Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions"

See other formats









I. On words derived from the Latin -'capra' as the name of a 

Catapult or battering engine. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, ESQ. 1 
II. On the word p/at/6f. By PROF. DE MORGAN 8 

III. Some Latin and Greek etymologies. By TH. ACFRECHT, ESQ. 14 

IV. On the Scandinavian element in the English language. By 


V. Traces of the Italic imperfect in the Keltic languages. By 


VI. On the forms and origin of the pronouns of the first and second 

persons. By DR. C. LOTTSER 34 

VII. Hints towards the explanation of some hard words and passages 

Secretary to the Dictionary Committee.) 67 

VIII. On the phrase "trus and begone". By HESSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, 

ESQ 74 

IX. On the derivation and meaning of 'the word carpet. By 


X. On coincidences between the Galla and different European 

languages. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD , ESQ 78 

XI. Specimens of the dialects of some of the South Sea Islands. 

(Communicated by HERBERT COLERIDGE, ESQ.) .... 82 
XII. The vernacular names of insects. II. By ERNEST ADAMS, 

PH. D 84 

XIII. On the verbal and nominal affixes in the Hungarian language. I. 


XFV. On the affixes of the Hungarian language. II. Nominal af- 
fixes. By FR. PCLSZKY, ESQ 116 

XV. 'On an unregistered sense of the word tking and its base the. 

By F. J. FCBNIVALL, ESQ ... 125 



XVI. On the words wig and periwig. By HENSLEIGH WEDG- 
WOOD, ESQ 127 

XVII. On words derived from the cries used in setting on of dogs. 


XVIII. On Shakespeare's "That Runaway's eyes may wink". By 


XIX. On the derivations of duntaxat, tranquillus and si (si dis 

placet). By PROFESSOR KEY 136 

XX. On the derivation of the Gothic hanfs (one-handed). By 


XXI. On the derivation of the word Srjftos. By PROFESSOR KEY 143 
XXII. On the convertibility of n and d. By PROFESSOR KEY . 145 

XXIII. On the word than. By DANBY P. FRY, ESQ 151 

XXIV. On the Hindu god Parjanya. By DR. G. BUHLER . . .154 
XXV. Irish Glosses, edited by a Member of the Council from a 

Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin . 168 
XXVI. On the names of Spiders. By ERNEST ADAMS, ESQ., PH. D. 216 
XXVII. On Dr. Russell's life of Cardinal Mezzofanti. By THOMAS 


XXVIII On some English Dictionaries, especially one proposed by 

XXIX. A Supplemental Paper on the Keltic suffix agh &c. , as 
occurring in Latin, Greek, and other related languages. 

By T. HEWITT KEY, ESQ., M. A 273 

Corrections and Additions to the Paper on the Pronouns of the 
First and Second Person (p. 34-66), by Dr. C. LOTTNER . . .285 

INDEX . , .287 

Notices of Meetings, Treasurer's Cash Account, &c 291 

[This volume is issued in Dec. 1860. The vol. for 1857 is just com- 
pleted. The second Part for 1858, a collection of Early English Poems, 
is more than half printed. The first Part for 1860 is in the Press.] 






THE origin of engineering science is doubtless to be found 
in the siege operations of antiquity. The need of powerful 
engines would first be felt by persons possessed of sufficient 
means for constructing them in the attack of walled towns. 
The simplest of such engines would be the battering ram, 
in German Bock, the buck or hegoat, a heavy beam slung 
from a lofty support so as to be driven end foremost against 
the building to be battered down. It was natural that an 
engine operating in such a manner, should be named after 
the ram or the goat, whose mode of attack is to rush vio- 
lently with their head against their opponent, and it seems 
that the name was transferred from this first rude product 
of military engineering to the machines for casting heavy 
stones which played an important part in the sieges of the 
middle ages. The Sp. cabra, a goat, and its derivatives 
cabreia, cabrita were used to signify a machine for casting 
stones. And similar machines were designated by the names 
of other animals, Wolf, Sow, Ass, Swallow, as a new mo- 


dification was introduced, or as any fancied analogy might 
occur to the engineer who was desirous of distinguishing 
his work by a new name. 

The names of these projectile engines of war seem gradu- 
ally to have acquired new significations in two ways. In 
the first place , as the military engine would afford the most 
striking example of the application of mechanical power 011 
a large scale, the name was transferred to mechanical ar- 
rangements of a similar kind by which force was applied to 
the purposes of civil life, however inferior the power exerted 
might be. Thus the name of the Manganum of ancient warfare 
has descended to the humble mangle of our laundries. The 
Italian Trabocco (an engine of war called the ram. Florio), 
French Trebuchet (an old fashioned engine of wood from 
whence great and battering stones were most violently thrown, 
Cotgr.) have passed on to designate the petty mousetrap. 

The primary portion of the mechanism in the military 
engine would doubtless consist of a heavy axis with proper 
appliances for winding round it a chain or strong rope and 
so drawing back the spring by which the projectile was to 
be hurled forwards. Now the whole of this portion of the 
machine would be applicable in building, or wherever it was 
required to raise heavy weights or to exert a heavy strain. 
We accordingly find the name of the goat applied very 
generally to any simple mechanism for exerting such a 
strain upon an object. The G. bock is explained, a bat- 
tering ram, a windlas, crab, or instrument to wind or draw 
up weights, a kind of torture. Kiittner. It. capra, a skid 
or such engine to raise or mount great ordnance withal, also 
a kind of rack or torture. Florio. Fr. chevre, the engine 
called by architects a fearne, Cotgr. ; i. e. a windlas for rais- 
ing heavy weights. Fr. cabre, a crane. In Sp. and Ptg. 
the simple cabre is no longer in use in the sense of a wind- 
las, having passed on to a further signification as will pre- 
sently be explained, but it has plainly that meaning in the 
in i) pound cabrcstante (corrupted to cabestrante, cabestante, 
whence Fr. cabestan, E. capstan), a standing crab, or wind- 
las with the axis vertical instead of horizontal, an arrange- 


ment found more convenient as admitting of the direct ap- 
plication of the power of a large number of men in raising 
the heavy anchor of a ship. The common crab or windlas 
is expressed by the derivative forms Sp. ca.bria, Ptg. cabrea. 
In the South of France the name of the goat has suffered 
transposition of the /, giving crabo, crabit, for a shegoat 
and a kid respectively, and both of these are used also in 
the sense of the E. crab (Diet. Castraise), a piece of me- 
chanism for raising heavy weights, the etymology of which 
is thus made evident. The same transposition of the r en- 
ables us to identify the 0. Sp. cabreia in the sense of an 
engine for casting stones, and the modern cabria, a crab 
or windla>. with the Mid. Lat carabaga. Cabreia, crabeia, 
arabeia, carabaga. 

'Fecit erigi plures carabagat projicientes magnos lapides ita ut pro- 
sternerent muros cum turribus'. Sanutus in Dncange. 

Further corruptions may probably be explained from the 
extreme mobility of the liquids I and r , which are constantly 
transposed or even thrust in or omitted from mere loose- 
ness of pronunciation, while each of them frequently inter- 
changes with a d. Xow among the forms assumed by the 
name of the engine for hurling stones are the Prov. and 
O.Fr. calabre, and Mid. Lat. cadabolum, chadabula, pointing 
to a vernacular cadabk, subsequently corrupted by the very 
common elision of the d (as in O.Fr. edage, eage, aage, 
Mod. Fr. age, from aetas} into the 0. Fr. caable; Mod. Fr. 
cable; Mid. Lat. cabulw, cabulum. 

'Pero lo sens calalres a tant forsa e vigor, 
Que tot lo portal treiica e brisa e gieta por. 

However his calabre has such force and vigour that it pierces all the 
portal and breaks and casts it down. 

De 1'autra part calabres e perriers. 
On the other side calabres and perriers. Raynouard. 
Tribus lapidibus magna petraria quae chadabula vocabatur eniissit. 

Guil. Armoricus in Due. A. D. 1202. 

A similar engine is spoken of by an old translator of ^Yil- 
liam ut Tyro as -une grande periere que Ton olaime chaable'. 
'Sed mox ingentia saxa 

Eiuittit cabulvs'. William the Breton iu Due. 

A 2 


Here we see calabre, cadable (in the latinised form of 
cadabula), caable, and the latinised cabulus in the sense of 
a perrier or stone engine. 

Now there can hardly be a case in which corruption is 
more apt to occur than in the names of objects somewhat 
removed from the ordinary course of life, or newly intro- 
duced, and without any obvious meaning in the name to 
keep the pronunciation correct. To cite an example from 
the very class of things which we are here considering, the 
G. bergfrid, a watchtower or wooden erection used in of- 
fensive and defensive warfare, is rendered in Mid. Lat. ber- 
fridus, bertefridus, belfridus, baltefridus, battifredum, buti- 
fredum, belfragium, whence the Fr. beffroi and E. belfry. 
Again we find as variations of the same appellation the It. 
bertesca and baltresca, Fr. bretesche and 0. E. betrax, a battle- 
ment, propugnaculum. Neckam. 

Starting then from cabre as the primary form, the change 
through crabe (carabe) to calabre will be closely analogous 
to that in the foregoing example from bertesca to baltresca, 
or from the Lat. urtica to Venet. oltriga, Sp. barauste to 
balaustre, a balluster, from It. cortina to Venet. coltrina. 

Again , the relation between cadable and calabre is similar 
to that between the Icel. vadmal and Sw. valltnar. 

The identity of the former two is admitted by Diez, although 
he regards the change as having taken place in the opposite 
direction to that which we here suppose. They both appear 
in the foregoing extracts as the common appellation of a 
perrier or stone engine, and both calabre and caable (the 
undoubted contraction of cadable) as well as the original 
cabre are subsequently found in the sense of a cable or 
strong rope, by a further extension apparently of the prin- 
ciple which led to the transfer of the name from the pro- 
jectile engine to a simple windlas. When the name had 
come to signify simply a mechanical contrivance for exert- 
ing a heavy strain, it was naturally confined, by a further 
concentration of the attention, to what seemed the soul of 
the mechanism, viz. the rope or chain which is the ultimate 
vehicle of the strain, and by which it is conveyed from the 


point where the force is exerted to that where the eftect is 
produced. Hence it was extended to any thick rope, and 
especially to the strong cordage employed in nautical man- 

Thus cabre in Sp. and both cabre and calabre in Ptg. are 
used in the sense of a cable, and though it is true we are 
not furnished with examples of the fuller form of cadabulum, 
cadable, in the same sense, yet it is probable we may have 
evidence of it in the Icel. kadal, a rope or cable, while 
the form caable (undoubtedly contracted from cadable in the 
sense of a projectile engine) has also the signification of a 
cable in early Fr. and Mid. Lat. 

'Concesserint deskarcagium sexaginta doliorum suis instruments, sci- 
licet caablis et windasio tantum'. Chron. St. Vandragesili in Due. Didot. 

Possibly under caables are here understood not simply the 
ropes , but the pulleys and tackle used in raising the barrels. 
So at least the Port, calabre seems sometimes to be under- 

' Calabre para guindar hum peso the line or rope that runneth in a 
pulley'. Vieyra. 

It is clear, however, that in French the word cable was 
attained through the medium of a form cadable. But in 
Spanish, where we have both cabre and cable in this signi- 
fication, there is no reason why the latter should not have 
sprung direct from cabre by the usual interchange of I and 
r, and the fact that the same form cable is attained in the 
one case from cadable and in the other from cabre is a 
strong confirmation of our position that cadable itself is de- 
rived from the latter form. 

It is probable that the Mod. Gr. xa/ni^og, a cable, which 
is commonly cited as an equivalent term , may have a similar 
but independent origin, although it doubtless may be a simple 
adoption of the western term. 

Among other names of animals applied to engineering 
machines was that of the camel. 

' Nee potuit Ticinellus ipsas (certain extraordinarily large barges) trans- 
ducere quantumcurnque ingurgitatus, sed cum camellis et aliis instru- 
ments oportuit ipsas conduci usque ad Lacum Majorem'. Galvano Fiamma. 
A. D. 1340 in Muratori. Diss. 24. 


From the same origin may be explained another sense 
of the Fr. cadable, caable, chaable, which at first seems 
widely different. In th chapters of the Norman law which 
treat of the fines for different acts of violence, the term ca<1a- 
bolum is used in the sense of violent throwing down. 

'De prostrations ad terrain, quod cadabolum dicitur, XIIX solidos'. 

Due. Did. 

The equivalent term in Fr. is caable, applied to serious 
violence without blood. 

'Item d'un sang feit 15 sols torn. Item d'nn chaable 60 s. L'on dit 
que c'est chaable quand il appert trois coups orbes'. Due. 

[Coup or be, a blind blow, one that neither makes an aperture nor 
fetches blood. Cotgr.] 

The same term was applied to trees thrown down by the 
wind or other means, giving rise to the E. cablish, wind- 
falls, wood broken by the wind. In a like sense the Langue- 
doc has chabla, Fr. accabler, primarily to hurl to the ground, 
then to overwhelm. 

Now the same connection between the name of the engine 
for hurling stones and the verb signifying to throw down, 
injure by violence, crush, is found in other cases. From 
the It. mangano was formed the verb magagnare, to break 
down or injure with a manganum. 

'Si fanno mura che 1'uomo non pote magagnare per Difici ne per Man- 
gani'. Walls are made which cannot be broken down by engines of 
any kind. 

Magagna, the wound caused by the missiles of such an 
engine, then any serious wound. 

'E i loro cavalli erano magagnati dalle saette degli Inglesi'. 

Villani in Muratori. 

From this source we have two words in E. I 8t mangled, 
mangonellus, severely injured as by the shot from a matyonetttos 
or mangle', and 2 d mayhem or maim from the It. magagna 
through the Fr. mtfiaigne, 0. E. mayne. 

The same relation holds good between the It. trabocco^ 
an engine for hurling stones, and traboccare, to tumble, to 
hurl down, although in this case the substantive may be 
derived from the verb instead of vice versa. 


Again in 0. Fr. the verb crabacer, to hurl down, beat 
down, seems directly derived from crabe, in the sense of a 
balista, and would thus, if our theory of the origin of ca- 
dable, caable is correct, be the exact representative of the 
Fr. accabler. 

Maisons ardent, villes crabacent 
Tant en occient et crabacent. 

Gnil. Guiart A.D. 1191 in Due. Didot. 

When the projectiles of ancient warfare were rendered 
obsolete by the discovery of gunpowder, the names of the 
most effective engines of the old system were naturally trans- 
ferred to the more formidable vehicles of the newly invented 
power. Thus the Sp. trabuco, originally a battering engine, 
was transferred to the blunderbuss, or short thick h'reann. 
The springald of the middle ages, a machine for casting 
large darts, gave its name to the Sp. and Ptg. espingarda, 
a musquet, while the name of this latter implement was 
taken from the muschetta, a missile discharged from a cross- 
bow. The petraria or pierriere bequeathed its name to the 
perrier, a kind of short mortar. Hal. The name of the 
gun is probably derived from mangonel, affording an early 
example of the tendency to cutting down names which we 
have witnessed in the formation of the names cab and bus 
in our own times. 

In like manner it can hardly be doubted, from the evi- 
dence of the O.E. caliver, a blunderbuss or small cannon, 
and the It. calibre, colibro, which, although now signifying only 
the bore of a firearm, must originally have been applied to 
the implement itself, that the name of calabre originally, 
as we have seen, signifying an engine for casting stones, 
was transferred to some kind of firearms. The use of the 
word in this latter sense is supported by the name of the 
Calabrins or Carabins, a kind of horse soldiers employed 
as skirmishers or scouts, who are supposed to have given 
their name to the carbine with which they were armed. 

But this is merely putting the cart before the horse. As 
calabre and cab-re were certainly synonymous in the sense 
of a catapult, and are so at the present day in that of a 


rope, while we have every reason to believe that the former 
of these names was transferred to a firearm , it is no violent 
assumption to suppose that the meaning of catoe suffered 
the same change. 

The Calabrins or Carabins then would be soldiers carry- 
ing a calabre or cabre, or, in the Languedocian dialect, 
crabe (carabe). Or probably the name of the implement 
may already have attained a diminutive form as calabrine 
or carabine at the time it gave a designation to the troops 
in question. The Du. karabijn is explained in the Biglotton 
(1650), 'equestris catapulta', as well as 'equester cata- 
pultarius '. 


I had long been surprised at a use made by logical writers 
of the word numerical; as when they say that Socrates is 
numerically different from Plato, the hunger of to-day nu- 
merically different from the hunger of yesterday ; and so on. 
To a modern English ear this use is unintelligible: number, 
in modern thought, is inseparably associated with the notion 
of multitude, and numerical difference can only be under- 
stood of difference between numbers. Thus one body of 
men may differ numerically from another; but there cannot 
be numerical difference between one and another individual. 

I made a remark upon this usage in a recently published 
paper on logic, from which it arose that my attention was 
called to' what is a valid defence so far as custom and pre- 
cedent are concerned. From Porphyry downwards, if not 
from Aristotle himself, logicians have distinguished different 
individuals of the same species , which must occupy different 
places in enumeration, as differing apttyiQ* and numero. 
Thus a horse and a cow differ sidei as well as apt.'//^;: 
but one horse and another only ajH&fitp. The distinction 
might much more reasonably, in English, have been called 


monadic than numerical. For fiords, as Euclid remarks, is 
that according to which every thing is called one; and, I 
may add, every other thing another one. 

I find, further, that this usage was received into English 
dictionaries more than two centuries ago. Edward Phillips, 
in his New World of Words, of which the first edition is 
of 1657, gives as one meaning of numerical 'a term in 
Logic, as, Numerical difference is that difference which to- 
gether with the lowermost species constitutes the Indiciduum* . 

The most common terms of Logic have very frequently 
found their way into the ordinary use of educated persons: 
but not in the present instance; the vernacular meaning of 
the w r ord number has resisted this use of its adjective. The 
question I wish to ask in this paper is, what was the mean- 
ing of the word ctQiSiiotf 

I do not attempt any purely etymological discussion. Mr. 
Key informs me that he is likely to present to the Society 
his views on this word, which connect it with the old idea 
of a pebble , or else with that of a mark. If this derivation 
be the true one, my own notions of the sense w r hich the 
word presented to Greeks are corroborated. 

The lexicographers associate the word with the idea of 
number, quantitatively conceived. Liddell and Scott have 
'number, a number, quantity", though they favour the de- 
rivation from aottiioc. But they add, 'often added where 
hardly wanted as in no'k'kol aprfpip'. If however the 
word, both in origin and in vernacular use, refer to the 
notion of counting and not to that of multitude, the implied 
pleonasm does not exist: 'many to count' is no tautology. 

The first scholar to whom I put the question pronounced 
at once for the enumerative sense, and referred me to He- 
rodotus vii. 59, where Xerxes made a reckoning, aQi&pov 
snotesTo, though the historian could not tell what multitude 
each nation furnished to the reckoning, ooov exaatoi :KXQU.~ 
fftv Tikfj&os Is ayi&unr. This seems clear enough: but on 
the other hand, a logician has informed me that the con- 
struction is disputed in a manner which, though intended 
by my informant to push me off the hypothesis on one 


side, really pushes me off on the other. The whole phrase 
is b'aov txavToi 7ictQei%ov nKrj^oq t aQi$/*6v ovx t.yw 
einai TO V(>xeg: and it is said that the last seven words 
go together; the rule that ovx must begin its clause being- 
disputed or forgotten. This will make Herodotus say that 
he cannot tell to a number that is, to a unit what mul- 
titude each nation furnished. 

That the w r ord had both a quantitative and an enumerative 
sense seems to be granted; but there are three senses, per- 
fectly distinct, on which a question may be asked: 

I. The ordinal sense, in which the aQi&fini are not one, 
two, three, &c. , but first, second, third, &c. This is the 
sense in which children are apt to take numbers when they 
learn to count on the fingers: when asked the meaning of 
four, they show the fourth finger of the enumeration. 

II. The cardinal sense , quantitative in result , but express- 
ing the length of the enumeration, and thus only the quan- 
titative force of the total. This is the idea in reckoning, 
counting, &c. 

III. The purely quantitative sense, the nhrj&og, the notion 
of many prior to enumeration. 

Now the question is, which is the original sense of CCQI- 
Vf.ib$, and what is the idea which it presented to the Greek 
mind throughout the best period of philosophical writing? 
Is it I, and from it II, almost to the exclusion of III? or 
II, and from it III, almost to the exclusion of I? I cannot 
pretend to offer a decided opinion ; my own resources will not 
allow me to go beyond a very positive and peremptory de- 
cision that the Ibyiov CCQI^/HOS of Sophocles is quite distinct 
from the knywv aQi&nog of Napier. 

In favour of the first, or ordinal sense, I know nothing 
except the very usage of logical writers on which this pa- 
per is written. If aQif>fi6g meant any thing except place 
in numerical progression , Porphyry and his followers cer- 
tainly chose the wrong word. Now the Greeks were very 
little given to alter vernacular sense in their choice of sci- 
entific terms; I doubt if a single instance can be produced 
of any writer having wilfully done such a thing. It is very 


niten forgotten . I suspect, that we are to judge of the 
Greeks as highly cultivated upon one language only: that is. 
npoii one language as the medium of thought, literature. 
and imagination. Is it not to the more than conventional 
relation between sounds and things observable in all who 
have never studied thought in any language but their mother- 
tongue that we are to attribute Euclid's want of power to 
grasp the idea of a line making an angle with its own con- 
tinuation ? A line having revolved through half a revolution, 
the disappearance of the yon- deprived Euclid of the power 
of treating this amount of revolution as -/urla. Accordingly, 
the great father of geometry presents us with a magnitude, 
a subject of more and less, which is annihilated by augmen- 
tation. The three angles of a triangle are together equal 
to the sum of tiro right angles, but Euclid never enables 
us to say what one angle this makes. These two expressible 
halves of an inexpressible whole remind us of the line 

Man never is, but always to be, blest. 
They are never addita, always addenda. 

This point, and several others, arise out of that close 
adherence to vernacular meaning, without power of wilful 
extension ' , which characterises the Greek writers, and which 
1 attribute to their never having studied any language but 
their own, in their course of education. And it seem- t<. 
me a strong assumption to allow that Porphyry and his fol- 
lowers would distinguish individuals as differing aQidtuZ. 
if the sense of this word were cumulative of individuals. 
Unless other instances of the same kind of license can be 
produced, I must remain incredulous as to this one. 

Whatever deference I may pay to modern philology. I 
confess that in such matters as the present I stand in no 
awe either of the old lexicographers or the old logicians. 
The former missed the distinctive meaning of ^r/.ixonjg, 
quantuplicity , how-many-times-ness, and made it a word of 

1 I speak of extension only; contraction is practised in a few in- 
stances. Thus (Ti/ rtutiv in Euclid is to cut into two equal parts: 
and iff no;, which in the -first book is any part, becomes an aliquot part, 
or submultiple in the fifth book. 


unenumerated quantity, thereby turning Euclid's definition 
of ratio into a verbal tautology. The logicians, seeing in 
Aristotle the phrase aQifyios xai hoyos, the very common 
way of designating integer and fraction, translated it, by 
help of an interpolated explanation, through a score of cen- 
turies, as number and speech, which have therefore always 
been presented as Aristotle 's examples of discontinuous quan- 
tity. Whether the Aoyta/*og xai ayi&fiog of Plato is travestied 
in the same way I do not know. 

Euclid gives the second, or cardinal, definition of number, 
multitude composed of units, TO ex (.lovddwv ovyxsi/itsvov 
nKrjSos. But he immediately proceeds to show what per- 
haps is a vestige of creation. A part of a number is called 
a number of a number, agt&fiQg ttQt&tiOv, when the part 
is contained an exact number of times in the whole, so that 
the larger can be counted in smaller ones, and the smaller 
is therefore a sort of unit to the larger. Here povd$ OCQI- 
9[.iov would have given no surprise. 

In old English the word number always implies counting: 
as in the phrase 'things without number', too many to 
count. The technical word for number, in the sense of 
multitude countable but not yet counted, was always sum, 
a word which now involves the idea of a result of additions. 
Thus Phillips, above cited, describes numeration as the art 
of expressing any sum proposed; and this is the definition 
which had been handed down by old Robert Recorde, in 
1540 "Numeration is the arte to expresse and reade all 
summes proposed". The word sum gains its now common 
meaning as an abbreviation of sum total, or summa totalis. 
For sum referred equally to the result of a subtraction, and 
Recorde says: "The Remainer is a summe lefte after due 
working, which declareth the excesse or dyfference of the 
two other numbres". And the same thing is to be seen in 
the earlier Latin writers; thus though Tunstall, in 1522, 
marks the result of an addition as summa, he also styles 
the number to be subtracted summa deducenda. 

The very word summa seems to have arisen from the 
principle which I suspect to have been the original one, that 


of naming number from the highest item of numeration. In 
no other agreement with etymology is 10 a sum, except as 
the unitas summa is unitas decima. Is aQi&tiog originally 
an item, or is it a collection? Among the lexicon examples 
are ol ctQi&iioi rov aajfictTog, the separate limbs of the 
body, and navTeg apid/uoi TOV xa&rjxovTog, 'the aggregate 
of duty', as it is translated; but the aggregation seems to 
be in navreg, and the unit of the aggregation in ajH&fios. 

If the maxim of the middle ages that unity is not a num- 
ber had been found in Euclid or Aristotle, it might have 
been produced against my suspicion. But in truth it is 
only a derivation of later times from the distinction between 
Ii6va$ and ex fiovadcov nlrjSog. No light can be thrown 
upon the matter, I suspect, from the chapters of Aristotle's 
Metaphysics (book xi. or xii.) which treat of monad and 
number. The few sentences w r hich are intelligible make the 
darkness of the rest more visible. The attempts at trans- 
lation, whether into Latin or English, seem to me to fur- 
nish good illustration of the difference between seeing mean- 
ing in words and making meaning to words. In the last 
chapter, however, there is an argument from which my 
suspicion may be rather corroborated. 

Aristotle begins by stating that it is above all things good 
to find the difference between povag and o^ityiog, which, 
if any, must be either xara TO nooov or XUTU TO TIOIOV. 
Strange that it should be a question whether there be a 
difference of quantum between a monad and a plurality of 
monads: stranger still that in the next clause it is averred 
that no difference, whether of quantum or ofquale, appears 
to be possible: strangest of all that in the second next clause 
the one immediately preceding should be flatly contradicted. 
For the received text adds to the words TOVTOJV d* oideze- 
QOV q>airfTcti Ird^x&o'^aL wutji%6v these other words aAA 1 r ( 
aQiVuog xctTa TO Tioabv. That is to say, though number 
have no difference of quantum from monad, yet, in so far as 
it is number, it has such difference. Aristotle proceeds, as 
if the sense had not been broken by a/./,' /} &c. to say that 
the monads do not differ in quantum, for then one number 


might differ from another, though the multitude of monads 
were the same in both. My conjecture is that the words 
alti -j] &e. are one of these interpolations in which the text 
of Aristotle has been affirmed to abound: that ayiS/nog 
hovers between the senses I. and II., the ordinal and the 
cardinal: that Aristotle means only to affirm that the CCQL- 
fyios, the item of enumeration, no where in the sequence 
exhibits a different quality or quantity from the monad, the 
initium nume-ri, which is presented as the unit. That the 
word has two senses in this chapter is certain: deny it, 
and we have a writer who is always seen to be exact when- 
ever he is perspicuous , affirming in express terms that there 
is no difference of quantum between one unit and more than 
one, and giving as his reason that there is no difference 
between the first unit and any succeeding unit of the col- 

My impression is that unity is only f.invag when it stands 
alone; that the things which were monads when they stood 
alone, are severally aQitt/noi when they are collected; that 
the force of UQI^^OS soon began to partake of our modern 
sense of number, by tacit reference to the highest aQif^iog, 
or sum; but that it never lost its full competency to convey 
the original notion, that of the item or unit of numeration. 



The affinity , and even the identity of dulcis (for dulcu-i-s) 
and ylvxis are indubitable, but whether the d of dulcis or the g 
of /Jtvxug must be considered the older consonant, and whether 
the root of these adjectives was glue or dulc, is the subject 
of the following investigation. We must not be misled by 
a gloss of Festus in Paulus Diacouus Exc. : l glncidatum suave 


et jucundum. Graeci eteiiim ylvxvv dulcem dicebant', or 
another mentioned by the same grammarian: 'elucidation 
duke et suave dicebant'. For this glucidatum, of which 
elucidation is a more ancient spelling, is evidently derived 
from the Greek '//.cxi'^iv. The Aeolic form <)et~xoc; for 
yfavxos, and the Homeric adsvxfe (bitter) speak in favour 
of the priority of the d. It is true that this is denied by 
some comparative philologers who refer to the Sanskrit 
(julya, sweetness, gula, raw sugar, in order to prove that 
the g is more original. But it is to be regretted that these 
scholars did not even know how to use rightly the dictionary 
of Prof. Wilson, from whom they might have learned that 
gula is a modern corruption of gvda and gulya a derivative 
of it: and a better acquaintance with the language would 
have taught them, that guda in that meaning is originally 
not Sanskrit. The root of both jv.rx/'c and dukis is ruck 
for ruk. This verb which, in its meaning of 'to shine', 
appears in luce re, levxos and light (lumen), signifies also 
'to please', videri alicui, yalvea^ai iivi; and several de- 
rivatives agree in their meanings with dnlcis, -//.vxi'g. These 
are ruchi, flavour, relish, taste, ruchita, sweet, ruckira, 
pleasing, sweet, mchishya, pleasing. Compare the Mahratti 
ruchne, to be delicious or agreeable to the palate &c. I 
believe that nick stands for dwelt, and lind this conjecture 
confirmed by the complete accordance of y).vxQo$ with the 
Sanskrit ruc/iird. Didcis has, therefore, kept the original 
d, but transposed the I from the beginning to the end, 
that is, dideis stands for dlucis; while j'/.i-xrg has kept the 
ancient order of consonants , but, the Greek being unable to 
bear d), at the beginning of words, has changed d), into yL 
We have sufficient traces to prove that the verb ruk or 
Ink w to shine, to give light" also originated from dluk. Would 
it not be all moonshine, if we believed that y/.avxos had 
received its name from the Indian moon (glau}? r/.avxog 
agrees in every particle with the Sanskrit rokd^ light (Rv. 
iii. 6, 7), and is closely connected with i-ukmd, adj. bright, 
m. sun, ornament. But we can dispense with, the assistance 
of Sanskrit, for -/lavxoe has its root much clearer in Greek. 


Compare Hesychius: yhavoasi, ha(.met,, cpaivEi, cpavoxet. 
Etymol. M. yhavxajnic; ano TOV deivbv yhavaaeiv TOI$ 
1g. Ibid, yhavooei, AdfiTtei, (paivei, cpavoxsi' xai 
ov, eni^af-tipov. Callim. h. in Dian. 54: <# deivov 
vnoykavaoavTci. Apollonius Rhodius A, 1281: 

dviouan, Sictyiavaaovai J* Ki 
xai Tit Sin dQoaofVTK (fattvy I 

Moschus 2, 86: oooe d 3 vTioyhavoasoxs xai 

Just as before we had devxoc for yfavxog, so we find 
the older form of yhavxog or kevxog in the name of TloKv- 
devxyg, who is not 'the very sweet', but 'the very brilliant 
star', in the same way as his brother KCCOTWQ is the bright 


The particle f.ia is, just like vat, construed with an ac- 
cusative in order to affirm a sentence, by taking a god or 
some object of worship as witness. It is never negative by 
itself, but the negation is expressed by the addition of ov, 
or the purport of the whole sentence. An affinity with fii; 
is therefore improbable. Nor do I believe that the accusa- 
tive is, as in the Latin per deos, really dependent on the 
particle, but am of opinion that f.ta means only 'truly, cer- 
tainly', and that the accusative depends on an omitted ofivvfti,' 
Compare II. , 271: aygei vvv (.IOL ofioaaov aaaxov Srvybg 
vdcoft, or 1 F, 584 : yai^o^ov etvbolyaiov ofivyfrt &c. 

The older form of (.to. was a t ua, as we learn from the 
Sanskrit where sma is an enclytic particle with the mean- 
ing of 'truly, verily, certainly'. It occurs so frequently, 
that two or three examples will suffice to show its appli- 
cation. Rv. i. 12, 8: 

Yas tvam Ague havishpatir dutam (leva saparyati, 
Tasya sma pravita bhava. 


'0 divine Agni, whatever sacrificer worships thee as a messenger (to the 
gods), to him verily be a protector'. Rv. iv. 31, 9: 

Nahi shma (for sma] te catam chana radho varanta amuras. 
'{0 Indra,) verily not even a hundred destroyers check thy power'. 
Rv. vi. 2, 2 : 

Tvam hi shma charshanayo yajnebhir girbhir ilate. 
'Thee truly, o Agni, worship men with sacrifices and prayers'. 


The usual derivation of pollen from pottere rests on a pas- 
sage in Mac-robins vii. 3, 14: 'pollex nomen ab eo, quod 
pollet, accepit". I should not object to this etymology, if 
polleo were ever applied to physical strength, but it never 
signifies anything else than 'to be powerful, to have in- 
fluence" in a figurative meaning. The analogy of index as 
the name of the forefinger leads to the true derivation. Pol- 
lex is a compound of the preposition por, pol and dicere, 
dfixvn-ui, and means either 'the shower', or 'the stretched 
out', because, when the fist is closed, the thumb alone re- 
mains distinctly visible. This conjecture is confirmed by the 
Sanskrit prade^im^ the forefinger, literally 'the showfinger". 
With regard to the assimilation of Id to II compare Pollux 
from lln/.rdei x/ ( c, mollis for moldui* (cf/mP.di'rw), pollingo 
for poldingo, &C. 

It would be absurd to derive pollex from polliceri, from 
the custom of pressing down the thumb against the fist in 
order to show assent or approbation (pollicem premere). 
If we consider how coarse the Latin is in many of its ex- 
-ions, it would not be impossible to assume the reverse, 
and to derive polliceri from pollex (compare indicare from 
index), in accordance with the above mentioned custom. 
But we cannot separate polliceri from liceri, though the con- 
nection in meaning of both verbs is not over clear. 



Mr. Wright, in a Lecture on the English language de- 
livered by him before the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire on the 23 d of April 1857, has the following 
passage (p. 9): 

"If I object to the notion of a Keltic element in our language, I 
object no less to that of a mixture with any other Teutonic dialect. Our 
older philologists believed in a modification of the Anglo-Saxon during 
a certain period which they termed Dano-Saxon, supposing that they 
traced in it the marks of Danish influence, but this theory has beeu 
entirely abandoned by the best of our modern scholars, and there are 
certainly no proofs that such an influence ever existed. The language 
which our forefathers spoke in the middle of the 11 th century, was the 
same Low German dialect which they had brought with them into the 
island with the mere changes which any language would undergo in it- 
self during the transmission under the same circumstances , through several 

And in a note he adds: 

" Of course I do not deny that our local dialects , in the parts oc- 
cupied by them, may have derived some words from the Danes, but 
the pure Anglo-Saxon language was certainly not influenced by them. 
It has been the fashion of late years to ascribe much more to the Danes 
than I believe them to have any claim to." 

Mr. Wright's theory of the constitution of our language 
is in fact simply this: He believes that English, or rather 
the Gothic or non-classical portion of it, is Anglo-Saxon and 
nothing but Anglo-Saxon; he repudiates the notion of any 
intermixture of Keltic or Scandinavian elements and he denies 
that any Danish influence can be traced in the Anglo-Saxon 
itself, and, by implication, in its modern descendant. As, 
however, it is obvious at the merest glance that the Angle 
Saxon Dictionary will by no means suffice to explain the 
whole of the obviously Teutonic part of our language, he 
bids us bear in mind that "our knowledge of the Anglo- 
Saxon is after all imperfect, for our nomenclature is made 
up from written documents of a partial description, and 
there no doubt existed a great number of words in the 


Anglo-Saxon language which are now entirely lost. No doubt 
many words now found in the English language, and especi- 
ally in the provincial dialects, of which the origin is now 
unknown , had their equivalents in pure Anglo-Saxon." Upon 
these statements I propose to offer two independent obser- 
vations, both, however, having important bearing upon the 
subject of the present essay, and the method of investiga- 
tion which will be followed therein. 

In the first place, it is important to ascertain what Mr. 
Wright really means by his denial of a Danish influence in 
or upon the Anglo-Saxon language. If he merely intends 
to put another nail into the coffin of the old defunct Dano- 
Saxon theory offlickes, which supposed that Danisms were 
traceable in such pure Anglo-Saxon works as Caedmon and 
Beowulf, in the same sense as they are most distinctly 
traceable in the Northumbrian Gospels, there cannot of 
course be two opinions as to the correctness of his state- 
ment. But if he means more than this , and his words may 
easily bear a wider signification; if he means to deny the 
presence of Danish, or, as I prefer to call them, Scandi- 
navian elements in the Anglo-Saxon, as constituent parts of 
the language it-self, then I join issue with him at once. In 
fact the matter can be brought to the test readily enough. 
Take the Anglo-Saxon word 'orrest' a battle, 0. Norse or- 
rosta, and let us ask which language gave the word to the 
other, or to which it essentially belongs. The question is 
settled at once in favour of the Norse by the fact, that the word 
is decomponible in that language into simpler elements, viz. 
the intensive prefix or, and rosta = clamor bellicus, a tumult, 
of which numerous derivatives are given, for example ro*tu- 
legr, rostuzamr, &c. I have called attention to this distinction, 
because it is one of importance, and is often lost sight of 
in discussions upon these languages. 

The second remark I have to make concerns Mr. Wright's 
ingenious mode of getting over the difficulty in the way of 
his theory caused by the obvious deficiencies of the Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary. It is clear that if his observation were 
to be followed out to its strict consequences, no argument 



of a negative character would ever be possible in the case 
of any of the dead languages. Large as a library of Greek 
authors may seem, we certainly do not possess a tenth part 
of what once existed ; and on Mr. Wright's principle , a sturdy 
etymologist of the old school might assert without the pos- 
sibility of being disproved or contradicted, that the entirety 
of the Latin language was derived from the Greek, because 
a certain class of words, such as sylva, chalybs, ovis, vinum 
&c., have their counterparts in the latter. Yet it is highly 
improbable , even if we had every scraj? of Greek that ever 
was committed to writing, that a hundred pages would be 
thereby added to LiddelFs and Scott's Lexicon. The fact 
is that in such a case as this, the half, if not nheov TTCCVTOS, 
is at any rate almost equal to it, and the chance of error 
from this source is reduced almost to a minimum. Mr. 
Wright's observation must always abstractedly hold good 
but its practical force varies inversely with the amount of 
the extant remains. In Greek and Sanskrit it \vould be al- 
most zero in languages of which we have merely specimens, 
such as the Moeso-Gothic and Old Saxon, it would be well 
nigh insuperable Anglo-Saxon holds a middle place; al- 
though I cannot but believe that, could we recover all the 
works of our forefathers, we should not find that we had 
gained a very great deal in the way of new words. But 
here another consideration intervenes which serves still further 
to reduce the element of uncertainty I mean, the evidence 
furnished by the nature of each particular word. Where a 
word in a derived language is a member of a class, all or 
most of the other members of which have correspondents 
in the primitive, a very strong suspicion is raised that the 
absence of the particular word in question from the primi- 
tive is due merely to the fragmentary condition in which it 
has come down to us, while in other cases, the nature and 
appearance of a word may raise as strong a presumption 
the other way. For example we know that almost every 
English substantive ending in I, or le, such as thrall, nail, 
bramble &c., is found in Anglo-Saxon unchanged, except in 
respect of orthography. Dingle and Ringle however are not 


found in Anglo-Saxon, though Ding 1 ) a cave, and Hring, 
are. I have notwithstanding no hesitation in assuming that 
Dinyel and Hringel did once exist in Anglo-Saxon , but that no 
instance of their use has happened to occur in the books 
which have descended to us. On the other hand such words 
as III or Bad, which, had they existed at all in the lan- 
guage, must have been in the commonest use, but yet are 
not found, I at once assign to a different stock. In the 
comparisons which follow, I shall consequently, to render 
argument possible, consider the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary as 
substantially complete, while I admit at the same time the 
existence of an element of uncertainty inseparable from the 
nature of the subject. 

It is now time to proceed to the consideration of the 
main question. Is there any Scandinavian element at all 
existing in modern English , which may be attributed to the 
influence of the Danish invaders of this country upon the 
language, they then found in use here? Mr. Wright, as we 
have seen, answers this question in the negative. Lappen- 
berg, in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, and his editor 
Thorpe, do the same, while Dr. Latham, in his History of 
the English language, merely gives a short list of words, 
all of them local and provincial, which, he says, are more 
probably ^Norse than Saxon, and adds that -by, as a termi- 
nation of the names of towns, is usually considered to de- 
note a Danish settlement. He might have added the termi- 
nation -son to the names of persons , which is just as purely 
Xorse as the -by. His rule for determining Scandinavianisms 
is expressed thus: 

'It is not sufficient to prove that a word is Scandinavian. 
It must also be shewn not to be German' 1 . 

A moment's thought will shew that this rule , as he states 
it, cannot be accurate. German includes High German as 
well as Low German, but surely the veriest tyro in philo- 
logy would hardly venture to say that the High German 

1 Ding is omitted by Bosworth, but occurs in the Legend of St. 
Andrew v. 1271. Ed. Grimm. 

- English Language Vol. i. p. 3-iG. 4 th ed. 


dialects were nearer to English than the Scandinavian. We 
will, however, according to the legal maxim, construe his 
dictum, ut res magis valeat quam per eat, and suppose him 
to have intended Low German only by German, and even 
with this modification I am prepared to contest the truth 
of the rule as a maxim of universal application, although I 
admit, it has at first sight a certain appearance of proba- 

Let us look at the question first from a historical point 
of view. The main facts are as follow. The Anglo-Saxon 
invasions extended over a period of about two centuries and 
a half from A. D. 3(59 to A. D. 600 ; at least these are the 
limiting dates, after which immigration from the continent 
appears to have ceased: the Danes first arrived here in 
A.D. 787, and continued to pour into the country at various 
intervals till the famous invasion of Harold Harfager in A. D. 
1043. Three Danish kings, Sweyne , Canute and Hardicanute, 
sat on the English throne for a space of 29 years (1013 
1042), but large tracts of country had been held by Danes 
since a much earlier period. Now those who deny the 
existence of a Scandinavian element in English, must be 
prepared to maintain, that a nation that precipitated itself 
upon these shores not in mere handfuls but in vast hordes 
at a time for a space of three centuries at least, that at 
one time held all England north of the Thames more or less 
in subjection, established itself in numerous settlements as 
denoted by the existing nomenclature of towns, and per- 
manently changed the names of many, that introduced the 
commonest of English patronymics now in use, that pene- 
trated into , even if it did not establish itself in , every part 
of the kingdom except perhaps Cornwall, that set three kings 
on the throne and laid all England under an oppressive tax, 
that moreover was in possession of a language bearing the 
closest affinity to that which they found in use here on their 
arrival, not like the Normans whose language belonged to 
a different branch of the family, that a nation, I say, 
which could do all this, was yet totally unable to affect in 
any way the native language of the country they overran, 


or to add a single word to its vocabulary from the copious 
stores of their own tongue. Verily if this be so , the Anglo- 
Saxon language must have been one of the most stubborn 
ever spoken by man. more especially when we recollect 
that in Normandy the northern invaders seem to have found 
little difficulty in stamping the impress of their Scandina- 
vianism upon the Romance, widely as the two differ in 
character, a fact familiar to every student of old or modern 
French. Yet strangely enough many of the philologists who 
seem to feel a sort of nervous apprehension at allowing the 
Danes the slightest share in the honour of having contributed 
to the formation of the noblest of living languages, who 
strain laboriously at the Scandinavian gnat, will yet swallow 
the Keltic camel with avidity, and allow the Anglo-Saxon 
an unlimited power of absorption in respect to a language 
from which it is as widely removed in every essential charac- 
teristic , as two languages really belonging to the same family 
can well be. I do not by any means wish to be understood 
as denying the existence of a Keltic ingredient in the com- 
position of English on the contrary, I feel convinced that 
such does in fact exist, but I protest against a theory which 
would attribute to the barbarous, alien, and conquered Kelt, 
an influence which it will not allow to the closely related 
and dominant Dane. But we are not left to the unsupported 
probabilities of the case the analogy of all history is in 
favour of the view for which I am contending. It may be 
safely stated that no instance of any importance can be 
produced of any permanent invasion of one nation by an- 
other, where the language of the invaded people has not 
thenceforth borne steady witness to its early struggles and 
oppression. The Turks in Greece, the Moors in Spain, the 
Gothic invaders of Italy, the Normans in England and 
Russia 1 , the Northmen in France, have left traces of them- 
selves in the languages of those countries which will last 
as long as the languages themselves endure. Why then are 
the Danes in England alone to form an exception to the 

1 Dr. Trithen allows them 50 words. Ph. Soc. Proc. vol. v, p. 29. 


analogy? I verily believe that the truth of the matter is, 
that the Dano-Saxon theory has been the ruin of the cause 
of the Danes that theory fell to pieces directly the light 
of a more refined philology than Junius and Hickes possessed, 
was brought to bear upon it, and since that time the question 
whether these Danes, though they did not affect the lan- 
guage of Alfred and jElfric, might not nevertheless have 
contributed something to that of Chaucer and Shakspere, 
has been by universal consent tabooed and ignored. 

It may be objected to me here that my arguments prove 
somewhat too much, and that according to my own shew- 
ing the Dano-Saxon theory ought to be the true one, and 
that we ought to lind marks of Danish influence not merely 
in English but in its parent tongue also. A little consider- 
ation of the circumstances of the case will however remove 
this misconception. 

In the first place it must be remembered that the only 
means we have of estimating the amount of this influence 
are the literary remains, few enough, alas! Avhich have 
come down to our time. These works are almost all of 
them written in the polished West-Saxon dialect, the literary 
language of the period, which would of course be the last 
thing to yield to external impulse. There can be no doubt 
of the influence of Latin upon Greek, as a fact, but this 
influence did not begin to make itself openly felt till long 
after the days of Flamininus and ^Emilius Paulus. Purism 
succeeded purity, and for a time was able to keep the of- 
fensive element out of the higher class of literature, but in 
most of the Greek subsequent to the Augustan era it can 
be traced with little difficulty. But as matter of fact, a 
Scandinavian influence upon the Anglo-Saxon in the strictest 
sense of the words can be shewn satisfactorily enough, if 
we only direct our attention to the proper quarter. All the 
monuments of the Northumbro-Saxon dialect now fortunately 
accessible to students by the labours of Bouterwek ;md 
Stevenson, with the exception of the earliest, namely the 
Psalter published by the Surtees Society, exhibit deviations 
from the ordinary West-Saxon type which can only be ac- 


counted for by considering them as the results of the Danish 
settlement in these regions. It is not my intention, nor 
would space permit me here to go into the dialectic pecu- 
liarities of these ancient monuments of language the papers 
of Messrs. Garnett and Kemble contained in the 2 d Vol. of 
the Society's Proceedings, more especially those of the 
latter, fully bear out the assertions I have made, and it 
will be sufficient in answering an objection to refer to them. 
I am aware that some persons are inclined to regard these 
peculiarities, e.g. the infinitive in -a, as due rather to the 
Jutes or Frisians than the Northmen, but to my mind there 
is an argument derived from the works themselves which 
is decisive against their claim. If these anomalies were due 
to the Frisians . clearly we should expect to tiiid them most 
strongly marked in the earliest work, because the farther 
we went back, the purer would the separate element be to 
which they are supposed to owe their origin. If Frisian 
was ever spoken in England, we should obviously expect 
to mid its characteristics better preserved in a document of 
the ninth century than in one of the tenth or eleventh, simply 
because it would have suffered in the ninth century less at- 
trition and degradation by contact with other dialects than 
in the later epochs. The reverse however is the fact the 
Psalter which belongs to the ninth century exhibits no trace 
of Frisian or Norse in its language, while the Durham 
Gospels and Ritual which belong to the tenth century, and 
the still later Rushworth Gospels , do so conspicuously. All 
this is capable of the most natural interpretation on the 
hypothesis which ascribes these changes to the Danes, who con- 
stituted an affecting cause of continually increasing strength ; 
the admixture of Northmen which in the early part of the 
ninth century was not powerful enough to leave an impress 
on the literary Anglo-Saxon of Northumbria, had acquired 
by accumulation strength sufficient at the end of the tenth 
to make itself unmistakeably visible. In other words Frisian 
influence must have varied inversely, Danish directly, as 
the lapse of time, and it is only by the aid of the latter 


that, as it seems to me, it is possible to account for the 
facts I have mentioned. 

Enough has been said to shew that the antecedent proba- 
bilities of the case all point in one direction. It is now 
time to support these probabilities by proof of a more posi- 
tive character. I shall not attempt any investigation of dia- 
lectic peculiarities, although much confirmation might no 
doubt be derived from this source, because I believe that 
more cogent demonstration can be furnished by an investi- 
gation of words, than of the mere modifications of words. 
Moreover, when I find Dr. Guest asserting that no traces 
of Danish are to be found in our MSS. or in our dialects 1 , 
it appears to me better to attempt to put the argument on 
a broader basis and one less liable to be controverted. This 
basis is furnished by the following list of words. All of 
them occur in the Scandinavian languages, and are absent 
from the Anglo-Saxon and other Low German dialects; or 
are found in these dialects in different senses and under 
other forms than those which they bear in English and 
Scandinavian. From this I draw the inference, that they 
are an importation which we owe to the Danes. Moreover 
for all of them book-authority can be produced, which con- 
fers on them a greater degree of importance than is due to 
mere provincialisms. I do not give the references , because 
those for the obsolete words will be found in my forthcom- 
ing Glossary which will be in the hands of members ere 
long, while for the more ordinary words references of any 
kind are unnecessary. I have only to add that I have much 
enriched my list from the valuable papers of Mr. Wedgwood 
scattered through the volumes of the Society's Proceedings. 

Ancome, s., =a sore; O.N. dkoma, vulnusculum. 

Awe, s. Dan. ave; A.S. ege. 

Awn, s. Sw. agnar. 

Bag, s. O.N. baggi. 

Bait, v.a., irritate O.N. beita, (The A.S. betan met 

1 Hist, of English Rhythms, Vol. ii. p. 201. 


to amend, or remedy, and when joined with n/r, to 

Beryng, s., = bosom: O.N. brrnga. 

Bike, s.. = cassia, lit. 'pitch': O.N. bik; A. S. pic. 

Bloated, adj. O.N. blauta. 

Blunt, adj. O.N. blunda dormire. 

Boil, v. O.N. bulla; FT. bouiller; A. S. tseodan. 

Boun, adj. O.N. buinn. 

Box, s., = a blow Dan. bask. 

Bracken (fern), s. Swed. broken. 

Braid, v., = resemble; O.N. bregda. 

Bray. v.. = roar; Swed. braka. 

Bunker (for coals): O.N. bunki. 

Burde, v., = it behoved; O.N. byrjar; Dan. bdr. 

Busk, v. O.N. buasc reflexive form. 

Buttle, v. O.N. bustla. 

By, v., = defame: O.N. bia, maculare. 

Carouse t s. Dan. kroes a cup Dutch krvyse. 

Cast, v. O.N. ka#ta. (A. S. tceorpan; 0. N. cerpa.') 

Chime (of bells), s. Swed. kimma; Dan. kime. 

Dash, v. O.N. daska. 

Dock, s.. =tail; O.N. dockr. 

Doze, v. O.N. do*: Dan. dose. 

Drub, v. Swed. drubba. 

Dwell, v. 0. N. dcelja. (A. S. dtcelan = deceive or err.) 

Erre, s., = a wound: O.N. or; Dan. ar. This word occurs 
in the Early English Psalter published by the Surtees 
Society, but it would seem even now not to be ob- 
solete, as it is given (under the form //) in Webster's 
Dictionary on the authority of one 'Relph". 

Fell, s., mountain; O.N. fjallr. (A. S. beorh, jiryen.} 

Fenge, s., = a girl; 0. N. fenna, fenja. (A. S. meoicle, maden, 

Flosche's \ =a pit 01 cnasm ' O.N. //ota, diftindere. 
Flatter, v. O.N. fladra. 

Fliimy, adj. 0. N. flimt calumnia, nugje infames. 
Fling, v., = rush at full speed; Swed. flangajlang. 


Flog, v. 0. N. flaga, flengja. 

Flounder, v. Sw. flundra; Dutch jiodderen. 

Fraiste, v., = to try; O.N. freista. 

Frie, v., = blame ; 0. N. fryja. 

Fulsome, adj. Q.N.fullsa, abominationem simulare. 

Gate, s., way; O.N. gata; A.S. weg. 

Ghyll, s., a glen; O.N. gil. 

Gimp, s. O.N. gimpur. 

Gnaiste, v., = dash; O.N. gnesta. 

Gotkele, v., = make a guggling noise, as red hot iron does 

in water; O.N. gutla. 

Goule, v., = ho\vl; O.N. gola\ A.S. galan, to sing. 
Grunsel or groundsil, s., a threshold; O.N. grind. 
Gust, s. O.N. gustr. 
Hap, s. O.N. happ; W. hap. 
Hank, s. O.N. haunk. 

Hethe, v., = threaten; O.N. hcetta; Swed. hota. 
Hething, s., = scorn; O.N. hddung. 
Hevening, s., = revenge; O.N. hefna; A.S. efnan, to perform, 

or suffer. 

Hint, v. O.N. ymta. 
Hoke. v., = move tortuously; O.N. hoka. 
Ill, adj. O.N. illr. Dutch quaed. 
Inkling, s. O.N. ymta. 
Kag, s., = cask; O.N. kaggi. 
Kannske, adv., = may be; O.N. kannskd. 
Kaske, adj., = bold; O.N. karskr. 
Kelyng , s., = a small cod; O.N. keila. 

O.N. kid, kidlinqr; A.S. hind-cealf. 
Kidhng, s. 

Kindle, v., = set on fire; O.N. kynda; A.S. betan. 
Krawkan, s., refuse of melted tallow ; O.N. krekja, abjicere. 
Ling, s., heath; O.N. ling. 
Lith, v., listen; O.N. hlyda. 
Litstcr, s., a dyer 

T . , } O.N. Ufa. tingere. 

Lited, p.p., stained \ 

Lowe, s., flame; O.N. log. 

Lubber, s., O.N, lubbi servus ignavus. 


Lurk, v., Swed. lura, 0. X. lura, ignavus haerere. 
Minne, adj., less; O.N. minni; A. S. la>s; Dutch minder. 

\lon , v., = shall ; 0. N. mun. 

Muggy, adj. O.N. tnugga aer nubilus. Welsh mwg. 

if, s., fist; O.N. hnefi; A. S. fyst. 
Okir, s., usury; O.N. okr; Dutch tcoeker. 

^omple, v., = stumble; O.N. pompa. 

^renche in atprenche, v., = deceive; O.N. pretta, fallere. 

Budding, s. Dan. budding ; Fr. boiidin. 

^ut, v., throw; O.N. potta. 

Quatted, adj., full of food ) 

'. O.N. kuett, meat. 

Overquatie . v., to gorge ( 

'take , . 

D 7 . v., = dnve ; 0. N. reka. 


, v. O.N. rannsaka. 
, s., = a blow; S\v. rapp. 

%ippe, s., = a basket; O.jN. hrip. 

%ode, s., = complexion ; 0. N. rocU. 

*^, s., = a drinking vessel; O.N. r/tss; Dun. runs in- 
toxication. This word may also be the origin of 'Russin' 
the evening meal, which is used in the 'Land of Co- 
kaygne', and appears to exist at the present day in 

Ruck, s., = wrinkle; O.N. hruckr. 

Scoghe or shaiv, s., a wood; O.N. skogr. 

Scoppe, s., a leap; Swed. skutt. 

Scratch in the phrase 'Old Scratch' the Devil: 0. N T . scratti, 
malus daemon. 

Scrip, s. O.N. skreppa. 

Shoat, s., a young pig; O.N. skod. 

Sket, adv., = quickly; O.N. skjott. 

Skente, v., = amuse ) 

c/ J } 0. N. skemta. 

Skenting, s., = amusement \ 

Skruke ~ XT , 7 

o, v., 0. N. skrucka anus rugosa. 

Sky, s. 0. N. sky nubes. ' Sky ' was used in English in the 
sense of 'cloud', see the Prompt, Parv. s. v. Hovyn. 
The A. S. scua, only means, a shade. 


Slant, adj. Swed. slant. 
Slush, s. Swed. slusk. 

oT adj., 0. N. slcegr. 
Sleeclie ( J ' * 

Snepe, adj., = foolish; 0. N. snapr. 

Snytc, v., = blow the nose; O.N. snyta. 

So, s., = a pail; O.N. sdr; Dan. saa; Fr. seav. 

Sowel, s., anything eaten with bread ; Dan. svul. Dutch suyvel 

= lactarium. 
Swithe, v. , burn; O.N. svida. A. S. swidan means to 


Teyte, adj., = lively; O.N. teitr. 
Tine, v., = lose; O.N. tyna. A. S. tynan = irritate; tynan 

= enclose. 
Truelove'm Hruelove knot r ; O.N. trulofa, spondere; trulofun, 

sponsalia. This shews that our 4 true-love' is really a 

compound, and has nothing to do with 'love% the 0. N. 

'lofa' meaning to 'promise'. 
Tyffen, v., = adorn; O.N. typpa. 
Wall in wall-eyed O.N. vagi i auyum. Vagi is explained 

by Haldorson as 'festuca, pterygion' en Hinde, som 

traekker sig over oiet. 
Whim, s. O.N. hvim; Dan. hmmse. 
Wondreth, s., misfortune; O.N. vandrcedi. 

The list might be easily enlarged, but enough at any 
rate has been adduced to shew that the a priori argu- 
ment with which I began, is not devoid of foundation in 
fact. It remains for the Anti-Danists to say whence these 
words have come to us, if they will not consent to credit 
Scandinavia with them. 

That analogies more or less remote to some of them can 
be produced from the Low German languages, is probable 
enough; e. g. for 'flounder', which I have derived from the 
Swedish 'flundra' the Dutch have 'flodderen' ; for t sowel > 
M. de Haan Hettema quotes the Frisic 'svyvel', lactarium 
(the connection of which is not very obvious), while I have 
derived it from the Danish 'suttl'; and as in both instances 


the Scandinavian word agrees more closely both in sense 
and form with the English than the other, I submit that 
the balance of probability is in favour of the former as the 
proximate originant. 

Upon a future occasion I hope to be able to extend the 
investigation to words which appear for the first time in 
Semi -Saxon, and were probably adopted into the Saxon 
from the Danish, and also to those which appear both in 
Low German and Scandinavian, but are absent from our 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries. For this however, as for many 
other subjects, otium Divos rogo. 


I Latin does not know of any augment, but forms its im- 
perfect by the addition of a to the root, as is clearly seen 
in er-a-s, erdmus, erdti*, while in the other persons the a 
has become shortened. Again, the more common termina- 
tion of the imperfect bam, &c. is nothing but an imperfect 
of the root/?/, formed on the same principle as eram, but 
no longer used as an isolated form. The original form must 
have been fuarn, fit as, fuat, fudnuis. <fec., which became 
im, bds, &c. in Latin, while in Oscan the/ was retained, 
may be seen in the only imperfect as yet discovered 
'itfans, 'erant' = an hypothetical Latin fu-bant. The m of 
the first person singular in Latin and the ns of the third 
?rson plural in Oscan, being the identical terminations of 
the subjunctive in both these languages, show that the said 
Italic forms have the secondary set of terminations, called 
[in Greek grammar the termination of the historical tenses. 
A similar preterite is found in Lithuanian with the charac- 
teristic vowel o, this being the common representative of 
jthe original d in that language. Thus from the root suk 
= to turn, bu = to be (inf. $uk-ti, bu-ti), we get the fol- 
lowing preterites: 











































The terminations are here the same as those of the present 
tense, because the Lithuanian no longer observes the dif- 
ference between the two sets. 

To turn to the Keltic. I shall remark by way of intro- 
duction , that in the Keltic languages the original d is some- 
times retained, and sometimes changed to o, which latter 
vowel is again liable to shortening, and to alteration into 
u. The last we observe, for instance, in the datives in -u 
of bases ending originally in a, turned into d in old Gaulish. 
The dative singular of this class of bases ends in at. in 
Zend, oi in Oscan, ui in Lithuanian, 6 in Latin, u in 
Gaulish, Prussian, Slavonian. 

The clearest traces of a -preterites we have in the Keltic 
verb substantive, namely: 



s. 1 . (6)>a, eram 

2. (6)6a ' 

3. (Jf)ba, bu, bo 

i , \(b]bd-mmar , 
pl.l.i>jL<i ou-a-m o-a-mp 

\(b\bo-mmar ^ 

2. (b)ba-id bu-a-ck o-a-ch 

3. (bjba-tar bu-a-nt 2 o-a-nt 









bu(v}-a-i - 
bu(vj-o \ 






1 Not yet found in old Irish, modern Irish bd-t (O'Donovan), the t 
being the suffixed pronoun tit. There is however in old Irish another 
second person sing, dorroega 'degisti' (Fiac. 26), which warrants the as- 
sumed form So perhaps also rachuala 'audivisti' (Zeuss 49). 

* Modern Welsh ; bum, buosl, bu, buant also old Welsh. For the first 
person in old Welsh the form bitum occurs, but Zeuss 539 is no doubt 
right in considering this a mistake for buam. 

8 Modern Br. In the old language we find voa (Z. 450) 'erat', evi-4 
dently for bua. 


These forms speak for themselves; and I shall only add 
that the initial b of the old Irish is never aspirated . but on 
the contrary often written bb, nay even />, when the verbal 
particle of the preterite (ro) is prefixed, which is usually 
the case. This bb stands for 6t<, bu, retained in Welsh. In 
the latter language the second person singular has been se- 
duced by the example of the common preterites, the charac- 
teristic of which is s, to assume the same, while in the 
third pers. sing, the a is dropt , though still retained in the 
old Breton ro-a for bua. The plural of the old Irish has 
deponential forms. 

There are other ^-preterites in old Irish, recognizable 
by the u of the third person, namely arachuiliu anman 
duini 'who has depraved the soul of man"; anin-dedur (Z. 
580) 'was expressed', (in which dcdur seems a medial form 
presupposing an active preterite dedu*), and above all the 
preterite of t-ogu 'eligo : , which is this: 

sing. 2. do-rroeya 3. do-rroigu 

pi. 2. do-rroigaid 3. do-rroigatar. 

But the most ancient form of this kind is the ieum, writ, 
repeatedly occurring on the Gaulish inscriptions in the sense 
of 'fecit', compare the old Irish itar (o, v is frequently 
resolved into ua in old Irish) in fodr-uar 'effecit', dor&rta 
'facta sunt' (Z. 28) >. 

The absence of the personal termination in the third pers. 
sing, as early as the Gaulish inscriptions, proves beyond 
doubt that this termination was merely t, and consequently 
that the Keltic, like the Italic, gave to its <i- preterite the 
secondary terminations. This is confirmed by the want of 
any termination in the second pers. sing, in old Irish, a 
want equally remarked in the subjunctive , while the present 
indicative ends in i or has an i- infection, intimating a lost 
final i (which was developed out of ihij for wz). 

I have only to add in conclusion that all the facts ad- 
duced in this short Paper, as far as they are not already 

1 This comparison we owe to Dr. Siegfried. 


contained in Zeuss's grammar, have been furnished to me 
by Mr. Whitley Stokes, to whose learning therefore any 
thing of real value is due which the present essay may 



Though linguistic science is unable to give any thing like 
satisfactory testimony on the question of the historical unity 
of mankind, yet in another, and in a far higher sense, it 
can establish the oneness of our race. It can prove the 
ideal unity of human nature, of which the sought-for his- 
torical unity is indeed but the shadow and the symbol. This 
it does by showing that, throughout the strange tumult of 
discordant voices, ever and anon we perceive the same 
psychological laws at work, leading nations widely different 
in origin along the same path in the formation of their lan- 
guages. It was in this sense that Buschmann pointed out 
the similarity of the words meaning father and mother iu 
nearly all the languages of the globe. It was in this sense 
that Pott in his 'Zahlmethoden' proved the fact that, with 
few exceptions, all nations choose for the base of their 
numeral systems the number of the fingers of either one 
hand or both , or else of the fingers and toes taken together 
(5, 10, 20). It is still in this sense that I would call at- 
tention to the remarkable coincidences to be observed in 
the pronouns of the first and second person, which are 
it will be seen of such a nature as to afford ample proof 
of the identity of the human mind throughout the globe, 
while on the other hand they fail utterly to establish iden- 
tity of origin. 

PART 1. 
I shall first notice the phonetic similarity prevailing in 


this class of words , and then I shall try to enter somewhat 
more deeply into the psychological process by which they 
are developed. 

To begin with the phonetic part, I only remark by way 
of introduction that generally I shall give to one family of 
languages (such as the Indogerman) the right of producing 
only one witness , because the pronouns under consideration 
were mostly created before the separation of the families. 
From this rule I shall deviate only, when a language dis- 
agrees with its kindred tongues as to the main principle in 
the formation of these words. Thus, all the Indogerman 
forms of speech widely diffused and much diversified though 
they are now-a-days, go but for one single witness at the 
present inquest. By such a method the number of testi- 
monies must become greatly lessened ; and if we take further 
into consideration, that we have of but a few languages, 
comparatively speaking, anything like a reliable grammar and 
dictionary, while the greater number is only known by 
scanty vocabularies hastily drawn up and even, if furnish- 
ing terms for -I" and 'thou" little to be relied upon in so 
delicate a matter, you will not wonder at the moderate 
number of witnesses brought before you. 

In Koelle's Polyglotta Africana we have specimens of nearly 
two hundred languages of Central, and partly of Southern, 
Africa. To judge by the diversity or coincidence of their 
vocabulary, especially of their numerals, they seem to con- 
stitute about fiO different families of speech, a number which 
will appear less enormous if I add that a good many of 
these families comprise but one isolated language, resembling 
the Basque in that respect. I will not however deny the 
possibility that some of these apparently different families 
may some day turn out to be relations . but even allowing that 
possibility . we still retain a sufficient number of families, 
radically disconnected, to start from in this inquiry. It is 
to be regretted that Kolle does not give one single second 
person of any verb, but only the first; yet even under these 
circumstances the information is extremely valuable. I give 
here the pronoun " I' of these languages only abridging the 



list a little and leaving out the Berber, the Arabic, and the 
Kaffer, which will occupy our attention afterwards ; the 
Roman figures indicating the different families. 

I. Fiilup . . 

. ni 

XII. Legba . . man,ma 

Filham . 

. . ni 

Kiamba . me, ma 

II. Bola . . 

. . gi, yi 

XIII. Koama . me 

Sarar . . 

- tf 

Bagbalan me 

Pepel . . 

. . nd$ir 

Kasm,Yula a 

Kanyop . 

. . man 

XIV. Isiele . . nd 

III. Biafada . 

. . -w(per- 

Sobo. . . me, mi 



Ihewe . . mi 


. . -nde 

XV. OkulOma (not given) 

IV. Baga . . 

. . in 

XVI. Nupe . . ne 

Tinme . 

. . I 


V. Bulom . 

. . a 

tako . . me 

Mampa . 

. . yd 

XVII. Bornu . . u-u 

VI Kisi 

XVIII. Plka . . . na 

VII. Mandingo 

. mbara 

Ngddsin . nd 


. . nd 

XIX. Ekamtulufu me 

Vei . . . 

. . nd 

Udom . . me 

Sdso . . 

. . mbada 

XX. Basa ... ma 


f . mbdra 

Kamuku . ma 

Tene . . 

. . me 

XXI. Dsuku . . mi 

Mende . 

. . nge 

XXII. Wolof . . -ma per- 

Mano . . 

. . md &c. 

sonal termination. 

VIII. Dewoi . . 

. . na 

XX1IL Bidsogo . i 

Kra . . . 

. . nd 

another dialect me 

Krebo . . 

. . ne 

XXIV. Gadsaga . n per- 

IX. Adampe 

, . me 

sonal prefix. 

Anfue . . 

. . me 

XXV. Banyun . ma 

Dah6me . 

. . n (per- 

XXVI. Nalu ... mi 

sonal prefix). 

XXVII. Bulanda . ni 

X. Aku 

. . mo 

XXVIII. Limba . . y, yd 

Igala . . 

. . nd 

personal prefix. 

XI M6se 

. . me 

XXIX. Landoma , i 


. . mi 

personal prefix. 


. . md 

XXX. Asante . me 


XXXI. Barba . . . 
XXXII. Boko .... 
XXXffl. Timbuktu . 
XXXJV. Mandara not given 

by Kolle (compare however 
muksa-nga 'ma femme' with 
muksa-rica (sic ?) 'ta femme' in 
Klaproth snr lalangueBornou). 

XXXV. Bagrmi . . 

XXXVI. Housa . . . 

XXXVII. Piilo .... 

XXXVIII. Yala .... 

XXXIX. Anan . . . 

XL. Dsarawa . . 

XLI. K6ro .... 

XLII. Ham .... 

XLIII. Akurakura 


XLIV. Qkam . . . 
XLV. Yasgua . . 

Glancing over this list, we remark at once, that the nasal 
sound (mostly the labial or dental, sometimes the guttural) 
strongly predominates, so that MA, MI or NA, SI are 
almost everywhere the roots of the pronoun meaning 'I'. 
Sometimes a language seems to present no nasal, but then 
generally the kindred tongues, if there are any, show that 
a phonetic alteration has taken place. Thus in V, the Timne 
has i t but the cognate Baga ? , showing that the l has been 
curtailed of its final consonant. Again, sometimes a com- 
pound is used which has obscured a little the personal charac- 
teristic. Thus in VII, the Mandingo has nibara, the Sdso 
mbada , but not only do the cognate languages show simply 
a nasal sound, as Mano ma, Vei nd, but from Kolle's gram- 
mar of the latter language we learn moreover, that bere 
means 'self, and that m-bere is a compound term = my- 
self. Many other apparent exceptions from the general rule 
would no doubt vanish, if we knew only cognate dialects 
or even the whole grammar of the special language. Thus 


XLVI. Nki me 


ne' in 

XLV1I. Kambali . . . mi 
XL VIII L. Alege, Pe- 
nin, Bute . . me 
LI. Murundo ... nd 
LII. Undaza . . . ma 
LIE. Ndob mi 


LIV. Nkele .... ma 
LV. Konguan . . . ndsi 
LVI. Mbarlke ... me 
LVII. Tiwi me 



LVIII. Borltsu. . . . mi 
LIX. Afudu .... m 
personal prefix. 
LX. Mftit m 


personal prefix. 

LXI. Nso n 


personal prefix. 
LXII. Mbe . ma 


wu in Bornu seems to want the usual typical letter , yet we 
shall see further on that there are strong reasons for sup- 
posing that w is a euphonic alteration of m. Dismissing 
however- such mere possibilities, and looking only at the 
actual state of things, another characteristic than the nasal 
sound is really met with only in V, VI, XXVIII, XXXIII; 
for, with regard to II, XLIV, LIV, LV, the case is not 
quite clear. 

We may therefore fairly assert, that in the Negro lan- 
guages there is a strong tendency to use nasals for the first 
person. Nor is this tendency restricted to them; for we 
find the same thing also in the Basque ni, in Quasi-Qumuq 
(Caucasus) na, in the Georgian me (compare the cognate 
Lazian ma), in Japanese m/, Korean nai, in Zamuca nu, 
Aymara na. Chiquita ni, the Mandan mi, and perhaps also 
in the Quichua noca. The most elementary form of the pro- 
noun would be the Bushmen's mm T (compare inng 'my'), 
as given by Lichtenstein, but it is rather strange, that the 
cognate Hottentot, which is now very well known, presents 
forms differing toto ccelo from the one just cited. 

So far the similarity of human speech throughout the globe 
in the pronoun T is undeniable; for, though there are ex- 
ceptions , they do not annihilate the rule. It would not be 
the least wonderful, if the similarity vanished totally in the 
second person. The opposite is however the case; for even 
with our present scanty information we succeed in finding 
some salient traces of relationship in the principles on which 
the pronoun thou is formed. Namely: 

Some languages use a nasal sound both in the first 
and second person, indicating the difference of the two 
either by a different vowel, or by employing nasals of dif- 
ferent organs, or by both these means together. Such are: 

In Africa: I. Tumali ngi T ngo 'thou' 

II. Wolof na ngo 

HI. Bornu wu ni. 

If we compare with this the possessive suffixes of the 
same language ni 'my', nem 'thy', it seems that a nasal 


belongs by right to the first person, and that icu conse- 
quently stands for mu. 

In Asia : IV. The BOTIYA FAMILY, especially in the Lohitic 
branch, as: 

meng 'thou' (towards equals) 
men 'thou' (towards inferiors) 

Burmese nga T 

Dophlas ngo 
Abor-Miri ngo 
Mikir ne 


and also occasionally in the 1 ' ramhimalayan branch, as in 








Mundala Kol 
Sontal Kol 
Sinbhum Kol 


Tamid nan 
Canarese nanu. /id 
Telugu nenu 
cas. obi. na 

VII. Kassia, generally, but wrongly, considered to be a 
member of the Thai family 

nga me. 

VIII. Chinese ngo ni. 
IX. Suxian of Behistun 





nin. ninu, ni 



-mi 'my' 

comp. niku 'we' 
ngai 'I' 

In America: 

XI. Arancanese 
XH. Chiquito 

XIII. Tarahumara 

XIV. OtJumii 

-ni 'thy' (possessive suffixes ac- 
cording to Norris) 
ni 'thou' (accord, to Norris). 

ninna 'thou' (ace. to Schumann) 

ngintoa (New-South-Wales, 


ni mi (pronominal adj.) 

ni ni 

ne mu 

ma 'my' ni 'thy' 

pronominal pref. 


XV. Dakota miye niye 

XVI. Kizh no ma oma 

Netela no ma 


Shushwap n an 

Selish in an 

XVIII. Sahaptin in im 

XIX. Tshinuk naika T maika 'thou' 

comp. also wdaika ' we two ' wdaika ' you two ' 
wtc.aika 'we' ?MC,aika 'you'. 

To these a few instances may be added of languages 
framing their two first personal pronouns in the manner 
just described, while the family to which they respectively 
belong follows in general other principles. Such are: 
Languages of the Finnish stock 

Ugro-ostiac ma T nen 'thou' 

m n (possessive affixes) 

Vogul am nan 

Finnish propw only in the suffixed possessive pronouns 

plural, as 

kala-wrae 'our fish' kala-wwe 'your fish' 

but olemme 'we are' olefte 'you are'. 

Also the Turkish suffixed pronouns seem to follow the 
same principle, compare baba-wi, my father, with baba-, 
thy father. Further, in the Tonga language we have a simi- 
lar opposition between 

ma-wa, tna 'we two' and mo-ua, mo 'you two', 
and the same is remarked in some other Polynesian dia- 
lects , though in general the Malay languages seem to follow 
a different principle. 

Widely spread though this mode of marking the difference 
between the first and second persons is, it is far from be- 
ing general. For a good many languages reserve the nasal 
for the first person only, while in the second they have one 
of the three tenues, p, k, t, or sometimes, though not often, 
a medial or aspirate. They may be conveniently subdivided 
into three minor classes according to their presenting in the 


2 d person one or other of the three tenues. Thus we have, 

Languages with a nasal in the first, and p in the second 

In America: I. Moxa 

nu-ti, nu 'I" pi-ti? pi 'tbojT 

/compare also the cognate Maipura language: 

nuja T 

Cora neapue 4' 


Tepeyuana ane 
Pima ani 

piya 'thou'). 

apue 'thou' 

pe (as signs of person 

before the verb) 

(comp. also Pima u/wua 'us", u/nia 'you"). 
In Africa: III. The FANTE-FAMILY, as 

Akra mi bo 

Akcambu mi 
Yebu mi wo 

Fante mi ao 

Yoruba mo o. 

These different forms are very interesting, because they 
low the gradual softening down of the hard labial sound 
the second person into a mere vowel. 
In Asia: IV. Kassia nga pha. 

Secondly we have languages in which the character of the 
jrst person is a nasal, and that of the second the guttural 
mis, sometimes softened down a little. Thus we have 
In America: 

Delaic. proper ni T ki 'tbou* 

Shawanese nelah kelah 

Mohegan neah keah 

Penobscot nia kia 

Algonkin nin kin 

C'hippeway nin keen 

nitha kitha 



II. Maya en T ech 'their. 
In Africa: 

III. Iloussa ni T ka msc. , ., 

' thou 
ki fern. 

mu 'we' ku 'you'. 

IV. The Kafir-languages. In these the original character 
seems to be a little obscured. For we find for instance in 
the Kafir properly so called 

mi-na, I we-na, thou, 

and similar forms are met with also in the cognate languages. , 
Hence Appleyard in his Grammar (p. 89) is perfectly right ' 
in saying, that ^v and u are the characteristics of the second ] 
person. The same author however immediately adds, that 
ku is used as a verbal prefix of the second person. The 
view , that k must be the characteristic letter of this person, 1 
is borne out by the possessive forms of the Suaheli, where 
we have 'niumba ya-ra^o, my house', but 'niumba ya-o, 
thy house' (the ya being merely the sign of relation). We 
find also in the same language expressions like ame-m-penda 
'he has loved me\ but ame-^w-penda-we 'he has loved thee", 
the latter phrase presenting both k and w as characteristics 
of the second person. Thus it is sufficiently clear, that 
while a nasal always appears in the first person, we must 
acknowledge k to have been the sign of the second. Whether ; 
the w, being the other sign of that person, is radically dif- 
ferent from the &, or merely developed out of it by gradual 
euphonic softening, I shall not venture to decide. 

In Asia we find a guttural sound in the second person 
in the 

V. Old Chinese ngo T ghou 'thou'. 

VI. BOTIYA in the Trans- and Sub-himalayan branches, as 
Tibetan gnyo kh^e 

Guruny gna ken 

Limbu inga khene 


VII. The Malay languages. The case of these is some- 
what doubtful. The following forms however are in favour 
of their being arranged under this head; 


ice thou you 

Tonga mau-tolu, man koe 

Newzealandic ma-tou koe kou-tou. 

Here the tolu of the Tonga = New-Zealandic tou is the 
umeral three, and the difference of the two pronominal 
ases consists chiefly in the m and k. There are however 
?asons for considering the k of the second person merely 

euphonic change of t. Namely, the plural of the first 
erson cited just now has the meaning of 'we' in the strict 
ense, that is, the person or persons addressed are not in- 
uded. There is however another plural, meaning 'we. 
ou included' which is in Tonga tau-tolu, tan, in New-Zeal. 

-tou. Now it has been remarked that in other languages 
hich have such a double plural of the first person, the 
iclusive plural is often derived from the second person, as 
>r instance in Delaware, ni-luna, we exclusive, is formed 
om ni, I, but ki-luna, we inclusive, is formed from ki. 
ion. Assuming the same principle for the Polynesian forms, 
e should get a base ta for the pronoun of the second person. 

must however be confessed, that nowhere in this family 
' languages do we really find a singular pronoun 'thou" 
resenting a f-base: for the Kavi ki-ta. thou, which ap- 
arently furnishes a form of that sort (the ki being a mere 
refix), is scarcely any thing but a plural used civilly for a 
ngular, at least the Malayan ki-ta, and Tagalian qui-ta, mean 
nly we (incl.) , that is , thou and I. Whether therefore the 

of the second person as usually found in the Malay and 

olynesian languages be a euphonic change of , or the 

tter be a different root , I shall not venture to decide. At 

1 events the Malay languages have also some claim to be 

sckoned amongst those 

Languages which Jiai'e a nasal in the first, and a dental 
nuis in the second. Such are 

In America: 

I. Huasteca nana T tata Hhou'. 

II. Mexican nehuatl tehuatl 

ni ti (before the verb). 

III. Poconchi in at 


In Asia: 

IV. Jukagir matak 'I' tat 'thou'. 
V. The KORJAK-FAMILY , compare 

I thou we you 

Korjak gomma gyttsche muyo tuyo 

Kamshadalian kymma kyse buse (?) suse 

Tshuktshian gim gyr muri turi. 

(It is clear that in the singular a particle ky, go, is pre- 
fixed. By stripping this off, we get the bases m and , 
which are confirmed by the plural forms. The latter is 
softened down in some of the forms to tsh, and ultimately 
to s, ?.) 

The evidence now brought before the reader will I think 
be sufficient to establish the following conclusions: 

1. There is a remarkable family likeness between most 
languages in the formation of the two first pronouns. 

2. This likeness is however of such a nature that it does 
not necessitate, but rather excludes, the assumption of the 
historical unity of all these languages; whilst 

3. It affords a strong proof of the psychological unity of 

It ought not to be concealed that there are languages 
which present pronouns of the first and second persons not 
in accordance with any of the above classes. But we must 
not overrate the difficulty which their dissenting voice creates, 
because it is not at all unlikely, that many of the mosfc 
glaring contradictions to the common systems would vanish, 
if we had but the power of discriminating between whafr 
are really old personal pronouns and those which are mere 
substitutes of civility, such as Monsieur in French, which 
often enough approaches to the real pronoun vous. I Irsi <!<>-. 
a good many euphonic changes may have impaired the origi- 
nal forms which would come under our knowledge if we 
had older documents or kindred languages ready for com- 
parison. Thus for instance the Dhimal, a dialect of the 
Lohitic branch of the Botiya class, offers ka for I, and M 
for thou, which seems contrary to all the rales laid down, 


but if we compare only a few of the languages nearest of 
kin, as Mikir no., Burmese nya, we see at once, that the 
original nasal has passed by degrees through n, ng, into k. 
Similar euphonic changes may have occurred where from 
want of information they escape our knowledge. I consider 
therefore the main result of the previous survey of human 
speech safely established. 

Before we proceed further, we have yet to see how far 
those languages which interest us most of all, namely the 
Finno-Tartaric , Semitic , and Indogerman , are in accordance 
with the laws just discovered. 

What is usually called the Finno-Tartarian family of lan- 
guages, are rather five families, the right of which to be 
considered of kindred origin is not yet fully established, 
t least, so great an authority as Boethlingk stoutly con- 
roverts the current opinion on that subject. I deem it 
lerefore safest to treat separately each of the five families. 
Tiey are: 

I. The Tunyim'an including the Mandzhu. In this latter 
have bi, I, gen. mini, plur. be, gen. meni, in which we 

[early perceive the usual m changed into 6 in the nomina- 
(as in Greek ,?ooroc, when compared with Sansk. mrta]. 
besides there is an inclusive plural mu-se. In the second 
erson we have #i, gen. sini. plur. site, gen. iteni. The > 
3 probably a euphonic change of t (compare the termina- 
on of the second person present in Tungusian proper, which 
3 ndi), an assumption which would be certain if the re- 
itionship of the Tungusian with Finnish and Mongolian was 
acre firmly established. 

II. The Mongolian. Bi, I, min-u, of me, na-da (u and 
a are case-particles), to me. 'Thou' is tsi, plural ta. It 

clear, that the sibilant in the singular is only developed 
y the influence of the i out of the pure dental tenuis re- 
lined unimpaired in the plural. Bi is of course for mi, 
nd the n in the dative is equally put for m. 

HI. The Turkish. Ben, I, biz, we, in the Ottoman, are 
men. mi:, at least the possessive affixes are m, my, 
iu:. our, and some Tartarian dialects actually give us men 


for 'I'. With regard to the second person sen, thou, siz, 
\ve, it is probable that their * is a softened t, and for 
'probable' we should say 'certain', if the affinity of the 
Turkish with the other so called Finno-Tartarian languages 
was established beyond doubt. 

IV. The Samoyedic presents most clearly m in the first 
person; t in the second. Compare 

I thou 

Ostjak man tan 

Tawgyan mannang tannaug 

Kamassian man than 

Jenissei modi todi. 

V. The Finnish. Here also m and , the two charac- 
teristics, stand out in full relief. Compare 

I thou we you 

Finnish proper mina sina me te 

Lappic mon ton miye, mi tiye, ti 

Syrjanic me te mi ti 

Hungarian en te mi ti. 

The sind of the Suomi itself is of course a softened form 
caused by the following i (compare Suomi isd, father, with 
Hungarian atya) , but the t is retained in the plural and the 
verbal termination, as ole-t, thou art, rakasta-t, thou lo\ 7 est. 
In Hungarian we have the m of the first person in the plural, 
and also in the possessive suffixes and verbal terminations 
of the singular, as hala-m, my fish, Idto-m, I see (it). Ac- 
cording to analogy we should expect in the isolated form a 
singular mi; the en which we find instead is very puzzling, 
not on account of its n, which might easily have been sub- 
stituted for m , but on account of the long vowel at the be- 
ginning, as no cognate language knows of any similar form, 
except perhaps the Vogul, in which, according to Klap- 
roth, they say am for I. 

To sum up, it has been shown, that the five families 
generally called by one name, the Finno-Tartarian, all 
present m as the characteristic of the first person, while 
for the second we find t distinctly in three of them, and 


even the remaining two have s, apparently a euphonic al- 
teration of the same letter. 

In turning to the Semitic family, I must remark that this 
family stands in a decided relationship with the Coptic, the 
Berber, the Saho Galla (these two latter languages being 
members of the same family) , and perhaps even with some 
other African families of speech. The form of these three 
sister-families, us I would call them, of the Semitic proper, 
o not fail to throw considerable light on the Semitic itself, 
in this as well as in other matters. In all these languages 
here is at first sight a considerable difference between the 
solated pronouns and the possessive affixes , the latter being 
he more simple of the two. The suffixed pronouns of the 
second person are: 



fern. plur. msc. fern, 
t ten 
- (U i) ten 

kun kunt 

kum kunna 

kern ken 

m 1 




Semitic (Arabic 
roper \Hebrev 

From this, there would result a k as the characteristic of 
ihe second person, but the Egyptian forms seem to authorize 
- belief, that either there was another base t , or else that one 
f the two is a euphonic change of the other. The latter 
ms to be the more likely. At all events both the verbal 

irminations or prefixes and the isolated pronouns of all 

.ese languages show decidedly a f- sound as the character 

f this person. 

Compare the terminations of the so called Semitic Perfect 

sing. 2. msc. fern. pi. 2. msc. fern. 

(rabic ta ti turn tunna 

{ebreu: ta t (ti) tern ten 

ith the isolated pronouns 

Arabic an-ta an-ti an-tuni an-tunna 

Hebrew at-ta at-t(at-ti) at-tem at-tem 

1 Compare however the accusative suffix fcfcam, thee (). 


Here we find t most decidedly as the character of the 
second person, the difference between the terminations and 
the isolated pronouns consisting merely in the latter having 
the syllable an prefixed, the n of which is assimilated in 
Hebrew. In Egyptian and Coptic w r e have 

2. zing. masc. fern. pi. conim. 

Egyptian ento-k ento ento-ten 

Coptic entho-k entho entho-ten 

The k in sing. msc. and the ten in the pi. are clearly the < 
pronominal suffixes, and en is the prefix corresponding to 
the Arabian an. Thus there remains TO as the really sig- 
nificant part of the word. The prefix en, or rather an, 
which is not sufficiently clear in the Semitic proper, finds 
its explanation in the Coptic. For there an is the pronoun 
indefinite, which is however used as a sort of article before ? 
some words, to give them a more substantial, or rather^ 
substantive, character; as an C ( is the Greek numeral) 'al 
seven , a w r eek '. Sometimes it seems to impart a collective : 
character, as ton, a mountain, an-tou, oQEirij. Again, it 
takes the form en in shashi, bitter, en-sha#hi, something 
bitter, bitterness. 

While we recognize easily in the Semitic and its cognate 
languages a T (or k) as the character of the second person, 
the question, what may be the proper characteristic of the 
first, is fraught with considerable difficulty. The isolated 

pronouns are: 

Semitic proper 











anokhi, ani 








The possessive affixes are: 

Semitic prop< 

('optic Berber Galla Arabic 

(my) i yu ko i i 

(our) n nagh kefa na nti 

It is clear, that we have in the isolated forms the prefix 
an just mentioned, and the final i in the singular, the final 


ni. nu iii the plural are probably nothing but the possessive 
suffixes superadded . as in the case of the Egyptian second 
person mentioned above. Thus we would retain the syllable 
AK, OK as the true characteristic of the first person, and 
mu<t assume that in those forms where the K is apparently 
wanting, it has been lost. Tn the suffixed pronouns how- 
ever only the Galla shows a , while all the others have 
i, y in the singular, n in the plural. It is impossible to 
explain the latter as an alteration of k. and it would be 
equally impossible to maintain that the ni. nu were shortened 
forms of the isolated pronouns, because, as we have seen, 
the latter themselves suppose the preexistence of such a 
suffix-form. Thus we are evidently driven to the conclusion, 
that N was, at least legitimately and originally, the charac- 
teristic, or one of the characteristics, of the first person 
plural. Now there is in addition one instance at least of 
the same in the singular: namely, both in Hebrew and 
Arabic the accusative suffix meaning 'me" is (not *', but) ni. 
Therefore finally, though not without some hesitation, 1 
set down the Semitic and its cognate tongues amongst those 
languages 'which present the nasal in the first, and T in 
the second, person'. 

Comes lastly our own Indogerman family. Here we must 
[look , not to the nominative but to the accusative , in order 
find the common type again. And on doing so it ap- 
>ears clearly enough in: 

Sanskr. Greek Latin Gothic Slavonic Lithuanian 
|(me) ma-m ns me mi-k m$ man )/'d ti ^ 
thee) tva-m re, ae te thu-k t^ tav y 

However, on more minute enquiry, some difficulties present 
emselves. First, we have in the nom. of the first person 
early a different series in Sanskr. aham. Greek tyin, Goth. 
&c. which necessitate the supposition of an original 
yham; secondly, from the Sanskrit it is clear, that the base 
f the second person is not properly speaking to, but tea, 
d this is also borne out by the nominative form of all 


the other dialects: Gr. vov, TV, ov, Lat. , Lith. tu, Slav. 
ty, Goth, thu; the u of which is evidently a contraction of 
VA, as shown by the Sanskr. nom. team. A still greater 
difficulty arises from the circumstance , that both the M and 
T are only found in the singular. There are indeed in the 
first person plural and dual, forms beginning with n (Skr. 
nas, us, ndu, us two, Gr. vwi, Lat. nos, SI. ny ^ us, &c.), 
and sometimes even m (Lith. mes, we, = Slav, my) , but they 
are rather exceptions than the rule, and not totally free 
from the suspicion of having originated from erroneous ana- 
logy. In the second person moreover, there is scarcely a 
trace of a t in the dual and plural, unless it be in the 
Greek ocpwi, and Welsh chwi, which both imply an original 
initial SV, that might possibly stand for TV. 

I know that several attempts have been made to show 
that not only the bases employed by the Indogermans in 
the plural and dual, but even the nominative singular of 
the first person, descend from the same roots MA and TVA, 
but I confess that I lack the desperate courage needed for 
such identifications, and, whatever truth or untruth may be 
in these jeux d'esprit, one thing is certain, that even be- 
fore the separation of the tribes, the nominative singular 
of the first, and the plural and dual of both the first and 
second, presented the same want of harmony with the rest 
of the forms , as for instance they do in the actual Sanskrit 
historically known. What this disharmony arose from, and 
whether it actually was developed out of original unison , it 
is impossible to say, but nevertheless we can affirm, that 
in a still older period M was the only characteristic of the 
first, and T (not TV) the only sign of the second. This 
I derive from the personal terminations of the verb, which 
are in the present 

1. sing. 

2. s. 

2. d. 

2. pi. 










(tfO> ^ 
















In the first person the M is apparent, and so is the T 
of the second in the dual and plural. The si of the singu- 
lar is no doubt a euphonic alteration, while the Skr. </Az, 
Gr. #t in the imperative, presents another form of the dental 
in that person. The second sing, of the reduplicated pre- 
terite has retained the original sound, Skr. -tha, Goth, -f, 
Lat. (is-)fr', for the th of the Sanskrit is here, as nearly al- 
ways, very modern. 

Thus we discern two different periods in the prehistorical 
Indogerman times; lirst, a period when M and T were the 
characteristics of the two persons , secondly, a period when 
the former became restricted to the oblique cases of the 
singular, while the latter in its new shape TV A was also 
confined to the singular, extending however its dominion 
to the nominative. This second period had been gone through 
before our ancestors separated. In the historical times the 
difference of singular and plural, and of the nominative '/' 
as opposed to the oblique case me. is. upon the whole, 
preserved, but here and there we observe a tendency to 
come back to the pre-primitive if I may >;iy so simplicity. 
This tendency to increase the domain of the M and T 
has three different modes of appearance, namely first: the 
M enters the nominative case. This we have in some of the 
English dialects which replace 1 by me, in the moi of the 
French, in the men of the New-Persian, which is the only 
form in that language, and even from the oldest times his- 
torically known in the me of the Old Irish and the other 
Keltic languages. As it is very likely that the Etruscan 
is one of the Indogerman family, the mi of that language 
is probably the oldest instance of the M usurping the no- 
minative in an Indogerman language. Secondly ice find the 
of the jirxt person extended to the plural. This we have 
in some German and Norse dialects (mer. mir for wir is 
common about Thuringia, mer is also sometimes used in 
Old Norse) . in the New-Iranian languages almost throughout 
is in New-Persian md, Armenian meq, Ossetian //uzf ), 
and in modern Greek iitic. I am aware, that in most of 
these languages there are euphonic laws at work, which 



may partly explain the origin of those forms, but I think 
that the above-proven tendency towards uniformity goes for 
something. It is very true, for instance, that the Romaic 
/nets is -fjfi^ig shortened in the same way as vu for 7*- or, 
dsv for oidiv, but I think the apheresis was favoured at 
least by the circumstance that they got by it the wished 
for oneness of sound. The third phase of this retrograde 
movement towards simplicity we have, when the dental of 
the second is introduced into the plural. This is the case 
partly already in the Old Norse, where p-id, both of you, 
p-er, you, are almost the only forms ever used, though the 
cognate Swedish and Danish retain the form without a dental 
even to this very day. On the Faero-islands they introduce 
the dental even into the oblique cases, and say tiur, you 
(nom.), tiara, of you, tmn, to you. Da for 'ihr' is used 
in some of the middle parts of Germany, ael*; is in Romaic 
the legitimate plural of ov , and in Armenian we have du-q, 
you, corresponding to du, thou. Furthest however in this 
tendency of simplifying the complicate variety of the old 
Indogerman languages go the modern dialects of Hindustan. 
For instance, in Bengali we have: 

I we thou you 

Pronouns of equality ami amra turni tomara 

Pronouns of inferiority or 
in the second person 
of superiority mui mora tui tora. 

Thus the Bengali has completed the circular movement, 
and ultimately come back to the simple state w r hich \ve 
have reason to suppose that our common Indogerman an- 
cestors once started from. 

To sum up shortly, we have up to this point seen, that 
similar phonetical principles are observable in the formation 
of the two first pronouns, as well in the Indogerman, the 
Semitic, and the Finno-Tartaric languages, as in other families 
of speech, thus confirming the inward unity of all mankind, 
though not at all attesting community of origin. 

There remains now the more difficult enquiry, by what 
psychological process these words are developed. 



In a mere metaphysical point of view there seems to exist 
a vast gnlph between the Me, the individual consciousness, 
on the one hand, and the /, the outward world of objects, 
on the other. If language reflected this bipartition cherished 
by a good many philosophers , we should expect to meet 
at the best with a pronoun of the first, and a pronoun of 
the third, person. However language, following therein 
the example of nature , or rather a law of existence accord- 
ing to which the individual mind enters into possession of 
its own self only through the contact of, and in community 
with, other individual minds, language introduces between 
the Me and the far off situated It or That an intermediate 
link, a pronoun which is both me and not me, in short, 
the word Thou. It is not my intention to dive at present 
into all the depths which are contained in this little word, 
(a subject which W. v. Humboldt has fully developed in his 
essay on the dual number), on the contrary, I content my- 
self with the indisputable assertion, that whatever the actual 
nature of the Thou may be, it cannot be overlooked, that 
in a mere abstract metaphysical point of view, it is but one 
of the many cases of non-ego, and that therefore it is not 
altogether unreasonable to expect, that language should treat 
it as such, in other words that the pronoun of the second 
person should somehow be a variety strongly marked in- 
deed by individual characteristics of the pronoun of the 
third person. If we now turn to the real languages to see 
how far they justify such an expectation, it is first worthy 
of being remarked, that in only one single language have 
I found a form for thou which may be clearly analysed to 
mean, and even in the present historical state of society 
must be felt by the speakers to mean, 'thy it', tuum illud. 
This is the Jurako-Samojedic pudar, which is a compound 
01 puda, he, she, it, and r, the suffixed pronoun of the 
second person singular. But not only does the said Ian- 


guage in this respect differ from its nearest of kin, the 
other Samojedic dialects, but even this very pudar 'thy it' 
would be impossible without the previous existence of the 
suffix of the second person r. Even here then the sub- 
sumption of the second person under the third is, to say 
the least, incomplete, if not altogether delusive. 

Nevertheless on earnest search we remark in several of 
those families of languages the records of which are before 
us nearly complete, an indisputable similarity of form in 
the pronoun of the second person and certain pronouns of 
the third, or (as for the future I shall call them) demon- 
stratives. That I am justified in substituting the latter de- 
nomination for the former, will I hope scarcely be denied 
by any one who is acquainted with any of the more ancient 
forms of Indo-European speech , the mere knowledge of the 
way in which the Latin uses is, ille, iste, being amply suf- 
ficient to establish the identity of the demonstrative and the 
so called pronoun of the third person. The similarity of 
form between the second person and the demonstrative is 
evident in the following families of languages: 

1) INDOGERMAN. It has been shown, that the tea, 
which is in all the Indogerman languages historically known 
the base of the second person, and was so already before 
the scission of languages, that this tva must nevertheless 
have been in a still more early period ta. Ta again is the 
well known base of the Skr. tarn, eum, Gr. rov , Slav, tit, 
Lith. tit, Goth, tliana, O.K. G. den, &c. Thus the identity 
of form is complete. 

2) SEMITIC FAMILY, together with its sister-families. In 
these we have seen before the base of the second person is 
either tha (tho) or to, to which the syllable an, Egyptian 
an, en, is prefixed (above, p. 48). The same tha, ta, with 
the same prefix en is apparent in Egyptian en-to-f, he, cn- 
to-,she, Koptic entho-f, entho-s, plur. cntho-u, they, where 
the /, *, u are the possessive affixes of the same persons. 
Compare also the Koptic ti, tal, hie, illic. The Berber has 
natta, he, natta-f, she, nufni, ii, nufanti, eae, in which the 
same prefix with the vowel inverted (na, nu) is easily recog- .; 


nized, leaving as the base ta, fa 1 . In the suffixed pronouns 
the Berber has preserved the t- sound in the accusative form 
(-f, him, -t, her, -fan, them), while it is changed into s 
in the dative forms -s, him, her, -san. avtolg, -sant, avraig. 
The same change into s has evidently taken place in the 
Egyptian suffixes -.?, her, hers, -sen. their (the latter re- 
placed by n in Koptic, that is, by the mere termination of 
the plural occupying the place of the lost suffix). The t, th 
as the elementary sound of the pronoun of the third person 
seems at first entirely wanting in the Semitic proper, but 
if we remember the essential identity of the pronoun 'he' 
with the demonstrative bases, we shall not hesitate to re- 
cognize it in the common pronoun demonstrative, Arabic 
fffi- or f>t, hie, eft or ft, haec, Chaldean den. hie, da, haec, 
Hebrew zeh, fern. :6t, compare also the Arabic famma ., hie, 
hoc loco Chald. tdm. Hebr. sham. The common forms 
of the pronoun of the third person in Semitic proper begin 
always with A, and so do the suffixes, only in Assyrian we 
find a sh (according to Oppert. according to others it is s) 
at the beginning of the suffixes -*/<>;. his. -sha . hers, -shin. 
eoruin, shin, earum. Whether this sibilant may be con- 
sidered as an intermediate stage between the t, th, of the 
Egyptian and Berber, and the common Semitic h. I will 
not venture to decide, because this euphonic change of s 
into h is very rare, if at all known, in this family, but 
the existence of a demonstrative base (fa, fa. nearly iden- 
tical in form with the base of the second person even in 
Semitic proper, is established. 

3) In the FINNISH languages we again found t as the charac- 
teristic of the second person, and the t as a demonstrative 
base is sufficiently indicated by the Finnish tuo, ille = Estonian 
to, Mordvinian ft', hie, tona, ille, Lapponian tat, ille, pi. 
tah, Tsheremissian ta, hie. In this family there is also a 
demonstrative base S, which most frequently furnishes the 
pronoun of the third person properly so called, Tsheremissian 

1 The t' at the end of the fern, sing., the *i at the end of the fern. 

plur. are the characteristics of that sender. 
3 <f represents nearly the English th in the. 


so, he = Mordv., Lappon. von, which becomes hdn in Suomi, 
the s being very often liable to this change in that language. 
Whether this S be originally only a modification of the !T, 
others may decide. For our present purpose, the fact that 
t is here also the characteristic of both the second person 
and the demonstrative, is sufficiently established. 

4) THE SAMOJEDIC. As to the t in the second person, 
see above. The demonstrative t we have in Jurakian tuky, 
hie, tiky, iste, to%, ille, in which Castren considers ky a 
particle. Add the Ostiakian tarn, tau, tap, hie, to, iste, 
Kamassian di, is, du, hie. In Ostiakian also 'he' is tep, 
tap, in Kamassian du, di. 

5) MONGOLIAN. The t of the second person finds an 
echo in, or rather is the echo of, the demonstrative of the 
Buriatian dialect tere, ille, where re must be a suffix, as 
it is cast off in the plural te-de, the de being the plural 

6) How far we were right in ascribing a t as the original 
character of the second person to the MANDSHU language, 
depends in a manner on the general view we take regard- 
ing the relationship of this family to the other Finno- 
Tartarian languages; a question not to be decided in this 
place. Assuming however that we have done right in claim- 
ing the said character of the second person for it, we may 
further remark, that in this language tshe (for tye, te?) 
means 'they', and that the Tungusian proper shows the t- 
sonnd most clearly in its suffix of the third person plural 

7) The certainty of the t as the characteristic of the second 
personal pronoun in the TURKISH languages depends on the 
previous settlement of the same question which we raised 
concerning the Mandshu. The demonstrative t seems to make 
its appearance in the demonstrative tigi 1 . 

To sum up, the base of the pronoun of the second person 
is identical with a demonstrative base, or nearly so, ir 
Indogerman, Semitic and its sister-dialects, Finnish, Same 

1 Having no Turkish grammar at hand, I repeat here Castren's stat 
ment in his Samoyedic grammar. 


yedic , Mongolian and perhaps Mandshu and Turkish. I for- 
bear to extend the enquiry over other families of languages, 
for the simple reason that the difficulty attending it forbids 
a single man to enter into labours affording ample scope 
for, and necessitating the aid of, a great many scholars, 
but which would never come to an end were I to do it 
all alone. Thus then the question arises, whether the 
identity of form between ihou and that* du and das, can 
possibly be the result of mere chance, and as this can 
scarcely be admitted, the similarity becoming only more 
striking the farther we go back to antiquity , the more care- 
fully we analyze the facts, what must we think of this ap- 
parently undeniable identity? 

It is now time to introduce the interesting and truly phi- 
losophical remarks put forth by W. v. Humboldt in his essay 
Ueber den Zusanunenhang der Ortsadverbia mit den Per- 
sonalpronominibus ". The main substance of this essay is 
the proposition: "Some languages have constituted a relation 
between the notian of space and the pronominal notions''. 

Such are, tirst, the Tonya. In this language mei signifies 
the motion towards the speaker, atu the motion from the 
speaker to the person spoken to, lastly angi from the speaker 
to a person at present not spoken to. Xow these three ad- 
verbs are very often put, while the pronouns or verbs are 
left out. Especially the verb 'to give" is almost invariably 
suppressed, nay seems to have been lost altogether. Thus 
they say: 

mei ia giate au = hither this to me give me this, 

teu atu ia giate coy shall I thither this to thee = I shall 
give you this. 

In these examples the pronouns (w, I, coy, thoti) are 
preserved, but they may be dispensed with in such sen- 

:nces, as: 
bea behe mei he tunga fatine = when spoke hither the 
veral women when several women spoke to me or u; 
lu -to tell", tdla viei 'to tell hither" th. i. me or <$, tdla 
' ' to tell thither " th. i. thee or you. 
Secondly, Old Chinese. In this language nai means 'thou", 


but according to Neumann it indicates originally a relation 
in space. The same scholar adduces places, in which nai 
really means 'ille', as nai yan 'illud verbum', nai tony 
'like him'. 

Thirdly. In Japanese the words kono, sono, ano = kore, 
sore, are, mean hie, iste, ille, and konata, sonata, an at a 
are the corresponding answers to the question where? that 
is, they mean: here, there (istic), yonder, respectively. But 
the two first are raised to the signification 'from my, thy, side, 
as to me, thee'. Sonata originally 'istic' has become 
quite a pronoun of the second 'thou', and at present is 
strictly different from its etymon sono 'iste'; konata 'here' 
seems to be employed as a pronoun of the first person only 
in the limited sense ' as to me ' , and is used besides as a ~ 
pronoun of the second person addressed to superiors. 

Fourthly. In Armenian there is a suffix s, which origi- 
nally means 'this' or 'here', but takes the meaning of / j 
and my. Thusgam-s, I am here, or I am now, and hair-s, 
this father, the father here, I a father, my father. 

Thus far the resume of Humboldt's paper, which amply 
shows, that demonstrative adverbs like there, here, may be- 
come the substitutes of the pronouns thou and /. One thing 
is remarkable in this excellent essay, namely, that Hum- 
boldt while bringing forward out of the storehouse of his 
immense learning examples taken from the most remote lan- 
guages, should have overlooked an instance of the same 
mode of speaking which might have been had almost at 
home ; I mean the Italian d and vi substituted for ' us ' and 
'you' in the accusative case, though or because they origi- 
nally mean 'here' and 'there'. 

"But" I hear already some sagacious reader ask "what 
have we to do with all these Humboldtian remarks here? 
Let it be true, that words meaning there may be used for 
'thou', but will that justify the supposition, that the mere 
pronoun 'iste, ille' can be also used for 'thou"? There is 
a vast difference between a pronoun demonstrative and a 
demonstrative adverb." Here I must remark that I by no 
means meant to say, that the pronoun 'this' or 'that' might 


give rise to 'their, but only, that the demonstrative base 
became at once the have of the pronoun of the second person, 
which is vastly different too. For the stage of speech here 
brought under consideration lies so far backward in the 
development of the mind that we are carried by it into a 
time when there were only roots. Any step further de- 
pends therefore on the preliminary condition that we should 
view the nature of a root in the right light. First of all. 
in a more highly developed state of language such as is 
presented by Sanskrit , Greek or Latin . the root is nothing 
but the complex of sounds , from which according to gram- 
matical laws a number of words originate, but it is no 
word itself. Hence it is neither noun nor verb, though 
both are developed out of it. If I take the words '/oaff>, 
yQciuiia, -'Qcecfgi'i , "/ycciTog, / '(>aq>ixtoc, being verbs, sub- 
stantives, adjectives, adverbs, they may be compared to 
the different parts of a plant rising as branches into the 
air, stretching as roots into the ground, quivering as leaves 
in the wind, shining as blossoms in the sun, while the 
radix '/Qacp is only if I may so the point of indifference 
between them, that which is neither branch nor root nor 
flower, nor fruit nor leaf, but the spring of life in all of 
them '. This power of life spread in the fully developed 
tree all over its different parts is contained before the de- 
velopment begins in the small compass of the germ, and 
to this phase of vegetable existence the so called radix may 
be compared in those languages which like the Chinese are 
devoid of grammatical forms, and wherever else the gram- 
matical forms are yet to come. This applies especially to 
the way in which children use language when they begin 
to speak. Then, every word of theirs is a root, or rather 
a^mn, which in time may become a family of words branch- 
ing off into nouns and verbs &c. ; but as yet it is nothing 
of all that. If a child says 'pa, ma" it is only our adult 
reason misled by our own way of speaking which starts 
the question, whether that be a noun or verb. It is neither. 

1 It may be seen from this that the grammatical expression 'root" is 
unfortunately grounded on an inadequate simile. 


Pa is every thing which the father does, is, and has, a 
teeming conception brimful still of the original riches of 
overwhelming sensations. Moreover, if the power of desire 
is uppermost in the infant soul, then 'pa' is not only every 
thing which the father does and is , but also every thing he 
is wanted to do or to become. It requires some degree of 
intellectual labour to realize in a manner this psychological 
state and a good deal of skill to describe it, and I doubt 
myself whether I have succeeded in the attempt at doing 
so. However, unless we get some faint idea of it, the 
problem of what a root or the germ of a family of words 
is, must remain a mystery for ever. 

If we now come to demonstrative roots, it is clear, that 
they also must be considered in that undeveloped state as 
the germ of all sorts of pronominal forms, adjective, sub- 
stantive, adverbial, not as the reality of one peculiar class of 
them. The correctness of this view is borne out by the fact, that 
in languages that are totally foreign to our highly organized 
grammatical system, the pronouns have changing powers, 
which, though they excite astonishment, and even a sort of 
dismay, in the souls of Indogerman grammarians, are per- 
fectly natural in their stage of development. Thus the more 
attentive of my readers have no doubt already remarked, 
that the Chinese nai (as given above in the passage re- 
ferring to Humboldt's essay) means 'ille, illius, illic' that 
is, is at once a possessive, a substantive, and an adverbial 
pronoun. Another interesting feature of the demonstratives 
in their germlike state is examplih'ed by Threlkeld's gram- 
mar of the languages of Australia. There we hear of an 
'absolute pronoun ta, it is. Not merely declarative, but 
'absolute. It is derived (?) from the verb substantive, verb as- 
'sertive'. [Rather: it is also the verb substantive.] Again, 
when mentioning its plural form ta-ra, he says: ^ta-ra, they 
'are, the things, the plural of 'it is', these, those'. These 
are startling and shocking facts for our Indogerman ears. 
But still more startling is it, that in the Negro-English the 
actual Indogerman forms are employed in a manner ap- 
proaching nearly to the queer description which Threlkeld 


gives of the corresponding Australian demonstrative. Namely, 
the English there becomes in Negro-English dc, which be- 
sides the sense of the English word has also the meaning of 
the substantive verb as: mi de 'I am', literally -I there", 
na IIOBO , at home , de na hoso c he is at home ". Again, that 
becomes da, but with a slightly altered pronunciation we 
get <lfi, which takes the place of the verb substantive, as 
mi da joe brara = me there you[r] brother = I am your 
brother '. 

From all this we may learn that the original demonstrative 
is neither a substantive nor an adverb, but all of this, and 
even a verb; or rather, that it is a whole embryonic sen- 
tence, which according to circumstances may be differently 
translated into our fully developed language. The child 
an object and says ta! I do not insist of course on 
this very sound being invariably produced ; we may 
translate this by -there (it is)' or *that it is% or 'carry me 
thither' or 'give me it' , and by a variety of expressions 
besides, but the truth is, that every one of these inter- 
pretations is wrong, because it replaces the teeming full- 
ess of the infantine word by a clearer but less rich ex- 
ressiou of our more abstract language. Yet if a choice 
etween the different translations must be made, I trust 
hat few of my readers will refuse me their consent when 
ay ing: 'there' the adverb is by far the most adequate. 
So much then for the nature of the original demonstrative, 
hich we see is such, that the difficult)- of its being turned 
to a pronoun of the second person without the previous 
formation of an adverb of place, that this difficulty vanishes, 
Decause the original demonstrative partakes itself of the 
aature of a local adverb. 

Consequently, as the historical facts forcibly pointed to 
;he formal identity of the pronoun of the second person 

1 Traces of a use of the demonstrative similar to the one described 
a the text, we have even in Indogerman languages. For instance, the 
iierman Ja! when accompanying the act of giving, and the Greek iij 
Sophron used even the plural HT>) resemble somewhat the Negro mode 
f speaking. 


with a demonstrative, we may venture to consider this iden- 
tity as established, and therefore say, that the Thou is really 
developed out of the l lt or There'. 

But Huniboldt's remarks as given above carry us still 
farther. For from them it resulted, that '/' also was in 
several languages expressed by a demonstrative adverb, origi- 
nally meaning 'here", and consequently we may expect, 
that the pronoun 'I, me' may have a similar origin to that 
of 'thee, thou', a view which is supported by the phonetical 
similarity of the two first pronouns observable in so many 
languages, as shown before. At present however lam able 
to give something like a proof of this supposition only for 
the Indo-European languages. Leaving the two bases of 
the nom. sing, and plural out of the account, the pronominal 
forms of the first person in our family are reducible to three 
main bases: 1) MA, the base of all the cases of the sin- 
gular, except the nominative, and which in a pre-primitive 
time even extended over the plural, as the verbal termina- 
tions show (s. p. 50). 2) NA in several of the dual and 
plural forms (Skr. nas , nau, Lat. nos etc.). 3) A in all 
the oblique cases of the plural, where it is however always 
compound with SMA, thus giving rise to ASM A (Sanskr. 
a&man, Gr., aftf.tiv). All of these three are also de- 
monstrative bases: MA is found as such in the Sanskr. com- 
pound ima- 'hie', not used in the nominative , and isolated 
in the Greek (.nv. NA is found in the Greek nv and in 
a good many compounds such as Sanskr. ana-, whence 
anena 'by Mm' = Lith. an(a)s, Slav. <ww, and Sanskr. ena 
Old Lat. oinos i. e. unus, Goth, ains &c. Lastly, A is a 
well known and nearly fully declined demonstrative base 
in Sanskrit, of which several forms almost coincide with 
the pronoun 'we'; thus a-smd-t 'ab eo' and a-sma-t 'a 
nobis' are only different in the quantity of the last vowel 
sound '. 

1 It is curious, that MA, NA, A are at the same time also the buses 
of the negations (coiup. Skr. m& Gr. ,>?', Skr. na 'not' = Greek vq 
Lat. n Goth. t, and the privative a of both Greek and Sanskrit). This 
is again nothing but another development of their original demonstrative 


Thus we come to the result , that, out of the original de- 
monstratives, a base pointing more to the distance has been 
aken to signify the pronoun of the second, while another base 

eferring to a spot near at hand has acquired the power of I. 

This distinction of nearness and distance entirely rests I 
nust confess on Humboldt's essay. It would be impossible 

show with our present means, that in Indogermau for 
iistance the demonstrative base ta, which has given rise to 
he pronoun -thou", points more to distance than the other 

MA, yA, A) 

I could conclude with this, but before doing so, I shall 
nuke myself my own critic, an office which I have exer- 
ised here and there even in the body of the Paper. 

I refer the two first pronouns to demonstrative bases, but 
t might be justly said, that although I have spoken a good 
leal about the characteristic nature of the demonstrative^, 

have not explained their origin. To this I might answer, 
hat such at present was not the subject of my enquiry, but 

prefer to declare that in the main I agree with Schwartze, 
vho says on p. 339 of his Coptic grammar with regard to 
he original demonstrative: "Every object is to the child 

1 living palpable thing. When it cannot reach anywhere 
vith its hand, then instinctively it utters a cry, in order to 
au>e to approach that which has awakened its interest.' 1 

add, when the soul becoming aware of this cry issuing 
brth from its own interior, takes it up as a sign for the 
ndefiuite outward reality which is the object of its desire, 
md shapes it into an articulate sound, then we have a 
oronoun demonstrative in the sense explained above. 

Secondly it may be said , that the view taken here of the 
\vo first pronouns is materialistic, in as much as they are 
opposed to be nothing but demonstratives, by which the 
spiritual nature of Me and Thou could not be expressed. 
Co this I answer, that I do not mean to say that / and 
Thou are not materially different from the outward world 
)f That and There, but simply, that when the mental de- 

brce of pointing to some object distant in space and consequently re- 
noved from the thoughts of the Me. 


velopment has reached the point where the consciousness 
of a person (a Thou), and of the individual mind's own 
personality (the Me) is aroused, then the matter for shap- 
ing the requisite words is taken from the great storehouse 
of the Here and There, of the demonstratives. Why the 
mind ever should come to the feeling of personality, either 
another person's or its own, this, the deepest of all psycho- 
logical and metaphysical mysteries , remains of course un- 
solved by the above observations. 

Lastly, it will have been remarked that I always put the 
primitive historical state of language in parallelism with the 
state in which we meet with language in the mouth of in- 
fants. I wish it to be understood that I do so, not from 
any confusion of ideas, but on principle, because T hold 
that the last difficulties attending the question of the cre- 
ation of language can only, and only, be elucidated by 
psychological enquiries to be made at present, since the 
present repeated creation of language by children differs 
only in so far from the primitive one, that the first manu- 
facturers of language had to do both, to go through the 
psychological development, and to invent, or rather to 
shape, the articulate sounds, while our children find the 
latter ready coined, the moment their mind has entered 
such or such a state of development in which a certain 
word or class of words is requisite. But this does not con- 
stitute any material difference. 

In order therefore to throw further light on the matter 
of the development of the two first pronouns out of demon- 
stratives, new psychological observations are very much 
needed; especially it would be of paramount importance to 
learn, whether children begin first to use the word thou 
(you) or 7, or whether the two make their appearance at 
the same time. The second supposition seems very im- 
probable , the third I presume will be found in accordance 
with the facts. At least Humboldt's essay tended to show 
that there is always a reciprocity between the Me and Thou, 
the one emerging from the Here, the other from the There. 


P.S. Since I finished this Paper. I have found another 
language fully in accordance with the views developed in it, 
which at the same time furnishes a striking instance how 
much the real character of the personal pronouns may be 
obscured by peculiarities of grammatical structure, so that 
it requires nothing less than a thorough acquaintance with 
the anatomy of the language concerned, in order to ex- 
tricate the true characteristic out of its veils and encum- 
brances. He who hears for the first time that in Greenlandish 
uvanga means !", and ivdlit *thou', will probably think this 
language a glaring exception to all the rules laid down in this 
Paper. And such was my impression too. However, from 
Kleins chmidt's Greenlandish grammar, it appears that the 
Greenlaudish chimes in with these very rules most beauti- 

Namely -ga, my, -t, thy, are in Greenlandish the pos- 
sessive suffixes of nouns, as igdlu-ga, my house, igdlu-t, 
thy house. Here we have t in the second person; and that 
ga in the first is developed out of a nasal appears from the 
fact that in the verb the objective suffix of the first person 
is invariably nga (= me). It will further be seen by any 
one who takes the trouble of examining carefully all the 
various forms of the Greenlandish suffixes in the singular, 
dual, plural, subjective, objective, possessive, that, through- 
out the whole, G, SG, is the unmistakeable characteristic 
of the first, and T (sometimes it seems changed into /S) 
of the second. 

But what then of the queer forms of the isolated pro- 
nouns? This mystery has been solved with much skill by 
Kleinschmidt himself. The forms are as follow-: 

uta-nga. I itdli-t, thou 

vra-guk, both of us i/i-t/tJt, both of you (4 denotes the dual) 

uta-gut, we i/i-rse, you (t denotes the plural) 

Now t, i-tifc, Kse are the common possessive affixes of the 
econd person singular, dual, plural, and nga^ guk, gut 

e common accusative affixes of the first person added to 
erbs. I agree with Kleinschmidt that the latter three are 
irobably here somewhat irregularly used as possessives. It 


is clear then that the real personal character is only in these 
suffixes, and that the remaining bases UVA and ILE are 
merely employed for the purpose of giving them a support, 
since the Greenlandish is averse to the separate use of pro- 
nominal bases and always wants to affix them to something. 
Kleinschmidt's further assumption, that the said two bases 
UVA, ILE, are identical with the two demonstrative roots 
UV, here, IK (IV), yonder, is highly probable as to the 
latter, and as to the former I consider it certain. Conse- 
quently the learned missionary is right in saying that uvanga, 
ivdlit mean originally "meine hierheit, deine dortheit", 
"my here-ness, thy there-ness". 

It is already remarkable that in these Greenlandish ab- 
solute personal pronouns we should again trace a connection 
between me and here, thee and there, but still more remark- 
able is it, that the NG, T, the characteristics of the first 
and second person find an echo in, or are the echo of, 
two pronominal bases simply demonstrative. Namely on 
p. 21 of Kleinschmidt's grammar we find a demonstrative 
root MA, here, and another TASS, there. Besides there 
is an enclitic demonstrative base ta , which may be prefixed 
to all the other demonstrative bases, except Tdss, and which 
I because of this very exception consider with Kleinschmidt 
as the original root of that same tdss. Hence it would ap- 
pear that exactly as the root MA 'here' is to TA 4 there', 
so is M?, the root of the first person, to T, the root of 
the second; or, according to my view, the two latter at 
the two former transformed into personal pronouns by the 
process described in my Paper. 


Secretary to the Dictionary Committee.) 

In April 1859 a paper containing queries respecting ety- 
mologies and several difficult passages from Early English 
books was circulated among members of the Society and 
the contributors to the Dictionary, and conjectures in answer 
were invited. The present paper contains so much of the 
results of this appeal as the Dictionary Committee consider 
sufficiently valuable and sufficiently certain to be worth 


Sholde ic $eve a fol a therne, 

Engelond! thou sho it yerne. Havelok, 298. 

The meaning of theme, which Sir F. Madden has left un- 
explained in his Glossary, was asked. The Earl is deliber- 
ating whether he shall restore the kingdom to its rightful 

Most correspondents considered it a metathesis of 'throne'. 
The Rev. R. F. Littledale, however, Mr. Wedgwood, and 
M. Metivier, agree in thinking that it means c a girl' (0. 
Sax. therna), and this appears to me clearly to be the true 
view. The word occurs again under the form 'thorae' in 
the Avowyng of Arthur, st. 23: 

"Thus they turn at to the Tome, 
With the thrirand (Aortic" , 

i. e. the lady whom Sir Menealf was leading with him, and 
whom Sir Kay vainly attempts to rescue. The editor of 
the Romance in his glossary absurdly explains 'thorne' as 
a 'thornbush'. 

Under the form tarne (or tharne in Bodl. MS.) we find the 
word in Robert of Brunne's translation of the Manuel des 
Peeches (Harl.MS. 1701, fol. 49, col. 2) with the gloss 'wenche': 

On seuene maners shal y shewe 
How lecherye pan ys a shrewe. 



Pe fyrst ys ' fornycacyoun , 

Whan two onweddyde haue mysdoun , 

As sengle knaue and sengle tame. 

The construction of our passage will then be: 'Shall I 
give a girl, a fool, England, though she desire it'. 

2. SPALE. 

Ho (the Owl) quath, Thu hattest ni^tingale, 

Thu inijtest bet hoten galegale, 

Vor thu havest to monie tale. 

Lat thine tunge habbe spale! 

Thu wenest that thes dai both ino^e; 

Lat me nu habbe mine throve. 

Owl & Nightingale, 255-260. 

The Nightingale, it should be stated, has already talked 
more than two pages of small print, and the Owl is en- 
deavouring to put a stop to her apparently interminable 
harangue. The difficulty in the passage is occasioned by 
the word 'spale'. Two interpretations seem probable, viz. 

1. Relaxation Germ, spiel, or 

2. 'A spell' or 'turn' of rest. 

My own impression is in favour of the second of these 
suggestions, which is derived from the Anglo-Saxon spelian, 
spelung. The first however is almost equally probable; 
weavers are said to be 'at play', where there is no work 
going on. 


And $ef the thincth that ich misrempe, 
Thu stond a$ein, and dome crempe. 

Owl & Nightingale, 1785-6. 

Misrempe is probably derived from the 0. N. remba , to 
strive. The meaning seems to be: "If you think I strive in 
argument or plead falsely, oppose me, and cramp (i. e. 
check or arrest) the judgment". 

4. STARE. 

Whi nolden hii be war? 
Ther nis non a^eyn stare; 

Whi nolden hy hem bythenche? 

Wright's Political Songs (Camdeu Society), p. 217. 

For stare Mr. Ludlow's suggestion appears to me the best 


viz. that it is a substantive = stayer* so that the line 
would simply mean: -There is no again-stayer or opponent'. 
Mr. Davies thinks it may be derived from Germ, starren^ 
to bar, and translates the passage: 'There is none to bar 
against, i. e. to oppose or shut out". 


Al that gren me graueth grene, 
Nou hit faleweth al by-dene. 

Wright's Lyric Poetry (Percy Society), p. 61. 
pat werip groner and groy, and schrud so schene. 
Whan erp makip is liverei, he ^rawip us in grene. 

Rel. Ant. ii. p. 217. 

Most contributors have agreed that graueth signifies ' garbs, 
clothes". There was possibly an Anglo-Saxon verb gereajan 
from red/- clothing, although it does not appear in the 
Dictionary, and this may have become contracted into 'graveth' 
or 'graueth'. Only one contributor however has grappled 
with the difficulty of the first passage. M. Merivier most 
ingeniously suggests that -me' may stand for, or be an error 
for. 'May", so that the sense would be: 

All that green May arrays in green 
Now presently withers <fcc. 

This is exactly the sense required by the context, and 
I have little doubt of its correctness. Compare ma in $o. 7 

He vowed to God omnipotent 

All the hale lands of Ross to have. 

Or ells be graithed in his grate. Battle of Harlow. 


Fi a debles kaites. that kemith the wolle, 

Al y e schindes of y e tronn (sic MS.) a heij upon 501 senile. 

Rel. Ant, ii. p. 176. 

Kaites = women who card wool. 

The tronn is the weighing machine. The passage is spoken 
as an imprecation. 

M. Merivier and the Rev. E. Gillett think, as I do, that 
'the schindes of the tronn' are the tiles of the Tronn-house, 
where the public weighing-machine or 'tronn' was kept. 
Mr. Gillett writes: 


"ScAindes, I suspect, are the slabs of oolitic slate (so called) used 
for roofing such as the Stonesfield and Colley Weston slates. They are 
called 'Shindies' at Bampton. The Trons were public weighing places, 
probably like the projecting weighing beams from high buildings seen in 
old towns now." 

Another explanation is however proposed by the Rev (ls 
J. Eastwood and J. Davies, who think that the i schindes'' 
are the loose flakes or hairs of wool that fly off from the 
tops or tofts during the process of combing, or which stick 
to the scales or 'tronns' during the process of weighing. 
The objection to this is, that it renders the force of the 
imprecation simply nil. 

The Rev. J. T. Toye has favoured me with an extract 
from Anderson's Hist, of Commerce relative to these Trones, 
which is of sufficient interest to be inserted entire. He 
thinks that 'schindes' are skins. 

"Dr. Brady, in his treatise on Burghs, gives a charter of King Edw. 3., 
in the year 1332 for adjusting disputes between Great Yarmouth and 
Little Yarmouth concerning the right of lading and unlading of goods 
&c. He thereby directs "that ships, laden with wool, leather, and skins, 
upon which the great custom is due , shall clear out from that port where 
our Beam and the seal called Cocket remain, and no where else". [Ubi 
thronus noster et sigillum nostrum, quod dicitur Coket, existunt, et non 
alibi carcentur.] 

This same king's Beam for weighing of merchandize , called Thronus 
or Tronus stood usually in the most public place of the town or port: 
in some places especially northward, it is to this day in English named 
the Trone. Yet this was not established by Act of Parl* till the year 
1429 when it was enacted that every City and Town should establish 
a common balance and sealed weights, according to the standard of the 
Exchequer, to be in the keeping of the Chief Magistrate: and at this 
balance all the inhabitants were to weigh without any expense, but 
strangers not without paying for it. They have also, or not long since 
had, in some parts of Scotland, a difference of weight between troy- 
weight and trone-weight or certain goods, the latter being the largest 
weight." Anderson's History of Commerce. 4. 1787. V. i. p. 299. 

The Tron Church in Edinburgh is so called from its proximity to t 
weighing machine." 


Knyth and scoyer bathe sal deye, 
That other moren biyond ma, 





Thouche they be never so sleeche, 
Wyt tchrogen suet fra lives ga. 

Ritson's Ancient Songs . vol. i. p. 46. 

I think with Ritson and Professor Maiden that 'moren' 
is simply a lengthened form of 'morn", and that 'ma' is 
the month of May. 'Horin' for 'horn' occurs later in the 
piece. The meaning is: 'Knight and Squire both shall die 
on, That other morning after May' when the battle was to 
come off. In a former stanza, the speaker says: 

And warn em wel, wytouten nay, 

A tyme bifor the Trinite, 
Thare sal deye, on ay day, 

A folke on feld ful fa sal flee. 

These data would fix the anticipated time of the battle to 
the early part of June. 

Schrogen suet. I give some of the various conjectures 
upon these words: 

'Schrogend suet ' = with frightened suit, Germ, ersckrocken. 

J. M. Ludlow. 

'Seared fat' i. e. shrivelled leanness, from the Saxon 'schroien', in 
the dialect of Osnabnrg schroggen to sear, scorch or wither. 

Rev. J. Davies. 

My own opinion is that 'schrogen" is a subst. meaning 
'shrieks' or perhaps as Sir F. Madden suggested to me 
'blows'; and I take 'suet* (which is obviously a mono- 
syllable and must be read as if spelt 'swet') to be another 
form of 'squet" or 'sket' = quickly, an adverb which occurs 
in Havelok and Kyng Alysaunder, and is derived from the 
O.X. skjott. 'Sleeche' is 'sly', O.N. slaegr and the mean- 
ing of the two lines will be: 

Though they be never so sly 

(They shall) go from life quickly with shrieks. 

I cannot believe that 'suet' is our 'suet' the old form 
of that word as appears by two Vocabularies of the 15 th 
century printed by Mr. Wright, was 'sewe'. 


If I neede hadde, Matrimoyne I may nyme 

A moiste fruyt withalle, Thanne continence is neer the crop 


As hayletcey bastard, Thanne bereth the crop kynde fruyt, 
And clennest of alle, Maidenhode aungeles peeris, &c. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, p. 334, 1. 10937-10942. 

There can be very little doubt but that this is the French 
i cailloueV , a sweet but very gritty pear. The Rev. J. T. 
Toye quotes the following passage from Chaucer's Romaunt 
of the Rose, v. 7043-9: 

With tartes or with cheffis fat, 
With deinte flaunes, brode and flat, 
With caleweis or with pullaile, 
With conynges or -with fine vitaile, 
That we under our clothis wide 
Ymaken through our golet glide. 


Thanne Pacience perceyved Of pointes of this cote, 

That were colomy thorugh coveitise And unkynde desiryng. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, TV. 8737-8740. 

I take this word to be the same as 'colmie' in Kyng 
Horn, i. e. black, foul, dirty. Compare Ir. i calmar' for 
the cuttle fish. 'Colly' is the later form, and 'culm' is 
still in use as a term for a peculiar kind of coal. 'Becol- 
mede' vb. = blackened, also occurs in Kyng Horn. 


Proude preestes coonie with hym Mo than a thousand 
In paltokes and pyked shoes , And pisseris longe knyves. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, vv. 143GO- 14363. 

The Rev. J. Davies writes: 'Is not this frompistor, baker? 
In one of the Vocabularies published by Mr. Mayer, pistour 
is used for baker, and bakers, we know, use long knives 
both for cutting dough and bread.' The Old French piscker, 
a fisherman, was also suggested. 


CUSTARD. From the Welsh caws, cheese, and tarth, a 
loaf; Gaelic and Irish tort, a cake, a small loaf. Hence a 
custard would mean 'a cake of curds'. Our English 'cheese- 
cake' may possibly be derived from this primary sense of 
the word caws or cheese. The Welsh have the word cawstart, 
but whether it is derived from the English word or not, I 
am unable to say. Rev. J. Davies. 


DOWLAS. Dutch dwele, towel, and las, a piece, accord- 
I ing to the Rev. J. Davies. The Rev. E. Gillett cites Phillips's 

I World of Worlds . to shew that Doidas is so called, because 
}j it is made at k Dourleus". a town of Picardy in France. He 
l : compares "Drugget' from "Drogheda". The Rev. J. T. Toye 
J! has shewn that the word was in use long before Shakspere's 
j time. The title of the Statute 21. Hen. VIII, c. 14 (1529) is: 

"Of what length and breadth every whole piece and half piece of 

II dotclas and lockeram, brought into this realm, shall be.'' 

CORBEL. Most of my correspondents, as the Rev ds J. T. 

I Toye, J. Davies, A. Taylor &c., consider that this word is 

J| derived from the Fr. corbeille, Lat. corbis, and has nothing 

j to do with a raven at all. A corbel , according to Webster. 

I means in architecture : 

1. The representation of a basket somewhere set on 

the caryatides. 

2. The vase or tambour of the Corinthian column, so 

called from its resemblance to a basket. 

But the same authority gives another sense to the word, 

|.| viz. 'A short piece of timber in a wall jutting 6 or 8 inches 

, out, like a shoulder-piece' and with this Weale and Bloxam 

,in their architectural works substantially agree. Weale says 

'the under side is generally carved into an ogee curve. Hence 

the Rev. S. Cheetham argues strenuously in favour of the 

Raven-theory, and gives the following precis of the various 

meanings of xnoa'S, xoQwt't t , xnQojvtc, and corvtw, which 

may be worth transcribing: 

xwn'4 an instrument of naval warfare, much like a 'bill', 
a curved door-handle or knocker, 
a cock's bill, Hesych. 
xofwyy the curved tip of a bow, 
the curved stem of a ship, 

the curved tip of a ploughbeam. 
xr J( .,.iv(i; a curved line or flourish with the pen, 

a cornice. 

cor r us a bill hook or grapnel, 
a battering ram, 
a surgeon's scalpel. 

The demand for an explanation of the word trusse in Piers 


Ploughman, and for the derivation of the word Carpet, gave 
rise to the two following Papers by Mr. Wedgwood. 

No satisfactory explanation was given of the phrase ' to 
take a thing in dudgeon" 1 , of the origins of the words de- 
mure and fun, or of trebles and treisuses in the following 

Hail be }e, suiters, wip ^our mani lestes 

Wip }our blote hides, of selcup bestis, 

And trebles and treisuses, bochevampe and alles. 

Rel. Ant. ii. p. 176. 


Trusse, trudge. 

Lyere was nowher welcome, For his manye tales, 
Over al y-honted, And y-hote trusse. 

Piers Ploughman's Vision, vv. 1316-1319. 

The natural expression of rejection and contempt is the 
act of spitting out something offensive from the mouth, 
whence the Lat. respuere, to spit back, then to reject, re- 
fuse, contemn. 'Csesaris interdicta respuuntur, are spurned' 
Andrews. And the same metaphor is found in the most 
uncultivated languages. Galla. tufa, to spit, also to despise 
or scorn- Tutschek. An imitation of the sound of spitting 
is then used as an expression of disgust or dislike, and 
when adopted into grammatical language becomes an inter- 
jection of disgust, contempt, repudiation, defiance. 

'The men commenced talking to them, but occasionally interrupted 
their speeches by spitting and uttering a noise like pooh! pooh! ap- 
parently expressive of their disgust'. Leichardt's Australia p 189. 

Such doubtless is the origin of the interjections Pooh! 
Pshaw! Pish! and their analogues in other languages. Puhl 
Puh! interjection of one who perceives something disgusting 
(sente cosa stomachevole) Patriarchi. 

Even without actual spitting, a forcible ejection of air 
through the lips is used as a sign of contempt. 'To blurt 


at in scorn or mockery' Florio. 'Blurt, pish. fui. oibo' 
Torriano. Then as a sneeze exhibits in an exaggerated 
degree the whiff of air which is the expression of dislike. 
to sneeze at a thing is to treat it with contempt. Now the 
sound of sneezing is imitated in Hungarian by the syllables 
i'is*:, priissz, tru**: , ti'issz , from whence verbs signifying 
to sneeze are formed by the addition of the usual verbal 
trminations , and it is remarkable that we have forms of 
the interjection of scorn corresponding to each of the fore- 
going imitations, ptrot! prut! Germ, trotz! Fr. trut! E. 

tut: tush: 

1. Ptrot skornefnl word Pr. Pm. Tprot, an exclamation 
of contempt Halliwell. 

Tprolf Scot, for thy strife 

Hang up thine hatchet and thy knife. Political Songs. 

2. Prut. Icel. pruttOj poppismum edere, to click to a 
horse. O.E. prut! an exclamation of contempt 

And setteth hym ry^t at the lefte 

And seyth. prul.' for thy cursyng, preste. 

R. Brunne's Manuel des Pecches in Hal. 

Hence O.E. prute, proud, pride, and/>ruttitt, to hold up 
the head with pride and disdain Hal.; equivalents to the 
Germ, protzen, prutzen, to shew one's ill will by a surly 
silence: protzig, insolent, snappish Kuttner. 

3. Parallel with Hung, truwz may be ranged Fr. true* the 
popping or sound of the lips whereby we encourage a horse: 
mrucheter, to sneeze Cotgr.; Lap. trusset^ to sneeze (of 

beasts): Esthon. troskama, to snort, to sneeze (of horses); 
It tru*care, to blurt or pop with one's mouth, fruzcio <K 
'labbra, a blurting or popping with one's lips or tongue to 
encourage a horse Florio. Fr. tntt! an interjection im- 
porting indignation, tush. tut. fy man: Cotgr. G. trotz. 
4rat: , trutz. an interjection of contempt or defiance Grimm. 
14 Si sprachrnitz" ifi the same sense with 'said prut'." in the 
foregoing quotation. * Ja trutz ! wer tar kussen mich ' , Tut ! 
who dares kiss me. Hence trotz, defiance, scorn, arrogance, 
w O.E. pntte, pride, from pntt! 


4. Parallel with Hung, tussz are the Lat. tussire, to cough : 
W. tisio, to sneeze; and the interjections tush! tut! 

Now the utterance of expressions of disgust and scorn, 
when the object of those feelings is in a dependant position, 
is naturally interpreted as an injunction to begone from the 
presence of his incensed superior, and thus the interjections 
by which such feelings are expressed, become the roots of 
verbs signifying to send away, to begone. 

From the form prut! seems to have arisen the Icel. brutt, 
brott, away, whence Swed. bart, away, hence; bart! away 
for shame! bart med er! get you gone! kora bdrt en, to send 
one packing. Widegren. 

The same kind of action of the lips is represented in 
French by the syllables trut, true, of which the former is 
used inter) ectionally in the sense of begone! Trut avant! 
a fig's end, on afore for shame Cotgr. From true is formed 
the It. truccare, to scud, to trudge or pack away nimbly 
Florio. Trucca via! be off with you. The Venetian trozare, 
to send one away, has probably a similar origin. 

The E. trudge is exactly the shape in which we should 
dress the G. trotz or Dan. trods when imported into our 
language, while in sense it is the precise equivalent of the 
It. truccare. 

This tale once told none other speech prevayled 
But, pack and trudge! all leysure was to long. 

Gascoigne in Richardson. 

And let them trudge hence apace till they come to their mayster of 
myschief. Bale in D. 

The primary force of the word is an injunction to begone, 
and it is then used for going steadily along as if under 
external compulsion. 

The same line of developement is seen in the Gael. trus. 
Truis! a word by which dogs are silenced or driven away 
Macleod. Trus a mach , or trus ort ( mach = out ; ort 
= upon thee), begone! get away! True, reprimand, go to, 
repair to. Shaw. 

The expression in our text , to hete< trus , may thus be re- 
garded as the logical equivalent of the G. trotz bieten, clif- 


fering only in the circumstances in which it is applied, be- 
ing addressed in E. to an inferior whom it has the effect 
of driving from our presence, while in G. it is addressed 
to persons on a par with ourselves, and thus takes the 
sense of defiance. 

The term may be illustrated by the following quotations 
from Chaucer: 

Thin help quoth Beryii, lewd fole thou art more than masid, 
Dress thee to the shippisward with thy crown yrasid, 
For I might never spare thee bet, trvs! and be agoo. Beryu 2269. 
The gentil pardoner for all tyme of the nyght 
He was aredy in his aray and had nothing to doon 
Saffe shake alite his eris and Irvs! and begone. 

Pardoner and Tapster. 

Doubtless in passages like the foregoing a perfectly satis- 
factory sense would be obtained from Gael, trus, E. truss, 
a bundle, as we tell a person to pack off, to bundle out 
when we mean to get rid of him in the most unceremonious 
manner; but the weight of analogy is greatly in favour of 
the word being used as an interjection expressive in the 
first instance simply of the displeasure of the speaker, the 
discharge of which upon the head of the intruder is inti- 
mated in the Gaelic exclamation by the union with ort, 
upon thee. Out upon thee! Fie upon thee! 

My own belief is that the derivation lies in the opposite 
direction. When once the interjection of dislike and defiance 
was understood as an injunction to begone, the sense might 
easily be transferred to the immediate preparations for a 
hasty departure , tucking up one's clothes , snatching up one's 
goods, which are the primary import of the Fr. trousser 
and our trusz, turse. 


The answers of the Rev. R. F. Littledale and M. Metivier 
jto our Dictionary Committee's query respecting the deriva- 


tion of Carpet furnish a clue to a completely satisfactory 
explanation of that word. 

From Lat. carper e, to pluck (carpere, wolle zeysen 
Dief. Sup.) , were formed Mid. Lat. carpia , carpita , linteum 
carptum quod vulneribus inditur, Fr. charpie^ lint. The term 
seems also to have been applied with equal propriety to 
flocks of wool used for stuffing mattrasses, or loose as a 
couch without the confinement of sacking. ' Carpitam habeat 
in lecto qui sacco, culcitra vel coopertorio carebit'. Reg. 
Templariorum in Due. 

We next find the word in the sense of any fabric stuffed 
with flocks, a patchwork table cover with a lining of coarse 
cloth La Crusca; or the cloak of the Carmelites made of 
like materials; a woman's petticoat, properly doubtless a 
quilted petticoat. 'Carpeta, gonna, gonnella' Patriarchi. 
Venet. Diet. ' Quilibet frater habeat saccum in quo dormit, 
carpetam (a quilt?), linteameir Stat. Eq. Teuton in Due. 
In other parts of Europe the signification is transferred from 
the flocks with which the bed was stuffed to the sacking 
which contained them. Carpete, coarse loose fabric of wool 
and hemp, packing cloth. 'Une tapisserie tfcarpdte, des 
rideaux d' carpete" 1 Hecart. Diet. Rouchi. 


The tendency of linguistic inquiry has of late been to 
shew that closely resembling forms of speech may arise 
among the most distant branches of the human family from 
the principles of our common nature. A list of between 
two and three hundred dialects is given in a late volume 
of the Proceedings of the Society ' in which the appellations 

1 Translation of Prof. Buschmann's Paper, vol. vi. p. 197-204. 


of father and mother are formed from a repetition of the 
syllables ba, ma, or of traceable modifications of those sounds ; 
and still later Dr. Lottner has shewn nearly as wide spread 
a tendency to express the pronoun of the first person by 
the syllable mi or ni. But in all these cases it must be 
borne in mind that when once a word of the foregoing 
description has been produced in consequence of its natural 
adaptation to express the thing signified, the inherent fitness 
of the word may keep it in use in a recognisable condition 
for any length of time , and thus , if we suppose the separa- 
tion of the families of man to have taken place at a period 
subsequent to the developement of language, it will be an 
open question whether these cosmopolitan forms of speech 
may not be genuine relics of the earliest attempts at language. 
In a late paper I gave some instances of agreement be- 
tween the Zulu Caffre and different European languages 
which seemed interesting on either supposition, and I now 
add a short list of instances of a similar kind which occurred 
in looking over Tutschek's valuable vocabulary of the Galla 
language. Some of them may of course be merely accidental 

Galla afufa, to blow, to blow on a musical instrument 

Hung, fucni, to blow, fuvola, a flute. Sc. faff , to 

blow. E. 'puff , Jij'e. 
Galla tina, little. E. tiny. 
Galla tufa, to spit, vomit; to despise, scorn. E. tuff, to 

spit or hiss as a cat. Halliwell. 
Galla dam/a, to boil. Germ, damp/, steam. 
Galla cufd, to cough, clear the throat, belch. E. cough. 

Germ, koppen, to belch. 

Many of the direct representations of sound are marked 
in Galla by union with the verbs goda, to make, or djeda, 
to say. Thus from djam, an imitation of the sound of 
smacking the lips, are formed djam-djeda, or djam-djam-goda, 
to say djam, to make djam-djam, corresponding to the Hung. 
ctamcsogni, Icel. kiamsa, and E. champ, to move the jaws 
with a smacking sound. 


Galla tirr- or trrr-goda, to chirp. E. chirr Halliwell. 

Galla bilbila, bell, clock; bilbil-goda, to make bilbil, to 

sound, ring a bell, glitter, beam, glister. Icel. bialla, 

a bell. E. bell; peal, a ringing sound. Fin. pilli, a 


A similar transference of signification from phenomena of 

hearing to those of sight is shewn in Fin. kilia, ringing, 

glittering, kilistdd, tinnitum clarum moveo, splendorem cla- 

rum reflecto. Renval. 

Galla bora, to be gray, thick, troubled, to dawn; bora, 
gray, turbid, dirty; boru, morning, tomorrow. Bo-run 
demode, it dawns, literally, the gray becomes red,-- 

And now, like lobster boiled, the morn 
From gray to red began to turn. 

Muratori informs us that the Ital. buio, dark, was once 
buro, as it is still pronounced by the Bologuese and others. 
Fr. bureau, the colour of a brown sheep. ' Vestimenta unius 
colons esse jubemus, v. g. alba, nigra vel etiam burella\ 
Laws of the Templars in Mur. 

Russ. buruii, brown, burja, storm, tempest, and perhaps 
the Lat. Boreas, the dark north wind, may be referred to 
the same root. It. bora, mud. 

In the sense of the morning we have W. bore, borev, the 
dawn, the morning, boreuo, to dawn, the fundamental mean- 
ing of which is probably truly explained by the Galla word. 
We speak in English of the grey of the morning for early 
morning. In like manner we may connect the Germ, mor- 
gen, E. morrow with murk, darkness, Bohem. mrak, dark- 
ness, twilight, dawning, usually applied to evening instead 
of morning twilight; mracno, a storm, dark cloud; mracny, 
cloudy, dark, thick. 

Galla kashakashtu, talker, babbler, calumniator. 
Malay kata-kata, discourse, talk; kata, to speak, a word. 
Pol. gadu-gadu, tittle-tattle; gadac, to talk. 
E. to chat, chatter; It. gazzolare, to chirp, to chatter. 
Galla cab-djeda (to say cab), to clap, crash; caba, to seize, \ 
apprehend, understand, to hold, keep, have, possess. ; 
Lat. caper e, to take; Turk, kapmak, to seize, to snatch; ; 


kabiz, who seizes: kab:a. the handle of a sword &c. 
Galla kabado, that which a person holds, the handle 
of instruments. Galla caba, so much as a man can 
take in the hand, a handful. Turk, kab, kap, any con- 
taining vessel. 

Galla dyel-caba , literally to seize beneath (dyel = under), to 

undertake, to begin. 
The fundamental idea is clapping the hand down upon a 

thing, the sound of a clap being represented in Galla, as 

above indicated, by the syllable cab. 

Galla ca(chi:a. to crack with a whip, to smack in eating; 
catckamza, to snap, to snatch (said of dogs); catchi. a 
whip. Dutch kaetee, a smack, slap, blow; kaetsen, to 
strike a ball. E. to catch. 

It. cacciare, to throw with violence. Norman, cache, Rouchi 
cachoire. the lash or cracking part of a whip. Dutch 
kletee, a crack with a whip: kletxoore* ketsoore* a whip. 

Fr. cha**oire. a carter's whip. 

Galla korriza, to snore, grumble, growl, be morose. 

Fin. kuritta, (G. kuurren), voce strepo stridente, inde rnur- 
muro, aegre fero, rhoncho ut pectus: Icel. korra. to 
rattle in the throat: kurra^ to murmur, grumble. 

Galla koka* to boil, to cook, to quack as a frog. Doubt- 
less from an imitation of the sound of water boiling. 
Fin. kuohua, kuohata, to bubble, boil, swell: kuohina, 
the boiling as of a cataract or of the waves. 

Esthon. kohhisema, rauschen, brauseii. 

Galla kakiza, to cackle. 

Galla kuta, to cut off, carve, cut in pieces. Turk, kattet, 
to cut. 

Galla krokoda (from an unused root kroka or krokoa Tut- 
schek), to be or become crooked. 

Galla koba, to scarify, to cup, a cupping glass, but by the 

Gallas it is made of horn. 

We are apt to suppose that the designation of this opera- 
tion arises from the use of a cup in drawing the blood, 
but it may be explained from a different source. 
The Fin. kuppa is a bubble of water, a boil, pustule, 


swelling; kuppata, to cup or scarify, from the inflated 

portion of the skin in which the incision is made. It is 

remarkable too that the Fins as the Gallas use a horn for 

drawing the blood, which they term kuppi-sariri. , literally 

a cupping horn. 

Galla lakd, to count. Fin. luku, number; lukea, to count. 

Galla lata, to sprout, to germinate; latu, shoot, sprout 
Gael, slat, a rod, twig, switch. W. Hath, a rod. Fr. 
latte, a rod, a lath. 

Galla lablaba, to make a speech; lafafa, to backbite (pro- 
perly to tattle). W. llafaru, to speak. 

Galla randa, edge, border, brink. G. rand, edge. 

Galla rogoma, to tremble, be afraid. Icel. ragr, timid. 

Galla zukzuga, to trot. Lat. succussare , to trot, to give a 
succession of shocks. 

Galla hura, to rush, rustle, roar; huru, noise, rustling, 
bustle; hurza, to make noise, to snore, to haste. 

Icel. hurra , to crunch as snow under the sledge. Sw. hurra, 
to whirr, and thence to make a thing whirr, to whirl 
it round. . hurry, to do a thing with noise, to haste. 


The following linguistic specimens of some of the dialects 
of the South Sea Islands are extracted from a larger number 
which have been transmitted to this country by the Rev. 
John Coleridge Patteson , who is at present engaged in mis- 
sionary labours in those regions. They consist of four 
versions of the Lords Prayer in Nengone, Mai, Gera and 
Bauro, and a short specimen of a Maori letter addressed 
to Mr. Patteson by a native, with a literal interlinear trans- 


1. NESGOSE (without the Doxology). 
Chechewaie' nije, ile ri awe ; Mi- 
joje ko re Achekini Bua: Lengelu 
ko re Doku ni Bua; Roiona ilonelo 
ko re alaieni Bna ome ri tene thu 
cho ekhowe ne il'o re awe; Xu- 
nua x' enije ome ri rane ko re ko- 
daru me kueile; Chengebote o re 
ma enije, se ine ke enije chi chenge 
buije-bote ha na nia x' enije ; Dai 
hage leugete x' enije jew o re tu- 
bunide; kore x' enije-bote wene ri 
nia. Amene. 

3. GERA. 

Mama me eru, oni i raro, ha- 
sienia ratamti. Ramai araha Jo. 
toia ari siene Jo i mato, urihana 
toia ari siene io i raro. Doriinai 
hame eru pueni hanahana puino. 
Rokasia ui taa me eru, urihana 
era rokasia ni mane ka hana taa 
hame eru. Mano taraiia eru hana- 
hanua taa, ukaiiii eru mania ni 
taa, Araha Jo, tauora Jo, haiiii 
makata Jo, raroa, raroa. Amen. 

2. MAI. 

Ra matou Matua, nofo i re rangi. 
fakatapua ran ingoa; ke numai ran 
arikiwusa ; feia rau sumaria i raro, 
mata ke re na feia rau sumaria i 
re rangi ; lau mai ki a ti ki matou 
rani ma tu keina rani; vetea re 
sati i a ti ki matou, mata matou 
ma tu re retea re tangata fefe sati 
ki a ti ki matou; se tosina matou 
ki re nea sakesake; marufutia ma- 
tou takina re sati; ran foki re ari- 
kiwusa, rau re passa, ma rau re 
marama, tau katoa, tau katoa. 

4. BACRO. 

Ja Amma meu , ewa nei eni aro ; 
doromaia ni atamu ; e boi ni mwai- 
raha iamua ; haua ni hagoropia 
iamua nei eni auo, onaiia ni haua 
ni hagoropia i aniua nei eni aro ; 
Hamai diini tana meu ni mareho 
ni ngau; oi haidangi ni inoni na 
taa tana men; oi bnniwaiia iameu 
nei eni dora taa; tahungenia iameu 
niaata bania dora taa; Mwairaha 
iamua, wetewete iamua, mana ma- 
rewa iamua, orea, orea, Amene. 

5. MAORI. 


Mahe 18, 1857. 

friend, o the Patteson, how are you? this also my word to you 
E hoa e te Patihana tena koe tenei ano taku kupu kia koe 
give some medicine for my companion (wife') the illness an 

homai tete hi rongoa motaku hoa ko te mate he 

issue great (is) the etil of this illness, for thee the thought of 
pakarutoto kamu te kino o tenei mate mau te waka aro o 
the medicine for this illness, let be quick hither your medicine. 
te rongoa ino tenei mate kia hohoro mai to rongoa. 

By Isaac. 




In a previous paper on the vernacular names of Insects 
(Trans. 1858, p. 93-107) I had briefly examined the general 
terms by which coleoptera, or Beetles, are commonly dis- 
tinguished , and had proposed to select for special consider- 
ation a few of the more conspicuous species which, either 
from their numbers, or from some striking peculiarities in 
their organization, have arrested the attention of the casual 
observer , and have been accordingly designated by numerous 

As a type of these I had selected "the shard-born beetle" 
(Geotrupes stercorarius). As a second illustration I propose 
to take that popular little favorite the "lady-bird". 

I will commence by indicating a principle that will be 
found widely pervading the popular names of those members 
of the animal creation that, either from their natural beauty, 
or from some peculiarity of habit or structure, have attracted 
in an unusual degree the favourable attention of their rustic 
admirers. Superstition, or rather religious feeling, has as- 
sociated them with the name of some guardian saint or 
protecting power in the religious systems of the day and 
traces of this special consecration may be detected, as we 
shall have frequent occasion to observe, still lingering in 
the surviving relics of the nomenclature of those times. 

It is remarkable that the Indo-European tribes have un- 
animously dedicated the coccinellac, or lady-birds, either to 
the Virgin or to the supreme Being, and have further con- 
sidered them figuratively in the light of quadrupeds or birds. 
They are frequently mentioned under the name of con-*, 
calves, lambs, sheep, hens, chickens, &c., or by the general 
term beast. I can discover no special reason or tradition 
to explain this singular unanimity of opinion, but will pro- 
ceed to illustrate it from some of the modern European 


a) The following terms associate the insect with the name 
of the Supreme Being. In English it is known as God- 
tiltniijiity's-coir; in French as Vaclie a Dien , Bete a bon Dieu, 
La petite cache du bon Dieu; in Spanish as Vaqnilla de 
Dios; in German as Gottes-kiih lein, Gottes-schdjfein, Gottea- 
Idmmchen, Gottes-lamm, Unser-Jierrn-huhn , Herr-gotfs-kalb, 
Herr-gotfts-kiihlein. Herr-gott's-vogel, Herr-gotl's-mucklein; in 
Dutch as on:en-liei-en-Heer''s-Be8tje. 

b) In connection with the Virgin we tind the following 
names. In English: Lady-bird, Lady-bug, Lady-cow, Lady-jiy. 

This Lady-fly I take from off the grass 

AVhose spotted back might scarlet red surpass. (Gay.) 

Lady-clock (Yorks.) and Clock-lcddie (L. Scotch). In Old 
English I h'nd it a Coir-lady and a Cushy- coir -lady. 

A paire of buskins they did bring 

Of the coie-ladyes corall wing. (Musar. Delic. 1656.) 

In French it is Bete de la Vierge; in German: Marien-kafet\ 
M'l.rien-luihn, Jungfer-kaferlein, Frauen-kuhlein, Unser-liebe-n- 
fratten-kuhlein , Fraucn-kaferlein , and Marien-kalbchen; in 
Dutch: Maria-kever; in Swedish: Jiing-fru-Marias-Gull-hdna. 
In Sweden it is also known as a Nyckcl-piga, and a Ldtt- 

It is singular that even in the Norse mythology this little 
creature is found associated with the goddess Freyja. the 
ancient representative of the Virgin. 

"To that love and adoration and awe, throughout the Middle Ages, 
one woman, transfigured into a divine shape, succeeded by a sort of 
natural right, and round the Virgin Mary's blessed head a halo of lovely 
tales of divine help beams with soft radiance as a crown bequeathed to 
her by the ancient Goddesses. She appears as divine mother, spinner 
and helpful virgin (ciergc secouraLle}. Flowers and plants bear her name. 
In England one of our commonest and prettiest insects is still called 
after her, but which belonged to Freyja, the heathen 'Lady', long be- 
fore the Western nations had learned to adore the name of the mother 
of Jesus." (Dasent's Popular Tales from the Norse, p. 50.) 

c) It is found dedicated to St. John. In German: Jo- 
hannis-Vogdein. The glow-worm is placed under the pro- 
tection of the same saint. Johannis-imrm ; and among Eng- 
lish plants we meet with St. Johns wort. 


d) Among the Hungarians the patron saint is St. Catha- 
rine. The insect is called Fil-ss-kata , or '"Catharine in the 
Grass", from fuss "grassy" and Kata, Catharine, or Kate. 

e) I have heard the children in Norfolk repeat a nursery 
rhyme addressed to this insect commencing with the line: 

"Bishy, Bishy, Barnie Bee." 

The last word was intelligible, but the h'rst three were 
somewhat perplexing. I venture to suggest the following 
explanation. Various versions of the rhyme in question are 
in existence, some oral or traditional, others imprinted. 
In the Suffolk version the first word appears as Bushy \ and 
in several others as Bishop, a term sometimes employed 
alone to designate a lady-bird. We also find the last two 
words united in the forms Barnabec, Burnabee, Benebee, and 
Benetre, the latter manifest corruptions of the former. Bar- 
nabee is also commonly used alone to represent this insect. 
We thus obtain indications of a certain "Bishop Barnabee" 
or "Barnaby". Who is he? The feast of St. Barnabas 
falls on the 11 th of June, a period of the year when warmth 
and light and insect life are in their prime. It is possible 
that the East-Anglians may have substituted the protection 
of St. Barnabas for that of the Virgin. We find his name 
as a household word in our nursery literature, and that in 
the very form required: 

Barnaby bright, Barnaly bright, 

The longest day and the shortest night. 

It appears then that this little creature is affectionately as- 
sociated in the religious feelings of the people with the 
Supreme Being, the Virgin, St. John, St. Catharine, and 
St. Barnabas, and in heathen times with Freyja. 

It is however characterized by other distinctive names. 
Some are borrowed from the season of the year at \\liich 
it first appears or is found in the greatest profusion. Thus 
in German it is known as "little Easter calf", Oster-kiilh- 
chen, and "little summer calf", Sommer-kdlbchen , "summer 

1 A writer in 'Notes and Queries' has recently suggested that 'Bishy' 
in these lines is a corruption of the old English Busk ye. 



child", Sommer-kind , and Sommt>r-kafi ; r. Again it is as- 
sociated in the peasant's mind with the bright sunlight in 
which it luxuriates. The Germans call them -children of 
the sun", Sonnen-kinder ; sun-beetles", Sonnen-kiifer; 'sun- 
calves". Sonnen-kalber; and -solstitial- beetles v , Sonnen- 
wend-kiifer. We have the name in England, " sun-beetles " 
and "sun-shiners", but it is here applied to a bright and lively 
little member of another family (Amara). 

Sometimes it derives its name from its form, from the 
markings of its wings, or from its colour. Hence in Ger- 
man it is the Halb-kugel-kaferchen, or "little hemispherical 
beetle": the Runde-blatt-kdfer, and the Runde-schild-kufer. 
In England we apply the term wv shield-beetles " to another 
genus (Cassida). The seven-spotted species is commonly 
known in Germany as the Sieben-punkt. In Sussex it is 
called a Fly-golding ; in Hertfordshire a Gddw-bird-, in Suf- 
folk it has been pointed out to me as a golden-bug; and in 
the eastern counties it is sometimes known as a golden-knop. 
This knop is an older form of knob. A.-Sax. cmep, Germ. 
knopf. In vernacular botany the Ball -weed is known as 
cnop-icort , knap-weed, and Horse-knop. With knop compare 
bob in oak-bob &c. 

Sometimes it is known by the simple term "little cow", 
VachettetVr.*), or "little calf". Kdlbchen (Germ.)- In York- 
shire it is occasionally termed a Doicdy-cow. The only ex- 
planation I can suggest of Doicdy is its identity with the 
eastern-counties adjective doddy, "small". 

The larvae are great consumers of the Aphis that infests 
the hop-plants, and in 0. English, on the authority of 
Mouffet (L. ii. c. 20), they were called Hop-worms, and this 
is probably the explanation of another German name, the 
Blatt-laus-kofer, "the leaf-louse-beetle"'. In calling it the 
Rebhuhn, or 'partridge", the Germans detected, I presume, 
some fancied resemblance to the colour or markings of 
that bird. 

A third illustration of a beetle with many synonymes 
may be found in the common cock-chafer (Melolontha vul- 


The first element in this compound word is rather per- 
plexing. Mr. Wright in his Provincial Dictionary gives cock 
as a Lancashire word meaning "to buzz". This explanation 
may be supported by the French provincial terms Hurlon, 
ttuiet, and Hurlot (Picardy), and by the following English 
names. In Cornwall it is known as a Jfum-buz, and a 
Spinning-drone', in Shropshire by the augmentative Blind- 
buzzart 1 ', and in the South of England as a Dumble-dore. 

But this interpretation of the word is rendered doubtful 
by the following considerations. We find the same prefix 
in the name of the insect commonly, but erroneously, term- 
ed the 'Black -beetle', viz. the Cock -roach. The second 
element in this word is probably the Anglo-Saxon hrooc, 
'a cricket', and, if the first is identical with the cock in 
cock-chafer, we are met by the perplexing fact that the 
cock-roach never hums or buzzes or chirps , but is a silent 
companion of the house-cricket. 

It is therefore more probable that the word cock means 
simply a fowl. I am informed by an able French linguist 
that the origin of the French llanneton must be sought in 
the Teutonic Halm, a cock, and we have already seen, in 
the case of the Lady -bird, that insects are sometimes 
viewed in the light of 'chickens'. The chafer itself is 
known in Provincial German as the Schmalz-vogel or 'but- 
ter-bird', and the Grasshopper in Dutch is called a sj>r /'/<- 
haan, or " leaping-cock ". 

From the period of its appearance it is known in Eng- 
land as a May-buy, a May-chafer, a May-beetle, a May- 
d&r, and a Midsummer-dor; in German, as a Mai-kafer or 
Mai-wurm; and in Dutch, as a Mei-kccer. 

In Somersetshire I find it represented by a word of sin- 
gular form Ocub. The explanation of this term is, I be- 
lieve, to be found in another West-country name ()ak-ir,'l>. 
The web is the Anglo-Saxon ivibba, 'a worm". This name 

1 Hence it appears that the phrase "as blind as a hu/xard'' rei'n> t 
the cock-chafer and not to the bird so named. Compare the French 
"estourdi comme un hanneton". 


is aptly illustrated in the Hungarian language. The insect 
i> there called csere-bogdr , literally the Oak-bug. 

Mouft'et speaks of the chafer as a Dor or Tree-beetle. 

"Fowlers when they hunt for ducks bait their hook with two or three 
Dorrs or Tree-beetles". (L. 1. c. 21.) 

and again, 

"We call them Dorrs in English''. (Id.) 

Hence in German it is sometimes known as the "leaf- 
[ beetle"' (Laub-kafer). The names Raub-kafcr and Sagen- 
\blatt-kdfer may possibly refer to the ravages it commits on 
the foliage of trees. Thus in the North of England they 
[are called Locuste. The German names Hccken-kiifcr and 
Wciden-kcifer undoubtedly refer to its haunts and food. 

In the eastern counties it is known as an Old-witch, and 
Jin Norfolk I have heard it designated a Kitty -witch. I had 
iggested in a former paper that the witch represented the 
mglo-Saxon wigga.', but a comparison with the German 
flSexen-kdfer and Hexen-wurm renders this suggestion very 
loubtful. The prefix Kitty is rather perplexing; but I be- 
ieve that I detected the clue to the mystery on hearing a 
rivacious little girl described by a Lancashire domestic as 
'a little skitty-witch'' . It refers probably to the insect's 
ipid and uncertain movements. 

In the eastern counties a Kitty-witch is also "a kind of 
small crab; a species of sea-fowl: a female spectre". (Hall.) 
find the same prefix in Kitty- wake (Lams rissa), and 
Kitty-wren. In all of these we can trace the leading idea 
)f rapid and uncertain motion. 

In the North it is called a Brown-clock with reference to 
colour, and in German from its markings or form Krcuz- 
fer and Kolben-kafer. 

The Saxon name for the insect is Eorth-ciefer , probably 
rith special reference to its larva, a well-known agricultural 
and this is probably the explanation of one of its 
lumerous German synonymes, Maulwurfs-kafer, the 'mouldy- 

arp" or 'mole-beetle'. 

In Sussex it is apparently confounded with the "shard- 


born beetle" and is termed a sham-buy. A similar con- 
fusion appears to exist in the provincial dialect of Lorraine, 
in which it retains the name Ecuerynot. The final ot of this 
word may be a diminutive suffix, and ecuergn is probably 
a French form of the Teutonic seem, 'dung'. 

With regard to the Greek name /t^AoAoj'^ Mr. Westwood 
(Mod. Classif. vol. i. p. 217) remarks: 

"The term /uqlnvflr], in]kr>}.ttrd-ri or /.tr]).okov9rj appears to have been 
applied by the ancients to Scarabaei which flew about apple-trees, and 
Eustathius describes them as larger than a wasp. " 

Tf this derivation is correct it is extremely doubtful whether 
the /u>]lnA.ov&r] is identical with our cock-chafer. And yet 
from a certain passage in the Clouds of Aristophanes it 
would appear that the questionable amusement of spinning 
cock-chafers was not unknown to Young Athens 

Mr\ vvv ntni actviov tiif ir\v yvia^.r\v an , 
cti.).' anoyrcda TT\V </po'r/J'ff lov caga, 

ilVotilTOV) OKJTIfO ,HJjAoAoi'<9J>', 10V 7/oJof. (V. 760.) 

"Tied like a spinning-chafer by the leg." 

Perhaps the second element in the word may be from 
olivet, and /oyAoAoj^r; may thus mean the " apple- waster ". 
In connection with this insect I will transcribe a popular 
German rhyme for the purpose of pointing out its close 
resemblance to some lines familiar to most English children 

Mai-kafer, flieg'! 
Dein Vater ist irn Krieg; 
Dein' Mutter ist im (?) Hollerland; 
Dein Haus ist abgebrannt. 

Mai-kafer, flieg'! 

In this country a somewhat similar rhyme is addressed 
to the lady-bird. Of the numerous versions I have heard 
or read I will select that current in Hertfordshire 

Goldie-bird, goldie-bird, fly away home! 

Yonr house is on fire, your children are gone. 

They are all burnt but one, 

Poor Molly, that sits on the marble stone. 

Another species of chafer (solstitialis) frequents the fern. 
Hence it is called the Fern-chafer, Fern-fly, Fern-web, and 


Dr. Aikin (Nat. Hist, of the Year) speaks of it as "the 
favorite food of the Fern-owl": and this is probably the 
net mentioned by Halliwell as the Furze-owl, which he 
deh'nes "a cock-chafer": compare the German Kauz-kafer, 
the "seritch-owl-beetle". 

Mouffet (Theat. of Ins. L. 1. c. 2) speaks of 

'another notable kind of melolontba ... the middle of its back is 
aeautitied with a half-moon of th same colour with its sheath-wings, for 
which reason it is elegrantly called by the Latines Equns Lnnse, the 
Moon's horse. . . . Thilesius while he speaks of this among the dung- 
beetles describeth it thus in verse 

Some black like the scorcht Moor are seen; 

The nobler sort are decked with green , 

Whose back hath (to compare great things with small) 

A mark you may the half-moon call. 

The English call't the Moon's Horse." 1 

This is evidently the beautiful beetle commonly called the 
Rose-clwfer , which is also known by the names Golden- 
chafer, Green-chafer, and June-bug. 

Another insect of this order which from the peculiarity 
of its structure has arrested the attention of casual observers 
is the common Stag-beetle (Lucanus Cervus). This name 
certainly dates back to the period of Elizabethan literature 
since it is recognized by Mouft'et. who also calls the insects 
simply Stag*. "If horned beetles they call Stag* be boyled 
in wine and the arteries of the armes be anoynted , it cures 
ague." (L. i. c. 21.) The name is also recognized in the 
Hungarian language, szarcaa-bogdr , the "stag-bug", a word 
evidently connected with cercus and the root her in xeoa.: 
and cornu. In German too it is commonly Hirsch-kafer, 
and IIir*ch-bock. 

Other synonymes occur in Mouffet, such as Hart-beetle, 
mag-fly, Flying-fly. Flying-hart, and Flying-stag. "Guille- 
rinus". he writes, "was quite out when he placed the Flu- 
wg-stag among the Grashoppers. " (Theater of Insects L. i. 

This lust >ynonyme is recognized by the Dutch. Vliegend 
'\ffart; French. Cerf-rolant: and Germans, Fliegender Hirsch. 
The latter nation go still further and call it a Fliegender 


Stier, or Flying-bull The comparison with the Bull appears 
again in the name Eich-ochs, or Oak-bull. 

Mouffet alludes to it again as a Hatte-hom-beetfa, a name 
illustrated by the German terms Uorn-schroter , Horn-kafcr, 
Horntler, and Gehornter Ross-keif er (Horned-horse-beetle). 

The Germans frequently call the creature Schroter, 'nibbler 
or 'nipper'. Hence the compounds Kneip-schroter , Kneip- 
wurm, Schmied-kdfer ; and this view of its character is sup- 
ported by the people of Suffolk, who call it a Nippy-dor, 
and by those of Surrey, who describe it as a Pinchcr-bob. 
Compare the Dutch Schale-bijter. 

There is a singular tradition which associates the stag- 
beetle with lightning and thunder-storms. Hence the follow- 
ing names : Feuer-schroter, Feuer-wurm, Haus-brcnner, Scheu- 
nen-brenner, Donner-zug, and Donner-puppe (Thunder-bob). 

In Lancashire black beetles are commonly called Thunder- 
clocks, and an entomological friend, on asking a small na- 
tive to explain the term, was informed that "if you tread 
on them, thunder always follows". Beetles are frequently 
found crossing footpaths in warm showery weather, and, as 
many travellers do not "tread aside and let the reptile 
live", thunder may in that state of the atmosphere occa- 
sionally follow the act of crushing the insect. 

In reference to its food and favorite haunts it is named 
Baum-schroter, Holz - schrb'ter , Wald-ka/er , Wcin-schroter, 
and Reben-sclmitter , and it is also known as a Kamm-kdf 
or ' comb-beetle ? , probably with reference to the serrated 
appearance of its enlarged mandibles. 

Another insect, not generally recognized as a beetle, but 
universally known and admired, is the Glow-worm. The 
apterous females, which alone are luminous, have IMMMI 
commonly considered as worms. In Anglo-Saxon it is called 
Fon-fyr. The h'rst syllable /on appears to lie the modern 
English fond, O.E. fonne, and to bear the meaning 'foolish' 
or 'vain*. Compare ita-ciyv and fiaratnc. The name is 
applied not from its befooling the spectator and leading him 
an idle chase, but from the false or ineffectual nature of 
the tire. Hence Shakspere: "pales his une/ectual fire . 


It is the French Feufollet. and the Dutch Dwaes-licht, from 
dwafs. stultus. Compare the Latin Ignis fatuxs. The name 
glow-worm appears to date far back in the history of the 
language. It is familiar to the readers of Shakspere. who 
mentions it in two well-known passages 

Light them at the fiery glow-worm's eyes. (Mid. Nights D. iii. 1.) 
The glow-worm shows the matin to be near 
And gins to pale his uneft'ectual fire. (Hamlet. 1. 5.) 

Florio, a contemporary of Shakspere, defines the Italian 
word Lucciole as "glow-worms or glaze-wormes". It is also 
called in Old English a glow-bug, and a glow-bird or glow- 

A singular name for the insect occurs in Halliwell and 
Wright, viz. (/low-bason. This same term, if it be the same, 
is employed in the western counties to indicate *'a bold, 
impudent person". In this case glow may possibly be the 
O.E. word meaning ^to stare", connected with glower and 

Another O.E. name mentioned in Topsell's Four-footed 
Beasts (p. o4'J). and still current in the Isle of Wight, is 
glare-worm, and this again appears in O.E. as glaze-worm 
(Florio, Lilly). Another form of the word is mentioned in 
the "Theater of Insects" glazs-worm which is explained 
by Mouftet as '"a glistening or shining worm" (L. 1. c. 15). 
In the same writer it. is called a Light-worm, and this is 
supported by the Swedish name of similar meaning, Lys- 
matk; and again a Shine-worm, corresponding with the French 
Ver lui*ant and Mouch da ire. All these words, glow, glo, 
glare, glaze, glass, are related to a root which enters largely 
into the Gothic languages with the fundamental meaning 
smooth, polished, and hence shining. In German the crea- 
ture is called Glimm- icurm, Gliih-wurm, Gleiz-wurm, and in 
Dutch glim-worm. 

In Greek it has received the descriptive names nvQo).au- 
.//.-. ).aunr l di')v and arnv&r t Q. and from its luminous tail 
/.cff/.Toro/,.;, Tiv/n/.au.Tig, and xvaoJiaftTug. In Latin it is 
known as Noctiluca, Nitidida , Lucio, Luciola, and Cicin- 
dela. This last appears to be a reduplicated form of can- 


dela. It is somewhat doubtful whether some of these terms 
do not apply rather to the fire-fly than to the glow-worm. 

It has been already observed that this insect in Germany 
is dedicated to St. John under the name Johannw-irurni, 
and that this name is at least as old as the 16 th century 
appears from the following passage in the "Theater of 
Insects " : 

"About Francofurt on the main, from the time in which they do 
most frequently appear, they are called Si. Johannis-Kafer and St. Jo- 
hannis-Fliegen". (L. i. c. 15.) 

From the same cause they have received a similar name 
in Hungarian, Szent Jdnos' Bogara, i. e. St. John's Buy. 

Before dismissing the subject of Beetles I will mention a 
few isolated names which appear worthy of record. 

We have seen instances of beetles dedicated to saints, 
but the religious sentiment is not always developed in so 
amiable a form. In Somersetshire a certain elongated black 
member of the family of an unquestionably forbidding ap- 
pearance is called the Devil's-cow, and in various counties 
the Devils-horse and Devtfs-coach-horse. In the native Irish 
it is named the Red-devil (Derrighan Dionl), and a highly 
interesting religious legend current among the Irish peasantry, 
which I have never seen in print, explains the mysterious 
change from red to black. The legend, as narrated by 
an Irish field-labourer to an eminent entomologist who \\as 
pursuing his researches in the South of Ireland, is as fol- 

After the massacre of the Innocents the infant Jesus and his parents 
were fleeing into Egypt. At the close of the day, hungry and travel- 
worn, they begged shelter and refreshment of certain God-fearing men, 
who were engaged in sowing corn in a way-side field. They were re- 
ceived with hoopitable kindness; and, on parting with their benefactors, 
they blessed the seeds that were being committed to the earth. During 
the night the grain started from the soil, and by morning an abundant 
crop was ripe and ready for the sickle. As the men were engaged in 
reaping, the emissaries of Herod arrived in pursuit of the fugitives. They 
enquired of the reapers if a party answering to the description of the 
Holy Family had passed that way. Now the godly men disdained to 
utter an untruth, and at the same time were reluctant to discover the 
track of the persecuted saints. They accordingly assured the pursuers 


that no one had passed that way since the corn that they were then 
reaping was sown. The soldiers satisfied with the reply were departing, 
when the malignant insect, who, concealed beneath a stone, had over- 
heard all that had passed, came forth from his lurking-place, raised his 
head, and gave the pursuers all the information they required. But the 
hand of Heaven was upon him. His brilliant vest of crimson changed 
to a satanic black, he was greeted with universal exeoration, audit was 
ordained that whoever crushed him with the thumb of the right hand 
should be deemed a benefactor of mankind and be pardoned the seven 
deadly Sins. 

My friend's informant was particularly anxious that the 

individual whose appearance in a ditch had elicited the 

above narrative should be summarily disposed of in the ap- 
proved fashion. 

Among the Scandinavians tradition has again associated 
this insect with Jotun, a giant or demon in the Xorse my- 
thology. It is called Jotun-o.ri, 'Jotun's ox', a name which 
is also applied to the whale. 

' ; It is bred", says Mouffet. " every where in the fields 
and goes holding up the tail " , and this peculiar habit ex- 
plains and justifies the names Turn-up-tail, Cock-tail. It 
evidently bears an universally bad character, undoubtedly 
idue to its malevolent disposition and carnivorous propensi- 
ties. Its usual name is Rove-beetle, from its wandering habits; 
in Anglo-Saxon Hrcetk-bita, or 'quick-biter". Mouffet writes: 

"The country people in Kent hold this to be a venomous creature, 
and that oxen are swollen by this poison, as they are with eating Long- 
|j legs." (Theat. Ins. L. ii. c. 7.) 

A similar prejudice with regard to the injury inflicted by 
certain insects when swallowed by cattle is illustrated by 
the name Burn-con:. Halliwell gives the word with the simple 
explanation, "a species of beetle"; but the following extract 
from the " Theater of Insects" will explain its first intro- 
duction into the English language. 

"First of all by their accrimony they enflarne the belly of cattle, 
', upon which follows a tumor and a feaver and a kind of a hot tympauy, 
by which in the end the bowels are burst. ... In English it (the insect) 
, is called a Blain-tcorm or Troinys, which being eaten by cattle doth 
I produce the like symptomes. The Latines retain the Greek name of 
| Buprestis . . but I for my part somewhat boldly, though not improperly, 


do adventure to call it by a new name in English, Rum- cow or Bnrsl- 
ou>." (L. i. c. 19.) 

It will be seen that Mouft'et simply translates the Greek 
name fiovnQqanc;. The term Troings, which he mentions 
as a vernacular English word, I am unable to explain. 

I find the following miscellaneous names applied to black 
beetles. The Introduction to Halliwell's Dictionary contains 
(p. xxi.) a curious specimen of the Isle of Wight dialect, 
and the subject matter of the extract is a discussion, arising 
out of the appearance of " a blastnashun straddle-bob craalun 
about in the nammut bag". The controversy is respecting 
the propriety of this word ; Jan maintaining that the creature 
is a straddle-bob, and Will that it should be called a Dumble- 
dore. The result is that he has been called a straddle-bob 
"ever zunce the island was vust meyad". They are named 
Black-clocks (Yorks.), Black-besses (Salop), Black-bobs (Berk- 
shire), Black-worms (Cornw.), Black-dors (Suff.), Parsons 
(Leicesi), and Betes (Devon.). Of this last I can offer no ex- 
planation '. They are also called Thunder-clocks, Collier* and 
Crawley -it'll oppers. 

Certain red and blue beetles are known familiarly in Hants 
as Soldiers and Sailors. The Dermestes lardariux is in Lin- 
colnshire termed the Bacon-bee. Florio, according to Halli- 
well, explains the Cantharides by a singular name, Beetle- 
ston. The last syllable is obscure. 

There is a remarkable word in Mouffet the derivation of 
which appears clear, but the word itself seems to have dis- 
appeared. He says (L. i. c. 21): "the northern English call 
it klock, but the southern starkenbeken. " The word apparently 
means strong-beak, and might well apply to the elongated' 
proboscis of some of the Curculios. 

1 It was claimed at our Meeting by a Diminutivist as the base of the 
word beetle. F. 

[To be continued.] 




The theory of derivation has until now never been fairly 
developed in the Hungarian language. The Hungarian Aca- 
demicians have tried to grapple with this question in their 
"System of the Hungarian Language", but instead of elu- 
cidating the nature and power of the affixes, they have in- 
creased the difficulties which beset this question. Their 
failure was inevitable, since, unacquainted with the native 
system of the Sanskrit Grammar as developed by the three 
great sages Panini, Katyayana and Patanjali, whom the 
gratitude of their country-men has justly elevated to the 
rank of Saints, and proceeding from the theory, true in 
t the abstract , that every root must be monosyllabic , my late 
i colleagues called everything which remained beyond the first 
syllable of any Hungarian noun or verb, an affix, jumbling 
(together Krits and Taddhitas, paying no attention to deno- 
iminatives, and getting in this way a multitude of unwieldy 
affixes, the nature and power of which could not be ex- 
plained. In order to bring some order into this confusion 
[I have tried to arrange the affixes, and to treat the subject 
)f Hungarian derivation, according to the principles established 
|by the Hindoo patron saints of philology, which form the 
jonly safe foundation of that science, whilst the disregard 
}f them degrades philology from a science to a mere "jeu 
\<f esprit". 


Before entering into the subject I must however, at the 
risk of becoming tedious and of repeating what every Philo- 
logist knows, give some definitions and recapitulate some 
tioms, in order to indicate the point of view from which 
surveyed the Hungarian Affixes: 
In speaking of roots, I understand always by this term. 


'that portion of any word which defies further analysis', 
that is to say: those elements which cannot be explained 
by composition, flexion or derivation. 

Omitting at this time the roots of the particles, we may 
further say that a root is neither a verb, nor a noun, but 
that it contains the elements both of verbs and of nouns. 

The root becomes a 'base' or 'crude form' either of a 
verb or of a noun, by the addition of an affix. These af- 
fixes which are added to roots are the Krits. 

No root can accept more than one nominal Krit affix, 
but the base may, by assuming a new verbal affix, become 
a denominative, and as such a new root. 

The base of the noun always stands in the relation of 
some case with the exception of the genitive to the root. 

The base becomes a word fit to take its place in the 
sentence by the addition of a further Taddhita affix. All 
the flexional and conjugational endings belong to this class; 
and, besides them, all those affixes which characterize the 
different relations in which nouns stand to nouns, for in- 
stance as regards descent and origin, possession, gender, 
shape, abstraction, &c. 

The flexional endings are, however, sometimes attached 
immediately to the radicals. The Sanskrit grammarians in 
order to maintain the threefold articulation of every word, 
suppose that in this case a krit affix (technically Quip and 
Quin) was originally added to the root, but afterwards fell 
out, or was absorbed by the taddhita. 

As regards the formation of verbs, any root in Sanskrit 
may, if the meaning permits it, become a secondary radical, 
by the assumption of certain affixes; that is to say, it may 
add to the original meaning of the root the ideas of sufference 
(passive), causation, desire, and intensity. These secondary 
radicals being just as prolific as the original roots, they 
may not only originate nouns, but they may even assume new 
verbal affixes, the causative or intensitive may form a now 
passive, and so on. Accordingly a root may accept more 
than one verbal affix. 



Applying these principles to Hungarian , we shall find that 

though many roots have been lost or obscured in the course 

of the centuries during which the Hungarian had no litera- 
ture, still a sufficient number have remained unimpaired to 
show that originally they were neither nouns nor verbs, but 

the source of both; for instance: 

Root. Affix. Base or word. 

sutt- og sullog , he whispers 

om sutlom, secret 

sier- et sseref, he loves 

elm szerelm, love 

nijiig- is nyugsz(ik'), he rests 

aim nyugalm , rest 

t>t- sz t>5(en), he bears 

tel titel, carriage 

or- os oro;, he steals 

v orv, the thief 

ssdr- it sdrif, he dries 

at ssdras, dry 

em- lei emlel, he suckles 

lo em/o, the teat 

her ember, man 

jsiA- had szikkad, he becomes dry 

dr szikdr, thin (mager) 

pos- had poshad, it rots 

rtinij post any, the swamp 

tap- ad tapad, it sticks 

ast tapasz, cement 

mer- ed mered, he becomes rigid, rigescit 

o mero, rigid 

ron- t ront, he destroys 

gy rongy, the rag 

ssor- it szorit, he presses 

ot szoros, narrow 

bor- it bar it , he covers 

born, darkness 

hurl- it kurtit, he shortens 

a kurla, short 

rsel- ks* cse!eksz(ik) , he works 

ed cselcd, the servant 

al- ss a/ii(i&) , he sleeps 

m dlom, sleep 


Root. Affix. Base or word. 

e- sz esz(ik), he eats 

lei etel, food. 

The following instances may suffice for the Quip formation : 

fagy, it freezes, and the frost 

zavar, he stirs up, and the confusion 

gydmol, he supports, and the support 

fog, he catches, and the tooth 

szeg , he cuts, and the nail 

ter, he has room, and a plain, an extension 

i,dr, he shuts, and the lock 

oh(ih), he learns, and the cause 

lah(iK), he inhabits, and the dwelling 

nyom, he presses, and the footprint. 


The Hungarian language is by far richer in verbal affixes 
than any of the Arian languages. The Sanskrit for instance 
forms its active verbs from the root in three ways, which 
branch off altogether into ten conjugations, and it knows 
only of four secondary radicals, all the other modifications 
of the meaning of the root being obtained by prepositional 
prefixes. In the Hungarian we find likewise four secondary 
roots : a Factitive formed by the affix t or its expansion tat, 
tet, and a Passive, by conjugating the factitive in the re- 
flective form. The idea of possibility may be added to any 
verb, by the affix hat, and the idea of futurity by the affix 
nd; for, unlike to the Arian languages, the future is in 
Hungarian not simply a tense, but a complete secondary 
radical which may be conjugated through all the tenses. 

Besides the ideas contained in these four secondary radi- 
cals the Hungarian adds some more to the original meaning 
of the root, and expresses these modifications by affixes; 
still these new formations are not to be taken for secondary 
radicals, since they cannot be formed from every root, even 
where the meaning might allow it. Such modifications are: 
the passive-reflective, the causative, the inchoative, the //v- 
quentative, the dinthmiire, the frequentative-dimimitioe; the 
ideas of continuity, and of suddenness of action, may 
likewise be imparted to the root. The denominatives more- 


over are formed in the most varied ways, by manifold af- 
fixes. All these formations have until now been utterly 
neglected by the Hungarian Philologists. 


The first and the most important of the Hungarian verbal 
affixes is the letter t. the natural contraction of the root te 
which means 'to do' (tesz, he does, tehet, he can do, tetet, 
he has it done by somebody). This affix imparts the idea 
of action to many roots , and the corresponding letter /, the 
abbreviation of the root le, I become, fio, ich werde, (lesz, 
lehet) gives the idea of sufferance, and is the oldest and 
most original form of the passive-reflective, for instance: 

Root. actite. passim reflectite. 

fu- ful, he warms ful, he becomes warm 

hti- hut, he cools kul, he becomes cool 

nyi- nyit, he opens nyi/(iA), it opens 

bom- bont, he destroys bomol, it goes to pieces 

oil- osit, he divides os;/(iJt), it divides itself 

rej- rejt, he hides rejl(ik), it is hidden 

haj- hajt, he bends ltajl(iK), it bends 

ham- hdnt, he pares . hdml(ik'), it is pared 

om- ont , he pours orn/(ift), it pours 

rom- ront, he destroys roml(iK), it goes to destruction 

dii- dut, he throws down <//, it falls down 

The active affix t is often increased by the vowel i, and 
the passive reflective I by an u or M, thus we get such 
formations as: 

Root. active. passive reflectite. 

fu- fuit fojt, he strangles ful, he chokes 

gyu- gyvjt, he lights gyvl, it catches fire 

gyii- gyfytt he assembles gyul, it assembles 

ter- sert, he hurts serfil, it is hurt 

mer- merit, he draws merul, it sinks 

or- 5;orif, he presses si-onil, he is in straights 

her- kerit, he gets herul, it is got 

dm- dmit, he deludes dmul, he is damfounded 

csod- cs>"dit, he gathers cs'idiil, it gathers 

tan- tanit , he teaches tanul, he learns 

ter- terit, he expands tertil, it expands 

The active power of the affix t is well illustrated by the 


forms sir, he weeps, sirat, he bewails, and szoll, he speaks, 
and szollit, he addresses somebody, the intransitive mean- 
ing having become transitive by it. 


The affix of the passive reflective I interchanges often 
with the dental d, a formation which usually gives the mean- 
ing of the passive impersonal, for instance: 

Root. active. passive impersonal. 

siak- szahit , he tears szakad, it breaks 

has- hasit, he splits hasad, it splits 

szdr- szdrit, he dries star ad , it dries 

tdrp- torpit , he dwarfs torped, it becomes dwarfish 

Sometimes however it is only reflective, mos, he washes 
in the transitive sense , mosd(ik} , he washes himself. Terjed 
is an anomalous by-formation (Nebenform) of terul; in Idt, he 
sees, ldtsz(iti), he seems, the affix d has gone over into 
the kindred sibilant. 

The termination d is not at all rare among the Hungarian 
verbs and has often a passive or reflective meaning, as: 
szenved, he suffers, patitfwr, tapad, it sticks, hamvad, it 
turns into cinders, Jiiggad, it becomes liquid, still there are 
verbs formed by this affix, which have no passive meaning, 
f. i. fogad, he receives, szalad, he runs, Jialad, he progresses, 
tagad, he denies. 

The most common form of the passive reflective , the only 
one noticed in Hungarian Grammars , has arisen by this affix 
d conjugated in the reflective form: 

active. passive reflective, 

uyomor-it , he beggars utjomorod(ih') , he becomes a beggar 

szomor-it, he contristates szomorodik, he becomes sorrowful 

hdbor-it, he disturbs hdborodik, he becomes disturbed 

szapor-it , he augments szaporodik, he becomes augmented 

Sometimes the connecting vowel before this affix d is 
produced, and forms passive reflectives whenever the active 
form coincides completely with the root, for instance: 

active. passive reflective, 

csap, he strikes csapddih, it is struck by itself 

hdny , he throws hdnyodik, he is agitated 

hut , he drags hm-udik , it drags (f. i. a lawsuit in Chancery) 



cmeszt. he consumes 
rag , he masticates 
agg , he hangs (intransitive) 

gyolor, he gives trouble 
lol, he pushes 

passive reflective. 

emeszt'-dik, he consumes himself (by cares) 
rdgddik , it is masticated 
(if/yodik , he has cares (he hangs on the 

future with hopes and fears) 
gydtriidik, he troubles himself 
tolodik, it is pushed, truditur. 


Causatives are formed by adding the affix t to the verbal 
base; when added to a final d whether passive or not, this 
d goes over into the dental sibilant , and since the verbs in 
J, with a most inconsiderable exception, are capable of as- 
suming the causative affix, its most common form is szt, 
for instance: 

szarad, it dries 

ragad , it sticks 

marad, he remains 

riad, he becomes frightened 

ered, he goes 

akad, it stops 

tttntad, he rises 

furd(ih), he bathes 

oltad, it melts 

rohad, it rots 

farad, he becomes tired 

apod, it decreases 

sz-alad, he runs 

sieled , it is dispersed 

dag ad, he swells 

szaraszt, he makes dry 
ragaszt, he makes it stick 
maraszt. he detains 
riasit, he frightens 
ereszt, he dismisses 
a haszt , he stops 
tdmaszt, he makes rise 
fiireszt, he makes one bathe 
vltaszt, he makes it melt 
rohaszt, he makes it rot 
fdrastt, he tires out 
apasit, he makes it decrease 
szalasst, he puts to flight 
szeleszt, he disperses 
dagaszt , he makes it swell. 

We find a further developement of this affix in the rare 
causative forms sztal, s:tel, which have settled down in a 
certain signification: 

tapad, it sticks, tapaszt, he makes it stick, tapasstal, he experiences. 

marad, he remains, maraszl , he makes one remain, marasztal, he 

keeps one at a party. 

tigad, he is merry, rigasztal, he comforts. 

enged, he yields, engesztel, he conciliates. 

hirhed(ik), he becomes famous, hireszlel, he praises. 

The frequency of the verbs with a final d, which become 
Causatives, may account for the fact that by a false analogy 


some few verbs form a causative in szt, though they have 
no final d. Their number is limited: 

bigyeg , he hangs (intransitive) bigyeszt, he hangs (transitive) 

ffileszt, he makes warm 
hullaszt, he makes fall 
mulaszt, he fails to do 
noveszt, he produces 
aggaszt which becomes likewise akaszt, 

he hangs (transitive) 
termeszt, he produces 
fejleszl) he developes 
ugraszt, he makes one jump 
forraszt, he makes it boil. 

The great plurality of verbs however forms the causative 
by the affix t, thus: 

bant, he hurts 

kelt, he raises 

teremt, he creates 

surget, he stirs up 

eget, he burns (transitive) 

forgat , he turns (transitive) 

(illit, he puts up 

reltent, he frightens 

durrant , he makes an explosion 

mulat , he amuses himself, he makes 

ful, it warms (intransitive) 
hull, it falls 
mM/(i/Oj it pattes 
no, he grows 
agg, it hangs 

ierem, it grows 
fejl(ih), it is developed 
ugr(ik), he jumps 
forr, it boils 

ban, he cares 

kel, he rises 

lerem, it grows 

surog, he is busy 

eg, he burns (intransitive) 

forog, he turns (intransitive) 

all, he stands 

reMen, he is frightened 

durran, it explodes 

mul(ik), it passes 

that time should pass 
oszl(iK), it divides (impersonal) oszlat, he causes a division, he dissolves. 

Sometimes the causative t expands into tat, tet: 

biz(ik) , he trusts biztat , he encourages 

foly(ik), he flows foh/ttit, he continues 

dz(iK), it becomes wet dztat, he makes wet 

szun(ik~), it ceases szuntet, he discontinues 

alsz(ik~), he sleeps //, he puts to sleep. 

There are, besides the affix t, some other causative affixes, 
but their use is restricted. We find the I in the following verbs: 

forr, it boils forral, he makes boil 

izl(iK), it tastes izlel, he tastes 

asz(ik), it becomes dry aszal, he dries. 

In the following instances this I expands into lal, lei: 

hiz(ik), he fattens (intransitive) hizlal, he fattens (transitive) 

kop(iK), it wears koplal , he starves 

fagy, it freezes fagylal, he causes to freeze 

ke$(ik), he is late keslel, he delays 


er'i/0, it ripens erlel, he causes to ripen 

/a:(iA), he is cold fallal, he causes cold. 

The affixes sit and z occur only in two causative forma- 
jtions: ert, he understands, ertesit, he gives notice, and fb, 
it boils, fo~, he cooks. Two abnormal formations are akin 
to the Vriddhi increase, **(tfc), he falls, forms a causative 
IK, he causes to fall, and oil, he extinguishes, is the causa- 
jtive of alsz(ik), he sleeps, and, applied to fire, it goes out. 
Two others show the "Ablaut", viz. kel, he rises, kolt, 
ihe hatches, and tel(iti), it tills, tolt, he pours. 


If we arrange the Hungarian verbs according to their 
[finals, in the Sanskrit way, we cannot but be struck by 
ihe large number of those ending in g. With all of them 
the idea of continuity is attached to the meaning of the 
{root. We may divide them into two classes, the first com- 
iprising those verbs among them, which are mono- or dis- 
iisyllabic, the second consisting of the trisyllabic ones. 

All those belonging to the first class express either a 

[sound or a motion, originally they were all monosyllabic, 

|the second syllable owing its origin to the connecting vowel 

las might be seen by the following instances, where both 

iforms are still preserved: 

su<7 zuhog 

perg pereg 

i-eng <eneg 

peng peneg 

mozg moiog 

bolyg bolyog 

dorg dorog 

forg forog 

zajg sajog gdrg gorog 

j Some of these dissyllabic verbs expand into three syl- 
lables by the insertion of r which imparts the idea of in- 
ensity to the original meaning, either in a frequentative or 
n a diminutive sense: 

bugyog bugyorog 

ctinctog czincz-orog 

dobog doborog kotog kotorog 

dodog dodorog wjekeg nyekereg 

\ filyeg fityereg nyikog nyikorog 

I bigyeg bigyereg ssisteg szi$zereg 

bizteg biisereg ticsog ticsorog 

csicscseg csicscsereg 


Many of the dissyllabic and monosyllabic verbs in g get 
a corresponding form by the affix did which imparts an in- 
choative meaning, and many of these inchoatives have again 
a corresponding causative in dit, f. i. : 

Verbs expressing sound inchoative. causative. 

or motion. 

csorog , it flows csordul csordit 

dorijg , it thunders dordul dordit 

zajog , he is noisy zajdul zajdit 

jajog , he wails jajdul jajdit 

pez-seg , it ferments pezsdiil pezsdit 

morog , he grumbles mordul mordit 

forog, he turns fordul fordit 

inog, he vacillates indul indit 

gorog , it rolls gordiil gordit 

leng , he floats lendiil lendit 

log, it swings lodiil lodit 

mozog , he moves mozdtil moz-dit 

cteng , it sounds csendiil csendit 

kong , (the bell) tolls hondul hondit. 

Sometimes the inchoative affix did answers to verbs which 
by the increase of the root end in ng, this new complex 
affix implies continuity and intensity, frequentative or di- 
minutive, f. i.: 


fdj, it aches fujong fdjdul 

tol, he pushes tolong , he pushes often tdldul or todiil 

all , he stands dllong , he stands about dlldul. 

The inchoative affix did is evidently a complex affix, 
formed by the elements d and I, joined by the connecting 
vowel; both these simpler affixes form inchoatives by them- 
selves in the following few verbs, the d being added to 
verbs of a passive meaning, the I to active ones: 

gyul, it is set on fire gyulad, it begins to burn 

ful, he chokes fulad, he begins to choke 

pir-ul, he blushes pirhad, it begins to dawn 

fu, he blows fuval, it begins to blow 

W, he shoots lovel ', (the rays) begin to shoot 

szol, he speaks $zolal, he begins to speak 

sioA(iA), he runs swkcll(ik'), he begins to run. 

The mono- and dis-syllabic verbs in g have still another 
corresponding form, which implies suddenness, and the idea 


that the action is performed only once. These forms arise 
through the affix an; however since the final of the root is 
mostly doubled before it, we may safely state that its origi- 
nal form is van, that is to say, the substantive verb 'to 
be". Some of these new formations have a causative by 
the addition of the affix t. For instance: 

moiog , he mores ;no::an, he makes one sadden move 

kohog , he coughs kohen, he coughs once 

hociog , he knocks koc:cz-an, it knocks once 

loboy, it floats lobban, it flares up 

prusiog, he sneezes priisn^en. he sneezes once 

s&epeg , he trembles steppen, he is suddenly frightened. 

We find exceptionally an increase of this affix van, by 
the affix f, without any alteration of the sense, it is in fact 
a by-form of the former. Thus we meet with: 

Ulan and illant, he escapes suddenly 
fecscsen and fecscsent , he spills suddenly 
toppan and toppant, he stamps with the foot 
tuszszen and tuszszent , he sneezes 
kukkan and kukkant , he stirs. 

In a few cases the affix raw is added to roots which form 
no corresponding verb of continuity in g, but even these 
are mostly verbs of movement or of sound: 

ctap, he strikes csappan 

reked , he is hoarse rekken 

repftl, he flies reppen 

rikolt, he whines rikkan 

csusz-iA, he glides csuszszan 

fogad, he receives fogan, she conceives: 

A- regards the trisyllabic verbs in g it is peculiar that 
their second syllable, preceding the affix g, ends invari- 
ably in the semivowels, r, /, ly, OT J. They express con- 
tinuity, and since continuity implies a certain amount of 
intensity, we cannot be astonished at finding that, with most 
of them, the affix g may be interchanged with the frequenta- 
tive affix ked. For instance: 

incseleg , he banters often = incselkedik 

fondorog, he intrigues = fondorkodik 

hizeltg , he flatters = hiselkedik 

szomorog , he wails = sz-omorkodik 

lisiteleg, he salutes = tititelkedik 


btisolyog, he is sorrowful = busdlkodik 

nyavalyog, he is often unwell = nynralkodik. 

With some of these verbs the affix y interchanges with 
the passive reflective affix d, but in this case the idea of 
continuity is lost. For instance: 

kesereg, he wails keseredik, he becomes desperate 

fidborog, he is agitated hdborodik, he becomes agitated 

kdzeleg, he approaches continually kdzeledik, he comes nearer 

Idnlorog , he totters tdntorodik, he becomes shaky 

sz-endereg , he sleeps szenderedik, he falls to sleep. 


Frequentatives and Diminutives are formed by many af- 
fixes in Hungarian ; we have mentioned already the complex 
affix ng which implies continuity as well as intensity, and 
adduce therefore here only a few more instances: 

busul, he cares busong , he has cares continually 

si-orul, he is in straights storong , he is always in straights 

borid, it begins to darken borong, he broods, and the sky be- 

comes strongly clouded 

orul, he becomes mad orjung, he raves 

dnliudik, he becomes furious diihdng , he rages. 

Otherwise the insertion of the nasal forms diminutives: 


emelit, he tries to raise emelint, he tries a little to raise 

csavarit, he screws csnrarint, he screws a little 

hasit, he splits hasint, he splits a little 

melegit, he warms melenget, he warms a little 

borogat, he covers assiduously borongal, he covers a little 

ugrik, he jumps ugrandozik, he hops 

jdtszih, he plays jdtswndih, he plays a little. 

The affix z forms frequentatives : 

ont, he pours ontdz, he waters (plants) 

von, he drags vans, he attracts 

farad, he takes pains fdradoz, he takes pains constantly 

kot, he binds koloz, he binds strongly 

vigad, he enjoys vigadoi, he likes to enjoy 

dagnd, it swells dagadoz, it swells much 

did, he blesses dldotik, he sacrifices 

(tlmodik, he dreams dlmodoiik, he is dreamy. 

This affix expands often into doz, dez: 

fejlik, it expands fejledei, it expands continually 


zeng , he sounds zcngedez , he is sounding 

irtjr, he wavers ingadozik, he wavers much 

romlik , it deteriorates romladozik, it deteriorates continually 

tor, he breaks turedei-ik^ it breaks into many pieces. 

The affix gat forms frequentative dimimitives , and is added 
both to roots and to verbs formed by other affixes: 

Added to roots. 

rer , he beats, verberat vereget, he pats 

hal-asst, he delays halogat, he often delays 

tdm-aszt, he supports tamogat , he often supports 

rdl-aszt . he chooses tdlogat, he is particular 

esiik, he eats eveget, he often eats a little 

mond , he says mondogat, he often says. 

Added to verbs formed by some other affix, 

sscmldl, he counts sidmldlgat, he often counts 

enytes, he glues enyvezget, he often glues a little 

foglal, he occupies foglalgat, he occupies little by little 

fordit, he translates fordilgat , he is translating by and by 

rerdet, he often beats terdezgel, he often beats a little 

csipdei, he often pinches csi/idezget , he often pinches a little 

szalutsi-t , he plucks s:-akas*gal, he often plucks 

legyint, he fans legyinget, he often fans a little. 

In the last two instances the frequentative affix absorbs 
the active affix t. 
Dos is likewise a frequentative diminutive affix , f. i. : 

luk, he pushes /o/rrftis, he pushes often 

mar, he bites ntardos, he bites often 

sug, he whispers stir/Jos, he whispers often 

csip, he pinches csipdes, he pinches often 

reptil , he flies repdes , he flies about. 

The verbs formed by this affix usually assume, besides it, 
the affix gat. 


The following are frequentative affixes of rare occurrence 
restricted to one or two verbs: 

/: vgrik, he jumps, ugrdl , he jumps about. 
lull: MJ/ir, he cuts, nyirldi f, he curtails. 
csol: ront, he destroys, roncsol, he destroys utterly. 
l>ol: romlwl, he destroys at random. 
<:-/: bont, he dissents, boncsol, he analyzes. 
ran, he drags, ronczol, he drags about. 


os, es, kos, kdroz: fut, he runs, futos, futkos, futkdroz, he runs about; 

repul, he flies, repes, he flies a little. 
ddl: rag, he masticates, rdgddl, he nibbles. 
dz, dsz, rest: kotor, kotordz; kapar , kapardss; vahar, vahardsz; 

hadar, hadardsz; fiilyul, fiityiJresz ; csip, csiperesi>; siit, siitkiJresz. 

Diminutive are likewise the following affixes: 

kdl, icsdl, iczel, dcsol, dicsdl, ddcsol, and cskdl 
which contain the elements of the words kicsi and csekely, 
small, in various combinations and modifications. 

The affix gal is likewise diminutive, so is dal, they are 
sometimes combined in the complex form dogdl, dogel which 
becomes an apparently new affix dokol, dekel, dekel, f. i.: 

ront, rougdl, he damages. 

hasit, hasgdl, he splits often a little. 

keres, keresgel, he seeks about. 

dd, adogal, he often gives. 

her, keregel , he often requests. 

nevez, nevezgel, he often names. 

jdr, jdrdal, he goes about. 

lep, lepdel, he steps along. 

stel, szeldel, he often cuts a slice. 

szur, swrdal, he often pricks. 

tor, tordel , he breaks into many pieces. 

vdg, vdgdal, he cuts often. 

jo, joddgel, he often comes. 

no, nodogel, he grows constantly. 

eszik, eddegel, he often eats. 

isiik, iddogdl, he often drinks. 

el, eldegel, he vegetates. 

bir, he has, birdogdl, he often has, birlokol, he possesses. 

e'r, he touches, erdegel and erdekel, he often touches, it interests. 

61, he kills, oldokiil, he kills all around. 

ful, he chokes, fuldokol, he is drowning. 

hal, he dies, haldokol, he is dying. 

nyel, he swallows, nyeldekel, he is swallowing. 


Passive reflectives, impersonais, and reflectives, implying 
continuity are formed by the affixes 6d(ik)^ 6dz(ik'), oc(/), 
by the first however only when added to verbs which have 
already assumed some other verbal affix; (we have treated 
of this affix when added to roots in the G" 1 ). 


^ L 1 he throws himself abont 
nnnyholoaik J 
fes*kel>'dik , he is restless 
gunyoludik. he is continually railing 
furkdlodik, he endeavours to throng in 
nyargalodiik , he is riding about 
rakarudzik, he is scratching himself 
akarodiik, he has the intention 
fogodzik , he clings 
harapodzik. (the fire) spreads 
nyujlozik, he stretches himself 
hinldloiik, he is swinging 
menteget'jzik, he excuses himself. 

The expanded form of these affixes is &>W(t&), fo'rfc(iXr): 

kino*, he torments kinlodik, he is excruciated 

forog , he turns about forgotodik, he turns round continually 

siij, he hums litgolodik, he is murmuring 

fep. he tears tepelddzik, he is in mental anxiety. 

These affixes are often added to nonns and form denomi- 
natives, f. i. : 

baj , mischief bajlodik, he struggles 

mereg, prison, wrath mergelodik, he is yery angry 

por, dust porlodik, it turns into dost. 

The most common affixes of the frequentatives are kod, 
ked, koz, kez , kesz. We find them usually, though not ex- 
clusively, adhering to verbs formed by other affixes, they 
often form denominatives with the idea of continuity, but 
sometimes the frequentative or intensitive meaning is al- 
together lost. A few instances will illustrate these obser- 

I tap, he gets kapkod, he tries to snatch 

csap, he strikes csapkod, he beats often 

emel , he raises emelkedik, he rises 

(marakodik, 1, 
mar, he bites < >he quarrels with everybody 

no, he grows norekedik, he grows up 

olldiik , he dresses dltostodik, he is dressing 

borolidl, he shaves borottdl!:odi'; , he shaves himself 

erf, he understands r/e'.ett, he negociates 

rdr , he waits tdrako**!: , he is waiting 

vt, he strikes vt':5zih, he battles 

foglal, he occupies foglalkozik, he occupies himself 

er, he reaches erketik, he arrives. 


These affixes are often increased by a nasal, a sibilant, the 
letter t, and the letter I, for instance: 

sir, he weeps sirankozik, he wails 

ri , he cries rimdnkodik, he implores 

szo, he weaves szovetkezik, he allies himself 

hi, he calls hivatkozik , he quotes 

nyil(iK), he opens nyilatkozik, he declares 

kap, he gets and he seizes kapaszkodik, he gets hold 

rug , he kicks rugaszkodik, he often kicks 

t>t, he rights viaskodik, he fights strongly 

kerdez , he asks kerdezoskodik , he inquires 

iiro, a judge birdskodik, he judges 

boho, a clown bohoskodik, he makes jokes 

fte'w, a spy kemeskedik, he spies 

iiis, sorry buslakodik, he is full of cares 

gyenge, weak yyengelkedik, he is poorly 

ero, strength erolkodik, he endeavours. 

The affix &0J sometimes absorbs the affix t, whether cau- 
sative or active, for instance: 

loMMttil, he teases boszszonkodik , he is angry 

creszt, he lets ereszkedik, he lets himself down 

ragaszt, he cements ragaszkodik, he clings 

tdmaszt , he supports tdmaszkoclik, he leans. 


The Hungarian language is peculiarly rich in denominatives 
formed by nearly all the affixes we have mentioned until 
now. We meet among them 

1) With the Quip formation, which is so common in the 
English; in the Hungarian it is restricted to nouns in asz 
derived from animals, and implying in the verb the idea 
of sport: 

agctr, the grey-hound agardsz, he courses, and the hunter with 

maddr, the bird madardsi, the birdcatcher, and he catches 

bogdr, the beetle bogardsz, the beetlecatcher, and he catches 


Tttd , the game raddsz, the hunter, and he is hunting 

inii/i)l/iii, an eel angoln<isz, the eelcatcher, and he catches eels. 

2) The active affixes t, it, and the passives id, od(^ik\ and 
sz(ik) added to nouns, form active and passive reflective verbs: 


The affix 

szepit, he embellishes saepfil, he becomes handsome 

feketit, he blackens feketul, ] . t 

... } it becomes black 
feketedik, J 

naguobbit. he increases nagyobbiil , ) . 

* \ IT inpraQcac 

. . ... / 1L lilt Ica5c5 

nagyoooodiK, ] 

telepiil, \ he takes his place 
telepedik , J in a colony 
igazul , 1 he is directed and 
igazodik, J he gets right. 

expands occasionally into ##, and the affix 

step, beautiful 
fehete, black 

nagyobb, bigger 

le/ep, a plantation lelepit, he colonizes 

igaz, right 

igazit, he directs 

into 6dz(ik}, l6d(iK) t I6dz(ik}: 

semmi, nothing semmisit , he annihilates 

ko, a stone kotesit, he petrifies 

fe'f, existence letesit, he calls into existence 

diszno , a pig </>52non'(, he defiles 

par, dust porlodik, it turns into dust 

Aim/o , the pox htmlodiik , he gets the small pox. 

3) The most usual denominative affix is the J, but it has 
lost its original passive signification; at the time when 
these denominatives were formed, the consciousness of the 
language was already obscured. The verbs formed by this 
affix have all an active signification, some of them have 
settled down into a peculiar meaning, f. L: 

kes, the knife kesel, he stabs 

stem, the eye szemel, he selects 

orr, the nose orrol, he resents 

til, the lap dlel, he embraces 

tikdl, the fist oklel, he boxes 

mete, the fable mesel, he tells a tale 

hegedii, the fiddle hegediil , he fiddles. 

4) Different from this affix I is the affix II, which implies 
the meaning "he deems '% f. i. : 

nagy, large nagyoll, he deems it too large 

keves, little ketesell , he deems it too little 

nehei, heavy nehezell, he deems it too heavy 

tok, much sokall, he deems it too much 

jo, good jatall, he recommends 

rosj, bad roszall, he upbraides. 

If however a verb formed by the affix II is fleeted in the 
reflective form, it becomes a passive reflective and inter- 
changes with the affix /($), od(iA-); in this formation the 
original passive meaning of / reappears once more: 


ej, night t'-jellik, \ 

,. , ... > it becomes night 
ejeledik, } 

esle , evening eslcllik, ) ., 

, ... } it becomes evening 
esteledik, j 

fekele. black feketellik. ) . 

ft j-/ } J t becomes black 
fekeledtk , j 

ronqii, a rag ronqyollik. ] , . 

} he becomes ragged. 
rungyosoaiK, } 

5) Many nouns form denominatives by the affix z, which 
however has nothing in common with the frequentative af- 
fix z, 

fal, a wall falaz, he builds 

puska, a musket puskdz, he shoots with a musket 

szikra, a spark szikrdz(ik~) , it sparkles 

bar, wine boroz , he drinks winej 

, J the wave haboz , he wavers 

\the foam habi.(ik), it foams 

or, the guard <">rz, he guards 

til, the needle, a pin luz, he fastens with a pin 

ide, here ide'z, he summons 

gazembcr, a rascal gazemberez, ho calls one a rascal 

angyal, the angel angyaloz, he calls her an angel. 

6) The passive affixes hod(iK)j hed(ik}, and hoz^ik), hcz(ik), 
form likewise denominatives: 

re'n. old venhedik, \ . 

} he becomes old 
renltesziK, J 

seb , a wound sebltedik, he gets wounded 

Air, renown hirhedik, he gets renowned 

lianw, ashes hamuhodik, it turns into ashes 

A'ar, damage kdrhoi-ik, he gets damned. 

7) I have already mentioned that the frequentative affixes 
kod(;ik), ked(ik), kesz(ik), ko.:(ik}, and &e*(wfe), often foim 
denominatives; the following are instances of such formations: 

ijtar, industry iparkodik, he endeavours 

merest, daring mereszkedik , he is daring 

lolvaj , a thief toltajkodik, he is a thief 

nehez, heavy nehe'zkcdik, it presses 

bolondos , foolish bolondoskodik, he does foolish things. 


I have endeavoured to explain the meaning of some of 
the Hungarian affixes from the Hungarian language, and 


derived the active, factitive and causative affix t from the 
root te, to do, the passive and reflective affix I from the 
root le, to become; the affix of possibility hat, from the root 
hat, to work (wirken); the affix of sudden action van from 
the substantive verb can, to be; and the diminutive affixes 
from the elements of the words cttkely and kicsi: but 
unable to explain any more of them from Hungarian 
roots. The kindred Turkish language however comes here 
to our aid, and affords some additional light We find here 
the auxiliary active verb #(mek), to do, and the corre- 
sponding auxiliary passive verb oZ(mak) , which are identical 
in their elements and meaning with the Hungarian te(szek) 
and fe(szek), and in the same way the affix t forms de- 
nominatives with a transitive meaning, whilst the affix / 
forms passives, for instance: 

ary, pure aryt(mak), to purify 

pek. hard pek\t(mek), to harden 

koorov, dry koorott(maK), to dry 

set(mek), to love seri/(meA), to be loved 

af(moi), to throw atil(mak), to be thrown 

guenge, young gvengel(mek') , to become young 

tert, hard sertel(mek) , to become hard. 

These facts confirm my derivation of the affixes t and /, 
we find however in Turkish a still more important explana- 
tion for the affix of continuity (/ , which remains unexplained 
in Hungarian. According to the analogy of the Sanskrit 
this affix ought to mean motion, the idea to go being the 
most tit for expressing intensity. Now we find in Turkish 
the passive auxiliary verb auel(mek)^ to come, and the 
forms M#(mek) and <7~(mek), to go, which supply the 
root a with the meaning of motion, lost in Hungarian, but 
preserved in the kindred Turkish. 

Combining all the verbal affixes of the Hungarian lan- 
guage, we find that their number amounts to about sixty, 
but they may be reduced to a much smaller number, by 
arranging them into groups according to the principal ele- 
ments of which all the others are but modifications, or ex- 

Thus the Hungarian language modifies the original rnean- 



ing of the roots by synthesis, whilst the Arian languages 
arrive at the same result by the clumsy agglutination of a 
prepositional prefix to verbs; and yet it is the Hungarian, 
which is called agglutinative, and Austrian politicians have 
stated in earnest that Austria's dominion over Hungary is 
philosophically justified by the inferiority of the Hungarian 
race unable to rise to the Synthesis of the Vienna Dialect, 
but for ever glued to the ground by the inferior structure 
of its Turanian tongue. 



In my first Paper I tried to elucidate the nature of the 
verbal affixes , registering them as completely as I was able, 
and determining their power. The present essay on the 
nominal affixes is by far less complete ; it does not pretend 
to deal thoroughly with derivation, but only to clear the 
way for a more extensive investigation. 

Reviewing the affixes by which nouns are formed from 
roots, we must of course turn our attention first to the 
participles. Here however we find that the idea of tense 
is very faintly expressed, and therefore oftener lost in the 
Hungarian participles, than in the Ariaii languages. 

The present active participle is regularly formed by the 
affix d, 0, which puts the noun thus formed in the relation 
of an agent to the radical, representing the nominative case; 
for instance: dd, he gives, add, the giver; vesz, he takes, 
and he buys, vev'6, the taker and buyer, and in the con- 
tracted form, v'6j the son-in-law who takes away the daughter 
from the house, or who buys her; szab, he cuts, and lie* 
measures, szabo, the tailor; s:dnt, he ploughs, szdnto, the 
husbandman; ir, he writes, iro, the writer, the author: 'W/, 
it falls, eso, the rain; folyik, it flows, folyo, the river; 


it is originated, erd'6, the forest, which grows up by itself, 
not being sown or planted. 

The same affix implies however sometimes the accusative 
case , and the idea of the object. Thus ado means not only 
the giver, but likewise the fa.r, what is given; eldd, he 
sells, elado, not only the seller, but what is exposed to sale, 
marketable, hence elado Idny, a marriageable girl: vakar, 
he scrapes, vakaro, not only he who scrapes, but likewise 
a kind of cake scraped out of the trough. This accusative 
relation is always expressed by the present participle de- 
rived from the active potential, with the complete exclusion 
of the idea of the agent. Thus mondhat, he can say, 
mondhato, what can be said, but never he who can say: 
tiirh?t, he can bear, tilrheto, not he who can bear, but what 
is bearable: hallhat, he can hear, hallhato, audible: ihatik, 
he can drink, ihato, drinkable. 

The instances where this same affix denotes the instru- 
mental case are more restricted; still, many names of tools 
are formed in this way: koppant, he snuffs, koppanto, snuf- 
fers: as, he delves, dso, a spade: takar, he covers, takaro, 
a cover; reszel, he files, reszetb, a file. 

Of still rarer occurrence is this affix in the locative mean- 
ing, and even then it may be often interpreted by the instru- 
mental: fiirdik. he bathes, furdo, the bath; kaszdl, he mows. 
kas:dlo, the meadow: fogad, he receives, fog ado, the inn; 
oh- as, he counts, olcaso, the rosary. 

The same affix, applied to the future, implies not only 
the agent in the future tense, but likewise the idea of ne- 
cessity, just as the analogous Latin future participle in ndo, 
f. i. : it: irando konyv, the book that will be written, a konyv 
irando, the book is to be written; halando, the mortal, that 
is to say, not he who will die, but who has to die. 

The modifications of the affix 6, o are numerous; it be- 
comes sometimes v , f. i. : nyel, he swallows, nyelv, for nyelo, 
the tongue, the swallower; 61, he kills, olyv, the kite; serf, 
he injures, serv, the injury; oroz, he steals, ore, the thief; 
y/a'/-, he measures, merv, the rule. 

Sometimes the 6,0 changes into u, u, and softens the 


preceding dental into the cerebral; pattant, he detonates, 
pattantyu. artillery; caappant, it clashes or claps, cmtppantyit, 
the cock of the gun; alkot, he moulds, alkotyu, the engine; 
csorget, he rattles, csorgettyu, a rattle. This affix is expanded 
by false analogy into tyu, tyu\ szi, he draws in, sdvatyu, 
a pump; emel, he raises, emeltyii, the lever. In the words 
kallantyu, fogantyu, fuggentyii, we find, besides, the in- 
sertion of the nasal. 

Another modification of the participial 6,0 is the affix 
a, e, sometimes implying the idea of an agent, sometimes 
that of an object; sziil, he procreates, sziih, the parent; 
peng, he sounds, penge, the blade of a sword; mond, he 
tells, monda, a tale. 

Habitual agency and kindred ideas are expressed by the 
affix os, ds, 6s, as, f. i. : nyom, he presses, nyomos, weighty 
lak-ik, he dwells, lakos, the inhabitant; harap, he bites, 
harapos, a habitual biter; tehet, he can do, tehctos, a wealthy 
man (who can do what he pleases); ragad, it sticks, ra- 
gados, contagious; dd, he gives, adds, the debtor, he who 
is accustomed to give, of course, interest, brokerage and 
lawyers fees. 

The same power belongs to the affixes 

aV, er 

drd, 3rd 

dnk, 4nk 

dkony, ekony 

dkos, ekos; 

f. i. : vezet, he leads, vezer, the leader; tunit, he teaches, 
tandr , the professor ; csapol, he taps, fmplcir, the publicnn : 
fut, he nins, futdr, the runner. But //, he progresses, 
makes hatdr, the boundary; csal, he cheats, csaldrd, he who 
cheats. Fal, he eats, faldnk, the glutton; fel, he fears, Jelcnk, 
the coward; mulik, it passes away, <>i'< : hnti/) perishable; 
vdltozik, he changes, vdltozdkony, he who is accustomed to 
change; iszik, he drinks, -iszdkos, a drunkard: tud, he knows. 
tuddkos, a polyhystor, used satirically. 

The affix tag, teg implies the same meaning, but it is 
joined mostly to verbs formed by the passive verbal affix 


<7. which however is absorbed by the nominal affix, f. i. : 

"<f, he is despondent, csuggeteg* fainthearted; sorvad. 

he decreases, sorcatag* consumption: halgat, he is silent, 

kalgatag, taciturn. Still we h'nd likewise forog , he turns, 

Joi-fjatofj. he who often turns, saiUforgeteg, a cyclone, a tempest; 

ctorog* it rattles, csorgeteg, the brook, and several others. 

H<i:udik, he lies, makes lutzug. the liar. 

The affixes or, er, and > are likewise used to form 

nouns denoting an agent: tud, he knows, tudor, a doctor, 
hut nyom , he presses, makes nyomor, misery, therefore con- 
dition; fest, he paints, fe*te*z* the painter: kolt, he makes 
poetry . kolte*: , the poet. This last affix is rare in old words, 
but often met with in modern formations, and is in this 
respect analogous to the affix nok, f. i.: />, he sees, Idtnok, 
the seer; res, he engraves, remok, the engraver; tr, he 
writes, irnok^ the clerk. The cacophony of this affix in 
the dative plural ought to exclude these formations from 
elegant writing: who for instance could bear such words as 
Idtnokoknak. cesnokoknek , irnokoknak. 

Besides these principal affixes, by which nouns denoting 
an agent are formed from verbs, we find a number of af- 
fixes of the same power, but of rare occurrence, f. i. : 

*', ', c, ndi; szegodik, he makes an indenture, szegbdi, 
one who easily attaches himself to anybody; ugrik, he jumps. 
ugri, a jumper; kap, he gets, kapri, covetous; oktat, he 
teaches, oktondi^ a stupid man (playfully); kicdn, he de- 
sires, kicdncsi, one who desires to know. 

Such are likewise: c; y acs, dcs, dg, am, em, dm, a~ } ca, 
<L Ju. vet;, iek, any, eny, na; f. i. : ntai-og, he grumbles, he 
murmurs, WJO/YC, wild, word, wild, mogorca, wild; szi, he 
absorbs, and he draws in, *-Vac, a sponge; s~drad, it 
dries, g-dra:, dry; ririt, it blooms, rirdg, the flower: t>. 
it has a value, ere:, the metal, ertek, value, erem, a medal: 
jolyik, it flows, folyam, the stream : tanit, he teaches, tandc*. 
the advice: I'illog, it flashes, villain, the lightning; acd^ he 
cheats, csalj'a, a cheat, csalogat, he entices, csalogdny, the 
nightingale ; gyiil, he assembles, gyuleceaz nep^ a mob, h'terally. 
collected people: jintorog, he snubs , jintorna , snubbing. 


The accusative case, or the idea of an object, is prin- 
cipally expressed by the passive past participle. Its affix 
in the Hungarian is t, sometimes tt with the connect- 
ing vowel, f. i. : sul, it is roasting, suit, a roast; szeret, 
he loves, szeretett, beloved; farad, he toils, fdradt, weary; 
hervad, it withers, hervadt, withered. Exceptionally the 
past passive participle implies the meaning of an agent, for 
instance: eskuszik, he takes an oath, eskiidt, a juror; olvasott 
ember, a man who has read much, jdrt kelt ember, a man 
who has travelled much. Similar applications of the past 
passive participle occur likewise in the Arian languages. 

Next to the passive past participle we find the following 
affixes as forming most frequently nouns which stand in the 
relation of the accusative to the root: 

1) Many, meny, and vdny, veny, since the m and v inter- 
change in Hungarian as frequently as in Sanskrit; kezd, he 
begins, kezdemeny, the initiative; alkot, he moulds, he forms, 
alkotmdny, the constitution; ki'dd, he sends, kuldemeny, the 
missive; as, he digs, dsvdny, the mineral; mar ad, he re- 
mains, maradvdny, the remainder. Still we find a few for- 
mations w r here this affix denotes an agent, f. i. : szokik, he 
flees, szokeveny, a fugitive ; jo , he comes , joveveny, the comer. 

2) Lek; this affix applies to all the vowels, and has no 
double form; /o',z, he cooks, fozelek, vegetables, because in 
Hungary they are cooked, not eaten raw as in England; 
oszt, he divides, osztalek. the portion; fugg, it hangs, fug- 
gelek, an appendix. 

3) Ony, ony, sodor , he turns, sodrony, the wire; Jugg, 
it hangs, fuggony, the curtain. 

4) At, et, and in their development lat, let, and tal, tcl; 
rajzol, he draws, rajzolat, the drawing; ir, he writes, irat, 
the writing; javasol, he recommends, javaslat, the propo- 
sition; uz, he drives, he carries on, uzlel, commercial busi- 
ness; lehel, he breathes, lehellet, breath; fuval, he blows 
gently, fuvallat, a breeze; hisz, he believes, hitel, credit; 
eszik, he eats, etel, food; iszik^ he drinks, ital, drink. 
However since the idea of condition (the result of action) 
is nearly akin to the idea of the object, this same affix often 


forms nouns implying' condition, that is to say, the result 
of action, f. i. : ukar, he wills, a/carat, the will: kepvisel, 
he represents, kepciselet, representation: nez, he looks. 
nezet, the view: birdl, he criticizes, birdlat, criticism: szeret, 
he loves, szeretet, love: jo, he comes, jovetel, the arrival: 
men, he goes, menetel, the going. 

5) The affix ek forms nouns of object, sometimes like- 
wise of agent: marad, it remains, maradek, the remainder, 
and the offspring: kever, he mixes, kever ek, a mixture: 
borit, he covers, boritek, a cover; akad , he stops, akadek, 
a hindrance. 

6) Zte'& and cfo& express the object, exceptionally con- 
dition, sometimes the agent, f. i.: omlik, it falls, omladek, 
a ruin; hull, it falls, hulladek, what falls off; seper, he sweeps, 
sepredek, sweepings: nyom, he presses, nyomdok, the foot- 
print: szdn, he intends, szdndok and tzdndek, the intention; 
nw/tf, he rescues, menedek, an asylum. 

7) The following affixes are of rare occurrence: 
<7, eg; tint, he empties, vreg, a cave. 

tok, tek; bir, he possesses, birtok, possession; etek, food. 
dal, del; el, he lives, eledel, food, but r/y, he struggles, 

viadal, the struggle. 
a7, ^7; />, he spins, fondly the thread; A-o<, he binds. 

kotel, the rope. 

al; von, he draws, conal, the line, 
wia, rn^; AWZ, it is necessary, kelme, merchandize. 
da: romlik, it goes to destruction, ronda, ragged, nasty. 
gy; rongy, rag. 

cs; teker, he twists, tekercs, a roll. 
oly; fog , he catches, fogoly, the prisoner. 
The principal affixes which form nouns of acting and of 
condition are the followings: 

As, es, f. i. : olcas, he reads, olvasds, the action of read- 
ing: biztosit , he insures, biztositds, the action of insuring, 
and security: morog, he mutters, morgds, muttering: eszik, 
he eats, eves, eating. 

This affix however forms sometimes nouns of object, for 
instance: vail, he confesses, vallds, religion and confession ; 


vet, he sows, vetes, the crops; tojik. she lays eggs, tojds 
the egg; ir, he writes, irds, the writing, what has heeii 
written, rak, he puts together, rakds, a heap. 

We iind some instances where this affix has likewise a 
locative meaning, thus ill, he sits, tiles, the sitting (the 
action of sitting), and the seat; szdll, he alights, szdllds 
lodgings; all, he stands, alias, not only social standing, and 
the action of standing, but likewise the caravansary. Some- 
times it expands into mas, f. i. : dllotnds, vallomds, adomds. 

The krit affix sag, seg forms nouns of action, (the same 
affix as taddhita implies abstraction). Kivdn, he desires. 
kivdnsdg, desire; lehet, it can be, lehetseg , possibility; siet 
he hastens, sietseg, haste; nyer, he wins, nyereseg, the gain: 
veszt, he loses, veszteseg, loss. 

The affix aj, ej, expresses likewise the result of action. 
ISouns are formed by this affix from onomatopoeic verbs in 
g, dropping the verbal affix: dobog, he makes a trampling 
noise, dobaj, the noise; morog, he murmurs, moraj, distant 
thunder; zorog, he knocks, zorej , the knock. 

The kindred affixes dly, ely, alotn, elem, and daloni, de- 
lem, express the result of action, f. i.: resz, he perishes, 
veszely and veszedelern, danger; dagad, he swells, dagdh* 
the swell; szenved, he suffers, szenvedclem and szenvedely, 
passion; szeret, he loves, szerelem, love; ert, he understands, 
ertelem, the meaning; t>, he writes, irodalom, literature; 
fdj , it gives pain , fdjdalom , pain. 

We have seen that the above mentioned affixes express 
principally two cases, the nominative as agent, acting, or 
the result of action (condition), and the accusative as ob- 
ject. The oblique cases are represented in Hungarian by 
fewer affixes of rare occurrence. Besides the instances of the 
locative and instrumental meaning already adduced we may 
mention the locative affix </, as tanit, he teaches, tanoua, 
the school; jar, he goes, jdnla, the trottoir; zdr, he shuts, 
:drda, the monastery. 

Cud and cso are likewise locative affixes; //</, he treads 
upon, hcigcso, the ladder; Up, he paces, Upcso, the stair- 


The instrumental is represented by the affix la and lya; 
thus: *:ab. he cuts, s:ablya, the sabre: furul* he whistles, 
furulya, the shepherd's whistle: Ju, he blows, fucola, the 

Dative affixes are rare: we find this relation expressed 
by the affixes lex and tes: hisz, he believes, hiteles, trust- 
worthy, one in whom we believe ; on-end, he is glad (gaudet). 
iidetes, glad, what gives gladness. The ablative relation 
may be traced in the affixes es, o#, as rettent, he frightens. 
rettenetes, frightful; tilt, he forbids, tilos, what we are for- 

It is one of the peculiarities of the Hungarian language 
to express the modifications of the original idea of the radi- 
cal rather by affixes than by prepositions ; thus the negation 
of an idea, which in the Arian languages commonly requires 
a prefix , is expressed in Hungarian by the affixes tlan, tlen, 
tali',1 . tflen , which of course are applied both to roots and 
to nouns. Resolving the words thus formed, we find that 
those formed from roots correspond either to the present 
or to the past participle; W, he injures, drtatlan^ innocent; 
ehet, he can eat, ehetetlen, what cannot be eaten; nyuri*:ik, 
he rests, nyugttdan, restless; tam'tl, he learns, tanulatlan. 
unlettered;/?, he boils , Jotlen , not boiled; serf, he injures, 
*li-tetl.en , uninjured. The following words may serve as 
examples of nouns with the affixes tlan, tlen, and talan, 
telen: ruha, clothes, ruhdtlan, without clothes; gond, care, 
gondtalan, without cares , gondatlan, careless ; szdm, number, 
szdmtalan, numberless; fek, the bridle, fektelen, unbridled, 
Vketlen, without a bridle; isten^ God, istentelen, godle>-. 

Among the Hungarian taddhitas, that is to say, those 
affixes which are added to nouns, I mention only a few. 
The most peculiar among them is certainly the derivative 
affix /, which may be added not only to nouns, but even 
to their flexions, though not promiscuously, since it cannot 
be added to the nominative plural, to the genitive, dative, 
and accusative, but it applies to the nominative singular, and 
to the instrumental, to the ablative, and to the locatives, 
both singular and plural. 


The possessive affix as, en, os, is very common, but in 
a few instances it has settled down into a peculiar significa- 
tion , f. i. : 

m, sinews, inas, footman; nyak, the neck, W*//Y/.V, 
headstrong; hdz , the house, hdzas, married; &L v , the hand, 
&<?,?es, surety; azem, the eye, sz ernes, cautious; szurv, the 
horn, szarvas, the stag; />&, the tail, farkas, the wolf; 
./, the ear, /wfes, the donkey; fee?, the goose, ludas, the 

The affixes of abstraction sa</, and dalom, answer to the 
English -hood and -dom, and to the German -schaft, -heit, 
-keity and -ihum. 

Well aware that an inquiry into the affixes of the Hungarian 
language cannot excite the special interest of English philo- 
logists , the preceding observations may have sufficed to show 
the nature and philosophy of a language, whose relation to 
the Arian family is not yet sufficiently determined, some 
of the forms and affixes being identical with Arian forms 
and affixes, whilst others, for instance the peculiar form 
of the oblique cases, the possessive affixes which commonly 
supersede the use of the genitive, the postposition of the 
prepositions &c. are altogether different from the Arian. 
At any rate, no conscientious philologist can dispose of it 
by jumbling it together with the Chinese, and Mongol, or 
even with the Dravidian languages , into one unwieldy heap 
of languages, in order to designate them as Turanian, 
a term, which in the present state of the science means 
only languages not yet sufficiently investigated by philo- 



One of the queries proposed for our Dictionary list was 

''That. Hwaune he havede his wille that, 
The stecle, that he onne sat. 
Smot Ubbe with spares faste. Haveloh 1674. 

Does that mean 'in that', i. e. in that respect, or 'as to that'? or is 
it connected with Germ, gethan, done?" 

I had no doubt that the meaning was 'done", and a few 
days afterwards, as I was copying "The Moral Ode% as 
Hickes calls it, from the Egertou MS. (!13 in the British 
Museum. I came on the following lines (st. 44): 

He is buuen vs T bi nepen, bi foren T bi himle. 

pe pe godes wille de, eider he mai him finde. 

and iii the later copy in the same volume I found "ded" a- 
the equivalent of this de. The verb occurred again in one 
of the Saints Lives in the Harl. MS. 2277, but I have lost 
the reference. Next came the MS. of Roberde of Bruuue's 
'Hamllyng Synue" or * Manuel de Pecches", and this gave 
me the noun thing ~ doing, working. 

He ches hyni pre executours, 

Of al hys godys ordeynours 

Twey lewede men and a clerk 

To do gode yn soule werk. 

Pys clerk was a lordyng, 

pe toper was an hnsbunde 

Pat lyuede by hys ]>yng, 

Pe pryde was a marchaunde 

Pat boghte and solde wyp cunnaunte. (1- 6309-6316.) 

And again in the tale of the Witch and her Cow-sucking 
Ba_. where she tells the Bishop why repeating the words 
only of her charm will not do : 

"Wide $e beleae my wrdys as y, 

Hyt shulde a go and sokun ky." 

He seyde "pan faylep noghte bnt belenyng."' 

She seyde "pat helpep al my fyyng" (I. 545-8.) all my 

working, all the effect I produce. 
From this sense of do, >/, (with body, with mind, with 


tongue &c.,) the transfer to the result of the doing, the 
thing , is in accordance with a well-known law of language. 

A derivation from a theoretical root eth, to be, = L. es, &c. 
has been proposed at our Society, but the proposer has 
taught us that the notion of 'being' is an abstract one, and 
is to be traced in Latin to es, eat; and we shall be justi- 
tied, I think, in not discarding our de until the eth is at 
least produced. 

P. S. On turning to Wachter and Ihre I am glad to find 
that the derivation of ding, ting (in two senses at least) 
from thun (rather the base of thun, as that must be a 
secondary verb) has been long suggested, if not accepted. 

Ding, factum. Rursus a thun, facere. Otfridus in Praef. ad R. Ludov. 
V. 23: 

Hoh sint, so ih thir zellu, Magna sunt, ut tibi narro 
Thiu sinu thinkan ellu. Omnia ejus f'acta. 

Ding, res, ens. Otf. lib. II, cap. II, 25: 

Thaz lioht ist filu uuar thing, lux est res valde vera. Optiine Mar- 
tinius deduxit a ihun facere. Nam si Munduni consideres, omne ens 
actu existens, ab alio factum est, et vi naturae suae rnrsus conatur 
aliquid facere, vel se solo, vel conjunctum cum alio, ut in synonymis 
sache et rache ostendi. Cum hoc significatu convenit Grace. n< ?/, 

Ting Derivatum credit Wachterus a thun facere, cui opinion! pa- 
trocinatur, quod Graecum nQayun rem et simul actionem denotet. $ed 
obstat tamen huic derivationi, quod video, omnes dialectos ling per {> 
vel th scribere, thun vero, licet hodie adspirationem adsciverit, :ipud 
antiques tamen non nisi t simplex habuisse. Mouendus vero es, 
hasce litteras raro a veteribus inter se confusas fuisse. 



At our last meeting (Nov. 10) a discussion arose whether 
trig were a corruption of periwig from Fr. perruque as bus 
roni omnibus, or whether the conversion of perruque into 
periwig may not have been produced by the attraction of 
a form icig already in the language in the same sense. 

To take the argument for the radical independence of the 
lomely wig in the first place, we find a root wick or u-ock 
signifying a bunch or knot of fibrous materials, affording 
a most natural image whence the designation of a wig might 
t>e taken, as conversely we call an enlarged mass of fibrous 
roots a wig. We may cite O.H.G. uuichel, pensum, mani- 
pulus; P1.D. wocke, Bav. wickel, the handful of flax on a 
distaff. The latter is also applied in joke to a wig or the 
person who wears it Schmeller. In parts of Bavaria die 
wicke is used for the hair; einen bei der wicke nee, to take 
one by the hair; wuckel, harwuckl, a lock of hair. In the 
same way Gael, gruag is used for a lock of hair, the hair 
of the head, a wig. 

The root appears again in E. wick, Swab, icicken, the 
wick of a candle, originally a knot of fibrous materials 
daubed with combustible matter or immersed in grease. 
Sax. wock, funiculus. Kil. , doubtless the loosely twisted 
yarn used as a match or lintstock. G. wiecke, as well a 
wick as the roll of fibre inserted as a tent in a wound. 

The supporters of the claims of periwig hardly put forth 
their strongest case in deriving the word direct from Fr. 
perruque, between which and periwig there is a considerable 
gap. At the time the word seems to have been introduced 
there was much intercourse with the Low Countries, and it 
may well have been taken from the Du. pemik\ which is nearly 
identical with Minsheu's penrick, while the latter might 
easily have changed into perwig, periwig, if there had been 
no antecedent wig in the language. 

It must be remembered however that when perrukes were 
introduced, they would be a rare article and there would 


be none of that hourly mention of them by busy and un- 
educated people which has operated so powerfully in re- 
ducing omnibus to bus, or cabriolet to cab. If periwig was 
really cut down to wig, the change must have been well 
known at the time, yet we have not a tittle of positive 
evidence for the descent of the one from the other, and 
the only presumption that can be set against the indepen- 
dent existence of wig, which we have supported by such 
strong analogies , is the fact that the earliest instance of the 
word in our dictionaries is about a hundred years subse- 
quent to that of periwig. But no one can suppose that the 
dictionaries or even the whole written literature of the lan- 
guage can be relied on for the earliest use of a word with- 
in anything like that limit. 


One of the most fertile sources of Etymological discovery 
is, when we find a series of somewhat distantly related 
meanings expressed by modifications of a common root, to 
seek for analogous cases in other languages or with other 
roots, and to yield ourselves with an unprejudiced mind 
to the guidance of the clue they afford. While pursuing 
such a course I have been frequently struck with the ap- 
pearance of extreme incongruity in meaning between the 
remote derivations and the original image, and it may be 
well to direct our attention to this phenomenon as pre- 
paring us for a line of derivation contrary to what, we 
might expect to find in the development of language. If 
language be the natural growth of our faculties, and e\. rv 
word be originally meant as the representation of a sound 
adapted by analogy at least to recall the idea of the thing 
signified, there must, in the case of abstract or highly 


generalised notions, be a very wide range of choice among 
the types from whence the original designation may be 
taken, and the most obvious principle of selection will be 
to employ for that purpose the image which is characterised 
in the most striking manner by an audible accompaniment. 

In a late paper an unbroken line of derivation was traced 
from the cry go bet! formerly used to encourage hunting 
dogs, abouto! a cry accompanied by clapping the hands 
used in the South of France in setting on dogs to fight 
(Diet. Castraise), through Icel. beita, G. baitzen, E. bait, 
Lang, abouta, to set on dogs, to incite or encourage them 
to attack, to use them in driving cattle or in the chase of 
wild animals; E. bait, the food used to incite or allure an 
animal to take the hook or enter a trap , and with a modi- 
fied spelling, bate, strife stirred up between parties, Sw. 
reta-betta, E. make-bate, a stirrer up of strife; Lang, abouta, 
to stir to auger : A. S. gebetan , to incite or inflame ; E. abet, 
to incite to action; E. bete, Du. boeten, to kindle or stir 
the tire: Fr. boute-feu, an incendiary; E. bete, Du. boeten, 
to supply with fuel, supply a want, mend, make better, 
and in a still more general sense Fr. bouter, to thrust for- 
wards; Sw. beta, to put horses to a carriage, Icel. beita, 
to wield a sword, to push forwards on a journey &c. 

I am unable to throw light on the origin of the cry go 
bet! unless the latter syllable be intended to represent the 
- clapping of the hands by which the cry is accompanied as 
indicated in the Diet. Castraise. More frequently the cry 
used in setting on of dogs is taken from the hissing or 
snarling sounds of the angry animal , represented by various 
combinations of /, s, and t; ss! st! is! rr! tr! 

It will be found in numerous cases that roots originating 
in such representations pass through a series of significations 
corresponding in a remarkable manner with those indicated 
in my former paper, expressing the setting on of dogs, 
irritating , inciting to action , kindling , inflaming either mo- 
rally or physically, and hence anger, contest, hostility or 
physical heat : ami finally the simple origination or guidance 


of physical action. In the Finnish class of languages we 
have Lap. has! as! as Servian osh! cry used in driving out 
dogs, Lap. hasetet, Serv. oshkati, so to drive them away; 
Lap. hasketet, hoskotet, hotsalet, to set dogs on; hastet, to 
provoke, to incite, to challenge to tight, in which very 
likely may be preserved the origin of the Latin hostis. 

Fin. Ms! has! cry in setting on dogs, hasittaa, Esthon. 
assatama, to set them on. W. hys , the snarling of a dog, 
hysio, to cause to snarl, to urge, to set on Lewis. Manx 
hyss, to set a dog on anything; Pl.D. hiss! exclamation used 
in setting on dogs, de schaop hissen, to drive sheep Danneil. 
Du. hissen, hisschen, to hiss, hisschen, hitschen, hussen, hitscn, 
hetsen, to set on, instigate, inflame; hisschen de honden op 
den wolf, to set dogs on the wolf Kil. G. hetzen, to course 
or chase with dogs , to bait ; einen Ochsen hetzen , to bait a 
bull; to incite, instigate, set on; Leute an einander het:en, 
to provoke people to anger, to set them by the ears; Rfce, 
heat, passion, anger; Dan. hidse, to incite, set on, pro- 
voke, to quarrel, to heat, make angry; hidse en hare, to 
course a hare; hidsig, ardent, eager, passionate; Sw. hessa, 
hetsa, to set on a dog, to heat; vinet hetsar mig, the wine 
heats me; hetsig, passionate, easily moved to anger, ?/;>/>- 
hetsa, to provoke, stir up, incite; forhetsa sia, to put one- 
self in a passion. 

In Italian the cry for setting on dogs is uzz! at Modena, 
and izzl at Florence, whence uzzare, izzare, aizzare, ad i;.:< </<', 
to set on dogs to attack; izza, as G.Hitze, contest, anger; 
aissare, to hiss or set dogs on to fight, to egg or provoke 
to anger or revenge, aizzoso, revengeful Florio. 

From the combination ts! we have prov. E. tiss, Pl.D. 
tissen, G. zischen, to hiss; Sw. tussa, to set on dogs, tx^a 
ihop folk, to set folks at variance, perhaps explaining the 
familiar E. tussle, a struggle. It. tizzare, attizzare, to egg 
on, irritate, provoke, to stir up the fire; tizzo, tlzzom\ u 
firebrand; stizzare, stizzire, to stir the fire, to make or be- 
come angry ; stizza, rage, anger ; stizzo , a firebrand ; stizzoso, 
testy, subject to sudden wrath; Walach. atzitzare, to set on, 


incite, fall into a passion, kindle fire: Esthon. 
to set on a dog. 

Here I would pause to make two observations. In the 
first place as It. ti:zo, tizzone is undoubtedly the same with 
Lat. titioj a firebrand, we remark an instance where the 
root of a Latin word, apparently lost in the original lan- 
guage', is preserved in its Romance descendants. And 
secondly as G. hitze, Dan. hidse, E. heat, can hardly be 
separated from G. heiss, Dan. hed, Sw. het, E. hot, we find 
the course of metaphor to have led from the notion of moral 
to that of physical heat, as from moral to that of physical 
kindling, directly opposite to what we should have expected. 

Returning to our theme we have Bret, atiza . to instigate, 
incite, abet: Fr. attiser, formerly entiser, enticher, to kindle, 
stir up, provoke; attise-querelle , a make-bate; E. tise, en- 
tice, now r to incite or allure, although the original meaning 
is sometimes preserved, as when a Pembrokeshire peasant 
speaks of tising a pig out of the garden , by which he means 
setting on a dog to drive it out. A slight difference of 
spelling and pronunciation growing out of a somewhat dif- 
ferent application gives to tease, to irritate, to stir up in a 
disagreeable manner. 

The Esthon. zuteitama, Walach. atzitzare, lead on to Lat. 
citare, to stir up, to urge or call forwards (in which latter 
sense it may be compared with Lap. hastet, to call one out, 
to challenge), incitare, concitare, excitare, to impel one to 
act. to instigate. Perhaps Lat. ciere. to stir up, put in 
motion , call to , may be explained in a similar manner from 
W. *io, to hiss. "He shall hiss for the fly that is in the 
uttermost parts of Egypt." Ciere in pugnam ; ciere ad arma. 

The exclamation takes a form analogous to our cry of 
shook ! to frighten animals , in Pol. szczuc or szczwac, Bohem. 
ssticati, to set on dogs, to hunt. A further development 
of the cry gives Gael, sting, to halloo, to incite or spin- 
on to fight, as dogs; Icel. styggia, to irritate, provoke; 

1 If the root of titio be a sound lily or tits with the sense of stirring 
up, it would explain the diminutive titillo, to tickle or stir up lightly 
and gently. 


*tyggr, harsh, severe, hateful. Hence we may explain the 
Gr. root guy implying hostility and hate, and also Lat. in- 
atigo, to set on. Romanes in Annibalem, canem in aliquem 
instigare; instigare in anna &c. 

The use of r instead of s in representing the noises of 
an angry dog gives Lat. hirrire, irrire , to snarl, from whence 
in accordance with so many analogies in the present paper 
I would derive ira, anger. A. S. yrre, anger, angry ; Lap. harret, 
Jiarritet, Fin. drrata, to snarl like a dog, thence to be angry 
and ill-tempered; arista, to chafe with anger; and, y-rid, 
snarling, angry; drind, anger; drryttdd, drkyttdd, to set on a 
dog, to provoke, make angry; Bret, argad! cry to frighten 
wolves; argadi, to halloo, to hoot, to incite, provoke, to make 
a hostile incursion upon (explaining Fr. hargoter, ergoter, to 
wrangle); Bret, argarzi, to hate, argarzuz, horrible, ab- 

W. herr, hyrr, the snarling or gnarring of a dog, cry used in 
setting on a dog, a pushing or egging on ; herriant, a provoca- 
tion; hyrddio, to irritate, impel, push, drive, to make an as- 
sault or onset. Norse hirra, Icel. erra, erta, 0. E. ert (Prompto- 
rium), Dan. irre, to irritate, provoke ; arrig, snappish, angry, 
ill-tempered; cergre, to provoke, to vex. Prov. E. hair, to 
snarl ; Sc. harry, obstinate, stubborn ; E. irk, to worry or an- 
noy, to be compared with Fin. drkyttdd above mentioned. Fr. 
hare! hare-levrier! hare-loui cries of encouragement to dogs; 
harer, to hound a dog at a beast; harrier, hardier (parallel 
with W. hyrddio), to provoke, spur on, incite, attack. Hence 
It. ardito, Fr. hardi, bold, daring; Lap. her do, courage, 
her dot, to dare. Another application of the root gives mean- 
ings analogous to E. tease. Fr. harier, to harry, hurry, 
molest; hardier, to provoke, incense, to vex, harry, hurry; 
harasser, to weary or wear out, to vex, hurry, torment 
Cotgr. Hargne, quarrel or incitement to quarrel, ill-temper; 
hargneuA-, wrangling, quarrelsome. A. S. herian, heryian, 
to harry or make a hostile inroad upon, to vex, plunder, 
lay waste. Hence Icel. her t G. heer, an army. In like 
manner Hung, usz, uszu, uczu, cries used in setting on a 
dog, uszitani, huszitani, to set on, to incite, and thence 


huszar, a light horseman, skirmisher, soldier adapted for 
harassing the enemy. 

Then as the root took a form tiss as well as hiss in the 
former series, so with the s replaced by an r we have a 
radical tar or tir as well as har or hir. PI. D. tarren, tar- 
gen, (compared in the Brem. Wort, with E. dare), to tease, 
irritate, entice, quarrel, make angry: tiren, teren, to tease, 
to pull; Dan. tirre, tcerge, to provoke, to tease, to worry. 
E. to tar on a dog, to set him on to iight; to tar or ter. 
to vex, disquiet, provoke. They have tarred thee to anger 
\Vicliff in Wilbraham. Ter, anger, passion Hal. A. S. 
tirian, to irritate, exasperate, provoke, vex, oppress; Bo- 
hem, teyrati, tirati, to vex. incommode, fatigue: Gr. TSIQW, 
to molest, oppress, vex, wear out or consume: E. tire, to 
weary and formerly to consume. 

From the same form must be explained It. tir are, Fr. 
tirer, to draw, the original meaning of which is seen in It. 
tira-carne, an incentive to last, tira, an altercation, to be 
compared with E. ter, anger. Prov. tirar, affliger, peiner. 
contrarier Raynouard. G. zerren* to worry, to tng. to 
pull one about; sick mit einem zerren, to tease, vex. trouble, 
enrage one. 

Next, with an s prefixed as in It. tizza, stizza, Manx 
xtyr, hiss, used to set a dog on Cregeen; Bohem. stirati, 
to vex; Icel. styrr, war; E. stir, to provoke to anger, to 
incite to flames . to move to action or to passion, and h'nally 
simply to move in a mechanical sense. 

The transposition of the elements t and r in the radical 
syllable gives Gr. SQS&W, Lat. ritare (in -irr-itare, proritare), 
Icel. reita, Sw. reta, G. reizen, Du. ritsen, riiteen, to stir 
to anger, provoke, incite, whence by the familiar inter- 
change of te and ks, Lat. ri.i-a, strife, as observed by Ihre. 
It is singular that he did not mention Gr. tQis, tQidos 
which is still nearer the root with which he was dealing. 
The Fin. riita, Lap. rita, controversy, discord, would lead 
us to regard Lat. Us, liti-s as an oifshoot from the same 
stock, with the original r softened down to an I, while the 
fuller form *tlis would stand in the same relation to O.H.G, 


strit, G. streitj Sw. strid, contest, strife. Icel. strida, gora 
til strids, angere, mole stare; strida, hostility. 

At the onset of the present paper I endeavoured to pre- 
pare my hearers for results that might shock some of their 
established notions, and in winding up I must entreat them 
not on that account summarily to reject my conclusions 
without a patient consideration of the wide range of analo- 
gies from which they are deduced. No doubt if G. hetzen, 
to incite, Sw. hetsa, Dan. hidse, to incite, set on, to heat, 
and G. hitze, Sw. hetta, heat, passion, anger, stood by 
themselves, we should have little hesitation in deriving the 
notion of setting on from that of heating or inflaming the 
passions of the animal, but if such were really the order of 
derivation we must either separate forms like G. hetzen, 
Dan. hidsc, Du. hitsen, from It. izzare, uzzare, aizzare, aissare, 
Du. hissen, hussen, or we must suppose that the cries ac- 
tually used in setting on dogs izzl uzz! hiss! usz! and even 
the inarticulate sounds ss! te! st! used for the same purpose, 
are remnants of words like hitze, heiss, heat. If we had only 
the Romance forms, we should not hesitate to consider titio, a 
firebrand, as the origin of It. tizzare, Fr. attiser, and E. tease, 
entice; but then we must give a Romance derivation to Sw. tutssa, 
and ignore the connection with tissen, to hiss, as well as with 
the It. synonyme izzare. And so with the objections which 
meet us on other isolated points. Every one would at first 
be inclined to derive Icel. heria, to make a hostile incursion, 
from her, an army, rather than vice versa. But can we sup- 
pose that the cries herr! hyrr! hare! rr! used to irritate or in- 
cite a dog, are derived from the Teutonic or Scandinavian word 
for an army? On the other hand, if the foregoing cries be 
merely representations of the snarling of a quarrelsome dog, 
we can attribute no other origin to the Fr. harer, harrier, to 
hound on a dog, provoke, molest, harass, or E. hare, to attack, 
to scare; harry, to oppress, make a hostile incursion on. 



Gallop apace you fiery-footed steeds 
Towards Phoebus' mansion; such a waggoner 
As Phaeton would whip you to the West 
And bring in cloudy Jsight immediately. 
Spread thy close curtain, love-performing Night, 
That Runaway's eyes may wink, and Romeo 
Leap to these arms untalked of and unseen. 

Romeo and Juliet , A. III. Sc. 2. 

Few passages of Shakespeare or any other author have 
been so much tortured by the commentators as the fore- 
going in order to make sense out of the words as they 
stand. One explains Runaway to mean the Day, another 
the Night, a third Cupid, and another Juliet herself, making 
her modestly pray that the darkness may conceal her re- 
ception of Romeo from her own eyes: whether it is her own 
tattling also that she would fain escape, it does not occur 
to the commentator to inquire, although the eftect of darken- 
ing Runaway's eyes is expected to be that the reception 
of Romeo will be untalked of as well as unseen. 

Steevens' explanation may be worth giving: "Juliet first 
wishes for the absence of the sun and then invokes the 
night to spread its curtain close around the world. Next 
recollecting that the night would seem short to her, she 
speaks of it as a runaway whose flight she would wish to 
retard and whose eyes she would blind lest they should 
make discoveries."' 

With such unsatisfactory attempts at explanation it is not 
surprising that another class of editors should have been 
convinced that the nonsensical "Runaway's" was a cor- 
ruption of the text, and accordingly they have variously 
substituted "unawares", "enemies", "rude day's", or 
i" soon day's", "Renomy's", a word coined for the occasion 
(from Fr. Renommee, meaning rumour or talebearing, a sense 
( which the French word will certainly not bear. Finally in 
the eighth vol. of Notes and Queries Mr. Singer with well- 
; grounded confidence suggested rumorers, a word elsewhere 
used by Shakespeare in the sense required: 


Go see this rumor er whipt, it cannot be 
The Volsces dare break with us. Coriolanus. 

Mr. Singer's emendation is strongly confirmed by a pas- 
sage in a ballad extant in Shakespeare's time which the poet 
may very likely have had in his thoughts , if indeed it was 
not a common place in the ballad poetry of the time. 

Makyne the nicht is soft and dry 
The wether warm and fair, 
And the grene wod richt neir hand by, 
To walk attowre all where. 

There may nae Janglers us espy 
That is to Lufe contrair, 
Therein Makyne baith you and I 
Unseen may make repair. 

Henryson. Robin and Makyne. 

Now the enemies of Love, from whose notice Juliet is de- 
sirous of being shrouded by the curtain of Night, are the 
Janglers of the ballad, tattlers, as the word is rendered by 
Jamieson, and as it would be difficult to find a synonym 
for tale-bearers agreeing so well in outward appearance with 
Runaway's I have little doubt that Rumorers was really the 
word disguised under the Runaway's of our copies. 



The word duntaxat at once by its form suggests a deri- 
vation from clum taxat, so that the logical explanation seems 
alone to present a difficulty. Our own word tcu; is probably 
derived from the Latin verb, but gives but a poor clue to 
the real meaning of the original word. Such a failure in- 
deed is little to be wondered at, considering the nature of 
the case, for when we derive a word from a Latin origin, 
we take it with its latest meaning, whereas it is in the 
earliest use of a Latin word that we must expect to find 


ihat first meaning which results from its formation. For- 
nnately Gellius (II. 6. 5) gives us both the origin and true 
[neaning of our verb when he says: taxare pressius crebrius- 
LM eat quam tangere unde procul dubio id inclinatum est. If 
Irom tangere tactus we might rather have expected tactare, 
kre must remember that while the older dialect of Latin 
referred pultare, mertare, these at a later date became pul- 
tare, mersare. So from affigere we find two participles af- 
and ajfijcus. So explained, duntcurat or dum tazat 
jiught to signify 'until it closely touches', or if used with 
f.miracy, ; until it touches'. These words will be found 
Satisfactorily to account for the different uses of the con- 
junction, even though these uses differ so widely as to in- 
flude the very opposite ideas of "at most" and ''at least'". 

lie difference will be found to turn upon the question. 
Ivhether it be a command that we are dealing with, or a 
jbermission. In a command, the qualification dum taxat, 
|jitil it touches, must mean "not less than, at least': but 
ifnth a pennission, 'not more than, at most'. Examples 
(irill place this in a clearer view. Thus in the Digests L. 16. 

O'J \ve find: quum in, testamento scriptum esset ut here* in 
mtnere dunta.rat aureos centum consumeret, non licet minus 
mnaumere, *i amplius relief, Ucet. In Orelli's inscriptions 
707) occurs another testamentary condition, where the 
ij-anslation "at least" is required. Let us next take a case, 
jphere the condition has a permissive character. In the Di- 

ests XXV. 4. 1. 10 a praetor issues an order, ut mittcmt si 
Mint quae ventrern intpiciant, mittantur autem mulieres liberae 
wmntcucat quinque. In a commission of so delicate a nature 

he law might well require that the jury of matrons should 
le limited. Take again a permissive case from Cato's 4 de 
1J3 rustica ' (49) : Vineam veterem in alium locum transferre 
fjfe*> duntcucat brachium crassam licebit, the plants to be so 
I Amoved to fresh ground must not be thicker than one's arm. 

D But duntaxat, besides its use practically as an adverb. 

iiems to have the power of a conjunction in a permissive 

Sentence of Lucretius (II. 123) with the meaning of 'at 
ftast, so far as'. Lachmann indeed, generally so trustworthy 


a guide, has damaged the passage by inserting a full stop 
before dtmtaxat, so as to destroy the connection. From 
the endless warfare between the motes, in a sunbeam saytf 
the poet, we may form a conjecture how the primordia rennn .. 
in magno iactari semper inani, so far at least as a little 
matter can give an exemplar rerum magnarum. 


I need not stop to discuss a theory which would divide 
this adjective by a hyphen between the n and q, tran-quillus, 
and refer the second portion to the root quiesco. The fol- 
lowing is put forward as at least a more probable solution 
of the problem. When a word begins with cr, pr, or tr, it 
may generally be assumed, first, that an intermediate short 
vowel has been lost; secondly, that the liquid is as likely 
to have been originally an I as an r; thirdly, that the initial 
consonant itself may have been changed. Thus celeber and! 
creber are words all but identical , scruta-ri is but a fre- ) 
quentative of a simpler verb seen in the Greek oxa/.Viv,\ 
cruor and xyvoTctkhog are in the first syllable identical with ' 
gelu, and the Latin preposition tran-s corresponds to the! 
Greek neQav. I believe then that tranquillus is but a cor- 
ruption of planquillus, the substitution of an r in the first 
syllable being aided by the neighbourhood of the repeated ij 
I in the afterpart of the word. If this view be right, we 1 ' 
start here from the root pad or pal of panda, palam, palntM 
&c. whence palanus or planus. From this is formed plancus^ 
so familiar as a cognomen ; but also used in other connections. I 
Thus under the proper name Plancus we find in Freuncl orj! 
Andrews (the English compiler happens to have missed the ' 
passage) a quotation from Festus: plancac tabulae planae, 
ob quam causam et planci appellantur qui supra modum pe- 
dibus plani sunt. Thus in the diminutival planca we have < 
the origin of the French planclie and our plank. But from ' 
an adjective plancus are regularly deduced first plancului, , 
and then plancillus or planqidllus , in the latter of which wep 
seem to see the more genuine form of tranquillus. 



That the conjunction *i and the adverb sic are intimately 
jlated, was shown by the present writer in a paper on 
e pronouns of the third person several years ago. Among 
ier arguments then used, notice was drawn to the fact 
lat we ourselves still use so in the sense of if, and that 
German in its older form had the same habit. Further, 
is demonstrable that sic contains in its final consonant 
tat suffix ce which enters into the formation of so many 
amonstratives. The form sicine (like hicine) is alone enough 
prove this. It is now proposed to confirm the doctrine 
regards the Latin, by showing that the form si is itself 
times employed as an adverb with the meaning 4 so"; 
it is in the familiar phrase si dis placet that this mean- 
is found. The translation *if it pleases the gods" will 
iy destroy the meaning of any passage where the 
se occurs. On the other hand -so it pleases the gods"' 
be found to fit well. The chief, if not the only, use 
the phrase is where a sneer is intended, and the words 
ay be rendered : " so indeed heaven has ordained, no doubt 
punish us for our sins". As Donatus observes: proprium 
t exclamantis propter indiynitatem alicuius rei. Examples 
abundant. Take Cicero in Pis. 16. 38: Appellatus est 
vv.lturius illius provincial (si dis placet) imperator. Again 
v. VI. 40: L. ilium Sextium et C. Licinium. perpetuos ( 
placet) tribunos; XXXTV. 32. 17: Cum Philippo hostc 
wtro, iion societatem solum, sed (si dis placet} afjinitatem 
rpigitti; IV. 3 : Quin etiam (si dis placet} nefas aiunt esse 
msulem plebeium jien. 

But it is not only in this phrase that si means 4 so", the 

injunction si-cut, 'so as", should be divided so as to give 

e guttural to the relative adverb, just as hu-cusque is corn- 

mnded of the older adverb ho, hither, seen also in horsum 

. e. ho-voryum), just as the Romans also formed ho-die 

ther than hocdie. The cusque of hu-cusque stands in proper 

nnection with quisque; the cut of si-cut with quod. 


I have said nothing of the appearance of si, 'so 1 , in 
several of the modern languages formed out of the Latin, 
because this may very possibly have grown out of sic. 


So long as philologists permit themselves the liberty of 
substituting for legitimate reasoning an unrestrained use of 
the fallacies too often concealed under the learned name* 
epenthesis, prosthesis, metathesis, paragoge &c., the progress 
of their science must be doubtful. It is matter therefore 
for deep regret that the word Umstellung is still allowed to 
play so important a part in the new edition (1858) of Bopp's 
Vergleichende Grammatik, when the announced "ganzlich 
umgearbeitete", and an interval of twenty three years, might 
have suggested better hopes. We have for example again 
reprinted, what, with all respect for the writer, I cannot 
but call, the unhappy discussion appended to 308 on the 
four Gothic words haihs, 'one-eyed 1 , hanfs, 'one-handed', 
halts, 'lame 1 , and halbs, 'half 1 . In dealing with the second 
of these words Bopp's mode of procedure, it may be re- 
collected, is this: hanfa being the crude form of hanfs, he 
finds in the letters ha a representative of the idea 'one', 
corresponding in form to ka (the termination) of the ordinary 
Sanskrit numeral eka. This leaves the letters nfa for the 
idea 'hand 1 , and he next assumes the loss of an i between 
the two consonants, following herein, so far as regards the 
insertion of some vowel, the analogy of the Sanskrit gagmima 
'we went' for ga-gam-ina, and the Greek TUTITCO for m-nti-to, 
This gives him nifa, which, he says, by the principle ol 
metathesis may stand for fani, and so legitimately correspond 
to the Sanskrit pani, 'hand' so wurde nifa als Umstelluug 
des sanskritischen pdni ' hand 5 gelten kimnen ; mit / fur j.\ 
nach 87. 


Seldom have I seen such a combination of bold assumptions 
n any philological enquiry. Already the disregard of the 
nore essential vowel of the numeral eka is startling; the 
ssuuiptiou too of the particular vowel i as lost in nfa in 
reference to a, *>, o, or w, is rather convenient than coii- 
inciug. Again, it would be more satisfactory to have shown 
lat the Gothic or some of its immediate kindred actually 
ossesses the word fan i for 'hand", than to prove by the 
nalogy of Sanskrit that it ought to possess it. But the 
sserted metathesis of fani for nifa out-tops all these as- 
umptions, and would scarcely obtain the assent of any 
lie . whose intellect had not been dazzled by the reputation 
f the writer. 

But the best mode of controverting any disputed etymo- 
ogy is to propose what is more satisfactory. I request 
hen attention to the following. That the four words haih*< 
an/*, halts, and halbs, have something common in the first 
art, seems highly probable , yet rather than admit that the 
yllable ha represents ka of the Sanskrit eka , I should more 
eadily acquiesce in that other explanation which Bopp hini- 
elf puts forward, though only to reject, viz.: that it is the 
quivalent of ha in the Zend ha-kcrft 'once', Sanskrit 
a-krt, and of ha of the Greek a-nAoug 'simple'; and this 
n spite of the dogma that a Gothic h never l corresponds to 
a Sanskrit s (). But I give a decided preference to an- 
other view, inasmuch as [ deem it generally safer to ex- 
>lain a word out of its own language, or, if this be im- 
mssible, out of those which are in the closest affinity to 
that language. The word half is found in all the German 
languages, including (as we have just seen) the Gothic it- 
self: and with ourselves it is virtually reduced to the form 

1 This positive assertion of the German scholar appears to be some- 
what rash, as himma-daga ill Gothic represents the Latin hodie, Sanskrit 
T sa-dya , to say nothing of other examples of the demonstrative pro- 
noun iu question. I may add too that the Gothic hleiduma , superlative 
if kleiths, is iu its first syllable the analogue of the Yedic adjective ^T^ff^ 
id/art, whence in later Sanskrit saci-a with the loss of the liquid, whereas 
the Latin laevo- has been truncated iu the initial syllable. 


ha in the words half -penny (ha' * -penny ), half penny wot i 
(ha'p'orth}. This contraction is the less surprising, if, as f * 
believe to be the fact , the final / be but a diminutival suffix 
(cf. turf and Scotch toor of the same meaning; wharf and 
Fr. gare, landing place); and the suppression of a final J, 
especially when preceded by the vowel a, is of the com- 
monest occurrence ; nay , we omit it in the word half itself 
But be this as it may, we have the fact that in two exist- 
ing words half is reduced to ha. Thus we are brought, 
like Bopp, to a remainder nfa, in which, if we were to 
proceed by an a priori argument, I should be disposed to 
assume the loss of an a or 0, rather than i, for these let- 
ters accord better with the preceding and following vowel 
in lianfa. But it is safer to deal with the actual. In the 
Gothic itself we find little help, and this is no matter for 
surprise, considering the fragmentary condition in which 
that language has come down to us. We therefore turn to 
those members of the German family which stand in close 
relation to it, as the Swedish (often called the Suio-gothic), 
the Danish, Norse, and Lowland Scotch. Here we find in 
abundance what we want, Old-Norse hnefi 'fist', mel-hnefi 
'handful of meal', hnefa 'to claw hold of; Swed. ndfve 
'fist', en nafve full 'handful'; Dan. nceve 'fist'; and in 
Scotch neive, niece or neave, pi. neiffis or nevys &c. 'fist', 
hand to nieve 'hand and glove' (as the colloquial phrase is), 
nieve fu' 'handful', ri*e/le 'to grasp', navell or nevell 'to 
strike with the fist'. (See Jamieson.) 

Thus hanfa may well signify 'one-handed' or 'half-handed' ; 
and we cannot but give a preference to the latter, when 
we find that the Hungarian language forms in the same way 
by means of a word fel 'half, fel-kezu 'half-handed', fel- 
szemu 'half-eyed', fel-ldbu 'half-footed', where however 
the practical meaning is that one hand , eye , foot , alone is 
serviceable. So also the same language in fel-eszii 'half- 
witted' has a form in exact agreement with our own term'. 

1 I ain indebted for this valuable illustration to iny friend Mr. Pulszky. 





The error, not a very rare one, of looking afar for that 
hich is lying at our feet, is exemplified, if I am not mis- 
iken, in what has been written on the origin of the Greek 

noun <ty/toc. This word, I find "is by some derived from 
, as if it signified an enclosure marked off from the icaste, 
-ist as our word tov:n comes according to Home Tooke 

.rorn the Saxon verb tynan 'to enclose' (Arnold, ad Thuc. 
ol. I. Appendix iii)". The writer from whom I borrow 
his quotation himself adds: 'It seems however more simple 

connect it with the Doric da for 70?.' I beg to suggest 

1 totally different origin, and one which not only agrees 
vith the precise meaning of the term, but also explains 
he origin of the word in every letter, for it will be ob- 
served that the etymologies just given take no notice of the 
.etter u. The habit of translating technical terms by merely 
anglicizing the termination led me first to talk to myself of 
'a deme', and the sound of this happened to remind me 
of the French 'dime', just as I had before me a statement 
that a deme was the tenth part of an Athenian tribe. Now 
this very word tribe will serve as a most useful illustration 
of my argument. It appears to have been first applied 
when Rome had but three such divisions, the Ramnes, Titie> 
\ud Luceres; and the word when analysed is the exact re- 

' . presentative of our own term thriding , whence we have the 
* Xor'-Thriding, East-Thriding, and West-Thriding of York- 
shire , or as by a natural error we now call them the " Three 
Ridings". I have said that tribu- is exactly represented in 
English by the word th riding. The truth of this is seen as 
to the first part, when we observe the tendency of the Latin 
language to have a b after an /, where we have a d, as 
in barba, beard; verbum, word; cucurbita, gourd &c. Again 
ing is a diminutival suffix in English, as u is of Latin. 
These suffixes are considered in my paper on Latin Diminu- 

1 Compare Nor-folk, Nor- West, Nor-East, Nor- way (Norweg), Nor-inau. 
The term trithing as applied to the three divisions of Yorkshire still 
maintains its place in legal language. 


tives, so that I may here deem it enough to point 
ing 'a little fourth', and tith-ing 'a little tenth'. And this 
brings me back to dry/tog, which, if I am right, is an exact 
equivalent in origin and sense of our tithing., a word only 
used among us to denote a subdivision of land. Nay the 
tribes of Rome were also local denominations; and in fact 
Livy speaks of a tribus Sappinia far away from the ager 
RomanuSj as designating a district. And to complete the 
matter we learn from Palgrave (Eng. Com. I. 115) that Ice- 
land, settled by the Northmen before the introduction of Chris-, 
tianity was divided into quarters called Fierdyng, and in Tom- 
lin's Law Dictionary we find Warding deal orFarundd of Land: 
quadrantala terrae is the 4 th part of an acre.' Thus thridwy, 
farthing, and tithing, all diminutives, as fractions should be, 
are all used as local designations. These then with trilu- 
justify my derivation of dt]ftog as to meaning. 

But a difficulty presents itself in connecting c^og with 
the French dime, which of course is deduced from the Latin 
decimus or decumus, whereas the Greek ordinal is dsxaioc. 
I am afraid to assume as proved Bopp's theory that the 
suffix rog of such Greek words (JTQCMOQ, IQITOC;, Tra(>roc) 
as well as of the Latin quintus, sextus, is but a compression 
of tama-s as seen in many of the Sanskrit ordinals. But 
whether this be true or not, it is a fact that in most of 
the Indo-European languages the ordinals exhibit with much 
caprice a suffix with a t, a suffix with an w, and a sui'lix 
with both t and m. Thus the Greek itself has e/?do/to|; 
and in oydoog or rather oydoFog (comp. octavus) we see I: 
corruption of In the Vergleichende Grammatik 
321-323 the forms are collected; and the Greek antiquity 
as well as great extent of domain belonging to the suffix 
with (.i is well shown. Thus for the first ordinal we have 
Sanskrit prathama-, Zend frathema-, Latin primo-, Lith. 
pinna- , and Gothic fruma-, but the Greek nywzo-. Pass- 
ing over the words which represent second, third, fourth, 
we come upon Sansk. panchama-, which stands alone; and 
for 'sixth' we have perhaps the Zend cstva-, when tea may 
well be a corruption of tama , and this solution of the form 
I at any rate regard as preferable to the theory of an ' Urn- 


stellung' from cvasta-, as propounded by Bopp. For 'seventh' 
we have a marked evidence of the capriciousness of lan- 
guage. The Greek for the first time gives the /u suffix in 
/2<Jo|Uoc, while the Zend perversely has hapta-tha, here pre- 
fering the dental, though the m reappears in the following 
tt, ncnima, dasema, corresponding as close as may be 
to the Sanskrit ashtama, navama, dasama. The Lithuanian 
again has confirmatory evidence for us in the fact, that, 
although septun-ta- and asztun-ta- are the ordinary terms 
for seventh and eighth, the language also possesses sekma- 
and a*; ma- in the same sense. It is clear then that such 
a form as dexofuot; within the Greek domain would not have 
been any anomaly; and the loss of the guttural before an 
m is not only the universal law in Latin , as in jlama or 
flamma, examen, contaminare, stramen &C. ; but obtained also 
to some extent in Greek. Thus nodyaa has a circumflex, be- 
cause the / was silent. In cel/na from ataaaj the guttural is 
not even written. ( H t ueis and rj^srenog are derivable from a 
base /,!-, represented in Latin by egomet, and in Sanskrit 
by asmat-. Much in the same way an Englishman writes 
phlegm and pronounces phlem. Perhaps the guttural in such 
cases may have first passed into an s, as in the Latin de- 
cuimts^ decimus, disme, dime. Indeed the verb dew from 
which we started, must once have had a guttural, as its 
Latin analogue ligare (whence indeed linwn for %;?i<?), 
and its English analogue tie, whence tight, clearly show. 
Thus the a in deo/nog probably represents a guttural. I 
may as well add that the evidence for regarding a <)'/,/ <oe 
us a tenth of a tribe is not altogether satisfactory in itself, 
but receives strong support from the here-proposed etymology. 


In a paper which I read before the society on the equi- 
valents of the Greek preposition ava in cognate languages, 
I gave my reasons for believing that ad in Latin verbs is 



at times the representative of that preposition; and some 
arguments, partly founded on first principles, partly on the 
historical evidence of related words, were adduced in sup- 
port of the assertion that the letters n and d are inter- 
changeable. These arguments as well as the truth of the 
assertion have since been disputed by two German scholars 
whose authority deserves much respect; by one in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, by the other in our own pages. 

As the results of my paper on ava appear to me im- 
portant if true, and as I also firmly believe them to be 
true, I am desirous to consider the question at somewhat 
greater length than was consistent with the multifarious 
character of that paper, which rendered any great detail on 
minor topics inconvenient; and indeed I did not then sup- 
pose that the principle would be anywhere disputed. 

The consonants n and d belong of course to the dental 
family; and it may perhaps be affirmed that n stands to d 
in the precise ratio so to say of m to b. Now the ready 
convertibility of m and b is not only past dispute, but I 
believe universally admitted. Thus the insertion of a foreign 
b in such words as (.isorjupgia and the French nombre &c. 
is exactly parallel to the insertion of a foreign d in avdyoc; 
and the French cendre &c. 

I had thought too that some reliance might be placed on 
the physiological argument that as under the influence of a 
cold the letter m becomes a &, so under the same circum- 
stances the letter n becomes a d, for after all those changes 
which are established between letters on the direct evidence 
of language must admit of explanation on physical prin- 
ciples. Why for example is the negro apt to substitute b 
for JP, but because his lips are of thicker formation? We 
may not always be able to trace the facts of linguistic 
science to their causes; still we do know practically from 
repeated experience that a common effect of a catarrh is 
to change every n to d. In my paper I referred to a case 
I had myself recently heard of the name Minnie under these 
circumstances being replaced by Biddie; but I might with 
greater advantage have pointed to the more familiar example 


of Barney in Oliver Twist whose never-ending cold supplies 
a never-ending series of such substitutions. 

But leaving principles, let us next consider facts, and 
first those which present themselves within the limits of the 
Greek language itself. 1. Of the verb QUIVIO 'I sprinkle 1 
par- is the essential part, but this appears as Qad- in the 
perf. pass, en-nad-arai, and past perf. ey-gad-cero. 2. Xcurw, 
I yawn, and zavdarw , I am capacious, are commonly re- 
garded as verbs intimately related, yet their ultimate syl- 
lables are respectively -/civ- and 3. The verb <pQaa) 
has for its crude form q>Qad-, as seen in the epic aorist 
t7ie(f{tadnv, and the derived nouns yQadrj, (pQudiinv- &c. ; 
and the original meaning of these words, as give to know, 
decide, come to know, understanding &C., all point to the 
substantive CPQBV- as closely related. 4. Kaivi\uat may well 
be regarded as representing an older xav-vv-ucu . if we fol- 
low the analogy of xaKaiva. lEQtivct for rafatv-va, TSQSV-VO; 
but instead of xav- we find xad in the Pindaric perf. part. 
xs-xctd-iivo-. The occasional appearance of a a in the 
root-syllable as y.Exaarai , txsxaa-ro, xsxaausvo-, need not 
alarm us, for we also h'nd the sibilant in some of the pre- 
ceding verbs, as e-tfQaa-^^v, Qaaaats and QUO^ICI. 5. From 
slctvvio we have an Homeric elr^adaxo or eA^Asdfro. 6. From 
the verb evdw 'I sleep' it seems harsh to tear away evvrj 
'abed'. 7. The Latin noun rob-tir, if we are to follow the 
analogy of other neuter nouns in es, er &c., such as genus, 
tuber, friyus, points to a verb as constituting the first syl- 
lable. On the other hand we are led to suspect a close con- 
nection between this syllable rob and our own hard 1 , seeing 
that the meanings are fundamentally the same, and a b after 
an r in Latin is generally represented by a d in English 
(cf. word, beard, gourd, red, with verbum, barba, cucurbita, 
ruber}. On the other hand if we follow the analogy between 
red, rub-ero-, and the Greek S-QVO--QO-, and of loeb-ero- or 
Ub-ero- 'free', with -).V$-EQO- , we may expect in Greek 

1 For the appearance of an A and the altered position of the liquid, 
compare horse and Germ, ross, also red, rush, run, rich, with the West 
of England Aircf, hirsh, hirn, hirch. 


a form (>o# or QCO& to represent rob of rob-ur. But instead 
of a # to represent the ^ of AanZ we find a v in, 
which again becomes a a in epQcoattai. 8. So again a <i 
in the English word mad corresponds to a v in [.iaivn/iiai 
and [tana. 9. But the best example for the purpose of 
shewing that av of the Greek ava may correspond to ad in 
Latin is the verb ftaivco , C. F. /?av- which in Latin is vddo, 
C. F. vdd-: and indeed in Greek itself we find padog, a 
walk, together with its derivation ftadi^co. In the examples 
quoted thus far it may be observed that a is the prevailing 
vowel before the v or d. In one case indeed - - cpQev- and 
(pQad -- an e preceded the nasal; and again in one in- 
stance we had a still greater variety in the vowels, viz. 
hard, rob-ur, and ()wvvv(.ii, to say nothing of the suspicion 
that the first nasal of the Greek represents the aspirate #. 
As regards the vowel of cpgev , the same preference of an 
before v , and of a before a dental mute is seen in ftad-og 
and fisv&og, na$o$ and nevd-og. It is not without some 
bearing on the question before us that # and v are of ready 
interchange. Thus beside QCCIVCO, C. F. QKV, the grammarians 
give us the equivalent forms Qadaivw, QaSaooto. So y.svog 
and xa&aQos, (.iccv&avw and f.LS(.ivi]f.iat ((.tw-} are closely 
connected. May I then hint a suspicion that yav of yavvf.tai, 
be happy, is the root whence is derived the adj. a-yatt-o-; 
and whether this be admitted or not, I venture once more 
to place together as related words several quartettes of 
which I have spoken elsewhere: 10. a-yaO--o, L. bono- or 
beno- (of the b presently), E. good, G. yut; 11. f.ia#- of 
with ^.sv- of (.isf.ivrK.iai, L. men- of meniini and 
E. mood, G. muth and wuth; 12. nct&vr) or cpaxvr], 
L. penus, E. food, fodder, G.futter; groups of words, the 
consanguinity of which in several respects receives confor- 
mation from 13. yevTSQ Hesych (= yaateQ-) and yen a 
(= evveQct) Callim. , L. ventw, E. womb (or Scotch n-cmb 
'belly'), G. mutter 'womb'; 14. o-dovz- , L. dent-, E. tooth, 
Moeso-Gothic tunth; 15. yew- 'jaw', L. mento- 1 , E. mouth, 

1 In saying this I do not deny the connection of L. gena, E. chin, 
G. kinn, "with the same ytvv-, 


prov. nioothj G. mund. In all these words the Latin form 
exhibits the combination en, while the English invariably 
has the sound oo followed in most instances by a d; and 
again the German in every case but one has a simple u 
followed commonly by the sound of a t. Elsewhere I have 
given some reasons for connecting our good with bonus or 
benus; hut I believe myself now able to throw more light 
on the subject. The sound oo I would affirm generally is 
apt to take the form we, and above all when the next syl- 
lable contains a weak yowel, that is i or e; and especially 
is this common when the oo is preceded by a hard g. In 
the Breton this is well exhibited in the conjugation of the 
verb gouzont, savoir, whence we have a pres. gouzonn, je 
sais, gwienn, je savais, gv:eziz, je sus, gv:czinn, je saurai, 
gicezit, sachez, ra icezin, que je sache, gwezet, su. Again 
as the Scotch prefer iceinb to the broad vowel of our v:omb, 
so in Aberdeen there occurs, says Jamieson, the variety 
giceed for good. Thus from our positive good there might 
well be deduced a comparative gn-etter which by no violent 
change might pass into wetter or better. On the other hand 
we know historically that an earlier form of bonus was 
duonus, and the same digamma is still heard in the Italian 
buono and Spanish bueno. Yet even now I have arrived, it 
may be objected only at an initial d. My reply is that the 
Latin exhibited a soft dialect of the old language of Italy; 
and that if there had been transmitted to us the more gut- 
tural dialect of Etruria of which Martial speaks, we should 
in all probability have had the form guono-. I found this 
believe on the parallel case of the noun bello-, war, which 
in old Latin was duello and is represented in modern Tuscan 
by guerra, whence the French guerre, and our war. Initial 
medials when followed by a w, r, I, or , are apt readily 
to interchange. Thus -//.VXVQ through dlvxvg is connected 
with the Latin dulcis; jictQvs through ^pafrg with gravis. 
So we have dialectic rarieties yvocpog and dvorfng, faecpaQov 
and yfoq>a(fov } filr^iov and ytyxtov, and hausen-blasc , \. e. 
the bladder of the sturgeon, has been corrupted by us into 
isinglass. Thus I feel assured that bonm and good, mens 


and mood, penus and food, are satisfactory examples of the 
rulerchange between n and d. 

No doubt there are cases where the passage of a d to n 
has been facilitated by the proximity of an adjoining n; 
and I readily assent to Dr. Aufrecht's explanation of the 
Welsh changes in saith nant for saithen dant, fy dysgu for 
fyn dysgu. On the other hand I find in this very language 
unmistakeable evidence of the principle for which I contend 
in the fact that the prefix which represents the Latin con 
or cun^ Gr. aw, takes the several forms cym, cyn, cyd, 
and cy, among which cyd seems to occupy a leading po- 
sition and not to derive its d from any principle of assimi- 
lation. Thus we meet with it prefixed to almost every va- 
riety of initial letters, cyd-addoli, cyd-bechu, cyd-chwant, 
cyd-dynu, cyd-enw, cyd-fwriad, cyd-ganu, cyd-hanfod, cyd- 
ieuad, cyd-lechu, cyd-newid, cyd-oed, cyd-rathiad, cyd-sain, 
cyd-uno, cyd-wynebiad, cyd-yfed. 

To these examples of the interchange of d and n may be 
added those which I adduced in my original paper on ava 
in the Society's Transactions for 1854, pp. 29-72. 

I will conclude with what bears upon another part of my 
paper on ava. I have recently observed that in Livy ad- 
surg-ere means 'to rise again', where the idea contained in 
the last word, can only be due to the prefixed ad, so that 
we have another argument in favour of the doctrine that 
ad often represents ava. The examples which I have 
noted, are: 

XXII. 2. Galli neque sustinere se prolapsi, neque adsurgere ex vora- 
ginibus poterant; XXI. 36. Tetra ibi luctatio erat in prono citius pede 
se fallente, ut, sen inanibus in adsurgendo sen genu se adjuvissent, 
ipsis adminiculis prolapsis iterum corruerent; XXII. jam pervenerant ad 
loca nata insidiis, ubi inaxutue ruontes Cortonenses Transnuiennus suf>it: 
via tandem interest perangusta velut ad id ipsuni de industria relief" 
loco: deinde paulo latior patescit campus, inde colles adsurgunt 
(or rather ad-insurgunt which makes equally for my view). 



Iii the month of December, 1848, I had occasion, for a 
purpose quite unconnected with philological inquiries, to 
examine a series of pamphlets relating to the Great Rebellion 
and subseqiient events; and the following is a copy of a 
Memorandum , which I made at the time, with the pamphlets 
before me: 

" 11 th December, 1848. On looking over a bundle of inter- 
esting tracts and pamphlets, published during the half cen- 
tury from 1640 to 1690, I notice the fact that the change 
of the word "then" into "Maw" apparently took place at 
some time between 1660 and 1680. Up to 1660, I find it, 
in these pamphlets, uniformly spelt "then" 1 ; after 1680, 
n"-, but I have not at present the means of fixing 
more precisely the date of the change. I select a few in- 
stances : 

1. "The official narrative of the last day's proceedings 
of the High Court of Justice sitting in Westminster Hall, 
on Saturday, Jan. 27, concerning the Tryal of the King", 
published by authority Jan. 29, 1648. "Then'' throughout. 
The King says: "This many a day all things have been 
"taken away from me, but that which I call dearer to me 
"then my life, which is my Conscience and my Honor." 

2. "His Majesties Gracious Letter and Declaration, sent 
to the House of Peers, by Sir John Greenvill, Knight, 
from Breda; and read in the House the first of May 1660." 
Ordered by the House to be printed; and printed by the 
authorized Printers, 1660. "We cannot have a better reason 
I "to promise Ourself an end of Our common Sufferings and 
["Calamities, and that Our own just Power and Authority 
("will with Gods Blessing be restored to Us, then that We 
| "hear You are again acknowledged to have that Authority 
{"and Jurisdiction, which hath alwaies belonged to You, by 
'"Your Birth, and the fundamental Laws of the Laud." 

3. "The Decrees of the Parlement of Paris, upon a 
"opy of the Pope's Brief, of the first of January, 1681, &c. 
'assed on the 18 th and 20 th of June, 1681. In reference to 


the present Contest between the Pope and the King of 
France about the Regale." Printed 1681. " Than " through- 
out. "Those persons, who are the Authors of the Brief 
"of the first of January, and of many others, which have 
"appeared upon this matter, engage the Pope in Contests 
"more likely to retrench his Authority, than to augment it, 
"and seem to have no other design, than that of disturbing 
"the Peace of the Church." 

From this time forward, "than" appears to have been 
the established form; as it has remained up to the present 

With regard to the above extracts, two things are to be 
observed, a) They are taken from official documents, re- 
lating to matters of great public interest at the time; and 
therefore likely to have been correctly printed. &) The 
spelling throughout is , evidently, not capricious or irregular 
in any degree ; and with a very few trifling exceptions (such 
as "alwaies"), is strictly in accordance with the orthography 
of the present day. We may therefore conclude that the 
change from "then" to "than" was a deliberate one, and 
not the result of accident or whim. It probably arose from , 
the desire to distinguish between "then" as a mark of time, ' 
and "then" as a mark of comparison; and very likely in- 
dicated a corresponding change in the pronunciation. Further 
research might perhaps discover the exact year of the al- 
teration; but at all events, we may safely affirm that it 
took place during the reign of Charles the Second." 

To the foregoing, it may be added that in the fourth 
edition of Phillips's "New World of Words", published in 
1678, the form is "than" throughout; but in Bishop Wil- 
kins's "Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical 
Language", printed by the Royal Society in 1668, "then" 1 ' 
(as far as I have observed) is the only form employed, j 
except in one remarkable instance. In the "Epistle Dedi- 
catory " , for example , the author thus expatiates upon onej 
of the advantages which, in his enthusiasm, he expected] 
to result from the adoption of his "Philosophical Language" 
"Next to the Gift of Miracles, and particularly that 


"Tongues, powred out upon the Apostles in the first plant- 
ing of Christianity, there is nothing that can more eftec- 
"tually conduce to the further accomplishment of those 
'"Promises, which concern the diffusion of it, through all 
"Nations, then the design which is here proposed." The 
remarkable exception alluded to occurs (strangely enough) 
in the Chapter on Adverbs (Philosophical Tables, Part III, 
Chap. IV, page 313), where the spelling is "than''. And 
yet in the "Alphabetical Dictionary", or Index, referring 
to this very place, the word is spelt "then"; viz.: 

"Then. Comparative. Adv. III. i. 0." 
But at page 313, the entry is as follows: 

if Rather Potiiis 
L | Than Quam 
&c. &c. 

And the same spelling recurs at page 390 (" Rather, Than ") 
with reference to the proposed new Marks for Adverbs. 

It seems very difficult to account for the fact of the word 
being thus spelt ("than"} where it is treated of grammati- 
cally; and yet being always spelt "then" 1 , w r herever it is 
nsed by the Author himself in the body of the work, as 
well as in the " Alphabetical Dictionary ". I am not able to 
suggest any satisfactory explanation of this difficulty; but 
in the absence of explanation , the fact itself seems to show 
that the movement in the direction of the modern ortho- 
graphy ("than") had commenced, or was commencing, in 

On the whole, therefore, we may conclude that the change 
from "then" to "than" took place, either gradually in the 
course of the 10 years , or at some particular time during; 
the 10 years, intervening between 1668 and 1678. 

It is worthy of notice that this date closely coincides with 
I that which is fixed as the termination of the second of the 
periods, into which our language is divided, for philological 
purposes, by the Society's Dictionary Committee, viz. 1674, 
|the date of Milton's death. 

It must certainly be added that the quotations in Richard- 
Mi, under the two words "Than : - and "Then", show that 


in the earlier stages of the language there was some con- 
fusion in the spelling of these words; but I believe that at 
least for a long period prior to 1668, the word (the mark 
of comparison) which we now spell "than", was uniformly 
spelt "then". 

If the view taken in this paper be correct; if it be true 
that, after spelling (and perhaps pronouncing) a certain word 
(then) in a particular way , possibly for some centuries, and 
certainly for several generations, the whole nation suddenly, 
and by common consent, modified the spelling (and per- 
haps also the pronunciation) of that word (from then to 
than')] and if it may be further inferred that this change, 
not being of partial, but of universal adoption, was not 
accidental or capricious, but deliberated and designed, and 
made for a definite purpose (that of distinguishing between 
the two former senses of then, as a mark of the order of 
succession, in time, and in comparison); if this be so, the 
proceeding appears to constitute a remarkable fact in the 
general history of language, as well as a noticeable point 
in the history of the English language. It would certainly 
be interesting and instructive, if it were practicable, to 
ascertain in what way so striking a result was actually 
brought about. 


Comparative philology, which proved that all the different 
nations belonging to the Aryan race once spoke the same 
language, gave rise to another science, comparative My- 
thology. As it is evident that the forefathers of all these 
nations once lived together as one people, we are led to be- 
lieve that their religion was the same. It has been proved 
long ago that many of the Greek, Roman, German, and 
Slavonic gods were the same as the deities worshipped 

BY DR. G. BUHLER. 155 

by those who composed the Veda; and that in many in- 
stances the Veda gives us as much insight into the character 
and true nature of the gods, and the origin of the legends 
told about them, as the Sanskrit language affords us in re- 
gard to the forms of the Aryan languages. The most valu- 
able discoveries concerning Greek , Roman and Slavonic dei- 
ties have already been made , and their number will increase 
every day. 

But while on the one side the languages of the Western 
tribes belonging to the Aryan race are explained by the 
aid of Sanskrit, on the other side many peculiarities of 
this language, and principally of its oldest dialect, the 
"Vedic", can only be set in the right light by European 
languages; for instance, Greek, Latin and Gothic alone 
can show that the Sanskrit s is in most cases a k changed 
into the sibilant; or how would it be possible to find out 
that the Sanskrit c/i is in words like chandra the repre- 
sentative of k#1i, and that the Vedic schandra is an older 
form than that which is used in the classical Sanskrit. 

If this cannot be denied, we are entitled to look for the 
same reciprocal relation in comparative Mythology. In fact 
it seems to me that the Mythology of the Veda will receive 
as much light by comparison with that of other nations 
as Sanskrit grammar receives from the Greek or Latin. 
For it is not probable that all the religious ideas and all 
the legends told about the gods in the times previous to 
the separation of the Aryan race have been retained in the 
Veda alone. On the contrary, it is to be expected that the 
Hindus have cultivated only a certain number of ideas, 
which were in harmony with their inclinations. 

Besides, the Rig-Veda is not the product of one and the 
same century, but the hymns contained in it belong to 
different periods of the development of religious and politi- 
cal life in India. Religion had undergone considerable 
changes, or at least one, when the separation of the Hindus 

m the Mazdayasna's was effected, after which the formerly- 
orshipped Asuras were represented as demoniacal beings. 

is certain that in a part of the Rig- Veda the word Asura 


is used as an epithet of various deities, and that in some 
hymns evil spirits are called by this name. 

When therefore hymns belonging to different periods were 
collected afterwards into one body, a certain confusion was 
necessarily caused by placing side by side ideas which arose 
successively. This reasoning, I hope, will be corroborated 
by the results of the following investigation on Parjanya. 

Parjanya belongs to the number of gods, to whom few 
hymns in the Rig- Veda are addressed, and who gradually 
die away from the memory of the Hindu people after hav- 
ing earned on a very poor existence during the period of 
sacred literature. 

He has been usually regarded by European scholars as a 
god of the rain, and has been compared to Jupiter Pluvius. 
Others have suggested the opinion that the word Parjanya 
is only an epithet of Indra, and have altogether identified 
him with this deity. Whether these opinions are right or 
wrong, we shall see in the course of our inquiry. But in 
order that we may provide a good foundation for it, it is 
necessary to examine the passages referring to Parjanya, 
I shall therefore try to give first an accurate translation of 
the three hymns addressed to him. 

V. 83. 

1) Sing unto the strong with these songs, laud Parjanya, 
with praise worship him. Loud bellows the bull, who givos 
speedily, he lays down his seed and fruit in the herbs. 

2) He cleaves the trees asunder, he slays the Rakshas's; 
all living creatures fear the wearer of the mighty thun- 

Even the sinless trembles before him, the giver of tho 
rain; for thundering slays Parjanya the evildoers. 

3) As a driver, who urges his horses with the whip, he 
makes the rainy messengers appear. 

From far arises the roar of the Lion, when Parjanya 
makes the cloud full of rain. 

4) The winds rage, the lightnings shoot through the air, 
the herbs sprout forth from the earth, the heavens over- 

BY DR. G. BUHLER. 157 

flow, refreshment is borne to all creatures, when Parjanya 
blesses the earth with rain. 

5) Thou, Parjanya, shield us well, by whose works the 
earth is shaken, by whose works the hoofed herd is sup- 
ported, by whose works herbs of all kinds sprout forth. 

6) Oh ye Maruts, give us the heavenly rain, let flow the 
drops of the rainy horse. Oh come to us with the thunderer, 
pouring down the waters; thou art our father Asura. 

7) Roar, thunder, give fruit, fly round us with thy cha- 
riot, that is tilled with water. 

Pull strongly the downwards - bent well -fastened water- 
skin: may the heights and the valleys become even. 

8) Lift up the great barrel, pour down; loosened may 
the streams flow forward. 

Drench heaven and earth with water, give good drink to 
|the kine. 

i)) When, Parjanya, loud roaring, thundering, thou 
layest the doers-of-evil, all rejoices that lives on earth. 

10) Well hast thou poured down the rain, now cease, 
thou makest that we can pass over the dry land, thou 
last procreated herbs that we may eat, and thou hast re- 
ceived praise from the creatures. 

VII. 101. 

1) Speak out the three words with radiant beginning 1 , 
fhich milk this milk-giving udder. This newly born bull 
allows loudly, procreating the son* and fruit of herbs. 

2) He who increases the herbs and waters, who reigns, 
jigod, over all creatures, may he afford us refuge and pro- 

?tion in the three worlds 3 , and a blessing light shining 
|n the three (seasons). 

1 These three words are the three Vedas, the commencement of which 
the mystic word 6m; cf. Sam. V. II. 5. 1.4.2. 

* By the expression "the son", the lightning (Vaidyvtagnik) is here 
[ignified, which is naturally, a child of the god of thunder. 

* Iridht'ilu saranam sanna. The commentary explains Iridhatu by tri- 
iikam. The same explanation is given in some other passages, 

there it is used as an epithet sarma or saranam. The R. V. I. 85. 12. 


3) Now he is like a barren cow, now lie brings forth. 
He disposes of his body according to his pleasure. The 
mother receives the water from the father, thereby the 
father is supported, thereby the son. 

4) In him are grounded all living creatures, in him the 
three heavens, from him flow the waters three fold, three 
dripping barrels stand round the great, pouring down honey. 

5) May this word come to the heart of Parjanya, the 
autocrat. May the rain gladden us, may the herbs, which 
the god protects, bring us good fruit. 

6) He the bull gives seed to all herbs, he is the essence 
of the moveable and immoveable. May this law protect me 
to live a hundred years! Oh ye gods protect us always! 

VII. 102. 

1) Sing unto Parjanya, the son of heaven, the giver 
of rain. May he give us corn. 

2) Parjanya is he who procreates the offspring of herbs, 
kine, horses, and women. 

3) For him alone put the offering in the mouth of the 
gods (agiii). May he procure us food. 

According to these hymns Parjanya is the god of the 
thunderstorm; and therefore lightning thunder and rain are 
alike at his command. He is the bearer of the thunderbolt, 
the lightning is his son, he slays the rakshas' and the evil- 
doers , he cleaves the trees , he is a bellowing bull, he roars 
and he thunders. 

In another hymn R. V. V. 63. 6. we find a still more poetical 
expression of this thought. The poet tells us, that "Par- 
janya speaks a wonderful gleam-accompanied word, which 
brings refreshment." However, this is not the most impor- 
tant of his works. The blessing bestowed upon all creatures! 

tridhattmi (sarma) = prithivyadishn Irishu slhaneshvataslhilani; \l 
tridhalu (saranam) = tribhtaniham. The signification of dhutu must l>e 
in these instances sthana, place, which appears also in sudhatu VII. 61. 11.; 
the sense of the whole phrase seems to be: afford us protection in I lie 
three worlds, and I accordingly translate saranam (house) by refuge. 

BY DR. G. BUHLER. 159 

by rain is the act which is most celebrated in the hymns. 
To give rain is the principal part of the work which he 
is bound by eternal law to perpetrate (mztaw), cfr. R.V. 
VI. 53. 3. 6. 7. or by his spell (w%) rain is made to 
descend from heaven. He drives the clouds before him 
as a charioteer his horses, he possesses a water-filled cha- 
riot, he pulls the clouds which hang down from heaven like 
great waterskins or he lifts up the barrels which surround 
him, and the words of his worshipper make him milk the 
milk-giving udder. The god sends no scanty stock of water, 
but, when he passes over the dry land, he drowns heaven 
and earth, and valleys and heights become even. 

But the connection of Parjanya with rain is yet more 
strongly expressed by saying that "now he is a ban-en cow, 
now he brings forth". His body of which he disposes ac- 
cording to his pleasure is undoubtedly the cloud. (This 
most remarkable idea prevailed also with the Roman artist 
who represented the Jupiter Pluvius in the column of M. 
Aurelius. There the head and the neck of the god are 
visible, the arms seem to be outstretched, and the clouds, 
from which the rain pours down , are spread over them like 
drapery. Cfr. Bartoli et Bellori columna Antonini tab. 14. 
15.) Besides, a number of epithets given to Parjanya re- 
fer to his power over the rain. He is called midvdn (TH. 
102.1.), vn-shtimdn (VIII. 6. 1.), giver of rain; udanimdn, 
abdimdn (VI. 4. 2. 3.) , giver of water. 

Mankind and beasts quench their thirst with water, and 
so far it contributes to support their lives, (cfr. also R.V. 
VII. 35. 10.) But, when Parjanya is said to feed the crea- 
tures, it is because rain makes the earth bring forth 
grass and corn. He is the god who sends nourishment to 
all living beings, he is asked to give food which comes 
from corn (i/ai-osa), and the plants are called devagopdh, 
protected by the god. Even the arrow is termed parjan- 
yaretdh (VI. 75. 50.) sown by Parjanya; for, says the com- 
mentator, the shaft of the arrow is produced by Parjanya. 
Another quality of the god is closely connected with this. 
He is the cause why all creatures bring forth offspring. 


The impregnating power of the rain suggested this idea. 
The rain is the sperm of heaven, by which the earth con- 
ceives, and it is natural that the god who is the fructifier 
of the common mother of all creatures , should take care of 
all fecundation. If Parjanya is regarded as such, it is clear 
why he is called the dtma of the moveable and immoveable, 
and why all living beings are grounded in him. To this 
his epithets vrisliabhali, pita (V. 83.) seem to refer, as well 
as Asura (V. 83. 5. 63. 3. 7.). The latter two passages are 
misinterpreted by Prof. Roth, who translates Asura by the 
"highest spirit", (cf. Boethlingk and Roth's dictionary s. h.v.). 
In the first, the words before dsurah pita nak are evidently 
addressed to Parjanya, and there is no apparent reason 
why we should separate them. In the same way a closer 
consideration of the content of the hymn V. 63. seems to con- 
firm the interpretation of the commentator. 

The hymn V. 63. which is addressed to Mitra and Varuna, 
contains a prayer for rain. They grant, so the poet tells 
us, the request to him whom they love (v. 1), but to give 
it they need the mdyd of Asura (v. 3). With these we 
must closely combine the following verses: 

4) Your wisdom is visible in the sky, the sun, a glitter- 
ing weapon, shines. You wrap him up in the heaven with 
clouds and rain; oh Parjanya, the honied drops fall down. 

5) The Maruts, Mitra and Yaruna, harness the chariot, 
as a hero in the battle they go, far stretched through the 
glittering worlds. Ye kings of heaven wet us with water. 

6) Parjanya speaks a wonderful gleam-accompanied word 
which brings refreshment. Well clothe the Maruts them- 
selves in clouds with wisdom, make ye (Mitra and Varuna) 
(that) the spotless ruddy sky (send) rain. 

These verses show clearly that when Mitra and Varuna 
give the rain, Parjanya and the Maruts, under whose 
special case this phenomenon is placed, act as their minis- 
ters, and that, when (v. 3) the wisdom of Asura is s;iid 
t to help Mitra and Varuna, the commentator explaining the 
word Asura by Parjanya is perfectly right. 

But I am rather doubtful whether the word Asura is to 



be referred to the procreating power of Parjanya and to be 
translated life-giving (asu-\-rd); perhaps he is only called 
so, because he is a god; for they all possess the asuratvam, 
(ID. 55. 1). 

After having discussed his attributes, we must turn our 
attention to where he is associated with other gods. 

Firstly he is invoked in hymns addressed to the Maruts 
and vice versa (I. 38. 9; V. 53. 6; V. 63. 6; V. 83. 5). As 
they are gods of the raging winds , they necessarily accom- 
pany every thunderstorm, and are represented as the minis- 
ters of the gods who cause this phenomenon, Indra, Rudra, 
and Parjanya. 

For the same reason he is invoked together with Vata 
(VI. 49. 6; VI. 51. 12; X. 65. 9). Thirdly he is associated 
with Agni (VI. 52. 6.), because the vdidyutdgni (VII. 101. 1.) 
is his son. 

Finally, as Parjanya is the procreator of the plants, he 
is called the father of Soma (IX. 82. 3; S.V. II. 5. 2. 13.), 
and it is said that he increases him. {Parjanyavnddham 
&c. IX. 113. 3.) 

Taking a review of the whole, we find that Parjanya is 
a god who presides over the lightning, the thunder, the 
rain, and the procreation of plants and living creatures. 
But it is by no means clear, whether he is originally a god 
of the rain, or a god of the thunder. For, as both pheno- 
mena are always associated in India, either of the two 
opinions is admissible, if no deciding evidence comes from 
another quarter. 

The solution of this question principally depends upon 
the etymology of the word Parjanya, and some modern 
philologists have adopted the former of the two opinions, 
because they believed that paijanya had the signification 
of "rain". According to them this word is derived from 
a root pry, a modified form of prish (to sprinkle). But 
I cannot agree with them, because the appellative par- 
janya seems to signify "the cloud". A passage of the R.V. 
I. 38. 9. clearly shows this: "even during the day the Ma- 
ruts shed darkness by the water-bringing parjanya , when 



they inundate the earth " , ( cfr. R. V. V. 53. 6.) This par- 
janya can neither be the god, as he is a tool of the Ma- 
ruts, nor the rain, because the rain does not cause the 
darkness, but the cloud: also the epithet "water-bringing" 
would be objectionable. On the other hand I know no pas- 
sage of the Rig- Veda, where it is absolutely necessary to 
translate parjanya by "rain". The compound parjanya- 
jinvitd(vdch} VII. 103. 1. which Prof. M. Miiller 1 translates 
by "roused by the rain", may mean as well "roused by 
Parjanya" (the god). Injhe same way it is perfectly fitting 
to explain R.V. I. 164 5i : 

bhumini parjanya jinvanti 

with the commentator "the clouds give joy to the earth, 
because they send down the rain", and I should prefer this 
explanation on account of the following words : dicaih jinvanti 
agndyah, the agnis (dhavaniyddayah} give joy to the heaven. 
For it is not fire itself which makes the god Dyduh rejoice, 
but the sacrifice which it carries to him. 

A second passage of nearly as great importance as that 
above quoted is found Vaj. Sanh. XII. 6. (= R.V. X. 45. 4): 

Akrandadagnih standyanniva dyduh 
"Agnis roared like the thundering heaven." 

Mahidhara explains dyduh by meghah and Parjanyah, and 
his opinion is confirmed by the Sat. Brahm. VI. 7. 3. 2. where 
we read: 

Akrandadagni standyanniva dyduriti 
krdndativa hi parjanya standyan &C. 
He recites the verse akrandad &c., for Parjanya's thunder is 
like a roar. 

Sayana also always explains "parjanyah" by " meghah" 1 ' ', 
and when he interprets vrishtih (R.V. V. G3. 1.) by parjanyah, 
it is because the former word cannot be employed wit 
its usual meaning in this passage at least according to his 
opinion. The vrishtih, that pours down from heaven tl 
water mixed with honey, must be either a god or the clou( 
(tasmdd yajamdndya vnshtih parjanyo madhu madhudakam die 

1 History of Vedic literature p. 494 , where he explains the real meaning 
of this whole hymn usually counted amongst the songs addressed to Parjauya 

BY DR. G. BUHLER. 163 

dyulok'ltyinvate \ *imchati \ vardhagati\\. In the same way it 
is explained by the commentators of the Sat and Tandya 
Brahmana, and even Amara illustrates it by "Indra or thun- 
dercloud and also any cloud." 

This signification of the appellative parjanya explains very 
well the attributes of the god. But nevertheless the main 
question is not answered, and we must try to make out 
from what quality the cloud has been called parjanya. Al- 
though it has received one of its many names on account 
of the giving of rain (megha from ww'A), and though it 
is not impossible to consider the root prixh as its etymon, 
I am inclined to adopt the etymology proposed by Prof. 
Benfey (Sdmacfda gfos. s. v. parjanya). He translates it by 
t; the thunderer". supposing that it is derived by the suffix 
ana-\-ya from the root sphurj = ar/crpa^'w, the original 
form of which is sparj. The corresponding Greek word 
proves that the vowel of the root was originally an a; and 
in regard to the pk replacing a p , it is sufficient to say, 
that a preceding s often effects the aspiration of a following 
mute consonant (cf. stM^OTct: affada^i'j, a(pcrd-ovr]=8pand r ). 
The omission of a beginning s is of such frequent occurrence 
that it hardly requires any illustration by examples. 

A confirmation of this etymology we may find in another 
name of the cloud, " stanayitnuh" 1 (R.V. V. 83. 6), and it 
is interesting to observe that Dvidevaganga in his commen- 
tary on Sat. Br. XIV. 5. 5. 10 explains it by parjan raft. But 
our opinion will be better confirmed if we avail ourselves 
of the aid proffered ; by kindred languages. A word exists 
in the Lithuanian language which bears a strong resemblance 
to " parjanya" the name of the god of thunder, Perkunas. 
The differences intervening between the two are not so 
considerable as they may seem to be at first sight. The 
word Perkunas is derived from a root park by means of 
the affix una. The former part park is perfectly identi- 
cal with the Sanskr. prij. For, although the Lithuanian ~ 
or g (ozys = ajas, ayvas =jtva#) usually represent the Sansk. 
y, some more instances are found, where the idiom which 
is next akin to the Teutonic languages, follows the phonetic 


laws of these. The Sanskrit duhitd, Greek SvyaryQ, cor- 
responds with the Lithuanian dukte, dukra', the Latin angu- 
stus with anksztas; the Slavonic magu with moku; the Latin 
ruga with rauka. The affix una is a modified form of the 
Sanskrit ana. For a great number of 'nomina actoris' are 
formed by una, and it is known that the change of an a 
into a u is often effected by liquids following. The word 
Perkuna is therefore exactly equivalent to a Sanskrit Par- 
jana, to which the affix ra was added without change of 
signification just as it was to as (*jam). The Slavonic 
languages exhibit the word Perkunas in a form modified 
by the elision of the k Pmm 1 , and in the Polish language 
this word signifies' also "the lightning". This fact cannot 
be properly explained, if parjanya signifies "the rain". 
But if it means "thunder", the change of the original signi- 
fication of the Polish word is the same as that of the Greek 
(V. bhram), which is sometimes used instead of 

(cfr. ehaaifipovTog, alo^o^QOvrog). 
A further confirmation of our opinion will be gained from 
the comparison of the attributes and deeds of Perkunas with 
those of Parjanya. Perkunas is one of the most revered 
Lithuanian gods, worshipped also formerly together with 
Potrimpas and Pykullas under the holy oak at Romowe. 
He is the god of thunder. We learn this from proverbs 
and songs which are repeated by the people even in our 
own day. To this day, when the thunder rolls, they say 
Perkuns grumena, or szauja, or musze\ to this day 'dainos' 
are sung like those which we read in Schleicher's collection 
s. no. 1. 4. 5. In the first, we are told that the moon once 
wedded the sun, afterwards she left him and flirted with 
the morning-star. At this Perkuns grew very wroth, and 
cut the moon in two pieces. The story of the punishment 
of the moon, which is alluded to also in no. 3 , is evidently 

1 This elision may perhaps be attributed to the position of the r. 
a group of consonants formed by rk or rg would be in disharmony with 
the phonetic rules established in the Slavonic languages, and the usua 
transposition of the liquid was not effected, an unusual remedy onlj 
could hinder the violation of the laws of the language. 

BY DR. G. BLHLER. 165 

invented in order to explain the phases of this luminary. 
In no. 5 a brother asks his sister who laments over the loss 
of her flowers: -Did the north wind blow, or did Perkuns 
thunder or send lightnings?" 

A very good account of the nature and deeds of Perkunas 
is contained in a popular tale (pasaka}, which is printed 
in the collection of Schleicher p. 241 -46. I shall abstract its 
principal contents, and translate only the passages which 
are important for our purpose. 

A journeyman-carpenter travelling, meets with two men. 
one of whom presents himself as Perkuns, the other as 
the devil. Having walked together some time they resolve 
upon taking up their abode in a great forest, and they 
agree that the devil shall procure food, the carpenter pre- 
pare it, and Perkunas frighten away the wild beasts. "I 
shall'', he says, "begin to send such terrible lightnings 
that all is one tire, and frightful claps of thunder: thereby 
all the wild beasts will be scared away from us." After- 
wards they build a house and plant carrots. The latter are 
nightly damaged by a very daring thief. Perkunas and the 
devil are successively set to watch, but the thief approaches 
the tield in spite of them, and, when they attempt to 
frighten him away, they receive terrible blows with an iron 
whip. During the third night the crafty carpenter wakes 
and succeeds in detecting the thief, who proves to be an 
old mischievous Laiune, in mutilating her hands and in tak- 
ing from her the iron whip. In the morning he boasts very 
much of his deed, and the other two stand in great awe 
of him. The depredations on their field cease, and they 
live together for some time in perfect tranquillity and hap- 
piness. But at last they become weary of each other, and 
they agree that two shall go away, and he remain in pos- 
session of the house who is able to frighten the other two 
away from it. The devil has his turn first, leaves the house, 
and tries to terrify Perkunas and the carpenter by a tre- 
mendous storm. The whole house is shaken, and finally 
Perkunas leaps through the window , fearing to be slain by 
the falling roof. But the carpenter remains quietly with- 


in, singing hymns the whole night long. The next night, 
thus the story continues, Perkunas went out in order to 
frighten the two others, and the carpenter remained with the 
devil in the room. When the night was already far advanced, 
clouds dark as a sack arose in the sky , and lightnings shot 
down from the clouds. And the nearer the thunderstorm 
drew towards the house, the more terrible grew the roll- 
ing and grumbling of the thunder, as if the whole forest 
and the house were to be buried in the depths of the 
earth. And such was the shooting and hissing of the light- 
nings, that all were in danger of being burnt on the spot. 
The devil, seeing this, leapt out quick as wind through the 
window, and ran away; for he had no great confidence in 
Perkunas, and feared to be slain by these flashes of light- 
ning. He knew also very well that Perkunas slays the devils 
who ramble about in the world. The carpenter follows the 
same stratagem as on the preceding night. Finally, the 
devil and Perkunas are both put to flight by the cunning 
carpenter imitating the old Laume, by whom they had been 
whipped. On this occasion Perkunas flees spitting fire. 

We learn from this tale, the hidden sense of which I 
do not pretend to enucleate, firstly, that Perkunas is a 
god who causes thunderstorms quite as much as Par- 
janya; and secondly, that he slays devils just as Par- 
janya annihilates the Rakshas' and evildoers. The latter 
is an ethical attribute which the Slavonic Perun possesses 
in a still higher degree. He seems to be the avenger of 
broken oaths. For Procopius tells us that on the occasion 
of concluding a treaty of peace, the Russian princes ascended 
a hill near Kiew, called Perun's hill, and there swore their 
oaths in order to give them greater solemnity. In fact, 
the idea that the god who handles the most terrible weapon 
uses it in order to uphold the laws of morality, seems to 
be as old as it is natural. In the Lithuanian songs Perkunas, 
so far as I know, is never praised as the giver of rain ; but, as 
the thunderstorm called perkunije is his work, the rain also 
which accompanies it, must come from him. However, the 
want of direct evidence can be supplied from the Livonian 

RY DR. G. BUHLER. 167 

ivthology. The LivoniaDs (Kurszei) are the nearest rela- 
tions of the Lithuanians, and possess nearly the same lan- 
lage, religion and customs. A very valuable and interest- 
ing document is preserved to us by Lasicius c de deis Samo- 
ptarum ' s. v. Pergubios , which refers to Perkunas, or Per- 
tons, as he is called by the Livonians. It is a prayer 
spoken by the priest at the feast celebrated in the beginning 
of the spring. The text runs as follows: "Perkon! father! 
Jiy children lead this faultless victim to thy altar. Bestow, 
father, thy blessing on the plough and on the corn. May 
golden straw with great well-filled ears rise abundantly as 
ushes. Drive away all black haily clouds to the great 
loors, forests, and large deserts, where they will not 
jhten mankind; and give sunshine and rain, gentle-falling 
i, in order that the crops may thrive!" 
In the presence of these facts, even the most incredulous 
be obliged to confess that Parjanya and Perkunas are 
originally the same in regard to their names as well as to 
ie manner in which they manifest themselves. But as Per- 
las has been worshipped as the god of thunder by the 
Jthuanians, the Livonians, the Prussians, and all the Sla- 
fonian tribes , and seems to have been known as such also 
the Teutonic race (cfr. J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie 
ji. 164), it does not seem very likely that he is originally 
le god of rain. 

Finally I must add a few remarks on the hypothesis, that 
farjanya is only one of the names of Indra. According to 
the passages of the Rig-Veda discussed in our investi- 
ion, the relations between Indra and Parjanya are not 
)ser than between Indra and Rudra, viz.: they bear a 
lin resemblance to each other, because their deeds are 
ie same. Even the Brahmans of a later period felt very 
ictly that the two gods are different beings. Therefore 
Anukramani tells us, that the Indra, who is invoked 
.V. III. 55. 17, is parjanydtmdj i. e. possessing the charac- 
of Parjanya. In fact, the verses addressed there to 
bear a strong resemblance to many others in which 
rjanya is celebrated. 


Considering all this, it is very probable that our ancestor 
adored, previously to the separation of the Aryan race, a 
god, called Parjana or Pargana, the personification of the 
thundering cloud, whom they believed to rouse the thunder- 
storm, to be armed with the lightning, to send the rain, 
to be the procreator of plants , and the upholder of justice. 
Afterwards the Graco-Italian nation, bent on the adoration 
ofDyaus, forgot him entirely; the Aryans of India and the 
Teutonic tribes continued to worship him as a subordinate 
member of the family of the gods , but the Letto-Slavonians 
raised him to the dignity of a supreme leader of all other 

XXV. IRISH GLOSSES, edited by a Member of the Council 
from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity College, 

[H. 3. 18, p. 61, col. 1.] 

A bretha neime deidhinach so. 
Aidhbnugh .i. indilsiugudh . ut est ar ni haidbriugh for fot 

forlengar for dilsi .i. ni hinann do 7 nolinged do indil- j 

siugudh inh'rdilis rofothuida oco acanntest. 
Fuidrecht .i. frith . ut est dina fornocht fir .i. dona airnechta 

firnochta innte. 
Coicle .i. folach . ut est nisnimraite na coicle crich each aen- 

duine derbhaight[h]er. 
Tomhnadh .i. baramail . ut est dian tomhnadh each indiaidh 

araile is d6 doronadh . ocus misdeine 7 mistomnathar 

Teinn .i. radh no canamuin . ut est fa inti notteinn . no inti! 

nostennann noscanann anfer athcantana. 
Ar is be carna .i. ben cuicir . ar is ann is earn diarobhait 

.v. clocha ann. 

Gubha .i. gabhail . ut est tuile gubha .i. imat ngabala a trefocal. 
Feith .i. a . ut est ni tabair iiach feith fo aiblibh imuis .i-s 


nocho tabair atargad fiach sin for i[n]ti agata inaebil a 
himat a ardsofes. 

[p. 61, col 2.] 

Tulhtar .i. cinnter . ut est atait teora ailche frisbenar each 
aer 7 each moladh .i. a tri ata urderca no ata tairismech 
fristubenar .i. is friu tubhair. 

'Nu in A. olc . ut est ni cuala coic nuin .i. ni cuala ar ma 
run olc damh. 

>Ni .i. olc . ut est arsaidh ni dicenn .i. astar ole do neoch 
anglam dicend. 

\Cvbhair .i. prechain no ilair . ut est sephtatar cubhair .i. 
gurrosuighet na prechain onindaibh tii . no currosuidhet 
na cubhair co croba derga acu .i. na hilair. 

prv .i. bodb . fechta .i. cath . ut est cairbidhib crufechta. 

v-rlaidomuin .i. sindaig no maic tire. 

V-rudomuin A. fennoga no bansigaidhe . ut est glaidhomuin go'a 
.i. na demuin goacha na niorrigna . no go conach demain 
iat na bansigaide go connach demain iffrinn iat acht demain 
aeoir na fendoga . no eamnait anglaedha na sinnaigh 7 
eamnait angotha na fendoga. 

Vrubhi .i. beille [leg. belli?] .i. in catha.ut est reghae aeg 
eich gubhi .i. condechuis deg amhail teid ech anguba tresai. 

ftaire .i. bron no bas . ut est maile baire gaire. 

i?omlset A. saltra 7 cosluaidhit marsin . ut est dit coisilset 
fort fiadhmuine .i. rocosluaidhed fort. 

[p. 62, col. 1.] 

vSlife A. lethmighudh . ut est imat slife laithirt leisge .i. cura 

leth imat leisce illaithi toirgne. 
mmfaebhar A. indlige . ut est tri himfaebair na glaime dicinde 

adenum im ni is lugha na secht cumala 7 imfoichli set 7 

im secht cumala cinelarf apac? na troisci. 
Kwt .i. snim . ut est cii nech nith sine A. in nith 7 snimh. 
| n a/-Za .i. dealgan . Aithghin A. cutruma . ut est ni contarla 

amboinn riam na iaram anaithgin .i. nochorteilgestar in 

boinn roime na na degazW a cutruma ima met 
muffnadk A. ar eigin . ut est et is ingnadh ronuesat daine 7 

cethra ananmanua as. 
Rum .i. romainn . ut est inntai rinn. 


Brigh .i. uallach . ut est Maudorn mor uisceda brig for- 

Comaicc .i. ceimniugudh no dol . ut est la sodhain atcomaicc 

in abhann ina tuind. 
Foithirbe .i. imaire no gort no achad . ut est ni conroibhe 

sechtmad foithirbe otha sin condice muir doneoch ro- 

baidhedh ar na farcbadh frais do nemannaib inde. 
Toiscidhi .i. caithemh . ut est no ni do iasc no murtorad ba 

maith do toiscidi .i. dotoisceda .i. docaitem. 

[p. 62 , col. 2.] 

Tochniastar .i. tobhach . ut est acht cia tochmastar fri ferba 

Toigrenn .i. tobhach . ut est Imtogrenn fir enech firfile .i. 

is eim toibhghes an firfili an ni doberar tarcenn einigh 

iar fir. 
Nesa .i. tainsium . ut est for nesa ceard neicse donessa cerd 


Lai .i. feimed . ut est rolaei fiadnaise fair fuirmedh. 
Fuasnadh .i. sgailedh . ut est fuasnad luighe no anmcardesa. 
Foimded .i. fsemadh . ut est cofoimded fodergtha biathaigh. 
Sgeo .i. do . ut est roighen roscadhach roindscoth (.i. dixit) 

sceo gachduine dire. 
Taltugud .i. gabail . ut est molbhthach a ainm inaltaigh- 

t[h]er .i. is molbhthach a hainm intan bither aca taltugudh 

Darb .i. imat . ut est beridh darb .i. berid imat inti acambi 

si itir eneclann ocus logh aisti. 
Aithech .i. aitheoch .i. oech laech .i. laech aith annsin . bretha 

nime tos. 

Duil droma ceta inso. 
[p. 63, col. 1.] 
Art .i. uasal .i. deus. 

Adam .i. homo vel terrigena .i. o talmuigecht. 
Adhamnan .i. homunculus .i. disbecadh anma Aduim. 
Adrad .i. ab adoratione .i. on etarguide. 
Adaltrach .i. ab adulterio .i. on adaltrus. 
Altrum .i. ab eo quod est alo .i. on breithir is alo ailim. 


Acher .i. ab eo quod est acer lainn. 

Asdul .i. ab hastula .i. slisen. 

Adhamra .i. ab admiratione .i. o mirbhuilibh. 

Almsan .i. quasi eilimson .i. ab eleemosyna .i. deirc. 

Art .i. cloch . ut dixit Guaire 

docealat mor namra na harteni 

bite for lighe Marcain mice Aodha maic Marcine. 

Ary .i. banna 7 arg .i. laoch 7 arg .i. urdail ro [leg. urdairc] . 
bretha nime dixit. 

Alt .i. ab altitudine .i. uasal. 

Anairt .i. inirt . irt .i. bas ut dixit Morann macmain . dath 
donic irt. 

Audacht .i. uathfecht .i. intan tet in duine fri fecht nuath 
.i. bais. 

Anair .i. ainm aircetail . ise dogni cli .i. anaor ni haor acht 
is molad 7 cidh amlaidsin docachmolad is dilsi don alt air- 
cetailse . ar is fuirmedh poetarum romidhair haec nomina 
dona aircetlaib 7 ni haicnedh romidair leo. 

[p. 63, col. 2.] 

en \. ingnadh . ut dixit fer fail moir. 
main .i. anacol. 
Arcofuin dom dia .i. arco .i. rogha . fain .i. finem . dilgud 

om dia . arco .i. cuingim . fain .i. finem. 
Allmuir .i. fri muir anall. 
Alia .i. ab alligatione .i. o cuimriuch. 
Aithnnne .i. laogh bo .i. aithfhrinne .i. sine . ut dixit . Cen- 

gert ferba foranasa aithrinn<? . 7 rl. 
Abras abhra .i. inailte 7 fes lamtorad . abras din .i. lam- 

torad . inailti insin. 
thair quasi patrem on ni is pater 7 is mater. 
dd .i. riadh fri a . ar as a each nard 7 i each nisei. 
islinge .i. linge as . no absque lingua .1. cin labra inti. 
cc grec [nix] neg[ati]o laitin [.i.] diultad. 
Ach adhon graece acho . doled [agog, dolor] latin .i. galar. 
iccde .i. ecdoe greic . aediticium .i. cumtach. 
ilchainy quasi archuing .i. [p. 63, col. 3.] congbail armu. 
4JUno [leg. allud] (i. nos) .i. quasi al[a]ud .i. a laude .i. on 


Alad .i. il a dhath .i. imda dath ann . alad lim uil [leg. alad 
.i. full] a dath .i. dath fola fair sech in slan. 

Ann .i. mater deorum hibernensium . robo maith din no- 
biathadsi deos de cujus nomine ana dicitur imbed 7 de 
cujus nomine da cigh anainne iar luachair nominan- 
tur ut fabulaverunt . Vel ana quod aninos graece quod 
interpretatur dapes isin greig [leg. laitin] 7 biad isin 
ladin [leg. goidilg]. 

Aed .i. tene tri impoud in anma as dea .i. bandea quod ipsa 
est Vesta .i. bandea tened 7 quod Vestam illam deam 
esse ignis fabulaverunt Vesta ipsa ignis dicitur .i. ae'd. 

Atheoch .i. aith 7 eoch nama . aitheoch din ni hainm acht 
do daghlaoch. 

Ailges .i. ges guide . is ar ail din doberar in guide sin .i. 
ni ar molad. 

[p. 64, col. 1.] 

Arcindach .i. arcos [(>xo'g] isin greig excelsus isin ladiii . 
aircindach .i. uasalcenn. 

Aigrire .i. aige rere .i. brithem. 

Ander .i. ben .i. ni der .i. ni ingen . der enim filia et virgo 

Anidhan .i. an fo diultad . ida[n] imorro .i. idon, ab eo quod 
est idoneus .i. tairis[e]. 

Adart quasi ad-irt .i. adhae mbais . ar is bas atriinter cot- 
lad . is ainm irt do bas is ainm dono dotsiian. Is adae 
din telcad fri hadart 7 is airdhe cotolta unde dicitur 
descad cotultadh fresligi. 

Adastar .i. comsuidiugh[ud] o ilrannaib fil ann .i. adh 7 
est 7 or .i. adh do iii issadus est .i. ech 7 or .i. mogg 
.i. comad si in moing in ech seachus im a cend. 

Aire .i. cora eiscc, ut dicitur aire eisc. 

[p. 64, col. 2.] 
\B\oisgell .i. geltan. 
Bellid .i. loc. 
Beillitus .i. loc catha. 

Bill \. lobar, ut dicitur ballaii .i. iau bilk [.i. lobair]. 
Birbill .i. brat. 


Bil .i. soinmech . ut dicitur biltene .i. teni soinmech .i. di 
teiii dognitis druith 7 doleicdis na cetra inter se ar 
tedhraannuib cacha bliadna. 

B>1 .i. obial .i. dia idhal . uude bilteni .i. tene bil. 

Bearr .i. gairit . ut dicitur bearr each belaid bean. 

Birr .i. libra. 

Biror .i. mong tiprai. 

Wri .i. tulach. 

Brian .i. tulachau. 

Birra .i. inceall for imat tipra indi .i. tipratach. 

Bladre .i. buadre. 

Bus .i. bhel . ut dicitur tribus .i. tribeil. 

Billoc .i. tiag lobar. 

\Buan .i. bonus . ut dicitur geinid buan o ambuan. 

Braccille .i. brae lam 7 cail coimet .i. coimet lama .i. lanianu. 

\Branorguin .i. branguin dogni h'ach. 

\Bertrach .i. aire no fidhchell. 

\Bot .i. tene . ut dicitur botaine iugeini luighdech loisw. 

[p. 64, col. 3.] 

\Baislec . a basilica .i. grec .i. ecclesia .i. tech. 
\Bairesc .i. forcenn mbratha. 

\Briar .i. delg co tocbail for a ciun .i. bri tulach. 
\Boige (.i. ballan) .i. caire sainte. 
\Bath .i. saile. 

'Buitell .i. eill mbo . no baithell buitill beta 7 rl. 
\Borb .i. boda o aicned. 
\Boctach .i. moin no seiscenn. 
\Blmar .i. nuall ard ecoir . ut dixit ttaim: 
Uisce slebe nimsasad 
coibce congeire ngniisa 
deogh doim duinn techt^s blusur 
bes lusar ginnis liisa. 
\\Brasach .i. brasoach .i. oa (.i. cluasa) mora lethnale. 

.i. diubairsi . ut dixit ornait a cained laidgneiu: 
Dethbir dam ceiuntais [leg. ce ni antais] 
inmabrat dibreisi 
niatfailte laidhgneii clam 
cid e mara tanneisi. 


Breiss .i. dibruindedh. 

Buas .i. sofis naircetail .i. arinni thic imbas iarmbuais . inde 

dicitur barr buaise. 
Beneit .i. N&it uomen viri . Nemhon a ben ba neimnech in 

Benet .i. be ben .i. in badhbh 7 net cath 7 olca diblinuib . 

inde dicitur [p. 65, col. i.] beneit fort. 
Buasamain .i. toltnaighthe. 
Bar .i. maoir. 
Bar .i. siii. 
Breut .i. fuigheall. 
Boarucht .i. bannse cedguine. 
Bagg .i. cnu . inde dicitur crobagg. 
Buss A. ai. 
Bergnae .i. boind. 

Bachar .i. mucderc .i. bruches inae tiagait muca. 
Bamach .i. sindach. 
Baccat .i. otrach. 
Bacat .i. braighe. 
Bol .i. e"ices . buil a reime. 
BoigUiu .i. buachail. 
Barn .i. rechtaire. 

Borr .i. aborra [ab ebore?] .i. eilefaint. 
Bare .i. ab area .i. arcc. 
Breth .i. bret .i. aras fuighel neich aile in breth .i. a rucad 

Broth .i. combrec dendi as braut .i. judex . Is la brithemain 

din aaonar in la sin in bratha .i. la hlsu. 
Bddud .i. o ni is bath .i. muir. 
Baten .i. muirtcenn .i. atbail aaonur ar bath intan is cumair 

is bas doforne. 
Babludn . nomen mulieris quasi bab[ilon .i.] cumasc ind aon- 

berli ocon tur inilberluib imaigh senair. 

[p. 65, col. 2.] 

Babloir .i. ainm do patraic. 

Babb .i. interiecht adblighte de nomine bainb breis inic 

elathan ar ni roibhi ind eirinn muc ba grata. Babgitir 

din a hainmside. 


Boll quasi bull de nomine bulla .i. bolg. 

Brocoit .i. combrecc . bracat din ised la bretnu brae iarum 

ainm do braich . at imorro sainlinn .i. linn soinmech . 

brocoit .i. sainlinn dognither do braich. 
Braracht .i. breth .i. partus. 
Biail .i. bith-ail . bith .i. sir . ail .i. faebhur. 
Buarach .i. bo 7 arach . vel buarach dicitur boerghe .i. madan 

rnoch . inde dicitur fescor imbuarach. 
Base .i. cech nderg . base dana intan is do cumrach bragat 

is ainm is dona mellaib dracconduib is diles. 
Bo .i. nomen de sono factum. 
Blinn .i. saile mairb . unde dicitur bas blindach. 

[p. 65, col. 3.] 

Blinn-auga [cajech in lingua galeorum dicitur. 
Bruinnecli .i. mathair .i. ar indi biathos noidhena for a bruin- 
nib id est suis mammillis. 
Bee quasi ecec ebride. 
Bidbu gree bitheumatur .i. bis mortuus .i. adroilK a bas 


Bdire graece barontes fortes unde dicitur . no baire .i. buire. 
Binn .i. a pinnro .i. on cruit 
Brinna .i. a verbo frendo .i. ar ni labra reil vel a bruto 

Bratan .i. birfuten .i. en bis ar fut in uisce . quia tit bir 

uisci biror marsin. 
Ballan a greicc . ballanus .i. glandis [ (Idlctvos .i. glans ] .i. 

dercu ar a cosmailius. 
Bel .i. bieol .i. eolus in bidh 7 dichned derid til and fodo . 

no eolus isimbeo e. 
Ben .i. bi aen imrigne vel quia per quasi bona. 
Bert quasi port . a verbo porto .i. imarcuirim. 

a bratia [brathy?] .i. on duilinn liubair ar a cosmailius 

diblinuib. No breo (.i. teni) ar a fatt e. 

[p. 66, col. 1.] 

'an .i. fiach .i. brancus [fiQoyxog] a greic . guttur laitin 7 
is de berar din eon ar met a slaugaide. 
'ait his quasi babtis .i. baptismum latine. 
inne .i. brufainde .i. fainde in bru oldas. 


Borr A. aborra .1. elefaith [leg. ab ebore .i. elefaint?]. 

Bairenn A. borr onn .i. cloch mor. 

Baislec a basilica graece regail .i. ecclesia .i. tech rig nimi. 

Caihlac .i. catholicus [xatfoAtxog] graece ,i. universalis a latin 
.i. aen airbert bith .i. infinite. 

Curson A. sui. 

Cadb .i. cam. 

Cddh .i. a graeco cadus .i. sanctus . uncle dicitur cadh each 
raot co canoin comiiaim. 

Cds A. caingen .i. a causa. 

Carthoit A. craibhdech. 

Cast A. genmnuigh. 

Causal .i. rinde. 

Capull .i. lestar nuisce. 

Canccll A. cancella .i. cliath . inde dicitur crann caiugel .i. 
crann cliath .i. cliatha isincrunnsin .i. iter na cleircib 7 
na hoga fo cosmuilius rornbui fial teuipaill . ar is cliath a 
ainm conifochrae claraigh ut dicitur crocaingel .i. cro- 
cliath . ar is cliath munabe cleithiu fair. 

Cleiihiu A. a .i. mullach cliath. 

[p. 66, col. 2.] 

Celt A. vestis . ut dicitur deceit .i. brat 7 lene. 

Celtair A. etach nuair .i. ni maith contui cotuctar alo as. 

Cim A. airget. 

dm [leg. cimb] .i. cuing. 

Oil A. cutruma. 

Cuife A. tulcumae. 

Cumcumla A. baile sentse lasna gente a coraruicced dias. 

Cuifre A. connaircle no comsuilge . ut dicitur muna (s. in.) 

do a cuifre. 

Cufernoe A. each cosmail is maith dia imrad. 
Caimper A. coimlonti .i. fer is gnath ac irnguin icain. 
Camprius A. magh quasi campus. 
Cce A. tech . ut dicitur cerdcre .i. tech cerda. 
Crescce A. crescae .i. tech mbec ndereoil. 
Cail .i. comet . ut dicitur caile .i. ben cometa. 
Cul A. carpat. 


Culmaire A. saer denma carpait 
Cickt .i. geibire .i. rinclaire. 
Cacht A, cumal .i. bantraill. 
Cuihal A. tlaith . ut dixit in file 
Diam cuthal craide tlaith 
rombathad (no rombuthad) for mortuinn muaid 
matain mir docoid ba [p. 66, col. 3.] moch 
graid mic lir arloch fatuaith. 
Clo .i. gaeth . ut dicitur . Curchaib tarsal septas cloa .i. 

seites gaeth. 

Coicell A. imradhugud . ut dicitur imbreithir icoiceill ingnim. 
Cmc \. comairle . ut alius . domruicim cuan 7 dombruc fo- 

bithin is inann coicne coic dotnuc 7 donuice. 
Caitmae A. craes. 
Cro A. bas . ut dixit corbmac 

Peccad buan ollbrath eachbi 
nirob flaith imcri comcro 
imdoenacht a maj'c de bi 
cidtii bud rig ni bo ro. 
Cuindfech A. fas .i. imechtar seicheluig ar is fas on . ut di- 
citur cuindfech ni co cet curu. 
Cutatt A. fas. 
Cuetoll A. cnu caech. 
Cros A. o ni is crux. 
Cochmean A. ballan. 
Cochmeine A. ballain beca. 
Creat .i. carpat. 

Cinaithe cinadh aithe .i. luagh a cinad in duine 7 rl. 
Coindiulg \. cumaid da brathar for aonorba . coindiulg din 

.i. commaith ar ni fetar cia de fofaigebed alaile. 
Cmnnisem A. coindfe arisma .i. dun co trebaibh. 
Core A. clann . ut dixit corco luighdech luide .i. clann 

Cdmh A. . cainte. 

Car A. cachmbrisc [cfr. Lat. caries , Skr. $f\. 
Cresen A. cleirech .i. creando. 
Cera A. ainm don dagda. 


[p. 67, col. 1.] 

Coibche A. cennach ut dixit tulach na coibche. 
Cruith A. glic no crodha . ut dixit 

a Mailduin [a Mailduin] 
anatberainn frit arun 
imatrubhairt cailg cocruith 
rodamar dolo forbuith. 

Coach .i. ruathar . coach diarmada de breg baraind. 
Carr .i. gae. 

Celtair A. gae . ut dicitur diceltair .i. crann cin gae. 
Cearb .i. airget. 
Cim .i. airget. 
CiMchnaidm A. tuadnaidm. 
Cuachdunad .i. tuadhdhunad. 

Comhgne A. fis cachrig robui icomamsir fria ceile .i. corn- 

Coth A. biad. 
Cotach A. caomna. 
Creither A. airdeeh a creatara .i. Ian . ut dicitur dodailed 

fim icreithir .i. fin inardhigh. 
Cob A. buaid. 
Cobhta A. caemna . ut est daig a gena rocamon cobhtha .i. 

buaidchu .i. coemu. 
Caimse .i. leine . a camisia. 

Coindse A. drech . ut dicitur cid cnedhach a coinnse. 
Caiche crick A. ansruth [?] bis oc dighail greisi a coiccrich. 
Coinsiud A. lestar coimsighthe. 
Cuimliucht \. cachsuilig. 
Cuicliunn A. .v. leth uinge. 
Clumat A. dochtad ut dixit [p. 67, col. 2.] baethcor clumtar 


Crotlwl .i. croth adhnuall dognither anainisir in crochta. 
Conel A. ben t6t i cuanricht. 

Cianach A. ingen fergusa forcrmV/ brig ambui a mathair. 
Caut A. cenn. 
Crumall A. faobhar. 
Cicce A. fedil. 
Cumla A. laithe fledhe. 


Cingis .i. quinquagesinfus 7 subaudivit dies . in coicatmad 

la o caisc. 

Crithgablach (.i. aigech) .i. arinni concerta gabhla nangrad. 
Conar .i. cinfer no cin ar. 
Coscadh .i. guscath. 
Cuadh .i. tidcuadh. 

Cuirrech .i. a curribus .i. o chairpthib. 
Cdinte .i. o coin ar is inann dan frisgniat .i. aursaire. 
Ceboce .i. cuebache [heu Bacche?] .i. dia fina .i. ba he sollamuin 

bache [Bacchi ?] leosum samon . coebachi din .i. mor uar 

abachi [o Bacche?] no dirsan sain abachi [o Bacche?] 
C robed .i. imfer cro imbe riaglad ar dia. 
Clen .i. toL 

Cercenn A. cuaird amsire .i. a circinnio .i. o gobolriiin. 
Creatra .i. a creatura. 
Ceirbsire .i. scoaire .i. a cervisia. 
Cuma .i. ab eo quod est communis . unde dicitur as ciuna 

lium .i. is comdes cipe dib. 

[p. 67, col. 3.] 

Cich .i. cichis [x/xi] grec . luibh asa taet as. 

Ceu graece ceus [xeidog?] .i. nubs . unde bithce quia incerta 

7 immobilis est 

Cimiis .i. a cima .i. imechtar lignorum .i. lene. 
Cin mcammim .i. a verbo cingto [quinque?] ar it cuic 

tuagha ata techta dobeith inti. 

Coi 7 cainedh .i. cinogh graece .i. lamentatio .i. lamcomairi 
Crann .i. ere a fond. 
Centecul .i. combrec rotruaillned ann .i. cainecul is do is ainm 

iarom la bretnaibh do ollainn chillches .i. dia ndeni pell. 
Crocinn .i. crocfinn .i. finna gen* .i. finna in samgemen insin . 

cui contrarie dicitur gaimin .i. gaimfinn .i. isia a finna 

side quod hieme occiditur . ainm coitcenn doib siche 

.i. sicce quod fit in pariete. 
Cathas[ach] .i. cathfesach .i. feis foite ind oig ina cathgreim 

comatain . cathfesach iarum cech fer is gnath ann. 1 
Culpait .i. cailfuit . cail coimet. fuit .i. uacht j. coimet ar uacht. 

1 Here the tezt is corrupt: cathfesed iarnm cat is gnat. 


Cubuchul quasi cubicula .i. a cubiculo .i. inatt cnmang. 
Case quasi pasc .i. a pascha. 
Gride don crith forsambi. 
Ceimesdin .i. bangaleine. 

Crochit .i. crochcuit .i. croch gachnard 7 gachninn .i. cuit 
sesa airighdae insin. 

[p. 68, col. 1.] 

Comos .i. composti [leg. compos] .i. potens no comes leis 

forcach no comasgud coda doib. 

Cuirrech imorro dorada fri gach seiscenn .i. corra segait ind. 
Cuing .i. on congbail dobeir for na damhuib. 
Corr .i. a cursu ar ni erge do lar sine cursu prius. 
Cadhan .i. cse a dim .i. a inad no a atlhba quia non apud 

nos semper manet .i. caid a bhfaind .i. a cluimh. 
Car-race. i. gorsecc 7 gor gel isin combricc . No carnsecc hi 7 sechc. 
Cendais .i. fosaid on cind he. 
Cortar .i. cuirter fri hetach hi . No coraigther no coor .i. 

cohimell is dir a breth 7 cordir annsein intaithmech. 
Carr .i. earn donither fair 7 [dichnedh] deiridh fil inde. 
Cuithe .i. cua 7 te, unde dicitur cua coifid .i. fid cua co 

c fas ann. 

Caill .i. a calle . id est semita ferarum. 
Cruach (.i. arbar) .i. coir (corr?) a naC .i. a uachtar 7 issed 

cid a ichtar . No coir uaigter hi no carrach ara tabar 

cuici do carruib arba. 
Colcuig .i. cuilcaid [p. 68, col. 2.3 .i. comet cadza's hi .i. is la 

huaisli bis. 
Cual .i. o na cuaillib bit innti isberar . vel quasi gual .i. on 

gualuind ar is fuirri bis a truma . vel quasi csel .i. a calon 

[xcSfttt, xoHov?] latine. 
Coi imtrochti .i. contraodio [contractio ?] no codrach .i. malum 

.i. contracht din. .i. comolc. 
Coccad .i. comcath. 

Cullach .i. collach ar met a cuil la mathair 7 la siair. 
Comrurga .i. seachran. 

Dagh .i. maith. 
Droch .i. olc. 


Droch .i. maith . ut est droch do drochuib . dag do daghaib . 
Droch dono .i. roth carpait ut dist mor muni an: 
Is annam iarnimrim 
iter caisil ocus loch 
inid aithenn lindabrach 
feras aran Mm da droch. 
Deeach .i. de faach .i. comrac da sillaeb .i. traig . 7 cip lin 

sillaeb conrisat ann iarsin is deeach a ainm beos. 
Dibeoil .i. cin urlabra. 

Dein .i. tipra .i. didomuin .i. adhbul a doirnne. 
Die .i. cui . ut dixit cohnan i marbhnaidh cuimin: 
Ni maidh craide ce [leg. cen?] chie 
marb teimhe coch be adie 
inarfeimdetar iar cliu 
ua beoa iar cuiminra. 
Duihell .i. dub dianeipil .i. saighnen. 

[p. 68 , coL 3.] 

Doilces .i. dlomuit ces naneolais connach bi fair. 
Darb .i. cumul .i. bantraill. 
Daithen .i. soillsi no taithnem . ut dicitur . rogab daithne 

guth alia .i. soillsingud. 
Done .i. doltach. 
Dal .i. pars. 
Diceltair .i. crann gae. 
Doglus .i. drochsoillsi .i. glus soillsi iarsinni dombeir neach 

icumhe 7 imbron for a suile. 
Dobur .i. duabuais. 

Duar .i. rann . ut dixit . Cla duar donesa nath. 
Dorbchas .i. deabaidh no dormainecht. 
Domuine .i. doarduine . Dor A. duine muirne. 
Dicachlacein .i. ar diultad bis in cein aik is aidbliugud. 
Dibath .i. adhbul bas .i. iarsinni na facuib nech dia eis. 
Ding .i. decmaic. 
Dimdin .i. idhan .i. main diadha. 

Diuderc .i. adhbul de'icsiu ut dixit . Fil duine ris bu buidhe, 

lium diudercc 7 rl. aliter. Dia mor do mur. t. diuderc nder. 

Deideil A. laegh bo . ut find dixit deinech ailig asitcuitigh 

imnid intathoc aruibhe airle atbath denenn meUte dedil. 


[p. 69, col. 1.] 

Dath .i. uaire, ut di<jjtur . Dath no molfar ar met mo nert 

.i. uair nonmolfam. 
Daiihmedk .i. uaire aisneid. 

Dobrach .i. fliuchaide . ut dixit fer muman indain in meirlig 
Ulcha dobrach indomnach 
i luann i mairt mac feirnech 
fobratach senrach soimlech 
sruamach maignech mil meirlech. 
Doimliag .i. teghais clach. 
Dobriih .i. dobur 7 ith .i. usce 7 arbur. 
Difoiche .i. cin foichidh nagra. 
Diuclidther .i. crenaidthear. 
Donn .i. ri. 
Deimm .i. meabal no aisc . ut dicitur ni bo deimm .i. nir- 

bo meabhal. 

Disert A. desertum .i. derechtae. 
Dee .i. screbal. 
Deithe A. deidhe. 
Daigh .i. ignis. 

Deiscell .i. deabuidh .i. ciall dis. 
Diubruduth .i. bru eitiud broc detfa . Diubruduth din diebru 

eitiud .i. ni araghara inmbroc nadetfa. 
Deistiu .i. doruartet . ut dixit . Diam deistinuib athair aendan 

.i. mas ingen nama doruarteit de cloind in athar. 
Deimdil .i. trebar. 
Duillenn .i. gae . ut dixit fer muman 

Is dana drech daimine 
iter ocaib eirechtae 
isa sithmbrugh suidithe 
leicith duillen ndeilithe. 

[p. 69 , col. 2.] 

Daldbach .i. airbere tre chiiibhdius 7 ni fes cia da ndentar 

.i. dallfuach. 
Doeduine .i. dechduine. 

Debrath .i. brath indsce . Debrath din .i. deil a brat[h]. 
Diggass .i. dicoiss, ni indula do cois. 
Dirim .i. reim tire no diairim. 


~)iaisc .i. ni husa aisc de. 
~)aif .i. deog. 
~)er \. ingean. 

.i. adhbul . ut dieitur dermair .i. adhbul mor. 
~>mimden .i. in firmeimint 
~)emdl \. demon. 
~)eimre .i. din amra. 
~)omanche& .i. dam mainces .i. mainces bo ar is coitcend di 

ceiniul ani as bos quidam. 
~)orllv& .i. quasi dobur lux .i. solus dorcha .i. eiterscarad 

lae 7 aidche . Dedhol similiter . de .i. laithe . dol .i. 

solus . solus dolus .i. dubia lux. 
lercnat A. derc a net no derc iat 

.i. daircnu .i. cnu na darach hi. 
^erbloma .i. de urbad doniter hi no diserb .i. ni serph 

imbi iiiti. 

^iseicir (no discir} .i. dis a coir .i. bee. 
)ul A. cainte .i. dofuluchta ara doilge. 

.i. doaircsina e .i. ni ail la nech cid a deicsin no di- 

serc he. 

.i. file quasi dos .i. tindscra. 
Dald [leg. Dall?] a talpa . no diseill .i. cin suili ar id est 

seill .i. suil. 
daliiiebar sithula .i. sithal arisithlad in lenda donit[h]er 

aca dail. 

[p. 69, col. 3.] 

in bo (no a verbo) domo [leg. dono] tabraim no ar 

damaid iria gabail. 
~)ocho A. preputo unde doig dieitur. 
Jeabaidh quasi debaeth .i. dee is baeth aicce. 
Ddssacht A. di fodiultad na bi socht itir e. 
~>es quasi dex a dextera. 
Dorrsaig [leg. Dorsaid] A. icon dorus saidess. 
Der a graeco dero [<Jpw?] .i. cado quia cadunt lacrimae. 
Descaid A. caid iat 7 snabuis quia fit deis each suabuis . 

no descad daescairigid na daine ebaite. 

dulio [dovAftw] id est servio . duli din fogantaigi. 
Dalb A. breg a dolo .i. on ceilg. 


Descad imorro cind .i. ties don cud .i. don cind iatsein quia 

fit cut .i. cenn . ut dicitur falcud. 
Druih imorro .1. oinmit quasi diraith .i. cen fiach fair ina 

cintaib acht aithgin. 
Druih .i. raerdsech (no mertreach) dir seth isein .i. a los- 

cadh bu dir di quia fit aet[h] tene. 
Droighin .i. trog sen sen is trogmaire do crannaib. 
Delgh .i. del secc no deleget quod legit [leg. ligat] duas 

partes do gae. 
Dris .i. der uis .i. dereoil 7 uis . et inde dicitur drean .i. 

der 7 en . no dereoil . no druidheen .i. en doni fastine. \ 
Dernu .i. eodem modo . no dir ni .i. ni direch no reidh .j 

ut dicitur niredhe dernu. 
Dilmuin dele muin .i. deiligud gach hi for a muin . no dilanmain 

.i. cen mnai aici. 
Dorimart .i. tinol. 
Dobuil .i. cinbuil. 
Dercained (.i. urn fagail fochraice) .i. dicreitem no amarus. 

[p. 70, col. 1.] 

Emdhe .i. fomnae no bith do menma ut dictum est: 

A ma^'c ni maith in dogni 

indredh tire muscraide 

eimdhe na tairsit occa 

dub tire daglas fota. 
Ellam .i. a laim esti. 

Ele \. ab alio .i. imeghem .i. ab ega .i. capra bcced dor 
Ecna .i. eo [ev] A. bonum . gno .i. gnosia [yviooig 

scientia . ecna din .i. bona scientia. 
Etan .i. dind ancind. 

Ecen .i. cin eca . no eca cana .i. e"cc riagla hi. 
Erirt . ni coir firt do . no esard .i. is [leg. ni] arcl he. 
Etsruth .i. e"tsod .i. sodhu medonach in laei. 
Ethach A. quasi aithech .i. doniter a aithe for neach. 
Eilid aid eile togais di. 
Esclonn .i. uisce luath eistib .i. sisiubluath. 

1 This seems corrupt. 


Eochair .i. eo [fi>~\ .i. rectum 7 cur .i. curum [curvum?] 

quod sic est. 
Erb A. quia herbis pascitur. 
Eirmed .i. tomus. 

Fiacuil .i. onni as tigo .i. sa[ithim 7 cuil onni is 
labia 1 .i. is in beol bit sati iat . No fecond hole iat 

Figell a vigilia .i. frithaire. 

Fagen .i. a vagina .i. ontruaill. 

Faithcke .i. fethcai .i. conair iar na fethugud .i. reidhugud. 

Fuine .i. fo (.i. maig, leg. maith) in ni he. 

Fual quasi fuil ar a dath . no quasi bual usci. 

Fachell .i. focell in gille dia tabair bis a med se . No fon- 
gellad bis a comhallad. 

[p. 70, col. 2.] 

Fedan a foedere .i. on acomol. 

Fuad .i. arad. 

Farlaegh .i. tilgan. 

Fidir .i. fath. 

Feidhil .i. urnuighthi. 

Focknad .i. lasamnacht. 

Fola .i. bann. % 

Fidan .i. inar. 

Fe .i. ferg. 

Ferg .i. laech. 

Fortorga .i. examail no diadha. 

Forgla .i. toga, 

Fuachtoir .i. cnedh. 

Folfaighe .i. imslan. 

Faehguth .i. mire. 

Ferend .i. cris. 

Fuarloch A. uisce etrom. 

Feib .i. margin. 

Fosair \. foirithin. 

Gniich a cruciatu .i. pianadh no cumgach. 
Guth a gutture. 

1 MS. figo .L salabia. 


Gilla .i. cillus grec unius manus . ar is lam do each a aen 


Gelsin eel a celo. 
Guba suspiria osnad. 
Gaeth quasi caeth cathero [xa9aiQto] graece purgo latine .i. 


Gruiden .i. goirt sen .i. scan 7 goirt hi. 
Galgat .i. taghail. 
Gaitis .i. gonus .i. marbus. 
Goidelg .i. guth elgae .i. guth erennach ar ata intainmsin 


[p. 70, col. 3.] 

Imscing .i. tech bee itallad imdhai. 

Irchaire .i. iarcairdes .i. cara ecnairce . ut dicitur irchaire 

gach finechaire. 

Indbe (.i. inde caelad) .i. biadh nindib .i. isna caelanuib. 
Indtech .i. set conaire. 
Indtliucht .i. latine .i. intellectus. 
Inithil .i. inmedhonach .i. intrebh tighe imedhon. 
Innlat .i. lat on ni as lavo .i. dogmm [leg. dogrinim ?] . Innlat 

din .i. diunnach nind .i. pedum et*Bjftnuum. 
Inutile tire .i. inat itallad in comorba . Inntile dono .i. lestar 

mbec italla digh. 
lath nAnann .i. eiriu .i. anu mater deorum ut gentiles 

Imbas .i. dicetul foceird in file ina bosa 7 contuil iaram 7 

a di bois ime di leicniu co tadbanar do ina codlad ni 

dentar nachdaigh daig focuirdis demna occo. 
Ingraighe .i. eirghe inde satir. 
Innrecht .i. eomdiubairt no neirarecht . ut est indrecht fir .f. 


larus .i. iartar . ut dicitur iar fis 7 rl. 
Inbleogan .i. intoxal .i. athgabail gabus in trcn do fir fine 

dogabar i cinuid in cintaigh curotoxla side arincintach. 

[p. 71, col. 1.] ^ 

Ic .i. slan . ecessia [axso/ua] graece salus latine. 
Indile (.i. tormach) intolis graece augmentum inter iO. 


Itharna A. caindell .i. ith feorna .i. imm . inde ith na heorna 

no fer lasus amail ith isincaindill. 
Usil .i. thisfil 7 uasal .i. thuasfil. 
J//jc/<md .i. inde incinn bis. 
l/nn^ .i. intextum .i. fige. 
ilris .i. ere as .i. asaneire bis sisi. 
uatla A. ettila .i. bee a heite. 
In ni. A. iarfoi .i. fohiart[h]ar bis .i. fo hirbull. 
mchtar A. ictir .i. actalmuin. 
Trdft.irc A. ardeirc .i. ar suil bis. 
Vmbarach A. imba iubar solis turcbail grene. 
wrsu airisiu ar is fuirri tairisess in teg uile . No ersonitim 

graece ostium latine. 
T nnuraid A. innuu robaith . no in anno rofaith .i. isin biiadain 

tairnic ann. 

mndles A. in fodiultad ni les he acht lanech. 
Vase A. e uisce .i. inuisce he. 

Wnathur A. inloiter ind gach mbiad . no indethar ind tet each 
ni ethar .i. each biad. 

[p. 71, col. 2.] 

\soes A. soillsi idem et les. 

taa/vjr .i. gabal . ut est ath dalaarg .i. dagabul. 

lyuar .i. borb. 

mans A. lam. 

Lang A. breg no mebul . ut est senchan torpuidh 

Bes dolangaib linib ciall 

grian dotaithne tar adaigh uar 

direch ndet M saiged set 

ocus breg nambriathar mbuan. 
Acpacli .i. comsuig 6 laitin 7 6 gaideilg .i. loquax 7 h'ach 

.i. fiach-labhar. 

Jlw .i. each mbec unde dicitnr liilaigli .i. laigh mbec. 
Jltt .i. olc . ut dicitur ni len hi lesugud .i. ni len olc cia 

tecmad olc ag in lesugud. 

I*TO .i. cachmaeth ut dicitur lemlacht .i. lacht maeth. 
\\<eo8 A. imdergad. 


Lann A. urgabail .i. tolg no buinnc dognither i lestar uinha 

no airgit . ut dicitur Cuach condib lannuib. 
Luchtar A. coite bis for uisque. 
Lau .i. bo. 
Lais A. laidh. 
Lecht A. lige. 
Lian A. ailgen. 

Lianchar A. caruit ailgen 7 condarcle. 
Lugnasa (.i. nasad no acobair no gnas) .i. nasad loga ar is 

lug dorosgelad aenach [p. 7 1, col. 3.] imbarach taite foghmair.l 
Loem .i. aimser . Ldem dono .i. in cliath bis fon arbar ica 


Liamuin .i. each sochrucht no each suidhech. 
Liugairne .i. nomen viri .i. mac luigech lagha mic niogha^ 

niiadhat 1 . ut dicitur: eladhar firt fuirmigther lia liu-1 

gairne laigen. 
Lingar A. tiagh imbi aidhme legha .i. duillenna mina bis ised 

do deiliugud nalosa biti indib na rocomuscit. 
Lerg .i. each neislinn. 
Litor .i. lobur no each nimleabair. 
Liber .i. saer. 

Laeighan [leg. laigen?] .i. gai. 
Lufe .i. band*. 
Luirc A. suil. 
Lucorb A. oirb locha. 
Laime A. biail. 
Lo A. failid. 
Laeb A. b6. 
Laes A. h'ach. 
Laime A. deogh. 
Leithet A. leth. 
Linmuine A. ainm tiprait as romuigh loch nethach . Liatlnni 

.i. in magh tarsa tucad . ut dixit anominit .i. curnan: 
Doragha linmuine tar liathmuine 
foleich bado 

cuinghid bela trascraid ornna 
denuid ethra. 

1 MS. nuaghat. 


[on a slip between p. 70 and p. 71.] 

onosnadh A. collad . ut est intan conosnedh patraic darlais 

ba ininis na ngaeideal robid. 

[muinterj .i. eland. 
gotk .i. mac. 
uinche \- sliab. 
Dig-no] . bai fergus for loingius iarna digna (.i. sarugadh) 

i macaib usnech. 
Bradluaisc] . forfaccuib bradluaisc (.i. folt) in leith macha 


[p. 72, col. 1.] 

achu A. liuchiu .i. fliuch[u] hi quam aliae aves. 

endan .i. lend arnoenar no aen dia lenaud menuia hi. 

osait .i. a los uait .i. a cend. 

eacc aiieiccter sis 7 suas . no lee bit seicc. 

edb quasi ledb .i. leth in faidb hi 7 hide dieitur lethar .i. 

leth iar fir .i. feoil 7 lethar. 
esan .i. les each bole imbi linn . sic eisim. 

r arc A. each. 

'arcmuilinn .i. niuil[inn] imsui each. 
fol nomen viri .i. dorsaidh temrach . ut dieitur molach .i. 

is cosmuil fri mol ar ni anadside di labra cai[d]che anas- 

beirside taet ind taet as. 

filgedan .i. molcuitan .i. cuit moil . ar ise aighe dobertha do. 
fonach .i. clesamhnach. 

r anach A. 6ni is monachus .i. a grec [f.iovct%6g]. 
lancadh A. oibriud man .i. lam. 

T anach A. feoil bruithe .i. manducando [p. 72, col. 2.] .i. o tomuilt. 
Kdh A. leth .i. midhbae .i. graine . Midbae din .i. lethben 

no lethuagh fobith intoraind bis iter indalaben de. 
land .i. uinge . ut dieitur . Secht manna oir for .1. 
fo A. moch . ut dieitur Indiasar dam do a 7 rl. 
feichem A. gallbrecht . ut dieitur dimeichem .i. nemmorad. 
teistech A. cuntabartach. 

tirinne A. gae . ut est fiundergaiter rnuirne niblith. 
meise A. is tualaiug. 


Mem .i. pdcc. 

Mele .i. capall. 

Milliud .i. misilludh .i. feghad olc. 

Metheal .i. buanuighi .i. oni is meto .i. boingim. 

Muldach .i. seiscenn . ut dixit ua siagail ag tothlugud cairr 

Slicht a da gae tre gach nwllach 

cullach flescach ferach 

amail cairr a mberar lamach 

tre condold fand ferach. 

Melg .i. as . 7 melg .i. sugh fobith isberar cid fri cuirm 
mealg netha. 

[p. 72, col. 3.] 
Manadh .i. siigh. 
Midlach .i. medonlax .i. leth lax. 
Muadh .i. uasal no airmidin. 
Mairbild .i. maris bellum .i. cath no imecla. 
Mitan .i. miaimsir. 
Men .i. bel . ut dictum est 

Coigne ger gonus daine 

ni frithe mara 

mairg troich tar roi rena 

adci mena maic snama. 
Meise .i. aurdraige no aurcon . ut dicitur Sliab mis .i. slial 


meise .i. dina aurdraigib rodolbhai . banba do macaib 

miled .p. .i. ben mic cermada. 

Maidhind A. imairec . ut est coach (.i. riiathar) ndiarmada 
di bregh baraind brath ndorar diam memdatar maidhinn. 
Mesroidhai .i. nomen mic dato. 
Morbi .i. seghaind. 
Moadh .i. ecosc. 
Mucha .i. sirecht. 
Murunn .i. dobarchii. 
Mut .i. gach ngerr. 
Moth .i. guth. 
Mengul .i. anart . ut dicitur . biadh noud mengach mengul. 

[p. 73, col. 1.) 
Nocht .i. adhaigh .i. quasi nox. 


Neacht .i. glan. 

Necht .i. ingen. 

Nimb .i. braon oni is nimbus ut est Oengus fo aibhlib iumhais. 

Nairne .i. temair .i. di anmuim in foraid roboi inte. 

Nairne .i. aislingthe . [Nar] .i. uasal . unde dicitur nar macguaire. 

Neit .i. dia catha . Nemon a ben . ut est be neit 

Neit (.i. guin duine) .i. gaisced. 

Nald .i. mor no adhbul. 

Nail amae .i. ismor inni. 

Netfte A. cailte .i. drochtaige . ut dicitur corbmac conbuith 

neoite .i. robris for cailte. 
Nangthae .i. ansae no diardain. 
N&nomain .i. ainm imerta ciuil dogniat sair. 
Naemdruim [leg. Naendruim] .i. ainm cille .i. noei tulcha 

isinninsi inafil. 
Nac .i. diultad quasi nee . nac dono .i. tairisim fri forngaire 

sruithe . ut dicitur cen nac gen dichmairc. 
Ninfos .i. fos tuinne. 

Nmdin ulad quasi novem dies . ar isi re laithe bitis isin ces. 
Nat .i. ton . ut dixit fer muman 

asbeir fiach goblom grag 
acreim nat namat anocht 
Nemain degha .i. uible tened . ut dixit fer muman 
neamain deaga deirge 
airethait berbtha biad ndeoil. 

[p. 73, col. 2.] 

Ness .i. aurnisi criadh . lege sanais cormaic 7 rl. 
\Nes .i. crecht. 
\Nes .i. animal. 
\N6s .i. tis nonbuir .i. tri rig tre hespuic tri tilid. 

i Oi .i. ovis . [oisc] .i. caera seise. 

\0smennadh .i. scrutadh o menmain 7 a meabhrugadh dogni . 
ut dixit inteicsine i farrad sencain: 

Ni mogenar fil andiu 

ocraith colgan inafiu 

arameince asberar fris 

osment osment adroch-eicis. 


Oidh A. obuidens [? obediens] .i. aurlaite . ut dicitur ism 
amra coluim cille ba hold ba Masai. 

Orait A. oratio .i. aurnaigthe. 

Oraet A. brat trebraigh. 

Ochsadh A. eiimsanadh . ut dicitur cen uarad cin ochsad. 

Ocsadh A. anal . ut dicitur ni fil aeht oxsadh. 

Ong .i. br6n no imnedh . ut dicitur 

ni rongad (.i. ni tainic) foichedh cose 

itemel each ongthae (A. faitech each foichedhach). 

Oscrad .i. tfscuiriudh .i. tochuiriud o gin. 

Aistreoir [leg. Oistreoir] A. dorrsaid. 

Oar A. guth. 

Ord A. adbar no dliged no airem no guide. 

[p. 73, col. 3-1 

Patraic A. ainm graid la roma[n]chu. 
Poncernd A. medh fairbech. 
Puincne .i. screpall. 
Pan A. pondus .i. di uinge dec. 
Pont A. borb. 

Pardits A. paradisus .i. locc 7 airir. 
Plet A. nomen rinda dogniat cerda. 
Prtd A. indile creiche. 
Po A. bos. 

Pattu A. poi-to .i. is to a bois ar dtmiine a reatha. 
Perecul A. cubhus. 

Ponair quasi fonair . ar is ac imorcor bairgen bis. 
Pur A. glan . oni is purus . unde est. 

Inti caras crabadh ngiir 

is dighnad lais uisce pur 

ibhid cailech betha buain 

i flaith iarnol uisque uair. 

ut est Puran .i. uaire nad brechtar do illdathaib acht 

Rus A. griiaid . ut dicitur conach romna rus richt . Rus dono 

imdergad 7 gach nderg. 
Roptene .i. gairge . ut dixit cano : 


Ni urgeona in muige 

ni impu mo gairge roptene 

niadh do muc iosci 

coccad geisi ceirae. 
Robdach A. fobairt tria feirg. 
Ropathach A. ainm ropu. 
Rams A. sens .i. ondi is rado latine. 
Rue .i. s6n. 
Roirge .i. rorige. 
Roer[c] A. roeric no roferg. 
Ruiredh .i. rith mor hi cian. 
Rus A. rofis .i. senchus . ut dicitur a mic am iugaiu cia 

roich do nis erenn. 
Rerachus .i. cas caingen . Ree .i. temporis. 
Rudrad .i. roduradh .i. anadh fota for tir nach aile. 
Rard .i. roard. 
Risil .i. roisil. 
Rtts .i. sirecht 
Rathonn .i. brothrach. 
Rang .i. tradhnai. 
Radb .i. rop. 
Rvcon A. reconn. 

Sanct .i. naom. 

Sin A. muince. 

Sinann A. slabhradh. 

Seghais A. ainm intsige itil intibrat asa taot in Boind. 

Sartan A. sart .i. cnoe . an .i. anda .1. bliadain .i. olann 

bliadna bis for cairib. 
Smer A. tene . ut dicitur srnerfuait teue. 
Sin Morainn A. ar a cruinni. 
[p. 74, col. 1.] 

Sul A. grian . inde dicitur dari [leg. dar rig?] sulut 
Sruamach A. brothrach. 

Sogen A. find . inde dicitur sogen mac conaill cernaigh. 
Sumdealbh A. borb [ ] Sidhin .i. dam allaidh. 
Sidhin A. ossfeoil. 


Sorb A. locht. 

Serpan .i. cenel narbha .i. ba doich bidh e in corco . [ser- 


Seichill A. foxal . ut est sechill focoisle a muinntir fein. 
Sithboth A. teach sighe teach righ. 
Seachamlai A. cainte. 
Seithir A. nomen mulieris .i. ingen fergusa mic leite ri 

ulad . roboiii ifarrad anliian mic maghach di feinib 7 

mac d6 .i. nie mac anliian . et de ilia dicitur inloiligh 

seichir [leg. seithir] sealb 7 rl. 

Triath .i. ri 7 mair [leg. muir] 7 tore . ut est imsilentio. 
Tigh .i. each forcenn nderid . ut dicitur tigail icroich 
deighinach tairic inbo feich. 

[p. 74, col. 2.] 

Tigradus (.i. rathus) .i. cm deighinach in sedit ted imuga 


Tiuglomrad A. inlomrad deighinach iarmbas in ceile. 
Tamon A. fograd filed fo cosmuilius tamoin .i. crann diarn- 

benar a barr . sic ille cin manchuine ni dlig dire acht 


Turtad A. come'icniugud. 
Turmu .i. mor mo . ut dicitur dobertha dot gille turrnu 

deit fadein. 
Timairle A. airle tim . ut dicitur: 

Domic timairle andiu 
iter fedaib fidmuiniu 
berthium dubron bes ogus 
incunnrad dorigenus. 

Tellur A. talom oni is tellus . tellrach areim. 
Tesc A. mias. 

Torlach A. luagh toire dobeir fine dia tuisech ar a toir. 
Trodt A. corp . unde dicitur fothrucad. troicit fo .i. fon 

uisce . no fo .i. maith don corp. 
Toth A. sugh . ut dicitur toth eithlinne .i. sugh eithliuue. 

[p. 74, col. 3.J 

Annon A. ebra, ecclesia agreic convocatio alaitin comto- 


gairm agaidheilg . ut dicitur ombi mac combi .xx. tech 
friannoine iadhadh. 

Andoit .i. eclais doet inaile as cenn 7 is tuiside (.i. tus). 
Anamain .i. emon an .i. na ceithri ree emnaiter innti. 
Ailt .i. tech . unde dicitur ailttire .i. saor denm[a] tighe. 
Ain .i. treide denadh ainm .i. taulach 7 fen 7 mullach 1. 
Aggen .i. aurlach . ut dicitur 

Braccan cloen sadil forsid 
fordruim eich is mac luigne 
nochonuil ceni tucas aggen (.i. cenn) 
nich is fodb ech setai fomil. 
Arfeith .i. airitiu no lesugud . ut dicitur arfeid cend a 


Aursearbach .i. gat no mugud. 
Alamdin .i. mein alua. 
Abacc .i. bee adbae fobith Senbic frith isin bdind . no bee 

a a. .i. a airde . ut est dam congair itir da a. 
Axal .i. uasal . ut est rainaic axal la hairbre arcaingel. 
Alccne .i. ail bee .i. digabtach indi is ail. 
Aigeth .i. aigithide. 
Alacht .i. aiHth lacht .i. ass [p. 75, col. i.] an ben torrach ina 


Aurdin .i. aurcomndeth. 
And .i. andus [annus] .i. bliadain. 
Anberbracht [leg. anforbracht] .i. an 7 fer 7 bracht .i. beul 

.i. fer cen beul ann. 
Aissecht .i. imrisain. 

Andomuin .i. domain and .i. ainm intire moin 7 lothrach. 
Ambracht .i. neprecht .i. fogail. 
Ainmesc .i. ni imfuluing meisce. 
Aisti .i. ab hastis .i. o tslisnib. 
Adben .i. etercian . bid dana aidben .i. uasal .i. tuisech na 

tuaithe gach uas araile coruigi in rig. 
Am .i. aubhann . ut dixit in file 

Mac conaigidh cosnum fris 
ni aiss tenid na midnais 
cene snides snechta find 
fidba for lind latha lais. 


Anart .i. neporte .i. ni formolad cosse. 

Adarci .i. tiadrusc . ar bid derc .i. suil . ut dicitur glaisderc. 

Antrend .i. anniin tire .i. ni tren fri clandugud narbha. 

Audoim .i. roi gait . ut dicitur audhaim corthe. 

An/en .i. ingnad . ut dicitur fri fuil in mil moir . ni fodmat 

bronda anfen. 
Anmain .i. anacul. 
Asa adbas .i. athfis .i. aisneis. 
Aine digin .i. di fodiultad ann nach coir biadh do caithem 

inn . no ditin .i. dol. 

[p. 75, col. 2.] 

Pereccul .i. cubus . ut est 

Feirnmi collin airecol 

asaaillem airecor 

foscirtsa dora perecul 

for mend macha muinecul. 

Polan .i. nomen viri . polan mac ming mic mic dedai ut 
dicitur maelbridi 

Tathais snechta siachta clo 

is dirand dotucht atciu 

Polan mac Ming triuin 

ni ciuin imacrand indiu. 

[p. 75, col. 3.] 

In principio (.i. tosach} fecit (.i. doroine} Deus coelum et 


Gurrofur .i. gur rodaingnid dia carcair ifirn arachind. 
Ar sin tra dorellsat .i. doroailset clanna adhaim for uaill 7 

Aslia tuirem 7 aisneis an rocesastar dulc .i. rofuilngestar 

clann eonain mic lafeth mic noe in cinel do clainn nae 

nach roi be agdenum intuir Nemruaid. 
Maith na tuisich badia tancatur isin sciathia (.i. maith iat fein). 
Doronsat mic milid imarbaid imrama ac tiachtain corucustar 

ir mac milid murcet do gach luing . mur iniath 7 ceth .i. 

Cindus aradha dosom gurbadalta arnirbeth etir . Isaire adcrar 

arbahinann andan. 


Feinius Farrsaid . Faraseus .i. divisns .i. inraind. 
Focnchaib ocus cendfortaib . fo crichaib .i. fo ceithri alrdi 

indomuin . focendfortaib .i. fotirthaib. 
Cid fodera in berla ebrai domarthain ag eiber sech each? 

ar muire 7 ar crist uad 7 ar bendachtain do. 
Dochumscaigedh ' intaenberla o gach cdil .i. guth .i. coimed 

.i. cual. 
Faittec .i. fer roindti na litri re divisus. 

[p. 76, col. 1.] 

Lomhon .i. luamain bis fuirre . no lu[man] .i. bee in manu. 

Leim .i. lueim .i. luudseim e. 

Lesc* .L leis a aise . no quasi lose* .i. bacaeh. 

Lenn .i. lee find .i. loe find 7 ainm do brut find. 

Loscuirn .i. la hos i ar is os in buaball arambi no la 

huais i. 

Lorg .i. lui airg .i. laich hi no larric. 
Lurga .i. leurgbail in cuirp [.i.] a togbail. 
Lobar quasi lebo[r] a lepra latine. 
Lepaid .i. faidh nech le. 
Lite .i. lotte .i. lotan artige i 7 tess indti. 
Leco .i. le co ho .i. co cluais. 
Leine .L lenis latine no lin i. 
Loscad A. soad euige conid losg e de .i. bacaeh vel qnasi 

lesgugud nech e. 
Long .i. saxanberla sin .i. lang .i. gach fada uile et inde 

long dicitur. 

Luachair .i. [fjliuch in uir imbi. 
Letrad quasi latratio [laceratio?] . no lethar soad .i. sond in 

lethair e. 

Letir .i. tirim a leath 7 fliuch a leat[h] aile. 
Lotar [lothar?] ambi braichlis .i. tinol ar tinol na lennann 

cuici . ut dicitur lotar (.i. comtinol) na fnair iarndibri- 

gaib rath. * 

Lon .i. tore .i. craide. 
Lon .i. baoth. 

1 Ms. documscaidhedh. * Ms. lesg. * Ms. losg. 

4 lothar ar nadh fuair iamaibh rigaibh rath . Cormac . (O'C.) 


Lorg lorcon enim grece avidus devorator . Laghin lore din 
angbaidh no laind for diuglantaid . no laghin a laginis 
[lanceis?] lagon [Ao'yx*??] graece hasta . Laighin dogairdis 
dono o trib anmannuib .i. domnaind galeoin lagin . 
galeoin roaltsat labrad for a longas . It galeoin imorro 
batar iarnaimsir icobuir ailella mic rosa ambrathar for 
tain bo cuailnge unde dicitur .xxx. cet nangaleon . Ocus 
nidat gailenga ar is cian mar re cormac galeng rofe- 
rad tain bo cuailngne. 

[p. 76, col. 2.] 

Mullach .i. muloach .i. cluasach. 

Mala .i. moo alloig oldas intedan. 

Mallann .i. na malach no fainde oldas in mala fein. 

Muad mullaig .i. medon in mullaig. 

Mell .i. milliud e no millti. 

Muine .i. a munio .i. daingnigim. 

Mesan .i. aon as mesa do conaib e. 

Molt .i. mo a folt no a ailt no a suit .i. a feth. 

Meth .i. mo a feth. 

Maoth .i. mocismeth . [leg. mo is meth.] 

Maot\K\al .i. maot[h] 7 Ml. 

Mas .i. mo a fas no mo tig as. 

Mennat .i. mianait .i. ait is mianach la each. 

Midach .i. mo" do eachaib e no maith ech. 

Muindter .i. muintoir .i. maine toirit do nech. 

Mias .i. mo is fois i. 

Mecon .i. mo cinis as. 

Meng .i. mi engna i .i. drochenigh. 

Mong .i. mo a hong .i. a fochaide .i. maile no leithi no cu- 

dum [leg. cutum] forati. 
Mang .i. mo is[s]eng . et inde dicitiir luaiti mang ina a nia- 

thair .i. derb. 

Muit quasi mutus .i. amlabar. 
Maide .i. mo a faide oldas a letfad [leg. lethet] . no me 

wait e. 

Mo-it .i. mi ait. 
Miscais .i. mo is cais i .i. casus tuitim . no mo sgis neicl 

oca deicsin. 


[p. 76, col. 3.] 

Mun quasi mo is aon . vel quasi min a verbo mingo latine. 

Mir quasi mur a nomine mursum [murrha?] latine. 

Mart quasi mortuus .i. marb. 

Mant .i. mo a saint bidh. 

Mag .i. mo is aghasda e ol in fid . no mo a aighe .i. a 

graifne each. 
Muinel .i. mo in feoil bis fair oldas for in cenn . no mo in 

eolach ata e fon cind. 
Mind quasi mund a munditia .i. on glaine. 
Minarba quasi minuitur. 

Medg quasi mo idg .i. mo deog de quam de cunctis. 
Muc .i. mucna a aigned .i. ni geib a munad o neoch si cut 


Meta A. mo a faiti .i. a faitchius uime fein. 
Mer quasi mur .i. imad ar fit mur .i. imat .i. it imda [na] 

mera no mo a uir caich dib oldas araile l . 
{Mall quasi mollis .i. maoth .i. amail na beth cnaim ann. 
Mer .i. mo air .i. a ferg. 
tyleinic .i. mo tic .i. meticc bud cert ann 7 cennfochrus uil 

imedon and. 

mor A. mo a iur .i. a feoiL 
Murduine .i. mo a ur .i. a talum. 
Mi quasi me .i. a indsce. 
munchilli .i. mancaille .i. man .i. lamb id est manus 7 cail 

.i. coimed. 

\Iuii- a nomine mare. 
mfUtiuch A. teach mellis. 
jjlfescatt .i. do mescad in loma asas. 
mfeisce A. mo deaisg i oldas a ciall aige. 
mes quasi mo in usu lignorum fructus 1 . 

[p. 77, col. 1.] 

\tfert quasi virt a virtute. 
'fed 3 quasi nid a nido latine. 

1 MS. idimdamera no da mo iuir caich dib araile. 

3 quasi mos quia sit in risu lignorum fructus (Cormac. F.). 

3 MS. Net quasi nit a ninda latine. 


Nia A. trenfer . unde dicitur nasc niadh. 

Not A. nota .i. signum .i. foillsiugud neic[h] et unde dicitur 

notul .i. noduaill .i. comarta uaille 6. 
Nasc quasi nex oni as nexo .i. imnaiscim. 
Nama .i. non am .i. non amatur. 
Nathan .i. erdairc .i. nath .i. ainm coitcenn dona huilib aistib 

eicsib unde dicitur natan quasi nath in aon .i. in olloman. 
Nare .i. nareibis [leg. ina reib bis] .i. in ruidiud tic isin 

gruaid 7 is do sein as nomen nare . Feile imorro ainm 

doneinech bunaid. 
Naithir quasi noithir .i. erdarcai[g]ther ar a olc . vel quasi 

aithir .i. aith air no naderach ertonadma heire. 1 
Nai a nave dicitur. 

Naisciu .i. deilidind fil .i. inne is en nescu din .i. en uiscide i. 
Nenaid quasi non fid i acht o lus no is cennfocrus nil and 

.i. teinfaid .i. faid in teinead bis aicce. 
Nes .i. anmanna .i. ni fos acht udmall. 
Nel quasi vel a nomine velum . ar as fial e edruind 7 grian. 
Neim A. [n]e tim .i. ni deogh i quia fim dicitur deogh. 
Nem A. nemo visit oculis. 
Noin .i. anna. 

Nonbur .i. a nomine novem. 
Nus quasi novus. 
Nua quasi nova. 

Nin .i. litir . ut dicitur dar mu ninu neide. 
Nen A. tonn . ut est reim nena .i. darnatonda. 

[p. 77, col. 2.] 

Occ quasi ac id est juvenis isinaicciue [sic]. 

Odor quasi fodar .i. dath foalda. 

Oe A. fae bid. 

Oge A. comlainius cin truaill[n]ed i curp. 

A. cluas. 

Ola ab oleo. 

Olann A. uile findfad. 

Omthund A. teind 6 frisinnom. 

1 The text here seems corrupt. 



nwa A. fuamna .i. morfuaim gaithe fria. 
Onna .i. baoth. 

Onmit .i. muit on da .i. amlabur 7 baoth. 
Orda .i. ard .i. calma et inde ordlach dicitur. 
Oscur .i. cur dar ess. 
Oscur .i. leim. 
Osar .i. fer is [s]o. 
Otrach .i. a tractu. 
Otan .i. uaid mead a fot. 
Othrus quasi fotoir uais .i. a toir fo uaisle. 
Osnad .i. on snuad .i. snim. 
Oin .i. o inde tic do neoch. 

Oifrenn .i. ondi as offero [leg. offerenda] .i. edbert cuirp Crist 
Ongad i. e. ab unguento. 

[p. 77, col. 3.] 

a puteo .i. on cuite dicitur put 

rail .i. faittrall id est faitbed do traillib hi . no pedursill 

.i. ar [a] silledh for pedar apstal. 

quasi faait .i. ait fuail 7 dichned derid uil ann. 
13 ur quasi purus ar deiride in tige hisin. 
rgatoir quia purgat peccatum. 

lann quasi bun-ind 1 .i. bun aice 7 indi budein . no ber 
de ind .i. a barr benar de. 

lecc .i. belecc .i. eccda ina bell . no pellset .1. seta pellis 3 
impi .i. a croicenn. 
st quasi pestis .i. teidm. 

.i. bistoll .i. toll bis indte. 
artcuine .i. partem canis no a part[e] gontair i no a partu 

'lo quasi bullo .i. a verbo bullio .i. bolgaigim. 
onc .i. a puncto latine. 

\<Plde .i. ainm inaid reidh a platea .i. on fait[h]che. 
Plutad .i. brisiud .i. a plutone .i. pluton .i. gaba ifrind. 
Poll quasi toll 7 cennfochrus tosaig uil ann. 

! l ils. banfind. ' Ms. set 7 a pellis. 


Pinginn quasi panung .i. pars in uncia . no benning .i. a 

ningnais a benn ata .i. cruinn. 
Pol .i. a paulo latine. 

[p. 78, col. 1.] 

Rer .i. Ion .i. baoth . ut est uindsi cugat in gillgugan mac 
rergugain (.i. mac loin) bid gach mait[h] agut ar a cind- 
gucan a cenngucain .i. a cindgegain. 

Raibced cet\h]ra .i. robeicedh din keicedh A. bogut[h] .i. gut[h] bo. 

Rind .i. crand . ar as do rind sceine do[g]nither. 

Renna .i. re nua id est gach re i tecuid ar ni dogres ad- 
cither acht anaill illo 7 anaill inaidche. 

Rota (.i. uisce) 7 rotan .i. on dergi asberar ar as rot gach 

Ruis .i. agaid. 

Rosir quasi risir a risu .i. on gaire. 

Ruice .i. naire . no ruice .i. ruadceo no ruitige. 

Rait on rota ambi a hinas. 

Roga quasi toga . ut dicitur toga de rannuib 7 cumal se- 
norba laisin saor no lasindfer. 

Remhor .i. romor . no reiin aire ar is aire a imarcraid. 

Ron .i. on rosnam do[g]ni asberar de. 

Ronna quasi sronunna .i. tunna srona quod est unda .i. tonn. 

Riasc .i. rouisce no re uisce no eisc riam. 

Rath .i. baile on rathes asberar. 

Rindsceine .i. roind .i. ind gach barr. 

Rod .i. rofada teit tar techta 7 inde dicitur echrod. 

Rastall .i. ris talmuin benas . vel quasi trastall .i. tristoll 
bis a cos. 

Rose 7 Ruse .i. on roaisced bis orra asberar. 

Rebad quasi ribad .i. rib doberar tairis. 

[p. 78 , col. 2.] 

Rannaire 1 .i. rannad dogni don biud 7 aire ainm coitcenn 
gach graid flatha ituaith. 

Saeghlonn .i. brethem 7 senoir 7 coloman . ut dicitur 

1 MS. Rondaire .i. ranna don biud. 


Saeghlonn brethem gin brath 
saeghlonn senoir sirsaeghlach 
saeghlonn gach ri foradu 
ocus saeghlonn colomu. 
.i. sosaobta e id est assa soudh. 

A. a sopinis [sapinis?] ar is fuidel peg. faigell?] taiged e. 
an quasi Man a nomine frenum. 
.i. sruaim .i. imat ena .i. nisce. 
thar .i. ar sreith nanesnad bis. 
nn .i. sronann .i. ann isin sroin bis. 
th .i. sruaim etha .i. imat eisc indte. 
t a verbo sta [statuo?] tairisim. 
b a stando ar a comnairte. 

ll A, is di iall hidi .i. di leinid . vel quasi sdiad .i. is di 
iadtar in muincille. 

n .i. is gae a haon .i. a haonar hi . vel a verbo scinde 
.i. dluige neich. 

it .i. genaige .i. as coifaitciusa forambi . no coi fait biuda 
do each e. 

ilp A. a verbo scalpo .i. lomruinL 
ethair quasi sos in fir imruma e. 
b .i. rub a verbo ruo [p. 78, col. 3.] .i. srainim 
r .i. a nomine soror latine. 
l A. sofillti i ar a maithe. 

h .i. sen-nech .i. neach as sine do conaib e .i. ar fat a ree. 
quasi secc a nomine siceus .i. tirim. 
tair a nomine psalterium latine. 
tan .i. scuit (.i. genaige) in ena e .i. in uisee. 
ne A. sommata . ut alius dixit 

Testa dimmudh ar saine (no suine) 
a ri duile ni deine 
nimda febach fuaim naine 
rogab legad ma leine. 
.i. suabais . ainm doilidh do mathair mac Milid. 

ig A. a tractu . vel quasi ter-rig 1 .i. rig terrum [leg. 
terrae] ar asi beras fri lar. 
MS. .t. rig. 


Truit .i. on treot imbi asberar . no on traite .i. on luas 

Tru quasi doru .i. doig a tuitim a verbo ruo . no tirii .i. ar 

ti a tutma ata. no a troja dicitur .i. aramence ahairsen. 
Truag .i. tru-ag .i. agasta do a beith gurab tru. 
Torsi .i. tor gach trom .i. tromsi hi. 
Truaill .i. diruaille hi. 
Tell[ur] a tellure. 
Tarathar .i. dair uathair .i. uath na darach fair ar a sicci 

Tonn a verbo tundo . vel a tondeo .i. ar berraid 1 in fer 

din murbach. 
Tuiresc .i. tairesc .i. tairis tescas gach ni . no direch tescus. 

[p. 79, col. 1.] 

Tulach .i. tuluach .i. uacht indti 7 hi na tul .i. nocht ar as 

nocht gach tul. 

Tairseach .i. tairis asdeach tiaghar. 
Tenga .i. te ingabann si .i. an bel tall. 
Troid .i. obunn i no liiath et inde dicitur ticfa i traide .i. 

coliiath . vel quasi tru ait .i. ait i la troich. 
Traill a nomine trulla .i. losud .i. ar doire a fognama. 
Tocad A. ticaid .i. ar ticadhus bis no ar ticuadh ata. 
Tir a terra. 

Tuinte* lin .i. a verbo tundo. 
Traigle .i. traig a letfad no daraigled doberar fair oca beim 

fein dia taobuib . no trogiall e .i. a ialla fein ase a trog 

.i. a clann. 
Tost .i. tae astas e. 
Tiag .i. on toga ar as toga set bis indte . vel a tego . 

[recti a theca]. 
Ton .i. a tonitru .i. on toraind bis indte . no a tono fo- 

graigim 3 . 

Tarrach .i. uamnach quia fit tor .i. ecla. 
Timpan .i. tim .i. bocc .i. sail 7 ban .i. uma bis iiulti . vel 

quasi simpan a symphonia .i. on bind[i]us. 
Tagra quasi dagrad .i. dana grad bis aim. 

1 MS. berraig in fer. * MS. Tuindti. 3 MS. fograidim. 


\Tustatt .i. artustoltar riasinleim. 

Termonn A. tirma a maine ciii a fliuchadh aimiich. 

Tin A. meith no bocc no maot[h] . ut dicitur frisbert tinu a 

taoib 7 ni bi fri coilcedh tinea. 
\Tin tosach no bunad tindrem unde dicitur tindscetal. 
ITafAtttf .i. ata ocut. 
iTathum .i. ata ocmn 1 . 
VTaigdi .i. biadh laithe. 
\Toisg A. tosga .i. causa. 

Tafonn a verbo tafon foon id est corruptio vel effusio san- 

[p. 79, col. 2.] 
jt/a-saZ .i. uasa fil. 
\Ua .i. 60 he oldas in mac [7 intathair] ar astoiseche* mac 

7 athair inda ua. 
\Uath .i. sceach ar imad a dealg. 
Waitne .i. uaid suidig tar indeilb. 
lUall A. o aille asberar. 
(flair ab hora latine. 

iVillenn i. uille na fil ann .i. da cnaim no da fid. 
K7tk .i. on tsuth (.i. on loim) asberar. 
Mflchae .i. cai (.i. tech) na hoile i. 
vUlu .i. uille no intadnacul eile. 
wJsca quasi susce .i. geir suis .i. na muice. 
<Uryal .i. togbail. 

Unach quasi anech .i. nighe in a .i. in cinn ar as a gach ard. 
WJmaigti .i. ab ore niges neach .i. o gin inti canas. 
mJaran A. uar a en .i. a uisge. 
.Urla A. ciab . ar as for ur lues hi .i. tosach quia fit ur gach 

toisech 7 iar gach ndeidinach. 
Unga .i. ab uncia latine. 
\Jgdar ab augmento ar do[g]ni fein ni niia. 
Ustaing .i. [uas toinges] na huaisle ca [leg. co] toinge im 

7gga A. aige aaonar ata se. 

' l MS. ogum, * MS. taisce. 


Udbairt .i. uad berar 7 ni haige bis. 

Umal quasi humilis latine . humilis vero quasi humo clinis 

Umae id est ab humo ar is de uir do[g]nither. 

[p. 79 , col. 3.] 

Umdaim .i. ab umbilico .i. imlecan. 

Ucing .i. cablach . ut est ucing la sesur for muir. 

Irsan quasi [ ] no greic ersonum .i. ostium . unde 


Sirsan saorosluc[ad] 

dirsan daoroslucad. 

Irchonis irchonte .i. ithe chortha .i. a coirt .i. a aithbiur. 
Intech .i. ni tech acht via. 
Ingor .i. ni gor. 

Imdai idem hebraice plenitude latine. 
Inber quasi infer .i. in fretum no ind inbera. 
Ingen .i. ab unge [inguine?]. 
Idem ab idoneus. 

Idad 7 idu 7 idtu ab idor [v'Jwp] hoc est a liquore .i. fuiu- 
idside dond idain fuil dond idain lind don du. 

Gart grade enim graece .i. gaisged. 

Gelo enim graece [/flaw] .i. rideo ar qui ridet candorem 
dentium ostendit. 

Gell 7 geill a cillo unius manus interpretatur .i. lam oen .i. 
angell gebes inlam as ic fris in tiachlam hoc quasi lab 
laba [Aa/?^] enim graece capacitas latine . Lam din ac- 
ceptio .i. gabail gach raoda. 

Gelit id est cilit cile [xettsa] enim grec labia latine . gelit 
din .i. belithidh. 

Gleo gle [ ] grec desentio latine. 

Glenn A. gles . a glisco .i. forbrim . unde dicitur duine 

Geeiar genitus est gene [yvvq] graece mulier latine unde di- 
citur ingen .i. ni ben sed filia. 

Genmnaid geno graece . gene [yvvrj] grec 7 monoy [povov] id 
est unius . genmnaide din ben aontir unde dicitur genas. 


Genii glinde .i. gen .i. mulier glynoon ben bid hinglinn. 
Gartar [?] id est a cratera .i. o taulcoma. 

[p. 80, col. 1.] 

Achon a nomine graeco achos [a^oc] .i. tristis. 
Aco .i. nego unde ac. 

Arsapathoearthea .i. a virtuti unde aries dicitur .i. virtus. 
Aran a nomine aran ebra [hebraice?] .i. sublenis. 
Airge grec [opyij] indoles interpretatur .i. indile. 
Algen a grec alexin ^AKt^iv6g\ .i. amabilis. 
Arg .i. laoch ab argis [(>//;c? apyos? (*/og?] graece. 

Dhig .i. acobuir ut colum cille 

Noebri greine glan 
as caoime each dlug 
atach namra dam 
ar sluag ndemna ndub. 
Daurnaisce .i. aurlattu no greschae no escas . ut dicitur daur- 

naisce dar lemain. 
Deiitiu .i. fuigell each raota no iartaige clainde . ut dicitur 
Madestenaib athuf aondan .i. maded ndichlaind anu .i. 
Delb .i. a tela o h'gi. 

Drobelech dedaid innsin . unde druim ndrobeil. 
Dimelta .i. ni fiu a fomailt. 
Domanches .i. de chenel dam hie .i. manches bo. 

[p. 80, col. 2.] 

Both dicitur a graeco nomine bothus .i. angustia et inde 


Bret\K\ 7 Brethem a nomine hebraico. 
Biad .d. a nomine graeco bia [/?*o'g] .i. vita. 
Bale ab hebraico bala .i. inveterata no balac devorans. 
Buaile a nomine bolin \^nv^rf] .i. consilium. 
Balamnil ab hebraico balam .i. vanus. 
Bonn quasi fonn .i. a nomine fundamenttim. 
Bot quasi put a puteo . vel fot a verbo futuo . vel quasi pot 

graece a verbo noiw .i. facio. 


Bot quasi bet a nomine hebraico beth. 
Bel a nomine hebraico bel .i. lingua. 
Bete a nomine hebraico beth .i. domus. 
Bairgen a nomine bargos .i. saturitas. 
Bresdaide a nomine bresitor .i. loquacitas. 
Biltengtach a nomine . Broim ab rubru ab ruma .i. edacitas. 
Bodra biniti A. binoithe .i. othis [olg, wcog] auris . no ba- 
naitte no banaidde. 

[p. 80, col. 3.] 

Col dicitur a nomine patino] .i. caligo. 

Crinda dicitur a nomine graeco crinimenon [xQivaftsvov] .i. 


Cludrad a nomine graeco clio [xA^og] .i. fama. 
Clerech a nomine clericus .i. electus. 
Ceu graece ceus .i. nubs . unde bitce quia incerta et im- 

mobilis est. 

Cadas ab hebraico cades .i. sanctus. 
Cuad a nomine cavus .i. vacuus. 
Cilic a nomine cillin .i. movere. 
Calpda quasi kalpoda [xakonodiov?] .i. bonus pes. 
Connad quasi candud 1 a verbo candeo .i. caleo. 
Clasa graece clasin [x^aaig] .i. divisio. 
Comadh .i. a verbo comedo. 
Cara a cura dicitur. 
Clar a nomine clarna .i. mensa. 
Caint .i. cantabatoi [dxardofiaToi, xvvnafictToi ?] graece sentes 

latine unde dicitur foruirmed chaint meblai fair .i. conguin. 
Clumad .i. dochad . ut dicitur boath each clumatur cetliar- 


Cruma graece [%Qni>/.ia] immunditia latine . unde cruim. 
Gala graece [xorAf'cu] .i. voco latine . unde cailech. 
Clam .i. occultus . unde dicitur ar do feim claime corp. 
Craoibechan .i. caro bechan .i. feoil min no bee . no r;m> 

dona bechauuib .i. donalenmaib quod est bechan bee 

no lenum. 

1 MS. caninul. 


Clereco latine [clericus?] a clero cleros [xlr^oc] graece sors 

Citt hebraice ovis latine . unde dicitur citen A. agnns. 

[p. 81, col. 1.] 
Dan dicitur judicium. 
Doiff a verbo docha [dnxtio] A. puto. 
Didu a graeco dodis fortis. 
Dil a verbo deleo 7 deleo mortitico. 
Druinech a nomine dorca [dopxac] .i. videns. 
Daol a graeco dilos [dttiog, dttlia] .i. formido . inde delofon 

.i. formido. 

Dorca [dtyxw] .i. video . unde dicitur derc .i. rose. 
Dobal .i. cin bal. 
Der, dero [deQto] graece cado [caedo?] latine quia cadunt 

Duas do grec tindscra interpretatur. 

Eth din ettech 7 iat anmann fethal la gentiu . unde dicitur 

dotong darsnahiataso . et nt dicitur fo ainm do maith is 

do miad 7 rl. 

Etig .i. nemditiu (no nemdite) .i. ni crutb. 
Etargaire .i. etarirgair. 
Etaim .i. eit tuirim ondi tanniteit .i. gell dotuit aret do- 

buith itir. 

Eeath .i. ath amnus [amnis?] 
Er sir no verum ut dilla eramiris. 

Eclais \. eclosin [fstxirjoia] graece congregatio . unde ecloge. 
Emun hebraice ema graece id est jugum .i. mam no dias. 
Eros \r t Qw^\ .i. trenfer quasi erascleon \tQo$ xJitog ?] .i. fama 

virorum fortium. 

[in marg. Elestra fina.] 

Fricell .i. dutracht bidberar do chill. 

Fr.i-omus .i. imcomarc.ut dicitur atat da freccomus icairde. 

Fithrech .i. arag [leg. arad?] feda . ut dicitur donnainech 

dibodbae bairc. 
Fetal each cumtach . fetal .i. comdas indail. 



Fi .i. neim. 

Fidbae A. nemnech rogab credbad. 

Fuinched .i. dimicin . ut dicitur file nisfuincesa. 

[p. 81 , col. 2.] 

Esirt .i. ni tualaing .i. feirt. 

Eli a nomine grec elis [etaog] miseria. 

Esbad dicitur a nomine hebraico easbaith .i. moeror. 

Eolus a nomine eo [EV] A. bonum. 

Esorr a nomine essebon .i. gin guland. 

Eochair .i. eo [*i>] direch cur a curvo . Eochair 'din .i. 


Elud a graeco eluo .i. desero. 
Ele elon [ehaiov] graece oleum latine. 
Ellam .i. illaim .i. ni for dail. 
Ela quasi alba ar alba dotasit. 
Etan hebraice frons latine . no etend no etinn. 
Etach a toga : toga quae tegit. 
Eraind .i. lir erann .i. da rind .i. fine daire douitig mic 

lugdach mic itha mic breguin . ua tuat[h]a aranusin ba 

dib batar rig rianeoganacht. 
Erb ab herba quia pascitur. 
Es ab aestu . unde dicitur esccra. 
Erasmus .i. erso. 
Eomoin .i. eo osmoin crann mor bae andsin prius. 

Fid ondi is ficus .i. fid . vel vitium corporis . vel a vicio. 

Fet quasi vit quia vitat .i. tocuirid. 

Fessa .i. a festis idolorum . tri buada laochdachta fesa 7 

tana 7 togla. 
Fer id est a viro. 
Femen .i. foeman graece campus latine . no is aim robatar da 

rig na damraidhe .i. fe 7 men ar feib angelta. 
Femm a fimbria .i. o luibniu maris . unde dicitur femuir .i. femfer. 
Fiadnus .i. fiada ronas in cor. 
Feaa .i. fe hebraice os latine. 

[p. 81 , col. 3.] 

Fail dicitur a nomine graeco falos [(pctkog] ornamentum. 


Faol dicitur a nomine graeco faolos [(pav).o$\ .i. mains. 

Faga dicitnr a nomine graeco fage [ipa/eir] .i. comedere. 

Fat a nomine hebraico fat .i. judicium. 

Fal a nomine falech .i. divisio. 

Fane ab hebraico fane .i. asparcio [aspargo? asperatio?] 

Fir ab hebraico fires .i. os mutum. 

Fids ab hebraico fison .i. prudentia. 

Fas a nomine faisin apparatio. 

Fo a nomine faton .i. abundantia. 

Farad 7 Fants a graeco faro [OQCCIO] .i. video. 

Faobar a fabro (.i. on gobaind). 

Fis a nomine fison .i. scientia. 

Flechud quasi flegud a nomine flegmon [rp).e-/fid] .i. frigidum 

[leg. pituita?] 
Folam .i. folaim. 
Folacht .i. fecht folaig. 
Folack fulus graece [ffvlaxjj] custodia .1. 
Fodb .i. ondi as food graece .i. utis [leg. g>wg, tptpdog .i. uter?] 

7 fosba .i. ba aid ifos inti is marb. 
Fodla .i. foduile. 
Fochrus .i. fo-cris. 
File graece a filo \fpilnao(pia\ .i. amore scientiae . Vel fii lii 

.i. fi for a aoir 7 li for a molad . no tial li .i. li nasal 

na secht ngrad tiled, ollam, anruth, cli, cana, dos, mac 

fuirmid, foclach. 

Gabat .i. gabata graece vas latine . vel quae cavata est id est 
cuae gabut .i. gabut nes .i. gigantes graece . no gaboth .i. 
bot[h] ingaib gabar .i. a capra. 

Gabran a quo belut ngabrain .i. gabran mac ailb mic angein 
aurgnaid mic setnai sithbaic ut dixit find file mac rosa maid 
pronepos ejus .i. a hiarmua . Maicne ailb airme achirbuire 
bruidne deirg din duabair do elga bruan grinne for fin- 

[p. 82, col. 1.] 

Gel dicitur a nomine graeco gelon .i. album. 
Glic a nomine graeco glicin [yAvxi;] .i. dulce. 
Grad a nomine graeco gradin dilectio. 


Gabul a nomine sirio [syriaco] gabion .i. divisio. 

Glaod quasi klaod a verbo kalo [xaUco]. 

Gari [a] graeco cere [;(()] .i. gaudium. 

Gul quasi kal . a verbo kal [xcdtw] .i. voco. 

Gaba a verbo gobio .i. orno. 

Gai a nomine hebraico gad temptatio . vel a gabio. 

Geimel a nomine hebraico gemila .i. infirma. 

Gae enim graece . hasta latine .i. gal no galar. 

Galann hebraice .i. transmigrate interpretatur quae motat 


Gris quasi cris .i. crisis [y.Qiois] graece judicium latine. 
Glonn no gloed a clamore magno. 
Gob a capite ar as cenn each raoda a gob. 

Lia a nomine hebraico lia laboriosa. 

Lon a nomine Ionia .i. lingua. 

Lamh a labore. 

Limadh a nomine lima. 

Lacha .i. lichiu .i. fliuchiu 1 i quam aliae aves. 

Losait* .i. a los uait .i. a cenn. 

Lecc .i. arlectar sis 7 suas . no lecc .i. le bith secc. 

Letmdh quasi latradh a latratione . no letradh .i. lethar soadh 

soad in lethair. 

Leim quasi liieim .i. luudh seim i. 
Laigin quasi laegir ar as loegaire lore gensetar . no laigin 

quasi lancin a lanceis .i. ona gaiib gabsatar la labruid 


[p. 82 , col. 2.] 

lath dicitur a nomine hebraico idida .i. dilectus. 

Ibar ab ebore .i. o cnaim elifante ar a suthaine 7 cos- 

mailjTjus a dat[h]a . no ibar ab ibernis locis o locaib 

imectraib in domuin. 

Id ercomail quod eque inecit [leg. aeque nectit] .i. ime teit. 
Ite oni is edo. 
lie 7 ilar quia innumerabilis. 

1 MS. fliche. 2 MS. losad. 


Hack .i. ilactis graece [jUax/J] latratus ar it cosmaile coin 7 
cuana 7 uana 7 ualla 7 ilach .i. aquaticus . unde dicitur 

Imb .i. ab imbre quia praestat imber nt mel vel butyrum 1 
super flores. 

Maisdiu .i. mesdu .i. dumesradh . no mesa . unde dicitur ba 

tidbad aimsir robui. 
Maiche .i. bodb . no isi in tres morrigan .i. maiche 7 bodb 

7 morrigan . unde mesrad maiche .i. cenna daoine iar- 

nanairlech . ut dixit dubruis 

Garbae adbae innon til 
illomrad fir maiche mes 
inagat laichliu illes 
illuaiget mna trogain tres. 
M quasi mos quia in usu lignorum. 
Mesci .i. mo do aisc quam in ciall. 

Mac quasi mea ic .i. mea imago . vel quasi max .i. inacrall. 
Mock a graeco mocon .i. cito. 
Mullach .i. muloach .i. cluasach. 
Muine a verbo munio. 
Mett .i. millid e. 
Merit .i. ni hait i. 

Mesan .i. en is mesa do conaib e. 
Milcu .i. cu mail .i. righ. 
Maot[h] .i. mo a feth. 

Midach .i. moa do echuib [p. 82, col. 3.] no mait[h] ech e. 
Mir quasi mir [leg. mur] onni is mums. 
Mind quasi munn .i. a muuditia. 
Met' .i. mo a tir .i. a ferg. 
Mur .i. mo a uir .i. talum. 

Maorda dicitur a nomine morio [/HUJQO^] .i. onmit 
Mois dicitur a nomine hebraico moises. 

Nasc quasi nex a verbo nexo. 
Nama .i. non amar .i. non amatur. 

1 MS. pstat melorum uel butrium. 


Net quasi nit a nido [leg. ned, nid]. 

Nert quasi vert a virtute. 

Not a nomine nota .L signum. 

Ne[l] quasi vel a nomine velum. 

Nem .i. nemo videt oculis. 

Nus quasi novus . no nus .i. tiug . naus graece piger latine 

ar as maille in[a] loim tana. 
Nua quasi nova. 
Nds [.i.] eel . ar as ann fognitis laigin a celmuine . unde di- 

citur naas on augorans. 
Nes .i. inis . nessin [vfjoog] graece insula latine. 

Magnae .i. mag naa .i. mag nard no mag nuasal no fermar. 
Mass .i. saidbir id est masa .i. corus vel multitude vel 

Maigistir .i. magister .i. major statior . magister oc grec 

statio [oTQCfnjyos?] dicitur. 
Mer .i. merulus .i. Ion no baot[h] . unde dicitur meroc a 

merula .i. glasluin. 
MerdrecJi .i. meretrix . meretrix quia pretium libidinis mere- 

tur . unde dicitur et meritoriae tabernae virginis. 
Moen id est a moenia murorum aedih'cia. 
Medb .i. serb . unde dicitur 

Tolcda di coilctib simenn 

gair peinn di dromaib duillenn 

lind serb a beluib depenn (no debenn) 

mid medb di bratuib cuilenn . mor muman cecinit. 

[p. 83, col. 1.] 

Omtend quasi omhtinn .i. tenn frisin om 6. 

Ordu .i. ardi .i. calmai. 

Oi/renn a verbo offero .i. idhbraim. 

Omousion \O(.IOVOLOV\ .i. unius substantiae. 

Omocusion [o t uoiovoiov] .i. similis substantiae. 

Omoneusion [avof.ioiovoiov] A. dissimilis substantiae. 

Rota .i. uisce 7 rotan on dergi asberar ar is roth each derg 
Ret a nomine res. 


Remor .i. romor e. 

Ret A. rofada teit dar techta 7 inde dicitur echrot. 

Rastal A. risan talmain benas. 

Rose 7 itisc A. on rofased bis furro. 

[p. 83 , col. 2.] 

Sab A. saebta .i. asa a sodh. 

Srian quasi frian a nomine frenum. 

Sron .i. sruairn .i. imad ena .i. uisci . no seruain. 

Srand .i. sronann .i. isin sroin bis. 

[p. 87.] 
Buan A. indlicced . nt est ar is buan berla nadi .ii. a. 

The foregoing glosses are taken from a collection of manu- 
scripts which formerly belonged to the celebrated Edward 
Lhuyd. These MSS. are of various dates and sizes, and 
are now divided into two parts part I containing pp. 1-457, 
part II containing pp. 458-875. The paging-numbers are 
in Lhuyd's handwriting, and the following note by him oc- 
curs at p. 565 : Gan Eoin Agniv yn agos i Larn yn Swydh 
Antrim a prynwyd hwn . A 1700. "This was bought from 
John Agnew near Lame in the County of Antrim in the 
year 1700."' 

As to the part of the collection from which our glosses 
have been taken, pp. 61-75 are on vellum, and seem to 
have been written about the end of the 14 th century : pp. 
76-83 are on paper, and were probably written in the first 
;half of the 15 th century. An imperfect copy of the Dull 
Dromma Ceta (supra p. 171) occurs in the same collection 
at p. 633, and several of the words contained in this glos- 
sary may be found in a fragment preserved in the British 
Museum, Egerton, 1782, fol. 13,b. 

W. S. 



In classing such discordant elements as Spiders, Slugs, 
Snails, Worms &c. under the general name of Insects , I feel 
that some apology is due to those who are in the habit of 
viewing these creatures as representatives of very distinct 
Orders in the distribution of animal life. I will at once 
then acknowledge that for the more convenient treatment 
of my subject I have consciously adopted the popular, 
though erroneous, classification of our old English writers 
and of the uninitiated public of the present day. 

Coleridge, in his Table Talk, has rather quaintly defined 
an insect as "life in sections." Our older writers appear 
to have regarded it rather as 'sections of life' and sections 
too of a very miscellaneous character. What, for example, 
is Bacon's idea of an insect? Fully sensible that the ety- 
mology of the word was at variance with his notion of the 
thing described he guards himself in his Natural History 
by a special definition: "Note, he remarks, that the word 
insecta agreeth not with the matter, but we ever use it for 
brevity's sake, intending by it creatures bred of putrefaction." 1 
(Cent. vii. 695). He afterwards mentions incidentally some 
typical insects: "The insecta are found to breed out of 
several matters: some breed of mud or dung, as the cartlL- 
worms, eels, snakes &c. " (Cent. vii. 696). What the &c. 
might have included is uncertain, but 'earthworms, eels 
and snakes' would I fear be alike excluded from a modern 
cabinet of Insects. 

Again the learned and laborious Topsell in his special 
treatise on Serpents includes under that heading Spiders, 
Wasps and Bees, and it must be notorious to the reader of 
old English literature that every conceivable wriggling 
monster, from the Arch-fiend down to a tadpole, is deno- 
minated a tvorm. 

I avail myself of this general latitude of expression to 
include Spiders, Woodlice &c. under the name of Insects. 

The names by which Spiders are usually designated appear 


to spring from two leading ideas, (1) poison and (2) weai'iny. 
I propose to consider them separately. 

The common Anglo-Saxon name is attor-coppa. Attar un- 
questionably means 'poison' but some difference of opinion 
appears to exist with respect to the precise signification of 
coppa. Mr. Coleridge, in his Glossarial Index (v. atter-cop), 
interprets the word as 'cup' ; bnt the primitive meaning may 
possibly have been that of a round bladder or bag; a 
meaning that is well illustrated in the article cup in Mr. 
Wedgwood's Dictionary and again under cobweb. "The 
form attercop seems to give the full meaning of the word, 
poison -bag or poison -pock. The Frisian kop is bubble, 
pustule, pock, that is a pellicle inflated with air or liquid. 
According to Ihre, the bee was known by the name of 
kopp in 0. Sw^, probably for the same reason as the spider, 
viz. from bearing a bag, only of honey instead of poison. 
The contrast between the bee and the spider as collectors, the 
one of sweets and the other of poisons, is one of long stand- 
ing."' Thus Burton (Pref. to Anatomic of Mel.) ; "some as bees 
for honey, some as spyders to gather poyson ". Cf. the Finn. 
koppa, excavatum vel cavum quid. (Wedgwood, v. chafer.) 

The belief in the venemous nature of the Spider was so 
generally entertained by our ancestors that it is almost 
superfluous to illustrate it from their writings. Thus Tre- 
visa (Polichron. f. 32) : "Yet ben there Attercoppes venemous 
that ben called spalangia in that londe. " Topsell, in his 
Serpents, remarks, "all spiders are venemous, yet some 
more and some lesse" (p. 769); and again, "If they bite any 
I one their poyson is by experience found to be so perilous, 
as that there will a notable great swelling immediately follow 
; thereupon" (id.); and in his Four-footed Beasts (p. 566): 
i"The young whelps of weasels being imbowelled with salt 
is very profitable for the healing of the deadly stinging or 
! biting of the Spider called Phalangium." And so Shakspere 
!in his Winters Tale (ii. 1): 

There may be in the cup 
A spider steeped, and one may drink, depart, 
And yet partake no venom. 


and again in Richard II. (iii. 2): 

Let thy spiders that suck up thy venom, 
And heavy-gaited toads lie in their way. 

With respect to attor, we find the same root in the O.E. 
words atter-ly, atter-y, atlr-y, atter-ing, and attr-id, all with 
the signification, poisoneus, venernous. In Palsgrave Spi- 
ders are called Hatters and in A. S. hotter is found as well 
as attor. Another form of the word is seen in the O.E. 
Addir-cop. With this compare the Dutch word adder, a 
spider : and the common English name for the viper. It 
appears again under the form edder in the Craven word 
edder -cop, just as we find the O.E. edder, a serpent, and! 
edder-wort, the plant 'Dragon-wort'. Another form of the 
word is seen in the O.E. Nedir-cop, a form illustrated by 
the words nedder and nadder, for the viper, A.S. naddre. 
A curious variation, unnoticed in the provincial glossaries, 
occurs in the Lancashire dialect, viz. Eddicrop, in which 
the r has shifted its place and taken refuge in the heart 
of the word cop. According to Stanihurst (Descrip. of 
Ireland p. 11) the name attercop was not unusual in Ireland; 
of course among the Saxon population. Halliwell states 
that in the North of England it means "any peevish, ill- 
natured person." 

The second element, coppa, is still retained in its origi- 
nal form in various dialects in the word Cop-web, and again 
in the O.E. Spin-coppe, a spider, which may be compared 
with the Dutch spinne-kop, Flem. koppen-gespin. The Dutch 
also employ the single term kop for a spider. It appears 
in the Welsh pryf-coppyn, 'cop-worm.' 

In modern English its usual form is col as in cob-iccb; 
but in the North we meet with the curious dialectic variety 
cock-web; cock being, I presume, another form of cob, or 
rather of cop. But the O.E. Lop-wcbbe must not be treated 
as as a corruption of cop. It exhibits a distinct root. There 
exists in A. S. the word Lobbe, a spider, and, on comparing 
it with the A. S. Loppc, a flea, from the root 'leap', I ima- 
gine that it was originally employed to designate those 
spiders that moved rapidly over the ground with long legs. 


This view appears to be in some measure supported by the 
following passage in Mouffet's Theatre of Insects (L. ii. c. ii.). 
"Others lived in the open air and from their greediness are 
called Hunters or Wolves. These are of two kindes; for 
some are lesse, some greater. The less are various, vio- 
lent, sharp, salacious and going as it were rebounding 1 ; 
, which, as we read, are called l or Fleas or Apes." 
1 1 may add that Fleas in the Eastern Counties and in 
(Yorkshire are still called Lops. 

The idea of poison does not appear prominently in the 
[classical languages. The nearest approach to it is one of 
[the Sanscrit names for a spider Idld-srdva, the 'saliva- 
jdistiller'. The Sanscrit word Lutd, means a spider, as well 
an inflammatory poison from the urine of spiders. 
To proceed with the idea of iceaving or spinning. I pre- 
ic that the d of spider represents the n of spinner. It 
certainly an unusual form and, as far as 1 am aware, 
mds alone among the Gothic languages. It is of compa- 
itively recent origin. I cannot refrain from quoting the 
irivatiou suggested by Johnson, not for its accuracy, but 
iply as a curiosity of philology. "Perhaps", he writes, 
|" it comes from spieden, Dutch; speyden, Danish, to spy, 
lye upon the catch. Dor, dora, Saxon, is a beetle, or 
woperly an humble bee, or stingless bee. May not spider 
spy-dor, the insect that watches the dor?" 
An earlier and simpler form of the word is spinner (Mouif.) 
jind with this we may compare the Dutch Spin, the German 
ppinne, and the Swedish spinnel. Sometimes it is found in 
composition with iceb, as in Web -spinner, and in the O.E. 
\mrinnand-iceb* quoted in Mr. Coleridge's Glossary, from the 
)ld version of the Psalms : and this is in harmony with some 
>f its Sanskrit names, Jdlika and Jdldkd-raca, the 'net- 
naker"; Tantu-vaya, the 'thread -weaver'. In Sanscrit the 
reature is sometimes called Urna-ndbha, 'wool-navel', and 
i>ne of the Saxon names for the web is treog-u-ul, 'drawn 

1 Mouffet evidently had Pliny in view: Phalangia ex his appellantnr, 
aoruni noxii morsus, corpus exiguam, varium, acvminalum, assvllim 
hgredienllum. (Lib. XI. c. 24.) 


out -wool'. Another Sanskrit name is Urndyu-vaindsika, 

In a paper read before the Society (Vol. III. p. 91) it has 
been suggested by Mr. Davies that the Greek ctQaxvr) is 
connected with a root which appears in Hebrew as arag 
'to spin'. The nearest approach to this root in Greek 
seems to be 6Qi 'wool', in Qi-a%$rjg, eQEov, SIQIOV, Et(>og &c. 
and it is singular that Philostratus calls cob -webs, si pea 
xiiq, aQayvyg. The connection of arag with (>/)'?/ is 
mentioned by Dr. Fiirst in his Hebrew Concordance: 
"aQa%vr} a. v. arag, vyaivsiv: spinne a. v. spinnen." The 
Hebrew word for a spider, Acabish is thus explained by 
Fiirst: "textor, telas exercens, a. v. Acab, telas texere, 
stamen ducere, h'la deducere." 

In the Latin ardneus, the missing guttural is represented 
by the a. Of this word we find several representatives in 
old and Provincial English, e. g. aranye (Promp. P.), aranee, 
araine, arayne, irain (Gloss. Index), irannys. In an old 
Yorkshire dialogue (1697) spiders are called arrans and in 
the Northumbrian dialect the web is called an aran-ireb. 
In the Northampton dialect a large spider is described as 
an arain, and we also meet with the singular variety neranc, 
which may be compared with the word nedder already 
mentioned (p. 218). 

In A. S. a spider is denominated gang-wcefre, gange-wyfre, 
and gangel-wcefre, meaning possibly the "web -traveller", 
and the web itself is termed a <wa>fer-gang , or 'weaver's 
path'. The Icelandic equivalents however seem to point to 
another root for the words gangel &c. Icel. kongul-vofa, 
konung-vofa, kongul-lo, gaungu-16, kdngr-vefr; and one of the 
meanings of koggul is the joints of the lingers, phalanges, 
thus expressing probably the idea of long-legs contained in 
the Classical Phalangium. 

In speaking of the spider I have had occasion to notice 
the following names for the web, Cop-web, Cob-web, Cock-web, 
Lop-web, and Aran-web. In German it is spinn-webe, spinn- 
gewebe and gespinnst; in Dutch spin, spinneweb and spinrag. 
This last element rag is peculiar, as I cannot find that the 


root appears in that language with any other signification, 
or in any other word. Is it possible that it is a foreign 
terra compressed from ciQaxrr}? The Italians call a spider 
rayno and the web, ragna. The word appears to have no 
connection with a name mentioned by Aelian, , {tc. 
which Mouffet, translating Pliny, explains as given "from 
the likeness of it to the stone of a black grape." 

In Swedish the web is called spinnel-icaf and Dicergo-nab, 
and the spider itself Dvcerg or Dwarf. The Welsh word 
cor/-, a dwarf, also means a spider, the name being pro- 
bably given from the mythical skill of the dwarfs in handi- 
craft: compare Icel. dcerga-smidi, fabriea affabre et arti- 
ficiose elaborata. (Haldorsen.) 

In Somersetshire the web is called teevet, bimbom and 
draught, meaning, I presume, 'threads drawn out"; and in 
the synonym caul given by Halliwell is preserved the ancient 
[meaning of that word. "Rete any net or caul-work; rete 
\ragnO) a cobweb, also any net or caul-work" Florio. In the 
| north it is called a Muz-tceb, a term I am unable to explain. 
In A. S. a spider is sometimes called rynga (to be classed per- 
! haps with It. ragna and O.E. erayn) and the web rynge vsAgrytte. 
The term gossamer has been well explained by Mr. Wedgwood 
Jin the Society's Transactions (1854 p. 78) and I will re- 
roduce his explanation for the purpose of supplementing 
with a few corroborative illustrations. "The only difti- 
Ity here is the first syDable as the German names Som- 
r-faden, flicgende-sommer , Mdtthen-Sommer (from its ap- 
iring about St. Matthew's day) or simply sommer show 
it the latter part of the word has reference to the season 
which the phenomenon appears. Another German name 
Marian-fade*, unser-lieben-frcmen-fdden, Our Lady's 
reads or Lady Threads, as it would have been popularly 
idered in English, from the legend that they are the 
mants of the Virgin's winding-sheet, which fell away in 
fragments when she was carried up into heaven. This le- 
gendary connection with the Virgin, or Mother of God, 
(leaves no doubt with me that the name must be explained 
tlods-su miner." 


To the illustrations cited by Mr. Wedgwood may be added 
the following: German, Sommer-flocken, Sommer-webe, Der- 
alten-weiber-sommer, Marien-garn, Gras-webe; Dutch, Herfst- 
draden, or Harvest-Threads; French, Fil-de-la-bonne-Vierge, 
Filets-de-St. Martin. In connection with this last name we 
find the Gossamer in England called St. Martin's summer. 
In Yorkshire it is known as Sunbeam, and in the North 
there exists the singular synonyme Summer-Goose, apparently 
a mere transposition of Gossamer. The assimilation of the 
d may be seen in the word gossip for god-sib, and in the 
O.E. Gossone for God-son. I presume that it was by ac- 
cident and from no play upon words that Shakspere as- 
sociates summer and gossamer in Romeo and Juliet (ii. 6): 

A lover may bestride the gossamour 

That idles in the wanton summer air, 

And yet not fall. 

In the Pictorial Vocab. (15. cent.) published by Mr. .Wright, 
we find "hec tilandra, a gossummer"', in a Nominale (15. 
cent), "hoc filandrum, a gossomyre"', and in Walter de 
Biblesworth, "filaundre, gosesomer". 

I will now mention, without attempting to discriminate 
species , some of the popular names by which certain marked 
varieties of Spiders have been distinguished. I find, for 
example, a small individual with very long legs commonly 
recognized in Devonshire as a staggering-bob, and the fol- 
lowing passage from Topsell's Serpents throws some light 
upon the name. In describing a certain spider he writes: 
"It is a small creature to see to, keeping on the pace 
fearfully, reeling and as it were staggering, being great and 
heavy in the belly, somewhat long of body and of a greenish 
color. It carryeth a sting in the top of her neck and 
striketh at any." 

There are physiological difficulties connected with the 
"sting in the top of her neck", but the change in the gen- 
der of the pronoun is noteworthy: "it carryeth a sting in , 
the top of Jier neck". 

Mr. Watts in the Society's Transactions (vol. vi. p. 10) 
has pointed out and illustrated the indifferent use of the 


gen. her and his in writings anterior to the introduction of 
the modern its. 

In Cheshire the word staggering-bob is applied to "a 
very yonng calf". 

It is probably to this same animal that the following terms 
are applied: Harvest-men (Norf.), Harvest-bobs (Hants and 
Sussex), Haymakers and Shepherds. An extract from Top- 
sell (Serp. p. 786) will serve to illustrate these names. 
"There are also found in all places of this country long- 
legged spiders who make a very homely and disorderly 
web. This kinde of Spider liveth altogether in the fields; 
her body is almost of a round figure and somewhat brownish 
in color, living in the grasse and delighting in the com- 
pany of Sheep. And for this cause I take it that we Eng- 
lishmen do call her a Shepheard; either for that she keepeth 
and loveth to be among their flocks , or because that Shep- 
heards have thought those grounds and feedings to be very 
wholesome wherein they are most found and that no venom- 
ous or hurtful creature abideth in those fields where they 
be."' Mouffet also speaks of "the field spider with a body 
almost round that lives about grasse and sheep ; the English 
call it Shepheard." (L. ii. 14.) The animal is called by the 
Germans Meier or 'farmer' and Weber-knecht ; and in modern 
science it has been designated by Linnaeus Phalangium opilio. 
Shakspere carefully separates this species from the ordinary 
weavers in the Mids. Night's Dream (ii. 3) : 

Weating spiders come not here! 
Hence, you long-legged spinners, hence! 

The 'weaving spiders' are the fat, 'bottled' ones that form 
geometric webs; the 'long-legged spinners' are the Shep- 
herds. He observes the same distinction in Romeo and 
Juliet (i. 4) in describing Queen Mab's chariot: 

Her waggon spokes made of long spinner's legs, 
The cover of the wings of grasshoppers, 
Her traces of the smallest spider's web. 

I And hence one of the Sanskrit names Marka-taka, a word 

which also means a 'monkey' and a 'crane', just as we apply 

j the term Crane-fly to a certain long-legged species of Diptera. 


I find that a small red spider in O.E. is recognized by 
the following names: Twinge, Tinge, Tainct and Tent-bob. 
Tent is apparently a contraction of Tainct', which seems 
connected with tinctus; but whether Tinge is intended for 
a translation of Tinctus, and Twinge is a corrupt form of 
Tinge; or whether the two latter are distinct words I am 
at a loss to determine. The word Twinge is recognized by 
Topsell (Serp. p. 770) who writes: "There is to be found 
in Harvest time among pease, beans, and other sorts of 
pulse (when they are gathered and reapt by the hand) cer- 
tain small spiders called Kantliaridessi eikela, in their like 
unto Cantharides or Spanish Flies, of a very red and fiery 
colour; such as we Englishmen call Twinges, by eating or 
licking up of which both oxen and other beasts do many 
times die." Sir J. Browne also mentions it in his Vulg. 
Errors (B. iii. c. 27): "There is found in the summer a 
kind of spider called a tainct, of a red colour, and so little 
of body that ten of the largest will hardly outweigh a grain : 
this by country people is accounted a deadly poison unto 
cows and horses; who, if they suddenly die and swell there- 
on, ascribe their death hereto and will commonly say, they 
have licked a taintf." In Norfolk and in some other counties a 
small red spider is termed a Money-spinner, which, I presume, 
is the German Glucks-spinne. " Small spiders, termed Money- 
spinners, are held by many to prognosticate good luck, if 
they are not destroyed or injured, or removed from the 
person on whom they are first observed." (Park, quoted in 
Brand's Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 223.) 

The Saxon name for a certain spider is Hunta, the 
'Hunter'. This and the name Wolf appear to claim a high 
antiquity. "Others again," writes Topsell, "be meer wilde, 
living without the house abroad in the open air, which by 
reason of their ravenous gut and greedy devouring maw 
have purchased to themselves the names of Wolfs and Hunt- 
ing Spiders.' 1 '' And Mouffet, evidently copying Topsell, says: 
"Others live in the open air and from their greediness are 
called Hunters or Wolves.' 1 '' The Wolves appear as Ivxoi in 
Greek writers, and Pliny mentions them in his Physical 


History. "Phalangium Graeci vocant inter genera araneorum, 
sed distingmmt lupi nomine." (L. xxix. c. 27.) And again, 
in prescribing a spider as a cure for diseased kidneys, he 
recommends "maxime qui t.uxos vocatur" (L. xxx. c. 17). 
In another passage he alludes to the Hunters: "Feminam 
putant esse, quae texant; marem, qui venetur" (L. xi. c. 24). 
Topsell also had faith in their medicinal properties, for he 
says (Serp. p. 788): "The spider that is called a Wolf be- 
ing put into a quill and so hanged about the neck per- 
formeth the same effect", i. e. cures the Tertian Feaver; 
and Elias Ashmole, in his Diary, 11 th of April, 1681, writes: 
"I took early in the morning a good dose of elixer, and 
hung three spiders about my neck , and they drove my ague 
away. Deo gratias." 

Bosworth gives the Saxon word u-ceter-buca , with the 
meaning a 'water-spider'. I mention it because it is the 
earliest instance I can find of the word bug in the sense 
of an insect. 

One Sanskrit synonyme for the Spider is remarkable for 
its scientific accuracy in indicating a marked peculiarity that 
separates Spiders from Insects proper. It is ashta-pdd, octo- 
pede or 'eight-leg", whereas all Insects proper have six legs. 

A singular epithet for the spider occurs twice in Shak- 
spere, in Richard III: 

"Why strewst thou sugar on that bottled spider 
Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about? (A. i. S. 3.) 

and again: 

thou didst prophesy the time would come 

That I should wish for thee to help me curse 

That bottled spider, that foul hunch-backed toad. (A. iv. S. 4.) 

I believe that the word refers simply to the bottle- or 
bladder-shaped form of the creature's body; and this is in 
harmony with the meaning we have assigned to cop. The 
word 'bloated' nearly represents the meaning, and this 
again is supported by the Hungarian word for spider, Pd/t, 
a word composed of the root PoA, 'belly", and 6k, an in- 
tensive suffix, = 'big-bellied', 'bloated'. Compare the Bo- 
hem, pan-auk, pauk', PoLpajak; and Russ. pauk. The 'bottle' 



in the word 'blue-bottle', a fly, appears to be of different 
origin. It is a diminutive of bot. Certain larvae infesting 
sheep are called in 0. E. wor-bots, but I also find them dis- 
tinguished as wor-bottles. 

In Irish a spider is called Dubhan-alla; in Scotch Gaelic, 
Dubhan-alliudh; and in Manx Dooo-alee. Two interpretations 
of these words have been suggested; one explains Dubh as 
'black', an, a diminutive suffix, and alia, 'wild' 'a little 
black wild animal'. The other connects dubhan with 'ox'; 
and this explanation is supported by the fact that dow in 
Manx is an ox; and that a synonyme for a spider is given 
by Armstrong, damhan-attiudk , 'wild-ox'. I am informed, 
moreover, that a certain spider at the Cape of Good Hope 
is called in Cape Dutch kleine-swart-horn-ossie , "little-black- 
horned-ox". With regard to 'ox' we may compare the 
Icelandic name for the Devil's-coach-horse , jdtena-uxi, 'Jo- 
tun's ox' (see Trans. 1859, p. 95). Other Gaelic names 
for the spider are, Breabadair sioda, 'silk-weaver'; Brea- 
badair ton, 'anal-weaver'; and Pocan salann, 'little-salt-bag'. 

In conclusion I may observe that the long-legged 'Shep- 
heard' is frequently confounded in popular phraseology with 
the Crane-fly, a creature belonging to a totally different 
order. That this confusion is of ancient date and not con- 
fined to the uneducated is shown in the following statement 
by Mouffet: "There is also besides this a water-fly which 
men call from the length of the feet or shanks of it, Ti- 
pulam, Macropedium, Pedonem, Gruinam, called therefore 
in English a Crane-fly. Of these flies are found four sorts. 
The first hath long shanks like a wood-spider, the body 
almost ovall of a whitish ash colour, silver wings, black 
eyes, sticking out with two very short horns , the tail pointed 
or piked. It flies (much like the Ostrich) hopping with the 
feet; sometimes it flies in the air, but not far nor long, so 
greedy after the light that it often times is burnt in the 
Candel. In autumn it is frequently seen in pastures and 
meadows. This of the male kind. The female is almost 
alike, but somewhat more black, the end of the tail as it 
were bitten oft'; these are called in English Shepheards, iu 


Latine Opiliones, because they are most often seen where 
sheep use to feed" (L. i. c. 9). From this passage it is 
evident that he considered the Shepherds as the females of 
the Crane-fly. As this confusion prevails widely in modern 
times , it is frequently difficult to determine to which of the 
two animals certain names are applied. It may therefore 
be prudent to append the synonymy of the Crane-fly to this 
paper on Spiders. I find that in various dialects it bears 
the following distinguishing names: Fly Cranion (Drayton. 
Nymphid.}. Long-leggs QktmS.}, Tom-tat/lor, Long-legged-tailor, 
Jenny-spinner, Father-long-legs, Daddy-long-legs, Gramfer-long- 
legs, Harry-long-legs, Jacky-long-legs, and in Somersetshire 
Friars-flies. All these, except the last, explain themselves; 
but I can make nothing of the Friars. 


The fame of Cardinal Mezzofanti as the greatest linguist 
of all time belongs to the world in general, and it is per- 
haps an appropriate tribute to his memory that it should 
receive more celebration in other languages than in his 
native Italian. The most elaborate record of his career that 
had appeared till lately was a volume from the pen of a 
Frenchman ; it has now been succeeded by a bulkier volume 
from the pen of an Irishman. The "Esquisse historique" 
of M. Manavit is surpassed as much in value as in extent 
by the "Life of Cardinal Mezzofanti r ' , for which we are 
indebted to the Rev. Dr. Russell , the president of Maynooth. 

It may probably be within the recollection of some of 
the members of the Philological Society that on a former 
occasion in 1852 I laid before it a paper on the unparalleled 
linguistic powers of the gifted Cardinal, and that I followed 
I up the subject in 1854 by some remarks on the sketch of 
his biography then recently published by M. Manavit. A 


perusal of the work of Dr. Russell has suggested a few 
observations which will form a natural sequel to my pre- 
ceding papers. 

There can be no question that Dr. Russell's interesting volume 
comprises a large quantity of information hitherto scattered 
or unpublished, and that, though the biography may be aug- 
mented and improved, it is not likely to be ever super- 
seded. Its materials have been collected by the unwearying 
diligence of years in a search that seems to have swept all 
Christendom, and these materials have been not only care- 
fully collected but in general critically sifted. Dr. Russell's 
admiration for the celebrated subject of his labours, high 
as it is, is not a blind and unreasoning admiration, like 
that of too many who have written of the Cardinal in France 
and Italy. He aims at transmitting to posterity not a flat- 
tering but an accurate resemblance of an intellectual prodigy 
to whom all posterity will probably never produce an equal. 
If in some lineaments the portrait may still be suspected 
of being drawn with too courtly a pencil, it still presents 
a marked contrast to what has hitherto passed current with 
too many as a likeness the delineation of the Cardinal's 
qualities and character formerly anonymous but now ascribed 
to Father Bresciani. Still, as has been already said, there 
are many particulars in which even Dr. Russell's elaborate 
memoir appears to be susceptible of correction and im- 

The first passage in which a correction seems required, 
occurs in the first page of the volume. Dr. Russell's earliest 
appearance in print on the subject of Cardinal Mezzofanti 
was in an article in the Edinburgh Review of 1855; the 
success of which was such that he has been finally led to 
expand it into a book. This article was in the form of a 
review of the biography by M. Manavit and of the paper 
on Cardinal Mezzofanti which, as I have already mentioned, 
I laid before the Philological Society in 1852. Dr. Russell 
on that occasion was perhaps a little severe on M. Manavit 
and was certainly very generous in his commendations of 
the other subject of his criticism. "Nevertheless", he 


says in the preface to his present volume, "the notices 
of the Cardinal on which that article was founded, and 
which at that time comprised all the existing materials for 
a biography, appeared to me with all their interest to want 
the precision and the completeness which are essential to 
a just estimate of his attainments. I felt that to judge satis- 
factorily of his acquaintance with a range of languages so 
vast as that which fame ascribed to him, neither sweeping 
statements founded on popular reports however confident, 
nor general assertions from individuals, however distinguished 
and trustworthy, could safely be regarded as sufficient The 
proof of his familiarity with any particular language in order 
to be satisfactory, ought to be specific, and ought to rest 
on the testimony either of a native or at least of one whose 
skill in the language was beyond suspicion." The principle 
thus laid down by Dr. Russell is one with which I entirely 
agree, but I am unable to understand how it is that he 
now overlooks that it was the very principle on which my 
paper of 1852 was drawn up. That paper, as I mentioned 
in my subsequent observations of 1^54, contained "a string 
of extracts from different books of travels in which the 
writers described their interviews with the Cardinal, and 
gave each his testimony as to the freedom and fluency with 
which he spoke this or that particular language." Englishmen 
were quoted as guarantees for his English, Germans for his 
German, a Dane for his Danish, a Russian for his Russian, 
and Hungarians for his Hungarian. As all the extracts and 
translations that I gave were without exception copied by 
Dr. Russell into his article in the Edinburgh Review and 
have since been transferred by him to the volume , in which 
the passage I have quoted occurs, the mistake or miscon- 
ception which I have thought it best for all parties to 
point out distinctly, must of course be attributed to an 
oversight I am confident that whenever Dr. Russell's work 
arrives at a second edition the passage will be corrected. 

The principal object aimed at in the volume is to solve 
the question: of how many languages was Cardinal Mez- 
zofanti master? One list of the languages supposed to be 


known to him had already been laid before the world with 
some claim to authority by his acquaintance Signor Gaetano 
Stolz; two others are now added, one by his nephew Dr. 
Minarelli, first printed in Dr. Russell's volume, and the 
other Dr. Russell's own. According to Signor Stolz the Car- 
dinal was master of fifty-eight languages, according to Dr. 
Russell of seventy-two , and according to Dr. Minarelli of 
a hundred and fourteen. The difference, it will be seen, is 
by no means trifling. 

The list of languages by Dr. Minarelli, being drawn up 
by a near and intimate relation, might be supposed before 
examination certain to have a high value. After inspecting it, 
however, it is impossible not to yield to the conviction that 
such an estimate would be a great mistake. Dr. Minarelli 
ought to have added to several of the languages in his cata- 
logue a statement of what they are, where they are spoken 
and how he knows them to exist. Dr. Russell finds him- 
self constrained to observe of the "Baure", the fifteenth 
language on the list, "I do not know what language is here 
meant perhaps it is a mistake for Bavara, the Bavarian 
dialect of German, or possibly it may mean the Dutch of 
the Boors at the Cape of Good Hope." The Braubica, 
the Cahuapana, the Emabellada and the Rocorana are equally 
mysterious. As usual, Danish and Norwegian, Dutch and 
Flemish, are considered as distinct languages. The catalogue 
was drawn up, we are told by Dr. Minarelli, "partly from 
his own knowledge of his uncle's attainments, partly from 
the inspection of his books and papers." It is plain there- 
fore that much of it rests on no authority but that of his 
own conjectures. Since the death of the Cardinal a claim 
has been made by some injudicious friends of a deceased 
English clergyman , the Rev. Mr. Oxlee , to a knowledge on 
his part of about a hundred and fifty languages on the 
ground that he occasionally quoted them or referred to them 
in his writings, or had books in them in his library. It 
would of course be absurd to suppose that a claim of the 
kind could be supported on such evidence only, and in the 
case of the Rev. Mr. Oxlee a reference to his writings shows 


that his acquaintance with some of the languages quoted 
was only sufficient to lead him into error. The cases of 
the clergyman and the Cardinal are widely different; but 
even in the instance of a Mezzofanti the presence of a book 
in some strange language in his library cannot be held to 
be conclusive evidence that he knew the language to perfec- 
tion , and Dr. Minarelli would have as a preliminary step to 
point out those which were written in the "Baure", the 
"Braubica'', the "Rocorana"', and the other singular dialects 
of which he speaks. Before taking leave of Dr. Minarelli's 
list it must be remarked that with all its redundancies it still 
has omissions. The Tagalo or Tagala, a language of the 
Philippine islands, was one in which Mezzofanti" s early pre- 
ceptor was remarkably skilled , and which is mentioned dis- 
tinctly by Father Bresciani as one that Mezzofanti knew, 
yet its name does not occur among the hundred and fourteen. 

Dr. Russell's list of the languages known to Mezzofanti 
differs most essentially from that of Dr. Minarelli. In the first 
place the Cardinal's nephew appears to suppose, like Father 
I Bresciani, that the Cardinal spoke every language with which 
,he was acquainted in equal perfection. In the paper read 
(before the Philological Society in 1852 attention was called 
to the circumstance that "in the statement which Sir William 
(Jones left behind him of the number of languages he had 
'studied, they were divided into three classes, those which 
ihe had studied critically, those which he had studied less 
(perfectly, and those which he had studied least perfectly/' 
'and the remark was made that, if the Cardinal had fol- 
lowed Sir William's example, he too would probably have 
felt the expediency of distributing the languages he knew in- 
to different classes on a similar principle. Dr. Russell has 
'adopted the same view, and has arranged his list of the 
(languages and dialects known to Mezzofanti into six distinct 
.classes accordingly. 

The first five of his classes consist of languages, the 
isixth of dialects , a distinction which it is essential to keep 
Jin view. There can be no doubt that from not adverting 
}to it, some hasty readers of Dr. Russell's volume have been 


left with the impression that he had proved, on the prin- 
ciples laid down in his preface, that the number of lan- 
guages spoken by Mezzofanti was upwards of a hundred. 
The number that he actually ascribes to the great linguist 
is, as has already been mentioned, seventy-two. "It ap- 
pears", to quote his own words (page 470), "that in ad- 
dition to a large number of (more than thirty) minor dia- 
lects Mezzofanti was acquainted in various degrees with 
seventy-two languages, popularly if not scientifically re- 
garded as distinct." Of course if dialects were admitted 
to stand on the same footing as languages, an Englishman 
thoroughly acquainted with a few of the dialects of our 
counties, might be ranked as a linguist above an English- 
man who had made himself master of Sanskrit and Chinese. 
It would surely, as has been remarked, be a mere source 
of confusion to affirm of a man who spoke English and 
Persian and the Exmoor dialect, that he spoke three lan- 

An examination of Dr. Russell's list of dialects shows 
that, as with Dr. Minarelli's list of languages, there are 
some for which evidence would be required that they actually 
exist. No less than four of Magyar are enumerated , the 
dialects of Debreczin (which by some oversight is called 
Debreczeny), of the environs of Eperies, of Pesth, and 
of Transylvania. The Magyar language with its dialects 
thus counts for five in the grand total of a hundred and 
eight languages and dialects of Dr. Russell's full catalogue. 
But among the members of the Philological Society we jj 
have now the advantage of numbering a distinguished Hun- 
garian scholar and author, well acquainted with Eperies, 
with Pesth, and with Debreczin. To this gentleman, who 
himself conversed in Hungarian with Mezzofanti, the exis- 
tence of some of these dialects is unknown. In fact, at i 
Eperies the population in general speaks a Slavonic dialect 
instead of Magyar in any shape. It would be a remarkable 
fact if at Pesth, the capital of Hungary, a dialect were 
spoken distinct from the prevailing language of the country. 


The Hungarians are in general proud of the unity of their 
noble idiom and of its freedom from petty variations. 

On the other hand it will also be necessary to point out 
that by some oversight Dr. Russell has enumerated among 
the dialects various systems of speech which are in fact dis- 
tinct languages. The Berber is certainly not a dialect of 
Arabic , nor the Rhjetian of German , nor the Bas-Breton of 
French, and Catalan which is mentioned as a dialect of 
Spanish, is often associated with Provencal which Dr. Rus- 
sell classes as a dialect of French. If we take Catalan 
and Provencal as constituting one language, there will be 
four languages to be removed from Dr. Russell's list of dia- 
lects , and when added to the seventy-two already mentioned 
they will make a total of seventy-six. 

From this number of seventy-six thus formed it will how- 
ever again be necessary to strike out a few. By a singular 
oversight Dr. Russell has enumerated Japanese twice over, 
once as the third language of his fourth class, and again 
as the sixth language of his fifth class. Dutch and Flemish 
he enumerates as two distinct languages, though it is often 
far from easy to detect the difference , and that which exists 
is certainly less than that between common English and the 
Dorsetshire dialect. One of his authorities, Mr. Malou, 
bishop of Bruges, unconsciously points out the identity by 
mentioning Cats and Vondel as "two distinguished Flemish 
poets, whom Mezzofanti had read," Cats and Vondel being, as 
is well known , just as thoroughly Dutch as Shakespeare and 
Milton are English. Some question may also be raised, if it 
be correct to consider Hebrew and Rabbinical Hebrew as two 
distinct languages, and Ancient and Modern Armenian. By 
leaving out one enumeration of Japanese, Flemish, Rabbi- 
nical Hebrew, and Modern Armenian, the number of lan- 
guages again becomes seventy-two. 

The question then arises on what ground is it to be sup- 
posed that Cardinal Mezzofanti was conversant with Japanese ? 
By a most excellent and praiseworthy arrangement Dr. Rus- 
sell undertakes to refer after every language in his list to 
the page of his volume on which the proof is to be found 


that the Cardinal knew that language. For Japanese he refers 
in both instances where he gives it to page 463, but at page 463 
we find merely that Japanese is inserted in Dr. Minarelli's 
list. The statement rests therefore on the authority of 
Dr. Minarelli alone. But to quote again Dr. Russell's em- 
phatic words in the preface: "The proof of his familiarity 
with any particular language in order to be satisfactory 
ought to be specific, and ought to rest on the testimony 
either of a native or at least of one whose skill in the lan- 
guage was beyond suspicion." No statement of the kind 
can stand in stronger need of proof than that the Cardinal 
who was generally accustomed to study a language from 
the lips of a native, should be acquainted with Japanese, 
which probably at the time of his death was not known 
to three persons in Europe , while in the course of the Car- 
dinal's whole life and for more than a century before a na- 
tive of the country had not been seen in Italy. Not only 
Japanese however, but, on Dr. Russell's principle, Malay, 
Tonquinese, Cochin-Chinese, Tibetan, and even Icelandic, 
for all of which he refers to no other authority than Dr. 
Minarelli, must be dismissed from his catalogue. 

With regard to the Cardinal's knowledge of the Celtic 
languages, five of which are inserted in Dr. Russell's list, 
there has been some controversy. A Welsh gentleman now 
deceased, Mr. Thomas Ellis of the British Museum, who 
saw him in his later years, felt himself qualified to af- 
firm that Mezzofanti was unable to hold a conversation 
or even to read with facility an ordinary book in Welsh. 
This testimony is merely negative, and is met by Dr. Rus- 
sell with testimonies of a positive character, among which 
the strongest is that of Dr. Forster, an Englishman, who 
saw Mezzofanti at the Vatican in 1834. Dr. Forster tells 
us that when in answer to a question from the Cardinal he 
mentioned that he spoke "a little Welsh", the Cardinal be- 
gan at once to talk to him, to use his own words, "like a 
Welsh peasant". He then proceeds to add that "the Cardinal 
knew also the other varieties of Celtic, Irish, Gaelic, and 
Bas-Breton." But in 1834 this was certainly not the case. In 


my second paper, read before the Philological Society in 
1854, I referred on the subject of Irish to a manuscript com- 
munication with which I had been favoured by an Irish 
Catholic priest of high standing, who did not wish his name 
to be mentioned, but who .was entitled to speak with au- 
thority. In 1842, to quote his words, the Cardinal "knew 
enough of the language to initiate a conversation, but al- 
though it is put down in the commonly received accounts 
of the languages which he spoke, it was not one of those 
to \\hich he himself laid claim, nevertheless he was in the 
habit of amusing himself with Irish visitors by addressing 
them in their native language, and if, as very frequently 
happened, he found them unable to reply, he would play- 
fully rally them upon their ignorance of the dialect of their 
own country/' He may possibly have amused himself in 
a similar way in Welsh as well as Irish. Dr. Russell in 
his list of languages spoken by Mezzofanti, only inserts the 
Irish among those which were "spoken imperfectly a few r 
(-sentences and conversational forms," though this is one of 
i the less-known languages of Europe , in which , from the 
number of Irish priests at Rome, Mezzofanti would have 
j had the most frequent opportunities of practice. Dr. Forster 
may also have been too hasty in assuming that at the time 
of his interview the Cardinal knew Gaelic. The Rev. John 
Strain, a Gaelic scholar, who was at Rome in 1832, informed 
i Dr. Russell that at that time the Cardinal had no knowledge 
whatever of the Gaelic language, and the last good evidence 
[we have on the subject is from the Rev. John Gray of Glas- 
gow who testiiies that in 1841 the Cardinal "knew the lan- 
jgnage, but spoke it very imperfectly." When the Abbe Gaume 
'visited Rome in 1842 , eight years after Dr. Forster's inter- 
|view, he tells us that he found Mezzofanti "studying Bas- 
iBretou", and that he had no doubt (to quote from Dr. Russell's 
'.translation) that the Cardinal "would be able in a short time to 
lexhibit it to the inhabitants of Vannes themselves." Respecting 
|the remaining dialect of Celtic, the Cornish, the only evi- 
jdence Dr. Russell oifers respecting it is that Professor Tho- 
ituck states that, when he was permitted by Mezzofanti to 


examine his library in 1829, he found in it a Cornish gram- 
mar and "some sheets containing a little vocabulary and gram- 
matical paradigms" of Cornish, and that Mezzofanti told him 
that "his way of learning languages was no other but that 
of our schoolboys by writing out paradigms and words and 
committing to memory." On this evidence, and on this 
only, Dr. Russell has inserted the Cornish in his list as 
one of the "languages studied from books, but not known to 
have been spoken." Indeed it is hard to imagine to whom the 
Cardinal could have spoken it. According to popular belief, 
the last person who had a colloquial knowledge of the lan- 
guage, was Dolly Pentraeth, who died at Mousehole in Mounts 
Bay in 1778, four years after Mezzofanti was born at Bo- 
logna. A monument is now about to be erected in the 
churchyard of her parish by Prince Louis Lucian Bonaparte, 
to commemorate at once the death of Dorothy Pentraeth 
and the death of the Cornish language. 

It is refreshing after all these uncertainties and perplexi- 
ties to turn to that part of Dr. Russell's list which is bright 
with the broad sunshine of evidence. He begins by enu- 
merating the principal languages of Europe and Asia, for 
each of which he is able to refer to a witness who proves 
that the Cardinal spoke that particular language with an 
ease and excellence rarely attained by a foreigner. The 
list as given by Dr. Russell amounts to thirty languages, 
and if we deduct the Rabbinical Hebrew, the modern Ar- 
menian, and the Flemish, the number will still be as high 
as twenty-seven. No other person in the whole course of 
time is recorded on any reliable evidence to have spoken 
with equal excellence an equal number. These, however, 
only constitute Dr. Russell's first class of "languages fre- 
quently tested and spoken with rare excellence", and are fol- 
lowed by another class of nine "stated to have been spoken 
fluently, but hardly sufficiently tested", by a third class of 
eleven " spoken rarely and less perfectly ", and by a fourth 
of eight " spoken imperfectly a few sentences and conversa- 
tional forms." These four classes make up fifty-eight in Dr. 
Russell's enumeration, and of these fifty-eight several have al- 


ready been pointed out as in various degrees questionable, the 
Japanese, for instance, and three of the Celtic dialects. The 
number of seventy-two is made up by fourteen of a fifth class 
'studied from books, but not known to have been spoken." 
Evidence for a large number of these languages would, 
from some statements, appear to have been supplied in a 
mass upon some particular occasions. On Mezzofanti's ele- 
vation to the Cardinalate for instance in 1838 we are told, 
(at page 379 of Dr. Russell's work, on the authority of 
Dr. Gaetano Stolz), that fifty-three of the pupils at the Pro- 
paganda, comprising all the languages and nationalities re- 
presented at that time in the institution, waited on the 
new dignitary in a body to offer their greetings in their 
various tongues, and that he "answered each in his own lan- 
guage with great spirit and precision." The same statement 
is repeated (at page 394) on the authority of Guido Gorres, 
but here the number of pupils is given not as fifty-three 
but as forty-three, a discrepancy which Dr. Russell omits 
to notice. It was remarked in my paper of 1854 that the 
examinations at the Propaganda, did not, for reasons there 
stated, afford the evidence in support of Mezzofanti's extra- 
ordinary powers which they had been supposed to present, 
>and this remark receives fresh confirmation from various 
i passages in Dr. Russell's volume. Dr. Russell gives a most 
interesting description of one of these examinations at which 
he was himself present in 1843, and inserts a list of the 
languages in which recitations were given, one of which is 
Tamul. His account of the interest which Mezzofanti testi- 
fied during the whole of the proceedings, and the polyglot 
conversation which he afterwards held with the youths 
who gathered around him, leaves the impression that 
every one of the languages used on the occasion was 
known to the Cardinal. Yet in another part of the volume 
we find that the Rev. Charles Fernando, a pupil of the 
;Propaganda, who testified to Mezzofanti's acquaintance with 
inumerous other languages , doubted his knowledge of Tamul, 
^and that finally the Rev. Dr. Mac Auliffe, a missionary 
;at Madras, to whom Dr. Russell applied as the best authority, 


distinctly stated that Tamul was unknown to the great linguist. 
So strong in fact is the negative testimony that Dr. Russell 
leaves the language out of his list, though it occurs in both 
those of Stolz and Minarelli. 

What then is the final result of the comparison of Dr. 
Russell's list with the evidence on which it is founded? It 
is, I think, that with all his ingenuity and research Dr. 
Russell has failed to establish the point which he seeks to 
prove by extraneous testimony, namely that Cardinal Mez- 
zofanti was master of seventy-two languages, and has, on 
the contrary, ended by showing that the only satisfactory 
basis on which a belief on the subject can be grounded 
must be the testimony of the Cardinal himself. Only Mez- 
zofanti could tell with accuracy how much Mezzofanti knew. 
It is therefore of much interest to know if he ever made 
such a statement. It appears that he did. 

From information much of which has only been recently 
brought to light, it appears that he expressed himself on the 
subject on several occasions without reserve. I have been fa- 
voured by Mr. Francis Pulszky, who saw the Cardinal in 1833, 
with an account of his interview, which with his kind permission 
I intend to affix to the end of this paper, to which it will im- 
part a peculiar value. He told Mr. Pulszky that at that time 
he spoke forty-three languages. Dr. Cox, the vice-rector 
of the English college at Rome, informs Dr. Russell in 
letter printed in the biography, that he introduced Count 
Mazzinghi to the Cardinal soon after Mezzofanti's appoint- 
ment to his post at the Vatican. As this appointment took 
place in 1833 the interview with Mazzinghi was probably 
not long after that with Pulszky. The Count begged as an 
especial favour that the Cardinal would tell him, how many 
languages he could speak. "I have heard many different 
accounts", he said, "but will you tell me yourself." After 
some hesitation Mezzofanti answered: "Well, if you must 
know, I speak forty-five languages." Mrs. Paget, a Tran- 
sylvanian lady, whose visit to the Vatican took place in 
1835, states that in reply to a direct question from her, 
how many languages he knew, the Cardinal replied, "not 


many, for I only speak forty or fifty." As years went on 
the number increased, and Cardinal Wiseman told Dr. Rus- 
sell that before he left Rome in 1839 it had become almost 
proverbial that Mezzofanti's reply was "Fifty and Bolognese". 
The same number is mentioned in some lines of Dutch verse 
addressed by Mezzofanti to Professor Wap of Utrecht in 
1837. The line which contains it, a facsimile of which is 
given by Dr. Russell, runs thus: 

"Dat mijne tong verbleef med vijftig taalen stom." 
("My tongue with fifty languages was dumb.") 

The most interesting statement however in connection with 
this subject is that of the Russian traveller Muraviev in 
his "Letters from Rome", a translation of which was given 
in my paper of 1852, and copied by Dr. Russell both in 
the Edinburgh Review and in his separate volume. "I 
asked him*', says Muraviev, "to give me a list of all the 
languages and dialects in which he was able to express 
himself, and he sent me the name of God written with his 
own hand in fifty-six languages, of which thirty were Eu- 
ropean, not counting their subdivisions or dialects, seven- 
teen Asiatic also without reckoning dialects, five African, 
and four American." I remarked in my paper that "in 
his note to the Russian traveller, Mezzofanti rather seems 
to have evaded the question than to have distinctly asserted 
that he understood fifty-six languages", and Dr. Russell ap- 
pears to have adopted my opinion, from the small importance 
which he evidently attaches to the document. I am now in- 
clined to think that my opinion was too hastily formed. From 
Muraviev's narrative it might indeed be supposed that the 
document contained only a list of names of the Deity, but 
this, it appears on further consideration, could hardly have 
been the case. The name of the Deity is alike in several lan- 
i guages the same in English and Dutch, the same in Danish 
; and Swedish , the same in Russian and Servian , the same in 
i Latin and Portuguese, to use it therefore without explanation, 
i for the purpose for which Cardinal Mezzofanti thought proper 
I to use it, would have been in a peculiar sense to "take the 
! name of God in vain." Some indication of what the languages 



were, must have accompanied the list, or how would Muraviev 
have known that what he had before him was the name 
of God in "five African and four American languages". If 
this supposition be correct, and if the document be still 
in existence and no doubt from the interest attached to it 
some care would be given to its preservation, it must 
present in Mezzofanti's autograph a list of the fifty-six lan- 
guages which he had studied most. With the light which 
has now been thrown upon his wonderful and unparalleled 
powers, no doubt would be entertained that of these fifty- 
six languages he was more fully the master than Sir William 
Jones of the twenty-eight exactly one half the number 
the possession of which marked him out in the latter half 
of the eighteenth century as the greatest linguist of his 

There is still another statement respecting the number 
of languages with which Mezzofanti declared himself ac- 
quainted. In the appendix to a novel entitled "The Jew 
of Verona", a fictitious character of the name of Don Co- 
simo is represented as stating that Mezzofanti told him in 
1846 that* he knew seventy-eight languages with their dif- 
ferent dialects. "Is this assertion", I asked in my paper 
of 1854, "to be received with confidence? We have against 
it the certainty proved as strongly as a negative well can 

be, that the Cardinal told no one else sx>" "We have 

in favour of it the unsupported assertion of an individual 
at present anonymous, put forward in such a questionable 
shape, in the form of an appendix to an acknowledged 
fiction, that it is hard to say if it is even intended to be 
taken in earnest." Dr. Russell, noticing in the Edinburgh 
Review my criticism on this and another authority relied 
on by M. Manavit, observed that I had "demonstrated by 
many examples their vague and unscientific character" and 
"shown that in determining the actual extent of the Car- 
dinal's attainments their unsupported representation not only 
cannot safely be accepted as decisive, but is at variance with 
the ascertained and unquestioned facts of the case." The 
authorship of the 'Jew of Verona' has since been ackuow- 


ledged by Father Bresciani, a well-known Roman ecclesiastic, 
and the statement is therefore no longer anonymous, and 
it seems to be taken by Dr. Russell and others as put for- 
ward in Father Bresciani's own person. It still appears to 
me inadmissible; and, as we have seen, Dr. Russell who 
fixes the number of languages at seventy-two, practically 
discards it. Unfortunately in his 'Letters from Rome' 
Muraviev does not give the date of his interview with Mez- 
zofanti, but the date of the publication of his volume was 
1846, and the journey it commemorates probably, took 
place in 1844 or 1845. The man who in 1844 stated that 
he could express himself in fifty-six languages , could hardly 
in 1846 have acquired an additional twenty-two. There 
must surely, therefore, have been some misconception or hal- 
lucination on the part of Father Bresciani. 

A learned German author who has recently written with 
special advantages a short biographical sketch of Mezzo- 
fanti , is a valuable witness to confirm the view that Father 
Bresciani's statement is not to be relied on. Dr. Augustin 
Theiner, formerly a Protestant clergyman in Silesia, now 
a Catholic priest in Rome and one of the librarians of the 
Vatican, tells us that from the time of his arrival at Rome 
till the time of Mezzofanti's death , a space of sixteen years, 
he lived on the most intimate terms with the Cardinal, and 
during five years of the time resided in the college of the 
Propaganda to which Mezzofanti was in the habit of paying 
daily visits. "He spoke'', says Dr. Theiner, "about sixty- 
two languages and wrote them also" 1 . As Dr. Theiner 
proceeds to enumerate some of these languages and com- 
mits some of the usual mistakes in supposing identical idioms 
to be distinct, his number may be reduced to sixty or sixty- 
one, but in either case his statement would be in remarkable 

1 Dr. Theiner's words are: "Er redete anbei 62 Sprachen". The or- 
dinary meaning of "anbei" is "herewith", and the ordinary German 
word for "about'' is "itngefdkr'*, but the meaning of "antei" in this 
passage can obviously be no other than that here given. Two German 
friends whom I have consulted, natives of Silesia, have no doubt on 
the point. 



harmony with that of Muraviev a few years before. It is 
to be observed also that in the list of languages supposed 
to be known to Mezzofanti drawn up by Signor Gaetano 
Stolz and published in the "Giornale di Roma" of 1850, 
the number amounts to fifty-eight, according to Signor Stolz's 
computation, though, as he too has made Danish and Nor- 
wegian distinct and has committed some other oversights, 
the real number will be somewhat less. 

To sum up therefore what has been attempted to be proved 
if we take the well-authenticated statements of Cardinal 
Mezzofanti himself as the basis of our estimate of the extent 
of the wonderful faculty of which sufficient and superfluous 
evidence shows him to have been possessed , we shall be per- 
suaded that he was acquainted with sixty or sixty-one lan- 
guages of nearly thirty of which he appears to have been 
a consummate master. 

A faculty so extraordinary may well strike us with amaze- 
ment. Dr. Russell who has prefixed to his volume an 
elaborate paper of ' Memoirs of eminent linguists ' including 
even the names of some who are living, justly observes 
that Cardinal Mezzofanti "immeasurably transcends them 
all". Dr. Russell proceeds to add that "the list of those 
reputed to have possessed more than ten languages is a very 
short one", and that "only four, Mithridates, Pico of Miran- 
dola, Jonadab Alhanar, and Sir William Jones, are said in the 
loosest sense to have passed the limits of twenty." This how- 
ever is far from accurate. Rask, the great Scandinavian philo- 
logist, who died in 1832 at the age of 45, was said, when at 
the age of 35 , to know twenty-five languages. Petersen , his 
friend and biographer, tells us, that at the time of his death 
he had "worked in fifty-five languages", writing in some, 
criticising, analysing, and comparing others. Dr. Russell 
tells us himself (at page 79 of his volume) that "Dr. Paul 
deLagarde", the same person, it may be remarked, who (at 
page 76) is called Paul Boetticher, "has the reputation of know- 
ing above twenty languages", and several of the living names 
which he mentions, have claims to a higher rank than that 
which he assigns them. "Sir John Bowring", he observes, 


"is usually set down as knowing twenty languages, and for 
Elihu Bnrritt his admirers claim eighteen." To Sir John 
Bowring is due the more substantial praise of having first 
introduced his countrymen to an acquaintance with the litera- 
ture of many foreign lauds, but even in a mere linguistic point 
of view his reputed attainments are here much understated. 
In the 'Lives of Reformers' published in 1840, when Sir 
John was twenty years younger than he now is, nearly 
thirty languages are enumerated from which he had published 
translations. In 1838 Governor Everett of Massachusetts 
announced to a meeting of mechanics at Boston that there 
was a blacksmith in New England, then of the age of 
twenty-seven, who was acquainted with upwards of fifty 
languages, and this belief was prevalent in America among 
the admirers of Burritt for some years afterwards. In our 
own times a knowledge of languages is far more diffused 
than it has ever been before. An officer of the British 
Museum who died in 1858, Mr. Louis Augustin Prevost, 
whose favourite pursuit for a series of years had been the 
acquisition of languages, was known to be acquainted in some 
degree with upwards of forty, but like Mezzofanti he felt 
no impulse to embody his knowledge in writing, and left no 
memorial behind him save in the recollection of his friends. 
Many men have been conspicuous for the number of lan- 
guages they knew, who were by no means equally re- 
markable for the number of languages they spoke. The 
faculty which stamps on the memory the words of a lan- 
guage , may exist in considerable force unaccompanied with 
the quickness of ear which seizes on the varieties and shades 
of pronunciation , and the quickness of tongue which enables 
the hearer to reproduce what he hears. As there is many 
an excellent mimic who shows no talents as a linguist, so 
there is many an excellent linguist who shows no talents 
as a mimic, and a man may comprehend in all their deli- 
cacy the minutest shades in the meaning of a foreign author 
who is utterly unable even to read that author's words aloud 
with the accent of a native. Mezzofanti appears to have 
possessed in a marvellous degree the mimetic faculty. The 


languages that he learned, he generally learned by the ear. 
Most European students of the Chinese language have given 
all their attention to mastering the strikingly peculiar written 
character, the knowledge of which is absolutely necessary as 
a key to unlock the ancient and modern literature of China. 
WhenMezzofanti wished to study the language, his first thought 
was to put himself in communication with the young Chinese 
who were to be found in the missionary college at Naples. 
Disinclined as he was throughout his life to locomotion he 
travelled to Naples for that purpose , and when his progress 
in the language was interrupted by a serious illness, he seems 
to have laid the study of it aside altogether till invited to re- 
sume it by the circumstance that some of the young Chinese 
were transferred from Naples to Rome. We afterwards fre- 
quently hear of his conversing in Chinese, and even conversing 
in the various dialects, which may be said not to have the 
slightest interest in a literary point of view, but there is no 
mention of his having ever read a Chinese book. It is quite 
possible for a person to possess a good knowledge of col- 
loquial Chinese and to be utterly unable to read a page of one. 
The talents of Mezzofanti appear to have been altogether 
most successfully developed in conversation. That they were 
of a much higher order than has been sometimes imagined 
is shown in the very interesting and instructive letter of 
Professor Libri, addressed to myself, which I had the 
pleasure of forwarding, with his permission, to Dr. Russell 
of whose volume it forms one of the brightest ornaments. 
Signor Libri speaks with the warmest admiration of the 
"erudition as profound as it was various" of him whom 
he justly calls the "universal linguist", and it may safely 
be asserted that a more competent judge than he who pro- 
nounces the panegyric, could not be found in Europe. It 
is worthy of remark that the animated conversation which 
left this impression on the mind of the great mathematician 
and bibliographer, must have passed in Italian, and that 
the complaints of inanity and repetition in Mezzofanti's con- 
versation have chiefly, though not exclusively, been made by 
foreigners. May it not be suspected that, even in the case 


of the gifted linguist, the effort of speaking in a foreign 
language engaged too much of his attention to leave his 
intellect a fair opportunity of displaying itself. 

The mental powers of Mezzofanti seem certainly to have 
been somewhat benumbed when he took up a pen. Many men 
who have been averse to writing a book, have been fer- 
tile and fluent in familiar letters, but his correspondence 
appears to have been scanty in quantity, and in quality little 
better than commonplace. Of more ambitious compositions 
he wrote very few, and even some of those few have been 
destroyed, or are not known to exist. Dr. Russell mentions 
that in 1816 Mezzofanti read before the Academy of Bologna 
an essay "on the language of the Sette Comuni at Vicenza"' 
which was spoken of with much praise. "This singular 
community", says Dr. Russell, " descended from those 
stragglers of the invading army of Cimbri and Teutones 
which crossed the Alps in the year of Rome 640, who 
escaped amid the almost complete extermination of their 
compatriots under Marius , and took refuge in the neighbour- 
ing mountains presents (like the smaller Roman colony on 
the Transylvanian border) the strange phenomenon of a 
foreign race and language preserved, unmixed in the midst 
of another people and another tongue for a space of nearly 
two thousand years. They occupy seven parishes in the 
vicinity of Vicenza, whence their name is derived, and they 
still retain not only the tradition of their origin, but the 
substance and even the leading forms of the Teutonic lan- 
guage; insomuch that Frederick IV of Denmark, who visited 
them in the beginning of the last century (1708), discoursed 
with them in Danish, and found their idiom perfectly in- 
telligible." This somewhat startling statement is ehiefly 
drawn by Dr. Russell from Maffei. the celebrated author of 
the ' Verona illustrata " and of 'Merope'. It is singular that 
it should not have struck either of these learned men that the 
language spoken by the Cimbri two thousand years ago, could 
hardly tally with modern Danish, a language which like modern 
English was not in existence for more than thirteen hundred 
years afterwards, but has been formed in comparatively recent 


times from the language which is called by some Old Norse, 
but more generally Icelandic. That a king of Denmark con- 
versed with them was of course no proof that the conver- 
sation was in Danish, as kings of Denmark are sure to be 
familiar at least with German, the vernacular language of 
a large portion of their subjects. Agostino dal Pozzo, a 
native of the district of Vicenza, whose posthumous work 
on the "Seven Communes" was published in Italian in 1820, 
tells us that he "sucked in their language with his mother's 
milk " , and that he made the discovery in after life that it 
was a dialect of German, and meeting one day with a few 
Austrian soldiers he was surprised to hear one of them 
speak nearly the same language as himself, and found that 
he was a young recruit from Leipsic. The vocabulary that 
he gives of the language, bears out the statement, and the 
most astonishing circumstance connected with the whole 
aifair, is that learned Italians, who certainly have had suf- 
ficient opportunities of studying the dialects of German sol- 
diers , should ever have imagined that the dialect of the Sette 
Comuni was a specimen of the language of the Cimbri before 
the Christian era. The treatise of Mezzofanti on the subject, 
should it ever be discovered, will probably be found to 
develope the same view of the question that has been taker 
by more than one German writer, namely, that the inhabitant 
of the Sette Comuni are the descendants of a few Germans 
of the middle-ages, who happened in some of the frequent 
German expeditions to Italy to take root and settle among 
the mountains where they were enclosed by an Italian popu- 
lation. It would be singular indeed if Mezzofanti with his 
knowledge of German had been led to acquiesce in Maffei's 
theories about the Cimbri. 

The solitary publication of Mezzofanti was his ' Discourse 
in praise of Father Emmanuel Aponte', his old preceptor, 
the Spanish Jesuit settled at Bologna, who had taught him 
Greek. It was first given to light in 1820 in a literary 
miscellany, the 'Opuscoli letterarj', of Bologna, and after- 
wards republished in a separate form. Several passages in 
this brief biography are of much interest when looked at 


in connection with the career and the acquirements of its 
writer. Aponte went in early life as a missionary to the 
Philippine islands. "Even then", says Mezzofanti, "he 
showed how skilful he was in overcoming the arduous dif- 
ficulties that retard the acquisition of languages, for in a 
short time he made such progress in the language called 
Tagalo, and became so well versed in it, that the natives 
themselves as they listened to his sermons , admired an un- 
accustomed force and sweetness in their own language. In 
that involved and singular idiom, which is a sort of in- 
extricable labyrinth, he succeeded in finding a clue which 
j enabled himself and others to learn it with ease.'' From 
i the opinion which is here expressed on the construction of 
the language, and from the statement that Aponte had ren- 
j dered the study of it easy to others as well as himself, it 
i might be inferred that Mezzofanti had studied it, but the 
, only testimony of his having mastered Tagalo, or as it is 
i more usually called Tagala, is that of Father Bresciani, 
land its name, as has been already mentioned, does not 
occur even among the hundred and fourteen languages that 
Dr. Minarelli claims for his uncle. In early life Mezzofanti 
| does not appear to have given attention to all languages 
i with which he eame in contact. One of his first preceptors 
; at Bologna, Father Thiulen, was a Swede, but he did not 
take the opportunity of learning Swedish from him, for 
i though in one part of his volume (page 272) Dr. Russell 
hazards a conjecture that such was the case, he gives in 
another (page 144) a narrative which is altogether irrecon- 
cileable with such a supposition. 

The chief point which Mezzofanti dwells upon in con- 
jction with the literary labours of Aponte, is the supe- 
)rity of his method of teaching languages a point on 
iich the opinions of the great linguist have the strongest 
>ssible claim to attention. "Infinite", says Mezzofanti, 
: is the trouble and small the profit of studying a language 
such a manner that the reasoning faculties remain idle, 
:and the memory is merely loaded with strange words and 
their combinations. The study becomes less wearisome, 


and more useful and dignified, when the teacher judiciously 
calls attention to the structure of the idiom, pointing out 
the principles that regulate its innumerable variations, but 
especially dwelling on that which governs them in the 
largest point of view, and may be said to bear rule in the 
language and constitute its leading property." ' This praise 
he bestows in high measure on the method of Aponte, who 
in a Greek grammar which he compiled for the use of his 
pupils, introduced a table of the variations of the con- 
sonants, of which he was not the inventor, but so much 
the improver that his grateful pupils in allusion to his name 
baptized it, from the Greek word for a bridge, "the Ge- 
phyrian table ". The analysis of this grammar would enable 
it to be ascertained what in the opinion of the greatest linguist 
that ever lived was the best method of teaching a language, 
but the limits of this paper forbid any attempt at such an 
analysis , and the question would still remain , if the method 
that was best for Mezzofanti, would be best for all. It 
will scarcely be doubted that his brain must have been of 
a very peculiar construction. 

Dr. Russell in his account of the eulogy of Aponte does 
not quote either of the passages we have cited, but gives 
a translation of an extract of some length, the concluding 
paragraphs of the oration, consisting of an exhortation to 
the study of Greek literature. One sentence of his version 
with an omission which will presently be noticed , runs thus : 
"These studies furnish youth with profitable and delightful 
knowledge, they amuse maturer years, they adorn pros- 
perity, and in adversity afford an asylum from care, they 

1 The words of Mezzofanti, which would form an excellent motto for a 
philosophical grammar, are as follows: "Reca molestia infinita e tenue 
frutto lo studiare in una lingua per modo che il ragionamento qunsi si 
rimanga ozioso, e solamente si aggravi la memoria di suoni strani e 
delle vaghe loro cornbinazioni. Meno increscevole e piu utile e degno 
diviene tale studio quando chi insegna accortamente niostra la tessitura 
deH'idioma, additandone i principii che ue regolano le innumerevoli va- 
riazioni, ma spezialmente affiggendosi in quello che le governa in piu 
ampia estensione e puo dirsi dominare still' idioma stesso e costituirne 
primaria proprieta." 


delight us in the quiet of home, and are no hindrance in 
affairs of the gravest moment, they discover for us many 
a useful thing, for the traveller they procure the regard of 
strangers, and in the solitude of the country they solace 
the mind with the purest of pleasures." The passage at 
once reminds every reader of the celebrated panegyric on 
literature in Cicero's oration for Archias , perhaps the most 
familiar of all the famous passages in that immortal oration. 
"Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, se- 
cundas res ornant , adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent, 
delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, 
peregrinantur, rusticantur."' The resemblance has not escaped 
Dr. Russell, and in his translation he puts the whole pas- 
sage between inverted commas as a quotation, and takes 
the liberty of commencing the sentence thus: "'These 
studies', says one who owed much of his eloquence to the 
industry with which he cultivated them"; thus making Mez- 
zofanti acknowledge that he is indebted for the passage to 
Cicero. There is no acknowledgement of the kind in either of 
the two editions of the 'Discorso' in Italian , and the omission 
of any such reference is a circumstance not without interest 
to the observer of the literary character of the great linguist. 
The want of originality and force cannot but be felt through- 
out the whole of the ' Discorso ' ; many of the passages have 
an air of being diluted and at second hand, and from this 
example the reader may be justified in concluding that some, 
of which he cannot precisely remember the originals, may 
nevertheless be the unrecognised fruits of the memory in- 
stead of mind of the Cardinal. 

Dr. Russell has been more successful than M. Manavit in 
procuring specimens of the polyglot literary compositions 
of the Cardinal. In a plate of facsimiles of his handwriting 
he gives examples in fifteen different languages counting 
! Dutch and Flemish as one and in an Appendix to the volume 
he adds some other specimens , including one language not 
| comprised in those which the facsimiles exhibit. Many of 
.these compositions are very brief, consisting of two lines 
t only, and the character of them is such that, although Dr. 


Russell supposes them to be impromptus, there is nothing 
to show that they may not have been prepared at leisure. 
Such lines as these in English 

"Great dangers threaten youth from every side. 
Let thy fear be, Almighty God, their guide." 

have nothing to appropriate them to any particular time or 
any particular person. Two other specimens of English verse 
are interesting as showing from trifling imperfections of 
idiom that, as might be expected, the Cardinal's know- 
ledge of our language, however minute, was different from 
that of a native. One of these is a piece of four lines: 
"English verses given to an Irish student on his leaving 
the Propaganda": 

"May Christ be on your lips and heart, 
Show forth by facts what words impart, 
That by sound words and good behaviour 
You may lead others to the Saviour." 

The word "facts" in the second line is evidently used to 
express what an Englishman would have expressed by 
"deeds". "Facts" are the opposite not of "words" but 
of "fictions". 

Again in a couplet "written for a student" Mezzofanti 

"0 man what is thy science? Vanity, 
And thou art nothing without charity." 

Here the word "science" is too technical and confined for 
the meaning he wishes to convey. The proper expression 
is "knowledge" which would equally have fitted into the 
line, and could not therefore have been rejected on account 
of the trammels of versification. 

One of his poetical effusions is of a more remarkable 
character. Dr. Wap , a professor of Utrecht , who saw Mez- 
zofanti at Rome in April 1837, wrote in the Cardinal's al- 
bum a pair of Dutch quatrains, expressive of his admira- 
tion. Mezzofanti instantly replied in six lines of Dutch 
verse, and asked if there were any mistakes in them. Dr. 
Wap pointed out three, but all very trifling. These lines 
of Mezzofanti's were undoubtedly produced extempore, as 
they are an answer to the lines of Wap, and they have a 


more easy and flowing air than most of his compositions. 
They are perhaps of all that Dr. Russell has produced the most 
extraordinary proof of his wonderful and unparalleled powers. 

A Latin hexameter poem recited in the Arcadian Academy 
at Rome on the occasion of his admission is chiefly no- 
ticeable for the appearance that it presents, of being in 
its phraseology, a mere cento from the Latin poets. In the 
course of a very few lines the reader comes to several such 
terminations as "Mox aestuat ira", "vox faucibus haeret", 
and "Rex talia fatus". 

As an author therefore it would be vain to contend that 
a high rank should be assigned to Mezzofanti. Regret must 
always be felt that with so much knowledge in his possession 
which it would have been useful to impart, he "died and 
made no sign". Had he merely dictated to an amanuensis 
the remarks in confirmation and correction that must have 
occurred to him on a perusal of the general surveys of languages 
published by Hervas, by Adelung, or by Prichard, he would 
doubtless have done more in a few days to render his vast 
acquirements of advantage to after ages, than he effected 
in the course of a long life. But in the very peculiar 
sphere which he selected, he accomplished marvels which 
must always secure to his name a place in the intellectual 
annals of mankind. 

Two papers follow as an appendix to this article. The 
first is the interesting account of a visit to Mezzofanti with 
which I have been favoured by Mr. Francis Pulszky, and 
which has been already referred to in this paper. The mo- 
desty of the writer has, I observe, led him to suppress 
some compliments paid him by the Cardinal on his powers 
i as a linguist, which have since been amply justified by his 
j repeated successes as a writer in three languages, Hun- 
garian, German, and English. The second is a translation 
; of part of the article on Mezzofanti by Dr. Augustin Theiner, 
which appeared in 1856 in the supplement to Wetzer and 
Welte's Kirchenlexikon. It will be found to contain some 
interesting particulars not to be met with elsewhere. 



It was in September 1833 that I made the acquaintance 
of the Cardinal Mezzofanti. My uncle, the late Gabriel 
Fejervary, known for his celebrated collection of antiquities, 
took me to the Library of the Vatican, where we were 
shown to a large hall, and found Mezzofanti engaged in a 
conversation with a Danish gentleman. We remained at 
some distance until the visitor took his leave, when Mezzo- 
fanti came to us, and, addressing my uncle, said: "Sir, I 
had already the pleasure of seeing you several years ago, 
you must excuse me for having forgotten your name." Mr. 
Fejervary replied that such was really the case in 1829 at 
Bologna, but only for a few moments. Having introduced 
me to the celebrated Librarian, Mezzofanti spoke to me in 
Hungarian. Struck by his strongly accentuated, rich pro- 
nunciation, which is peculiar to Debreczin and the Hajdue 
towns, I asked him, where he had learned Hungarian. "At 
Bologna", he said, "from a Hungarian Hussar". This 
answer must evidently have related to the peculiarity of his 
pronunciation, since I later recollected that Mezzofanti had 
already in 1817, several years before the first Austrian oc- 
cupation of the Legations, addressed the Archduke Joseph 
in Hungarian, and that he was not little surprised to find 
that neither the Viceroy (Palatine) of Hungary, nor his 
Chamberlain, the Count Palffy, was able to reply in the 
same language. He asked me whether I spoke the Roumaine 
language, which at that time was not yet distinguished by 
such a highsounding name and was more prosaically called 
the Wallachian, and as I told him that I was a native of 
the County of Saros in Upper Hungary, he inquired which 
of the Slavonic idioms was familiar to me. I replied that 
the dialect spoken about Eperies was a link between the 
Bohemian and Polish, that accordingly I could make out 
the sense of either, though this dialect differed from both 
languages. To try my assertion he spoke to me first in 
Bohemian , then in Polish , and seemed much pleased to find 
that he tolerably understood the dialect I spoke. Perhaps 


this circumstance may have made some impression on him, 
and he may have mentioned it in later times, since we 
read in his biography on the evidence of Mr. Glucky, who 
by a mistake is styled a Hungarian nobleman, that the Car- 
dinal spoke the Hungarian (sic) dialect of Eperies. This 
ought to read: understood the Slavonic dialect of Eperies, 
since there is no such dialect in the Hungarian language, 
the bulk of the population being Slavonic, whilst the edu- 
cated classes speak the Hungarian in the way as it is spoken 
in society all over the country. 

The Cardinal's German and French were remarkably free 
i from the peculiar Italian intonation and accentuation, but I 
[found that he avoided entering into any literary subject, 
| and was rather fond of displaying his acquaintance with the 
most heterogeneous languages. He, of course, at once knew 
I that my object in visiting the Vatican was to inquire about 
the Bulla Aurea of king Andrew II, of which one copy 
had been sent to the Pope, and he informed me, as he had 
informed several Hungarians before me, that this precious 
1 document must have been lost during the transfer of the 
[papal see from Rome to Avignon and thence back to Rome, 
jcommending the study of languages to me he mentioned 
it he spoke forty-three languages, and that it is only the 
st twenty which present difficulties , for in grappling with 
[them the mind becomes so accustomed to this kind of study, 
lat all the others are easily learned. A few days later I 
lentioned my visit and my doubts about the depth of the 
irdinal's studies to the Chevalier Bunsen, who said: "Mez- 
)fanti has the keys to all human knowledge, but he makes 
10 use of them." 



A remarkable circumstance had a share in developing the 

wonderful linguistic gift of Mezzofanti. Bologna was the 

jne of great military events during the French invasion. 


The troops of different powers of Northern and Southern 
Europe held possession of it by turns, and in the hospitals 
of the city were to be found sick or wounded soldiers of 
almost every nation. There was in Mezzofanti's mind an 
intense longing to administer the consolations of religion to 
the suffering. Chance led him to the bed of a Swiss who 
spoke only the Rhsetian or Romansh dialect, which, it is 
known, bears some resemblance to corrupt Italian. Up to 
that time French was the only one of the living languages 
with which Mezzofanti was acquainted, but in a few days 
he managed to make himself able to hear the confession 
of the dying man in his mother tongue, and to soothe his 
departing spirit. His way of achieving his object was this: 
he made the sufferer understand by signs that he was to 
repeat aloud the ordinary prayers of the Church, the Lord's 
Prayer, the Ave Maria, Credo &c., and when this was done 
several times he was able to elicit for himself the words 
and the construction of the language. This method was fol- 
lowed by Mezzofanti, as he often told us, especially with 
regard to those languages of which no grammar existed, and 
in it he was so wonderfully aided by his powers of hear- 
ing and articulating that, as he himself acknowledged, his 
head must have had quite a peculiar organization. He told 
us that in the course of fourteen days he could thus make 
himself acquainted with any language, however previously un- 
known to him, if he only heard a native speak it for some 
hours each day. It is therefore easily comprehensible how 
this extraordinary man attained to such a vast and incre- 
dible knowledge of languages. But the most remarkable 
thing of all is that without ever having a teacher and with- 
out ever travelling out of Italy, he spoke the languages 
with the dialect (idiom or accent?) peculiar to each nation, 
and even the principal subordinate dialects of each. 

Rome afforded Mezzofanti the opportunity of developing 
and perfecting still more and more his astonishing talent for 
languages, but on his first arrival there he already knew 
nearly all of the European and Oriental idioms, living 



and dead. The place he most loved to frequent was the 
College of the Propaganda. Here he employed himself in 
instructing in the elements of Italian the youths who were 
constantly arriving from Turkey, Mesopotamia, Persia, Chal- 
daea, India, China, Mongolia, and Australia, unacquainted 
with any language but their mother-tongue. He thus pre- 
pared them for the study of Latin and the theological sciences, 
and he used also generally to hear their confessions till 
they had learned Italian. I was so fortunate as to spend 
five years in this institution, part as a guest and part as 
a Professor, and had daily occasion to admire him, as he 
stood surrounded by twenty or more of these youths of the 
most different races and languages, and talked with each 
in his turn in his mother-tongue. He had such a memory 
that when a conversation with one of these youths was in- 
terrupted, he could afterwards resume it with the utmost 
facility and accuracy, without ever needing to enquire at what 
point it was broken off. Mezzofanti spoke about 62 languages 
(redete anbei 62 Sprachen) and wrote them also, and would, on 
the grounds already stated, have spoken still more, if he had 
had opportunity or need to learn them. He was well acquainted 
with the literature of these nations and had read their most 
distinguished authors. The Greek and Latin classics he had 
almost by heart. The principal languages that he knew, 
were Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Chaldee, Chi- 
nese, Danish, Dutch, English, Ethiopic, French, Georgian, 
German, Greek (ancient and modern), Hebrew (Talmudic 
as well as modern Hebrew), Hindustani, Hungarian, E- 
lyrian, Irish, Latin, Malay, Mongolian, Norwegian, Persian, 
Polish. Portuguese, Russian, Samaritan, Sanskrit, Scottish, 
Singhalese, Spanish, Swedish, Syrian, Turkish, and Wal- 
lachian. Few men of learning or distinction from Europe 
or other quarters of the world made any stay in the 
Eternal City, who did not have to show in their album some 
significant sentence of verse or prose in their native lan- 
guage written by Mezzofanti's hand. Only envy and calumny 
could maintain that Mezzofanti's knowledge was that of a smat- 
terer. Lord Byron has sufficiently refuted so audacious an 


assertion. (Here Lord Byron's well-known testimony to 
Mezzofanti is quoted.) Mezzofanti possessed no less ex- 
tensive knowledge in the theological and other sciences, 
especially in history and ethnology, and even in botany. His 
behaviour was remarkable for humility and condescension, 
especially towards the poor, whom he often consoled under 
their misfortunes and supported with liberal alms. He 
shrunk with sincere aversion from every species of panegyric. 
I lived in the most intimate connection with this extra- 
ordinary man from my arrival in Rome in the year 1833 
up to the time of his decease, which took place on the J5 tlr 
of March 1849, and I am convinced that his linguistic powers 
were a peculiar gift of God, who was pleased to renew in 
him in a certain measure the miracle of the day of Pente- 
cost. In this respect Mezzofanti stands alone by the side 
of the Apostles. I did not fail to call his attention fre- 
quently to this circumstance, and I besought him in the 
most pressing terms to leave some literary memorial of his 
amazing knowledge, a Universal Grammar for example, in 
which the principles, on which he had made himself master 
of the various languages, should be set forth, if it were only 
to secure that after his death this wonderful faculty, or to 
speak more suitably, this wonderful gift of God should not 
be called in question by unworthy men. I often told him 
in jest that if he did not do this, he would incur a respon- 
sibility before God, who might leave him some time in 
purgatory by way of expiation. But this humble and truly 
saintly priest, a model of the sincerest piety, of the loftiest 
and purest virtues, to whom the purple was but an op- 
pressive load , could not be moved to this by any persuasion, 
and departed to the other world without leaving a trace. 



one proposed by the late ALFRED AUGUSTUS FRY. BY 

On becoming acquainted with the intention of the Society 
to publish a new Dictionary of the English Language, I 
felt anxious to bring under their consideration the expediency 
of adopting, in the construction of that work, a method of 
arrangement which had not only been contemplated, but to 
a great extent carried into execution, by my late father, 
Mr. A. A. Fry. I addressed a communication on the sub- 
ject to the Society's Dictionary Committee, and they sug- 
gested that I should lay it before the present Meeting, al- 
though they did not deem it advisable to adopt the plan, 
nor indeed to deviate in any way from the alphabetical ar- 
rangement, which they had from the first decided to follow. 
The plan, then, of my late fathers proposed Dictionary was, 
to classify the words of the language etymologically, in groups 
or families, according to their natural affinities; taking 
Johnson's Dictionary (in other respects unaltered) as the 
basis. This work was commenced in the year 1831 , though 
the design had been formed many years before. It was so 
far proceeded with, that the entire Dictionary was thus 
classified, subject to further and final revision; and the 
MSS. were not only to some extent prepared for the 
press, but a Proof-Sheet was obtained as a specimen. 
Beyond this point, no progress was made; for although 
much time, upon the whole, was devoted to it, the work 
was frequently and largely interrupted by other claims, and 
was at length stopped altogether by the author's death in 
January 1852. 

The following extract from the Proof-Sheet exhibits the 
method of proceeding: 

A. art. I. An article set before nouns of the singular number; a mail, 
a tree. Before a word beginning with a vowel it is written an; as, 
an ox. 2. A has a signification denoting proportion. "The landlord 
hath a hundred a year." 

ALOXE. a. 1. Without another, single. 2. Without company, solitary. 

AH. art. 1. One, but with less emphasis; as, OH oz. 2. Any, or some. 



ANY. a. 1. Every, whoever, -whatever. 2. It is used in opposition to none. 

ATONE, v.n. 1. To agree, accord. 2. To stand as an equivalent for 

ATONE, v.a. To expiate. 

ATONEMENT, s. 1. Agreement, concord. 2. Expiation, expiatory equivalent. 

LONE. a. 1. Solitary. 2. Single, without company. 

LONELINESS, s. Solitude, want of company. 

LONELY, a. Solitary, addicted to solitude. 

LONENESS. a. Solitude, dislike of company. 

LONESOME a. Solitary, dismal. 

NONE. a. 1. Not one. 2. Not any. 3. Not other. 4. None of some- 
times signifies only emphatically not. 

ONCE. ad. 1. One time. 2. A single time. 3. The same time. 4. At 
a point of time indivisible. 5. One time, though no more. 6. At the 
time immediate; in the phrase, At once. 7. Formerly, at a former time. 

ONE. a. 1. Less than two, single, denoted by an unit. 2. Indefinitely, 
any. 3. Different, diverse, opposed to another. 4. One of two, op- 
posed to the other. 5. Particularly one. "He was musing one evening." 
6. Some future. 

ONE. s. 1. A single person. 2. A single mass or aggregate. 3. The 
first hour. 4. The same thing. 5. A person. 6. A person by way of 
eminence. 7. A distinct or particular person. 8. Persons united. 
9. Concord, agreement, one mind. 10. Any person, any man, indefi- 
nitely. 11. A person of particular character. 12. One has sometimes 
a plural, when it stands for persons indefinitely, as, "the great ones 
of the world." 

ONENESS, s. Unity, the quality of being one. 

ONLY. a. 1. Single, one and no more. 2. This and no other. 3. This 
above all other; as, "he is the only man for music." 

ONLY. ad. 1. Simply, singly, merely, barely. 2. So and no otherwise. 
3. Singly, without more; as, only-begotten. 

ADUNATION. s. The state of being united, union. 

COADUNITION. s. The conjunction of different substances into one mass. 

DISUNION, s. 1. Separation, disjunction. 2. Breach of concord. 

DISUNITE, v.a. 1. To separate, divide. 2. To part friends. 

DISUNITE, v.n. To fall asunder, become separate. 

DISUNITY, s. A state of actual separation. 

REUNION. *. Return to a state of juncture, cohesion, or concord. 

REUNITE, v.a. 1. To join again, make one whole a second time, join 
what is divided. 2. Reconcile, make those at variance one. 

REUNITE, v.n. To cohere again. 

TRIUNE, a. At once three and one. 

UNION, s. 1. The act of joining two or more. 2. Concord, conjunction 
of mind or interest. 3. (In law.) Union is a combining or consoli- 
dation of two churches in one, which is done by the consent of the 


bishop, the patron, and incumbent. Union in this signification is per- 
sonal, and that is for the life of the incumbent: or real, that is, per- 
petual, whosoever is incumbent. 

USIT. s. One, the least number, or the root of numbers. 

USITE. T.O. 1. To join two or more into one. 2. Hake to agree. 3. 
Make to adhere. 4- Join. 5. Join in interest. 

UNITE. t>.. 1. To join in an act, concur, act in concert. 2. Coalesce, 
be cemented, be consolidated. 3 Grow into one. 

UMTEDLY. ad. With union, so as to join. 

U SITER. j. The person or thing that unites. 

UMTIOS. *. The act or power of uniting, conjunction. 

UMTIVE. a. Having the power of uniting. 

-USITY. s. 1. The state of being one. 2. Concord, conjunction. 3. Agree- 
ment, uniformity. 4. Principle of dramatic writing, by which the tenonr 
of story and propriety of representation is preserved. 

Osios. 5. A plant. 

SEA-OSION. 5. An herb. 

USIOH. *. A pearl. 

HYPHEN, s. A note of conjunction; as, tir-lue, erer-Hring. 

It will be observed that the family thus grouped together 
embraced the words of Greek and Latin, as well as those 
of Saxon origin; but they were distributed in subordinate 
subdivisions, which were easily distinguishable from one 
another, as the words in each subdivision were arranged al- 
phabetically. Words, whose connection with the family, 
though deemed highly probable, was not considered to be 
absolutely established, were placed at the end of the par- 
ticular subdivision, to which they were conceived to belong. 
Thus Onion and Union (a pearl) were subjoined to the La- 
tin subdivision, instead of being included within it, in their 
places in the alphabetical series. It may perhaps be asked, 
why alone and atone were not dealt with in a similar 
manner in reference to the Anglo-Saxon subdivision : the ex- 
planation is, that although there might be some degree of 
uncertainty about these words, the Editor expressed his 
own conviction of their connection with "One", by insert- 
ing them in the same subdivision. 

No doubt, some question may be raised as to the pro- 
priety of the alphabetical arrangement in these subdivisions ; 
but after much deliberation, it was thought that it would 


prove, upon the whole, more advantageous, that is, more 
convenient and practically serviceable, than any attempt 
(which must necessarily have been a failure) to present a 
systematic concatenation of primitives and derivatives; 
which, though certainly desirable in theory, is altogether 
impracticable in fact, with respect to such a curious piece 
of patchwork as the English language. 

An Alphabetical Index would have enabled the reader, 
to find any word in the body of the work; and instead of 
encumbering the text with etymological notes, it was pro- 
posed to throw these into an Appendix. This point, how- 
ever, was not quite decided; and on further deliberation, 
it might perhaps have been found more expedient to insert 
them, in the most condensed form possible, in the text 

The particular edition of Johnson's Dictionary which was 
used for the work, was the 7 th edition of his own Abridge- 
ment, bearing date 1783; the last published in his lifetime. 
It contains no examples or quotations (or at least, very 
few) to support or illustrate the definitions; but it was 
thought to be more convenient in size than the larger 
edition, and the definitions were believed to have been 
generally accepted, as being in the main correct- 

Having helped my father in the preparation of his Dic- 
tionary I drew up in the year 1843 a Memorandum on some 
earlier English Dictionaries, the substance of which is as 
follows : 

"Although the plan of an Etymological Classification was 
adopted in reference to the Greek language as long ago as 
the sixteenth Century (in the "Thesaurus" of Stephanus, 
1572, and the "Lexicon", which Scapula epitomized from 
it, 1577'); and was also applied to the Latin tongue in 

1 For this date, see the edition of the "Thesaurus", published by Didot, 
Paris, 1831, 'avis pour la troisieme livraison', page xiii. And as to the 
extent of Scapula's offence, see the observations in the Quart. Rev. vol. 22, 
p. 316 In the same article in the Q. R., p. 320, it is remarked. "We 
must not, however, attribute to Stephens the merit of having been the 
first to devise an arrangement of the Greek language with reference to 


Salmon's "Stemmata Latinitatis ", published in 1796; it is 
believed that the present is the first attempt to construct a 
Dictionary of the English language upon this principle 1 . 

The first edition of Minsheu's Dictionary ("Ductor in Lin- 
guas, or Guide into the Tongues") was published in 1617; 
the second, in 1025, reissued, with a new title-page, in 1627. 
Although it was to a certain extent a polyglott lexicon, 
(comprising, in the first edition, eleven languages, in the 
second, nine, the Portuguese and the Welsh being omitted), 
it may also be regarded as an English Dictionary. It con- 
tains a tolerably extensive list of English words, in alpha- 
betical order, with etymological notes, and explanations; 
and also the corresponding terms in certain other languages. 

A small volume, entitled "The English Dictionarie, or an 
Interpreter of hard English words", by H. C. [i. e. Henry 
Cockeram] was published, 8 VO , in 1632, and 12 mo , in 1642. 
It is a slight production, and makes no attempt at Ety- 

Of the same general character, but more elaborate, 
was the "Glossographia" of Thomas Blount, published in 
1656, and several times reprinted. The fifth edition ("with 
many additions", 1681) bears the following title: "Glosso- 
graphia; or a Dictionary interpreting the hard words of 
whatsoever language, now used in our refined English 
tongue ; with Etymologies , Definitions , and Historical Ob- 
servations on the same. Also the terms of Divinity, Law, 
Ac. &c. explicated. Very usefull for all such as desire to 
understand what they read." 

"The New World of Words, or a General English Dic- 
tionary", written by Edward Phillips, Milton's nephew, was 

its primitives; the same thing had been conceived, and perhaps in part 
executed by Constantino" [i.e. Robert Constantine, who published a 
Greek Lexicon, alphabetically arranged, in 1562, and promised a con- 
spectus of Greek primitives, which he never published]; "and it was 
from his father, Robert, that Henry Stephens took the idea." 

1 The plan has been lately applied to the Russian language. See 
"Tiictionnaire Russe -Fran9ais, dans lequel les mots Rnsses sont classes 
par families Par Ch. Ph. Reiff St. Petersbourg." Vol. 1, published in 
1835; vol. 2, in 1836. 


published in 1657. A second edition appeared in 1662; a 
third, in 1671; and a fourth, in 1678. It is a dictionary 
of the ordinary kind; but limited to "hard English words" ; 
and its Etymology is confined to the indication of the pa- 
rent-language of the word; thus, "Abstinence (Lat.) Tem- 
perance". This work was attacked by Thomas Blount, the 
author of the "Glossographia", just alluded to, in a volume 
published in 1673, and entitled "A World of Errors dis- 
covered in the New World of Words". 

These Dictionaries largely include Proper Names, local, 
personal, and others. 

"Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae", by Stephen Skinner, 
M.D. Skinner died in 1667; and his work was posthumously 
published in 1671. It is divided into five sections, 1. The 
General Language. 2. Botanical Terms. 3. Law Terms. 
4. Antiquated Words. 5. Proper Names. The words in 
each section are arranged alphabetically. 

"An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophi- 
cal Language , by John Wilkins , D. D. Dean of Ripon, and 
F. R. S.", includes (amongst other things) a kind of Dic- 
tionary. Its main purpose, however, was permanently to 
regulate Speech and Writing according to certain philosophi- 
cal principles. It appeared in 1668, printed by the Royal 

An English Dictionary by Elisha Coles must also be men- 
tioned; published, first edition, in 1677; second, in 1696. 

All these Dictionaries, whatever may be their defects, 
possess, for us, a special interest, which could not belong 
to them in their own day. They show us, in a very au- 
thentic manner, the actual condition of the language at the 
time when they were published. Taken together, they form, 
as it were, a separate stratum, in which the language of 
the 17 th Century is preserved, and exhibited to us, in a sort 
of fossil state. 

The 18 th Century was rendered remarkable in the annals 
of English Lexicography, by the publication of Johnson's 
Dictionary ; which was preceded by a considerable agitation 
on the subject. Indeed, the great success and national re- 


putation of this masterly performance were partly owing to 
the fact, that it supplied a want which had been long and 
keenly felt 

Dean Swifts letter to Lord Oxford, concerning the English 
Language, is dated 22. Feb. 1711 12. He complains of 
the daily-increasing corruptions of the language, which he 
considers commenced with the Great Rebellion in 1642; 
and he proposes that a body of qualified persons should be 
chosen for the purpose of "ascertaining and fixing our 
"language for ever, after such alterations are made in it 
"as shall be thought requisite." Such an undertaking would 
of course be hopeless; but the proposal shows that the 
inconveniences of our mixt tongue had become very dis- 
tinctly manifest. Even John Oldmixon, in his "Reflections"' 
on Swift's letter, amidst a superabundance of personal and 
political spite against the Dean, is constrained to yield a 
reluctant approval of his suggestion; and he observes: 
" The want of a Grammar and Dictionary has been long 
complained of. : ' 

One would have thought that the way had now been 
sufficiently prepared for some general effort. The Dic- 
tionaries hitherto published had failed to answer their pur- 
pose; Wilkins's suggestions, founded upon "philosophical 
principles", had proved altogether nugatory; Swift, one of 
the most popular writers of the time, had submitted the 
matter to the head of the government; the expediency of 
doing something was admitted even by the Doctor's most 
virulent opponent; the Academicians of the Continent, more- 
over, had set us some good examples; and, in short, 
nothing seemed to be required, but that the learned should 
unite their exertions, and boldly grapple with the evil. 
The gigantic task, however, was reserved for the efforts of 
a single individual, unaided and alone. In 1747, I>r. John- 
son addressed to Lord Chesterfield the scheme of his English 
Dictionary; and in 1755, he completed and published the 
work, which, owing perhaps as much to the fame of its 
author as its own intrinsic merits, not only eclipsed all 
others, but assumed at once a position of preeminence, as 


a standard authority, which it long occupied almost without 
a rival, and still to a great extent retains. 

Meanwhile, there were others labouring in the same field, 
though less effectively. Nathan Bailey , (biloloyoq, as he 
styles himself (from which it would seem that the appella- 
tions "philologer" and "philologist" were not then current) 
produced an elaborate folio volume, entitled "Dictionarium 
Britannicum; or A more compleat Universal Etymological 
English Dictionary than any extant". It partook of the 
character of an Encyclopedia as well as a Lexicon; and 
contained nearly 500 Wood Cuts in aid of the definitions. 
Watt (Bibl. Brit.), speaking of Bailey, says: "His English 
"Dictionary (printed in 1728, fourth edition) was long the 
"only one in use, and still [i. e. in 1807] continues a favor- 
"ite with many readers. It was afterwards enlarged into 
"two volumes, octavo, and some years after, printed in folio, 
"with additions in the Mathematical part by G. Gordon, in 
"the Botanical, by Phil. Miller, and in the Etymological, by 
"T. Lidiard; the whole revised by Dr. Joseph Nicol Scott, 
"a physician. The octavo, about 25 years ago, was revised 
"by Dr. Harwood. London 1782, octavo." 

Benjamin Martin, a man of some repute in the scientific 
world, published in 1748 and 1749 a work entitled "Lingua 
Britannica Reformata; or a New English Dictionary &c."- 
The opening paragraph of his Preface is remarkable. After 
regretting the state of Philological Literature, which he 
describes as more "inauspicious" than that of any other 
branch of learning, he proceeds thus: "The article of 
"English Dictionaries especially has been so far from any- 
thing of a progressive inprovement, that it is manifestly 
"retrograde, and sinks from its low apex, from bad, to 
"very |bad indeed. So far have our Dictionaries been from 
"answering the end or purposes of such a book, that little 
"more use can be made of them than barely to know how 
"to spell, and what is the meaning of a word in the gross', 
"nor are they sufficient for this small purpose neither."- 
He then sets forth his Plan of a Dictionary; and a very 


good plan it is; but the execution of the work itself falls 
very far short of the design. 

These productions, indeed, were not at all calculated to 
forestall the utility of such a work as Johnson's. It is 
especially observable that Johnson's declared object was 
very similar to Swift's; that of "ascertaining" and "fixing" 
the language, of representing its actual state, and settling 
it permanently in that condition; and this object he cer- 
tainly appears to have achieved, so far as it is ever likely 
to be accomplished by the authority and influence of any 
single Dictionary. It is, of course, nekher desirable nor 
possible to resist the action of those forces, which are per- 
petually operating on language, as on all other human 
things, and producing gradual, but incessant changes, slowly 
and surely; but the beneficial effect of Johnson's Dictionary, 
within the limits of its possible operation, is manifest from 
the fact, that such a complaint as that, which was made by 
Swift, not many years before its publication, has never been 
repeated since; except, indeed, as regards the peculiarities 
of our very curious orthography. 

It was in the definition of the Meanings of the words, as 
he found them actually used (although he is sometimes open 
to objection, even here) that Johnson's great strength lay. 
He made no attempt at orthoepical instruction, beyond a 
bare accentuation; and he took the orthography very much 
as he found it. In reference to his etymology, it must 
be admitted that this department of his work is of little 
value. The real service, then, which Johnson rendered, 
consisted in his "ascertaining" and "fixing" the meanings 
of the words (that is to say, of those words which he chose 
to include in his vocabulary); his definitions throughout 
being illustrated and supported by apposite quotations from 
standard authors. This practice, which (so far as I am aware) 
he was the first to introduce into English Lexicography, 
not only makes his Dictionary a most readable book, as a 
delightful collection of "elegant extracts", but presents, in 
truth, the only mode in which the main purpose of a Die- 


tionary can be attained, so as to render it a really valuable 
and trustworthy authority. 

Soon after the appearance of Johnson's Dictionary, a 
pamphlet animadverting upon it, and giving specimens of 
another Dictionary, which the author promised should be 
far superior, was published by John Maxwell, M. A., Dublin, 
1755. I do not know whether Mr. Maxwell ever redeemed 
his pledge; nor are the specimens in his letter such as to 
afford an inducement to further inquiry. 

When Johnson's work had been for some years before the 
public, several attempts were made to supply his defects, 
in departments in which he had failed, or was thought to 
have done so. These were as follows: 

In 1775: "The new and complete Dictionary of the 
English Language, in which all the words are introduced, 
the different spellings preserved, the sounds of the letters 
occasionally distinguished, the obsolete and uncommon words 
supported by authorities, and the different construction and 
uses illustrated by examples. By John Ash, L. L. D."- 

Although the highsounding promises of the title-page are 
very far from being realized in the body of the work (not 
to mention the singular and wellknown blunder, which de- 
rives Curmudgeon "from the French coeur, unknown and 
mechant, a correspondent"}, this is still a useful and inter- 
esting book. It reverts, however, to the old practice of in- 
cluding Proper Names; which Johnson had judiciously 

In 1783: "English Etymology; or a Derivative Dictionary 
of the English Language; in Two Alphabets. Tracing the 
Etymology of those English Words that are derived: 1. From 
the Greek and Latin Languages. 2. From the Saxon and 
other Northern Tongues. By the Rev. George William Lemon" 

This book displays much learning within a certain sphere ; 
but it is full of the most curious delusions in the guise of 
etymology, arising from a peculiar theory adopted by the 
author. He maintains that "the language which the Greeks 
"spoke, we ourselves now speak, even to this day, curtailed, 
"transformed, transfigured, and transposed, in so wonder- 


"ml a manner, by the harsh, discordant and unpolished 
"dialects of Celts, Gauls, Welsh, Picts, Scots, Saxons, 
"Danes, Normans, Germans, and Dutch, as have almost 
"entirely effaced the primitive purity of the Greek tongue, 
"which was undoubtedly spoken very early in this Island." 
Again: "Let the channels through which the words of 
"our modern English have been derived to us, be whatever 
"they may, Roman, Gothic, Celtic, Saxon, Teutonic, or 
"Icelandic, still it is the Greek alone that is the true basis 
"of the English tongue." Accordingly, nearly the whole 
of the work (a tolerably thick, and closely-printed quarto- 
volume) is filled with words which the author refers directly 
to the Greek; while the Saxon derivatives occupy a very 
few pages indeed. The fact is, he confounds Greek affini- 
ties with Greek derivations. 

In 1780: "A General Dictionary of the English Language; 
one main object of which is to establish a plain and per- 
manent standard of Pronunciation. By Thomas Shei-idan, 
A. M." 

In 1791 ; [2 nd edition, 1797]: "A Pronouncing Dictionary 
and Expositor of the English Language. By John Walker" 

These two works addressed themselves mainly to the 
Spoken Form of the language. Sheridan claimed the honour 
of being "the first who ever laid open the principles upon 
"which our pronunciation is founded, and the rules by 
"which it is regulated." And this was in 1780, when the 
English language , even as English , had existed for at least 
500 years. Walker's book appeared eleven years after She- 
ridan's; and certainly his observations are greatly superior, 
both in range and depth, to those of his precursor. 

Sheridan's remarks as to the state of English Philology 
in his day are worthy of notice. He says: "Whilst the 
"ingenious natives of other countries in Europe, particularly 
"the Italians, French and Spaniards , in proportion to their 
"progress in civilization and politeness , have for more than 
"a century been employed, with the utmost industry, in 
"cultivating and regulating their speech; w r e still remain in 
"the state of all barbarous countries in that respect, having 


"left ours wholly to chance." And again: "Nothing worthy 
"the name of a Grammar has hitherto appeared; and it is 
"not many years since a Dictionary of any value was pro- 
duced; which, though it must be allowed to have been an 
"Herculean labor, when considered as the work of one man, 
"yet still is capable of great improvement." 

Walker, on the contrary, eleven years afterwards, opens 
his Preface thus: "Few subjects have of late years more 
"employed the pens of every class of critics, than the im- 
"provement of the English Language." If Sheridan and 
Walker were both right, a great deal (apparently) must 
have been done in those eleven years ; but Walker's remark 
in fact extends beyond that period, as he refers, in illus- 
tration, to Johnson's Dictionary (1755), Lowth's Grammar 
(1762), Elphinston's "Principles of the English Language" 
( 1 766 ) , Henrick's Rhetorical Dictionary , Sheridan's Pro- 
nouncing Dictionary, and Nares's Elements of Orthoepy. 

In 1801 appeared a "Supplement to Johnson's English 
Dictionary, of which the palpable errors are attempted to 
be rectified , and its material omissions supplied. By George 
Mason.' 1 '' Its title indicates its object. Its emendations are 
confined to the Vocabulary, the Definitions, and the Ex- 
amples of Johnson's work. 

The 19 th * Century has not fallen short of its predecessors, 
in the value or importance of its lexicographical labours; 
and in some respects indeed it has surpassed them. 

In 1818, the Rev. Henry John Todd published an enlarged 
and amended edition of Johnson's Dictionary. The Rev. 
Editor follows Johnson's method; making, however, con- 
siderable additions to the Vocabulary, the Examples, and 
the Etymological remarks. These improvements arise chiefly 
from a more attentive study of the earlier stages of the 
language than Johnson bestowed upon them. 

In 1822, David Booth commenced the publication of an 
"Analytical Dictionary of the English Language"; and in 
1836 (14 years afterwards) completed the first volume ; hav- 
ing issued a Prospectus in 1805, and an Introduction in 
1806, which was reprinted in 1814 such are the lifelong 


labours of Lexicography! The distinctive feature of this 
work consists in the ingenious classification of the words 
according to their meanings. Instead of the alphabetical 
arrangement and isolated explanations previously adopted, 
Booth's method is, to gather together the various terms of 
kindred signification, and to give a connected view of their 
import, as deduced from usage and etymology. 

In 1830, Noah Webster (of New York) published an Anglo- 
American "Dictionary of the English Language"'. Its Vo- 
cabulary is more extensive than Johnson's ; embracing modern 
words, scientific terms, and not a few "yankeeisms"; and 
the Definitions (unsupported by quotations) are the author's 
own. Its main peculiarity, however, lies in its Etymology ; 
which is directed rather towards an exposition of the affi- 
nities (sometimes real , but often imaginary) of the English 
with other languages, especially those of Europe and Western 
Asia , than towards the immediate elucidation of the English 
language itself. It is, in fact, Comparative Philology, rather 
than Particular Etymology. Webster takes some note of 

In 1835, "A New r Dictionary of the English Language" 
was issued by Charles Richardson. It differs materially from 
Johnson's. Richardson, like Todd, pays much attention to 
the older forms of the language; and the result appears not 
only in the nature and extent of his Vocabulary and the 
character of his Etymology, but, most especially, in the 
range and value of his Quotations. His Etymology is con- 
trasted with Webster's, by addressing itself to the imme- 
diate sources , rather than the remote affinities , of the lan- 
guage; but it is greatly marred, and widely led astray, by 
an injudicious partiality for the fanciful speculations of Home 
Tooke. In defining the words, he does not affect the minute 
analysis and subtle distinctions in which Johnson luxuriated; 
but limits his explanation to the fundamental meaning, 
taking note, however, of such deflected senses as are not 
readily intelligible. An important feature of his work con- 
sists in the arrangement of the words. This is, in the main, 
alphabetical; but it varies from the ordinary method, by 


interrupting the alphabetical series so far as is necessary 
for grouping the immediate derivatives in direct connection 
with their primitive. Richardson takes no heed of orthoepy, 
except in the matter of accentuation. 

The foregoing survey makes no pretension to complete- 
ness ; but as far as it goes , it is sufficient to show that for 
a period of at least two hundred years (from Minsheu to 
Richardson) English Lexicography has been engaged in en- 
deavouring, by efforts almost as various as they are nu- 
merous, to grapple with the difficulties and perplexities of 
our language, embarrassed by its own evergrowing riches. 
And yet there still remains a desideratum, notwithstand- 
ing all these exertions. 

The Dictionaries of which notice has been taken, are as 
follows : 


John MinsJieu Guide into the Tongues . . 1617 

Henry Cockeram English Dictionary 1632 

Thomas Blount Glossographia ". . 1656 

Edward Phillips New World of Words . . . 16f>7 

Stephen Skinner EtymologiconL.Anglicanae* 1671 

[* Skinner died 1667.] 

John Wilkins Dictionary append, to Essay 1668 

Elisha Coles English Dictionary 1677 


Nathan Bailey Dictionarium Britannicum 1726 

Benjamin Martin L. Britannica Reformata . . 1749 

Samuel Johnson English Dictionary 1755 

John Ash ditto 1775 

Thomas Sheridan ditto (for Pronunciation) 1780 

George William Lemon . . English Etymology 1 783 

John Walker Pronouncing Dictionary . . 1791 

George Mason Supplement to Johnson . . 1801 


Henry John Todd .... Johnson's Dictionary, en- 
larged and amended . . 1818 


Xoah Webster English Dictionary 1830 

Charles Richardson .... New English Dictionary. . 1835 

In the great majority of these, the alphabetical arrange- 
ment prevails ; but in some few there has been an endeavour 
to introduce a more philosophical method. Skinner made 
a rough attempt at classification, by separating into five 
different sections as many different sorts of words ; adopting, 
however, the alphabetical arrangement in each of the sec- 
tions , Lemon ranged the Greek derivatives in one division, 
the Saxon derivatives in another; each set alphabetically. 
Booth collected together words of kindred meaning, how- 
ever dissimilar in form; giving the reader the assistance of 
an Alphabetical Index. Richardson broke in upon the or- 
dinary alphabetical arrangement, by marshalling each troop 
of immediate derivatives under the banner of their primitive. 

The Etymological Classification of the entire language, 
the collection of the words into families , according to their 
genealogies, does not appear, however, to have been hither- 
to attempted. Instead of grouping the words together ac- 
cording to their natural affinities, our Dictionaries have 
usually arranged their vocabularies after the order of the 
alphabet. This arbitrary system, which insulates each in- 
dividual word, and cuts it off from the light which might 
be shed upon it by its analogues, possesses a single prac- 
tical convenience, which has always recommended it to fa- 
vour. This sole advantage is derived from its peculiar fa- 
cility of reference. As this benefit is undeniable, and as 
the long and general prevalence of the alphabetical arrange- 
ment is attributable to it, it cannot be heedlessly cast aside.. 
At the same time, the superiority of the plan of etymo- 
logical grouping, both in reference to the practical and the 
philosophical study of the language, is at once so great 
and so manifest, that, if such a work could be really 


accomplished, it would be difficult to overestimate its 

The language, like the soil, of England, is compounded 
of several strata, which have become, in the progress of 
time , confusedly and curiously mingled ; and it demands no 
little care and labour to discriminate the various formations, 
and to detect the traces of each particular stratum amidst 
the vestiges of the rest. If the English were entirely a 
self-formed language, evolving all its complex terms from 
a few simple primitives, according to a brief code of in- 
variable laws , an acquaintance with that code would in fact 
be a knowledge of the language itself; and a ponderous 
dictionary, mustering its vocables by tens of thousands, and 
multiplying its interpretations and examples "with pitiless 
accuracy", would be superfluous. If all our derivatives were 
formed in the same simple manner as goodness from good, 
our language, in its whole extent, might be easily and 
speedily learned. But it is 'not so. The English language 
of the present day is the composite result of the gradual 
accumulations of many centuries, or to speak more cor- 
rectly, thousands of years, looking at its connection with 
the original languages of the Indo-European stock; whilst 
its variegated materials have been drawn , though in different 
proportions, from every quarter of the globe, and subjected, 
in their transitions, to modifications in almost endless va- 
riety. Hence the advantage of a clear exposition of the 
genealogies of its several families of words, whose affinities 
are so often disguised and obscured by the changes and 
corruptions of time. 

But the very facts, which render such a work desirable, 
also render its execution proportionally difficult. Even in 
the present advanced state of Philology, it would not be 
possible to exhibit the pedigree of every word, or to solve 
all the etymological problems which our complex language 
'suggests. Although, however, some portion must therefore 
be left (at least for the present) in darkness or doubt, it 
is believed , nevertheless , that the bulk of the language may 
be effectively dealt with in the manner proposed. 


KEY, ESQ., M. A. 

In my paper on Latin Diminutives published in the volume 
for 1856, the question was raised, whether in such words 
as ar-at-ion-j man-it-ion- , the syllables at, it, were not in 
themselves elements of the words, so as to leave the letters 
ion alone for the concluding suffix. In suggesting the en- 
quiry, I had already a strong feeling that the result would 
be in favour of the view. But I should have been unwilling 
to weigh down a paper already sufficiently heavy by enter- 
ing upon a new discussion, even if I had been prepared 
with a suitable body of evidence, which was scarcely then 
the case. I have since examined the matter with some care, 
and take this opportunity of. recording the argument. 

The words in ion seem to divide themselves into two 
classes, the feminine nouns always standing in immediate 
relation to verbs , and corresponding in meaning to our ab- 
stract substantives in iny\ the masculines, on the contrary, 
having always a concrete meaning. The first class out- 
number the others in a ratio exceeding 20 to 1. But again 
each class may be conveniently subdivided. An enumera- 
tion of the words in ForceUini gives me for the feminine 
abstract nouns in atio. as aratio, 1321; where the t, follow- 
ing d, t, or c (ci), has been softened into an s (^), divisio 
(inflexio), 277; 660 for those in tion, where no a precedes, 
as actio; and lastly 25 formed directly from the verb by the 
addition of ion. This fourth division consists of: 


























Of these five have sister forms with an intermediate it or 
t, faction-, coercition-, lection- 3 rection-, caption-. Five others 



(marked *) have only verbs of the a-conjugation to stand 
beside them, although they themselves bear no trace of that 
letter, and it seems not improbable that they have been 
formed from simpler verbs. For the existence of such 
simpler verbs we have evidence for two in the forms necuit 
beside necare, Victor beside ligare. Our legal friends must 
not be permitted to infer from their own habits of writing 
that postulio is only an abbreviation of postulatio, rebellio 
of rebellatio. I have ventured to include talio in the list, 
partly because of its gender, and partly because I would 
refer it to an obsolete Latin verb tal- ' cut ', the parent not 
merely of the Italian tagliare and Fr. taitter , but also of the 
Latin nouns talea and taleola. Communion- too comes not from 
the adjective communi, but from a verb com-mun-i-, or rather 
an obsolete com-mun- 'share together'; I say mun- rather 
than muni-, looking to such words as the subst. mun-es- 
(nom. munus), 'a part', and translate it 'to share' not 'to 
fortify', for munire mam is strictly only 'to divide' the 
business of making a road between a large number of la- 
bourers. In fact mun-, or to take an older form moen-, is 
the Latin representative of the root seen in the Greek /noiQ-a 
and (.i6iQO(.icti\ the n and r interchanging in these words 
as they have done (though in opposite directions) in merus 
and {tovog, mora and f.tovrj. 

As the masculine nouns are of a more diversified character 
in respect of meaning, and some very rare , not to say doubt- 
ful, I give the list with translation and authority. The 
words, as in the last series, are in alphabetical order look- 
ing to the final instead of initial letters. 

(labion-) or labeon- , one with big 

lips, Verr.-Flacc. 
iition-, a kind of fly, Afran. 
gottion-, a gudgeon, Juv. 
senecion- A, Afran., dim. of senex, 


senecion- B, groundsel, Plin. 
nutricion- , a foster-father, Inscr. 
homuncion- , a mannikin, Cic. 
cocion-, a higgler, Laber. ap. Gel. 

grandion-, one who likes great 

things, Senec. 
ludion- , a player, Liv. 
adagi'tti- , a proverb, Varr. 
sublingion-, sc. coqui, under-licker 

(invented in jest? by) Plaut. 
pugion-, a dagger, Cic. 
siruthion-, ni(t(tvllitav- (a sparrow), 

ostrich, Vopisc. 
Bambalion-, one who lisps, Cic. 



albellion-? tegmen capitis, Schol. 

ap. Juv. 
ardelion-, a busy-body, Mart., 

singilion-? genus vestis brevioris, 


pumilion-, a dwarf, Lucr. 
papilion-, a butterfly, Ov. 
opilion-, a shepherd, Plant., also 

some bird, Paul, ex Festo. 
vpilion- , a shepherd, Virg. 
tespertilion-, a bat, Varr. Plin. 
Bullion-, a name, Plant. 
caballion-, a hippocampus, Veg. 
Subballion-, a name, Plant. 
bellion-, a daisy, Plin. 
tahellion- , scriba publicus, Ulp. 
libellion-, a book-man, Varr. , a 

poor bookseller, Stat. 
rubellion-, a (red) fish, Plin. 
cellion- = cellarius, Inscr. 
circumcellion- , a vagrant - monk, 

porcellion-, a kind of worm, Aurel. 


(peUion-), a skinner, Plant. 
centipellion- , second stomach of a 

stag, Plin. 

rispellion- or 1 a poor-man's under- 
tespillon-, J taker, Suet. 
Asellion-, a cognomen. 
matellion-, a little pot, Cic. 
stellion- , a lizard, Yirg. 
fruition-, dim. of trulleum, a wash- 
hand basin, Plin.-Val. 
polion-? A, qui arma polit, Digest. 

50. 6. 6. 
polion- B, =: nctiQO'fayo;, Glos. 

duplion-, the double, XII tab. ap. 


locution-, usurer, Cic., cf. TOXOJ. 
curculion- , weevil, Virg. 

damalion-, a calf, Lampr., cf. J- mulion- A, a mule-driver, Varr., 


mulion- B, a kind of gnat, Plin. 
coarmion-, fellow-soldier, Inscr. 
Anion- , the river so called. 
lanion- , a butcher, Paul. Dig. 
senion- , a packet of six, Aug. ap. 


Minion- , the river so called. 
quinion-, a packet of five, Tertnl. 
sannion-, a buffoon, Cic.; cf. sauna. 
gubernion- = gubernator, Isid. 
pernion- , a chilblain , Plin. 
lernion-, a packet of three, Gell. 
quaternion-, the number four, Capell. 
laternion-, a thief, ap. Fest. 
union-, unity, Hier. ; a fine pearl, 


scipion-, a staff, Liv. 
pipion- , a young chirping bird, 


nipion- , minor grus, Plin. 
tulpion-, a sly fox (as an epithet), 

scop ion-, the stalk of a grape, Cato, 

Varr. ; cf. scopae, twigs, a broom. 
mascarpion- ? Petr. 134. 
scorpion-, a scorpion, Caes. Plin.; 

a plant, Plin. 

farion- , a salmon-trout, Auson. 
tenebrion-, a skulker, swindler, 

A frau. Varr. 

bacrion-, a ladle, ap. Fest. 
lucrion- , a money-grubber, ap. 

Fest.; and as surname, Inscr. 
adult erion- , an adulterer, Laber. 

ap. Non. 

II tier ion-, a pedant, Anini. 
trion-, a siliqnose plant, Plin. 
mirion- , a distorted person, Ace. ; 

a wonder (with contempt), Ter- 

morion- , an arrant fool , Mart. : a 

dark gem, Plin. 
quatrion- , four on the dice, Isid. 


septenlrion- , Charles' Wain, as a ! (centurion-), head of a centuria, Cic. 
pi., Plaut., Cic.; as a sing., Vitr. asion-, a kind of owl, Plin. 

histrion-, an actor, Cic. ; cf. hister, 

(curion-'), head-officer of a curia, 


(decurton-) , head of a decuria, Cic. 
longurion- , long-shanks. 
(pur/>rt0n-), epithet of Jove, Inscr. 
Esurion-, a name in Plaut. 
turion-, Colum., or 1 a shoot or 

turgion-, Plin. Val. J sprout. 
trion-, three on the dice, Isid. 
Saturion- , a name in Plaut. 

amasion-, a sweet-heart, Plaut. Gell. 
Falassion-, God of marriage, Liv. 
pusion- , a little boy, a pet, Cic. 
tition-, a fire-brand, Varr., Gels. 
( quinquertion- ) = ntvTa&it.os, ap. 

(res(ion-), rope-seller, Plaut. Suet., 

and as a surname on coins. 
button- OT\ bittern, Auct. Carm. 

i- orl 

- J 

buteon- J Phil. 

cution-, wood-louse, Marc. Empir. 

ignavion- ? an idler, Yerr. ap. Gell. 

I have here given every word that I find with the termi- 
nation in Forcellini, knowing at the same time that in some, 
placed between parenthetic bars , nothing more than on signi- 
fying 'man' is the suffix, the i belonging to the preceding 
element of the word, as in curion- from curi-a-, restion- 
from resti-, 'a rope'. A suspicion too exists that the same 
suffix belongs to some of the unmarked words, yet for many 
of these I should claim the three letters ion, as homunc-ion-, 
amas-ion- , pus-ion- , and others which are contemptuous ap- 
pellations of men, as toculion-, vulpion-, tenebrion-, lucrion-, 
litterion-. Yet with all deductions made, there are full 
fifty for which we may claim a suffix ion. 

But what is its meaning? This is a question that may 
be answered with some confidence, as we have the authority 
of the ancients in favour of the view. Prise. (3. 618) says 
that senecion- is the dim. of senex, and Festus that matellion- 
is a dim. of matula; and the doctrine is supported by the 
meaning of the words homuncion-, pumilion-, pusion-. It also 
accords well with words which denote insects or worms as bi- 
bion-, papilion-, porcellion-, curculion-, mulion- B, cution-; 
small birds &c. as opilion-, vespertilion-, pipion-, vipion- } asion-, 
bution-; fishes as gobion-^ caballion-, rubellion-, farion-; 
plants as senecion-, bellion-, irion-; instruments as pugion-, 
matellion- , trullion-, scipion-, bacrion-, tition-. 

I have thought it the more necessary to dwell upon the 
power of this suffix, from a fear that the Italian augmen- 


tatives in one, as lupone, 'a great wolf, may have a tendency 
to mislead the student, as they formerly misled myself. 
The risk moreover is the greater, because the Roman cog- 
nomina Nason-, Caption- seem to invite the translation 'Big- 
nose, Big-head'. But a proper examination of this suffix 
will show that 'man' rather than 'great' is the idea ex- 
pressed in it. Thus caup-on- is the exact representative of 
our chap-man, the first element being the verb which is seen 
in kaiif-en and ver-kavf-en , ' to buy and sell '. Again le-on-, 
pav-on- are the 'man-' i. e. 'male-lion', 'male-peafowl or 
peacock', Nas-on- 'the man with the nose'. Nay this on 
is our very word man. But to establish this I must collect 
what I have written on the subject in several papers of our 
Proceedings ; and in doing this , I would first protest against 
the doctrine of Sanskrit scholars who persist in connecting 
the Greek avtn- with the Sanskrit nm', as though the a of 
urso- were but a euphonic addition. That this doctrine is 
illfoimded, follows at once from the fact, that the old Greek 
language assigned a digamma to the Greek noun, writ- 
ing Fav-eo- (Dion. Hal.) in which word Fav alone is 
radical, being, as I contend, a variety of uav, in other 
words of the noun so familiar among ourselves. Thus the 
n is preserved in more than one Greek derivative. For 
example beside ^4/.t--avdQO(; we find j4vai-uavdf>o$* we 
have it again in noi-(j.ev- (from mov = pecu = Germ. vieh\ 
i.e. 'sheep-man or shepherd'; and thirdly in nni-uavioQ, 'shep- 
herd', as compared with OTV/-KVWQ. In tracing the root 
from Greek to Latin, we must remember that v is apt to. 
be supplanted by a Latin m, as in neuter nominatives, sin- 
gular accusatives, and plural genitives, and %&ov- = hurn-o- 
(cf. /cr/mi). Similarly av of anr t in appears as dm in om-itto 
(it- 'let go' being an older form of the vb. i- 'go' which 
is preserved in it-er, corn-it- &c.) , and so av-tQ- in its first 
syllable is represented by horn- of horn-on- (h silent). Nay. 
as the Greek also prefixed a w in some dialects to ov-ey-, 
so the Italians now write and pronounce uom-o. Lastly this 
word horn appears in old French in the formation of a vir- 
tually impersonal verb horn dit, now written on dit, so that 


the final n once more returns , and gives us the root in the 
very form which it wears as a suffix in the Latin caup-on-. 
Moreover this French horn 'man' tells us that the essential 
part of homon- resides in the first three, not in the last 
three letters of the word. But we must not omit to point 
out our root in its fuller, and more distinct form, as seen 
in the noun ne-mon-, corresponding with much accuracy to 
the German nie-mand, a word by the way which exhibits 
the mute dental so familiar in the Greek ard-Qog, Ava^-i- 
f.iavd-()o$ &c. Then again we find all three varieties of the 
same root in English , 1 . in man with its provincial variety 
mon, 2. in ' one says', where one is pronounced with a non- 
written w, corresponding to ''man sagt', 'no one* correspond- 
ing to the just quoted nie-mand and ne-mon-, so that the 
word 'one' in these two phrases is not our numeral, but 
a corruption of man; and lastly, although the phrase 'one 
says' is pronounced with a w, the w is not heard in the 
provincial phrase, it would do un (one) good to see it. In- 
deed the very mode of writing 'one says' without a symbol 
for the pronounced w is alone evidence that when and where 
this writing was first adopted, the w was not pronounced. 
I have said that one the numeral is a different word from 
that seen in 'one says'. This however need not prevent 
me from availing myself of the evidence which the numeral 
also offers as to the triple letter change of m, w, and zero, 
at the beginning of words. Thus the neuter, that is, the crude 
form of the Greek numeral appears in the several shapes 
of (.iev (the particle so-called), Fev, and sr. The same change 
is seen in the forms, fiovng 'alone', and ovog 'the one on 
the dice'. In the paper on Latin Diminutives we had again 
the three examples, mere-, FSQ-/-OV or work, and epy-ov. 
Another example is Mar of Mars and the reduplicated Ma- 
mer-s, war in our own language, and vor in Ma-vor-s, AQ 
in the Greek Ay-ea-. As the Greek words,, 'I let go', 
and fJf.ii, 'I go', are akin to each other, and also to the 
Latin mit- (mitto, 'I let go'), we have again an example of 
a root dropping an initial m. But though 'man' was the 
first meaning of the Latin suffix on in caup-on- &c., and 


although this idea explains the limitation of le-on- and pac-on- 
to the males, yet undoubtedly the syllable ultimately comes 
to signify great size, simply because the male is commonly 
the larger animal, and hence the abovementioned Italian 
augmentatives in one. The French on the other hand, in 
the nouns lima f on ^ poisson, rayon, pennon, raton, teton, 
mamelon, manchon, tieon, lecron, have diminutives which de- 
rive their suffix in all probability from the Latin. 

But to return to our Latin feminines in ion of abstract 
power. I would first give reasons for believing that ion 
must be regarded as the suffix of ar-at-ion-, mon-it-ion-, 
as well as of opin-ion- , which of course leaves the elements 
at and it for independent explanation; and I hold that the 
suggestion given in the paper on agh ( xxvii) is well 
founded, viz. that these words should be regarded as cor- 
ruptions of ar-ac-ion-, mon-ic-ion- , so that ac (ic) represents 
the suffix agh (^A), as there discussed. The case of 
ar-at-ro- must of course be determined on the same prin- 
ciple, and hence this word is of identical formation with 
lac-ac-ro-. But the strongest confirmation will be found in 
the consideration of such words as ar-at-or-, mon-it-or-, 
for so I must divide these words, when I look at the Keltic 
terms for agents. Take for example the Welsh bad 'boat', 
bad-wr (= bad-oar) 'boatman" ; barf 'beard", barf-wr 'barber ; 
pryn-u 'to buy', pryn-icr 'buyer'; car-out 'to love', car-tcr 
'lover" ; clyired 'to hear', clyiced-ur 'hearer ; pechu- 'to sin', 
pech-od 'sin', pech-ad-nr 'sinner , i. e. the exact analogue of 
the Latin pecc-at-or. Similarly the Gaelic has mort 'to 
murder', mort-air 'murderer'; tagair 'to claim', tagr-air 
'claimant' : rannsaich 'to search', rannsach-air 'searcher'. And 
these Keltic words are the more trustworthy, as the two 
languages enable us fully to analyse them; the wr of the 
Welsh being, as is well known, only an abbreviated form 
of <TMT, fftcir 'man", and the Gaelic air, of fear 'man', 
two words , which so evidently represent the Latin wr. The 
Breton suffix is all but the same, viz. our , eur, or er (Le- 
gonidec, Gr. p. 45). The doctrine is again confirmed by our 
own, or more strictly speaking Teutonic, suffix of tceac-er, 


bak-er, sail-or, nail-or, and indeed the French taill-eur, 
brass-eur. At the same time it is readily admitted that a 
Roman no longer conscious of the origin of the suffix or, 
and feeling that the language abounded in the names of agents 
ending in tor, may have been misled to create new forms 
in tor, as though it were really a simple suffix. Of course 
all that is said, must apply to the Greek nouns, such as 
n t ut]T-rj(), ano-oraT-rjQ , oix-rtT-yQ and oix-yT-wQ , (jr^-yQ 
and far-cop, and I say this, though fully aware that the 
statement runs counter to received notions. At the same 
time I must admit for the Greek the same saving clause 
which I have just admitted for the Latin. Of course the 
evidence that in ar-at-rum and ar-at-or at is an element 
independent at once of the root-syllable and of the final 
suffix, leaves little doubt that in ar-at-ion- too the same 
must be the case. 

Having thus given my reasons for believing that ar-at-ion- 
and opin-ion- have a suffix ion in common, I have now to 
consider what is the power of this suffix. To say that it 
is of equal power with our own ing of verbal substantives 
or with the suffix of infinitives , is no doubt to say the truth, 
but yet is unsatisfactory, and this for two reasons. In the 
first place, as the stem of the verb already denotes the 
very same thing, the action in its most abstract form, with- 
out any of the accidents of persons and times , the addition 
of an abstract suffix was wholly superfluous. In the second 
place no explanation is satisfactory in the analysis of words 
which does not leave us in the possession of a tangible, 
physical idea. But if all that has hitherto been written on 
the affixes which are said to constitute abstract verbals, be 
unsatisfactory , we may well fall back on that material signi- 
fication of ion, which is found in the concrete masculine 
nouns, and ask ourselves, whether the idea of 'little' may 
not also belong to the feminines. Such an explanation 
would at any rate agree with the formation of our own 
language, where ing is at once the suffix of our abstract 
nouns, as dancing, and of our diminutives, as farth-ing. 
Again the Keltic languages have a variety of infinitives, 


which perplexes their grammarians. Thus to take the Breton 
we have 1. a or rather ah, for as the Norse ver-a, to be, 
is proved to have lost a final n by the Gothic vis-an and 
German ices-en, so bez-a, to be, has standing beside it 
be-an of the Treguier dialect. Now this an may well be 
compared with the an of Gaelic, and the en of German 
diminutives. 2. i, redi, which would seem to have grown out 
of ek (red-ek, Welsh rked-eg, to run); but be this as it may, 
in either case we have a diminutival suffix; 3. el found in 
some 13 irregular Breton verbs, and again familiar to our 
ears as carrying in it the notion of little; 4. out, Welsh 
od, ed, yd, which affords less distinct analogies; and 5. the 
base-stem of the verb , which , as we have already said , is 
well entitled to act as an abstract substantive , notwithstand- 
ing the horror with which it seems to have affected Legonidec. 
"II est encore", says he, "des verbes dont rinfinitif est 
absolument semblable a 1'imperatif. Je remarquerai que 
c'est un abus; mais comme il est consacre par Fusage, j'ai 
cm devoir donner ici une liste des verbes qui sont sujets 
a cette defectuosite."' 

But it may be objected to the proposed interpretation of 
the suffix, that 'little' is a limitation of the idea utterly 
at variance with that generality, which the suffixes of 
ploughing and arafion- are intended to denote. The just 
answer seems to be that generalities are precisely what 
early language does not intend to deal in; they belong to 
the highest stages of knowledge , not to that early condition 
where the material wants of man's nature claim his exclusive 
attention , so as to confine his thoughts to particulars alone. 
A metaphysician may amuse himself with definitions of time 
in all its vagueness, and with problems about eternity; by 
the untutored savage time is only considered in its sub- 
divisions , and thus the very words employed for the general 
idea , tempus and taga , when examined , are found to denote 
simply a material limit. Thus aration- meant, not all the 
ploughing that ever was or is or will be, much less all the 
ploughing that an imaginative mind can conceive ; but, more 
intelligibly, a bit of ploughing. This desire to limit ex- 


pression is one of the most active causes which has led to 
the development of diminutival suffixes. And the abundant 
use of the partitive particle de in French is only another 
example of the same principle. 'Donnez moi du pain, il 
est difficile de ....'. On the other hand the non-importance 
of the power I am assigning to the suffix of verbal abstracts, 
will account for the indistinctness of meaning which soon 
attached to it, and the consequent oblivion of its original 

But there still remains the enquiry as to the formal origin 
of the suffix. I will propose two theories. The Greek lan- 
guage possesses a patronymic suffix in the very form ion, 
with a variety of quantity, as KQOVIMV, Kgoriovog, and 
KQOVIWVOS; and a patronymic seems a very good foundation 
for a diminutive. Nay our own ing is thought by some to 
have had a similar origin. Another view is to suppose that 
opin-ion- may have been the corrupted form of an older 
opin-ig-on- like or-ig-on-. In this case we shall have some- 
thing very parallel to such a German form, as ver-ein-ig-ung, 
where the g for many Germans is a silent letter, and to 
what is seen in the coexisting Latin nouns pulegium and 
puleium 'fleabane', from pulec- 'flea'. 

In the series of words un-ion-, dupl-ion-, tr-ion- and 
tern-ion-, quatr-ion- and quatern-ion- , quin-ion-, sen-ion-, 
the suffix is not out of place, if the units which enter into 
them are regarded as small, which on the face of a die is 
of course the case. 

The thought of these words has led my mind to a con- 
sideration of certain adverbs connected with the Greek nu- 
merals, in which the syllable ax occurs very generally; 
and in such a manner as to raise a suspicion of its identity 
with the ax (= agJi) which appeared so prominently in my 
former paper. I find in Hoogeveen just forty-four words so 
formed as TQIUXIQ, TSTQUXIS &c. , dioaaxig, tyiaoaxig &c., 
together with others from more general adjectives of num- 
ber, as JToAAaxtg, onaviaxis, rnoaxtg. In the cases of 
noMaxis and anaviaxig, I am the more disposed to place 
a hyphen after, rather than before the x, because my theory 


about adjectives in o leads me of course to claim for them 
a final guttural, as -TO/.^OX- or 7ioM,n%-. But I wish to 
satisfy others as well as myself, and so will not rely on 
this argument alone; but the instances of dig (= dv-is) and 
TQ-IQ (= TfQ-is), and the Latin bis (= du-is}, as also our 
own tic-ice, thrice, all support the view that to the suffix of 
these adverbs is alone belongs. In the Latin ter, quater 
the final is has been dropped after the r, just as for puerus, 
linteris, paters , videbaris the habit was to write puer, linter, 
pater, videbare. 

The series of feminine nouns t uov-ad-, dv-ad- &c. are 
identical in meaning with the series union-, trion- &c. ; and 
so suggest the idea that the suffix ad- is of like power 
with ion-. The same idea is implied in the terminations of 
the French quatrain, sixain, dizain; dizaine, quatorzaine, 
cinquantaine, centaine, and of the Italian duetto , terzetto &c., 
and of our own triplet, and perhaps twain and twin. But 
the very form of tiov-ad- leads to the same conclusion, 
when placed beside such words as: ipax-ad- or T/>x-cro-, 
'a crumb or morsel', ov%-ad-, %ok-ad-, in which, no doubt, 
ad is a substitute for ax or a-/ under the influence of the 
preceding gutturals x and x- But the employment of ad 
seems to extend beyond this limit as in t/Ad- 'a band', 
/.i&ad- 'a small stone*. And as with form, so with mean- 
ing. In the words uov-ad-, dv-ad- &c. the idea expressed 
in the first element, overpowered that which belongs to the 
suffix, and hence this suffix was finally employed without 
reference to its original power in the formation of such a 
word as uvQiad-. 

Is it a mere accidental coincidence that in the forms 
quadr-agin-ta, quinqu-agin-ta , we have the very syllables 
which presented themselves in so many Latin words, im- 
agin-em, vor-agin-em , ferul-ayin-em } ole-agin-eus? Nay the 
more correct form in on, corresponding to im-ag-on-, vor- 
ag-on-, appears in the corresponding Greek words TsaactQ- 
ax-ov-Ta, Tievt-ax-ov-Tct, accompanied too by the form ax 
which was preferred in so many of the Greek diminutives. 
One advantage of this theory is that it leaves in the last 


syllable ta, something very analogous to the ty of our own 
for-ty, fif-ty, zig of the German vier-zig, funf-zig, and ti 
of the Sanskrit shash-ti, sapta-ti &c. 

Returning to the simple numerals, a difficulty presents it- 
self in the fact that the Sanskrit panchan, saptan, ashtan, 
navan, dasan, end in an, whereas the explanation above 
suggested for nEvi<xy.-i$, emax-is &c. assumes that nevTct, 
sma and so on, have lost a guttural. The argument from 
the Sanskrit seems confirmed too by the Latin forms septem 

j r j 

novem, decem; and similar forms in the Teutonic family, 
as our own seven, nine, ten. Two solutions of this difficulty 
present themselves. A diminutive in ax (like the Gaelic 
cA) may well have coexisted with another in av, corre- 
sponding also to a Gaelic suffix of precisely the same form. 
Or what seems more probable, the compound suffix agon, 
may by the loss of the g have been compressed to an. This 
is not a mere unsupported conjecture. It is precisely what 
has taken place in the passage of the very numerals we 
have been discussing from Latin into French and Italian, 
as quinqu-agin-ta , It. cinqu-an-ta, Fr. cinqu-an-te. A similar 
loss of a y (or x) has taken place in the same compound 
suffix, as seen in vsTQ-a-wv compared with very-ax- 'grouse'. 
It was implied too in the suggested derivation of quatern- 
ion- and such forms from a theoretic quatern-ig-on-. Again, 
the long diphthong or rather vowel-sound in diz-aine and 
our own tw-ain are well accounted for, if deduced from a 
form like agon or agin; just as the plant purslane would be 
in keeping with a Latin portulagon-. So also the Fr. reine 
accords with regina, and our own rain with Germ, regen. 



Page 32, line 7 from the bottom read e/egisti for degisti. 

- 40, - 23 - - top - baba-ng for baba-n. 
41, - 8 - nuya for nuja. 

- 46, - 10 bottom - me for mi. 

- 53, - 3 - - - i 

54, - 2 top > read Samoyedic for Samq/edic. 

- 56, - 7 - - - J 

Page 38. Add to the languages thai hare a nasal in the first person 
the following three North- American families : 
I. Shoshoni in 
II. Lutuami no 
fCnocxA unno 
[Muskogee unni. 
Page 39. 40. Add to those languages thai hare nasals in both persons : 
XX. Kasi Kumuq na 'I' ina 'thou 1 . 

This language is generally included in the following family 
of Caucasian tongues, but careful comparison of their 
vocabulary, especially their numerals, convinces me that 
it is independent of it. 

XXI. AVARIAS. Amug (we) mish (you) mush 
comp. (I) dun (thou) mun. 
XXII. Mosquito, suffixes of the verb and also possessive: 

1. ne(,e) 2. ma 

compare yung 'I' man 'thou'. 

Also the Mandan has me 'I' ne 'thou', 

but from many coincidences in their vocabulary this language seems to 
be only a branch of the Sioux -Dakota (no. XV.). 

Page 40. 42. 43. To those languages that hate a nasal in the first 
and k in the second person, add: 

VIII. Wailatpu (North- America) ina T Id 'thou', 

other authorities give in-ing ni-ki, 

where the IN, NI must be a prefix. 

Page 58. The substitution of a demonstrative particle for *y* occurs 
also in Old Irish, where sa, se is first an enclitical addition to the first 
person, like the Greek yi, but evidently connected with the demonstra- 
tive se 'hie'. Thus me-sse 'Hyw-yt''. But in the following examples, 
which I owe to the kindness of Mr. Stokes, it stands alone in the sense 
of a pronoun possessive: 

mathir-se a mathir sem 'my mother was his mother'. Zeuss, 
Gramm. Celt. 930. 


diangalar fuail-se 'languor urinae meae'. Ib. 926. 
dentar triall bertha-sa 'let an attempt be made to tonsure me', 
literally 'of my tonsuring'. Preface to Fiac's hymn in the 
Liber Hymnorum. 

Whether the sa of the Old Irish is etymologically connected with the 
Armenian s (spoken of in the text) both these are Indogerman lan- 
guagesI am at present unable to tell. 



Page 144, line 13, for quadrantala read quadrantal. 

30, Greek read great. 

37, ic hen read where. 

145, 5, prefering read preferring. 

147, 5, 6, (Haven, OKV , pJ read murta, ony, (5cf. 

148, 20,21, oftirw, (xiv, liaO-aivia, onftctnau, read onn'u), &c. 

149, 13, gouzont read gouzout. 

29, believe read belief. 

35, rarieiies read varieties. 

150, 2, rulerchange read interchange. 

6, dysgu read ni/s^w. 

33, tandem read lantum. 



A, the mark of the Italic Imper- 
fect, found in Keltic, 18-36. 

ADAMS, Dr. E.; on the Vernacular 
Names of Insects, the Lady- 
Bird, p. 84-7; the Cock-chafer, 
p. 87-90; the Rose-chafer, p. 90, 
91 ; the Stag-beetle, p. 91-2 ; the 
Glow-Worm, p. 92-4; the Red- 
Devil, p. 94 : the Burn-cow, p. 95 ; 
the Straddle-Bob &c., p. 96. 

- , on the names of Spiders, 
216-227; attercop &c. 217, cob 
(-web) 218, spinner 219, araine, 
220, (gossamer 221), staggering 
bob 222, shepherd 223, iicinge, 
f a inc/ 224, uolfand hunter 22 5,<fcc . 

Affixes in Hungarian, verbal, 99 
-116; nominal, 117-124. 

- , not pre-posi- 
tions, modify the radical, 123. 

African languages; the pronouns 

of the first and second Persons 

in, 36-38, &c. 
agh, the Keltic suffix, as occurring 

in Latin, Greek, <c. Prof. Key's 

supplemental Paper on, 273-284. 
Aristotle , on his use of floras and 

coiduo;, 13. 

oration-, meaning of, 28. 
aniSuof , on the meaning of the 

word, by Prof. De Morgan, 8-14. 
Ash's English Dictionary; notice 

of, 266. 
ACFRECHT, Dr. TH. : Some Latin 

and Greek Etymologies, dulcis, 

14-16. On the original form of 
fia, 16. On the derivation of 
pollex, 17. 

Bailey's English Dictionary; notice 
of, 264. 

beetles, on the names of; by Dr. 
E. Adams, 84-96. 

Blonnt's Glossographia, 1656; no- 
tice of, 261. 

Booth's English Dictionary; notice 
of, 268. 

Bopp's derivation of Iianfs (one- 
handed) disputed, 140-2. 

BCHLEB, Dr. G.: on the Hindu God 
Parjanya, 154-168. 

capra; on words derived from it 
as the name of a catapnlt or 
battering engine, by H. Wedg- 
wood, 1-8: E. capstan, 2; craft, 
3; cable, 3-5; cablish, 6: ca/irer, 
7; carbine, 7-8. 

carpet, on the derivation and mean- 
ing of, by H. Wedgwood, 77. 

Cockeram, 1632; notice of his Eng- 
lish Dictionarie, 261. 

dinavian element in the English 
Language, 18-31. 

; report of Hints towards 

the explanation of some hard 
words and passages in English 
writers, 67-74. 

; specimens of the Dia- 

lects of some of the South Sea 
Islands, communicated by, 82-3. 

Derivations of words <fec.: 

abet, 129. 
ar, 218. 

bait, bate, 129. 
belfry, 4. 
bell, peal, 80. 

bottled (spider) 

cable, 3-5. 
cablish (wind, 
falls), 6. 


Derivations, English, continued. 

Derivations continued. 

callver, 1. 

irk, 132. 

capstan, 2. 

irritate, 133. 


carbine, 7. 

isinglass, 149. 

ad= ftynr, 150. 

ira, 132. 

carpet, 77-8. 

-agin,ta, 283. 

catch, 81. 

lath, 82. 

ar-at-ion, 280. 

limen, 145. 

champ, 79. 
chapman, 277. 


-at-, -it-, 273, 

/is, 133. 

chat, 80. 
cob-web, 218. 
cock-roach, 88. 

mangle, 2. 
mangled, 6. 
mayhem or 

-bam, 31. 
Boreas, 80. 

mun -, 274. 
om-itt-o, 277, 

communion , 

. ,, 

maim, b. 


corbel, 73. 
cough, 79. 

morrow, murk, 

ciere , citare, 

communi-, 274. 

-on-, 277. 
opin-ion, 280. 

-nr 979 


ocut (Somer- 


VI , It 1 i7. 

custard, 72. 

set), 88. 

dulcis, 15. 

pollex, 17. 

one, un, =man, 

dunlaxat, 136. 

dowlas, 73. 


-ritare, 133. 

excitare, 131. 

ri.ra, 133. 

eddicrop ( spi- 
der), 218. 

periwig, 127. 
plank, 138. 

Aostis, 130. 

roo-ur, 147. 

entice, 131. 

prut/ 75. 

titillo, 131 n. 

-er = man, 280, 

prwte (0. E.), 

incitare, 131. 

titio, 131. 


pride, 75. 

instigo, 132. 


excite, 131. 

ptrot! 75. 
puff, 79. 

-ion; words in, 

tribu-, 143. 



148, 150. 

spider, 219. 


/Z/e, 79. 

stir, 133. 

sum, 12. 

-KO-, 283. 
-ax-, 282. 

foe via, (Qif, 

gossamer, 221. 

avrjp, 277. 

tar on (a dog), 

pi9jUOf, 8-14. 


Aare, to attack, 


a-^Kfl-o, 148. 



tease, 131. 


harass, 132. 

thing (the, do), 

yAaixoff, 15. 

/Lin, 16. 

Aarr, to snarl, 


yliuxvs, 15. 


tiny, 79. 

rfolvdevx)]; , 

Aarr t/, 132, 134. 

tise, entice, 131. 

Jj;,uo, 143-5. 


Aatter, 218. 


Aeat, 134. 

tranquil, 138. 

d and n; Prof. Key on the Con- 

Act, 131. 

trudge, 76. 

vertibility of, 145-50; spider 

Aurry, 82. 

trus, 74-7. 

= spinner, 219. 

twain, 283,284. 

Danish influence on English, 22, 25. 

incite, 131. 

Demonstrative, the original, 61. 

-inj, 280. 

wig, 127. 

J^uoff (tithing); Prof. Key on the 

And see Mr. Coleridge's list of 
Early English words from Old 
Norse, p. 26-30; and hard words 

derivation of, 143. 
Dictionaries, English; Mr. D. P. 
Fry on, 257-272. 

and passages in Early English 
writers, p. 67-74. 

Dogs, on words derived from the 
setting on of Dogs, by H. Wedg- 

wood, Esq., 128-134. 



dulcts, on the derivation of, by Th. 

Anfrecht, 14. 
duntaxat; Prof. Key on, 136-8. 

English, on the Scandinavian ele- 
ment in, by Herbert Coleridge, 

, some hard words and pas- 
sages explained, p. 67-74; 
tkerne 67, spate, misrempe, stare. 
68, me, graueth , schindes 69, 
moren, ma, schrogen suet 71, 
kayleicey, colomy, pisseris 72. 

Etymological grouping of words in 
a Dictionary, argned for, as 
against alphabetical, by Mr. Fry, 
257-260, 271-2. 

Fin no-Tartarian languages; / and 
thou in, 45. 

Frisians ; the Northern infinitive in 
a not dne to them, 25. 

FRY, DASBY P.; on the word than, 

; on some English Diction- 
aries, especially one proposed 
by the late A. A. Fry, 257-272 ; 
specimen of Mr. A*. A. Fry's 
etymological grouping, 257-9. 

FCRXIVALL, F. J. ; tm an unregis- 
tered sense of the word thing 
and its base the, 125-6. 

Galla language; on Coincidences 
between it and different European 
languages, by H. Wedgwood, 

yivxv;, yiavxos, on the derivation 
of, by Th. Anfrecht, 14. 

go bet, words derived from the 
cry, 129. 

good and bonus: on the relation 
between the words, 149. 

Greek; the change of n and d in, 

Greenlandish forms for / and thou, 

Guest, Dr.; his assertion that no 
traces of Danish are to be found 
in our MSS. or dialects, contro- 
verted, 26. 

hanfs, Gothic, one-handed; Prof. 
Key on, 140. 

Hungarian; on its Verbal Affixes, 
97-116; and its Nominal Affixes, 
116-124, by F. Pulszky, Esq. 

, far richer in verbal af- 
fixes than any of the Arian lan- 
guages, 100. 

- , its compounds with fel, 

half, (half-handed, -witted, &c.)> 

/, in African languages, 36-7. 

/ and here connected, 62. 

Indo-European languages; / and 
thou in the, 49-52. 

Insects: on the Vernacular Names 
of, by Dr. E. Adams, 84-96. 

-ion; list of Latin words in, 273-6. 

; meaning and origin of, 276 


Irish Glosses, from MSS. in Trin. 
ColL Dublin of the end of the 
14th, and the 1st half of the 
15th centuries, 168-215. 

Johnson, his derivation of spider; 

spy-dor, the insect that watches 

the dor (beetle), 219. 
; notice of his Dictionary, 

1747; p. 263, 265. 

Keltic languages; traces of the 
Italic Imperfect in, by Dr. C. 
Lottner, 31-4. 

KEY, T. HEWITT; on the derivations 
of dttntaxat, tranqitillus, and n 
(si dis placet). 136-40. 

; on the derivation of the 

Gothic hanfs, one-handed, 140-2. 

; on the derivation of the 

word cJ^wof, 143-5. 

; on the Convertibility of n 

and d, 145-150. 

; a supplemental Paper on 

the Keltic suffix agh, <fcc., as oc- 
curring in Latin, Greek, and 
other related Languages, 273-84. 

Krit and Taddhita affixes defined, 

Lemon's English Etymology, 1783; 

notice of, 266. 
Lithuanian God Perkvnas = Hindu 

God Parjanya, 164; tale of, 165. 
LOTTSEB, Dr. C. ; on Traces of the 

Italic Imperfect in the Keltic 

Languages, 31-4. 




LOTTNER, Dr. C. ; on the Forms and 
Origin of the Pronouns of the 
First and Second Persons, 34-66. 
Corrections of, and Additions to, 
this Paper, 285-6. 

/an-, on the original form of, by Th. 

Aufrecht, 16. 
ma, mi, or na, ni, the roots of the 

pronoun 7, in African languages, 

Martin's English Dictionary, 1748 

-1749, noticed, 264. 
Mezzofanti, Cardinal ; Mr. Watts on 

Dr. Russell's Life of, 227-56. 
; Mr. Pulszky's account 

of his interview with, 252-3. 
Minarelli's list of 114 languages 

known by Mezzofanti, questioned, 

Minsheu; notice of his English 

Dictionary, A.D. 1617; p. 261. 

n and d; Prof. Key on the Con- 
vertibility of, 145-50. 

numerical; on the logical use of, 
(Socrates numerically different 
frornPlato), by Prof. De Morgan, 8. 

Parjanya, the Hindu God; Dr. G. 

Buhler on, 154-68. 
; etymology of the word, 

, identified with Perku- 

nas, a Lithuanian God, 164. 
periwig and wig ; the derivation of, 

Phillips's New World of Words, 

1657; notice of, 261. 
poison; spiders named from, 217-8. 
pollex; on the derivation of, by 

Th. Aufrecht, 17. 
Holvtitvxrjs; on the derivation of, 

by Th. Aufrecht, 16. 
Pronouns of the first and second 

Persons ; on the forms and origin 

of, by Dr. C. Lottner, 34-66, 285. 
PCLSZKY, FRANCIS; on the Verbal 

Affixes in Hungarian, 97-116. 
; on the Nominal Affixes in 

Hungarian, 117-124. 

his account of his inter- 

view with Mezzofanti in 1833, 
p. 252-3. 

r, irr! words derived from, 132. 

|] Richardson's English Dictionary 

noticed, 269. 
Runaway, a misprint for Rumorer, 

in Shakspere's "That Runaway's 

eyes may wink"; 135-6. 
Russell, Dr. ; Mr. Watts on his Life 

of Cardinal Mezzofanti, 227-56. 
; his oversight about Mr. 

Watts's papers needs correction, 


Scandinavian -words in English, 

Semitic languages; / and thou in, 

Sheridan's Dictionary, 1780; notice 

of, 267. 

si =: so , in si dis placet, 139. 
South-Sea islands; specimen of the 

Nengone, Mai, Gera, Bauro, and 

Maori dialects of, 83. 
space, notion of; relation between 

it and the pronominal notions, 

Spiders ; Dr. Adams on the names 

of, 216-227; which are generally 

taken from 1. poison, 2. weaving, 

Swift's letter on English, noticed, 


than, Mr. D. P. Fry on, 151-4; 
its change from then probably 
occurred between A. D. 1668 and 
1678, p. 153. 

Theiner, Dr. A.; notice of his 
sketch of Mezzofanti, 241; trans- 
lation of part of it, 253-6. 

thing and its base the; on an un- 
registered sense of, 125-6. 

thou and there connected or iden- 
tical, 61. 

tranquillus; Prof. Key on, 138. 

trus and begone; on the phrase, 
by H. Wedgwood, 74. 

tr! words derived from, 130. 

<*.' words derived from, 133. 

Veda, the Rig-; translation of its 
3 hymns to Parjanya, 156-8. 

Walker's Dictionary, 1791; notice 
of, 267. 

WATTS, THOMAS, Esq.; on Dr. 
Russell's life of Cardinal Mezzo- 
fanti, 227-56. 



weaving or spinning; spiders named 
from, 219. 

Webster's Dictionary, 1830; notice 
of, 269. 

derived from the Latin Copra 
as the name of a Catapult or 
Battering-Rain, 1-8 (E. capstan, 
crab, cable, cablish, caliter, 

; on the phrase ' trvs 
and begone', 74-7. 

; on the derivation and 

meaning of the word carpet, 77-8. 
on Coincidences be- 

tween the Galla and different 
European languages, 78-82. 

WEDGWOOD, H. ; on the Words Wig 

and Periwig, 127-8. 
; on words derived from 

the Cries used in setting on of 

Dogs, 128-34. 

: Shakspere's "That Ru- 

naways eyes may wink", 135-6. 
Welsh; change of n into din, 150. 
tciy and peritrig; the derivation of, 

Wilkins, Bishop; his use of then 

and than. 152. 
Wright, Mr. T.; his opinion that 

there is no Scandinavian element 

in English, refuted, 18-30. 


January 13, 1859. 
Professor MALDEX in the Chair. 

The Rev. George Smale, H. Bucks Gibbs, Esq., and Bassett 
Smith , Esq., were balloted for and duly elected Members of the 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting were voted for the same: 

Suffolk Surnames (Boston U. S. 1858); by N. J. Botcditck, Esq. 

Resolved that Thos. Dyer, Esq., be readmitted a Member of the 
Society without payment of another admission Fee, on his return 
from a lengthened absence on the Continent. 

The Papers read were I. "On words derived from the Latin 
Capra in the sense of a Catapult or Battering Engine"; by H. 
Wedgwood, Esq. II. "On the word e ^oc"; by Professor De 


January 27, 1859. 
The Very Rev. the DEAN OF WESTMINSTER in the Chair. 

Nicholas Triibner, Esq., was balloted for and duly elected a 
Member of the Society. 

Mr. Furnivall announced that the Early English Glossary by 
Mr. Coleridge, being the first Index of the Dictionary Committee 
promised in their proposals, was accepted by Messrs. Triibner 
& Co. for publication, and also that Mr. H. Wedgwood's Ety- 
mology of the English Language was to. be published by the 
same firm. 

The Papers read were I. "On the verb to be"', by Professor 
Goldstiicker. II. "On the Verbal Affixes in Hungarian"; by F. 
Pulszky, Esq. 

February 10, 1859. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Papers read were I. "On the etymology of the verb 
to beg"-, by Prof. Goldstiicker. II. "On the Noun -Affixes in 
Hungarian"; by F. Pulszky, Esq. 

February 24, 1859. 
F. PULSZKY, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Otter was balloted for and duly elected 
a Member of the Society. 

The following present was received, and the thanks of the 
Meeting returned to the donor: 

Local Etymology ; by R. S. Charnock , Esq. 

The Papers read were I. "On some Latin and Greek Ety- 
mologies (pollex, dulcis, ykvxvs, and /*)"; by Theodore Aufrecht, 
Esq. II. " On the forms and origin of the pronouns of the first 
and second persons, Parti."; by Dr. C. Lottner. 

March 10, 1859. 
F. PULSZKY, Esq., in the Chair. 

Professor Whittard was balloted for and duly elected a Mem- 
ber of the Society. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of 
the Meeting returned to their respective donors: 

Uijvala dattas, Commentary on the Unadisutras ; by Tli. Aufrecht, Esq. 
Elements of Latin Pronunciation and three Papers; by Prof. Haldeman. 
English Grammar and Dictionary ; 1 bjHydeClarke, 

Handbook of comparative Philology; > ^ Q 

On Cold Harbours and Topographical Nomenclature; j 
The Paper read was "On the forms and origin of the pro- 
nouns of the first and second persons, Part II."; by Dr. Lottuer. 


March 24, 1859. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting voted to the donor: 

Philological Essays, by the late Rev. R. Garnelt- by his son the Editor. 

The Paper read was "Words beginning with /, m, n, r, have 
been generally truncated"; by Prof. Key. 

April 14, 1859. 
Professor GOLDSTUCKER in the Chair. 

The Rev. T. C. Wilks was balloted for and duly elected a 
Member of the Society. 

The following present was announced, and the thanks of the 
Meeting returned to the donor: 

The Madras Journal of Literature and Science ; by the Madras Lit. Soc. 

The Paper read was "On the Scandinavian element in the 
English language"; by H. Coleridge, Esq. 

April 28, 1859. 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

The Rev. Jac. Richardson Major was balloted for and duly 
elected a Member of the Society. 

The Papers read were I. " On Coincidences between the Galla 
and different European languages"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. 
LT. "On the derivations of Carpet and Trusse"-, by H. Wedgwood, 
Esq. III. "The answers to the Dictionary Committee's queries"; 
by H. Coleridge, Esq. 

May 12, 1859. 
HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

The- Rev. Jonathan Eastwood was balloted for and duly elected 
a Member of the Society. 

The Paper read was "On the names of Insects, part II."; 
by Ernest Adams, Esq. 

May 26, 1859. (Anniversary Meeting.) 

The Treasurer's Cash Account, as approved by the Auditors, 
was read and adopted. [See last page.] 

Mr. Furnivall stated that the Collector had not yet sent in 
the subscriptions collected by him, and that Messrs. Bell and 
Daldy's account for the past year had not been received; and 


that the proof of the third half sheet of the Society's Trans- 
actions for 1859 had been received. 

The following Members of the Society were elected its officers 
for the ensuing year: 

President. The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

Vice-Presiden ts . 

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of London. (Bloomfield.) 
The Right Hon. Lord Lyttleton. 

E. Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 
Professor H. H. Wilson, Oxford. 

Ordinary Members of Council. 

Ernest Adams, Esq. 
P. J. Chabot, Esq. 
Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 
Rev. J. Davies. 
Rev. Dr. B. Davis. 
Sir J. F. Davis, Bart. 
E. B. Eastwick, Esq. 
Th. Goldstiicker, Esq. 
Rev. Dr. Hawtrey. 
J. P. Hicks, Esq. 

Professor Maiden. 

J. M. Norman, Esq. 

Rev. J. J. S. Perowne. 

F. Pnlszky, Esq. 

Rev. A. P. Stanley. 

Whitley Stokes, Esq. 

The Very Rev. The Dean of 

Thomas Watts, Esq. 
H. D. Woodfall, Esq. 

R. G. Latham, Esq., M. D. 

Treasurer. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 
Hon. Secretaries. Professor Key; F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

The Papers read were I. "On the plural of the word Mussul- 
man, with some thoughts on Flexion in general"; by J. M. Lud- 
low, Esq. II. "On an early English verb, the, to do, the base 
of the word thing"; by F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

June 9, 1859. 
Sir J. F. DAVIS, Bart., in the Chair. 

Robert B. Pencock, Esq., and C. J. F. Taylor, Esq., were bal- 
loted for and duly elected Members of the Society. 

The Papers read were I. "On the phrase Balance of Power"; 
by Lothair Bucher, Esq. II. "On the Gaulish Inscriptions"; by 
Wbitley Stokes, Esq. 

June 23, 1859. 

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 
There being no Paper, Professor Key made some remarks on 
Air. H. Coleridge's new Glossary, and Mr Furnivall read some 
extracts from Robert of Brunne's 'Handlynge Synne' or trans- 
lation of William of Waddington's 'Manuel des Peches'. 

The Meetings of the Society were then adjourned till Novem- 
ber 10, 1859. 


November 10, 1859. 
HEXSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of 
the Meeting voted to their respective donors: 

An English Hindustani Law and Commercial Dictionary; by S. W. Fallen. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge , Vol. X. ) The Smithsonian 

Smithsonian Reports. \ Institute. 

Journal of the American Oriental Society; by that Society. 

Geographical Terms considered as tending to enrich the English Lan- 
guage; by Rev. A. Hume. 

Program to an Essay on the framing of Words. ) The Baron C. Dirck- 

The Phonetic Journal, No 32. 33, Vol. XVIIL { neck- Holm f elds. 

Comparison of the French and Spanish Language ; by M . de M or en tin. 

Proceedings and Papers of the Kilkenny Archeological Society; by the 

Vergleichende Grammatik, 2dVol. 2dPart; by F. Bopp; by the Author. 

The Papers read were I. "Report on the Society's Proposed 
Dictionary"; by Herbert Coleridge, Esq. II. "An essay on 
English Dictionaries , and the Method of the late Mr. Fry's Pro- 
posed Dictionary"; by D. P. Fry, Esq. 

November 24, 1859. 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

Wm. Gee, Esq., Sam. Griffith, Esq.. Charles W. Franks, Esq., 
and Francis ReUly, Esq., were balloted for and duly elected 
Members of the Society. 

The following presents were announced, and the thanks of 
the Society voted to their respective donors: 

Englische Grammatik in Beispielen; by Dr. Cad van Dalen. 
The Reviewer reviewed; by Rer. R Winston. 

The Papers read were I. "On words derived from Cries used in 
setting on of Dogs"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. II. " On the deriva- 
tion of Wig or Periwig"-, by H. Wedgwood, Esq. III. "Canones 
Lexicographic* "; by Herbert Coleridge, Esq. 

December 8, 1859. 

The following present was announced , and the thanks of the 
Meeting voted to the donor: 

A Dictionary of English Etymology Vol. I. A D; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. 

Resolved I. That a Committee be appointed to draw up a set 
of Rules for the guidance of the Editor of the Society's new 
English Dictionary. 


II. That the Committee consist of: 

The Very Rev. The Dean of I Thomas Watts, Esq. 


F. Pulszky, Esq. 

Professor Key. H. Wedgwood, Esq. 

F. J. Furnivall, Esq. j Professor Goldstiicker. 

III. That the Committee be authorized to print the Rules drawn 
up by them, to circulate the printed Copies among all the 
Members of the Society, and to appoint one of the Society's 
nights of Meeting for a special discussion of the Rules by 

The Papers read were I. "On Bopp's derivation of hanfa"; 
by Prof. Key. II. "On a corrupt passage in Shakespeare's Romeo 
and Juliet"; by H. Wedgwood, Esq. III. "On the Hindu God 
Parjanya"; by Dr. Biihler. 

December 22, 1859. 
Sir J. F. DAVIS, Bart., in the Chair. 

Copies of Part I. of the Society's Transactions for 1859 were 
laid on the Table. 

The Papers read were I. "On the names of Spiders"; by 
Ernest Adams, Esq. II. "On the date of the change of then 
into than'"', by Danby P. Fry, Esq. 



O eo 







GL) C* O 

eo o 

O r- 



o c< 




^ Ci O O O C* O 

t- C ~ 



tQ ^-1 


^ S oo o co c* * 

^> ^Q 

-* 1 



P< . . W 

Q CO P S r *-5 

T " > 5 **^ S _i f ri' 
CD ^ C ^ \^ ^* 

O 02 *""* ^ *^ ^ 

g on Account 10 
;, Indexing, &c... 16 

to next Account 
r' 58 
it-Secretary 'stands 1 



* Id O e 

c &" 

o ^ 


S S p S - 

? '"5 .2 

** S 9 

Z * ** 


& i "^ S ^ 

"^C ^3 "^ 

fe. WJ * 

3 si S 
s *. .S ^ ^ 

111 'III 

n .1^ OD 
*K O. 

o PH PL, 



1 1 i 

5 ^ < 


C ^ 
oo g 

" - - 
= '^ '^ 

fc T 

8 I 

.2 co 


pt( CO Pi M DO P2 


H~ | 

" 1 1 III 


O -Is 


O O 50 - 



J S 

r- c co oj 

iH l-l 


**H H 

.^ r- 





OS r+ iH r- 



a -^ oo 



i = 

Q c *> 

^* H 



P " 

^ eo W 





^ ss 

eo o 





*a . 



3WOOD, ! 

s - M 
w S" 

o "S 

a * 


"3 30 

*^ CO 











M < | 

CO ^ 

<j OB 00 

3 ijl 

S ^5 

8 = -7 

'S ** 

1 -a 

* a 


. a? OS 

o .2 So 






fc 2 


T3 2 

2 > 

c ^ 



<D * 4 

1 1 .s 

a -a ^ ^ 

*pi ^, ^*j co 
ll II 

2 s ' 

^ . 

c> ., , 

"s v- 

8 i 



K > S S 

cc ^ 




o o 

** . 


o o 




H H 





00 <M OS 


>O b^ 



2 * 2 








Philological Society, London