. J. Chambers, quarantine officer. ... 28 00 

" J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 18 00 

" Joe Pou, quarantine officer 2 00 

" Dave Westcott, quarantine officer. ... 26 00 

" T. F. Bland, quarantine officer 18 CO 

" J. H. Wilkins, quarantine officer 5 00 

" 0.0. Nelson, quarantine officer 15 00 

" E. R. Shannon, quarantine officer. ... 12 00 



Sei)t. 6 

By cash to W. H. Taylor, quarantine officer 

J- A. Whiting, quarantine otficer. . . 

T. W. Lee, quarantine officer 

M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer. . 

" " Brown Printing Co 

" Holt & Boykin 

W. A. Peot, quarantine officer 

R- -T. Chambers, quarantine officer. 

E. O. Boiling, quarantine officer. .. . 

" J. H. McTyeire, quarantine officer. . 

" " J. H. Murphy, (juarantine officer... 

" " W. U. Telegraph Co 

" " J. H. McTyeire, quarantine officer. . . 

11 00 
28 00 
28 00 
21 40 
94 10 


16 00 

8 (X) 

12 00 
10 00 
53 00 

2 85 
25 00 

Total $ 1,262 16 


To total receipts $ 1,262 16 

By total expenditures $ 1,262 16 


[Statement No. 2.] 

The State Board of Health, 

In account with the State of Alabama : 
1893. Debits. 
Sept. 21. To cash from Treasurer $ 60000 

" 30. 

Oct. 6. 

" 19. 

" 26. 

Nov. 1. 

Aug. 18 
Sept. 17 
" 18 
" 18 
" 19 
" 19 
" 20 
" 22 
" 22, 

sale of niattrasses, <fec., at Flomnton 25 20 

Treasurer 5<X) 00 

700 00 

500 00 

" 302 89 

Total 12,528 09 


By cash telegram $ 40 

T. W. Lee, quarantine officer 10 00 

Tom Clanton, quarantine officer 9 00 

hack hire 60 

E. K. Shannon, quarantine officer 11 00 

hack hire '^ 

R. J. Chambers, quarantine officer 14 00 

F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 11 00 

R. J. Askew, quarantine officer 10 00 


Sept. 22. By cash M. H. Amerine, quarantine ofHcer $ 36 00 

22. " W. A. Peet, quarantine officer 18 00 

22. " E. O. Boiling, quarantine officer '15 00 

22. " W. W. Seidle, quarantine officer 3 00 

22. " R. L. Schley, quarantine officer 14 00 

23. " J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 10 00 

23. " J. H. Wilkins, (luarantine officer 18 00 

23. " Joe Pou, quarantine officer 18 00 

23. " J. H. McTyeire, quarantine officer 18 00 

23. " hack hire 50 

25. " L. J. P. Owen, quarantine officer 14 00 

25. " W. J. Reynolds, quarantine officer 15 00 

25. " M. S. Watson, quarantine officer 22 00 

25. " Louis Hamburger, quarantine officer 12 00 

26. " G. C. Clisby, quarantine officer 10 00 

26. " E. R. Shannon, quarantine officer 12 00 

27. " R. A. Lenoire, quarantine officer 4 00 

28. " R. L. Schley, quarantine officer 13 00 

28. " E. O. Boiling, quarantine officer 13 00 

29. " Thomas Westcott, quarantine officer 9 00 

29. " Thomas Westcott, quarantine officer 2 00 

29. " Dave Westcott, quarantine officer 4 00 

29. " F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 18 00 

30. " R. E. Lee, quarantine officer 24 00 

Oct. 2. " M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer 40 00 

2. " G. C. Clisby, quarantine officer 12 00 

2. " W. A. Peet, quarantine officer 20 00 

2. " M. S. Watson, quarantine officer 14 00 

2. " J. H. Wilkins, quarantine officer 18 00 

2. " J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 10 00 

2. " R. J. Askew, quarantine officer 27 00 

2. " J. J. Caine, quarantine officer 10 00 

3. " J. A. Whiting, quarantine officer 37 00 

3. " T. F. Bland, quarantine officer 37 00 

4. " Telegrams from Clan ton 98 

4. " H. O. dinner at Fleming's 50 

4. " H. O. hack hire 50 

4. " H. O. dinner at Troy 50 

6. " J. S. Kelly, quarantine officer 19 00 

6. " W. U. Telegraph Co 17 25 

6. " E. 0. Boiling, quarantine officer 15 00 

6. " W. J. Reynolds, quarantine officer 23 00 

6. " L. J. Owen, quarantine officer 26 00 

7. " J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 29 00 

7. " R. L. Schley, quarantine officer 21 00 

7. " Louis Hamburger, quarantine officer 26 00 


Oct. 9. By cash J. H. McTyeii-p, (iimrantine oflicer ^ 3100 

" 9. " J. n. Wilkins, (|iiar}intine orticfr 14 00 

" 9. " John jNlcGurk, (juaraiitiiie oMic-tT H 00 

" 10. " M. S. AVatson, quarantine ollicer. l.'. oo 

" 12. " G. C. Clisby, quarantine ollicer lo dO 

" 13. " J. H. Murpliy, quarantine ollicer. . . Hd (mi 

" 13. " John McGurk, quarantine officer h U(» 

" 13. " J. S. Kelly, quarantine officer 10 00 

" 16. " J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 12 00 

" 17. " C. T. Kennewortli, (luarantine officer 4 00 

" 19. " T. W. Beall, quarantine officer 10 (X) 

" '19. " W. A. Feet, quarantine officer 22 00 

" 19. " R. J. Askew, quarantine officer 20 00 

" 19. " Louis Flamburger, quarantine officer 13 00 

" 20. " J. J. Caine, quarantine officer 22 00 

" 20. " C. T. Kennevvorth, quarantine officer 2 00 

" 20. " M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer 72 00 

" 20. " W. J. Tuttle, quarantine officer 30 00 

" 20. " John McGurk, (juarantine otticer 14 00 

" 20. " F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 10 00 

" 20. " C. Summers, quarantine officer 28 00 

" 20. " M. S. Watson, quarantine officer 16 00 

" 21. " J. C. Pou, quarantine officer 22 00 

" 21. " Expressage 25 

" 21. " R. E. Lee, quarantine officer 40 00 

" 21. " J. O. Niece, quarantine officer 20 00 

" 21. " T. F. Bland, quarantine officer 36 00 

" 21. " J. C. Pou, quarantine officer 34 00 

" 21. " Probate Judge of Escambia county 200 00 

" 23. " J. I. 3IaxwelI, quarantine officer 13 00 

" 23. " R. J. Askew, quarantine officer 20 00 

" 24. " F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 24 (K) 

•' 24. " J. H. Wilkins, quarantine officer 30 CM) 

" 25. " J. H. McTyeire, quarantine officer 30 I x.) 

" 27. " John McGurk, ciuaranline officer 14 (,)0 

" 28. '■ R. L. Sciiley, quarantine officer 40 lio 

" 28. " F. AV. Beall, (luarantine officer 10 00 

" 28. " W. A. Peet, tjuarantine officer 30 00 

" 30. " M. S. "Watson, quarantine oflicer 22 00 

" 31. " J. O. Niece, quarantine officer.. -.M no 

Nov. 1. " C. Summers, (luarantine officer. . -1 '•' 

" 1 " J. H. Murphy, quarantine officer. . . M i*> 

" 1. " Louis Hamburger, (luarantine otliciT :n> iH) 

" 1. " G. C. Clisby, (|uarantine officer 26 <«> 

" 1. " J. J. Caine, tiuarantitic otVicer. . M <»> 

" 1. " John McGurk, quarantine officer 9 00 


Nov. 1. By cash W. J. Tuttle, quarantine officer .$ 23 00 

" 1. " R. E. Lee, quarantine officer 20 00 

" I. " F. H. Cobbs, quarantine officer 14 00 

" 1. " J. H. Wilkins, quarantine officer 15 00 

" 1. " M. S. Watson, quarantine officer 6 00 

" 1. " M. H. Amerine, quarantine officer 48 00 

" 1. " M. H. Amerine 19 15 

■ " 1. " J. C. Pou, quarantine officer 21 00 

1. " Western Union Tefegrapli Co 31 00 

" 1. " T. F. Bland, quarantine officer 23 00 

" 1. " J. I. Maxwell, quarantine officer 17 00 

" 1. " J. A. Whiting, quarantine officer 60 00 

" 1. " R. L. Schley, quarantine officer 6 00 

" 1. " W. A. Peet, quarantine officer 6 00 

" 1. " T. G. Hewlett, quarantine officer 6 00 

" 1. " Brown Printing Co 211 80 

Sept. 17. " Health Officer's hotel bill, Atlanta 4 00 

" 28. " Freight on tents from Flomaton 1 50 

Total $ 2,496 33 

Summary Statement. 

Received from Treasurer $2,502 89 

" " sale of mattrasses, &c., at Flomaton. . 25 20 

Total receipts $2,528 09 

Expended by State Health Officer 2,496 33 

To balance overdrawn $31 76 

By balance refunded to Treasurer 31 76 

Total $2,528 09 


[Statement No. 3.] 

The State Board of Health, 

In account with The State of Alabama. 



Feb. 1. To ticket from Mobile to New Orleans and 

return $ 6 60 

" 1. Dinner at Mobile, en route 75 

" 1. Hack at New Orleans 50 


Feb. 4. To hotel bill at the St. Charles $ ll(j(j 

" 4. Supper ut Mobile 75 

Total I_ 1160 

By cash from Treasurer $ 19 60 

General Summary. 

Total receipts per Statement No. 1 !|: 1,261.' Ui 

recepits per Statement No. 2 2,528 09 

receipts per Statement No. 3 19 60 

Total receipts $3,809 85 

By cash paid out per Statement No. 1 $1,282 16 

cash paid out per Statement No. 2 2,496 33 

cash paid out per Statement No. 3 19 60 

By total expenditures $3,77h 09 

By balance refunded Treasurer 31 76 

By total $3,809 85 

To total receipts $3,809 85 

By total expenditures . .$3,809 86 


The work of tlie County Boards of Health is steadily im- 
proving when we consider all the counties together. That 
is to say a larger number of counties than ever before are 
engaged in the collection of vital statistics; and a larger 
number than ever before are api)roximating satisfactory re- 
sults. This persistent progress, even while it is slow, is 
very gratifying. In it we have the assurance that complete 
success Avill ultimately crown our efforts in the most diflicult 
enterprise ever undertaken by the medical j)rofession of any 
country in the world. It is a work therefore of which the 
medical profession of Alabama may well be proud. We 
proceed to notice each one of the county boards of li«'altlj, 
and its work for the past year separately. 

Aiilmnjit Ciiiiiih/ liiinnl. — No report- were rt'ceived from thi!* l>«>ard 
for 1893. There is no good reason wliy this board should not do good 


work. Dr. R. L. Huddloston, of Wadsworth, is the county health 
officer ; but he seems to have paid no attention to the duties of the 

Baldwin Count if Board.— ^Ve are pleased to be able to repeat for 
this board what we said of it last year : Dr. W. M. Lovelady con- 
tinues to act as county health officer. No other county in the State 
presents more difficulties in the way of long distance and sparseness 
of population. In spite of these difficulties the work is fairly well 
done and continues to improve. Tlie results show this county to be 
one of the healthiest in the state. The health officer's salary is three 
hundred dollars a year. 

Barbour Count}] Board. — We are sori-y to have to repeat our verdict 
of the last several years, namely, that the work in this county con- 
tinues in a very unsatisfactory condition. AV^e know of no reason 
why this should be so, except that the board is extremely negligent 
of its duty. Dr. Charles W. Lee is the county health officer. His 
salary is $150 a year. 

Bibb County Board. — This board has been for several years in a 
state of suspended animation, the county commissioners having made 
no appropriation for a county health officer, and none of the doctors 
being willing to work without pay. Recently, however, Dr. J. U. Ray, 
Jr., has been elected county health officer, with the promise of active 
assistance from all the doctors in the county, and an effort will be 
made to get a salary for him. 

Blount Countij Board. — This county has continued to do very defec- 
tive work. The reports have been sent in regularly but have not ap- 
proximated any high degree of excellence. Dr. H. H. Byars was 
appointed county health officer at the beginning of this year, and 
promises to do better. His salary is seventy-five dollars a year, and 
ought to be increased if he does satisfactory work. 

Bullock Count]! Board. — The work in this county continues to be 
well done. Dr. S. C. Cowan is still the county health officer. His 
salary is $150 a year. 

Butler County Board.— Our work in this county continues to be well 
done, but is still not quite complete. Dr. J. C. Kendrick is still the 
county health officer. His salary is iflOO a year, and should be in- 

Calhoun County Board. — The work in this county continues to be 
well done, and even promises improvement. The separate reports for 
Jacksonville, Oxford and Piedmont have always been good. The 
separate report for Anniston, which has heretofore been defective, has 
for the last few months been complete, and one or two chronic de- 


linquents amongst the doctors have begun to report. Dr. \V. I!. .\r- 
berry is county health officer. His sahiry is :|;200 a year. 

Chambers County Board. — No reports were received from this county 
last year, nor for several years The healtli otHcer received no salary 
and does no work. Tlie society is now in better sliape than it has 
been for a long time. But whether anything will be done to iniprovt* 
the collection of vital statistics or not remains to be seen. 

Cherokee County Board. — During all last year the work of this board 
was very much neglected. This year the society is in very much bet- 
ter condition ; and the outlook for good work has greatly im|)rov»'d. 
Dr. R. L. IMcWhorter is the county healtli officer. His salary is $150 
a year. 

Chilton County Board. — No reports have been received from tliis 
county for several years. The health officer has had no salary, and 
has done no work. Tlie society has taken on new life ; but it remains 
to be seen whether anything will be done towards the collection of 
vital statistics. Dr..W. E. Stewart is the county health officer. 

Choctaw County Board. — Our work in this county for the past year 
has been of a very unsatisfactory character. Dr. J. L. Granberry has 
recently been made county health officer and promises to do better- 
His salary is $100 a year. 

Clarke County Board. — The reports from this county are very goiwJ, 
but not quite complete. This board should make just a little more 
effort, and leave nothing to be desired. Dr. J. AV. Armistead is still 
the county health oflicer. His salary is $150 a year. 

Clay County Board. — The reports from this county continue to be 
very good, but it is believed they are not quite complete. Dr. Thumas 
Northern is still the county healtli officer. His salary is only $30— a 
ridiculously small sum even for Clay county. It should ln' nt li-ast 

Cleburne County Board.— The work in this county was poorly done 
last year. The health officer had no salary, and did not put hinist-lf 
to much trouble. Nevertheless, tilings have improved and tin' out- 
look is better. Dr. J. H. Ligon is the county health officer. His salary 
is $25. It should in common decency be raised to $Ilk». 

Coffee County Board.— This board has made no n'ports for the past 
year. The county health officer gets no salary, ami very naturally 
does no work. 

Colbert County Board.— ^o reports have been n-ceiv.-d fn>in this 
county for two or three years jiast. There is no reason except negli- 
gence on the part of the board why good work should not l>ed«)ne here. 
Dr. J. 31. Pinkslon is county health officer. His salary is I — . 


Conecuh Coioitii Jiuard. — This board continues to send in good re- 
ports. Dr. Andrew Jay is county health officer. His salary is $200. 

Coosa Count!/ Boanl.— Thin board continues to do good work. Dr. 
A. J. Peterson is still the county health officer. His salary is s^lOO a 

Covington County Board — No reports have been received from this 
board for two or three years. 

Creusham Couatu Board. — There has been some improvement in this 
county, but it is still not in a satisfactory condition. Dr. A. J. Jones 
is the county health officer. A few months ago his salary was fixed 
at the inadequate sum of $50 a year. 

Cullman County Board.— The work of this board continues to be 
done in tolerable fashion. It could and ought to be made complete. 
Dr. M. L. Johnson is the county health officer still. His salary is 
one hundred dollars a year. 

Dale County Board.— In this county there has been no salary appro- 
priated to pay a county health officer ; and no attempt has been made 
to collect the vital statistics. 

Dallas County Board. — Our work in this county while about as usual 
is not in a satisfactory condition. It is confessedly a difficult county 
to manage on account of the very large negro population it contains. 
But these difficulties are not insuperable and ought to be overcome. 
The reports from the city of Selma are claimed to be complete. The 
county health officer is Dr. F. G. DuBose. His salary is $240 a year. 

DeKalh County Board. — During the past year the work in this county 
went on about as heretofore, with fairly good, but not complete re- 
ports. With the beginning of this year Dr. F. P. Gale was elected 
health officer. His salary is $150 a year. 

Elmore County Board.— The w^ork in this county was well done up to 
the first of January, while Dr. O. S. Justice was county health officer. 
Since then Dr. W. A. Huddleston has been county health officer, and 
the work seems to have utterly collapsed. His salary is $100 a year. 

Escambia County Board —Our work in this county is well done. 
Dr. E. T. Parker is still the county health officer. His salary is $250 
a year. 

Etowah County Board.— Our work in this county has continued to 
• improve, and while not quite complete is very well done. Dr. D. H. 
Baker is still the county health officer. His salary is $150 a year. 

Fayette County Board. — This board has done nothing during the past 
two or three years. There has been recently a new election for county 
health officer resulting in the appointment of Dr. W. W. Jones. It is 

THE REl'ORT OF THE r,n.\ i;i) OV CENSORS. 155 

believed he will do better work. His salary is only lifty dullaru a 
year, more than adecjuate compt'iisatioii for what lias hecii done liere- 
tofore, but not more than half of what a good olliccr ouglit to get. 

Franklin County Board. — There is no reason why this board shouUl 
not do good work, except that it just don't seem to know how. There- 
is no appropriation for the t-ounty health officer, and he feels free not 
to do anything. 

Geneva County Board. — The hopes expressed in our last report in re- 
gard to this board have not been fulfilled. The society seems to have 
revived somewhat, but has done nothing towards the collection of 
statistics. There is no appropriation to pay a county healtli ofHcer. 

Greene Couutij Board. — During the past year no reports Jiave been 
received from tliis board. Tliere is no good reason why il sliouhl not 
do good work. 

Hale County Board. — Our work in this county continues to be poorly 
done. There is no sufficient reason in the nature of the case for tin's 
continued failure. Dr. Huggins is still liie county liealth ollicer. 
His salary is $150 a year. 

Henry County Board. — Our work in this county is still in a very un- 
satisfactory condition. Dr. Oscar Dowling has been recently elected 
county health officer, and promises to bring order out of the chaos. 
His salary is .$100 a year. For good work in this county he sht)uld be 
paid double that amount. 

Jackson County Board. — The work in this county continues to be 
fairly good ; but it fell back a little last year. Dr. E. R. Smith is now 
the county health officer. His administration .so far shows some 
promise of improvement. His salary is $150 a year. 

Jefferson County Hoard. — Considering all of its work together, tliis 
is the most efficient board in the slate. It is one of the few hoards 
that does its full duty in the inspection of jails, poor-houses, hosjtitals, 
schools, etc. It does good work in the collection of vital statistics, 
but not perfect for all the beats. The special reports for Hirming- 
ham, Bessemer, Pratt City, Coalburg, Warrior, Woodlawn, Av»)ndale, 
etc., are believed to be nearly complete. There is more work to do, 
and more work done in this county than in any other in the state 
Dr. T. D. Parke is the county health oMicer. His salary is 1 1,000 a 

Lamar Coioity Board.— The work of this board continues to be done 
in a very unsatisfactory way. It certainly does not improve any. The 
health officer is Dr. D. D. Hollis. His salary is only $25— very |K>nr 
pay, which may to some extent account for th»> poor work. This 
county should pay $100 and retpiire gootl work. 


Lauderdale Cuiinti/ Board. — This board has done no work for several 
years. It is showing generally more signs of life, but is malting no 
vital statistics reports. There is no appropriation for a county health 

Laivrencr Conntij Board. — This board maiies regular reports, and 
there has been some improvement during the past year. But this 
work is still more defective than it ought to be. The county health 
officer is still Dr. W. J. INIcMahon. His salary is $150. 

Lee Conntij Board.— This board has been very nearly defunct, but is 
beginning to show a little more vitality. It has made no reports for 
several years Thei-e is no county health officer, and no appropria- 
tion to pay one. This board ought to wake up and do better. It 
ought to be one of the most flourishing organizations in the state. 

Limestone County Board. — The board in this county continues to do 
its work in an unsatisfactory fashion, and not in accordance with the 
rules Dr. W. J. Ilagan is the county health officer. His salary is 
$ — a year. 

Loivndes County Board. — The work in this county continues to go on 
about as in past years. Dr. Shirley Bi-agg is still the county health 
officer. His salary is $400 a year. 

Macon County Board. — The work of this board continues to be a 
failure. Dr. J. E. Drakeford is the county health officer. He has no 

3Iadison County Board. — The work of this board has improved some- 
what during the past year, but it is still very defective. This is one 
of the boards that ought very emphatically to do better. Dr. Henry 
McDonnell is the county health officer. His salary is $ — a year. 

Marengo County Board. — The work of this board is in a very unsat- 
isfactory condition. This is another county that very emphatically 
ought to do better. Dr. I. G. Wilson is the counly health officer. 
His salary is $ — a year. 

Marlon County Board. — We have received no reports from thisboai'd 
during the past year. There is no appropriation to pay a health of- 

Marshall County Board. — This board has made no reports during 
the past year. There is no apjjropriation to pay a health officer. 

Mobile County Board. — The work of this board last year was a com- 
plete failure. Dr. D. C. Eandle was county health officer. This year 
Dr. F. K. Beck is county health officer. What sort of work he will 
do remains to be seen. His salary is $450 a year, quite enough to se- 
cure good work. 


Monroe (Jonntii Boiinl. — Tlio work of tliis board at one tiirn- last year 
threatened serious de 'lension but it raUied aKaiii, and is now fairly 
well done, but not complete. Dr. W. \\ . McMillan is still the county 
health officer. His salai*y is if 150 a year. 

Montgomern Count}) lionrtl. — The work of tills board continut's to im- 
prove, but is not complete. The health officer is I»r. V. W. Owen. 
His salary is !f600 a year — the best salary, all things eonsidt-red, re- 
ceived by any health officer in the state. It should guarant»'e i^maX 

Morgan Coanti/ Boanl. — The deterioration noted in ref,'ard to the 
work in this county in our report of last year, has contiimed, until this 
board is in a very bad way indeed. Dr. Barclift has just been super- 
seded as county health officer by Dr. S L. Uoundtree. His salary is 
$150 a year. 

Perry Connfji Bonrd. — As usual no reports have been received fronj 
this board during the past year. It is one of the counties in which 
good work should be done. A sufficient number of intelligent doctors 
scattered over the county should make the work easy. There is no 
appropriation to pay the county health officer. 

Pickens Countij Board. — This board rejjorted regularly last year, but 
the reports were far from complete. Dr. II. B. rpchurch is the 
county health officer. His salary is $ — a year. 

Pike Countij BnanJ. — Our work in this county has gone on abtnit as 
usual. The monthly reports are regularly made, but they are not 
complete. Dr. C. W. Hilliard is the county health officer. His sala- 
ry is $75 a year. 

Ramlolph Countij Board. — Xo rei)orts were received from this board 
last year. The society has had a large increase of membersiiip, and 
seems now to be in good working order. The outlook is greatly im- 
proved. Dr. P. E. Dean is the county health officer. His salary i« 
$50 a year. 

Russell CoHntij Board.— The society of this county show.'; si>me im- 
provement ; but has made no vital statistics reports for several years. 
The county health officer is Dr. J. P. Xorris. He gets no salary 

Shelhij Count!/ Board.— This board has made no reports for several 
years. There is no reason except invincible negligence why th«'y 
should not do good work. There is no appropriation to pay a health 

St. Clair County Board.— Thi^ boanl makes reports equal to miy to 
the state. The county healtli officer is Dr. E. P. Ca.soii. llix .talary 
is only 50 dollars a year. He certainly deserves more than twice that 


Sumter ('nioifi/ lionrd.— The work of this board continues to be very 
badly done. Dr. D. S. Brockway is still the county health officer. 
His salary is 100 dollars a year. 

Talladet/(t C'oiDiti/ lioanl. — This board is making progress very slowly. 
The reports come in regularly, but they are not complete. Dr. W. F. 
Thetford is still tlie county health officer. His salary is 125 dollars 
a year. 

Tallapoosa Connli/ Board. — A year ago the reports of this board was 
very defective. During 1893 there was considerable improvement, 
but the work was not at all in a satisfactory condition. With the 
beginning of this year, however, there has been a great change for 
the better, and the outlook for almost perfect work is quite encour- 
aging. Dr. A. L. Harland is still the county health officer. His sal- 
ary is dollars a year. 

Tuscaloosa Covufi/ Board. — The work of this board continues to be 
very defective and unsatisfactory. It ouglit to be greatly improved. 
Dr. John B. Read is still the county health officer. His salary is 125 
dollars a year. 

Walker County Board. — No reports have been received from this 
board for several years. Dr. D. H. Camak is the county health offi- 
cer. His salary is 100 dollars a year. 

Washington County Board.— This board has never attempted the 
collection of vital statistics. The county is very large, sj)arsely set- 
tled, and with very few doctors. There is no approi)riation to pay a 
health officer. 

Wilcox Count}/ Board. — No reports have been received from this 
county for the past year. This board should do better. The county 
is a large one but it has a large number of doctors, who could do suc- 
cessful work if they would. 

]Vinsfon, CoKufi/ Board. — There has been some improvement in the 
work of this board, although it is still defective. Dr. ,7. C. Taylor is 
still the county health officer. His salary now is 50 dollars a year. 



On the evening of the 9th of August, 1893, a telegraphic 
dispatch was received from the president of the Pensacola 
Board of Health reporting the occurrence in that city of 
two deaths from yellow fever. The state health officer at 


the time was in bed sick; but a conference was immediately 
called in his sick room which was attended by }^'f)vernor 
Thomas G. Jones, mayor Crommelin, Drs. Seelye, and Jijdd- 
win of the State Board of Health, and Drs. Gaston, Hill and 
Blue of the Montgomery Board of Health. 

The first question considered by the conference was whether 
the quarantine about to be established should be conducted 
with the intention of keeping up some restricted travel and 
traffic with Peusacola; or whether it should be conducted 
on the principle of non-intercourse. The principle of non- 
intercourse was adopted, for the following reasons : (1) Our 
commercial relations with Pensacola were not such tliat 
their temporary interruption would work any great incon- 
venience to anybody concerned ; (2) The season was so 
early that we could not expect the fever in Pensacola, if it 
should once become epidemic, to subside in less than three 
months; (3) The close proximity of Pensacola to our s(nith- 
ern border placed us in a position of special danger. On 
the other hand it was considered that the most direct route 
for refugees flying from the infected city would be through 
the State of Alabama, and it was decided that refugee trains 
should be allowed to pass through the state under proper 
regulations to such places as might be willing to receive 

It was further agreed that the State Board of Health 
should take charge of the quarantine of the railroads; and 
invite the co-operation of the various county and city hoaltii 
authorities along the lines exposed to danger of invasion to 
keep special guard over the communities entrusted to tlieir 
care and supervision by the laws of the state ; that the gov- 
ernor and the mayor should both issue quarantine procla- 
mations at once ; and that mayor Crommelin, liaving facdi- 
ties for prompt work on account of his control of the police 
force of the city, should at once put quarantine officers on all 
the trains going out of Montgomery, said quarantine officers to 
be paid out of the state quarantine fund, and pas^.-.l ..v.-r 
to the control of the State Board of Health. 


The quarantine proclamations of the governor, and of the 
mayor, and the regulations for the government of the quar- 
antine here follow : 

THE governor's rROCLAMATION. 


Whereas, yellow fever exists at Pensacola, Fla., and 
"Whereas, the State Board of Health recommends quarantine to the 
extent hereafter stated as necessary for the protection of the health 
of the people of Alabama. 

'Now therefore, I, Thos. G. Jones, governor of the State of Alabama, 
pursuant to the authority in me vested by "An act to regulate the 
practice of quarantine in Alabama," appi-oved February 28th, 1887, 
do hereby proclaim, declare and establish the following quarantine 
measure against persons and things in the city of Pensacola, Fla. and 
other places infected with yellow fever, to-wit: No person, baggage, 
goods or merchandise of any kind from Pensacola, Fla., or other 
places infected with yellow fever shall be permitted to enter the 
limits of the State of Alabama, except on special through trains 
destined to points beyond this state, and which do not receive or dis- 
charge passengers or goods or merchandise within this state. This 
quarantine shall be conducted through the State Board of Health, 
which is charged with the duty of enforcing such measures not incon- 
sistent with the constitution of the state and the laws thereof, as it 
may deem necessary to that end. 
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the 
Great Seal of the State to be hereunto affixed at the Capitol, at 
Montgomery, this the 9th day of August, A. D., 1893, and of the 
Independence of the United States the 118th year. 

Thos. G. Jones, 
By the Governor : — Governor. 

J. D. Barron, 

Secretary of State. 

THE mayor's proclamation. 

Mayor's Ofeice, 

Montgomery, Ala., August 9th, 1893. 

By virtue of the power vested in me, I, Jno. G. Crommelin, mayor 

of the city of Montgomery, do hereby proclaim a quarantine against 

Pensacola, Fla., or any other place infected with yellow fever, to the 

eflFect that until an absence of at least ten days from Pensacola, Fla., 


or any other place infected vvilli yellow f.n-er, no persrm r)r jxTsonal 
baggage, and no railroad car or freight of any kind, shall ho allow. -d 
to come within ten miles of the city of Montgomery, except for the 
purpose of passing througli on throngli trains, until public notice of 
the discontinuance of this quarantine. 

.Tno. G. Crom.memn, 
Mayor of the City of Montgomery. 


Montgomery, Ala., August 10th, 1893. 

( 1. ) Under the Quarantine Proclamations of the Governor, no per- 
son or freight from Pensacola or Brunswick, or other place infected 
with yellow fever, is allowed to be brought into the State of Alabama, 
or transported from place to place within the State by any railroad, 
except on special trains which shall be passed entirely through the 
State, stopping only for fuel and water. The object of this quaran- 
tine is not to facilitate traffic or travel, but to put a stop to both so far 
as these infected places are concerned. But inasmuch as it may from 
time to time become expedient to make some temporary relaxation 
of rule arrangement is made for special trains. 

(2). If any person from any infected place should be discovered in 
the State of Alabama before the expiration <>f ten days from the time 
of leaving such infected place, such person shall be arrested and either 
sent out of the State as promptly as possible, or detained under guard 
at a most convenient quarantine station for ten days after arrest. If 
any refugee, from any infected place, should be arrested on a railroad 
car on any railroad which passes beyond the limits of the State, such 
road shall as promptly as possible transport sucli person beyond the 
limits of the State, unless some quarantine office of the State of Ala- 
bama shall order such refugee to some Quarantine Station. If any 
refugee from any infected place should be arrested on any road 
not a through line, or not a part of a througli line system, and by a 
through line is meant a line or system which passes beyond the limits 
of the State, then such person shall be di'alt with as the (piarantine 
officer making the arrest may direct. 

(3). Special arrangements may be made for special railroad ser- 
vice by agreement with the State Health Officer. No sucli arrange- 
ment will be lightly made. 

(4). For the present the United States mails may be passed without 
inter-ference ; but it may become necessary, after a while, to disinfect 

(5). If any refugee, from any infected place, should be arrested at 
any local point by tlie local authorities, he shall be punished accord- 
ing to the local regulations. 


These rules go into operation forthwith. By order of the State 
Board of Health. 

Jekomp: Cociirax, M. D., 

State Health Officer. 

On the 12tli of Auf^ust, there was a meeting in Montgom- 
ery of the Committee of Public Health of the State Board 
of Health. There were present : 

Dr. T. L. Robertson, of Birmingham, President of the 
State Board of Health. 

Dr. B. J. Baldwin, of Montgomery. 

Dr. S. D. Seelye, of Montgomery. 

Dr. C. H. Franklin, of Union Springs. 

Dr. W. H. Sanders, of Mobile, 

Dr. E. H. Sholl, of Birmingham. 

Dr. Jerome Cochran, of Montgomery. 

After the thorough discussion of all the questions involv- 
ed in the quarantine, this board approved of what had been 
doi;ie, and left the quarantine' administration in all its details 
in the hands of the State Health Officer. 

In the meantime, Escambia county, Alabama, which is 
adjacent to Escambia county, Florida, and in parts only 40 
miles from Pensacola, and in which, at Flomaton, is the 
junction of the Mobile and Montgomery and the Pensacola 
railroads, being specially open to invasion by the threatened 
epidemic, was greatly excited and took active measures for 
her own protection. Dr. James A. Wilkinson, of Flomaton, 
was appointed by telegraph to represent the state board of 
health at that place, and immediately established a quaran- 
tine station there and employed the necessary guards. 

It would require more space and more time than are 
available now to give a detailed history of the quarantine 
administration of the next three months. On the 12th of 
August, we got information of the existence of one case of 
yellow fever at Brunswick, Ga. We would not have con- 
sidered it necessary to establish a quarantine against Bruns- 
wick on the occurrence of a single case of yellow fever, be- 
cause the geographical relations between Brunswick and 


Alabama are very diflfereut from those existiii<^ between 
Alabama ami Pensacola. Wo were sure to be overrun by 
refugees from Pensacola, while refugees from Brunswick 
would naturally seek asylum by passing northwards through 
the State of Georgia. In a word, it was certain that very 
few Brunswick people would come into Alabama ; but as our 
quarantine inspectors were already on the railroad trains, 
we at once included Brunswick in the scope of our quaran- 
tine restrictions. There were never an}- additional cases re- 
ported in Pensacola ; and on the 18th of August, the Florida 
State Health Officer, Dr. J. Y. Porter, issued a statement 
very gravely questioning whether the cases reported were 
really yellow fever. On the 19th of August, our quarantine 
against Pensacola was discontinued. 

As stated, the first case was reported in Brunswick ou tlie 
12th of August. The second case was reported on the 21st, 
and the third on the 23rd. On the 7th of September, quar- 
antine against Brunswick was discontinued. But on the 13tli 
of September four neAV cases were reported, and quarantine 
was again proclaimed and enforced. On the first day of No- 
vember, the quarantine was at last permanently discon- 

The method adopted to prevent the railroads from bring- 
ing into the state persons from infected places was a .sys- 
tematic inspection of the trains. There are two ways in 
which this can be done. One way is to stop the train at tlie 
state line and make the inspection there. Tlie other way is 
to have inspectors travel on the trains and make tlio inspec- 
tions while the trains are in motion. This last method, for 
many reasons, is very greatly to be lu'cferred. It interferes 
very much less with the convenience of tlie railroads ; it puts 
a stop to many invasions that would be possible by the otlier 
method, and it makes of the (piarantine officers a corps of 
traveling detectives. For sufficient reasons, wo had the 
trains worked both ways, going and coming. Every passen- 
ger was required to swear to and sign the following certificate: 



1. At what station did you get on this train? 

Answer : 

2. Have you been in Brunswick. Ga., Jesup, Ga., "Camp of Deten- 
tion," Ga., Jekyl Island, St. Simon's Island, or any other infected 
place with yellow fever within the last ten days? 

Answer : 

3. When was the last time you were in either of said places? How 
long were you there? 

Answer : 

4. Have you, or any one traveling in your chai'ge, been in either 
of the above places in the last ten days? 

Answer : 

5. Have you to your knowledge been exposed to yellow fever in 
the past ten days? 

Answer ; 

6. Where have you been in the past ten days? 

Answer : 

I, do solemnly swear 

that the answers to the foregoing questions are true, so help me god ! 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this day of 


Quarantine Officer. 

Some conception of the extent of tlie work may be formed 
from the fact that some 80,000 of these blanks were used 
during the quarantine season. The largest number of quar- 
tine officers on duty at any one time was about twenty-five. 
We were able to get very good men, competent, courteous, 
and trustworthy. Of course we made a few mistakes, but 
every quarantine officer who got drunk, or who was discour- 
teous, or who neglected his duty was promptly and arbitra- 
rily removed. The chief quarantine officer, who had the 
supervision of all the others, was Captain M. H. Amerine. 
He was very active and efficient. All the others made daily 
reports to him, and he made daily reports to the State Health 
Officer. The discipline was of military precision and sever- 

We had the cheerful and thorough going co-operation of 
the railroad officials, and were indebted to them for some 


valuable suggestions. They, also, kindly furnished ;dl (|uar- 
antine officials with free passes. We, on our side, were 
anxious to put thera to as little trouble as possible. 


To the Honorable the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House 
of lieprescntdtires of the Congress of the United States of A imriru . 
The American Medical Association at its meeting at Washington 
in May, 1891, adopted unanimously this resolution : 

"■Resolred, That the president of tiie Association, W. T. Hrif,'gs, of 
Tennessee, appoint a Committee to memorialize the next Congn-ss to 
create a Department and a Secretary of Public Health." 

At the meeting of the Fifty-second Congress in December, 1891, a 
petition and a bill to that effect was introduced in both Houses; in 
the Senate by the Hon. John Sherman and the House by the Hon. 
John A. Caldwell, and they were referred to certain committees. No 
report has ever been made to either House on the subject. 

At the annual meeting of said Association in the City of Detroit in 
June, 1892, tlie committee reported the failure to secure any action of 
Congress on the petition ; vvhei'eupon the Association again directed 
the select committee to renew its appeal for Congressional action ; 
but no notice was taken of it, chiefly because the alarm at the ap- 
proach of cholera from P^urope led Congress at once to enlarge the 
existing quarantine system which it was supposed would answer all 

The chairman of the committee addressed a communication to the 
chairman of the committee on Contagious Diseases in the Senate, 
which set forth that while the (luarantine measures were very efTcct- 
ive so far as the hindrance to transplanting the diseases of other hinds 
was concerned ; yet they did not include all the measures for the op- 
eration of preventive medicine which the American .Meilieal .\ssii<ia- 
tion was seeking to establish for the public welfare. 

The only answer made at any time by this gentleman was merely 
verbal, and that it was his belief that congress would not appropriate 
money that would increase public ex])en(liture. 

At the annual session in .Milwaukee in June, 1893, these facts were 
reported, and the special committee was ordered to renew the n|»penl 
at the approaching Fifty-third Congress. Under this nut liority tlie 
undersigned beg your consideration of the whole subject anew. 

In the Pan-American .Medical Congress, which met in Washington 
in September, 1893, under the ausjdces «)r our government, tiie most 
august assembly of medical men that ever met in this hemisphere, 


this question was carefully discussed and unanimously approved. 
Moreover, a large number of state boards of health, the national board 
of public health and numerous medical societies in different cities 
and states luive given their adhesion to the movement. 

The American Medical Association is constituted of men of distinc- 
tion in every part of the Union. For more than forty years its ses- 
sions have been held in the chief cities of the states lying between 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and it represents nearly one hundred 
thousand intelligent and well-known citizens. The annual sessions 
have greatly promoted scientific research into the causes and treat- 
ment of diseases of every character, the formation of state boards of 
health, higher medical education and the publication of treatises on 
preventive medicine and medical practice, which form a continuous 
line of medical progress in the last half of this century. 

The government, through the operations of the Surgeons-General 
of the Army, Xavy and Marine Hospital service has made liberal ex- 
penditures for the National Medical Library and its Index Catalogue, a 
Pathological Museum and some investigations on the origin,nature and 
spread of the fearful infectious germs that are brought to us by immi- 
grant and other ships. But the medical profession believes that the 
government can, in a wider way, promote the public welfare by crea- 
ting a department of public health, the head of which should be a 
physician, a member of the Cabinet and on a parity with the heads of 
the Departments of War, Navy, Finance, Justice, Agriculture, etc. 
A fair investigation will show that no profession excels ours in posi- 
tive efficiency to sustain public order, public comfort and public vir- 

Hygienic science, on the one hand, and the progress of the sciences 
and growth of the mind, on the other, have always been powerful 
factors in the evolution of humanity. In the first century, when Rome 
had reached her apogee in power and civilization, and had construct- 
ed great aqueducts, public fountains, public latrines, gymnasite and 
a vast system of sewers, under the suggestions of physicians. Martial 
said that it was not merely a question of living, for the people, but to 
have good health ; hence the maxim that has come down to us : "The 
health of the people is the supreme law." 

Recently, the Lord Chancellor of England appointed Sir James 
Crichton Browne, M. D., L. L. D., as his visitor to make certain inves- 
tigations in regard to the public health, and of the influence of certain 
employments upon the health and comfort of the laboring classes. 
We can only give a partial exhibit of his observations. He found, 
tliat while the decline in the death at all ages liad been, within a cer- 
tain period, 17.5 per cent, in those under 55 years of age, it liad been 
reduced only 2.7 per cent, in those above 50 years old. The increased 
longevity has occurred under the age of 35. Tlie decline in the death 
rate beyond the age of 45 had been insignificant, but from 65 to 75 the 


death rate wjis increased. He adds tliat it is not satisfactory to lenrn 
that wliile there has been enormous increase in the duration of life in 
babies and young people, the loss is alarming among those who are 
eminent in experience and judgment. The causes of this vital failure 
in the mature element of society was not dillicult to Hnd by his sta- 
tistical studies. In three or four groups of diseases a marked increase 
in mortality has taken place; thus, in England and Wales, cancer in 
five years, from 1859 to 1863, carried 01135,654, while in five years from 
1884 to 1889, the deaths by cancer were 81,620, an increase of 12(1 per 
cent. The increase in deaths by nervous diseases in tiie same period 
was 38 per cent. ; in kidney diseases for the same period the increase 
in deaths was 164 per cent. ; in heart diseases, the increase was 143 
per cent. These affections, he continues, are of degenerative charac- 
ter and may largely be traced to vital abuse, overstrain and the in- 
creasing luxuriousness in our advancing civilization which establish 
premature senility. ^loreover, the large increase in insanity is caus- 
ing solicitude everywhere. It can not be questioned that this fearful 
increase in bodily and mental decay should be well understood by 
and placed before the people. There is another phase of this ques- 
tion of premature decay of great interest and it concerns a burning 
question of the day. Sir James says, that owing to the strain and 
drive in many manufactories where handicraft piecework prevails, 
the neuro-muscular systems of the shoulder, arm and hand which on 
the average attain maturity at 30 years, and should continue as much 
longer, begin to fail at 45 years, and while at 30 a man can earn 45 
shillings a week, at 45, strive as he may, he can not earn over 38 shil- 
lings, and at 55 his earnings fall to 24 shillings, owing to the premature 
decay of the motor apparatus from overwork. In Sheflield he found 
that penknife makers aged 30 years, strike 28,000 blows a day with a 
hammer, but at 45, they find their celerity and skill have declined 
to nearly one-half, and a reduction in wages to the same extent en- 

As we have no national office for the collection of such statistics, 
excei)t perhaps the Bureau of Labor in a partial way, we nuist rely 
upon those furnished by other nati<ins. 

The telegraph operators, everywhere, sooner or later become the 
victims of scrivener's palsy of the fore-arm and fingers on account of 
the excessive use they are obliged to make of them, for, as tluMr 
celerity fails their wages decline. The mail clerks on railroad trains 
are required to work many hours more than in other government of- 
fices, and are besides compelled to memorize, with all Hie certainty 
of the multiplication table, the locality of eiglit or ten thousand |>ost- 
offices in tiie vast districts of the country. Th.' efTect in numerous 
cases of this excessive use of the memory is insomnia and a mild 
form of dementia. It is, certaiidy, a function of statesnmnship to 
•investigate these serious evils. The government has begun to inves- 


tigate the exposure of employes on railroads who are often wounded 
and killed in the coupling of cars ; and the investigation of the des- 
perate use of young people in the "sweat shops" of clothing estab- 
lishments has created a great outcry for their relief. 

"In 1848 the Public Health bills in England went into operation. 
.The annual death-rate which up to that time was 22.5 per thousand 
diminished to 17.9 per thousand within twenty years ; showing a sav- 
ing in that time of 125,000 lives. The eiTeet of hygienic measures in 
preventing sickness is well known in the State of Michigan. During 
the year 1889 there were 417 outbreaks of scarlet fever. In seventy- 
two of these outbreaks, isolation and disinfection were neglected and 
the number of cases, per outbreak, was 16.78 per cent. In fifty-two 
outbreaks, both isolation and disinfection were strictly enforced with 
the result of limiting the number of cases to 2.67 per cent. In many 
outbreaks only one restrictive measure was used and the other neg- 
lected, and in all such cases there was some reduction in cases, but 
never to the same extent as when both were enforced." (Dr. J. W. 
Brannan, Ncx^ York Medical Record.) 

Our census of 1890 shows that 524,000 deaths occurred in that year, 
and that 100,000 were from consumption. It is estimated that about 
one-half the whole number w^as due to diseases that could have been 

It is now becoming generally known that infectious diseases and 
toxic elements are disseminated in food. An infectious disease in 
the family of a dairyman, or among his cattle, may be as widely 
spread as is the distribution of his milk. The pollution of streams 
supplying towns, cities, and wells of w^ater at farmers' homes, we 
linow, definitely, subject the people to tedious and fatal diseases 
which a wise sanitation would prevent. It is absolutely demonstrated 
that by the rigid application of hygienic measures the ravages of a 
pestilence may be stayed. Medical scientists speak of such destruc- 
tion as a self-imposed curse of dying in the prime of life. 

In primitive history we find that hygeia and therapy were the con- 
servative and remedial agencies of atllicted peoples. We read with 
admiration of the wisdom which made sanitary measures a part of 
the religious codes of a nation. The hygienic laws of Moses, which 
undoubtedly embodied fragments of his Egyptian training both as a 
physician and a priest, and the moral law, the Ten Commandments, 
received from the hand of God, have been kept together by the Jews 
in their sacred books and inculcated in their religious and social 
rites for thousands of years, which clearly accounts for their exis- 
tence, physically and mentally, as one of the most vigorous races 
among the multitudes of the earth. 

Physicians are held to be the guardians of the organs that concur 
for the maintenance of a healthy animal life,butitis not so generally 
understood that the great brain the physical basis of the mind, is justj 


as much an organ of tlieir conservative regard; it ih not ho well 
known that the heultliy brain is necessary to a free will— the function 
that places man in his supreme condition as master of created things. 

Tlie increased light which physiology and i)iithology have shed ii|)nn 
the relations of the brain and mind, lias eiuililcd us to locate the an-a 
in the brain where exists the capacity to think, where sensatiiniH are 
shaped into concejjtions, where ideas are syjnbolized in language, 
where memory holds its seat, the imagination displays its miirvel- 
lous powers, and self-control is enthroned. All of the apparatus of 
our mere animal life— respiration, circulation of the blood, digestion 
and assimilation of food, execretions of waste tissues and the actions 
of the nervous and muscular systems are to maintain and develop in 
perfect health an area which we can cover with our two hands. It is 
the region of self-consciousness, the plane where spirit ninl matter 
are impact and which enables a nuin to say: "I know tluit I know, 1 
feel that 1 feel, I think that I think ;" it is there, indeed, that nm- 
sciousness feels itself to be coterminate with the cosmos. Who but 
the physician has the right to supervise this dread region? Closer 
than the minister of religion, or the rights of fainily, he stands as 
the guardian interpreter of its illimitable faculties. 

By prolonged physiologic and pathologic research, psychology has 
been lifted above the mere subtle reason of the schoolmen into the 
light of a new day, and is now comprehended as never before. Met- 
aphsics is no longer a mere jugglery with words and phrases, but a 
function of consciousness only existing in the healthy area above de- 
scribed ; it is the highest expression of reason, whereby the intui- 
tional phenomena of thought and the phenomena derived from the 
senses, the ideal and the real, the subject and the object, the me and 
the not me, are broght by by a free will into accord and the conscious- 
ness is freed from the baleful illusions, hallucinations and delusions 
which exist in the insane. The imperfect state of consciousness in 
unsound sleep, illustrates a mental stale wherein ideas How freely, 
regulated only by automatic association; we are led everywhere by 
the most grotesque and ofti'ii fearful iileation, without any self-con- 
trol ; the metaphysical function is in abeyance; there is no meta- 
physics in dreams, the consciousness is on too low a plane for any ex- 
ercise of the will. This argument is legitinuite and should be con- 
vincing, that medical men hold an indispensable relation to the si>cial 
and political state. 

All abuses of the appetite in any direction, all violence done to the 
brain by overwork, overstrain, the excitemetit of narcotics, and the 
delirious speculative ventures in the values of slocks and of the pro- 
ducts of the croi)s; everything, indeed ke«'ps up unduly, mental ox. 
citement, deteriorates at length the organic structure of the brain, 
enfeebles the mintl in judgment on any subject; in short. a condition 
of dementia supervenes. It is for the physician to wiirn tenchera of 


the deleterious effects of overtasking scholars ; to warn people against 
luxuriousness, indolence, and the habitual use of stimulants, and 
excess in any passion or appetite ; for, while tlie organs of mere ani- 
mal life are damaged the nutrition of the brain is changed, the will 
becomes so impaired that self-control is lost. It is appalling to con- 
template the social destruction about us on account of tlie prevalence 
of the passions of v.varice, peculation and lust which so greatly deiile 
public virtue. These are evils the indulgence of which has ruined 
statesmen and empires. Luxury and vice in combination form the 
dynamite in the moral world. 

The medical supervision should begin in the primary and interme- 
diate schools, which are frequently in overcrowded, ill-lighted and ill- 
ventilated rooms ; this has become so serious that in Germany, at 
least, it has brought about state interference, and physicians must be 
consulted in regard to the hygienic properties of a schoolhouse. The 
physical structure of the eye is most liable to evil changes, leading 
to shortsightedness ; and the organic life of the brain substance is 
exposed to deterioration leading to lowering of the intellectual facul- 
ties. In the technological schools of Fi-ance the use of tobacco is 
forbidden, because it has been ascertained that its abuse renders the 
student incapable of solving the highest problems in mathematics. 
It is also of great importance that the methods of teaching should 
not involve an excessive abuse of the memory— the memoriter plan. 
This it is thought is too greatly employed in American schools, but 
it seems to be a necessity so long as the rank of a pupil in his class 
depends upon the rate per cent, or correct answers. The abuse of the 
memory fatigues the brain as physicians well know, and impairs the 
power of the free will. Lessons are memorized, and not acquired by 
efforts of the understanding, hence they are not well retained and 
furnish a poor basis for intellectual ability. Not only so, but the 
emotional condition so often encountered, and the startling phenom- 
ena of hysteria and hypnotism are thus often superinduced. There 
are no fortuitous conditions that concur for the production of the best 
moral and political circumstances of society ; the whole is purposive 
intelligence existing in the individual and combined in the exigencies 
of the family and the state. Wherever the highest development of 
physical health exists, there will be found the surest basis of intel- 
lectual life. These are not abstract questions of philosophy but are 
the most practical questions of our times, 

A candid and broad investigation of the medical profession shows 
that it appertains to the most important functions in the common- 
wealth. A distinguished English writer has said: "I think it will be 
well for the state when the medical profession is represented in the 
councils of the nation as weightily as can be assured by official places 
and conferred dignities." An eminent German economist has said : 
' We must look to the medical men to resuscitate society." There 


are no evils In society which phy>ici!ins may not do iniii^h to avert ; 
there are no foes of human liapjjiness so widespread, miserable and 
desparring as those which underlie public health; and |tliysicians 
are the only hope of public relief. 

It is certainly a remarkable spectacle, the constant elTorts of jjhy- 
sicians to save the people from outbreaks of disease, when success 
will limit to the smallest dimensions our practice and incomes. Hut 
this arises from the nature of our studies whose tendencies are to 
render an unselfish service to humanity in the time of its calamities 
The physician is bound to render service to the poor, especially. The 
amount of gratuitous service in great cities is a very large part of 
their practice. In all of our ])ublic general hospitals they serve with- 
out salaries. 

If there were cruelties to prisoners on either side in our civil war, 
it was not perpetrated by the surgeons of the opposing armies. When 
the strife ceased they were the first to extend tiie fraternal hand 
across the red fields of conflict. 

The progress of medical science establishes our increasing respr)n- 
sibility to place our medical schools on the highest plane of teaching. 
There is a very large aspect of medicine that renders it so common- 
place as practically to degrade it, and this is a consideration that will 
be a great obstacle in the way to your adoption of our bill. 1 allude 
to the giving of drugs by everybody for the relief of symptoms of 
disease. It may be said all the people, young and old, not only offer 
general advice but specify the remedies to be used. If medicine has 
no other basis than prescribing, it would possess no autonomy, em- 
body no science, nor philosophic spirit; it would only become an un- 
stable empiricism and would be abandoned to a revolting charlatan- 
ism and it- practitioners be mere vendors of secret, false remedies, 
and, as is now so largely done, would rob the sick not only of their 
money but of any hope of relief. 

The human frame is said to be the Divine idea of mechanism, and 
nothing in all the works of creation so completely illustrates in its 
structure what is called by geometers the " jirinciple nf least 
action," that is the greatest competency in function, with the least 
expenditure of material. Its figure, symmetry, mechanical, physical, 
chemical and biological forces are so correlated that it fulfills all the 
conditions of adjusting internal to external relations. Its organs of 
special sense, its area of consciousness wherein it is the e»|uipoise of 
the physical creation, justifies the ascription that man is the cn)wn 
and fiower of creation. Can any one doubt that it is only by n long 
and minute study that such an organism can be comprehendetl? Con- 
gress appropriates annually more than a million of dt)llars for the 
maintenance of military and naval schools, where the whole range «)f 
sciences are inculcated to ascertain the most approved metluHlsof 
public defense and of killing our enemies. Can it be thouglit thai 


any less science is needed to ascertain how to destroy myriads of en- 
emies that provoke disease, and all the more terrible because invis- 
ible to common sight ; and to save from death the most precious ob- 
jects of human love and solicitude? Are there more scientific prob- 
lems for solution in war by sea, or land, than those that exist in the 
grievances of our social life? 

But we are not asking Congress to build a great medical school of 
instruction. Congress appropriates willingly large sums for the study 
of the diseases of cattle and plants, but comparatively nothing for the 
diseases of the people. But we show you that 522,000 inhabitants 
died in 1890, and that 250,000 of them, at least, have perished by 
diseases which are preventable. 

AVe ask for a governmental department of public health ; one of 
whose functions would be the combination of the intelligence, feeling 
and force of all the schools and medical societies of the nation for 
collective investigation in order that physicians may become capable 
to the utmost, to relieve the woe and agony of suffering in individuals 
and families. 

For the medical profession to be able to exert all its benign influen- 
ces in society, it must have the same rank and dignity that is attached 
to other departments in the president's cabinet. The methods of 
research are the same as those employed by other scientists. The 
methods of the calculus that are employed to ascertain the cause of 
the pertubations of celestial bodies, are the same as those employed 
in the investigation of obscure diseases. The physician is guided in 
his investigations by the canons of logic, and hence it is that the 
opinions of weli-trained doctors are as reliable and stable as those of 
jurists, statesmen, engineers, merchants, divines, lawyers and political 
economists. The same reproach applied to doctors because of their 
different opinions, applies equally well to all other callings. 

At this time the success in medical practice surpasses any other 
period of its history. The death rate in our general hospitals was 
never as low. In surgery it is about 3 per cent,; thousands of suc- 
cessive births take place in maternity hospitals, without a single 
death ; the mortality in typhoid fever is about 3 per cent, in hospital 
practice; in general medicine the rate is declining; but it is not as 
low as in surgery because of the increasing mortality, as before said, 
in such diseases as consumption, cancer, kidney, heart affections, and 
the continued bad hygienic conditions in the congested areas of our 
large cities, where one-half the children die under five years of age. 
(Cincinnati Hospital Report, 1893.) 

The influence of medical culture upon the progress of civili/.ation 
as before said, both in ancient and modern times forms a great chap- 
ter in human history. The evolutio'i of the mind and the achieve- 
ments in philosophy are no more marvellous than wliat is seen in pre- 
ventive and clinical medicine. The chief figure in the most brilliant 


era of Greek civilization was Aristotle. He was of the Esciilai)iaii 
caste and took up the profession of his father, a jtractiticjner of med- 
icine ; but his constant dissection of animals and plants aroused a 
philosophic spirit of seeking behind all the phenomena of tnitiiro hy 
synthetic formula, the unity of all living beings and their indissoluhlc 
relation to the cosmos. We can not, in our space, point out all the 
achievements of his immense genius nor his specific work in detail 
that entered into his purpose of constructing the edifice of inductive 
philosophy. Mei'e fragments of his precious writings were the only 
intellectual food (excluding the canon of sacred Scripture and tlie 
liturgies of the Church) of the Dark Ages; but when at last the chief 
of his philosophic works were collected and translated into Latin, 
the dawn of the revival flushed the skies and the sun of a new mental 
life shown in full strength upon the scholastic world,— the church 
adopted his philosophy and the renaissance was complete. The influ- 
ence of Ai'istotle has continued to direct modern thought, and though 
much of it has been laid aside, his inductive philosophy and logical 
methods are invincible. 

In Europe, medical afTairs have always had the watehful care of the 
state, and eminent practitioners are now more than ever before, re- 
ceiving titles of distinction. In Italy a physician holds a cabinet 
secretaryship, and in the parliaments, everywhere, distinguished 
practitioners are taking part in general statesmanship. Without tiie 
science of medicine, civilization could never be effective in semi- 
civilized and barbarious lands. 

The conquest of India by Great Britian has been maintained by su- 
perior military power ; but its present tranquility is largely due to 
the beneficent work of medical practice. Since the last great rebel- 
lion there, the English and missionary .societies of our own country 
have established fifteen hundred hospitals and dispensaries, and med- 
ical schools are increasing in numbers. The light of t'hristian benev- 
olence is now carried into the hitherto dosed doors of the homes of 
the people. In China the same benign work has taken deep root. 
Fifty years ago Dr. Parker of the American Presbyterian Church, 
opened a hospital in Canton, and an immense work has been accom- 
plished in surgical and midwifery practice, for which the Chinese had 
no remedies at all. Now a large number of hospitals and disi.ensa- 
ries have been planted along the sea coasts and throughout the inte- 
rior. Besides male, a large number of well-educated female practi- 
tioners, are employed in them. It is the most touching spectacle of 
human sympathy and relief the world has ever known. Were it not 
for their skill in medicine the American missionaries would be ex- 
pelled. Jaimn, Korea, Java and Africa, are being advanced in civili- 
zation in the same manner. Dr. Mungo Park and Dr. David Living- 
ston were the most ventin-ous explorers of Africa. 
It is the belief of many physicians that if from the beginning of the 


settlements in tliis continent the medical otiice had been recognized 
as a department of the state, on a parity with those of war, justice 
and the rest, the great tribes of savage races could have been made 
friendly, and allies, and brought under the terms of a high civiliza- 
tion by the humane influence of our medical men. 

Though Congress is voting vast sums for agricultural schools and 
experimental stations, yet these are above the reach of the greai mass 
of farmers and their adult sons and daughters. They can not leave 
fields and the household duties for at least nine months of the year, 
and they can not pay the expenses incident to college life; but 
schools of instruction, by means of lectures, demonstrations, drawings 
and experiments in physics, chemistry, and the structures and the 
functions of the chief organs of animals and plants, can be readily 
inculcated by the doctors in inedicine who have themselves been 
taught in this manner. These lectures can be given by physicians 
during the winter seasons in the towns of the counties and within 
reach of the farmers' homes, and a central office, such as we propose, 
would aim to promote this without expense to the government. 

It will be the means of putting new life into the freshest and strong 
estminds of the people. Every farm would soon become an experi- 
mental station. Naiure would be seen with new eyes, and the dull 
and monotonous lives of this most neglected class would become rad- 
iant with a new light. This may be counted one of great influences 
that will follow the higher education of physicians. 

The question may arise, whether such a department in the govern- 
ment would subserve the interests of any particular sect or school in 
medicine? We reply that, amid the apparent disparity in medical 
practice, there is one true unity and to attain this all true physicians 
are continually striving. It is evident that there can be but one an- 
atomy, physiology, chemistry, physics or preventive medicine. The 
difference among doctors lies in therapeutics or treatment of disease, 
and as in the past, so for the future, practitioners will use a variety 
of remedies and in varying quantities, and there will be different 
modes of management of sick and injured people. Witli the advance 
in medical education the modes of treatment will become more uni- 

The organism which is called medicine, like every oth r product of 
man's constructive genius, is striving to attain perfection, afid to ac- 
complish this it must be sustained in all its scientific undertakings 
by the co-operation of national and state legislation. 

We ask each member of Congress, who seeks relief for himself and 
his family in the times of their distress through the most accom- 
plished practitioners of medicine, to consider that his mind is the 
type of that of millions who constitute the republic ; and therefore 
we ask him to lend his influence to our effort to secure for the people 
the most highly trained persons in the science and art of medicine. 


We hope that it is plain that u Secretary of I'iil)lic Hi-alih would 
represent the medical conscioiisnoss of the nation, and that lit- would 
be one to whom we could all look for the exploitation of m»'a<iirfH 
that will direct continuous scientilic collective research in rej,'ard to 
epidemic and endemic diseases, and espticially those nf adHgiMicralive 
character; and thus make his department the repository of the most 
important measures that concern the welfare and comfort of the peo- 
ple ; and his duties will steadily grow broader and stronger in adapt- 
ability to public needs. 

Respectfully submitted on the part of the committee. 

C. (i. CoMEGYs, Chairman. 


In 1891 the American Medical College Association, to 
which belong all reputable northern medical colleges, and 
also some few southern medical colleges, enforced on medi- 
cal students an educational qualification for admission, and 
a three years' course for graduation. A Southern Medical 
College Association has since been organized and all repu- 
table southern medical colleges (which are not members of 
the American Medical College Association) are now mem- 
bers of the Southern Medical College Association. Tliese 
southern colleges have united in requiring from students 
toho had atfended one full course, prior to September 1, 1803, 
only two full courses for graduation, and no educational 
qualification other than furnished by the final examination. 
However, these privileges have been limited to the session 
of 1894-95 by the following resolution, adopted November 
15, 1893, by the Southern Medical College Association: 
That after the next annual session (189-4--95) every medical 
student, whether first admitted before or after September 1, 
1893, must have attended in a regular and reputable medical 
college three full courses, in three separate years, before be 
can be graduated. 

But, on students who may have attended their first course 
in a medical college after September 1, 1893, the following 
new requirements for admission and for graduation will be 



Every student applying for matriculation must possess the 
following qualification : 

He must hold a certificate as the pupil of some known 
reputable physician, showing his moral character and gen- 
eral fitness to enter upon the study of medicine. [For a 
blank form of this certificate see note 1. 1 

He must possess a diploma of graduation from some lit- 
erary or scientific institution of learning or certificate [for 
form of this certificate see note 2 J from some legally consti- 
tuted High School, General Superintendent of State Educa- 
tion, or Superintendent of some County or Parish Board of 
Public Education, attesting the fact that he is possessed of 
at least the educational attainments required of second 
grade teachers of public schools; provided, however, that if 
a student so applying is unable to furnish the above and 
foregoing evidence of literary qualifications, he may be per- 
mitted to matriculate and receive medical instructions as 
other students, and qualify himself in the required literary 
departments, and stand his required examination as above 
specified, prior to offering himself for a second course of 

The foregoing diploma or certificate of educational quali- 
fications, attested by the Dean of the Medical College at- 
tended, together with a set of tickets showing that the holder 
has attended one full course of medical lectures, shall be 
essential to attendance upon a second course of lectures in 
any College belonging to this Association. 

Branches of Medical Science to he included in the course of 
instruction : Chemistry, Medical Jurisprudence, Anatomy, 
Pathology, Phj^siology, Hygiene, Materia Medica and The- 
rapeutics, Theory and Practice of Medicine, Surgery, Ob- 
stetrics and Gynecology, and special laboratory work as 
hereinafter provided. 



Caudidates for graduation, in addition to tlus iiHual re- 
quirements of medical collcj^os, must have attcuded tliree 
courses of lectures of not less than six mouths each in three 
separate years; must have dissected in two coui-ses, and at- 
tended two courses of clinical or hospital instruction; and 
must have attended one course in each of the special labor- 
atory departments, to-wit: 1. Histology and bacteriology. 
2. Chemistry. 3. Operative Surgery. 

These requirements shall not apply to any student who 
has received a course of medical lectures prior to September 
1, 1893. 

Note— (1) 189- 

Secretary (or Dean) of 

(City) (State)... 

Dear Sir: 

Mr of 

is a gentleman of good moral character. I recommend that he be 
allowed to enter upon his medical studies in your college. He has 

been my pupil months. Yours. 

(Sign here) 

Note— (2) 189-. 

Secretary (or Dean) of 

(City) (State). 

Dear Sir: 

I have examined Mr 

of and find his scholastic aItllltllIu•nt^ 

equal to those requisite for a second gnide teacher's ct>rtilicate in our 
public schools. Yours, 

Supt. Pub. Instruc. 




The senior censor read the report of the board of censors 
and committee of public health by the several sections 
separately for the consideration of the Association. In this 
way the following votes were taken : 

(1) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the recommendation in the president's 
message about the payment of the dollar dues by the mem- 
bers of the county societies (see ante page 99), and moved 
its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(2) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the suggestions of the president's mes- 
sage about the neglect of their official duty (see ante pages 
99-100), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(3) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the discussion in the president's mes- 
sage of the importance of a good literary education as a 
preliminary to the study of medicine, and especially of the 
importance of the enforcement by the Medical College of 
Alabama of the same standard of requirements as a pre- 
requisite to matriculation on the part of beneficiary students 
as is enforced against other students (see ante pages 100-101- 
102), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(4) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the discussion in the president's mes- 
sage of the importance of a high standard of medical ethics 
(see ante page 102), and moved its adoption by the associa- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 


(5) The senior censor read the report of thr- Ijoard of 
censors iu regard to the discussion in the i)nisident'H mes- 
sage of the duties and responsibilities of county boards of 
health and county health officers (see cDite page 102), and 
moveel its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(6) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the discussion in the president's mes- 
sage of some questions connected with vaccination (see ante 
page 103), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(7) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the recommendations in the president's 
message concerning quarantine (see cuite page lO'.i), and 
moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(8) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the recommendations in the president's 
message concerning the management of the depentlent poor 
(see ante page 103), and moved its adoption by the associ- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(9) The senior censor read the report of the Ixjard of 
censors in regard to the recommendations in the president's 
message concerning the management of the county jails (see 
ante page 103), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(10) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the rei)orts of the two vice-presidents 
(see ante page 103), and moved that it be adopted by the 

The motion was unanimously jiassod. 

(11) The senior censor read the rejjort of the board of 
censors in regard to the report of the secretary and the 
Book of the Rolls (see ante page 104), and moved its adoption 
by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 


(12) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the report of the publishing committee 
(see ante page 105), and moved its adoption by the associa- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(13) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the report of the treasurer and the 
Book of Accounts (see ante page 105), and moved its adoption 
by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(14) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the roll of correspondents (see ante 
page 105), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(15) The senior censor read, the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the revision of the minutes of 1893 (see 
ante page 106), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(16) The senior censor read the report of the board 
of censors in regard to the delinquent county societies (see 
ante pages 106-107), and moved its adoption by the associa- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(17) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the Book of the Rules and the Book of 
Rules Account (see ante pages 107-108), and moved its adop- 
tion by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(18) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the discussion of the regular reports 
(see ante page 108), and moved its adoption by the asso- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(19) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the printing of the volunteer papers 
(see ante page 109), and moved its adoption by the asso- 

The motion was^unanimously^ passed. 


(20) The senior censor read the report of tin- "Ixiiird 
of censors in regard to changing the annual ordor of husi- 
ness (see cmle pages 109-110), and moved its aihtption hv the 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(21) The senior censor read an amendment to the consti- 
tution in regard to the selection of c(Junsellors (see antfi 
pages 110-111). Under the rule it lies over until tlici next 
session of the association. 

(22) The senior censor read the report of the hoard 
of censors in regard to the examination of nou-graduattis by 
the State Board of Medical Examiners (see nulr page 112j, 
and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(23) The senior censor read the report of the bo.-ird n[ 
censors in regard to having only written examinations (see 
ante page 113), and moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(24) The senior censor read the report of the l)oard 
of censors in regard to suggestions for the examining boards 
(see aufe pages 113-114), and moved its adoption l)y the 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(25) The senior censor read the re]iort of tin* l)oard of 
censors in regard to some new rules for the examining 
boards (see ante pages 114-ll5-ll()), and moved its adop- 
tion by the association. 

The motion was unanimously i)assed. 

(26) The senior censor read tlie report of the bourd of 
censors in regard to a certiticati* issued by the Li>uisville 
Medical College (see (nite pages 110 117), and mov«'d it.s 
adoption by the asscxnation. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(27) The senior censor submitted the account of the iloi- 
lar dues for examinations, (see fiutr pages 117 118>, and 
moved its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously pjissml. 

(28) The senior censor read the report of the board of 


censors iu regard to a new State quarantine law, (see ante 
pages 134^135), and moved its adoption by the associa- 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(29) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the Quarantine Board of Mobile Bay, 
(gee ante pages 135-136), and moved its adoption by the 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(30) The senior censor read the report of the board of 
censors in regard to the New Orleans Quarantine Confer- 
ence and the rules agreed upon for regulating the fruit 
traffic with tropical countries, (see cmte pages 137-138), and 
moved the adoption of said rules by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(31) The senior censor read the report of the board 
of censors in regard to the creation of a secretary of public 
health, (see ante pages 138-139-140-141-142), and moved 
its adoption by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(32) The senior censor read the regular financial state- 
ment of the State Board of Health, (see ante pages 142- 
143-144) and moved its aj)proval by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(33) The senior censor read the statement of the quaran- 
tine expenditures of the State Board of Health for the year 
1893, (see ante pages 145-146-147-148-149-150-151), and 
moved its apj)roval by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 

(34) The senior censor moved that the report of the board 
of censors as a whole, and as read, be adopted and approved 
by the association. 

The motion was unanimously passed. 





The committee on the revision of tlie rolls, composed 
of the senior censor, the secretary and the treasurer, report- 
ed three schedules of county societies, as follows : 

(1). Societies not Delinquent. 

That is to say, societies with all their constitutional ol di- 
lations fulfilled — delegates in attendance, reports made and 
dues paid : 

Barbour, Bibb, Blount, Bullock, Butler, Calhoun, Cham- 
bers, Cherokee, Cleburne, Coosa, Dale, Dallas, DeKalb, 
Elmore, Etowah, Fayette, Greene, Henry, Jackson, JellVr- 
son, Lamar, Macon, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Mobile, 
Montgomery, Perry, Pickens, Pike, Randolph, ShelV)y, St. 
Clair, Talladega, Tuscaloosa, Walker. Thirty-six sociotios. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president ordered these thirty-six societies to bo 
passed as clear of the books. 

(2). Societies Particdly Delinquent. 

Autanga, delinquent in delegates. 
Baldwin, delinquent in delegates. 
Chilton, delin(pient in dues. 
Choctaw, delinquent in delegates. 
Clarke, delinquent in delegates. 
Clay, delincpiont in dues and delegates. 
Coflfee, delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Conecuh, delinquent in delegates. 
Crenshaw, delinquent in duos and delegates. 


Cullman, delinquent in dues. 
Escambia, delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Hale, delinquent in delegates. 
Lauderdale, delinquent in dues and report. 
Lawrence, delinquent in delegates. 
Lee delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Limestone, delinquent in delegates. 
Marengo, delinquent in delegates. 
Monroe, delinquent in delegates. 
•Morgan, delinquent in dues. 
Russell, delinquent in dues and delegates. 
Sumter, delinquent in delegates. 
Tallapoosa, delinquent in dues and report. 
Winston, delinquent in dues and delegates. Twent}'- 
three socities. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president ordered that these twenty-three societies 
be passed, with the understanding that the secretary and 
the treasurer would look after the missing reports and dues. 

(3). Delinquent Societies. 

That is to say societies delinquent in all their consti- 
tutional obligations — delegates, dues and reports : 

Colbert, Covington, Franklin, Geneva, Lowndes, Wash- 
ington and Wilcox. Seven societies. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president ordered these seven societies to be referred 
to the board of censors for investigation. 

The revision of the first roll, the roll of the county socie- 
ties, was here ended, the said roll to stand closed until the 
next annual session of the Association. 


The committee on the revision of rolls reported the 
seven schedules of counsellors, as follows : 


(1). CounsrUors Clear of I he BdoIcs. 

Grand Seniors. — Aberuotliy, William Henry ; BjiMritl^'o, 
Miltou Columbus; Brockway, Dudley Samuel; Cason, DaviH 
Elmore ; Cross, Beujamin Fraukliu ; DuBose, Wilds Seott ; 
Fletcher, Richard Mathew ; Fraukliu, Charles Hi;^^s ; Fui- 
niss, Jolm Perkius; Gaiues, Viviau Pendleton; Gaston, John 
Brown; Goggans, James Adrian; Goodwin, Joseph Anderson; 
Hayes, Roljert Hughes; Hogau, Samuel Mardis ; Hopping, 
Daniel Stiles; Jay, Andrew; Johnston, William Henry; Jones, 
Capers Capehart; Kendrick, Joel Cloud; Keudrick, William 
Toulmiu ; Luckie, James Buchuer ; McKinnon, John Alex- 
ander ; Mood}', Joseph ; Peterson, Francis Marion ; Prince, 
Francis Marion ; Pritchett, John Albert ; Robertson, Tiiad- 
deus Lindlay ; Sanders, William Henry ; Sears, John William; 
Seelye, Samuel Dibble; Sholl, Edward Henry; Sledge, 
William Henry ; Starr, Lucius Ernest ; Stovall, Andrew Mc- 
Adams ; Thetford, William Fletcher ; Thomas, James Grey ; 
Wall, Conrad; Wilkerson, Wooten Moore. — Total H8. 

Seniors. — Baldwin, Benjamin James ; Bragg, Shirley ; 
Goodwin, Albert ; Harlan, John Jefferson ; Hill, Luther 
Leonidas; Huggins, Jacob; Inge, Henry Tutwiler ; Kemlrick, 
Joel Beder ; Lowry, Samuel Hickman ; Xoleu, Abner Jack- 
son ; Redden, Robert James ; Searcy, James Thomas ; Trent, 
Powhatan Green ; Whale}', Lewis ; Wheeler, William Camp: 
Whelan, Charles; Wilkinson, James Anthony. — Total 17. 

Juniors. — Biuford, Peter ; Blake, Wyatt HeHin ; Coley, 
Andrew Jackson; Copeland, William Preston; Crook, John 
Martin ; Deweese, Thomas Peters ; Dowling, Oscar ; Dug- 
gar, Reuben Henry; Goode, Rhett ; Heacock, John Wil- 
liam ; Jordan, James Reid ; LeGrand, John Calhoun ; 
Marechal, Edwin Leslie; McWliorter, George Tighlman; 
Purdon, John Edward; Rand, Edgar; llobinsou, ChristopluT 
Americus ; Toole, Barckley Wallace; Whittiold, Bryan Wat- 
kins; Wilkerson, Charles A.; Wilkinson, Jolm IMwanl. 

Total 21. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this ached- 


ule, the president ordered that the counsellors seventy-six 
in number, whose names had been read, should be duly 
passed as clear of the books. 

(2). Delinquent Counsellors. {In dues): 

Brown, Pugh H., Troy, G. S. C, 1880. 
Camp, E. T., Gadsden, J. C, 1891. 
Hatchett, J. B., Marion, J. C, 1891. 
Stewart, J. P., Attalla, J. C, 1891. 
Thomason, W. L., Guntersville, J. C, 1890. • 

In Attendance (5 sessions): 

Wall, Conrad, Forest Home, G. S. C, 1880. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, six in number, whose names had been read as delin- 
quents, should be stricken from the roll of the college of 
counsellors, and that of this action they should be duly no- 
tified by the secretary. 

(3). Miscellaneous Counsellors. 


Hendrick, Gustavus, Brundidge, G. S. C, 1880. 

Declined the lionor of election: 

Desprez, L. W., Russellville. 

Northen, Thomas, Ashland. 

Died during the year: 

Thigpen, Job, Greenville, G. S. C, 1879. 

"Webb, E. D., Birmingham, G. S. L. C, 1873. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that these names 
should be stricken from the roll of the college of counsellors, 
and that the usual notices should be served by the secretary. 

(4). Grand Senior Counsellors of Ten Years Standing. 

Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden — Total 1. 
No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 


sellor, one in number, whose name had been read as having 
served for ten successive years as grand senior counsellor, 
should be transferred to the roll of grand senior life coun- 
sellors ; and that of this transfer he should be duly notified 
by the secretary, 

(5). Senior Counsellors of Five Years Standimj. 

Huggins, Jacob, Newbern ; Searcy, James Thomas, Tus- 
caloosa ; Trent, Powhatan Green, Kock Mills — Total 3. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the coun- 
sellors, three in number, whose names had been read as hav- 
ing served for five successi^-e years as senior counsellors, 
should be transferred to the roll of the grand senior coun- 
sellors ; and that of this transfer they should be duly noti- 
fied by the secretary. 

(6). Junior Counsellors of Five Years Standinrj. ■ 

Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville ; Goode, Ehett, Mobile ; 
LeGrand, John Calhoun, Annistou ; Marechal, Edwin Leslie, 
Mobile ; Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega.— Total 5. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the conii- 
sellors, five in number, whose names had l)een read as iiav- 
ing served for five successive years as junior counsellors, 
should be transferred to the roll of senior counsellors ; and 
that of this transfer they should be duly notified by the 

(7). Counsellors Elect. 

Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery county. 

Boyd, Andrew, Jackson county. 

Carson, Shelby Chadwiek, Jefferson county. 

Cameron, Matthew Bunyan, Sumter county. 

Cunningham, Kussell McWhorter, Jeflferson county. 

Gay, Samuel Gilbert, Dallas county. 


Heflin, Wyatt, Jefferson county. 

Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Bullock county. 

King, Goldsby, Dallas count}^ 

McCants, Robert Bell, Marengo county. 

Moon, William Henry, Coosa county. 

Parke, Thomas Duke, Jefferson county. 

Watkins, Isaac LaFaj^ette, Montgomery county. 

White, Thomas Noel, Cherokee county. 

No objection being made to the correctness of this sched- 
ule, the president, under the rules, ordered that the counsel- 
lors, fourteen in number, wliose names had been read as 
having signed the counsellor's pledge and paid their dues, 
should be transferred to the roll of the junior counsellors ; 
and that of this transfer they should be duly notified by the 

The revision of the second roll, the roll of the college of 
counsellors, was here ended, the said roll to stand closed 
until the next annual session of the Association. 

Tlw Election of Counsellors. 

The Committee on the Revision of the Rolls reported that 
there were twelve (12) vacancies in the college of counsellors. 
Whereupon the President ordered that the ballot be taken, 
which resulted in the election of the following gentlemen : 

Bell, Walter Howard, Cleburne county. 
Bondurant, Eugene DuBose, Tuscaloosa county. 
Brown, George Summers, Jefferson county. 
Harper, Robert Franklin, Dale county. 
Hill, George Armstrong, Talladega county. 
McLain, David Hubbard, Madison county. 
IVIcLaughlin, James Madison, St. Clair county. 
Moody, Henry Altamont, Lauderdale county. 
Perry, Henry Gaither, Butler county. 
Quin, William Everett, DeKalb county. 
Riggs, Edward Powell, Jefferson county. 
Williams, John Harford, Shelby county. 

THE REVISION (>V TIIK HOOK OF 'I' 111'; l;0|,I,S. 180 

At this poiut the senior ceusor introduced an anienduifiit 
to article 13 of the constitution. The President ruh'd that 
the said amendment woukl have to lie over until next regular 
meeting of the Association. 

For this amendment see page 110 (lleport of IJoard of 



The Committee on the Revision of the Eolls reported that 
the Board of Censors had made no recommendation for any 
change by way of either addition or subtraction in the roll 
of the correspondents. 

The revision of the third roll, the roll of the correspond- ^ 
euts was here ended, the said roll to stand closed until the 
next annual session of the Association. 


The Committee on the Revision of the Rolls re])(u-t»^d the 
following vacancies in the roll of the oflficers : 

One president for one year. 

One vice-president for the northern division for two years. 

Two censors for five years to fill the vacancies caused by 
the expiration of the terms of Dr. E. H. Sholl and Dr. W. 
S. DuBose. 

One orator. 

One alternate orator. 

Thereupon the president ordered the necessary ballots, 
which were taken with the following results: 

For president— Richard Matthew Fletcher, M. J)., of 

For vice-president of the northern division— Capers Cape- 
hart Jones, M. D., of Birmingham. 

For censors for five years — Edward Henry Sholl, M. P., 


of Birmingliam and John Brown Gaston, M. D., of Mont- 

For orator — Russell McWhorter Cunningliam, M. D., of 
Pratt City. 

For alternate orator — Robert Sommerville Hill, M. D., of 

The revision of the fourth roll, the roll of the officers was 
here ended, the said roll to stand closed until the next an- 
nual meeting of the Association. 

Then the president said : "The four rolls have been duly 
revised according to our rules and usages ; the Book of the 
Rolls will stand closed until the next annual session of the 

The newly elected officers were all present and were then 
duly installed in their respective offices, in accordance with 
the usual formalities of the Association. 

Upon taking the chair the newly elected president, Dr. 
Richard Matthew Fletcher, made the following remarks : 


3Ir. President and Gentlemen of the 

3Iedical Association of the State of Alabama: 

To say that I thank you for the high compliment that you 
have this day paid me, would be but a feeble expression of 
my appreciation and my gratitude. I realize the fact that 
you have elevated me to the highest place within the gift of 
this Association. It has ever been an honor to be made the 
presiding officer of this body, and at this particular juncture 
in the history of our organization, it is not only an honor, 
but it is a very distinguished honor ; an honor of which 
any man in the state of Alabama, or any other state might 
be justly proud. To say that I shall expect your sympathy 
and co-operation in the discharge of the grave and import- 
ant duties that will devolve upon me, would be altogether 
superfluous. Nevertheless, allow me to thank you most 


profoundly for the hij^li esteem in which you liohl me, for 
your generous confidence, and for your partiality, and in re- 
turn let me pledge you, that whatever energy I may poHsesH, 
or whatever ability I may have, all shall be devoted to tlio 
best interest of the Medical Association of the State of 

Mobile was selected as the place for holding the next an- 
nual session of the Association. 

At 2 r. M. the Association, on motion, adjourned sine die. 






Introduction.— In the Transactions of last year tlie pnblisliinK com- 
mittee prefaced the rolls of county societies with instructions t(j sec- 
retaries as to their records and the best methocl of obtaining informa- 
tion concerning them that would pass criticism, but many reports of 
this year come in all sorts of shapes, with errors so glaring, excuses 
could not be found for them. If secretaries would only compare 
their reports with the volume of the preceding year, find out 
the/wH names, dates and colleges of graduation, dates of county certificates 
and addresses, and arrange these names in alphahctical order, all trou- 
ble of correcting errors by the secretary would be obviated. 

Explanation. — The letters "mc" stand for "medical college ;" the let- 
ters "cb" for "county board ;" when the certificate is issued by the ex- 
amining board of the county in the register of which it occurs, the name 
of the county is omitted ; when the certificate was issued by the exam- 
ining board of some other county, the name of such county succeeds 
the abbreviation. The first name in every board of censors is that of 
the president of the board. 

Revision of 1894. 



President, W. AV. Golson ; Vice-President. .T. E. Wilkitison ; Secre- 
tary, E. A. King ; Treasurer, E. A. King; Health Ollicer.U. L. Hud- 
dleston. Censors— C. A. Edwards, E. A. King, W. T. Sadler. J. W. 
Davis, W. W. Golson. 



Davis, John Wilson, me Atlanta 59, cb 80, Prattville. 

Dennis, George A., mc Atlanta 93, cb 93, Huckabee. 

Edwards, Charles Alva, mc Memphis 59, cb 80, Prattville. 

Gibson, William Beatty, mc Bellevue 89, State Board 92, Autau- 

Golson, Wyatt Washington, mc South Carolina 54, cb 84, Autauga- 

Huddleston, Robert Lee, mc Atlanta 90, cb 92, Wadsworth. 
King, Eugene Asbury, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Autaugaville. 
Sadler, William Thomas, mc phy and surg Baltimore 91, cb 91, 

Wilkinson, John Edward, mc univ Tulane 68, cb 80, Prattville. 

Total, 9. 


Parnell, Charles Nicholas, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Mulberry. 
Sherrell, James Lewis, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 80, Vineton. 
Total, 2. 

Moved into the county— William Beatty Gibson, from Barbour 
county to Autaugaville. 

Moved out of the county — Stonewall Jackson, from Wadsworth to 
Florida ; Walter J. Bell, from Prattville to New York. 

Examinations. — Dennis, George A. Certificate awarded. 

Carter ; M. Golson ; certificates refused. 

Deaths — Charles Campbell Howard, mc Georgia 41, cb 80, Autauga- 
ville, died Nov. 8, 1893, of nervous prostration ; Archibald Smith Mc- 
Keithen, mc univ Virginia 60, cb 80, Autaugaville, of gastritis. 


President, Philip M. Hodgson ; Vice-President, Volney McR. Sho- 
walter ; Secretary, William M. Lovelady ; Treasurer, William M. Love- 
lady ; Health Officer, William M. Lovelady. Censors— William M. 
Lovelady, Phillip M. Hodgson, Volney McR. Showalter, Malachy 
Coghland, Charles L. Howe. 


Coghlan, Malachy, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Tensaw. 
Hodgson, Phillip Melancthon, mc Alabama 88, cb 89, Stockton. 
Howe, Charles Lester, mc s of m Kentucky 93, cb 93, Marlow. 
Lovelady, William Marshall, cb 82, Bon Secour. 


Showalter, Volney McReynolds, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Point Clear. 
Tompkins, John E., mc univ Vanderbilt SO, cb Mobile 81, Huy Mi- 
Total, 6. 


Reynolds, Samuel Kirkpatrick, mc Jefferson 57, cb Mobile 78, Battle's 

Examinations— Charles Lester Howe, s of m Kentucky 9:5, Marlow. 
Certificate granted . 



President, S. A. Holt ; Vice-President, W. H. Robertson ; Secretary, 
W. P. Copeland; Treasurer, W. P. Copeland ; Health Ollicer, C. 
W. Lee. Censors — S. A. Holt, W. P. Copeland, A. Goodwin, J. K. 
Battle, W. H. Robertson. 


Battle, Joseph Thomas, mc Georgia 67, cb 87, Hawkinsville. 
Battle, Junius Kinkade, mc univ Louisiana 83, cb 83, Eufaula. 
Brunnon, Hugh Lee, me univ Vanderbilt 85. cb 85, Harris. 
Bennett, Benjamin F., mc Louisville 93, cb 93, Ivouisville. 
Copeland, William Preston, mc Bellevue 70, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Davie, Judson, mc Georgia 72, cb 81, Cowikee. 
Drewry, James Wallace, mc Jefferson 49, cb 81, Eufaula. 
Goodwin, Albert, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Holt, Simon Augustus, mc univ New York 58, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Lee, Chai-les Winn, mc univ Vanderbilt 93, cb Henry 93, Cowikee. 
Mitchell, William Augustus, mc univ Louisiana 68, cb 79, Eufaula. 
Patterson, Thomas, mc Atlanta 69, cb Sl', Louisville. 
Pruett, Jacob Henry, mc univ New Yt)rk 68, cb 79, Harris. 
Robertson, William Henry, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Clayton. 
Warren, Benjamin Smart, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Clayton. 
Weedon, Hamilton Moore, mc Alabama 91, cb 91. Eufaula. 
Winn, James Julius, mc Atlanta 68, cb 81, Clayton. 
Total, 17. 

JFonontry Mcuihrrs. 

Bledsoe, Francis ]\Iarion, mc Jefferson 59, cb 81, Georgetown, (ieorgia. 
Herron, Edward Marion, mc South Carolina 32, cb 81, Eufaula. 
Total, 2. 



Belcher, William R., mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, White Pond. 

Ellis, James L., mc , cb , Louisville. 

Faulk, Daniel Winston, mc Atlanta (one course), Blue Springs. 
Glover, Mac, non-graduate, no certificate, Afton. 
Guice, Charles L., mc Chattanooga 93, cb Dale 93, Mt. Andrew. 
Harrison, W. H., mc Chattanooga 93, (no certificate), Afton. 
Herron, Darrell Jefferson, mc Atlanta 83, cb — , Louisville. 
Lingo, James Henry, mc Alabama (one course) 90, cb — , Alston. 

Middlebrooks, W. T., mc , cb — , Elamville. 

Russell, AVilliam Arnold, mc Ohio 45, cb 82, Batesville. 

Simpson, LeRoy Johnston, mc Bellevue 83, cb Montgomery 83, Eu- 

Smart, William Alexander, mc univ Louisville 85, cb Coffee 86, 

Turner, Alexander, mc South Carolina 57, cb 79, White Oak. 

Total, 13. 
Moved out of the county— Flemming, James Alexander, from Clay- 
ton to Newton, Dale county ; Flemming, J. C, from Clayton, to New- 
ton, Dale county ; Gibson, William Battey, from Eufaula to Autauga- 
ville, Autauga county ; Huey, George Washington, from Belcher to 
Henry county ; Jay, John, from to Geneva county. 

Examinations— Bennett, Benj. F., mc Louisville 93. Certificate 
granted. Harrison, W. H., liic Chattanooga 93, Afton. Certificate 



President, W. J. Nicholson ; Vice-President, B. F. Jones ; Secretary^ 
J. U. Ray , Jr. ; Treasurer, M. C. Schooler ; Health Officer, J. U. Ray, Jr. 
Censors— B. F. Jones, T. F. Robinson, J. U. Ray, Jr., A. E. Meadow, 
M. C. Schooler. 


Jones. Benjamin Franklin, mc Miami 84, cb Jefferson 84, Blocton. 
Meadow, Albert Eli, mc univ Pulte 83, cb Jefferson 83, Blocton. 
Moore, James Samuel, mc phy and surg Baltimore 93, cb Jefferson 93, 

Six Mile. 
Nicholson, AVilliam John, univ Yanderbilt 84, cb 85, Centreville. 
Pratt, John Wethered, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Scottsville. 
Ray, Jacob Usry, Jr., univ Tennessee 93, cb 93, Blocton. 
Robinson, Thomas Franklin, univ Nashville 80, cb Blount 80, Blocton. 
Schoolar, Milton Carson, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Centreville. 


Whitfield, Oscar, iiniv Tennessee 80, cb 80, Brierfield. 

Wooley, Charles Lewis, one session univ Baltimore old law 6S,cb I'erry 

79, Randolph. 
Wooley, Columbus M., nic Alabama 93, cb 93, Randolpli. 

Total U. 


James, Frederick ^larshall, non-graduate, .Tamesvillo. 
Jones, Robert Samuel, Eclectic, Six Mile. 
Hill, Allen Green, old law 55, cb Tuscaloosa 83, Green Tond. 
Ray, Jacob Usry, Sr., old law 59, cb Tuscaloosa 82, Woodstock. 
Sessions, Alexander Hamilton, non-graduate, Affonee. 

Moved into the county. — Thomas Franklin Robinson, from Besse- 
mer to Blocton ; James Samuel jMoore, from Jefferson county to Six 

Moved out of the county. — John M. Meadow from Blocton to 
Waverly, Tennessee; W. F. Black, from Blocton to Shelby; l\ H. 
Dillard, from Blocton to Vance ; J. W. Brand, from Randolpli to 

Examinations for the practice of medicine. — Jacob Usry Ray, Jr., 
mc univ Tennessee. Certificate granted ; Columbus M. Wooley, mc 
Alabama. Certificate granted. 

Deaths. — John F. Taylor, mc Jefferson, of pneumonia. 



President, F. N. Hudson; Vice-President, W. T. Bains: Secretary, 
H. II. Byars; Treasurer, H. H. Byars ; Health Olticer, H. H. Hyars. 
Censors. — F. N. Hudson, W. T. Bains, F. A. Gillispie, Geo. W. Self, 
John L. Raines. 


Armstrong, T. Isham, mc Chattanooga 93, cb 93, Blount Springs. 
Bains, William Thomas, mc univ N'anderbilt 88, cb 8S, Clfveland. 
Byars, Henry Iladen, mc s. of m. Kentucky 9-J, cb I'erry 9J, IU..unt 

Cole, William Manson, mc Atlanta Southern 86, cb 80, Hloiintsviile. 
Clapp, William King, old law. Gum Spring. 
Cox, E. S. W., mc univ Tennessee 93, cb 93, Bangor. 
Davidson, Alvin Steel, cb — , Selfville. 
Erwin, Andrew Benton, Bangor. 

Finley, William M., mc univ Vanderbilt 82. cb 8-_», Bl.nintsvillo. 
Gillispie, Felix A., mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Hanceville. 


Hudson, Frank Norton, mc univ Vanderbilt 74, cb 74, Blountsville. 

Mastin, Henry B., mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Arkadelphia. 

Mitchell, H. Eugene, mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb — , Oneonta. 

Moore, David Sanders, mc Atlanta —, Clarence. 

Raines, John Leonidas, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 01, Liberty. 

Self, George W., mc univ Vanderbilt — . Selfville. 

Wikle, Luther LaFayette, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb 88, Village 


Total 17. 


Allgood, William Barnett, mc Atlanta Southern 81, Chepultepec. 

Aldridge, Patrick George, mc Atlanta 76, cb 79, Brooksville. 

Donahoo, Floyd George, mc Atlanta Southern 81, Hood's X Roads. 

Haden, Andrew Wade, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Summit. 

Haden, Henry Hughes, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 86, Summit. 

Hinds, W.T., Summit. 

Harwell, James Thomas, Compton. 

Ingraham, M. S.. certificate under old law, Hanceville. 

McPherson, George W., Country. 

Robinson, H. B., mc univ Louisiana 44, Blount Springs. 

Roseman, AVilliam, mc s of m Kentucky 92, Arkadelphia. 

Whaley, Peter, old law, Bangor. 

Moved into the county. — Dr. H. H. Byars, from Perry ville, to Bloun^ 

Moved out of the county.— Joseph Franklin Hendricks, M. D., from 
Blountsville, to Texas, office not known ; Robert H. Baird, M. D., from 
Bangor to Cullman county. 

Examinations for the practice of medicine. — E. S. W. Cox, mc univ 
Tennessee 93. Certificate granted. Jesse Isham Armstrong, mc Chat- 
anooga. Certificate granted. 

Deaths. — Dr. Wesley Davis Wiggins, of Oneonta, of pneumonia. 



President, H.M. Hunter; Vice-President, B. F. Darnell; Secre- 
tary, S. C. Cowan ; Treasurer, H. M. Hunter; Health Officer, S. C. 
Cowan. Censors. — S. M. Hogan, C. H. Franklin, R. H. Hayes, N. M. 
Bledsoe, W. A. Walker. 


Butt, Richard Lemuel, mc univ New York 46, cb 80, Midway. 
Bledsoe, Nathanial Macon, mc univ Nashville 57, cb 80, Union Springs. 


Cowan, Samuel Colvin, mc Alabuma 89, cb 89, Union Springs. 
Caldwell, Groves, mc univ Pennsylvania 45, cb 80, James. 
Crymes, Augustus Clayton, mc Jeirerson 56. ob 80, Midway. 
Colvin, James Pickett, mcuniv Louisville 91, cb Macon 91, Fit/.[)atrick. 
Darnell, Benjamin Franklin, mc Atlanta 55, cb 83, Fitz|iatrick. 
Fi-anklin, Charles Iliggs, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Grimes, Erasmus Darwin, mc univ Louisville 66, cb Montgomery 77, 

Hogan, Samuel ^lardis, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Hunter, Henry Mitchell, mc phy and surg Baltimore 88, cb Barbour 

87, Union Springs. 
Hayes, Robert Hughes, mc St. Louis 79, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Leitner, Charles Bacus, mc univ Maryland 47, cb Russell 85, Flora. 
Pruitt, James H.,cb Barbour 80, ^Midway. 

Reynolds, William Anderson, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Mt llilliard. 
Sessions, r>ewellen, mc Georgia 48, cb 87, Union Springs. 
Swanson, William Schley, mc Atlanta 57, cb 80, Union Springs. 
Thomason, William Bartlett, mc Georgia 54, cb 80, Aberfoil. 
Walker, William Austin, mc Jefferson 54, cb 80, Perote. 
Zeigler, John Olin, mc Atlanta (one course) 80, cb 80, Perote. 

Total 20. 

Moved into thecounty — James Henry Pruitt, M. P.. froinKufiuiln, to 

Moved out of the county — Charles James Ayers, M. D.,frum Fitz- 
patrick to Texas. 



President, J. Thigpen ; Vice-President, H. G. Perry; Secretary, 
J. B. Kendrick ; Tresurer, J. B. Kendrick ; Health Oflicer, J. C. Ken- 
drick. Censors— C. B. Herbert, J. B. Kendrick, J. C. Kendrick, II. 
G. Perry, F. :\[. Thigpen. 


Allman, James Edward, mc Savannah, 69, cb 79, Georginna. 
Broughton, John Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 52,cb79, (Greenville. 

Brown, William Abner, mc , cb Tuscaloosa, —, Garland. 

Donald, E. C, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Monterey. 

Garrett, James JelTerson, mc Georgia Reform 82, cb82. Forest Home. 

Green, Henry, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Georgiana. 

Grissett, William Paners, mc Alabama 72, cb Monroe 84, Garland. 

Herbert, Curtis Burke, state board 79, Greenville 

Kendrick, Joel Boder, mc Alabama 82, cb Marengo 84, Greenville. 

Kendrick, Joel Cloud, mc univ Nashville 52, cb 78, Greenville. 


Knight, Comer James, mc nriiv Tulane 58, cb 78, Greenville. 
Lloyd, Carey Chappell, mc Atlanta 58, cb 78, Greenville. 
McCane, James Jordan, mc univ Tulane 82, cb 82, Greenville. 
Owen, Jared Douglas, mc Alabama 79, cb 79, Manningliam. 
Perry, Henry Gaitlier, mc Georgia Reform 88, cb 88, Greenville. 
Scott, Harvey Edward, mc univ Vanderbilt80, cb Dallas 80, Georgiana 

Simmons, William Cleveland, mc , cb 79, Manningliam. 

Smith, Robert Edward, mc Alabama 82, cb 83, Greenville. 
Smith, William Robert, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Oakey Streak. 
Thigpen, Francis Marion, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Greenville. 
"Wall, Conrad, mc univ Nashville 59, cb 78, Forest Home. 

Wright, William Pendleton, mc , cb 78, Boiling. 

Total, 22. 


Elam, James R., , Oakey Streak. 

Gramling, William Stanley, mc Alabama 94, cb — , Greenville. 
Harrison, Joseph, mc South Carolina 52, cb 84, Greenville. 
Perdue, James Lewis, mc Alabama 75, cb 79, Greenville. 
Stanley, Robert H., mc Alabama 94, cb — , Greenville. 
Total, 5. 

Moved out of the county. — Lewis Edward Boughton, from Green- 
ville to Seawright. William W. Mangum, from Dunham to Mont- 
gomery. S. J. Steiner, from Greenville to Montgomery. 

Examinations. — Lewis Edward Broughton, mc univ Tulane 93; 
certificate granted. Erskine C. Donald, mc Alabama 93 ; certificate 
granted. William AV. Mangum, mc Atlanta 93 ; certificate gi-anted. 
William H. Reynolds, mc Alabama 93; certificate granted. 

Deaths. — James Glenn Donald, M. D., mc Louisiana 54, cb 78, Mon- 
terey, heart failure, Jan. 3d, 93. Arthur S. Stewart, M. D., mc Louis- 
ville, 82, phthisis pulmonalis. Job Thigpen, M. D., mc Augusta 56, 
cb 78, died of pneumonia Feb. 1st, 94. 


President, J. C. LeGrand; Vice-President, P. H. Brothers; Secre- 
tary, W. B. Arbery ; Treasurer, E. C. Anderson ; Health Officer, W. B. 
Arbery. Censors — J. G. AVhiteside, J. H. Murfee, J. M. Crook, W. J. 
AVarren, W. B. Arbery. 


Anderson, Edmunds Clark, mc s of m Kentucky 77, cb 88, Anniston. 
Arbery, William Buchanan, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb Macon 82, An- 


Ayres, Thomas Willborii, inc pliy and sur^,' I'.alliiiiore S2, cb 88, Jack- 

Brothers, Phillip Houston, old law 41, cb 86, Zula. 

Ballard, Aiirelius Francis, me Jefferson one course 76, cb 81, Oxford. 

Crook, John :\rartin, me i)liy and surg Baltimore 85, cb 86, Jackson- 

Davis, John Francis Marion, mc Atlanta 60, cb 81, Cliocculocco. 

Douthit, Andrew Jackson, old law, cb81, Alexandria. 

Gordon, Frederick Elliott, mc Alabama 82, cb Marengo 82, .Anniston. 

Huglies, Robert Lee, mc Atlanta 92, cb CHierokee 92, Clioccolocco. 

Ison, Hartsford Lee, mc Atlanta Southern 91, cb Tallapoosa 91, Wt-a- 

Kelly, John Baker, mc Jefferson 59, cb Coosa 84, Anniston. 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, mc Atlanta 80, cb 81, Anniston. 

Ligon, Arthur Wellington, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 84, Oxforil. 

Matthews, George Andrew, mc univ Michigan 66, cb 90, Anniston. 

Murfee, John Howard, mc i)hy and surg New York U7,cb91, Anniston 

Smith, William Armistead, mc Alabama 81, cb Monroe 81, Anniston. 

Simpson, John Lee, mc Atlanta 80, cb Coosa 83, Anniston. 

Warren, William James, mc Atlanta 89, cb Tallapoosa 89, Anniston. 

Whiteside, John Mclntyre, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Oxford. 

Wood, Hiram Abiff, mc Atlanta (one course) 89, cb Cleburne 9U, .\n- 
Total, 21. 


Bowcock, Robert Lee, mc univ Virginia 86, cb 88, Anniston. 
Buckalew, Ansel Milbran, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 86, De.Vrmand- 

Baker, Joseph Loi'enzo, mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb Cleburne M, I'ii-d- 

Boiling, William EUsberry, cb — , Iron City. 

Crook, James Edward, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Alexandria. 
Davis, Thomas Asbury, mc univ Louisiana 59, cb 84, Anniston. 
Evans, Benjamin Shumate, cb 81, White IMains. 

Freeman, Clarence, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, . 

Gibson, Joel Albert, mc Atlanta 90, cb Clay 90, Anniston. 

Huger, Richard I'roctor, mc South Carolimi 71, cb 81, .Anniston. 

Hughes, John Jjeander, mc Georgia 51, cb 83, Piedmont. 

Kinabrew, William Henry, mc univ New York 78, cb 83, Piedmont. 

Linder, Pleasant Phillips, cb 81, Jacksonville. 

McCurry, Samuel Josei)hus, mc Atlanta 80, cb Cherokee 81, .Viuiiston. 

McDairmid, John Calvin, mc (ieorgia (one course) 55, eh Clay h3, 

McRae, Francis Marion, cb Cleburne M, Ohatchee. 


Montgomery, Charles Henry, mc univ Washington 68, Jacksonville. 

Stevenson, Forney Caldwell, nic phy and surg New York 93, cb 94, 

Teague, Francis Bowdon, mc univ Tennessee 80, cb Etowah 80, Pied- 

Thomas, Charles Edward (colored), mc Long Island Hospital 90, cb 
90, Anniston. 

Williamson, Thomas, cb 84, Peek's Hill. 

Wikle, Jesse Lane, mc Georgia 79, cb 81, Anniston. 

Walker, James Fleming, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Anniston. 
Total, 23. 

Moved into the county. — S. J. McCurry, from Houston, Texas, to 
Anniston ; J. A. Gibson, from Oline, Texas, to Anniston. 

Moved out of county.— Dr. B. Dudley Williams, from Oxford to Da- 

Examinations.— Forney Caldwell Stevenson, mc phy and surg New 
York, 93. Certificate granted. 

Death.— Lewis Jamison. M. D., cirrhosis of liver. 

President, AV. M. Gay; Vice-President, R. L. Cater; Secretary, 
W. D. Gaines ; Treasurer, W. D. Gaines ; Health Officer, J. L. Hilt. 
Censors— W. J. Love, R. L. Cater, W. D. Gaines, C. W. Kirby, B. F. 
Rea, Jr. 


Beasley, James Albert, mc Atlanta 72, cb 82, West Point, Ga. 
Bonner, Thomas Harrison, mc Atlanta 82, cb Randolph 82, Hickory 

Cater, Robert Lee, mc Jeflferson 88, cb 89, LaFayette. 
Gaines, William D., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Mill Town. 
Gay, William McCurry, mc Atlanta Southern 81, cb 82, Mill Town. 
Grady, Zachary Taylor, mc Atlanta 76, cb 86, LaFayette. 
Hilt, John L., mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, Five Points. 
Hudson, William Henry, mc Atlanta 86, cb 86, LaFayette. 
Ison, Josiah A., mc Atlanta Southern 87, cb Tallapoosa 87, Wise. 
Kirby, Charles Windham, mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb 85, LaFayette. 
Love, William Joseph, mc Atlanta 82, cb Lee 85, LaFayette. 
Rea, Benjamin Franklin, Jr., mc Alabama 85, cb 86, LaFayette. 
Rutland John Blake, mc Atlanta 80, cb 82, Fredonia. 
Total, 13. 



Bruce, Homer S., mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Waverly. 
Carmichael, Lawrence Crreeu, mc GrafTeiibiirg 57, cb 82, Pentoii, 
Cooper, John W., mc South Carolina ib, cb 84, West Point, (\n. 
DeVaughan, John Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb Randolph H3, 

Mill Town. 
Gay, Vatia D., mc Atlanta Southern 93, cb 93, Penton. 
Griggs, Asa Wesley, mc univ Nashville 55, cb 82, West Point. Ga. 
Hamner, Lovic Pierce, mc — , cb Randolph 82, Five Points. 
Rea, Benjamin Franklin, Sr., mc Jefferson 42, cb 82, LaFayette.' 
Smith, Lawrence, mc Georgia 54, cb 82, Cusseta. 
Sorrell, John Wesley, mc — cb Cleburne, Marcoot. 
Total, 10. 

Examinations— For the jiractice of medicine. Gay, Vatia D. Cer- 
tificate granted. ]\Ieadors, Washington J. Certificate granted. Dean, 
Thomas J. Certificate granted. 

Moved out of the county — Davis, James L., from LaFayette to 

Deaths— Cliarles Windham Kirby, M. D., mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, La- 
Fayette. Died June 1st, '94. 


President, T. N. White; Vice-President. N. F.Cabot; Secretary, 
R. L. McWhorter; Treasurer, E. A. Cook ; Health Officer, R. L. Me- 
Whorter. Censors— N. F. Cabot, T. N. White, W. C Darnall, II. L. 
Appleton, S. C. Tatum. 


Appleton, Hugh Lounze, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 9-', Cedar Bluff. 
Cabot, Norman Franklin, mc univ Vanderbilt 78, cb 87. Centre. 
Cook, Edward Augustus, mc univ Vanderbilt 84. cb 84, Kirks (trove. 
Darnall, William Clement, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 90, Centre. 
Elliott, Tlieodoric ]\Iiles, mc Ky. s of m 76, cl) 87, Grassland. 
Farill. John Paul, mc Atlanta si, cb 87, Farill. 
INIcGhee, Robert Ilallenus, mc univ Vanderbilt 87. cb 87, Centre. 
McWhorter, Robert Lee, mc Alabama 87. cb 87. (iaylesviile. 
Miller, Thomas Gideon, mc Ky. s of m 86. cb 88, (Jaylesville. 
Smith, Leonidas Franklin, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Alexis. 
Tate, Charles Norton, non-graduate, cb 87, Alexis. 
Tatum, Samuel Carter, mc univ Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Centre. 
White, Thomas Noel, mc univ (Georgia 57, cb 87, Spring (iarden. 
White, Barnabas Pace, mc univ Georgia 59, cb 87, Centre. 
Total, 14. 



Bomar, Richard Ritter, mc Atlanta Southern 85, cb 87, Bomar. 
Brown, Alexander M., non-graduate cb, 87, Round Mountain. 
Carr, Robert Columbus, non-graduate, cb 90. Rock Run. 
Echols, Edward D. J., mc .Jefferson, cb 87, Cedar Bluff. 
Farill, .Tohn Washington, non-graduate, cb 87, Farill. 
Matthews, John Patrick, mc univ Nashville 86, cb 87, Maple Grove. 
McGhee, Joseph D., mc Chattanooga 92, cb DeKalb 92, Leesburg. 
Shamblin, Alexander, non-graduate, cb 87, Broomtown. 
Shamblin, Arthur C, mc Chattanooga 91, cb 94, Broomtown. 
Shamblin, John Levi, mc Atlanta 87, cb 88, Broomtown. 

Slack, J. C, Slackland. 

Weaver, Thomas Fletcher, mc univ Nashville 71, cb DeKalb 85, Centre, 
White, William Yancy, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 87, Spring Garden. 
Pennington, J. E., Eson Hill, Ga. 
Total, 14. 

Moved into the county — Dr. J. C. Slack, from Gadsden to Slackland. 

Moved out of the county — G. E. Martin from Chesterfield to Al- 
pine, Ga. ; Josiah L. Burge from Rock Run to parts unknown ; Green 

B. Bruce, from Jamestown to Texas ; Hurst, from Slackland to 

Texas; Gendy Brown, from Round Mountain to parts unknown. 

Examinations— Arthur C. Shamblin, mc Chattanooga 91. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Deaths — George D. W. Lawrence, M. D.,mc Georgia 56, cb 87, Cedar 
Bluff ; James Patrick Matthews, M. D. mc univ Nashville 86, cb 87, 
Maple Grove; James Lamar Sutherlin, M. D., mc Alabama 90, cb 90, 



President, W. E. Stewart ; Vice-President, J. P. Givhan ; Secre- 
tary, E. A. Matthews; Treasurer, E. A. Matthews; Health Officer, 
W. E. Stewart. Censors — W. E. Stewart, J. S. Johnson, Jr., J. P. 


Caffey, Hugh William, mc South Carolina 55, cb Lowndes 83, Ver- 
Dawson, James Jefferson, old law 56, cb 82, Kincheon. 
Givhan, Joseph Phillip, mc Alabama 73, cb Dallas 86, Jemison. 
Johnson, Joseph Samuel, Sr., mc Georgia 59, cb Dallas 79, Lily. 


Johnson, Joseph Samuel, Sr., mc Bultimore 76, cb 86, Chinton. 
Matthews, Emmett Abram, mc Alabama 87, state board 86, ('lanton. 
Stewart, William Eugene, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 79, Clantoii. 
Williamson, William Thomas, mc South Carolina 58, cb 79, VorlKMia. 
Total, 8. 


Dennis, Andrew Jackson L., mc Atlanta Southern 90, cb 90, Cooper's. 
Little, Wilson Worth, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 80, Stanton. 
Marlar, Alonzo James, mc Memphis 92, cb — , Stanton. 
Parnell, Charles Nickols, mc Alabama 91, cb 92, Maplesviile. 
Pitts, Jolm Spate, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 79, Verbena. 
Wise, John F., mc Graffenberg 56, cb 79, Cooper's. 
Wise, William, mc Atlanta Southern 90, cb — , Cooper's, 
Total, 7. 

Moved into the county — Charles Nickols Parnell, returned to .Ma- 

Moved out of the county — Albert Eugene Bivings, from Claiiton to 
Ellis county, Texas. 



President, F. P. Clarke; Vice-President, ; Secretary, 

J. P. Phillips ; Treasurer, J. P, Phillips ; Health Officer, J, L. Gran- 
berry. Censors — J. P. Phillips, K. L. Y'oung, J. L. Granberry, T. A. 
Knighton, F. P. Clarke. 


Clarke, Ferdinand P., mc Alabama 84, cb 84, Bevill's Store. 
Coleman, Walter Jackson, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Isney. 
Granberry, Joseph L., mc univ Louisville 91, cb 91, Pushmataha. 
Johnston, William AVesley, mc Alabama 72, cb 72, Melvin. 
Knighton, Thomas A., mc univ Louisville 88, cb 88, Pushmataha. 
Lenoir, Thomas R., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Womack Hill. 
McCall, Daniel, mc Atlanta 59, cb 79, DeSotoville. 
Moody, Rol)ert Franklin, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 79, Butler. 
Needham, Eli W., mc univ Louisiana 58, cb 79, Lusk. 
Phillips, Jacob Parker, mc Alabama 85, cb 85. Yantley Creek. 
Young, Robert L., mc Alabama 86, cb Sumter 86, Mt. Sterling. 
Total, 11. 



Anderson, Alexander W., mc univ Louisiana 53, cb 87, Bergamot. 
Brown, Collin Balsam, mc univ Nashville 80, cb 83, Melvin. 
Cunningham, William Henry, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Butler. 
Lewis, Thomas R., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Womack Hill. 
Total, 4. 



President, J. A. Gilmore ; Vice-President, J. G. Jeffrey ; Secretary, 
J. W. Armistead ; Treasurer, J. M. Cobb ; Health Officer, J. W. Arm- 
istead. Censors — G. S. Chapman, J. A. Gilmore, H. G. Davis, J. W. 
Fleming, Bryan Burroughs. 


Armistead, James Westwood, mc Alabama 83, cb 84, Grove Hill 
Barefleld, Henry Litman, mc Alabama 72, cb Cherokee, 87, Gosport. 
Barnes, Benjamin Shields, mc univ Pennsylvania 59, cb 84, Suggs- 

Burroughs, Bryan, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 84, Vashti. 
Chapman, Gross Scruggs, mc Alabama 79, cb Conecuh 83, Jackson. 
Collins, William B., mc Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Gainstown. 
Cobb, Jesse Monroe, mc univ Louisiana 93, cb 93, Grove Hill. 
Dahlberg, Charles Isaac, mc Alabama 87, cb Choctaw 88, Suggsville. 
Davis, Henry George, mc Alabama 72, cb 84, Gainstown. 
Fleming, John William, mc Alabama 79, cb 84, Salitpa. 
Gilmore, John Arcade, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 86, Thomasville. 
Hicks, Lamartine Orlando, mc Alabama 73, cb 84, Jackson. 
Jeffrey, James Gray, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Whatley. 
Jones, Greene Erwin, mc Atlanta 82, cb 84, Coffeeville. 
Pugh, Clement Eugene, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Grove Hill. 
Pugh, Albert Sidney, s of m Kentucky 92, cb 93, Grove Hill. 

Total 16. 


Armistead, Lee, non graduate, Campbell. 

Brand, J. W., mc ^ , cb Bibb 84, Thomasville. 

Bush, Boaz Whitfield, mc South Carolina 58, cb 84, Choctaw Corner. 
Davis, James Madison, mc univ Louisville 61, cb 84, Bashi. 
Fleming, John William, mc Alabama 79, cb 84, Salitpa. 
Kimbrough, William Floyd, mc Alabama 83, cb Choctaw 83, Thomas- 
Prim, Thomas Jefferson, non -graduate cb 84, Salitpa. 
Robinson, Amos N., mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Campbell. 
Thredgill, James, non-gi-aduate, cb — , Thomasville. 


Webb, Sidney Vauglin, mc JelTer-son 6«, cb K4, AVest Bend. 
White, Thomas B., mc univ Virginia 58, cb SI, Millersville. 
Total 10. 

Moved into tlie county — W. B. Collin.s, from Nashville, Term, to 
Gainestown ; "W. F. Kimbrough, from Choctaw county to Tliomas- 
ville; J. W. Brand, from Bibb county to Thomasville. 

Examinations — Jesse M. Cobb, of (irove Hill; .\lbert S. Pugh, of 
Grove Hill; Amos N. Robinson, of Salitpa ; W. B. Collins, of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Certificates granted. 

Deaths — Henry Jefferson Burden, M. D., mc South Carolina 83, cb 
84, Choctaw Corner, of Apoplexy, aged 3G years, died Dec. 8th, 1893. 



President, W. H. Blake; Vice-President, S. "\V. Owens; Secretary, 
C. S. Northen ; Treasurer, D.L.Stephens; Health Officer, Thomas 
Northen. Censoi's— AV. H. Blake, D. L. Stephens, A. K. McDairmid* 
W. F. Irvin, J. T. Manning. 


Bartlett, George Washington, non-graduate, cb87, Lineville. 

Blake, AVyatt Heflin, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb Randolph 87, Line- 

Calloway, George McDaniel, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Pinckneyville. 

Darby, Cunnyngham Wilson, non-graduate, cb 87, Hatchett Creek. 

Garrett, John H., mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 92, Delta. 

Gray, Jesse O., mc Atlanta Southern 93, cb 93, Black's Store. 

Irvin, William Fletcher, mc univ Louisville 87, cb 87, Millerville. 

Jenkins, William Oliver, mc Graffenburg 60, cb 87, Lineville. 

Jordan, John Wiley, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Idaho. 

Manning, John Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb S7, W> h-m ill.-. 

McDairmid, Augus Kelly, mc Alabama 72, cb 87, Hollins. 

Northen, Thomas, mc Atlanta 78, cb 87, Ashland. 

Northen, Charles Stephen, mc Atlanta 89, cb 91, Ashland. 

Owens, Seaborn Wesley, mo univ Louisville 83, cb 87, Blull Springs. 

Sims, George Nelson, mc GralTeiiburg 56, cb 87, Ashland. 

Stephens, Albert Russell, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb HS, Delta. 

Stephens, Burrell Anderson, me .\lahama 92. cb 92, Lineville. 

Stephens, Doras Lee, mc Alabama 91, cb 91. Miih-rsville. 

Waits, Owen Kenyan, mc Graffenburg 56, cb 87, Lineville. 
Total 19. 
Examinations— Howell T. Heflin. me univ >raryland 93. Certifi- 
cate granted. 




President, W. A. Neal; Vice-President, W, H. Bell; Secretary, W. 
H. Bell; Treasurer, R. T. Reid ; Health Officer, J. H. Ligon. Cen- 
sors— L. W. Pitchford, W. A. Neal, O. W. Shepard, W. L. Pounds, R. 
T. Reid. 


Bell, Walter Howard, mc Atlanta 88, cb Calhoun 88, Belltown. 

Creamer, James David, mc Atlanta Southern 93, cb 93, Abernathy. 

Hobgood, Samuel P., mc Atlanta 57, cb 84, Bowden, Ga. 

Hudgeons, N. C, mc Georgia 47, cb 84, Oak Level. 

Hurt, James P., non-graduate — , cb 84, Edwardsville. 

Harrison, James M., mc Atlanta 80, cb 93, Heflin. 

Johns, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 88, cb 93, Edwardsville. 

Ligon, Wilson Milton, mc Georgia 61, cb 84, Oakfuskee. 

Ligon, James H., univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Oakfuskee. 

Lindsey, W. H., mc Chattanooga 94, cb 94, Muscadine. 

McClintock, James L., non-graduate — , cb 85, Heflin. 

Neal, Robert L., mc Atlanta Southern 86, cb 89, Heflin. 

Neal, William Alexander, mc Georgia 81, cb 84, Heflin. 

Pitchford, Lewis W., mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 89, Arbacoochee. 

Pounds, AVilliam Lawrence, mc Atlanta Reform, non-graduate — , cb 

84, ]Muscadine. 
Ray, L. E., mc s of m Kentucky 89, cb 89, Heflin. 
Reid, R. Thomas, non-graduate, cb 84, Edwardsville. 
Roberts, D. P., non-graduate, cb 84, Oak Level. 
Shepard, Orlando Waters, mc Graffenburg 56, cb 84, Edwardsville. 
Williams, S. L., mc Chattanooga 94, cb 94, Muscadine. 

Total, 20. 


McClintock, , non-graduate (Botanic) cb Clay — , Hicks. 

Total, 1. 
Moved out of the county — Martin, Hicks, Sr., from Heflin to Cull- 
man county ; Powers, R. L., non-graduate, moved to parts unknown ; 
Simpson, John L., non-graduate, moved to parts unknown; Baker, 
James Lewis, from Edwardsville to Piedmont, Calhoun county. 

Examinations — W. H. Lindsey, mc Chattanooga 94, cb 94, Musca- 
dine ; S. L. Williams, mc Chattanooga 94, cb 94, Muscadine. Certifi- 
cates granted. 

Deaths — Morgan M. Howie, mc Atlanta Southern 91, cb 93, Arba- 




President, VV. AV. Grubbs ; Vice-President, J. D. Biiif; Sern-tary, 
B. A. Hill; Treasurer, J. D. Blue; Health Oificer, II. F. A. llurp. 
Censors— F. M. Rushing, B. A. Hill, J. D. Blue, W. \V. Grubbs, II. F. 
A. Harp. 


Blue, Josephus Dickson, mc New Orleans 61, cb 85, Elba. 

Chapman, William Henry, mc Alabama 73, cb 85, Elba. 

Crook, "William Henry, mc Alabama 84, cb 85, Victoria. 

Garrett, John Wilkerson, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 85, Glintonville. 

Grubbs, William Westford, mc univ Louisville 89, cb Covington 90, 

Harp, Hector Fredei'ick Augustus, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Elba. 
Hill, Benjamin Augustus, mc Richmond 60, cb 85, Elba. 
Rushing, Francis Marion, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 85, Elba. 
Truesdale, Thomas J., mc Augusta 60, cb — , Aberton. 

Total, 9. 


Carter, James Preston, cb 88, Damascus. 
Cowart, William Augustus, cb 85, Frisco. 
Steed, John Wesley, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 85, Haw Ridge. 
Wilson, William Augustus, mc Augusta 56, cb 85, 1'^lizabeth. 
Total, 4. 

Moved into the county — H. F. A. Harp, from — - to En)a. 

Moved out of the county — David Dickerson Howell, from Clinton- 
villa to Geneva. 

Examinations— H.F A. Harp, mc Alabama 93. Certificate granted. 


President, Samuel J. Cooper ; Vice-President, James M. I'inkston ; 
Secretary, David H. Walker; Treasurer. David H. Walker; Ilonlth 
Officer, Charles R. Palmer. Censors— Hugh W. Blair. Samuel J. 
Cooper, Charles R. Palmer, James M. Pinkston, David 11. Walker. 


Blair, Hugh Allen, mc univ Nashville 57. cb Montgomery 9<», Shetheld. 
Blair, Hugh Walter, mc univ Nashville 88. cb 88, Sheffield. 


Cooper, Samuel Jackson, mc Memphis 71, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 
McWhorter, George Tighlman, cb INIadison 81, Riverton. 
Morris, Charles Thomas, mc iiniv Louisville 75, cb Henry 80, Sheffield. 
Palmer, Charles Richard, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Tuscumbia. 
Pinkston, James Madison, mc phy and surg Baltimore 78, cb Marengo 

80, Sheffield. 
Smith, James Clark, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb Elmore 85, Tuscumbia. 
Walker, David Harris, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Spring Valley. 

Total, 9. 


Abernathy, Robert Towns, mc univ New York 49, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 

Boyd, Philander Sumner, mc univ Tennessee 88, cb — , Sheffield. 

Gilmore, Frank T., mc univ Louisville — , cb — , Barton. 

Johnston, Beverly, Tuscumbia. 

McCloskey, James A., Dug. 

Moore, Riley Jackson, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 90, Riverton. 

O'Reily, John Edmund, mc Alabama 74, cb 84, Cherokee. 

Pride, Joseph Peebles (retired), mc univ New York 55, cb 81, Pride's 

Rand, Edward Pearsall, mc univ Louisville 72, cb 81, Tuscumbia. 
Smith, Frank E., mc univ New York 91, cb 93, Tuscumbia. 
Thompson, Humphrey Bate, mc univ Louisville 93, cb 93, Tuscumbia. 
Wall, Alexander Alfred, mc univ Pennsylvania 49, cb Madison 78, 

Total, 12. 

* Note. — As no report was received from Colbert county this year, 
the report of 1893 is here reproduced. 



President, Andrew Jay ; Vice-President, Pinckney M. Bruner ; Secre- 
tary, William AYatson ; Treasurer, William AVatson ; Heath Officer, 
Andrew Jay. Censors — Andrew Jay, Robert A. Lee, Pinckney M. 
Bruner, Richard T. Holland, T. M. McMillan. 


Bradley, Ely mc Jefferson, 59, cb 84, Billville. 

Bruner, Pinckney McDonald, mc Alabama 60,cb Lowndes 79, Evergreen. 
Fountain, Hugh Thomas, mc Alabama 72, cb Monroe 79, Burnt Corn. 
Fountain, William Raymond, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Bellville. 
Holland, Richard Thomas, mc Alabama 90, cb 84, Castleberry. 
Jay, Andrew, mc Alabama 72 cb 90 Evergreen. 


Lee, Robert Augustus, mc univ Louisiniia 00, cb 84, Evergroen. 
McKittrick, Adiun Alexander, mc (.icorgia 00, cb 84, EvergrctMi. 
McMillan, Thomas Morton, mc univ Tulane91,cb Monroe 91, Jirooklyn. 
Shaver, William Benjamin, mc Georgia Ueform UO, cb 84 Herbert. 
Taliaferro, Charles Thomas, mc Atlanta 59, cb 84 Evergreen. 
AVatson, William, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Kepton. 
Total, 12. 

Examinations — William Watson, mc Alabama 93. Certificate 



President, Julius Jones; Vice-President, C. M. Pope; Secretary, 
C. K. Maxwell ; Treasurer, Eugene Argo ; Healtii Ollicer, A. J. Peter- 
son. Censors — Julius Jones, W. J. Peddy, A. J. Peterson, C. K. Max- 
well, W. T. White, J. C. Cousins. 


Argo, Eugene, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, (loodwater. 
Bailey, William, non-graduate, cb 83, Equality. 
Cousins, James Columbus, mc univ Marylaiul 91, cb 91, Equality. 
Jones, Julius, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Kockford. 
Mathews, John Thomas, mc New Orleans 73, cb 84, Hanover. 
Maxwell, Cecil Kelly, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Kellyton. 
McKinny, Eugene, mc univ Louisville 93, cb 93, Kellyton. 
Moon, William Henry, mc Alabama 79, cb 83, Goodwater. 
Nolen, Richard Spencer, mc s of m Kentucky 89, clt Clay 89, Kcjiuility. 
Peddy, William Jeremiah, mc GraiTenl)urg 55, cl) 83, Kockford. 
Peterson, Albert James, mc univ Vanderbilt S9, cb 89, Hanover. 
Pope, Chandler ]\Iathews, mc Jefferson 57, cb 83, Goodwater. 
Pruett, James W. mc Alabama 92, cb Talladega 93, Weogufku. 
Smith, Malcolm Duncan, mc univ New York, 91 cb 91, Nixburg. 
AVhite, William Tanner, mc univ Tennessee 86, cb 86, Rockford. 
Total 15. 


Dollar, Henry Clay, mc Atlanta 75, cb 83, Marble Vnlit-y. 

Goggans, Phillip Peterson, mc univ New York, 80 cb Elmore 80, Trav- 
ellers' Rest. 

Salter, Pascal Preston, Botanist, Goodwater. 
Total 3. 

Moved out of the county — William Alphonzo Ilolloway, from 
Lauderdale, to Eclectic, Elmore county. 



President, William N. McNair ; Vice-President, William T. Stenson ; 
Secretarj^ John F. Pendry ; Treasurer, James K Ealiim ; Health Offi- 
cer, Wilbur E. Seutell. Censors— William N. McNair, Wilbur E. Sen- 
tell, John F. Pendry, James R. Ealum 


Bozeman, T. Compton, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Shirley. 
Ealum, James R., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Oakey Streak. 
McNair, William N., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, River Falls. 
Pendry, John F., mc Alabama 81, cb Crenshaw 82, Rose Hill. 
Rushton, R. C, college not given, Andalusia. 
Sentell, Wilbur Eugene, mc Alabama 80, cb 89, Red Level. 
Stenson, William T., mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Rose Hill. 
Street, William N., college not given, Hallton. 
Total, 8. 


Atkinson, Alexander G., non-graduate. Red Level. 
Cawthorn, Samuel J. S., non-graduate, cb 90, Andalusia. 
Patrick, Thomas, non-graduate, Green Bay. 
Roberts, James M., non-graduate, Beda. 
Sellers, Thomas L., non-graduate, Andalusia. 
Whaley, James A., non-graduate. Green Bay. 

Williams, , . 

Total, 7. 

*NoTE. — As no report was received from Covington county this year, 
nor last year, the report of 1892 is here reproduced. 


President, J. R. Horn ; Vice-President, G. W. Williamson ; Secre- 
tary, J. E. Kendrick ; Treasurer, C. W. Sheppard ; Health Officer, 
A. J. Jones. Censors— J. E. Kendrick, J. R. Horn, S. W. May, F. M. T. 
Tankersley, W. H. Coston. 


Avant, William Watts, mc nniv Tennessee 91, cb 91, Patsburg. 
Burgamy, William Thomas, mc Atlanta 57, cb 83, Rutledge. 
Coston, William Henry, Atlanta Southern 89, cb 89, Brantley. 
Horn, Joseph Robert, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Luverne. 


Horn, Richard Kersey, inc Eclectic of Georgia 81, cb 81, LnviTiic 
Jones, Andrew Jackson, mc s of m Kentucky 85,cbHrj, Higliiand llmne. 
Kendrick, James Evans, nic Alabama 69, cb S3, T^uvernt'. 
May, Samuel Williams, mc phy iS: surg JJaltimore 82, cb 82, lirantley. 
Slieppard, Charles Webb, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Ilonoraville. 
Stough, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Tennessee 93, cb '.»2, I't'trcy. 
Tankersley, Felix Marcus Tullis, mc univ Tennessee 85, cb 85, Larine. 
Tankersley, George Stewart, mc univ Tulane 93, cb 93, LaTine. 
Thrower, Stephen Leon, non-graduate, cb 84, Bradleyton. 
Williamson, George Washington, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Luverne. 
Total, 14. 


Bozeman, T. C, mc , cb — , 

Broughton, L. E., mc — , cb — , 

Dryer, Edward Fox, mc , cb 84, Rutledge. 

Moxley, David Newton, mc , cb Pike 78, New Providence. 

Stough, Daniel Bluford,mcs of m Kentucky 87, no certiHfate, Helicon. 
Pendry, John Fortunatus, mc Alabama 81, cb 82, Dozier. 
Pryor, William Dayton, mc univ Nashville 79, cb Butler Si, Aiken. 
Total, 7. 

Moved into the county — L. E. Broughton. 

Examinations— George Washington Williamson, mc .\lal)ama 93. 
Certificate granted. George Stuart Tankersley, mc univ Tulane 93. 
Certificate granted. 


President, G. Hartung; Vice-President, E. W. Terri'li ; Secn-iary, 
F. B. Burnum; Treasurer, F. B. Burnum'; Health Olticer, M. L. Jcihii- 
son. Censors— M. L. Johnson, G. Hartung, F. B. Burnum, K. W. Ter- 
rell, R. H. Baird. 


Burnum, Francis Bynuni, mc univ Vandcrliilt 79. cli s(i, (Tillman. 

Baird, R. H., mc Alabama 92, cb Bh>unl 92, Birch. 

Hartung, Gotlloeb, mc Wurtzenburg, Germany, 78, cb H2, Cullinnn. 

Harris, William R., non-graduate, cb 92, Garris«»n. 

Johnson, Manjuis LaFayette, mc Alabama 75, cb Marshall KO.'Cullman. 

KflltM-, Louis M.,mc Atlanta SS, rhHd, Etha. 

Martin, William Henry, mc Atlanta 88. cb 89, Ruby. 


Terrell, Early Wesley, mc univ Nashville 88, cb Elmore 89, Cullman. 
Watts, George Washington, mc Georgia Reform 88, cb 89, Holly Pond. 

Walling, John Henry, mc , cb 89, Pinnacle. 

Total, 10. 


Brindly, Bethea Pace, mc Georgia Reform 92, cb 92, Simcoe. 
Crumbie, J. J., mc Atlanta 92, cb 94, Holly Pond. 
Geiger, Marjon Capers, mc Georgia Reform 86, cb 86, Bailyton. 
Hudson, W. H., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Walter. 
McLarty, George Washington, mc univ Nashville 88, cb 90, Joppa. 
Total, 5. 

Moved into the county — R. H. Baird, from Bangor, Blount county, 
to Birch ; W. H. Hudson, from Hood's Cross Roads to Walter; J. J. 
Crombie, from Georgia to Holly Pond. 

Moved out of the county — John E. Purdon, from Cullman to Hunts- 

Died — William Jasj)er Reid, cb 89, Trimble. 



President, E. B. Ard ; Vice-President, W. B. Sanders ; Secretary, R. 
F. Harper ; Treasurer, R. F. Harper ; Health Officer R. F. Harper. 
Censors— S. L. Weed, R. F. Harper, J. W. Reynolds, E. B. Ard, W. B. 


Ard, Erastus Byron, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 87, Haw Ridge. 

Blackshear, R. D., mc s of m Kentucky 92, cb 94, Charlton. 

Byrd, Benj. L., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Daleville. 

Harper, Robert Franklin, mc Alabama 88, cb Coffee 88, Ozark. 

Holman, John Clinton, mc Jefferson 56, cb 87, Ozark. 

How^ell, Sainuel Matthew Crawford, mc Southern 91, cb 91, Midland 

Jones, Washington LaFayette, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 87, Ozark. 
McLeod, Alexander Gillis, mc univ Louisiana 59, cb 87, Daleville. 
Reynolds, James Wilson, mc Alabama 85, cb 87, Skipperville. 
Reynolds, Robert Davis, mc Alabama 80, cb 87, Ozark. 
Rushton, Christopher Reid, mc Soutliern 92, cb Covington 92, Ozark. 
Sanders, William Bryan, mc Southern 85, cb Pike 85, Ozark. 
Steagall, William Collinsworth, mc South Carolina 60, cb 87, Ozark. 
Weed, Samuel LaFayette, mc Alabama 85, cb 87, Ai-iosta. 

Total, 14. 



Baxter, IIiik1> <^'-, mc Atlanta S6, t-l) 87, Midland City. 

Bell, Seaborn B., mc Georgia Reform 92, illegal, Kclio. 

Belcher, William liee, me Atlanta 90, eh 91, Daleville. 

Bottoms, .lames C, mc Atlanta S3, cb S7, Ozark. 

Campbell, Terrell Taylor, mc Georgia Reform 83, cb 87, Ozark. 

Cowart, William Augustus, mc , cb Coffee 85. Charlton. 

Dalton, C. C, mc Georgia Reform 91, no certificate, Wicksburg. 
Davie, Mercer Stillwell, mc Jefferson 67, cb 87, Pinekanl. 

Fleming, James Alexander, mc , cb 87, Newton. 

Fleming, John, mc Alabama 92, illegal, Pinckard. 
Glover, Theophilus T., mc univ Louisville 91, cb — , ("liarlion. 
Morris, Andrew Jackson, mc Southern 87, cb (ieneva 87, Nrwton. 
Rivenbark, Oscar Lee, mc Georgia Reform 93. illt-gal, Wieksbiirg. 
"Rice, John R., mc Alabama one course, cb 87, Wicksburg. 
Spears, Phillip Benton, mc Georgia Reform 91, cb 91, Pinckard. 
Steagall, Albert Sidney, mc Alabama 88, cb 89, Clopton. 
Stokes, James Eldridge, mc Georgia Reform 93, illegal, ( lojiton. 
Total, 17. 

Moved into the county — R. D. Blackshear, from Jakin. Georgia, to 
Charlton ; William Ree Belcher, from Brantley, Crenshaw county, to 
Daleville ; Jas. A. Fleming, from Clayton, Barbour county, to Newton , 
John Fleming, from Clayton, Barbour county, to Pinckard ; C. R. 
Rushton, from Chambers county to Ozark ; C. C. Dalton, from Geneva, 
Geneva county, to Wicksburg. 

Examinations — For the study of medicine. John A. Steed and Thomas 
Gilley ; Gilley was rejected. For the practice of medicine, K. I). 
Blackshear, mc s of m Kentucky 92; certificate granted. 


President, J. A. McKinnon ; Vice-President, R. M. Coi-hrane; S»»ore- 
tary, ^V. AV. Harper; Treasurer, T. G. Howard ; Healtli Officer, F. G. 
DuBose. Censors— J. P. Furniss, J. A. McKinnon.. F M PonnM.T 
G. Howard, Samuel Kirkpatrick. 

NAMES OF MI;MI!I:US with TI1I:1U COLLEfJKS .\NI> ^l>.^T-OF^•|CB«. 

Adams, Henjaniin Clarence, mc .\hibama 72. cb 78, SafTord. 
Cochrane, Robert Miller, univ Virginia 6."), cl) 78, EleaiH>r. 
Chisholm, Robert P., mc Alabama 93, cb 93. Summerfield 
Dansby, John (^uincy, mc Alabanui 71, i-b Wileox 78. Sclma. 
Donald, James Marion, mc Alabama 8J, cb Marengo 8^1. HridKes. 
Donald, Joseph Marion, mc univ Louisiana 04, cb 78, HarreU's. 


DuBose, Frank Goodwin, mc univ Tulane 93, cb Talladega 93, Selma. 

FuiMiiss, John Perkins, mc s of m New Orleans 68, cb 78, Selma. 

Gay, Samuel Gilbert, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Selma. 

Groves, Joseph Asbury, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Orrville. 

Harper, William Wade, mc univ fulane 91, cb 91, Selma. 

Howard, Thomas Greenwood, mc univ Washington 68, cb Autauga 

78, Selma. 
Kendall, William Quinton, mc phy and surg Baltimore 80, cb 80, 

King, Goldsby, mc South Carolina 80, cb 80, Selma. 
Kirkpatriek, Samuel, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Selma. 
Lockhart, Thomas Ernest, mc univ Tulane 90, cb Perry 90, Selma. 
McKinnon, John Alexander, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb 78, Selma. 
Moore, John Thomas, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Orrville. 
Phillips, William Crawford, mc univ Louisiana 73, cb 78, Yallegrande. 
Ritter, Clement, mc Jefferson 90, cb DeKalb 90, Selma. 
Sutton, Robert Lee, mc univ Washington 89, cb Lee 89, Orrville. 
Taylor, William Henry, mc Alabama 87, cb Mai-engo 87, Central 

Ward, Edward Barton, mc univ New York 82, cb Hale 82, Selma. 
Weisinger, John Alonzo, mc univ Louisiana 75, cb 78, Talmage, Perry 

Total, 24. 


Allison, Joseph D., mc South Carolina 50, cb 78, Carlowville. 
Allison, Samuel Bakeman, mc Louisville 91, cb 93, Carlowville. 
Boykin, James, Owen, mc univ Transylvania 43, cb 78, Tilden. 
Burrell, Lincoln Laconia, (col'd) mc Leonard, North Carolina 89, cb 

Montgomery 89, Selma. 
Graddick, John North, mc Memphis 47, cb — , Selma. 
Hall, John James, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb 78, Mitchell's. 
Hanna, Joseph E., mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Selma. 
Hardy, William Robinson, mc South Carolina 61, cb 78, Pleasant 

Hudson, Henry Sidney, mc univ Maryland 69, cb 78, Summerfield. 
Kyser, George Washington, mc Richmond 65, cb 78, Richmond. 
McKinnon, Kenneth, mc univ Louisville 52, cb 78, Pleasant Hill. 
Mixon, William S., mc univ Louisiana 49, cb 78, Plantersville. 
Moore, Clement Clay, mc South Cai-olina 59, cb 78, Summerfield. 
Moseley, Elijah Bucklee, mc univ J^ouisiana 57, cb 78, Boguechitto. 
Pugh, Braxton Bragg, mc Alabama 89, cb Clarke 89, Brown's. 
Stewart, William Champney, mc South Carolina 58, cb 78, Soap 

Total, 16. 


Moved into tlie county— Frank Ooodwin DuHosc, from Shelby to 
Selma ; L. M. Latluini, from Hirminirlnim t(j Sclmu ; S. H. Allixin fi<,ri, 
Kentucky to Carlowville. 

Moved out of the comity — James K. Gurbcr, from Selma to Stan- 
ton, Chilton county; M. S. Hitchcock, from Selma to HrooksNood, 
Tuscaloosa county ; Robert Dandridgo Jackson, from Summcrlield to 
Brookwood, Tuscaloosa county ; L. M. Latham, from St-lma to Tusca- 
loosa county. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, M. S. Ilitehcoek, mc 
Louisville 93; W. S. Kiggs, mc phy and surg Baltimore 93; 1*. T. 
Vaughan, mc Baltimore 93; J. E. llanna, mc Alabama 93; R. P. Chis- 
holm, mc Alabama 93 ; S. B Allison mc Louisville 91 ; C. C. Jones, mc 
phy and surg Baltimore 93 ; W. McLean Pitts, mc Louisville 94. Cer- 
tificates granted. D. E. Thrash, mc Jefferson 93. Certificate re- 

Deaths — Courtney James Clarke, M. D.,nic Jefferson 44,cb7H,died in 
Jacksonville, Ala., of tuberculosis; Daniel C. Smyly, M. 1)., mc Soulli 
Carolina 38, cb 78, Pleasant Hill, from Bright's disease; William 
Joseph Tipton, M. D., mc Atlanta Southern h8, cb Montgomery 89, 
Selma, from chronic diarrho;e. 

DeKALB county MEDICAL SOCIETY— Greenville, 1885. 


President, W. S. Duff ; Vice-President, "\V. E. Moore ; Secretary. 
W. E. Quin ; Treasurer, H. P. McWhorter; Health Officer. F. I*. Gale. 
Censors— W. E. Quin, F. P. Gale, W. S. Duff, H. P. McWhorter 
E. P. Nicholson. 


Duff, William Samuel, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Ft. Payne. 
Gale, Frederick Penniman. mc univ Vermont 80, cb 90, Ft. Payne. 
Harrison, J. J., mc univ Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Geraldine. 
Killian, Henry Elliott, non-graduate, cb 89, Porterville. 
McCormack, William F. mc Chattanooga 92, cb 92. Lebanon. 
Miller, James Taylor, mc univ Vanderiiilt 78. cb Sf). CoUinsville. 
INIoore, William Kvans, mc Atlatita 80, Shelby cb SO, Lebanon. 
McWhorter, Horace Puckett, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 85, CoUins- 
Nicholson, Edward Pierson, mc univ Nashville 01. cb 85, Valley Head. 
Quin, William Everett, me s of m Kentucky 81. cb 85, Ft. Payne. 
Smith, Samuel Parish, mc s of m Kentucky 89, cb 89, Sand Mountain. 


Wright, AVilliam James, mc univ Vaiiderbilt 90, cb 91, Skirum. 
Wright, Charles W. nic Alabama 93, cb 93, Grove Oak. 
Wheeler, William Jasper, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Colli nsville. 
Total 14. 


Bailey, Alexander Henry, non-graduate, cb 85, Musgrove. 

Cain, Richard Wynn, univ mc Nashville 59, cb 85, Sand Mountain. 

Green, Anthony Buel, mc univ Transylvania 46, cb 85, Ft. Payne. 

Green, Philamon Buel, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb 85, Ft. Payne. 

Patty, Robert James, Vitapathist, cb 89, Dawson. 

Roden, William, non-graduate, cb 85, Sand Mountain. 

Sherman, James Richard, mc Georgia Reform 89, cb Marshall 89, 

Sand Mountain. 
Sibert, James Dolphus, non-graduate, cb 89, Grove Oak. 
Winston, John Nelson, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 85, Valley Head. 
Wooten, William James, non-graduate, cb 89, Musgrove. 

Total 10. 
Moved into the county — Wheeler, William Jasper, from to 

Moved out of the county — Appleton, Thomas Hayne from Collins- 
ville to Etowah county ; Green, William Mastin from Ft. Payne to 
Texas; Smith, William Henry from Ft. Payne to Michigan. 

Examinations — Crutcher, Foster Bradley, mc univ Nashville 87, 
Harrison, Joseph J. mc univ Vanderbilt 93, Wright, Charles W. mc 
Alabama 93. Certificates granted. 

Black, John Hugh, mc Georgia Eclectic; Lusk, William Pelham, mc 
Atlanta 92. Certificates refused. 



President, O. S. Justice ; Vice-President, W. A. Huddleston ; Secre- 
tary, J. A. Howie ; Treasurer, W. A. Warren ; Health Officer, W. A, 
Huddleston. Censors — O. S. Justice, W. A. Warren, W. A. Norton, 
J. T. Rushin, W. A. Huddleston. 


Brooks, Oce Judkins, mc univ Tulane 93, cb 93, Wetumpka. 

Campbell, Archabald Graham, mc cb 84, Tallassee. 

Fitzpatrick, Phillip, mc univ Tulane 63, cb 84, Wetumpka. 

Howe, Robert Daniel, mc univ Tennessee 90, cb Walker 91, Elmore. 

Holloway, William Alphonzo, mc Alabama 89, cb Tallapoosa 89, 

How^le, James Augustus, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Joi'dan. 
Huddleston, William A. mc cb Wetumpka. 


Jiidkins.Goorge Bernard, iiic JcfTovson 59, cb Macon 79, \Vctinn|ikii. 

Justice, Oscar Siittle, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Central. 

Nix, James Rinf,f()ld, mc South (Carolina 67, cb 84, Dentsville. 

Norton, William Abner, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Eclectic. 

Robinson, Elias Hunt, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 84, Robinson's 

Rushin, James Knox, mc univ New York 55, cb 84,TalIassee. 
Rushin, James Thomas, mc univ Tennessee 83, cb 84, Tallassee. 
Sevvell, Jabez Wesley, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Titus. 
Sewell, Neal, B. mc univ Vanderbilt 86. cb 84, Buyck. 
Warren, Allen Love, mc Jefferson 59, cb 84, Kowaliga. 
Warren, William Allen, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Wetumpka. 

Total 19. 


Beckett, Thomas Travis, mc univ Tulane 59, cb 84, Titus. 
Fielder, Martin Lucius mc Graffeiiburg.56, cb 84, Eclectic. 
Hall, Thomas Dixon, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 84, Coosada. 
Garrett, Allen J. mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Kent. 
Jowers, Solomon Franklin, mc Atlanta 85, cb 84, Central. 
Powell, Joseph Robert, Graffenburg, 85, cb 84, Tallassee. 
Total 6. 
Moved into the county — Holloway, William Alphonzo from Fish 
Pond to Eclectic. 

Moved out of the county — Lamar, .James Isaac, from Deatsville to 
Troy, Pike county. 

Examinations — Milner, S. R. mc Alabama 93. Certificate Crranti-d. 


President, E. Y. Malone ; Vice-President, II. H.Malone; Secretary, 
AV. R. Thompson ; Treasurer, W. R. Thompson ; Health Otlicer, E.T. 
Parker. Censors— E. T. Parker, H. II. ^Malone, S. C. Henderson, E. 
Y. Malone, AV. R. Thompson. 


Henderson, Stephen Cary, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Brewton. 
Malone, Eugene Y., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Pollard. 
Malone, Henry Holcomb, mc univ New York 60, cb S6, Brinvton. 
Martin, John Elijah, mc Alabama 75, cb Bullock 79, Bn wton. 
Parker, Edwin Theodore, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Brewton. 
Thompson,^Walter Robert, mc univ Louisville 91. cb 91, Brewton. 
Trammell,;joseph D., mc univ Nashville 57, cb Baldwin 89, Williams. 


Wilkinson, James Anthony, mc univ Louisville 7fl, cb 86, Flomaton. 
Total 8. 


Pevey, .1. F., Pollard. 
Moore, C. L., Williams. 
Total 2. 

Moved into the county — J. F. Pevey, from Fairford to Pollard, 

Moved out of the county — William S. Douglas, from Mason to 
Geneva county ; George Patrick Henry, from Wallace to Florida. 

Uealli— William K. McAdory, mc Alabama 79, cb 87, Pollard. 


President, E. T. Camp ; Vice-President, J. W. D. Lawrence ; Sec- 
retary, R. F. McConnell; Treasurer, H. M. Bloodworth ; Health Offi- 
cer, D. H. Baker. Censors— J. B. Lidell, E. S. Jones, R. F. McConnell, 
E. T. Camp, J. H. Wood. 


Appleton, T. H., mc univ Grant 92, cb DeKalb 92, Seaborn. 

Baker, Daniel Harris, mc univ Nashville 82, cb Macon, Gadsden. 

Baskiiis, AValter Colquit, mc Georgia Reform 59, cb 83, Coat's Bend. 

Bloodsworth, Hiram Monroe, mc Atlanta 58, cb Chambers 82, Gadsden • 

Camp, Erasmus Taylor, mc Alabama 85, cb Cleburne 85, Gadsden. 

Jones, Edward Spears, mc Alabama 83, cb Jefferson 83, Gadsden. 

Hurst, James A., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Walnut Grove. 

Knox, William C, mc univ Vanderbilt 93, cb 93, Attalla. 

Lidell, John Benson, mc Atlanta 82, cb 82, Gadsden. 

Lawrence, J. W. D., mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Cherokee 87, Turkey- 

Landers, Franklin Pierce, mc Atlanta 73, cb 84, Hoke's Bluff. 

Lidell, Frank Appling, mc Atlanta Southern 81, cb 81, Aurora. 

McConnell, Robert Franklin, mc Atlanta Southern 81, cb St. Clair 81, 

Morgan, George Washington, mc univ Nashville 89, cb 89, Keener. 

Slaughter, Charles Jefferson, mc , cb 81, Aurora. 

Wood, James Hardin, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Attalla. 
Total 16. 


Anderson, Robert Bailey, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88,Walnut Grove. 
Bevans, Joseph, mc , cb 78, Gadsden. 


Bevans, Edward (iaiidy, mc Alabiuim 7K, cli 7H, (ludsdi'ti. 

Bevans, James Madison, nic uiiiv Louisville 71'. cb Madi»oii 72, 

Cosf^ins, William Thomas, cb 87, Keener. 
Dowdy. Edgar Lee, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, eb 7S, Keener. 
Dozier, ^Farshall Elias, mc Atlanta 61, cb 7H, Mountainboro. 
Edwards, William Sterling, mc Atlanta Southern 85, cb 8."j,(4ads<leii. 
Ellison, John tL'iiry, mc univ N'anderbilt 88, cb lUount 89, Walnut 

Funderberg, William Lewis, mc .\tlanta Southern 81.*, cb DeKalb 86, 

Gilliland, Henry Forney, mc univ Louisville 9(\ no certilicalf, Hill. 
Johnson, James Knox, mc univ Nashville 84, cb 86, .Seab'irn 
Ralls, John Perkins, mc Georgia 44, cb 78, Gadsden. 
Sampler, Kobert James, cb St. Clair 84, Gadsden. 
Slack, John ('alhoun, mc univ I.iOuisville 73, cb 78, Gadsden. 
Wright, r*Iilton Roil, mc .\labama 73, cb 78, ( iadsden. 

Total 16. 

Moved into the county — Frank Ai)|)liiig l.idell, from Bonz, Marshall 
county, to Aurora ; Franklin Tierce Landers, from FTorida to Hoke's 
Bluff; James ^Lidison Bevans, from Jefferson county to (fadsden. 
Total 3. 

Gloved out of the county — Willis Beason, from Etowahton to .Vsh- 
ville, St. Clair county ; ^Madison B. Pollard, from (iadsden to parts 
unknown. John Pope Stewart, from Attalla to Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Total 3. 


President, A. W. Agnew ; Vice-President, J. S. Hollis; Se<'retary, 
J. G. Smith; Treasurer. J. CL Smith; Health OlHcer, W.W.Jones. 
Censors— J. S. Hollis. A. W. Agnew, T. C. Morton, T. M. Peters, W. A. 


Agnew, Alexander Washington, mc univ Trnnsylvania 44, cb 81, Fay- 
ette C. H . 
Graham, William A., mc Alabama 01, cb 91, Fayette ('. IL 
Grillin. W. R., mc univ Transylvania 01. cb 02, Berry Station. 
Hollis, Jonathan Shelton, mc Alalmma 84. cb 84. Covin. 
Jones, William Wilber, old law 68, cb 84. Newt(.nville 
Morton. Thomas Clark, mc univ I'.S.iirant OO, cb IK), Fayette C.H. 
Peters, Thomas Marion, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Fuyelte C. H. 


Seay, Mavk RoIMtis, old law 76, cb Lamav 83, Berry Station. 
Smith, .lohii Gardner, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Bankston. 
Total, 9. 


Asher, , mc , cb — , 

Hocutt, Lucius Henry, mc Georgia 58, cb — , Davis' Creek. 
Lane, Jesse Washington, me univ Louisville 86, cb 86, New River. 
Linn, Jesse Washington, mc Georgia 58, cb 88, Spencer. 

McCreary, Jefferson, mc , cb — , . 

Savage, Victor, mc , cb — , . 

Wheeler, , mc , cb — , 

Total, 7. 

Moved into the county — W. R. Griffin, from to Berry Station ; 

AVheeler, from to ; Asher, from to ; Victor 

Savage, from to ; Jefferson McCreary, from to . 

Moved out of the county — Thomas Bailey Woods, from Way- 
side to parts unknown ; Alonzo Kennedy Collins, from Pilgrim to 
parts unknown. 


President, J. M. Clarke; Vice-President, W. W. White; Secretary, 
J. K. Clarke ; Treasurer, J. K. Clarke ; Health Officer, L. W. Desprez. 
Censors— W. W. Cleere, W. W. White, N. T. Underwood, O. Sargent, 
T. B. Barnes. 


Banks, Charles Peters, mc univ Nashville 55, cb 88, Newberg. 
Barnes, Thomas Benton, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 88, Burleston. 
Clarke, John King, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 88, Russellville. 
Clarke, John King, Jr., mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 88, Newberg. 
Clarke, John Marshall, mc univ Louisville 50, cb 88, Russellville. 
Cleere, William Watkins, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 88, Bel Green. 
Desprez, Louis Willoughby, mc Alabama 71, cb 88, Russellville. 
Gill, Charles, cb 88, Darlington. 
Harris, John C, cb 88, Russellville. 

HoUinger, John Calhoun, mc phys and surg Baltimore 86, cb 91, Rus- 
Johnston, Taylor P., mc univ Nashville 89, cb Marion 86, Frankfort. 
Jones, Thomas Speck, cb 88, Russellvlle. 

Sargent, Oscar, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Marion 86, Darlington. 
Underwood, Nimrod T., mc Alabama 86, cb 88, Russellville. 


White, Robert Josiah, mc INLicon 67, cb SK, Rurlcston. 
White, William \Vyatt,inc uiiiv Vanderbilt SO.cb Maricjii SO, N.-wIi.t)^. 
Total, 16. 


Agee, William A., non-graduate, Russellville. 
Burroughs, A. A., cb 92, Bel Green. 
Earned, Abner, non-graduate, Bel Green. 
Hughes, Wm. P. Burleston. 
Sevier, Daniel P.,cb 88, Russellville. 
Shaw, W. J., cb 92, Pleasant Site. 
Waldrip, Allen C, non-graduate, cb 92, Red Bay. 
Total, 7. 

Examinations — A. A. Burroughs, W. J. Shaw, A. C. Waldrip. Cer- 
tificates granted. 

*NoTE. — As no report was received from Franklin county this year, 
the report of 1893 is here reproduced. — Sec'y. 



President, B. W. Finney; Vice-President, S. F. Latimer; Secre- 
tary, J. IL Ard; Treasurer, J. H. Ard ; Health Officer, M. F. Flem- 
ing. Censors — T. J. Ward, ^I. F. Fleming, B. W. Finney. 


Ard, James Henry, cb 88, Geneva. 

Chapman, Abner Richard, mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb ColTee 88, Ge- 

Clements, .John X., cb Green — , Marl. 

Finney, Benjamin W., mc univ New York 54, cb 88, Coffee Springs. 

Fleming, Millard Filmore, mc univ Louisville — , cb 88, Geneva. 

Latimer, Sidney F., cb 88, Geneva. 

Treadwell, Hardy P., cb 88, Geneva. 

Ward, Thomas Jefferson, cb 88, Watford. 
Total 8. 


Boiling, William, cb 88, :\Iartha. 

Coleman. William Cliristian, nic Alalmnia 92, cb 9.'?, Eunola. 
Cox, William, cb 88, Dundee. 
Dalton, C. C, cb 88, Sanders. 
Jeriiigan, A. B., cb 88, Dundee. 
Mathews, James A., cb S8, Dundee. 


Powell, James B., cb 88, Dundee. 
Sheets, Joseph V., cb 88, Dundee. 

Smith, , mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Sanders. 

Truesdale, J. S., cb 88, Marl. 
Total, 10. 

*NoTE. — As no report was received from Geneva county tliis year, 
the report of 1893 is here reproduced. — Sec'y. 



President, J. P. Barclay ; 1st Vice-President, A. H. Byrd, 2nd Vice- 
President, R. D. Lucius; Secretary, W. R. Hatter; Treasurer, W. R. 
Hatter; Health Officer, G. A. Moore. Censors — A. M. Duncan, R. D. 
Lucius, S. S. Murphy, D. 0. McGehee, A. P. Smith. 


Barclay, James Paxton, mc univ New York 71, cb 79, Eutaw. 
Byrd, Alexander Hamilton, mc univ New York 69, cb 80, Eutaw. 
Duncan, Augustus Meek, mc Alabama 74, cb 79, West Greene. 
Hatter, William Reuben, mc univ Tulane 89, cb 89, Boligee. 
Legare, Julian Kenneth, mc univ New York 86, cb 87, Forkland. 
Lucius, Richard DeKalb, mc Alabama 71, cb Tuscaloosa 78, Eutaw. 
McGehee, Dabney Oswell, mc Alabama 72, cb Greene 79, Knoxville. 
Moore, George Augustus, mc Alabama 90, cb 91, Clinton. 
Murphy, Samuel Silenus, mc Alabama 81, cb 84, Pleasant Ridge. 
Pierce, Thomas William, mc univ Virginia 57, cb 79, Knoxville. 
Smith, Armand Pfister, mc s of m Kentucky 75, cb 79, Eutaw. 
Smith, John Alexander, mc Atlanta 58, cb 79, Union. 
Snoddy, LeVert, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Forkland. 
Snoddy, Virgil, mc Alabama 73, cb 79, Knoxville. 
Total, 14. 


Byrd, Robert Taylor, mc univ New York 69, cb 80, Boligee. 
Morgan, Isaac DuBose, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 79, Eutaw. 

Mobley, W. A., , West Greene. 

Pearson, Edward Pallen, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 84, Boligee. 

Purnell, James Knox, mc , cb Pickens 88, Lewiston. 

Snoddy, Samuel, mc univ Transylvania 31, cb 79, Mantua. 
Total 6. 

Moved into the county — W. A. Mobley, from Hale county to West 
Greene ; Richard DeKalb Lucius, from Tuscaloosa county to Eutaw. 

Moved out of the county — Thomas Elmore Murphy, from Pleasant 
Ridge to Bethany, Pickens county; James Davis Henegan, from Bur- 


ton's Hill to Epes Station, Sumter county ; William Thompson Tay- 
lor, from Union to Hickmans, Tuscaloosa county. 

Examinations— For the practice of medicine, James Davis Hene- 
gan, mc univ Louisville 91. Certificate granted. William Thompson 
Taylor, mc Alabama 93. Certificate granted. 



President, F. M. Peterson; Vice-President, J. Huggins; Secretary, 
R. Inge; Treasurer, K. Inge; Health Officer, J. Huggins. Censors— 
F. M. Peterson, J. Iluggins, E. Young, T. K. Ward, K. Inge. 


Borden, James Pennington, mc univ Southern 75, cb 78, Greensboro. 

Brovvder, William ^Monroe, mc univ New York 88, cb88,Gallion. 

Davis, Andrevp R.,mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Five •Mile. 

Duggar, Reuben Henry, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 78, Gallion. 

Griffin, Rufus Jackson, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Carthage. 

Huggins, Jacob, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 78, Newbern. 

Inge, Richard, mc univ Virginia 70, mc univ New York 71, cb 78, 

Owens, William Harrison, mc univ Nashville 80, cb 81, Havana. 
Peterson, Francis INIarion, mc univ New York 68, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Pickett, Joseph Martin, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Ward, Thomas Robert, mc univ South Carolina 53, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Young, Elisha, mc Jefferson 59, cb 78, Greensboro. 
Total, 12. 


Browder, Joseph D., mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Gallion. 
Driver, Elisha Newton, mc univ Louisville 93, cb I'crry 93, Newbern. 
Gewin, William Christopher, mc univ Louisiana 78, cb 78, Akron. 
McColvin, Edgar Patton, mc Alabama 93, cb Perry 93, Cedarville. 
Tidmore, James Adams, mc univ Kansas City 84, cb 89, Havana. 
Turk, William Luther, mc univ Nashville 82, cb Sumter 8.3, (lallion. 
Wilburn, Jolin Calhoun, mc Jefferson 78, cb 78, Carthage. 
Total 7. 

Moved into the county — James Adams Tidmore, mc univ Kansas 
City 84, cb 89, from Powderly to Havana ; Elisha Newton Driver, nic 
univ Louisville 93, cb Perry 93, from Perryville to Newbern ; Edgar 
Patton McColvin, mc Alabama 93, cb Perry 93, from Perryville to 

Moved out of tiie county— AVilliani Cyprian Cross, from Newbern to 
Texas; George M. Spencer, from , to Perry county. 




President, F. I. Moody; Vice-President, W. J. Lee; Secretary, 
Bernard Phillips ; Treasurer, J. R. G. Howell ; Health Officer, Oscar 
Dowling. Censors— F. I. Moody, W. J. Lee, J. IL Stovall, G. A. Ham- 
mond, J. R. G. Howell. 


Crawford, John Peter, mc univ Louisville 51, cb 83, Columbia. 
Dowling, Oscar, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb 88, Columbia. 
Hammond, George Abner, mc univ Maryland 84, cb 84, Dothan. 
Hardwick, William Pleasant, mc Alabama 86, cb 88, Headland. 
Howell, John Robert Graves, mc Atlanta 90, cb Dale 88, Dothan. 
Hendrix, Leonidas, mc Atlanta 90, cb Pike 90, Abbeville. 
Lee, William Joseph, mc univ Louisiana 60, cb 83, Abbeville. 
Moody, Fleming Isaac, mc phy and surg Baltimore 76, cb 83, Dothan. 
Payne, John Walter, mc Alabama 85, cb 87, Dothan. 
Phillips, Bernard, mc univ Heidleberg, Germany 74, cb 91, Dothan. 
Stapleton, Robert B., mc Memphis Hospital 85, cb 91, Cowarts's. 
Stovall, John Henry, mc Atlanta 60, cb 89, Columbia. 
Vaugh, David Horatio, mc Atlanta 88, cb 89, Gordan. 
Williams, William Henry, mc Memphis Hospital 89, cb 91, Headland. 
Yarbrough, Jolm Fletcher, mc Atlanta 91, cb 92, Ashford. 
Young, Harvey Monroe, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Dothan. 
Total, 16. 


Barnes, L. L., mc Eclectic, Atlanta 92, , Cottonwood. 

Blackledge, John Richard, mc Alabama 89, cb 91, Abbeville. 
Fowler, James Thomas, mc South Carolina 81, cb 84, Shorterville. 
Fowler, John Lindsey, mc South Carolina 51, cb 83, Shorterville. 
Granger, John Wesley, mc Georgia Reform 59, cb 85, Granger. 
Lewis, James Langston, mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, Bush. 
Long, James Benjamin, mc univ Louisville 81, cb 83, Abbeville. 
Smisson, Henry James, mc South Carolina 60, cb Dale 87, Dothan. 
Oates, Wyatt Stephen, mc — , cb 91, Headland. 
Weems, J. S., mc Alabama 92, cb — , Law-renceville. 
Total, 10. 

Moved into the county — Leonidas Hendrix, mc Atlanta 90, cb Pike 
90, to Abbeville. 

Moved out of the county , Fleming, mc Alabama 92, from 

Lawrenceville to parts unknown ; W. B. Watkins, from Pansy to parts 


Examinations — For the practice of medicine, Flarvcy Monroe 
Young, mc Alabama 93, Dotlian. Certificate granted. 



President, E. K. Smith; Vice-President, W. C. Maples; Secretary, 
Andrew Boyd; Treasurer, \V. C. Ma|)les; Hcaltli Ollicer, E. U. Smith. 
Censors— W. C. Maples, Andrew lioyd, A. N. Blakeinore, E. K. Moon, 
J. B. Haralson. 


Blakemore, Alexander N., mc univ Tennessee 80, cb 82, Dodsonville. 

Boggess, John W., mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb Marshall 93, Maynard's 

Boyd, Andrew, mc phy it surg Baltimore 88, cb 88, Scottsboro. 

Boyd, James Harvey, mc univ Nashville 60, cb 82, Larkinsville. 

Foster, George Whitfield, mc univ Nashville 82, cb 82, Stevenson. 

Haralson, Jefferson Bennett, mc Memphis 88, cb Marshall K8, Lang- 

Hays, George Thomas, mc Alabama 87, cb DeKalb87, Woodville. 

Maples, William Caswell, mc univ Nashville 81, cb Madison S2, Scotts- 

Moon, Emmet Knight, mc Chattanooga 92, cb Marsliail 93, Holly- 

Reed, James R., mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Holly Tree. 

Rorex, James Polk, mc Alabama 75, cb ^i2, Scottsboro. 

Sanders, Walter C, mc Memphis 91, cb ^ladison 91, Fackler. 

Smith, Eugene Robinett, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 89, Dulton. 

Smith, William Barton, non-graduate, — , cb 82, Lime Hock. 

Zummerhly, Samuel Lutz, mc Miami (Ohio) 90. cb 90, Hridgt-iiort. 
Total, 15. 


Adkins, Charles William, mc univ Louisville 68, cb 84, Langston. 
Allen, James Beckerell. mc univ Tennessee 87, cb 87. Stevenson. 
Arnold, T. M , mc Atlanta 91, illegal, Pisgah. 
Brewer, Joseph ■\I., mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82. Trenton. 
Clarke, John Fletcher, non-graduate, cb 82, Gartli. 

Derrick, LaFayette, , cb 82, W(n)dville. 

(4attis, Henry Franklin, , cb 82, Trenton. 

<iraham, .Michael, . cb 82, Stevenson. 

Grant, Felix Robertson. . cb 82. Larkin'.x Fork. 

Helton, Pleasant H.. , cb 82, CafTey's. 

Hodden, Williuin David, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Narrow's. 


Howard, C. E., illegal, Hennegan. 

James, William, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 90, Bolivar. 

Johnson, James Robert, , cb DeKalb 82, Kirby's Creek. 

Knowlton, John Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Paint Rock. 
Lee, Elisha Lightfoot, mc univ Vanderbilt 73, cb 82, Bridgeport. 
Mason, "William, mc univ Transylvania 46, cb 82, Fabius. 
McAfee, Green Pryor, non-graduate, cb 82, Lime Rock. 
McCord, John Harvey, one course, 82, cb 82, Scottsboro. 
Robertson, James Osgood, one course, cb 84, Larkin's Fork. 
Smith, Barton Brown, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 82, Larkinsville. 
Spiller, William Kingston, mc univ Louisville 74, cb 84, Bridgeport. 
Womack, Wiley Coker, one course, cb 82, Scottsboro. 
Total, 23. 

Moved into the county — Emmett K. Moon, from Henry ville, ]\Iar- 
shall county, to Hollywood ; John W. Boggess, from New Hope, Mad- 
ison county, to Maynard's Cove. 

Moved out of the county — John Delightful Freeman, mc St. Louis 
91, cb 91, from Bridgeport. Retired from practice, and now studying 
law at the University of Alabama. Willam Henry Allen, from Lang- 
ston to Meltonville, Marshall county. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, James R. Reed, mc 
Alabama 93 ; certificate granted. T. D. Walker, mc univ Tennessee 
93 ; certificate refused. 


President, S. L. Ledbetter; Vice-President, R. M. Cunningham; 
Secretary, W. H. Wilder ; Treasurer, Wyatt Heflin ; Health Officer, T. 
D. Parke. Censors, E. H. Sholl, T. L. Robertson, G. S. Brown, W. H. 
Johnston, B. L. Wyman . 


Abernathy, Jones Cadwalader, mc univ Louisiana 59, cb Marengo 78, 

Acton, Samuel Watson, mc Alabama 60, cb Marengo 78, Trussville. 

Alexander, Howard Augustus, mc s of m Kentucky 75, cb Macon 
78, Birmingham. 

Armstrong, James McLay, mc Jefferson 65, cb 87, Adger. 

Barclay, John Wyeth, mc Jefferson 69, cb Madison 78, Birmingham. 

Barnes, Ella Elizabeth, mc Woman's, Philadelphia 93, cb 93, Bir- 

Barrett, Nathaniel Aldridge, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Lawrence 86, 
East Lake. 


Berry, Robert Alford, mc iiniv Virginia 82, cb 85, Oxtnoor. 

Brown, George Summers, mc JelTerson 85, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Brown, George Washington, mc Atlanta 77, cb 78, Pratt City. 

Brown, James Anderson, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb Conecuh 87, Kns- 
ley City. 

Brown, Thomas Jefiferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 85, Pratt City. 

Burke, Adalbert Bela, mc Vienna, Austria 87, cb 91, Birmirigluim. 

Caffee, Samuel Richmond, mc Miami, Ohio 81, cb TuscalDosa 81, Hir- 

Carson, Shelby Chadwick, mc univ Tulane 74, cb Greene 70, Bessemer- 
Carter, James Watkins, mc univ Nashville 75, cb Sumter 78, Besse- 

Chapman, George Clarence, mc univ Vanderbilt 00, cb Monroe 90, 

Chapman, John Thomas, mc Alabama S6, cb Marengo 87, Bessemer. 

Collins, James Alexander, mc univ Louisville 91, cb Cullman 01, War- 

Copeland, Benjamin Grigsby, mc Jefferson 83, cb Limestone 83, Bir- 

Gotten, Robert, mc univ Tulane 67, cb 86, Birmingham. 

Coulbourne, John Thomas, mc univ Maryland 84, state board 88, Bir- 

Cunningham, Russell McWhorter, mc Bellevue 79, cb 83, Ensley City. 

Dabney, John Davis, univ Washington, Baltimore 72, cb 90, Birming- 

Davidson, James Francis, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Davis, John Daniel Sinkler, mc Georgia 70, cb St. Clair 79, Birming- 

Davis, William Elias Brownlee, mc Bellevue 84, cb 84, Birmingham. 

Douglass, Albert Gallatin, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Birmingiiam. 

Dozier, John Calhoun, mc univ Nashville 58, cb Perry 79, Birmingham. 

Drennen, Cliarles, mc Alabama 72, cb Blount 78, Birmingham. 

Dryer, Thomas Edmund, mc Alabama 86, cb Macon 86, Mirmingliam. 

Due, Malvern Nicholas, mc phy and surg New York 89, cli Mont- 
gomery 89, Birmingham. 

Duncan, Joseph Johnston, mc univ Louisville 86, state board 86, Bir- 

Ellsberry, John Payne, mc univ Virginia 60, cb Montgomery S4, lied- 

Evins, Thomas Earle, mc univ Pennsylvania 91. cb 94, Woodward. 

Finch, James Henry, mc univ Maryland S6, cb 87, East Lake. 

Forster, William Condie, mc univ Louisiana 82, cb Choctaw 84, Bir- 

Gamble, William Melvine, mc univ Louisville 97, cb 87, Kast Lake. 

Gibson, Jefferson Demetrius, mc Alabama 87, cb Tuscaloosa 87, Bir- 


Gillespy,.Tohn Sharpe, mc Miami, Ohio 83, cb 83, Birmingham. 

Glass, Edward Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 90. cb 90, Birmingham. 

Griggs, John Gardener, mc univ Pennsylvania 63, cb Macon 86, Bir- 

Heacock, Joseph Davis, mc univ Tulane 92, cb Talladega 92, East 

Heflin, Wyatt, mc Jefferson 84, cb Randolph So, Birmingliam. 

Henley, Albert Thomas, mc univ New York 69, cb Hale 78, Birming- 

Howard, John Wesley, mc Atlanta 91, cb Shelby 91, Irondale. 

Huey, John Frederick, mc phy and surg Baltimore 87, cb 87, Adger. 

Jenkins, Luckie Andrew, mc Alabama 89, cb Wilcox 89, Brookside. 

Jernigan, Charles Henry, mc Jefferson 55, cb Bullock 80, Birmingham. 

Johnston, William Henry, mc univ New York 67, cb Dallas 78, Bir- 

Jones, Capers Capehart, mc univ Pennsylvania 79, cb Wilcox 79, East 

Jones, Devotie Davis, mc univ Pennsylvania 70, cb Lowndes 79, Wood- 

Jones, John Columbus, mc univ Tulane 85, cb 88, John's. 

Killough, James Monroe, mc s of m Kentucky 87, cb 87, Huffman. 

Klebbs, Theodore Alexander, mc univ Tulane 76, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Lacy, Edward Parish, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb Shelby 83, Bessemer. 

Ledbetter, Samuel Leonidas, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 79, Birming- 

Lewis, Francis Porcher, mc South Carolina 76, cb 80, Coalburg. 

Lewis, James Marshall, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Luckie, James Buckner, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, Birmingham. 

Luckie, William Richard, mc Bellevue 92, cb 92, Birmingham. 

Lusk, Percy Bradford, mc univ Tulane 83, cb 84, Lewisburg. 

Martin, Henry Lewis, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Madison 81, Avon- 

Martin, James Phillips, mc Bellevue 83, cb Barbour 84, Birmingham. 

McCarty, James Henry, mc Atlanta 80, cb 83, Birmingham. 

McGehee, Benjamin Ellesberry,mc univ Louisville 72, cb Montgomery 
84, Hillman. 

Miller, James Melville, mc Alabama 84, cb Walker 84, Blossburg. 

Miller, Jesse Thomas, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Pickens 86, Dolo- 

Mobley, Robert Vernon, mc Alabama 89, cb Clarke 89, Birmingham. 

Moore, John Austin, mc phy and surg Baltimore 85, cb Blount 85, Bir- 

Morris, Edward Watts, mc univ Virginia 85, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Morris, Lewis Coleman, mc univ Virginia 92, cb 93, Birmingham. 

Page, John Randolph, mc univ Virginia 50, cb 88, Birmingham. 


Parke, Thomas J)uke, luc univ New York 79, cb Dallas Hi, Minniiig- 

Payne, John, mc Jefferson 86, cb SlitMby 86, Ililliiinn. 

Posey, William Felix, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Mt. Pinson. 

I'riiice, Francis Marion, mc Jefferson 49, (•]) 78, Hessemer. 

Ramsey, Robert Neal, mc univ Pennsylvania 79, cl) 90, Thomas. 

Ransom, William Walter, mc univ Vanderbilt H8, cb 8K, Hirmiiif^ham. 

Riggs, Edward Powell, mc phy and surg Baltimore 81, cb Dalla.-, si, 

Robbins, Jesse Elbert, mc Atlanta 86, cb 86, Brookside. 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, mc Jefferson 61, cb Callioun 81, Bir- 

Robinson, Elisha ^lilton, mc univ Tulane 85, cb Blount 86, Bessemer. 

Rogers, ^IcCarty, mc Alabama 89, cb Conecuh 89, Birmingham. 

Rosser, Henry Nollner, mc Atlanta 69, cb Dallas 89, Birmingham. 

Sears, John William, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 78, Birmingham. 

Sexton, Charles Richard, mc univ Tulane 75, cb Tuscaloosa 78, Bir- 

Shepherd, Louis W., mc phy and surg Baltimore 85, cb St. Clair 87, 

Sholl, Edward Heni-y, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb Sumter 7.S, Bir- 

Smith, Reginald Knight, mc phy and surg Baltimore 92, cb 92, I'ratl 

Spencer, Lucien A., mc ^liami, Ohio 85, cb 85, Bessemer. 

Stagg, John B., mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb Blount Hii, Pratt City. 

Statum, Job Nelson, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Blossburg. 

Steele, Allen Newton, mc Alabama 90, cb Pickens 90, Ishkooda. 

Steeves, Henry Fordyce, non-graduate, state board 87, Gate City. 

Stevens, William Hardy, mc phy and surg Baltimore 89, cb 89, Cardiff 

Talley, Dyer Fin<lley, mc univ Tulane 92, cb 92, Birmingham. 

Wluiley, Lewis, mc Atlanta 73, cb Blount 78, Birmingham. 

Whelan, Charles, mc univ Louisiana W, cb Hale 7S, Birmingham. 

Wilder, William Hiiiton, mc univ New York 91. cb 91, Birmingham. 

Wilson, Cunningham, mc univ Pennsylvania s4. cb 84. Birminglinm. 

Wood, Winston Cass, mc Atlanta 81, cb Randolph Si, Womlward. 

Woodson, Lewis Greene, mc univ Maryland S6, cb SS, Birmingham. 

Wyman, Benjamin Leon, mc univ Virginia and New York 78, 79, cb 
Tuscaloosa 82, Birmingham. 
Total, 1U4. 


Abercrombie, John Pattison, mc Alabama So. cb 82, Cedar 
Acton, William Henser, mc univ Vandfrbilt SS. <-b l.audcniale 88, 


Ball, John Calhoun, mc Atlanta 59, cb Calhoun 87, Avondale. 

Ballard, Asa Nathaniel, mc Pulte (homeopathic) 76, cb UeKalb 86, 

Clapp, William Wesley, mc Cleveland (homeopathic) 90, cb DeKalb 
90, Birmingliam. 

Clayton, Benjamin Lawrence, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb St. Clair 83, 

Collins, Milton Homer, mc univ Tennessee 84, cb Blount 84, Birming- 

Cooper, William Dudley, mc Jefferson 69, cb Lee 82, Birmingham. 

Cross, Samuel Mardis, mc Georgia 60, cb 78, Woodlavv^n. 

Cross, Thomas Winston, mc univ Nashville 87, cb 87, Warrior. 

Crow, Phillip Patterson, mc univ Nashville 77, cb St. Clair 78, Coal- 

Dowsing, John Wesley, mc Jefferson 57, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Dozier, Oliver Thomas, mc Atlanta 74, cb — , Birmingham. 

Drennen, Charles Travis, mc Rush 85, cb Cullman 85, Birmingham. 

Fielder, Francis Lewis, old law, cb Hale 85, Birmingliam. 

Goin, John Burt (colored), mc Meharry 90, cb 90, Birmingham. 

Greene, Robert Smith, mc Atlanta 60, cb 78, Greene's. 

Hancock, James Francis, mc univ Louisville 88, cb Walker 88, Toad- 

Hawkins, Elijah Alexis, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb Walker 89, Little 

Hawkins, Richard Nathaniel, mc Miami, Ohio, 67, cb Shelby 87, Bir- 

Heddleston, James Lawrence, mc South Carolina 55, cb Hale 87, 

Holloway, Young Edwin, mc Miami, Ohio, 72, cb Cullman 85, Bir- 

Hudson, Norman Hyde (colored), mc Long Island 90, cb 91, Birming- 

Jones, Richard Augustus, mc Jefferson 55, cb Marengo 78, Pratt City. 

Jones, Robert, mc univ Louisville 86, cb 86, Warrior. 

Jones, William Kennon, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb Bullock 80, Bir- 

McClain, Frederick Augustus, mc univ Louisville 94, cb 94, Earnest. 

McGlathery, Fountain Scott, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb Morgan 82, 

Miller, James Whitfield, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, AVylam. 

Gates, David Dudley, mc univ Pennsylvania 60, cb 79, Leeds. 

Owen, William :\rarmaduke, mc Alabama 72, cb 78, Jonesboro. 

Perry, Samuel, mc South Carolina 54, cb Perry 78, Birmingham. 

Pouncy, John Brown, mc univ New York 51, cb Bullock 81, Birming- 

Ragsdale, Milton Columbus, mc Georgia 78, cb 78, McCalla. 


Riley, Robert Lee, mc univ Tulane 84, cb 88, Birmingham. 

Roberts, Martin, non-graduate, old law, cb 80, Warrior. 

Robinson, Jasper Bennett, mc iiniv Vanderl)ilt 69, cb St. Clair 78, 

Roper, William Elliott, mc univ Louisville S3, cb Shelby 7.S, Wood- 

Russell, Ralph ^Morgan, mc Bellevue 88, cb Etowah 89, Birmingham. 

Scott, Jeptha Newton, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Birmingham. 

Shoemaker, Worcester Ney, mc Columbus, Ohio, 78, cb 81, Birming- 

Smith, Robert Lee, mc univ Louisville 91, cb — , Toadvine. 

Stone, Thomas Jones, mc Memphis Hospital 91, cb Marion 91, San- 

Tidmore, James Andrew, mc Kansas City 84, cb Ilale 89, Powderly. 

Trainer, Edward W., non-graduate, cb Marshall 85, Pratt City. 

Tucker, William Robert, mc Georgia 60, cb Shelby 77, Belle Sumter. 

Whissenant, Lewis Daniel, non-graduate, cb 78, Morris. 
Total, 47. 

Moved into the county — Ella Elizabeth Barnes, from Philadelphia 
Pa., to Birmingham ; James Alexander Collins, from Culhnan county 
to Warrior ; Thomas Earle Evins, from South Carolina to Woodward ; 
Joseph Davis Heacock, from Talladega county to East Lake ; I^ewis 
Coleman Morris, from \'irginia to Birmingham. 

Moved out of the county— John Madison Bivins, from AVarrior to 
Gadsden, Ala. ; W. S. Black, from Bessemer to parts unknown ; Ar- 
thur McKimmon Brown (colored), from Bessemer to Dayton, oiiio ; 
John William Coleman, from Birmingham to parts unknown ; Wil- 
liam Alexander Cook, from Birmingham to parts unknown ; James 
Alexander Cowper, from Birmingham to Dadeville, Alabama ; Thomas 
Transit Earle, from Birmingham to parts unknown ; Robert Smith 
Edwards, from Trussville to parts unknown ; Andrew Jackson Earh-y, 
from Irondale to Shelby county, Ala.; William Grifiiih, from Pratt 
City to Florida; William Lewis Hale, from Bessemer to parts un- 
known ; Charles Lovvry Hill, from Elliott to' parts unknown ; Arnold 
Jolly, from Birmiiigham to Hamburg, Iowa ; William Jasper Killen. 
from Birmingham to Chicago, 111. ; Robert Charles Macy, from Besse- 
mer to Brownsville, Texas; John James Ormond, from Birmingham 
to parts unknown; William S&ndford Pitts, from Bessemer to parts 
unknown ; James Washington Pruett, from Birmingham to parts un- 
known ; Edward Socrates Ravvls, from Bessemer to parts unk?iown ; 
Thomas Franklin Robinson, from Ik'ssemer to Blocton, Ala. ; Joliii 
Banks Sewell, from Pratt City to New liieria. La.; Robert Hardie 
Trammell, from Birmingham to Texas; Mathew Turner, from WoikI- 
lawn to Bladen Springs, Ala.; Samuel Harvey Whfei.-r. from l?ir- 
mingham to parts unknown; William .loseph Wiiecler, from Dolomite 
to Coiliubvilie.Ala. 


Examinations — Oscar Rowland Tomlinson, mc Tennessee 92, 

James Samuel Moore, mc pliy and surg Baltimore 93, Trussville 
Ella Elizabetii Barnes, mc Woman's, Philadelphia 93, Birmingiiam 
Lewis Coleman Morris, mc univ Virginia 92, Birmingham ; Josepii 
Berry Greene, mc univ Virginia 93, Birmingham ; certificates granted. 
Ward, mc Cliattanooga 93, certificate refused. 

Deaths — Andrew .Tackson Brewster, M. D., mc Alabama 80, cb 80. 
DiedFebruary 19, 1894; Robert Dickens Webb, M. D., mc univ Vir- 
ginia 50, cb Sumter 78. Died in Yazoo City, Miss., Feb. 23, 1894. 



President, W. L. Morton; Vice-President, ; Secretary, 

W. A. Burns ; Treasurer, W. A. Burns ; Health Oificer, D. D. Ilollis. 
Censors — W. L. Morton, R. J. Redden, W. A. Burns, J. B. Brock, J. R. 


Brock, John Beauregard, mc univ Nashville 91, cb Marion 91, Richards. 

Burns, George Caruthers, mc , cb 78, Vernon. 

Burns, William Arthur, mc Memphis 91, cb 91, Vernon. 
Black, James Robert, mc Memphis 93, cb 93, Kingsville. 
Hollis, Daniel Dixie, mc phy and surg Baltimore, one course, 84, cb84, 

Morton, William Locke, mc univ Louisiana 74. cb 77, Vernon. 
Redden, Robert James, mc univ Maryland 77, cb 77, Sulligent. 

Total 7. 


Armstrong, William, cb 80, Detroit. 

Barksdale, James Ira, mc univ Nashville — , cb Tuscaloosa 86, Norman. 

Blakeny, Louis Columbus, mc Alabama 74, cb 77, Millport. 

Box, Daniel William, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Mallory. 

Branyan, James A , mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Cody. 

Collier, Scott, cb 77, Detroit. 

Collins, Francis Alexander, mc Memphis 92, cb 92, Blowhorn. 

Collins, Alonzo K., mc univ 90, cb Fayette 90, Millport. 

Collins, George Jackson, mc Alabama 74, cb Fayette 84, Kennedy. 
Elliott, William Farris, mc univ Louisville, one course 57, cb 77, Crews. 

Hayes, Robert Jemison, mc univ Tennessee 92, cb 93, 

Kennedy, John Oscar, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Kennedy. 

Kennedy, AVilliam Henderson, mc univ Nashville 51, cb 77, Kennedy. 

Seay, Jeptha Thomas, cb 77, Fernbank. 

Stanley, James S., mc univ Louisville 72, cb 85, Detroit. 


Vaughan, Godrge AVashiiigtoii, cl) Marion HR, WofTord. 
Woods, Tlionias Bailey, nic univ Vaiiderbilt 8S,cb Fayette 89, Twelve 
Total, 17. 

Moved into the county — .Tames S. Stanley, inc univ Louisville 1'2, 
cb So, from ^lississipj)! to Detroit ; Thomas Bailey Woods, me univ 
Yanderbilt 88, cb Fayette 89, from Fayette county to Twelve Corners. 

Moved out of the county — .lames Peter Collins, cb Fayette 84, from 
Kingsville to Texas. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, .Tames Kobert Black, 
mc Memphis 93. Certificate granted. liobert Jemison Hayes, mc 
Tennessee 92. Certificate granted. 

Deaths — ^Tartin Watson Morton, M. D., mc Cincinnati 73, cb 77. 
Vernon ; of i)ulmonary tuberculosis. James Kicliard I'hillip>, M I', 
Millport, of gun-shot wound. 


President, .T. M. Hayes ; Vice-President, H II. Kennedy ; Secretary, 

J. !^L Pierson ; Treasurer, W. E. Harraway ; Health Officer, 

Censors — H. K. Kennedy, J. M. Hayes, G. B. Scott. 


Arnold, Leonard Waring, mc univ Yanderbilt 82, cb 87, Florence. 

Carroll, G. W., Gravelly Springs. 

Douglass, James An)ert, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 88, Centre Star. 

Duckett, I^ni Fowler, mc Atlanta 56, cb 87, Fii>rence. 

Harraway. William Epps. mc univ Nasiiville 56, cb 87, Florence. 

Hayes, John Monroe, mc univ Nashville 57, cb 86, Florence. 

Johnston, J. T., Cloverdale. 

Johnston, Stephen F., mc univ Louisville 57. cb 87, Cloverdale. 

Jones, John P., Lexington. 

Kennedy, Hiram Richard, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 89, Green Hill. 

Moody, Henry Altamont. mc univ Louisville 66, cb 87, Bailey Springs. 

Newton, G. S., Rogersville. 

Pate, Jesse Americus, mc univ I.,ouisviIle 76, cb 87, Rogersville. 

Pierson, James ^L, cb Ol?, Florence. 

Powell, James, Pruitton. 

Powell, William Washington, mc univ Mii-liigan 55, cb SS, Pruitton. 

Price, William Mason, mc univ New York 65, cb 87. Florence. 

Ray, Hugh Leonidas, mc univ New York 71, cb 87, Oakland. 

liichardson, Wiley William, mc univ Louisville 88, cb 89, Florence. 

Scott, George B., St. Florian. 


Stewart Edmund Monroe, mc univ New Yoi-k and Vanderbilt 68, cb 

87, Oakland. 
Sugg, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Louisville — , cb 92, Smithsoiiia. 
Watson, Charles McAlpine, mc univ Louisiana 81, cb Etowah 82, 

Williams, George, Covington. 

Total 24. 


Bramlett, William M., mc univ Nashville 60, cb 87, Florence. 
Crow, Calvin Augustus, mc Jefferson 51, cb 78, Florence. 
Hannuin, Anthony Butler, mc univ Nashville 60, cb 87, Pruitton. 
Henderson, Alexander Holmes, mc univ Nashville 76, cb 87, Bailey 

Kernachan, W^illiam Jones, mc univ Nashville 78, cb 88, Florence. 
Kyle, William Bailey, Florence. 
Lee, John, Waterloo. 

Morgan, James Thomas, mc univ Nashville 71, cb 87, Florence. 
Morris,. D. J., Gravelly Springs. 
Morris, Wayne, Florence. 

Paulk, Samuel O., mc univ Vanderbilt — , cb — , Cloverdale. 
Powers, Alexander Hamilton, mc univ Louisville 71, cb 87, Waterloo. 
Smith, Alexander, Florence. 
Sullivan, Oliver Brown, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 87, Waterloo. 

Total, 14. 

*NoTE. — As no report was received from Lauderdale county this 
year, the report of 1893 is here reproduced.— Sec'y. 


President, Edgar Rand ; Vice-President, L. W. Houston ; Secretary, 
W. J. McMahon ; Treasurer, W. J. McMahon ; Health Officer, W. J. 
McMahon. Censors-H. B. Burkett, E. C. Ashford, Edgar Rand, J. 
A. P. Robinson, J. S. Hill. 


Ashford, Edward Clinton, mc univ Louisiana 57, cb 78, Courtland. 
Burkett, Henry Bascomb, mc phy and surg Baltimore 78, cb 78, 

Carter, Parkerson Patrick, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 79, Brick. 
Edwards, John Wilson, mc univ Louisville 69, cb 78, Courtland. 
Etheridge, Benjamin Franklin, mc Memphis 86, cb 86, Hatton. 
Fennell, Isham Watkins, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 78, Courtland. 
Hill, John S., dentist, mc phy and surg St. Louis ,87, cb 88, Courtland. 


Hodges, John P., mc univ Naslivillo 77, cb 78, Oakvillo. 
Houston, Jolin Swnnn, nic univ Xusliville 77, el) 7H, Lnndorsvillo. 
Houston, Leon Walton, inc univ Xiishvilie 77, cb 7H, Town Creek. 
Masterson, John Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 72, cb 7K, Moulton. 
McDonald, John Robert, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 78, Courtland. 
McMalion, William Jack, mc Long Island 60, cb 78, Courtland. 
Pitt, James Thomas, mc univ Nashville 86, cb 1)2, llillsboro. 
Rand, Edgar, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Leighton. 
Robinson, John Abner Pruette, mc St. Louis 72, cb 78, Leighton. 
Simms, Edgar Thomas, mc univ Peiuisylvania 69, cb 78, llillsboro. 
Simpson, Robert IMiles, mc univ Vanderbilt 76, cb 87, Moulton. 
Total, 18. 


Bailey, , illegal, Moulton. 

Beck, , illegal. Pool. 

Fish, William Fletcher, mc univ New York 56, cb 78, Town Creek. 
Gibson, Fleming D., mc univ Nashville 90, cb 93, Moulton. 
Howell, Jolui Pufus, mc ^Memphis 88, cb 93, Ilatlon. 
Jones, Thomas Crittenden, mc univ Louisville 76, cb 78, Mount Hope. 
King, Benjamin Rush, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 78, Leighton. 
Masterson, Albert Aaron, mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Leighton. 
Masterson, John H., mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Leighton. 
Young, James T., illegal, Oakville. 
Total, 10. 
Moved into the county — DuBose Wilds Scott, from Colnmliiana tu 

Deaths — George Shegogg, M. D., mc King's College, Dublin 46, cb 
78, Brick. Died Sept. 17, 1893, aged 74 years. 



President, J. G. Palmer ; Vice-President, A. T. Howf ; Se<Tetary, J 
H. Drake,Jr.; Treasurer, J. H. Drake, Jr. ; Health oilicer.J. H. I>rake, 
Jr. Cen.sors— A. B. Bennett,.!. M. Watkins, J. (i. raimer,.!. \l. Ilam- 
ner, J. II. Drake, Jr. 


Bennett, Abijah Benjamin, inc phy and surg Baltimore 81, cb Hi, 

Bedell, Robert Bruce, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 81, .\ul)iini. 
Drake, John Hodges, mc Atlanta 67, cb Hi, Auburn. 
Drake, John I lodges Jr., mc .\Iabanui 91, cb 91, Opelika 
Ilanner, .losrph Uniulolph, mc univ Harvard 73, cb 93, Opelika. 


Love, James Madison, mc South Carolina 54, cb 81, Salem. 

McCoy, Charles Breekenridge, mc phy and siirg Baltimore 82, cb 82, 

Palmer, Jesse Gary, mc phy and surg Baltimore 82, cb 82, Opelika. 
Rowe, Andrew Thomas, mc Georgia 59, cb 77, Opelika. 
Watkins, John Milton, univ Louisiana 70, cb Tallapoosa 82, Opelika. 
Wheelis, William Raleigh, mc Atlanta — , cb — , Beulah. 

Total, 11. 


Bullard, C. C, Opelika. 

Davis, J. L., mc — , cb — , Opelika. 

Dovvdell, A. G., mc — , cb — , Opelika. 

Emory, G. W., Opelika. 

Foreman, Arthur Levin, mc univ Louisville 69, cb 91, Loachapoka. 

Fowler, Andrew Jackson, mc Atlanta 81, cb 85, Roxanna. 

Greene, Augustus A., mc univ Yanderbilt 91,cb Chilton 91, Opelika. 

Johnson, Henry Harrison, mc South Carolina — , cb — , Loachapoka. 

Tjamar, William Henry, mc Geoi'gia Reform — , cb 81, Auburn. 

Mansfield, , Wacoochee. 

Persons, Henry Stanford, mc univ Virginia 93, cb 93, Auburn. 
Powledge, F., mc — , cb — , Opelika 
Read, Andrew H., mc — , cb — , Opelika. 
Shelton, Menzo David, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 81, Salem. 
Stowe, I. N., Opelika. 
Webb, Charles S., Roxanna. 
AVright, N. L., mc — , cb — , Opelika. 
Total, 17. 

Moved into the county — J. M. Watkins, from Camp Hill to Opelika ; 
A. T. Rowe, from Columbiana to Opelika ; J. L. Davis, from Texas 
to Opelika; C. C. Bullard, from Oak Bowery to Opelika. 

Moved out of the county— A. G. Emory, from Opelika to . 

Examinations — G. W. Emory, mc univ Tulane 94; Henry Stanford 

Persons, mc univ Virginia 93. Certificates granted. 

Deaths — John Walter Raleigh Williams, M. D., mc Georgia Reform 



President, Theophilus Westmoreland ; Vice-President, J. R. Hoff- 
man ; Secretary, W. J. Hogan, Health Officer, W. J. Hogan. Censors 
— W. J. Hogan, G. A. Williams, H. D. Westmoreland. 



Delanoy, Isaac Fox, mc univ Louisiniui 53, cb ^Iiidisori 78, Athens. 

Hagan, AVilliam James, nic Jefferson 84, cb 84, Alliens. 

Hoffman, John Ricliai-dson, mc Jefferson 58, cb 77, Athens. 

Moore, Mack, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Pettj'. 

Pettus, Joseph Albert, mc univ Nashville 67, cb 77, Elkmont. 

Rankin, James Caffield Mitchell, mc univ Nashville 58, cb 78, Belle 

"Westmoreland, Theophilus, mc univ Nashville 56, cb 79, Athens. 
Westmoreland, 11. I)., mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 93, Athens. 
Williams, George Allen, mc univ Nashville SO, cb 81, Athens. 

Total, 9. 


(Jarter, James Jackson, mc — , cb 78, Athens. 
Collins, James Marshall, mc — , cb 78, Athens. 
Crutoher, John Sims, mc univ Vanderbilt 89, cb 89, Center Hill. 
Dupree, "William Jefferson, mc — , cb 79, Westmoreland. 
Gaston, Alfred Langdon, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Gilbertsboro, 
Hill, Henry Willis, mc univ New York 49, cb 77, Mooresville. 
Hill, James W., mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Mooi'csville. 
Logwood, ]\IcL)onald, nic univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Athens. 
Moore, Elisha Dixon, old law 67, cb 78, Athens. 
Pettus, Benton Sanders, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Pettusville. 
Wallace, Nicholas Blackburn, mc Cincinnati 51, cb 78, Elkmont. 
Wilkinson, 3Iilton Roil, mc univ Nashville 80, cb78, Westmoreland. 
Wilson, Felix Grundy, mc univ Nashville 65, cb 76, Elkmont. 
York, Seaborn Edward, mc univ Louisville 78, cb 84, Athene. 
Total, 14. 

Moved out of the county — George Roland Lewis, from Alliens to 
New York; John ]Madison Vance, from Elkmont to Texas; Otto 
Mcebes, from Athens to Decatur. 

Examinations — H. D. AVestmoreland, mc univ Vanderbilt 92. Cer- 
tificate granted. 



President, J. A. Pritchett; Vice-President, C. E. Marlette ; Secre- 
tary, T. D. Stallings; Treasurer. J. A. Pritchett; Health Oflicer, 
Shirley Bragg. Censors— J. A. Pritchett, Shirley Bragg, P. N. Cilley, 
W. P. Russell, T. D. Stallings. 




Bowie, Andrew, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Benton. 

Bragg, Shirley, mc Alabama 75, cb, 79, Lowndesboro. 

Buchanan, .T. P., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Judge's Siding. 

Buford, William Lewis, mc — , cb 78, Mt. AVilling. 

Carr, George Washington LaFayette, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, 
Fort Deposit. 

Cilley, Phillip Noble, mc univ Louisiana 48, cb 78, Lowndesboro. 

Coleman, Aurelius Daniel, mc Alabama 80, cb 85, Mt. Willing. 

Crum, William Barton, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Farmersville. 

Dilburn, Samuel George, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Bragg's Store. 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles, mc Jefferson 52, cb 78, Letohatchie. 

Marlette, Cyrus Edward, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 91, Gordonsville. 

McQueen, Samuel Thomas, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, Fort 

McRee, Abraham Cruzer, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 78, Lowndes- 

Peake, John Samuel, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, Farmersville. 

Powell, Charles William, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Lowndesboro. 

Pritchett, John Albert, mc univ Virginia 70, cb 78, Hayneville. 

Russell, John Hamilton, mc Georgia Reform 56, cb 78, Sandy Ridge. 

Russell, William Payne, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Hayneville. 

Sanderson, Edwin Lewis, mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Letohatchie. 

Snow, Charles Henry Clay, mc univ Tennessee 83, cb 86, Bragg's 

Snow, James Lewis, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Collerine. 

Stallings, Thomas Daniel, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Hayneville. 

Weatherly, Charles Taliaferro, mc Atlanta 74, cb 85, Benton. 

Weaver, William Calvin, mc univ Tennessee 83, cb 83, Fort Deposit. 

Winnemore, Samuel Eggleston, mc univ New York 56, cb 78, Benton. 
Total 25. 


Bruner, Oliver Glenn, mc Alabama 76, cb 78, Fort Deposit. 
Carter, Samuel Taylor, mc univ Tennessee 90, (illegal), Sandy Ridge. 
Peake, William, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, Benton. 
Reese, Charles Edwin, mc Jefferson 56, cb 78, Lowndesboro. 
Total, 4. 

* Note. — As no*report was received from Lowndes county this year, 
the report of 1893 is here reproduced. — Sec'y. 




President, L. AV. Johnston; Vice-rresident, W. J. Gaiiticr; Secre- 
tary, B. W. Breedlove ; Treasurer, H. W. Breedlovc; Healtli OlTicer, 
J. E. Drakeford. Censors — W. V. Magriuler, li. W. .luluiston, K. M. 
Letcher, T. W. Branson, C. L. Boyd. 


Boyd, Charles LeRoy, me Soutli Carolina 59, cb 79, Lal'lace. 
Brunson, Thaddeus Warsaw, mc iiiiiv IVMiiisylvania 47, ch 79, Society 

Breedlove, Jienjaniin Wilbur, mc Atlanta 93. cb 93, Tiiskegee. 
Drakeford, .Tohn Ernest, mc univ Louisville 93, cb 93, Tuskegee. 
Gautier, William James, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 79, Tuskegee. 
Harris, William Samuel, mc univ New York 51, cb Bullock 79, Kin- 

Johnston, Louis William, mc Alabama 80, cb 89, Tuskegee. 
Letcher, Francis ]\Iarion, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Shorter's. 
Lightfoot, John Steele, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 79, Shorter's. 
Magruder, AVilliam Perry, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Tuskegee. 
May, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Notasulga. 

Total 11. 


Aikens, John Calhoun, inc Graffenburg 46, cb Tallapoosa 78, Nota- 
Atkeson, Clarence Lee Crawford, phy & surg Baltimore 81, cb Lee 82, 

Dillon, Halle Tanner (colored), Woman's, mc Philadelphia 91, state 

board 91, Tuskegee. 
Ellison, James Edwin, mc Georgia 48, cb 79, Creek Stand. 
Reynolds, William Abner, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 79. Warrior 

Sistrunk, Jolui. mc univ New York 58, cb 79, Society Hill. 
Smith, Milton M.. mc univ Louisville 91, cb Jefferson 92. Tuskegee. 
Wood, George Pierce, mc Mempliis 89, cb 90, Tuskegee. 
Total 8. 
Moved into the county— John Ernest Drak-f "-'1 t,,Tii^krL ; Mil- 
ton M. Smith, to Tuskegee. 

Examinations— Jolin Ernest Dnik.-fdril. me univ Ktiilucky 93, 
Tuskegee. Certilioate awarded. 

Death— John Samuel Johnston, M. D., mc Memphis 80, cb 9(). Tuske- 
gee. Died Sept 16, 1893. 




President, M. C. Baklridge ; Vice-President, J. P. Burke ; Secretary, 
J. L. Darwin ; Treasurer, J. L. Darwin ; Health Odicer, H. INIcDonnell. 
Censors— R. M. Fletcher, S. H. Lowery, M. C. Baldridge, D. H. Mc- 
Lain, J. L. Darwin. 


Baldridge, Milton Columbus, mc Bellevue 74, cb 78, Huntsville. 

Blanton, Charles Edgar, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, New Market. 

Burke, James Pickens, mc univ Pennsylvania 53, cb 78, Meridianville. 

Burwell, Edward D., mc Kentucky — , cb 78, Rep. 

Darwin, James Lanier, mc Bellevue 88, cb 90, Huntsville. 

Erskine, Albert Russell, mc univ Pennsylvania 51, cb 78, Pluntsville. 

Farley, John Benton, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 86, Farley. 

Fletcher, Richard Matthew, mc univ Pennsylvania 54, cb 78, Madison. 

Haden, William Wright, mc univ A^anderbilt 90, cb 92, Owen's Cross 

Hampton, J. P., mc , cb 78, Meridianville. 

Haney, Julius Tillman, mc Alabama 91, cb Colbert 92, Madison. 

Johnson, Henry Rayburn, mc univ Nashville 87, cb Marshall 87, New 

Johnson, James Thomas, mc univ Maryland 48, cb Jefferson 88, Hunts- 

Lowery, Samuel Hickman, mc Bellevue 73, cb 78, Huntsville. 

McDonnell, Henry, mc univ Louisiana 68, cb 78, Huntsville. 

McLain, David Hubbard, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Gurley. 

Pettus, William David, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 78, Cluttsville. 

Robinson, Christopher Americus, mc Jefferson 71, cb 78, Huntsville. 

Wheeler, William Camp, mc Bellevue 62, cb Colbert 81, Huntsville. 
Total, 19. 


Bouillette, Pierre Lawrence, mc Ohio 71, cb 84, Huntsville. 
Cochran, Robert E. (botanic), mc Memphis 86, cb 78, New Hope. 
Duffield, Alfred Manley (homeopathic), mc univ Boston 85, cb Mobile 

85, Huntsville. 
Flynt, James C, mc univ Louisville — , cb 78, Gurley. 
Glover, Anthony Natalie, mc univ Nashville 87, cb 87, Owen's Cross 


Hatcher, Archie Wood, mc , cb 82, Hazel Green. 

Hensley, William Thomas, mc univ Nashville — , cb 78, Triana, 

Hertzler, John (homeopathic), , cb 78, Huntsville. 

Hinds, Byron William, mc univ Nashville 66, cb 78, New Hope. 


Layman, John Marion, mc uiiiv Nashville 70, cb87, Maysvilip. 
Lipscomb, Elias DeKalb, state board 87, New Market. 
Macon, Joseph Sumter, mc Atlanta 8U, cb 80, Ik'll Factory. 

McKelvey, William C, ,cb 78, Lawrence. 

Pynchon, Lewis Charlton, mc JelTerson 52, cb 78, Iliinl.sville. 
Ridley, James Luca.s, mc univ Shelby 61, cb 78, lliintsville. 
Scruggs, Burgess E. (colored), mc univ Nashville 79, cb 79, Iluntsville. 

Shelby, Anthony Boulding, mc , cb 78, Iluntsville. 

Siddons, Lewis Mills, mc univ Nashville 69, cb — , Iluntsville. 

Sullivan, William Francis, mc , cb 78, Gurley. 

Watts, John Parks, mc univ Louisville 73, cb 78, Iluntsville. 
Total, 20. 

Died — John Richard Slaughter, M. 1)., mc univ New York 47, cb 78, 
Huntsville. James Conrad Blanton, M. D., mc univ Louisville 76, cb 
78, New Market. 

Resigned— Dr. Elias DeKalb Lipscomb, state board 87, New Market. 

Expelled— Dr. Pierre Lawrence Brouillette, mc Ohio 71, cb 84, 


President, C. B. Whitfield; Vice-President, R. B. MoCants; Secre- 
tary, J. W. Todd; Treasurer, J. B. Whitfield; Health Officer, I. G. 
Wilson. Censors— B. AV. Whitfield, I. G. Wilson, C. B. Wliitfield, E. 
H. C. Bailey, R. B. McCants. 


Bailey, Edward Howe Corrie, mc univ Virginia 48, cb 7S, I)emi>poli.-«. 

Harris, Robert Josephus, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Jefferson. 

Kimbrough, AVilliam Leonard, mc univ L(»uisiaiui 81, cb 93, Linden. 

McCants, Robert Bell, mc Georgia Southern 82, cb JelTerson S2, 

Ruffin, James Sterling, mc univ Pennsylvania 49, cb 78, l)emopolis. 

Smith, S(>th Davis, mc univ Louisiana 54, cb 7S, Demopolis. 

Todd, .lohn William, me Alabama 90, cb 90, Linden. 

Wliitfield, Bryan Watkins,mc univ Pennsylvania 5,*?,cb 79. Demopoli.s. 

Whitfield, Charles Boa/, mc phy and siirg New Yt«rk 71, cb 79, De- 

Whitfield, George, mc univ Pennsylvania 58, cb 78, Old Spring Hill. 

Whitfield, James Hryan, mc univ Pennsylvania 67, cb 82, I)emop«>Iirt. 

Wilson, Isham CM-illin, mc univ Louisiana 6S, cb Dallas 78, Deinupulis. 
Total, 12. 



Allen, William Howard, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 82, Sweet Water. 
Bettis, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Louisville 61, cb 84, Nicliolsville. 
Drummoiul, William Fletcher, mc univ Maryland 49, cb 78, Magnolia. 
Eaton, Benjamin (jlover, mc univ Louisville 92, cb 92, Dayton. 
Evans, Josiah Thomas, mc Jeiferson 67, cb 79, Jefferson. 
Foscue, Francis Jjewis, mc Jefferson 84, cb Perry 85, Demopolis. 
Gillespie, Robert Clanton, mc univ Louisville S3, cb 83, Putnam. 
Harr's, Evon P., mc univ Louisiana 68, cb 93, Jefferson. 
Johnson, Charles Nathan, mc Alabama 90, cb 90. Shiloh. 
Kimbrough, Francis Gildersleeve, mc Alabama 90, cb 92, Rembert. 
King, James Mooi-e, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, McKinley. 
Lockhart, William Crocheron, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Dayton. 
McCorkle, Thomas James, mc Alabama 83, cb 83, Dayton. 
Mosley, William Joseph, mc Alabama — , cb — , Faunsdale. 
Nichols, J. E., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Nicholsville. 
Nixon, William Goodwyn, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 78, London. 
Peacock, Lovick Edward, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Old Spring Hill. 
Pegram, William Edward, old law 44, cb 79, Dayton. 
Poellnitz, Benjamin Bruno, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 86, Rembert. 
Stone, Augustus Bosworth, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Linden. 
Strudwick, Edmond, mc Jefferson 57, cb 78, Dayton. 
Thomas, Charles Brooks, mc Atlanta Southern 83, cb 83, London. 
Tucker, William Sydney, mc Atlanta 90, cb 92, Luther's Store. 
Wood, John Hackworth, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Dixon's Mill. 
Total, 24. 

Moved out of the county — W. H. Jones, from Jefferson to Florida ; 
B. A. Eaton, from Dayton to Stanton, Chilton county ; Edwin Strud- 
wick Webb, from Faunsdale to Bladen Springs, Choctaw county. 



President, A. L. Moorman ; Vice-President, J. C. Johnson ; Secre- 
tary, S. D. Bevill; Treasurer, S. D. Bevill ; Health Officer, . 

Censors— J. F. Earnest, S. D. Bevill, J. C. Johnson, W. F. Clark, AV. S. 
Hoi lad ay. 


Bevill, Simeon David, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb Walker 92, Guin 
Clark, William Fielder, non-graduate, cb 88, Hamilton. 
Earnest, James Franklin, non-graduate, cb 88, Winfield. 
Graham, Charles Wesley, mc univ Louisville 91, cb 92, Hackleburg. 
Holladay, Walter S., non-graduate, cb 88, Bexar. 


Howell, James Williain, noii-jfradnate, cb 8S, Knowic!. 

Jolinsoii, .lolm Carroll, iiic iiiiiv Ivoiii.sville 92, cb Kuyi'llt- U'2, (lien 

Martin, M. C, non-graduate, cb 88, Hamilton. 
Moorman, Achilles Lucian, non-graduate, cb 88, Hexar. 
Palmer, Russell P., non-graduate, cb 88, Hamilton. 

Total, 10. 


Allen, Langstoii C, non-graduate, cb 88, Bear Creek. 
Cochran, William J., non-graduate, cb 88, Gold Mine. 
Collins, .Tames William, non-graduate, cb Lamar 75, Guin. 
Springfield, Thomas Jefferson, non-graduate, fb Lamar 80, Guin. 
Whitley, James Moiu-oe, non-graduate, cb Tuscaloosa — , Winlit-ld. 
Total, 5. 

Moved out of the county — AVarren Guyton, from Hamilton to 
Ttasco, Texas ; AVilliam Jefferson McCreary, from (iiiin to Wayside, 
Fayette county. 



President, W. L. Thomason ; Vice-President, E, M. Jenkins; Sec- 
retary, P. B. Lusk; Treasurer, P. B. Lusk ; Health Glliccr, D. L. 
Kerby. Censors— P. B. Lusk, T. A. Casey, W. P. Hall, K. M. Jenkins, 
D. L. Kerby. 


Casey, Thaddeus Alonzo, inc univ Vandorbilt 01, cb 91, Albertville. 

Hall, William Presley, mc Atlanta 86, cb 91, Hyatt 

Jenkins, Edward Munroe, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91. Martling. 

Kerby, David I>arkin, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Warrenton. 

Lusk, Lorenzo David, old law — , cb Madison 86, (iuntersvillf. 

Lusk, Phocian B., mc Bellevue 91, cb 91, Guntersvillf. 

Lovvery, John, mc , cb 88, McLarty, Blount county. 

Mc(;ahey, Josei)h Jefferson, mc , cb 86, C^olumbiis City. 

Patterson, .Millard Filmore, mc univ Van<lcri»ilt 93, cb 93. Mid. 
Thomason, William Levi, mc univ Nashville 71, ci> Bloimt s6. Gun- 
Total, 10. 


AbU's, William (Jeorge, cb 86, Cottonville. 

Barclift, Thomas Mascolin, nic univ Tennessee 86, cb 86, Red Hill. 

Dodd, J. H., non-graduate, Bouz. 


Hinds, Montgomery L., mc univ Yanderbilt 91, cb 91, Arab. 
Jackson, James Munroe, mc South Ciirolina 49, cb 86, Guntersville. 
Johnson, Webster, mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 92, Mid. 
Jordan, David Carnes, Jr., mc Memphis 92, cb 92, Guntersville. 
May, George B., cb 86, Hillian's Store. 

May, Tliomas S., mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 86, Guntersville. 
Maples, J. II., cb 86, Arab. 
Martin, Tliomas H., (Eclectic) Albertville. 
McCorkle, J. II., (i-etired) Henryville. 
Nail, William Lewis, cb 86, Boaz. 

Rains, John Leonidas, mc univ Vanderbilt 91, cb 91, Albertville. 
Scarbrough, William Miles, cb Clay 87, Albertville. 
Scott, Agrippa, mc Atlanta 85, cb 86, Albertville. 
Total 16. 

Moved out of the county — Samuel Johnson Barnum, from Miltons- 
ville to Blount county ; John Houston Brazleton, from Warrenton to 
Madison county; William LaFayette Hughes, from Union Grove to 
Texas ; Emmett Knight Moon, from North to Jackson county ; An- 
drew Jackson Stewart, from Cottonville to Tennessee. 

Deaths — William George Smith, M. D., mc univ Nashville 54, cb 86, 



President, T. S. Scales; Vice-President, S. R. Olliphant; Secretary, 
D. AV. Goodman ; Treasurer, J. G. Thomas ; Health Officer, F. K. K. 
Beck. Censors — G. A. Ketchum, S. R. Olliphant, G. Owen, R. Goode, 
J. G. Thomas. 


Beck, Frank King Kowalowski, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 
Cochran, Jerome, mc univ Nashville 61, cb 78, official residence, 

Crampton, Ox'son Lucius, mc Bellevue 55, cb 88, Mobile. 
Festorazzi, Angelo, mc Alabama 87, cb 88, Mobile. 
Fowler, George Huggins, mc univ Pennsylvania 61, cb 78, Herndon, 

Baldwin county. 
Fi'azer, Tucker Henderson, mc Alabama 85, cb Lee 88, Mobile. 
Gaines, Marion Toulmin, mc Alabama 90, cb 92, Mobile. 
Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, mc Alabama 72, mc phy and surg New 

York 73, cb Choctaw 79, Mobile. 
Goode, Rliett, mc Alabama 71, cb 78, Mobile. 
Goodman, Duke AVilliams, mc univ Louisiana 91, cb 92, Mobile. 


IFeiulon, James JefTerson, mc Alabiuim SO, ch St5, .Moliilf. 
Hirschfeld, Henry P., mc uiiiv Pennsylvania 7H, eh 7K, Mol)ile. 
Inge, Henry Tutvviler, mc univ New York 83, eb S3, Mobile. 
Jackson, William Richard, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 
Ketclumi, George Augustus, mc univ Peimsylvania 4(5, clj 78, Mobile. 
Marechal, Edwin Leslie, mc Alabama 70, cb Baldwin K(j, Moiiili-. 
McArthur, Andrew Patterson, mc Ahiliiuna 85, cb H.0, Mobile. 
McKaig, F. T., mc Alabama 9(3, cb OJ, Mobile. 
Mohr, Herman B., mc Alabama 91, cb 92, Mobile. 
Olliphanl, Samuel Rutherford, mc univ Louisiana 55, cb 78, Mobile. 
Owen, Calvin Norris, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Mobile. 
Owen, Goronway, mc univ Pennsylvania 57, cb 78, Mobile. 
Paton, William, mc Alabama 76, cb 78, Mobile. 
Pugh, Sidney Stewart, mc univ Louisiana 89, cb Clarke 89, Mobile. 
Handle, Dudley Crawford, mc Alabama 85, cb Pickens 89, Mobile, 
Sanders, William Henry, mc Jefferson (52, cb 78, .Mobile. 
Scales, Thomas Sidney, mc phy and surg New York (57, cb 78, Mobile. 
Sledge, William Henry, mc Alabama SU, cb Sun)ter so, .Mobile. 
Terrell, Joshua D., mc Ohio 85, cb 92, Mt)bile. 
Thomas, James Grey, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 78, Mobile. 
Total, 30. 


Abrams, James A., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Motiile. 
Acker, Paul J. M., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, .Mobile. 
Boudousquie, Gabriel C, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, .Mobile. 
Cooper, John Henry, mc Alabama 68, cb 86, Citronelle, 

Dancer, J. P., mc , cb , St. Elmo. 

Davis, Henry B., mc Royal, London — , cb — , Cedar. 
Edmunds, Samuel C, mc univ Louisville — , cb 92, Spring Hill. 
Hall, Ale.\ander P., mc univ Louisville 59, cb 78, Mobile. 
Johnston, David Elijah, mc Georgia 68, cb 78, Mobile. 

Kennedy, John ^L, mc Toronto — , , Mannville. 

LeJiaron, Charles, mc Alabama 89, cb 89, Mt. Vernon. 
Lea, William J., mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Mobile. 
Lyon, George G., mc univ Pulte 88, (Homeopathist), .Mobile 
Maylay, Ramsey P., mc Alabama 84, cb Elmore 84, Whistler. 
Marshall, John Benjamin, mc univ Nashville 72, cb Sumter 78, Moliiie. 
Mastin, Claudius Henry, Sr., mc univ l'enn.sylvanift 49, cb 78, .Mobile. 
Mastin, Claudius Henry, Jr., mc univ Pennsylvania 84, cb s|, Mobile. 
Mastin, William .McDowell, mc univ Pennsylvania 74, cb 7s. .Moliile 
McC'arty, Miles Edward, mc .Alabama 73, cb 78, Whistler. 
Michael, Jacob G., mc univ Virginia 6(t, ci» 78, Citronelle. 
Mohr, Charles A., mc -Mabama 84. cb 92. .Mobile. 
Moore, Ilauipton T., mc Alabama ;»<>, cb — , Mobile. 


Moore, William, mc Alabama 90, cb — , Mobile. 

Myers, Augustus P., mc St. Louis 88 (homeopathist), cb — , Mobile. 

Pniett, Tluiddeus J., mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Mobile. 

Pope, William Bjirnemore, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Mobile. 

Roemer, Francis J. B., mc univ Louisiana 36, cb 78, Spring TTill. 

Sheldon, George A. , mc Alabama 92, cb 98, Mobile. 

Washington, Samuel S. H., mc univ Harvard 86, cb Jefferson 87, 


Total, 29. 
Moved out of the county— William Templeton Sawyer, from Whist- 
ler to Greensboro, Ala. ; K. N. Murphy, from :Mobile to Eiloxi, Miss. 

Examinations— Thaddeus J. Pruett, mc Alabama 93; Gabriel C. 
Boudousquie, mc Alabama 93. Certificates granted. 



President, W. M. Hestle ; Vice-President, W. R. Chapman ; Secre- 
tary, J. M. Wiggins ; Treasurer, J. M. Wiggins ; Health Officer, W. 
W. McMillan. Censors— W. W. McMillan, G. G. Scott, J. L. Sowell, 
F. H. Mason, W. M. Hestle. 


Abernethy, AVilliam Henry, mc univ Transylvania 48, cb 77, Tinela. 
Bradley, Hugh C, mc univ Pennsylvania 55, cb 77, River Ridge. 
Bizzell, Clarence, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Bursonville. 
Burroughs, AVilliam Monroe, mc South Carolina 57, .cb 77, Pineville. 
Chapman, William Rufus, mc Georgia Reform 79, cb 79, Simpkinsville. 
Daily, Fielding Straughn, mc Alabama 71, cb 77, Kempville. 
Gailiard, George Walter, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 83, Perdue Hill. 
Gailiard, Samuel Septimus, mc South Carolina 48, cb 77, Perdue Hill. 
Hestle, William Monroe, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Buena Vista. 
Jenkins, James Samuel, mc South Carolina 49, cb 77, Buena Vista. 
Mason, Francis Henry, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Tinela. 
McMillan, AVilliam AVallace, mc univ Louisiana 56, cb 79, Monroeville. 
Rutherford, James Wallace, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, River Ridge. 
Scott, Gladen Gorin, mc univ Louisville 85, cb 85, Mt. Pleasant. 
Shomo, Joseph Weatherford, mc univ Transylvania 55, cb 77, Mt. 

Sowell, James Lawrence, mc univ Tulane 91, cb 91, Perdue Hill. 

Stallsworth, William A., mc 93, cb 93, Pineville. 

Wiggins, James Monroe, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Monroeville. 
AA^hlsenhaunt, William E., mc univ Nashville 81, cb 81, Buena A'ista. 

Total 19. 



DrHii{,'liii, liobert Isaiic, inc Soutli Carolina 17, cb 79, I'erdiR* Hill. 
Mason, William Joseph, mc Atlanta 84, eb Wilcox 84, Activity. 
Russell, .Tunics Thomas, inc Georj,Ma Iteforni 55, cb 77. Monrdi'viJIc. 
Total 3. 

]Moved out of the county — William Franklin Bctts, from I'.urnt 
Corn to Mississippi. 



President, .7. L. Gaston ; \'ice-rresident, R. S. Hill; Sccn-tary, G. 
P. AValler; Treasurer, .1. II. Henry; Health OHiccr, I'. II. Owen. 
Censors— J. B. Gaston, R. F. Michel, S. D. Scelye, L. L. Hill..!. U. 


Andrews, Glenn, mc univ New York 86, cb 86, Montgomery. 

KaUlwin. Jienjamin James, mc Bellevue 77, cb 83, Montgomery. 

Baker, Christopher Columbus, mc univ Tennessee 50. cb 84, Panther. 

Bibb, William George, mc univ Yanderbilt 78, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Chapman, Benjamin Sidney, mc univ New York 92, cb 92, Mont- 

Dickson, Thomas Aubrey, mc univ Louisiana 92, cb 92, Pine Level. 

Douglass, James, mc South Carolina 57, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Gaston, John Brown, mc univ Pennsylvania 55. cb 78, Montgomery. 

Gaston, Joseph Lucius, mc i)hy and surg New York 85, cb 8S, Mont- 

Henry, John Ilaz/.ard, I'liiladelpliia llnmupathic 51, cb Dallas 79, 

Hill, Luther Leonidas, mc univ New York Si, cb .JefTerson 81, Mont- 

Hill, Robert Marcus, mc univ New York tJO, cb 78, Mt. Meigs. 

Hill, Robert Sommerville, mc univ New York 91, cb 91, .Montgomery 

Howell, William Henderson, mc .Atlanta 80, cb 80. Ramer. 

Ivey, Barna Pitt, mc .■Mabama 8S, cb Marion 88, Montgomery. 

Jackson, Walter Clark, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Jordan, James Keid, mc univ Maryland 84, cb S4, Montgomery. 

Kendrick, William Toulmin, mc Atlanta 76, cb IJutler 7s, Montgomery. 

Kirk, Eben Bell, mc Alabama 85, cb Mobile 85, Montgomery. 

Mason, John Crump, mc , cbsi, Snowdoun. 

McCrummin, Norman Henry, mc univ Yanderbilt 84, cb k5, Knif 

Michel, Richard Frazer, mc South Carolina 47, cb 78, Montgomery. 


Naftel, Josse Holmes, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Montgomory. 

Naftel, St. John, mc univ Vanderbilt 79, cb 80, Naftel. 

Owen, Pascal Ilarrison, mc univ New York 57, cb I.ovvndcs 78, Mont- 

Pearson, Benjamin Rush, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, INIontgomery. 

Powell, Claudius William, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Colquitt. 

Rushing, Thomas Elbert, mc Alabama 90, cb 91, Pike Road. 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, mc univ New York 55, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Steiner, Samuel Jackson, mc univ Vanderbilt 79, cb Butler 79, Mont- 

Thigpen, Charles Alston, mc univ Tulane 88, cb Butler 88, Mont- 

Waller, George Piatt, mc univ New York 92, cb 92, Montgomery. 

Wutkins, Isaac LaFayette, mc univ Bellevue 78, cb Bullock 86, Mont- 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, mc univ New^ York 80, cb 80, Montgomery. 

Williams, Robert Silas, mc Jeflferson 48, cb 84, Mt. Meigs. 

Wood, Milton LeGrand, mc univ Bellevue 77, cb 84, Montgomery. 
Total, 36. 


Callaway, James Wesley, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 82, Snowdoun. 

Clutts, AVilliam Parson, mc , cb . 

Davis, LeRoy, mc Georgia 57, cb 78, Morganville. 

Dorsette, Charles Nathaniel (colored], mc univ Buffalo 83, cb 84, Mont- 

Duncan, Thomas, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Mt. Carmel. 

Dungee, Alfred Coleman (colored), mc ,cb 91, Montgomery. 

Harris, Andrew Jackson, mc , cb — , Stoddard. 

Hunter, J. J., mc , cb — , Montgomery. 

Jackson, Edward Beatty, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Ramer. 

Manguni, , mc , cb — , . 

McDade, James, mc Georgia 72, cb 78, i\It. Meigs. 

McLean, Frank, mc univ Louisiana 66, cb 78, Hope Hull. 

Nicholson, John Cogburn, mc Jefferson 55, cb 79, Mt. Meigs. 

Rives, George, mc univ Pennsylvania 52, cb 78, Snowdoun. 

Sankey, George L., mc , cb , Tharin. 

Sellers, Anthony Hamilton, mc South Carolina 82, cb 84, Ramer. 

Stone, Henry Llewellen, mc univ Maryland 68 (retired), cb — , Mont- 

Townsend, James Barnett, mc univ Nashville 78, cb 78, Pine Level. 

Watson, Van Buren, mc s of m Kentucky 78, cb 78, Strata. 
Total 19. 

Moved into the county— J. J. Hunter, from to ; Wil- 
liam W. Mangum, from to ; S. J. Steiner, from Greenville, 

Butler county to Montgomery. 


Deaths— Cluirlcs Kane Duncan, M. D., mc univ New York r>h, cb 

85, Montgomery.. Died . (loorgo Wilkin.s .McDade, M . 

D., nif s of m New Orleans 61, cb 78, Montgomery. Died .\uk. 30, '5»3, 
of dysentery. Jolui Howard Hlue, M. 1)., mc iiiiiv Wnsliington, .Md. 
70, cb 78, Montgomery. Died, January 8, 1894, of guii-aliot wound. 
George Robert Patton, mc univ Vanderbilt (39, cb 78, Montgomery. 


President, Peter Binford; Vice-President, W. C. Huckley ; Secre- 
tary, J. M. Kitchens; Treasurer, J. M. Kitchens; Health Ollicer, S. 
L. Rountree. Censors — B. F. Cross, S. L. Rountree, W. C. Huckh'y. 
Peter Binford, M. W. Miirniy. 


Barclift, Willis Anderson, nic univ Teiuiessee 78, cb 79, Ilartselle. 

Binford, Peter, mc New Orleans 01, cb 79, Somerville. 

Buckley, Walter Corbitt, mc phy and surg New York 85, cb 87, De- 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, mc univ Louisville 57, cb 78, Decatur. 

Gaston, Paul Cheeves, mc univ Vanderbilt 78, cb Limestone 78, New 

Henry, Austin Cicero, mc ^Memphis 59, cb 82, 

Hunter, Felix Burwell, iiic univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Lawrence SO, Falk- 

Kitchens, John Mnrry, mc .Alabama 85, cb Lawrence 85, Danville. 

Murray, ^Michael William, mc nniv MeGill. Montreal. Canada. 90. cb 
90, New Decatur. 

Peck, Cicero Fain, mc Memphis 90, cb 90, Fort BlulT. 

Rosamond, W. L., mc s of m Kentucky 91, cb Walker 9-, 

Rountree, Scott Louis, mc Jefferson 58, cb 78, Ilartselle. 

Thomason, AVilliam Black, mc Memphis 85, cb 80, Cedar Plains. 

Turney, Joseph Simpson, mc univ Vanderbilt S'2, cb 8l', Ilartselle. 

Wharton, John P., mc univ Tennessee 88, cb 94, Blue Spring. 

Wilhite, Simeon Madison, mc Memphis 91, cb 91, Cedar Plains. 

Wilson, .Vbel Roberts, mc .\lal)ama, one course, cb 87, Ilartselle. 
Total, 17. 


Bradley. Peter Casada, mc s of m Kentucky 91, cb 91, Cedar PlaiiiH. 
Cartwright, Oscar Bishop, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 8<), I>e<-atur. 
Cross, Shadraeh Eugene, mc univ Louisville 7*J, cb Lauderdale 8", De- 
Dinsmore, William Louis, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 82, Decatur. 
Erwin, Andrew Benton, non-graduate, cb Cullman 86, Gandy'aCove. 


Gill, Jordan Lawson, inc uiiiv Louisville, one course 69, cb 78, Somer- 

Gilespie, James Clarke, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb Madison 81, New 

Hodges, John Pruitt, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb Lawrence 87, Dan- 

Hogeboom, Charles Ellis, mc , cb — , Tallucah. 

Minor, Lucian, mc univ South Carolina 49, cb 78, Trinity. 

Oden, Alexander Hamilton, non-graduate, cb Cullman 78, Lawrence 


Ponder, Abram Virgil, mc , cb — , Trinity. 

Ryan, Thomas LaFayette, mc univ Nashville 59, cb 87, Hartselle. 
Sherrell. Richard Byrd, mc Alabama 87, illegal, Basham's Gap. 

Smith, John, mc , cb — , Valhermosa Springs. 

Smith, John Stanhope, mc univ Louisville 47, cb 79, Woodland Mills. 
Steers, Willis Wood (colored), mc univ Michigan 88, cb Montgomery 

88, Decatur. 
Stephenson, Edison David, mc univ Nashville 68, cb 76, Danville. 
Stephenson, Richard Louis, mc univ Tennessee, one course 75, cb 76, 

New Decatur. 
Stringer, William Morton, mc univ Tennessee 93, illegal, Lawrence 

Vest, David Walter, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Hartselle. 
Winston, David Mason, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Valhermosa Springs. 

Total, 22. 

Moved out of the county— George Richards Sullivan, from New De- 
catur to Indian Territory ; William F. Sullivan, from Trinity Station 
to Indian Territory. 

Examinations— AVilliam Love, mc Alabama 93. Certificate granted. 


President, G. R. Johnson ; Vice-President, W. M. Sadler ; Secre- 
tary, J. B. Hatchett; Treasurer, E. B. Thompson ; Health Officer, G. 
R. Johnson. Censors— O. L. Shivers, G. R. Johnson, E. B. Thompson, 
T. C. Hill, W. M. Sadler. 


Barron, William Rowan, mc univ Virginia 61, cb 78, Scott's. 
Bradfield, John W., mc s of m Kentucky 78, cb 78, Uniontown. 
Hatchett, James Benton, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb Limestone 90, 

Houston, James Hii-am, mc univ Pennsylvania 48, cb 78, Uniontown. 
Hill, Thomas Calhoun, mc South Carolina 60, cb 84, Uniontown. 


Johnson, Gains liownn, mc s of in Kentncky 92, cb 9l', Maridn. 
Pon, James Rnfus, nic nniv South Carolina 54, cb 78, L'niontow ri. 
Sadler, John Milton, mc univ Louisiana 73, cb 78, Uniniitown. 
Sellers, William Thomas, mc Alabama 02, cb Hibb 92, Uniontown 
Shivers, Offa Lunsford, mc univ Louisiana 73, cb Hale 7H, Marion. 
Thompson, Elias Benson, mc univ Louisiana 69, cb 78, .Mari(jn. 
Wilkerson, Charles A., mc univ New York 75, cb 78, Marion. 
Total, 12. 


Bradlield, John, mc univ South Carolina 45, cb 78, Uniontown. 

Caine, Vaughn Holmes, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Central Mills. 

Collier, A. j\I., non-graduate, cb 78, Chadwick. 

Downey, William T., non-graduate, old law, 78, FoKsom. 

Evans, Charles Albert, mc South Carolina 54, cb 78, liethlelH-m. 

Jefifries, William Bennett, mc univ Washington, Md. 75, cb 78, Ma- 

Langhorne, John ]\Iillor, mc univ Pennsylvania 48, cb 78, Uniontown. 

McAuley, Herbert H., mc univ Louisville (no certificate), Marion. 

Hears, John Wesley Nathan, mc univ New York 77, cb 78. Hamburg. 

Mosley, David Orion, mc univ Washington, Md. 72, cb 78, Perryville. 

Stewart, Thomas Jefferson, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Jericho. 

Tucker, James Buchanan, mc univ Vanderbilt 78, cb 78, Jericho. 

Webb, Lucius DeYampert, mc univ New York 60, cb Hale 78, Scott'a. 
Total, 13. 

Moved into the county — E. N. Driver, M. !>., from Ni-wbcrnt', Ala. 
J. B. Hatchett, M. I) , from Athens, Ala. E. P. McCalhim, .^L !>., from 
Marion Junction, Ala. C. M. Woolley, from Montevallo, Ala. 

Moved out of the county — P^lisha N. Driver, from Scott's Station 
to Newbern, Hale county. J. J. Hunter, from Hamburg to Mont- 
gomery. Edward P. McCallnni, (rom Perryville to Newbi-rn, Hale 
county. Frank P. Petty, from Marion to Florida. Thornh-y Ed- 
ward Schoolar, from Spratt's Store to Lowndes county. Frederick 
Baker Vaughan, from Marion to Dallas county. C. >L Woolley, from 
Chadwick to Montevallo. 



President, Jt)seph Moody; Vice-President, (i. B. Wimberly ; Secre- 
tary, H. B. Upchurch ; Treasurer, II. B. Upchurch ; Health orlieer, H. 
B. Upchurch. Censors— T. H. G. Cook, H. L. Williams. Joseph 
Moody, H. B. Upchurch, S. H. Hill. 



Agnew, James Alpxander, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Providence. 
Barrett, James Francis, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Temi)le. 
Clear, 01iristoi)her Columbus, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Carrollton. 
Cook, Thomas Henry George, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Stone. 
Hill, Newton, mc Alabama 79, cb 85, Pickensville. 
Hill, Samuel Feuilleteau, mc South Carolina 52, cb 78, Carrollton. 
Hill, Samuel Henry, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 78, Carrollton. 
Long, James Barclay, mc univ Louisville 93, cb 93, Franconia. 
McKinstry, Thomas Harlan, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Carrollton. 
Moody, Joseph, mc univ Louisville 71, cb 79, Franconia. 
Moorhead, Henry Clay, mc univ Nashville 69, cb 79, Pickensville. 
Murphy, Thomas Elmore, mc Alabama 92, cb Greene 92, Bethany. 

Quinn, James Madison, mc , cb 80, Beard's. 

Sterling, Samuel Johnston, mc Alabama 61, cb 78, Olney. 
Story, Frank, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Sharp. 
Williams, Henry Lawrence, mc Jefferson 53. cb 78, Gregory. 
Wiinberly, Gilbert Bebee, mc Alabama 92, cb Lamar 92, Reform. 
Upchurch, Harvey B., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Carrollton. 
Total, 18. 


Baird, Duke Orleans, cb 78, Coal Fire. 
Brandon, Richard Clifton, cb 88, Gordo. 

Davis, J. L., , , Gordo. 

Duncan, John Francis, mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Beard's. 
Gunter, Peter Tittle, mc Memphis 50, cb 79, Coal Fire. 

Jones, Benjamin Franklin, , , Stone. 

Hancock, Jesse, mc Alabama 75, cb 78, Beard's. 
Rickman, John W., cb 79, Stafford. 
Sanders, Thomas Henry, cb 79, Garden. 
Peebles, Jesse, mc New Orleans 48, cb 84, Stone. 
Total, 10. 

Moved into the county — James Barclay Long to Franconia ; Thomas 
Harlem McKinstry to Carrollton. 

Moved out of the county— J. H. G. Reid, from Stone to Epes Sta- 
tion, Greene county ; Victor Savage, from Gordo to Fayette county. 

Examinations— James Barclay Long, mc univ Louisville 93 ; Thomas 
Harlan McKinstry, mc Alabama 93. Certificates granted. 

Deaths— William Gaines Hinton, M. D., mc Georgia 50, cb 79, Car- 
rollton ; Robert Thomas Price, M. D., mc Alabama 74, cb 78, Lubbub. 




I'resident, E. H. Johnson ; Vice-Prosident, Leiloy I'.oyd ; Secretary, 
C. W. Hillinrd ; Treasurer, W. A. Crossley ; Health (XHcer, C. \V. Hil- 
liard. Censors— J. H. Beard, E. H. Johnson, J. A. MeEachern, LeUoy 
Boyd, P. H. Brown. 


Bean, James IMadison, mc Bellevue 79, cb Bullock 83, Monticello. 
Beard, Josephus Simmons, mc univ New York 76, cb 79, Troy. 
Boyd, LeRoy, mc Alabama 87, cb Macon 87, Troy. 
Broach, Francis Marion, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Ansley. 
Brown, Pugh H., mc univ New York 54, cb 78, Troy. 
Crossley, William Andrew, South Carolina 54, cb 78, Troy. 
Dewberry, Joliii Hunter, mc Jefferson 56, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Eilaiid, William Andrew, mc Atlanta 81, cb 84, Henderson. 
F'ord, Elchana Gardner, old law 56, cb 78, Troy. 
Hendrick,Gustavus, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Hilliard, Charles Wesley, mc Georgia Reform 61, cb 78, Troy. 
Johnson, Edward Harris, mc univ Washington, 3Id. 69, cb Crenshaw 

. 82, Troy. 
McEachern, John Adolphus, mc univ Louisville 89, cb 89, Brundidge. 
McSwean, Charles, mc South Carolina 52, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Mullins, James Thomas, mc Georgia 72, cb Montgomery h2, Troy. 
Sanders, William Shelby, mc univ Vanderbill 92, cb 92, Milo. 
Total, 16. 

Honorary Mcinher. 
Collier, James ^Marshall, mc univ Virginia GO, cb 78, Troy. 


Albritton, George Allen, mc univ Louisville 72, cb Crenshaw 82, Hen- 
Allen, William Aaron, mc Atlanta 92, cb — , Brundidge. 
Allred, John I'arke, state board 78, cb 78, Troy. 
Carlisle, Charles Mallory, cb 84, Milo. 

Dennis, S. H., mc univ GralTenburg 58, cb 78, Olustee Creek. 
Dismuke, I'enjamin Jauies, mc Georgia 57, cb 84, China (irove. 
Foreman, Henry JefTerson, nic JefTerson 58, cb 78, Brundidge. 
Hamil, Irby Watson, mc univ Louisville 76, cb 7H, (ioshen Hill. 
Hanson, William Calvin, mc Atlanta S9, cb Kussell 89, Banks. 
Moore, Thomas F., mc Alabama 91, cb Elmore 92, Linwoud. 


Pennington, James Cincinnatus, mc Nashville 94, cb Crenshaw 94, 

Robertson, J. W., mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Tarrantum. 
Townsend, Austin C., China Grove. 
Townsend, Flint, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, China Grove. 
Wagner, John Troup, non-graduate, cb Montgomery 78, Shady Grove. 

Moved into the county — J. C. Pennington, from Luverne, Crenshaw 
county, to Orion. 

Moved oat of the county — Leonidas Hendrick, from Fresco to Ab- 
beville, Henry county. 

Examinations — J. M. Allen, mc Atlanta Southern 92. Certificate 
refused. S. O. Carlisle, mc univ Vanderbilt 93. Certificate granted. 
F. G. Hendrick, mc univ Louisville 98. Certificate granted. R. L. 
Justice, mc Alabama 93. Certificate granted . J. W. Robertson, mc 
Alabama 93. Certificate granted. Flint Townsend, mc Alabama 93. 
Certificate granted. J. M. Watkins, mc univ Vanderbilt 93. Certifi- 
cate granted. 

Deatlis — Thomas Jefferson Davis, non-graduate, cb 84, Goshen 



President, H. B. Disharoon ; Vice-President, S. J. Davis ; Secretary 
P. G. Trent; Treasurer, P. G. Trent; Health Officer, P. E. Dean. 
Censors— P. G. Trent, Sr., S. J. Gay, J. C. Swann, P. E. Dean, H. T. 


Bonner, William Wallace, mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 94, Rock 

Clegg, James, mc Georgia Reform 49, cb 89, Almond. 
Davis, Samuel John, mc Atlanta 84, cb 85, Rock Mills. 
Dean, Pierce Elliott, mc Alabama 92, cb 94, Wedowee. 
Disharoon, Henry Beauregard, mc phy and surg Baltimore 85, cb 85, 

Duke, Anderson Welcome, mc Graffenburg 49, cb 79, Graham. 
Duke, Jefferson Davis, mc Atlanta Southern 87, cb 88, Graham. 
Floyd, William Gibson, mc univ Maryland 76, cb 92, Roanoke. 
Gauntt, Elbert Tilman, mc Atlanta 76, cb 84, Wedowee. 
Gay, Stonewall Jackson, mc Atlanta Southern 88, cb 88, Almond. 
Heflin, Howell Towles, mc univ Maryland 93, cb Clay 94, Roanoke. 
Heflin, Wilson Lumpkin, mc Georgia 48, cb 85, Roanoke. 
Liles, Jasper David, mc univ Louisville 70, cb 85, Roanoke. 


i^IcLeiidon, Edward Ilenrj', mc GraJTeiiburg 59, cb 79, Kock Mills. 
McMamis, Michael, iKjii-graduate, cb 79, Lamar. 
Mitchell, William Ilerschel, mc (ieurgia 91, cb 91, Newell. 
Pool, Wyatt Hetiin, mc Georgia 07, cb 79, Roanoke. 
Swaun, Joseph Charles, mc Atlanta 90, cb 90, Wedowee. 
Traylor, George AVashington, mc Georgia 91, cb 94, iiumar. 
Trent, Powhatan Glover, mc Atlanta SS, cb 88, Roanoke. 
Trent, Powhatan Green, mc JeiTerson 67, cij 85, Roanoke. 
AVelch, James Madison, mc Atlanta Southern 92, cb 93, Triiett. 
Weathers, William, non-graduate, cb 87, Roanoke. 
White, Luther Leonidas, non-gra<luate, cb 79, Roanoke. 
Total, 24. 


Jordan, Charles Alexander, mc Atlanta Southern 84, cb 87, Wheel- 

Liles, Madison DeKalb, non-graduate, cb 79, Dingier. 

Total, 2. 

Moved out of the county--Jose[)h Bartam Hunter, from .VImond to 
Texas; Edward P. Overby, from Louina to (Jeorgia; Francis G. 
Thomason, from Almond to Florida ; James L. Vineyard, from Rock 
Mills to Texas. 

Examinations — "William Wallace Bonner, mc Atlanta Southern 92, 
Rock Mills ; Pierce Elliott Dean, mc Atlanta 92, Wedowee; William 
Ilerschel Mitchell, mc Georgia 91, Newell ; George Washington Tray- 
lor, mc Georgia 91, Lamar. Certificates granted. 



President, W. B. Prather; Vice-President, H. H. .Mien; Secretary. 
W. T. Joiner; Treasurer, W. T. Joiner; Healtli (Hlic-er, J. V. Norris. 
Censors— T. A. Johnson, W. B. Prather, H. H. Allen, R. A. Smith, W. 
B. Hendricks. 


Allen, Henry Homer, mc Georgia 83, cb-88. Oswichee. 

Hendricks, Walter Branham, mc univ Louisville 90, cb Pike 90, 

Johnson, Thomas Abner, mc univ Tennessee 80, cb 85. Jernigan. 
Joiner, William Thomas, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91. Loflin. 
Norris, John Pinkney, mc Atlanta 91. cb 91, I'hhind. 
Paschal, George Dennis, mc univ New York 72, cb 87, lhirl»»M(ro. 
Prather, William Butler, mc Atlanta 74, cb 88, Seale. 


Smith, Reuben Arnold, mc univ New York 52, cb 87, Ilatchechubbee. 
Williams, Zachary Walton, mc phy and surg Baltimore 82, cb 87, 


Total 9. 


Black, Nathaniel Spragins, mc univ New York 61, cb 87, Uchee. 
Gilbert, Andrew Jackson, mc Atlanta 89, cb 89, Jernigan. 
Howard, Thomas Watson, non-graduate, cb 88, Girard. 
Jemison, William Washington, mc Georgia — , cb 88, Girard. 
Total, 4. 
Moved out of the county — Benjamin Washburn Allen, from Ilurts- 
boro to Omaha, Neb. ; Robert Newton Pitts, from Pittsboro to Mont- 



President, C. C. Oliver; Vice-President, J. H. Williams ; Secretary, 
J. R. Morgan; Treasurer, J. R. Morgan; Health Officer, (none.) 
Censors— J. R. Morgan, J. H. Williams, H. I. Williams. C. C. Oliver, 
J. H. Gunn. 


Elevens, John F., mc univ Louisiana 59, cb Dallas 77, Calera. 
Curtis, Joseph Franklin, mc Alabama 93, cb 93, Siluria. 
Davis, Jefferson, mc Georgia 90, cb 91, Monte vallo. 
Davis, Ralph, mc Georgia 60, cb Bibb 76, Montevallo. 
DuBose, Wilds Scott, mc Atlanta 58, cb 77, Columbiana. 
Edwards, David W., mc Atlanta 66, cb 77, Wilsonville. 

Fields, James G., mc , cb 77, Calera. 

Gunn, James Hamlin, mc Bellevue 69, cb 77, Calera. 
Humphries, S. O., mc Jefferson 87, cb Elmore 87, Calera. 
McAdams, Henry Clay, mc Alabama 83, cb Mobile 83, Shelby. 
Morgan, Joseph Reid, mc univ Louisville 66, cb 77, Shelby Springs. 
Nelson, Thomas Green, mc National univ Lebanon, Ohio, 93, cb 93, 

Oliver, Christopher Carleton, mc Atlanta 69, cb 77, Shelby. 
Smith, Garland Henry, mc Alabama 89, cb 90, Pelham. 
Welch, William, mc Baltimore 93, cb Talladega 93, Harpersville. 
Williams, Hartwell Isaac, mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Columbiana. 
Williams, John Harford, mc univ Louisville 75, cb 77, Columbiana. 

Total, 17. 


Honorary Member. 
Backus, Heni'y, old law 53, cb 77, Montevallo. 


Acker, James Wilson, old law 53, cb Tuscaloosa 77, Montt'valio. 
Black, William Frederick, mc uiiiv Vaiiderbilt 9(), illegal, Shelby. 
Boyer, John Calhoun, mc s of m Kentucky 92, cb 92, Wilsunville. 
Caffey, Hugh Thomas, mc Georgia 83, cb Lowndes 83, Calera. 

Chandler, E. P., mc , cb , Vincent. 

Denson, Eli Forest, mc univ V'anderbilt 79, cb 79, Pelham. 
DuBose, Frank Dudley, mc South Carolina — , cb 78, Shelby. 
Goodson, Jasper, old law, cb Tuscaloosa 77, Siluria. 
Griffin, Alpheus J., old law, cb 77, Lawley. 

Hays, , mc Alabama 87, cb 87, Helena. 

Johnson, Joseph Madison, mc univ Vanderbilt 83, cb 83, I'elham. 
Johnson, William Kufus Knight, mc Atlanta 80, cb 80, IVlham. 
Kinnett, John F., mc Eclectic, Atlanta 92, cb 1)2, VVeldoii. 
McGraw, Allen Edward, mc univ Louisiana 73, cb 77, Vincent. 
Tucker, Milton Robert, old law 60, cb 77, Helena. 
Total, 15. 

Moved into the county— S. O. Humphries, from Talladega county 
to Calera. 

Examinations— Joseph Franklin Curtis, mc Alabama 93; Thomas 
Green Nelson, mc National univ, Lebanon, Ohio, 93. Certificates 

Deaths— William O'Harrow, :^L 1)., Vincent; James Franklin Tay- 
lor, M. D., mc univ Pennsylvania 84, cb 87, Montevallo, of pneu- 


President, J. W. Ash ; Vice-President, O. M. Steadliam ; Secretary, 
H. S. Garlington ; Treasurer, H. S. Garlington ; Health Officer, E. P. 
Cason. Censors — D. E. Cason, J. ^L McLaughlin, J. W. .Vsli. 


Ash, John Winston, mc univ Louisiana 80, cb 81), Springville. 
Bass, John Burwell, mc phy and surg Haltimore 70, cb 79. Ashville. 
Cason, Davis Elmore, mc univ Nashville 70, cb 79, Ashviile. 
Cason, Eugene Presley, mc Alabama W, cb iK), Ashviile. 
Cason, James ('alviii, mc Meinpliis 71, cb 79, Coal City. 
Crump, James Wells, mc Atlanta 75, cb 8U, Steei'a Depot. 


Diinlap, Terry Gabriel, inc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Eden. 
Garlingtoii, Henry Speight, mc Alabama 87, cb Etowah 87, Ashviile. 
McLaughlin, James Madison, state board 80, cb 79, Springville. 
Steadlmm, Oliver Marshall, mc Alabama 86. cb Clay 87, Easonvillo. 
Vandegrift, Washington Franklin, mc univ Louisiana 80,cb SO,r>ranch- 
Total 11. 


Abercrombie, John Patterson, mc Alabama 80, cb Jefferson 82, Cook 

Beason, William A., mc phys and surg Baltimore 93, cb 93, Ashviile. 
Brewster, Henry Harrison, old law 67, cb 79, Ragland. 
Crump, Henry Green, old law 79, cb 79, Seddon. 
Embry, James Carle, mc Georgia 89, cb 90, Riverside. 
Evans, Richard Proctor, old law 67, cb 79, Coal City. 
Hamilton, Charles Henry, old law 79, cb — , Eden. 
Jones, James Hunter, mc Atlanta 55, cb 78, Ragland. 
Turner, William M., mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Eden. 
Ware, John Blassingame, old law 79, cb Clay 79, Kelly's Creek. 

Total. 10. 

Moved out of the county — Robert Alverson, from Steel's Depot to 
Texas ; George Marshall Jones, from Springville to Taylor, Texas. 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine, Robert Alverson, mc 
Alabama 93. Certificate granted. W^illiam A. Beason, mc phy and 
surg Baltimore. Certificate granted. R. P. Steadham, mc — . Cer- 
tificate refused. 



President, W. J. McCain ; Vice-President, J. N. Gilmore ; Secre- 
tary, D. S. Brockway ; Treasurer, D. S. Brockway ; Health Officer, D. 
S. Brockway. Censors — J. C. Houston, T. J. Bickley, D. S. Brockway, 
M. B. Cameron, J. N. Uilmore. 


Bickley, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 81, cb 81, Gainesville, 
Brockway, Dudley Samuel, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Livingston. 
Cameron, Mathew Bunyan, mc Alabama 86, cb 86, Sumterville. 

Gilmore, John Neil, mc , cb 77, Gaston . 

Hand, Samuel Patton, mc univ Louisiana 83, cb 83, Coatopa. 
Ilearn, William Thomas, mc univ Louisville 82, cb 82, York. 
Henagan, Darby, mc South Carolina 58, cb 77, Epes. 


Houston, Jesse Crawford, nic iiiiiv Loiiisiann (!0, eh 77, Hdmunl. 
McCain, Williiiin Ja.s|)er, nu* Alaliaina 91, rh 91, r.ivinj^ston. 
I'arliani, Jolm Calhoun, nic 8 of ni Kentucky 77, cb 77, (Jaincsville. 
Kandall, Newton Fox, mc univ Nashville 78, cb 83, Suinlerville. 
Vau^han, Amos Samuel, mc univ Louisville 84, cb 84, Cuba. 
Ward, Henry Basoom, mc Alabama 78, cb 78, Cuba. 
Total, 13. 

Ilouorury Meinhcrn. 

Giles, James Hamilton, mc univ Louisville 57, cb 77, Cuba. 
James, William Hamilton, mc — , cb 78, York. 

Sholl. Edward Henry, mc univ Pennsylvania 56, cb 78, r.irminKham. 
Smith, Carlos Green, mc univ Pennsylvania 50, cb 77, Palatka, Fla. 
Total, 4. 


Adams, Solomon Charles, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 80, Sherman. 
Allison, John Francis, nic South Carolina 50, cb 77. York. 
Carr, Paul Ellington, mc univ Louisville 91, cb 91, Warsaw. 
Hale, Robert Hadden, mc univ Louisville 79, cb 80, York. 
Hagler, Prewitt LaFayette, mc .Mabama 91, cb 91, Gainesville. 
Kelley, William Pace, mc Alabama 84, cb 86, York . 
Nash, James Toney, mc univ Louisville SO, cb SO, Livingston. 
Perkins, Joseph Bolivar, mc univ Vanderbilt S8, cb 93, Belmont. 
Young, Oliver Cromwell, mc Northwestern, Mo. 85, cb 85, Alamuehee. 
Total. 9. 

Moved into the county — Prewitt LaFayette L. Hagler, from Tusca- 
loosa to Gainesville. 

Moved out of the county — JolTerson Beri Mooney, from York to 
Scooba, Mi -sissippi. 

Examinations — James Alexander McNair, mc Memphis ilos])ital 
93. Certificate refused. 

Deaths— John McKenzie Honson, >L D.. mc univ Pennsylvania 54, 
cb 80, Coatopa, of heart disease. 



President, B W. Toole; Vice-President . J. W. Ilencock ; Secretary. 
II K. Boswell; Treasurer. B. I*. Sims; lleallh Ollicer, W. K. Thet- 
ford. Censors— J. T. Harrison, !'.. W. Toole, J. Dixon, (i. A. Hill, H. 
R. Boswell. 


Boswell, Harry Rivers, mc univ Louisville 74, cb Srt. Tnllndega. 
Brooks, Alpheus Olin, mc Atlanta Southern 87, cb Clay b7, Lincoln. 


Caldwell, William Drayton, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Lauderdale 88, 
■ Kymulga. 

Coker, Charles Francis, non-graduate, cb Clay 87, Reagan. 

Conway, ^Magnus Eli, mc univ Vanderbilt 88, cb Coosa 88, Sylacauga. 

Dixon, John, mc JefTerson 56, cb 80, Fayetteville. 

Donaldson, .John Thaddeus, mc South Carolina 67, cb 86, Eastaboga. 

Hamilton, William Alabama 80, cb Coosa 80, Ironaton. 

Harrison, John Tinsley, mc Atlanta 81, cb 86, Munford. 

Harrison, William Groce, mc univ Maryland 92, cb 92, Talladega. 

Heacock, John William, mc univ Louisiana 66, cb 86, Alpine. 

Hill, George Armstrong, mc Jefferson 70, cb 86, Wynette. 

McCants, Jason Samuel, mc Atlanta 66, cb 86, Talladega. 

Morton, Havtwell Fisk, non-graduate, cb Fayette 84, Childersburg. 

Rhodes, Edward Davis, mc Georgia 60, cb 86, Alpine. 

Sims, Albert Gallatin, mcuniv Nashville 69, cb 86, Renfroe. 

Sims, Benjamin Brit, mc .Jefferson 85, cb Coosa 86, Talladega. 

Thetford, William Fletcher, mc univ Louisiana 67, cb Greene 76, Tal- 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, mc univ Nashville 61, cb 86, Talladega. 

Wren, Edward Bailey, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Talladega. 
Total, 20. 

Honorary Members. 

Gorman, Claiborne Harrison, mc Georgia 56, cb 86, Alpine. 

Keller, David Cincinnatus, mc univ Pennsylvania 47, cb 86, Syla- 

Moseley, Robert Alexander, mc South Carolina 38, cc 86, Talladega. 

Taylor, William, mc univ Louisville 52, cb 86, Talladega. 
Total, 4. 


Bailey, Robert Emmett, mc Atlanta 66, cb 86, Silver Run . 
Castleberry, William Trice, mc Georgia 72, cb 86, Lincoln. 
Groce, Benton AValton, [retired) mc Georgia 42, cb 86, Munford. 
Keller, William Carleton, mc univ Vanderbilt 87, cb 87, Sylacauga. 
Kelley, William Pace, mc Alabama 84, cb 86, Childersburg. 
Lee, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ Vanderbilt 86, cb 86, Childersburg. 
Pearson, James Emmett, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Sylacauga. 
Powell, Thomas Jefferson, mc univ ^Maryland 66, cb 86, Childei'sburg. 
Sorrell, William Henry, mc — , cb Tallapoosa 82, Sylacauga. 
Stockdale, John Locke (retired"!, mc South Carolina 54, eb 86, Boswell. 
Whitten, Edgar Hinton, mc Alabama 88, cb 89, Munford. 
Total 11. 

Moved into the county — William Groce Harrison, from to 

Talladega; Augustine Williamson Thompson, from to Lincoln. 


Moved out of the county— J. D. Ilfacock, from Alpine fo Eiist Lake 
Jefferson county ; S. O. llumplireys, from Jenifer to CaU-ru, Shelby 
county ; A. AV. Thompson, from Lincohi to Baltimore, Md. 

Examinations— For tlie practice of medicine, Frank (ioodwin Du- 
Bose, mc — ; certificate granted. Augustine Williamson Thompson, 
mc univ Maryland 92; certificate granted. Wallnr-e Samuel Wrlch, 
mc phy and surg Baltimore — ; certilicate granted. For the study 
ofjnedicine. Keverdy Bishop, of Talladega ; ctTtilicatc granted. .1. 
T.Kent of Fayetleville ; certificate refused. William Edward .Mor- 
ris, of Talladega ; certificate granted. 

Deaths — Joseph Henry Johnson, mc Jefferson 50, cb SU, Talladega. 
Died, May 5, '93. 



President, A. L. Harlan ; Vice-President, J. \V. Hooper; Secretary, 
J. W. McLendon; Treasurer, G. C. Radford; Health OMicer, A. L. 
Harlan. Censors -G. W. Vines, A. J. Coley, J. A. Goggans, R. \'. Sal- 
mon, A. L. Harlan. 


Carleton, William George, mc univ Vanderbilt 82, cb 82, Dudleyville. 
Coley, Andrew Jackson, mc Jefferson 80, cb 81, Alexander City. 
Davis, Clayton Crawford, mc Alabama S\), cb Chambers S9, Davislon. 
Freeman, Jeremiah Summerfield, non-graduate, cb 82, Alexander 

Goggans, James Adrian, mc univ New York 77, cb 82, Alexander 

Harlan, Aaron LaFayette, mc Alabama SU, cb 86, Alexander City. 
Harlan, John Jefferson, mc Alabama 72, cb 82, Hackneyville. 
Harper, John Wilson, mc Jefferson 84, cb 84, New Site. 
Hart, Eugene Walker, mc Baltimore 91, cb 91. Island Home. 
Johnson, John Young, mc Graffenburg 54, cb 82, Walnut Hill. 
Lightfoot, Robert Wilson, mc South Carolina 02, cb S2, Alexander 

McLendon, Joseph AViley. mc Jefferson 88, cb 8s, Dadeville. 
Nolen, Abner Jackson, mc univ l.,ouisville 80, cb 82, .New Site. 
Radford, George Clements, non-graduat*'. cb Clay 87. r.ulgfr's Mill. 
Reagan, Onslow, non-graduate, cb 82. Alexander City. 
Salmon, Robinson Vaughn, mc Alabama 75, cb 82, Dadeville. 
Shepard, Orlando Tyler, mc Graffenburg 51, cb 82, Teliopi'ka. 
Smith, Watt Francis, mc Graffenburg 5L el) 82, Thaddeus. 
Vines, George Washington, uic univ Tulane 71, cb 82, Dadeville. 


Ward, Lucius Cinciunatus, non-graduate, cb S2, Daviston. 
Watkiiis, Joliii -Milton, mc univ Jjouisiaiui 70, cb 82, Camp IlilL 
Total 21. 


Banks, Josoph W., inc Atlanta 90, Jackson Gap. 

Gray, Thomas j\[arshall, cb Randolph 82, Dadeville. 

Hamner, ILarper Taliaferro, mc univ Vanderbilt 89, cb Chambers 90, 

Camp Hill. 
Ison, Hartford Lee, mc Georgia Southern 91, cb 91, Daviston. 
Jones, Robert O., Tehopeka. 

Pittman, Jasper J., mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Thornton. 
Salmon, Robinson Herman, mc Alabama 83, cb 93, Dadeville. 
Shepard, Phillip INladison, mc GrafTenburg 54, cb 82, Dadeville. 
Webb, Charles Starr, mc Atlanta 91, cb 91, Walnut Hill. 

Total, 9. 

*XoTE. — As no report was received from Tallapoosa county tliis 
year, the report of 1893 is here reproduced.— Sec'y. 



President, J. L. Williamson ; Vice-President, R. A. AVright ; Secre- 
tary, W. G. Somerville ; Treasurer, W. G. Somerville ; Health Officer, 
J. B. Read. Censors— J. L. Fant, J. L. Williamson, E. D. Bondui-ant, 
W. G. Somerville, T. M. Leatherwood. 


Allen, Alfred Sidney, mc Alabama 81, cb 81, Cottondale. 

Bondurant, Eugene DuBose, mc univ Virginia 83, cb Hale 83, Tus- 

Clifton, John Montgomery, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Cottondale. 

Fant, Joseph Louis, mc South Carolina 76, cb Marengo 78, Tusca- 

Hester, WMlliam, mc univ New York 67, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Leatherwood, Timothy Miles, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Tuscaloosa. 

Little, John, mc univ Louisiana 69, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Marlowe, Nicholas Perkins, mc Jefferson 59, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Neilson, Robert, mc Georgia 51, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Nichols, Andrew Barry Crook, mc Philadelphia 69, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Patton, Madison Knox, mc univ Tulane 91, cb Greene 91, Foster's. 

Read, John Branhan, mc univ Louisiana 46, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 

Searcy, James Thomas, mc univ New York 67, cb 78, Tuscaloosa. 


Somorville, William Glassell, me pliy luid surj^ Now York MJ, eh M», 

■ Tuscaloosa. 
Trimm, James Lewis, nic Alabama SI, ch SI, Nortliport. 
Vau^'lm, I'awl Turner, mc lialtimoro 93, cb Dallas 93, Tuscaloosa. 
Williamson, James Lewis, mc Alabama SI, cb SI, Tuscalodsa. 
Wright, Ruliin Ashe,mc iiniv Virginia 90, cb Sumter 91, Tuscaloosa. 
Total, 18. 


Ashley, , Davis' Creek. 

Beatty, Douglass I'earson, mc univ New York 57, cli 7S, II nil's. 

Caldwell, Washington Jackson, cb 84, Hull's. 

Clements, Alsey, cb 7S, N'ance's. 

Elrod, William Washington, cb 78, Sipsey Turnpike. 

Foster, Ezra, cb Blount 78^ Brookwood. 

Guin, Joel lienjamin, mc Cincinnati 88, cb Lamar S9, Humphrey. 

Jackson, Robert Dandridge, mc South Carolina Til, eb Dallas 7S, 


Latham, L. ^I., mc , cb , A'ance's. 

IMcCord, Charles Richard, cb 80, Oregonia. 

Norris, Joseph, mc Alabama 91, ob 91, Binion's Ci'eek. 

Olive, Creorge Washington, mc Alabama Si2, cb S3, New Lexington. 

Taylor, W. T., Hickman's. 

Thompson, J. W., Taylorville. 

Toomey, Mark Antony, cb 78, Hagler's. 

Total, 15. 

Moved into the county Ashley to Davis' Creek; Robert 

Dandridge Jackson, from Summerfield, Dallas county, to Brookwood ; 
L. M. Latham, from Dallas county to Vance's; W. T. Taylor, from 
Greene county to Hickman's ; Paul Turner \aughti, from Selma to 

Moved out of the county — Oliver llearn lUu-ton, from Tuscaloosa 
to Hot Springs, Ark.; Frank Hausmnn, from Tuscaloosa to Jasper, 
Walker county ; Prevvitt LaFayette Ilagler, from Samantha tti (iaines- 
ville, Sumter county; Richard DeKalb Lucius, from Hickman's to 
Eutaw, Greene county; Abram Warren Trigg, from Samantha to 

Examinations — For the practice of medicine : Frank Hausman 
mc Alabama 93, Tuscaloosa. Certificate granted. 

Deaths — Dana Elbra Monroe, mc univ Dartmouth GO, cb "S, Vance's. 
Died November, 1893, of typhoid fever. 




President, J. A. Goodwin; Vice-President, C. B.Jackson; Secre- 
retary, A. M. Stovall ; Treasurer, D. 11. Camak ; Ilealtli Officer, D. H. 
Camak ; Censors — J. A. Goodwin, W. C. Rosamond, C. B.Jackson,, 
W. L. Gravlee, A. M. Stovall. 


Ballenger, Joseph William, mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb Cullman 87, 

Carbon Hill. 
Borden, Benjamin Franklin, mc univ Vanderbilt 90, cb 93, Hewitt. 
Camak, David Ilutcliison, old law 71, cb 84, Jasper. 
Cunningham, William M., mc univ Vanderbilt 84, cb 84, Corona. 
Davis, Daniel M., mc Georgia Southern 89, Bellevue 92, cb 89, Horse 

Deweese, Thomas Peters, mc univ Vanderbilt 85, cb 85, Gamble 

Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, mc Alabama 74, cb 81, Jasper. 
Gravlee, William Lewis, mc univ Vanderbilt 8-, cb 82, Marietta. 
Griffin, Richard Parke, old law 72, cb 81, Corona. 
Hendon, Albert Lucretius, old law 74, cb 81, Townley. 
Jackson, Charles Beaufort, mc Atlanta 85, cb Tallapoosa 85, Horse 

Manasco, John, old law 76, cb 81, Townley. 

Miller, Virgil Martin, mc univ Vanderbilt 80, cb 81, Carbon Hill. 
Rosamond, William Capers, old law 55, cb 81, Jasper. 
Stovall, Andrew McAdams, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 81, Jasper. 

Total 15. 


Dearth, James Kitridge, non-graduate, cb 88, Jasper. 

Edwards, Robert Smith, mc Atlanta 71, cb Jefferson TS, Carbon Hill. 

Hester, , mc .Alabama 90, cb 90, Galloway. 

Lynne, J. W., mc Atlanta 60, cb 81, Carbon Hill. 

Masterson, William, mc univ Louisville 91, cb Franklin 91, Oakman. 

Phillips, Alfi'ed B., mc univ Vandei'bilt 85, cb 85, Horse Creek. 

Rosamond, E. C, mc , cb , Jasper. 

Shipp, Marcellus William, mc Alabama 85, cb Fayette 85, Carbon Hill. 
Stevenson, Hugh \V., mc Atlanta — , cb — , Oakman. 
Tubbs, James, mc Memphis 94, cb 94, Oakman. 

Whitney, Ollis Hillman,mc univ Louisville 90, cb Fayette 90, Eldridge. 
Woodson, John A., mc univ Vanderbilt 92, cb 93, Coal Valley. 
Woodson, London Aubrey, mc univ Virginia 61, cb 91, Patton. 
Total, 13. 


Moved out of the county — Dr. IJlcniier IIussL-tt Sniotlicrs, from 
Jasper to . 

Exninitiatioiis — E. O. Kosiuiiond, me ; John A. Woodson, inr- 

univ \'andi'rl)ilt 92. Certificates j^'rimted. 


President, J. AV. Wood ; Vice-President, ; Secretiiry, W. 

E. Kinibrougli ; Treasurer, W. E. Kiinbrough ; lieallh Oflicer, John 
(lordon. Censors— J. W. Wood, J. 11. Cooi)er, John Gordon. 


Cooper, John Henry, nic Alabnnm 86, cb 87, P'scatawpii. 

Gordon, John, mc Ohio 66, cb 87, Healing S|)rinps. 

Kinibrouf^h, William Edward, mc univ Louisville 83, cb 87, St. Ste- 

Peavy, John Francis, mc Alabama 88, cb 9L Mcintosh. 

Webb, Francis Asbury, mc Alabama 81, cb 91, Fairford. 

Wood, John Wesley, mc univ Virginia 60, cb 87, Frankville. 
Total, 6. 


Persons, James T., mc Alabama 90, cb — , Escatawpa. 
Shoemaker, W. W., mc Alabama 92, cb 93, liescueville. 
Williams, William A., mc Alabama — , Mcintosh. 
Total 3. 

*NoTE.— No rejMjrt havinf^ been received this year, and tin- year 
previous, from Washington county medical society, the report of 1M»2 
is here reproduced, with some additions. — Sec'v. 



President, J. P. Jones; Vice-President, R. Coh'man ; Sfcretnry, 
R. IL Kilpatrick; Treasurer, R. IL Kilpatrick ; Mealtli OHicer, J.C. 
Benson. Censors— L. E. Starr, T. G. Jenkins, T. W. Jones, U. II. Kil- 
l)atrick, J. C. Benson. 


Adams, David, mc Georgia 68, cb 81, Pine Apple. 
Adams, John Blankenship, mc Atlanta 84,cb84, Pine Apple. 
Benson, James Cook, mc Alabama k7, cb K7. Camden. 
Bonner, James Isaac, mc Alabama 78, cb 79, Rosebud. 


Coleniati, l\u(liii, inc uiiiv Naslivillo 64, cb Limestone 78, Rockwest. 
Cnmi, Floyd Edward, mc univ Louisiana 73, eb 79, Arlington. 
Curtis, Alonzo Bittle, mc Alabama 79, eb 82, Lower Peach Tree. 
Curtis, Christopher Columbus, mc Alabama 82, cb 82, Lower Peach 

Dale, "William Bonner, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Allenton. 
Gaillard, Edmond, mc South Carolina 50, cb 79, Rockwest. 
Gaston, David Finis, mc univ Louisiana 82, cb 82, Boiling Spring. 
Gibson, Albert ISIadison, mc Alabama 85, cb 85, Lower Peach Tree. 
Godbold, John Calhoun, mc Alabama 79, cb 79, Nellie. 
Haddox, William Thomas, mc univ Louisiana 58, cb 79, Pine IL'll. 
Harris, John James, mc univ New^ York 88, cb Tuscaloosa 88,Furman. 
Jenkins, Thomas Griffin, mc univ Louisiana 48, cb 79, Camden. 
Jones, John Paul, mc univ Louisiana 61, cb 79, Camden. 
Jones, Joseph Harvey, mc univ Louisville 80, cb 80, Allenton. 
Jones, Thomas Warburton, mc phy and surg New York 9(>, cb 90, 

Kilpatrick, Rufus Hall, mc Alabama 88, cb 88, Camden. 
Kimbrough, Franklin Flavins, mc Alabama 90, cb 90, Kimbrough's. 
Lee, Thomas, me South Carolina 57, cb 80, Furman. 
McDaniel, Edward Davies, mc South Carolina 57, cb 79, Camden. 
Palmer, Ransom Dabney, mc univ Louisiana 86, cb 86, Furman. 
Purifoy, John Howard, mc Jefferson 59. cb 81, Furman. 
Purnell, William Thomas, mc Alabama 76, cb 79, Prairie Bluff. 
Ramsey, David Wardlaw, mc univ Louisiana 70, cb 78, Pine Apple. 

Roach, Thomas Samuel, , Rehoboth. 

Spurlin, George Green, mc univ Louisiana 92, cb 92, Rehoboth. 
Starr, Lucius Earnest, mc Alabama 61, cb 79, Camdeiu 
AVatson, David Lipscomb, mc Alabama 91, cb 91, Sedan. 
Watson, William Waldred, mc univ Virginia 87, cb 87, F^urman. 

Total, 32. 


Cole, William, Snow Hill. 

Cook, Samuel Benjamin H., cb 85, Bethel. 

King, Edward D., , Lower Peach Tree. 

Lee, John Francis, cb 83, Allenton. 

AVilliams, W. H., , Sunny South. 

Total, 5. 

*NoTE. — As no report was received from Wilcox county this year, 
the report of 1893 is here reproduced.— Sec' y. 




President, J. C. Taylor; Vice-rresidoiit, W. .1. (iravlrc; Si-rrctary, 
H. C. Joliiisoii ; Treasurer, H. C. .loliiisou ; llcjillli Ollicer, .J. C. Tay- 
lor. Censors— .J. C. Taylor, II. C. Jolin.son. W. .1. (Jravlcf, \V. U. 


Bailey, James Watson, old law, cb 85, Houston. 

Bonds, AVilliani Kiley, mc Alabama 92, cb 92, Double Springs. 

Gravlee, W. J., mc , cb 91, Lynn. 

Jolin.«<on, Harvey Calaway, mc Alabama So, cb 85. Nauvo<j. 

Koden, Benjamin Wesley, mc , cb Marion 87, Haleysville. 

Taylor, Joseph Calhoun, mc Alai)ama 88, cb 89, Haleysville. 
Total, 6. 


Adkins, William Kiley. cb Tuscaloosa 77, Double Springs. 
Carroll, David, cb F>lount 71, Double Springs. 
Ford, David l>enjamin,cb AValker 85, Melville. 
Hood, John Wesley, cb 90, Addison. 
Total, 4. 



Revision of 1894. 


Cochran, Jerome, Mobile— Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Jftci<soii, Robert Daiidridge, Sumnierfield — Tuscaloosa session.. . .1873 

Jackson, Walter Clark, Montgomery — Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Ketchum, George Augustus, Mobile — Tuscaloosa session 1873 

McKittrick, Adam Alexander, Evergreen — Tuscaloosa session. . . .1873 

Michel, Richard Frazer, Montgomery— Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Starr, Lucius Ernest, Camden — Selma session 1874 

Total, 7. 


vNbernethy, William Henry, Tinela— Montgomery session 1875 

Baldridge, Milton Columbus, Huntsville — Birmingham session. .1877 

Brockvvay, Dudley Samuel, Livingston — Mobile session 1882 

Cason, Davis Elmore, Ashville — Huntsville session 1880 

Cross, Benjamin Franklin, Decatur— Selma session 1879 

DuBose, Wilds Scott, Columbiana— Montgomery session 1881 

Fletcher, Richard Matthew, INIadison — Montgomery session 1881 

Franklin, Charles Higgs, Union Springs— INIobile session 1882 

Furniss, John Perkins, Selma— Mobile session 1876 

Gaines, Vivian Pendleton, Mobile — Selma session 1879 

Gaston, John Brown, ]\Iontgomery — Montgomery session 1875 

Goggans, James Adrian, Alexander City — Birmingham session. . .1883 

Goodwin, Joseph Anderson, Jasper — Mobile session 1882 

Hayes, Robert Hughes, Union Springs — Huntsville session 1880 

Hogan, Samuel Mardis, Union Springs — Montgomery session. . . .1875 

Hopping, Daniel Stiles. Letohatchie— Birmingham session 1877 

H uggins, Jacob, Newborn — Selma session 1884 

Jay, Andrew, Evergreen — Mobile session 1882 

Johnston, William Henry, Birmingham — Montgomery session. . .1875 

Jones, Capers Capehart, East Lake— Montgomery session 1881 

Kendrick, Joel Cloud, (jreenville — Mobile session 1882 

Kendrick, AVilliam Toulmin, Montgomery — Montgomery session. 1881 

Luckie, James Buchner, Birmingham — Mobile session 1882 

McKinnon, John Alexander, Selma— Mobile session 1876 


Moody, Joseph, Franconia— Mobile session 1882 

Peterson, Francis Clarion, Greensboro— Huntsville session 1880 

Prince, Francis Marion, Bessemer— Birmingham session 1877 

Pritchett, John Albert, Hnyneville— Mobile session 1878 

Robertson, Thaddeus Lindlay, Birmingham— Montgomery session 1881 

Sanders, AVllliam Henry, INIobile— Eufaula session 1878 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa— Selma session 1881 

Sears, Jolin William, Birmingliain— Birmingham session 1877 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery— Montgomery session 1875 

Sholl, Edward Henry, Birmingham— Huntsville session 1880 

Sledge, William Henry, Mobile— INIubile session 1882 

Stovall, Andrew ]McAdams, Jasper- Mobile session 1882 

Thetford, William Fletcher, Talladega— Montgomery session 1881 

Thomas, James Grey, Mobile— Huntsville session 1880 

Trent, Powhatan Green, Rock Mills— Selma session 1884 

Wilkerson, Wooten Moore, Montgomery — Birmingham session.. .1883 
Total, 39. 


Baldwin, Benjamin James, Montgomery — Anniston session 1886 

Bragg, Shirley, Lowndesboro — Greenville session 1885 

Crook, John Martin, Jacksonville — Mobile session 1889 

Goode, Rhett, Mobile — Mobile session 1889 

Goodwin, Albert, Eufaula — Greenville session 1885 

Harlan, John Jefferson, Hackneyville — Montgomery session 188S 

Hill, Luther Leonidas, Montgomery — Montgomery session 1888 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler, Mobile — Greenville session 18S5 

Kenkrick, Joel Beder, Greenville — Greenville session 1885 

LeGrand, John Calhoun, Anniston — Mobile session 1889 

Lowry, Samuel Hickman, Huntsville — Greenville session 1SS5 

Marechal, Edwin Leslie, Mobile — Mobile session issH 

Nolen, Abner Jackson, New Site— Anniston session iNstJ 

Redden, Robert James, Sulligent — Tuscaloosa session 1887 

Toole, Barckley Wallace, Talladega — Mobile session 18.89 

Whaley, Lewis, Birmingham— Anniston session 1886 

Wheeler, William Camp, Huntsville — Montgomery session 1888 

AVhelan, Charles, Birmingham — Greenville session 1885 

Wilkinson, James Anthony, Fiomaton — Anniston session lss6 

Total, 19. 


Andrews, Glenn, Montgomery — Selma session 1893 

Binford, I'eter, Somerville— Birmingham session 1S90 

Blake, Wyatt Iletlin, Lineville— Montgomery session 1892 



Boyd, Andrew, Scottsboro — Selma session 1893 

Cameron, :Mattliew Bunyan, Sumterville— Selma session 1893 

Carson, Shelby Cliadwick, Bessemer— Selma session 1893 

Coley, Andrew Jackson, Alexander City— Huntsville session 1891 

Copeland, William Preston, Eufaula— Huntsville session 1891 

Cunningham, Russell McWhorter, Pratt City— Selma session 1893 

Deweese, Thomas Peters, Gamble Mines— Birmingham session.. .1890 

Dowling, Oscar, Columbia— Birmingham session 1890 

Duggar, Reuben ?lonry, Gallion— Montgomery session 1892 

Gay, Samuel Gilbert, Selma— Selma session 1893 

Heacock, John William, Alpine— Huntsville session 1891 

Heflin, Wyatt, Birmingham — Selma session 1893 

Hunter, Henry Mitchell, Union Springs— Selma session 1893 

Jordan, James Reid, Montgomery— Montgomery session 1892 

King, Goldsby, Selma— Selma session 1893 

McCants, Robert Bell, Faunsdale— Selma session 1893 

McWhorter, George Tighlman. Riverton— Huntsville session 1891 

Moon, William Henry, Goodwater— Selma session 1893 

Parke, Thomas Duke, Birmingham— Selma session 1893 

Purdon, John Edward, Cullman— Birmingham session 1890 

Rand, Edgar, Leighton— Huntsville session 1891 

Robinson, Christopher Americus, Huntsville— B'gham session. . .1890 

AVatkins, Isaac LaFayette, Selma session 1893 

White, Thomas Noel, Spring Garden— Selma session 1893 

Whitfield, Bryan Watkins, Demopolis— Montgomery session 1892 

Wilkerson, Charles A., Marion— Birmingham session 1890 

Wilkinson, John Edward, Prattville— Montgomery session 1892 

Total, 30. 


Bell, Walter Howard, Belltown, Cleburne county. 
Bondurant, Eugene DuBose, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa county. 
Brown, George Summers, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Harper, Robert Franklin, Ozark, Dale county. 
Hill, George Armstrong, Sylacauga, Talladega county. 
McLain, David Hubbard, Gurley, Madison county. 
McLaughlin, James Madison, Springville, St. Clair county. 
Moody, Henry Altamont, Bailey Springs, Lauderdale county. 
Perry, Henry Gaither, Greenville, Butler county. 
Quin, William Everett, Fort Payne, DeKalb county. 
Riggs, Edward Powell, Birmingham, Jefferson county. 
Williams, John Harford, Columbiana, Shelby county. 
Total 12. 


Grand Senior Life Counsellors 7 — 7 

Grand Senior Counsellors 39 

Senior Counsellors 19 

Junior C'ounsellors 30 

Counsellors Elect 12 

Active counsellors, total 100 



On]'this roll the names of the counsellors arc given by congressional 
districts. It is intended to serve as a guide in the election of new 
counsellors with a view to the distribution of them in approximate 
proportion to the number of members in the several districts. It is 
not considered to be good policy, and it is not considered to be fair 
and right, to give a few large towns greatly more than their pro rata 
share of counsellors. The calculations are based on the nearest 
whole numbers. 


Names of Counsellors. — AV. H. Abernethy, Rhett Goode, V. P. Gaines, 
H. T. Inge, E. L. Marechal, R. B. McCants, W. H. Sanders, W. H. 
Sledge, J. G. Thomas. 

Choctaw, members 11 counsellors 




Clarke, " 16 

Marengo, " 12 

Mobile, " 30 

Monroe, " 19 


Totals, 94 9 

One counsellor to every ten members. 


Names of Counsellors. — Glenn Andrews, B. J. Baldwin, J. B. Gaston, 
L. L. Hill, Andrew Jay, J. R. Jordan, J. B. Kendrick, J. C. Kendrick, 
W. T. Kendrick, H. G. Perry, S. D. Seelye, I. L. Watkins, W. M. AVil- 
kerson, J. A. Wilkinson. 

Baldwin, members 6 counsellors 

Butler, " 24 " 3 

Conecuh, " 12 " 1 

Covington, " 8 " 

Crenshaw, " 14 " 

Escambia, " 8 " 1 

Montgomery, " 36 " 9 

Pike, " 16 " 

Wilcox, " 32 " 

Totals, 156 14 

One counsellor to every eleven members. 




Names of CnmmrlJnr.^—W. p. Copeland, Oscar [Dowling, C. II- 
Franklin, Albert Goodwin, R. F. Harper, R. IL Hayes, H. M. IIo- 
gan, H. M. Hunter. 









members 17 



counsellors 2 




Totals 105 . . 

One counsellor to every thirteen members. 


Names of Counsellors.— W. II. Bell, J. M. Crook, W. S. DuBoso, J. 
P. Furniss, S. G. Gay, J. W. IIeacock,G. A. Hill, CioldsbyKin^.-LCLo- 
Grand, J. A. McKinnon, AV. F. Thetford, B. W. Toole, J. H. Wil- 







members 21 counsellors 2 

8 " 


Totals 110. 

One counsellor to every eight members. 





Names of Counsellors. — W. II. Blake, Shirley Bragg, A. .1. Coley, J. 
A. Goggans, J. J. Harlan, D. S. Hopi)ing, W. H. Moon, A. J. Nolen, J. 
A. Pritchett, P. G. Trent, .7. E. Wilkinson. 






... ] 







. . 1 


















Totals.. . 






One counsellor to every fourteen members. 




Names of Comisdlnrs. — E. D. Bondurant, D. S. Brockway, M. B. 
Cameron, T. P. Deweese, J. A. Goodwin, Joseph Moody, K. J. Redden, 
J.T. Searcy, A. M. Stovall,B. W. Whitfield. 









members . 




. . 


. .. 1 








.... 4 

Totals 103 

One counsellor to every ten members. 



Names of Counsellors. — D. E. Cason, J. M. McLaughlin, W. E. Quin, 
T. N. White. 

members 14 







St. Clair, 










Totals 97 4 

One counsellor to every twenty-four members. 


Names of Counsellors. — M. C. Baldridge, Peter Binford, Andrew 
Boyd, B. F. Cross, R. M. Fletcher, S. H. Lowry, D. H. McLain, H. A. 
Moody, G. T. McWhorter, J. E. Purdon, Edgar Rand, C. A. Robinson, 
W. C. Wheeler. 

















Totals 108 

One member to every eight members. 








Names of Connxrllors.—G . S. Brown, S. C. Carson, R. M. Ciimiinf,'- 
ham, R. H. Duggar, Wyatt Ileflin, Jacob Fluggins, W. II. .Tolmston, 
C. C. Jones, J. B. Luckie, T. D. Parke, F. M. Peterson, K. .M. Prince, 
E. P. Riggs, T. L. Robertson, J. AV. Sears, E. II. Sliull, Cliarles 
Whelan, Lewis Whaley, C. A. Wilkerson . 

Bibb, members 11 

Blount, " 

Hale, " 

Jefferson, " 

Perry, " 











Totals 156 19 

One counsellor to every eight members. 


The whole number of miMiibers in tlie state is 1,082, and tiie whole 
number of counsellors is 100. This gives one counseUor to every 10.82 
members. For convenience, we say one counsellor for every eleven 
members, about. 

The first district, with 94 members, and 9 counsellors, has about the 
correct number of counsellors. 

The second district, with 156 members, and 14 counsellors, has the 
correct number of counsellors. 

The third district, with 105 members, and 8 counsellors, lias two 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The fourth district, with 110 members, and 13 counsellors, has tliree 
counsellors more than it is entitled to. 

The fifth district, with 153 members, and 11 counsellors, has three 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The sixth district, with 103 members and lo counsellors, lias one 
counsellor more than it is entitled to. 

The seventh district, with 97 members, and 4 counsellors, has live 
counsellors less than it is entitled to. 

The eighth district, with 108 members, and 13 ci)uns(>llors, lias three 
counsellors more tlian it is entitled to. 

The ninth district, with 156 members, and 19 counsellors, has live 
counsellors more than it is entitled to. 



Revision of 1894. 

Bozeman, Natlian, M. D., New York 1889 

Garnett, A. F., M. D., Hut Springs, Ark 1875 

Hoffman, John Richardson, M. D., Athens, Ala 1890 

McDaniel, Edward Daviea, M. D., Camden, Ala 1889 

Mitchell, AVilliam Augustus, M. D. , Eufaula, Ala 1891 

Moses, Gratz A., M. D., St. Louis, Missouri 1874 

Osborn, Thomas Childress, M. D., Cleburne, Texas 1885 

Phillips, N. D., M. D., Gainesville, Florida 1876 

Richardson, Nicholas Davis, M. D., Nashville, Tenn 1882 

Rorex, James Polk, M D., Scottsboro, Ala 1891 

Summers, Thomas 0., M. D., Waukesha, Wis 1875 


Revision of 1894. 


RicnARD Matthew Fletcher, M. D Madison. 


Senior — John Alexander McKinnon, M. D Selma. 

Junior — Capers Capehart Jones, M. D Birmingham. 


James Reid Jordan, M . D Montgomery. 

Term expires 1898. 


Walter Clark Jackson, M . D Montgomery. 

Term expires 1898. 


Sholl, Edward Henry, Birmingham 1894-1899 

Gaston, John Brown, Montgomery 1894-1899 

Cochran, Jerome (Senior Censor), Mobile 1893-1898 

Searcy, James Thomas, Tuscaloosa 1893-1898 

Sanders, William Henry, Mobile 1892-1897 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble, Montgomery 1892-1897 


Baldwin, B(Mijamin Jamos, Montgomery 1891-1H90 

Franklin, Charles Iliggs, Union Springs 1891-1890 

Ketchum, Ceorge Augustus, Mobile 1890-1895 

Whelan, Charles, Birmingham 1890-1890 


Russell McWiiorter Cunningham, M. D Ensley City. 


Robert Sommerville Hill, M. D Montgomery. 


AViLLiAM IIenuy Johnston, M. D Birmingham. 


Glenn Andrews, M. D Montgomery. 


Jerome Cochran, M. D Mobile. 

(Official residence, Montgomery.) 
Term expires 1899, 

Time of meeting, third Tuesday in April, 1895. 


Session of 1895. 

James Thomas Searcy, M. D., Tuscaloosa— 

The Defective and DependtMit Classes in .-Mabama. 

George Summers Broun, M. D., Birmingham — 

The Mental State as Conducive of Organic Dison.'^e. 

Hbnry Tutwiler Inge, M. D., iVIobile— 

Interesting Cases in Practice. 

Isaac La Fayette "Watkins, M. D., Montgomery- 
Report on Gynaecology. 


Benjamin Leon Wyman, M. D., Birmingham — 

Recent Progress in Brain Surgery with Special Refer- 
ence to Cerebral Localization. 
TucKKR Henderson Frazer, M. D., Mobile — 

Inflammation of Serous and Fibroserous Membranes 
of Constitutional Origin. 

GoLDSBY Kino, M. D., Selma— 
Surgical Shock. 

Andrew Boyd, M. D., Scottsboro — 

Reilex Neuroses from Male Generative Organs. 


Selma— Albert Gallatin Mabry 1868 

Mobile— Albert Gallatin Mabry 1869 

Montgomery — Richard Fraser Michel 1870 

Mobile— Francis Armstrong Ross 1871 

Huntsville — Thomas Childress Osborn 1872 

Tuscaloosa — George Ernest Kumpe 1873 

Selma — George Augustus Ketchum 1874 

Montgomery —Job Sobieski Weatherly 1875 

Mobile — John Jefferson Dement 1876 

Birmingham — Edward Davies McDaniel 1877 

Eufaula— Peter Bryce 1878 

Selma— Robert Dickens Webb 1879 

Huntsville— Edmund Pendleton Gaines 1880 

Montgomery— William Henry Anderson 1881 

Mobile — John Brown Gaston 1882 

Birmingham— Clifford Daniel Parke r 1883 

Selma— Mortimer Harvey Jordan 1884 

Greenville— Benjamin Hogan Riggs 1885 

Anniston — Francis Marion Peterson 1888 

Tuscaloosa — Samuel Dibble Seelye 1887 

Montgomery — Edward Henry Sholl 1888 

Mobile— Milton Columbus Baldridge 1889 

Birmingham— Charles Higgs Franklin 1890 

Huntsville — William Henry Sanders 1891 

Montgomery— Benjamin James Baldwin 1892 

Selma — James Thomas Searcy 1893 

Birmingham— Thaddeus Lindlay Robertson 1894 



Gaston, John Brown — Mobile session isofl 

Ketchum, (leorge Augustus— Montgomery session. . . Isyo 

Anderson, William Henry — Mobile session 1,S71 

Weatherly, Job Sobieski — Montgomery session 1872 

Jordan, Mortimer Harvey — Tuscaloosa session 1873 

Seelye, Samuel Dibble — Selma session 1874 

Kotchum, George Augustus — Montgomery session 1875 

Michel, Richard Fraser — ^Mobile session 1876 

Fournier, Edmund Henry — Birmingham session 1877 

Riggs, Benjamin Hogan — Eufaula session 1878 

Mitchell, William Augustus — Selma session 1879 

Baker, Paul DeLacy — Huntsville session 1880 

Baldridge, IVIilton Columbus — Montgomery session 1881 

Bryce, Peter — Mobile session 1882 

Sholl, Edward Henry— Birmingham session 1883 

Sanders, William Henry — Selma session 1884 

Searcy, James Thomas — Greenville session 1886 

No oraticm delivered — Anniston session 1886 

Huger, Richard Proctor — Tuscaloosa session 1887 

Baldwin, Benjamin James — Montgomery session 1888 

Coleman, Ruffin — IMobile session 1889 

Inge, Henry Tutwiler — Birmingham session 1890 

Riggs, Edward Powell — Huntsville session 1891 

Wyman, Benjamin Leon — Montgomery session 1892 

Andrews, Glenn — Selma session 1893 

Blake, Wyatt Heflin — Birmingham session 1894 



Autauga County— Charles Campbell Howard, M. D., mc Georgia 41, 
cb 80, Autaugaville, died November 8, '93, of Nervous Pros- 
tration ; Archibald Smith McKeithen, M. D., mc univ Virginia 
60, cb SO, Autaugaville, of Gastritis. 

Bibb County— James Walker Brand, M. D., mc univ Virginia 56, cb 
78, Randolph, died April 12, '94; John F. Taylor, M. D., mc 
Jefferson, cb 90, Blocton, of Pneumonia. 

Blount County — Wesley Davis AViggins, M. D., mc univ Vanderbilt 
91, cb 91, Oneonta, of Pneumonia. 

Butler County — James Glenn Donald, M. D., mc univ Louisiana 54, 
cb 78, Monterey, died January 3, '93, of Heart Failure ; Arthur 
S. Stewart, M. D., mc univ Louisville 82, Greenville, died Aug. 
23, '93, of Phthisis Pulmonalis ; Job Thigpen, M. D.,mc Georgia 
58, cb 78, Greenville, died Feb. 1, '94, of Pneumonia. 

Calhoun County — Lewis Jemison, M. D., mc univ Pennsylvania 58, 
cb 90, Anniston, died October 26, '93, of Ciri-hosis of the Liver. 

Chambers County— Charles Windham Kirby, M. D., mc Atlanta 84, 
cb 85, LaFayette, died June 1, '94. 

Cherokee County — George Dougherty Washington Lawrence, M. 
D., mc Georgia 56, cb 87, Cedar Bluff, died January 24, '94; 
James Patrick Mathews, M. D., mc univ Nashville 86, cb 87, 
Maple Grove ; James Lamar Southerlin, M. D., mc Alabama 90> 
cb 90, Centre. 

Clarke County — Henry Jefferson Durden, M. D., mc South Carolina 
83, cb 84, Choctaw Corner, died December 8, '93, of Apoplexy, 
aged 36 years. 

Cleburne County — Morgan Magone Howie, M. D.,mc Atlanta South- 
ern 91, cb 93, Arbacoochee. 

Cullman County — William Jasper Reid, M. D., cb 89, Trimble. 

Dallas County — Courtney James Clarke, M. D., mc Jefferson 44, cb 
78, Selma, died of Tuberculosis; Daniel C. Smyly, M. D., mc 
South Carolina 38, cb 78, Pleasant Hill, died of Bright's Dis- 
ease ; William Joseph Tipton, M. D., mc Atlanta Southern 88, 
cb Montgomery 89, Selma, died of Chronic Diarrhoea. 


Escambia County— William Robert McAdory, M. D., mc Alabaniu 70 

cb 87, Pollard. 

Hale County— William Cushman Avery, M. D.,mc uiiiv rfnnsylvaniu 
57, cb 78, Greensboro, aged 62 years. 

Jefferson Counts- Andrew .Jackson Brewster, M. I)„ mc Alabama 
80, cb 80, Birmingham, died February 19, '94; Robert Dickens 
Webb, ;M. D., mc univ Virginia 50, cb Sumter 78, Birmingham, 
died in Yazoo City, Mississippi, February 23, '94. 

Lamar County — Martin Watson ^Morton, M. D., mc Cincinnati 73, cb 

77, Vernon, of Pulmonary Tuberculosis; James Richard Phil- 
lips, M. D., Millport, of Gun-shot Wound. 

Lawrence County— George Shegogg, M. D., mc King's, Dublin 46, cb 

78, Brick, died September 17, '93, aged 74. 

Lee County — John Walter Raleigh Williams, M. D., mc Georgia Re- 
form, Opelika. 

Macon County — John Samuel Johnston, ^M. D., mc Memphis 89, cb90, 
Tuskegee, died September 16, '93. 

Madison County — James Conrad Blanton, M. D., mc univ Louisville 
76, cb 78, New Market ; John Richard Slaughter, M . I)., mc univ 
New York 47, cb 78, Iluntsville. 

Marshall County — William George Smith, M. D.,mc univ Nashville 
54, cb 86, Warrenton . 

Montgomery County — John Howard Blue, M. D., mc univ Washing- 
ton, Md. 70, cb 78, Montgomery, died January 8, '94, of Gun-shot 
wound ; Charles Kane Duncan, M. D., mc univ New York 58, cb 
85, Montgomery, of Py;emia; George Wilkins McDade, ^L D., 
mc s of m New Orleans 61, cb 78, Montgomery, died August 
30, '93, of Dysentery ; George Robert Patton, M. D., mc univ 
Vanderbilt 69, cb 78, Montgomery. 

Pickens County— William Gaines Hunter, M. D., mc (ieorgia 50, cb 

79, Carrollton ; Robert Thomas Price, M. D., mc Alabama 74, cb 
78, Lubbub. 

Pike County— Thomas Jefferson Davis, non-graduate, cb 84, Goshen 

Shelby County— William O'llarrow, M. D., Vincent ; James Franklin 
Taylor, M. D., mc univ Pennsylvania 84, cb 87, Montevallo, of 


Sumter County — John McKenzio llenson, M . D., mc univ Pennsyl- 
vania 54, cb 80, Coiitopa, of lleai't Disease. 

Talladega County — Joseph Henry Johnson, M. D., mc JeCFerson 56, 
cb 80, Talladega (I'rincipal for 35 years of the State Institution 
for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind), died May 5, '93. 

Tuscaloosa County — Dana Elbra Monroe, M. D.,mc univ Dartmouth 
69, cb 78, Vance's, died November, 1893, of Typhoid Fever. 






By Wyatt Bi.ake. ]\I. I)., Linkvillk, 
Member of the Medical Associutiun of the .State of Alabumu. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is not without a sense of persouul pride thut I appear 
before you as the representative of the Alabama State Medi- 
cal Association ; nor is it without a feeling of much re- 
luctance when I realize that the audience before me is so 
well prepared to criticise or appreciate what may be said. 

The Jews of old were rebuked by the prophet Malaehi 
for bringing as annual ofterings to the Lord, the lame, the 
halt and the blind, and to-night I am confronted with the 
fear that this Association may not escape a similar rebuke 
at the hands of the intelligent citizens of Birmingham. 

I must address you on some subject pertaining to medi- 
cine. This, I hope, will not forfeit my claims to the atten- 
tion of those of my hearers not members of the medical 
profession, for no subject can be more worthy the conside- 
ration of a thoughtful and intelligent ])0(jple. 

Sickness and pain are as certain as life, and the groan of 
the sufferer has always been an appeal for relief. This ap- 
peal has never been in vain, but whutluT in ancient or 
modern times, in peace or in tumult, it has always mot a 

This symi)athy for the sufferer and its consotiUfiii . iiorts 
for relief mark one of the most redeeming traits of humanity. 
It is independent of climate or race, time or condition. 

The record of these efforts to relievo pain and prolong 
life, constitutes the history of medicine. 

There are few subjects, perhaps, on which more has been 


written than medicine, and while we are indebted to every 
ajjje for somcthinj^ of value, still wo must admit that the 
literature of no one subject is possibly more burdened with 
error, for among medical men of the past like those of the 
present time, it was too frequently the case that their ability 
to write was in adverse ratio to the amount written. 

I wish, however, to call 3'our attention to one redeem- 
ing characteristic of the whole of medical writers, with all 
their voluminous faults, their one cherished hope has been to 
better the condition of mankind. They had in view the 
common objects of being able to relieve pain and save the 
lives of their fellowmen, "With all their bickerings and 
contentions over baseless theories, the champions of every 
pathy, had their hopes been materialized, would have made 
the world brighter and happier. Such a laudable aim can 
not be claimed for a deal of what is far more popular 
literature. Another thing in behalf of these advocates of 
conflicting theories ; their zeal stimulated research and this, 
in turn, led to discoveries of the greatest importance. It 
was in this way that truth came out of error." A truth once de- 
monstrated became common knowledge on which all intelli- 
gent observers must agree, , and was no longer a cause for 
dispute. Thus, demonstrated -truth became the nucleus 
around which is being formed the science of medicine. 

Such a discovery was that of Harvey. Before his day the 
masters of medicine disputed as to the function of blood- 
vessels. His great discovery ended these forever. These 
demonstrated truths were not, necessarily, in conflict with 
empirical teaching. In empiricism a statement is accep- 
ted as true because it is the opinion of some favored author ; 
in scientific medicine proof of an assertion is demanded for 
its belief. 

Neither are all the remedies used in rational medicine of 
recent discovery ; opium, one of the most valuable, is one of 
the oldest. Near Cairo, bordering the valley of the Nile, is 
the ancient quarry of Djebel Tura. The rock bears an in- 
scription in hierogly23hics, stating that it furnished building 


mateiiiil for the Kiu{^s of E^ypt sixteen centuries before the 
Christiau era. This (juarry coutiuues to bo worked, for tlie 
superior qualities of the stoue causes a deniand for it uutil 
the present day. So with a medical remedy of merit, time 
only establishes it the more firmly in our (!stimatioii. 

Neither do we claim that in our practical work as physi- 
cians, we are entirely ind(^j)endent of empirical nn-tliods ; 
but every year is enabling us to rely more and moie on 
positive medication. The demonstration of every sci<'ntific 
truth that has a bearin<^ on our practical work as i)hysicians 
renders us more independent of empiricism and strengthens 
the claims of rational medicine to beiuf^ a ])ro«;ressivo 
science. These discoveries have been of various kinds. 
Some discovered the function of anatomical orf^ans already 
known, — such was that wonderfully imjtortant work of 
Harvey. Some discovered the new and mori; important ap- 
plication of known remedies, as did Simpson in the use 
of chloroform as an anaesthetic. McDowell and Battey 
devised new and successful operations for what were before 
incurable maladies. Who can estimate the importance of 
the great discovery of Jenner? Small-]n>x now gives us 
comparatively little concern, but, according to Roberts one 
ejiidemic alone, of this disease caused the death of moro 
than three millions of ])oople in Mexico. Our only earthly 
hope of escai)ing similar scourges is vaccination. No living 
man can claim being as great a benefactor to his race lus can 
Joseph Lister. Thousands of valuabh; lives are now sjiared 
to years of u.sefulness and enjoyment, living monuments to 
his fame. 

Such discoveries as these mark the evoluticm of medicine 
as a science, and elevate it above the plane of an emi>iri«;il 

The possession of this jxtsitive knowledge makes us feel 
strong in our work as physicians and surgeons, and it is on 
this that we base our claims to the confidence and support 
of an intelligent people. 

It is true that our resources (»f this character are limi- 
ted, but what would the practice of medicine be to day 


without thorn ? Surgery can justly claim a degree of scien- 
tific perfection not possessed by general medicine ; but 
where would surgery of to day be if deprived of three 
scientific truths, — the discoveries, respectively, of Harvey, 
Long and Lister, 

As I stated before, practical medicine is in a stage of 
transition. It is still part empiricism, but the scientific 
phase of our practice is growing progressively stronger 
and with it our profession is being elevated to a higher 
plane of dignity and worth. 

What the future will bring us, no one can tell, but tliat 
discoveries innumerable, marvelous and fruitful await us no 
one can doubt. Judging from the past this is but a reason- 
able conclusion. What would the earnest student of medi- 
cine not give for a medical text-book of a century hence ? 
There are many before me whose gray hairs tell too plainly 
of the many nights of anxious watching they have under- 
gone. May it not be possible that you may yet live to see 
some of the greatest worries of your ^professional lives 
made matters of the past ? Such was the experience of the 
great surgeon Lister. What a glorious reality anaesthesia 
must have been to him who had witnessed so much of human 
agony and torture under surgical operations? Ernest Renan 
tells us that in Lebanon there have been discovered old 
wills, written centuries ago, which provided that the bene- 
ficiary for a given consideration shall keep the deceased 
informed when the Franks shall rule over the land. If, 
after we are dead, the dreamings of a Koch should be- 
come a reality, it would almost quicken our cold frames 
in the grave if the truth could be whispered in our ears that 
consumption was a matter of the past. Is it expecting too 
much that cancer and consumption are yet to be relegated 
to the same limbo with the plague and scurvy ? We think 
not, we believe not ; even now we are journeying toward the 
Mecca of our dreams and we look to the future as contain- 
ing the true fruition of our hopes. But how is this to be 


accomplished? By careful, p.iiustaking, scientific investi- 
gation; b}^ f^'iiiiiii^' a more intimate acquaintance with 
nature's secret processes. 

Sir John Hercliell has said "It can hanlly 1m! pressed 
forcibly euou<^li on the attention of the student oi nature 
tliat there is scarcely any natural phenomenon which can bo 
fully and completely explained without a union of several, 
perhaps all, the sciences." 

The science of uavij^ation, for instance, is dependent on 
mathematics, astronomy, optics, physics and meteorolofry ; 
in fact, whatever is available for f^uidinj^ a ship upon the 
seas ; and if an unknown sea is to be explored, he is safest 
at the helm who is best acquainted with these laws. No 
practical science is dependent on so broad a ranj^e of theo- 
retical sciences as is medicine, and that student whoso ac- 
quaintance extends to the greatest numl)er of natural laws 
is best prepared to prosecute his researches into the yet 
unknown regions of medical science. A noted exam})le of 
this we had in the great surgeon Billroth, whc^se recent death 
has cast a gloom over the scientific world. 

At first it was my intention to say something of the lives 
of several of those men whose special work have done so 
much to establish the claims of medicine as a science, l)ut 
that remonstrance of Horace domaudiug brevit}' interposes 
and I have, perhaps wisely, yielded to the hint. 

I should feel derelict in my duty, however, if in this con- 
nection, I should fail to make special mention of the dis- 
covery f)f surgical ana'sthesia. To the surgt'on ni» disci iverry 
before nor since, is of equal importance; not even the great 
work of Harve\' itself, for the ust^ of the ligature to arrest 
bleeding was known and practiced bef<»rt> his day. It is 
strange that this wonderfully, imj^ortant ]»roperty of other 
had so long remained unknown, when ether it.self had been 
in use 198 years. It was discovered by Valerious C'ordius 
in 1540. Chloroform had been discovered by Liobig only 
sixteen years wIkmi Simpson nia<le its ana-sthetic properties 
known to the world; but then the recent discovery of tlie 
amesthetic property of ether had stimulated research iu that 


direction wliorc liefore so little was expected and yet so 
mncli was desired. It is not without a feeling of sectional 
pride that we can now confidently accord this distinguisliing 
honor, the discovery of aniBsthesia to a Southern physician, 
Dr. Crawford W. Long. 

"In 1839 Velpeau of Paris described the attempts to find 
some agent capable of preventing pain in surgical opera- 
tions as nothing less than chimerical ; and in 184G, Sir Ben- 
jamin Brodie of London said: "Physicians and surgeons 
have been looking in vain, from the days of Hypocrites 
down to the present time, for a means of preventing or al- 
laying bodil}^ pain ;" yet, four and a half years before that 
statement was ma.le, surgical anesthesia, under the influence 
of ether, had become a demonstrated fact, in a Georgia vil- 
lage, in the hands of Dr. Crawford W. Long." On the 30th 
day of March, 1842, Jas. M. Yeuable was auiTesthetised by 
Dr. Long and underwent a surgical operation without pain. 
That was the beginning of an epoch-making era in the his- 
tory of surgery. 

"In the meantime Wells, Jackson and Morton were at 
work. With some assistance from one another they arrived 
successively at the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide 
gas and sulphuric ether, and Morton, with an eye single to 
glory and business, secured a patent on ether under the 
name of letheou. In the Massachusetts General Hospital, 
Oct. 16, 1846, four and a half years after Long's discovery, 
Morton administered his letheon to a patient for Dr. J. C. 
Warren, and a tumor of the neck was successfully removed.'' 
Other operations soon followed and the published reports 
of these cases created intense interest throughout the med- 
ical world. 

"Now began the celebrated "Ether Controversy." Wells 
claimed the honor for himself, but, having failed both at 
home and abroad to receive the recognition he sought, he 
ended his life by suicide January 14th, 1848." 

"In 1852 a bill was introduced in Congress to purchase 
Morton's patent for $100,000. This was successfully op- 
posed by Long, Jackson and the friends of Wells. Morton 


was greatly disappointed at not roccMvin}^' tlin reward fiom 
Gougress. lu New York, July 15th, 1808, having fn-ttcd 
himself into a congestion of the brain, ho drove furiously up 
Broadway and leaped from his buggy near Central Turk. 
He was taken up insensible and carried to St. Luke's Hos- 
pital whore he died an hour later. It was not long before 
Jackson was committed to an asylum, ho})oiessly insane. 
After some years of confinement he died August 28th, 

"Dr. Long continued to practice his profession in Athens, 
Ga., and enjoyed a good patronage. Of course "he regretted 
not having received the recognition he was sure ho deserved, 
but his life was not saddened thereby. In regard to tho 
discovery of an:ethesia he had often said, "My only wish 
about it is to be regarded as the l)onefactor of my race." 
While on a visit to a patient, Jime loth, 1878, he was stricken 
with paralysis, and witliout regaining consciousness died 
the next day." He "combined excellently tlie noblest (pial- 
ities of the physician with the highest attributes of the gen- 
tleman." He claimed nothing for himself that was not his; 
his character was known of all men and was above reproach ; 
he was modest, honest and truthful to the last degree ; ami 
he "kept the covenant of his heart's true life until his days 
were numbered." 

"Paul found in his travels many altars erecteil to as many 
gods, and in Athens another "To the unknown God," so 
the tourist can see in Hartford, Conn., a bronze statue eriH-tetl 
to the memory of Horace Wells; in Mt. Auburn cenuttny, 
Boston, a marble shaft to W. T. G. Morton; in Paris, a lifo- 
size marble statue of Crawford W. Long; and in Boston, a 
monument of white marble dedicated "To the Discoverer of 
AuiPsthesia." It l)oars no name, but to one familiar with 
history it recalls the sad story of liopes that were disap- 
pointed, and)itions that were defeated, and lives thnt were 
lost, throu'di their connection with the most humant« ami 
beneticient of modern times. 

In the cemetery at AtluMis, G:u, is the grave of Dr. Long. 
"The oaks above him and tho river ut Lis feet murmur a 


requiem, but no shaft of marble tells to the world that here 
rests oue who, above all otliers, did most good to mankind. 
Humbly, as the humblest dweller in that "city of the dead," 
he sleeps, whose, last years were saddened with the knowl- 
edge that to others the meed of praise that should have 
been his, Avas given. No thought of fame or worldly emol- 
ument entered his heart ; he asked only the honor to which 
he was due and which now, too late to cheer his spirit, is 
showered upon his memory. An unknown and an unmarked 
grave is his." How tardy, often, is gratitude. Joan of Arc 
died a martyr for the weal of France. After centuries of 
neglect, mankind has, at last, awakened to a sense of her 
real motives and worth, and her recent beatification, and 
the enrollment of her name as a saint, has a parallell in the 
story of Dr. Crawford W. Long. To any one who entertains 
a doubt as to Dr. Long's priority in the discovery of anaes- 
thesia, I refer him to the valuable contribution on this sub- 
ject by Dr. L. B. Graudy, from which I have freely quoted. 
It appeared in the Virginia Medical Monthly, October, 1893. 

I have endeavored to present the claims of medicine to 
the rank and dignity of a science. It is the application of 
scientific knowledge in our practical work as physicians. 
It is but one department of universal truth. Bacon has 
said that "No pleasure is comparable to standing on the 
vantage ground of truth," and no one more fully appreciates 
this than does the earnest student of medicine. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, I wish to call your attention 
to a few of the many commendable features of the Alabama 
State Medical Association. The most important, perhaps, 
of these is its function of guardianship over the public 
health of our state. Should epidemic or pestilence threaten 
our borders, Alabama is protected to a degree not exceeded 
by any other state in the Union. Through its operation the 
standard of professional attainment among its membership 
is being made higher, year by year. I do not refer to the 
examination of applicants who are to practice in the state, 
but to that diffusion of medical knowledge among the mem- 
bers of this Association which comes from yearly attend- 


anco at those moGtinj^s. Our mcnilifrslii]) (•oinj>ris('H tho 
best medical talent in the state, and the diseussionH, which 
are each year conducted in our nieetinf^s, are a fruitful 
source of improvement to those members who ;ire not so 
well informed. 

Another thing, membership in our Association stimulates 
professional pride, that element so essentially imjiortant to 
every professional man. This can not l)o overestimated. I 
think every member of this audience will bear me out in tlu' 
assertion that, an individual without personal or fainil}' 
pride, a citi/en without state pride or a professiomd man 
without professional i)ride is an inferior product of his 

But, says some one, "this word in Ijehalf of the Alabama 
State Medical Association is needless ; its beneficent 
aims, its record of devotion to tho best interest of the 
state, its policy of zealously avoiding entanglement in ])arty 
strife, these of themselves should commend it to the en- 
dorsement and support of every patriotic citizen of Ala- 

Yes, my friend, what yoxi say is true, but the Ala])ania 
State Medical Association has never been without opposi- 
tion in the state, and its strongest opponents have always 
been memljors of the medical profession. Would you ask 
wh}' this is true? The story of Simon (rirty will answer 
tho (piestion for at least some of them. At one time, during 
the early settlement of our western frontier, Indian dt>pre- 
datious became so freipient, that the whites were comiielled 
to organize themselves into a military force for self-protec- 
tion. Among them was one Simon dirty, who was excetul- 
ingly anxious to be elected an ofhcer in the new company; 
but, failing in his eft'orts, he deserted tho whites, became n 
renegade, and joined th(> Indians in their warfare against 
his own people. Hut then, we have some worthy nu«nibers 
of the medical profession who, from inditforonce or hwk of 
professional ]>ride, hold themselves aloof fnun this Assot-ia- 
tiou. These W(> adjure to tle])art from their error and join 
us in our uoble work. About l-'-tT traditiou tells us waa 


fought the great battle of the Carrou. Margaret, the maiden 
Queen of Scothmd, had died, and Baliol was chosen her suc- 
cessor instead of Bruce, the rightful heir. Brut3e sought 
refuge at the court of King Edward of England. Edward, 
in turn, asserted his authority over Scotland and invaded 
her territory. He was met by the Scots under the leader- 
ship of Wallace, at a little stream called the Carron. Then 
ensued that memorable battle. After a day of desperate 
conflict and carnage, night found them on a disputed field 
Avith only the little stream between the two armies. Bruce 
Avas there, having accompanied the English on their march 
into his native laud. In the stillness of the night he left 
his tent in the English camp and, burdened with reflections, 
wandered along the banks of the littie stream. The moon 
had now risen and revealed the dead faces of his own rightful 
subjects and the ground made crimson with Scotland's best 
blood. Amid these conflicting emotions he is startled by a 
voice from the opposite side of the little stream. Is it the 
groan of a dying soldier? No ; and there is a strange famil- 
iarity about the voice. It is Wallace, and he has recognized 
the white crest of his king. "Bruce," said he, "Why remain 
you inactive, when so much is at stake, — we are right and 
right must prevail; arouse you from your legarthy ; put 
yourself at the head of our forces and the foes of Scotland 
will soon be laid low." Bruce did act, Baunockburn was 
soon fought and he was firmly seated on the tbrone of his 
fathers. Now, I would say to those doctors who hold them- 
selves aloof from our Association, join us ; we are right ; aid 
us in our organized effort to better prepare ourselves to con- 
tend Avitli the common enemies of mankind, disease and 

There is another class of physicians whom I would men- 
tion, those who have forfeited their membership in this As- 
sociation to become the employees in some bichloride of 
gold establishment or similar institution. Brother physi- 
cians, I would beseech you that for these you leaven your 
censure, with charity one point. When a small boy, I used 
. to visit, with my mother, a very old lady who lived in the 

WVATT I IKK I, IN I'.I.AKI',. 209 

comninnity. Slio was said to Ix^ more tliaii a Inindn-d vcarH 
old. She would eutoi-taiii motlier with storieH of tho Itovo- 
lutiou. She told of "Hod-coats" and " torios," and of tlio 
exploits of Sumter and Marion on tho Podcc. She ndatfd 
many things pertaining to her own personal history, and, 
among these, she stated that she ran away from hor parents 
to get married. This astonished my mother. "Whv, grand- 
mother, she said, "if I never had marricil till now I never 
would have run away from my parents." "Ayt;, child," re- 
plied the good old woman, "yes you would if you wantod to 
marry as bad as I did." Now, I beg y(ni to look on these 
erring physicians with a certain degree of hiiiicncy. You 
don't know what you would do, if 3M)u needed ])ractice as 
bad as they did. 

Have I a hearer who is indifVt;ront to tlu; work of tliis As- 
sociation? I will relate to him the fable of the "Travellers 
and the Plane Tree." Some travellers, ^-Esop tells us, op- 
pressed liy the heat of the noon-tide sun, sought tho shade 
of a plane tree hardby. Looking uj) at tiie tree, as they lav 
stretched beneath its friendly boughs, they said one to an- 
other: "What a worthless tro(> to man is this barren plane," 
But the tree replied: "Ungrat(>ful creatures! at the very 
moment you are enjoying benefit from me, you rail at mo as 
being good for nothing." 

But the Alabama State Medical Association is t<»-day more 
firmly rooted in public confidence than ever before. The 
people of Alabama are proud of it, and they have justcatise 
to be. It is pronounced hy eminent authority to be incom- 
parably superior to any other medical orgauizati«Mi on tho 
American continent. This isdue to thes])iritof patriotism, 
conservatism and unselfishness that has pervaded its coun- 
cils and tho wisdom of its leadershiin 

On a bright autumn day, l.S()B. ('., Xerxes, king of Persia, 
landed on the island of Salamis ; ho ascended tho craggy 
cliffs of the pnunontory and stoo<l on an overhanging rock 
commanding a view of tlu* Saronic (lulf. On liis loft, ap- 
proached his own ai-med lleet on his right, was "f <)"> 


Greeks. Xerxes stood there to watch that conflict on whose 
issue depended the destiny of civilization. WIio was to be 
master of the worhl, Greek or Persian? The ships met; 
the Persians went down ; civilization was saved. 

This Medical Association has had its bitter fight to the 
death; our halls of legislation was the arena of conflict; 
opposition went down, the Association was saved. 

One special hand has been felt in guiding its craft through 
many narrow breakers, until now it floats calmly on the 
broad and deep waters of the placid gulf. That pilot is still 
at his post, and may many years to come still find him there, 
for ocean sailing is not without its dangers, but all on board 
feel safe when his hand is at the helm. We may fitly apply 
to hira those words of Horace — 

"The man of firm and righteous will, 

No rabble clamorous for the wrong, 

No tyrants brow whose frown may kill, 

Can shake the strength that makes him strong," 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, your patience just a little 
while longer, while I say a few words as to the individual 
doctor. No one else sees the world as the doctor sees it ; 
no one else knows the world as the doctor knows it ; he 
knows of crimes that never reach the ears of a jury, and he 
hears confessions that never reach the ears of a priest. "The 
community, as a rule, view one another with a veil thrown 
over their moral and physical alflictious ; their strong pas- 
sions and feeble control ; their blasted hopes and the sor- 
rows that flow from their love and hatred ; their poverty, 
their frailty, their crimes, and their vexations ; their cruel 
disappointments and rude mortifications ; their follies and 
disasters, fears, delinquencies and solicitudes ; he sees the 
trappings of greatness and the cloak that hides deformity 
dropped, their infirmities and imperfections of mind and 
body with the veil uplifted, and the book of the heart wide 
open. The homeless, the betrayed, the deserted and the 
victims of intemperance; "grief and joy," hope and dispair, 
love, guilt, debt, jealousy, shame, grief, domestic trouble, 

WVAT'l' III;KI,!N I'.I.AKK. 301 

superstition, anxiety, tliirst for n;von}^'(!, uU .in- known to 
the doctor. "Ho boconK^s the repository of nil kinds of 
moral and physical secrets, but he ch>ses his lips doubly 
tight. At one hour he visits the p(^or felon in his cell, the 
next may find him in a palace. At one hour he visits the 
Minister of God, the next ho is called to the very cesspool 
of vice and sin, and there must listen to the dying shrieks 
of some victim of remorse aud shame. 

Such are the doctor's opportunities for seeing the world 
as it is, but I'll assure you that all of his ways are not "ways 
of pleasantness and not all of his paths are peace." My 
hearers, do you realize the ditHculties with which the doctor 
has to contend? "He must enduie," says Dr. Oathell, "all 
temperatures — August suns aud December blasts; drowned 
with the rain and choked with the dust, ho must trudge 
hungry aud sleepy, at noon, or midnight, while others ob- 
livious of care and resting or being refreshed with slo<?p." 
"A physician is in continual danger, and while like a wild 
aud relentless tornado the swift, gaunt, ghastly, witlu.'ring 
epidemic begins its work of death, no matter how great the 
danger he can not flee but in dishonor." 

A few years ago the world reverberated the praises of 
father Damein who, himself, fella victim while administering 
to the spiritual needs of a leprous stricken colony. His 
was no greater saci-ifice than was nnfde by those piiysicians 
who, voluntarily, offered their services to the])oople of Mora- 
phis, during the yellow fever epidemic of 1S78. Then "tho 
pestilence was king; and panic and shuddering horror, and 
the black shadow of death wore his ministers." None olso 
knew so well the character of the danger they were to face, 
and yet, physicians left their homes and voluntarily oH'ered 
their services to those fever-stricken people. 

These are the class of ])hysicians who form themselves 
into medical ass(x'iation.s. The higiiest aim of their lives is 
to better prepare themselves for the fearful rosponsibilitios 
of their profession, their greatest reward tho coufidouco of 
the people whom they servo. 


Ill our cL'iini for your confidence we are by no means 
Avitliout rivjils, l)ut who are tliose rivals'? During that fear- 
ful scouri^e at iMeini)his, I wonder how many patent-medi- 
cine men, voluntarily, left their liomes and with their own 
hands offered their "never failing" remedies to those dying 
people ? They boast of success where physicians fail, hero 
certainly was a field for their pretended usefulness. These 
rivals for your confidence are of all degrees of pretention 
from that arch-quack, Dr. Flower, all the way down to that 
peripetetic cosmopolitan, the long-haired indian root-doctor ; 
and their remedies are in varying favor from an electrc^poise 
all the way down to a rabbit's foot. From the recommenda- 
tions with which our religious news- papers have been bur- 
dened of late, it seems that the electropoise is specially effi- 
cacious in treating the diseases of preachers. "One of the 
most amazing of all wonders is, that wisdom in the mysteries 
of the law or the doctrines of theology, acumen in the sciences, 
skill in the polished arts or keenness and culture in other 
departments of human knowledge scarcely increases some 
peoples' reasoning powers a jot above the ancient Egyptians 
in medical matters." There is a popular belief that some 
men are born doctors. Did you ever hear of a born chemist, 
a born electrician or a born engineer? A knowledge of 
medicine comes just like any other knowledge, by careful, 
painstaking investigation. 

Laenec perfected the stethoscope just as Bell perfected 
the telephone, each studied the transmission of sound. 
"Professional skill," says Fothergill, "consists of a founda- 
tion of common-sense with a superstructure of special edu- 
cation." A medical student may, by his own efforts, sujDply 
all other deficiences, but if he lacks common sense, that 
element which Guizot has denominated "the genius of hu- 
manity," his failure is inevitable. 

But I was speaking of the doctor's difficulties. Some one 
suggests that it may be attributed to the uncertainties of 
medicine. That medicine is not an exact science, we must 
admit. The same may be said of law. The decisions of 
to-day are liable to be reversed to-morrow. But you have 


an iiii])()rt;iiit suit at law ; ^ic;it interests are iiiVDlvcd ; your 
case is in -the liands of ;in attorney of years' of experieiu-e 
and recoj^nized al)ility ; you nor even your lawyer can fore- 
tell the result, but what would your friends think of you if, 
under these circumstances, you dismiss your lawyer and jnit 
your case into the hands of some vulj^ar ])rete)uler, who has 
had neither opportunity nor inclination to accpiaint himself 
with the known principles of law. You are cauj^'ht in a 
storm at sea ; the thunders roll and the li}^htninj;,'s flash ; 
and the shi}) quivers and its tindjers crack as it rides tlio 
sur^iuij; waves, — the wind blows more furiously and just 
yonder is the rocky reef. The old ])ilot stands bravelv at 
the helm ; no one else realizes the danj^^er so well as he, but 
with a steady gaze on the menacing rocks he rapidly shifts 
the wheel to adjust the ship to the ra])idly shifting winds, — 
but what wouhl you think of a captain who would now put 
at the helm an ignorant landsman, who, to your own knowl- 
edge, could scarcely paddle a canoe ? 

Inconsistencies as glaring as these are of t(K) frecpnuit oc- 
currence in the medical world. The i)hysiciau has diflicultes 
and Avorries and vexatious. He must contend with dark 
nights, and cold rides and poor pay, but he tastes joys as 
free from alloy as are ever permitted to gladden the human 
heart. He may miss wealth and fame, but if his lifi' is 
rightly spent no other calling can better enable him to at 
least exclaim: "I fcM.d within me a peace above all earthly 
dignities, a clear and ipiiet conscience!" Su.di is the doc- 
tor's life. 

I entered the cemetery of a large city. On every side 
were vaulted tombs, terraced mounds and imposing columns, 
each bearing the eulogies of some honored dead. "\on 
marble shaft," said my friend, "nnirks the resting place of 
him who knelt ;it the shrine of and>ition." "His wlu)lo do- 
main at last a turf of stone," yet while he lived a world "did 
seemtoo small." But what monument is that inscrilwd with 
a coat of arms, and on its Parian front are carved a swonl 
and shield? "That," said mv friend, "is the grave i>f a 


great general ; fame was liis idol, aud distinction was his 
goal. He reached his goal, but oh ! at what a cost ! thou- 
sands of his fellowmeu sleep coffiuless in nameless graves, 
each leaving a heritage of misery, orphanage and woe, and 
for Avliat ? That men may sing a warrior's praise." "Yon- 
der," said my friend, "is the grave of a millionaire, but they 
say the poor old man's last days were his worst. His mer- 
ciless exactions cost him many a friend, and on his death- 
bed the prayers of all the priests failed to relieve his re- 
morse." By this time we had reached almost the back-side 
of the graveyard. The walks were but little worn, and here 
the rounded mounds covered with green grass were the only 
monuments to the dead. Approaching an humble grave, my 
friend bowed his head in lowly reverence. "Here," said he, 
"is the grave of a physician. No one in his day was more 
honored, more beloved and more trusted, and his name is 
not unknown to fame, but death found him poor in the goods 
of this world." 

My friend left me, aud being alone, my thoughts returned 
to the lives of those men whose graves we had seen. I 
thought of him who had reached ambition's towering height ; 
I thought of the millionaire, with his mansions and gold ; 
I thought of the warrior whose name is a gem in the diadem 
of glory, and I thought of the lonely tenant of that grassy 
mound. And I said to myself, "though I fill a nameless 
grave, and the ruthless hand of time soon levels the mound 
that covers my head, of all these men I had rather be the 

"There is a jewel which no Indian mine can buy, 

No chemic art can counterfeit; 

It makes men rich in greatest poverty, 

Makes water wine, turns wooden cups to gold. " 

UKU I'.KN IlKNKY l)U(i(;AU. SO' 


By RicnucN Hknkv l)i'(;(i \it, M. I), (! vLt.ioN. 
Junior CounsL'llor of tlic Medical Assuciutioi) of the State of Alabama. 

Mr. President and Members of ihe Medical Association of (lie 

State of Alabama : 

At our last meetiu}^ iu tlio beautiful city of Soliiui, an or- 
(liuauce was adopted, as follows: "Be it ordaiucd by tlio 
Medical Association of the State of Alabama, that the 
President of the Association shall appoint annually a histo- 
rian, whose duty it shall be, to prepare under the direction 
of the President, suitable biof^raphical sketches of such 
counsellors as may have died durinj.^ his term of office, and 
that the report of the historian shall be read at each annual 
session of the Association on the first day thereof next after 
the annual reports of the Vice-Presidents, or at such of/irr 
time as may be found most convenient." Some while after 
our adjournment, I was notified by our wortliy President 
that I was selected for this term of 1891. "With mudi hesi- 
tancy and many forebodings, I accei)ted ; mititndli/ Impimj 
that t)ur State Association might be so signally blessed an 
not to give occasion for any special report, and / might bo 
your historian without a subject to historize, so I had con- 
cluded when the year 1893 had closed. 

Again I heard from our President citing me that he wouKl 
certainly expect an address from me at this meeting, lle- 
vicwing for a subject, it seenu'd very fit and )>roper to refer 
back to the year 1SG8, in March, when a called nieeting was 
had, and six of the old ante-lMJiuiii members, ()f a former 
organization, met in Selma for the purpose of re-organiza- 
tion of a state medieal association, and fourteiMi others 
were added to the last, with Dr. F. A. lloss «)f Mobile, iu the 


cliair, and Dr. Jerome Cocliran at the secretary's table. 
Resolutious -were adopted, and all the physicians in the hall 
signed the roll and paid the initiation fee of $1.00. These 
verily were days of reconstruction, and here had gathered 
together a most noble band. From this small origin, 
this protoplasmic germ of unity, was sprung this society, 
which has grown, and developed, and progressed under the 
leadership of our invincible Alexander, till in its force and 
character and monumental strength, it even now speaketh 
to the nation. 

"Thus growing time points ceaseless something new, 

And liuman skill evolves it day by day, 
Till reacJiing nearer, to perfections height, 

Its banner waives aloft, "Excelsior." 

My theme must now change, for those telegra|)hic bells 
are tolling ; and from their distant chimes the sad, sad, news 
is known, a counsellor is dead. Dr. Job Thigpeu, of Green- 
ville, is no more. He died February 1st, 1894, having been 
born July 26th, 1828. Homer, the epic poet of olden time, 
living several hundred years before the Christian era, tells 
us as beautifully translated, by Pope, that : — 

"Like leaves on trees, the race of man is found, 
Now green in youth, next withering on the ground. " 

The great Hebrew prophet has exclaimed, "We all do fade 
as a leaf." Many years after Homer there lived Herodotus, 
so styled the father of history. It is related by him that the 
renowned Xerxes at one time having collected together a 
vast army near the Thracian shore, his numerous ships of 
war lying out before him with sails all spread, that he sum- 
moned his generals and requested of them that he be taken 
up on a high cliff near by, where he could, at a single 
glance, view the mighty array. The grandeur of the scene 
satiated his ambition ; the dazzling display flattered his 
pride, when suddenly his eyes bedimmed with tears. His 
uncle approaching, inquired \v\ij one so great, so noble, with 
so much wealth and power, having millions of men at his 

KKiM'.KN iii:.\uv nidCAU. ;,()7 

coinmaud, s/ioultl thus inrji. Xorxos uiiHwerotl, "tli;it iiftor 
viewing such a scene, I was ovtucomo with j^rief at the; 
thought tliat 100 years lieiice not a man of this vast tiiron;^ 
woukl be alive to tell the tale." To which his uncle Arta- 
banus replied, "Yes, sir, notwithstanding all the ^lory, the 
wealth and /ni/ipini'.ss of men, ho would dedans tliat «tut of 
that great multitude there was scarcely a man but at soinc 
time of his life had wished that he was dead, away from the 
vexatious cares of life and its anxieties." Such wc^n^ thu 
barbarians' sentiments when might was right, and mythology 
and absolutism prevailed. But the ethical mind of the 
present day, with its civilizing environments and Christian- 
ized education projected into it, should jn'oduce vii-tuous 
activities and most ennobling thoughts ; and here I think it 
proper to say that in every community above all other men, 
the physician should be truly a representative man, in mind, 
in manners and in morals. 

Dr. Thigpen Avhen he died, was not really an old maiu 
His life had glided along comparatively in tranquil happi- 
ness, with the full enjoyment of every faculty, in the posses- 
sion of ample means, the recollection oi ])leasant duties 
faithlull}' iierformod, the attention and allVu-tion of children 
and "II the respect his kind friends and neighbors could be- 
stow. We are told that his boyhood days were spent iu 
agricultural pursuits. Energy and perseverance were his 
characteristics, embracing every oj)portunity for self- 
improvement. His h'tn'tiri/ education was somewhat limi- 
ted, the common schools of the country atlbrding his chief 
instruction ; but he was a student and a hard worker. In tlio 
fall of 1854, he attended his first course of lectures, in New 
Orleans, at Tulane University, where he chose to remiiin 
for a time after the close of the session. In 18o5. he enter- 
ed the T'niversity of Georgia, graduating with distinction 
the following s])ring. He first located in Montgomery, 
where, in August, 18'/.), he was nuirried to Miss >rHrtha 
AVatts, niece of the late ex-Governor Watts, returning thence 
to Greenville, in wliich place ho resided till his death. Ho 


reared and educated five children, two of liis sons beiuj^ now 
well established in their father's profession. Dr. Tlii<^pen 
had that clear judgment, deliberate calmness and decisive 
action, which constitute the great physician and surgeon. 
In his family he was kind and self-sacrificing — a duvotcd 
Christian gentleman. His heart went out to suffering hu- 
manity. He toiled unremittingly, and truly can it be said, 
he sacrificed himself for others. At the time of his death, 
he was president of his local society. He was made coun- 
sellor in 1879, at the Selma session, his name now being in 
the list of Grand Senior Counsellors. He was Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Association, and officiated at Greenville in 1886. 
In the midst of arduous work for his patients, he was seized 
with LaGrippe, which finally followed by pneumonia, car- 
ried him off. In this short sketch we can but barely recite 
the exalted virtues which adorned the life of this great and 
good man. 

"His life was gentle, and the elements 

So mixed in him that nature might stand up 

And say to all the world — this was a man." 

The State Association has also suffered auothcr loss in the 
death of Dr. llobert Dickens Webb, who died in Yazoo City, 
Miss., March 8th, 1894. Dr. Webb was born in Hillsboro, 
North Carolina, November 14th, 1825. His parents moved 
to Sumter county, Alabama, when he was but three years 
of age, and in the common schools of the country, was laid 
a foundation for the thorough education of his well poised 
mind, as evidenced in later life. 

During October, 1849, he entered the medical department 
of the University of Virginia, and took his degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine in June, 1850. After graduation, some 
months were spent in the Marine Hospital of Mobile. He 
next settled in St. Louis, Missouri, where his marked abili- 
ties soon attracted attent'on, and with such high apprecia- 
tion, that he was selected to fill the chair of surgery in one 
of the medical colleges of that growing city. This position 
he retained for two ^years, but for climatic causes, he re- 


turned to his old county of Sunitoi-, Alab.ama, and niado hi« 
home iu Livingston. Here was liis cliic^f lift; work for nioro 
than thirty years. From the laborious duties of an extou- 
sive country practice, his health suffered and comi>fll(;d him 
to move a^ain; this time to the city of iJirmini^'liain, wIkm-o 
he devoted himself to special office work iu diseases of tli<! 
eye, ear and throat. By months of careful study and 
attendance on clinics iu the city of Now York, he was well 
prepared for this branch of liis profession. I'uder the 
color blind law, he was oim anion;^st the first three appointed 
by the Governor of Alabama. Holdinj^ tliis position from 
June 1st, 1887, to 1893 with great credit to liimsclf (tlic! 
law being- annulled in 181);5). 

In 1890 a c^jrouic altection had so undermined his health 
he submitted to an operation, which was ably performed 
l)y his fellow townsman, Dr. W. E. U. Davis. This n^lieved 
the iirgent symptoms and allbrdod him comfort and a respite 
from suffering for two years longer. A/ti r f/iis, professional 
work was given up, antl retiring from all practice besought 
the home of his only daughter and i-liiid, Mrs. .Iiio. Sharj) 
Williams, in Yazoo City, Mississippi. 

For many years ho had longed to compile a history <jf the 
"Webb family and its collateral branches," and to this work 
in the quiet happy home of his beloved daughter, he de- 
voted the remnant of his da3's. He was \ovy much inclined 
to literary i)ursuits, and was well ([ualitied for this noblo 
work — perpetuating in history a family much honored iu 
many states. 

The task was completiul only a few weeks befon- hi.s 
death, comprising in detail more than 1800 names, and such 
interesting material as will instruct post<'rity and give to 
many, pleasant memories. 

A noted writer has observed that, "he who worships the 
past, believes we are conn(H't«Ml not only with tiiose wlio 
have come before us, but with those who are to come aft<»r. 

A just appreciation of tlm lives of our predecessors, and 
a quiet contemplation of their d(>eds, tho' not pre-eminently 
illustrious, but creates iu ourselves self-respect, a greater 


regard for virtue, and often a true desire to n^ilk in their 
footsteps. I p("% the man who lives "like unto sldps that 
pass each other in the night, only to speak whilst passing." 
This is not true life, even the weeds of the fields, or the 
flowers, or the grass, or the oaks of the forest, but lend a 
hand in helping nature in her course and bear their annual 
l)urdens of life, and so man should strive to benefit his fel- 
low man. The moral beauty of a man's life should provoke 
imitation. Salust, the Latin Historian, tells us, that he had 
often heard Quintus Maximus, Scipio and oih^r famous men 
of Rome, say, that : "whenever they regarded the statues 
of their ancestors, their minds were most powerfully incited 
to virtue." Having the translation, please pardon the latin : 
"quum majorum imagines intuerentur, vehementissime sibi 
animum ad virtutem accendi." Sir Isaac Newton in his 
sixty-third year, wrote out with a feeble hand, a geneologi- 
cal account of his own life. 

The subject of this sketch was a "manly man" in all its 
attributes. An experienced surgeon, a splendid practitioner 
of medicine and could impart his knowledge to others, a 
hard student withall, and "could overlook the highest tops 
of thought, which men of common statute never saw." He 
was in touch and sympathy with all advanced phases of 
professional knowledge. In social life magnetic, his hospi- 
tality was unstinted. Being one of the organizers of the 
Sumter County Medical Society, his work in that society 
was eminently useful, truly fraternal with its members, kind 
and encouraging to younger physicians, endearing them to 
himself and leading them, in enthusiasm to his profession. 
He was also one of the original members, who undertook 
to organize the State Association before the war. 

By clear application to duty as health officer he promptly 
arrested much suffering in the great yellow fever epidemic 
which prevailed in 1878. It was during this year that the 
State Medical Association met in Eufaula, and he was there 
elected its president. His annual message at the ensuing 
session was an admirable discourse on "Public Hygiene and 


tlie Siiuit.-iry Needs of Alabjima. In tlio Ainrn'r,,,! ./onrnal 
of Medical Sciences was published one of his papers on 
"Cholera," foreshadowin<^ the f^'ei'in theory. 

Again his paper ou "Death," read before the "Jeflersou 
County Medical Society," was re-read before the State Asso- 
ciation. It was in 1S70 h(> had ]>repared a paper on "Hem- 
orrhagic Malarial Fever," and it was read beff)re tlui State 
Association, and showed a thorough and exhaustive knowl- 
edge of the subject. In 1881 he wrote a paper on the 
"Unavoidable Hemorrhages in Placenta Prjevia." 

His analysis and report on the "Livingston Artesian 
Waters" exhibited his scientific knowledge of chemistry. 

Other works and studies were : "Vital Phenomena De- 
pendant upon Organization ;" "Quinine, a Stimulant and Sed- 
ative ;" "Quinine, its Effects in Large Doses in Fevers and 
Inflammatory Diseases ;" "Stricture of the Urethra with 
Complications;" "Diabetes Mellitus and Treatment ;" "Qui- 
nine in Periodical Engorgements of the Uterus ;" "Healing 
of Nerves by First Intention ;" "Report on Diseases of 
Sumter County." 

His efficient efforts brought to the notice of the state legis- 
lature the great importance of a "Color Blind Law." 

As a citizen, he was highly appreciated, and nhnn/s use- 

In April, 1853, he was married to Miss Julia Fulton ; for 
twenty-two 3'ears he was an elder in the Prcsbyt^'rian 

His daughter wrote "that during the last illn'ss ho suffered 
much, but witliout complaining, his />//»/«■ being his great 
resource." I am indebted for many details of his life to Dr. 
E. H. Sholl, a life time friend of the deoeascMl. 

The value of a man arises from his deeds; from tiiem 
lie is little or great. It is a conspicuous fact that groat 
genius and a{'('om])lishnients will miinhnn/s suocetMl. Whilst 
oftentimes men of mediocre talents, perseverance and strong 
will power may reach the highest pinnacle of fame. 

In the hurrv of time, whilst a natural ambition is our 


leading thought, aud Ave are essentially making a life history 
for ourselves, it is wiser that we sometimes relax our exer- 
tions and carefully recall the shades of the past; so that 
the latter days may derive profit from our experiences. The 
idea I wish to develop is, that it is not what the eyes can 
see, or the ears hear, or the mouth speak, or the hands 
grasp, which bestows true happiness ; for vision fades, and 
sounds cease, and speech fails, and hands paralize, but good 
deeds (like Tennyson's "Kiver to the Sea"), ivillflow on for- 
ever and forever. 

What a phosphorescence of glowing light is left to our 
view in the lives of these counsellors, which we have so 
briefly sketched, and we know no more applicable and en- 
during epitaph than that, "They rest from their labors and 
their works do follow them." 



By Wyatt IIki', M. D., nii:MiNi;ii \m, 

Junior Counsellor of llie Mi-dioil Associjiijon of tlif Stsilc of 

niSCl'SSKI) I!V 
RoBEKT SoMMRKVII.I.E Illi.l,, !\F. ])., .M ONTOO.MKKY. 

Edward Powell liiticis, .M. I)., Uiit.MiNiiiiAM. 
James Adrian Goggans, M. D., Alkxan'dkij C!ity. 
IIenkv Altamont Moody, ^I. ])., I'.ailey Simuncss. 
Isaac LaFayette AVatkins, M. J)., MoxT<ioMEHY. 
Michael AVilliam Murray, M. D., New Decatur. 

It is absolutely impossible, in the time allowed in wliicli 
to read ray paper, to speak of all the recent progress in Crvn- 
a;col()g3'. Therefore, I will only s})eak of the techniipie of 
curettage and drainage for chronic endometritis, curettage 
for certain cases of pyosalpinx, resection of the ovary, resec- 
tion for hjdrosalpinx and vaginal hysterectomy for cancer of 
the cervix. 


There is no branch of the healing art in which such v:ij>id 
and remarkable strides of jirogress have been made within 
the last fifteen years as in (ryujcsic Surgery. 

Gynaecology would not have occupied the high positi«ui 
in surgery that it does, had it not been for tlie courage and 
arduous labors of such men as Ei)hraim McDowell, J. Ma- 
rion Sims, Atlee Peau, Simpson, Peaslee, Keith and Spencer 


These pioneers in Gyuii>cology liave written tlieir names 
liio-li npou tlie scroll of fame, and to tliem the world owes a 
debt of everlasting gratitude. 

In the galaxy of illustrious names that make up th(5 med- 
ical history of the world, that of Ephraim McDowell, the 
"Father of Ovarectom}^" and pioneer in abdominal surgery, 
stands forth in bold relief. 

It is now conceded and well established by good and suffi- 
cient evidence that the first Ovarectomy ever done in the 
world was in December, 1809, in the town of Danville, Ky,, 
by Ephraim McDowell. 

The operation was done with an an;esthetic, the patient 
made a good recovery, lived 31 years after the operation and 
died in the 78th year of her age. 

If the immortal Sims had contributed nothing more to 
gynsTocology than the operation for tlie cure of vesico-vaginal 
fistula, he would not have labored in vain. This man of 
genius and courage, after sixteen attempts upon the same 
patient, a negress slave in Montgomery, Ala., was enabled 
to give to the world the operation for the cure of one of the 
most dreaded sequeho of child-bearing. 

Tait and Emmett have contributed much to plastic gynte- 
cology in giving to us tlieir methods of repairing the lace- 
rated perineum and cervix. In truth, up to about twenty 
years ago plastic work composed the greater part of the 
operations done upon the female generative organs, Ijut "by 
the introduction of antisepsis a new era was opened to gj'nai- 
cology as well as to general surgery." 

New operations have been invented, old and abandoned 
ones, on account of the high mortality due to surgical un- 
cleanliness, have been revived and restored, viz : ovarectomy, 
vaginal hysterectomy, curetting and shortening of the round 

The names of Lister and Pasteur will descend from gen- 
eration to generation as the greatest benefactors of the hu- 
man race. 


Antisepsis is now well cstablisliod, is tauf^lit in all the 
medical schools and practiced liy iicarlv all oj>orators. 

Tlit> brilliant results of Tait and J>antoi-k for a while were 
the wonder and ania/cmcnl of the world, and a serious 
drawback to antisepsis which thev (claimed to be not only 
useless, but harmful and dan<;erous. Their j^ood results un^ 
known to be due to the rigid Asepsis which they practice. 
It is not the most brilliant o])erator who gets the best results, 
but the one who practices the best asepsis and antisepsis 
preventing infection. 

That gyna'cology is as much a si)ecialty as opthabnic sur- 
gery, is dawning upon the laity as well as the medical pro- 

It is useless for me to state to this body of medical men 
that the whole field of medicine is of too great a magnitude 
to be mastered by one mind. However, before entering 
upon a given specialty, one should have (h)ne a general 
practice for several years, lest he should think all th(> ills of 
a patient are due, directly or indirectly, to disease of the 
organs of which he makes a specialty. 

The late Sir Morrell Mackinzie said: "It is impossible 
that a man can be a really good specialist without possess- 
ing a general knowledge of disease ; and when I say general 
knowledge, I do not mean such a knowledge as can be ob- 
tained in a student's career, or even such a knowledge an 
can be accpiired by the holding of minor ajipoiutments at 
the termination of a hospital curriculum. 

"What I consider requisite is such a familiarity with mor- 
bid processes as can only be accpiired by those who are in 
the habit of using all tlu> n'sourees of their art in combat- 
ting the great varieties of ills which Mesh is heir to. In my 
opinion only those who have acted as general practitioners 
for some years, or have held a])i)ointments as physicians or 
surgeons to general hospitals, are thoroughly eipiipi)ed for 
practicing as specialists. 

"It is onlv after thorough knowledge has been olitained 
in many departments of medicine that training ami e\pori- 
ence can be focused with advantage on a single point" 


The gynfBCologist must tlioroughly understand tlio anat- 
omy of tho female (generative or^^aus, and know tlie normal 
condition and position of the uterus, fallopian tubes and 
ovaries. This he must learn mainly by physical examina- 
tion of the normal healthy orj^^ans, so that he will be able 
to tlitferentiate normal from pathological conditions. The 
vulva, vagina and cervix are examined by touch, and inspec- 
tion by aid of the speculum, and the interior of the uterus 
by the sound. The body of the uterus, tubes and ovaries 
are examined only by touch, with conjoined or bi-manual 
manipulation. This can best and most satisfactorily be ac- 
complished by anajsthetizing the patient, which overcomes 
any embarrassment, prevents pain and relaxes the abdomi- 
nal muscles, etc. After the patient is thoroughly anfosthe- 
tized she is placed upon her back with her legs flexed, a 
digital examination is made per vagina and rectum, with the 
other hand upon the abdomen just above the symphysis 
pubis. If this examination is not satisfactory, a speculum 
is introduced into the vagina, the cervix is exposed and 
grasped with a tenaculum, or better, with a pair of fixation 
forceps, the speculum is then removed and by traction upon 
the forceps the uterus is pulled down and the forceps held 
by an assistant. 

Now with a finger or fingers in the rectum and the free 
hand upon the abdomen just above the symphysis pubis by 
conjoined manipulation you are enabled to examine the body 
of the uterus, broad ligaments, tubes and ovaries with com- 
parative ease. 

It is better to use the fingers of the right hand in the 
rectum in examining the right tube and ovar}', and those of 
the left hand in examining the left tube and ovary. Care 
must be taken not to pull too strongly upon a uterus bound 
down by adhesions and in cases of pj'osalpinx lest the ad- 
hesions be broken or the pus tube ruptured. 


Absolute cleanliness of the hands and person of the 
operator and assistants in gyuaecological work, as in general 


surgery, is of paramount iuiportauco. Tho opfM-utor who 
fails to practice asepsis ami antisepsis in liis work, and njure 
especially in operations ui).)n tU ) fonialo L;onital tract, vagina, 
cervix ami interior of the uterus, which in the healthy state 
contain pathogenic gornis of several varieties, is to say tlie 
least, (lirolict of duty. 

The following is tho method of hand disinfection cni- 
ploj'ed in the Johns Ho])kins Hospital : 1st. Tin; nails are 
kept short and clean. 2d. The liands and arms up tho 
elbows are washed thoroughly for Uni minutes with soap 
and water, the water being as In^t as can b.; comfortably 
borne and being frecpieutly changed. A sterilized brush is 
used and any excess of soap is washeil otV with hot water. 
3d. The hands are immersed from oxui to two minuti-'S in a 
warm saturated solution of permanganate of' potash. -Ith. 
They are then placed in a warm saturated solution of oxalic 
acid, where they remain until complete decolorizati(»n of 
the permanganate occurs. 5th. They are next washed olV 
with sterilized salt solution or sterilized water. Gth. They 
are then immersed for two minut(>s in sublimate solution 1 
to oOO. 7th. Just before begining the operation the hands 
and forearms should be again well rinsed in stt>rilized salt 
solution or sterilized plain water, to remove the excess of 


All instruments should be boiled from ten to fifteen min- 
utes in ])lain watta- or a 1",, bii-arbonat(^ of soda solution, 
then they are turned out into a sterilized liasin whieh con- 
tains sufficient warm sterilized water to cover them. 


The suture material, that is silk, silk wound gut ami .silver 
wire is boiled a few n)inutes before use. To make catgut 
aseptic recpiires s])ecial care. In pre])aring catgut for sutures 
tho little threads winch are tied around each bnncli of RUt 
are cut and removed. Tlu' gut is then soaked for one hour 


in a 1 to 1000 bichloride of mercury solution, then it is put 
into a bottle containing enough pure oil of Juniper wood to 
cover the gut and the bottle is well corked. The gut is al- 
lowed to remain in this oil for eight days and then it is 
transferred to another bottle containing absolute alcohol 
with one part of the pure oil of juniper wood to ten parts of 
alcohol. In this solution the gut will remain asejjtic almost 
indefinitely. Just before using, tlie gut is immersed for a 
few minutes in a 1-1000 bichloride of mercury solution, then 
rinsed in sterilized water and transferred to a basin con- 
taining sufficient sterilized water to cover it. 


The patient should be instructed to take a complete bath 
the night before the morning of the operation. A purgative 
should be administered the day before and an enema given 
in the early morning of the operation. 


This operation, if I may dignify it by that name, may be 
done by applying a solution of cocaine to the endometrium. 
After all mucus has been removed from the uterine cavity, 
a ten per cent, solution of cocaine is applied to the endome- 
trium by means of cotton on the end of an applicater. Sev- 
eral applications should be made and ten or fifteen minutes 
allowed for the absorption of the cocaine before the curetting 
is commenced. If the patient is nervous or excitable chlo- 
roform or ether should be administered. The pubes and 
vulva are shaved and then well washed with brush, soap 
and water. Now with the patient on her back and with her 
legs flexed she is drawn down with her hips well over the 
edge of the table. With a strip of gauze about two inches 
wide and a yard long wrapped around the index finger or 
two fingers and well soaped the vagina is well washed. A 
constant stream of water from the irrigator is thrown into 
the vagina. After this is done the vagina is douched with a 
1 to 2,500 bichloride of mercury solution. The vulva should 

WVATI' UK FUN. ;5l.) 

bo liold tiL^htly around tlu3 ucjzzle of the irri^'utor so as to 
partially ohstruct the return flow of the water, thereby dis- 
teudiu^' the folds iu the vagiua thorouj^hly with the solution. 
Next a Graves or Sims speculum is intnjduced into the 
va<^inia, the cervix is expo.sod and grasped with a pair of 
fixation forceps, the uterine cavity is now thorouj^hly iiri- 
pjatod, through a uterine irrigating nozzle, with a 1 to 2,500 
bichloride of mercury solution. If the irrigating nozzle (hjes 
not pass readily into the uterine cavity dilate the cervix 
about an inch with a uterine dilator. After the l»ichlorido 
douche, use a douche of plain liof sterilized water, with a 
sharp curette the anterior surface of the end<jmetrium is 
scraped away, then the posterit)r and the fundus, the angles 
and then the sides. 

The curette is withdrawn frecpieiitly, that is after every 
two or three strokes, and dipped into a carbolized solution 
convenient to the operator. The cavity of the uterus is 
irrigated ccjnstantly during the curetting with plain watt^r 
and afterwards until the water returns clear. The interior 
of the uterus is now swaljbed Avith tincture of iodine and 
packed thrtnigh a cervical speculum with strips of iodoform 
gauze aboiit one inch wide and one yard long. The ends «»f 
the strips are left projecting into the vagina so us to facilitate 
their removal. Care must be exercised in packing the uterus 
not to put in too mm-h gauze, if so, iu a few hours there 
will be a uterine colic and the gauze will have to be n-movt'd. 
The curetting should be done rapidly and thoroughly, not 
more than five or ten minutes being recjuirod to complete 
the work after Uio curetting is commenced. It is best to 
go over the whole of the interior (jf tlu^ uterus twice with 
the curette to make sure there is no membrane loft. Tlie 
patient should be required to remain in bed for eight or ten 
days. The gauze should l)e removed in twenty-four r)r 
thirty-six hours and the uterus repacked, but not so nuich 
gauze is requiied as at the first packing. This gauze is al- 
lowed to remain in al)out twenty-four hours and is romove«l. 
The uterus is again repacked for the time and the gauze 


allowed to romaiu for twelve hours. One currettment ia 
(generally HufHcient to cure endometritis. 

However, this is not always true, as I have had to curette 
more than once in two different cases, twice in one case and 
three times in the other. More especially is this true in 
gonorrhcjeal endometritis, for "by the curette the whole 
thickness of the membrane is never removed ; the glands 
penetrate to tlie muscular layer and the terminal culs-de-sac 
remain attached to the parenchyma in spite of all scraping, 
however energetic, and serves to start a very rapid recon- 
struction of the membrane. However, notwithstanding this 
fact, by two or three consecutive curettmeuts you are en- 
abled to remove all the diseased membrane and effect a 


That certain cases of pyosalpinx are curable by curettage 
and drainage and without the mutilating celiotomy, has been 
demonstrated by Dr. Eobert A. Murray of New York. The 
technique of the operation is just the same as that for 
endometritis alone, except the cavity of the uterus is very 
lightly packed with iodoform gauze. Special care juust be 
exercised in pulling on the uterus not to pull too strongly 
for fear of rupturing the tubes. The cases that yield best 
to this method of treatment are those in which the tubes 
and ovaries are not prolapsed, but in their normal position 
near the brim of the pelvis. In cases where the ovaries and 
tubes are prolapsed and the tubes are not too much dis- 
tended with pus as to endanger their rujoture, the curettage 
may be done and a tampon placed iu the posterior cul-de-sac 
so as to elevate the prolapsed organs and encourage drain- 
age. If the tubes do not empty themselves through the 
uterus, it is most probable that there is atresia of the uter- 
ine end of the tubes and that celiotomy will have to be re- 
sorted to for their removal with the ovaries. 

Dr. Murray, in a paper read before the American Gynro- 
cological Society, reported several cases of pyosalpinx fol- 
lowing gonorrhoeal endomitritis and abortion treated in this 


way followed by complete euro, coucoptit)ii iiiid ^^'OHtution to 
tlio full term with uucoinpliciited pucrperiuiu. From hia 
oxporienco in the troiitmont of pyosulpinx l)y curcttii^c tiud 
draiuaj^e he draws the following couclusi(uis : 

"1st. — That many cases of ])y()salpinx ar<' curable without 
mutilating operations, if the endometritis be treated by 
curettage and drainage with strict antiseptic precautions. 

2d. — Tliat true drainage of a })yosalpinx is possible and 
does occur when the tul)es and ovaries are on a hivul with 
the uterus, and the uterine end of the fallopian tub*; is patu- 
lous, or can be made so by treating the uterus. 

3d. — That uterine curettage and drainage should be prac- 
ticed in every case before operation, unless the tubes are 
very distended and thin, to cure the endometritis, which 
may be and often is the cause of trouble and lack of relief 
after celiotomy and removal of the organs is performeiL 

4th. — That, even after pyosalpinx, frequently the tul)es and 
ovaries, are not useless organs, the proof being that preg- 
nancy occurs and the pueri)erium is normal. 

oth. — Asa matter of observation in large maternities, there 
are very few cases of puerpeial complication duo to the 
presence or results of a former pyosalpinx." 

The results of Dr. Murray are sutHcient to prove that this 
conservative method of treating certain cases of pyosalpinx 
is not merely theoretical but practical and that the majority 
of his patients were relieved of their symptoms and re- 
mained cured, that the woman preserves her sexual func- 
tions and that pregnancy is possil)le. 


Resection of the ovary, after the other one had boon ex- 
tirpated, has boon done by Dr. A. Martin, of IJrrlin, twenty- 
seven times with only one deatii. Of the twenty-six ca.sos 
that recovered in two cases only did the remaining portion 
of the ovary become diseased necessitating celiotomy for 
its removal. Of the remaining tw.'ui v-f. mr .•;l•^.■>. .iu'lit 
became pregnant. 


Dr. S. Poz'/A, of Paris, reports six cases of resection of 
the ovary. All of bis patients recovered from the operation, 
being relieved of all pain, or almost entirely so, with the ex- 
ception of one hysterical patient. Ilosection is limited to 
cases in which a part of the ovary is diseased with a portion 
remaining healthy. "Such cases as an isolated cyst dermoid, 
large fallicnlor cyst of the corpus luteum." The diseased 
portion of the ovary is removed by excision and the lips of 
the wound are stitched together with catcut. Pozzi stitches 
the fimbriated extremity of the tube to the remaining por- 
tion of the ovary with catgut. 


Martin has done resection in hydrosalpinx in forty cases 
in which the other tube had been extirpated, with only two 
deaths. Of the thirty-eight cases which recovered from the 
operation four relapsed. Thirty-four cases were relieved or 
cured, and conception occurred in one case. The operation 
is comparatively easy, the tube is incised, the cavity thor- 
oughly cleansed and disinfected, the edges of the wound are 
then stitched together with catgut. It must, of course, be 
understood that a resection can only be successful in the 
tubes the contents of which are of a serious, non-infectuous 
character and are free from pus. The surface of the tubal 
walls must be smooth; ulcerative processes naturally exclude 
resection. In the light of this knowledge and in the dawn 
of an era of conservative gynaecology no operator has the 
right to deprive a patient of the possibility of her sexual 
functions, and of the possibility of fulfilling that Biblical 
injunction to "Multiply and replenish the earth," until all 
other available methods have been tried. Dr. Goodall says : 

"This trend of the profession, to appeal to the knife 
(ovarectomy) as the great panacea for woman's diseases seen 
everywhere. It asserts itself in every medical discussion 
and stands out in bold relief upon the pages of every medi- 
cal journal From this wide-spread bias and pernicious 
haste the removal of the ovaries has degenerated into a busy 

WYATT 1 1 111- 1. IN". 323 

imiustry hy wliicli, in city jind in tM.iintry, vory nmny wonu'U 
have Ix'cu and iiio I^mii;^ inutilatfil, l)()tli lujodlostily and on 
tlio slightest provocation." 


Cancer of the womb does uot diiler from cancer of (jtlier 
jiartsof tliobody in any way other than what may Ije (hio to 
the peculiar nature (^f tlie tissues in whicli it occurs. Utor- 
ino cancer occurs according to the statistics gathered by 
Gusserrow, most frequently between the ages of thirty and 
forty years and between forty and fifty years, the latter b(?- 
ing the most frequent. Glatter reported one case occurring 
in a girl of 17 years of age. Cancer of the uterus usually 
begins on the cervix and extends upward. This is uot al- 
waj's the case, some times attacks the body of the womb and 
extends downward to the cervix. One-third of all women 
Avho die from cancer, die from cancer of the womb. Owing 
to the frequency of this disease and its fatality, every woman 
over 35 3'ears of age should be examined at least onco a year 
to see if there are any signs of beginning malignancy. If 
the disease is recognized early or while it is limited to the 
uterus hysterectomy is the only hope for a cure. If the 
disease has passed beyond the limits of the uterus into the 
ligaments and surrounding tissues, with the uterus immov- 
able only pallative treatment is available. 


In cases of cancer of the cervix tlu' majority of gyniccol- 
ogists are agreed upon the performance ()f t«>tal hystoroctomy 
by the vagina. Before (operating it is necessary toasc«>rtain 
by careful (examination of tlie patient, that the uterus is 
movablt; and tin; broad ligaments free from disease. For 
this })urpose the bimanual m«'tliod of examination hereto- 
fore described is indispensable. If the cervix is covorfd 
with vegetations they must be cnrretted a^ay a week before 
t!ie (q)erati(m and the vagina taiiipon«'d with iodnfoini '^aw/.v. 
The vagina should be thoroughly doudied twice daily with 


a one to five hundred bichloride solution. Three hours be- 
fore the operation the rectum is thorouj^hly emptied by an 
enema and immediately before the operation the urine is 
drawn. This is done by an assistant who has nothing fur- 
ther to do witli the operation. 

First step. The cervix is drawn down with a volsolla 
forceps so as to put the posterior vaginal cul-de-sac on the 
stretch, "which is then incised transversely down to the 
peritoneum, across its whole width." Now with a strongly 
curved needle the posterior wall of the vagina is stitched 
with a series of silk sutures, to the peritoneum. 

Second step. The index finger is noAV passed up through 
the incision to the sides of the cervix and with a strouc 
curved needle armed with strong silk the inferior branches 
of the uterine artery on both sides of the cervix are ligated. 

Third step. The cervix is now pulled downward and 
backward and the incision of the anterior vaginal wall is com- 
pleted keej^ing as near the uterus as possible so as not to 
injure the bladder. It is best to have a sound in the blad- 
der held by an assistant during this part of the operation, 
which will enable you to locate the lower border of the 
bladder. In making this incision it is best to cut with the 
edge of the knife directed obliquely towards the cervix. The 
bladder is now dissected or its attachment sej^arated from 
the uterus with the finger, occasionally the scissors will be 
needed. After the bladder is free the peritoneal cavity is 
oj^ened upon the anterior surface of the uterus and then 

Fourth step. The hysterectomy forceps are now jDut on 
the broad ligaments. The forceps are guided by the finger 
and great care must be taken to include the whole breadth 
of the ligament in the bite of the forceps, when this is done 
the forceps are locked and tied with strong silk to prevent 
their becoming unlocked. After one pair of the forceps 
have been adjusted, with a pair of scissors the ligament is 
cut between the uterus and the forceps. Another pair of 
forceps is placed upon the other broad ligament and the 


lipjameut cut in tho Hamo way. If the patient has iiasHod 
the iiicmopause the tubes and tlio ovaries may remain, but if 
slio has not coasod to monstruatn tho tubes and ovaries should 
bo removed with tho uterus. Tho forceps an; allowed to re- 
main upon the liframeut from 5(5 to 7'2 hours. The Itro.-id 
ligaments maybe ligatod with silk instciid ofusin;^ th».' broad 
li{.^amout forceps. 

Fifth step. The vagina is now packed loosely with strips 
of iodoform gauze, the strips extending uj) between the for- 
ceps. This gauze is rei)laced by fn^sli gauze once in every 
12 or 24: hours. The urine is drawn every or S hours. 


Sometimes owing to the size of the diseased wond) ami 
the narrowness of the vagina the uterus has to be removed 
by abdominal sectit^u and this method is known as abdomi- 
nal h3'sterectomy. 

Below I report two cases of vaginal hysterectomy for can- 
cer of the cervix. Case I — Mrs. F. P. age 47 years, sterile, 
white, German. This woman had cancer of the cervix for 
wliicb a partial amputation had been done in February be- 
fore I saw her. On the 7th day oi the following July she 
came to consult me. Upon examination I found that there 
was a recurrence of the disease in the remaining jjortion of 
the cervix and a small part of the vagina was involved. On 
the 13th day of July, 1892, at the Charity hospital in this 
city, assisted by Drs. T. D. Park, Goo. S. Brown and W. H. 
Wilder the resident physician, I did a vaginal hysterectomy 
removing also a small portion of the vagina. Tho bn)atl 
ligament forceps were used and allowed to remain on for 72 
hours. In breaking up the attachment between the bladder 
and the uterus tho bladder was ruptured. The l)ladder was 
kept drained by means of a gum catheter passed through 
tho uretha into tho bladder and allowed to remain in place 
for several days, being disinfected twice daily and replaced. 
In one week the rent in the bladd«;r had closed entirely. 
The vagina was packed with iodoform gauze, which waa 


changed twice cLiily for three days, and then once a day. 
In making the examination before the operation I discovered 
in the right broad ligament a nodule about the size of a duck 
shot. Dr. Park also felt this nodule. There was also a 
small nodule in the posterior vaginal walk The patient 
made a good recovery. The vagina being only about two 
and one-half inches deep. The patient's general health im- 
proved considerably and she was able to go any where she 
Avished, and to attend to her household affairs. She remain- 
ed in good health and did not complain any until about the 
second week in Feb., 1893, when she began to have pains in 
right side and general health failed. Upon making a rectal 
examination I found that the nodule in the broad ligament 
had increased in size considerably and continued to increase 
rapidly until the patient died the latter part of the following 
month. (March) 

Case II — Mrs. C age 31 years, menstruated at 12 years of 
age, mother of 5 children. On May 25th, 1893, at Bessemer, 
Ala., assisted by Dr's. S. C. Carson, E. P. Lacy, J. W. Car- 
ter and L. A. Spencer, I did a vaginal hysterectomy. In 
this case both the tubes and ovaries were removed. There 
was a small pyosalpinx on the right side. The broad liga- 
ment clamps w^ere used in this case and allowed to remain 
72 hours. The patient made a good recovery, she is now in 
good health and has gained considerable flesh weighing now 
147 pounds. The vagina is of the normal depth, coition is 
not painful, l)ut on the other hand the patient says she en- 
joys sexual intercourse as much as she did before she was 
operated upon. I give her statement for what it is worth. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain the hysterectomy 
done upon Mrs. R P. on July 13th, 1892, was the first suc- 
cessful hysterectomy ever done for cancer in Alabama. 

Dr. Edwaed Powell Eiggs. 

If I were asked what department in medicine had been 
most abused within the past few years, I should answer very 
positively that of gynaecology. Specialists in this field seem 

EDWAIM) I'OWKIJ. lilGGfi. 327 

to seek thobrilliaut and surprisiiii^' ratlior tlian tlio usoful aud 
tlio true. Many of thoni ignore facts to support their tlioorios. 
Progress is otfoctod only when our efforts are guided l)y 
common sense. A painstaking general practitioner should 
be able to diagnose as correctly and treat as successfully 
most diseases as the specialist. By using the method de- 
scribed by Kelly as the "Trimanual," that is — draw the 
uterus down as far as it will come without force with a vul- 
cellum and have an assistant hold it, or catch it yourself 
between the middle finger and thumb, then insert the index 
finger in the rectum and press over the abdomen with the 
left hand. It is thus possible to explore the uterus and appen- 
dages with the same degree of accuracy as when the hand 
is inserted into the cavity of the abdomen. In order to dis- 
tinguish true pelvicperitonitis from pseudo-])elvic])orit()n- 
itis it is necessary to administer auM'sthcsia. I believe this 
should always be done before the abdomen is opened. A 
great many sections could be avoided b}- this method. I 
have seen more than one surgeon remove healtliy ovaries 
under a false diagnosis. Notwithstanding some eminent in 
aiithority advise curetting and packing the uterus for the 
cure of pus-tubes, I think there are important reasons why 
it shonld be considered bad practice. In the first place, I 
fail to comprehend how a dilated pus-tube can be drained 
through an opening in the isthmus, wliich is b;irely largo 
enough to pass a small bristle. 

Again we know that in chronic pus accumulations nature 
guards against absorbtion by organizing a i)rott>cting wall 
which is effectual so long as it remains undisturbed by vio- 
lence. Now dilating and curetting will almost invariably 
substitute an active for a previcmsly latent condition, and by 
increasing vascularity opens the channels for the nbaorbtiou 
of septic material. The removal of the uterine membrane 
is objectionable for the same reasons. It exposes a largo 
surface to jnis that is constantly passing over it from tho 
tubes. On the wliole it seems to me a <lilatory. incomplete 
and unwarrantable proceedure. Tho .same juinciples apply 
to tho treatment of abscess in tho pelvis as in other parts of 


the body. A direct and free opening is the only satisfactory 
method. If this can not be accomplished through the vagina 
or the rectum, the abdomen should be opened. 

With regard to the use of pressure forceps in hysterec- 
tomy, I think it more desirable when time is not imjDortant, 
to use the ligature. By drawing the uterus low and using 
a short full curved needle, the uterine artery can be tied 
without much difficulty. Later the ovarian can be secured 
in the same way. 

Dr. Pt. S. Hill. 

I have listened with much pleasure and profit to the able 
article just read. 

This is, indeed, a subject in which we are all deeply inter- 
ested. I dare say there is no other branch in our profes- 
sion which is attracting more attention or making more rapid 
advancements than Gyn?ecology. The good gynoesic surgery 
of today is superseded tomorrow by better. That there are 
cases in which the removal of the- ovaries and tubes are 
indicated, we do not and can not deny; but from the expe- 
rience and observation of Sir Spencer Wells, Martin, Polk, 
Schroeder and others, we do question the surgery of this day 
which sacrifices all ovaries that give trouble and are not 
relieved by medicinal measures. The general surgeon does 
not hesitate to remove diseased tissue from other organs, 
why then should the gynaecologist? Is there anything in 
the anatomy or physiology of the ovary which would contra- 
indicate resection? I am free to confess that I know of 
nothing. I am cognizant of the claim that the resulting 
cicatrix is liable to produce pain, and cause a return of the 
disease, but is not this equally true after total excision? 
And when we take into consideration that the former opera- 
tion does not deprive the woman of the power of concep- 
tion, I believe we will be forced to accept it as a legitimate 
surgical procedure. 


When tliG ovary contains pus, tlie general opinion is tliat 
it sliould be removed, not nunely on jiccount of tlio pres- 
ence of pus, but because its })rcsonce indicatcil tliat tlio 
organ is involved to such an extent as to be unable to repair 

Before closing, I wish to refer to the variety of growth 
commonly known as uterine fibroids. 

Much has been said and done to perfect sonic plan for 
the relief of this not infrequent form of neoplasm. Ergot, 
electricity, and man}' other things have been used, but not 
with the desired eflfect. And now we find it occupying a 
prominent position in surgery. That hysterectomy is, occa- 
sionally, the onl}' procedure to be considered, can not be 
questioned; but the danger attending this operation makes 
it unjustifiable in, probably, the majority of cases. For this 
reason many, comparatively speaking, minor oi)erations have 
been proposed. Of these the two most recent, and I 
believe the most feasible, are Martin's (American .To\irnal 
of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, January, 
1894,) and Eobinson's (American Journal of Obstetrics and 
Diseases of AVomen and Children, A])ril, 1S94.) Those sur- 
geons endeavor to produce atrophy of the neoplasm by cut- 
ting oft' its nourishment by means of ligatures applied to the 
principal blood vessels. 



By R. S. Hill, M. D., Montgomery, 
Member of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 


Jerome Cochran, M. J)., Montgomery. 
Richard Frazer Michel, M. D., Montgomery. 
John Daniel Sinkler Davjs, M. D., Birmingham. 
John Edward Purdon, M. D., Huntsville. 
Edward Powell Riggs, M. D., Birmingham. 
William Elias Brownlea Davis, M. D., Birmingham. 
Wyatt HefliNjM. D., Birmingham. 

3Ir. President and Gentlemen : 

Realizing tlie almost unparalleled rapidity with which 
surger}^ has advanced, it was with diffidence that I entered 
upon the preparation of this article. If I were inclined to 
undertake the task, the time at our disposal would forbid a 
discussion of the many recent advancements in the art of 
surgery. I have, therefore, concluded to confine my re- 
marks to a review of the j^rogress of some of its fundamental 
principles. By pursuing this course, I believe I will be car- 
rying out the intent of the appointment if not its wording. 

I have availed myself of the privilege allowed every one 
who undertakes a review and drawn largely on many of the 
articles written on the different divisions of the subject. 

The growth of animals is due to the formation of cells 
being greater than their decay and for tlie maintenance of 
their full development, both anatomically and physiologi- 
cally, it is essential that the regeneration of the varieties of 
cells should be, at least, equivalent to the deaths. It is 

i;()i;i-;uT sommkijnfi.M': iiiij,. 33X 

therefore evidout that at uo tinu> in lit'o is thoro an ahHoncr; 
of physiok)gical cell activity, and that cells exist naturally 
in every tissue at all times in four Htat<>s : 1st, f^n-owtli ; 'Jnd, 
reproduction; 3rd, iniimir ; and Itli, dcatli. In these con- 
ditions they are also present in ])orfoctly aseptic wounds, 
where repair takes place in almost, if not idcnticallv the 
same manner, by the fixed cells, in wliicli noimal pliysio- 
looical growth occurs, though the process is u<"c<ss;ii-ily 
inore active. This being true I think we are justiliable, 
from a scientific standpoint, in applying the term sim])le re- 
generation or repair to the changes occurring in these les- 
ions — leaving inflammatory regeneration or rei)air to those 
in injuries invaded l)y pathegcnic micro-organisms. 

John Hunter more than a century ago, said "primary ad- 
hesions take place without inflammation," and the "Ameri- 
can Text-Book of Surgery" says "bacteria are fouml in all 
kinds of true inflammation." To inflammatory wounds 1 
invito yoiir attention, and as pathogenic organisms hen; play 
a secondary part only to the tissue it is very appro})riate for 
us, first, to briefly consider them. 

In 1G75, Anthc^ny ^'an Leeuwenhoek, a linen dra})er and 
lensgrinder, "perfected a lens," with which ho discovered tlio 
presence of these minute organisms. Spallan/.ani, in 1709, 
endeavored to prove by experiment that bacteria were the 
cause, and not, as was generally supposed, the result of fer- 
mentation, but scientists refused to accept his conclusions 
Gay Lussac (1777) maintaining that oxygen was the causa- 
tive agent, as the presence of air was thought necessary for 
its occurrence. Here the question rested until Schul/. in 
1830, and Schwann, in 1837, inde])endont of each other, de- 
monstrated beyond a doubt that oxygen was not respiMisiblo 
for these phenomena, and at the same time revived tho 
theory of bacterial origin, which was verified, in IS'tl, by 
Pasteur, who w(Mit I'artlKM- and showed that tlie different va- 
rieties of fermentation and put refaetion ha«l their specific 


Pathogenic germs are minute "vegetable organisms" or 
cells, composed principally of myco-protein (Nencki), an 
"albuminoid substance," and are classified in three varieties : 
the cocci, bacilli and spirilli. 

The cocci are generally believed to multiply by fission ; 
the bacilli usually by spores, but some times by fission. 
The credit of having first demonstrated the presence of 
spores is due to Ferdinand Cohn, which he did in the present 
half of this century, though in 1762 Bonnet suggested t]ie 
possibility of the presence of "germs or their eggs" with an 
increased resisting power. The spirilli i^lay little or no part 
in surgery, and therefore a further reference to them would 
be beyond the domain of this article. 

There are four constituents of a suppurating wound which 
notably attract our attention : the fixed cells, leucocytes, 
pyogenic organisms and liquor sanguinis. 

The fixed cells perform the same function here as in asep- 
tic wounds, viz : repair the tissue, principally by karyoki- 
nesis. Thiersch advanced the theory that they possess 
stored up proliferating energy held in abeyance by mutual 
pressure, which, when the pressure is removed by breacli of 
continuity, is released, and they are enabled to repair the 
loss. I hardly think this is a sufficient explanation; I had 
rather believe the increased blood supply to the jDarts acts 
as a stimulant to the fixed cells. 

In considering the leucocytes and bacteria three questions 
arise : 1st. Why are they concentrated in an injured area ? 
Buchner has extracted from some of the bacteria, by the use 
of potassium hydroxid, a substance identical with that ex- 
isting in necrotic tissue and which exerts the same "power- 
ful, positive chemotaxic" influence on leucocytes. I apply 
the term chemotaxis to the repelling or attracting of leuco- 
cytes or bacteria. On the other hand, Gabritcheoski has 
proven that there are bacteria with a repelling chemotaxis 
for leucocytes, therefore we conclude that the necrotic tissue 
is more responsible for their presence that the bacteria. In 
our eflforts to harmonize the results of the experiments of 
Buckner and Gabritcheoski, would we be justifiable in ad- 

ROBERT SOM Mi: U\' ILL !•; HILL. 333 

vanciii^ the theory tli;it when bacteria attract ImicocytiiH 
they are either dead or in a dyiujr condition, otherwise thoy 
would exert a negative cheniotaxis or none at all? 

Possibly a similar theory would be admissible in consid- 
ering the attracting and repelling effects of leucocytes on 
bacteria. Klein maintains, in the words of Hemmeter, "that 
just as certain as chemical substances of the bacteria attract 
or repel leucocytes, so also certain chemical substances 
present in the cells and tissue attract or rei)el bacteria." 

I have ventured abcn'e to suggest the possibility, if not the 
probability, of the healthy leucocytes and the healthy bac- 
teria exerting a repelling chemotaxis on each other. Then 
how are the leucocytes brought in a sufficiently intimate re- 
lationship Avitli the bacteria so as to be disabled by them ? 
There are two explanations : the ptomaines formed by tlie 
bacteria may effect the leucocytes just as they do the fixed 
cells, or the positive or attracting chemotaxis, produced by 
the necrotic tissue on the leucocytes, may be more powerful 
than the negative or repelling chemotaxis existing between 
hoaltliy leucocytes and healthy bacteria. Impaired circula- 
tion is another cause of their localization. 

2nd. AYhat are the effects of l)acteria '? In addition to f< )rm- 
ing the soluble toxic substances, known as ptomaines, they 
attack directly two of the most essential constituents of tht! 
animal body, viz: i)roteids or albuminoids and the carbo- 
hj'drates or amyloids. It has also been proven that tluiy 
frecpiontly multiply in the substance of the leucocytes, which 
I believe to be the case only when the vital powers of the 
leucocytes are impaired, as they naturally jjossess a sub- 
stance inimical to bacteiia ; whctlirr they secrete this sub- 
stace or are endoAved with it by their parent cell, has not, 
so far as I knoAV, been positively determined. 

3r(l, — What part is taken by the leucocytes V Tiiey are, 
by many, "regarded as scavengers which a])i>ropriato 
to themselves the broken down material," including dis- 
abled bacteria, "which result from inflammation and thus 
aid in the process of repair." IJuchner is »tf the opinion 


that bacteria are always affected or destroyed by "tissue 
juice" before being taken up by tlie leucocytes, which opin- 
ion is partially supported l)y the fact that when they attract 
leucocytes they possess a substance identical with that 
found in necrotic tissue. In a letter to me Dr. Hemmeter 
says : "It is believed that it is not the bacteria themselves 
that exert the phenomena of chemotaxis, but certain chemi- 
cal substances which are produced by their presence in the 
tissue and tissue juices." If Buchner is correct, why then 
do the leucocytes possess a constituent or nuclein inimical 
to bacteria ? This question may possibly be answered by 
saying : Nature, realizing as scavenders, that they must 
pervade parts contaminated by bacteria, provided them with 
this substance, or the faculty of secreting it, for self-pro- 

We now come to the last constituent or liquor sanguinis. 
There can be no doubt that this fluid is germicidal. Pekel- 
haring inserted parchments containing anthrax spores under 
the skin of rabbits. The spores were soon destroyed, evi- 
dently by some soluble constituent of the blood, as the 
leucocytes could not have gained access to them. If the 
blood plasma is taken from an animal immune to a disease 
and injected into one susceptible it will prevent the devel- 
opment of the micro-organism in the latter. This jDower 
also belongs, not however to the same extent, to the lymj^h, 
and according to Sanarelli even after the loss of its corpus- 
cles. Vaughn is of the opinion that nucleins secreted by, 
in his own language, "the bone marrow, the thyroid and 
thymus glands and possibly other glandular organs" are 
responsible for the germicidal influence of the blood. We 
have long since learned to attribute suppuration to the 
presence of bacteria. "The American Text Book of Surg- 
ery," says : "Clinically, we do not meet with examples of 
acute suppuration without the introduction of j^yogenic 
cocci into the system. Foreign bodies or mechanical irrita- 
tion cannot produce ])us without the aid of bacteria." Now 
that we have assumed the position that germs are destroyed 
by substances or nucleins in the liquor sanguinis, how are 

ROBERT som.mi:u\ii.i.l: hill. ^^35 

wo to account for suppuration in an area not ox})«),scil to 
any external condition by which th(! bacteria couhl j^aiii 
access? In looking lor an explanation we naturally turn 
to the subject of natural iiniuunity, whose principh; is 
the possession by the blood of antitoxins or nucl(;ins 
capable of destroying the germs. We have learned from 
La/arus and Weyl that the chicken is naturally immune to 
anthrax, though it can be made susceptible. The ]i«.'althy 
adult person is not very liable to c(mtract scarlet fever, on 
the other hand, if he is not healthy, that is to say if the nu- 
clein-forming parts of the body are unable to perform their 
normal physiological functions, he is quite susceptible to 
the disease ; the blood becoming a means of disseminating 
the germs throughout the system instead of preventing their 
entrance. Is not this equally true with all pathogenic mi- 
crobes ? But why then is there not suppuration in all 
poorly nourished bodies? The answer, in my opinion, is 
that though the germs may be present in the circulation, 
they are in an attenuated state, and hence the weakened 
fluid, while it acts as a carrier, it at the same time, is capa- 
ble of preventing their development, unless they find a fer- 
tile field, termed by Senn, locus minoris resisteutiiu. Lister 
proved that blood, even when out of the body, resisted the 
action of microbes in an attenuated condition." Grohman 
showed that the virulence of anthrax bacilli was weakened 
by blood plasma. Abrasions of the skin or of the muc(jU8 
membrane is said to be the means by which they gain access 
to the blood, and in case of an inability of that tluiil to 
destroy them, they are eliminate-d by the kidneys, intes- 
tines, kc. 

The presence of air being regarded as productive of de- 
composition, we find Magatus as early as 151G advising 
against the changing of dressings oftener than was possi- 
tively necessary. At the same time others were eudeavor- 
iu" to tret rid of it bv resorting to the occlusion moth«)d and 
operating subi-utaneously. In 18:5'J, Langenback advoont<^d 
irrigation or continuous immersion of the wounded parts, 
and in 1871, Lister introduced the spray. As wo now know 


the epidermis of tlie surgeon, or assistants, or patient, 
and the instruments, &c., are responsible for infection, and 
not the air, it is possible in hospital practice, and should 
be our aim in all cases, to provide, before the operation 
is commenced, against the introduction of germs in the 
wound ; which may be accomplished by the use of antisep- 

Though Chaumette, in 1815, and Bayard, in 184G, with 
others realized a beneficial influence from coal tar on sup- 
purating surfaces, it was left for Corne and Demeux, in 1859, 
to suggest the principle upon which it acted. Calvert is 
said to have been one of the first to attribute its beneficial 
effects to carbolic acid, which was more generally recognized 
after the publication, in 1863, of Lemaire's article ; but to 
Sir Joseph Lister is the honor justly due for having, in 1865, 
introduced carbolic acid into surgery and popularized it as 
an antiseptic. After occupying a pre-eminent position for 
many years it was largely superseded by corrosive subli- 
mate, which was first used by von Bergman, in 1878, but 
gained popularity principally through the advocacy of the 
distinguished German investigator, Robert Koch. Stern- 
berg claims that one-fifth of one per cent. (1 in 500) solu- 
tion of carbolic acid will prevent the development of bac_ 
teria ; and one-half of one per cent. ■ (1 in 200) solution will 
destroy "septic cocci." The solutions in general use vary 
from two to five per cent ; but Koch does not think any- 
thing less than ten per cent, is a sure disinfectant, as anthrax 
spores can live in a four per cent, solution three days. It 
should, however, be remembered that the spore-forming 
bacteria are the most resistant of all germs, and that they 
rarely play a part in surgery. Occasionally the surgeon has 
to deal with the tubercle bacilli, which, according to the 
experiments of M. Yersin, a 5 per cent, solution of phenol 
will destroy in thirty seconds and a one per cent, in one minute 
Professor Crookshank placed sputum containing tubercle 
bacilli, the spores of which are more resistant than when 
the bacilli are cultivated in glycerine jelly, as were those 
experimented with by Yersin, in six test tubes. In three of 


tliom lio poiirod fivo times as much of a five \h'A- cont. s(j1u- 
tiou of carbolic acid as tlicio was sputum ; allowiu^ it tu 
remain in one of the tubes one minute, in another one hour, 
and in the third, four hours. Then jxjuriu}^ tho suptirnataut 
liquid oil", the precipitates were thoroughly washed with 
sterilized Avater to get rid of the carbolic acid. The other 
three specimens were treated in the same manner with ster- 
ilized water, but no carbolic acid was used. The precipi- 
tates of these six specimens wore injected under the skin oi 
the thigh of the same number of guinea pigs. The inguinal 
glands of those "inoculated with the s])utum which had not 
been acted on with carbolic acid at all" became very much 
enlarged, "showing the tubercle had developed there." The 
glands of the one inoculated with the sputum which had 
been acted on with carbolic acid for one minute showed very 
slight enlargements ; while the glands of the other two were 
not enlarged at all. These experiments seem to prove that 
the agent is a powerful antiseptic. Lister claims that it 
"penetrates deeply into" the sul)stance of the epidermis, 
for which it has great atHnity, and mixes with fatty matter; 
but, Koch tells us that when mixed with fat it has little or 
no antiseptic projxirties. One great objection, however, to 
carbolic acid when used on raw surfaces is that it produces 
a profuse discharge, which may retard union by separating 
the opposing surfaces, or pass through the dressing, furn- 
ishing an excellent communication with the bacteria with- 

Bichloride of mercury, one in forty thousand (1 iu lO.OJXJ), 
is said to bo capable of preventing the develoiiment of .st-ptic 
cocci ; one in one thousand (1 in 1,000) will destroy anthrax 
spores in ten minutes; one in live hundred (1 in 500) t«) one 
in one thousand (1 in 1,000) has been used in cleansing the 
hands, ttc. ; one in two thousand (1 in 2,000) to one in ton 
thousand (1 in 10,000) is used in operations. Drs. Abb«)tt 
and McCormick, of Johns Hopkins University, after experi- 
menting with it, claim on account of its remlily combining 
with albumen and allniminous bodies, that it has practic^vliy, 


so far as surgery is coucerued, little germicidal properties, 
uot even as much as a 7 % solution of acetic acid. Lister 
tells us that it will not mix with fatty matter, nor has it any 
affinity for the epidermis, which makes it inferior to carbolic 
acid as a cleansing agent for the skin. 

I have endeavored briefly to place before you the proper- 
ties of the two most important antiseptics in general use, 
and you are at liberty to draw your own conclusions as to 
their relative value, but I am rather inclined to pin my faith 
to carbolic acid ; I know the question arises, why has there 
been such progress in operative surgery during the reign of 
bichloride of mercury ? While it is not my desire to depre- 
ciate the value of this antiseptic, still I would attribute the 
success, largely to the acquisition of a clearer idea of the 
avenues of infection, and the means resorted to in connection 
with corrosive sublimate solution to prevent it. If it were 
not for the profuse discharge following the use of carbolic 
acid, I would be disposed to regard it as an ideal antiseptic, 
and after all this discharge is incomparable in its bad effects 
to what occurs from lesions where the acid should be and 
is not used. 

All antiseptics injure cell-life, thereby retarding repair : 
hence they should uot be used on an aseptic surface. It is 
in these wounds that water, which has been previously 
boiled, is resorted to with marked success. Bantock was 
one of the first to advocate the use of simple boiled Avater 
in the peritoneal cavity. "The American Text-Book of the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine" says "exposure to hot 
air at 220 degrees F. for one hour will kill micrococci and 
bacilli, but not spores, which, however, may be killed by 
five hours exposure to this temperature. One hour's ex- 
posure to a dry heat of 245 degrees F. will kill the spores." 

The discovery of the inability of the pyogenic germs to 
resist heat has been used to advantage in cleansing instru- 
ments, etc. 

Before a knowledge of bacteriology and its connection 
with surgery was obtained, the dressings for wounds were 


of many varieties, but all, save the di*y methods, have f^ono 
their way to the "limbo prepared for the childlike fancies of 
untaught minds." Sir Joseph Lister, in 18G5, u.sed lint 
soaked in a 10 % solution of carbolic acid ; afterwards ho 
used two layers of this material separated by oil paj)er ; the 
inner one was prepared with the pure acid, and very little 
lar<^er than the wound, the outer was prepared in a solution 
of the acid and much larger than the inner. He next tried 
carbolized lint covered with a plaster made of carbolic acid, 
oil and chalk. In 18G8, two layers each of lint and plaster 
were alternately applied, commencing with the former. 
During the same year, the irritative properties of the acid 
being recognized, a protective was placed next to the skin, 
and with an exception in the method of preparing the 
plaster, gutta percha and shellac being used, this dressing 
remained until 1871, when the carbolized gauze was intro- 
duced into surger}'. But the volatility of the acid made it 
necessary, in order to obtain uniformity of strength, that 
resin should be used in the preparation of the gauze, which 
rendered it almost, if not entirely, devoid of the power of 
absorption, thus depriving it of one of the most important 
properties of a good dressing. Experiencing several disap- 
pointments with this and other dressings. Lister turned his 
attention to the bichloride of mercury, which was being ex- 
tesively used by the Germans, mixed with pinewood dust of 
"wood-wool," and after investigating its antiseptic proper- 
ties, he prepared the sublimate gauze, containing 1 "o of the 
salt. It was observed that "oil silk dipped in 1 to 500 solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate" and api)lied to the skin pro- 
duced considerable irritation, whereas, the gauze only 
occasionally gave trouble, and oven then it was iucom])ara- 
ble to that of the former. We readily understand the re- 
sult in the first instance, but lot us consider somewhat in 
detail the consequences of the uso of the gauze, for here 
you have the salt in a powdered state, some of wliich must 
bo dissolved V)efore irritation is ])roduced, and if the i\n'u\ is 
derived from the exudation of tho wound the non-irrita- 
ting albuminate of mercury will be formed so long as there 


in ulburnon prosont, aud only when it in exliauHtod will tho 
Hublimato outor tlio Holution aH hucIi. The swcsat may ]>6 
sullici(int to partially luoiHtoii tho ^auzo, tliorciby briu^iug 
into Bolution a part of its coutaiuod salt Lister's oxpori- 
moiits witli the alburaiuato, forinod by tho albunion iu the 
exudation and tho corrosive sublimate in the {^au/o, showed 
that while it is not soluble in water, it is in an excess of 
serum and is an antiseptic, thouj^h probably, not as reliable 
as thii d<jublo clihnid(i of mercury. Those facts induced 
him to use blood semm in the preparation of his gauze, but 
finding this very disagnioable and the results not as satis- 
factoiy as were anti(;ipatod, for occasioJially, where there 
was much discharge, the albuminttte was dissolved and 
carried to the lowest surface of tho dressing, thus expo- 
sing a part and tlirough it the entire w<jund to infection. 
Therefore this agent was abandoned for the double cyanide 
of zinc and mercury, the advantages of whicli are claimed 
to bo, that, wJiilo it is an efficient antiseptic, it is not irrita- 
ting, nor is it so soluble as to bo washed completely from 
any i)art of tho gauze by tho wound exudation ; nor docs 
its presence interfere with absorption. On acc(junt of being 
a weak germicide, its antiseptic virtue depending upon the 
inhibitory power, it is necessary that some other agent 
bo used, either before or during the preparation of the 
gauze, to destroy tho micro-organisms contained therein. 
For this purpose carbolic acid is rocommended, which is 
certainly preferable to the bichloride of mercury, as it will 
evaiKnato and leave the double cyanide unaltered, whereas, 
tho bichloride will form a tri])le compound, which is not 
only irritating but a very weak germicide. Starch was used 
to hold the salt in the meshes of the gauze, until Lister, by 
accident, discovered that coloring matter, particularly tho 
"aniline dye, hydrochlorato of mauvoine," answered this 
purpose l)etter, and furthermore its color showed whether 
or not the preparation was uniformly distributed throughout 
tho gauze. 

Iodoform was used first as an antiseptic, in 1880, by Mos- 
etig-Moorhof, of Vienna; steadily growing in favor, it is now, 


probably, more oxtensivoly used iu tlio form of powdor and 
gauzo than any other antiseptic. The general opinion is 
that it does not destroy germs. The experiments of Bohring 
and DePtuy ter proving that it robs them of their destructive 
power, which according to the former is accomplished by 
producing a chemical change in the ptomaines. Within the 
last few years Sanger and Braus have taken exception to the 
statement, so far as it applies to the liacilli of tuberculosis 
and anthrax, that iodoform does not destroy bacteria. Troje 
and Tangls' experiments prove that the vapor of iodoform 
killed the bacilli of tuberculosis after fifty days, and "cultures 
when mixed with the powder in the proportion of one part 
to fifteen were rendered innocuous in eight day." "A ten 
per cent, mixture of iodoform and oil of glycerine" is more 
efficacious than either vapor or powder. It produces little 
or no irritation ; nor does it interfere with absorption by 
the dressing. Though volatile, it is insoluble in the exu- 
dation, and is said to stimulate the tissue to repair. As in 
the preparation of the double cyanide of zinc and mercury 
gauze, it is advisable to use some other antiseptic to destroy 
the micro-organism already iu the gauze, for, at most, iodo- 
form is a very weak or limited germicide. 

Dh. Biciiahd Frazer Michel. 

I rise, Mr. President, to thank Dr. Hill for his able pre- 
sentation of the subject of the Advance in Surgery. I re- 
member early iu the history of Abdominal Surgery, it was 
with much anxiety and trepidation that we even dared to 
open tlio peritoneal sack. But verj' soon following the in- 
trotluction of antiseptics, this important .serous cavity was 
frequently flushed with various solutions in difTerent 
strength, viz : bichloride, from one to ten thousand; car- 
bolic acid, from one to one hundred ; Thiesch's solution, 
composed of boracic acid nnd salicylic acid. And permit 
me here, to state that Dr. Hill used in the Ivey case strong 
solutions of common salt, chloride of sodium. Very soon 


this flusliiug motliod was found to be dangerous on account 
of the absorption of tlicso agents — some of them, the bi- 
chloride and carbolic, producing specific effects — poisonous 

This led Bantock and others to suggest and use simple 
hoiled water. The water being previously boiled to destroy 
the germs in the water itself. This condition of treatment 
continued for some time until it was noticed that "shock' 
was sometimes produced, particularly from impressions on 
the intestinal canal, which resulted in Intestinal Inertia. 
At last it was determined not to use even water without the 
positive evidence of the presence of pus ; and that this was 
fairly ascertained. Blood could be absobed by gauze or 

It has been recommended that salt be added to the water, 
and by its addition to dilute, and in one sense to take the 
place of the lost blood, as in transfusion. 

I hope, Mr. President, this valuable paper of Dr. Hill's 
will be fully discussed, as it certainly merits such consid- 

Dr. John Daniel Sinkler Davis 

Wanted to express his personal appreciation of the 
paper of Dr. Hill and compliment him on the conservative- 
ness displayed throughout. Referring to the remarks of 
Dr. Cochran, he said that in the heat of discussion speak- 
ers were often too dogmatic and emphatic and said things 
which they afterwards modified. One with Dr. Cochran's 
reputation and whose teachings were received by many in 
our state as gospel, should not be so dogmatic and emphatic 
against questions that were settled in the minds of the most 
distinguished bacteriologists and microscopists in the world. 
If Dr. Cochran, as he said, is correct in his assertions that in- 
flammation is never the result of bacteria, he overthrows the 
emj)hatic statements of Senn, Hueter, and a host of others to 
the contrary. In fact, all true inflammation is due to the action 
of bacteria or their ptomaines and leucomaines, and all others 


only such as aeef)in])iiin' tlio process f)t' ropjiir. Ho tliouf^lit 
Lister liiul doiio tlio world a f^roat j^ood and future history 
would place liini anion^ the great benefactors of mankind. 
Tliounjli Lister had f^one back on some of his first theories, 
ho, in the main, has always been ri<^ht, and given the pro- 
fession the foundation upon which it has erected a groat 
superstructure of antiseptic and aseptic surgery. 



By Jacob Huggins, M. D., Newbrrn. 
Sonior Coiinsollor of tiie Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

I owe an apology to the Medical Association for not present- 
ing]; a report on tlio subject named in our published Trans- 
actions. I did not, however, make the change until I ob- 
tained the consent of our worthy president, aud only did so 
then, because I thought I might select a subject that Avould 
be of more practical benefit to the general practitioner. 
Some of the remedies which I propose to discuss have been 
long in use in the jDractice of medicine, while others are 
comparatively new. Some of them may be classed as old 
remedies that had in a measure fallen into disuse and have 
recently been revived. 

The first remedy or medicine which I shall notice, is gel- 
semium or as it is frequently written gelsemium sempervir- 
ens. Gelsemium or yellow jasamine abounds throughout 
the southern states, and its medicinal virtues were said to 
have been discovered by a planter in the Mississippi valley. 
In former years it was largely used as a febrifuge, especially 
in fevers of a miasmatic origin. The remedy in its action, is 
antispasmodic, a nervous and cardiac sedative. In former 
years, I used it a good deal in remittent fever, and never 
used a remedy that gave me more satisfaction. I generally 
combine it with nitrate or bicarbonate of potassa. In neuralgia 
of various types, I have used it with much benefit in combi- 
nation with muriate of ammonia, 10 grs. and morphine 1-12 gr. 
gelsemium fl. ext. gtts. 3 to 4— given every 3 to 4 hours. 
Of course it is understood that other remedies necessary in 


sucli cases, such as quiuino, ttc, wore usod wlion indicated. 
My principal niotivo in introdiiciiif^ <^olHoniium in this re- 
port is not so miicli to ^ive it various and well known proper- 
ties, but to call attention to its use as a remedy in tetanus. Tn 
1881) 1 read a paper before the Halo County Medical Society, 
and f^ave in detail the history of a case of traumatic tetanus, 
siiccessfully treated by me with fl. ext. gelsemium. This 
case with others, was incorporated in a volunteer report on 
tetanus, which I read at the session of the Medical Association 
of the State of Alabama, held at Huntsville in April, 181>1. 
This paper, as well as other volunteer papers, was not pub- 
lished in our volume of Transactions — the publication com- 
mittee not haviuf^ sufficient funds. My rejiort, however, was 
published in the September number of the "Alabama Medical 
and Surgical Age." As I desire to have this case placed on 
record in the Transactions of the Medical Association, I will 
give a brief report of it. The case No. 4 in my report, was 
that of Charley Wright, a negro boy, aged 13 years, who 
lived on the plantation of Hon. L. W. Turpin in Perry 
county — date October, 1888. This boy had a ver}- sore toe, 
which confined him to his room a number of days, but on 
improvement he began to walk about the horse-lot and sta- 
bles. I make this note from the fact, that there is a sup- 
posed element either in the manure or in the debris in or 
around stables that produces lockjaw when coming in con- 
tact with a wound. I have a case in point which seems to 
corroborate this belief. A negro man who lived with me 
castrated a boar in a stable, and after completing the job, to 
put a finishing llourish to his surgical achievement, he 
grabbed up a handful of tincly powdered manure and rubbed 
it over the wound. Whether it was a jwst hoc or a pro))ter 
hor circumstance, I know not, but this I know, the hog died 
with lockjaw in less than a week. Now, going back to the 
boy, after exposing his sore to the tetanic microbe or poison, 
he was taken sick on October (Uh, with pain in the back and 
lower limbs. Growing worse, I was sent for on the 7th, 
though I did not see him until the morning of the 8th. On 
examination, I found that ho had all of the patboguomonic 


symptoms oi traumatic tetanus — trismus, rifjidity of all the 
voluntavy muscles cxceptiup; those of arms. The charac- 
teristic spasms came on every ten or fifteen minutes or when 
sudden noises were made. There was marked opisthotonos 
risiis sardonicus, dilated nostrils, angles of mouth drawn 
upwards and outwards exposing his teetli, and giv- 
ing the characteristic sardonic grin. His face had the 
expression of an old man, rather than that of a boy. 
Pulse 140, temperature 104°. I give these symptoms to show 
that I had a veritable case of traumatic tetanus. I im- 
mediately began treatment by giving fl. ext. gelsemium, 
8 to 10 drops every two hours. In addition to this I gave 
3 or 4 grs. antifebrine between the doses of gelsemium. In 
a few hours there was a marked improvement. The ante- 
febrine was then left oif, and the following prescription given: 
Chloral hj-drate, bromide of potash, each 5 grs., fl. ext. hyoscya- 
mus gtts. 8, to be taken at a dose every four hours. Milk pxin- 
clies were also given several times a day. Under this treatment 
there was quite a favorable change in 24hours. This treatment 
was continued, with longer intervals between the doses as the 
case improved, and in 21 days the patient was dismissed. 
I feel satisfied that the recovery of this case was largely 
due to the large doses of gelsemium. When I first reported 
this case, I was under the impression, that I was probably 
the first to call the attention of the profession to the use of 
gelsemium in tetanus, nor do I know to the contrary, yet. 
Yet, as "there is nothing new under the sun," the remedy 
may have been previously used in this disease. In the 
"American Medical Journal" of SiLouis, September, 1891, Dr. 
Younkin, professor of surgery in one of the medical colleges 
of that city, reported two cases of traumatic tetanus which 
he had successfully treated with gelsemium. The doctor 
gave 25 drops of the fluid extract every two hours. He gave at 
the same time large doses of hydrate of chloral. These cases 
were treated in May and July, 1891. The case I reported, 
was treated in October, 1888. While on the subject of tetanus, 
it may not be out of place to state that Dr. Jagan Nath, a 
high medical ofl&cial of India, has recently published in the 


"Indian Modical Uncord," a report of three cases of traumatic 
tetanus, ■which recovered under a very simple treatment, 
viz: 20 grs. of bromide of ammonium three times a day. 
The cases were diseliarged perfectly cured in 11, 12 and 14 
days. If this statement is correct, then Dr. Natli's remedy, 
eclipses golsemium and all other known remedies, and if fu- 
ture tests substantiate it, the name of the discoverer will 
occupy a hi ;h niche in the temple of fame. 

Gelsemium has been used with great success in another 
nervous disease, that of chorea, by Dr. C. L. Gregory, 
of Yreka, California. The doctor's first case was that of a 
young girl of 13 years. "Her movements" says Dr. Gregory, 
"were exceedingly annoying, interfering with rest and nour- 
ishment." After trying a number of remedies without any re- 
lief, the girl was placed on 5 drop doses of tincture of gelsem- 
ium every four hours. There was perceptible improvement 
in 48 hours, and in one month the recovery was complete. 
The dose of golsemium was gradually diminished in this case. 
Dr. Gregory reported that he had treated 18 cases of chorea 
during the past six years with gelsemium alone, and without 
a single failure. Another disease in which gelsemium has 
been extolled is that of cerebro-spinal meningitis. A num- 
ber of years ago, I read in one of our southern medical 
journals, an article from an Alabama physician, whose name 
I cannot recall, which gave a report of several cases of men- 
ingitis treated successfully with golsemiiim. It was the 
recollection of this article that suggested the "idea of trying 
the remedy in tetanus. 

The next remedy Avliich I shall now consider is aristol. 
This is comparatively a new medicine. It is a brown amor- 
phous powder resulting from a combination of iodine and 
thymol. Being antiseptic, odorless, non-irritatiiig and non- 
toxic, it has replaced iodoform in many atVoctious in which 
that remedy has been used. Being similar to iodoform in its 
action it is greatly to be preferred, since it neither stains tlu^ 
skin, nor emits an imiiloasaut odor, butdestroys fetor. Nor is 
there any danger from al)Sorption. I have used the reme- 
dy ill quite a variety of skin diseases, indolent sores, ulcers, 


&.C. I will first give my experience with the remedy in the 
local treatment of erysipelas, I have used the remedy in 
four cases. In each case I was delighted with the results. 
The first case was that of a young lady, who was suffering 
with an eczomatous eruption on the lower limb. This eruption 
made its appearance about once a year for several years in suc- 
cession. Around the vesicles the inflammation became of an 
erysipelatous character, and spread on the surrounding skin. 
An application of aristol and cosmoline, about a 10 per cent, 
mixture, or about one drachm of aristol to ounce of cosmoline, 
relieved the trouble in a short while. About two and a half 
years ago, the writer had a severe spell of sickness which 
began with a chill about 11 o'clock at night and was followed 
with high fever. On the following morning a small patch 
of erysipelas was discovered on the lower part of the right 
log just above the ankle. This spread rapidly until the 
whole limb was involved as high as the groin. Every remedy 
usually employed to prevent the inflammation from spread- 
ing, was used by my attending physicians, and I had two of 
the very best, but with little effect. Iodine, nitrate of sil- 
ver, creosote, &c., were successively tried. I called the at- 
tention of one of my physicians to an article on the use of 
aristol in erysipelas. Having some of the medicine on hand, 
it was applied by dusting over the inflamed surface. The 
good effect was seen the first day. The spread of the dis- 
ease was checked and in about a week it was entirely relieved. 
Two other cases of erysipelas that came under my care 
were treated with aristol with the same happy results. 

I have used aristol in a number of skin diseases, eczema, 
condylomata, psoriasis, varicose ulcers, — in a word, in indo- 
lent sores of any kind, that came under my charge, I have 
employed the remedy, and always with good results. I 
have used the remedy in two cases of oezena, with decided 
benefit, the remedy being applied by insufilation. I applied 
the remedy in one case of epithelioma of lower lip. On 
this case I had tried a number of remedies, but growing 
worse daily, I applied an ointment of aristol, and in one 
month the lip was healed. I tried the remedy in one case 


of poisouiu^ of tlio hands by rlius toxicoclondrou — poisou 
oak — where there was much swelling and pain. The case 
yielded promptly to the remedy. I recently treated a case 
of carbuncle (anthrax) with an ointment of aristol, ich- 
thyol and vaseline. The pain was greatly lessened and in 
two or three weeks the disease was relieved. 

Ichthyol, the next remedy, is comparatively new. This 
also is a valuable medicine in dormatose affections. It is 
useful in acne rosacea, erythema, paronychia, Sec. I have 
used the remedy in several cases of erysipelas, and always 
with much satisfaction, the inflammation being quickly 
checked and cured in a few days. I generally apply the 
remedy in a 25 per cent, mixture, though sometimes it is 
made stronger with fluid vaseline. 

On account of the gummy nature of the medicine, and its 
disagreeable odor, I rarely use it now, since aristol is much 
more convenient, and a nicer remedy in every way, and used in 
the same type of diseases. I have never used the remedy in- 
ternally, though some writers have employed the remedy with 
success in this way in herpes zoster, chronic rheumatism, 
chronic nephritis and other affections. 

The next remedy which I shall notice is hammamelis or 
witch hazel, a remedy which has been in use many years, 
but of late has taken a new hold on the esteem of the pro- 
fession on account of its valuable medicinal i)roperties. I 
have not used it largely myself, but have known it to be used 
by some of my professional friends in hemorrhagic troubles 
with phenomenal success. In a case of typhoid fever of 
recent date, in which I was associated with Dr. Ilichard 
Inge, of Greensboro, where there was hemorrhage ui the 
bowels, the remedy was used with the happiest result. The 
preparation used was the distilled extract, in toaspoouful 
doses every three to six hours, according to the urgency of the 
case. Dr. Inge informed me that he had used the remedy 
in seven cases of hemorrhage of the bowels, all of which 
were relieved with one exception, and that case was almost 
*'//( articith) inorfis'' when the remedy was first given. 

Dr. A. li. Davis, of my county, informed me that he hail 


used a decoction made from the root iu two cases of hemor- 
rhage of the bowels, both of which wore relieved, and both 
cases recovered. Dr. Inf^e also informed me that he had 
used witch hazel in several cases of h;iomoptysis with almost 
ma<^dcal relief. One of the cases was a very grave one. The 
patient had been coughing up blood three days before the 
doctor was called in. When the patient was first seen there 
was a chamber by the bed half full of blood, and the patient 
was coughing up great mouthfuls of blood three or four 
times every minute. Under the use of hammamelis every 
two to four hours, in teaspoonful doses, the patient was en- 
tirely relieved in 48 hours. Dr. Inge has a patient under 
his care, a consumptive, who has frequent hemorrhages from 
the lungs, and hammamelis has given more satisfaction than 
any remedy used in the case. The remedy is also useful in 
aphthous sore mouth, and as an injection in gonorrhoea. The 
use of hammamelis in hemorrhagic disorders is not at all 
new, but for some cause it had in a measure fallen into com- 
parative disuse, and it is well that so valuable a remedy 
should be revived. I have been informed that my friend 
Dr. Peterson, of Greensboro, used the remedy 40 years ago 
in uterine hemorrhage. 

I shall next give my experience with sulpho-carbolate of 
zinc and arsenite of copper, two remedies that are now 
largely used in the bowel affections of children. I have 
used the sulpho-carbolate of zinc for two or three years in 
most of the bowel troubles incident to childhood. It is not 
often that I am disappointed in it. I have used it in cholera 
infantum, entero-colitis, and diarrhoeas generally. The 
remedy given every two or three hours in half grain doses, 
with regulated diet and other hygienic precautions, will 
rarely fail to bring good results. The remedy is especially 
serviceable in that type of diarrhoea due to fermentation, 
that is dyspetic diarrhoea. But diarrhoea is not the only 
disease in which sulpho-carbolate of zinc is serviceable. It 
is a useful remedy in typhoid fever, especially in those cases 
where diarrhoea is troublesome. In two grain doses every 
four hours with three or four drops of fluid extract of gelsem- 


iiim, I have tliouj^ht I received considerable beuefit. It 
lessens tlie bowel discharges, relieves excessive tympanitis, 
and thoroby lower the fever and delirium and moistens 
the tongue. 

Now, what I have said of sulpho-carbolate of zinc, in 
reference to the treatment of bowel troubles, I can repeat 
in regard to arscnite of copi)er. I have used the remedy 
for several years, and I say without hesitation, that my es- 
timate of the value of the medicine has not waned in the 
least, but has strengthened. I have used the remedy not 
only in the bowel troubles of children, but I give it to 
patients of all ages who suffer with similar troubles. I use 
it in cliolic, cholera morbus, indigestion. Sec, and good 
results almost invariably follow. I have used the remedy 
in several cases of colic in horses, and in every instance it 
gave relief. Dr. Brockway, of Sumter county, informed me 
that he had relieved a patient of chronic diarrhcca of many 
months standing, by giving three tablets, the 1-100 of a 
grain, daily. The remedy is usually given in aqueous so- 
lution, by dissolving one tablet (1-100 gr.) in four to six 
ounces of water, and give a teaspoonful every fifteen to 
thirty minutes, depending on the severity of the symptoms. 
As the patient improves, of course the doses are given at 
longer intervals. The efficacy of arsenite of copjier in 
cholera infantum and kindred affections is doubtless due to 
its antisei»tic j^roperties. For it is now a recognized fact, 
that this disease is duo to a micro-organism or poison of 
the toxalljumiu type, called by Prof. Vaughn, who first de- 
scribed it, tyrotoxicou. I have used the remedy, to a limi- 
ted extent in typhoid fever, in combination with gclsemium. 
I believe it lessens the iliarrlnea and tympanitis. I will 
remark here, that neither arsenite of coi)i)er, nor sulpho- 
carbolate of zinc, interferes in the least with the symptom- 
atic treatment usually employ<Kl in typlioid fever. 

I shall next n(Uice three ri'medies whicli I frcMjufntly em- 
ploy in uterine derangements, viz ; permanganate of potassa, 
vibrnum ]>runifolium, and viscum album. Ilingcr, of Ijou- 
don, I believe, first brought permangauati^ of potassa before 


tlio profession, about fifteen years ago, as a remedy in 
uterine irregularities. Since then, I have used the remedy 
largely in my practice, principally among negroes. It is 
such an irritant to the stomach, that I rarely prescribe it to 
a white person. There is scarcely a week passes, that I am 
not called upon to prescribe for some derangement of the 
uterine function among negro women. Sometimes it is 
monorrhagia, sometimes amenorrhcca, but more frequently 
it is dysmenorrhoea. Nine times out of ten, I prescribe 
permanganate of potash. It is a sort of standby with me. 
Being cheap and convenient, it somewhat offsets the poor 
pay we generally get from this class of patients. I gener- 
ally give it in half grain doses three times a day, largely di- 
luted with water, and usually give it after meals, for the 
empty stomach will rarely tolerate it. Many of these cases 
are relieved, and the great majority are benefitted. In some 
cases the remedy is continued for several months. 

I suppose most of you have noticed the recent discovery 
of Dr. William Moore, of New York, in the use of perman- 
ganate of potash in opium narcotism. The remedy is given 
as an antidote either by the mouth or hypodermically. Sev- 
eral eminent physicians have corroborated Dr. Moore's state- 
ment, by using the remedy in morphine poisoning. In every 
instance the remedy was effectual. Among others who 
have tested the remedy as an antidote to morphine, was 
Prof. Buist of Charleston, S. C. He tried the antidote in 
one case with perfect success. Another physician tried the 
remedy on a man who had taken 15 grains of morphine. He 
was found three hours after taking it, and was apparently 
beyond hope of recovery. After trying atropia hypodermi- 
cally, a strong farradic current and artificial respiration were 
tried without any relief. A grain of permangante potash was 
then given subcutaneously, and in five minutes the patient 
showed marked improvement. In fifteen minutes he was 
walking with the assistance of two men. The narcotic 
symptoms returning an hour afterwards, another ^ grain was 
given, and in a few minutes the patient was talking ration- 
ally and smoked a cigar. He made a good recovery. This 


case was reported by Dr. McKlvoen of Chariton, Lnva. If 
future tests confirm these statements, then Dr. Moore will 
prove himself to be a benefactor to the human race. 

Viburnum beinj:^ the next remedy which I shall notice, I 
shall tcnich it very lightly, as I take it for granted that every 
intelligent physician is fully posted as to its medicinal prop- 
erties. I have used this remedy many times in dismeuor- 
rlioja, and always with much relief. I sometimes combine 
the viburnum with muriate of ammonia and gelsemium, 
when I am convinced there is a neuralgic element in the 
case — 10 grs. muriate ammonia, 5 drops H. ext. gelsemium, 
and a teaspoonful of viburnum, every three to six hours. In 
after-pains it gives more relief than any remedy I have ever 
used. In labor, when the pains are severe, it is a most 
valuable remedy. It not only lessens the suffering, but 
gives rest between the pains, tones up and strengthens the 
uterine contractions, and doubtless shortens the labor. I 
have relieved several cases of threatened miscarriage with 
viburnum. In this trouble it scarcely has an equal. 

The next remedy that will receive attention is viscum 
album, or mistletoe — (phoradendron flavescens, Nutt). My 
attention was first called to this remedy by an article published 
in the Virginia Medical Monthly, April, 1878, which gave a 
synopsis of a report, by Dr. W. H. Long, of the U. S. Ma- 
rine Service, who was then stationed at Louisville, Ky. Dr. 
Long's article was first published in the Medical News of 
that city. The Doctor was first led to its use by the fact 
"that the farmers in the section of the country where he for- 
merly practiced medicine gave the mistletoe to domestic ani- 
mals which failed to clear themselves, or expel the afterbirth, 
after bringing forth their young." I have frequently, in my 
own locality, noticed a bunch of mistletoe tied to the out- 
hanging cord, in cows that had m)t expelled the after-birth. 
This shows that the effects of the remedy was known among 
the negroes — as the cows seen were the })roperty of mem- 
bers of that race. Dr. Long used the remeily in 1807, in a 
protracted case of labor ilue to iusufliciency of the pains. 


Having uo ergot, an infusion was made of the green leaves, 
and in twenty minutes after a dose was given, strong uterine 
contractions set in, followed by a good delivery in a short 
time. After this he used the remedy in a number of cases 
where ergot had no effect, and always with the most satis- 
factory results. Dr. Long believed the remedy far superior 
to ergot for the following reasons : 

"1. That instead of producing coniinued contractions as 
ergot, it stimulated the uterus to contractions that are nat- 
ural, with regular intervals of rest. Consequently it can be 
used in any stage of labor, and in primiparae where ergot 
is not admissible. 

"2. Because it acted with more promptness and cer- 

I have used the remedy in my own jDractice for fifteen 
years — several times in labor where there was not sufficient 
strength in the uterine contractions, and I have always been 
pleased with its effects. I have prescribed it a great many 
times in menorrhagia. In some cases where I had tried 
ergot and hot water, with little or no relief, the mistletoe 
came to the rescue and gave the most satisfactory results. 
I generally use the fl. ext. when obtainable, but more fre- 
quently use the decoction or infusion. I sometimes make a 
tincture of the dry leaves, by pouring hot water on them 
and then adding alcohol. 

In country practice I am frequently called upon by negro 
women for a remedy to stop excessive or protracted men- 
strual flow. I nearly always prescribe a tea or an infusion 
made from the green leaves. About four ounces of the leaves 
to a pint of boiling water will make it sufficiently strong. A 
gill of this is given every hour or two until the patient 
is better. I rarely have to resort to any other remedy. 
A number of years ago. Dr. H. P. Wenzel, of Wisconsin^ 
wrote a report on mistletoe. Among other things, he said : 
"That he was satisfied that its clonic oxytocic action is a de- 
sideratum in labor, the pains become more energetic ; be- 
tween the pains, there is a respite to the patient ; she gath- 
ers more strength for the next pain, and labor is expedited ; 


there is no danger to the chikL" "Ergot, on the contrary, 
produces tonic contractions and there is no intermission of 
pain; no repose to the goaded uterus; no rest to the patient; 
great danger to the life of the chiki, and sometimes lacer- 
ation of the perinaeum or rupture of the vagina, uterine neck 
or body, when the contents of the uterus are shot through 
the passage like a common ball. We use mistletoe alto- 
gether in parturition." This report oi Dr. Wenzel, was pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Wisconsin State Medical 

The next remedy which I shall briefly notice, is "Phospho- 
Caffein Compound," a medicine, with which most of you 
are doutless conversant. It is a medicine much used in 
nervous troubles, and a valuable one too. But my object in 
calling attention to it, is to give my experience with it, in 
the treatment of gravid nausea. Most of you who have 
treated this anuoj'ing and troublesome disorder, know full 
well that now and then, one meets a case, that baffles the 
highest skill and defies every remedy. I had a patient, not 

long since, Mrs. S. H. N who had just entered the second 

month of utero-gestation. She had intense nausea every 
morning at first, and in a few days it embraced the entire 
day. I tried almost every known remedy. Oxalate of 
cerium, bismuth, dilute hydrocyanic acid, ingluviu, atropia, 
nox vomica, were all tried with but little eftect. The pa- 
tient grew worse from day to day, and all food being rejected, 
her condition was fast becoming serious. Having a sample 
bottle of phospho-catieiu compound, I concluded to try it* 
The good effect of the remedy was seen on the very first 
dose. Each day the remedy was given, a dose quite early, 
and repeated once or twice during the morning when neces- 
sary. I never saw any remedy act more charmingly. The 
stomach retained food after the first day, and the remedy 
being kept up when needed until the end of the third month, 
the patient went through the remaining six months without 
any trouble, and gave birth to a fine child at the proper 
time. I afterwards tried the remed\' in one other case of 
(jravul nausea, with the same happy results. Believing 


this experiencG with pliospho-caffein compound might be 
of benefit to professional friends in similar cases, I have in- 
corporated it in this report. 

This finishes up my notes, and if I have presented any- 
thing that will serve a good purpose, or that may serve the 
general practitioner in his efforts to relieve or mitigate hu- 
man suftering, I shall feel gratified and more than repaid for 
this poor a])ology of a report. 

Dr. E. B. Ward. 

I think the thanks of the Association are due Dr. Huggins 
for the eminently practical paper just presented. Such pa- 
pers are infinitely more beneficial to the general practitioner 
than so many scientific and abstruse articles on the well 
worn subject of the germ theory and the new bacilli which 
have become such a fad of late. It is true that the motto of 
our profession is ''progress," and in order to be abreast with 
the times and keep pace with this rapid advance which the 
light of the nineteenth century sheds about us, we must know 
something of these new discoveries and investigations along 
that line. But the tendency of our profession is to run after 
new things. 

"In phj^sic as in fashion we find. 

The newest is ever the rage of mankind." 

In our zeal to try the new remedies and embrace the new 
'doctrines, we lose sight of our old friends, the true and tried 
remedies, which experience tells us can be relied on. Rem- 
edies that have been tested and have not been found wanting 
are worth more than passing notice. It is only from the 
experience of our older brothers and after our own prac- 
tical experience with such drugs, that we can determine 
those that are of great benefit to the human race and 
those that act deleteriously to the vital forces. I feel then 
that I can not let this paper pass without arising to make 
a few remarks upon it. It stands on its own merit and 


nothing I can say will enhance its value. I simply can en- 
dorse the truths contained in it. Onl}^ a few of tlie older 
remedies will engage a few minut(;s of my time. 

First, in speaking of the use of gelsemium in tetanus, 
my experience has been so limited that I can hardly say 
whether I can endorse it in this disease or not. I have used 
it a few times, but have derived no benefit whatever from 
it. I am of the opinion that medicines exercise very little 
curative power in such cases. The specific for that terrible 
and fatal disease has yet to be discovered. Who knows, 
though, but that it may be lying dormant in the sylvan 
shades of our forest or buried in the crystal depths of 
nature's laboratory, awaiting the progress of our science. 

In puerperal convulsions, I have used the fluid extract of 
gelsemium with decided benefit. In the drug hammamolis 
virginica, I think we have a valuable .adjunct in the list of 
hfcmostatics. In dysentery it is followed by very favorable 
results, and especially in bleeding hemorrhoids is it valua- 
ble. I have used it also in uterine hemorrhages with decided 
benefit. I prefer to use the fluid extract, as other forms of 
it are not as reliable. In the use of the arsenite of copper 
I have imagined that I have had good results, but the man- 
ner of administration and the minuteness of the dose makes 
me feel as if I Avere encroaching upon the principles of Hah- 
nemannism, and I am unprepared to say whether the good 
results followed its use, or Avhether it was not a vis mcdica- 
trix natura'. I have had a good deal of experience in the 
use of viburnum and can endorse the views of the writer, 
also the viscum all)um. The other remedies mentioned I 
have used with vaiying results, but it is more to endorse the 
older remedies that I ofler these few remarks. 



By Hknkv Mitchell Huntek, M. D., Union Springs. 
Junior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

John Edward Purdon, M. D., Huntsville. 

David Hubbard McLain, M. D., Madison. 

Edward Leslie Marechal, M. D., Mobile. 

Richard Matthew Fletcher, M. D., Madison. 

Russell McWhorter Cunningham, M. D., Pratt City, 

James Rkid Jordan, M. D., Montgomery. 

"William Levi Thomason, M. D., Guntersville. 

No group of medicines has sprung into more universal 
use than the coal tar preparations, and none have been so 
extravagantly lauded for their therapeutic effects than the 
various articles that comprise it. 

So much has been said and written in favor of each prepa- 
ration of this group, that I have found it exceedingly^ difficult 
to present a plain, unbiased report upon this subject. 

This difficulty has been materially increased by the im- 
prudent and ill-advised claims of enthusiasts who have ex- 
tolled their merits far beyond their deserts. 

The title of this paper would exclude any description of 
the physiological action of the few articles I shall discuss ; 
but as this constitutes the basis upon which we predicate 
their claims as therapeutic agents, I shall dwell upon their 
phj'siological effects in detail. 

I have selected as types of the coal tar derivatives three 
preparations that appear to me most extensively used, and 
which contain all the virtues and merits of all the prepara- 
tions of the group. 


I have chosen antipyrino, acetauilido and antikamiiia. 

There has been such a volnnio of claims for oacli article 
that it was deemed l)est to discuss them separately. 

"Autipyrine belongs to the analine series ; it was discov- 
ered by Dr. Ludwig Kuorr, who retains a patent for its 
manufacture. It occurs in the form of a white crystalino 
powder, of a slightly bitter taste, soluble in water, alcohol 
and chloroform, but less so in ether, melts at 113 C. A solu- 
tion of antipyrine added to that solution of ferric chloride, 
produces a dark brown color ; with spirits of nitrous ether 
it shows a green reaction." 

It is chemically incompatible with spirits of nitrous ether, 
calomel, ciuchouita prej^arations, hydrocyanic, nitric and 
tannic acids, sulphates of copper and iron, corrosive subli- 
mate, salicylate of sodium, tinct. chloride iron, syrup iodide 
of iron, tincts. of iodide, catechu, kino and rhubarb. 

In toxic doses it produces vomiting, profuse sweating, 
chills, cyanosis, collapse, sallivation, dyspnoea, and epilepti- 
form convulsions. 

Antipyrine in small doses produces no effect upon the 
heart, though increased arterial tension, says Shoemaker ; 
while Dr. Cerna, (in Notes and Now Remedies) states it must 
be carefuU}- watched on account of its depressing effects 
upon the heart. Isaac Ott's modern antipyretics says anti- 
pyrine increases arterial tension and accelerates the heart 
beat. In barge doses the pulse remains the same, V)ut the 
blood pressur(? sinks on account of dilated capillaries. In- 
creased heart beat is due to stimulation of cordio-motor 
ganglion. Arterial tension is produced by increased cardiac 
activity. Hobart Amf)ry Hare thinks it not as depressing 
as some regard it, but admits that it is certainly not a stimu- 
lant to the circulation ; he further states that many con- 
sider it a decided depressant to the circulation. All au- 
thorities agree that it is markedly depressing in its effects 
upon the heart in large doses. 

Most writers assort that it has little, if any, effect upon 
respiration in ordinary dos(^s. Shoemaker and Hare claim 
that the respiratory movements are not effected by small 


doses, but tliat respiration is first increased and subsequent- 
ly decreased by toxic doses. N. S. Davis (Journal Amer. 
Med. Association) claims that it affects respiration only in- 
directly, while Isaac Ott asserts that it accelerates respira- 

Ordinary doses exert no effect upon the blood, but large 
doses convert haemoglobin into mathamoglobin and pro- 
duce cyanosis. 

Antipyrine is eliminated by the kidneys. Isaac Ott states 
that in healty persons antipyrine decreases the quantity of 
urine from 20 to 40 per cent., and the solids 16 per cent. 
Shoemaker claims that antipyrine sometimes increases and 
sometimes decreases the flow of urine in ordinary doses, 
larger doses decidedly decrease it. Hare says the quantity 
is diminished and the elimination of the results of nitroge- 
nous tissue metamorphosis is decreased by ordinary doses. 
The consensus of opinion among therapeutists is that the 
quantit}^ of urine is decreased. 

Shoemaker states that reflex movements are increased by 
small and decreased by large doses of antipyrine ; that it 
depresses both sensory and motor nerve trunks. Upon the 
unbroken surface it has no effect, but upon denuded or ul- 
cerated surfaces it is decidedly analgesic. N. S. Davis says 
that antipyrine allays pain by direct action on the nerve 
trunks. Hare claims that antipyrine affects the sensory 
functions most, and is a marked nervous sedative in medici- 
nal doses. It is analgesic and antispasmodic by diminish- 
ing the excito-motor power of the cord, according to the 
New York Medical Journal. 

Antipyrine in moderate doses has no effect upon normal 
temperature. In fevered animals it reduces temperature by 
increasing heat radiation and decreasing heat production, 
probably by direct action on heat centers. Fall of tem- 
perature independent of diaphoresis, or action of circu- 
lation. According to Isaac Ott, antipyrine will not depress 
or influence temperature after section of the spinal cord. 
Several writers have observed that the surface temperature 


rises as the iiitenuil tomperature falls. After the effects 
upon temperature have worn off aud it be^ius to ascend, 
chilliness is frequently produced. 

"Acetanilide is a derivative of analine ; it is a white pow- 
der,neutral reaction, sli^^ditl}' pungent, odorless, freely solu- 
ble in ether and alcohol, and slif^htly so in water. II, is not 
chanf^od b}' acids or alkalies. Toxic doses cause cyanosis, 
vomiting, intense sweating, soft, compressible, slow and 
weak pulse, shallow and weak respirations." 

Acetanilide first increases the blood pressure, but soon 
decreases it and slows the heart's action, according to Shoe- 
maker. Hare says ordinary doses produce no marked 
change in the circulation ; but toxic doses cause immediate 
fall of arterial tension and cardiac depression. The tendency 
of this drug is toward depression. The Therapeutic Gazette 
says acetanilide reduces pulse rate. Isaac Ott states that 
acetanilide increases arterial tension, narrows capillaries 
and slows the heart. Rabinovitch asserts that aeetaiiilido 
affects the heart by depressing it profoundly, and increases 
arterial tension. 

It does not affect the respiration directly in ordinary 
doses, but poisonous doses cause respiration to be laboicd 
and rai)id. Large doses produce death by paralyzing tlif 
respirat(n-y centers. 

Acetanilide reduces temperature, possil)ly by converting 
oxyhaemoglobin into mathamaglobin in the red blood cor- 
puscles, atid interfering with oxidaticm, according to Shoe- 
waker. Hare writes that it is powerful in fever tempera- 
tures, and it decreases heat production and increases 
heat production and increases heat dissipation. It is 
uncertain whether it affects the heart centers or other 
points. E. W. Evans, (Medical News) says it is a pow- 
erful, safe and certain antithermic agent; its antipyretic 
effects are diie to decreased heat production — whether 
by direct stimulati(ni of the inhibitory heat centers, paresis 
of the spinal heat centers, or on the tissues themselves re- 
mains to be seen. Isaac Ott says it reduces tem]ierature by 
decreasing heat production and increasing heat dissipation. 


It is eliminated by the kidneys. Slioemaker says it in- 
creases the action of the kidneys, and Isaac Ott says it is 
slightly diuretic and irritating to the kidneys. 

All authorities agree that acetanilide has a tendency to 
cliange haemoglobin into mathamaglobin in the red blood 
corpuscles ; and in toxic doses the blood is changed to a 
brownish red color, ozonizing and oxygen carrying proper- 
ties reduced, corpuscular destruction produced and alka- 
linity of the blood lessened. The quantit}^ of uric acid and 
urea is increased. Isaac Ott states that the amoeboid move- 
ment of the white blood corpuscles is interfered with. 

Shoemaker states that it is claimed acetanilide is a cere- 
bral and vasa-motor stimulant in moderate doses without 
subsequent bad results, but he adds that in some cases 
alarming symptoms of collapse have been produced. Hare 
asserts that it is a sedative to the sensory portions of the 
nerves and the spinal cord. After poisonous doses there is 
general anaesthesia, loss of reflexes, motion and sensory 

Antikamnia is a proprietary name given to a fine white 
powder, whose composition has not been definitely deter- 
mined, but is supposed to be chiefly made up of acetanilide 
and bi-carbonate of sodium. Its administration is unwar- 
rantable until its true nature is known. (Dr. Cerna's notes 
on new remedies.) Antikamnia, which is probably com- 
posed of acetanilide and bi-carbonate of sodium, has a simi- 
lar action to acetanilide with this difference — the salts of 
the sodium, being alkaline, seem to aid materially its 
physiological action. If this is the case, it is unwise to pre- 
scribe antikamnia, which is an unknown mixture ; but to 
prescribe a definite mixture of acetanilide and sodium to 
suit your demands. You will not find this preparation 
treated in our leading text-books, and it is only mentioned 
to be condemned. (W. Blair Stewart in Lect. in Med. Chi- 
rurg. College.) 

Antipyrine has been extensively used in all diseases ac- 
companied by increased temperature, and also in affections 
characterized either by pain or spasmodic conditions. 

IIRNKY MITdlKM. lll'NTKU. 303 

In aearlet fever it reduces tlie temperature, allaj's the 
itcliing of the skiu aud produces rest. 

Hysterical tremors are controlled by it. 

Epilepsy is benefitted b}' antipyrine, especially the epilep- 
sy occurring at the menstrual epoch ; its value being en- 
hanced by combining it with bromide of ammonium as 
suggested l)y Dr. H. C. Wood. This combination can l)e 
given for long periods without producing bromism. 

Leroux obtained favorable results in 41 out of GO cases of 
chorea by daily doses of 45 to 90 grs., the cases terminating 
in 45 days on the average. Not a single accident occiirred 
from large doses. 

Antipyrine reduces temperature, relieves pain and, in 
some cases, seems to limit the spread of erysipelas. 

In pertussis it is beneficial in ameliorating the spasmodic 
attacks, and some authorities claim to limit the duration of 
the disease. Dr. Sawyer used antipyrine in an epidemic of 
pertussis and thinks he shortened the disease to an average 
of 14 days. He gave large doses before the anticipated at- 
tacks and greatly mitigated them. While Dr. Bouisson 
(Lyon Medical) found it very contradictory in this aflection. 

Antipyrine in daily doses of 35 to 45 grs. has proved of 
advantage in some cases of dial)etes, both mellitus and in- 
sipidus. Its effect upon urine, decreasing markedly its 
quantity in bulk and in solids would indicate its efficacy in 

Gout is said to be ameliorated and limited in the acute 
form, and the chronic form is modified. 

Some authorities have claimed they saw benefit from anti- 
pyrine in cerebial and cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

Pleuritic pains aud the chest pains of pthisis are controlled 
by anti})yrine. 

Sciatica seems to bo relieved by antipyrine, especially 
when combined with quinine. 

Asthmatic attacks have been mitigated to a great extent 
in some cases by antipyrine. 

Malarial fever is reduced, headache, backaclie, and nius- 


cuLxv pains relieved in almost all cases ; its effects seem to 
be decidedly increased when combined with quinine. 

Autipyrine is useful in neural^^ic pains of various forms. 
It is of especial value in neuralgic pains of rheumatic or 
gouty diathesis. 

Some writers think antipyrine better in rheumatism than 
salicylate of sodium, and it frequently relieves those cases 
that have resisted the sodium. It reduces the temperature 
and relieves the joint affections. 

Antipyrine reduces the temperature and decreases the 
respirations in pneumonia, but has no effect upon the in- 
Hamatory process. It is especially efficacious in broncho- 
pneumonia of children, according to Prof. Demme of Berne. 
Antipyrine has had a systematic trial in the treatment of 
pneumonia and the general opinion is against its adminis- 
tration, says Osier in his excellent practice. 

Incontinence of urine is said to be improved and often 
cured by antipj'rine. 

The lancinating pains of locomotor ataxia are benefitted 
by it. 

Several cases of tetanus have been tided over successfully 
by antipyrine it is claimed. 

In acute bronchitis antipyrine is of much value. 

Influenza, with its muscular and neuralgic pains is greatl}' 
relieved by antipyrine, the effect of which is materially 
aided by codea, salol or quinine. 

Catarrhal fever is also decidedly relieved by antipyrine 
and most of its unpleasant symptoms are controlled by it. 

DysmenorrhoiT! and labor pains are said to be lessened by 
it. Pelvic pains due to various diseases of the organs within 
it are said to be benefitted by antipyrine. 

Applied as a spray antipyrine controlls idiopathic epis- 
taxis, says Dr. Guenot in the Lancet. It is also highly 
recommended as a ha3mostatic, and good results claimed for 
its local application in saturated solution to the endomet- 
rium in' hemorrhage from the uterus. In turgid mucus 
membrane, a spray of cocaine followed by a spray of a four 
per cent, solution of antipyrine, gives much longer astringent 


oifect tliau cocaiue alone. lubalatiou of a spray (^f a four 
per ccnit. s<jlatiou oi autii)yriue <^reatly relieves laryu^itis 
aud tracheal irritaticms. Solutions applied to the eye, nose, 
larynx, or urethra cause some smarting, accordinj^ to strength, 
lasts a few minutes aud is folhnved by relief. Analgesia 
lasts several hours and can be indefinitely maintained. Lo 
cally it diminishes reflex cough and relieves nasal troubles. 
Local a])plications cause turgid mucus membranes to be 
pale and shrunken without local amesthesia but thorough 
analgesia. (N. Y. Medical Journal). 

Antipyrine, asserts Mr. Guibert, arrests the secreticm of 
milk and can be safely given for this purpose in four grain 
doses every two hours. 

Antipyrine sometimes causes eruptions like measles, scar- 
letina or urticaria, aud may produce pruritis. Sln^emakor 
states this may be removed by administering belladona with 
the antipyrine, or by a hypodermic of atr<jpiu. I believe 
opium has the same effect. 

It occasionally nauseates, and does so with women more 
than men, even when given per rectum. Dr. Perdriel in the 
Lancet Clinic advises giving antipyrine with bicarbt)nate of 
sodium and tartaric acid in capsules, as the nascent carbonic 
acid prevents nausea in sensitive people. 

The Times and Register states that antipyrine in daily 
doses of GO grains has proved a great advantage in lead 

Continued use of small doses frequently lead to loss of 
energy, headache and general malaise, says Patterson in 
London Practitioner. 

Eloy says anti])yi'ine is contraindicated in acute and febrile 
conditions with nephritis. Hurchard, Peter, Gresches and 
Porter all say it is contraindicated in kidney diseases. 

Acetanilide is indicated in all those cases for which anti- 
pyrine is given. It is claimed for it that it has superior 
antipyretic effects with greater safety, but it is not as eflica- 
cious in relieving pain. 

The chilliness coming on after its effects are wearing off 


and the temperature begins to rise lias been observed in 
acotauilitle as well as iu autipyrine. 

Dr. Bodainer of the Germau Hospital iu Philadelphia, iu 
all cases recpiiriug surgical dressing, during the last four 
months, applied acetauilide in the form of dry powder, with 
siippuratiou iu but four cases. These cases included exten- 
sive scalp wounds, incised wounds of the arm with severed 
tendons and all amputations of digits. Simple ulcers fol- 
l(jwing burns of the second degree healed promptly without 
suppuration. It is also applied to chancroids, s^'philitic leg 
ulcers and mucus patches, in the latter the patient is directed 
to keep the mouth well open until the medicine has had time 
to penetrate. (Medical News). 

Dr. W. Blair Stewart (Medical Bulletin) speaks highly of 
what he terms pill acetanilide com., composed of acetauilide 
and quinine one grain each and one-sixteenth grain of co- 
caine to the pill. The action is antipyretic, analgesic, tonic, 
stimulant, antispasmodic and antiseptic. Where cocaine is 
objected to caffein citrate one-eighth grain can be substituted. 
He administers one triturate every fifteen to thirty minutes 
as indicated. 

Antikamnia, if used should of course be prescribed as you 
would acetanilide, remembering that its effects are quicker, 
probably due to the sodium which is claimed to increase and 
hasten its effect. It should be administered guardedly since 
its exact composition is unknown and therefore unreliable. 

According to N. American Practitioner, acute and chronic 
cystitis, diarrhoea and dysentery are greatly relieved by a 
combination of two and a half grains of antikamnia and salol. 

We have seen that the long continued administration of 
these drugs in moderate doses results in the deterioration 
of the blood corpuscles, an injurious effect which is height- 
ened by larger and more effectual doses, that the metabolic 
processes are interfered with and the nervous system pro- 
foundly impressed Avith a tendency to prostration. There- 
fore I consider their use in these specific affections, running 
a limited, definite course, independent of increased tem- 
perature and attended with marked prostration, as contra- 


iudicatecl ; especially wlieu we recall the fact that these 
remedies exert uo coutrolliu<^ iutiueuce over the pathalo^i- 
cal coiulitious of the diseases. I couclude in these dis- 
eases typhoid aud typhus fever, pueumonia, the hi^h tem- 
perature of phthisis aud similar afl'ectious. I confess that 
some complicaticm mifrlit arise iu the course of such dis- 
eases as a temporary emergency which would indicate their 
administration, yet it is not certain but that their continu- 
ous use results in more harm than good. We have other 
measures equally, and indeed, deeidedl}- more efficacious, 
in reducing temperature than these preparations; these 
measures also being unattended by the dangerous and 
harmful effects of the coal tar derivatives. In my experi- 
ence I have found them uncertain and disappointing iu a 
large number of the disorders enumerated b}' me as gleaned 
from various authors. I have seen little good from them iu 
asthma, dysmeuorrh(L'a, epilepsy, pertussis, pelvic pains, etc. 
I believe I have had some good effects in diabetes mellitus 
but its benefit was of short duration. Chorea has been un- 
affected by these remedies in my hands. 

The coal tar preparations have accomplished one purpose 
for which we of malarial districts should be grateful. They 
came into use about the time malarial affections were dis- 
appearing iu our midst to be replaced by typhoid and other 
types of fever. These new remedies, heralded by enthusi- 
astic claims as a panacea in all diseases accompanied by 
hyperpyrexia, were freely and discriminately experimented 
with in all fevers of whatever character, and the observa- 
tion soon made that those cases of elevated temperature 
uninfluenced by quinine, aud yet regarded as malarial, 
yielded to the coal tar pre]iaratious. This fact, in the 
course of time, led to a differential diagnosis between ma- 
larial and other kinds of fever, with the recognition oi the 
new character of fever that had superceded the malarial ; 
aud resulted in the correction of the abuse of quinine iu 
these affections. But unfortunately it led also to the reck- 
less, wholesale administration of these drugs iu all pro- 


tractetl cases of elevated temperature from which we are 
just begiuniu*^ to free ourselves. 

I have treated cases of typhoid fever by these drugs in 
the past but cauuot longer shut my eyes to the demonstrated 
fact that they are of no advantage in this disease, and should 
not displace such valuable agents as cold baths or cold ap- 

I have observed in those cases of continued fever treated 
by the coal tar preparations, after the fever had subsided 
towards normal, a frequency of the rise of the temperature 
upon the withdrawal of the antipyretic. I do not mean a 
relapse, for such it is not, but an irregular, erratic rise of 
temperature which I regard as due to the increased oxida- 
tion incident to the withdrawal of the tissue waste restrain- 
ing influence of these medicines and also to the deprivation 
of a nervous sedative from a nervous system already shat- 
tered by the ravages of disease. 

In rheumatism, neuralgia and catarrhal affections they are 
certainly valuable therapeutic remedies. But the wide 
spread, empyrical administration of a drug powerful in its 
effect and dangerous in its abuse, is unjustifiable and should 
be stopped. That these drugs are of great benefit when 
intelligently and scientifically administered there is no 
doubt, but to abuse a group of thei'apeutic remedies by 
claiming for them a use beyond their legitimate and definite 
sphere is unwise, unreasonable and unwarrantable. 

Dr. Willl\m Levi Thomason. 

The paper read by Dr. Hunter I consider a fine one, and 
does full justice to the coal tar preparations. I only wish 
to call attention to the effects of antikamnia on a case in my 
practice. Mr. B., an intelligent farmer began taking it in 
from ten to fifteen grain doses for headache. These spells 
of headache would come on him once or twice a week, and 
the antikamnia would relieve his head usually in from thirty 
minutes, to an hour. He called my attention to the fact, 


that his kiclnoys were effected by the remedy. I examined 
his uriuo by the heat and nitric acid tost, and found it con- 
tained all)union. He was advised to desist from the use of 
the antikamnia, and put upon iron, quinine and strychnia, 
which entirely relieved him of all symptoms of albuminuria 
as the uriuo showed none upon the same tost before given 
it. Upon repeating the antikamnia the albumen again ap- 
peared in the urine, and fearing it might do him permanent 
injury advised a discontinuance of it. 

As I have seen nothing in print, in regard to this peculiar 
action of this agent, I only wished to call the attention of 
the profession to it, that wo might learn whether it had this 
effect in others, or was it an idiosyncrasy of my patient. 




By Samuel Leonidas Ledbetter, M. D., Birminguam. 
Mfiiiber of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

discussed by 
John Edward Purdon, M. D., Huntsville. 
Lewis Greene Woodson, M. D., Birmingham. 
Charles Alston Thigpen, M. D., Montgomery. 
II. E. Stafford, M. D., New York Polyclinic. 

I shall uofc attempt a treatise on myopia nor an elaborate 
definition of the term, as it would be tiresome and out of 
place. I shall deal mainly with its causes and its relations 
to school-life. Every one knows of course that myopia is 
near sightedness. That it is an inability on the part of the 
eye to focus parallel rays of light which pass through the 
pupil ; that this inability to bring parallel rays to a focus on 
the retina is due to the great length of the eye antero-pos- 
teriorly ; the point being made before the retina is reached ; 
they then cross and spread out again, becoming diffused. 
Hence we get an indistinct image ; that only divergent rays 
can be focused ; the greater degree of myopia requiring a 
greater amount of divergence, and that the amount of diver- 
gence is directly dependent upon the proximity of the object 
to the eye of the observer. There are very few cases of con- 
genital myopia ; that is, myopia from birth. In fact some claim 
that there are none. That a child may inherit a tendency 
to myopia or those anatomical and physiological character- 
istics, which under favorable circumstances will produce 
myopia, none will call in question. Cohn who was first to 
make a thorough investigation of this subject says that 
myopia is a result of civilization and that the amount of it 


is dependent upon the number of hours of school work, the 
character of the letters and lif^ht. There are two forms of 
myopia. The pathological or progressive, which is a result 
of a posterior staphyloma or a giving way of the scleral wall 
posteriorly. This usually results in a high degree of myopia. 
In some instances the eye may be entirely destroyed. The 
second or non-pathological variety, is not so disastrous, and 
usually stops development, at the end of the period of gen- 
eral development. It is with this form that I shall deal. 
This subject is not a new one, having been extensively in- 
vestigated in European cities and not a little in the larger 
cities of the United States. The large percentage of myopia 
in the higher colleges and universities compared with that 
of the lower or grammar schools has led to a determination 
on the part of the scientific world to sift the matter to the 

The examinations made in this country have not always 
shown that same uniform and rapid increase of development 
as has been shown by those made in European countries ; 
and the difference is perhaps due to the different system of 
early education and inherited tendencies. In Europe, early 
education has been more generally enforced than in this 
country, and the matter of lighting the school room is com- 
paratively a modern measure and has perhaps been more 
carefully attended to in this country. The evil consequences 
of this indiscreet use of the eyes by parents are left as an 
inheritance to the child ; so, in time, is developed a race of 
people whose eyes only need to be used to develop the 
trouble, and some are even said to be born myopic. The 
exciting cause of myopia is the close application of the e3'e, 
bringing to bear upon it the accommodative effort from 
within and the pressure of the extrinsic or guiding muscles 
from without. The power of accommodation in young chil- 
dren is very considerable and enables them to see at a very 
short range. They are very apt to do this especially if the 
print is small and the light bad. The habit of bringing the 
print near to tho eye is easily actjuired and thus is kept up 
this abnormal pressure which in time brings on myopia. lu 


the larji^or cities where buildings are crowded closely together 
the matter of proper lighting is sometimes quite a problem. 
Tho arrangomout aud coustruction of the public school 
buildings of Birmingham are good, in fact the arrangement 
of tho grammar school building is nearly faultless. Every 
room has an abundance of light coming in from the rear of 
the pupils' desks and regulated to suit any emergency. There 
are two rooms in the old portion of the Paul Hayne school, 
iu which the light has been very considerably obstructed by 
tho new structure. These are the only exceptions, however, 
and they should be condemned. 

Now it has been pretty generally conceded that the school 
room is an active agent in the production of myopia. The 
study room at the home of course can not be overlooked as 
an exciting cause, because a large portion of the school-room 
work is done in the home. What is said of the former ap- 
plies, of course, to the latter. 

Widmark says that of 1446 examinations of children in 
the public schools of Stockholm, none were found myoi^ic 
between the ages of six and seven, while sixty-six per cent. 
of the pupils in the higher girls' school were found to be 
myopic. This is an unusual experience, however, and such 
extreme results are not generally obtained. A certain per- 
centage of myopia has been found iu infancy and among the 
unlettered. I find in a report of the public schools of Chi- 
cago in '87, I think, an article on myopia, by Dr. Ernest 
Fuches, and translated from the German by Dr. Wm. F. 
Smith. The article is very exhaustive and goes into the 
nature, pathology, cause, etc., more extensively than my sub- 
ject will allow. I will give some of the conclusions gathered 
from it. 

Under the head of near-sightedness in schools, these state- 
ments are made : 1st. The higher the school the greater the 
number of myopes. 2nd. That in each school the number 
of myopes increases from the lower to the higher grades. 
3rd. That the degree of myopia is increased. 

The following, taken from the tables of Colin and compiled 
from an examination of ten thousand and sixty school chil- 


dron to which has boon added by tho compilor a hundred 
and oight examinations of medical men, support tho position 


Percentage of Average degree 

myopia. of myopia. 

ViHarro scliools 1.4 1-24 

Elementary schools .... 0.7 1-22 

Youngladies high school 7.7 1 

Preparatory scliools. ... 10.3 1-2G 

Polytechnic schools 19.7 1-19 

Colleges 26.2 1-18 

Universities 59.0 .^ 1-12 

In the examinations of Colin all cases of less than one 
dioptrie wore ignored, and consequently a smaller percentage 
of myopia was obtained than has been gotten by some other 

Dr. Tiffany, in an examination of 2040 children of the 
Kansas schools did not get the same increased percentage 
as are shown in Colin's tables. Nor did I, in my examina- 
tions in the Birmingham schools get such results. The 
percentage of myopia is greater with some nationalities than 
with others. In the examinations of the children of tho 
New York schools by Drs. Agnew and Loring, a larger per- 
centage of myopes was found among the children of German 
parentage, than among those of American parentage, and 
more among American than among the Irish. A large per- 
centage was found among Jewish children. I have examined 
more than five hundred of tho children of the Birmingham 
schools and have found some increase of myopia in tho 
higher grades, as my tables will show, but not a considerable 
one. The examinations of the children of the first and 
second grades of the grammar schools were attended with 
considerable difficulty, and the results are not so satisfactory 
as they miglit be, because of the inability on the part of tho 
children to understand what was expected of tliom, and be- 
cause they were not always familiar with tho forms of tho 
letters. In somo instances, allowance had to bo made for 
this mental defect. 


Many soemed lacking in aciiteness of vision and were still 
not myopic. Some of these cases wore astigmatic, of course, 
and some appeared to be cases of slight myopia, but as many 
emmetropic eyes are seemingly myopic, that is, eyes which 
are benefitted by weak concave lenses, I could not class as 
m3'opic anything less than one-fiftieth. Many of the cases 
of defective vision, less than twenty-twentieths, were classed 
as defective and the amount of defect noted. The age and 
sex of each child was also noted, when an eye was found 
defective, it was tested for myopia, and if any were found 
the amount was specified, whether in one or both eyes, and 
tlio percentage calculated. But I will not dwell on those 
details. Table No. 1 shows a large number of cases of de- 
fective vision among the children of first and second grades, 
twenty-four per cent, of all the cases examined. The aver- 
age amount of defect was small, however, and as intimated 
before, I suspected that this large number of seemingly de_ 
fective eyes was in a measure due to lack of familiarity 
with the forms of the letters, or inattention, or to stupidity, 
or all three. About four per cent, of the children in these 
two grades were myopic, or five out of one hundred and 
seventeen. The third grade furnished the fewest number 
of defective eyes, 15 per cent., with but one case of myopia 
in ninety-three. In the fifth grade more than 20 per cent, 
of the children examined had vision less than twenty- 
twentieths, but only about five per cent, were myopic, six 
out of one hundred and twelve. In the seventh and eighth 
grades the number of cases of defective vision and of my- 
opia dropped a little. There were only five cases of myopia 
in a hundred and thirty-three examinations. About three 
per cent. 

The examinations made in the high school were from the 
second and third classes only. Here the percentage of my- 
opia went to seven, the highest point reached in any of the 
classes ; all these cases being among the girls. This dif- 
ference between the males and the females was due partially 
to the fact that about three-fourths of the pupils were girls. 
To review briefly, it will be seen that a large percentage of 


tliG cliiltlrou ill all the grades had vision less than tweuty- 
tweiitioths, but in most instances the amount oi defect was 
small. That the percentage of myopia was small in all the 
grades, that there was not a decided and uniform increase of 
myopia in the higher grades of the grammar schools, but a 
decided increase in the high school over that of the grammar 
schools. The work of the high school is largely done in the 
home of the children and the character and quality of the 
light cannot well be determined or regulated. 

These results cannot be so conclusive as I would have 
liked because of the number of examinations made, still 
they suffice to show that the Birmingham public sliools pro- 
duce a smaller number of myopes than do the European 
schools. As explanatory of this condition of affairs the fol- 
lowing facts might be mentioned : The short time of con- 
finement in the school room, about four hours for the lower 
grades and five for the higher ; the character of the work 
done, which in the lower grades is largely black-board work ; 
the kind of type in the text books used, and the system of 

As stated before, a large portion of the school work of 
the higher grades is done at home, where bad lights would 
to a considerable extent counteract the good results which 
might otherwise come from the perfectly constructed school 
room. In Birmingham the residences are not so badly 
crowded as in some of the larger cities and the afternoon 
light should be good, but when the lamps are lighted every 
household is, perhaps, a law unto itself. This question of 
light in the study rooms of the homes is a serious one and 
deserves more attention than is usually devoted to it, and 
the home should co-operate with the school room in the 
preservation of the children's eyes. 



Males. . 58 
Females 59 

Table No, 1. 


Total . 


Vision less than 




Per eont. 


Males. . 54 
Females 39 

Total . 



Table No. 2. 

8 1 

6 1 



Males. . 




Table No. 3. 




Table No. 4. 

Males... 43 
Females 90 








Table No. 5. 

Males... 14 
Females 43 










By IIknry Altamont ^Ioodv, M. D., Springs, 
Counsellor-eloct of the !\Io(lical Association of the Stute of Alnhama. 


J. A. Reeves, M. D., Ciiattaxooca. 


R. M. Cunningham, M. D., Birmingham. 

H. E. Stafford, M. D., New York Polyclinic. 

M. W. Murray, M. D., New DEC.\TrR. 

C. A. Tmuh'EN, M. D., Montgomery. 

\V. E. B. Davis, M. D., Birmingham. 

It is my wish to prcsont, iu this report, sucli facts as I 
hjive been able to collect from the physicians of the state, 
coucorninp; the provalouco of diseases of tlio kidneys durinj:^ 
a specified time, their conclusions as to the best plans of 
treatment, and the statistics of deaths and recoveries under 
those plans, together with such deductions as seem war- 
ranted by the premises. 

I thought it would be an easy task to send out a few hun- 
dred circulars of inquiry, analyze and tabulate the replies, 
and make a creditable report. This, however, has not been 
my experience. The inquiry has developed so many invi- 
ting fields for investigation, the branches threaten to so out- 
spread and overshadow the i)arent stem, that I have finally 
realized that the task of a thorough investigation, analysis 
and report would be one of years, and not of wo«dvS. This 
would bo the case even if the reports from all parts of the 


state were full, accurate aud reliable ; but tlio}^ are not full, 
because, from lack of interest, so many physicians neglect 
to respond to the appeal for information ; tliey are not accu- 
rate, because most of them are taken from memory, or from 
the day-book and ledger, instead of from properly kept 
records ; and tlieir reliability is impugned by the too com- 
mon lack of instruments necessary for exact diagnosis. The 
cases of diseases of the kidneys other than Bright's disease 
have been so sparsely reported, that I have decided to devote 
this paper exclusively to the latter. 

In order to obtain the necessary data, I addressed a cir- 
cular letter of inquiry to the physicians of the state, inclu- 
ding, in the distrilnition, every part of its domain. I espe- 
ciall}' tried to secure reports from the small towns and agri- 
cultural districts, for the country doctor, thrown upon his 
own resources by the difficulty of securing consultation, ac- 
quires, in his unheralded experience, many items of knowl- 
edge concerning diseases and their remedies that would be 
valuable to the profession at large. But though so ready in 
emergency and fertile in resource, he has an overwhelming 
modesty that prevents his proper self-assertion, and no 
amount of persuasion can overcome it. The responses to 
my appeal, therefore, have not been as numerous as I ex- 
pected and desired ; but it has not been entirely fruitless, 
for some of the most interesting information received came 
from the doctors outside of the cities. Before passing from 
this branch of the subject, I desire to express my heartfelt 
gratitude to the physicians of the state who so promptly 
and carefully replied to my inquiries. Their loyalty to the 
profession and their disinterested zeal in working for its ad^ 
vancement illustrates most forcibly those characteristics 
that have enabled our southern physicians so readily to 
take the lead whenever they have elected to labor in metro- 
politan cities. I have mailed between four and five hundred 
letters to different addresses. I have received replies from 
one hundred physicians, representing seventy different 
localities scattered all over the state. Of these one hundred 
physicians, forty report either no cases, or none of which 

lIKiNKV AT.TAMONT M()r)I)Y. 379 

they foel able to give auy intelligible account. About twenty 
stfite that the}' have not had a single case of disease of the 
kidneys during tlie twelve months ending March 1st. This 
is, to me, a noteworthy circumstance. That any physituan 
in regular practice should not see a single case of kidney 
trouble during a twclvonionth Avould l)e worthy of record, 
but some state that they have not had such a case for years. 

One gentleman, writing from a recently l)uilt town, says 
that kidney troubles are exceedingly rare there, and attrib- 
utes the fact to the circumstance that there are none but 
young people in the neighborhood. 

From two different parts of the state comes the reply: 
"Our people drink no whiskey, use no ice, and have no kid- 
ney troubles." Two physicians write from another localit}' 
that in a practice of iwvnty years they do not remember to 
have seen a case of Bright's Disease. They attribute their 
exemption to the exclusive use, by their jieople, of a pecu- 
liar artesian water. It will not do to say these twenty doc- 
tors were all mistaken. Some of them may have been so, 
but not all. Most of them are men of education, experi- 
ence and observation, fully competent to diagnose Bright's 
Disease, and alive to the significance of their report. What- 
ever may be the cause, it seems to be demonstrable that in 
some localities the inhabitants are almost exempt from album- 
inuria, while in other parts of the state the cases arc almost 
alarmingly numerous. To illustrate this latter phase I will 
state that one gentleman, eminent and experienced, reports 
the examination of seventy-five people, not all of them in- 
valids, with the result of finding albumen and casts in one- 
third of all the subjects. AVhether the more fortunate 
exemption mentioned is caused by the geological formation, 
the elevation, the latitude, the water sujiply or the habits 
of the people, I have not been able to decide. It is not im- 
possible that there are environments unfavorable to tho do- 
velo]nnent of ncpliritis, and it is not iniprobabh^ tli.-d those 
same environmonts would be useful adjuncts to any treat- 
ment intended to relieve or cure the disease. 


The statistics I have secured can only be used as a basis 
for a general estimate. One hundred physicians have re- 
ported, but there are eighteen hundred in the state. It is 
entirely within the bounds of probability that this silent 
majority has had, on the average, the same experience with 
Bright's Disease as that of those who reported. Thus, to 
reach an estimate, we must multiply our report by eighteeuj 
all the way through, and the result will approximate the 
truth as nearly as would be apt to be the case had every 
doctor in the state sent in his individual estimate. 

The number of cases of chronic Bright's Disease reported 
is 125, which, multiplied by 18, is 2,250. 

The number of acute cases reported is 115, which, mul- 
tiplied by 18, is 2,070. The Alabama Insane Hospital re- 
ports 700 cases, of which only five per cent, had been 
recognized before the patients reached the institution. 
This leaves 665 more to add to the foregoing amounts, 
making an estimated total of 4,985 cases of Bright's Disease 
recognized in the state during the twelve months ending 
March the first. The census of 1890 places the population 
of Alabama at 1,513,000. Thus we see that if our estimate 
approaches the truth, one citizen of the state out of every 
303 was known to have had albuminuria with tube-casts. 
Of the 125 cases of chronic Bright's Disease only 13 recov- 
eries are reported. There were 52 deaths, and 60 are still 
under treatment. The causes assigned are as follows : 

Exposure, 25 ; LaGrippe, 30; Syphilis, 20; Alcoholism, 16; 
Malaria, 14; Unknown, 20. 

I present here in tabulated form a few plans of treatment 
and their results : 





















Nuinbei- Still 
of Recovered. Died. under 
cases. treatment. 
Ilydrn^o^iiu' cnthartics, ton- 
ics, counter irritants 8 U 8 

Hydrago^ue cathartics, ton- 
ics, diuretics 

Milk diet, abundant water. .. 20 

Hygiene, digitalis, iron 8 

Jaborandi, Pilocarjjin, &.C.. 11 
Digitalis, strycli nine, alkaline 
diuretics with cod liver oil G 

Iron , arsenic, digitalis, citrate 
potash 4 

Mild diuretics, milk diet 10 

Litliiated hydrangea and diet 4 

74 14 26 34 

Other plans were detailed, but the results were about the 
same. Mauy cases, also, were reported, with deaths or re- 
coveries, aud no treatment was mentioned. 

Two circumstances are clearly shown in this little table. 
One is, that the treatment wherein jaborandi or pilocarpin 
figures, is the least successful. The other is the remarkable 
record reported by one physician who uses Cod Liver Oil in 
conjunction with other standard treatment. He reports six 
cases of chronic Bright's Disease, and six recoveries. It is 
to be hoped that this method may bo ecpially successful in 
the hands of other practitioners. As a rule, however, the 
statistics of chronic cases are disheartening. Many will 
sympathize Avith the sorrowful report of one physician who 
had two cases, both of which were fatal. All ho had to say 
about treatment was, "notliing I could do did any good." 
A very ditlerent record is shown by the reports of acute 
Bright's Disease. Out of 115 cases, 95 recovered, 13 died^ 
seven are still under treatment. GO were caused by La- 
Grippe, 19 by malaria, 19 by exposure, 13 by eruptive fevers 
and G by alcoholism. 

The cases seemed to recover under almost any treatment, 
but the greatest mortality was seen where jaborandi or pil- 
ocarpin wore used, it being in such cases 20 per cent. The 


use of chloroform, administered in various vehicles, gave 
uniformily good results in the acute cases. 

A question to which I attached much importance related to 
the number of cases of Bright's Disease, acute or chronic, that 
were accompaned or followed by mental derangement. Only 
20 cases Avere reported, 11 from the chronic and 9 from the 
acute form. It is evident tliat only such derangements as 
amounted to insanity were considered worthy of mention. 
The records of the Insane Hospital at Tuscaloosa show that 
of 1,300 patients examined during the jea^r, over 50 per 
cent, had albuminuria with tube-casts, and the vast majority 
of them had it in the chronic form. 

Without doubt, a more careful observation of the mental 
condition of albuminuric patients by the general practitioner 
would disclose many mental peculiarities hitherto unnoticed, 
which, though not amounting to insanity, diverge very ma- 
terially from the mentality of health. On the other hand, 
the slightest deviation of the mind of a patient from its ac- 
customed habits of thought and expression should lead to 
an immediate analysis of the urine. It seems that the acute 
form of albuminuria is so amenable to treatment, and the 
chronic form is so intractable, that the former should never 
be allowed to merge into the latter without an effort on the 
part of the physician to afford relief while yet it is in his 
power to do so. 

I have been much interested in one fact that this inquiry 
has brought to light. Several physicians have mentioned 
that they have had a number of cases of sickness accompa- 
nied with albuminuria among young negro children, but as 
neither nvimbers nor results were given, I could not use 
them in my estimates. It seems, however, that negro 
children from four to eight years of age are either more 
subject to albuminuria than any other class of people, or 
else they suifer from some disease from which white chil- 
dren are comparatively exempt. 

One gentleman in Wilcox county, whose observations ex- 
tend over a period of twelve years, has favored me with a 
very complete account of the malady. 


It is so exclusively coufiued to negro cliildrcu tliat, where 
it prevails, it is kuowu as "the little nij^ger disease." Ac- 
cording to his observation it never attacks white children, 
even though, as is often the case, their circumstances and 
environment are identical with those of the colored race. 
The children attacked are all between four and eight years 
of age. The iirst noticeable symptons are apathy and a 
craving for warmth. The little patient loses all desire for 
play, and sits stupidly in the sunshine all day long. 
Then within six or eight days from the beginning, the 
feet, legs and face swell up, and general anasarca super- 
venes. The child complains of nothing and wants noth- 
ing but to sit on the cabin steps in the scorching rays 
of the summer sun. There is very little emaciation, even 
when, as is sometimes the case, the effusion disappears. 
The appetite is poor, the urine scanty and loaded with albu- 
men, the pulse 100 to 110, the heart sounds normal, and the 
breathing undisturbed until the effusion encroaches upon 
it. No increase or decrease of temperature is discoverable. 
The bowels are constipated. The tongue is coated with a 
white fur. No pain is present and the child simply fades 
out of life. Sometimes there are a few convulsions at the 
close. The disease generally ends in death in about thirty 
days after its discovery. No treatment seems effectual, and 
almost all the cases die. This high rate of mortality marks 
it as distinct from ordinary acute nephritis, in which there 
is a very hopeful percentage of recoveries. 

It has been suggested that an undetected epidemic i)f some 
eruptive fever might account for its prevalence. This wDuld 
indeed explain some of the circumstances, but the explana- 
tion is precluded by the facts, that the disease has existed 
for many years without much increase or aV)atemeut ; that 
it selects victims frcmi families, the other members of which 
are immune ; aud that surrouudiug white children do not 
take it. Moreover, the peculiar temperature preceding or 
accompanying the acute eruj)tive fev»u-s could not, for so 
many years, have escaped the observation of physicians who 


liavo sliowu tliomsolves so interested aud watchful. I tliink 
the subject merits further investigation. 

The reported results of cases of chronic Bright's disease 
are so generally unfavorable that it seems to me to be the 
duty of every pliysician whose experience has been more 
fortunate, to submit his methods to the association for their 
consideration. For many years I had an unusually Urge 
proportion of kidney troubles under my care, on account of 
being resident physician at certain mineral springs. Unfor- 
tunately, I fell into the careless habit of most country doc- 
tors, and kept no accurate records of my cases. This gen- 
eral conclusion, however, remained with me, and it was 
reached after long observation and much experience ; that 
Bright's disease was either much less unmanageable than it 
was generally considered, or that there was some curative 
element in the mineral water that secured far better results 
than were usually hoped for in such cases. Later develop- 
ments have shown that the latter supposition was correct. 
At first I was inclined to believe the results would have been 
the same had any pure water been used, but numerous ex- 
periments in that direction have convinced me that I was 
mistaken. Moreover, the reputation acquired by the Po- 
land, Bethesda and Eureka waters demonstrates the fact 
that though chemical analysis may fail to account for the 
therapeutical effects of certain mineral waters, those effects 
are undenialjle. The recoveries under the use of these wa- 
ters are facts that can not be gainsaid. A generation ago 
the brilliant Trousseau recognized the efficacy of this class 
of mineral waters, and the futility of attempting to imitate 
them or account for their effects. In Cormack's translation 
of Trousseau's Therapeutics, Volume 2, page 400, he says : 
"Distrust the theories of the laboratory. Remember the re- 
mark of my honorable scientific friend, Dr. Lasigue, to the 
effect that though chemistry is capable of rendering to 
medicine the most important services, the chemist goes be- 
yond his legitimate sphere when he draws clinical inferen- 
ces from the experiments of the laboratory ; and that chem- 
istry does not approach any nearer to medicine when teach- 


ing tlio art of preparing and analyzing medicine, than it 
approaches painting when it furnishes fixed and durable 
colors. This proposition, true in respect to the general ar- 
ticles of the materia medica, is especially true of mineral 
waters, although for them chemistry is endeavoring more 
than ever to monopolize the right of explanation, and to 
constitute itself the decisive judge. Whatever may bo said 
to the contrary, mineral waters are not simple medicines. 
Whatever may be the mineral element which analysis shows 
to predominate, that element does not act alone. By asso- 
ciating quantities more or less notable of very various prin- 
ciples which the chemist can isolate, as well as others which 
havQ not yet been discovered, nature has given to the min- 
eral element a something which we seek every day to imi- 
tate in our prescriptions, when we endeavor to increase or 
diminish the effect of a particular medicine by associating 
with it other medicines. In^ taking into account, however, 
the particular effect of this or that ingredient of mineral 
waters, we can not attribute them to a single principle, how- 
ever dominant chemical analysis may show it to be. It is 
by clinical experience alone that we can arrive at a correct 
judgment on this point." 

The above quotation is introduced to show that the idea, 
prevalent among many physicians, that one water is as good 
as another if it is only pure, has been weighed in the bal- 
ance and found wanting, not only by a vast number of mod- 
ern practitioners, but also by those brilliant lights of a past 
generation, whose precise observations and impressive dic- 
tion are models worthy of our emulation. 

There can be no infallible cure for chronic Bright's dis- 
ease. It is too often but the manifestation of a distant 
pathological process that is beyond the reach of medicine. 
In a large proportion of the cases, however, there is good 
gi'ound for hope tliat therapeutic measures may stay the 
process and arrest the disease. 

Though destroyed tissue may not be restored, yet if the 
destruction is stopped a man can live for years in comfort, 


aud even in apparently robust health, with his urine so 
loaded with albumen that it consolidates in the test tube and 
will not run out when it is inverted. 

No invariable plan of treatment can be formulated. I 
have found the most satisfactory results, however, from the 
exhibition of some form of Basham's mixture, a moderate 
diet of corn bread, butter and buttermilk, and the profuse 
drinking of the alkaline-diuretic mineral waters. Where 
there is much effusion into the tissues, I generally reduce 
it with large doses of Epsom salts and cream tartar, admin- 
istered about twice a week. When the water has accumu- 
lated in the cavities, paracentesis has been the easiest and 
least disturbing means of relief. There is no more safe or 
simple operation, and the fluid removed by it, not being in 
the circulation but as much outside as it would be in the 
patient's pocket, causes no debility whatever. I use a small 
instrument, with the patient lying down, and do not allow 
him to sit up for twenty-four hours. There is a condition 
which I have learned to consider a reason for not operating. 
When the tissues over the selected point are swollen and 
spongy with water, so that they pit upon pressure, I refrain. 
I have seen uncontrollable leakage, ulceration of the wound, 
and severe inflammation of surrounding tissues supervene 
under such circumstances. The preparations of jaborandi, 
so useful in some forms of effusion, I have found positively 
prejudicial in these cases. Any excitement or exertion, 
mental or physical, should be carefully avoided. I have 
seen a game of chess cause a relapse. The patient being a 
doctor, thought there must be some other cause, and when 
he got better tried it again, with the same result. A gentle, 
quiet environment should be provided, in which an equable 
warmth is maintained. If able to go about, the patient will 
do better for a little out-of-door exercise in pleasant weather. 
It has naturally been my habit to use the Bailey Springs 
water as a certain diluent and diuretic, but I have no doubt 
there are other waters in Alabama equally efficient. That 
I am unacquainted with them is simply because this one has 
been convenient and satisfactory. In this connection, I take 


the liberty of (^notinjr from a letter recently received from 
our eminent confrere, Dr. M. C. Baldridge, of Huntsville. 
After answering my letter of inqniry, lie added in a kindly 
manner some information gleaned in his recent visit to Wau- 
kesha, and closed with tlio following statement : "Allow me 
to say in this connection, that but for the superior advan- 
tages of climate during summer, the waters of Waukesha 
have no advantage whatever over Bailey Springs ; nor do I 
believe they are equal to Bailey in the matter of elimination 
direct, nor where the alterative effects on the organic func- 
tions generally are concerned. Having been acquainted with 
the effects of the water for forty years, I am constrained to 
believe what I have here stated." 

Under the simple plan of treatment herein indicated, 
modified of course to suit individual cases, I have been ac- 
customed to expect favorable results in an encouraging pro- 
portion of the cases. I do not believe I overstep the bound 
of accuracy when I estimate that the disease is arrested in 
nearly half the cases. I believe the proportion of recover- 
ies would be still larger if the disease w'ere earlier recognized, 
and the pathological progress arrested before the destruc- 
tion of the kidneys progressed to an extent incompatible 
with continued existence. The reports from all parts of the 
state are unreliable as statistics, but they are trustworthy 
to this extent ; they show that there are a great many people 
in the state who have Bright's disease ; that the acute stage 
is far more amenable to treatment tlian the chronic form, 
and that it is tlie duty of ever}'' physician to carefully exam- 
ine the urine of all patients suffering from obscure maladies. 
The test tube and the microscope are as indispeusible to 
the armament of the physician as the thermometer and hy- 
podermic syringe. 



By Edwin Leslie Mareciial, M. D., 

Senior Counsellor of the Medical Association of the Sta,te of 

discussed by 

Edward Henry Sholl, M. D., Birmingham, 

John Daniel Sinkler Davis, M. D., Birmingham. 

James Henry McCarty, M. D., Birmingham, 

Russell McWhorter Cunningham, M. D., Birmingham. 

Ella E. Barnes, M. D., Birmingham. 

Reuben Henry Duggar, M. D., Gallion. 

Powhatan G. Trent, M. D., Rock Mills. 

The destruction of the foetus in utero is not, as might be 
inferred, of modern introduction, since frequent references 
to it may be found in the history of all the nations of antiquity, 
with the possible exception of the Jews. During the middle 
ages it was common throughout Europe, and is said to prevail 
largely to-day among the Mohammedans, Chinese, Japanese 
and Hindoos. In fact, wherever a nation's ethical concep- 
tions are low, we may expect to find this crime prevalent. 
The disinclination so evident at the present time, on the 
part of women, to assume the responsibilities of maternity, 
and the lowered moral status of society contribute to its 
prevalence, and are important factors in its continued per- 
petration. There are very few physicians, especially if 
residing in populous communities, who have not been solic- 
itously appealed to, and urged by every inducement to per- 
petrate this criminal act. Our people, in too many instances, 


have no adequate apprelionsiou that the fccuudated ovum is 
a livinj:; entity ; hence they tacitly condone an act which 
under more intelligent information they would unqualifiedly 


Medically an abortion may be defined to be the expulsion 
of tlie ovum or fcctus prior to the attainment of viability, 
which occurs at the end of the sixth month of utero-gesta- 
tion. The law, however, recognizes no such restricted appli- 
cation of the term, for criminal abortion consists of any act 
calculated to prevent a child being born alive at any period 
of its uterine existence before maturity has been attained. 
From the moment that conception occurs until the advent 
of the term is the same legally, and whoever commits any 
act tending to the destruction of the embrj-o is liable to the 
penalties aflixed to the law's infraction. 

The beneficent influence of the law has been thrown 
around the child born alive, and attaches the crime of mur- 
der to any one who destroys it. Not so in the case of the 
fecundated ovum, instinct as it is with life, and endowed 
with all the possibilities of an extended existence. Under 
the common law the destruction of the life of the unborn 
child was not a crime, provided the consent of the mother 
was first obtained, and quickening had not occurred. If 
quickening had occurred, even then it was not a felony. So- 
ciety, however, revolted at a doctrine so pernicious in its 
tendencies, and at present we have in all the states statutory 
provisions which, if rigidly enforced, would insure its com- 
plete suppression. I^nfortunately, in mast instances, tlie 
abortionist pursues his calling in secret, and sufticient 
})r(^()f can not be obtained to secure his conviction in tlie 

In some of the states, notably Pennsylvania, to commit 
abortion, except inr the i»urpose of saving the life of the 
mother, is a felony, while in our own state, our law-makers. 


through au apparent misapprehension of the enormity of 
the offense, have made it merely an uuhi.wful act — a misde- 

Section 4022 of the Criminal Code of Alabama says : "Any 
person avIio wilfully administers to any pregnant woman any 
drug or substance, or uses or employs any instrument, or 
other means, to procure her miscarriage, unless the same is 
necessary to preserve her life, and done for that purpose, 
must on conviction be fined not more than five hundred dol- 
lars, and also be imprisoned in the county jail, or sentenced 
to hard labor for the county for not less ^than three, nor 
more than twelve months," 

A careful examination of this statute will be of interest, 
for notwithstanding the fact that I have instituted the most 
diligent search, I have been unable to find that our Supreme 
Court has ever been called on to interpret it. I am, there- 
fore, induced to believe that should the highest judicial tri- 
bunal of our state be forced to render a decision under it, 
they would be largely influenced by the precedents estab- 
lished by like judicial bodies elsewhere. 

The first element necessary under the statute to consti- 
tute the crime is wilfullness — that is, the act must be per- 
petrated with the intent to procure a miscarriage. The intent 
and not the act constitutes the crime. In the administra- 
tion of a drug to bring about an abortion the crime is com- 
plete even though the medicine be not administered by the 
hand of the accused.— (R. v. Harley, 4 C. & P. 370.) In a 
reported case it was proved that the woman requested the 
prisoner to get her something to produce miscarriage, and 
that a drug was both given by the prisoner and taken by 
the woman with that intent, but that the taking was not in 
the presence of the prisoner. It was held, nevertheless, 
that the prisoner had caused the drug to be taken within 
the meaning of the statute. — (R. v. Wilson, Dears & B., 
C. C. 127.) 

Therefore, to prescribe any agent for the purpose of procu- 
ring a miscarriage is in contravention of the law, and in- 
criminates the person prescribing it. Furthermore, the 


mere belief of the existence of pregnancy is siifficiut to jus- 
tify the inference of intent — (Powers v. State, 48 N. J. L. 34.) 

In some of the states the woman, if she commits any act 
for the purpose of inducing an abortion on herself, is amena- 
ble for violation of the law, but after a careful examination 
of our statute, I tliiuk it questionable whether an indictment 
under such circumstances would be valid. 

The law while general in its enumeration of the methods 
prohibited is for all practical purposes specific, for it not 
only says, "any drug or substance, or instrument," but, as if 
appreciating the fact that evasion of its penalties might re- 
sult from resort to some unusual procedure, it is made more 
emphatic by the addition of the words, "or other means," 
thereby making anything used for the purpose of inducing 
a miscarriage unlawful. It will, therefore, be readily ap- 
prehended that ample provision has been made for any con- 
tingency that may arise, and no opportunity exists for a 
utilization of any means, for the purpose specified, which 
would enable the abortionist to escape the penalty which 
the law provides for its violation. 

As I have already stated, I can find after careful investi- 
gation, no record of a judicial case of this character in the 
state, hence the absence of available data renders a discus- 
sion of the subject in the restricted sense implied in the 
title to this paper an impossibility. I am, therefore, con- 
strained to believe that its consideration from a general 
medico-legal standpoint might be of interest, and result, 
possibly, in a better enforcement of the law. I earnestly 
trust that such a digression from the presumed original ])ur- 
pose of my paper may not come in coufiict with the regula- 
tions of this association, or trangress in any manner the 
proprieties of this occasion. 

Tlie means used to accomplish an abortion are of the most 
diverse character, and, in many instances display an amount 
of ingenuity worthy of a better purpose. Among the more 
ignorant of those who practice this criminal act, drugs such 
as savin, ergot, cotton root, tansy and pennyroyal are made 
use of. These agents belong to that class of medicines 


knowu as abortifacients, as they are supposed to possess the 
power to stimulate tlie uterine muscular fibres to contraction. 
They are so familiar to all of us that their elaborate discus- 
sion would consume more time than their importance would 
justify. Among those who make use of drugs of the char- 
acter mentioned, resort is frequently had to instruments of 
the crudest nature, such as knitting needles, crochet needles 
and lead pencils. Several years since, I had a patient to in- 
form me that she never expected to have a child so long as 
she could obtain a lead pencil, and only recently, I ascer- 
tained that in one case an abortion was induced by the in- 
troduction into the uterus, by the woman herself, of the 
nozzle of a uterine douche, and the injection of a small quan- 
tity of water. The purpose of these procedures is to break 
up the ovum, and institute uterine contractions so as to se- 
cure its expulsion. The use of instruments such as I have 
mentioned is attended with no inconsiderable danger on ac- 
count of the possibility of penetration of the softened uterine 
tissues, and a resultant fatal peritonitis. 

Among the more intelligent of those who j)ursue this 
nefarious avocation, such crude measures are rarely resorted 
to, since by the use of rapid dilitation of the cervix and 
emptying of the uterine contents their purpose is more eas- 
ily accomplished. But even then, the woman on account of 
the traumatism inflicted is more liable, than under normal 
conditions, to septic infection with all of its attendant evils. 

The question now naturally arises, what is the legal status 
of the abortionist in the case of the death of the woman ? 
A priori it might be inferred that a charge of murder could 
be sustained, but under the law in this state, the necessary 
ingredient of malice would not exist, hence it is extremely 
questionable whether a greater crimination could be made 
out than manslaughter. 

AVhile it is mortifying to be forced to concede that regular 
medical men ever engage in such criminal practices, yet un- 
fortunately, in too many instances, such is the case. Regu- 
lar institutions presided over by men who have received a 
regular medical education, exist in many of the larger cities 


of this country and the work of the criminal abortionists is 
prosecuted in defiance of law and morals. The mere fact 
that they escape punishment does not negative their exist- 
ence, but indicates that the moral element of the community 
either i<j;norantly disregards or intentionall}^ tolerates them. 

The oidy extenuation which the law recognizes hn- the 
perpetration of an abortion is to preserve the life of the 
woman, and for that purpose alone. Our law makers in the 
enactment of the statute impose great confidence in, and re- 
sponsibility upon the practitioner, for upon his personal judg- 
ment will depend largely the necessity for such a procedure. 
A trust of this character should not be lightly assumed, and 
the obligations which it imposes should be discharged in 
the most conscientious manner. In many instances where 
a first impulse might suggest a necessity for the destruction 
of the child, subsequent reflection, and consultation with 
anotlier member of the profession, might lead to conclusions 
widely at variance with those originally assumed. 

It is conceded that there are disorders of the kidneys or 
the heart, or degenerations of the ovum — myoma of the 
chorion and polyhydramnios — and rarely instances of gravid 
nausea where the necessity for the destruction of the embr^'o, 
in order to preserve the life of the mother is imperative, but, 
in my opinion, the time has passed in the histoiy of medi- 
cine when pelvic deformities can furnish justification for a 
craniotomy. I make this statement in view of the gratifying 
success which has attended the C:T;sarian section, and its 
modifications, and of symphyseotomy as recently introduced 
in this country. As indicating the comparitivel}' innocent 
character of the latter operation the statistics of Morisaiii 
this year, in fifty-five operations show a maternal mortalitv 
of only 3.5 per cent, and an infantile mortality of only 5.5 per 
cent. In one hundred and ninety-six operations performed 
up to date, there is a nKU-tality of ten per cent. Upon this 
subject a recent writer has said : Symphyseotomy assumes 
a position between high forceps delivery, version and C.i'sa- 
rian section, and comiietes with craniotmuy and induced 
premature labor. The maternal mortality from craniotomy 


aud symphyseotomy do not differ materially, (7.5 per cent, 
for craniotomy and 9 per cent, for symphyseotomy) while 
the combined mortality of symphyseotomy is 37.80 per cent, 
lower than that of craniotomy. It seems, therefore, that 
symphyseotomy ought to take the place of craniotomy in all 
cases in which Uie child is alive. As the life of the mother 
is always of more importance than that of the unborn child, 
induced premature lahor will unquestionably on account of its 
low maternal mortality, — two per cent. — still be preferred 
to symphyseotomy in most cases where the diagnosis of nar- 
row pelvis is made during pregnancy. The high foetal mor- 
tality of induced labor, — 35. 3 per cent.— will, however, make 
symphyseotomy more and more preferrable the more its 
maternal mortality is lessened.* 

The danger from these operations — Caesarian section and 
physiotomy, — has under aseptic and antiseptic precautions 
been so greatly lessened, and the operative manoevers so 
simplified, that they are now within the reach of all intelli- 
gent medical men. No one who has given the subject in- 
telligent consideration can avoid the conclusion that, in the 
past the life of the foetus has been frequently sacrificed, 
where more rational methods would have averted such a 
catastrophe. The time, in my opinion, is not far distant 
when craniotomy upon living children will have fallen into 
innocuous desuetude, and the physician who raises his voice 
in advocacy of it in such instances, will be subjected to in- 
vidious criticism. 

To the practitioner there are two questions of vital im- 
portance involved in a call to attend a case upon whom an 
abortion has been attempted, and which therefore demand 
his earnest consideration. 

1. What personal risk does he assume? 

2. What moral or legal obligation does he incur? 

1. The only risk assumed in attendance upon such a case 
is involved in the possibility of rendering himself liable un- 
der certain contingencies to prosecution as jj«r^/ceps crimi- 

*Sanber, N. Y. Journal of Gynecalogy and Obstetrics, VoL IV, 
No. 4, p. 478, 1894. 


nis. This may arise from tlio eftbrts of a desiguiug and 
unscrupulous patieut to extort mouey. While under ordi- 
nary circunistaucos, owing to the fact that such patients are 
anxious to conceal from public scrutiny their own acts, he 
is reasonably safe from all apprehension, he should never 
ignore the possibility of being placed in such an embarrass- 
ing position, with all the mortifying publicity growing out 
of a black-mail suit. 

In order to anticipate such a culmination, it is his duty, 
in every case of a grave nature, to associate with himself in 
its management a brother practitioner, who wall be an in- 
superable obstacle to any of the machinations of a self-con- 
fessed accomplice. 

2. The moral obligations incurred by the practitioner 
are not only of momentous importance, but in some in- 
stances apparently conflicting. The secrets committed by 
patients to their physicians are of a sacred nature, and rare- 
ly do circumstances arise which would justify him in violat- 
ing the confidence reposed in him. But on the other hand, 
he should remember that his obligations are dual, that is, 
to his patient, and also to society. Regardless of the fact 
that communications of patients to their medical attend- 
ants are not privileged in this state, it is extremely ques- 
tionable, whether any member of this Association could be 
found, who would be deterred from respecting the contidenco 
reposed in him, and who would not disregard all apprehen- 
sions of commitment to jail for contempt. No human being 
is justly entitled to greater execration than the physician 
who fails to appreciate the confidential relations which ho 
boars to his patients, and who gives publicity t(^ revelations 
which he has received in the confessional of the sick room. 
But in the matter under discussion, he is confronted by an 
atrocious crime, a crime which is in direct contravention of 
human and divine law, and which it is his paramount duty 
as a citizen to endeavor to suppress. No preconceived, and 
often false, notions of professional obligation should induce 
him to disregard the imperative demands of his duty to so- 
ciety. To remain silent, cognizant of the perpetration of a 


crimiual act will contributo to its coutinuance, aucl onliaucos 
the prosperity of the iiuscrupulous agent wlio wantonly 
traffics in human life. In some instances, however, the in- 
terests of a family, of an entire community, demand that his 
lips be sealed. It is therefore extremely difficult to recon- 
cile such conflicfcinp; interests and no rule can be laid down 
of universal applicability. I am, however, of the opinion 
that wherever there is any probability of the death of the 
patient, the physician should in the interest of society com- 
municate his findings to the legal authorities leaving to them 
the investigation of the facts. But with this object in view, 
he should never by solicitation extort all the facts from pa- 
tients, as his position only demands that he ascertain suf- 
ficient upon which to base a rational mode of treatment. I 
question very much the value of a dying declaration under 
such circumstances, unless an allegation of homicide has 
been made. Whatever the conclusions that a physician may 
arrive at in cases of this character, one thing is self-evident, 
namely, no justification can ever exist for a fraudulent death 

It is a sad reflection upon the boasted intellectual and 
moral enlightenment of the age that any intelligent com- 
munity would tolerate the criminal abortionist with any 
greater degree of consideration than it accords him who by 
force violates the chastity of a woman, and yet in almost 
every populous community men may be found who prosti- 
tute a noble calling in the perpetration of an act, which 
should be repugnant to every educated conscience. The 
medical profession alone cannot suppress it. Such men 
when known or suspected, are under the ban of the jDro- 
fession, and cannot affiliate with any reputable medical or- 
ganization. Then what is our duty in the limited sphere of 
action which we occupy? To exercise all our influence to 
bring the guilty to judgment — to fix the guilt where it prop- 
erly belongs, and by the power of the law, to demonstrate 
that we are in harmony with the spirit of that Divine in- 
unction which says "Thou shalt not kill." 


There is a necessity in Alabama for a law on t-rirainal 
abortion wliich recop;iiizos tlui lioinonsness of the olFense, 
and which administers to tho man or woman who perpetrates 
it puuishment commensurate with its enormity. To destroy 
the unborn child, a misdemeanor, while to deprive one that 
has been born of life, a murder. Why this disparity in the 
degree of criminality? A law exact and just in its nature 
would bo similar to that found on the statute book of Penn- 
sylvania, which makes abortion a felony, punishable by fine 
and imprisonment for from three to seven years. With an 
enactment of this character, our state would recognize the 
criminal nature of the offense, and contribute largely to its 
suppression. Let it no longer be said that our law makers 
attach no value to the human embryo, and liave provided no 
adequate punishment for its destruction. May I not enter- 
tain a reasonable hope that tliis Association, charged as it is 
with the supervision of the public health, and with the pro- 
tection of human life, will exert its influence in securing the 
enactment of a law so severe in its penalties, so broad in its 
application as will effectually suppress a crime so wide 
spread, and so inimical to the moral advancement of so- 
ciety. * 

Elt,a E. Barnes, M. D., Birmingham. 

The revulati(;ns of Dr. Marechal's scholarly paper upon 
the condition of the laws of Alabama relative to criminal 
al)ortion, are a matter of surprise to me, and lam decidiully 
in favor of a revision of same. It may do sonn-t/iiixj, but I 
believe the solution lies largely in the hands of the profes- 

Every woman has some medical advisor in whom she con- 
fides, and it is for n.s to use those opportunities to olovato 
the moral standard of womanhood in regard to tlie subject 
under discussion. 

* I desire to pxprrss my ackmiwlcd^mi'iit of a p.-ipfr on criniinal 
nhortioii hy Win. II. I'arisli, M. 1)., which appt-Jirt'tl in the riiiludcl- 
phia Medical cS: Surgical lioportcr for April L'Olli, 1693. 


It is for us to remove from the minds of tlie laity the false 
idea that destruction of the impregnated ovum is not as 
«n-cat a crime as that of the "quickened" foetus, and also to 
impress upon the woman that feet icide is as criminal as infan- 
ticide . 

I have been astonished at the number of these importu- 
nities that I have had presented to me, and when I appealed 
to one, who seemed to be more than usually intelligent, for 
the reason of her coming to me, she said, "because you arc a 
ivoman, and I trusted you would feel more deeply for me 
than any man could ; but if I can not get an operation per- 
formed, I shall do it myself." 

I held up the clinical picture of the latter — of pain, of 
danger of invading other viscera, of retained products of 
conception, putrefaction, sepsis and untold sequela), and 
possible permanent impairment of health, then of the for- 
mer course, probable hemorrhage, exhaustion and death, 
besides exposure, the disgrace of it, and above all the dual 

She told me tearfully that she never knew before it was 
so full of danger and sin, and promised me she would com- 
plete her pregnancy naturally, as bravely as she could. 

I believe this is one way to subdue this growing evil 

Dr. John Daniel Sinkler Davis 

Said that physicians, as a rule, too often, by lack of emphasis 
against the wrongs of abortions, seemingly wink at and fail 
to exert that power against an evil that is world-wide. He 
said that Dr. Marechal's paper was a fine one and that he 
felt that discussions on this subject ought to result in good. 
Not until the reading of this paper did he know that crim- 
inal abortion was not a capital offense. He had been taught 
by the legal profession that it was murder in the first de- 
gree, and he regretted that it was made no greater offense 
by the laws of Alabama than a misdemeanor. While he 
did not think that legislation would ever do much towards 


correcting this great evil, lie felt that it would be an aid in 
the interest of that class of helpless beings, wliose lives are 
largely in keeping of the profession. He thought the great- 
est good would bo attained by appealing to the moral and 
better natures of parents, especially mothers. In fact, it 
should be the part of the education of every woman tliat to 
destroy her oli'-sj^ring is murder in the highest sense and 
more wicked in the sight of God than the deliberate shoot- 
ing of an individual from ambush. Never, until mothers 
realize this, and that they are ever in the sight of God's all- 
seeing eye, and will be held accountable for these terrible 
offenses, will we be able to counteract and control this hor- 
rible sin. He said that he was personally grateful to the 
doctor for bringing this subject before the Association, and 
hoped it would be kept l)efore the people, until every abor- 
tionist in our state would be routed. 



By William Glassell Somerville, M. D. Tuscaloosa. 
Member of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama. 

When requested to prepare a paper on this subject, I ac- 
cepted the honor with a full knowledge of my total inability 
to contribute anything original to existing literature ; and 
in its presentation I give a resume of some of the more im- 
portant results abstracted from recent writers. 

No surgeon or physician of to-day who claims to be abreast 
with the times, can refuse to accept bacteriology as a sci- 
ence, the progress and perfection of which during recent 
years, mark a brilliant epoch in the history of medicine. 
The progress in antiseptic and aseptic surgery ; the devel- 
opment of the science of hygiene, and the thorough organi- 
zation of sanitary boards all over our country for the pre- 
vention of diseases; advancement in the etiology and pa- 
thology of disease, and a scientific therepeusis as opposed 
to empiricism, — are the outgrowths of this new science, and 
follow in her wake with their wonderful results ; and to-day, 
a chair of bacteriology is incorporated in nearly every med- 
ical school in this country, and bacteriological laboratories, 
scarcely inferior to those abroad, have been recently estab- 
lished in this country. 

If, in the discussion of this subject, we present many facts, 
which are not new to you, you Mall know that we do so on 
account of their great importance. During the past ten 
years only one important pathogenic micro-organism has 
been discovered, viz.: the bacillus of epidemic influenza, in 
1892, by Pf eiffer of Berlin, and independently by Canon during 
the same year. The era is past when a new species of "mi- 
crobe can be plucked from every sunbeam." And yet won- 


derful advancement in this science has been made during 
recent years, — organisms, which were once thouglit to be the 
same, are now found to vary in their pathogenic power, — 
micro-organisms, which have been considered different, are 
now discovered to be the same, the chemical products of the 
various pathogenic bacteria, called pfomainrs, have been 
studied and analyzed, and the symptoms and pathological 
changes, produced in susceptible animals by inoculation 
with pure baterial cultures and filtrates containing the dif- 
ferent ptomaines, have been accurately noted and systemat- 
ized ; the causes of natural and acquired immunity against 
infectious diseases have been investigated, and are being 
put to practical use for the prevention and cure of some of 
the diseases caused by pathogenic micro-organisms ; and 
the prevention of contagious and infectious diseases by iso- 
lation, disinfection, and systematic hygiene has been so per- 
fected, that we have reason to hope that such diseases will 
be eventually eradicated. We all appreciate to-day how 
much more scientific and practical the prevention of disease 
is than the cure. How many hundreds of infants' lives are 
annually saved by knowing that the intestinal and gastric 
disorders of these little ones are of bacterial origin and due 
to the ingestion of food contaminated with bacteria and 
their poisonous products, the j^ti'Viaines? How many more 
adult lives will be preserved when not only the members 
of the medical profession, but the people in general recog- 
nize the fact tliat tuberculosis is contagious, and is obtained 
by the inhalation of dried tubercular sputum in the form of 
dust, or sometimes by the ingestion of milk from tubercular 
cows? Wg know the necessity of giving only sterilized 
food to infants, and, if during the summer mouths their 
mouths are frequently cleaned with mild antiseptics, so that 
the sterilized food is not reinfected in its passage to the 
stomach, we can most eftectually prevent those infantile dis- 
eases. We know the importance of collecting and destro}'- 
ing the sputa of tubercular patients, and, as long as the 
sputum is moist, the bacilli are harmless, but that in dried 


sputum not exposed to sunliglit, they will be viable after 
seven or eight months. In all general hospitals, patients 
with pulmonary tuberculosis are isolated, and in some cities 
registration of all tubercular patients is being required. 
We know that typhoid fever comes from the ingestion of 
drink or food infected with the typhoid bacillus ; or rarely 
by the inhalation of dust, infected with the excreta of ty- 
phoid patients, lodging in the mouth and afterwards washed 
down by drink. We know that the spread of cholera can 
be absolutely prevented by a thorough system of isolation 
of those suffering with this disease, and the disinfection of 
their stools, clothing, bedding, and the houses occupied by 
them ; and by requiring others to sterilize all food and drink 
by heat, and to sterilize their hands before eating. The 
recent importation of cholera into New York and the effect- 
ual prevention of its spread, illustrate the perfected system 
of hygiene, which owes its advance to bacteriology. 

It has been found that flies are frequent carriers of infec- 
tion in such diseases as typhoid fever, Asiatic cholera and 
tuberculosis, for by feeding on the excreta or sputum of 
these diseases they are themselves infected, or more proba- 
bly small infected particles cling to their legs and bodies, 
and are thus conveyed by them to articles of food and drink. 
It was observed, that the majority of the cases of cholera 
which occurred in New York City during the summer of 
1892, was among butchers, and supposed to be due to the 
fact that the meat was infected by flies, and that the dealers 
after handling the meat conveyed infection to the mouth. 

Only such bacteria as are pathogenic to man concern us as 
physicians ; and when we investigate the biological charac- 
teristics of microbic life, we discover that some are animal 
cells, while others are vegetable cells ; some require oxygen 
for their development {aerobic), while others do not develop 
when this gas is present (anaerobic), and in this latter class we 
find bacilli of tetanus, malignant oedema, and symptomatic 
anthrax ; some have their natural habitat in the animal body 
and require for their development a living host (parasites), 
and others develop outside the body (saprophytes), while 


many live and develop either in the animal organism or out- 
side— /acw/a^tve parcwiVes — and faculative sapropJnjfcs. 

All known pathogenic bacteria are destroyed by ten min- 
utes exposure to moist heat of 140-' F., and all spores are 
rapidly destroyed at the temperature of boiling water. 
Desiccation is fatal to some forms of pathogenic bacteria 
especially the spirillum of cholera, the vitality of which 
however, in the moist state, is preserved for a long time — 
several months. 

The bacillus of typhoid fever, the tubercle bacillus, and 
diptheria bacillus in a dessicated state, preserve their vital- 
ity for several months. Light has a restraining influence 
upon nearly all bacteria and direct sunlight is rapidly fatal 
to some ; and Koch in his experiments finds that tubercle 
bacillus is destroyed by direct sunlight, in from a few min- 
utes to a few hours. From this fact we would infer that 
there is no danger from the inhalation of dried tubercular 
sputum which has been exposed to the rays of the sun, 
but that the danger exists in sputum which has been expec- 
torated in rooms, and places Avhere the direct sunlight has 
little access ; diffused sunlight, however, has the same efi'ect, 
though requiring a much longer time. 

Great progress was made when Koch introduced his 
method of making bacterial cultures in solid media and on 
gelatin plates, for by these methods the colonies of the dif- 
ferent micro-organisms can be separated and pure cultures 
readily obtained. This is of great value in making a diag- 
nosis in doubtful cases of certain of the infectious diseases. 
To determine whether a suspected case is one of cholera, a 
sterilized bouillon or gelatin plate is inoculated from the 
excreta, and if the spirillum of cholera is present, the colony 
is seen as a wrinkled film on the surface of the culture me- 
dium, and appears after ten or twelve hours. This wrinkled 
appearance is ver}- characteristic of this organism. Stern- 
berg makes a simple test for its detection by adding a small 
quantity of sulphuric acid to a bouillon culture containing 
peptone, when a roddisli-violct color is produced. lu a 
doubtful case of diptheria, a sterilized tube containing the 


proper solid medium, is inoculated with material from the 
throat of the case in question; the colonies of diptheria 
bacillus develop in much shorter time than the other forms 
of micro-organisms present, and after twenty-four hours, are 
seen on the surface of the culture medium, presenting the 
characteristic appearance, — a grayish white film, round and 

The pathogenic power of bacteria is found by injecting 
pure culture in the blood and organs of susceptible animals. 

The "attenuation of virulence," or the modification of cul- 
tures in such a way as to render them innocuous, or nearly 
so, when injected into susceptible animals, has opened up a 
field for investigation which promises marvelous results. 
This attenuation of virus may be accomplished by exposing 
the cultures to certain physical or chemical agents, in de- 
grees and proportions just below that which would cause 
their destruction. Pasteur found that exposure to air for a 
longtime would produce a modification of the culture, which, 
when injected into susceptible animals would cause a mild 
form of the disease; and that cultures of the anthrax bacil- 
lus, when exposed for several days to a temperature of 42 C, 
produced an "attenuated virus," which, injected into sus- 
ceptible animals, protects them against the disease. Stern- 
berg* has proved that when bacilli are subjected to anti- 
septics, which are not strong enough to destroy their 
vitality, their virulence will be modified. As a general law 
it is found that the virulence of micro-organisms is restored 
or increased by successive inoculations in susceptible ani- 
mals, and diminished by successive inoculations or cultiva- 
tions in the blood of immune animals, and it is an estab- 
lished fact that the blood serum has a germicidal action on 
pathogenic bacteria which is more marked with the blood 
of immune animals than with that of susceptible ones. The 
question of immunity, natural and acquired, against infec- 
tious diseases has been thoroughly investigated during the 
past few years. The lower animals are insusceptible to 
certain of the specific diseases of man, such as typhoid 

♦Manual of Bacteriology : Sternberg. 


fever, syphilis, and Asiatic cholera, and vice versa, man is 
immune against certain diseases of the lower animals ; but 
there are some diseases which are common to man and ani- 
mal, viz: tuberculosis, anthrax and glanders, though the 
carnivora, as a rule, are insusceptible to tuberculosis. That 
the horbivora are more susceptible to infectious diseases 
than carnivora is ascribed by Sternberg'^ to the law of "nat- 
ural selection;" for, as he states, during ages past the car- 
nivora have fed upon the dead bodies of animals, many of 
which have died from infectious diseases, or their bodies 
have undergone putrefactive changes, and while fighting 
over their prey, they have inoculated each other and con- 
tracted various infectious diseases, and according to the law 
of "survival of the fittest," the ones which had more "vital 
resistance" would escape from death, while others would 
succumb to the attacks of the micro-organisms. Those 
which survive transmit this iususcej^tility to their offspring, 
who in turn transmit their immunity, which increases with 
each succeeding generation. We have also race immunity 
and susceptibility ; thus, smallj)ox is more fatal with negroes 
than with the Caucasian race, while the former have consid- 
erable immunit}^ against yellow fever. 

Syphilis is now much less severe among those races which 
have been subjected to the influence of its virus for genera- 
tions, while if introduced among a new population, its rava- 
ges are very great. A remarkable case of race immunity is 
seen among Algerian sheep,* which are insusceptible to 
anthrax, a disease ordinarily so fatal to all cattle. 

The mode of action of bacteria varies with the different 
species ; some have a purely local action, and produce no 
systemic infection or disturl^ance ; others, while remaining 
at the point of inoculation or entrance into the body, pro- 
duce certain animal poisons, — ptomaines and toxalbumins, 
which are absorbed and produce definite symptoms witli 

•Sternberg gives the following definitions of these terms: "A 
in!ici)-so:!ii is u defensive i)roteid found in the body of a norniHl ani- 
mal, which has the power of destrojing bacteria." 


frequently fatal results, and we have diptheria, tetanus and 
Asiatic cholera as examples of this kind ; there are other 
diseases, as typhoid fever and septicaemia, in which the bac- 
teria infest the surrounding tissues, and enter certain organs, 
or even get into the general circulation. The blood of cows 
with pulmonary tuberculosis has been found in some cases 
to produce tuberculosis in guinea pigs, when injected in the 
abdominal cavity. Many of the ptomaines have been isola- 
ted, their chemical formulae obtained, and their theraj^eutic 
action discovered by injecting them into living animals. 
While some of these animal alkaloids are decomposed by a 
temperature below the boiling point, others are unaltered 
by boiling. Tyrofoxlcon, which is very poisonous, is pro- 
duced in milk and cheese, but is decomposed at a tempera- 
ture below the boiling point. Four or five ptomaines have 
been obtained from pure cultures of the spirillum of cholera, 
and which are found to be the cause of the severe symptoms 
occurring in this disease. Typliotoxin is the ptomaine pro- 
duced by the typhoid bacillus, tetanin by the bacillus tetani, 
andj^neumotoxinis, the product of the micrococcus pneumoniae 
crouposae. Koch's tuherculm is a glycerine extract contain- 
ing the toxic substance produced in pure cultures of the 
tubercle bacillus. In addition to these ptomaines and tox- 
albumins there are produced certain other albuminoid sub- 
stances called anti-toxins, which have the power to destroy 
the bacteria or neutralize the ptomaines, and immunity 
against infectious diseases is probably due to the presence 
of these anti-toxines in the body of the immune animal. 
Recent experiments by Ogata and Jesuhara substantiate this 

These anti-toxins are called "defensive proteids" by 
Hankin. He calls those occurring in animals which have a 
natural immunity, sodns ; those occurring in animals having 
an acquired immunity, 2^J(ylaxins ; those which act upon the 
micro-organism itself, he distinguishes by the prefix myco, 
while those which neutralize the toxic product he distin- 
guishes by prefixing toxo. 


"Atoxosozin is a defensive proteid found in" the body of a 
normal animal which has the power of destroying the toxic 
products of bacterial growth." 

"A mycopkijlaxin is a defensive proteid produced in the 
body of an animal, which has an acquired immunity for a 
given infectious disease, which has the power of destroying 
the pathogenic bacteria to which the disease is due." 

"A toxopliylaxin is a defensive proteid produced in the 
body of an animal, which has an acquired immunity for a 
given infectious disease, which has the power of destroying 
the toxic products of the pathogenic bacteria to which the 
disease is due." 

Brieger, Kitasato and Wasserman have recently made in- 
teresting experiments with bouillon made from the thymus 
gland of the calf. They found that if the tetanus bacillus 
was cultivated in this medium, its virulence was very much 
diminished, so that a small animal which was susceptible, 
could be inoculated with the culture and rendered immune, 
as afterwards proved by the injection of a virulent culture ; 
and blood serum from this immune animal being injected 
into another susceptible animal rendered it immune. Tlio 
spirillum of cholera, the l)acilli of diptheria and typhoid 
fever, when cultivated in this medium lost their virulence. 
The injection of a small quantity of serum from an aiiimul, 
naturally immune, into a susceptible animal, will render the 
latter immune against anthrax. 

The theory of phagocytosis is held by ^MetschnikofY to 
be the most important factor in accounting for immunity 
against contagious and infectious diseases. This theory, 
called Mctsclinikott*'s theory, assumes that the leucocytes 
and certain other cells have the power "to pick up and de- 
stroy" micro-organisms. Phagocytosis cannot, however, 
Avhollv account for immunity against disease, though it 
doubtless takes an important i)art and constitutes wluit is 
called "vital resistance." 

•Lecture delivered nt the Iiistiluti' I'asteur, ISSK). l>y Mr. .Motschni- 


The theory, as has been thoroughly established by nu- 
merous investigators, that immunity against infectious dis- 
eases depends chiefly on the formation of aHtitoxines, opens 
up a field full of many possibilities. Pasteur's treatment of 
hydrophobia, by injecting during the incubation period, an 
extract made from the spinal cord of animals which have 
died from rabies, gives results which admit of no doubt as 
to its efficacy. The results with Koch's "Tuberculin," which 
is an extract containing the ptomaines and anti-toxin of tu- 
bercle bacilli cultures, have not been so favorable, but we 
have every reason to hope that, at no distant day, tuber- 
culosis will be cured by treatment founded on this theory. 
Anthrax and tetanus in the lower animals have been cured 
by inoculating these animals with cultures and serum con- 
taining the anti-toxins of the respective diseases. An ac- 
count is given in a recent journal (American Medico-Surgical 
Bulletin, April, 1894, p. 41.5), in which a man accidently in- 
oculated himself with a virulent culture of tetanus bacilli. 
A few days later he was injected in the thigh with 5 C. C. of 
tetanus serum, containing anti-toxin. This injection was 
followed by enlargement of the inguinal glands with rheu- 
matic pains of the muscles, accompanied by fever and pros- 
tration. These symptoms disappeared after a few days, and 
were probably due to the tetanus, modified by the anti-toxin. 
Klemperer* has found that filtered cultures of the micro- 
coccus pneumonicie crouposae, which contain an albuminoid 
toxic product called pneumotoxin, when injected in the blood 
of susceptible animals, have produced immunity, which im- 
munity is ascribed by him to the development in the blood 
of an anti-toxin, which he calls anti-pneumotoxin, and which 
he has succeeded in isolating from the blood serum of im- 
mune animals, and, when injected in the blood of pneumonic 
animals, the disease is arrested. Brieger and Frankel have 
isolated from cultures of the bacillus of diphtheria, an anti- 
toxin, which when injected into susceptible animals will 
render them immune. 

*Manual Bacteriology: Sternberg p. 308 and 533. 


Sternberg gives the followiug list of bacteria wliicli are 
pathogenic for man : 

"A. Bacteria believed to be the cause of infectious dis- 
ease in man. 

Traumatic Infections — Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, 
staphylococcus pyogenes albus ; streptococcus pyogenes. 

Gonorrhoeal infections — Microccoccus gonorrhcjea. 

Croupous pneumonia — Micrococcus pneumonijo crouposu'. 

AutJirax — ("wool sorter's disease") Bacillus anthracis. 

l^yphoid fever — Baccillus typhi abdorainalis. 

Diphtheria — Bacillus diphtheria;. 

Epidemic injiitenza — Bacillus of influenza. 

Tuberculosis — Bacillus tuberculosis. 

LeprosT/ — Bacillus lepraG. 

Glanders — Bacillus mallei. 

Tetanus — Bacillus tetaui. 

Relapsing fever — Spirillum Obermeieri. 

Cholera — Spirillum choleriB Asiatic;!^. 

B. Bacteria associated with diseases of man wliicli have 
been supposed, on more or less satisfactory evidence, to be 
the cause of these diseases. 

Pneu)iionia — Bacillus of Friedlander. 

Meningitis — Diplococcus intercellularis meningitidis: mi- 
crococcus pneumonia) croupos;x! : bacillus meningitidis puni- 

Biskra button — ("Clou de Biskra") micrococcus of Heiden- 

PempJiiijus acutus — Micrococcus of Demme. 

BrigMs disease — Streptococcus of Manneberg: bacillus of 

Endocarditis — Staphylococcus pyogonos aureus: micro- 
coccus pneumonine croupos.r; micrococcus ondocardititlis 
rugatus; bacillus endocarditidis griseus, bacillus ondocar- 
ditidis capsulatus. 

Si/philis — Bacillus of Lustgarteu; Bacillus of I'.vt* and 
Lingard: microcniccus of Disse and Taguchi. 

JUiinoscleronia — Bacillus of rhinoscl(>roina (?). 

Erythema nodosum — Bacillus of Demme. 


Green diarrhoea of infants — Bacillus of Lesage. 

Noma — Bacillus nomae (?). 

Ozcena — Bacillus fetidus ozssnse. 

Bronchitis — Bacillus of Lumnitzer. 

Sycosis — Bacillus of Tommasoli. 

Whooping Cough — Bacillus of Afauassiew. 

Influenza — Micrococcus of Kircliuer ; Micrococcus of Fis- 

Measles — Bacillus of Canon. 

Senile Gangrene — Bacillus of Tricomi. 

Cystitis — Bacillus of septicus vesicae. 

Egyptian ophthalmia — Bacillus of Kartulis. 

Tracoma — Micrococcus of trachoma. 

Purpura iKemorrhagica — Bacillus of Babes ; Bacillus of 
Kolb ; Bacillus of Tizzoni and Giovanini. 

Cholera infantum — Prqteus vulgaris. 

Cholera nostras — Spirillum of Tinkler and Prior. 

Peritonitis — Bacillus coli communis ; staphylococcus pyo- 
genes aureus, streptococcus pyogenes. 

Pleuritis — Micrococcus pneumoniae crouposse. 

In addition to the above diseases, it is generally accepted 
by other authors, that malaria is due to certain micro- 
organisms, the morphology and characteristics of which 
have been fully studied by Osier and Delafield and Prud- 

The latter authors give the following description of the 
micro-organisms which are found in the blood of malarial 
patients : 

"1. Inside the red blood cells may be found colorless 
bodies sometimes occupying a small part, sometimes nearly 
filling the cells. These bodies may or may not contain pig- 
ment granules. They may exhibit amoeboid movements. 
They are called amoehoicl bodies. 

"2, Colorless discordal bodies, usually a little larger 
than the red blood-cells, which contain pigment particles, 
sometimes scattered irregularly, sometimes grouped towards 
the centre. These are believed by some observers to be 
later developmental stages of the amoeboid bodies, which 


have increased in size at the expense of the red blood cell. 
A grouping of the pigniont granules indicating segmentation 
is sometimes seen in tliese bodies. These are called the 
encysted bodies. 

"3. Bodies, about the size of a red blood cell, which are 
composed of a congeries of irregularly rounded structures 
grouped about a central mass of pigment. These are called 
segmenting bodies or rosettes. 

"4. Smaller isolated or clustered structures which are 
apparently the result of the breaking apart of the segment- 
ing bodies. Often called spores. 

"5. Crescentic bodies containing a central mass of pig- 

"6. Bodies, smaller than a red blood cell, which are ac- 
tively mobile and are furnished with one or more flagollao 
at one side; flagellate form." * 

My own experience in the examination of the blood of 
malarial patients for the detection of these organisms, has 
been disappointing. Osier places great value on this method 
in diagnosing doubtful cases of fevers. 

It is a question of great practical importance whether a 
micro-organism benign under certain conditions, may not 
become pathogenic by a process of evolution induced by en- 
vironment ; e. g. the bacillus coli communis, which has its 
natural habitat in the intestines during lioalth, bears a strik- 
ing resemblance to the bacillus of typhoid fever in cer- 
tain morphological characteristics. liodet and Roux from 
their researches are led to believe that the bacillus of 
typhoid fever is the bacillus coli communis in a state of de- 
generation, and that water contaminated with normal fecal 
matter may cause typhoid fever on account of tlu^ baiillus 
coli communis assuming pathogenic power. 

If we could have granted us a vision of tlic future, so that 
we could liehold the advances in medicine, which our j)res- 
ent knowledge justifies us in believing will bo possible bo- 
fore many generations shall have j)assed ; (jr if, after a f«»w 

*Handbook of pathulogical anatomy : Delaticld and Prudden 1'. &62. 


years sojourn to "that undiscovered country from whose 
bourne no traveller e'er returns," we could conjure up a vis- 
ion of the world, what would we behold ? We would see 
bacteriological laboratories in every city, where anti-toxins 
could be procured for the cure and prevention of each in- 
fectious and contagious disease. We would perhaps learn 
that nearly all diseases are of microbic origin, and that each 
has its specific antidote. If, then, our vision, for a brief 
period, were to vanish, what would its return reveal to our 
senses ? What manner of people would we behold ? Surely 
not forms nor faces wasted by the ravages of consumption, 
nor cheeks red with the hectic flush ; surely we would not 
gaze upon the apathetic countenance of typhoid, nor hear 
his muttering delirium ; neither could our vision, search 
where we might, reveal to us the amaciated babe poisoned 
with food, dying on its mother's breast ; no longer could we 
see the pneumonic with mahogany flush and panting breath. 
That dread disease, small-pox, and all others will have been 
eradicated, and good health, beauty and youth will reign 

De. Cunningham Wilson. 

Mr. President : The only part of the paper I will dis- 
cuss is in regard to the organisms of malarial fever. 

I think, we all, in beginning our blood examinations, neg- 
lect attention to the minor details in making the prepara- 
tion. Slides and covers should be thoroughly cleaned first 
in acid, then in alcohol and ether. The lobe of the ear 
should be chosen as the point from which to take the blood. 
It is accessible, easy to clean, and not over sensitive to pain. 
A small drop of blood taken on the cover glass and rapidly 
conveyed to the slide should spread by weight of cover. 
No pressure whatever should be required to make the blood 
spread. A specimen made in this way and examined with a 
1-12 inch oil immersion lense and a No. 4 eye piece should not 
fail to show the organisms if they are present. 

The next Annual Meetiuf^ of the Medical Association of 
the State of Alabama, will l)e held in the city of Mobile 
on the third Tuesday in April, 1895, at 12 o'clock noon, con- 
tinuing four days. 

Each county is entitled to send two delegates. The as- 
sessments upon the County Societies is one dollar for each 
member, exclusive of Counsellors and Delegates, the former 
of whom pay A fee of ten dollahs and the latter five dol- 
lars. Further particulars will be found in the Annual Cir- 
cular Letter of the Secretary, to be issued March ist, 1895. 




Grand Senior Life Counsellors 7 

Grand Senior Counsellors 7 

Senior Counsellors ; Junior Counsellors 8 

Delegates 9 

Visitors 10 

Address of Welcome on behalf of the Mayor and citizens 

—Hon. D. J. Fox 1-2 

Address of Welcome on behalf of the IMedical and Surgi- 
cal Society of Jefferson County— Dr. Samuel L. Led- 

better 12 

The Annual Message of the President— Dr. T. L. Robert- 
son H 

A year of Disasters 1 * 

Organization 10 

Correspondence ^^ 

Medical Education 10 

Ethics 21 

Health Laws 23 

Quarantine 25 

The Care of the Dependent Poor 28 

County Jails and their Management 35 

Report of tlie Senior Vice-l'resident— Toole 41-60 

Junior Vice-President — McKinnon 60-75 

Report of the Secretary "8 

I'ubli.shing Committee 79 

Treasurer 82 

Evening Session ^^ 


Evening Session ^^ 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIKI) DAY; Omnibus Discussion 93 

Evening Session '**' 

ness ; Vote of Thanks ^ 9.'i 
Twenty-First Anniai. Rktort of tub Boarp of CKN8oBa.97-l>'2 

Pakt I.— Work of the Association 9h 

President's Message 99 

416 INDEX. 


First Recommendation 99 

Second " 99 

Third " 100 

Fourth " 102 

Fifth " 102 

Sixth " 102 

Seventh " 103 

Eighth " 103 

Ninth " 108 

Reports of the Vice-Presidents 104 

Report of the Secretary and Book of the Rolls 104 

Publishing Committee 105 

Treasurer and Book of Accounts 105 

Roll of Correspondents 105 

Revision of the Minutes of 1893 106 

Delinquent County Societies 106 

Appendix to the Book of the Rules 107 

Book of the Rules Account 107 

Discussion of the Regular Reports 108 

Printing of the Volunteer Papers 109 

Change in Annual Order of Business — Reception... 109 

Amendments to the Constitution 110 

The Case of Dr. N. F. Randall Ill 

Part II.— Report of the State Board of Medical Examiners ; 

AVork of the State Board 112 

Examination of Non-Graduates 112 

Written Examinations only 113 

Suggestions for the Examining Boards 113 

New and Important Rules 114 

The Louisville Medical College 116 

Examination Papers Account 117 

Remarks on the Examination Papers by members 

of the State Board 118 

Work of the County Boards 118-132 

Part III.— Report of the State Board of Health ; Work of the 

State Board 132 

Quarantine 133 

A Bill to Regulate Quarantine in Alabama 134 

The Mobile Quarantine 135 

Quarantine Conference 137 

Secretary of Public Health 138 

A Bill to Establish a Department of Public Health. 139 

Financial Statement 142 

Payment of Clerk 145 

INDEX, 417 


Quarantine Expenses 145 

The Work of the County Boards of Health 1.01-158 

Vaht TV. — Supplementary Pajiers ; The Quarantine of 1893. . . 158 

The Governor's Proclamation 160 

The Mayor's " \m 

Quarantine Regulations 101 

Petition to Establish a Department and a Secretary 

of Public Health 105-175 

Requirements for IMatrieulation and for (iraduation 

of Southern ^ledical College Association 175 

Requirements for ^klatriculation 170 

Qualification for Graduation 177 

Action of the Association on Report of the Hoard of 

Censors 178 

Revision of the Book of the Rolls ; Societies not de- 
linquent ; Societies partially delinquent 1S3 

Delinquent Societies; Revision of the Roll of Col- 
lege of Counsellors 184 

Counsellors clear of the Books . 1K5 

Counsellors Delinquent in Attendance ; Miscellane- 
ous Counsellors; Grand Senior Counsellors of 

ten years standing 186 

Senior Counsellors of five years standing; Junior 
Counsellors of five years standing ; CouMsellors- 

elect 1S7 

Election of Counsellors 1><8 

Revision of Roll of Correspondents; Revision of 

Roll of Officers 1N» 

President's Acceptance of Office l&O 

Roll of the County Medical Societies ltt5--_>71 

College of Counsellors. . . -~~ 
College of Counsellors by Congressional 

Districts -'76 

Correspondents; Roll of Officers ; Hoard 

Censors -80 

Schedule of the Regular Reporters 281 

Annual Sessions '■^'■2 

Annual Orators -"SS 

Obituary Record -*>*•* 


Annual Oration— Blake. 289-304 

Historian's Address— Duggnr. ;U>5-31*J 

418 INDEX. 


Recent Progress in Gynaecology— Ilefiin 313-326 

Discussion— Riggs 326". 

Hill 328 

Recent Progress in Surgery— Hill .330-341 

Discussion— Michel 341 

Davis 342 

Some Notes on Gelsemium and other Useful Reme- 
dies — Huggins 344-356. 

Discussion— Ward 356 

Therapeutic Uses of the Coal Tar Derivitives — 

Hunter 358-368-: 

Discussion— Thomason 368. 

Myopia in the Birmingham Public Schools — Ledbet- 

ter 370-376- 

The Extent of the Diseases Affecting the Kidneys — 

Moody 377-387 

Medico-Legal Aspect of Criminal Abortion in Ala- 
bama— Marechal 388-397 

Discussion — Barnes 397; 

Davis 398. 

Recent Progress in Bacteriology — Somerville 400-412 

Appointment for next Annual Meeting 41?-,