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i3Ctlin : 20, UNTER DEN LINDEN, 



I. An Inquiry into the Character and Origin of the Possessive 

Augment in English and Cognate Dialects. By JAMES 
MANNING, Q.A.S., Recorder of Oxford. 

II. The Text of the Iguvine Inscriptions, with Interlinear Latin 

Translations. By FRANCIS W. NEWMAN, late Professor of 
Latin at University College, London. 

III. A Grammar and Glossary of the Dorset Dialect, with the 

History, Outspreading, and Bearings of South-Western 
English. By W. BABNES, D.D. 

IV. Gwreans An Bys The Creation of the World, a Cornish 

Mystery. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by 

Appendix. List of Members, Notices of Meetings, etc. 









A. ASHER & CO., 



>0 Nn MI.. v AI-8T1N. 





SECT. 1. The Syllabic, and the Non-syllabic or Temporal, Augment ib. 



SECT. 1. Pure Possessive Augments subjoined to Nouns ib. 

2. Bishop Lowth's View of the Pure Possessive Augment 4 

3. Dr. Priestley's View of the Pure Possessive Augment 5 

4. More recent Views ib, 

5. Pure Possessive Augment subjoined to Pronouns 6 

,, 6. Power of the Mixed Possessive Augment 9 

,, 7. Various Aspects of Mixed Possessive Augment involving the Exercise 

of the Power of a Subjective Genitive Case 10 



SECT. 1. Divers Theories as to its Origin ib. 



SECT. 1. Statement of Theory ib. 

2. Verbal, or Pronominal, Roots 18 

3. Form of English Pronominal Roots ib. 

4. Pronominal Origin of Inflexions of German Adjectives 20 

,, 5. Decline of Case-inflexion resulting from Foreign Invasion 21 

6. Substitution in Thirteenth Century of the Pronoun "His" for the 

Anglo-Saxon Inflexional Genitive when used possessively 23 

7. Possessive Genitives by Juxta-position 24 

8. Tabular View of Change in Thirteenth Century by substitution of 

" His" for Inflexion of Possessive Genitive of Masculine Nouns ... 28 
9. Tabular View of Progressive Change in Possessive Genitives of Feminine 

Nouns in Thirteenth Century 34 

10. Progress of Change in Non-possessive Genitives in and after Thirteenth 

Century 37 



SECT. 11. Further Progress of Pure and Mixed Possessive Augment ............... 37 

12. Promiscuous use of Pronouns He, She, and It ........................... 43 

13. Gothic Sexless Reflex Adjective Pronouns ................................. 45 

14. Indiscriminate use of Masculine and Feminine Anglo-Saxon Per- 

sonal Pronouns .................................................................. 48 

M 15. Correction of Vagueness of Genitive Case ................................ ib. 

16. German Mode of correcting Vagueness of Genitive Case where intended 

to be used possessively ............ ............................................. 49 

.. 17. Genders of Personal Pronouns ................ . ............................... 54 


CASK INFLEXION ........................................................................ 57 

GENERAL VIEW OF THE ANTI-PRONOMINAL THEORIES .............................. 63 

WALLISIAN, OB POSSESSIVE- ADJECTIVE THEORY .................................... 64 


JOHNSONIAN, OR GENITIVE CASE THEORY .......................................... ... 66 

SECT. 1. Origin of Theory .................................................................. ib. 

2. Ben Jonson's Grammar ........................................................ ib. 

3. Dr. Johnson's Grammar ......................................................... 68 

4. Dr. Johnson's Syntax ............................................................ 72 

5. Objections (eleven) to Johnsonian Theory .................................... ib. 

POMBMITB CASE THEORY .................................................................. 8-5 

DOUBLE GENITIVE CASE THEORY ....... .............................................. s: 

Coxa.' ............ 


IN the following pages will be found an attempt to determine 
the true character, and also to trace the origin of a grammatical 
construction, which, though substantially common to several 
Teutonic dialects, may, in the precise form which it assumes 
with us, be regarded as being almost, if not altogether, peculiar 
to the English language. 

It not unfrequently happens that foreigners are hopelessly 
puzzled in dealing with this construction, a circumstance which 
is the less surprising when it is considered that the apparent 
anomaly presented, has exercised the ingenuity of English 
scholars from the descent of James I. upon England, to the 
accession of Queen Victoria from the days of rare Ben Jonson 
to the period occupied by the popular, and extensively accepted 
labours of living English philologists. 

The peculiarity of which it is proposed to treat, is the em- 
ployment of the letter s, subjoined to a noun or to a phrase, 
for the purpose of indicating one special relation, in which 
the noun or phrase is intended to be represented as standing to 
some other part of the sentence objectively connected with it. 

From the noun or phrase to which the letter s is subjoined, 
that letter is now separated by a suspended comma, forming 



a mark of elision, commonly called an apostrophe. The 
addition of the letter *, which by the interposition of the 
apostrophe, is prevented from ostensibly coalescing with, from 
seeming to become part of the preceding noun or phrase,. 
indicates a relation of possession or of property. 

In the following pages, this addition will be referred to as- 
constituting a POSSESSIVE AUGMENT. 




1. Ihe Syllabic, and the Non-syllabic or Temporal, Augment. 

WHILST to the eye the apostrophised s presents the appear- 
ance of being subjoined indifferently to all nouns to which a 
relation of a possessory or proprietary character is meant to 
be attached, the ear distinguishes between possessive augments 
which are syllabic and those which may be designated as tem- 
poral, being non-syllabic. 1 Where the possessory character is to 
be impressed upon nouns terminating with a palatal sound, as 
ch, ge, or which end with a sibilant, as s hard (or ce), s soft 
(or z), or sh y whilst an apostrophised s alone is written, an entire 
supplementary syllable strikes the ear. Thus, although we write 
church's, George's, atlas's, vice's, Charles's, Ahaz's, fish's, we 
invariably add a syllable, and pronounce churchiz, Georgiz, 
atlasiz, viciz, Charlesiz, Ahaziz, fishiz. 

In all other cases the possessive augment is non-syllabic or 

Although syllabic, and lion- syllabic or temporal possessive 
augments, are the terms here applied to the apostrophised s, it is 
observable that in all the numerous cases in which the possessive 
s is resorted to, that letter does not, as it is at present written, 

1 A syllable may be said to be augmented when lengthened or produced by the 
addition of a distinctly pronounced and audible consonant, as well as when length- 
ened by the substitution of a long for a short vowel. 


appear as a suffix coalescing with, or absorbed into, the preced- 
ing dominant noun. It presents rather the appearance of a 
distinct particle, severed from the dominant noun by a mark of 
elision, a suspended mark doing service as a buoy, to denote the 
spot from which the discarded word or letter must be understood 
to have disappeared. 

Dr. Wallis who, in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
compiled in Latin, a grammar of the English language for the 
use of learned men on the continent, 1 designates the noun to 
which the possessive augment is appended the noun repre- 
senting the party owning or possessing as the principal or 
dominant noun, while upon the word employed to denote the 
object owned or possessed, he bestows the term satellite or noun 
servient. These designations, though somewhat fanciful, it may 
be convenient, for the sake of distinctness, to adopt, irrespectively 
of the soundness or the unsoundness of the peculiar theory 
which the learned and ingenious writer has employed these 
terms in attempting 2 to build up. 

1 Published 1653. 2 Post, chap. viii. 


THE cases in which the possessive augment, whether syllabic 
or non- syllabic, occurs, are divisible into two classes that in 
which pure possessive augments, and that in which mixed pos- 
sessive augments, are employed. 

1. Pure Possessive Augments subjoined to Nouns. 

Our first class is that of possessive augments, "pure and 
simple." Here, the operation of the augment is strictly con- 
fined to that of imparting to the noun dominant, a proprietary 
or a possessory quality, leaving the relation in which that noun 
stands to the rest of the sentence, to be ascertained aliunde, 
generally by the help of a preposition, such preposition, taken 
in conjunction with the noun dominant, forming what is 
usually called a prepositional genitive. Thus, in the expression, 
" a friend of the emperor," " a soldier of the king," " a servant 
of my brother," the relations of friend and emperor, soldier and 
king, or servant and brother, are sufficiently marked by the 
prepositional genitive formed by the preposition "of;" and if 
the s be added to emperor, king, or brother, the effect is simply 
to indicate or to intensify the character of ownership or posses- 
sion. It is introduced for the purpose of directing and deter- 
mining the ordinary, general, vague and indeterminate expres- 
sion of relation, which it is the proper function of a genitive 
case to present to the distinct, definite, and special relation of 
possessor and object possessed. 

Were the question raised whether the martial achievements 
of the Duke of Alva or the favourable character drawn 
by Dr. Robertson, should place them among the friends of 


Charles V., both the military commander and the peaceful 
historian might be said to have been friends of that emperor. 
But Charles actually possessed, and was the imperial, or, to 
speak more correctly, the regal, master and the actual owner of 
the valuable and important friendship of Alva, which Charles 
occupied and effectually worked at Miihlberg and elsewhere. 
That person may therefore be said, with strict propriety, to have 
been a friend of the emperor s, a designation which, bestowed 
upon Robertson whose friendship Charles neither possessed, 
nor could have possessed would be accepted only in a jocular, 
or, at the best, in a figurative sense. 

Again, "a picture of the long" would point to the existence 
of some relation between the king and the painting, a relation 
which would usually be taken to be that of a portraiture of the 
sovereign's person, whether it was possessed by the monarch 
himself or not; whereas, in "a picture of the king's," the 
loose and vague prepositional genitive, is, by the added s, re- 
t rieted to a specific possessory meaning; and usage might 
even exclude the idea of its being a portrait of the royal person. 

$ 2. Bishop Lowttis View of the Pure Possessive Augment. 

Bi>hop Lowth says, "both the affix and the preposition seem 
to be sometimes used; as ' a soldier of the king's ;' but here are 
rrully two possessives, ' for it means one of the soldiers of the 
kin;:.' ' The expression would be so understood, not, ex m 
termini, as here suggested, as involving a double possessive, but 
because the king would be presumed to have more than one 
soldier. If I say " that man is a servant of my brother's ; he is 
no servant of mine ;" I shall not be considered to have said, 
" that man is one of my brother's servants ; he is not one of my 
servant*." 1 It will not bo inferred, either that my brother has 
several men in his service, or that I have any in mine. The 
semi-latent, if not indeed distinctly visible, possessive in 
" brother's," corresponds with the patent possessive in " mine." 3 

' Urtmraiir, , 2 Sco post) chttp> x . 

'! 'n,./,. of\V,t : ,iulWiMl,.in, p. 35. 


3. Dr. Priestley's View of the Pure Possessive Augment. 

Dr. Priestley concurs with the bishop. He says : " this 
double genitive may be resolved into two ; for ' this is a book 
of my friend's/ is the same as * this is one of the books of my 
friend.'" 1 The former expression might be correctly used, 
even were the friend's library restricted to a single volume. 
The argument appears to rest upon the impossibility of the 
existence of such a fearful state of literary destitution, where 
no auto de fe, after sentence pronounced by an inquisitorial 
cura, had, in the absence of the enchanted owner, been trans- 
ferred to the secular arm of an incendiary barbero. 

4. More recent Views. 

Lindley Murray may be said to have abandoned the inquiry 
in utter despair. 2 

In a later philological work, 3 the views of Lowth and Priestley 
are, however, thus partially supported: 4 

" The possessive form may be used after 'of ' when the per- 
son is supposed to have, or to have executed, several of the 
things named, as 

' That is a picture of Sir Joshua's (pictures).' 

' Read a sonnet of Milton's (sonnets).' 

' Windsor is a castle of the queen's (castles).' 

" Some regard these forms as pleonastic ; but they are really 
elliptical. They are never used but when the sense of the first 5 
noun admits of a partitive usage, i.e. when it is admissible 
that the person can have more than one. We can say, ' I met 
a friend of yours,' but not l a wife of yours.' ' 

It is true that these forms are never used but when the sense 
of the first noun admits of a " partitive usage." The real cause 
of the distinction, however, appears to have been overlooked. 
It is attributable to the presence, not of the appended s, but 
of the indefinite article. The proof of this is perfectly easy. 
Speaking of a single person, we cannot say, " She is a wife of 

1 Grammar, p. 72. 2 Grammar, p. 174. 

3 Handbook of the English Tongue, by Joseph Angus, D.D. 1862. 

4 Section 390. 5 In the above cases the satellite is so placed. 


my son's," because "wife," preceded by the indefinite article,. 
a = one, means one wife, some one wife of many wives, either 
actual or potential. Here, the objection lies, and not in the 
term " son's;" for we cannot say " she is a wife of my son" any 
more than "she is a wife of my sons.' 1 But, if we get rid of 
the indefinite article, the unjustly suspected possessive s may be 
safely retained. Thus, rejecting the article, and substituting the 
demonstrative pronoun, I may say, " that wife of my son's is 
amiable," without exciting a suspicion that I am father to a 
polygamist. If I say, " that horse of my son's will break his 
neck," it will not be inferred that the object of my parental 
anxiety is the owner of a plurality, or even of a duality of horses. 

With the instances now adduced by Dr. Angus, the old fallacy 
reappears. Although the force of the two expressions is not 
identical, we can, instead of "a sonnet of Milton's," say "a 
sonnet of Milton's sonnets," and this, simply because we know,. 
ab extra, that other sonnets were written by Milton. La Araucana, 
which is extolled by Cervantes, which is so justly praised by 
Voltaire, is "an epic of Ercilla's." But as no other epic can 
be traced to this poet, the Araucana cannot be said to be " an 
epic of Ercilla's epics." In each of the above three instances 
the appended or subjoined s evidently exercises an effective 
directing power over the otherwise vague prepositional genitive. 
The form therefore is not pleonastic, as suggested by Priestley l 
and Cobbett ; neither is it elliptical, as contended by Lowth, 
Priestley, and Angus, since it does not require to be supple- 
t ed, and is in reality incapable of being supplemented. 

The fourth expression noticed, would, when supplementarily 
explained, become, " I met a friend of your's friends," whatever 
meaning so unusual a phrase might be supposed to be intended 
to convoy. 

5. Pure Possessive Augment subjoined to Pronouns. 
The, apparently, underived forms, "our, her, your, their" 
(formerly hir), are genitives of personal pronouns, the noinina- 
of w 1 1 i 1 1 a re " we, she, ye, and they ' ' (formerly hii) . From 
1 Post, chap. xii. 


these genitive forms of personal pronouns are derived the adjec- 
tive pronouns our, her, your, and their. As these adjectives 
are most frequently employed in indicating property or posses- 
sion, they are commonly called possessive pronouns. 1 But they 
are not always absolutely or exclusively so employed. The 
term "our house," may mean, and probably would, primd facie y 
be understood to mean, a house which belongs to us ; but the 
term is no less applicable to the house in which we lodge, to the 
house in which we work, to the house of which we are members. 
If the intention be to present, with distinctness, the idea of pro- 
perty or possession, we desert the adjective pronoun, and, 
falling back upon the personal genitive, we add, as in the 
case of nouns, 2 the pure possessive augment, saying, "your 
house is not really yours, it is ours" 

In these cases, the augment is temporal, 3 but it appears to 
have been formerly 4 syllabic. 5 

-- now 

My spirite which oughten your 'is be. 6 
As faithfully as I have had konning, 
Ben your 'is all. 7 

In the following passages the pronoun genitives are used 
without the augment. " Our aller cok" 8 is, the cook of us all : 
nostrum (not noster) omnium coquus. " Thaire aller seles" 9 is, 
the baskets of them all : illorum omnium corbes. So, in Piers 
Ploughman's Yision, "your aller heved" 10 is, the head of you all. 
" our aller fader " n is, the father of us all, " your aller 
hele" 12 is, the safety of you all. 

And now ye wretchid jelouse fathers our, 
We, that ywerin whilom childrin your. 13 
So, in German, " unser aller Mutter" 14 is, the mother of us all. 
"Euer aller Missethat" is, the misconduct of you all. 
Like our and your, when unser and euer are used adjectively, 

1 So, by Adelung, Deutsche Sprachlehre fur Schulen, p. 215, 368. 

2 Ante, p. 3. 3 Ante, p. 1. 4 Ures, eoveres. ' 5 Ante, p. 1. 
6 Chaucer, Troilus and Cresoidc, b. i. 1. 422. 7 Ibid, b. iii. 1. 101. 

8 Prol. Cant. Tales, 1. 825. 9 M. Coll. Sion, xviii. 6, cited by Halliwell. 

10 1. 13904. 11 1. 11218. 12 1. 13905. 

13 Chaucer, Legend of Thisbe, 1. 195. u Adelung D. S. fur Schul. p. 353, 639. 


y are commonly, though somewhat inaccurately, called pos- 
eottve pronouns. 

Speaking of the words ours and yours, etc., Todd, in his edition 
of Johnson, says, 1 " There seems, indeed, to have been no necessity 
for the added s ; our, your, etc., including in themselves the idea 
of property or possession." But ours and yours are necessarily 
possessive, whilst our and your are sometimes non-possessive. 2 

When it was intended to fix a strict proprietary or possessory 
character upon the genitives " my" and " thy," a different course 
appears to have been adopted. Instead of the augment s, the 
word ochen or aghen (own) was used, forming, by contraction, 
" mine" and "thine." 3 The same process is applied, less ele- 
gantly, it may be admitted, to her, our, and your, forming the 
unclassical hern, ourn, and yourn. The adjective pronoun "his," 
though not capable of receiving an addition in the shape of a 
sibilant augment, is not always able to resist the assimilating 
principle, under the influence of which it is prolonged into 
44 hisn." The compounds ours, yours, etc., being undeclinable, 
would come within the category of the possessive adverbs of 
German grammarians. 4 "We say, a good man, a good woman, a 
good child, and good horses ; and we also say, the man is good, 
the woman is good, the child is good, the horses are good. The 
word " good" being the same, apparently, in both forms, it is 
commonly assumed that the difference is only in the altered 
position of the noun. In fact, however, in the first class, good 
is an adjective which was formerly declinable in number and 
in ( use, whereas good, as used in the second class, was always 
inult'clinable. In German the distinction is still unmistakable. 
We say, ein guter Mann, eine gute Frau, ein gutes Kind, gute 

- Ante, pp. 6, 7. 

"i.l "thino" were formerly used, efpeouOly before vowels, as 
my and "thy" th, v had I1( ,t, when so employed, tin- intensely pos- 
f the*w/ mine or thine. The house is miue-the hook is thine. " 

aen wartor ci>t dorefa di- ZoMmmenMtmog / u M-a-bini, "anstatt," 

IJTWigeil, da M. ,|, im ..It, / um M.-rknul ilnvr llrstimmun- das udver- 

:imiui, dUMra, scit\\;irts, idlerseits. aliening. Oft AV, rden 

n ftdverbuch gebnmcht, ohne dass es um (Jeawilfen, ni.thi^ W ar e 

"i. /.. 1-nl^., /u j^.j,^ A( ieln,,-, Deotoche Spracbl, 

:dly iu-1-i-.ssary to obscn , that thifl adv.-rlual * does 

to prewnt any traceabk . ; , \\ith t i,,. \-\ n >M\ 


Pfcrde ; but we must say, without inflexion, der Mann ist gut, 
die Frau ist gut, das Kind ist gut, die Pferde sind gut. Here, 
gut, being undeclinable, is, by German grammarians, classed as 
an adverb. 

We have seen that where the possessive augment is employed, 
it is not written as if it were capable of being incorporated with 
the preceding noun. It is treated as a distinct particle sepa- 
rated from the dominant noun 1 by the mark denoting elision. 
The origin of this grammatical form, its correspondence with a 
nearly similar organisation presented by the Platt-Deutsch 2 
language, and in the vernacular idiom of Middle and Upper 
Germany, 3 particularly in that of the lower classes, with the 
manner and process by which it has, in our own country, come 
into operation, will be afterwards considered. 

6. Power of the Mixed Possessive Augment. 

In the second class of cases in which the apostrophised s is 
employed, the hitherto mysterious augment is not restricted to 
the bare function, the simple office, of impressing a character 
specifically possessive, upon terms which, in the absence of such 
augment, would have been capable of being understood either 
in a non-possessive or a possessive sense. On the contrary, in 
the numerous cases assignable to this our second class, this 
augment, the special distinctive sign indicating possession, 
serves the further purpose of marking the relation in which the 
dominant noun or phrase stands to the satellite, and to the 
other members of the sentence, thus accumulating upon its 
original possessory function the properties of a simple genitive, 
or the more extensive powers of an adjective pronoun. 

The more usual circumstances under which this mixed pos- 
sessive augment occurs, are those in which it represents the 
inflected or prepositional subjective genitive 4 of other languages. 

This augment has also occasionally to do duty for the ancient 
instrumental case, 5 and for the prepositions which supply the 

1 Ante, p 2. 2 p ostj c h a p. jv. 3 p ost) p. 14. 

4 For the reason why a possessive augment cannot be employed to supply the place 
of an objective genitive, vide post, chap. iv. 

5 Vide Bopp,Vergleichende Grammatik, 2te Ausgabe, Isten Band, p. 322-9, 158, etc. 


place of that case in those languages in which the inflexional 
instrumental case itself is not preserved. 

In the great majority of cases, however, the mixed possessive 
augment coincides with the inflected genitive of ancient and 
the prepositional genitive of modern languages, and this coin- 
nee is not unaccompanied to some extent with a sort of 
phonetic resemblance. It cannot therefore excite surprise, if we 
find that the mixed possessive augment has been treated as an 
ordinary inflected genitive. The differences, though not always 
lying on the surface, seem, however, to be sufficiently intelli- 
gible. The inflected genitive is employed both subjectively and 
objectively the mixed possessive augment can be used subjec- 
tively only. Again, the inflected genitive is applicable to an 
almost unlimited variety of relations the mixed possessive aug- 
ment is confined to the relation of property or possession. The 
inflexion indicates merely the existence of some indefinite rela- 
tion in which the inflected word stands to other parts of the 
sentence the mixed possessive augment may either affect solely 
the word to which it is affixed, or determine the relation of 
an entire compound proposition. 

7. Various Aspects of Mixed Possessive Augments involving the 
Exercise of the Power of a Subjective Genitive Case. 

The cases falling within the above description, may be ar- 
ranged as follows : 

First. We find this augment subjoined to masculine nouns 
dominant ; as, William's book John's horses. 

Secondly. To feminine dominant nouns ; as, Mary's pencil 
Harriet's gloves. 

lly. To dominant nouns of the common gender; as, An 
eagle's wing* a tiger's skin a bird's claw a sheep's wool. 

Fourthly. To inasruliiu' nouns dominant, preceded by their 
satellite ; as, The book is William's the horses are John's. 1 


Fifthly. To feminine dominant nouns preceded by their 
satellite ; as, The pencil is Mary's the gloves are Harriet's. 

Sixthly. To dominant nouns of the common gender preceded 
by their satellite ; l as, The feather is an ostrich's the skin is a 

Seventhly. To nouns in the plural number, where that plural 
has not been formed by adding an s to the singular ; as, Oxen's 

Eighthly. Prehensively to a series of nouns in the singular 
number. These nouns may have been brought together either 
by juxta-position ; as, " For thy servant David's sake," 2 " Smith 
the bookseller's shop ;" 3 or by the intervention of a conjunction, 
as well where a partnership or other connexion is discoverable 
between the several dominant nouns, as in the case of Brownlow 
and Goldsborough's Reports, temp. Eliz. ; and in that of Day 
and Martin's Blacking, temp. Viet. : as also where neither part- 
nership nor other connexion can be traced, as in " Jupiter and 
Saturn's moons" "Pompey and Caesar's rivalry." But when, 
in the case of two dominant nouns, a separate possession is 
intended to be predicated of each, the possessive augment is 
repeated ; as, An uncle may be a father's or a mother's brother. 

In languages which, like the Latin, retain an inflexional geni- 
tive case, but have no distinct possessive augment, our idiomatic 
phrase, "Jupiter and Saturn's moons," can find no place. Saturn's 
may indeed be rendered Saturni, but the prehensile power of 
the English possessive augment, must be renounced. The hold 
upon Jupiter is lost, and in order to recover it, a second in- 
flexional genitive, for the special purpose of including that in- 
ferior planet, is to be introduced. Jovis et Saturni lunae. 

Prehensile energy is not, however, confined to the Eng- 
lish possessive augment. Thus the Spaniards say, Valerosa y 
felizmente, as equivalent to Yalerosamente y felizmente ; the 

1 The common gender having no appropriate pronoun, is represented by a pronoun 
in the neuter, once the universal form. Vide post, chap.iv. 2 Psalm cxxxii. 10. 

3 In Latham's English Language, p. 365, Concord of case is said to be violated by, 
'At Smith's the bookseller,' instead of, 'Smith's the bookseller's.' In the former 
phrase the s is misplaced ; in the latter the s in Smith's would appear to be equally 
objectionable, as being superfluous, not to say, idderwiirtig. 


Germans say, Auf und Untergang der Sonne, for Aufgang und 
TJntergang. Mente and gang override the joint terms. 

It may be observed that the termination in tk, which dis- 
_ iiiahes cardinal numbers from ordinal, is applied by a similar 
prehensile process, to compound, as well as to single numbers. 
As in other cases in which a prehensile process is adopted, it is 
always attached to the number which is last named. Thus we 
say twenty-fourth, and, though now less frequently, four-and- 

Ninthly. The possessive augment may be subjoined to a 
neuter or sexless substantive in cases where a possessive, and 
therefore a quasi personal character is meant to be impressed 
upon that substantive. The fertility of England is not un- 
frequently asserted ; but if the intention be to personify our 
country as the possessor of that advantage, we say, England's 
fertility. The two phrases, although nearly allied, are not iden- 
tical. Not only is it necessary to personify and, as it were, to 
galvanize the neuter substantive, when we seek to give it a posses- 
sive character, by adding the apostrophised s, but the very fact of 
its being so appended, at once reacts upon the dominant neuter 
noun, in vesting it, ipso facto, with the element of personality. 
Thus when Fuller speaks of "sin's poison," and "grace's anti- 
dote," sin and grace are personified, one as possessing and 
(ploying poison, the other as possessing and administering 
the antidote. 

iily. The augment may be introduced prehensively at 
ies of nouns in the plural number, where the 
last of the plurals is not formed by adding the letter s to the 
singular; as, Horses and oxen's hoofs. 

ut My. \\Y find the augment subjoined prehensively to 
ford .f a compound phrase of greater or less extent. 
We say, ng of Spain's lister;" where the effect of the 

apostrophised to impart a possessory character, not, as 

nally, to Spain, the word immediately pre- 
ceding, nor simply to the dominant, word "king "but to 
v compound term "kin- O f Spain," or to the word 


"king" qualified, restricted, ear-marked, by an addition of 
the name of the country to which he stands in the relation of 

Twelfthly. The augment may be subjoined, prehensively, 
to the last of several connected phrases. Thus we say, "He 
is not the king of France or the king of Spain's subject." 

Thirteenthly. Where the predicate is qualified by an adverb, 
the augment, though visibly appended 1 to the adverb, governs, 
by virtue of its prehensile power, the qualified predicate as an 
entire proposition ; whereas, in a case-inflexion, the suffix is 
incorporated with the noun immediately preceding, and with 
the noun only, and it operates only on the noun. We say, 
" This is the king of England's crown, it is no one else's." 

Fourteenthly. It is not unfrequently added to certain in- 
definite terms, sometimes called indefinite adjectives. We say, 
"one's 2 health, one's children, another's riches, another's good." 3 

Besides the application of the patent and visible s, under the 
several circumstances above enumerated, we have what may be 
called an inaudible latent or invisible s, imparting the same pos- 
sessive quality to the noun or phrase as it would have derived 
from the presence of a visible and legible s. This occurs 

Fifteenthly, in the case of nouns in the plural number, where, 
as in sailors and soldiers, the plural is formed by adding an s to 
the singular. Thus we say, " sailors' wages," " soldiers' dis- 
cipline." In these cases the apostrophe is of more recent 4 ap- 
plication. And 

Sixteenthly, prehensively, where the last of a series of plural 
nouns terminates in s, as " cows,, sheep, and horses' hoofs." 

In the latter two cases, the void consequent upon the dis- 
appearance of the augment, 5 is denoted by the mark employed 

1 Vide post, chap. viii. 

2 "One" (as here used) would seem to be derived from "home," which, in old French, 
was not only homme man, but was equivalent to the German impersonal " man," and 
was the precursor and parent of the modern French " on." In l;vw French Ave 
constantly find (Year-books, passim) such impersonal expressions as " home diet" 
in the sense of the French " on dit," and of the German " man sagt." 

3 ''Other" Avas anciently declinable. To " others manncs wive." (Owl and Xio-ht- 
ingale, 1. 1474). " To stele to othres marines bedcle." (Ibid, 1. 1497). 

4 It would seem to have boon first employed in the eighteenth century. 

5 See this explained more fully, post, chap. viii. 


to indicate elision, thus forming what it may be allowable to 
characterise as an apostrophe pendens. 

Seventeenthly. We find the augment subjoined to a dominant 
noun, such noun being immediately followed by a satellite com- 
mencing with a participle, and consisting, not of a bare pronoun 
or of a bare noun, denoting a thing or things attributed to, and 
so far owned or possessed by, the dominant noun or nouns, but 
introducing an entire proposition, simple or complex. We say, 
" In consequence of the prisoners being absent, his trial was 
postponed." Here, the s constitutes a true mixed possessive 
augment, inasmuch as it not only points to an act attributed to, 
and therefore quasi possessed by, the prisoner, but also marks 
the relation in which the dominant noun stands to the rest of 
the sentence. This application of the apostrophised s appears, 
however, to be losing ground, and threatens to become obsolete. 

The more usual circumstances under which the mixed pos- 
sessive augment occurs, are, as already stated, those in which 
that augment supplies the place of a subjective possessive 
genitive case, and those where the augment, by its prehensile 
energy, operates more widely and acts further back than the 
word to which it is immediately subjoined. 

But this augment has sometimes the force of the ancient 
instrumental case, 1 and of the prepositions called up to supply 
the vacuum caused by the dying out of that case. 

Eighteenthly. In " Upon Caesar 's passing the Rubicon," the 
apostrophised 8 is a mixed possessive augment, inasmuch as it 
not only, as a possessive augment, indicates an act done by 
Coosar, an act of which he is the proprietor or possessor, but also 
aa a mixed possessive augment, marks the relation in which 
Cottar stands to the other members of the sentence. The rela- 
tion thus indicated is a relation, the nature and properties of 
which could not have been fully presented by a genitive case, 
xional or prepositional. To indicate the relation without 
assistance from the possessive augment, it would have been 

I 'tit Bopp, Verglmchende Grtmmatik, moriti Auagabe, ersten Band, p. 322-9, 
1M, eto. T& EngUih edition! are from thc> German. 


necessary to employ the casus instrumeiitalis in those languages, 
as Sanskrit, Zend, etc., in which that case is retained, in others, 
the prepositions having the force of an instrumental case. 

The mixed possessive, whether it supplies the place of a 
genitive or that of an instrumental case, is always used sub- 
jectively. But it does not hold, conversely, that the subjective 
genitive or the subjective instrumental, is necessarily possessive. 

The mixed possessive augment, whether it supplies the place 
of a genitive case employed possessively, or that of an instru- 
mental case so employed, is necessarily subjective. 

To cases of this class the innovation above 1 adverted to in 
respect of the suppression or omission of the possessive augment, 
also extends. 

Nineteenthly. "I mentioned the high tide at Deptford's 
being the cause of the flooding of Lambeth." Here the aug- 
ment exercises its prehensile power to the extent of embracing 
the whole of the matter by which it is preceded. It might, 
omitting the augment, have been said, " I mentioned the high 
tide at Deptford being the cause of the flooding of Lambeth ;" 
but the meaning of the phrase would not have been so precisely 
marked, whilst the expression would have been found to have 
assumed a much less graphic form. 

The inflexional s of the German genitive, like the es of the 
Anglo-Saxons, is endued with no prehensile faculty. In speak- 
ing of books, the joint property of Philip and John, we have, 
in English, "Philip (not Philip's) and John's books ;" in German, 
" Philips (not Philip) und Johanns Biicher. In Platt-Deutsch, 
and in vernacular German, both genitives are rejected, and we 
may colloquially, or with the lower orders, say, " Philip und 
Johann ihre (their) books." 3 

1 See last page. 2 Post, chap. vii. 



1. Divers Theories as to its Origin. 

THE grammatical construction which here forms the subject of 
inquiry, consists of three members the noun dominant, which 
is proprietary or possessive, the apostrophised s, and the satel- 
lite or servient noun, presenting the thing owned or possessed. 

The origin of the second of these members has formed the 
subject of five distinct theories, of which the last three are sup- 
ported by considerable ability, and have been put forward with 
no little earnestness and confidence. 

These theories appear to have arisen in the following order : 

1. The ancient pronominal theory. 

2. The Wallisian, or possessive-adjective theory. 

3. The Johnsonian, or genitive-case theory. 

4. The possessive-case theory. 

5. The double-genitive theory. 

Notwithstanding the numerous elaborate defences which have 
been produced in support of some of these theories, they can 
hardly as yet be said to have been fairly confronted, to have 
been submitted to a rigorous competitive examination. 

It will be the principal object of the following pages to 
investigate the grounds upon which these theories respectively 
claim to be entitled to acceptance. 




% 1. Statement of Theory. 

ACCORDING to this theory, the apostrophised s is, in all cases, 
to be regarded as the representative, or rather as the simple 
continuation of the adjective or possessive pronoun "his," used 
in the sense of the Latin reflex possessive suus, 1 and gradually 
reduced to its present attenuated form, first, by the suppression 
of the aspirate, and afterwards by the dismissal of the i from 
.the remaining is, thus abridging the labour of writer or speaker 
by the absorption of an entire syllable. This possessive "his," 
which sometimes also corresponds with the direct or non-reflex 
possessive eos, although apparently derived from the personal 
...genitive pronoun "his," which has the force of ov and ejus, 
must not be confounded with it. 

The attack upon these views respecting the origin of the pos- 
sessive augment, appears to have commenced more than two 
centuries ago. The ancient theory has been impugned upon 
two grounds : the one may be said to be external and historical, 
the other, internal and, grammatical. It is upon the latter that 
the discussion will chiefly proceed, and to which the attention 
of the reader will be principally directed. The former ground 
'it may suffice to notice incidentally, as the objection taken 
-appears to rest upon an obvious anachronism, a simple confusion 
of dates, requiring for its support, a transposition of the records 
of several centuries. 

1 Post, p. 46. 


2. Verbal, or Pronominal Roots. 

According to an extensively received modern theory, the roots 
in Sanskrit and in other Aryan languages are reducible into two- 
classes, the one predicative or verbal, the other demonstrative or 
pronominal roots, the roots in both of these classes being mono- 
syllabic. 1 The former, the rough material out of which nouns 
and verbs are supposed to be elaborated, are called verbal, in 
respect of their alleged capacity of being converted into verbs 
by the simple addition of a personal termination. We are in- 
formed that nouns, both substantive and adjective, are not 
derived from verbs, that they are not engendered by verbs, but 
spring with them fraternally from the same womb. 2 

Roots belonging to the second class are called pronominal, 
because grammarians have regarded them as possessing a pro- 
nominal quality, that quality being in those derivatives which 
constitute prepositions, conjunctions, and other particles, more 
or less hidden. 3 It is said 4 that all simple pronouns are in- 
eapable of being reduced into anything more general or elemen- 
tary, either as to form or as to meaning; and that even the 
systems of declension of these simple pronouns, are formed by 
special pronominal roots, the case-terminations of the simple 
pronoun not being derived from any modification of an original 
abstract pronominal term, but being themselves involved in, or 
forming, original and self-subsistent roots. 

3. Form of English Pronominal Roots. 

The fully developed nouns and verbs of commerce, those in 
actual living US e, in their various declensions, conjugations, etc., 
arc regarded by Bopp, as formed by the Simple process of apply- 
to ill.- pn-<lir;.ii\e verbal root of the noun or verb, a vivify- 
ing inlluenee <lrrive<l from a demonstrative pronominal root, 
whether i-niplou-il in its simple or in its compound form. The 

. . 15:uul, 195. 

m brttderlichem, nirht in ,imm Abstammungsverhaltnisse 
on ihnen tn^gt, undent tnit ;,> deraselben Schoow 
*; > ' urn. JUKI, ivi. 

4 Bopp, Vergl. Gram. 2tc Ausgabe, crsten Band, 195. 


pronominal roots connected with the originally sexless 1 pronoun 
4< hit/' appear to present the following forms : 2 

Subjective or active singular form, Hit. 3 

Objective or passive form singular, Hit. 4 

Respective form (dative), or form of special relation, singular, 

General relations form (genitive), singular, 5 His. 

Subjective or active form (nominative), plural, "Hi." 6 

Objective or passive form (accusative), plural, "Hig." 7 

Respective form (dative), plural, "Hem." 

"His," the genitive form of the Anglo-Saxon personal pro- 
noun, like the genitive of Latin and other inflexional languages, 

1 Bopp, Vergl. Gramm. 

2 Each of these different forms is usually called a case Gr. irraxm, Lat. casus, 
Germ. Fall it being assumed that these forms had, as it were, fallen from a parent 
tock, thence called casus patrius, paternus, or genitivus. 

3 To the general or neutral form were afterwards added "he" as the representative 
of masculine, and "heo" as the representative of feminine nouns. 

4 Afterwards were added "hine" for masculine, and "hi" for feminine nouns. 

5 Casus paternus, Prise. 5. Casus patrius, Aul. Gell. Lib.iv. cap. 16 ; i. 14, pp. 18, 
70. Casus interrogandi (i.e. decernendi) quern nos nunc genitivum dicimus, Aul. 
Gell. Lib. xiii. cap. 25. Speaking of this form, Dr. Wilkins, in his Sanskrit Gram- 
mar (p. 630 1265), says : "When two words come together in construction, of dif- 
ferent meanings, yet bearing a certain relation to each other, one of them is put in 
the genitive case." This learned writer had more particularly in view, a lrt 

extensively furnished with inflected nouns. In those languages in which no such 
inflexions have been preserved, the general relation constituting the so-called genitive, 
is commonly indicated by the introduction of a preposition, though formerly the 
simple process of juxta-position was regarded as sufficient, at least in possessive cases. 
Adelung's description of the genitive relation is at once more comprehensive and 
more concise. He calls it " Der Fall welcher zur Erklarung aller in einem Satze 
vorkommenden Verhaltnissbegriffe dient." And he represents it as being " der 
schwerste und weitliiufigste Fall, weil er unter alien nur am dunkelsten empfunden 
werden konnte, und daher auch in alien Sprachen der verwickelste ist" Deutsche 
Sprachlehre fur Schul., p. 122, 196. This not very flattering picture of the 
inflexional genitive, does not widely differ from that which we find in an article on 
the New Testament in the "Quarterly Review," "that in Greek the genitive expresses 
merely an indefinite relation, and that the preposition when used, presents, as if to 
the eye, the exact mathematical or geometrical position of one object with regard to 
the other." No. 225 for January, 1863. Where a Greek genitive is without the 
guidance of a preposition, the precise nature of the relation intended to be intimated, 
is left to conjecture. In a note to Galatians i. 7, Dean Alford says : "Tb evay~/f\iov 
rov xpto-Tou. Perhaps here, not Christ's Gospel, but the Gospel of (i.e. relating to 
prc.iclring) Christ. The context only can determine in such expressions, whether the 
genitive is subjective or objective." In 'EXiriSa SiKaioarvvris, Galatians v. 5, a subjec- 
tive meaning would scarcely be tolerated. And see Rom. xv. 16; 1 Thess. ii. 2 ; 
1 Tim. i. 11. The " exact mathematical or geometrical position" is attained in the 
English language without the aid of a preposition, and even in the absence of a case- 
inflexion, by our own possessive augment, our home-grown apostrophised s. 

6 Casus multitudinis rectus. Aul. Gell., lib. xiii., cap. 25. 

7 Afterwards, and still, colloquially, " hem." Both in the singular and in the 
plural the datives have supplanted the accusatives. 


may be used possessively and non-possessivcly, subjectively and> 

Equally extensive are the powers of the Anglo-Saxon case- 
termination in es y a termination which, according to Bopp, must 
be considered as based upon, or borrowed from the pronominal 

4. Pronominal Origin of Inflexion of German Adjectives. 

Upon the general tendency to reject inflexions which, by 
reason of information derived from the context or from antece- 
dent statements, have ceased to be necessary for the purposes of 
distinctness, some light is thrown by the course observable in 
the terminations of German adjectives. When an adjective is 
preceded by an article or pronoun which marks the case and 
number, or is joined to a substantive which marks case or num- 
ber, the distinctive inflexions of the adjective which would mark 
case and number, are disregarded. Where there is no preced- 
ing article or pronoun, or the preceding article or pronoun fails 
to mark distinctly the case and number, the full form of the 
adjective is preserved. 

Bopp 1 thus accounts for this peculiar feature in the declen- 
sion of German adjectives. He says the termination er in 
" guter" is a latent (verstecktes) pronoun, incorporated with the 
radical " gut," for the purpose of definition or personification. 
Therefore, when the adjective is preceded by the pronominal 
article " der," the function of a pronoun having been already 
performed by the patent pronoun, the latent pronoun is rejected, 
and we have der gute mann, not der guter mann, which, as 
Bopp says, would, no doubt, be intolerable to German ears. 2 

Adelung appears to have had an indistinct presentiment of 
Bopp's theory respecting the origin of case-inflexions. He 
describes the s in Hofihungsvoll and in Vorbuuungsinittel, and 
the // in Stj.dtrirlitrni in the phrase "Herrn N. Stadt rich tern 

1 Bopp, Vvrgloich. Grarara. 
Th effect would be tho tame, if the adjective were preceded by dieser, jener, or 


zu Leipzig," as post-positive articles, in which there is no dis- 
tinction of gender. He does not venture to say with Bopp, that 
the n in Herrn itself is also a post-positive article. 1 

5. Decline of Case- Inflexion resulting from Foreign Invasion. 

Upon the irruption of warlike hordes pressing upon the de- 
caying Roman empire, from the north-east and from the east, 
the nouns current in the Latin- speaking provinces became a 
necessary element of communication between the invaders and 
the old inhabitants. But to rude warriors the case-inflexions of 
the Latin nouns and pronouns widely differing from any to 
which they had been accustomed were perplexing and alto- 
gether unmanageable. 

With the exception of a single termination selected from the 
cases of Latin plurals 2 necessary for the purpose of distinguish- 
ing singular from plural, case-inflexions were wholly disregarded. 
In the singular number, the termination belonging, in Latin, to 
the ablative case was alone retained for all purposes. 

To avoid the ambiguity and confusion which must have re- 
sulted from an uncompensated rejection of the particular in- 
flexion which constituted the so-called genitive case, recourse was 

1 His words are, Wir haben ira Deutschen noch deutliche Spuren eines articuli 
postpositivi, welcher hintcn an das Nennwort angehanget wird, uud in der mit der 
Deutschen verwandten Danischen und. Schwedischen Sprache, noch merklicher ist. 
Er lautet fur die Hauptwbrter im Genitive der Einheit ohne Unterschied des Gesch- 
lechtes, theils ms, theils s, im Dative, en oder , und ira Accusative, gleichfalls, en 
oder n. Dahin gehb'ren, allem Ansehen nach, die Biegungssylben der eigenen Nah- 
men, Schwarzens Schwarzen, 2. Das * in der Zusamniensetztmg selbst an weiblichen 
Wbrtern, IIofFnungsvoll, Vorbauungsmittel, 3. Die noch hiu und wieder, in den 
Kanzelleyen iiblichen Formen, " Herrn N. Stadtrichtern zu Leipzig," fur dem 
Stadtrichter, So auch, " Herren N. der Gottesgelahrheit Lehrern ; " " Es ist Kau- 

fern gegebcn worden ;" Von Gottes Gnaden, 4. Manche, noch im gemeinen Leben 
iibliche, Arten des Ansdruckes : " ich babe es Vatern gesagt," ich habe niemanden 
gesehen, man sahe jemanden : "Die Kinder erwiihnten Herrens," fiir "des erwahn- 
ten Herren," 5. iNoch mehr adverbische Ansdrdcke : " Auf Erden," "nach Sonnen 
Untergang," "zu Statten kommen," "von Statten gehen," "von Handcn kommen," 
" zu jemandes Gunsten," u. s. f. fiir " Auf der Erde, nach dem Untergange der 
Sonne," u. s. f. Deutsche Sprachl. fiir Schulen, p. 192, 320. Like "auf Erden," 
etc., we find in semi-Saxon English " daies" used adverbially as " by day." 

Ho wiste hire norice seep daies i the felde. 

She watched her nurse's sheep " by day " in the field. 

Seinte Marharete Meiden ant Martyr, p. 2. 

2 The Italians formed their phmils by taking the nominative, the Spaniards by 
taking the accusative, plurals of the first and second declension, the French inclin- 
ing, but less decidedly, to the latter. 


had to the Latin preposition de (from or concerning) to mark the 
existence of some relation subsisting between the principal or 
dominant noun and the satellite or servient noun, leaving, as 
had been the case with respect to the now superseded inflexion, 
the precise nature of the relation thus vaguely indicated, either 
to be inferred from some obvious relation or connexion already 
known or intuitively perceived to exist, between principal and 
.satellite, or to be gathered from the context. 

In our own island, also, the general tendency of language 
to shake off an intricate system of varying terminations, was 
accelerated by the invasion, followed by a permanent settlement 
of tribes to whom such terminations were a stumbling-block 
and an offence. A grammatical construction, of Teutonic origin, 
appears to have been hastened to its fall, by the impatience of 
Scandinavian and Norman invaders. A simplification was 
effected in the Anglo-Saxon genitive singular, and also in the 
plural of strong (i.e. self-evolving) nouns, as man, sheep, 
mouse, etc., which refused to accept the Norman plural suffix in 
having previously rejected the Anglo-Saxon suffix in en, by 
reducing the varying singular genitives of all nouns to the most 
usual of the genitive forms, namely, to that ending in es. Another 
step taken in the same direction, whilst throwing off all case-ter- 
Mi iiiations of nouns, was to leave the relations existing between 
the noun dominant and the satellite in the case of possessive 
nouns, to be inferred from the simple expedient of juxta- 
position. 1 

About tlic time when tlu several Anglo-Saxon case-inflexions 
were gradually disappearing, perplexingly varied plural termina- 
ti'-riH were abandoned for the uniformity of the Norman plural 
in es. Some plurals in familiar use were, however, able to stand 
' ground, and we still say men, women, children, oxen, 2 
kine, sheep, deer, mice, geese, etc. 

J Port, 24. 

Ljf.u 101 wi *? ut <H ' r " llItv that "the Ktronp laborious ox of honest front" 
NV- lind "oxis," Luke xvii. 7, Ansrlo-Saxon version; 
tea i yok.,1, in rhyme with foxes, but without " firebrands tied 
if ancestors appear not to have long tolerated the double sibilant. 


6. Substitution in Thirteenth Century of the Pronoun His for 
the Anglo-Saxon inflexional Genitive used possessively . 

Terminations attached to words so constantly recurring, whilst 
tenaciously retained by the invaded nation, would, with little 
difficulty, be acquired by the invaders. The progress of the 
change may be traced with marked distinctness in the variation 
of language observable between two MSS. of Layamon's semi- 
Saxon poem " Brut." The earlier copy bears internal evidence 
of having been written not later than about the close of the 
twelfth century (tempp. Richard I. and John), the original com- 
position of the 32241 verses belonging possibly to an earlier 
period. The second copy may be safely referred to the reign of 
Edward I. and the latter part of the thirteenth century. The 
Saxon plural terminations in en are found occasionally in both 
copies, but in general the en of the reign of Richard or John, is 
changed into the es of the time of Edward. 1 

Both these manuscripts were published by Sir Frederic Madden 
in 1840 the two versions being printed e regione in parallel 

The progress of alteration in the language between these two 
periods, will be shown by copious extracts exhibited in two 
tables. Of these, the first 2 will shew the gradual declension of 
the Anglo-Saxon genitive case-termination and the substitution 
of the pronoun "his," where the genitive had been used in a 
possessive sense. The second table 3 will mark the change of 
the Anglo-Saxon plurals in en into the Norman plurals in es. 

These interesting documents appear to be of the greatest im- 
portance with reference to the present inquiry, inasmuch as in 
them is laid bare the gradual decline of the Anglo-Saxon genitive, 
followed by the employment of two separate instruments, exercis- 
ing separate functions, and invested with distinct powers. Upon 
the gradual abandonment of the Anglo-Saxon inflected genitive, 
our ancestors did not return to the original mode of constructing 
a genitive for nouns, namely, that by adopting the genitive form 

1 See Philological Society's Proceedings, vol. ii. p. 382. 

2 Post, 28. 3 Postj 57. 


of the personal pronoun. They called up the Scandinavian " of Jr 
where the existence merely of some general relation was meant 
to be indicated. But when the special relation of possessor and 
thing possessed was to be presented, resort was had to one of 
two distinct courses. 

7. Possessive Genitive by Juxta-position. 

The earlier of these appears to have been, simple juxta-posi- 
tion, in which the satellite or thing possessed, was placed imme- 
diately after the dominant noun, without any inflexion or other 
change of form, either in the noun dominant or in the satellite, 
and without the aid of any preposition. 

The possessive genitive by juxta-position survives in the 
names of towns and villages throughout England. Sampford 
Courtenay is Sampford of, i.e. belonging to, the Courtenay family ; 
Sampford Peverell is Sampford of the Peverells ; Wotton Fitz- 
paine is Wotton of the Fitzpaines ; Wotton Bassett is Wotton 
of the Bassetts ; Kibworth Beauchamp is Kibworth of the Beau- 
champs ; Kibworth Harcourt is Kibworth of the Harcourts ; 
Berry Pomeroy is Berry (Castle, Burgh) of the Pomeroys, etc. 

This construction was not confined to England. We see 
remains of the possessive genitive by juxta-position in Fontenai 
le roi (at one time Fontenai le peuple), Marli la machine, Bois 
le due (du due de Brabant), Bar le due (du due de Bourgogue), 
Pont l'Evque, Hotel Dieu, La Chasse Saint Etienne, Les 
K li'jii'- Saint (iervais. La Bible Guyot, Los quatre tils Aymon, 
La mort ne me greveroit mie, Si je mourois es bras m'ainie. 
The exuviio of such a possessive genitive may be traced in 
"chez moi," literally, house (case) me, i.e. (at the) house 
(possessed by) me ; "chez son ami," literally, house his 
friend, i.t. (at the) house (possessed by) his friend, etc. 

\NY iiml aU> in our Norman French, " L'ost la roigne," 
the Queen's army ; " le bank le roy," the King's Bench, etc. 

Nl "" ''" ^ '!" Oaae-terminAtioD of the pronoun of the earlier 
version of Layamon'a Brut, is retained in the later ; whilst 
tin- <;i -termination ,,f the IKHIII in the earlier version is 


abandoned " Mines faderes brother" becomes simply "Mines- 
fader brother." 

In Layamon's Brut. p. 122, v. 28104-5 : 

" That Modred thire suster sune 
Hafdc thine quene inume," 

of the old version, becomes 

" That Modred thin soster sone 
Hadde thin cweane inome," 

in the later version. 

The distinguishing genitive "thire" had now sunk into the 
indeclinable "thin." 

King Dauyd of Scotland, that was hyre rnoder brother. 1 Hii 
destrued and robbede the fader londes mid wou. 2 Moder bern. 3 
Norice seep. 4 His broder sone. 5 By King Ban and Bors coun- 
ceill. 6 Tha com heore fader brother. 7 Beduer his soster sone. 8 
And there eaeldre sustre sone. 9 The cwene cun Eleyne. 10 

In the Ormulum we find amongst other genitives by juxta- 
position 11 Off ure sawle nede. 12 Theyyre sawle nede. 13 For 
anig sawle bote. 14 He taketh sawle bote. 15 Forr all maiin- 
kinne nede. 16 All kinne sinne. 17 To wurthenn mann o moderr 

1 Eobert of Gloucester's Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 461. 

2 Ibid, p. 477. The father's lands. 

3 Mother's child, Seinte Marharete, Meiden ant Martyr, p. 2, line 7 from bottom. 

4 Kir-se's sheep. Ibid, p. 2. 

6 Layamon's Brut., vol. i., p. 373, v. 8767. 
Morte d' Arthur, Book I., chap. 13. 

7 Lay , vol. i., p. 305, v. 7152. In the later version, Tho com hire fader brother. 

8 Lay., vol. in., p. 100, v. 27594, Beduer's sister's son. The older version has 
Beduerres suster sone. In this case the genitive by juxta-position is carried back to 
the beginning of the 13th century. 

9 Lay., vol. i., p. 162, v. 3813, older version. Here, however, the genitive is 
marked by the termination of the article, as well as by that of the adjective preceding 
" suster." 

10 Lay., vol. i., p. 15, v. 332, later version. The other version has "there cwciie," 
where the genitive is indicated by the termination of the article. 

11 Post. 

12 Ormulum,vol. i., p. 120,homil, 1. 3493 ; ibid, 225, horn. 6517; ibid, 267, horn. 
7700; ibid, 291, horn. 8394; ibid, 325, horn. 9334; vol. ii., p. 135, horn. 14081 ; 
ibid, 229, horn. 16755 ; ibid, 273, horn. 18005 ; ibid, 330, horn. 19614. 

13 Ibid, Dedication, 1. 36; vol. ii., p. 269, horn. 1. 17895. 

14 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 281, horn. 1. 18231. 15 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 286, horn. 1. 18369. 

16 Ibid, vol. i., p. 120, horn. 1. 3496; ibid, 339, horn. 9744; ibid, vol. ii. p. 21, 
horn. 1. 10815; ibid, 195, horn. 15781; ibid, 234, horn. 16887; ibid, 253, horn. 
17452 ; ibid, 234, horn. 16887. 

17 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 321, horn. 1. 19376. 


hallf. 1 That he wass mann o moderr hallf. 2 Forr manne nede. 3 
Airier hiss faderr wille. 4 Aflter hiss faderr ende. 5 I faderr 
stoke streonedd. 6 Ut off hiss faderr temmple. 7 Soth mann 
withuten faderr strenn. 8 Yet inn hiss moderr wambe. 9 Man- 
kinne thessternesse. 10 His brother wif fleyslie to knaw. 11 Sain 
Jon the Baptist heved. 12 Als he had spighted this womane 
fame. 18 Fyve myle fra the bisschope see. 14 Crist satte on his 
moder kne. 15 Yef we prelate bidding noht tac. 16 Til hisse 
maister hous. 17 To bynymm thy sonne lif.^ 8 

The "Life and Martirdom of Thomas Becket" begins with two 
successive possessive genitives, each being a genitive by juxta- 
position: "Gilbert was Thomas (Thomas's) fader (father's) name." 
In Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle we find : 19 " The quene fader 
Corineus." " The quene folk." 20 " Ys moder kun was ys eir, and 
his fader kun rigt nogt." 21 "That Elene vncle was." 22 "Conan, 
the quene cosyn." 23 "Thin uncle lond." 23 In a petition in the, 
now printed, Parliament Roll, of the third year of Henry VI., 24 
reference is made to transactions which had taken place "in Kyng 
Harry time the thridde," " in Kyng Richard 25 dales," "and Kyng 
Edward daies the thrydde." " Heor fader deth." 26 " Constantyn, 
Eleyne son." 27 " Thoru the quene rede." 28 " There was many 

1 Ormulum, vol. i., p. 234, horn. 1. 16886. 

Ibid, p. 48, horn. 1. 11581 ; and see ibid, p. 87, horn. 1. 12718 ; ibid, 116, horn. 
13529; ibid, 150, horn. 14494 ; ibid, 313, horn. 19144; ibid, 192, bom. 15681. 
Ibid, p. 239, horn. 1. 17027. 

Ibid, vol. i., p. 19, horn. 1. 640; and see ibid, p. 311, horn. 1. 8952. 
Ibid, p. 291, horn. 1. 8372 : after his father's death. 
Ibid, p. 341, horn. 1. 9778 : begotten of his father's race. 
Ibid, vol. ii., p. 198, horn. 1. 15865. 
I Md, p. 318, horn. 1. 19267 : unbegotten by a father. 
Ibid, voL i., p. 3, horn. 1. 168; ibid, 23, horn. 758 ; ibid, 25, horn. 820; vol. ii., 
p. 235, bom. 1. 16641 ; ibid. 282, horn. 18243 ; and see, ibid, p. 225, horn. 1. 16639; 
tw. lL,p. 213, horn. 1. 16297, 301 ; ibid, 214, bora. 16310; ib. 216, horn. 16372: 
ibid, 226, horn. 16639, 41. 

raL ii.. j>. 303, horn. 1. 18852. In line 18860 we find the old Anglo-Saxon 
genitive, "till )>< llcM thetterneiM." 

.-h Metrical Homilies, from MSS. of the 14th century, edited by Small, 
Edinburgh, 1662, p. 38. 

1-.40. >Mbid, p. 71. "Ibid, p. 78. "Ibid, p. 96. Ibid, p. 103. 
' I',, >,,l. xyi., Sevyn Sages, p. 77, TTflfci 

" IM, P- ia : " Hi* mother's kin was heir, and his father's, not at all." 
> "That Helen'! uncle wa." Ibid, 89. * Ibid 93 

Richard II. Their father's death." 

tobert of GUraeeiter'i Chn.n. v,,i. i. 197. 
Through the queen's advice." Ibid, 220. 


moder chylcle." 1 " Thy brother blod." 2 " Ys brother deth." 3 
"Due Rychard, the quene brother." 4 " Yblessed be the moder 
wombe that hym to monne bar." 5 " The Erl Harald the quene 
brother." 6 "Many a moder sone." 7 "A maner serjeaiit." 8 
"Pluto the HeUe Kyng." 9 

The possessive genitive, by juxta-position, is still retained in 
poetry to avoid a harsh combination of sibilants, Yenus beauty, 
Mars strength. It sometimes occurs in prose, as " for righteous- 
ness sake," "for conscience sake." "Porcius Festus came into 
Felix room." 

The possessive genitive by juxta-position, did not remain long 
in favour. Our continental neighbours, abandoning all distinc- 
tions between possessive and non-possessive genitives, fell back 
upon the preposition de, the range of which became and con- 
tinues to be co-extensive with that of the ancient inflexional 
genitives, objective as well as subjective. Our island ancestors, 
on the contrary, clung firmly to the important distinction which 
they have handed down to us. They were not long content to 
trust to bare juxta-position for the development of the possessive 
character of a dominant noun. But instead of imitating the 
Romanesque nations, by huddling possessive and non-possessive 
together, placing them under the spell of one undistinguishing 
prepositional genitive, they availed themselves of the power- 
ful agency of a reflex adjective possessive pronoun, to endow our 
language with a peculiar character of perspicuity, the advantage 
the almost incalculable advantage of which, our countrymen, 
where they have not denied its existence, have been slow to 
appreciate. It would seem to be impossible to assign any pre- 
cise date to the introduction of a system which it required the 
lapse of a century to establish. Fortunately the two versions of 
Layamon's Brut, furnish us with the means of fixing within 
certain limits the period of the alteration. In the earlier of 
these versions I have been able to discover only two instances 
of this application of the possessive pronoun "his," as a substi- 

1 Kobcrt of Gloucester's Chron. vol. i., p. 263. 

2 Ibid, 291. 3 Ibid, 294. 4 Ibid, 300. Ibid, 308. Ibid, 347. 
7 Ibid, vol. ii., glossary, 732. 8 Chaucer, C. T. 8395. 9 Gower, Conf. Aman. 


tute for the Anglo-Saxon inflected possessive genitive ; whereas 
it will be seen that during an interval which can scarcely have 
reached a century, nearly all the Anglo-Saxon possessive in- 
flrxional genitives of the earlier MS. became the pronominal 
poaaessives of the latter version. 

8. Tabular View of Change in Thirteenth Century by substitution 
of " His "for Masculine Possessive Genitive. 

The following table presents a comparative view as well of the 
Anglo-Saxon genitive case-terminations, as those terminations 
continued to be employed in the earlier version of Layamon's 
work, the date assigned to which is, the close of the twelfth 
century, as of the change which had taken place in the interval 
between the appearance of the elder version and that of the 
later version, assigned to the latter part of the thirteenth 
century. The first column presents the still unimpaired case- 
termination, whilst the second column shows the substitution of 
the mixed possessive augment, wherever, and only where, the 
case-termination had been employed in a possessive sense. 


Ebrank0 sunen. 1 

That we8 Geomag** lupe. 2 

Uppen thes Kinge* leores. 8 

That rniiw* wmes muchele mod. 4 

Gudlaki* sunc. 6 

The we GorbianM brother. 6 

And broken Modredw trume. 7 

He wee Cadoir* sune 

The EorlM of Corwaile. 8 

Ami Im-aki n .M>div,l,',s sum'. 1J 


Eubrac his sones. 1 

This his Geomagog his leope.* 

Uppe the King his leores. 3 

That min hem his mochelle mod.* 

Gutlac his sone. 6 

That was Gorbonia his brother. 6 

And breke Modred his trome. 7 

He was Cador his sone 

Eorl of Cornwale. 8 

And Modred his sone forsake. 9 

Uyimon't Brut., vol. i., p. 116, v, 2760. 

S2, v. 1928 : This was (is) Geomagog's leap. 
. ., p. 214, v. 3026 : Upon the king's features. 
, p. 376, T. 8792 : " That great anger of my uncle's" (Oheim, Germ.) 
Ibid, tol. i., p. 261, v. 6126. I Ibid, vol. i., p. 278, v. 6530. 

Ibid, Tol. iii., p. 133, T. 28352 : "And break Modnd'l ranks." 

148, T. 28694-5 : " He was the son of Cador Earl of Cornwall." 
Ibid, tol. Ui., p. 148, T. 28714 : "And forsake Modred's son." 




Howelbs dohter. 1 
Tha was Arthurs hired. 2 
Thet Arthur, an acstere daei hafde, 
His athele men at somne. 8 
He wes igefen Arthur, 
To halven to yisle, 
He was Bumarettes sune, 
Thas kingtfs of Winette. 4 
And ma thusend ther to, 
Modred wes heore selder. 5 
On Albanacl^s londe. 6 
Forth wenden Dringches 
To Yortigerne than kenge. 7 
Hu heo mahte hire fader wreken 
And hire freondene death. 8 
Of Androgeus folke. 9 
Of Androgeus cunne. 10 
The wes Tennantiuses sune. 11 
Basianes moder 
Wes of Brut-londds aerd. 12 
Octa Hengeste* sune. 13 
After Gorlois^s wiue. 14 
moer. 15 


Howel his dohter. 1 

Tho was Arthur his ferde. 2 

That Arthur his folk, 

To him was igadered. 3 

He was Rumaret his sone, 

The riche king of Wynet, 

He was betake Arthur, 

Instede of hostage. 4 

And mo thousendes yite, 

In Modred his syde. 5 

On Albanac his lond. 6 

Forth hii wenden alle 

To Yortiger his halle. 7 

On geo miht hire fader wreke 

And hire loverd his teone. 8 

Of Androgeus his folke. 9 

Of Androgeus his cunne. 10 

That was Tennancius his sone. 11 

Basian his moder was Brut. 12 

Octa Hengest his son. 13 
After Gorloys his wifue. 14 
Locrine his mer. 16 

1 Lay., vol. Hi., p. 18, v. 25670, and p. 29, v. 25922 : Howell's daughter. 

2 Ibid, vol. Hi., p. 34, v. 26187 : There was Arthur's host. 

3 Ibid, vol. ii., pp. 591-2, vv. 24145-6 : 

That Arthur on Easter-day had assembled his noble men 
That Arthur's people was gathered to him. 

4 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 534, vv. 22788-91 : He was given to Arthur to hold as a hostage. 
He was son of Rumaret, the noble king of "VVinetland (the country of the Wends, ut 
videtur). Here " his" is substituted for three inflexionals. 

5 Ibid, vol. iii., p. 141, vv. 28538, 9 : And more thousands thereto, Modred was 
their chief. More thousands yet on Modred' s side. 

6 Ibid, vol i., p. 91, v. 2157 : On King Albanac's land. 

7 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 160, vv. 13971-2 : Forth went all the chieftains to king Vorti- 
gern's hall. 

8 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 199, vv. 14901-2 : How she might avenge her father, and her 
friends' death, (and her lord's injury.) 

9 Ibid, vol. i., p. 368, v. 8650. 

10 Ibid, vol. i., p. 385, v. 9043 : Of Androgeus' s kindred. 

11 Ibid, vol. i., p. 386, v. 9052. 

12 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 10, vv. 10448-9 : Basian's mother was of Brutland's earth 
q. d. was a Briton. 

13 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 342, v. 18260; and p. 346, v. 18354; p. 350, v. 18455. 

14 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 366, v. 18830; and p. 370, v. 18919. 
16 Ibid, vol. i., p. 90, v. 2133. 




Of Arthur** borde. 1 
And smat an Aldolfw helm. 2 
That wes Hengest snne. 8 
Of Merlin** fore. 4 
Pasaent Vortigernw sune. 6 
Ther wes Arthur** hird. 6 
Tha wes Arthur** hired. 7 
Thee fugel tacnede 
Faie-sith thes king**. 8 
And bed weoren iusedde 
Haengest swaine 
Thene Vortigern** theines. 9 
Uortigeni** cnihtes. 10 
Nu wes Maerling** moder. 11 
Nn haveth Vortigern** cun." 
Aurili** broder. 13 
Weoren Vther** cnihtes. 14 
Of Hengest** cunne. w 
Undergeten tha cnihtes. 16 
Ther Uther the king 
Nom Ygaerne to quene. 17 
He wes Vther** maei. 18 
Arthur** birle and his msei. 19 

Of Arthur his borde. 1 
And smot up Aldolf his helm. 2 
Octa Hengest his sone. 3 
And of Merlyn his vore. 4 
Pascent Yortigerne his sone. 5 
Thar were Arthur his men.' 
Tho were Arthur his men. 7 
Thes fowel tocknede 
Rudibras his deathe. 8 
And bet weren ived 
Hengestes sweines 
Thane Yortiger his cnihtes. 9 
Yortigerne his cnihtes. 10 
Nou was Merlyn his moder. 11 
!N\>u haveth Yortigerne his cun. 12 
Aurelie his brother. 13 
Weren Yther his chnihtes. 14 
Of Hengest his cunne. 15 
Ondergeten Yther his cnihtes. 16 
Thar Igerne iwarth 
Yther At* cwene. 17 
He was Yther his may. 18 
Arthur At* borle and his may. 19 

1 Lay., rol. iii., p. 142, v. 28573 ; The Britons of Arthur's table. 
Ibid, vol. ii., p. 267, v. 16495 : And struck on Aldolf s helmet. 
1 Ibid, Tol. ii., p. 278, v. 16772 : Octa who was Hengist's son. 
Ibid, vol. ii., p. 308, v. 17468 : Of Merlyn's proceedings. 

Ibid, vol. ii., p. 310, v. 17514. 

Ibid, vol. ii., p. 621, v. 24833 : There was Arthur's host (men). 
Ibid, vol. ii. p. 638, v. 25239 : Then was Arthur's host (men). 

Ibid, vol. i. p. 120, vv. 2832-3 This bird (a speaking eagle) betokened King 
Uudibnu'i death. 

Ibid, vol. ii., p. 160, vv. 13984-6 ; And better were fed Hengest's servants than 
Vortigern'i knighte, i.e. soldiers. Here we find in the same sentence the inflexional 
genitive HengeitM and Vortigern his. 

i. ii., p. 229, v. 15603. " Ibid, vol. ii., p. 231, v. 15640. 

i., p. 328, v. 17932: Now has Vortigern's kindred, 
id, vol. ii., p. 3.-J2, v. 18038. 

;.. 333, v. 18055: Were Uther's knights, 
ll.ul. x,,l. ii., ,,. :;.-. v. 18255: Of Hengest's kindred. 

, p. 376, v. 19071 : The knights (Uth.-i-'s kni-hts) understood, 
vol. ii., p. 384, v. 19246-7 : Thee Uther the king took Yguorao to queen. 
Then Irerne became Uther*i u. n. 

Ibfl, ^ J02, v. 19674 : Ho was Uthor's cousin. 

Ibid, vl. in., p. 98, v. 27617: Arthur's cupbearer and his cousin. "IHs" 
btfcr* borle ii equivalent to " hU" before may. See Daniel ii., 32, 33. 


ciiiCirEii 1200. 
Ther wcs Arthurs hird. 1 
Arthurs riche. 2 
Arthurs suster sune. 3 
He wcs Arthurs maei. 4 
Arthurs maye. 9 
To Howebs castle. 6 
Inner Teine than watere 
Ther heo for-wurthen. 7 
This weoren Arthum 
Athele eorles. 8 
Al for Arthurs aeie. 9 
Por Octanes thingen. 10 
Por yif thu were Brutus sone. 11 
Constantino cnihtes. 12 
To Peters are. 13 
To Peters huse. u 
Arthurs mon bicumen. 15 
Arthurs men beden. 16 
And smat an Arthurs seeld. 17 
And bicom Arthurs mon. 18 . 
Arthum deore men. 19 
He was of Gloies cunne. 20 
And Trahem men bicumen. 21 

Thar were Arthur /// men. 1 
Arthur his kinerichc.* 
Arthur his soster sone. 3 
He was Arthur his mey. 4 
Arthur his mo we. 5 
To Howel his castle. 6 
And thar hi a-driente 
Por Cador his heiye. 7 
This weren bolde 
Arthur his eorles. 8 
Al for Arthur his heye. 9 
Por Octaucs his thinge. 10 
Por yif thou were Brutus his sone. 11 
Constantin his cnihtes. 12 
To Peter his are. 13 
To Peter his house. 14 
Arthur his man bicome. 15 
Arthur his men bede. 16 
And smot on Arthur his sealde. 17 
And becom Arthur his man. 18 
Arthur his deore men. 19 
Was of Gloi his cunne. 20 
And Traharn his men bicome. 21 

1 Lay., vol. ii. p. 621, v. 24833 : There was Arthur's host. 

2 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 5, v. 35360 : Arthur's kingdom. 

3 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 10, v. 25477: Arthur's sister's son. 

4 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 9, v. 25473 : He was Arthur's cousin. 

5 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 28, v. 25897. 

6 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 27, v. 25883. 

7 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 484, vv. 21629-30: In the river Teign there (at Teynwick, Teyues- 
wick, qu. Teignmouth) they (perished) were drowned for Cador's honour. 

8 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 601, vv. 24359-60 : There were Arthur's noble earls. 

9 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 603, v. 24419. 

10 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 49, v. 11353: For Octave's business. 

11 Ibid, vol. i. p. 97, v. 2293 : For if thou hadst been Brutus son. 

12 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 116, v. 12953 : Constantino's knights. 

13 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 285, v. 31956 : To Peter's honour (grant of Peter's pence). 

14 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 285, v. 31962: To Peter's house. 

15 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 567, v. 23567 : Become Arthur's man. 

16 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 581, v. 23891 : Arthur's men prayed. 

17 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 584, v. 23963 : And struck on Arthur's shield. 

18 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 589, v. 24079 : And became Arthur's man. 

19 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 593, v. 24172 : Arthur's dear men. 

20 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 28, v. 10862 : He was of Gloi's kindred. 

21 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 46, v. 11293 : And became Trahern's men (subjects). 



Al dude Octaucs 

Comport/* lure. 1 

Of Baldulfw custe.* 

That hit wes Baldulf 

Colgrimw brother. 3 

He funde ther a macide 

Unimete foeier.* 

The wes Uthere* sune. 6 

And yeomen Arthum grith. 7 

For Arthurs haerme. 8 

He sloh Childerichw sune.* 

And smitcn a Colgrim^ cnihtes. 10 

Arthur, Uthera sune. 11 

Imong Childrichw teldes. 12 

And breken Modrede* trume. 13 

Of Arthurs borde. 14 

Feeder he is on heuenen 

Froure mancunnw. 15 

And yeomen Arthurs grith. 16 

He wes Uthem sune. 17 

And smat Colgrim^s bselm. 18 

Arthurs deorling. 19 

Butcn Arthurs rede. 20 

All dude Octaues 
Compert his lore. 1 
Of Baldolf his custes. 2 
Colgrim his brother 
Nadde he non other. 3 
He funde thar a mayde 
Cador his mowe. 5 
That his Uther his sone. 6 
And yeorne Arthur his grith. 7 
For Arthur his arme. 8 
He sloh Cheldrich his sone. 9 
And smiten Colgrim his cnihtes. 10 
Arthur Uther his sone. 11 
Among Childrich his teldes. 12 
And breke Modred his trome. 13 
Of Arthur his horde. 14 
Fader he his on hevene 
And alle man his frouere. 13 
And yeorne Arthur his grith. 16 
He was TJther his sone. 17 
And uppe Colgrim his helm smot. 18 
Arthur his deorling. 19 
Boute Arthur his reade. 20 

I Lay., vol. ii., p. 48, vv. 11334-5 : Octaves did all Comport's teaching. 
Ibid, vol. ii., p. 429, v. 20324: Of Baldolf s speech. 

Ibid. vol. ii., p. 429, vv. 20331-2: That it \vas Baldulf Colgrim's brother; nor 
had he any other. 

Ibid, Vol. ii., p. .510, vv. 22225-6 : He found there a maid incomparably fair. 
Ibid. ibid. He found there a maid Cador's cousin. 

1. ii., p. 443, v. 20650 : Was (is) Uther's son. 
Ibid, \..l. ii., p. 447, v. 20748 : And ask for Arthur's peace. 
Ibid, vol. iii., p. 130, v. 28287 : For Arthur's harm. 
. vol. iii., p. 132, v. 28326. 
roL ii., p. 421, v. 20140 : And smito on Colgrim's knights (or soldiers). 

II Ibid, v,.l. ii., p. .JIM, v . 20428. 

1 ii .. I-. 1 13, v. 20646 : Among Childerich's tents. Here even the older 
opv naii the new plural termination in M, 

Ibid, vol. iii., p. 133, v. 28352: And break Mud.vd's ranks. 
l 12, v. 28573: Of Arthur's h,.:ird. 

'. Father h,- is in heaven, and all men his saviour. 
"'"I. ! <' 20748: And ask Arthur's , 

i \ v. 20773. 
- p. 47*, v. 21419: And smot upon Colgrinfs lulnu t. 

'06, V. 2447<>: Arthur's thrlin-. 
IWd, tot iii , p. 64, v. 26736 : Without cousultii.- Artlmr (roue ii 

(rege inconsulto). 


Of Arthurs iucren. 1 Of Arthur his iveres. 1 

Beducrre* sustcr sune. 2 Beduer his soster sone.* 

There wes al this kineland Ther was al this kinelond. 

An Morgan and Cunedagies heond. 3 In Morgan and Cunages his hond.* 

That stoden on Arthum dayen. 4 That stode by Arthur his dayes. 4 

Of Hengestss cunnen. 5 Of Hengest Jus cunne. 5 

Lottos rcldeste sone. 8 Loth Jiis eldeste sone." 

Of Arthur** ispede. 7 Of Arthur his spede. 7 

And yirnden Arthurs grith. 8 And yornde Arthur his grith. 8 

And Seint Brandons ha3fed. 9 And Seint Brendan his heued.' 

Sone he sloh a3nne other, Sone he sloh another, 

Thes ilke thein** brother. 10 This ilke cniht his brother. 10 

In Arthurs halle. 11 In 'Arthur his halle. 11 

When the inflexional genitive of the older version is objec- 
tives it is usually represented in the later by a prepositional 
genitive. "To-yeines him 12 he funde ther Scotlond^s king 
Stater," becomes " To-yeines him he funde thar thane 13 king 
of Scotlond Stater." 14 "Brutlandes lauercl," becomes "King 
of Brutayne." 15 Denesmonne King, becomes "King of De- 
ncmarche." 16 

In the table, (ante, p. 28,) "He wes Cadores sune Eorl^s of 
Oorwaille," of the first column, becomes, "He was Cador his 
souo Eorl of Cornwale," in the second. If the "his" were a 
corruption of " es," we might have expected to find Eorks ren- 

1 Lay., vol. iii., p. 94, v. 27449 : Of Arthur's companions. 

2 Ibid, vol. iii., p. 100, v. 27594: Beduer's sister's son. 

3 Ibid, vol. i., p. 161, vv. 3779-80: Then was all this kingdom in Morgan and 
Cunadages' hand. This is a case in which the prehensile power of the augment 
Conies into play, stretching back to grasp Morgan. If " his " had been a genitive, 
we might have 'expected to see, Morgan his, as well as Cunages his. 

In the first column we have genitives by juxta-position. See ante, p. 31, 1. 13. 

4 Ibid, vol. iii., p 150, v. 28761 : Which stood in Arthur's time. 

5 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 342, v. 18255 ; and ii., p. 343, v. 18281 : Of Hengist's kindred. 

6 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 554, v. 23248 : Loth's eldest son. 

7 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 561, v. 23417 : Of Arthur's success. 

8 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 511, v. 22266, and vol. iii., p. 116, v. 27269 : And asked for 
Arthur's peace. 

9 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 517, v. 22405 : And Saint Brendon's head. 

10 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 535, vv. 22811-2: Soon he slew another, this same thein's (or 
knight's) brother. 

11 Ibid, vol. iii., p. 124, v. 28155, (and vol. ii., p. 594, v. 24192: Arthur his hallen.) 
An 1 see vv. 211, 2220, 3724, 865, 10856, etc. 

12 Dative. 13 Accusative. u Lay., vol. i., p. 175, v. 4097. 
15 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 54, v. 11489. * Ibid, vol. ii., p. 132, v. 1321. 


dered Eorl his, as Cadores is rendered Cador his ; whereas, sup- 
posing the " his " after Cador to be a pronoun, such a repetition 
would be uncalled for and improper. In the following case* 
we find " his " in the later version, but no corresponding geni- 
tives of any kind in the older version : 
Of TurauB his death. 1 At the king Ms wille. 3 

Hi ihorden the men of Rome, After Merlyn Ms dome. 4 

Of Belyn hit deathe. 2 Of Edwine his bisockne. 5 

The following results may be gathered from the foregoing 
table. That in the interval between the two versions, which may 
be assumed to comprise the greater part of the thirteenth century, 
the genitive in *, when used in a possessive sense, was super- 
seded by the pronoun "his;" and also that the mutilation of 
" his " in the forms of " is," " ys," " s," by which the original 
" his " was gradually superseded, had not, at the period of the- 
later version, come into general use. 

It would be difficult to reconcile the transition observable in 
Layamon's Brut., from the Ajiglo-Saxon inflexional genitive 
used possessively in the older version, to the "his" substituted 
for that inflexional genitive in the later version, with the popular 
theory. According to Johnson and others, the " his " so sub- 
sti tuted is merely an erroneous extension or prolongation of the 
apostrophised . Thus the 's of the sixteenth century would 
not be an attenuation of the " his " of the thirteenth century ; 
but would, on the contrary, be itself, by some unexplained and 
inexplicable revulsion, the mysterious cause of an error which 
had been fully developed in the thirteenth. 

$ 9. Tabular View of Progressive Change in Possessive Genitives 
of Feminine Nouns, in Thirteenth Century. 

In the great majority of cases where the Anglo-Saxon pos- 

' N( genitivi- ha-, In-cn MipiTsi-drd by the possessive augment 

"the dominant noun is masculine. This is what might ha ve 

'AV8I. ' I1 W-P-^.v 

^ liM to Mu-lvn's sentence. 
' Mini ^ 119: or Edwm'i breeching. 


boon expected, men having made themselves proprietors and 
possessors more extensively than women. On some occasions, 
however, the relation in which female possessors stood to the 
thing possessed had to be dealt with. In those cases, the 
genitive termination was equally abandoned, and this, com 
monly, not for modern " her," but for the sexless, numberless, 
inorganic "his." 

Though property and possession have been generally vested 
in the male sex, to the partial or total exclusion of females, it- 
will be observed that where the possessive dominant nouns were 
in the feminine gender, the same process of substituting "his" 
for the possessive genitive, was the course usually resorted to. 

Examples of this may be seen in the following cases : 
At there die grunde. 2 At thare dich his gnmde. 2 

And al for "Wenhavere lufe. 3 For Gwenayfer his love. 3 

To Cornwall erthe. 4 To Cornwal his eaerthe. 4 

Thisscre 5 nihte forste, 6 To this niht his forst. 7 

A sainte Trinetth^s nome. 8 In seinte Trinity his name. 8 

The wes thes "Walesa loverd. 9 Wales his loverd. 9 

And al Logres that lond. 10 And al Leogris his lond. 10 

Allo Brutleoden Forth hii wende alle 

And heo comen to Lundene. 11 To Londene his toune. 11 

For nu is JElene For nou his Eleyne 

Jerusalem quene. 12 Jerusalem his cwene. 12 

1 Unorganisch, Grimm. And see post, p. 36, 46. 

2 Layamon's Brut., vol. ii., p. 241, 1. 15889 : At the dyke's bottom. Die is femi- 
nine in semi-Saxon, and is here preceded, even in the more modern version, by the 
feminine genitive of the semi-Saxon article. 

3 Ibid, vol. ii., p. 511, 1. 22247 : Gwenever, Arthur's queen, is afterwards repre- 
sented as eloping, during his absence in his wars, and marrying his usurping nephew. 

4 Ibid, vol. i., p. 175, v. 4105 : To Cornwall's land. The columns are reversed. 

5 "Thissere" is an older form than "thisse." Vernon's Anglo-Saxon Guide, 
30, 186. 

6 A prescribed and limited period in German, "Frist;" in French, "delai." 
"We have lost the word in English. 

7 Lay. vol. ii., p. 375, 1. 19040 : "Nihte" is feminine, so is the preceding pronoun 
in each version. In the older version the genitive inflexion is confined to the pro- 
nominal adjective, leaving the dominant noun uninflected. In the newer version, 
the inflexion of the pronominal adjective is dropped, and the mixed possessive 
.augment is attached to the noun. 

8 Ibid, vol. iii. p. 184, 1. 29,553 : " Seinte" is feminine. 

u Ibid, vol. i., p. 164, v. 3865 : Who was of Wales the lord. 

Ibid, vol. i., p. 174, v. 4090 : And all the land of Logres. 

Ibid, vol. ii., p. 188, vv. 14626-7: And they all come to London's to\m. 
r - Ibid, vol. ii., p. 52, v. 11432-3 : For now is Helen Jerusalem's queen. 


Tha wee in Norweoyen eerd Tho was in Norweie his earth 

A king the hsehte Compert. 1 A king that hehte Compert. 1 

In Jerusalem^ chopping. 2 In Jerusalem his cheping. 2 

Blithe wes the Lunden** tun. 8 Blithe was the Lundene his town * 

In those cases from Layamon we have the advantage of 
being able to present, at one view, two columns in which the 
inflexional genitive of feminine nouns of the one column is 
brought face to face with the mixed possessive augment " his," 
supplying the place of the feminine genitive, on the same page. 
Of other authors, we unfortunately possess few versions of varying I 
dates. Frequently, however, the possessive augment is found 
supplying the place which at an earlier period would have been 
occupied by a feminine inflexional genitive. 

Delicacie his swete tothe. 4 

This is clergie his kind. 5 

This char his heved. 6 

My sonne, standjhand in hand with Mistress Barnes his daughter . 7 1 
Instead of the sexless "his," we sometimes find "her" ap- 
plied as a possessive augment to feminine nouns. The following 
is a lately published certificate from the parish of Holton, in 
Oxfordshire : 

"1646. Weddinges. 

"Henry Ireton, Comissary generall to Sr Thomas Fairfax, 
and Bridget .... daughter to Oliver Cromwell, Lefteiuiunt 
generall of the horse to the said Sr . Thomas Fairefax, wore 
married by Mr. Dell in the Lady Whorwood her house- in 
Holton, June 15, 1646." 

In Lilly's Euphues, we find : " One Curio, a gentleman of 
Naple, of little wealth, and lesse wit, haunted Lucilla her 
00m puny." 

IJ.i.l, vol. ii., p. 46, v. 11297: Then was in Norwegian land a king called Comport. 

rol. ii., p. 276, T. 16702: In Jerusalem's market. 
Ibid, vol. ii., p. 362, v. 18499 : Glad was the London's town. 
Oower. Conf. Araantu, vol. i. Prologue 14. 

> Depoiicion of Kirl.anl II. pp. 16, 16. 

Pjrey Society, vol. xvi. The Sevyn Sages, v. 4105. 

jBtpUMftnt hbrtorie of the two angrie women of Abington, as it was lately 
by the right honorable the Earle of Nottingham, Lord High Admirall, hi* 
"" Imprinted at London, 1699, Percy Society, vol. vi. p. 76. 



In Swift's Works, we read a famous prediction of Merlin : l 
" Seven and ten addyd to nine, 
" Of Fraunce her woe this is the signe. 2 

And in Memoirs of P.P. clerk of this parish, "I was sent 
unto . . . the Lady Frances her spaniel, which was wont to go 
astray." 3 

10. Progress of Change in Non-possessive Genitives in Thirteenth 


"We have seen 4 that the possessive inflexional genitive of 
the first or older version of Layamon's Brut., is represented in 
the later version by the possessive augment his ; and that the 
non-possessive inflexional genitive of the former version, usually 
takes the form of the prepositional genitive in the later version. 
But the old case-termination of the non-possessive genitive was 
not wholly abandoned till the close of the fifteenth century. 
" Tha issoh thisse ledes king," of the old version, becomes " Tho 
isah this londes king," in the second. 6 

11. Further Progress of Pure and Mixed Possessive Augment. 

From the thirteenth century, the pure and the mixed pos- 
sessive augments have descended in an unbroken line to the 
nineteenth, each exhibiting at first its pronominal features in 
a persistent unmutilated shape. Both augments, however, be- 
came more and more mutilated, until they settled down into the 
evanescent apostrophic form in which they are now seen. 

The abandonment of the Anglo-Saxon inflexional genitive, 
for prepositional genitives constituted by "of," in all cases in 
which the former had been used non-possessively, and for 
juxta-position, or for the addition of "his," or of the abridged 

1 Ed. 1766, vol. iii., p. 215. 

2 But of Swift it may be said, as was "said of Voltaire, 

u Man kcnnt den Vogel schon, er predigt bios /urn Spasse." 

3 Swift's Works, ed. 1766, vol. iv. p. 216. * Ante, p. 28. 

5 Ante, p. 33. e Layamon's Brut., vol. i., p. 412, v. 9656. 


"is," or the apostrophised "s," where they had been used pos- 
sessively, appears to have been very gradual. 
The following cases are clearly possessive : 

To forsake Sir Sathanas his werkus every choii. 1 

B)Tiam his good byrd hys lyfe. 2 

In Johne is tyme, as y onderstond, 

Was enterdyted alle Engelond. 3 

In the fourteenth century, Sir John Maundevill wrote as 
follows : " Job was a payneem, and he was Are of Gosre his 
sone." 4 In the latter part of that century we find: "And do 
each man his wille." 5 Chaucer wrote, "The Nonne Prest his 
tale." Here, "nonne" is a possessive genitive formed by 
juxta-position, and " Prest " takes the adjective pronoun " his " 
as a mixed possessive augment. " Of Jesse his sede the sweet 
Sunamite." 6 "As by deserte hath wonne Yenus his love." 7 

Examples of the now obsolete abbreviation 'is and 'ys, where 
Chaucer and his contemporaries felt that a verse admitted of 
the introduction of a short syllable, and it was desirable that 
the harshness of the aspirate should be avoided, are almost 

In the early part of the fifteenth century we find, " One Gil- 
bert Tubeville is house." 8 In 1484 appeared "And preysed 
Reynard is wysdom." 9 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century Sir Thomas More 
writes, "A beggar in Kyng Henrie his dales the sext, came 
with his wife to St. Albone." 10 "For Adam his synne how 
Crist was crucifyed." 11 "And trust in Christ his birth." 12 "The 

1 Percy Society, ?ol. xiv., Poems of John Audelay, p. 11. 
vol. xvi., Sovyn Sages, p. 77, v. 2254. 

le. Appendix, p. 589. 

Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevill, Kiit., cap. xiv. In one MS. we 
road, M Are of Gosra y* sone." 

Life and Martyrdom of Thomas Docket, 1. 993. 

Chaucer, Ballad in praise of our Lady, 1. 48, 

Complaint of Mars and Venus, L II. 5 Rot. Porl. loa. 

>rye of Reynard the Foxe. Percy Society, vol. xii., p. 20. 
1 pWojrw Moeerning Heretic, vol. i., p f 134. 

Jon from the minor poems of Dan John Lydgate, p. 95. 
if Chmtmai Carol*. Percy^ocitty, poi ii. p. ff. 


lord of this castell his name." l "And reft Dawkin hys Flaile." 2 
"Riche his farewell to militarye profession." 3 

Two versions of "A Song of the Lady Bessy" have been pub- 
lished by the Percy Society from copies, both transcribed in 
the seventeenth century, but exhibiting considerable difference 
in language. This work would appear to have been composed 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century, probably in the life- 
time of that Princess, who died Queen of England in 1504. 
In one copy we read, p. 21 : " How fareth Kyng Richard his 
comynty;" and in the other, p. 29, "How fareth King Richard's 
comynaltre." In one copy Richard says, "Or else the Lord 
St ranges head I will him send," p. 35 ; in the other, p. 72, " Or 
the Lord Strange head I will him send." 

"A lottery proposed before supper at the Lord Chief Justice 
his house, in the first entrance to Her Majestie." 4 In 1566 ap- 
peared " Two bookes of Horace his Satyres Englished ;" in 1567, 
"Horace his Art of poetry, pistles, and satirs, englished, by 
Thomas Drant ;" and in 1569, " Ovid his invective against Ibis." 

Dare not to match thy pipe with Tytirus (sic) his stile. 5 

The emperor Augustus his daughter. 6 

Plato his dialogue. 6 

Perigott his embleme. 7 

Satyrane his chaunce. 8 

Fcr that same Brute was Sylvius his sonne. 9 

Shakespeare speaks of " Mars his gauntlet," 10 and describes 
Ajax as "Mars his idiot." 11 Any attempt to reduce the first 
term of this not very complimentary epithet, to one syllable, 
as by writing Mars's, would place the reader under an apparent 
necessity of pronouncing both the dominant noun and the 
possessive particle, as constituting one monosyllabic word, 

1 Morte d'Arthurc, book iv., ch. 7. 

2 Turnament of Tottenham. Percy's Rcliqnes, ed. 1809, p. 186. 

3 Honestie of the Age. Percy Society, vol. xi., p. 9. 

4 Poetical Miscellanies. Percy Society, vol. xv., p. 5. 
6 Spenser, Shepheard's Calender, Conclusion. 

6 Ibid, Januarie. 7 Ibid, August. 

- s Faery Uueeiie, book iii., canto 9, st. 27, 1. 4. 9 Ibid, st. 48, 1. 1. 

Troilus and Cressida, act iv., sc. 5. ll Ibid, act i., sc. 1. 


supposing the human organs of sound to be capable of such 
an effort. 

" For the said Mr. Bodley his choice, made to appear for the 
borough of Plymouth." l 

" And this is a matter so obvious, that a Justice of the Peace 
his house should not be like a Quarter Sessions." 2 

" Purchas his Pilgrimage," was published in 1617. 

In the First Book of Kings, 3 in the Authorized Version, we 
find the "Asa his heart" of King James's translation altered 
by some careless or earless printer, into "Asa's heart." So, in 
the Book of Esther, 4 the translators wrote, "whether Mor- 
decai his matters would stand," which is compressed, by the 
same irresponsible power, into "whether Mordecai's matters 
would stand." "Holofernes his head," 5 being in the Apocry- 
pha, has escaped notice. It has been subjected to no displace- 
ment beyond that occasioned by the act of Judith. 

In dealing with the Areopagus, the translators wrote " Mars 
Hill," there being no apostrophe throughout the original 
edition of the Bible of 1611. Later editions have introduced 
an apostrophe, " Mars' " to mark the spot at which elision is 
supposed to have taken place. 

So Donne, 6 " Fit to appear Mathusalem his page." 

"About the end of March, 1627, Sir William Courtenay his 
house at Ilton, near Salcombe in Devon, was robbed." 7 

In the Diary of Laud's Life, 8 we find a memorandum, made 

1 D'Ewes's Journal, 334. 2 Ibid, 153. 3 ch. xv. 14. 

4 Ch. iii. 4. s Judith, ch. xiii. 9. 

1 Dr. John Donne, born 1573, died 1631. 

7 DUry of Walter Yonge, Esq. (edited by George Roberts, 1848) who complains that 

'the outrage was committed by certain pirates which came up in boats from Salcombe, 

tnd fled the same way without opposition." In a statement contained in the notes 

to this edition, mention is made of a fight between mariners of Dartmouth and of 

Poole about this period. It would appear that the quarrel arose from the inability 

the perties to understand one another, the former speaking Cornish, anil the 

ittr English. Yet the Britons are said to have been driven by Atlielstan, in the 

*? i?* UI 7i * croi * tno Tamar, after being expelled from Exeter, which town 

had held together with the Saxons. Whether the two occupations were in 

mruty by metei and bounds, or promiscuously, per niv et per tout, (per nihil et 

pjr totura,) doet not appear. See Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, vol. i., pp. 275-6. 

was formerly "Tottenais," or -th.- l.avme of Totteueie in Devenvssire. u 

title) before Goraewaile." Ib. pp. 20, 13-1, 171. Uyunum, vol. ii. vv. 21184, 

8 Beginning October, 1633. 


by the Archbishop, in the following terms, "November 24th 
Sunday. In the afternoon, I christened King Charles his second 
son, James Duke of York, at St. James's." 

"The City Council were retained to attend, Mr. Attorney 
and Solicitor ; but in regard of Mr. Attorney his great business 
for the king, that day and a second day were appointed for the 
hearing; 1 but the matter was never more heard of by the Attor- 
ney or Solicitor." 2 

Oliver Cromwell's letter of 10th July, 1645, announcing his 
victory over Lord Goring, mentions the resolution which the 
latter had formed, but to which, unfortunately for himself he 
was too impatient to adhere " not to engage until Greenvill or 
Prince Charles 7s,men had come up to him." 

A modern grammarian might, perhaps, contend that Crom- 
well's statement imports, that consistently with the terms in 
which Goring' s resolution was here expressed, he would have 
been ready to engage, if Greenvill had come up, not only un- 
accompanied by Prince Charles or the Prince's men, but even 
if unattended by a single follower, and that Cromwell ought to 
have written " Greenvill's or Prince Charles's men," substituting 
two modern pseudo- genitives for our ancestors' one single com- 
prehensive mixed possessive augment. 

A similar difficulty is presented to our neologists, by the 
115th Psalm. Both in the Bible and in the Prayer-book the 
phrase employed is, "for thy mercy, and for thy truth's sake," 
whereas, in Johnsonian English, it would have been rendered, 
" for thy mercy 1 s and for thy truth's sake." So, in the 122nd 
Psalm, we find " for my brethren and companions' sakes," and 
not Johnson's " for my brethren's and companions' sakes." 

Still later, in the forms added to the Liturgy in 1661, viz., 
in the prayer for all conditions of men, and also in the special 
services, as well in that respecting the Martyrdom of King 
Charles I., as in that for the Restitution of King Charles II., 

1 Respecting a dispute between the University of Oxford (supported by Archbishop* 
Laud, who was then Chancellor of that University) and the City of Oxford, in 1634. 

2 Town Clerk of Oxford's collection of documents, called " Carter's Book." 


we find the words, " for Jesus Christ his sake." On account of 
his real or supposed share in the introduction of these two 
forms into the services of the Church, Bishop Sanderson's 
memory has incurred no small amount of obloquy, in a very 
powerful and influential quarter. 1 This] prelate is not, indeed, 
directly charged by the learned Archbishop with being the 
party with whom the use of " hie " as a reflexive sexless per- 
sonal pronoun, first originated ; but we are seriously informed 
by another eminent writer that " ' for Jesus Christ his sake ' is 
a mistake either of the printer or compiler." 2 

For modern instances of the use of the unabbreviated pro- 
noun, where the abbreviation would be unpronounceable, we 
may refer to Addison, 3 "My paper is the Ulysses his bow;" 4 
Pope, 5 "By lov'd Telemachus his blooming years;" 6 Sterne, 7 
" Of Didius his own devising." " In each of these cases the 
old pronunciation would be retained without regard to any 
altered mode of printing ; and notwithstanding the crusade 
lately preached at Canterbury against the employment of com- 
mas to mark the minute pauses by which correct speakers seek 
to avoid giving 'an uncertain sound/ 8 a comma might, as has 
frequently been done, be inserted before the "his" to distinguish 
between the two predicates to separate "Ulysses" and "his 
bow," "Telemachus" and "his years," "Didius" and "his 
devising." When the enunciation of the aspirate was gradu- 
ally abandoned, the coalition between the two predicates, be- 
coming more close, the dissociating comma was abandoned, or 
rather it was raised to the exalted position of a mark of elision. 

The importance of the mixed possessive augment appears to 
have been duly appreciated in Scotland by a kindred, though, 
not unfrequently, a hostile nation. "The haill comons of 

gliih Part and Present, p. 116, by Dr. Trench 

I 1 ..... k >f tin- Knglish * -------- "* " " ' 

Guardian, No. 08. 

Language, 26, 241, by Dr. Latham. 
4 Now printed " Ulysses's bow." 
8 tfow printed " Telemachus's." 

OdYMey, Bk. xi. 1. 84. 
rrutrura Shandy, chap. vii. 
Thwe fc: no ground for supposing that the demon who dictated tho ambiguous 
-JDU rcdlbw nu!i(|ii:iin ji.-r l.rllum peril. is, was jjii'trd with a toivknowledge 
[ the important sanction to oe derived IVuni a ,/<r.r;w/, if not a nu-trojioliticnl inhibition. 


Scotland that hav red, 1 or understanding, ever dailie speaking 
and exponciiig of Thomas Rymer hcs prophesies whilk were 
prophesied in auld times. 7 ' 2 

Mr. Addison observes that the same single letter s " on many 
occasions, does the office of a whole word, and represents the 
'his' and 'her' of our forefathers." 3 It would, perhaps, have 
been more correct to say, that the single letter s on many occa- 
sions, presents the "his" of our forefathers in an abbreviated 
form, and that when " his " in its original or in its abbreviated 
form is applied to feminine substantives, it may be looked 
upon as a representative of "her." 

12. Promiscuous Use of Pronouns He, She, and It. 

Ben Jonson says, 4 " The articles he and it are used in each 
other's gender. Sir Thomas More, The south wind sometime 
swelleth of himself before a tempest. Gower, of the Earth 
And for thy men it delve and diche, 
And eren it with strength of plough, 
Wher it hath of himself inough 
So that his nede is ate leste. 5 
It also followeth for the feminine 

He swore it sholde nought be lette 
That if she have a daughter bore 
That it ne sholde be forlore, 
And slain." 6 

In the following cases we find feminine nouns represented by 
" he," and by it "- 

Emme the quene of England that he hyder vende. 7 

The daughter sone the way nam 8 

And to the moder sone he com. 9 

And settle himselve amiddle hem alle. 10 

1 Counsel, Germ. Rath. 2 Barrel's Diary. 3 Spectator, No. cxxxv. 

4 English Grammar, Syntax, chap. ii. 5 Gower, vol. i. lib. i., p. 152, ed. 1857. 

6 Ibid, vol. ii. p. 16. 

7 Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, vol. i., p. 390 : That she should hither come. 

8 Soon took the way. 9 Percy Society, vol. xvi., Sevyn Sages, p. 59, v. 1720- 
10 Seinte Margarete that holi maide, p. 27, 1. 94. 


Our laverd he (Saint Margaret) bad for his grace. 1 

Genoyrehe hehte, heh upon an hulle. 2 

Bote the ssaft that was wythoute, gryslych he to-brec. 3 

And he brought in gret sto the tow a he yut is. 4 

That kynges dogter as he was. 5 

Tacc Ysaac thin wennchell 

And snith itt allsse itt wsere an shep. 6 

And toe hiss sune sone anan 

And band itt fet and hande. 7 

Tho he to this halle com, he chydde 

And made him wroth, 
Yor he was by the haluendel 
To lute, he suor hys oth. 8 

Not only have we retained the genitive "his," but we use 
the word in its secondary possessive sense of 09, and we use it 
also in a tertiary sense, which while indicative of possession or 
property has, we have seen, the reflex power of suits, irrespec- 
tively of the gender of the noun or pronoun referred to, of 
which gender it takes no account, the neuter or general " his " 
-being more ancient than the feminine and plural " hire." 

This tertiary use of the genitive "his " is not peculiar to the 
English language. It is observable in the ancient Gothic, and 
it is continued in Platt-Deutsch, the vernacular language of 
Lower Saxony ; and it exists in the modern German to a con- 
siderable extent. 

We learn also from Bopp, 9 practically that in Sanskrit the 
feminine cases of pronouns appended to nouns (Anhangepro- 
jiominen) are formed from the neuter, or, speaking more pre- 

Margarete that holi maide, p. 28, 1. 155. 

Lay. Unit., \..l. ii., p. >>->\i, vv. 16168-9 : Genoyre he (she, the castle) was called 
high upon u hill. 

Robert of Gloucester, Chronicle, vol. ii., p. 419 : But the shaft that was without 

ke to piece*. "8aft" In in- frminim'. * Ibid, p. 453. 5 Ibid, vol. i , p. 268. 

Take Isaac thy lud and nit it (him) us if it (he) were a sheep. Ormulum, vol. 
i., j>. 1/56, 1. 14665-6. 

. anon, and hound it (him) feet and hands. Ibid, 1. 14672-3. 

When he (William liufus) t., tho hall (Wettminster Hall) c-anu-, lu- ,-hid and 

wroth, for he (the hall) was by the half too little, he swore his oath. 
Bobert of Gloucester, v.,|. ii., ,,. 390. 
' y.r.-l. \ bi B& Graniintitik. 


cisely, the genderless, genitive ; and that he has observed the 
same in the Gothic and Lithuanian languages. 

13. Gothic Sexless Rejlex Pronouns. 

With respect to Gothic, Grimm says, 1 "The Gothic sein seina 
seinata, like the personal genitive se'ina, refer to every gender 
and every number, but in truly reflex cases only. I shall 
confine myself to the following examples for the feminine and 
the plural : 2 

Maria bisvarb fotuns is skufta seinamma. 

Mary wiped feet of him with his (i.e. Mary's) hair. 

Maola ee/^ae rat,? 6piiv avrrjs TOU? TroBas avrov. John xii. 3. 

Maria extersit pedes ejus capillis suis. 

Gabar sunu seinana. 

(Mary) brought forth his son. 

*EreKe TOV vlov avrr)?. Luke ii. 7. 

Peperit filium suum. 
Qvenes seinaim abnam uf hausjaina. 
Wives be subject to his husbands. 

r 4t yvvaifces, rot? 18161? avSpdaw (vTroraa-crecrtfe). 3 Ephes. v. 22. 
Mulieres viris suis subditse sint. 
Garunnun leikinon sauhte seinaizo. 
Multitudes came to be healed of his infirmities. 
o^Xot TroXXo*. depaTreveo-Oai, UTTO TWV 

Turbse multao ut curarentur ab infirmitatibus suis. 
Let thans dauthans filhan seinans dauthans. 

Let the dead bury his dead. 

OVS vercpbvs Od^ai TOL/? eavrcov vetcpovs. Luke ix. 60. 
Sine ut mortui sepeliant mortuos suos." 

1 Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 4ter Theil, 4te Auflage, 1823-1837, p. 340. 

2 Das Gotliische sein, seina, seinata bczieht sicb, gleich dem persdnlichen Genitive 
seina, auf jedes genus und jeden moncrus, abcr nur im werklich reflexiven Fall 
Es gcniigt bier Belege fur das Feminin und den Plural mitzutheilen. 

Grimm gives tlie Greek text, from which Ulphilas probably made his translation. 
To this is now added the Latin from the Vulgate. 

3 dv-np like vir, being a term not confined to the conjugal relation, the iSiots was 
necessary. Our English word "husband" requires no such distinctive explanatory 
addition. " Own," iu Ephes. v. 22 ; Col. iii. 18 ; 1 Peter iii. 1 ; is rather misleading 


Grimm adds, " Wherever there is no reflexion, the genitive of jj 
the pronoun, with distinction of gender, must be employed." 1 

The first of these five sentences may be regarded as the most I 
instructive, as it exhibits not only the form of the reflexive but 
also that of the non-reflexive pronoun. This is distinctly per- 
ceptible in the Latin and Gothic, less so in the English and i 
Greek. In the Latin and Gothic we have the non- reflexive 
"ejus" and "is," and the reflexive "suos" and " seinamma."" 
"Ejus" and "is" are non-reflexive, since they relate, not to the 
agent, Mary, but to a different person, namely, the person whose 
feet Mary washed. 2 On the other hand, " suos" and " seinamma'* 
are reflexive, inasmuch as they relate to and fall back upon the 
agent, Mary. The connexion between the reflexive pronoun and 
its antecedent, has the effect of investing the reflexive pronoun 
with the number and gender of its antecedent the number and 
gender of the antecedent are carried on and tacitly incorporated 
with the reflexive pronoun, so as to render any iteration of 
number and gender unnecessary, 3 not to say redundant. 

Thus the pronominal "er" involved in " guter" is suppressed 
as superfluous when the adjective is preceded by the article 
"der" or by the pronouns "jener," "dieser," "mancher," etc. 

In English we have the personal "his," the genitive of "hit," 
or, more properly speaking, the genitive form of the sexless 
personal pronoun in which " hit " presents the nominative and 
accusative form. We have, secondly, the non-reflexive adjective 
pronoun " his " = eos, derived, or rather transferred, from the 
genitive of the personal pronoun. And we have a third 
" his," a reflex sexless and numberless, inorganic pronoun, now 
the apostrophised "s," which, like the reflexive "seina" aud 

1 (Jberall wo keine Reflexion statt findet, muss dor Genitiv des geschlechtliehen 
Pronomens ttehen. Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, 4te Auflage, 4ter Theil, p. :MO. 

Notwithstanding Jacob Grimm's extensive researches in Teutonic languages, that 
tutor appear* to nave been led, bv the confident assertion of English grammarians, 
to accept the existence of a real inflexional genitive in modern English nouns. 

* If there had been a Irminim- form of the genitive distinct from the maseu/inc, it 
would have been adopted. Es ffilt die bekannte Regel dass allr AdjYctiva uml alle 
yrif/iltchtifffn Pronominu zu dem Genus des Suhstantivums stimmen uiusson anf 
*tlebai at* tichbexiehen.(; rim m, -itn-Th.-il, p. 266. 

Dam Pronomen der erston und zwoiten Person so u-ie dcin litjlcjcintni. steht gar 
ktiB Geachlecht zu, oben well sic fur all, aimm. -Ibid. 


sin" of Anglo Saxon poetry, 1 and the 
reflexive and non-reflexive "suyo," represents substantives of 
every gender and of each number. 

In English as in Greek, the same pronouns are used reflexively 
and non-reflexively. We cannot therefore in all cases treat the 
reflexive "his" with that entire disregard of distinction of number 
and gender, which the adoption of an exclusively reflexive form 
permits to be done in the case of "suns" and "seina." If we 
were to say, "she wiped his feet with his hands," "his" would 
be understood as used, not reflexively with reference to the agent, 
but non-reflexively with reference to the patient. In Greek, 
the reflexive quality of a reflexive and non-reflexive pronoun 
is sometimes secured by placing it nearest to the agent. We 
avoid the disturbing effect of the intervention of a non-reflexive 
pronoun, by clothing the reflexive with distinctions of number 
and gender. Thus we say, with his hands, or with her hair. But 
where the reflexive pronoun is placed in such close juxta-position 
with its antecedent that there can be no possibility of mistaking 
it for a non-reflexive pronoun, we deal with this pronoun, re- 
flexive by position, as "suus" and "seina," which are reflexive 
per se, are dealt with ; we abstain from a reproduction of the 
number and gender of the antecedent. We write, the "queen's 
crown" "the queen his crown," and the "men's swords" 
= "the men his swords." "The queen her crown" and "the 
men their swords" would be cases of plethoric redundancy or 
superfoetation presenting a character not unlike that of " der 
gutcr mann." Such a redundancy, it is true, is submitted to by 
the Germans, who say, "Der (more frequently, die) Konigin ihre 
Krone," and "Der (or die) Manner ihre Schwerdter;" and 
feeble attempts have been made to introduce the same redun- 
dancy into our own language ; as " Lucilla her company," 2 and 
"The Ladie Flavia her house" 3 (sixteenth century); "The 
Lady Whorwood her house," 4 (seventeenth century) ; "The Lady 
Frances her spaniel" 5 (eighteenth century). 

1 Post, p. 56. 2 Lilly's Euphuos, letter I. 

3 Lilly's Euphues and his England, letter W 3. 4 Ante, p. 36, 5 Ante, p. 37. 


$ 14. Indiscriminate Use of Masculine and Feminine Anglo-Saxobi 
Personal Pronouns. 

With respect to Anglo-Saxon pronouns, Hickes in his The- 
saurus Linguarum veterum Septentrionalium, while stating the 
general principle of the employment of pronouns without 
regard to the sex of the antecedent substantive, confines hia< 
instances to cases in which the simple personal pronoun is so 
employed. He cites Matt. ix. 18, which, transferred from the ' 
Anglo-Saxon into modern English, would read thus: "Myj 
daughter is dead ; but come and set thy hands upon him, and i 
she shall live." Mark xii. 23: "for all had him to wife.H 
Mark v. 33 : " The woman fearing and trembling threw him \ 
(accusative) before him (dative) and told all the rights." 

The tendency to make the masculine pronoun "he" serve for 
both sexes, is observable in the mode of speaking of foreigners, 
and particularly in that of Welchmen who happen to have formed 
but a superficial acquaintance with our language. 1 

15. Correction of Vagueness of Genitive Case. 

To the question, "What crown is this ?" an Englishman of the I 
thirteenth and fourteenth century might have answered, " Thes I 
Kinges Englandes." But where a question of property or 
possession was distinctly raised, when it was asked, " Whose is j 
this crown?" our ancestors, and their Teutonic kinsmen, did 
not rest contented with the use of terms which amount merely 
to a general assertion of the existence of some undefined and 
more or less vague relation or dependence, to be faintly inti- 
mated by the use of an inflected genitive case, or by that 
of the preposition " of," followed by a noun in the respective 
or dative case. Upon the gradual decline of the Saxon 
inflexional genii i\< >, \\v have seen 8 that resort was had to the 

1 The Italian "suo" and tin- 1-Vm-li ".-.m " mv usol without distinction as to the 
gender of the substanth. i. lun.1 t.., but tin- n It ivm-r .-m only be to substantive nr 
pron' Bomb*:; \\>r plurals, "loro" nn<! "'irur," from the non- 

reflftiivi 1. 1.. i ma" are used. 



contrivance of juxta-position, but more frequently and per- 
sistently to the employment of the possessive pronoun "his," 
where it was necessary to fix the special character of the 
relation the true nature of the dependence to be indicated ; 
so as to withdraw the attention of the hearer from the con- 
sideration of any other relation than that of property or pos- 

i session. Our ancestors said, "The Kinges England his crown/' 
an < I afterwards, " the King of England his crown," as the 
ancient Germans said, and their descendants now commonly 
sty, "Des Konigs von England seine Krone," or "Der Konig 
von England seine Krone/' This would be literally, "Regis 
Angliac or Rex Anglise corona sud" Since, however, the Latin 
language does not allow of the employment of the reflex pro- 

1 noun situs for the purpose of indicating a special relation of 
property or possession, the writer or speaker is, in that lan- 
guage, obliged to submit to the employment of the vague in- 

, dication of relation which is furnished by the genitive case, 
and to look elsewhere for an explanation of the nature of that 

i 16. German Mode of correcting vagueness of Genitive Case 
where intended to be used possessively. 

In Germany a mode of writing and speaking analogous to 
our own. which is still current, particularly in Lower Saxony, 
the ancient seat of our ancestors, is commonly noticed in dic- 
tionaries as follows : 

Das ist mein hut ; that is my hat. Nein, es ist meines Bruders 

seiner ; no, it is my brother his ; or rather, est fratris mei suus. 

Adelung treats this as a disagreeable peculiarity of certain vulgar 

dialects. He says: 1 Die Conjunctiva der dritten Person mit 

dem Genitive zu verbinden, als meiner Mutter ihr Bruder ; 

i (my mother her brother; or more exactly, matris meae frater 

1 suus) ; meines Freundes sein Garten ; (my friend his garden ; 

amid mei hortus suus) ; ich meine nicht Homers Gedichte, 

'. sonderii des Horaz seine) ; I mean not Homer's poems but those 

1 Deutsche Spraclilehre fur Schulen 3te Auflage, p. 217. 


of Horace his; sed Horatii sua), ist eine widerwartige Eigen- 
heit gemeiner Mundarten. 1 

That this form of expression does constitute an " Eigenheil 
gemeiner Mundarten," that it is part and parcel of the vulgai, 
tongue, no person who has mixed with the lower class of thtif 
German population on the continent, or in East London, will 
venture to deny. 

But admitting this popular syntax to have become somewhate 
antiquated, and even in a great measure to have been abandoned! 
to those who, in utter disregard of rules laid down by gram-j 
marians, persist in speaking as their fathers and grandfathers', 
spoke before them, the strong light which it throws upon the| 
corresponding grammatical arrangement discoverable in English,! 
a kindred language, is not affected. 2 

Adelung and his purist friends did not succeed in persuadingi 
the mass of their countrymen to forego the use of the familiar 
symbol of property or possession. A more recent writer 3 of] 
great authority refers to the following proverbial expressions: 
" Every cow knows his gate (sein Thor)." " Falsehood (Untreu, 
feminine) struck his own master." The same writer 4 speaks of 
the popular phraseology as being extensively employed in spite] 
of the proscription which had been pronounced against it: 
"Des Vaters sein Buch." 5 "Der Mutter ihr Kleid." 6 "Deri 
Kinder ihr Spielzeug." 7 He also produces from authors of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries such expressions as " Ich| 
habe mich mit dem Grafen seinem Koch verlobt." 8 " Er gedacht 
ihm wie des Goldschmids sein Jung/' 9 etc. He adds that inj 
Upper Germany the preceding genitive is changed into a dative : | 
"Dem Vater sein Buch." 10 "In der Mutter ihreni Bett." 11 

1 An unpleasant or a disgusting peculiarity of vulgar dialects. 

North Germany, particularly in Lower Saxony and Westphalia, i 
the PUtt-Duutwh, now confined to the lower orders, was formerly the languago, the 
reeognued organ of m , liploraacy, and civilisation. This dialect bears a much ' 

:,'.,:. v own lanuniairc than the (Jonnau of Upper Saxony, made 

euMtical by the general ofaeolfttfoa of the vigorous version of Luther. 

'> miniutik Iter AM!!.,-,-. it.-T!u-il, p. 845. ' llml, p. 351 
The father 1 ! book. - The mother's K .,\\ n. ? The children's playthings. 

I hare betrothed mywlf to the Count (dativ. ) his (dative) cook. 

II' ruliHidrml how the j-nld.Muith /,/. appmit'icv, etc. 

10 Pfttri liber iuus. In matro (Germ, dative) tccto (dative) suo. 


" Dom Goethe sein Gredicht 1st noch schoner als dem Wieland 
seins." 1 " Das 1st ilmen ihr Rock." 2 " Im sein Yater." 3 " Der 
Fran ir Kind." 4 " Den Eltern ire Sorgen." 5 

If, indeed, this form of expression could be shown to be a 
recent innovation, there would be less reason for connecting "the 
king his crown," of modern vernacular Germany, with a similar 
application of the possessive pronoun " his," in Layamon, Robert 
of Gloucester, the Ormulum, Maimdevill, Spenser, Shakespeare, 
the authorised version of the Bible, and the Prayer Book. 

The same writer (Adelung) in his great German dictionary, 
treats this phraseology as the language of common or vulgar life. 
Speaking of "sein" (his) he says, "JSTach einem Genitiv gehort 
es auch hier in der Sprache des gemeinen Lebens. Dein Auf- 
wand iibertrifft den Aufwand des Fiirsten seinen. (Thy ex- 
penditure exceeds that of the Prince his, sumptus principle 
suos)" It would be better, he observes, to say, "iibertrifft den 
Aufwand des Fiirsten." 

In the same article, Adelung says, Ein gewohnlicher Fehler 
einiger gemeinen Sprecharten, und besonders der Niedersachsen, 
ist es, dieses Fiirwort zweiter Endung, wenn selbige vor ihrem 
Hauptwort stehet, zur Erklanmg beizufiigeii "Meines Yaters 
sein Bruder" (patris mei f rater situs). " Meines Bruders sein 
Gut" (fratris mei bona sua). 

This familiar form of speech, which Adelung acknowledges to 
be still the language of common life, is very ancient. " Uber- 
morgen hol'ich der Konigin ihr Kind," the day after to-morrow 
I fetch away the queen her child (Reginso puerum suum). & 
"Nach des Herrn Korbes seinem Haus," and "Nach dem Herrn 
Korbes seinem Haus," to Mr. Korbes his house 7 (in Domini Korbes 
domum suam). " Des Yaters sein Hut," (Patris pileus suus).* 

In three of the instances just referred to, the inflexion denoting 
the genitive case and also the personal pronoun, appear. In 

Goethe (dative) poema suum pulchrins est quam Wieland (dative) snum, 

That is to them their coat. Leur habit d cux. 

Son pcre d lui. 4 A la fomnc son enfant a elle. 

Aux parents leurs soins d eux. 

Grimm, Kinder und Hansmarchen, vol. i., No. 55, p. 283. 

Ibid, No. 41, p. 210. 8 Becker, Gramm. vol. i. p'. 172. 


phrases which, like the following, are daily heard in familial 
conversation, the inflexion, being felt to be superfluous, ie! 
omitted. "Die Mutter ihr Kleid" (Mater, not matris vestie; 
sua). 1 "Wie wars so dunkel in dem Wolf seinem Leib."| 
" Oh how dark it was in the wolf his body" in lupo corpore suoi< 
(not in /W/M corpore suo) says Rothkappchen (Little Red Riding 
Hood) after her wonderful extraction, by the friendly huntsman/ 
from the wolf's belly. 2 She might, using the inflected genitive, < 
have said, but with less naivete, " In des Wolfs seinem Leibe" 
"in lupi corpore suo." "Dem Wolf" and "seinem Leib" are! 
both datives, governed by the preposition "in." It is important. 
to remark that the expression actually recorded is " seinem Leib," . 
not " seinen Leib." Had there been any further coalescing of the< 
two predicates, the distinctive termination of " seinem" must, inj 
the presence of "dem," have been abandoned as superfluous. 

" Mein Marchen ist aus ; Und geht vor Gustchen sein Haus. ! 
My story is told, and now go before little Augustus his house." 8 
I';i^ Kiinlclu-n si-ln. II iitchcn. Lay hold of little Conrad his 
little hat." 4 

" Jeder hatte ein Pferd mitgebracht ; aber des einen seins war i 
blind, des andern seins, lahm. Each man had brought a horse, 
but one his (one's) was blind, and the other his (the other's) 
lame. Unius SUMS erat coecus, alterius swws erat claudus." 5 Here, 
the adjective pronoun corresponding with our possessive aug- 
ment, is applied, not to a noun but to a numeral and a pronoun. 

This construction is much out of favour with some modern 
critics, who have characterised it as undignified, colloquial, and 
draggling (schleppend). By Adelung it is also denounced as 
superfluous (iiberfliissig), because, he says, 6 " possession is 
already indicated by the genitive case." But the genitive case, 
as well as the dative case governed by the preposition von, does 
not necessarily convey the idea of possession. These apply to many 
other relations. It may also be observed that in several Ger- 
Beeker, firamm. vol. i., p. 172. 

Kimloi und II ...iMnan-hen, vol. i., No. 26, p. 139. 
Ibid, tol. ii., No. 108, p. 126. 

W, |. -J1. And sec ibid, p. 19. * i^id. 

Detttoehe SpracUlehre fur SrhuU-n 3to Auflage, 355. 



man nouns, the genitive case is not distinguished by any inflexion. 
Singularly enough, Adelung himself, after finding fault with the 
expression " Unsers Vaters seine Freude" (the joy of our father 
his), patris nostri gaudium suum, on the ground that the form of 
the case itself denotes possession, objects equally to "Frau Wolf 
ihre Tochter " (Mrs. Wolf her daughters), Domina Wolf filiae suce, 
in which the genitive position of Frau Wolf is not evidenced or 
made distinguishable by any change of termination. He recom- 
mends that, in preference, we should say, " Die Tochter der Frau 
Wolf" (the daughters of Mrs. Wolf) ; a form to which, though, 
more stiff and unfamiliar, there is, of course, no positive objection. 
He also states that he thinks it better to avoid saying, with 
Gellert, " Dies Beywort ist noch mahlerischer als Homers 
semes." (This epithet is more picturesque than that of Homer 
his), pulchrius Homeri suo. 

When Richard of Cornwall, king of the Romans, and Alphonso 
X. of Castile, sent agents to Rome to obtain the decision of Pope 
Clement IV. upon their conflicting claims to the imperial crown, 
the former was represented by his elder son, Prince Henry of 
Almaine and Cornwall, 1 and others. Of Alphonso's agents, the 
historian Schmidt, who was not of Lower Saxony, but of Upper 
Crermany, 2 speaks as " Des Alfonsus seine Machten," the powers 
of Alfonso his. Alphonsi potestates suce. 3 

Although modern Germans employ the possessive or rather 
adjective pronoun "ihr," "her" or " their," when they wish to 
give a distinct and exclusive possessive character to feminine 
nouns in the singular, and to all nouns in the plural; the old 
English and the old Germans confined themselves to the use of 
" sin" " his" in the reflex sense of the Latin " suus," which, like 
the Spanish " suyo," refers to preceding substantives, with an 
utter disregard of any distinction of gender or number. 

We find Paris represented as saying, in old middle German, 

1 Afterwards assassinated by his cousin, Guy de Montfort, in the church at Viterbo. 
His heart was brought to England by command of Edward I. "Lo cuor che'n sul 
Tamigi ancor si cola." Dante, Inferno, xii. 120. 

2 Franconia or Bavaria. 

3 Schmidt, Geschichte der Deutschen, vol. iii. p. 84. 


" Each of the three goddesses, Venus, Juno, Pallas, offered me | 
his (sin) gift." 1 The fruit of his mother becomes a mother. 2 

In modern German, however, the possessive or adjective pro- 
noun, when added to the principal or dominant noun, to denote 
its possessory or proprietary interest in the satellite, follows the 
number and gender of the noun to which it is attached. 

The supposed anomaly in the unrestricted application of the 
pronoun " his," which, as well in its primary as in its secondary 
sense, can refer only to nouns in the singular number and 
of the masculine or the neuter gender, has been the great 
stumbling-block in the path of English grammarians. As in 
English, so in the cognate Platt-Deutsch (the quasi continental 
English, in a less improved and complete, perhaps in a less 
corrupted form), the useless inflexion is dismissed where resort 
has been had to the possessive augment. " Sin (qu. bin) ick nig 
en armen Fisker sinen Sohn" (Am I not a poor fisherman 
piscator, not piscatoris his son ?). 3 " De vagel averst floog weg 
un set sick up eenen Goldsmitt siin huus" 4 (The bird, however, 
flew away and set itself upon a goldsmith his house). Super 
aurifabrum (not aurifabri) domum suam." 

' Daar flog de vagel weg na eenen Schooster, un sett sick up 

den siin Dack" 5 (Then flew the bird away to a shoemaker, and set 

itself upon him his 6 roof). Super eum (not ejus) tectum suum. 

" Ik bin den Fisker sin Suhn" (I am the fisherman his son). 

n piscator (not piscatoris) films suus. 7 

17. Genders of Personal Pronouns. 
In our language, and probably in all other dialects spoken 

I, I). iit.M-li.- <;r:mmiatik, 4ter, Theil 341, 3rd edit. Das r..ssossivum "sin" 

liUKt mrh \irllt ifht nnrli |,,-i . iii/.rliicn Dichtmi, und als seltne Ausniihnic, iu seiner 

*lt*ren AUgmiinhtit nachweisen. Ich Imhe nnr cine Stolle aus HenuTt lu n ugfr. 

lerkt, wo en fur den Plural f. mini., -ebraucht stehet. Es 1st die Rede von Venus, Juno 

und PtUM, und burnt dann, "ir iegeliche mir sine gift bot." 

i.,/ Pan, 859, 24 Din truht s inr nmoter muotcr wirt. 

: Uausniun-licn. * Ibid, vol. i., No. 47, p. 233. 

1 1 , p. 234. 

Hew it U to be remarked that a pronoun denoting possession, is attached, not to a 
oun, but to a personal juonom.. 

' Grimm, Kinder und Hauwnirchen, vol. ii., No. 96, p. 71. 


by nations constituting the great Aryan family, the personal 
pronouns of the first and second persons, "I, me," "thou, thee," 
, us," "ye, you," exhibit Jio mark of gender. It is un- 
necessary that the present visible speaker should use words 
specially indicating his or her own sex ; and it would appear to 
be almost as much a work of supererogation to resort to inflexions 
having for their object the designation of the sex of the present 
visible party whom he or she is addressing, except in cases, not 
likely to be of frequent occurrence, where it might be doubtful 
which, of several persons, equally present, was the party meant 
to be addressed. It has, indeed, been supposed that the rule is 
universal, that it is without exception in any language. 1 But 
in Hebrew, and also in the other Semitic dialects, the form of the 
personal pronoun representing the second person, that is, the 
party or parties addressed, and the construction of the suffixes 
to verbs in the second person, vary according to the sex. 

Gesenius says, 3 " Only in the first person is the pronoun 
generis communis; because the first person, who is supposed 
to be present, needs not a designation of sex so much as the 
addressed second, or absent third." As I, thou, we, ye, present 
no mark of gender, so the corresponding possessive or adjective 
pronouns my, thy, our, your, are applied indifferently with 
reference to persons of either sex. And we find that in the 
Gothic 3 language, as well as in the derivative or cognate Anglo- 
Saxon, the masculine personal pronoun " he," and the possessive 
pronoun "his," are employed with reference to antecedent sub- 
stantives of all genders and of both numbers. The use, therefore, 
of "his," with its ancient general force, 4 whether in its original 
form, or as cut down to "is" or "'s," when applied to feminine 
or plural nouns, appears to be more consistent to be more 
idiomatic, than the modern German " ihr" (her or their), or than 
Lilly, young Mistress Bridget Cromwell, and Swift's, "her." 5 

1 " The pronoun of the first and second person do not appear to have had the dis- 
tinction of gender given them in any language." Blair's Lectures, vol. i, p. 180. 

Bopp, writing more cautiously, confines the rule to every Indo-European language, 
in all of which, he says, the agreement in this respect is striking auffallend, p. 320. 

- Hebraische Grammatik, 3te Auflage, p. 71. 3 Ante, p. 46. 

4 In seiner iilteren AHyemewJieit, ante 54u. 5 Ante, pp. 36, 37, 47. 


In WiclifTs translation, " And Mary dwellid with hir as it 
were thre months and tumid again to his own house/' Luke i. 56, 
the masculine possessive pronoun appears to be applied sexlessly. 
Modern printers have her for "his." "Sin" is used in Anglo- 
Saxon poetry for " his." It is to be found in Caedmon's Para- 
phrase, where the word appears to be employed in the tertiary 
or reflex sense. Thus Rask says, with reference to the passage 
in Caedmon, " It must be observed that it does not, like the 
German 'sein/ answer to 'his' in the sense of ' ejus/ but 
only in the sense of ' suus.' ' For our present purpose it is 
sufficient if the genitive of the personal pronoun becomes, like 
the possessive, sexless, where it is reflex. 

Proceeding with the early part of the fourteenth century, we 
find Maundevill 1 saying, "If any of her (their) wyfes misberen 
him (misbehave herself) agenst hire husbande, he may cast him 
(the wife) out of his house and depart from him (the misbering 
wife) and take another ; but he shall departe (divide) with hire 
his goods." 

Grimm gives no example of cases where, as stated in his rule, 
the masculine genitive "seina" has relation to antecedents of 
different sexes and numbers ; but having said before, that the 
personal genitive refers to every gender and number in reflexive 
cases, he confirms this by stating, conversely, that " where there 
is no reflexion, the genitive must stand in its proper gender." 2 

1 Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevill, Knt., p. 135. 2 Ante, p. 46, 



Tabular Statement of Changes in Plural Termination of Nouns, 
coinciding with relinquishment of Genitive Inflexion. 

ATTENTION has been directed (ante, p. 28) to a gradual aban- 
donment of case- terminations, occurring in the interval assigned 
to the two MSS. of Layamon, edited by Sir Frederick Madden. 

The following table shows the change brought about during 
the same period, in the termination of plural nouns, by the sub- 
stitution of the Norman termination in es for that of the Anglo- 
Saxons, whose plurals generally terminated in en : 

1200. 1300. 

Armen (arms) * Harmes. 1 

Baden, beoden (prayers) 2 Bedes. 2 

Bellen (bells) 3 Bellis. 3 

Bemen (trumpets) 4 Beames, bemes, bumes. 4 

Benden (bands) 5 Bendes. 5 

Biscopen (bishops) 6 Bissopes. 6 

Blissen (blisses) 7 Blisses. 7 

Botten (bats or sticks) 8 Battes. 8 

Brotheren Ibrotheren (brothers) 9 Brothers. 9 
Brutten (britons) 10 Bruttes. 10 

Burnen (cuirasses) ll Brumes. 11 

Burhyen (boroughs) 12 Borwes. 12 

1 Layamon's Brut., vol. i., p. 95, v. 2233. 

2 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 402, v. 19688; p. 404, v. 19722 ; p. 497, v. 21934. 

3 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 606, v. 24486. 

* Ibid. vol. i., p. 190, v. 4462; p. 217, v. 5107; p. 219, v. 45; p. 241, v. 673; 
p. 250, v. 874 ; p. 251, v. 886 ; p. 365, v. 8560; vol. ii., p. 326, v. 17887; p. 497, 
v. 21937; p. 574, v. 23729 ; vol. iii , p. 39, v. 26151-2 ; p. 109, v. 7813-6 ; p. 135, 
v. 8400. 

5 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 333, v. 18050; p. 394, v. 9497 ; p. 497, 21922. 

6 Ibid. vol. iii., p. 192, v. 29728. * Ibid. vol. ii., p. 594, v. 24194. 

* Thirl vnl ii r 482 -IT O1*Q1_3 

Ibid. vol. ii., p. 483, v. 21591-3. 


1200. 1300. 

Churichen ! Cherches 1 . 

Clsereken (clerks) Clerkes. 8 

Clivcn (cliffs) 3 Olives. 8 

Clubben (clubs) * Clubbes. 4 

Cluden (clouds) 6 Cloudes. 5 
Cnihten,chnihten,kniliten (knights) 6 Chnites. 6 

Cniven (knives) 7 Cnives. 7 

Cnowen (knees) 8 Cnowes. 8 

Cossen (kisses) 9 Cosses. 9 

Cwenen (queens) 10 Cwenes. 10 

Dawen, dayen (days) ll Daies or Dawes. 11 

Draken (dragons) 12 Drakes. 12 

Bremen (dreams or jewels) 13 Dreams. 13 

Eorlen (earls) 14 Eorles. 14 

Eorth-tilien (earth-tiUers) 15 Erth-tilies. 15 

Eremiten (bermits) 16 Heremites. 16 

Ferden (troops) " Ferdes. 17 

Faderen (fathers) l8 Eaderes. 18 

Firemen (fugitives). 19 Eleomes. 19 

Furken (gallows) 20 Forkes. 20 

Gricken (Greeks) * l Grickes. 21 

Gumen (men) n Gumes. 22 

I Lay. vol. ii. p. 197, v. 14848. 2 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 103, v. 12642. 
8 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 451, v. 20847 ; vol. iii., p. 226, v. 32241. 

* Ibid. vol. ii., p. 479 ; v. 21504. Ibid. vol. ii., p. 497, v. 21939. 

Ibid. vol. i., p. 77, v. 819 ; p. 36, v. 46 ; p. 92, v. 2185 ; p. 116, v. 734 ; p. 161, 
Y. 3978 ; p. 339, v. 7948-67; p. 375, 8813 ; p. 404, 9469 ; vol. ii., p. 94, v. 12430 ; 
p. 114, v. 910; p. 132, v. 13334--53 ; p. 152, v. 3781-94; p. 205, v. 5041 ; p. 20 , 
r. 5105 ; p. 271, v. 6590; p. 272, v. 626 ; p. 279, v. 785 ; p. 290, v. 7051 ; p. 297, 
T. 253-4 ; p. 300, v. 417 ; p. 360, v. 8688-91 ; vol. iii., p. 67, v. 26824; p. 154, 
r. 8835. By semi-Saxon writers, and as late as Wicliffs version (1380), all military 
persons arc called knights. 

7 Ibid. vol. i., p. 171, v. 4009. 8 Ibid, vol.ii., p. 105, v. 12685; p. 116, v. 12941. 
<J H'icl. vol. iii., p. 222, v. 30462. 10 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 112, v. 12865-72-6. 

II Ibid. vol. i., p. 65, v. 1284-98 ; p. 102, v. 2403 ; p. 123, v. 916 ; p. 219, v. 
6138 ; p. 242. v. 961 ; vol. ii., p. 158, v. 13922 ; p. 177, v. 4386 ; p. 509, v. 22218 ; 
Tol. iii., n. 112, v. 27871. 

. roL IL, p. 2 i l, v. 16962. 13 Ibid< vol. ii<f p. 638) Y< 22876. 

14 I Lid. vol. ii., p. Us, v. 12998; p. 638, v. 22876. 
' Ibid. vol. ii., p. 505, v. 22118. 


1. iii., p. 114, v. 27914; p. 48, v. 1136. 
ll.i.l. Y..I. i., p. 250, v. 6877; vol. ii., 

p. 20, v. 10668. 

N..I. i., ,,. 244, v. 6722-4. Ibid. vol. i., p. 254, v. 5952. 
ll.i.l. v.,1. i , p. 244, v. 5720. Ibid. vol. i., p. 35, v. 810. 

17, v. 8125; vol. ii., p. 103, v. 12644; p. 106, v. 725; p. 133 
T. 3346 ; p. 152, v. 788 ; p. 206, N . B46 1 |>. ;JSD, v. 9164 : p. 426, v. 2025 ; ol, 
iii., p. 264, v. 31462. 




Hafden (heads) l 
Halidomen (relics) 2 
HaUen (halls) 3 
Haermen (harms) 4 
Harpen (harps) 5 
Heorten (harts) 6 
Heremaerken (standards) 7 
Iberen (cries) 8 


Hefdes, or hevedes. 1 

Halidomes. 2 

HaUes. 3 

Harmes. 4 

Harpes. 5 

Heortes. 6 

Hiremarkes. 7 

Beares. 8 

Iferen, iveren, ivoren (companions) 9 Yeres, feres, iveres. 8 

Iweden (armour) 10 Wedes. 10 

Kempen (soldiers) " Kempes. 11 

Kingen (kings) 12 Kinges. 12 

Lawen, laien (laws) 13 Lawes. 13 

Leomen (limbs) u Leomes. 14 

Lotten (lots) 15 Lottes. 15 

Maidenen (maids) 1G Maidenes. 16 

Medewan (meadows) 17 Medewes. 17 

Monnen (men) I8 Mones, mannes. 18 

Munden (palms) 19 Mundes. 19 

Muniken (monks) 20 Monakes. 20 

tfihten (nights) 21 Mhtes. 21 

Nomen (names) 22 Barnes. 22 

I Lay., vol. i., p. 35, v. 813 ; vol. ii., p. 190, v. 14682 ; p. 240, v. 5870; p. 536, 
22839 ; p. 552, v. 3213. 2 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 494, v. 21863. 

3 Ibid. vol. i., p. 86, v. 2025 ; vol. ii., p. 594, v. 24192. 

4 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 495, v. 21894. 5 Ib.vol.ii.,p.210,v.l4955. 6 Ib.vol.L, p.!4,v.306. 
7 Ibid. vol. iii., p. 95, v. 27469. 8 Ibid. vol. iii., p. 25, v. 25828. 

9 Ibid. vol. i., p. 71, v. 1677; p. 250, v. 5876; p. 263, v. 6176; p. 343, v. 8040; 
p. 351, v. 230 ; p. 382, v. 968; p. 428, v. 10035; vol. ii., p. 121, v. 13056 ; p. 230, 
v. 5633 ; p. 241, v. 878 ; p. 245, v. 990 ; p. 416, v. 20021 ; p. 447, v. 759 ; vol. iii., 
p. 33, v. 26012 ; p. 37, v. 114 ; p. 58, v. 610 ; p. 74, v. 976 ; p. 94, v. 7449 ; p. 244, 
v. 30977. 

10 Ibid. vol. iii., p. 21, v. 25732 ; p. 46, v. 6322-3 ; p. 59, v. 620. 

II Ibid. vol. i., p. 318, v. 7443; p. 353, v. 8272; p. 355, v. 330 ; vol. ii., p. 525, 
v. 22572-3 ; p. 633, v. 5119 ; p. 637, v. 209 ; vol. iii., p. 159, v. 28951. 

r. 4158 ; 

p. 6. 
1. i., 

12 Ibid. vol. i., p. 177, v 

vol. ii., p. 581 ; v. 23890. 

13 Ibid. vol. i., p. 50, v. 1167; p. 88, v. 2077-8; p. 205, v. 4814; p. 219, 
v. 5137 ; p. 223, v. 234 ; p. 255, v. 995-6 ; vol. ii., p. 175, v. 14339 ; p. 185, v. 560 ; 
p. 197, v. 861 ; p. 198, v. 870 ; p. 410, v. 872 ; p. 509, v. 22219 ; p. 586, v. 4015 
vol. iii., p. 150, v. 28760. 

u Ibid. vol. ii., p. 329, v. 17968; vol. iii., p. 29, v. 25929. 

15 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 155, vv. 13857-8. 

16 Ibid. vol. i., p. 116, v. 2740 : vol. ii., p. 574, v. 23730. 

17 Ibid. vol. i., p. 85, v. 2005. 

18 Ibid. vol. i., p. 116, v. 2733 ; vol. ii., p. 574, v. 23730. 

19 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 500, v. 21994. 20 Ibid. vol. iii., p. 192, v. 29722. 
21 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 225, v. 15512. 22 Ibid. vol. i., p. 76, v. 1802. 




Basen (onset) ! 

Eeven (magistrates)* 

Ribben (ribs) 

Ridern, ridaeren, rideren (riders) * 

Sawen (speeches) 5 

Scipen (ships) 8 

Scotten (Scots) 7 

Scuhten (archers) 8 

Siden (sides) * 

Songen (songs) 10 

Spellen (sayings) ll 

Speren (spears) u 

Steden (horses) 13 

Straemen (rivers) M 

Sunen, sunon, sonen (sons) 15 

Sustren (sisters) 16 

Swiken (traitors) 17 

Telden (tents) 18 

Reses. 1 
Reves. 2 
Ribbes. 3 

Rideres, or redeares. 4 
Sawes. 5 
Sipes. 6 
Scottes. 7 
Scuhtes. 8 
Sides. 9 
Songes. 10 
SpeUes. 11 
Speres. 12 
Stedes. 13 
Stremes. 14 
Sones. 15 
Sostres. 16 
Swikes, 17 
Teldes. 18 

1 Lay., vol. i., p. 29, v. 683 ; vol. ii. p. 2-54, v. 16195 ; vol. ifi. p. 15, v. 25606. 

* Ibid. vol. i., p. 225, v. 5273 ; vol. ii., p. 286, v. 16956. 
Ibid. vol. i., p. 68, v. 1599. 

Ibid. vol. ii., p. 15, v. 10553; p. 172, v. 14250; p. 207, v. 5089; vol. in., p. 
76, v. 27025 ; p. 98, v. 547 ; p. 249, v. 31079. 

Ibid. vol. i., p. 32, v. 749. 

Ibid. vol. i., p. 40, v. 943 ; p. 48, v. 1132 ; p. 57, v. 349 ; p. Ill, v. 2631, 3 ; 
p. 195, v. 2583, 2; p. 198, v. 656, 8, 60 ; p. 200, v. 93; p. 219, v. 5149 ; p. 315, v. 
7384, 92, 6 ; p. 333, v. 794-5 ; p. 335, v. 855-6 ; p. 341, v. 989 ; p. 343, v. 8041 ; 
p. 415, v. 9731, 50 ; vol. ii. p. 12, v. 10487 ; p. 13, v. 516-7 ; p. 15, v. 56 ; p. 74, 
v. 1960; p. 75, v. 81, 2001 ; p. 79, v. 74, 7, 86, 8, 9; p. 105, v. 696 ; p. 152, v. 
3791 ; p. 172, v. 4248 ; p. 183, v. 519 ; p. 192, v. 732 ; p. 208, v. 5103 ; p. 249, v. 
6069; p. 307, v. 17445 ; p. 437, v. 20505 ; p. 453, v. 888 ; p. 454, v. 921, 6 ; p. 
478, v. 1509; p. 480, v. 519, 26, 31 ; p. 482, v. 21578 ; p. 483, v. 21589; p. 491, 
T. 21791 ; p. 493, v. 827 ; p. 524, v. 2546 ; p. 549, v. 3135 ; p. 555, v. 276, 9 ; p. 
494, v. 4203 ; vol. Hi., p. 12, v. 25530 ; p. 12, v. 43 ; p. 128, v. 8234; p. 22'J, \ 
1 in. 1, I ; p. 230, Y. 629 ; p. 284, v. 31926. 

. vol. ii., p. 101, v. 12593; p. 256, v. 6249 ; p. 488, v. 21727. 

Ibid. vol. iii., p. 76, v. 27026. Ibid. vol. ii., p. 497 ; v. 21941. 
'" Ibid. v..l. i., p. 397, v. 19575. 11 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 233, v. 15695. 
Ii p. 397. v. 19552. 

Jbid. v,l. ii., p. 519, v. 22441 ; vol. iii., p. 21, v. 25731 ; p. 44, v. 26278. 
" vol. iii., p. 62, v. 26704. 

14 Ibid. vol. i., p. 89, v. 2094; p. 107, v. 538, 41; p. 159, v. 3749; p. 160, 
T. 67; p. 167, v. 924; p. 183, v. 4289; p. 214, v. 5020; p. 217, v. 94 ; p. 301, 
T. 7064; p. 305, v. 146; p. 382, v. 8964 ; vol. ii., p. 10, v. 10442 ; p. 114, v. 2S96-7 ; 
p. 117, v. 20976 ; p. 524, v. 2268 ; p. 625, v. 88 ; p. 569, v. 3606 ; vol. iii., p. 1 K>, 
T. 2866 ; p. 147, v. 91 ; p, 264, v. 31461. 

vol. i., p, 116, v. 2761 : i>. 1'Js, v. 3082 ; p. 148, v. 478 ; p. 149, v. 520. 
.:3, v. 6426; p. 232, v. 62; p. 233, v. 64, 74. 
304, v. 17367 ; p. 372, v. 18973. 


1200. 1300. 

Treowen (trees) 1 Troues. 1 

Utlaeyen (outlaws) 2 Utlawes, Utlayes. 3 

Yaeren (companions) 3 Peres. 3 

Wahyen (clubs) 4 Wawes. 4 

Weden (clothes or armour) 5 "Wedes. 5 

Wiken (weeks) 6 Wikes. 6 

Weorken (works) 7 Warkes. 7 

Worden (wordes) 8 Wordes. 8 

"Wrenchen (stratagems) 9 "Wrenches. 9 

Writen (writs or writings) to Writes. 10 

Yefven, yeoven (gifts) n Yiftes. 11 

Yeten (gates) 12 Yates. 12 

In some few cases the Norman plural termination in "es" 
occurs already in the more ancient version. In other cases, 
which occur more frequently, the modern version rejects the 
"n" of the older plurals without adopting the "s." Thus 
" luueden me mine leoden" of the old version, becomes " louede 
me mi leode" of the new. 13 So "vnder thissen luften" becomes 
" vnder thisse lufte." 14 

The Anglo-Saxon dual maintains its ground in the pronouns 
of the earlier version (vol. ii. p. 571, v. 23653) ; in the later it 
disappears. Thus the " wit tweie" of the older version becomes 
"we tweie" in the later, " inc beiene" (vol. i. p. 239, v. 5616) 
becomes " you beine." 

Persons not wholly satisfied with the evidence of the ancient 

1 Lay., vol. i., p. 22, v. 511. 

2 Ibid. vol. i., p. 48, v. 1121 ; vol. ii., p. 13, v. 10521 ; p. 14, v. 10631 ; p. 79, 
v. 12076 ; p. 91, v. 12356; p. 94, v. 12428; vol. Hi., p. 91, v. 27372. 

3 Ibid. vol. i., p. 250, v. 5876. 4 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 483, v. 21596. 

6 See Iweden. 6 Lay., vol. ii., p. 504, v. 22089. 

7 Ibid. vol. i., p. 303, v. 7106; vol. iii., p. 29, v. 25942, 6; p. 80, v. 27125; p. 
162, v. 9024; p. 243, v. 30941. 

8 Ibid. vol. i., p. 51, v. 1192, 7 ; p. 197, v. 4618 ; p. 249, v. 5837 ; p. 376, v. 
8832; vol. ii., p. 198, v. 14875; p. 302, v. 7335; p. 398, v. 19595; p. 402, 
v. 19679; p. 446, v. 20734 ; p. 487, v. 1682; p. 523, v. 2526 ; p. 557, v. 3310 ; 
p. 558, v. 36; p. 618, v. 4774 ; p. 637, v. 5204. 9 Ibid. vol. i., p. 226, v. 5302. 

10 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 13, v. 105 16-7 ; vol. iii., p. 95, v. 27480 ; p. 192, v. 29727. 

11 Ibid. vol. i., p. 233, v. 5464; p. 329, v. 7701. 

12 Ibid. vol. ii., p. 22, v. 10736. 

13 Ibid. vol. i. v. 3471. In this and the following case the " n" seems frequently to 
have disappeared simultaneously from the verb and from the noun. 

14 Ibid, p. 176, v. 4130. "Thissere" and " thissera" arc older versions than 
"thisse" and "thissa." Vernon, Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 186. 


existence of an original sexless "his/' may regard the "his" of I 
the later version of Layamon 1 as undistinguishable from the 
modern pronoun, which has reference to masculine, or, at the 
most, to masculine and neuter antecedents only. Such persons 
might possibly find an explanation of the fact of the appearance 
of "his" in that version in connexion with feminine nouns, in 
the supposition that after "his" had acquired its position as a 
possessive augment by being so employed with reference to mas- 
culine and neuter nouns, it came to be regarded as a simple in- 
dication of possession, which might be conveniently resorted to 
for the purpose of forming a general possessive augment, with- 
out regard in all cases to the gender of the antecedent noun. 

The latter supposition may be said to be less violent than one 
that is involved in a hypothesis 2 which requires that the apos- 
trophised " J s," now seen to be attached to plural nouns for the 
purpose of forming a possessive augment, should be accepted as 
the genuine descendant, as an actual continuation, of our Anglo- 
Saxon ancestors' genitive plural termination " en," " ena," which 
termination was followed by the "ene" of mediaeval English. 
This imaginary descent derived some adventitious support from a 
transfer of the Anglo-Saxon masculine singular termination in 
" s," to plural words which had been prepared for undergoing 
such a transfer by the loss of their special termination, aban- 
doned for the genitive by juxta-position. 3 

A process of a nature somewhat similar is described by Bopp 4 
with reference to the Latin terminations in "jus," as "cujus," 
"ejus," etc., which, though derived from a Sanskrit original 
restricted to the masculine and neuter gender, have found their 
way abusively (misbriiuchlich) into Latin feminines. 

The sumo author states 5 that in the most important element 
of word-construction a perfect identity exists with many pro- 
nominal stems, which, in their insulated position, are still 
declined. He also calls attention to the fact, that an appended 
do nol in the course of time always proceed jwzn jwmti 
the corresponding insulated word. 

1 Ante, p. 28. a Post, cliap. viii. 3 Ante, p. 24. 

41 . v I- " liende Grimm, 2te Awgabe, vol i. p. 387, $ 189, ' liml,p. 210. 



TIIK mass of documents produced in support of the ancient 
pronominal theory, and the observations with which those docu- 
ments have been accompanied, may be regarded as having, to 
some extent, narrowed the field of inquiry with respect to the 
several opposing theories which have been propounded, all of 
which appear to involve, and may be said to rest upon, the con- 
founding of subjective with objective genitives. 1 But the views 
entertained by our ancestors in their unsuspecting confidence in 
the pronominal theory have been so unsparingly, often so fiercely, 
denounced by the authors of these ingenious substitutes and by 
their respective adherents, that justice to the memory of those 
ancestors would seem to require a particular examination of the 
modern theories. 2 

See this distinction in Galatians iii. 14, where, in Iva r 

wfj.ft' Sia T}JS TriVrews, we find two genitives. After the instrumental preposition 
51a, Trio-Tews could only be subjective ; but irveu/ioros not being so fettered, was capa- 
ble of being treated cither as a subjective or as an objective genitive. Taken sub- 
jectively, and translated with the possessive augment, we should have had the Spirit's 
promise. But the genitive in this passage is no doubt employed objectively, imply- 
ing that the Spirit would, passively, be bestowed. 

* Vide post, chapp. vii. viii. ix. x. 



WITHIN a few years after the publication of Ben Jonson'sj 
unfinished posthumous work on English grammar, there ap- 
peared (in 1653) a grammar, in Latin, of the English language 
published by Dr. Wallis. 

This learned writer felt that the apostrophised "s" differed! 
both in power and construction from the " es," which had formed 
the termination of the genitive case in several Anglo-Saxon 
declensions of masculine nouns; but he was not prepared to 
grapple with what seemed at first sight to be, the incongruity of 
connecting feminine and plural substantives with the adjective 
pronoun " his," which pronoun he assumed to be applicable only 
to subjects of the masculine, or, at most, of the masculine or 
iHMiUT gender and of the singular number. 1 

Dr. Wallis invented what he proposed to call 2 adjectivum 
possessivum, being of opinion that nouns substantive are, by the 
simple process of adding the letter " s," converted into this novel 
species ol'inljtvt i ve. "Man's nature," he says, "is iiatura humana 
vel hominis. ' Men's nature,' natura humana vel hominum. So 
also, where a substantive aggregate occurs, that is, a primary 
substantive with its satellite, the ' s' formative of the possessive 
a<ljii\r is placed after the satellite. Thus, in 'the king of 
England's court,' aula K -i> An^-lia-, the letter V is placed after 

1 Atljunjfitur mini ct foominarum lumiinihus propriis, ct suhstnulivis pluralibui 

'X u hu" sine solu UMHO Inrum luihrrc lion potcst ; ;tti[Ut' ctiiim in posscssivis 

\<nirs," "theirs," " IMT>," uhi voirm "his" itnnii m-itio mntmian't. Not- 

withitanding thii denunciation of a dreunn/ in>/ii<->i<lo, w timl " your is" in Chaucer, 

and CreM. b. i. f 1. 422, 423, 1121 ; b. in., 1. 112. May slu >our is bo with 

chance." Romance of Sir Tr\am. r, Peroi Society, \\i.,p.742. Ami sec ante, p. 7. 

Libet appclkre. 


the entire aggregate, * the king of England/ as if that aggregate 
formed one entire substantive." 

No attempt is made by Dr. Wallis to investigate the origin of 
this adjective-engendering "s." The mode in which the mys- 
terious letter acquired its possessive power, and the circumstances 
under which it came to be so employed, and how it obtained the 
faculty of acting at a distance from the substantive over which 
it was to exercise a powerful control, are matters left to be dis- 
covered by the sagacity of the reader, or to be supplied by the 
fertility of his imagination. Had such an investigation been set 
on foot by this learned writer, the objections which he had 
entertained to the pronominal 4 theory might possibly have come 
to be regarded by him as having lost much of their apparent 
force. The obvious, the uniformly recognised, prehensile power 
of the subjoined " s," the necessary consequence of its adjectivo- 
pronominal origin, might have relieved him from the oppressing 
necessity of inventing terms to which, it is believed, no lan- 
guage, ancient or modern, has furnished a parallel. 1 

The "Wallisian theory appears, however, to be not fairly open 
to some of the objections which had been urged against it; 2 
and, perhaps, that theory deserves to be regarded as being 
less at variance with the genius of our language than other 
systems by which it has been practically superseded. 

1 It lias been suggested that the compound phrase may be represented in mathe- 
matical language by " (King of England's." This would rather appear to be a 
mode of presenting a graphic description of the difficulty, whilst abstaining from 
offering any aid towards arriving at a satisfactory solution. "What would be the 
value of the figure 's being suffered to remain an unknown quantity ? 

2 Post, p. 69. 



1. Its Origin. 

THIS theory which, to use a familiar modern phrase, has had 
an immense success, seems to be indebted for its primary 
existence to certain views which had, at one period of his life, 
floated in the mind of Ben Jonson. These views found their way 
into certain loose notes which, after his death, were discovered 
amongst his papers, his actually completed grammar having 
never seen the light, except in the fire by which, in the author's 
lifetime, it was consumed. But as the system there obscurely 
announced, is scarcely intelligible, it might possibly have sunk 
into a neglect as complete as that into which the Wallisian 
theory has fallen, if it had not been rescued and revived by the 
vigorous arm of our great lexicographer. 

No injustice will therefore be done to the original suggester 
if the system be dealt with as the Johnsonian theory, into 
which theory the Jonsonian suggestion is practically absorbed. 
It \\ill be right, however, to look back at the interesting but 
somewhat perplexing fragment as it is presented in the form 
in which it was unintentionally left. 

2. Ben Jonson' s Grammar. 

In the English Grammar which bears the name of Jonson, 
and whirl i in its imperfect state exhibits evident traces of the) 
extensive reading of this most learned of playwrights, it isi 
said :' "A declension is the varying of a noun substantive into j 
<liv< i (enninationij thence, beside the absolute, there is, 
as it wre t a genii i\<- rase, made in the singular number by 
1 Vol. ix. p. 257, 300, Gifford's Edition, 1S1G. 


putting the * 's/ Of declensions there be two kinds. The first 
inaketh the plural of the singular by adding thereunto ' s,' as 
tree, trees; thing, things; steeple, steeples. So with 's,' by 
reason of the near affinity of these two letters, whereof we have 
spoken before, park, parks ; buck, bucks ; dwarf, dwarfs ; path, 
paths ; and in the first declension the genitive plural is all one 
with the plural absolute, as, 

(Father, (Fathers, 

Singular { -^ , , Plural J ^ ,, 

( Father s. ( Fathers. 

General exceptions. JSTouns ending in s, s, th, g, and ch in the 
declining, take to the genitive singular l i, J and to the plural 

' c ; ' as, 

(Prince, (Princes, 

Singular { ^ . , , -n \ Plural { ^ . 

(Prince s (qu. Prmcis). (Princes. 

So rose, bush, age, breech, etc. ; which distinctions not observed, 
brought in first the monstrous syntax of the pronoun Ms joining 
with a noun betokening a possessor, as 'the prince his house/ 
for ' the prince's house.' ' 

It seems difficult to conjecture what is meant by the rule, by 
the exception, or by the example. The sentences if sentences 
they can be called have the appearance of scattered leaves 
snatched from under the grate. They may have been transcribed 
from an unfinished, possibly a juvenile, draft. 

Jonson, like his numerous successors during more than two 
centuries, takes not the slightest notice of the difference which 
exists, as well in form as in power, between subjective and 
objective genitives, between possessive and non-possessive geni- 
tives. A peculiar distinction which Ben Jonson appears to 
make between what may be called temporal and syllabic aug- 
ments, has not been adopted by any succeeding writer. 

Ben Jonson/s views, which belong to the early part of the 
seventeenth century, can scarcely be said to have attained their 
full development when they were so fortunate as to meet with a 
species of sanction from Dr. Samuel Johnson, in the middle of 
the eighteenth century. By Dr. Johnson, with the assent of his 
followers, it is said that Ben Jonson seems to have believed that 


our ancestors had effected an escape, or an apparent escape,! 
from the perplexing pronoun, by substituting an apostrophised I 
"s," thereby forming a particular and limited genitive a 
genitive, the use of which should be restricted to the relation 
of possession or of property, vested in the dominant noun to 
which the apostrophised letter was attached. But Jonson had 
not failed to perceive that in the case of a dominant noun, ter- 
minating in a palatal or a sibilant letter, the proposed compound 
word would be unpronounceable. His tragedy, 1 in which the 
fall of Sejanus is represented, he ought, according to a rule| 
laid down by himself, to have entitled "Sejanusis Fall;" but, 
however reluctantly, he accepts the proscribed "his," and 
writes " Sejanus his Fall." So, in his comedy of " The Silent 
"Woman," 2 he speaks of Sir Ajax his invention, 3 and of Sir 
Amorous his feast. And he begins his epigram anniversary 
to the king on his birthday, 19th November, 1632, 

" This is King Charles his day, speak it thou Tower." 4 
Jonson also refers to "Horace his Art of Poetry/' 5 and to 
" Horace his judgment." 6 

3. Dr. Johnson's Grammar. 

A bolder position has been taken by Dr. Johnson and his 
followers. By them it is contended that the apostrophised " s," 
although treated as a kind of genitive, is the bodily continuation, 
in an unbroken descent and consequently to be regarded as 
endowed with the undiminished power possessive and non- 
possessive, subjective and objective of the Anglo-Saxon 
genitive case. In a Grammar of the English Language, 
prefixed to his great Dictionary, Dr. Johnson says: "The 
relations of English nouns to words going before or follow- 
ing, are not expressed by cases or changes of termination, 
I >ut, as in most of the European languages, 7 by prepositions, 

1 iii- P- 1. - Ibid, p. 335. 3 Ibid, p. 456. 

V"l. i\- p. 28. 6 ibid, 89. 6 ibid, 243. 

7 The mutilated Romanesque languages arc lien- alluded to. 

Tin- iiiiimitilatrd languages of Europe, as \\vll tin- I5uM|iir :md the- Finnic, as also 
t li groat Aryan, called by llumboldt (Wcrkr, vol. vi. 580) the 
8*uknn, l-iMni , M*, the SlaYOnic, Teutonic, and Scandinavian re- 

oetved but littl.- tttflBtkni from English scholars of the eighteenth century. 


unless we may be said to have a genitive case. Our nouns are 
therefore only declined thus : T 

Master Gen. Master's Plur. Masters. 

Scholar Gen. Scholar's Plur. Scholars. 

These genitives arc always written with a mark of elision, 
Master's, Scholar's, according to an opinion long received, that 
the 's is a contraction of his, as ' the soldier's valour,' for ' the 
soldier his valour ; ' but this cannot be the true original, because 
s is put to female nouns : ' Woman's beauty, the virgin's 
delicacy;' 'Haughty Juno's unrelenting hate.' And collective 
nouns, as, 'women's passions,' 'the rabble's insolence,' 'the multi- 
tude's folly' in all these cases it is apparent that 'his' cannot 
be understood. We say likewise, 'the foundation's strength,' 'the 
diamond's lustre,' 'the winter's severity'; but in these cases 'his' 
may be understood, he and his having been formerly applied to 
neuters, in the place now supplied by it and its. The learned, 
the sagacious Wallis, to whom every English grammarian owes 
a tribute of reverence, calls this modification of the noun an 
adjective-possessive I think with no more propriety than he 
might have applied the same to the genitive, ' equitum decus, 
' Troja3 oris,' or any other Latin genitive." 

The two examples here presented cannot be regarded as fairly 
selected. They show what neither Wallis nor the advocates of 
the pronominal theory have ever doubted that the Latin geni- 
tive may be used with reference to the relation of possession or 
property, that possession or property is a relation to which 
the Latin genitive is not unfrequently applied. But Dr. 
Johnson's position requires absolute proof that the apostrophised 
s," out of which Dr. Wallis's adjectivum-possessivum was 
elaborated, had precisely the same power as any other Latin 
genitive. Proof short of this would be nothing to the purpose. 
Each of the instances given by Johnson is a case of a subjective 
genitive, and in which the relation of possession can, with 
little difficulty, be traced. " Equitum decus" is honour acquired 

1 Dr. Blair says : " English nouns have no case whatever except a sort of genitive, 
formed by the addition of the letter "s" to the noun." " Blair's Lectures," 
vol. i. 174, 


by Roman Knights, and of which they were possessed, andj 
"Trojao orao" may be regarded as shores appertaining and be-\ 
fonf/ing to Troy. 

if it were true that the apostrophised "s" is equivalent 
to "any i.e. every other Latin genitive," we might substitute 

itum turma, or Trojae incendium, in which the genitives are 
objective, and where therefore relations entirely different andj 
wholly unconnected with property or possession are meant to be 
indicated. If, in these cases, any relation of property or posses- 
sion could be traced, it would be a possession of the Knights by 
the troop, and of Troy by the fire. But the satellites, or the 
things possessed here, the objective Knights and the objective 
city, instead of presenting themselves in the nominative case, 

ould be required, as well by Johnson as by Wallis, appear 
as genitives. In "equitum turma," the genitive "equitum" is I 
objective, and the phrase is to be translated, " a troop of 
Knights," not "a Knights' troop." In "TrojaD incendium," 
Troja3 being in like manner objective, we must say, "the burn- 
ing of Troy," not " Troy's burning." In "amor nummi," and 
"auri fames," the genitives are both objective, and could not 
be so rendered as to bring them within the pronominal, or | 
to accommodate them to the Wallisian adjective-possessive 
theory. "Nummus" is incapable of possessing the feeling of 
love," or of reciprocating that passion, and "aurum" is in it- 
self proof against the pangs of hunger. We are in no danger of 
B&ying, as Dr. Johnson's millennially-persistent genitive theory 
requires us to do, "money's love" or "gold's hunger." But 
where some capability of ownership or possession may exist in 
the dominant noun, the ambiguity involved in the ordinary | 
genitive case, in its simple and general form, comes into play. 1 
lolmson pror<;> afl follows: "This termination of the 
to constitute a renl genitive indicating possession* 


.it tin- W oilier of a ^mitivi' is to indicate possession, or mrivly 

thil |);irti.-iilar form of -.nitivr .so to imlirut. : ll ; c lormiT, 

"tly iMiiriu: (vide ante, p. 10). If thr latter, the 

i" : : "' : "' i'l.-ntih uith thr Aii-lu-Saxonuvmtius, .Hsapprur,. 


It is derived to us from those who declined ' Smith, a smith ; 
gen., Smithes, of a smith; plur., Smithes or Smithas, Smith's;' 
ami so on in two other of their seven declensions. 1 It is a fur- 
ther confirmation of this opinion, that in the old poets, both the 
genitive and the plural were longer by a syllable than the 
original word, Knightes for Knights, in Chaucer; leavis for 
leaves in Spenser. 2 Where a word ends in ' s,' the genitive 
may be the same as the nominative, as ' Venus Temple.' 3 
Plurals ending in * s' have no genitive, but we say ' Women's 
excellences,' and 'Weigh the men's wits against the women's 
brains.' 4 Wallis thinks the ' Lords' House' may be said for the 
' House of Lords ;' but such phrases are not now in use ; and 
surely an English ear rebels against them." 5 

Johnson here restricts himself to saying that such phrases are 
not now in use. The English ear would scarcely rebel at the 
sound of a phrase which, free from all harshness, was simply 
obsolete. The cause of the certainly inevitable auricular re- 
pulsion would always have been, the instantaneous perception 
that "the Lords' House" was a house possessed by Lords, not, as 
" the House of Lords," a house consisting of Lords. As Lords 
are capable of possessing a house, "the Lords' House" is an 
admissible phrase, but it is so in a sense totally different from 
" the House of Lords." Cards, on the contrary, are incapable 
of possessing anything. We may say " a house of cards," to 
denote a house composed of cards ; but " a cards' house" would 
be simply meaningless. 

By " the House of Commons," would be understood the 
aggregate representatives of the Commons, or the building in 

1 Dr. Johnson might, perhaps, have strengthened his case had he observed that the 
Anglo-Saxon genitives in "es" were latterly transferred to the other live declensions. 

2 This termination in "is," intermediate between the entire "his" and the mini- 
mixed "s" might have led to the true solution of the difficulty. It is not easy to- 
perceive in what the supposed confirmation consists. 

3 This is seldom seen even in verse without the mark of elision, which, however, 
appears to be unnecessary. Tide ante, pp. 9, 13. 

4 Usually, and correctly, written with the apostrophe, women's. For this un- 
gallant phrase, "ladies' hair" has been substituted in later editions. 

5 If, as Johnson contends, the apostrophised u s" were the mere continuance of an 
inflexional genitive, the two phrases woidd be convertible, in meaning identical. 
Each would perfectly reproduce the domus procerum, neither more nor less. 


which those representatives meet. In neither sense can we say 
" the Commons' House," since nothing of property or possession 
attaches to the assembled members as such. We hear, indeed, 
of " the Commons' House of Parliament," because in this phrase 
the word "Commons" is descriptive, not of the representatives, 
but of the constituency, the entire commonalty of the realm, to 
which both the assembly and its place of meeting the House of 
Commons in every of its aspects belong. 

4. Dr. Johnson's Syntax. 

In treating of Syntax in his English Grammar, Dr. Johnson 
says, " Of two substantives the noun possessive is the genitive," 
as "his father's glory, the sun's heat." But the genitive is not 
necessarily a noun possessive, as, from this statement, it might 
probably be inferred. We could not say, conversely, " of two 
substantives the genitive is a noun possessive," as this may or 
may not have been the case. 

The assumed direct and legitimate descent of the apostrophised 
'"s" from the Anglo-Saxon genitive, would be expected to in- 
vest the former with the extensive powers exercised by the latter 
But upon this point Dr. Johnson is unable to repress his mis- 
givings. He begins by throwing out a doubt whether the 
English language " may be said to have a genitive case." He 
afterwards" expresses an opinion that " this termination of the 
noun constitutes a real genitive ; " but he immediately disfran- 
chises his imaginary genitive, and destroys its case character, by 
describing it as a genitive indicating possession. 

5. Objections to Johnsonian or Genitive Case Theories. 

To the Johnsonian theory, notwithstanding the favour with 
which it has been received, numerous objections present them- 
selves, in addition to those already incidentally pointed out. 

First Objection. With respect to the confident assertion that 

-' illl IHIIIII possessive is something more and something less than ;i 

m- phi- the relation oi' possession, and slioin of tin- power of 

itingan] other relation ; or it may be culled a genitive restricted to a possrs- 

<-ne, a genitiu under the control of a mixed possessive augment; as to which 

vide ante, p. 9. 


;he apostrophised "s" is derived from, and is simply a continua- 
ion of, the Anglo-Saxon genitives in "es," it may be stated 
;hat, although this termination was, for a short period, applied 
generally to masculine and neuter nouns in the singular num- 
ber rejecting the difference in respect of declensions it is no 
ess true that it never was applied to nouns, either masculine, 
eminine, or neuter, in the plural number. 

In the case of these plurals, therefore, the supposition of any 
uch persistently continuing termination, cannot be supported, 
.t seems strange that those who regard as inadmissible, the 
exless employment of the adjective pronoun " his," and find 
an insuperable difficulty in conceiving the possibility of the 
Lerivation of the apostrophised "s" from the pronoun "his," 
n the fact of its being applied to feminine and plural substan- 
ives, should not see that the imagined difficulty exists in reality 
with reference to their own theory, inasmuch as that theory 
squires a transfer to English plural nouns, of an Anglo-Saxon 
ermination, never accepted by plurals, but always restricted 
X) the singular number. 

Second Objection. Another objection to the Johnsonian theory 
s, that there exists no coincidence in power between a true geni- 
ive, i.e., a general, case, and a noun armed with and regulated 
)y the mixed possessive augment, be that augment presented in 
he primitive form of " his," or in that of " is," or " s." 

The employment of a genitive case, whether the comprehen- 
iive but vague relation normally indicated by that case, is marked 
>y an inflexion, as in the Greek, Gothic, and German languages, 
>r is denoted by the introduction of a preposition, as in English, 
French, Spanish, and Italian, and also occasionally in German, 
merely shews that one subject stands in some degree of re- 
ation to, or in some kind of dependence upon, some other 
subject. What the nature of the particular relation or de- 
pendence may be, the presence of the inflexion or that of the 
substituted preposition, the Scandinavian "of," the Teutonic 
'von," or "van," or the Latin "de," fails to disclose. 1 The 
1 Bopp's phrase " generalissimus of cases" docs not seem to be inapplicable. 


explanation must be found or guessed at aliunde. Thus, the 
ancient king or " cyning Englandes," or " the modern king , 
of England," points to a person standing to England in the 
relation of king. But the expression "England's king" does 
not simply indicate that relation or connexion. It both per- 
sonifies England, and points directly to the interest or property 
which, by the phraseology adopted, the personified England is 
regarded as having in her king. 

But the person designated as "England's king" need not 
even be king of England in any sense. To illustrate this dis- 
tinction it may be observed that during the Spanish succession 
war, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, Philip of 
Anjou might have been said to have been " France's king of 
Spain." The phrase would import that Philip stood, or claimed 
to stand, in the relation of king to Spain, but did not convey the 
idea that Spain had any property in Philip. The relation was 
therefore one which would be correctly marked by the inflex- 
ional or by the prepositional genitive, " Hispaniarum rex," or, 
" Eey de Espana," or, "King of Spain." On the other hand, 
Philip was France's king, not in any sense which would 
authorise the use of a simple genitive, or of its prepositional 
substitute. He was not " Eex Franciae," or " King of France," 
inasmuch as he did not stand in the relation of king to France, 
and had even renounced his contingent right of succession to 
that crown. 1 He was France's king of Spain, in respect of 
France's interest in his claim. So Philip's rival, the Archduke 
Charles of Austria, was " England's king of Spain," without 
I IK- slightest pretension to the throne of these realms. The 
French language not having adopted a corresponding use of an 
adjective pronoun, 2 could not present the idea of a "France's king 
<l Sp;iin" \\ithout resorting to a long periphrasis. 

Third Objection. In " Majestatis crimen," majestatis is an 
inflexional oli<;i\. genitive, indicating a relation in which 

r nidi nniiiinutinti tin- presumptive hrir to thr churns of the Comtc de, would | M . the Coiiilr dc Montcniolin, the abolition by Ferdinand VII. of 
the mn uiin, ...urse of BUCCeKsimi, introdun d by Philip V., :itl'<rtin!; Spain only. 

The French, h<-u. \r, publish Fcrn-lon, itBoevma Pi ';tres. 


treason stands to crime in general. It is a relation, not of 
proprietor or possessor and tiling owned or possessed, but of 
;is and species. " Actio furti" is a prosecution or an action 
old legal language, an appeal of robbery or larceny) for or 
in respect of theft, without the existence of any relation of pro- 
perty or possession between one of these nouns and the other. 

In modern English, we, like the Italians, Spaniards, and 
French, have 110 such inflexion. We are, in the case of 
objective genitives, driven to the employment of the preposi- 
tion "of," which gives the effect of the Latin, Anglo-Saxon, 
and Gerrmyi genitive employed objectively. We say, " the 
crime of treason," " a prosecution of or for, or an action of 
or for theft," as we say, " the sin of envy," " the pursuit 
of pleasure," or "the love of praise." The hardiest John- 
sonian has not yet come forward to manifest his consistency by 
travestying these phrases into " treason's crime," " theft's pro- 
secution," " envy's sin," " pleasure's pursuit," or praise's love." 
The phrase, " the love of a mother," is at the first blush a pure 
genitive. The term brings before the mind of the hearer or 
reader, the idea of the existence of some relation between the 
feeling of love and the person of a female who has or has had a 
child. Whether the love exists " in matre," by the mother to- 
wards the child, or is felt " in matrern," by the child towards 
the mother, or, less usually, by some third person towards a 
mother, is not indicated. On the other hand, " a mother's 
love," and in vernacular German, "einer Mutter ihre Liebe," 
can only be the love felt by, and therefore possessed by the mother 
towards her child. The Latin language and its derivatives are 
without this corrective of the vagueness of the genitive case, a 
corrective rejected by German critics, out of which they are en- 
deavouring to scold their countrymen, but which our own more 
prudent grammarians, in the spirit of Antient Pistol, whilst 
railing at it, conveniently swallow. Where, in the phrase, 
"matris amor," the term "inatris" is used subjectively, the 
rendering may be " a mother's love," whether accepting the 
ancient pronominal theory we regard mother in mother's as a 


substantive followed by a truncated pronoun, or call it with l)r 
Wallis a part of a possessive adjective. But "matris amor" isj 
a phrase in which the genitive may be intended to be applied 
objectively, to denote the love felt by the child towards itell 
mother. Here "matris" is objective and non-possessive, as thej 
feeling of love in this case is a feeling entertained and possessed! 
by the child, whether it be shared by the mother or not. We ! 
cannot therefore, without changing its meaning, without actually | 
inverting the proposition, follow Dr. Johnson in disregarding the ji 
distinction between subjective and objective genitives, and trans- \ 
late the second " matris amor" by the term "a mother's love,"! 
it being in fact " a child's love." 

"Dentis candor" presents a subjective, "dentis extractio" anj 
objective, genitive. We can therefore say, " a tooth's whiteness," 
but we cannot say, "a tooth's extraction," "dentis extractio" 
being in every sense non-possessive. "We employ the preposi- 
tional genitive, and say, " extraction of a tooth," or resort to a 
still more general expression, the compound, " tooth- extraction." 

The conjoint plural, " Johannis et Balthasaris domus," is, in I 
vernacular German, " Johann und Walther ihr Haus," literally, I 
" John and Walter their house." In English, instead of " their," j 
the sexless and numberless augment "his" or "s" is used, and the 
translation would have been originally, " John and Walter his 
house," now reduced to " John and Walter's house." But an mi- i 
happy foreigner, confused and overpowered by the confident as- 
sertions of an English grammarian, and drawn into a belief in the 
identity of the apostrophised " s" with the " es" of Anglo-Saxon 
^enitives, would be unable to avoid translating the phrase thus, 
" John's and Walter's house," and he would, as necessarily, be 
understood by any unsophisticated native, to be speaking of two 
houses, one the property of John, the other belonging to Walter. 
To a Wullisian, indeed, this combination would present no diffi- 
culty John and Walter would be pinioned or bracketed to- 
gether, and the ina^ic "s" being applied, the whole mass would 
coalesce, i'u.sed into an adject ivnni possessivnin. 

Fourth Objection. -It has been shewn that there are cases, 


like "majestatis crimen," "actio furti," etc., in which the 
Latin inflexional genitive, and the corresponding English pre- 
positional genitive, cannot be represented by the possessive "s." 
It will now be seen that the possessive "s" is not always- 
capable of being represented by the Latin inflexional, or by the 
English prepositional, genitive. 

" Napoleon's invading Spain was scarcely less disastrous than 
his invading Russia." Under the pronominal theory no diffi- 
culty arises. The first "his" in Napoleon's, no less than the 
second, the unmutilated "his," would point to an act per- 
formed, and therefore possessed, by Napoleon. 1 

It would not be easy to see how such a phrase would be dealt 
with upon the Wallisian system. Napoleon and "s" being 
amalgamated into a possessive adjective, the satellite would be 
furnished by the word " invading " = " invasion ;" but in 
the second branch of the sentence there would be no ante- 
cedent for "his," except Napoleon, who had ceased to be a sub- 
stantive upon having become embedded in the possessive adjective. 
The difficulty, however, appears to be trifling when compared with 
that which would beset a grammarian of the Johnsonian school. 
Taking "invading" as a substantive equivalent to " invasion," he 
might say, "The invading of Napoleon of Spain was scarcely less 
disastrous," etc., or, " The invading of Spain of Napoleon was 
scarcely less disastrous," etc. But who would tolerate such a 
jargon, even supposing that it could be understood ? 

The use of the possessive "s" might indeed be avoided if we 
wrote, " The invading of Spain by Napoleon was scarcely less 
disastrous," etc. But, to say nothing of the violent substitution 
of "by," the representative of the instrumental case, for the 
prepositional genitive who does not perceive that a different 
picture is presented ? the invasion of Spain, not Napoleon the 
invader, forming now the prominent object. 

Such phrases as the following do not unfrequently occur : 

"He is my neighbour's son." Here, the possessive "s" is used 

simply for the purpose of indicating the possessional aspect of the 

relation of father and son. 8 It may therefore be exchanged for 

1 Post, p. 83. 2 Ante, chap. ii. 1. 


*'He is son of my neighbour." But another phrase is equally! 
common, " He is a son of my neighbour's/' 1 Here, the disciple I 
of Johnson will be completely at fault. Using Ben Jonson's 
expression, he may rail at the " monstrous syntax" of indicating ! 
the relation of one nominative by a double genitive. The unfor- 
tunate noun dominant is here compelled to accept an indisput- 1 
able prepositional genitive simultaneously with that which has 
been pronounced to be an inflexional genitive. But this is 
not the whole of the difficulty. The Johnsonian cannot | 
fail to perceive that while " He is my neighbour's son" may be 
rendered "He is a son, or the son of my neighbour," the 
phrase, " He is a son of my neighbour's," cannot be so rendered, 
since, although the same fact is stated, it is presented under a 
different aspect. This he would be unable to explain. The 
Wallisian theory would be here equally at fault. 

Viewed in the light of the pronominal theory, the difficulty 
disappears. In the phrase " My neighbour's son," we have a 
subjective genitive represented by the possessive augment "s;" 
but the possessive force of the augment thus applied, is from 
the nature of the parental relation, so feeble, that the phi; so 
may, without change of sense, be replaced by "a son of 
my neighbour." If, therefore, I wish to give prominence to 
the possessory interest of my neighbour in his son, I add 
to the phrase, " He is a son of my neighbour," a mark of 
possession, whether "his" or "s." In the phrase so compounded, 
" He is a son of my neighbour's" the possessive "s," which was 
so languid in " My neighbour's son," as to be capable of being 
displaced by " A son of my neighbour," now asserts its power. 
The possessive character of the predicate is brought out and 
intensified. "A son of my neighbour his' 9 is in the ver- 
ilar dialect of the lower classes, 2 though not now in 
classical German, " Ein Sohn meines Nachbar seiner," or, 
"inriner Nachbarin i/trcr," and might be lite rally transplanted, 
ruther than translated, into a lung un <.> to which such 
an idiom would IK- a stranger. It is in Germanized 
* Ante, pp, 4, 5, 6; post p. 88. - I'idc ante, p. 51. 


Latin, "Vicini mei filius suus," or " vicinae meoc films 

A phonetic similarity of ending, such as exists in " nach- 
bars" and "neighbour's," has led to the supposition that both 
terminations have the same origin. 1 But whilst "Nabhbars" 
is a true genitive, it is clear that "neighbour's" is not. 
"Das Verhiiltniss eines Nachbars" is "the relation or posi- 
tion of a neighbour." I may say, that person stands " in the 
relation of a neighbour" to me, but I cannot say that he 
stands " in a neighbour's relation" to me. As it is with the 
i German, so it was with the Anglo-Saxon. Inattention to the 
distinction between the necessarily possessive attributes of the 
apostrophised " s," and the more general power of a genitive 
?ase, qualified to act either possessively or non-possessively, may 
3e said to lie at the root of the Johnsonian theory. 
No notice is taken by Johnson of the different manner in 

the sign or mark of apostrophe is dealt with in the case 
}f singular and in that of plural nouns. In the phrase " the 
lorse's tail," the position of the sign or mark suspended 
)etween the "e" and the "s," may be regarded as informing 
the reader that the first two letters of the word "his" have 
suffered elision, and that the dominant noun is in the singular 
number ; but in the phrase " the horses' tails,' 5 the altered 
position of the sign as clearly shows that " horses" is plural, and 
;hat, euphonic gratia, the entire pronoun has been suppressed. 
Without the apostrophe it would be simply a case of a genitive 
yy juxta-position. 2 In nouns in which the plural is formed 
without the addition of a sibilant, the auricular demand for a 
complete elision, for an entire suppression of the pronoun, does 
not arise. We write " women's beauty, men's strength, chil- 
Iren's plays, mice's tails," not "womens' beaut}^ mens' strength, 
ihildrens' plays, mices' tails. 3 Upon the Johnsonian theory, 
:he mark or sign of an apostrophe following plurals in " s" is an 
inintelligible, an unmeaning form, an effect without an assign- 
able cause. 

Vide post, p. 80. 2 Ante, p. 24. 3 Ante, pp. 52, 53. 



Fifth Objection. A further objection to this theory is, thai 
the construction of sentences in which the possessive " s" is used. 
differs from that of sentences in which a true genitive, whethei 
inflexional or prepositional, is employed. " Rex Angliae" was the 
" Cyning Englands" of the Anglo-Saxons. We, their descend- 
ants, say " King of England," but never say " King England's," 
neither, in the same sense, can we speak of " England's King." 
And although in the phrases, " Cyninges kron, King's crown," the 
apostrophised "s" (which upon the pronominal theory is simply j 
the modern form of the pronoun "his"), occupies the same posi-j 
tion in the sentence as the Anglo-Saxon genitive, yet if the 
expression be changed to " the King of England's crown," few 
persons will say that the " s" indicates a genitive case of " Eng-j 
land," the quality of a genitive having been already communi- 
cated to "England" by the preposition "of." Neither can it 
be said to form an inflexional genitive of " king." It would bel 
almost a contradiction in terms to designate as an inflexion , a-| 
letter placed at a distance from the noun supposed to be, though i 
invisibly, inflected. What would be thought of such an inflecting , 
as " bon esti viri," instead of " boni est viri ?" Who would call 
the "i" in "esti" an inflexion of bonus, or of bon as a root on 
skeleton of bonus ? If, in the expression referred to, " the King 
of England's crown," the apostrophised "s" is to be treated as 
an inflexion, as it must be treated supposing it to be a continua- 
tion of the Anglo-Saxon genitive, it will be the inflexion, not of 
a noun, but of a compound sentence, a species of inflexion, if 
inflexion it can be called, to be compared only to the saltatory- 
movement of a knight at chess, and of which it would be diffi- 
cult to discover, in any other language, the slightest trace. 1 
This difficulty, as has already been seen, 2 is boldly grappled witk 
by Dr. Wallis : to the Johnsonian theory it seems to be fatal. 

Sixth Objection. The inflexions of the Anglo-Saxon genitive- 
are applied to all words which stand in apposition to, or are 
with, the chief genitive. "Bi Cnutes dage" 3 (in the 

1 Moii.-tcrs, " which iH'vrr \vrrr, nor no man ever saw." 

Ante, riun. \ii. 3 Saxon MS. lli.-Us, Thesaurus, vol. ii., Dissert., p. 2, 


days of King Canute). "On Herodes dagum Judea cyninges"* 
(in the days of Herod, king of Judea). 1 " On this yacr wolde 

i' 1 King Stephne taecum Rodbert Earl of Gloucester, the Kinges 
sune Henries." 2 " Therefter coin the Kinges dohter 3 Henries 4 
the hefde (had) been Emperiz on Alamaine, and nu wer Cuntesse 
in Angou. The Kinges brother Stephnes." 5 Here, both geni- 
tives are inflected, whereas our possessive augment is subjoined 
to one noun only. We say, " the husband and wife's children, 
the oxen and horses' labour." 6 Now, according to Johnson, 
" husband" and "oxen" are in the nominative (active) or 
accusative (passive) case, whilst "wife's" and "horses' " exhibit 
t he regards as the remnant of the Anglo-Saxon genitive, 
uiul accordingly the expression would be exactly rendered in 
Latin thus, " vir (not viri) et uxoris liberi boves (not bourn) 
et equorum labor." It has been suggested that in phrases like 
" husband and wife's children," husband and wife might be re- 
garded as forming a compound base upon which an inflexional 
base might be placed. But the composition of "husband 
and wife" differs in no respect from that of "vir et uxor." 
Neither the Latin, the Anglo-Saxon, nor, as we have just seen, 
the Semi-Saxon, nor, it is believed, any other known language, 
would tolerate such an application of the term inflexion. We 
may indeed, too often perhaps, say, " vir et uxoris liberi," but 
not in the sense of " husband and wife's children." 

Seventh Objection. " That young prince is a son of the late 
king's." According to the Johnsonian theory, we have here an 
inflexional genitive of king, inexplicably accumulated upon a 
prepositional genitive of the same noun. 7 

Eighth Objection. Even in the Anglo-Saxon genitive sin- 
gular, the termination in "es" was not formerly used in any 
feminine genitive, and it was at no time to be found in that 
language in plural genitives of any gender. It would be matter 
of surprise if our ancestors, when emancipating themselves from 
all other case- inflexions, by the adoption of preposition substitutes, 

1 Saxon Chronicle. 2 Saxon Chron. 

3 The Empress Maude. 4 Saxon Chron. 5 Ibid. 

6 Ante, p. 11, 12. 1 Ante, p. 2 ; post, chap. x. 


and rejecting, with a most beneficial severity, artificial variations 
of gender unsupported either by distinctions of sex, or by the 
presence or absence of sex, had not only retained the now rendered 
superfluous " es" where it was previously in use, but had also 
actually taken the trouble to transfer that superfluity to a gender 
and a number to each of which it had been an utter stranger. 
By so proceeding our ancestors would have exactly reversed the 
course which had been pursued by the Ostrogoths, the Visi- 
goths, and the Franks, who, in founding the Italian, the Spanish,, 
and the French languages, upon a simplification of the ver- 
nacular Latin, swept away all case-inflexions without reserva- 
tion or exception, admitting no other change of termination 
than that which was necessary to distinguish nouns singular from 
plural. Nations enrich or change their vocabulary by borrow- 
ing words from their neighbours, or from others with whom 
they may happen to come in contact, but the grammar of a 
language is not often subjected to any important alteration ab 
extra. Its slow changes are brought about by the process oi 
mutilation or by a course of gradual phonetic corruption. 

Ninth Objection. "This is mine, and nobody else's." Read 
as " nobody else his" the expression is perfectly intelligible, 
both "nobody" and "else" are grasped by "his." 1 The most 
inveterate Johnsonian would hardly attempt to say that the 
"else's" of the compound phrase "nobody else's" is the geni- 
tive of "else." s He would, perhaps, insist upon being allowed 
to say "nobody's else ;" but besides the offence of clipping the 
Queen's English, he might, by the adoption of such an amend- 
ment of our language, incur the risk of being suspected of 
asserting that the property belonged to nobody. 

Tenth Objection. Whilst the inflexional Anglo-Saxon geni- 
tives, liko the Greek and Latin inflexional genitives, and the 
K']ii;ni< x.jur prrjMi.siiioiKil genitives formed by the prefixing of 
the preposition "de," are all of them used both possessively and 
n on -possessively, the apostrophised "s"can only be employed in 

1 Ant.-, ,,. 1:5. 

- I>r. Wallis might possibly have thought it convenient to invest the ctmpound 
with the title of orfwrftiMmOMMBivuiu. 


a possessive sense. Suppose this letter to be, as so strenuously 
contended by Johnson, Lowth, and others, 1 a mere continuation of 
the Anglo-Saxon genitive, it may be asked when and how did such 
an important change of power take place, and why is the pre- 
position " of," which is now used to form a genitive, not of 
equal force with the apostrophised "s," instead of differing from 
it in both directions, being at once more comprehensive in 
respect of the variety of relations to which it may be made 
subservient, and less forcible, by reason of that very diffusiveness. 
Eleventh Objection. In the expression, " Upon Cesar's cross- 
ing the Rubicon," Caesar is the subject, not the object of the 
predicate; the "V may be said to introduce an act per- 
formed by, and, as such, possessed by Caesar. If, therefore, 
Caesar had been already mentioned, instead of "Upon Ccesar's 
crossing the Rubicon," the expression would have been " Upon 
his crossing the Rubicon." This shows that the apostrophised " s" 
in "Caesar's" and the later "his," are the mutilated and the 
unmutilated forms of the same possessive augment. As before 2 
observed, the relation is one which cannot be indicated by a 
genitive case, inflexional or prepositional. It can be indicated 
by no other case than an instrumental' 6 case, either inflexional or 
prepositional. The English language was never possessed of 
an inflexional instrumental case. Nor can it exhibit such an 
imperfect substitute for the instrumental case as is presented by 
the Latin ablative in one of its functions. We can, how- 
ever, frame a prepositional instrumental case by employing the 
preposition "by." We may say, " Upon the crossing of the 
Rubicon by Caesar." But Dr. Johnson himself would hardly 
have said, "Caesar's" being a genitive of Caesar, "Caesar's 
crossing the Rubicon" may be described as " the crossing of 
the Rubicon #/ Caesar." 

From the above considerations the Johnsonian theory appears 
to be irreconcilable with the structure and history of our lan- 
guage viewed in connexion with the Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, and 
other cognate Germanic dialects, and by the light presented 
1 Ante, p. 71. 2 Ante, p. 14. a Ante, pp. 14, 15. 


as well by Bopp, 1 Grimm, 2 Hickes, 3 and Rask, 4 as by our 
ancient English writers. Not only is the prehensile efficacy of 
the apostrophised "s" in operating beyond the word to which 
it is subjoined, denied to the Greek and Latin language, but it 
is never found even in German, although in that language, as 
we have seen, the possessive genitive is sometimes intensified, 
sometimes supplanted, by the adjective possessive pronoun. 5 

Notwithstanding the apparent resemblance created by an 
occasional similarity of termination, the German inflexional 
genitives, like the inflexional genitives of the Anglo-Saxons, 
differ from English augmented nouns by their capacity of being 
used objectively. Not being the representatives of an adjective 
pronoun, these inflexional genitives are also distinguished from 
our augmented nouns by an absence of the prehensile faculty. 
" Charles and John's horses," the joint property of Charles and 
John, must be rendered "Carls und Johanns Pferde." We 
cannot apply the ingenious mathematical figure exhibited at 
page 65, and making the second " s" do duty, prehensively, for 
the whole, as in English, write, "(Carl und Johann)s Pferde." 

It has been suggested that "his" being an inflexion of "he," 
"king's" may be regarded as a corresponding inflexion of "king." 
But the genitive " his," like all other Anglo-Saxon genitives, is 
a pure vague genitive, not confined, like the possessive augment, 
to the relation of possession. It is a true Anglo-Saxon genitive, 
formed, like the genitives of Anglo-Saxon nouns, by incorporat- 
ing the suffix " es" or "is," whatever the origin of that suffix 
may be. So formed, it is armed with precisely the same powers 
as those exercised by the Anglo-Saxon genitives, whether 
"kinges" in the singular, or "kingena" in the plural. It is 
only when "his" has assumed the position of an adjective pro- 
noun, that it acquires a possessive force, and becomes capable of 
being applied as a possessive augment, to nouns. 6 

1 Ante, pp. 9, 14. Ante, pp. 45, 46. Ante, p. 48. 

Ajite, p. 66. See ante, p. 15. fi Ante, p. 19. 




ALTHOUGH few of the objections to the Johnsonian, or Geni- 
tive case theory, have been noticed by grammarians, some 
misgivings have occasionally been manifested in connexion with 
the difficulty pointed out by Dr. Wallis, 1 namely, that arising 
from a difference in power and efficiency between the possessive 
apostrophised " s" 2 and the preposition which in our language, 
and the inflexion which in others, constitutes a real genitive 
case. Not prepared to accept the bold expedient of calling up 
an adjectivum possessivum, but professing to adhere to the 
Johnsonian theory, and to regard the English possessive "s" as 
the legitimate descendant or successor, or rather the exact con- 
tinuation or reproduction of an Anglo-Saxon inflected genitive, 
modern grammarians have sought to escape from Dr. Wallis's 
difficulty by opening up a ma media. They have endeavoured 
to erect the supposed persistent inflexion into something no less 
extraordinary in itself and no less peculiar to our language, 
as manipulated by these writers, than the formidable adjectivum 
possessivum itself, viz., a possessive case by inflexion. 

Had our ancestors when they employed the sexless "his," 
confined its operation to the single substantive by which it was 
preceded, a true possessive case would possibly have been pro- 
duced by absorption. The process might have been assimilated 
to that which is alleged to have taken place with respect to the 
Sanskrit sya, which is supposed to have been so absorbed to 
have been employed and used up, in the formation of an in- 
flexional genitive. Such a course our ancestors fortunately did 

1 Ante, chap. vii. 2 Ante, p. 9. 


not adopt. Instead of allowing the range of the possessive aug-l 
ment to be so restricted, they preserved it in the possession o:| 
its original elastic syntactic adjective-pronominal freedom ; ancl 
it still exercises with an uncontrolled and uncrippled energy] 
the normal prehensile power with which, as an inherent and 
indestructible quality of an adjective pronoun, it had been 
originally invested, and in the full possession of which it is our 
privilege and our duty, through good report and through evil 
report, to transmit that augment unimpaired to posterity. 




ANOTHER mode of disposing of the possessive augment pro- 
posed, without any attempt to account for its appearance, is that 
suggested by Bishop Lowth, of a double genitive case, or of 
two possessives. " A soldier of the king's," he says, 1 " means 
one of the soldiers of the king." But " a soldier of the king" 
would also be one of the soldiers of the king. The omission of the 
possessive augment in the second of these expressions, throws 
the connexion between the "king" and "soldier" back upon 
the unassisted vagueness of what may be called an undisen- 
tangled prepositional genitive. It may be used simply in the 
sense of indicating that the person referred to is a soldier of 
the king's party. With respect to John Bunyan both terms 
might be used, in different senses. He was a soldier of the 
king's. He may also be said to have been a soldier of the 
king and not of the parliament. Neither statement would lead to 
a suspicion that he may have been a military unit by reason of 
the king's having no other soldier, or of there being no other 
soldier on the royalist side. The two forms are not to be con- 
founded. The ownership predicated in the first form, is not to 
be mixed up with a more general relation, extending possibly 
no further than that of partizanship. We cannot say, "Bunyan 
was a soldier of the king's and not of the parliament," or even 
that he was "a soldier of the king's and not of the parliament's." 

Dr. Priestley writes: 2 "We say, < It is a discovery of Sir 
Isaac Newton,' though it would only have been more familiar 

1 Ante, p. 4. 2 Grammar. 


to say, 'A discovery of Sir Isaac Newton's.' Few persons 
would venture to use the expression, * It is a discovery of Sir 
Isaac Newton/ nor, if such an nnusual sound were heard, would 
the unfamiliar be equivalent to the familiar form. In both a 
prepositional genitive is present. Now a prepositional genitive 
unexplained may be regarded as capable of being used sub- 
jectively or objectively. But the possessive augment, the apostro- 
phised 's/ cannot be employed otherwise than subjectively. In 
the phrase 'A discovery of Sir Isaac Newton's/ the presence of the 
visible, pure possessive augment, directs and limits the preceding, 
the otherwise erratic, prepositional genitive, to a subjective sense, 
In the phrase 'A discovery of Sir Isaac Newton/ there is 
nothing either on the spot or in the neighbourhood, in the text 
or in the context, to indicate whether the preceding genitive is 
to be taken subjectively or objectively. The reader or the hearer 
who knew that Newton was a great discoverer, would, how- 
ever, see that this was only an awkward unfamiliar way of 
speaking of a discovery made by that philosopher. 

If we imagine the two several phrases to be, the one, 'A 
discovery of John Brown," the other, 'A discovery of John 
Brown's/ the pure possessive augment in the latter phrase, 
would clearly fix it with the character of subjectivity. The 
discovery would be one in which Brown was not passive, but an 
agent a discovery made by him. On the other hand, sup- 
posing Brown to be a man wholly unknown to fame, an indi- 
vidual John Brown, with no mark to distinguish him from John 
Browns in general, the phrase *A discovery of John Brown' 
would be understood objectively, that being the only sense in 
which such a phrase is ordinarily used; and the impression 
conveyed would be, that the police had succeeded in discovering 
a person who had inherited or adopted, or who in some way had 
acquired, 1 the surname of Brown, or who had been gazetted as 
John Brown in the Hue and Cry in a place to which he had, 
for prudential reasons, thought it advisable to retire. 

1 Sec Athena-urn of November, 1863, p. 717; December, 1863, p. 759. 



In the foregoing pages an attempt has been made to ascer- 
tain the true character, and to trace the origin, of the possessive 
augment, pure and mixed. I have endeavoured to shew the 
unsatisfactory nature of the arguments by which the opinions 
popularly entertained on these subjects are commonly supported. 

Annum agens octogesimum tertium I cannot expect to live to 
see any important results following upon my labours, to witness 
any visible impression made upon the strongholds of a system 
so long accepted without inquiry, so long acquiesced in with- 
out any apparent misgiving, a system which still parades its 
formidable list of protectors in high places. England may be 
far advanced in the twentieth century before an unbiassed judg- 
ment can be formed. But even those who are most stedfast and 
immovable in their adherence to established dogmas the en- 
dowed and the unendowed upholders of Johnsonian orthodoxy 
my judges, ecclesiastical and civil will, it is hoped, not be 
absolutely unsparing in their censure of one whom they may, by 
their antecedents, be compelled to regard as a daring innovator. 

4th July, 1864. 


9, Hue 3 from bottom, instead of" inflected or prepositional subjective genitive* 
of other languages," read "inflected or prepositional genitives of other 
languages when used subjectively." 4 

9. Add at commencement of note 4. In "matris amor," love of a mother, 
"matris" is subjective when the term is used to express the love felt by a 
mother towards her child, the mother being the subject feeling the love, and 
not the object of that love. If, by the words "matris amor," the love of the 
child towards the mother is meant to be signified, the mother is the object 
of the love, and "matris" becomes an objective genitive. See post, pp. 75, 76. 

,, 14, line 5 from bottom, after "sentence," add, " It might have been expressed 
thus, Upon Ms passing the Rubicon." 

,, 15, line 7 from bottom, after "Anglo-Saxons," add, "not being the representa- 
tive of an adjective pronoun." 

,, 15, last line, for " Johann ihre (their) books," read " Johann (ihre) Biicher 
(their) books." 

19, last line of text, after "pronoun," read "whether regarded as an original 
pronominal root or as formed by inflexion from ' he,' as certain genitives of 
German and Anglo-Saxon nouns are formed by adding 'es' to the verbal 
root, is capable of being used subjectively or objectively, possessively or 
non-possessively." Post, p. 84. 

,, 2 1, note, line 12, for " Ansdruckes," read " Ausdruckes." 

,, 41, line 4, for " The City Council were retained to attend, Mr. Attorney," read 
"The City Council (Counsel) were retained to attend Mr. Attorney." 

50, note 3, for " 4ter Auflage, 4te Theil," read " 4te Auflage, 4ter Theil." 

.. >4, note 3, after " Hausmarchen," insert "vol. ii., No. 137, p. 272." 

61, line 8, for " (wordes)," read " (words)." 

65, note, last line, instead of " figure '," read " figure, '." 

,, 67, line 1,/or " putting the '*," read " putting to '." 
78, last line but four, for "Nachbar," read "Nachbars." 












A. ASHER & CO., 





Preface, p. viii., line 10 from bottom, for Urnbrir, read Umbrian ar. 
Page 9, line 13 from bottom (second column of notes) j8 should be 10. 

18, line 12, for calidam, read calidum. 

19, line 11, for Tefre Jovio, read Tefro Jovio. 
26, last line of text, Quantum read Quantam. 

42, line 12 from bottom (second column of notes) for 43-46 read 48-57. 
44, line 7 from bottom of text, for ministi'ato, rend ministranto. 
10, line 12, for ueschir rrf/rf uosclir. 


IN laying before the public the whole of the Iguvine Inscrip- 
tions, with a continuous translation of some sort, I must first 
explain some peculiarities in the text as here presented. The 
VI th and Yllth Tables are engraved in Homan letter ; so is 
nearly all on the back of the Vth. All the tables have the 
peculiarity of not doubling consonants, except in a few cases 
which look like inadvertence. "We may call this peculiarity 
Oriental, as it was probably imported with the Phoenician 
Alphabet into Etruria, and so became a practice in Umbria 
also. The Phoenicians, perhaps, like the Hebrews and Arabs, 
had some mark to denote that t means tt, and s means ss : a 
" Dagesh," or a " Teshdied ;" but we know that Oriental MSS. 
to this day often omit the mark : in which case it is the duty 
of an editor to restore it, to the best of his ability, and with the 
risk of doing wrong, exactly as in the case of ordinary punc- 
tuation. In Latin, when adprobo, adservo, change into approbo, 
asservo, a reader would find aprobo, aservo, mislead him ; so is 
it in Umbrian. In fact, owing to the Umbrian tendency to 
assimilate n even in the middle of words (as in Hebrew), the 
embarrassment is here greater : thus, if instead of appettu* 


and ostettu, we print apetu and ostetu, their identity withj 
ampentu and ostentu is not at all obvious. While printing 
certain letters double, I warn the reader that they are 
single in the inscription, except where I note that they are] 

The earlier tables are in the Etruscan character, and will bej 
read in the original by the very few who have leisure and taste 
for fundamental study. For all beside, the inscription must un- 
dergo a process of translation into another type, which involves 
delicate considerations. Oriental and Western Alphabets do 
not coincide throughout. First of all, we find in the Etrusco- 
Umbrian but one letter for o and u, which is not wonderful ; 
for the letter, of which the Greeks made o, is the consonant 
A in with the Phoenicians. Hebrew and Arabic characters (when 
written, as usual, without points, which are comparable to our 
accents) have but one letter Waw to denote 6 and 11 ; yet this 
does not imply that the languages have not the distinction. A 
Hebrew pronounces DID Sus, a horse ; and rniH Tora, the law. 
To write in Roman characters Sus and Tura for them, would 
misrepresent the language. Equally, when the Arabs pro- 
nounce Dain, a debt, and Dien, the faith, but write them alike, 
it would be wrong to do the same in our types. Of course, if 
we had no means of knowing the sound, we should have no 
choice ; nor have we always the means in Umbrian. Neverthe- 
less, finding in Roman letter Esono, sacred, and Futu, be thou ; 
we learn how to transcribe the corresponding words from 
Etruscan character, which are neither to be Esunu and Futu,. 
nor Esono and Foto. To insist on writing Esunu for Esoiio, 
ami allege that tliis is difference of dialect, is to ignore the fact 
that the Ktnisc-an character lias no o separate from u. That 
the confusion rises out of the character, not out of the langu 
is doubly clear, when we find it to exist in the properly 


Etruscan inscriptions also, although the Etruscan and Umbrian 
languages are widely diverse. What they have in common, is, 
tlio imperfect alphabet. 

But the deficiency as to o and u opens a wider subject. 
It is not o only that is defective, but d and g likewise ; in 
fact b also is extremely rare. That the Umbrian and Etruscan 
languages, far less akin than Umbrian to Latin, should both 
be deficient in o, d, g, is a coincidence far too improbable 
to be received without strict and full proof. Until that is 
attained, we must positively disbelieve. On this ground, I 
think it too hastily concluded that the Etruscans Lad not 
the sounds o, b, g, d, merely because their alphabet is 

Consider farther, if no literary cultivation yet existed in 
Italy, and a first effort were made to write the Italian language 
in modern Greek letters, what phenomena would meet us. 
The Greeks have no simple characters for our b, g, d ; for their 
$78 are aspirated, and would be useless to an Italian, who, 
to express Bada might write Trara as his best approximation. 
Locanda, he would write \oKavra, since vr in modern Greek is 
sounded as nd : here then he would get a real d sound : yet 
Amante would become a/jLavre, and we should have no clue to 
the fact that vr was to be differently sounded in Xo/cavra and 
a/jLavre. Moreover Greek v being superfluous to Italy, o might 
(as probably in early Greek) do duty for Italian o and u. In 
that case evidently the defect of writing would not point to an 
unusual deficiency of sounds in the Italian language, but simply 
to a want of agreement between Italian sounds and those of the 
Greek alphabet. In like manner, the unsuitability of the 
Oriental alphabet is manifestly the cause of that phe- 
nomenon, which we see in Umbrian and Etruscan alike ; 
And what makes this interpretation of the facts certainly 


correct, is, that the .apparent deficiency of o and d ia , 
Umbrian vanishes, the instant we get the language in Roman i 

More proof is not needed : yet more proof meets us on the j 
very surface. It is accepted by all as obvious fact, that the- j 
inscriptions in Roman letter are later in time than the others. | 
Their skill, beauty, and correctness is immensely superior. Xot 
to dwell on other proof, the final r, which replaces s in the two- 
first declensions, and in the gen. sing, of the 3rd, is conceded 
to be a later development, removing Umbrian more widely from 
Latin and Greek. If the earlier dialect had said ovem (a sheep) 
and fui (I was) as in Latin, but the later confounded o and u,. 
making uvem and fui, such later confusion would surprise no 
one. Just so the old Greeks distinguished X^o? and Xot/xo?, 
\v/j,r) and X^/AT;, which the moderns confound ; but to develop 
one sound into two, and come out upon agreement with Latin, 
is against nature. Now if it be hard to believe this as to o and 
u, how much more when it recurs with t and d also ? This. 
would make out, that (for instance) where the old Unibrians- 
said something nearly like tato give, ticito say, uvem a sheep, 
the later Umbrians corrupted these into dato, dicito, ovem,. 
which, by surprising good luck, give us the d and o just as in 
I., it in. Surely the matter is plain to demonstration, that if the 
later dialect fyad this discrimination of d and t, namely, d just- 
where Latin has d, and t where Latin has t, so had the earlier. 
Hence to write in Roman letter titu for ditu, (give thou,) does- 
but introduce a fictitious diversity of dialect, and puzzle a 
reader who has no time for continuous study. I have thought 
it my duty to interpret the two ambiguous characters of the 
Etruscan tables into o or u, into t or d, as the Roman tables 
give indication. 

As for b, several theories are prinu facie possible. The form 

1'RKFACK. Vll 

of the letter denotes that it comes direct from Greeks or 
Romans. It is not in the Etruscan alphabet. If imported 
tfrom Rome, it may never have succeeded in establishing itself 
thoroughly in practical use ; and hence the vacillations between 
p and b. Or if it came from the Greeks of Italy, it may have 
, borne the sound v, so that no letter of the alphabet was speci- 
fically appropriated to b. But it suffices to point at matters 
which we need to know, before we can understand the pheno- 
mena before us. I only add, that the Umbrian letter which I 
write w, because it answers to the Roman consonant v (our w), 
has just the form of Hebrew !}. 

The case of g is different ; for it is extremely rare even in 
the Roman letter. Only two words begin with g, viz., Gra- 
bouio, gomia ; in the middle of words we have mugatu, crin- 
gatro, juenga, agre, conegos. In gr, ng, it is possible that c 
grammatically is truer than g, and that the liquid turned c into 
g, as nt, tr, pr, are sounded nd, dr, br. Juenga seems to be 
corrupt Latin, Juvenca. If conegos ( = conicatos) means, as I 
suspect, rex-factus, related to Germ, konig, the sound of g may 
have been foreign and exceptional. The verbal stem Muga has 
participle Muieto, showing g to pass into y. So the name of 
Iguvium is written with i (y) for g systematically in the 
Roman letter, and alternately with c and i in the Etruscan. 
Nay, in close contact we have (Ib. 2) "totas Ijowinas, totaper 
Icowina." This suggests that the Umbrian g in Iguvium had 
the sound of soft German ch or soft guttural g. In other instances 
what was properly an Umbrian g may have degenerated into a 
ro^gh guttural gh, which is often conceived of as guttural r. 
It is known by us as "the Northumberland burr;" but it is 
really an Arabic Ghain, somewhat softened, as by Persians and 
Greeks. Many Germans and French pronounce r with this 
defect ; and M. Hanoteau, in his Zouave grammar, writes the 


Arabic Ghain as a modified r. The Umbrians have a secondar I 
r ; I suspect that it is a gh in disguise, and partially account! 
for the deficiency of g. 

More words are needful concerning this peculiar r, whicll 
appears as rs in the Roman letter, and constitutes the seconcrc 
great distinction of dialect. We cannot attain certainty as t< 
the sounds, nor does anything essential turn upon them : only 
if we can gain an approximate idea, it helps us to imagine the 
laws of conversion, from r to rs, to 1, to d, as well as to simplel 
r. I will briefly express an opinion. I cannot think the! 
analogy of r, rs, to pp, pa, to be accidental ; and when I con- 
sider the words Tvpo-ijvo, Tvppr,vo, Turchini, Tapxcov, I conclude 
that the sounds pp, pa- were nearly rch, rsh ; ch meaning here 
soft German ch. In fact the two sounds might both be rendered I 
rch in German, with only that change in ch which is pro- 
vincially admitted. So too, whenever Umbrian rs is exchange- 
able with r, I suspect it to mean rsh, which the Roman cha- 
racters could not more precisely express than by rs. The r 
may have been the Northumberland burr, whether softer or 
rougher ; whether as Greek 7 or as Arabic Ghain, naturally 
changeable into pure r, as in Umbrian itself Arfertur is also 
written Arfertur and Anno, Armo, Arsmo are identical. Much 
less need we wonder to find Ar, in Latin Arcesso, for Umbrir ; 
ferehtro and suferaclo for feretrum and subferculum ; peraie = 
IT putlog, peru = frons (irpcopa). Common r is so often lisped 
into 1, by individuals and nations, that no further explanation is 
needed of r suffering the same change. The passage of r into 
d might admit learned, recondite, ambitious theories, where d 
;tnd 1 themselves interchange : but it is here perhaps enough 
to say, that if an Umbrian r (= gh) passes into Latin d, an 
explanation is found in the inability of the Latins to pronounce 
the guttural. Thus the " Attighiun brothers" might become 

I'RI.i IX 

Attidian in Latin, as children put t and d for any too difficult 
.iid. On the other side the Umbrians, contracting Latin 
dedico into dedco, found dc bad neighbours, and softened the 
'sound into derco. If they had made derco of it, the phe- 
f nomenon would not seem to me mysterious. I cannot con- 
vince myself that r and d have any specific and exclusive 

The Etruscans moreover, in excess of Latin, have not only 
w, but also z; though probably the Latins, as the modern 
Italians, pronounced their s as our z in certain words ; rosa, 
generoso, observe. When from the Etruscan characters we 
deduce seritu, anzeriato, where the Roman letter gives seritu, 
anseriato, we may conclude that anseriato and anzeriato intend 
the same sound, and z is as in English. If ts be elsewhere 
softened into z, that proves nothing to the contrary. In Soro 
and Zere, the Etruscan notation reveals a distinction which the 
Roman obliterates ; a distinction grammatical and primitive, not 
merely euphonic. Zere (which I interpret "back") seems to 
me possibly to give the central root (zegh ?) out of which were 
perhaps developed Tergo in one direction, and Dorso in another. 
But this is only thrown out for inquiry. In a few cases I have 
wished to print z in the Roman tables, where, of course, the 
inscription has s; yet thought it not worth while to provoke 

The Umbrian language, especially when written in Etruscan, 
shows a dislike to syllables that begin with a vowel, at least in 
the root-part of a word. To avoid it, they often have the con- 
sonant w, or a consonantal i ( j = y) in excess of the Roman 
spelling ; as Dowa for Dua, Trija for Tria, Watowo for Uatuo, 
Cluwijer for Cluvii. This may indicate Oriental instructors, 
rather than difference of pronunciation. Even in Armatia, the 
penultimate^ i may have been intended as y. In the name 


iochus the Hebrews are so struck by the hiatus between 
i and o, that they intrude their Alef (or soft-breathing conso- 
nant) and write Antitfochus, that the syllable may duly begin 
by a " consonant." It seems to me, that the Fmbrians occa- 
sionally so use h. The passage from Hatuto to Haburent 
(Vila. 52) puts it to me beyond question, that Hatu is a mere 
contraction of Habetu ; and we find the intermediate form Halitu. 
That the last was sounded Hahetu (or even Ha-etu) may per- 1 
haps be inferred from Persni/^mu, which in the Etruscan tables 
so persistently represents PersniAimu of the Romans. In short, 
h retains its Oriental tendency to carry in itself a short vowel, j 
In Hahtu, therefore, I see only Ha-etu, with h interposed to 
break the hiatus. (Compare Italian Hai for Habes). The 
question follows : Is not this the same in Pihatu, Latin Piato ? 
in Cehes, nearly the Greek KTJTJS ? in Commohota, which stands 
for Commo-ota, and that for Commoweta? That h was liable 
to lose all sound, may be inferred by its intrusion in Amprehtu, 
Podruhpei, where it is certainly superfluous ; as it is, all but 
certainly, in Auiehclu, Struhcja. As the Greeks ordinarily 
drop their aspirate in the middle of a word, saying ^tXtTTTro? 
not </>*\nr7ro9, so the Umbrians as readily write anostatu, as 
anhostatu, though the latter be more grammatical. The very 

i of the Etr. Umb. h is peculiar ; for it is not the Etruscan 
h, but looks like 6. (Dennis reckons it as $.) To me it seems 
a Phoenician Ain, which might well do duty for an h so soft as 
that of Greece or Rome. Not but that, where h is radical, and 
NpMMbts I..M c or i u r , as in i'ahe, ( Mngl. bake,) scroll, write 

^lish scratch), it is likely to have been harder, perhaps 

It n-mains only to notice a letter, which being merely a 
euphonic modili< ;;ii.m of c, (generally when i or c follows,) is 
rightly expressed by c with cedilla or apostrophe. The Etr us- 


.-an tables have a special character for it ; the Roman text adds 
u hook to the s, and this hook is in very many places omitted 
by accident, or perhaps obliterated. Analogy suggests that the 
sound was either our sh, or our tch, as in Italian cio, Greek 
Kiara. It deserves remark, that the i following it is often ad 
libitum: as Sange and Sangie, Westicia and Westiga. This 
almost implies that if the i were fixedly retained, we might, 
like the Italians, express this consonant by a mere c. I at first 
i \ sisted the freedom with which (for instance) Curna9 is as- 
M n nod, where the Roman text has Curnase ; but the rapid 
alternations of spelling in certain words show me now, that it 
is vain to be scrupulous in this matter, and that Aufrecht and 
Kirchhoff are right in their boldness. 

A few words must follow, concerning my effort at continuous 
translation, into which I have been led on, without any pre- 
vious intention, or any belief that it was possible. I began 
quite independently of help, except what Lepsius's edition gives. 
After I had composed my first paper, and laid it before the 
Philological Society of London, I received a great impulse on 
comparing it with Aufrecht and Kirchhoff 's great work, which 
not merely sharpened my grammatical knowledge, and thereby 
put out many false lights which might have vexatiously misled 
me, but, what is still more important, communicated to me the 
sense of various cardinal words, which gave a true view of the 
scope of passages as to which I was previously wrong. Mere 
grammar, I believe, I could have worked out by myself in every 
detail necessary, with a little more perseverance. But though 
I had read an immensity concerning Latin rituals, I had for- 
gotten as fast as I read, from want of interest in the subject ; 
and, for all practical use, I was, and am, very unlearned in 
rituals, and in augury. Several words which I have learnt 
from A. and K. have been of enormous value : I will especially 

_\ i i PREFACE. 

name Tuder, limes ; Perca, virga ; Capir, capis ; Pone, thus 
Vesclo, vasculum ; which last I had rejected as impossible. 
may add, Esono, sacrum, which I since have entirely verified 
though I long resisted it. After I had learned these, a mis 
cleared away ; things which I had previously suspected gainec 
shape and coherence ; and by aid of these erudite and acul 
inquirers, I appeared suddenly lifted on to higher groun< 
There is no part of this translation in which I am not indebted 
to them, though I have in most places largely added, so tha 
n iy translation is readable, where theirs is not. In the Romai 
tables they have been far more able to present a continuoui 
version, than in the Etruscan. Of course, where words do no 
recur in different connections, one must not expect to verif 
a conjecture: the judgment must be left to the reader. 
numerous cases I find it impossible, without being unendurabl 
prolix (in detailing the many failures which preceded success 
to communicate any full view of the evidence which convince 
me. Of course, the harder it is to find any hypothesis tha 
will stand, the higher the credit of that which does stan( 
I place an obelus before words as to which' I have a defi 
nite opinion, short of proof; and I use brackets to denoto 
the general sense apparently intended, when I cannot hop 
that I am giving a close rendering. Even vague and 
tentative translations may aid another to truth, where I 
have missed it. 

It is not superfluous to give some clue to the method and 
order of in \ .-i i Lotions which have been used ; since these pages 
may reach many who have not seen my former paper. Certain 
Is, and especially words in combination or in evident con- 
trast, arc s., lik, to Latin, as to give us a beginning of know- 
'" 1: "- All ' r ;i s ';ill stock <>f such has been accumulated, we 
try to find sentences which contain only one unknown 


, and, if possible, decide its sense by the context. If in 
rwo different sentences of this kind the same interpretation fits> 
>r indeed seems necessary, we have a confirmation. Should a 
liird sentence be found, different from both, and still yielding 
;he same result, all will allow this to be adequate proof. Every 
such new acquisition strengthens us for fresh enterprise ; and 
ide by side, we discover and develop laws of grammar. In my 
view, etymology (by which I here mean, recourse to other lan- 
guages than Latin) is unsafe as a guide to the sense, but very 
valuable as a confirmation. I think we must generally employ 
Irst a process similar to that by which a child learns constantly 

add to his knowledge of his native tongue : it is funda- 
mentally a process of guessing. If our materials are large 
nough, and words recur in new relations, the errors of our 
irst guesses will be gradually expelled and corrected. Never- 
iheless, increase of material introduces new words perpetually ; 
o that, when traditional knowledge has been lost, many of 
;hem will remain in more or less uncertainty, just as in the 
lomeric poems. Though I hold etymology (in the sense above 
xplained) to play only a secondary part, yet the Greek and the 
Welsh languages (the latter known to me only by consulting a 
lictionary) often give valuable aid. 

I have added a few accents, at which any scholars, who have 
tudied the inscriptions, need not look. Others, I hope, will 
hank me for them : and they save notes. I proceed to explain 
iheir object. 

The Umbrian language, when the earliest of these tables was 
inscribed, had already admitted that corruption in the sound of 
3D and oe which we know to prevail in Italy, France, England, 
in the pronunciation of Latin : namely, these diphthongs are 
merged in simple e. (Not unlike is the still greater corruption 
of modern Greek vocalization). The effect is, to confound the 



declensions of nouns. Without rashness we may take a step 
backward to the vowel-declensions of Umbrian, as follows : 




E, I. 

























ocri, e 

manui * 



















( poplof 
j popluf 



When 03 and 02 have been corrupted into e, the dative sing, 
becomes the same in the three first declensions. In fact, the 
same holds of the dat. pi. For, ie in dat and ace. pi. has be( 
replaced by ei, i, e, exactly as in the Latin ace. pi. turreis, 
turris, turres. If I were to print ae, 03, I should not deceive the 
reader, any more than in distinguishing e 77, o co, in a Greek 
inscription which rejects ?? and co ; but I should be open to the 
charge of ambitiously attempting to restore an older state of the 
language, while groping towards a knowledge of what is before 
us. I have, therefore, merely added grave and acute accents 
on e, writing e for ao and e for 03, which suffice to warn, the reader 
to which declension a noun belongs. Also, I have admitted the 
< ircumflex as in the scheme above. It must be added, that -is 
lor -CDS -8D8 is sometimes found. To add a distinguishing accent 
to the -is is but consistent. 

The task of interpretation would be far easier if corruption of 
the vowel sounds alone troubled us. What completes confusion, 
the engraver, ad libitum, omits final m, and f of the accusative 

* Ui is corrupted into mere i. Compare modern Gr. u. 


pi., and so often omits final s of gen. sing, or dat. pi. (or its 
equivalent r in the later dialect), that though this is not to be 
called ad libitum, and perhaps was carelessness, it is sufficiently 
frequent to involve uncertainties. I think it clear that the law 
of concord in nouns and adjectives was imperfectly established. 
An Umbrian probably reasoned like a Turk, that to say Owem 
sewacnem (ovem puram) or Anclaf esonaf (volucres pias) was 
superfluous. Why twice over denote that you mean the accus. ? 
Owem sewacne, or Owe sewacnem, will suffice : so will Anclaf 
esona, or Ancla esonaf. Out of this habit of alternate omission 
naturally springs that of total omission, which is worse in the 
later than in the earlier tables, where we find a state of things 
like that of Greece fifty years ago, in which it was an open ques- 
tion whether rj 7ro\t, r^v ITO\L was more correct, or 17 TTO^U?, 
TJ]V 7r6\iv. To aid readers, Lepsius often inserts m or f in 
brackets in his text ; and, again I say, it saves notes : an impor- 
tant matter, where all effort is needed to hinder the notes from 
swallowing up the text. I have imitated him, by printing 
small letters (m, f, s) above the line, at least in the earlier 
tables. Afterwards I presume often that a reader can supply 
them of himself. I may add, that the inconsistent efforts at 
concord of the Locative case imply the laws of grammar to 
be unformed on this head. 

I have arranged the tables in what appears to me from inter- 
nal evidence to be the order of their age. la. Ila. etc., denotes 
fae front of Tables I. II and Ib. lib their back. 

I do not know how to quit my pen without a few words to 
the persevering but almost solitary students of cuneoform in- 
scriptions. I respectfully ask Is it simply impossible to put 
before the public a transcription of their principal documents 
into a Roman character ? Mathematical types give us letters 
modified by numerals ; there is every facility for thus printing 


(somehow, if clumsily) every possible document that is truly 
alphabetical ; and if all are not alphabetical, yet some are. 
Retired gentlemen from India, each acquainted with several 
different Indian languages, would soon multiply the students 
tenfold, if the inscriptions were but presented in an alphabet 
with which we are familiar. I am persuaded, that this is the 
thing needed to give a great Impetus to the study, and promote 
even the perusal of the cuneoform character itself. For, those 
who will not encounter both difficulties at once, would be 
induced to have recourse to the originals, if they had already 
gained some insight and interest in the substance of the lan- 
guages, by means of familiar types. Moreover, by practising 
for the third part of a century on the Arabic language, which 
abounds in consonants troublesome to us, I have satisfied myself 
that the problem of writing, as well as printing them, by easy 
modifications of our alphabet (without dots or accents) is very 
feasible : nor am I ready to believe that the ancient Persian or 
Assyrian can have any greater difficulties on this head than 


Indn., induction. I comp., compare. 
Cm., context. corapn., composition. 

Etm., etymology. j appln., application. 

apy., apparently, 
interpn., interpretation, 
instrt., instrument. 




( l Esono m fuia herter somme 3 osdite sestentasiaru m 3 urnasiaru m : 
( Sacrum fiat ultro summa3 prodita? sextantariarum urnariarum : 
( hontac Woce promo m pehatu. 4 Inoc ohturo ortes, pontis 
( inde Foco primum piato. Tune auctorem eoprous (et) pompis 
i 5 frater ostentota, pore 6 fratro m mersus fust 7 comnacle. 
( fratres proponunto, quisguis fratrum faustus fuerit communitati. 
( Inoc ohtur wapere, 8 comnacle sistu sacrem owem. Ohtur 
( Tune auctor [curise] (ac) communitati sistito sacram ovem. Auctor 

TABLES III. IV. (Etr. Umb. character). 

1. Esono, by indn. sacrum, religiosum ; 
A.K. The root is Son = Sna: Germ. 
Siihne, Versohnen. So Snato, sacratus ; 
Persontro, piatorius. Cmp. Va. 6, IV. 7. 
May Lai. Sons = fvayfjs ? 

1. 0. Fuia, Fuja, Optative or Potential 
Mood. Cmp.-ohj. Ftitu serves for Fito 
and Esto : thus Fu = 4>u = Fi-o. 

1 7. Her-ter = vol-tro, ultro. "With 
-ter cmp forti-ter. It recurs only Ila. 40 : 
later Herte, -i, -ei ; but Herifi, Vb. 6. 
For the root Her = vol-o, see on lib. 10. 

2. Osdita = prodita, pronunciata. 
Ostentu = ostcndito, proponito, and Ditu 
= dato. Qs = Lat. Obs, Ob; in sense, 

2 j8. Sextantarius, epithet of an as in 
Pliny ; weighing two ounces. In Va. 2, 
plenarius, of full weight, seems equivalent. 

3. Urnasia, a coin ; perhaps bearing an 
urn : cmp. cistophorus. The vow is vol- 
untary ; but to make it de certa pecuuia 
(Liv. 31,9) the coin is defined. j3. Hon- 
tac (by cnx. and in IV. 32) inde ; de hac 
pecmila. 7. Foco, i.e. Lari ? 

4. Inoc is in Tables III. IV. I. ; Enoc 

in I. Va. ; Inomec in III. IV. only ; 
Enomec in Ib. Enom, Eno, replace 
them in VI. VII., but Eno is also in II. 
I. Inomec seems the most old-fashioned. 
4 0. Ohtur, Ohtretie Va. 2 ; auctor, 
auctoritate; ht for ct: A.K. See note 
at Va. 2. 7. Ortes pontis; eoproTs, 
iro/j.ircus. It is too tedious to tell, how I 
was driven step by step to this, before I 
thought of the Greek words. I have 
long theorized that Pontifex means 
Pompifex, (as ireWe for -jre/Aire :) I no\V 
believe it. 

6. Mersus = Mersow(o)s ; root Mere, 
Mers, fas. The Wia mersowa of 1 1 = via 
auguralis VI b. 52. With termination 
-owo, cmp. -oFo and -ivo. 

7. Comnacle, Va. 15 is dat. sing, of a 
noun ; which fixes the syntax here. 
Ib. 41, Comne = plebs, rb Koiv6v. 
j8. Waper, I confidently believed from 
this passage to be adjectival, and fancied 
I could identify it with cnra^r: yet its 
obvious, and only natural interprn. in 
Via. 9-12 makes it to be a tall building. 
If it be a noun (which I hesitatingly 


( 9 deitu : ponte*s dercantor. Inomec sacre m 10 owem ortas, 
( dicito: pompae dedicantor. Tune sacram ovem lop^s (et) 
fpontes fratro m opetota. 
(pompte fratrum procuranto. 

( n Inomec wia m mersowa m arwamen etota: 12 erac pir persclu 
( Tune viam faustam in arvum eunto : iliac f quis ordine 
( oretu sacre m owem. 13 Cletra f fertota, aitota. Arwen 
( f adoleto sacram ovem. Lectos? ferunto, fdisponunto. In arvo 
(cletram 14 amparitu: eruc esono m futu. Cletre duplac 15 p 
( lectum fapparato : illic sacrum fito. Lecto StVAo/ca p 
( mom antentu. Inoc gihcera ententu ; 1G inoc cazi f 
( mum imponito. Tune cremia incendito ; tune [palos ferreos] 
( antentu ; isont ferehtro m 17 antentu ; isont sufferaclo m 
( imponito : itidem f feretrum imponito : itidem f sustentaculum 
( antentu. Seples 18 ahesnes tris cazi f astintu : ferehtro m 
( imponito. Singulis ahenis tribus f [palos] a^a-stinato : feretrum 
{ etres tris 19 ahesnes astintu ; sufferaclo m dowes ahesn^s 
( alteris tribus ahenis o^o-stinato : sustentaculum duobus ahenis 

admit), it is in apposition to Comnacle, 
community, like " Senatus populus<?M<?," 
and must express a more select body. I 
ee nothing then so good as Curia. But 
etm. gives no support. 

'.<. Dercantor, corrupt Latin; for De 
does not appear to be Umbrian ; but in 
compn. Wen, We replaces it. See IV. 28. 

10. Opetu = obito, A.K. The vague 
gcnse procurato may evade the ill-omened 

"latO) which indn. suggests. 
SeeVli. '.) en O])i-tcr, citrati, which I 

\plain purgati. It remains 
doubtful whether Op = Lat. Ob, or whe- 
;ikin to Latin Opis and 
Opera; or even On-petere be concealed 
here. The 3rd p. pL in -tota ( = -erwo-o^) 
IB peculiar t tliis talilc: t l>t \\licre -tuto 
(= -rorrwi') serves for 2nd and 3rd p. 

11, 13. Arwam-en: Arwe-n : see Ap- 
pendix on Locative cases. 

1) is surely hero 

i i|iii\is, 

< : uid, in- >ii|tii>, \'lb. 64. 

I it aol I-, oon- 

128. Oretu =(ad)oleto, A.K. Urito 
u equally i I V. 30, 

and there aeeiDH 

Our Mirril 

. ih not iiuitV i-i rtain. 

7. Persclo, ordo, in widest sense; from 
Perse, ordinu, lib. 32. Here, ordine, 
"in due course ;" so VIb. 16, 36 : else- 
where, Persclom, ritum, ceremoniam. 

13. Cletra, K\tvr^p ? AtVAal seems to 
verify the sense : but see whether IV. 24 
opposes. )8. Aitota, " arrange" ? See on 
I b. 29. Does this imply Cletraf, pi. 9 

14. Am-paritu, ap-parato ? aviaraQi ? 
(Am = ava). In Ila. 42, Am-pari-hmu, 
perhaps avlo-radi : but we have i, 

of these intcrprs. See Ila. 25 on Pur. 

15. Ententu, by indn. incendito. 
Angto-S. tendan, (Germ, /linden, J9gfl 
tinder), Gael, teinc, and Welsh tan, fire. 
Ententu, Antentu from different r< 

a paradox; but not worse than Discover 
and Recover ; not so bad as A per ire, 
Deperire, Repcrire, Experiri from four 
roots. )8. Cih-(,-era, by enx. ereiiu 
analysis, creina-eula, See cell in 21. 

16-20. Antentu = intendito, in ; 
but by indn. imponito, as A.K. \\> 

it. An avo, on and /r; never I 
think /// (intra). Thus Anstintu i>, prirau 
I'acie, nva-stinato, fasten ou, or abov*. 
Add Seplo, simjilus, singulus, AheBBH 
aheiii.s; and you see can ; 

, over the lire by tVanu-; of three 

; ; ol' three cauldrons i 
o\\u Ca/i. Lat. ferculum feretrum; 
primd I'acie, these explain I 


( 20 astintu. Inomcc wocomen esonomen etu. Ap 21 woco m 
( dya-stinato. Tune in focum in? sacrum ito. ETrel focum 
(cocehes, jepi persclomar caritu. Foce(s) pir 22 ase antentu. 
( (rvyitrjitjs, [OTTJ ?] ad ritum calato. Foci /> ara) imponito. 
( Sacre sewacne opetu. Jo we Patre 23 promo m ampentu 
(Hostiam puram procurato. Jovi Patri primum incohato 
( destro sese asa. " Fratrusper 24 Attijeries, ahdisper 

(dextro (ab) fipsa ara,. " Fratribus pro Attidiis, aedibus pro 
( eicwasatis, totaper Ijowina, 25 trefiper Ijowina," diclo m 
( oppidanis, urbe pro Iguvina, agro pro Iguvino," donum 
( sewaciii m deitu : 26 momec owem sewacni m opetu. Puemone 
( purum dicito : tune ovem puram procurato. Puemono 
f 27 Puprice appentu: diclo m sewacni m narratu. 28 Joca mersowa 
( Puprico incohato : donum purum nuncupate. Voces faustas 
( owicom habetu, "fratrusper 29 Attijerie(s), ahdisper 
(apudovem concipito, "fratribus pro Attidiis, aedibus pro 

Ferehtro, as supports. If Cazi be a pole 
gas, a bough) it may need the 
epithet " iron." Elsewhere Ferine = 
formus, depths, or -ine = jitb. What if 
here -ime = -j>/b, and Ferrimc (with rr) 
;= ferrous? 

21. Co-ceh-es, fut. indie. 2nd p. s. 
.nearly = <rvyic-rir)s. See 15 above, and 
Via. 20. j8 Jepi, is not oirl if Oco, Joco 
ire Unibr. for Voc-o, Vox. But all is 
loubtful. Jepi mif/ht be "quemque;" 
)r, jam ; atque : crap. Jepro II. a 32. 
y. Caritu, by indii. call, proclaim, 
Via. 17, Ib. 33, Vila. 43: /caAeirw. 
5. Pir, ignem ; Lassen, A.K. It makes 
Pure, Pureto, Puromc, as from stem 
Puro. This is like a corruption of 


2J. Asa, ara, is Sabine. ft. Sacri, a 
as Va. 6. y. Sewacni, by indn. 
;)iirus. Etm. Sc = sine, Wac = vitium? 
Ib. 8. 

23. Ampentu, by indn. incipito, KUT- 

zpXov, a religious word. Etm. Germ. 

Vn-i'ang-en ? Sax. hend-an ? )3. Sese, 

IV. 3/15. (On Seso, see VIb. 51). 

:uiy appear to be the Latin sese, 

isod for ipsam (Via. 20, isso). 

23. Destro, opposed to iS T ertro, la. 29, 

Dexter, Sinister. 

^ -i. Eicwase(sc), oppidum, see on 
16. AVc may infer Eicwasat(i), 
. ft. Ey aid of oppidanus, I 

discovered that Ahdis = aodibus ; and then 
found it to explain Ib. 12. I since ob- 
serve in Mommsen, as Oscan, Aikdafed = 
aedificavit; i.e. aikd(i) = aedi. This k, 
representing the Umbrian A, is more than 
chance. y. Tota, was first explained by 
Lepsius, as Urbs. Here the Urbs is op- 
posed to the Ager, trifu, as often. Also 
in la. 18 it is Urbs (not Civitas) opposed 
to Arx ; yet here and elsewhere the idea 
is political; i.e. it differs from Eicwase, 
as Urbs from Oppidum. A.K. render 
Totco, urbicus; and Via. 8-14 the limits 
of the city, not of the state, seem intended. 
Etm. is Oscan Tuta, Anglo -Sax. Thiod, 
Welsh Tud, Breton Tut, Tud, people, 

25. Trifu, in form = tribus ; but in 
sense = ager, territorium. So Tribus 
Sappinia (Liv. 31,2); Welsh, Tref, dis- 
trict ; Gael. Treubh, tribe. (Tpirrvs is a 
false light.) 

25 ft. Dic,lo (uom. Di-c^el) masc. from 
Di-tu, dato. In 15 we had -c,era = -cuhi, 
so -c;lo= -cilo, -clo. . Deitu, dicito; 
irreg. See VIb. 52. 

28. Joco, rendered verbum lib. 24 by 
A.K. Whether to look to Latin vox or 
jocus as its kin, is doubtful. If Suboco 
Via. 22 conceals voco, it may have been 
joco in Umbrian. Or, Jocii- 
once meant afros, a Laconism. ft. Final 
-com (ofteuer -co) meant apud as well as 


jeicwasatis, totaper 30 Ijowina, trefiper Ijowina." Sacre m 
( oppidanis, urbc pro Iguvina, agro pro Iguvino." Sacrum 
( watra m ferine feitu: eruco arowia feitu. 
( sanguinem culidum facito : ibidem [arvinam] ? facito. 

(Owem peracm, pelsano m feitu. Ererec dowa tefra 
( Ovem vp&ov (et) vellus facito. E/ceiW duo tomacula 
i ^spantimar prosecatu : erec perume purdowitu, 34 struck* 
I inpatinam prosecato: illud protenus ^ovc^arw, struem 
i arweitu. Inomec etrama spanti dowa tefra 35 prosecatu : 
1 addito. Tune alteram in patinam duo tomacula prosecato : 
( erec eregloma Puemone Puprice (IV. 1 ) purdowitu. Eraront 
( illud in cillibam Puemono Puprico irpoveiid. Ejusdem 

(stru/^las escamito m awweitu. 8 Inomec tertiama spanti 
( struis f frustum addito. Tune tertiam in patinam 

81. Watra, later in Etr. letter Watowa 
(once Watowo), in Roman always Uatuo, 
seems to imply three forms, Watra, 
Watowa, fern, and Watowo masc. since 
the epithet Ferine is unchanged. I first 
guessed from the context that Watowo 
ferine meant sanguis calidus ; and gained 
some support from Breton (and Welsh) 
(Jwad, blood, (which would be Wad in 
Italy) ; and from rustic Latin Formus = 
6(pfl6s. Next Prino-watus gave, what I 
think is full verification. See on Ib. 15. 
Watra must be fern. I render Eruco 
as an adverb. 

31 /3. Arowia never recurs. It can 
hardly be an older form of Arwia, if 
Arwio is an adj. (agrestis) from Arwa. 
The Arwio is never eaten, nor burnt, only 
displayed. I now render it Verbena, 
Sagmen, suggested by agrestis. In the 
Roman tables we have Arwio fetu; in the 
Etruscan, ostentu, or its equivalent 7V rum 
11;.. Jl. If Arowia differ from 
Arwia, it may mean " arvina" (suet fat ?), 
which suits this passage; but Ila. 18, 
Aiuu M.III fi In- brought wit It the 

, by indn. "young." Cmp. 
wfwttof, early. /3. Pelsano, by indn. ";i 
fleece:" Lat. velles, Polish, pilsn. 
y. Ererec = Erei-ec. 8. Tefro,a portion, 
hero of meat; but Vila. 16 of land. 
<'iii|>. T/^axi, rifitvoy: the Tef=Te/x ? 
WcUh hat Till. II, a |>i,rr or .sli,-.-. 

M, ^|...nli i- to I'.Miin, M Knir. and 

Dutch Span to Lat. Pout, I'aml-o, or 
Indeed u Spatium to Pateo. But the 

IX. ranMU Putina l..r Spanti, 

pendenUy of ctm. ft. Peruinc, by iiidn. 

protinus : strictly perhaps, In frontc, for 
Imprimis. See on Ila. 9. 7. Purdo- 
witu, by indn. "deal out." Purdito 
la. 18 obviously is the opposite of sacer, 
i.e. is profanus, communis. Profanatp, 
as Porricito, has a twofold appln. in| 
Latin. Either of the two (or Commimi- 
cato) is prima facie admissible. If Divide 
mean Dwi-de, "put in two," Purdowitu i 
is close to pro-dividito ; possibly even 
should have tt, as meaning Purdowid-tu. 
(See Purdopite IV. 14). When a cere-; 
mony is ended, it is said to become Pur- 1 
dito, profanum. 

34. In the Roman ritual, strues (t-i 
cake?) and ferctum (mincepie?) 

close companions, that Strufertarii is the | 
name of the petty priests, who by these i 
comfits averted evil omens. A likr 
conjunction appears between Stru^la and 
Ficla, which are dainties superadded to 
the sacrificial meat. Ficla (Ila. 41) hasi 
the epithet Sofafia (suavis). AutV. 
these grounds justly, I think, idi 
the Umbrian with the Roman pair of 

35. Erec,lo, is only in 111. an 

In all places but one it might be a small 
altar; but in IV. 13 it is mov 
hence I take it for a rplirovs. Spina, 
Ila. 33, 38, is closely similar. 

IV. 1. If Kraront (VjusiK'in, fan.} 
of out- strues, Ksramito iures>arily : 
a scrap. The root Scam may 1'f 
our Shape or Shave. 

3. Mommseu discovrrod the i 1 
Vcsuna on a Marsian coin. She i 
i (-iff ol' rucinonus. 

*4. A.K. timidly propose "pectinati," 


( trija tefra prosecatu : 3 erec supro sese eregloma Wesune 
( tria tomacula prosecato : illud supcro f ipsam in cillibam Yesunae 
( Puemones Puprices purdowitu. Struck, pettenata isec 
( Puemoni Puprici irpoveinaTw. Struem pectinatam item 
C r> anveitu. fErertf/xmt capirus Puemone, 6 Wesune purdowitu. 
( addito. Illisdem capidibus Puemono (ac) Vesunse irpoveip.*. 
( Asamar ere9Lmiar, 7 aseetes carnus isec,eles, et wempes- 
( Ad avam ad (?) cillibam, non-sectis carnibus elixis, et deas- 
( sontres 8 sopes sanes, pertentu, persni(hi)mu. Arpeltu, 

( satis offis f solidis, porrigito, ministrato. (Convivas) appellate, 
( 9 statitatu. Wescles snates asnates sewacne(is) 10 ere9loma 
( collocate. Vasculis sacratis (vel) non-sacratis puris ad cillibam 
j persnimu Puemone Puprice, Wesune Puemones Puprices. 
( ministrato Puemono Puprico (et) Yesunae Puemoni Puprici. 
( Clawles persnihmu 12 Puemone Puprice et Wesune Puemones 
\ Placentis ministrato Puemono Puprico et Yesunae Puemoni 
( 13 Puprices postin ereglo. Inoc ere9lo m omtu 14 potrespe eras. 
( Puprici f propter cillibam. Turn cillibam obmoveto utrisque illis. 

IV. 5 Erereront ; is judged corrupt. The sense is clear ; VI. b 48 we have Eriront 
for Us < ton. In separation, Erer or Erir, for illis, is not found. 
' 6. EreQlamar. Bead Ere9lomar, A.K. 

!'. Sewacnes or -neis. Final ,v has been lost, as in III. 29, and often beside. 

12. Puprices is here (in the Insc.) by error for Puprice. 

In fact a tart made with crossbars (like a contrast. "Wempersontre recurs also 

omb .-) well answers Festus's description lib. 15, 18 ; and roast agrees well. But 

of strues, having " as it were fingers tied how can this be, if Persontro mean piato- 

ncross one another." ;8. Isec, item; rium? This at first perplexed me ; but 

A.K. See VIb. 25. when I remembered 0705, piaculum; 

5. Capir, capis, the sacrificial jug ; KaQayi^iv, cremare; I thought it suffi- 

A.K. ciently verified the sense of roast. )8. 

6 ; Asamar erec,kmar, read erc^lomar ; Sano = Lat. sanus, which suggests here 

.A.K. Yet, considering Wapefewayieclufe solidus. It does not recur. 7.Persnihimu; 

(Ib. 14) a misgiving returns, whether by indn. ministrato. Precem or Prece 

here and III. 20 one has not true con- is sometimes understood. I do not see 

cord. It appears as though Erec,lo were how to refer it to the root Perse. Is 

adjectival. perhaps lVrsni = Lat. prnesen-ta ? The 

7. A-seqeto, non-sectus. Seella. 30. -himu is imperative passive, here de- 
AVi-lsh, Greek, and Umbrian all have An, poncnt. A.K. But this form is not once 

flic privative particle. /3. If \\>i\6s found as a sure passive. e. Arpeltu, in 

me Exilis in Italy, e|/aAos might have form either = Appellito or = Appellate. 

become Hcxalus. Elixus, Iscqelus look See Ha. 32, lib. 19. 
like corruptions of Hexalus. 9. Snato, sacratus ; by cnx. of II. a 34. 

8. Sopa, by indnt ofl'a. In Ha. 22, 23, Sec on III. 1. . Wcscla, vascula, A.K. 
-paf and the Prosecja seem to be the In Vila. 21, Wesclir plcnir, vasculis 

saino. Confirmed by Welsh Swp, a lump. plcnis. Was is also Umhrian : see 22. 

The cutlet (offa) is contrasted to the un- 11. Clawla, by indn. placenta ; indeed 

' cut meat; the uncut is boiled (why else Ila. 24 it has the epithet recocta. 

the cauldrons?), the cutlets must' have 13. Postin, propter; is adverbial Ila. 25. 

:, been roast. Sec Ila. 20 for the same It has the older local sense, juxta. In 


( Inoc westigia m , mefa m *purdowije 15 scalceta conicaz. 

\ Turn (carncm) festivam (et) fjecur irpov^oiro fsorticius frex. 
( f Appetre esof destro sese 16 asa : asama purdowitu. 

( Incohet fcalathos dextro (ab) f ipsa ara: in aram 
( sewacne' succatu. 17 Inomec, weste^a, persontru fsupc 

( puros [subvocato]. Tune, (came) festiva (ac) piatoria supei 
( en^le, hole 18 sewacne scalceta conicaz purdowitu. Inomec 
(cilliba, [ilicem] puram fsorticius frex irpoj/e^aTw. Tune 

(^westigia, persontro, durse super erecje sewacne, 
festivam (ac) piatoriam, [rubo] super cilliba puro, 
( ^sca^eta conicaz purdowitu. Inomec dehterim 21 etu, weltu : 
( f sorticius rex irpovei^-ru. Tune [ts*rw&Jnr] ito, 
( erec persontre antentu. ^f Inomec 22 arlataf 
( illud piatoria3 imponito. Tune arculatas (A.K) vass 

14, 15. Purdopite |(or Purdopide) and Apetre are confessedly corrupt. I think 
Optatives of the form Herijei (11. a 16) are here concealed. Whether Purdowije 01 
Purdowidie be more correct, depends on the stem ; which may be Purdowi or Purdowid 
we on III. 33. P is only mutilated W in the Etrusc. forms. I think Apetre shoul< 
be Appenje= Ampenje : see III. 23 for the sense. 

17. Westec.a is a correction of Weswesa in Inscr. Supo, in this connection, i 
seems, must be an error for Super. 

V. eight times Posti, on account of. ft. 
Omtu, by cnx. apponito. From Sumtu, 
submoveto (la. 9) \ve learn Omtu 
obnioveto. But obmoveto is a ritual 
word, meaning admoveto. This verifies 
the interpu. See also on Via. 54. 

14. Erus, occurs very often, and is 
necessarily a dative, as obviously here. 
(There is no chasm in the inscrn. after 
this word). It here might mean " heris," 
but it often obviously means " the people, 
nests," which would not suit here. 
" 11 lib." I'mni Ere, illc, is admissible. 
It it often found with 110 previous noun 
to point ,it ; but M. is K:un, VIb. 16: 
this rises out nt tin- conciseness of the 
inscrn. Eris for Hits is m \ ( r found. 
/3. Wc-ii.,!.,, f ( .tiva (caro), inferred from 
Wefticatu, Ftffndru. 'I IK- sacrificial 
meat, sJter jim-ina' ,,r dti-r ;M-,. taken, is 
in part < Apiatury, in part lV>ti\c. K\rii 

"i Hi- roUtory, ioma - apv. 
7. On Mefa, see lib. 68. The nunc- 
iii, in 1. 11 is explained 
in detail bv the nix or K< \. n lim- \\hich 
.-fa seems here to bo identitinl 
9m I'M- ntro. Sn perhaps in 111.. 13. 
16. Eso (lla. 40) = Aso of VIb. 50? 
box or bskct, Own l...l.lin- l.ank- 
herc the Hole and the Torse. 

17-19. Hole and Torse (Durse?) are 
co-ordinate. The syntax is doubtful 
The least violent method that I find, is, 
to suppose, in 17, erec,le, to be i 
clause absolute, and Hole the accus. : then 
in 19 Durse sevacne to be an absolute 
clause, and Westie,iam accus. Hole ant 
Durse are likely to be garnish, if Dehte 
rim be a plant ; else they may be Oil ant 
Spice, or sacrificial gear.' By Ilex I mean 
aquifolium, holly. Welsh has Dyryse 
briar : rubus purus, sweetbriar ? 

15-20. Sca^eto VIb. 16 by cnx 
K\-npcar6v. hence Scalsie VIb. 5 sorte 
Scalc,eta, (vir) sorticius. j8. Conicaz = 
conicato, participial ; A.K. Fromturm 
konig, one has Conigato, rex-lactus, rex 

21. Wcltu, does not rpciur. Ehweltu, 
Via. 2, by cnx, jubeto, praripito, prccito 
carmen. "Ehwelclo, A' 1). 1 l>y cnx. de 
(return, jussum. If Weltu = eAe'rw 
Ml i \veltu is in form excipito, not piari 
pito. It implies 5a/cruA?TJs to grow 
wild ; may it be the common digitalis : 

22. Arejataf, arculatas, ring-raArr 
A.K. 8. Waao, VIb. 40, ace. sin^ 
inase ; ^N'asor, nom. pi. masc. (Via. 1!') 
>\'asii<, dal. pi. of instrt ; make a noun 
of the conson. decl. N.15. the 


>( ufestine(s) sewacnef purdowitu. 23 Inomec prozore cebo m 

( [Ufestinis ?] puras Trpoveind. Tune (vase) f procere cibum (?A.K.) 
lsewacne to persnihmu 24 Puemone Puprice. Inomec cletra m 
I purum ministrato Pucmono Puprico. Tune flectum 
( wescle's 25 wofetes sewacnis pers(n)ihmu Wesune 26 Puemones 
( vasculis [politis] puris ministrato (N.B.) Yesunae Puemoni 
( Pupr(i)ces. Inomec, swepis heri, ^ezariaf antentu, inomec 
( Puprici. Tune, siquis vult, [vestes Tyiias] imponito, tune 
.{ erus tagez 28 dertu. ^[ Inomec comaftu, 

( illis f voce-submissa dedicate. Tune (membra) mola-conspergito, 
( arcani 29 canetu, comates persnihmu. Esuco 30 esono m 
( accentu (tibise) canito, (cibis) paratis ministrato. Cum hoc sacrum 
( oretu: tapisteno m habetu ; pone 31 frehto m habetu. Ap itec 
(fadolcto: [acerram] capito ; thus ffrictum capito. ETTC! id (ita?) 
( facust, purditom 32 futu. Hontac piri propehast, erec 
(fecerit, profanum esto. Inde siquid propiaverit, illud 
( [ f ] 33 ures pones neir habass. 
( [vendit]ores thuris ne habeant. 

33. Ures, is probably only the termination of a word; for the preceding line seems 
in the Inscr. to have a small gap at the end. 

of vowel from Was to Wcsclo : like Ger- here, and twice in Ha. Afterwards 

man? with o. 

25. Wofeto is participial, A.K. That 29. Arcani canetu. Excellently illus- 

;he vessels were wooden, see Ib. 28: trated by A.K. from Liv. 9, 30, Cicero c. 

;hey would then need polishing. Wofro. Rullum II. 34. j8. Comato (dressed?) 

Lib. 21, 1 make a/Spos, from root aTr-oAos, often recurs, in this connection only. It 

ffence, crap. Wofeto with Fdir-rw and is perhaps related to /co^iew. Coquere in 

Bomeric Feirw, which, as applied to TJmbrian is Fahom. 

arms, means Polish. j8. Persnihimu, 30. Poni et winu, are systematically 

ministrato, often (like feitu, /$eeVo) takes joined, as Thure et vino in Latin : hence 

in ablative of the thing offered : nowhere A.K. made Pone, thus. They confirm it 

else an accusative as of the person served ; by Sanscrit, Pavana, thus. My render- 

" supply the couch with vessels," for ings, Ententu, incendito, Ahtimem, in 

''supply vessels to the couch." acde, Ib. 12, agree excellently with this 

i 27. Tyre, (Arab. Ssur, Heb. Tsur) sense. See also VIb. 50. Tapisteno 

formed Tyrius and Sarranus. Etsario or does not recur. It looks like an oriental 

Ezario might well be Umbrian for Tyrio. form, tapi-stan. Words which mean 

The object here intended was a gift ad boxes often end in -stan, locus, 

libitum, apy. costly. . Tac,ez, is ex- 31. Frehto, frictum, is approved by 

plained by Groteiend and A.K. as= A.K. See Ha. 26. 

facets = tacitus. Its pi. is Tasctur 32, 33, are unintelligible. 32 a. Piri, 

(Tacjetur) Vila. 46. I submit to the by indn. has all the pliability of eJf-n; 

etm., but render it Yoce submissa, be- meaning Quidquid, Siquid, Siquupiam in 

cause total silence in uttering a public re. j8. With ncir cmp. ncrsa, Via. 6, 

prayer seems to me absurd. apy. composite, like necubi, nequa ; for 

28. Dertu = Derctu, dedicate, as III.9. ne pir? 7. Habas for Habans, is like 

See II. a 40. The accus. is Ezariaf, from Sis for Sins, Va. 6, Vllb. 3 ; Etaias for 

former clause. 0. Comaltu spelt with a Etaians, VIb. 64, 65. 

TABLE Ila. (lib. OF LEPSIUS.) 


, came speturie Attijerie awiecate, narraclu 
I Quum, came fmactaticia Attidia faugurata, [ab narraculo} 
( 8 wortus, esto esono m fetu fratrusper Attijerie (s). Eo esono m 
( vortcris, istud sacrum facito fratribus pro Attidiis. Id sacrum 
( 3 eso narratu : " Pere, came speturie Attijerie awiecate, 
( sic nuncupate: " Siquid, came fmactaticia Attidia faugurata, 

4 aio (m) orto fefure, fetu puze neip eretu." 
[regularum] fconturbata ffuere, facito ut ne fdesideretur." 
( Westi9e sagce 5 sacre, Jowe Patre bum peracne m , speture m 
( Festivao sacro-sancta3, Jovi Patri bovem a^oTov, -(-Tictimam 
(peracne, restatu: 6 Jowie uno m erieto sacre, pelsano m 
jinstaurato: Junoni(?) unum arietem sacrum (et) vellus 

TABLE Ila. (Etr. U.) 

1. A.K. place marks of hiatus before 
Pone. The paragraph certainly appears 
like a mere fragment. )8. Speture, 1. 5, 
from cnx. victima; if so, Speturio = 
sacrificial. From Spe = ffa ? = Gael 

8gath?-=Eng. Stab, spay, cut? We 
hare in Via. 56, the adj. Spefo, perhaps 
ectili<. Sec also on Spa, at Vlb. 15. 
7. Narratu, nuncupate (vota, etc.) is 
obvious. Narraclo may mean locus mm- 
cupandi vota ; but all is obscure. 

2. Wortus, vortcris. The compound 
cowertu is common. The verb is gener- 
ally neuter. 

: . This difficult passage is parallel 
! t. 26, 27, and each throws light 

: . The parenthesis, carne, etc. 
(which here, as in 1. 1, seems to be the 
dative abtolut'^, u-ci'ully ^lio\\s that thr 
CVllfl li\|)<'thctif.illy ant'i.-ipiitt.l l.y I 'in-, 
etc., are ceremonial ; also " Fetu puzc 

i to ut nemarka the \nl. 
rh)eretu to be tubjunctive, apy. passive. 
MoreoYcr, we thu gtt ,,() for 

/ wi' is Via. 20 ; 

Wbr with imlir. In Via. 27 

Fetu u omitted, l,ut un.l. i-:.....l. u in 
Liv. i. 18, " uti tu ;. u.-li 

dduccd by A.K.-/3. K, r..,,, r.,mmtr 

A.K. K.-fun- i, . i iusrut, 

would not urprUe me (see Ki 

only that we have Benuso for Benurent 
in the later dialect, Vlb. 63, 65, iut. 
pra3t. Cmp. Lat. Fuere with Gr. rcrv^affi. 
Ortom est, Via. 26, makes it almost 
certain that Orto fefure is a composite 
tense of the same passive verb. I more 
easily believe that in such a tense Orto is 
indeclinable, than that Orto and Orta in- 
differently are neut. pi. On the sense of 
Orto, sec Via. 26. 7. If aio(m) be 
gen. pi., Pere aiom gives logically a pi. 
idea. Pere = quidquid, siquid, &Vi. 
5. Aio, related to Aitu, Ib. 37 ; A.K. 
If Aitu means ordinato, in scrie disponito, 
Aio may mean regula; but verification 
seems hopeless. e. The passage Via. 
26 occurs four times, each time with 
Heretu; hence Evdu apy. is an error. 
N.B. To omit final r of the pu>si\c 
appears no liberty; for Emautur Yu. S 
i- tin; only instance of its insertion ; il' 
Dercantor iii. 9 be corrupt Latin. 

5. Peracnc exchanges with IVrai n , 
Via. 25, 35, 48, 54. This sho\\> 

be the common root. Evidently we may 
compare them to aK/xcuos, aKpaios. 

6. Ostentu. "With Ar\vio (branches of 
bay, myrtle, etc.) this is thi-tixi-d i'ormnla 
in the Etr. U. tahhs, except, i)er!iai)s, 
K.-itu III. 31. For in Ila. 24, IVrum 
Boritu = Oitentu. 1 render it Propo- 

TABLE II a. 9 

i fetu. Arwio m ostentu, 7 poni fetu. Ta9ez pessnimu 

( facito. fYerbenam proponito, thure facito. fVoce-submissa ministrato 
( arcpe arwes. ^[ Pone purdijus, 8 uno m soro m pessottro fetu 
(. arvis. Quum Trpove/j.e'ts, unam -j-TwyV piatoriam facito 
( dicamnc Jowie. Capire 9 perum, prewe fetu. Ape purdijus, 
( [orn]anda9 Junoni. Capide prorsum, fsemel facito. 'Evrei irpovep.els, 
' (*(s)oro m erus detu: eno com/tu, 10 comate(s) pessnimu. 
( | TrtryV illis dato : turn mola-conspergito, (cibis) paratis ministrato. 
( Ahtu Jowie owe m . Peracnem n peraem fetu. Arwio m 
IfMittito Junoni ovem. 'A/c^afcw vpuiav facito. j-Yerbenam 
i ostentu, poni fetu. Ahtu Mart abrom. 12 Peracne m fetu. 
( proponito, thure facito. fMittito Marti aprum. AK^O?OI/ facito. 
( Arwio m ostettu, fassio m prosegete arweitu. 13 Perae m fetu, 
( fYerbenam proponito, pultem. prosecto addito. PrinueYum facito, 
( tra *ecwase fetu, u aetus peracne fetu. 

(ultra oppidum facito, fbrocchis-dentibus O.KIJLCUOV facito. 

la. 6, 10, 13, 19, 23, 27. Ib. 4, 7, 26, 30, 33, 44. 
I * Ha. 9. For -usoro in one word, A.K. read -us soro. 

13. For ecwi: ne (which A.K. judge impossible), I read ecwase. One form of Etruscan 
AS is closely like our AM, and might by partial decay seem to be I : N. 

nito as in III. 5, and as Antentu, impo- Peri might mean latere or fronte ; but 

v nito. the latter has better right by etm., since 

7. Arepe. See Note on la. 6. Peru and irpw-pa are comparable, as 
0. Purdijus. See on Ib. 33. The con- Peraem -jrpdo'iov, That Perum is adver- 
trast of Pone, whcn t and Ape, after that, bial (like Trepav, Trepa, x^P" 7 ' etc.), and 
is here marked. means In fronte, Prorsum, forwards, is 

8. Soro is a part of the victim ; per- clear from 24, where Perum seritu (keep 
has=o^os; generally of lambs or in front) replaces the usual phrase, Os- 

, which guides to the fat tail; but tentu (proponito, set forwards); and in 

Vb. 12 it is said of the pig, hence it contrast is Suttentu, set behind. So here, 

must include the rump (Levit. iii. 9). "Make the offering with the jug in front, 

Chines, Nates, are inconveniently plural ; once," has a tacit reverse : " Afterwards, 

oppos, if appropriate, has no adjective ; set the jug behind," which is expressed 

hence I write provisionally, Soro, irvyf] ; VI b. 25, Capirso subbotu, capidem 

Sorsali, VIb. 38, irvyaios. Why Unum submoveto. j8. Prewe, apy. adverbial, 

oflpov ? because there were two victims. semel ; as profe, rehte are adverbs. That 

. Ticaiiine has the syntax of Honor- Prewo = privus, singulus, is clear in 

and. That -mno = Latin -ndo, I first Va. 18-20. )8. Subahtu 42 by cnx. 

-ed from Tremnu, Via. 2; and dimittito, remittito : Subator Via. 27 by 

applying this to Pelmner, Vb. 12, dis- cnx. remissi. I infer, Ahtu = mittito. 

covered the sense, and its relation to Perhaps in form Agito; but "drive" 

.IVlsans Ila. 43, comburendus. Gener- nearly = " send." 

ally -mno changes into -nno, and then is 12. Fassio (VIb. 2, 41) = Farsio, i.e. 

written -no : as in Anfercncr, Pihaner. farreum, A.K. ft. Arweitu, in form, 

Perhaps we should write, not Ticamue, advehito ; in sense, addito. It is the 

but Dicanmc, from a root Dica = Lat. fixed expression. So coveitu, tradito. 

< Dece, or rather Decora ? Nothing nearer 13. For ecwasi, see on Va. 4 ; III. 24. 

than, 17, recurs. The boars in Ib. 34 were sacrificed in 

9. Perum is accus. of a noun of n- various places, apy. outside the town. 

decl., since it has Peri for abl., la. 29. 14. The boar has already been called 



I i: 'Hontia. Catle digel stacaz est, somme osdite 

( (Festa) Hontia. fHsedo donum fstatum est, summae proditae 
I6 anter menzaru m 5ers(n)iaru m . Herijei fagio m arfertur, awis 

inter mensas fcenatorias. (Si) velit facere f dictator, avibus 
n anzeriates, menz(e)ne curglasio m fagia ticit. 

observatis, fapud mensam f circularium faciat [licet, A.K] 
Hontia: fertu catlo m , arwia; stru/zcla m , ficla m ; 
(Ad festa) Hdhtia : ferto ha3dum (ac) verbenas; struem (ac) fertum; 
pone, winu ; salo m , maleto m ; 19 mantraclo m , wescla snata 
thus (ac) vinum ; sal (ac) molam ; f cistam (ac) vascula sacrata 
asnata. Umen fertu, pir ase 20 antentu, esono 

(vel) non-sacrata. f Aquam ferto, ignem arae imponito, sacrum 
poni fetu. 
thure facito. 

perfect-, he is now called " a fetus per- 
fectum." By cnx. a9etus = in his tusks. 
How so ? Perhaps A9et = a cutter, i.e. 
tusk ; for in Welsh a tusk is ysgythr, 
strictly a cutter ; and in Peracne, Per- 
.\ e have seen Ac to be an Umbrian 
root, as indeed it is European ; thus A9et 
is a development comparable to Acutus. 
Cf. incisor of modern naturalists. 

15. Hontia. I can find no syntax. 
The word seems to me like Aiovvcria, 
Apollinaria feasts, games. . Stacaz = 
Stacat(o)s, A.K.; i.e. status, lixus ? I 
suppose the kid is said collectively. " For 
kids a gift is fixed at. a sum (previously) 
published, (to be divided) among the 
dinner tables." See III. 2. 

16. Anter, inter, as in Sanskrit; A.K. 
re governs genitive ; so Hondra, 

Supra, Via. 15. (3. Cersna-tor, cenati; 
Ceina, cena ; Va. fa, Vb. 9; A.K. 
Here Cersio by cnx. cenatorius ; as if for 
Cersnio. ^ersna(Va.)isa8tep higher than 
babine ena. y. Herijei is clearly op- 
Utj?e, with -li-lit ,iiv, -rsity from Combi- 
fiija, riz. jei for ja. Apy. -jei = -je 
(M Peitu Fetu, Avei's = Aves), on 
which I ground the surmise that Purdo- 
pite, Apotrc IV. 14, 16, arc corrupted 
' him \vMi" " il ho 
wiih." 8. P:u;iu(iM) intin. \\IKIIC. Kt-itu, 
. lariat. *. 

a rivil i,tiic-r, \\li.. takei 
mtendenco of religion also (Va.). 
He reoeivff augural initrurtmns an 
' I -' ; has large j...v. 

M! i-tlii r IMUJM rty (Va.), 

liable to be flnt-d 

(Vb . 4) . Dictator seems the best transn. : 
not in the high Roman sense ; but as 
Milo was dictator of Lanuvium. The 
word Arfertur is not unlike arbitrator ; 
but Va. 12, Arputrati = arbitratu. [On 
the b-sound, see Preface.] 

17. That Seritu = servato, we see from 
Via. 31 ; then Auif seritu VIb. 49 gives 
us Aves servato ; next here, and la. 1, 
we get anzeriates (or asseriater Via. 1) 
= observatis. j8. curqlasio = circula- 
rium : qu. symbolam ? a payment made 
by every guest all round* 7. Menzne 
(since Menzaru = mensarum) is formed 
of Menz(e)-ne. See Append, on Loca- 
tive Case. 5. Ti9it (Dic,it ?) is explained 
licet by A.K. If so, it seems to be cor- 
rupt Latin : for the 3rd p. s. pros, not 
once appears with -t, except m Est. Furfat 
is 3rd p. plural= Furfant ; and it is not 
probable that, if the Umbrians had said 
Amat, Amaut, as the Latins, they would 
corrupt Amant to Amat. 

18. Catlo = catulus, A.K. I cannot 
believe it was a puppy : the word might 
mean any young animal ; but 1 think it 
was a kid. Cad-lo would in sound ap- 
proach Kid. 

1<). Mantrahclo recurs lib. KO 
and the latter, compared with VIb. .~>0, 
makes it almost certain that Mandraclo 
is much the same as Aso (Eso), a COM 
with t\vo handles, distinguishable as right 
and left. In VIb. 40 it si-ems to hold 
the tarts; here, to hold the vessels; in 
lib. 1(> perhaps the frankincense. 
Man-trah-clo, from Manns and (( 
Tragen, carry ? /3. Umcn (34) is cat 



f Honte* Jovie* ampentu catlo ra , 21 sacre sewacne, Petroniaper 
( Honto Jovio incohato f haedum, hostiam puram, Petronia pro 
( natinc fratro m Attijerio m . Esono m ^perae futu. Catles sopa f 
\ gente fratrum Attidiorum. Victima prima3va esto. Etedi oifas 
| hahtu, sofafiaf sopaf halitu : 23 berus aplenies prosegia cartu. 
\ capito, suavcs ofFas capito: crustulis f vacuis prosicias f partitor. 
(Crematra aplenfa 24 suttentu, peru m seritu arwia. 
I Canistra f vacua retro-ponito, (in) frontem servato f verbenas. 
I Poni purdowitu. Westicatu, ahtrepuratu. 25 Postin, ancif 
( Thurc TTpoveif^drw. FeffTidrw, (dapes) exponito. Propter, &YY*" 
( winu now/s ahtrepuratu. "Tiom poni, tiom winu," 26 deitu. 
(vini novi exponito. "Te thure (veneror), te vino," dicito. 
( Berwa, frehtef fertu : pore nowime ferest, crematrof 
( Crustula, placentas-frictas ferto : quisquis novissime feret, canistros 
l^somel fertu. 
\ fsimul ferto. 

Westigia m perume persnihmu. Catles dowa 
(Carnem) festivam protenus ministrato. Hsedi duo 

a jug, apy. then water, which suits 
everywhere. Amnis perhaps originally 
meant water. 

21. Natine, Umbr. form of natione, 

22. Hahtu (sounded Hahetu, as h for 
hi in Persnilimu ?) = Habcto ; which is 
used for Capito. Hatuto and Haburent 
Vila. 52 prove Hatu and Habetu to be 
the same word. . Sufafia, here and 41, 
abviously = suavis. 

23. Bern, a cake of some sort. See 
26 and 33. Etm.? Welsh, Bara bread. 
On the sense of Aplenio depends the exact 
sense of Beru. Plener, Vila. 21, is full ; 
hence Aplenio may be empty, though 
Apleno is the direct form : but this sense 
suits cnx. The Prosicino are put into a 
"hollow crust," making a pasty. The 
baskets become " empty," or partially 
empty, when the crusts are taken out, 
and the Ofi'uj patinarise of line 30 are 
the cutlets in dishes in contrast to cutlets 
in pasties. . Cartu, partitor, follows 
from Caro, pars, Va. 24. 7. I interpret 
Crematro by KpepdQpa. Crema-om, to 
burn, does not appear to be Umbrian, but 

2-t. Suttentu, in form, subtendito ; but 
Ten ordinarily means pon-ere : also 
Sumtu (submoveto) means retro moveto : 
see on la. 15. In ssidium (id quod 

pone sedet), opposed to presidium, the 
Latins give this sense to sub. Ilondra 
in these tables, and not once Sub, is 
Under. Thus there is contrast of Sut- 
tentu to Perum seritu = Ostentu. 

25. Ancjf winu no vis must surely mean 
#77ecc vini novi, when the next clause 
is so plain, and so well interpreted by 
A.K., who on Via. 25 demonstrate from 
Ptoman rituals the propriety of our sup- 
plying " veneror." Winu apy. is inde- 
clinable, like Latin genu, gelu. Nowis 
= nowes, gen. sing, as we have Waputis 
= AVaputes, Awis = Awes, Isir = Esir, 
Popler = Poplir, Arwis = Arwes, beside 
Eswco, Pesondmco, and a host of other 
instances. Postin is here adverbial, and 
Anc,if ace. to Ahtrepuratu. I rendered 
Ancjf lagenas by cnx. before I thought 
of 67777. Ahtre is nearly extra, Oscan 
Eh trad. (A for E is anomalous, but so 
in Ahawendu.) Exponito agrees excel- 
lently with cnx. everywhere. Vopuratu 
41 and Vepurus Va. 11 have the com- 
mon r : possibly Pur, Pur, Purs, are 
varieties of Eng.ptish, poke, pu-pug-i. 

26. Obeying the grammar as expounded 
by A.K. I now treat Frehti as a noun of 
i-decl. and interpret it "placenta fricta." 
See IV. 30. 0. Nowime, superl. adv. is 
formed as Nesimei, Via. 9 : for - ci = -e : 
cmp. profe, rehtc. 7. Crematro has an 

12 TABLE II a. 

( tefra &teTti m erus prosecatu. Isont crematru fprosecto 
( tomacula tertium illis prosecato. Itidem (a) canistro prosiciis. 
{ struAla m ^ficla" 1 arweitu. Catlo m purdowitu : amperia 
(struem (et) fertum addito. Hacdum xpovupA . [ra in fronte] 
( persnihmu. Asepeta 30 carne persnihmu, wenpersontra 
( ministrato. Kon-secta carne ministrato, assa 

f persnihmu. Sopa f spantea f 31 pertentu, wescles wofetes 
( ministrato. Offas patinarias porrigito, vasculis [politis] 
fpersnihmu. Westicatu, ahtrepuratu, 32 arpeltu, 

( ministrato. Festivato, (dapes) exponito, (convivas) appellate, 
( statitatu. Sopa f postra f pers(c)tu, jepro erus mani coweitu. 
(collocate. Offas in posticum ordinato, fmox illis manu tradito. 

I^Spinamar etu: dowe frecapirus pone fertu. Berwa, 
Ad f mcnsulam ito : duobus t a(j.<f>iKvir4 '\\ois thus ferto. Crustula, 
( ckwlaf 34 anfehtaf wesclu snatu asnatu ; umen fertu 

( placentas recoctas vasculo sacrato (vel) non sacrato ; aquam ferto 
( capire. 
( capide. 

( Honte ^ Jowie westicatu Petroniaper natine fratro m Atti- 
( Honto Jovio festivato Petronifi pro gente fratrum Atti- 
|jerio m . Berus sewacnis persnihmu pert spinia m . Isont 
(diorum. Crustulis puris ministrato fjuxta f abacum. Itidem 
( clawlos persnihmu : ^wescles snate(s) asnates sewacnis 

( placentis ministrato : vasculis sacris (vel) non-sacratis puris 

28. For Prosecto we expect Prosecute or Prose^etes or Prose<;ics. The last, if spelt 
Prowxjw, is less distant (in Etr. U. letters) from Prosecto than the others. 

33. Dowe recapirus. A.K. strike out the syllahle re, which is surely too arbitrary. 
I'.ut \\lidi they suggest to divide into Dowere capirus, (treating Dowere as locative, 
like Fesnere : see App.), they probably hit the truth : duabus-in capidibus. Else 
= Dowo8ofIII. l'j. 

anomaly of decl., similar to Canister and the guests. ft. Jepro does not recur. 

CanUtrum, m. and n. }{y cnx. it means statim or mox. Cmp. 

28. IVrtim , emp. IV. '2, and VIb. 64. irpd. The accus. Sopaf is continued. 

29. Aniperia; evidently arc ]>nliii- 33. Spina, by cnx. is some table on 
*ry viands or vessels before the meat which the box of frankincense stands; 
next to be named, whatever the etra. for in 38 it is movcablc.jS. l>\vc 

80. Spanteo must be adj. from Spanti, (dative) was Dowes III. 19. 7. Rceapir 

111 :;:i. With 30-32 pompan IV. s, '.'. may be a compound of Capir; for we 

!' ': pentu, i clcarlj u pon< ha\"e Kt-statu. ">. IJut see Note on the 

ordinato:" MMJ,. VIb. .\\hirh text 

r 0rrc-fM to be th. full pn.nn., and 34. Anfchtaf, from root Fall (Vb. 13) 

Peetra U 4ject|vul, ii-iiun- \\ith Kng. />,;/.. A, in the compound verb, 

^U The OUtleU (dUhes III*. 1!) \\heti may become ,; as in Lat. ]>artie. l.iit 

perfected, are tO be iyHteiuati. ally /'m/^/ stc'also l''cta, lib. i;5. I'.y ivna-ta 1 

en tkt dtWoerrf. before Landing them to umli T>tami lUscuit. 



(spiniama persnihmu. Westicatu, ^ahtrepuratu : spina m 
( in abacum ministrato. Festivato, (dapes) exponito : f monsulam 
( omtu: umne sewacne pcrM:ilimu. Manfe asa m 39 wotu, 
(obmoveto: aqua pura minibtrato. [Juba,i < ^M. ? ]aram[coronato], 

Sasama cowertu : asaco winu sewacni ta$ez persnilnnu. 
in aram torqueto ? : ad aram vino puro fvoce-submissa ministrato. 
j 10 Esof *rus(e)me herter erus coweitu, dertu : winu, pone 
\ Calathos [in porticu], si libet, illis tradito, assignato: vinum, thus 
( dertu. ^StruAglas, ficlas sofafias comaltu; capire pones 
(assignato. Struis (et) ferti suavis(ri) commolito; capide thuris(Tl) 
(vepuratu. 42 Antacres comates persnihmu. Amparihmu: 
( tStaKoi/efro). Intcgris (membris?) f paratis ministrato. [aviffraei :] 
( statita m subahtu. Esono m 43 purdito m futu. Catel asacu 
( [owefywv] remittito. Sacrum profanum esto. Haedus ad aram 
( pelsanns futu. 44 Cwestretieusa9eswesuwowistiteteies. 
( comburcndus csto. 

40. I have ventured to write Busme for Pusme. In Etr. alphabet, as in ours, B 
degenerates into P by the obliteration of a stroke. Pusme (= Posrae) might stand 
for Postime, postumum ; but it is not here probable. 

36. Pert, does not recur. Spinia, apy. 
either a diminutive of Spina, or the slab, 
board, top of the Spina. 

38. Omtu : see on IV. 13.-- )8. Manfe ; 
in lib. 22 Manowe. By cnx. of lib. 23 
I made Juba of it. TSy^metapkor, Juba 
may here mean Vitta. J3ut we need, and 
do not get, support from Wotu. 

39. "Wotu; possibly = volvito, invol- 
vito. /3. Cowertu, convertito. 

40. Esof, calathos? cistas ? IV. 15. 
I think they here hold the vitta). 0. The 
Vescla Vila. 9 arc presentfed Euseme. 
Perhaps also here the Esos are to be 
given (ad libitum) in the place called 
Ilusa. With Herter here, cmp. Swepis 
heri, IV. 26. Also III. 1. 7. Der, 
Ders, frequently occuning, seem to me 
the Umbrian form of 9etK, and partly to 
combine Latin dica. (IndTcere and Indi- 
carc diflfer but little.) By indn. I ar- 
rived at assignarc as the sense. It is 
often said of Distribution, not once of 
Dedication to a god : hence I doubt the 
propriety of altering Dertu IV. 28 to 
Dertu. The word Andirfifust (indicaverit) 
is clear by this theory ; and it is in anal- 

ogy with Dersua as = 5eto. On this see 

41. Vepuratu, Sia/coi/en-cu, is borrowed 
from Vepurus, Sia/cJvois, Va. 11, an in- 
evitable sense : the etm. cannot be made 
certain. See on 25. 

42. Antacro = in-teg-ro, A.K. "NVe 
have the termn. -ro in Tefro, and -re in 
Peracre; which removes all scruple. 
Integro, becoming a subst., seems to 
mean " a joint" of meat, in contrast to 
Sopas and Prosejeta, cutlets, slices. 
0. "Amparihmu, subahtu" must be the 
opposite process to " Arpeltu, statitatu ;" 
viz. the breaking up and dismissal of the 
company. Amparihmu, possibly = Im- 
perato : (Oscan Ampert, imperet), yet 
excitato would suit better. Statita, 
I suppose to be a collective noun femi- 
nine. Subahtu, remittito, needs more 
proof ; yet it agrees with Via. 26, and 
10 above. 

43. Pelsans = Pclsamnos, see on Di- 
camnc 8. That Pelsatu = comburito, is 
suggested by VIb. 40, and confirmed by 
Vb. 12 and by this passage. 


TABLE lib. (Ila. OF LEPSIFS). 


decuries sim, caprom opetu, decwias 2 famerias, 
Semoniis decuriis suem (et) caprum procurato, decenis familiis, 
( pomperias XII. "Attijeriate, etre Attijeriate ; Clavernije, 
( f regionibus duodecim. "Attidiati, alter! Attidiati; Clavernia3, 
( etre Clavemije ; Cureiate, etre Cureiate; 4 fSatanes, etre 
( alteri Claverniae ; Curiati, alter! Curiati ; Satanae, alteri 

( Satane ; Peieriate, etre Peieriate ; Talenate, 5 etre Talenate 
(Satanse; Piediati, alteri Piediati; Talenati, alteri Talenati 
{Museiati, etre Museiate ; Jojescane, 6 etre Jojescane ; Caselate, 
( Musiati, alteri Musiati; Jojescanae, alteri Jojescanae; Casilati, 
( etre Caselate, tertie Caselate ; 7 Peraznanie," deitu. 
I alteri Casilati, tertiao Casilati ; Perasnaniae, dicito. 

iArmune, Jowe Patre fetu. Si m 8 peracne ia sewacne m 
Apud exercitum, Jovi Patri facito. Suem. a/f/ta?oj> purum 
( opetu, eweietu. Sewacne m narratu, arwio m 9 ostettu 
(procurato, fdeglubito. Purum nuncupate, fverbenam proponito 

TABLE lib. (Etr. U.) 

1. Scmenics, semestribus, A.K. lean- 
not reconcile this with "per annum" of 
Vb. 12 (if that be the sense of Posti 
acnu), nor do I think it probable. It 
implies two yearly feasts of the Amphic- 
tiniiy, and leaves the Sehmeniar of Ib. 
42 inexplicable. I rather conjecture that 
both words come from the deity Semo 
Sancus; that from him was named the 
month Scmenio (cf. Januarius, Martius), 
and that the Decuries, like the Roman 
NonfM is a day of the month. 

2. 1 ; laimd familiabymany, 

u.-rtl is miiiiil'rstly allusive to 

the ten et d brotherhood! which fol- 
low, and ii as manifestly tint. pi. It 
howi the law i in making 

Us for -it K, as TTJ j <pi\ias for rfjs Qiklrjs. 
/5. ' .ics ore not ten, hut ti'ii 

eta, Dccwio deceno. 7. I 'cm; 

1 XII. HUM he ;i 

,'!., and hy cn\. means 

B may Kurnii.- that tin- 

' I ' ni.l.V! . it. l-'n r .sinn: 

1'ttur i four (VI b. 10), ;ts in ( 

"Welsh, and Greek, five must be some- 
thing like Oscan Ponte. But Ponti 
pompa (III. 4) ; conversely Pompe 
likely to be five. (Quinctius = Pontius 
= Pompeius.) "We talk of " tithings* 
as districts ; it might have been 'Brings.' 
Again 7re/raa> is to count, and miglit be 
to register. 

7. Armu-ne; see Appendix on Loca- 
tive cases. Arsmo is masculine V I 
in Via. 30 Nerf, arsw, must mean Prin- 
cipes, exercitum. This also i \ t llentl} 
explains Perca arsmatia, virga unlit art*. 
The " army" is the city militia, which 
apy. is reviewed Ib. 10. 

Opetu, eweietu, is like eV(^a|ai/ KO 
and somewhat brings hack 01 

me the idea that Opetu = icito. Hut sic 
Vb. 9. I suppose Wei to he the root of 
F el/xo, vestis ; so that E-weiotu = exuito. 
I. ut we want some second support. A.K. 
seem to understand a participle c\vcie/c>;M 
governed by Narratu following ; here and 
m 11. 

10, The alternation of Ilerici llerici 

TABLE lib. 


/ Eo m narratu, puze ffacefefe sewacne* 

( Eum nuncupate, prout [fieri 
rwinu, fetu. 
( vino, facito. 


Heri poni, 10 heri 
Yel thure, vel 

f"Waputo m sagi m ampettu 

( f Epulum sanctum incohato. 

( ll opetu, cweietu. Narratu : 



sewacne m 
ampetto m , fesnere 

Capro m 


" Qiwe 

\ procurato, deglubito. Nuncupate : ' ' Civi(bus) incohatum, apud ffana 
fpurdo: 12 etu m fife." Fertu dafle, fepirfer; (fer)tu capres 
(porrectum iri." Ferto [laurum, myrtum] ; ferto capri 

L prosecoto. 13 Ife arweitu persottro waputis, mefa m . Westi9a m 
(prosectum. Ibi addito piatorium epuli, fjecur. Festivam 
i fe(li)ta m fertu. 14 Swisewe fertu pone. Etre swisewe winu 
{ coctam ferto. [Trulla] ferto thus. Altera [trulla] vinum 
( fertu. Tertie 15 swisewe odor fertu, pistoniro fertu, 

(ferto. Tertia [trulla] ador (?A.K) ferto, [castaneas] ferto, 
( weppessottra fertu ; 16 mantraclo fertu, pone fertu. f Pone 
assas ferto ; f cistam ferto, thus ferto. Quum in 

9. Faqefete : read Fac,efele, facibile, A.K. See line 25. 
12. To omit E of Epir seems to me harsher than to read Mir for it. 
borate letter, not likely to be thrust in for nothing. 

E is an ela- 

Ib. 24. Vila. 3) with Ote (aut) first 

eveals that the verb Heri means vel-le. 

1ext, this is confirmed by Swepis heri, 

V. 26, etc., and by Pisher, quivis. 

As to Etna. A.K. report Sanscrit Hary, 

amarc. . Waputo, by cnx. here and 

.7, I suppose to be Epulum. The third 

>lace (13) is more embarrassing. 

1 1 . Ciwe = Lat. civi ? used collect- 
vely for civibus, as militi for militibus. 

j8. Ampettom and Purdo(w)-etom after 
Narratu, must state a proposition; but 
;he sense of the latter at least ought to 
>e future, else Purdowetu in 17 has been 
lied. It seems necessary to sup- 
)ose that Ifc (whether accurate or cor- 
rupt) answers here to Latin iri. The in- 
scription has purto : etu : ife. I admit, the 
punctuation is very doubtful. If we try to 
oin Eweietom narratu, we find no sense 
n what follows. A.K. make an entire 
of Ife fertu. But "ibi ferto" would 
not be isolated. 7. Fcsncre; apy. "at 
;he temples." A.K. admit that i (1 esnais 
consecrated enclosure, but in etm. re- 
ect Fanum. See Appendix on Locative 

12, 13. The inscription has clearly 
laflc : epirfer : tu : where it is hard to 

divine the'original which could be so per- 
verted. /3. Tafle I had rendered tabula : 
so A.K. To correct Epir to Pir, fire, is 
arbitrary, and the sense is unsatisfactory. 
Dafle is the oriental 5a(/>/7j, and Tafle, 
Dafle are undistinguishable. I suppose 
Mefa to be explanatory of Persontro. In 
IVa. 14-19, the same flesh seems to be 
Mefa and Persontro. In Via. 56, we 
have " Prosec,etir mefam arsueitu," which 
determined my punctuation : yet the syn- 
tax is rather too refined. One may 
join Mefam (et) westic,am. To deny that 
Waputis can mean Waputes is to claim 
correction of the text ; for it is, to assert 
that Waputo and Waputis cannot be- 
long to the same noun. See on Nowis, 
Ila 25. S. Feta does not recur. It may 
= Fehta, cocta, from root Fall. But 
though c in Anfchta passes as in E.C- 
frcta, I cannot explain e in the partic. 
of the simple verb. e. Mefa. See 28 
below on the sense. 

14. Swisewe; dative of instrument ? 

15. If Pistoniro can mean (as a col- 
lective noun) chesnuts, or other such 
food; to render Wcpessottra, roast chis- 
nuts, pleases me better here than roast 

16 TABLE lib. 

(fesnafc benus, 17 capro m purdowetu. Waputo m sag^i" 1 Jowj 
I ffana veneris, caprum porricito. Epulum sanctum Jovi 
( Patri prepesnimu : weppessottra pesnimu, wescles pesnimu. 
( Patri ante ministrato : assa ministrato, vasculis ministrato. 

i Ahtrepuratu, 19 arpeltu, statitatu. Wesclo postro 

I (Dapes) exponito, (convivas) appellate, collocate. Vasculww in posticc 
( pesstu. Ranu 20 pesnimu, poni pesnimu, winu pesnimu, 
{ ordinato. [Collyra] ministrato, thure ministrato, vino ministrato, 
i unne pesnimu : 21 enoc ems detu. 
( aqua ministrato : turn (dapem) illis dato. 


( Witlo m wofro m pone heries ^fa^o, eroho diglo m sestuj 
( Vitulum f tenerum quum voles sacrificare, eundem munus sistito; 
( Jowe Patre. Pone seste(s), 23 orfeta manowe m habetu. Esto 
T. Jovi Patri. Quum sistes, fcincinno fjubaw teneto. Islam 
\ joco m habetu : 24 " Jupater sacgi(e) ! tefe esto m witlo m wofro 
( vocem concipito : " Jupiter sancte ! tibi istum vitulum tenerum 
4 sesto." ^Purdifele" 1 trijoper deitu, trijoper wofro m narratu. : 
^ sisto." Pomcibilem(A.K.) ter dicito, ter tenerum nuncupate. 
1 26 Fetu Jowe Patre "Woe iaper natine fratro m Attijerio m . 27 Ponel 
( Facito Jovi Patri, Yocia pro gente fratrum Attidiorum. Quum 
| ampenes, criccatro m destre euze habetu. Ape 2S a pel us 
(incohabis, flituum dextra fansa habeto. ETrei faperueriwi 

19. Wesclo, collectively (I think) for that the calf here is held by a ringlet of 
veasela. 0. Pestu = Perstu, Ha. 32= the vitta with which he is adorned. 
Perec-til, as Peperscust VI b. 5 proves. 27. Criccatrom, VI b. 49, is an augural 
y. Our guests would receive a roll of staff, contrasted to the military wand. 
bread, before the meat is handed : hence In sound it is like Crook, crux. ! 

I guess at Collyra for Kami ; but have it has two hilts, which alone lessens con- 

"" r t"'- fidence as to identifying 1 it with the 

20. Une, read Umne, A.K. My Unne Lituus. Crencatrom Ib. 1 1 (Criugatrom) 
=Umne. is the fuller pronuncn. 

21. Wofrom. Bycnx. I get Tenerum: 27, 28. Apelus and Mi-fa are the prob- 
ee 26. Wofrom, in form = wo/3/)oj/. lem. 1. Mefa is eatable, is cooked ; 
Benfey writes vraSfiv for afytv. Vila. 39 is broiled on a spit. It is; 

22. Eroho, for, A.K. : i.e. for solemnly given to Fidius Sanc-tus. Itial 
Erom-hont ? VI b. 60 Eri-hont is nom. added with iicla to the proseeta, VI 

'' MbK in [Win Orbita, A.K. nevertheless, IV. 14 it seems to be expia- 

May n..t tb.n this = cincinnus ? /8. tory meat. "Lay (the lituus) on 

Maoowe, in OKL MUWMtl Mug. Mane, meat" is an unlikely order : but . Antmtu, 

WcUh Mwng ike IIOI-.M-'S "flimmintendito," is at li'ast en 

H6Ck). The word Wiw \\i.!i-ly lill'used : ]}y this one il;uv \ve h-arn that M 

wit more U here neede.l in proof, If >iiig. f.-m. not. iuut. pi. 2. Apelu 

M,. nl. -I II :;s, it n in; ins Vu. 17 is lirst of four stages. The 
powblo that vitta is the true sense, and M-cund is, to distribute the llesh ; 

TAULK la. 


( , mefe attentu. Ape purdowies, destre euze habetu 

( (victimam), fjccori attendito. 'ETrel irpov^s, dextra fansa habeto 
j 29 criccatro ra ; arwio m ostettu, poni fetu. 
( flituum; verbenam proponito, thure facito. 

TABLE la, 


pEste persclo m aves anzeriates enetu, 2 pernaies, pusnaes. 
( Ita ordinem avibus observatis inito, anticis, posticis. 
( Preweres Treblanes 3 Jowe Crapowi(e) trebuf fetu. 
I Ante portas Trebulanas Jovi Crabovio tres boves facito. 
( Arwia ostentu, watowa m ferine m feitu. Heris winu, heri 
( | Verbenas proponito, sanguinem calidum facito. Yel vino vel 
(poni, 5 ocriper Fisiu, totaper Icowina, feitu sewom. 6 Cutef 
( thure, arce pro Eisia, urbe pro Iguvina, facito ritum. 
pesnimu arepes arwes. 

third to cook ; the fourth to dine. Here 
\ it is preceded by Pone ampenes, and is 

followed by distribution. It must then be 

closely concerned with killing the victim. 

Render Apelus aperueris (victimam), and 

all is plain. Attentu becomes nttendito, 
land Mefa must be one of the vitals. 

The liver was that to which primary 
, attention was given. Prima facie then, 

Mefa is the liver. This in Welsh is Afu. 

27, 28. Since Auzerio = Asserio, Onsa 
was probably Onza in Etr. U. which 
might easily become Euza. This gives 
Euze, ansa. But if we believe that 
Euze = Latin Aure, the same general 
sense results. The right ear = right hilt 
or handle. As the instrument is in the 
dative, so perhaps is that ly which one- 

TABLE la. (Etr. U.) 

2. Pro wcros arc two words by Via. 
. 58. So Pos(t) weres. Werofe Ib. 9. 
[b. 47 shows Wero to be of the o-decl. 
AVores = abl. plural (A.K.) Wer is 
" to for-is, nearly as Woco to foc-us. 
Pn and Post govern abl. (or dat.). 
5. Crapoiius seems an epithet of supe- 
-ity in the Trinity of gods, Jupiter, 
:s and Vofion. the epithet sounds 

Sewom, ritum : again Via. oG. So 
sir, ritibus, Via. 18. 
Cut of, caute, Grotefend ; A.K. I 
proof that adverbs end in -ef. On 
1 b. 9. Frohtef Ha. 26 is a 
of z-clccl. Why not also Cuti (vox 
i) Irom adj. Cuto, quietus? 

)3. Arepes arwes is also Areper arwes. 
(Besides, -pes becomes -pe, or even 
vanishes; and Tac,ez replaces Cutef.) 
I think that, in so current a phrase, 
Arepesarwes cohered in utterance ; then 
-pesar was apt to become -perar, as 
(III. 32) Ererec for Eresec. That Tacc/ 
accompanies -pe or -per, must be pure 
accident, as is the change of Arwes to 
Anvies, Arwis. The syntax of Arcp&s 
arwes is then that of Captivifl agris, i!' 
Arwi be feminine, as III. 11 implies. 
Sec on Arsir, Via. 6. An adj. in -cpo 
is possibly analogous to a Latin adj. in 
-ivo. Wo had Mers-owo above. The 
verb Eilip-ens Va. I may also bo com- 
pared, if its p be accessory. 


TAIII.E la. 

Poswere's Treblanes tref sif comiaf feitu 8 Trebe Jowie, 
( Pone portas Trcbulanas tres sues [feminas] facito Trebo Jovio, 
< icriper Fisiu, totaper Icowina. 9 8opa f sunitu, arwio m 

' ;irce pro Fisia, urbe pro Iguvina. Offas retro moveto, fverbenam 
i ostentu. Poni fetu. 10 Cutef pesnimu are arwies. 
\ proponito. Thure facito. 

i H Prewere*s Tesenaces trebuf fetu. Marte Crapowi(e) 12 fetu, 
( Ante portas Tesenacas tres boves facito. Marti Crabovio facito, 
4 ocripe(r) Fisiu, totaper Icowina. Arwia ostentu, 13 watowa m 
( arce pro Fisia, urbe pro Iguvina. f Verbenas proponito, sanguinem 
\ ferine m fetu, poni fetu. Cutef pesnimu arpes arwes. 
' calidam, facito, thure facito. 

! 14 Posweres Tesenacas tref sif feliuf fetu 15 Fise sag9i(e), 
Pone portas Tesenacas tres sues [mares] facito Fidio sancto, 
( ocriper Fisiu, totaper, Icowina. 16 P6ni fetu, Sopa f sumtu, 
( arce pro Fisia, urbe pro Iguvina. Thure facito, Offas retromoveto, 
( arvio m ostentu. Mefa m , n westic ) a m ostettu; Fijowi(e) fetu. 
( fverbenam proponito. fJecur, festivam proponito; Fisovio facito. 
( Ocriper Fisiu fetu 18 capif purditaf, sacref: etraf purditaf, 
( Arce pro Fisia facito capidas profanas, sacras ; alteras profanas, 
( etraf 19 sacref, totaper Icowina. Cutef pesnimu arepes ai 
\ alteras sacras, urbe pro Iguvina. 
( ^PreweresWehijes tref buf caleruf fetu Wofine 21 Crapowi(e), 
( Ante portas Yehijas tres boves fcandidos facito Yofioni Crabovio, 
( ocriper Fisiu, totaper Icowina. 22 Watowa m ferine fetu, he 
( arce pro Fisia, urbc pro Iguvina. Sanguinem calidum facito, 
i winu, heri poni. 23 Arwio m ostentu. Cutef pesnimu 
( vino vcl thure. f Yerbenam proponito. 

7, H. Comiaf (gomiaf), Feliuf (tiliuf 
(VIb. 3) Bfcm to mean I'l-inali- and male. 
Jf liliuf }>c nally Latin lilios, i-oiniaf is 
probably daii^rliteis or jrirls. 

9, 1C. xllintii. '1 lii-; ill Hi >, < n. -, 

toreqii'iKl t.. A].. x.j... pn-tm IH-IHTM-UM. 

. tliat a^ain to Sopa! jiostral' 

Thus Sumtu means .-.<( 

e Omni. IV. i;;. 
,, \ 1 1.. .:.', is Mihoiu 

(llbl>otu ?). Kff on Via. 61, and i-uiji. 
tuboco . \ la. '2'2. < Hutu to 

i .. \ i il:i - the < arlii r eonjeetnn s : MI 
ntniht \\hieli no\\ BOOIM "in, 
Ha. 24, Ulnihi! to that la i. and in 1G. 

17. -Fijovi, a corrupt proiiuncn. 
Fisovic, VIb. 6. 

18, 1!). One double set of jugs (s 
mid profane) for the . 

douhle set for the city. (Jmp. VI 1). 
'1 lie v( rb Fetu here governs both claua 
to insert Aitn \\iih the latter \\ould 
false contrast. This pas>a^e is imj 
::nt, a.s li\in- the >eiise of j'nrdito, r 
munis, prol'anns; and thereby d> h nni 
the moral M-n.^e of the verb Tnrdo\ 
\\hieh as an out \\ard action v. 

20. Cah-ruf is t \phuntd b\ A.K. 
l.-idorns and J'h:lo\i'iins . 
' \\ hit -! routed." (Kqui i-allidi or 

TAKLE la. 19 

.( 24 Poswcres Wehijes tref hapinaf fetu Tefre Jowie, 25 ocripcr 
( Pone portas Yehijas tres agnas facito Tcfro Jovio, arcc pro 
( Fisiu, totaper Icowina. Postc asiane fctu, zeref fctu, 26 pelsana 
1 Fisiii, urbe pro Iguvina. facito, f dorsa facito, vellera 

( fctu. Arwia ostentu, poni fetu. Tagez pesnimu 27 areper 
( facito. f Verbenas proponito, thure facito. 


( Api liabina m purdijus, sorom pessontrom ^fetu. Esmic 
\Postquamagnam Trpovet/j.r]s, tTru-yV piatoriam facito. Ibidem. 
( westi9am prewe fictu. Tefre Jowi(e) fetu ocriper 29 Fisiu, 
( fcstivam fsemel f jungito Tefre Jovio facito arce pro Fisiu, 
( totaper Icowina, destruco peri. Capire perum, feitu. 
( urbe pro Iguvina, dextram ad frontem. Capide prorsum, facito 
( 3() Api erel purdijus, enoc sorom pessontrom feitu. 
1 (Postquam alteram Trpoveiws, turn quoque tTwyV piatoriam facito. 
( 31 * Staflaim esmic westia m affictu. Ocriper Fisiu, totaper 
( [Humeralem] ibidem festivam adjungito. Arce pro Fisia, urbe pro 
| Icowina 32 feitu, nertruco peri. Capire perum feitu : pon^ 
( Iguvina facito, sinistram ad frontem. Capide prorsum, facito : thure 
/ feitu. Api sorof purditius, enoc hapinarum erus 
( facito. Postquam t Ttvyas Trpoye^stuniquoque agnarum illis(sc. conmvis) 
( ditu zeref. :u Comoltu zeref; comates pesnimu. 
(dato f dorsa. Mola-conspergito dorsa ; (cibis) paratis ministrato. 

31. In the original, Stafli : iowesmic. I print Staflaim esmic, as the slightest change 
)f forms that I can devise, yielding the needful sense. 

s so interpreted as rustic Latin, I sup- get this out of i/amo-arco, from Scrsc, 

tosc.) In Gaelic, Geal is white : -ro is vurov. I regard this as a verification. 

irobably added as -dus in frigidus, humi- 27. For Sorom, sec on Ila. 8. 

his, candidus. Compare Candeo with 28. Esmic, avrodi. The form involves 

.Minis and Geal; and Candido will re- no difficulty, as = Ese-mi-c; since we 

resent Caloro. have Esome'c Ib. 8 = Esome VIb. 47. 

24. Hapina, Ilabina, agna. It can 28, 31. Fictu, Affictu seem (by cnx.) 

liardly be anything else than a lamb or to mean jungito, adjungito. The form 

flid, because we know the names of other is near to Germ, fiigcn. A.K. corral 

u-tims. Ilabina (Habna) is not remote the latter to Fictu, and identify it with 

oiu afj.i>bs. Fingito, in which I see no meaning. 

IV). Postc asiane: whether Foste mean 30. Erel, by cnx. alter. It is \\Vish 

roptcr is uncertain: hence we cannot Arall. Possibly Erel is right; as Eral- 

'uess at Asiane. jB. Zeref = Serse often in<justVIa. 7. It seems to be indeclinable. 

, as a part of the victim. I think 31. Staflaim, I suppose to be .Staflanm 

means Dorsa, Tcrga, and that Serse, (VIb. 39) rudely pronounced. I con- 

'"Ia. 2, 16, means In tergum, i.e. rctror- jecture that Stafla = armus; and Scapla 

nn, which brings that passage into liar- (VIb. 49, scapula) humerus. Robinson 

i"ny. It equally agrees with Via. 5. Gr. Antt. gives us one interprn. of 

''situ, VIb. 41 by cnx. I rendered w/4o0eT6?r, to cut pieces out of the shonl- 

versato," and afterwards found I could for. The interprn. testifies to the practice. 




1 1 Wocucom Jo wiu, pone owef furfatt, tref witluf toruf 2 Marte 
( Focum ad Jovium, quum oves [tondent], tres vitulos tauros Marti 
( Horie fetu, popluper totas Ijowinas, totaper Icowina. 
iHoghio facito, pro populo urbis Iguvinae, pro urbe Iguvinu. 
( 3 Watowa m ferine fetu, poni fetu, arwia ostentu. Cutty) 
( Sanguinem calidum facito, etc. 

pesnimu 4 arepes arwes. 

( Wocucom Coreties tref witlup tony? Honte 5 Qe(r)fi(e) feituJ 
I Focum apud Quiritii tres vitulos tauros Honto Cerfio facito, 
(popluper totas Ijowinas, totaper Ijowina. "Watowa 6 ferine 
( pro populo urbis Iguvina3, 

feitu, arwia ostentu, tenzidim arweitu. Here's winu, hens 7 poni 
feitu. Cutef persnimu anpes arw/s ; 

( inoc ocar pihaz fust. 8 Swepo esomec esono anter-AA-acaxt 
( tune arx piata fuerit. Siquid hac in religione intermendosuin 
( wagetoim se, awif azzeriatu ; 9 werofe Treplanu f cowertu :| 
( in vitiato sit, avcs observato ; portas ad Trebulanas conyertito :l 
( restef esono m feitu. 

( finstaurationcs rcligionum facito. 

TABLE Ib. (Etr. U.) 

1. Furfat= Furfant VI b. 43. Pone think Antler to be adverbial (interea) and 

furfunt, gbcmti to denote the season; hence "NVacaxo to be tlu- lunnin. of a noun. '1 

. ..rl'ant, tondent. Upon words Wacaze...a^ it' aro lu-n- mi- 

iiM-lf. one; but an- clearly separated in VIb 

. ildeil \\itb mi in-epic 47, from which one imi>; not li::!itl_ 

nf meat for Jlontus deviate. Swepo looks like Siijuod ; lu 

\ve art: hardly eonipetent to atli;: 

."in. to (h-\-(.~. rihax=^ it cannot be Siquid. I understand**! 

\.K. Aitiatosif'as idiomatic i'or "in vi: 
A'lUSaae, 8$v; v - '"in, point 9. ResttT (i)i'ima laeie) i- 

' ilecl. ace. pi. i-'rom i 

(00 in \'11>. 17) seeuis = -08U8, -wSTjs. Ha. 5, I make Kesti, ijistanrati' 1 

1 hreen ret the MUM sought by A.K. in advrrj 

. ' HUO." This ilermi. makis li-Jit ! 
1 admit it is '. 

TABLE Ib. 21 


i 10 Pone poplom afferom heries, awef anzeriato etu, pernaiaf 
( Quum populum f rccensere voles, aves observation ito, anticas, 
j n postnaiaf. Pone cowortus, crencatrom hatu ; enomec 12 pir 
( posticas. Quum converteris, f lituum capito ; tune ignem 
t ahdimem ententu. Pone pir entelus(t) ahdimem, 13 enomec 
( in a?de incendito. Quum ignis f incaluerit in cede, tune 

Ssteplatu " Parfam desswam tefe, tote Icowine." 
carmine-invocato " Parrbam 5etai/ tibi, urbi(que) Iguvinae." 
( u Wapefem awieclufe compifiatu : wea m awiecla m rsonome etu. 
( [Curias] ad Augurales conspicito : viam auguralem in sacrum ito. 

i 15 Prinowatu(s) etuto: percaf habetuto Poniate(s). Pone 
Patricii cunto : virgas habento Punicae-mali. Quum 
I f menes 16 Aceroniamem, enomec eturs(i)tamu : " Tota m Tari- 
venies Aquiloniam, tune ecsecrato: " Urbeni Tadi- 
|nate m , trifu m 17 Tarmate m , Turscom Naharcom nomem, 
tnatem, agrum Tadinatem, Tuscum JS'abarcum nomen, 
(Japuzcom nomem 18 swepis habe, *portatu (u)lo pue mers 
(japudiscom nomen siquis habet, portato filluc? quo(?) fas 

18. Portatulo, of the Inscr. is corrected by VI b. 55. Yet the sense Ulo, illuc, 
though suitable here and Va. 25, 28, is against analogy. We had Erac, iliac, III. 12 ; 
Eruc, illic, III. 14. Moreover we have no accus. for Portatu. 

10. Afferom, ctrcumfene, A.K. Latin I suppose Awieclo, auguralis, to be a 
has An-quiru, with An = amb; but I do proper adjective; though -do generally 
not see this once in Umbrian, which uses denotes a derivative noun. So "in Latin 
Ambre for Amb. 'Aj/a seems to exhaust Ludicra, Ridiculus, Majusculus are adjec- 
the senses of Umbrian An. tives. Wea = Via. 

11. Hatu: see on Ila. 22. 15. Prino-watu, so analyzed, gives 

12. Entelust : only here, and VIb. 50. princeps sanguis, i.e. procer, patricius. 
Sense and sound guide to Incaluerit. Now in Ib. 41, the Prinowatus are con- 
This word, and Ententu, incendito, give trasted to the Conine, the patricii to the 
some mutual support. plebs. This not only confirms the sense 

13. Hence and from Via. 2, 3, we get patricii, but verifies that of Watovva, I 
Stiplo, cantilena, Stiplatu, cantato, car- think, beyond reasonable doubt. /3. Per- 
mine invocato. (I am- unable to see cat' poni^ate(s) : VIb. SlPercaponisiater : 

stipulate here.) For etm. (m'xa, a verse, excellently explained by A.K. from Ser- 

; satisncs me. I even suspect that Lat. vius on JEn. 4, 137, as "virgas ex malo 

Stipulor meant, "I repeat a carmen or Punico." y. Menes, is either irregular, 

formula." Parfam-tefa etc., is a quota- or is to be corrected into Benes : 
tion mutilated for conciseness : Via. 5, 18. 16. Eturstamu = Ehe-turs(i)ta-himu. 

For the sense of Desua, see Appendix II. Tursita is a frequentative form from Turs, 

14. Wapefem = Waperf-en. Final e found in Tursitu, sacrato, Ib. 40, Vila. 

,of Awieclufe (otherwise snperfluous) ap- 51. Here, adjure, conjure, may be all 

pears like concord; and suggests that that is meant. 

I there may be concord in III. 20, IV. 6. ^ 18. Mers; fas. See Via. 28. 0. Uru; 



19 Pone prinowatqfl 

Quum patricii 
' ' * Armamo, 20 cateramo, 
' * f Aimemitr, f catervemur, 
tores et pure : poni 
tauris et igni: quum 

(ambrefus, 21 persnimu. Enomec, "Etato, Icowinus!" 

( ambieris, ministrato. Tune (dicito), 4 ' Itatum [A.K.] Iguvini!' 1 
( Trijoper ampre/itu, ^trijoper pesnimu; trijoper, 

Ter ambito, ter(precem) ministrato; ter (dicito), 

" Etato, Icowinus ! " Enomec 23 prinowatus cimo etuto,. 
Itatum, Iguvini!" Tune patricii [domum?] eunto, 

( erahont wea ^imo etuto prinowatus. 
( eandem viam [domum ?] eunto patricii. 

( est, feitu urn pere mers est." 
( est, facito fulla re, quali fas est." 
( staheren termnesco, enomec : 
( stabunt ad terminos, tune (dicito) : 
j Icowinu(s) ! " Enomec appretu 
( Iguvini!" Tune ambito 

[ persnimu. Enomec, 



j 24 Fontlere trif aprof rufru f ote peiu f feitu Qerfc Marti(e). 
( Ad Fontulos tres apros rubros aut fpiceos facito Cerfo Martic 

\\'atowo m tferiwe m fetu, arwio m ostentu, puiii fetu- 
I Sanguinem calidum facito, fverbenam proponito, thure facito. 
^Tacez pesnimu arepe anves. 

( 27 Rupinie tre f porca f rufra f ote peia f fetu Pre.stat. 
In agro Ilubinio tres porcas rubras aut fpiceas facito Praestitae 
Qerfes Marties. Peraia f fetu, arwia ostc ntu 
Cerfi Martii. Primoevas facito, f verbenas proponito. 

1!. Armano, of the IIIMT. should undoubtedly be Armamo =Arsmahamo of VIb. 56. 
25. Fcrinie, is altered to Ferine by A.K. Rightly perhaps: yet rustic Latin 
Formus, ealidufi, makes it possible tbat Ferine, Fc'iime were both right. Cmp. 
Ill III. 1(), 1 nn\\ write Ferrime with double r. 

Hut the form -hamo docs not recur. ft- 
If \v of Caterwa vanished in Catevahaino. 
that is hut as Scritu for Seruito, sn\ate 
So with ns, Noricli for Norwich, 

23. I'nlcss (Jinioniean dointim, 01 
then (if somel 1 1 a. 27 In- simul] 
think of nothing else but " in inarch' 
1 find that cenm in (iaelic means a step 
or pace. /8. Erahont, perhaps f 

I'-nt, as Vib. GJ. El>c for !'. 
See lib. 22. 

24. I'eio, evidently a colour, 
well render it by piceus. L had tl 
of <>aov. 

r' i Va. .">, VIb. 55. Nothing nearer 
tiiln* ;I\>\H".IV* . svhicli in an ailinna- 
!;tiiM- may lu- rnulcn-d i/uiris, as 
here, "I.-t liini olll-r //</ la\\l'ul 


lid p. pi. fut. A.K. 'Fili- 
form docs nt K mi. 

: i" ArMiiahamu 
eaternhaiun. VI 1>. .>(;. Kviilnuly Ar ami 

Tt UK-ail the >ailir. Km";,! ,h- 
enrw r. mark. Wln-n in Latin -aiiuir, 
-nur ; -erit, erat ; i 

, -haiiio and -hiiiiu in 
Umbnuu an nut likd\ to lie tin 


( 29 Capif ,sacra f aitu; wesclo wetu, atro alto. 
( Capidas sacras f ordinato; vasculum fvoveto, nigrum album. 

fetu : 30 ta9ez pesnimu areper anvcs. 

j' 31 Tra Sate trcf witlaf feitu Tusse Qorfio Qorfes Marties. 
( Trans Sahatam trcs vitulas facito Tursac Cerfia? Cerfi Martii. 
\ :; -IVraia f fctu ; arwia ostcttu, puiii fbtu ; ta9c/ pesnimu 
( Primaovas facito ; verbenas, etc. 

^arepcr arwes. 

\ Pone purdincus(t), caretu, pufe aprof 34 facurent. Puze erus 
( Quum porriciet, calato, ubi apros f facturi sint. Prout illis 
( dera, ape erus derust, postro 35 9oppifiatu Rupiname, 
( assignat, postquam illis assignaverit, retro conspicito, ad llubinam, 
( erus dera ; ene tra Sahta m coppifiaja, 36 erus dera. 
( (si) illis assignat ; item trans Sahatam conspiciat, (si) illis assignat* 
( Eiio Rupiname postro cowertu; aiitacre 37 comate 

( Turn ad Rubinam retro convertito ; integro (membro) parato 
(pesnimu. Eiio capi f sacra f aitu; wesclo wetu. ^Eno 
| ministrato. Turn capidas sacras ordinato ; vasculum fvo veto. Turn 
Satame cowertu, aiitacre comate pesnimu. Eiio esono 
( in Sahatam convertito, integro parato ministrato. Turn sacrum 
(purditum fust. 
( profanum fuerit. 

29. Sacraf, generally Sacrcf. Latin 
lias the same variety, Sacer and Sacris. 
j8. Aitu, Wetu. The process indicated 
is developed in the parallel passage, 
Vila. 9-36. Therein, black and 
white vessels are solemnly devoted to 
1'nustita ; which guides us to render Wetu, 
voveto; though Wotu might have been 
expected. (Ha. 39 Wotu has some other 
SIMISC). Next, it is clear, Vila. 25, that 
the vessels are ranged said, piled, the white 
across the hlack, in rows. This suggests 
that Aitu means "range" the vessels. 
Aitu, qu. for Aliitu ? Aghitu ? Arhitu ? 
I think of ticrra. Rciho, row ; Ital. Riga, 
line, also opxos, whence opxapos, per- 
haps the nearest Greek representative- of 
Rex, as opeyu of Rego. We can but 
conjecture here ; but what if Umbriuu 
had Arhitu (in form = regito ; in sense, 
"range thou"), connecting Helium with 
Uegcre (Hpxfivr) opeyetj/? Aio (Ha. 4) 
regula (?) Aitu, ordinato ; would be con- 
tractions not Avorse than Omtu (obmo- 
veto), Dertu (dedicate). Lastly, the 
vessels, being black and white,' were 

either wooden or earthenware : not earth- 
enware, else the piling would have been 
too unsafe : hence, wooden. 

31. Trans Sahatam. The Sahata may 
seem to have been a stream or rill, easily 
crossed, and of augural importance. See 
Vila 5, 39. 

33. Purdinc,us (of same type as Com- 
bilia-neius), corrupted into Purdi- 
tius, Purdijus, la. 33, 30, 27. Comparing 
its use after Pone and Ape (Ila. 7, 9) 1 
infer that it nmst express the vague 
Latin future, and neither the future past, 
nor the paulo post, -MTIM 

34. Facurent. The rnx. nsiuires that 
it be, as usual, future; in form = Feeeriut. 
but from I'Yeero, not from Fee. rim. To 
make this intelligible in Latin, one must 
>;iy Karturi sint, 

*34-38. The augural postures are per- 
plexing, nor can 1 profess to gain clear 
ideas here. L suppose the cooked joints 
of 36 and 38 belong to the three calves. 
.Dera (Dirsa) I believe to be the verbal 
stem, and, by rule, the 3rd per. sing, 
pres. indie. So in Vb. 13, ami in An- 

24 TABLE Va. 

^Postertio pane poplo m adderafust, iwecca ra peracre m 
Post tertiuw (diem) quam populum indicaverit, juvencam fapatav 
ftussetu 41 super comne arfertur. Prinowatus duf tussetuto: 
( sacrato super plebe f dictator. Patricii duas sacranto: 
< hoddra Foro m Sehmeniar hatuto. Eaf iwecca f 43 tre f Aceronie 
( infra [Fora] Semoniaj capiunto. Easjuvencas tres Aquiloni 
( fetu Tusse Jowie. Arwio m ostettu : 44 poni fetu : peraia f 
( facito Tursac Jovia3. f Yerbenam proponito : thure facito : primagvas 
( fetu. Taez pesnimu arepe arwes. Cuestre tie usaie sweso- 
( facito. 



pEsoc fratcr Attijerior 2 eitipess plenasier urnasier, olitretie 
( Hoc fratres Attidii [gcstimant] plenariis urnariis, auctoritate 
( 3 T(oticer) T. Castruije r . Arfertur pisi pumpe 4 fust (ocre) 
I Pra3fecti T. Castrucii. f Dictator qui cunque fuerit (arci) 
4. Ocre is inserted by me, as in 16. 

t'ust, analogous to in-dicu-verit. 42. Sehmeniar, gen. sing, -\vith final 

Uubina was the great repository of sacred -r for -s, is new in this dialect. But in 

vessels ; if (37 as 29) the vow is confined the very next table, this change is uni- 

te this region. versal. Shall we say that this denotes 

40. Postertio, post tertium diem ? Post incipient transition ? Nay, but in Erc- 

(apy.) governs abl. elsewhere. If it can- rec, Fesnere, Facurcut, it "was long rsta- 

not take ace. A.K. suggest to construe it blished ; the transition began earlier. 

a* " Tertio post quam." "What is more, we have noted in lib. 2 

40-43. Comparison with Vila. 51,52, nouns in "a pure" to make dat. pi. in 

i instructive. Comne in Oscan means ri -ias. What wonder, if such nouns made 

Koo^y. In hotli languages the word seems gen. sing, in -iar, avoiding ambiguity? 
to bo imported and corrupt Latin. So, Sehmenia appears to me a female name 

I think, Juenga, Iwecca, must have been. (a goddess :) relating to the god Sorao. 

TABLE Va. (Etrus. U.) 

2. EitipesEitipens, A.K. So I had (so unlike anything from if^w or Wa. li- 

Ukenit. Thftrrauto it "deweferunt ?" sen,) that Ohtur, Ohm-tic, lor magistor, 

Why pi* ,iiily Indie. auctoritatf, can hardly lie native I'm- 

Are then -M and -nt identical, as lu-ian. Did not the formula Auctoritate 

vvrrovvi (-*r\nrrovfft) ^srfarrovTt? For Prn-toris jiash into Umhria, as Octroi into 

'' .!,!,..:: VII). 43, l-'rance, with Roman supremacy ? Oht- 

! ' '.'' . in 1'ut. pra-t. indie. irlic may be a clumsy imitation <>f 

m. .n. \. t^i. l''soc Au.t.iritate. 

dtipeM,"scttlr this /<//,- /"'is A.. Miip.ant 3. In the iir,4 initial of T. T. 

the word r - /3. Urnusia, III. ;{. y. oh- trtirijc, as <>f (.). T. Cluwijer, I see the 

:' : '..Tilali-, IVciiu <>J/ic<', 1'rct'cct, (iu:i-;tor, on which the 

, , , , 

Vui-tor, Aiii-turitas "authority" was grounded : lor its meu- 
: ' : i"uiiiu .1 bistory, tion seema strictly aecessary. ^. Pisi, 



( eicwasese Attijerier, ere ri esone 5 curaja. Prehabia, 
( oppido f que Attidiis, illc rei religiose curet. Praesumat 
( pire uraco ri esona G si, herte ; et, pure esone siss, 
Iquidquid fulla cum re religiosa sit, ultro; et, fquot religioni sint, 
( sacreo 7 peracneo opetu. Rewestu, pore derte 
( (tot) hostias aK/^aias procurato. [Kespondeto,] qvmenam? f dicto 
j 8 ero m emantur herte : et, pihaclu pone 9 tribrigo fuiest, agruto 
( eorum sumantur ultro : et, piaculum quum rpirrvs erit, ab agro 
( rewestu 10 emantu herte. Arfertur pisi pumpe 

( [respondeto] (ut) sumantur ultro. f Dictator qui cunque 

qui, A.K. Also Poi is qui ; and Pore, 
Porsc is qui, sing, or pi. A.K. recognize 
that Pore strictly means qualis ; like 
II quale, oiroios and Which, in modern 
Europe. Pisi (Via. 7) is qmspiam. Pisi 
pumpe here and Pisi panupe VII b. (qui 
cunque, quiquandoque) make Pisi nearly 

4. Eicwascsc Attijerier yields no syn- 
tax. As the only safe correction, I insert 
Ocre as in 16 ; then Attijerier is dat. pi. 
in concord with two datives singular. 
The adj. Eicwasat(o), III, 24, 29, im- 
plies a noun Eicwasi, rather than 
Eicwasesi ; hence I get -se = re, que : 
but confirmation is needed. The sense 
of Eicwasi (oppidum) is suggested in 1 6 
by the contrast to arx. It is confirmed 
on observing that as Oppidum = eTrnreSo;/ 
(for adv. Oppido = plane), so Eicwase 
alludes to Lat. sequus, level. We may 
hence presume that Eicwo means fiat in 

5. 12, Prehabia, Prehabia; cmp. neg- 
lego, negligo. The sense needed is, 
Praesumat, not Prajbeat. Habetu, Hahtu, 
ordinarily mean Capito. Join Prehabia 
herte, capiat ultro, pro suo imperio. . 
Ura, = ullfi ? . c. quavis. Only in I b. 
18, VI b. 55. 

6. Pure, Puri, qui, A.K. It occurs 
only in Table V. and the passage before 
us seems to prove that Pure means quot. 
I make Sacreo its grammatical ante- 
cedent, without which the dative Esone 
is unintelligible. Esone est, religion i cst, 
(it is a religious duty,} distinguishes the 
moral sense of Esono from Sucre, sarrr; 
Pihato, piatum. JX T o other Urnbrian root 
appears for Lat. religio. . Sacreo, later 
Sacr/o, arc ncut. pi. as Lat. tristt'fl : so 
final o in accusative of conson. decl. 
stands for Greek o (A.K.). But I exact 
stronger proof before I can believe that 
in the o-dccl. Wesclo and Wescla in- 

differently mean vascula, and that in the 
-dec. Motto andMoltaalike meanmulcta. 

7. Derte = dicto ? or assiguatione, 
sententia : though abl. would please me 
better than dative. Eorum, sc. fratrum ; 
rather elliptical. The dictator is to take 
the responsibility of applying the breth- 
ren's principle : he may be fined, if he 
does it wrongly (Vb." 1-6). Rewestu 
emantur must approximate to jnbeto 

7-10. A.K. acutely explained Sis 
(= sins, sint,) Emantur (= sumantur), 
Tribrico (= rpirrvs, Via. 54), Acrutu 
perhaps = Agruto, ab agro, Vb. 9. (On 
postposn. -to, see Vila. 8.) But the 
whole remained obscure. I now find 
light in Vila. 52 ; where, after three 
heifers have been devoted, they are to be 
caught by "whoever pleases" below the 
fora of Semonia or Semo ; and whatever 
three arc first caught, are to be sacrificed. 
This shows Herte, ultro, "at will," to 
mean here, not the good will of the 
owner, but the arbitrary will of others. 
"Rewestu emantur" comes twice, but 
the second time the emphasis is on the 
accessory word Acrutu, which, therefore, 
takes the lead. Ab agro, ipso ab agro, is 
perhaps equivalent to " Below Semonia's 
fora." Rewestu, Rcvisito, might mean 
rccenseto, review ; but to get jubcto out 
of that, is hard. Is it Recitato ? Renun- 
ciato ? Respondeto ? The last well fixes 
on the dictator the responsibility. In 
my first efforts I had rendered Westeis, 
Via. 22, vota or sponsionem, and wrote 
Revoveto for Rewestu. I am confirmed 
in the opinion that West = Breton 

gwestl, sponsio ; and niulrr Kr\vestu = 
in sc recipito, "let him be responsible." 
Facciolati interprets Pacuvius's phrase 
Hostire ferociam byFerooia respondn-t. 
Emantur " arc to be seized," appears to 
be future and subjunctive. 

i; TABLE Va. 

( n fust, eroc esonesco vcpurus felswA, 12 arputrati 
( fuerit, ille religiosis cum 5/a/c^o$ [pignoris captionc] arbitratu 
( fratro m Attijerio m prehwbia, et fnurpenner prewer posti 
I fratrum Attidiorum praDSumat, et [taxandis] singulis proptei 
(castrowof. 14 Frater Attijerior eso eitipess plenasier, 15 urnasier 
( fundos. Fratres Attidii hoc [ocstimant] plenariis urnariis 
( ohtretie C(westurer) T. Cluwijer, 16 comnacle Attijerie, ocre 
(auctoritate Quaestoris T. Cluvii, communitati Attidiae, arci 
( eicwdsese Attijerier. 17 Ape apelust, muneclo m 

( oppido f q ue Attidiis. Postquam (victimam) aperuerit, f munusculum 
( habia numer 18 prewer posti castrowof. Et ape purdito m 
(habeat nummis singulis propter fundos. Et postquam porrccta 
1 19 fust, moneclo liabia numer dupler 20 posti castrowo f . Et 
( fuerit, f munusculum habeat nummis duplis propter fundos. Et 
j ape subra spafo m fust, 21 moneclo m habia nuiner tripler 
( postquam super f verubus fuerit, munusculum habeat nummis triplis 
( posti 22 castrowo f . Et ape frater cersnator furent, 23 ohwelclo 
I propter fundos. Et postquam fratres cenati fuerint, prommciatuin 
( feia fratrecs ote cwestur, 24 swe rehte curato m si. Swe mestro 1 
( faciat magister aut qucestor, si recte curatum sit. Si major 
( caro m ^fratro 111 Attijeriom, pure iilo benurent, 2G pros^curent 
( pars fratrum Attidiorum, fquot filluc venerint, fprociderint 
( rehte curato m ero m , erec ^profe si. Swe mestro m caro m fratro" 
( recte curatum esse, illud probe sit. Si major pars fratrum 
( Attijeri6 ra , 28 pure ulo benurent, pros/curent 29 curato m rehte 
(Attidiorum, fquot filluc venerint, fprociderint curatum recte 
( neip ero m , enoc fratro m (Vb. 1 ) ehwelclo m feia fra trees 2 ote 
( non esse, tune fratrum pronunciatum faciat magister aut 

( ewestur, panta motta 3 arferture si. Pantu m motta m 

l<iua?8tor, quanta multa fdictatori irrogetur. Quantum multam 

11. !'. i-\\.i, l.\ m\. i>c()-onliii;itt' with 17-22. I adopt the of 

Nttn>fiiin .-, \\liu !. ,-vi -ii if <-(.rni].t, has Muneclo, NUHUT, (, 1 ersuutor, Krom (osse] 

theuyntojc (.1 .Nc.iin-iindis. from A.K. Whether Muneclo (Lat. 

tin- l'rcf.vt'> aiiihurity Munus, a share,) ho native Umhrian, 

without th, ijiui-t. r's tumid iusulliricii't I doubt. Sec on Ib. 41. On Spatb, 

A n.\\ d.rr., c;uin..t i -m see VI b. 17. 

'.Ii--., iiihiy uith -jti. By Procido, I mean Becldo, decide 

,13, tun) i> totally unintelligible \\ithoiit. Hm-ti, Vb. 6. For th tiTminn. see on 

Thenominative8ofl7ui.ini;;. .MM, Via. 20. 
2 hat no wn.s< until \v. 

TABLI-; Vb. '.X 

^ fratro m 4 Attijeri6 ra mestro euro, pure ulo 5 benurent, arferture 
( fratrtim Attidiorum major pars, fquot f illuc venerint, f dictator! 
( ero m pepurcurent G hcrifi, etaiito motto arferture si. 
(esse poposcerint volunturie, tanta multa I dictator! irrogetur. 



i 8 Clavemiur dirsas hcrti fratrus Atiersier, posti aciiu, 
\ Clavernii assignant ultro fratribus Attidiis, propter [agnationem} 
1 9 farer opeter p. IIII. agre Tlatio Piquier Martier et 

( farris [purgati] [pondo] IY. agro Tlatio [festis] Martiis, et 
( esna 10 liomonus duir, puri far eiscurent, ote a. YI. 
(ccnam hominibus duobus, f quot far f [messuerint] aut asses YI. 
( Claverni n dirsans lierti f rater Atiersiur, Sehmenier dequrier, 
( Clavernio assignant ultro fratres Attidii, Semoniis decuriis, 
( 12 pelmner sorser, posti acnu, uef X., cabriner uef V., 
( comburendae twwyifr, propter [ ], [libras] X., caprinao [librae] Y. 

TABLE Vb. (In Roman letter.) 

We have here two contracts, at first sense. Is it too much to extend Opetom, 

.'ight hopelessly obscure, but they have cttrafum, to "cleansed"? In English we 

been enlightened with brilliant success by used cured for " healed" and for "salted." 

A.K., in whose track I follow. I have Curare corpus certainly includes Purgaro 

the same to say as to Via. 3-21. Where corpus. 

I differ, it is hard to dcvelope reasons 10. Eisc-urent may be an unknown 

adequately, much less respectfully, in native root ; though exseco (= excido, 

foot-notes ; and silence as to their view succido, meto) is possibly hidden in eisc. 

seems often preferable. 12. A.K. discerned that the Claverniaus 

8. Dirsans, Dirsa. I take these verbs are to receive meat from each victim 
to be in the indicative, because we have (sim, caprom) offered lib. 1 as an Am- 
actual contracts before us. /3. Posti in phictionic covenant ; hence they inferred 
Va. = propter, I think ; and Postin, that as Cabriner means caprimo carnis, 
juxta (=proptcr) in IV. 13, Ila. 25. If Pelmner must (somehow) mean suilhu. 
sve press Juxta into Secundum, Acnu (of They are fundamentally right. The pig 
-decl.) may = ainu<x, as A.K. say. The lib. 8 is sacrificed, but no feast is held 
word may "also =focdus, if not yenus, on it: on the goat lib. 10-21 there is 
(tynaiio. an elaborate feast. As Pelsatu (VI b. 39) 

9. Opeter seems to he participial. No moans comburito, Pelmner must mean 
M use is so needful in a contract as pur- comburcudi. The ilesh that was to be 
f/cti ; for the earth and stones mixed burnt was that of the pig only. 

with corn before it is cleansed by the Pelmner is a rude contraction of Pel- 
''vannus," may be a great fraud on the sanuier, gen. of Pelsamn(o)s, itself con- 
purchaser. We have already interpreted tracted into Pelsans, Ila. 43. (This 
Opetu to me in citrate, in 'the vaguest removes any doubt that in Treinnu, Ti- 

28 TABLE Via. 

( pretra 13 toco m , postra fahe 8 ; et cesna, ote a. VI. 
\ priores [crudarum], posteriores coctae ; et cenam, aut asses VI. 
( Casilos dirsa herti fratrus u Atiersier, posti acnu, farer ope- 
( Casilas assignat ultro fratribus Attidiis, propter [ ], farris [purga- 
( ter p. VI. agre Casiler Piquier 15 Martier, et 9esna homonus 
( ti] [pondo] VI. agro Casik^' [festis], Martiis, et cenam hominibus 
(duir, puri far eiscurent, ote a. VI. 16 Casilate dirsans 
( duobus, fquot far [messuerint] aut asses VI. Casilati assignant 
/ herti frater Atiersiur, Sehmenier dequrier, 17 pelmner sorser 
(ultro fratres Attidii, Semoniis decuriis, comburendse trfc 
( posti acnu, uef XV., capriner uef VII S ; et 18 esna, ote a. VI. 
( propter [ ], [libras] XV. caprinae [libras] 1\ ; et cenam aut asses VI. 



( l Este persclo aveis asseriater enetu, parfa curnae dersua 
( Ita ordinem avibus observatis inito, parrha cornice f8e|'? 
(peiqu pejpa merstu. Poei angla f asseriato 2 eest, esso 
I pico pica t tyurrfpt? Qui f alites observatum ibit, f (se) ipsum 

camnc, the -mno = Latin -ndum.) If the diately confirms the latter, since Fall = 

Umbrians threw the accent on Pel of Pel- Old High Germ. Pahh = Eng. Bake, 

samrier, nearly on the German principle, irerr, coq. This in turn clears up An- 

thw might lead to a shortening of mat fehtaf, recoctas, Ila. 34. But the gram- 

which Follows the accent. - . Sorser, matical character and syntax of Toco, 

holocaust ? so I took it for awhile : but Fahe remains obscure. I see nothing 

perhaps "the rump" suffices. (Must we better than to treat them as genitive 

not understand situ collectively, of any adjectives, plural and singular ; s having 

number of pip ? Of the twenty families, improperly vanished from the latter : iu 

probably each was to have its pelsamnom full then Pretraf tocom, postraf i'ahes, 

MOMLJ i.e. priores crudon<'W ("sorsorum"), pos- 

'1 li tlesh given to be burnt to Jupiter teras cocti ; which would distinctly ex- 

would of course be raw : but what was press many pigs. If the etymology of 

to be <:;(( n ;it tin- feast, \va.s given cooked. Toco, raw, can be explained, it may clear 

Thin explains Toco, Fahe. Eton, imine- up every thing. 

TABLE Via. (In Roman letter.) 

1. A.K. \\.11 iAplain Tarfa mcrstu mnu = convertendo, if Tre =Wclsh root 

U all. abuol. in appii. tn Aveis. For Tmi (hi ml, roll, turn). Lucilius apud 

obsnra/ur one ( \ \ ,/;/<//*, nsse- Fistuni has Amtruo, spin round in the 

'!:.!. "n |I,IMI;I iMiil dance. - e. \:<n cannot (here and 1(5) 

lento see Appendix II. mean ,v/c ; mucli less is it cisdt, ctiltithus. 

EettMiett, Cm],. ;,.,-, ihis, Esir = Isir; so Eso lu;v may = Isoo 

e to insert 20, ipse. (I write Esso, Isso, believing 

Combin>t at in 17. 7. For Bern- them td conceal Ip>.) ' As III. 23, 1\"! 

), 00 on la. 26. ^5. Tre- 3, 15, Scse ;isa--ipsa ara, >o here con- 

led Zone), MO on la. 26. 


{tremnu scrse, arsferture ehueltu stiplo: "Asseriaja 
I flectendo retrorsum, dictator! praeito cantilenara : " Observe t 
( parfa dorsua, curnaco dcrsua ; 3 peico mersto, peica mersta : 

{parrbum f5e|mj>, cornicem 5etaj/; picum t aptcrrep^, picam apia-rep^: 

( mersta auei, mersta angla, esona. Arfertur eso anstiplatu : 
( apiffrcpas aves, apHTTepas volucres, religiosas. f Dictator sic recantato : 
( 4 Ef asserio parfa dersua, curnaco dersua; peico mersto, peica 
( f Ego observe parrham 8e|ij/, cornicem 5eio> ; picuin apurrcpbv, picam 
( mersta ; mersta aueif, merstaf 5 aiiglaf, esona mehe, tote 
( apiffrepav ; apHrrepds aves, apurrepas volucres, religiosas mihi (et) urbi 
( Ijoveine ; esmei stahmei stahmeitei. 
( Iguvinac ; intra hoc templum (mente) designatum. 


( Sersi pirsi sesust, poi angla f 6 asseriato fest, erse neip 
( Retro siqua steterit? qui volucres observatum ibit, illi ne 

6. For Est read Eest, as in 2 : A.K. 
have iust. 

yersely Ipsum does duty for Latin Sese, 
if I am right. For -mnu in Tremnu = 

-ndo, see Vb. 12. Ehueltu: see 

Ehwelclo Ya. 23, and \Veltu IV. 21. 
Stiplo with ^lstiplatu, surely must mean 
Carmen and Recantato. See on Ib. 13. 
77. That Asseriaja and Ef asserio ex- 
press command and response, rises out 
of the parallel. Possibly s is deficient ; 
Asseriajas, 2nd p. (Or the time of "call- 
ing by name" not being yet come, 17, 

he may here use the 3rd p.) 0. Curnaco 

is ace. sing, of conson. decl. A.K. 

3. Angla (Ancla 16) I rendered Ales ; 
A.K. suggest Oscen. It is parallel with 
Aui ; and can hardly be specific, while 
Aui is generic. On other grounds I 
identify Aquila in etm. with Ales, (Gael. 
Coileach, i.e. Quilaich, a cock ;) what if 
Ancla be a strengthened pronuncn. of 

Ada, (asgila) ales? ft. Arfertur =Ars- 

fertur. So Arniamo = Arsmahamo. "We 
may easily bo overscrupulous as to the 
distinction of r and r. If in IV. 2S 
I hesitate to change Dertu to Dertu, it 
is on account of . 

4. I do not pretend proof that Ef = 
hut it is the most obvious intrpn. ; 

and the Welsh ends first p.s. of verbs 
with f for m. 

5. Mehe, opposed to Tefe 18, reveals 
the sense of tlij words, and confirm 

Probably Eest = iest, as we immediately 

tibi in lib. 24. ft. Stahmo stahmito, 

grammatically, is static statuta. Since 
8-11 defines the limits of observation, 
i.e. the augur's templum, A.K. well 
render Stahmo the " templum," Stahmito 
" mentally "designed" by the augur. On 
the locative of rest, Esme (Eseme ? stahtne,. 
see Appendix I. 

5 7. It is possible that Sersi = retro, 
and Serse = retrorsum; but the endless 
confusion of i, e, ei, leaves us in doubt. 
5. Pirsi = Piri. quidquid ; but this word 
is evidently used vaguely as a conjunc- 
tion. (Cmp. Latin quod "in the opening 
of antiquated formulas of prayer.) Siquid 
is its easiest rendering in II a. 3, Via. 

26 ; = efrt, efrrov. e. Sesust, might 

seem reduplicate, and = sederit. Cmp. 
So = <C-o>, as I think, VI b. 16, 36. 
But by the cnx. Sesust belongs to verb 

6. Est. The sense is ibit ; we mu.>t 
read eest or icst, A.K. prints cost in the 

text. j8. 1 suppose ere erec (ille), VI b. 

50, Ya. 4, 11, to have accus. neui. 
(III. 33, 35) dative Ere = Erst-, 
cases are deficient in A.K.'s syllabic. 
7. Muga-tu and Muje-to show the 
tendency as secatu and sc^eto: in fact, 

C: y rare at all. A.K. well compare 
t. Mugire : but it admits : 
Obstrepo. 5. Arsir, Arsie Via. 24, turn 


(raugatu, nep arsir andcrsistu, nersa cour- 

( obstrepito, neve [avemincis] (avibus) intersistito, [nequo] conver- 
( tust. Porsi angla anseriato iust, 7 sue mujeto fust, ote 
( terit. Quisquis volucres observatum iverit, si obstrepitus fuerit, aut 
/ pigi arsir andersesust, dil(o) eralincust. 

( quispiam [averruncis] (avibus) interstiterit ? donum f alterabit. 


t *Verfale, pufe arsfertur trebeit, ocrer pehanner, 

I Formula (loci), ubi f dictator foperatur, arcis piandae (caussa), 

Ierse stahmito, eso tuderato est. Angluto 9 hondonm, 
illi (mente) designata, sic limitata cst. Angulo ab infimo, 
( porsei nesimei Asa Deueia est, anglome sommo, porsei 
{ quisquis proximo (ab) Ara Divina est, ang-ulum ad summum, quisquis 
( neeimei Uapersus Auiehcleir 10 est: erne: angluto t sommo 
( proximo [Curiis] (ab) Auguralibus est : etiam : angulo ab summo 

10. For sommo read somm, by A.K.'s law of the ablative. 

me to Avemmcus. (Whether the Arsi 
verti, averte ignem, reported to us as 
Etruscan, unduly biasses me, I cannot 
ay.) Arsir here appears (somehow) to 
mean Avibus. When the observer re- 
cedes, no spectator is to come b<'tw<r)i 
him and the birds. Birds receive many 
ts from augurs: arsir, MwnruMi, 
might be one of them. e. Nersa courtust : 
omp. nt-ir habas VI. 33. That Neir, 
Newa contain //r, (as in Necnbi, Ncqua, 
Nequo, or Ne iliac) seems the only tiling 

t li :tr. 

I he inscrn. has Disleralinsust ; in 
which A.K. discern Di9lo. Erali ( = 
Kruli) a verbal stem from Erel, alter, of 
la. 30? then Alterare = imminucn, lo 
impair. PorthtMOOOdtebmia nciust. 

eel' VI 49. 

8. Ucrf I compare with (jLop<j> and 

i: I'mln-ian adj. ciuliii^. 
th- is like l-'nrmali'. 1 inter- 
pret it an the lefirtne of tin n -i.ui. . 

Trcbtit, in form = transbet-it. (In tin- 
3rd p. . nret. indie. Uie I'mluian, M^ 
WtUh in lutiir.', seems to me t.. UM- the 
frnof thereto, UK Hal,,., llui.) l; u t 
thk mut bo tak. u in. tuphorically, = 
Opentur. Actual",,i, is ni >t ii,- 
taodL Bo WeUh Tr.-i'..tli, (M.-m ,,f 

Tfb) U> WOrk, lr:i\:iil. tn.tlic. y. 

.1.' p.! .n.n.r. SM II;,. s, VI.. 

CnuiO, bore omitted, as in Latin, is 

expressed in 20. 5. That Tuder means 

limex, is a capital discovery of A.K. and 
has given me great light. The Rev. J. 
Davies compares Welsh Tuedd, 

border. e. Anglufo. Postposn. -to = 

ab, Va. 9, Via. 10, 12, 13; Vila. 46. 

9. Hondomu is to Hondra, as Intimo, 
Intimo, Ultimo, to Infra, Intra, Ultra ; 
and Hondra in 15 reveals its sense by 
the contrast of Subra. Hondra reminds 
me of Under, Germ. Unter; but A.K. 
identify it with liter. 0. Nesimei : ex- 
cellently explained Proximo, with aid ol' 
Oscan, by A.K. They divide it, Ne-sinn >, 
and reconstruct an Umbrian root Nah, 
virtually = Germ, nahe, Engl. nigh, 
akin to Latin nec-tere (they say). 

7. Asa is old Roman for Ara. "Why A.K. 
should Iravr Drneia a blank, I cannot 
tell. It seems obviously and certainly to 
mean Divina, A/a, i.e. Jovis, or the Ara 
.Maxima. 7. From Ani, avis, one e\- 

i sects Auieelo, auii'uraculum, augurali 1 . 
Jut Auieelo, like auguralis, seems also 
to be adjectival, perhaps solidly an ad- 
jirtive. 'The h in it (by 12, 13) is su- 
pirlluous; jirobably as g in our foreign, 
sovereign. So Ambrehtu. l > odnihi)ei, 
inipi-operly for Amhretu, I'odnipei. 

8. It seen'is that a place or buihli: 
called Wapd' .\\viecluf, v>hieli in 1'J is a. 
limit of the city. Tin- noun is likely to 

le it.- adjective. If Awioclo he' the 

TAHI.E Via. 31 

fUapefe Auiehclu f todcome tuder: angluto hondomu Asame 
( [Curias] ad Auguralcs urbicum in limitem : angulo ab infimo ad Aram 
i Deueia, n todcome tuder : eine : tocfceir tuderus, 
( Divinara, urbicum in limitem : etiam : urbicis limitibus 

isei-podru/jpei, seritu. 
f utrblibet, servato. 


( 12 Tuderor totcor. Uapersusto Awieclir ebetrafe, 
( Linrites urbici. [Curiis] ab Auguralibus [ad columnas] 
i ooserclome, presoliafe Nurpier; uasirslome, 13 smur- 
( [ad nctiliarium] [ad pra?sidia] Normii ; ad [nctiliarium], ad myr- 
( sime, tettome Miletinar; tertiam praco m pracatarum. 
1 rhinum], ad [textrinum] Miletinae; ad tertiam [turrium turritamm]. 
(Uapersusto Awieclir carsome 14 TJestic ) ier, randeme 
( [Curiis] ab Auguralibus ad [cardinem] Festivae, ad [circum] 
(Rufrer, tettome Noniar, tettome Salier, carsome 
( Eubri, ad [textrinum] Noniae, ad [textrinum] Salii, ad [cardinem] 
( Hoier, pertome Padellar. 
( Hovii, ad [delubrum] Patellae. 


( 15 Hondra esto m tudero m , porsei subra screihtor sent, parfa m 

( Infra istos limites, quales supra scripti sunt, parrhani 

(dersua m curnaco dersua m seritu. Subra esto ml6 tudero m peico 

( Se|ta^ (et) cornicem Se|tai/ servato. Supra istos limites, picum 

noun (augurule), it is hard to find any Panupci, Pusci, Stahmci, Pcrsci) and 

adjective, suitable hove and III 7 alike, pc = Lat. quo: thus Potrupe = utroque, 

for Wapors. If "NVapers be certainly a in form. Cmp. IV. 14. The sense 

noun, Curia seems an approximate in- wanted for Sei potrupe is utrolibet. "We 

torprn. jret this by rendering Sei, sit (= Si, Va. 

10. Todcome, ill spent for Totcome, 24), in the sense of French soit, conces- 

12. totcor: from totco (= tuticus of sivcly. 

Livy) from tota, eivitas, urbs. So A.K. 12-14. This paragraph has been ad- 

Wapersus is dative or abl. pi. of conson. mirably digested, and the proper names 

det-1. from root Wapev, whence ace. pi. indicated by A. K. At the nouns 

. ~VVape(r)i'. Cf. ace. pi. Capif from which do not recur, we may guess 

Capir ; dat and abl. pi. Capirus. Tuder as we can. In Pre-solia, one may 

seems to be neuter, with abl. pi. Tudcrus : fancy pnesidia ; in prac, (tern.) 

yet it has nom. pi. Tuderor, elc arly mas- in Carso, cardo, (which in re aijraria 

culine, as Totcor denotes, in 15, porsi incar.s fossa, limes, FcurioL}; in Kami, 

perhaps might be neuter : for see Tore the Saxon round. Patella is a goddess 

Va. \. (A.K.) Tetto has double t in the inscr. 

11. Podruhpci = Potrupe. Dr for Tr [For Carso the Rev. J. Davies suggests 

is mere euphony, as Adro, Abro for Atro, to me Welsh Cors, a marsh ; Scotch. 

Apro. II is intrusive ; pei = pe (as in carec.J 

32 TABLE Yla. 

( mereto, peica mersta seritu. Sue anclar procanurent, esso 
( iLpurrtpkv, picam fyurrfpav servato. Si alites procinuerint, (se)ipsum 
( tremnu serse, 17 combifiatu. Arsferturo nomine carsitu. 
( flectendo retrorsum, conspectum capito. fDictatorem nomine calato. 

!" [ ] Parfa dersua, curnaco dersua ; peico mersto, 

" [Pompe Tati !] parrbam 5e|i<j/ ; cornicem S^iav; picum apio-repl*, 
( peica mersta ; 18 mersta aueif, mersta ancla, eesona tefe, 
\ picam kpurrfpav, itpiffrepas aves, fyurrfpas volucres, }venerare tibi 

(tote Ijouine, esmei sta] :: :ci stamitei." 
urbi(que) Iguvina3, intra hoc teiuplum (mente) designatum." 


( Esisco esoneir seueir, 19 popler anfere(m)ner et ocrer piha(m)ner 
(Hosad sacros ritus, populi frecensendi et arcis piandae, 
( perca m arsmatia habitu. Uasor uerisco Treblanir, porsi 
( virgam f militarem habeto. Yasa portas apud Trebulanas, quaecunque 
( ocrer 20 pehanner paca ostensendf, eo f isso f ostendu, pusi 
(arcis pianda3 f caussa ostentantur, ea ipsa ostendito, ut 
( pir pureto cehefidia ; surur uerisco Tesenocir; surur 21 uerisco 
( igncm ab igne ustim det ; quum portas ad Tesenacas ; turn portas ad 
( Uehijer. 
( Yehijas. 

15, 16. Hondra and Subra must govern the only occasion in the inscriptions 

genitive A.K. Esso -combifiatu, thus which needs it. Why may not Esona 

Covertu, combifiatu. Ib. 35, 36. This differ from Esonatu, merely as Adora 

nearly amounts to a verification of from Adorato in Latin ? Hither: 

Tremnu, flectendo. have not met this verb : that 

17. Why call on the dictator byname? should be stem of the adjective and 

1 lihin 2, 34 shows this to be the Eesonii of a verb (eaovo and rjeron- 

. te mihi in auspicio esse nothing incredible. Or, if there In- ;i 

Tolo. Respondet, Audivi." An ellipsis blunder, why should it stick on tli 

of the verb in what follows, is to me a letter ? The true word may as wi-11 be a 

nave <lil!i( ulty. '1 lie < :I.H' is not like verb E/i-sona. Cmp. Snato, sacratuin, 

lla. 26, Yla. '25 ; leu tin-re the abl. with probably shortened from Son:. 

the ao ti. tin- verb. Here 19. Perca : see on Ib. 15. Arsmatia: 

i ' *!' is I'l-rhaps see on lib. 7. 8. Uasor, nom. pi. masc. 

.;!. An-laf esona IB so obvious a (Cmp. Tuderor 12, thouirh that is irreg.) 

ne \\lio reads this See oil IV. 22 Torsi is bere 

M.n,]>;m> line 5, 20. Ostens-cmli, seems like a 

tative vtrb, Ostens = Lat. Osteilta. 

. . (May v.e MI])- Final / (for tt] , 

l*<e hi in r? a Latin?) lim, analo-y. k : . 1121. Cmp.Herifi, 

o to correct, gi\> us little -r no aid, M. 6, Trahuorfi Vila. 2u. A K. render 

-H we may iUppOM to he tiie the last 7. J)ia , 

thai Ditu. as llahia to Jlahitu, llabetu. 5. 

' dis- Suinr frequeiitlj nciirs in the Koinar 

iu -tur This is tallies, in the sens.* o! Dein. Nur 




( 22 P]iE UEREIR TREBLANEIR June Grabouei buf treif fetu. 
( Ante portas Trebulanas Jovi Grabovio boves tres facito. 

Eso narratu, iiesteis : 

Sic nuncupate, sponclens : 

( " Teio m subbocau subboco, 23 Dei Graboza, ocriper Fisiu, 
( "Te f vencrabor veneror, Deus Grabovie, ocre pro Fisio, 

totaper Ijouina, erer iiomne, erar nomne. Foss sei r , pacer 

urbe pro Iguvina, e/ceu/ov nomine, eWj/r?* nomine. Bonus sis, propitius 

sei r , ocre Fisei, 2 Hote Ijouine, erer nomne, erar nomne. 

sis, ocri Fisio, urbi Iguvincc, eKtivov nomine (?) enelvns nomin/. 
Arsie ! tio m subbocau subboco, Dei Grabowe. Arsier 

[Averrunce!] te venerabor veneror, Deus Grabovie ! [Averrunci] 

frite ! tio m subbocau 25 subboco, Dei Graboue. 

fSor/ioj/ ! te venerabor veneror Deus Grabovie ! 
( Di Graboi / tio m esu bue peracrei pihaclu, ocreper 
( Deus Grabovie ! te (veneror) hoc bove a/cpafy piaculo, ocre pro 

Fisiu, totaper louina, rer nomneper, 2G erar nomneper. 

Fisio, urbe pro Iguvina, ticeivov pro nomine, e/ceij/Tjy pro nomine. 

it, are the same, strengthened as 
La.t.-dem. Here alone it is repeated : 

turn turn. 

22. Uesteis (for Westens = old Latin 
? ) is perhaps nom. of pres. 
active, (softened as Tvirels for 
i/s) . In such a document as this, it 
not wonderful that the partic. active is 
elsewhere found ; but the language 
not likely to have been without it. 
general sense required here, is, "Sic 
iipato vota." Grammar forbids our 
ing Uesteis, vota ; but Spondcns 
Tota faciens) amounts to the same. See 
. Va. 7-9, for Eewcstu. If Hostiens 
spondens, we understand Hostage and 
Hostia. That Uestic should be 
different in sense from Uest, is at the 
moment an offence : but we may 
iber Fero and Ferio, Spero and 
nay, Do and Dico, Pico and 
Meo and Mico. In short, Uest 
to Welsh Guestl, Uestic to 
. /8. Suboco = sub-voco, 
A.K. If Joco III 28. = ver- 
uni, vox, Joco rather than Uoco may be 
as Umbrian. 7. For Subocau we 
times have Subocauu Vila. 33, 34, 
36. This cannot be accidental error. 

The most obvious hypothesis is that this 
is fut. = Subvocabo ; nor do I see what 
resists it. Qu. Does not Subvoco (if 
that be the true analysis) mean, Voce 
submiiisu appello ? as I understand Tac. ez. 

24. Arsie, is voc. ; Arsier is gen. sing. 
Frite ostensibly is vocative. Lassen and 
A.K. render Frite, ritu. Even in VI b. 
15, A.K. correct Fisovie erite into Fiso- 
vier frite, and render it Fidii ritu. Unless 
this be a sort of pun on the name, it 
seems to me impossible. (Who would 
say. " Jupiter ! Jovis ritu te veneror r ") 
Arsie and Arsier frite, Fisovie and Fri- 
sovier frite, etc., appear as virtual equiva- 
lents. In Latin this is harsh ; in Hebrew 
and Christian religion easy ; for with us, 
" God" and " Spirit of God" easily in- 
terchange. " Man," and the " C'cinmt 
of the Man," in Etruscan ideas also 
approximate (Horat. Ep. ii. 188) : why 
not also in Umbrian ? This made me 
think that Frite = 8cu/j.ov. On searching 
for etymology, the Scotch wraith, 5ai/j.cav y 
occurred to me. Wraith, Frit, are com- 
parable ; but I can trace it no further* 

26. That Orer = audias is more than 
possible, but has no proof. ft. Ose points 
to Osatu VI b. 24, which probably means 



i Dei Grabouie ! orer ose ! persei ocre Fisie pir orto 

I Deu8 Grabovie ! [audias preci !] siqua arci Fisiae ignis f conturbatus 

totemc lonine arsmor dersecor 27 subator sent, pusi 
( est, (vel) in urbc Iguvina fexercitus fSe^/coi f remissi sunt, (facito) ut 
j neip heritu. Dei Grabouie, persei tuer perscler uaceto m, 
( ne fdesideretur. Deus Grabovie, siquid tuis ritibus vitiatum est, 

ipesetom est, peretom est, 28 frosetom est, daetom est; 
-um (datum) est, fimminutum est, f fractum est. SaiKrbv est ; 
i tuer perscler uirseto auirseto uas est. Di Grabouie ! 

( (tamen) tuis ritibus [rb Koa^iov ($) &K.OVP.OV ratum] est. Deus Grabovie ! 
( persei mers *sei, esu bue 29 peracrei pihaclu pihafei. Di 
( quidquid fas sit, hoc bove oKpafy piaculo piavi. 1/eus 
I Grabouie ! pihatu ocre Fisei, pihatu tota louina. Di 
( Grabovie! piato arcem Fisiam, piato urbem Iguvinam. Deus 
( Grabouie, pihatu ocrer 30 Fisier, totar louinar nome m . Nerf, 
( Grabovie ! piato arcis Fisiae, urbis Iguvina3 nomen. Principes, 

28. Mersei iu the Inscr. 

Orato. (Mommscn in Oscan interprets 
r/L-t, orat.) Osc would then seem = 
ori, yet might = orationi, preci. These 
two words must lie over as doubtful. 
7. The structure of the rest is ably 
cleared bv A.K., and I think I now can 
explain the thought. Feitu, facito, be- 
fore Fuse, is to be supplied from Ila. 4. 

omissions of ceremony are treated 
:is contingent. The former is cleared up 
by 20 ; a neglect to continue the sacred 
fire ad arceni piandam. (Hence Ortom 
cannot be referred to Lat. Orior : it must 
mean conturbatum, and rather alludes to 
optvu tfpcu.) The second refers to popler 

.iiner to a neglect of the review 
of the city militia, so elaborately com- 
manded, I'll. 10-23, VIb. 48-65. With 

1 suppose that Subator = Subahtor 

jig wrongly dropped), but I render 
it lletromissi, Ilemissi (not Subacti). 
Thin sense agree* with Ila. li>, and 
yields Alitu, mittitu, Miit.ihlc to Ila. 
10, 11. -8. J-'..r d.-r.Mrnr, fiefiicoi, wi-11- 
, 166 AJIJI. on I>iTMia. Totemu 


ih\ 1), but the pure dalivr IIMT nun, mils 
to the same : hence the variations in this 

"i Tun- perscler is 

"i- i!at. pi. is nneertaiii. In 

\ .-i ( in 
M. r the dalnr '[.liual. 

The general sense is clear, though few of 
the words can be verified. Uasetom 
(Uac,etom) Ib. 8, VIb. 47 is in substance 
Vitiatum. Its root may be the Uac of 
Uacoze and Sewacne, without ceasing to 
be=Vitio, "a flaw." Whether Lat 
Vac (empty) can be included in the iden- 
tification, 1 am doubtful. Peretom is of 
unknown etm. As fl-aiperov b. 
Qairov in Homer, irapaiperov might 
become irdpairov : and if it did, it might 
explain Peretom, imminutum. T 
course, is but one possibility out oi many ; 
so of daetom (Sairov) SatKrov. Fv. 
(Fro9etom ?) for Fractum is more o 
. Uirseto auirseto, seem to require the 
sense, " orderly, disorderly." The sacred 
ceremony is valid in spite of ern> 
negligencies. KocrjueTs TO. 6/coo-^io, xal ov 
<pi\a crol <t>i\a laTiv. Hence I render 
Uas, ratum. I think of Latin Vas, >v/rfis, 
a security : which has something in com- 
mon with / W-idum. 

28. 8. Mers sei and ^cr- 
ib. 18, sho\v Mers, Mers, to lie a n. 
adj. in the predicate : virtual! 
From it I derive Merso\vo 111 (>, 1!. -S. 

30. Nerf. ace. pi. J\ T ( ro is said to be 
a prince in Sahiue. t'a^truo, \ 
also Oscan. Frit', ace. pi. is refer 
A.K. to Frit, as stem, though ti, 
plain it cr<>/>*, whether from Frit, s] 
gnnii, or from Greek <f>opd. !'> 

TABLE Via. 35 

( arsmo ; ueiro, pequo ; castruo, fri f ; pihatu. Futu fo(n)*, 
(exercitum; viros, pecus; functos, fsilvus; piato. Esto bonus-, 
( pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, 3 Hote Ijouine, erer nomne, erar 
( propitius [pace] tua ocri Fisio, urbi Iguvina?, Ixflvov nomini, l/ce^s 
( nomne. 
I nomini. 

( Di Grabouie, saluo m seritu ocre m Fisi, salva m scritu 
(Deus Grabovic, salvum servato ocrem Fisium, salvam servato 
(tota m Ijouina. Di 32 Grabouie salvo m seritu ocrer Fisier, 
( urbem Iguvinam. Deus Grabovie ! salvum servato ocris Fisii, 
( totar Ijouinar nome m . Nerf, arsmo ; ueiro, pequo ; castruo 
( urbis Iguvinre nomen. Principes, exercitum ; vires, pecus ; fundos, 
(fri f ; salua 33 seritu. Futu fo(ii)s, pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, 
( silvas ; salva servato. Esto bonus, propitius [pace] tua ocri Fisio, 
( tote louine, erer nomne, erar nomne. Di Grabouie, tio m 
( urbi Iguvina?, faelvov nomini eWj/Tjs nomini. Deus Grabovie, te(veneror) 
( esu bue, 34 peracri pihaclu, ocreper Fisiu, totaper louina, erer 
( hoc bove, aKpaiy piaculo, ocre pro Fisio, urbe pro Iguvina, ^ivov 
( nomneper, erar nomneper. Di Grabouie ! tio m subbocau. 
(pro nomine, fueiv^s pro nomine. Deus Grabovie ! te fveneraJor. 
35 Di Grabouie, tio esu bue peracri pihaclu ETRU, ocreper 
Fisiu, totaper louina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. Di 
^Grabouie, orer ose, persei ocre Fisie pir orto est, tote louine 
arsmor dersecor subator sent, pusei neip 37 hereitu. Di 
Grabouie, persi tuer perscler uacetom est, pesetom est, peretom 
est, frosetom est, daetorn est ; tuer 38 perscler uirseto m auirseto m 
uas est. 

Di Grabouie ! persi f mers?', esu bue peracri pihaclu ETRU 
pihafi. Di Grabouie ! 39 pihatu ocre m Fisi, pihatu tota louina 
Di Grabouie ! pihatu ocrer Fisier, totar Ijouinar nome. Kerf, 

contrast of " Castruo, Frif," is rather only Sonus in Umbriau pronunciation, 

that of cultivated and uncultivated land, not a participle. )8. Pase (though never 

and suggests to me "Fundos, Saltus." written Pa<je) is identified with Latin 

In I Ionian revenues the Saltus are alwaj-s Pace by Lassen and A.K. If this be 

prominent. Now in Welsh and Gaelic correct, it must have been imported from 

i'Yidd, Frith mean forest, silva; and give Latin. Pax Pactum from Paciscor pro- 

exactly the root Frit. bably belongs to the root Pago, Pai^o. 

30. )3. Fons, Pacer, are interpreted Only by a peculiar accident has Pax 

from the formula of Festus, (given by gained the sense of Venia, Benignitas. 

iolati under Strufertarii) Prccor te, Could it take so deep root in an Umbriau 

Jupiter, ut mihi volens propitius sis, etc. hereditary ritual? 
But Fons (stem Ion of coiison. decl.) is 


arsmo ; ueiro, ^ pequo ; castruo, fri ; pihatu. Futu fos, pacer 
pase tua, ocre Fisie, tote Ijouine, erer nomne, erar nomne. 

Di 4l Grabouie ! salvo m seritu ocre Fisim, salva m seritu totam 
Ijovina. Di Grabouie ! salvom seritu ocrer Fisier, totar 
^Ijouinar nome m . Nerf, arsmo; uiro, pequo ; castruo, frif; 
salva seritu. Futu fons, pacer pase tua, ocre Fisi, tote 43 Ijouine, 
erer nomne, erar nomne. Di Grabouie ! tiom esu bue, peracri 
pihaclu ETRU, ocriper Fisiu, totaper louina, erer 44 nomneper, 
erar nomneper. Di Grabouie ! tiom subbocau. 

15 Di Grabouie ! tiom esu bue peracri pihaclu TERTIU, ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. Di 
46 Grabouie ! orer ose ! pirse ocTem(e) ~Fisiem pir ortom est, 
toteme louinem arsmor dersecor subator sent,-pusi neip 47 hereitu. 
Di Grabouie ! perse tuer perscler uasetom est, pesetom estj 
peretom est, frosetom est, daetom est ; tuer 48 perscler uirseto 
auirseto uas est. 

Di Grabouie ! pirsi mersi, esu bue peracri pihaclu TERTITJ 
pihafi. Di Grabouie ! 49 pihatu ocrem Fisim, pihatu totam 
Ijouinam. Di Grabouie ! pihatu ocrer Fisier, totar Ijouinai 
nome m . Nerf, arsmo; r>0 viro, pequo; castruo, fri; pihatu;, 
Futu fons, pacer pase tua, ocre Fisi, tote Ijouine, erer nomne 
erar nomne. 

Di 51 Grabouie! salvo m seritu ocrem Fisim, salvam seritu 
totam louinam. Di Grabouie ! salvom seritu ocrer Fisier, 
w totar Ijouinar nome m . Nerf, arsmo ; viro, pequo ; castruo, 
frif; salva seritu. Futu fons, pacer pase tua, ocre Fisi, ^totf 
Ijouiin , < ivi nomne, erar nomne. Di Grabouie ! tiom esu bufl 
peracri pihaclu TERTIU, ocriper Fisiu, totaper w Ijouina, crei 
nomneper, erar nomneper. 

(Di Grabouie! tio m comohota tibrisine buo m peracnio 11 
\ Dcus Grabovio ; tc (vcneror) admotCi rplrrvf bourn 

54. Comohota, commote, A.K. In Sulni.\vftu bccomrs Summotu, Sumtu. 

the Roman ritual, the use of Commovere m- Suhbotu; Obmowctu, Omiuotu. Ointu 

rploxing. Is it but tlic litany irtains llu- loiii'vr form 

Umbriun, \\liii h U.MS Con, Comiiota, Coraohota. 0. tribririm-, abl. 

Co, htbituully in a Im-al M use for apud? in mi triln-iro, rpirrvs, as natine I'rom 

- In ('..ini.hnta tin- h i- iu.Mit((l 1.. save iiatio, Iln. 21 : j\.K. 
bUtiu. Moweta, >' OO( unlike 56. SjiHam, iuiiiul only as an cpi- 

f*F*v, opouv. Prom the tame root, tln-i uf Md-un. It may bo a vi-rba 

TABLE VIb. ;37 

( pihaclo m r>5 ocriper Fisiu, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar 

( piaculorum ocre pro. 
nomneper. Di Grabouic ! tiom subbocuu. 

( Tages persnimu ^seuom. Surur purdouitu : proseceto 
I Quietus ministrato ritum. Dem ponicito : prosectum 

( narratu : prose9etir mefa m spefa m ficla m arsueitu. Aruio m 

\ nuncupate : prosectis fjecur [scissum] (et) ferctum addito. fVerbenam 

( fetu. Este 57 esono, heri uinu, heri poni fetu ; uatuo ferine 

( facito. f Ita sacrum, vel vino, vel tbure facito: sanguinem calidum 

( fetu. 

( facito. 

58 POST VERIR TREBLANIR, si gomia trif fetu fTrebo Jouie, 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper Ijouina. Persae fetu ; aruio m fetu ; 59 p6ne 
fetu : taces persnimu. 

( Surur narratu, puse pre verir Treblanir. Prosectir strusla m 

( Dein mmcupato, ut ante portas Trebulanas. Prosectis struem(et) 

( ficla m arsueitu. 

I ferctum addito. 


*PRE VERIR TESENOCIR, buf trif fetu Marte Grabouie, ocriper 
Fisiu, totaper Ijouina. Aruio m fetu : uatuo m ferine fetu : poni 
2 fetu : tages persnihmu. 

Prosegetir farsio [sc. pultem ?], ficla m arsueitu. Surur narratu, 
puse pre verir Treblanir. 

3 POST VERIR TESENOCIR, sif filiu trif fetu fFiso Sangie, 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper Ijouina. Poni fetu ; persae fetu ; aruio m 
fetu. 4 Surur narratu, puse pre verir Treblanir. Ta9es persnimu. 

( Mandraclo difue destre habitu. Prosegetir fick m 

(fCistam (Ylb. 50) fcapulo dextro habeto. Prosectis ferctum et 

adjective, like sectilem, or our adjectival root Spe, treated of Ila. 1. I suspect 
participle " sliced," I render it scissus that Umbiian f conceals a lost g = gh, 
until I know better ; and refer it to the and that Spef = o-^ay. 

TABLE VIb. (Roman letter). 

4. Mandraclo ; see on II b. 19. Difue, Swcd. Zebe, Zewe. May not Lifuc mean 
by VIb. 60, we infer to mean Onso, finger, hilt . ? 
handle. Cmp, Dig-itus, Germ. Zehe, 5. Comparing Ape sopo postro pcpcrs- 


arsueitu. Ape sopo postro peperscust, 
( struem addito. Postquam o&as in posticum ordinaverit, festivam 
( et mcfa m spefa scalsie conegos fetu Fisovi sangi 6 ocriper 
( et fjecur [scissum] fsorte f rex-factus facito Fisovio sancto, arce pro 
( Fisiu, totaper louina. Eso persnimu VESTISIA, uestis : 
( Fisia, urbe pro Iguvina. Sic ministrato festiva, spondens : 
" Tio subbocau subboco, Fisovi sangi ! ocriper Fisiu, 7 totaper 
Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. Foils sir, pacer sir, 
(Bonus sis, propitius sis), ocre Fisi e , tote Ijouine, erer nomne, 
8 erar nomne. Arsie ! tiom subbocau subboco, Fisoui sanci ! " 

Surront (deinde) 9 poni pesnimu. MEFA" SPEFA eso persnimu : 

" Fisoui ! tiom esa MEFA SPEFA Fisouina, ocriper Fisiu, 

totaper Ijouina, 10 erer nomneper, erar nomneper. 

( Fisouie sanie ! ditu ocre Fisi, tote Ijouine ; ocrer Fisie (r), 

\ Fisovie sanctc ! dato arci Fisiae, urbi Iguvinse ; arcis Fisia?, 

( totar louinar dupursus peturpursus, n fato fito ; perne 

V urbis Iguvinae bipedibus quadrupcdibus, fatum [beatum] ; antice 

{postne, sepse sarsite uouse auie esone. Futu fons, pacer 

( postice, [opportu n^] integr^ [visa] avi sacra. Esto bonus, etc. 

pase tua ocre Fisi, tote Ijouine, 12 erer nomne, erar nomne. 

Fisouie sangie ! salvo seritu ocrem Fisi, totam louinam. 
Fisouie sanyie ! salvo seritu 13 ocrer Fisier, totar Ijouinar nome. 
Nerf, arsmo ; viro, pequo ; castruo, frif ; salva seritu. Futu 
fons, pacer pase 14 tua, ocre Fisi, tote Ij ovine, erer nomne, erar 
nomne. Fisouie sancie ! tiom esa MEFA SPEFA Fisouina, ocriper 
Fisiu, 15 totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. Fisouie 
sangie ! tiom subbocau. Fisovie(r) *frite! tiom subbocau." 

cust (or pcperecus, Vila. 8.) with Sopa been lost, and replaced by that of Via. 

potra peretu Ha. 32 ; A\Ysd<> postro 23. 

pestu, lib. 19, it is aluuduutly clear, 9. Mcfa Epcfa, Fisouina. See on 35 

>po is the acnts. o/'tinifent to Sopaf. below. 
I suppose that a miit,r Sopoiu has a col- 10. Bipedibus, quudrupodibus Pur = 

.; sense. Of. vallum and vallus. iroS. A.K. 

6. /3 :ic^oss= Scalcjeta coni- 11. is translated by AulVocht (Pliil. S. 

caz of IV. If Scalsie = sortc, and Seal- of London) " fatum faustura (?) ab anticii, 

^eta, ^M.rtiriiis \\.-ruiiil the cniiditions ; a po.slicil si'ptis, .^arctis vocibus avium 

especially it' ('.iii.-^ns, Conica/ !)> ana- sacris (:}." lie -\\islns t> correcl unn 

<'iiiiiL'.-at(i>)s, jiar- si'auic into noi-us auic. (Wluh- lu> \vas 

I think, /'.( about it, Auio, ttriuiti. would no! 

VIb. 16. br, ii too much.) By directing us to tM 

6. I 1 a that the true address, word Saivtus la- 1ms ]>: en the 

presenting tho /b/.V with rou-.v, had key of tin- pavs.i^c. Flatus (Facciol. in 

TA!:I.K VI b. #> 

j Pose] ;i I; sr-(lie)mu; uosticatu ; atripursatu. Ape 

( Online (convivas) ifau festivato : (festivam) exponito. rostquam 
{ cam purdingust, prosegeto crus ditu. Eno scalseto uesti^iar 
(earn porriciet, prosectum illis dato. Turn 1"rb /CA^COT^ fostivae 
| erus conegos 17 dirstu. Eno mefa m , uesticia m , sopa f , 
( illis rex sacrificulus assignato. Turn j-jecur, festivam, offas 
j purome efurfatu : subra spahmu. Eno serse comoltu, 
( in igne effrigito : supra (ignem) vcm-figito. Turn dorsa commolito, 
{ comatir persnihimu. 18 Capif, purdita dupla aitu, sacra 
( paratis ministrato. Capidas, profanas duplas f disponito. -:icras 
( dupla aitu. 
( duplas f disponito. 
19 PRE UERIR UEHIER, buf trif calersu f fetu Uofione Grabouie, 

ocriper Fisiu, totaper Ijouina. Uatuo m ferine fetu. Herie uinu, 

^herie poni fetu. Tages persnimu. 

Prosegeter mefa m spefa m ficla m arsueitu. Surur narratu, pusi 

pro uerir 21 Treblanir. 
22 POST UERIR UEHIER, habina f trif fetu Tefrei Jovi(e), ocriper 

Fisiu, totaper Ijouina. Serse(f) fetu ; pelsana fetu ; aruio ra feitu ; 

poni 23 fetu. Tacjs pesnimu. 

Prosegetir strupk, ficla m anieitu. Surront narratu, puse 

uerisco (ad portas) Treblanir. 

.. rio) u Sarte in auguralibus pro integre brian. "Write the word Ehfurgatu, and 

)onitur ; Sane sarteque audire vide- you see in it Latin Ecfrigito, Gr. rppuyoo. 

eque." la. 10, the inscr. has Arwies So] Pur, Por for Pro, Per for Pn' . ~/3. 

i-wes, and Via. 3, auuei for aui. Spa-hmu, (41 Spahatu) again in Vila. 

Irregular spelling is the mildest imputa- 39 : also Spafo m Va. 20, which is o.-ten- 

tion. I believe also in a dative absolute ; sibly a noun in gen. pi, derived from 

aide = aue. Uouse, Visa?, or Uouse, verbal root Spa ; whether Spaf or Spafo 

i'idit;c, would be equally good sense. be the nominal stem. In all four pas- 

"We have no check on conjecture. sages cookery is concerned ; Subra is found 

16. Se-hemu (36) is imperat. (middle?) in all, governing (it seems) Puro or Pir, 
rom a root Se. This in Italy fitly re- fire, here, and Uaso, vessel, in 41. The 
n-esents ^4(8) of old Greek, hidden in vessel must contain fire, as do the Uasor 
'HJLCVOS, carat. If we assume it to be in Via. 19. Hence broiling over the 
ictive, = '/, Sehemu = Statitatu of fire is meant. If so, Supra spafom, 
la. 32, which suits the verbs in con- surely means Supra rerubus; and the 

nection. . Scalceto is a virtual noun : verb Spa, means, pierce with a spit. (Is 

he part (of the Festiva) which falls to not our English spit to the purpose ?) 

hem by lot, i.e. which is their fair Crap, also Speture, Speturie Ila. o, 1 ; 

llar e. apparently from a kindred root Spe, 

17. Efurfatu seems unconnected with o-^a-y. (A.K. Avish to translate Spahmu 
forfant of Ib. 1, VIb. 43. I suspect as passive imperat). 

hat the second f denotes a lost gh ; (as 18. This is conciser and more obscure 
with us Laugh is sounded Laf ;) since than la. 18, which requires one double 
he g sound is all but evanescent in Uni- set of jugs (common and sacred) for the 

40 TABLE VIb. 

( Ape habina purdingus, 24 eront poi habinam purdingust^ 
\ Postquam agnam porricies, ille-idem qui agnam porriciet, 
( destruco persi, uestic,ia m et pessondro m sorsom fetu. Capirse- 
( dextram ad frontem festivam et piatoriam "f-irvyyv facito. Capide 

!perso m , osatu : earn mani ^nertru tenitu. Arnipo uestisia 
(in) fronte, forato: earn manu sinistra teneto. Donee festivam 
uesticos, capirso subbotu. Isec perstico erus ditu_ 
stivaveris, capidem fsubmoveto. fltem [rem aliquam] illis dato. 
( Esoc persnimu, uestis : 

(Hoc (hanc precem) ministrato, fspondens: 

"Tiom ^subbocau subboco Tefro(m) Jow'(m), ocriper Fisiu,. 
totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. Fowsir, pacer 
si(r), ocre Fisi, tote 27 Iouine, erer nomne, erar nomne. Arsie ! 
tiom subbocau subboco Tefro(m) Joui(m). Arsier frite ! tiom 
subbocau subboco Tefro(m) Jow'm. 

"Tefre K Jouie! tiom esu sorsu persontru TEFRALI pihaclu, 
ocriper Fisiu, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper^ 
Tefre ^ Jouie ! orer ose ! perse ocre Fisie pir orto est, tote 
Jouine arsmor dersecor subator sent, pusei neip heritu. Tefre 
Jouie ! ^perse touer perscler uagetom est, pesetom est, peretom 
est, frosetom est, daetom est ; touer pescler uirseto auirseto 
uas est. 

31 Tefre Jouie! perse mers est, esu sorsu, persondru pihaclu, 
pihafi. Tefre Jouie ! pihatu ocre m Fisi, tota m Ijouina. Tefre 
Jouie! pihatu 32 ocrer Fisier, totar Ijouinar nonie. Nerf, 
arsmo ; uiro, pequo ; castruo, fri ; pihatu. Futu fons, pacer 
pase tua, ocre Fisi, tote ^Ijovine, erer nomne, erar nomne. 

Tefre Jouie! saluo seritu ocre Fisi, totam Ijouinam. Tet're 
Jouie! saluom seritu ocrer Fisier, 34 tohar Jouinar nome. Nerf,. 
arsmo; uiro, pequo; castruo, fri f ; salua seritu. Futu fons r 

*W, and unotb.'i doublr srt for the Ar? 7. Subbotu I interpret as = Stun- 

tu, each lor Submowetu. Si e on la. ;'. 

^LOtatu, does not recur. Analogy 5. Isec in IV. 4 might mean hue, co, 

Orato, until disproved. So as easily as item: Isont, itidtm (A.K.) 

.V-iUiiiiM ii i. -tul, r, n^-.m l'/ct, oral. justifies Isec, item, which ;il>> is hero 

- contraction easier. her (Idee?) IV ,", i may be lt:i 

from Uwtica-iw, or even_ DM&iftM. wrlcL Unless the aei-us. ^'* is ellipti- 

(yiiip. AndiraufuNt. /3. Arni-po is com- eally understood, lVr>tie> .^ the ai'.-us. 

pared by A. K. with Doni-nim. Ar lor to : 

TABLE VI b. 41 

pacer pase tua, ocre Fisi, tote Ijouinc, erer 35 nomne, erar nomnr. 

Tefre Jouie ! tiom esu sorsu persondru Tefrali pihaclu, ocriper 

JMsiu, totaper Ijouina, ercr nomneper, erar 3G nomneper. Tefre 

Jouie, tiom subbocau." 

( Persclu sehemu ; atro pu(r)satu. 37 Pessondro staflare 
( Ordine (convivas) 'C e/Ta) ; (dapes) exponito. Piatoriam [humeralem] 
jnertruco persi fetu; surront, capirse perso m osatu,. 
(sinistram ad frontem facito; deinceps, capide (in) fronte forato. 

(Suror pesnimu, puse sorsu. 

Dein (precem) ? ministrato, ut t^wy??. 

| Ape pessondro purdin9us, ^proseceto erus dirstu. 
( Postquam piatoriam porricies, prosectum illis assignato. 
i Enom uestieiar sorsalir, destruco persi, persome erus dirstu, 
( Turn festivae -fTrvyalas dextram ad frontem, protinus illis assignato,, 
( pue sorso purdiiicus. Enom 39 uesticiam staflarem, nertruco 
( ac fTnryV porricies. Turn festivam [humeralem], sinistram 
( persi, sururont erus dirstu. Enom pessondro sorsalem,. 
(ad frontem, deinceps illis assignato. Turn piatoriam -fTriryaiav 
( persome pue persnis fust, ife 40 endendu, pelsatu. Enom 
( protinus ac ministrayerit, ibi incendito, comburito. Turn 
( pesondro m staflare, persome pue pe(r)snis fus(t), ife 
(piatoriam [humeralem], protinus ac ministraverit, ibi 
( endendu, pelsatu. 
( incendito, comburito. 

35. Tefrali must probably be a play sent tense (like (vy-w-(j.i), they suggest 

on the word. Tefrus Jovius is the deity, this theory, and perhaps ought not to 

and Tcfro = Tffj.axos IV 2. = re^ej/os find -ni in the past partic. 
Vila. 46. ^ This suggests a like play of 40. The moment I believed Ententu to 

words in VI b. 9, where the god Fiso mean incendito, I concluded that Pelsatu 

(Fidius) is called Fisouio (qu. Fiducius), was comburito : and afterwards found it 

and liis Mcfa spefa are entitled Fisouina, to explain Vb. 11, as well as Ha. 43. I 

(qu. Fiduciarius). See also on Tursitu regard this as full verification. That 

to Vila. ol. Pelsano Ha. 6, etc., is so widely different, 

37. Staflarem : see on la. 31. should no more surprise us than the dif- 

38. Westi9iar, gen. Supply rl, as Ila. fereuce of Velio and Vellus, Pccto and 
41. In fact scaUpeto, the allotted portion, Pectus, Uro and Urina, Cremo and 
might be added, as VI b. 16. Cremorem. 

38, 39. The intimate relation of Per- 40. ft. Uaso, ace. of conson. decl. may 

some pue, as statim quod, protenus ac, v be in apposition to Porse, (as, Urbem 

is clear. 0. Persnis fust. The composi- quain statue, vestra est) : or if Subra may 

tion is regarded by A.K. to prove that govern accus. it is governed by Subra, 

iVrsni -hium Persnis fust are passive de- which is its logical relation. As Via. 

ponents; Persnis is assumed ==Persnito8. 19 the same fire-vessels were to be used 

These tenses are also comparable to a on three occasions, so here the festive 

Greek verb in -pi. Indeed, when A.K. meat is to be roasted over the same vicl 

treat -ni of Persni as added to the pro- (or vessels, if we make Uasof of it) as. 

42 TABLE VI b. 

( Enom uaso, porse pesondrisco babus(t), 41 sersc f subral 
( Turn vas, quodcunque cum piatoriis habuerit, dorsa supra I 

(spahatu, anderuomu, sersitu, arnipo comatir 

(verubus) figito, finterjicito, -tvuTurdra (versato) donee fcoctis 
(pesnisfust. Serse f pisher comoltu ; serse r comatir | 
( ministraverit. Dorsa quivis mola-conspergito ; dorsis fcoctis 
( persnimu. 42 Purdito fust. 
( ministrato. Profanum fuerit. 

43 VOCUCOM Jouiu, pone ovi f furfant, vitlu toru trif fetu. Marte 
Hor fetu,popluper totar Ijouina, totaper Ijouina. Uatuo m ferine 
44 fetu : poni fetu : aruiom fetu. Taes persnimu. Proseyetir 
fa(r)sio m , ficla m arsueitu. Surront naratu, puse uerisco Treblanir. 
45 VOCUCOM COREDIER, vitlu toru trif fetu. Honde Qerfi fetu, 
popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina. Uatuo ferine fetu: 
aruio m 46 fetu ; heri uinu, beri pone fetu. Ta9es persnimu. Pro- 
sec,etir tessedi, ficla m arsueitu, Surront narratu, puse uerisco 
Treblanir; eno ocar 47 pihos fust. Suepo esonie esono ander- 
uacose ua9etome fust, auif asseriatu ; uerofe Treblanu couertu : 
reste f esono m feitu. 

( 48 Pone poplo m affero m beries, auif asseriato etu; sururo 
Quum populum recensere voles, aves observatum ito : deinde 
stiplatu, pusi ocrer pihanner. Sururont combifiatu : eriront 
cantato, velut arcis piandae. Deinceps fcojitemplator : iisdem 
(tuderus auif 49 seritu. Ape angla fcombifian^ius^ perca 
( limitibus aves servato, Postquam alitem conspici^ virgam 
49. Combifian ? iust. We seem to need the 2nd pers. 


were the expiatory meats. But dat. pi. time."y. Sersitu (Zersitu) romo-ora, 

Uasus, ace. pi. Uasof, would he irregular. reverse it ; as &/0o Kal evda al6\\ft of 

41. A.K. v,y nf Spahatu, "mit Deh- Odyss. 20, 27. 

; T Spain." J far inm-p easily 42. Purdito fust. Too abrupt, ('nip. 

KJlieve m_a contraction, and that the Vila. 46, which has Enom ; and I b. 38, 

true root is Spaho or even Spaf; the which has Eno esono, prefixed. 

V( rlt '' : I'l'oni tin- 11. nui Spa to. 43-46, sec notes on Ib. 10-20. The 

-~0. Ander-nomo, has n<> strict jiarallcl. Avhole of this has been translated by A.K. 

M\. an a.h.rhial si-nse, equi- with remarkable success. I ha\ 

lni,t, if lujinu be an abla- added half a do/en words. 

UTC. \\M\ wt twin- have the imperat. ' 48. Eriront, implies a dativ.> Krir, 

u-himn VI h. !>; and the sounds illis. On this ground (T suppose) A.K. 

O, U admit o eaqr traapodtiOB, that, so stiffly resist Eras, illis; or rather, 

"uiiim In in jr a recognised never o'nco seem to suspect in it surh a 

p t.. \V,, inn M -, ms a sense. Yet neither do they offer any in- 

'-lit Ubrty. Qnfded then by -I!), terpu. whatever of Krns nor is Krir nor 

I mil lOwtem, jacito: and Eris aiiy\\ here found separate. 

Om time to 49. there is a confusion bet ween 2nd 



( arsmatiam anouihimu, cringatro hatu. Destrame scapla 
( militarcm frcjicito, lituum capito. Dcxtrum in humerum 
( anonihimu ; pir endendu. Poni ^esonome feiw, ptife pir 
( frejicito; igncm incendito. Thus in sacrum fer<w, ubi ignis 
/ entelust. Ere fertu, poe perca arsmatiam habiest : erihont 
(f incaluerit. Illc ferto, qui virgam militarcm habebit : Idem 
I aso m destre onse fertu. Erucom prinuatur dur 51 etuto ; perca f 
( calathum dextra ansa ferto. Cum illo patricii duo eunto ; virgas 
( Pom9iater habituto. Ewwom stiplatu " Parfa Desua 
\Punica3 mali habento. Turn carmine invocato " Pan-ham Ae|tai/ 
( seso, tote louine ." Sururont combifiatu Uapefe 

( sibimet urbi (que) Iguvinae ." Deinde conspicito [Curias] ad 
f Auieclu(f ), neip 52 amboltu, prepa Desua combinan^ifust) . 
( Auguralcs, nee [oculos reflectito], antequam Ae|ta^ conspiciet. 
( Ape Desua combinan^iust, via auiecla esonome ituto, 
I Postquam Ae^or conspiciet. viam auguralem in sacrum eunto, 
i com peracris sacris. Ape Ace(r)soniame 53 hebetafeberiust, 
\ cum. re\elais hostiis. Postquam Aquiloniam ad [columnas] venerit, 
( enom termnuco stahituto. Poi perca arsmatia habiest, 
(turn apud terminum stanto. Qui virgam militarem habebit, 

i and 3rd person in Herii, Combifian- 
qiust, Ferar. One may fancy t lost in 
Heries, but this is impossible with Ferar. 
The phenomenon at first inclined me to 
take Angla as noni. and interpret Com- 
bifiatu, convenito, "meet," rather than 
conspicito, look. I now believe that the 
ambiguity of the imperative, which may 
be either 2nd or 3rd p. confused the 
mind of the engraver, both here and in 
some other places. /3. It would be satis- 
factory, if we could obtain a clear etymo- 
"f Combifia. I suspect that its root 
(for j3 is only euphonic, as the 
:s say torn batera for rbv irarepa,') = 
rici:i = Spicia. When or/ce7r turns into 
one might almost expect some other 
language to have Spep. AVhat else is 
Eii-1. Peep but Spy ? Notoriously Spec 
= Spiih-eii of Germ. =: Spy. Also 
has dropt s from the root Spec ; 
Heachd is Speculate, Watch, Spy. 
If then 1'ifia really means "to look out," 
it is probably in form and fact = our 
1 >( - ' 7. That llejicito in two different 
exactly suits each time, implies 
that we have alighted on the right word. 
50. Erihont here = Eront of A r lb. 24. 

A.K. treat h as a proper part of hont = 
dem ; and refer to Gothic Ilun, where I 
cannot follow them. But I see weight 
in Hontac, inde, as implying that h is 
lost in Erafont, Eront, etc. . Aso, evi- 
dently some vessel. A.K. suggest Arula, 
as diminutive of Asa, ara. Yet Eso of 
the earlier dialect, IV. 15, Ha. 40, is 
likely to be the same vessel. A basket 
or coffer was essential to carry frank- 
incense and sacrificial gear. Cmp. the 
Mandraclo VI b. 4. 

51. Scso, with Sueso, VII b. 1, lead 
me now to translate final -so by -met. 
In etm. -so may = -ptc or -pse of popu- 
lar Latin ; as suiipte culpfi, reapse ; if -so 
conceals isso, ipso. (See csso Via. 2.) 
]>y analogy of Tcfe, tibi, we should have 
Sefe, sibi ; yet if Siom were ace. (as 
Tiom is ace.), perhaps Scfe admitted 
contraction. Sibimet is the sense we 

52. Amboltu ; in sound is like Am- 
bulato ; but that sense does not here 
suit. We want oculos reflectito ; to which 
An, re, agrees. In Breton and Wi-lsh, 
Gwel means sight; Welsh, Wela, look ; 
Possibly Anboltu = re-spicito. . For 

44 TABLE Ylb. 

( eturs(i)tahamu. Eso eturs(i)taliamu : " Pis est totar 51 Tarsi- 
( ecsecrato. Sic ecsecrato: "Quis est urbis Tadi- 
( nater, trifor Tarsinater ; Tuscer, Naharcer, Jabuscer nomner ? 
(natis, agri Tadinatis, Tusci, Naharci, Japudisci nominis? 
( e(re) etu eh esu poplu. Nosue ier ehe esu poplu, so pir habe(r) 
( ille ito ex hoc populo. Nisi ibis ex hoc populo, si quid habes 

i M esme pople, portatu ulo pue mers est, fetu uru 
in hoc populo, portato filluc fquo? fas est, facito fulla re, 
( pirse mers est. Trioper eheturs(i)tahaimi ; ifont ter- 1 
I quacumque fas est. Ter ecsecrato ; ibidem ad ter- 

j mnuco com prinuatir ^stahitu. Eno deitu : " Arsmahamo, j 
(minum cum patriciis stato. Turn dicito : "Armemur (?) 
(caterahamo, Jouinur !" Eno com prinuatir peracris sacris 
' fcatervemur, Iguvini!" Turn cum patriciis reXefats hostii> 
( ambretuto. Ape ambrefurent 57 termnome, benurent 
( ambiunto. Postquam ambierint in terminum, (et) venerint 
( termnome com prinuatir, eso persnimumo ta9etur : 
( in terminum cum patriciis, sic (prece) ministrato taciti : 
"Qerfe Martie ! Prestota Qerfia Qerfer ^Martier! Tursaj 
Qerfia Qerfer Martier! totam Tarsinatem, trifo(m) Tar- 
sinatem; Tuscom, Naharcom, Jabuscom nome ; 59 totar Tar- 
sinater, trifor Tarsinater, Tuscer, Naharcer, Jabuscer nomner 
( nerf, gihitu' anihitu f ; jouie f , hostatu f 60 anhostatu f , 
(principes, citatos non-citatos; fjuvenes, hastatos non-hastatos, 

<>iium we have Pane, Vila. 46. Prepa Hastatos: the men of military ag^l 

appear degenerate from Prepan, whether actually armed for the militia, 

I 1 " \wm. or Anhostatuf, not so armed. 

65. Ewne popfe (dative). SeeAppcn- 60. A.K. interpret from Tursitu to the! 

du I. on Locative cases. end, as a series of ablatives ; tlu 11 the 

67. The Pnestita is daughter of Qerfus, verb equivalent to Perditotc is 0111: 

and ^erfuu is son of Mars. Tursa and I confess I had thought that (as in Latin); 

Pnerata are sisters, A.K. the verb might take the number of the 

69. (Jibituf -= i citos inform ; say A.K. nearest noiniii. But the plural J-' 

We may conjecturally explain Princi- in 61 primu facie discount! nances us in 

pel citato* TC! non citatos, as those who taking Tursitu as a verb. Of the ahla- 

re or arc not Senators. The Senator tives, four seem pretty clear ; if we majr 

was not niily enrolled, conscriptus ; he trust the Sanscrit lore by which A.A. 1 

wu specially summoned to tin- Senate at identity Sauitu with uer<. When tlu-\ 

erery meeting. This jimv lerre, till we refer Ninetu to ningo, 1 wonder that they 

get KomcUiiDff more certain. - /3. The do not appeal to v(<j>os for Ncpitu 

contrail of Werf. anmom, I'lincipcs, the tour tirst ablatives, I look rat! 

eiercitum ; herf < \, it. |,,\i, |. \\.n-ds of moral sense. In the two last 1 

lUywenoi ml. . that Jovief = jnven.s, h;,\r in ,ui m l Soph. (Kd. T. 270, 1.- 

mt juinores, liable in M-I-M- in tin- ;irmy ? A.K. in I'n-plotatu see inwiilativi. 

1' um : naturally means is not that in Sauitu ? 

TABLE Vila. 45 

( tursitu, treniitu, hondu, holtu, ninctu, 

;! ( (perditotc) [ecsecratione ct terrore, cacdc ct scditione], nivibus 

( nepitu, sonitu, sauitu, preplotatu, previ(c')latu. 

( ct nubibus, tonitni et imbre [segetum lue et prolis abortione]. 
G1 Qerfe Martie, Prestota Qerfia Qerfer Martier, Tursa Qerfia 
Jerier Martier, fututo foner pacrer pase vestrd, pople totar 
|[joumar, G2 tote Ijouine; ero(m) nerus [principibus'] ^ihitir an9ihitir, 
ovk\s hostatir an(h)ostatir, ero m nomne, erar nonme. 

( Ape este dersicurent, eno G3 deitu, "Etato Ijouinur !" 
(Postquam ita dixerint, tum dicito, " Itatum, Iguvini!" 
. ( porse perca ra arsmatia m habiest. Ape este dersicust, 

(quicumque virgam militarem habebit. Postquam ita dixerit, 

i duti ambretuto euront. Ape termnome 64 couortuso, 
j \ bis ambiunto iidem. Postquam in terminum converterunt, 

* sururont pesnimumo. Sururoiit deitu, " Etaians," deitu : 

( deinde (prece) ministranto. Deinceps dicito, "Itent!" dicito: 

( enom tertim ambretuto. Ape termnome benuso, 65 sururont 
i ( tum tertium ambiunto. Postquam in terminum venerint, deinceps 
j ( pesnimumo. Sururont deitu, "Etaias/" Eno prinuatur 

( (prece) ministranto. Deinceps dicito, "Itent." Tum patricii 

( imo etuto erafont via, pora benuso. 

\ [domum] eunto easdem vias, f quibus venerint. 

TABLE Vila. 


3 FoNDLiRE abrof trif fetu, heriei rofu, heriei peiu. Qerfe 
Marte feitu, popluper totar liouinar, totaper 4 Ijouina. Uatuo 
ferine feitu, poni fetu, aruio fetu. Ta9es persnimu. Prosecetir 
mefu m spefa m , ficla m arsueitu. 5 Surront narratu, puse uerisco 

62. Dcrsicurcnt, for Dedicurent, re- supine for tlic Latin impersonal ; so that 

.lupl. tense = dixerint ; from prajterite I tandum gives the sense ? Evidently the 

stem Dcdic = dix. A.K. bearer of the pcrca arsmatia exercises 

(>;!. "Itatum;" a supine of frcqucn- military command, verifying my sense 

verb. Difficult syntax. Are we of Arsmatia. 
,to suppose that the Umbrians use the 

46 TABLE Vila. 

( Ape traha Sahata m combifiangust, enom erus dirstu. 
( Postquam trans Sahatam conspectum ceperit, turn illis assignato. 
6 RuBiNE porca trif, rofa ote peia, fetu Prestote Qerfie Qerfer 

Martier popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina. Persaia fetu, 

poni fetu, arvio fetu. Surront narratu, pusi pre uerir Treblanir. 

Ta9es persnimu. 8 Prosegetir strula m , ficla m arsueitu. 
( Ape fswpo postro pepe(r)scus, enom pesclu RXJSEME 
( Postquam offas in posticum ordinaveris, tum ordine [in porticu] 
I uesticatu Prestote Qerfic 9 Qerfer Martier, popluper totar 
( festivato Pra3stitae Ccrfiae Cerfi. Martii pro populo, etc. 

Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina. 

SEnom uescnir ADRIR, RUSEME, eso persnihimu : 
Turn vasculis nigris, [in porticu], sic ministrato : 
"Prestota Qerfia Qerfier Martier, tiom esir uesclir adrir, 
popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, n erar 
nomneper. P. Q. Q. M. *PREUENDU uia f ecla f attero m tote Tarsi- 
nate, trifo Tarsinate ; 12 Tursce, Naharce, Japusce, nomne ; totar 
Tarsinater, trifor Tarsinater ; Tuscer, Naharcer, Jabuscer 13 nerus 
$itir an9ihitir ; jouies hostatir an(h)ostatir ; ero(m) nomne. 
P. Q. Q. M. futu fons, 14 pacer pase tua, pople totar Ijouinar, 

* f Operito vias [secretas saltuum]. 

TABLE Vila. (Roman letter). 

3. Heriei, optative = Herijei of Ha. open ; if Aha = Ehe (cmp. Ahtre, extra) 

16. or else Aha = ab, Danish af, Engl. off. 

8. The Rusa must be some part of the 11/3. Via ecla attero, may bo three 

temple ; the court ? the portico ? nouns in apposn. More probably they 

suitable for a feast. A.K. suggest have syntax like Vias asperas montium". 

Ruseme, ruri t in the country ; but this If so, a likely prayer would be, Operite 

is forbidden me by mv other renderings. vias secretas montium. On turning to the 

They do but give for Ape supo, etc. Welsh dictionary with this notion, 1 

"Poetquam a posterior erit, found Achel, latebra ; Achles, refugium; 

turn in sacrih'cio (?) run (?) saltato Tree- Achlesu, perfugas recipio ; evidently ;i 

native family of words. If Eclo were 

11, _'7. I'nu.ndu, Ahauendu, seem connected with this, it might mean late- 

nccessaiily (< m. -an OjH-nto, A])erito. brosus, or rather latens. For atiTo" 1 , 

' the roud to our enemies, open the which I fancy might mean Montium or 

road to our people." ]:. ntry interprets Saltuum, I can find nothing nearer than 

Ap-erio, bend up ; Op-erio, bend across; Greek oA<ros, aAros, stem aXres, which 

comparing (I-ithuanian ?) At-weru, Ux- in Italy would aprwri be Alter ^in spite 

weni; with Ap-iriu, I'.u- Ap-\um, root of Latin saltus) as y(t>t(<r}-os = gener-is. 

\arua, crock^ .1. 'I hi- i.-, pmlmhl, , il'no We do not know the I'lnhiian lor nioun- 

moro. 80, tiom AVc iiddi, turn, (or from tain ; if it be not Alp, it may he Alter. 

Engl. !'. ml, l.utiii 1'andusA we BCC u (A nom. Ater would probably make 

poniMi- <t\iiioii i.f ri.udulu, turn in Atro, not Atero.) 
^bhut; Aliawtmhi, dun of, = 

TABLE Vila. 47 

otc Ijouiiu) (Torn nomne, erar ncrus ihitir ancihitir, jovies 
5 hostatir aii(li)ostatir. P. Q. Q. M. saluom seritu poplom totur 
jouinar, salua m seritu 1G totam Ijouinam. P. Q. Q. M. saluo 
eritu popler totar Ijouinar, totar Ijouinar, 17 nome. Nerf, 
irsmo ; uiro, pequo ; .castruo, frif ; salva seritu. Futu fons, 
>acer pase tua, popler totar Ijouinar, 18 tote Ijouine, erer nomne, 
irar nomne. P. Q. Q. M. tiom esir uesclir adre'r, popluper 
9 totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. 
'. Q. Q. M. tiom 20 subbocau. 

( Prestotar Qerfiar Qerfer Martier foner frite ! tiom subbocau. 
( Pmestitao (Jerfiac Cerfi Martii bona? tSa^ov! te yenerabor. 
( Enoni persclu eso deitu : 21 P. Q. Q. M ! tiom 'sir uesclir adr/r 
( Turn ordiuc hoc dicito : . te his vasculis nigris 

( tiom plener, popluper totar Ijouinar 22 totaper Ijouina, erer 
( te plenis, 

tomneper, erar nomneper. P. Q. Q. M. tiom subbocau. Pres- 
otar 23 Qerfiar Q. M. foner frite ! tiom subbocau. 
( Eiiom uesticatu, ahatripursatu. Enom ruseme 24 persclu ues- 
( Turn festivato, (dapes) exponito. Turn [in porticu] ordine fes- 
j ticatu Presto te Q. Q. M. popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper 
(tivato Prasstitse Cerfisc, etc. 

( E^y^om uesclir 25 ALFiR persnimu. Superne adro m trahuorfi 
( Turn vasculis albis ministrato. Superne nigrorum transvorsim 
( andendu. 
( hnpordto. 

Eso persnimu : u Prestota Q. Q. M. ! tiom 26 esir uesclir alfir, 
>opluper totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar 
lomneper. P. 2T Q. Q. M. *AHAUENDU uia f eclaS attero m , pople totar 
jouinar, toto Ijouine; popler totar Ijouinar, 28 totar Ijouinar 
lerus 9iliitir ancihitir, jouies hostatir anhostatir, ero m nomne, 
rar nomne. 

Prestota Q. 29 Q. M. ! saluom seritu poplo m totar Ijouinar, 
jalua m seritu totam Ijouinam. P. Q. Q. 30 M. ! saluom seritu 
popler totar Ijouinar, totar Ijouinar nome. Nerf, arsmo ; uiro, 
pequo ; castruo, frif ; 31 salua seritu. Futu fons, pacer pase tua 
* f Apcrito vias [sccretas saltuum]. 

48 TABLE Vila. 

pople totar Ijouinar, tote Ijouine, erer nomne, erar nomne, 
P. *(J. Q. M. ! tiom esir uesclir alfer popluper totar Ijouinar. 
totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar ^nomneper. P. Q. Q. M. ! 
tiom subbocau. Prestotor Qerfiarr Q. M. foiier frite ! tiom ^sub- 
bocau." Enom persclu (or dine) eso persnimu : 

" P. Q. Q. M. ! tiom isir uesclir alfir, tiom plener, ^popluper 
totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper. 
P. Q. Q. M. ! tiom 36 subbocaww. Prestotar Qerfiar, Q. M. foner 
frite ! tiom subbocdww. 

Enom uesticatu, ahatripursatu. 37 Uesti^a m et mefa m spefa m 
bcalsie conegos fetu Fisovi sanc^Y, popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper 
Ijouina. Surront ^narratu, puse post uerir Tesenocir. 
( Uestisiar erus ditu. Enno uestisia m , mefa m spefa m , sopam 
( Festivae (ri) illis dato. Turn festivam, f jecur [scissum], ofFam 
I purome efurfatu : 39 supra spahamu. Tra/Sahatam etu. 

(in ignc feffrigito : supra (ignem) veru-figito. Trans Sahatam ito 
( Ape trsiha Sataha couortus, ennom comoltu, comatir 
( Postquam trans Sahatam converteris, turn mola conspergito, coctis 
( persnihimu. Capif 40 sacra f aitu. 
( ministrato. Capides sacras f disponito. 

41 Trahaf Sahate uitla f trif feeiu Turse Qerfier Qerfer Martier, 
popluper totar Ijouinar, totaper Ijouina. Persaea fetu: poni 
42 fetu : aruio fetu : taes persnimu. Prosepetir strucla m , ficlam 
arsueitu. Surront narratu, puse uerisco Treblanir. 

Ape ^purdin^iust, carsitu, pufe fabrows facurent. Puse erus 
dfrsa, ape erus dtrsust, postro combifiatu; Rubiname, ortis 
44 dersa: enem traha Sahatam combifiatu, erus dersa. Enem 
Rubiname postro covertu ; comoltu, comatir persnimu, et 45 capif 
sacra (f) aitu. Enom traha Sahatam covertu ; comoltu, comatir 
perei i i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 : cnom purditom fust. 

1 4<J Postertio m pane poplo m andirsafust; porse porc-a m 

( Post tertium (diem) quam populum indicaverit ; quisquis virgam 

43. Abroiu. A.K. justly regard this word as monstrous and impossible. A Latin 
<*rrer, reading Ah r..///, in Ktru.syan u-\t. may have nii>t;iki-n 1,1 tor ns. I do not 
tliink he conld have so i f. Jli-mr 1 incliiu; to n-ail Abrom, in spite oi' 1 b.33. 

11. ('. inluti.itii, .umpand \\itli (',,].!- first disclosing to us that -aja is optative 
26, u of great importance us mood. 

TAHI.K Vila. 


(arsmatia m habicst, ct priuuatur dur, tefruto, Tursar, 

\ militarem habcbit, et patricii duo, ab rc/ieVet Tursa}, hoc 

( tacetur 47 persnihimumo ; 

( (hanc precem) voce submissa ministranto : 
" Tursa Jouia ! totam Tarsinatem, trifo m Tarsinatem, Tuscom, 
Xaliarcom, Jabusco m iiome m ; totar 48 Tarsinater, trifor Tarsinater, 
Tuscer, Naharcer, Jabuscer nomner iierf, 9ihitu f ancihitu f ; jouie f 
hostatu f an(h)ostatu f , 49 tursitu, tremitu ; hondu, lioltu ; ninctu, 
nepitu ; szmitu, sauitu ; preplo Aotatu, preutflatu. Tursa Jouia ! 
futu fons, ^pacer pase tua, pople totar Jouinar, tote Jouine, erar 
nerus gihitir ancihitir, joules hostatir anhostatir, erom 51 nomne, 
erar nomne. 

( Este trioper deitu. 
( Ita ter dicito. 

Enom juenga f fperacrio tursituto, 
Turn juvencas aKpaias sacranto, 
( porse perca m arsmatia m habiest, et 52 prinuatur. Hondra 
( quisquis virgam militarem habebit, et patricii (itti duo}. Infra 
( furo m Seliemeniar hatuto, totar pisi heriest. Pafe trif pro- 
( [Fora] Semoniae capiunto, urbis qui volet. Quas tres pri- 
rmom haburent, eaf Acersoniem ^fetu Turse Jouie, popluper 
( mum ceperint, eas in Aquilonia facito Tursse Jovia3, pro populo 
totar Jouinar, totaper Jouina. Surront narratu, puse uerisco 
Treblanir. Aruio m fetu : ^persaea fetu. Stru9la m , ficla m , pro- 
seetir arsueitu. Taces persnimu : poni fetu. 

51. Peracrio is neut. pi. (May it, in 
the adjective, be of all genders ?) Per- 
acnio 111 . gen. pi. is strained syntax " Ju- 
vencas ex egregiis," i.e. egregias. The 
omission of final f and m where it leaves 
the number and sense uncertain, is won- 
derful. Tursituto, pi. of Tursitu; is 
found only with the goddess Tursa ; 
perhaps allusively. 

52. Promom. This word is important, 

as fixing the scope of the whole. It was 
a seizure of cattle. We presume, the 
owners were indemnified. Cmp. Va. 
1-10. Pisi heriest, quisquis volet, is 
plural in idea, and hangs on to the plural 
verb Hatuto. Acersoniew = Aceronig of 
Ib. 43. See Appendix I. 

54. Persaeafetu. This seems strangely 
out of place : but cmp. Ila. 13. ft 
comes like an afterthought. 


TABLE Vllb. 


i Pi>i panupei fratrexs fratrus Attiersier fust, erec sueso- 
( Qui quandoquc fmagister fratribus Attidiis fuerit, ille fsuacraet 
( fratrecatc portaja sevacne f fratrom 2 Attiersio m desenduf ; pifi 
I fraternitati portet puros fratrum Attidiorum [indices] ; quos 
( reper fratreca pars est erom ehiato f , iponne juengar tursiandu 
( re pro fraterna fpar est esse [exhibitos] quum juvenca? sacrabuntur 
( liertei. 3 A.ppei arfertur Attiersir poplom andersafust, sue 
( ultro. Postquam f dictator Attidius populum indicaverit, si (magu- 
neip portust issoc, pusei subra screlito m est, 4 fratreci motor 
I ter ?) non portaverit hoc r velut supra scriptum est, magistro inultae 
C sins, a. ccc. 

\ sint (irrogentur\ asses trecenti. 

TABLE Vllb. (Roman letter). 

I. Sue-so, sure-met, on -so, see VI b. 
it 1 . Sue, = suae, follows from Tua, tua ; 
;, vcstra. In 2, we have Fratreco 
. terno ; naturally then, Fratrecat = 
frnternitat. Fratrecs with dative Fra- 
treci in 4, jives us grammatical instruc- 
tion as to the nom. of the conson. decl. 
Indeed Fons, nom. of conson. decl. is 

-'. Desenduf, is the noun with which 

'ue agrees. It may express either 

sacrificial gear or (what may seem too 

modern a thought) a warrant from the 

magistrate to seize the cattle " ultro ;" 

or perhaps rather insignia understood as 

a warrant; indicia. If Desenduf = Der- 

senduf, (as Desua for Dersua,) we might 

:idicia out of it. True, it is mascu- 

: ut Index is used for Indicium. . 

I suppose may = Latin adj. par. 

ia-to, u participle. Since Habeto 

becomes Hah(i)tu, Hatu, it is possible 
that E-hia-to means Ex-hibi-to. 5. 
Ponne (so in the inscr.) is possibly the 
more correct spelling everywhere. 

3. Appei, to judge by ^irei, is less 
correct than Ape (Api, Apei). ft. Attier- 
sir in nom. is comparable to Fisim for 
Fisiom. This clause is of value, as dis- 
closing the syntax of Vila. 46. 7. i 
neut. sing, alluding to Desenduf, masc. 
pi. which is strange. Issoc (so in the 
inscr.) seems to mean only Esoc, hoc. 

It is remarkable that the Etrusco Um- 
brian portion ends with a tine on the 
dictator by the magister or quaestor with 
a vote of the majority of the brethren ; 
and this ends with a fine on the magister 
for neglect, when the dictator has initi- 
al cil proivi'dings : if at least I u 
stand the passages. 




1. In Tables III. IV. and in Ha., we find the postposition Ar (= 
Latin Ad = Irish Ag) joined to accus. case. Asam-ar, ad aram; 
Spinam-ar, ad mensulam ; Spantim-ar, ad patinam; but in coi; rd 
with another accusative the final r vanishes ; as tertiam-a(r) spanti(ni). 
This use of ar, a- is wholly confined to those tables, and seems to 
indicate their antiquity. 

2. Final -en (== Latin In with accus. = Greek et y ) is also found in 
Table III. IV. alone. Arwam-en, els Apovpav, in arvum ; Wocom-en, 
in focum ; Esonom-en, in sacrum ; are the only instances with accusa- 
tive. With dative case, the same once expresses rest ; viz. Arwe-n, 
4v apovpq. But final n in Umbrian always tends to become m, as in 
Latin musam for /xoDo-cw, num for M<J/; moreover final m readily 
vanishes. It is instructive to find in Ib. 16, Pone menes Aceronmm- 

, Quum venies in Aquiloniam, (where final -em is evidently corrupt 
for -en) and in the parallel place of the later dialect, VI b. 52, Ape 
A.eesoniam-0 benust, Postquam in Aquiloniam venerit; where -em has 
become -*, At the same time, for the case of rest, " At Aquilonia," 
we have Aceronie (the mere dative) Ib. 43, and Acersonie-m, (dative 
with -m == -em = -en, in) Vila. 52. Thus just enough is preserved 
to clear up the origin of these terminations. 

3. Some uncertainty hangs over the particle -ne, which we c;iunot 
overlook in Menz-ne, apud mensam, side by side with Menzarum, 
mensarum. Besides this, there is Armu-ne, apud exercitum, where 
apparently -ne is joined to ablative, not to dative. Does this distin- 
guish -ne from en, as in and apud ? Menz(a)-ne, or Menze-ne ? of the 
fl-declension, and Armu-ne of the o-decl. are our only instances. 
[Dicamne (II a. 8) I now see to have a widely different interpretation. 
Ufestne, IV. 22, is wholly dark. In the rt-declension the prevalent 
forms are as follows : 

tottf-me, in urbe 
totam-e, in urbem 

toter-e, in urbibus 
totaf-e, in urbes. 

Totaf-e, may be replaced by Totaf-cm ; so that -e, -em no doubt mean 
-en. Totere is euphonic for Totese ; as Facurent for Facusent, Totarum 
for Totasum, Ererec for Eresec ; even in the old dialect, s between two 
vowels becoming r. A.K. are disposed to treat Totese as a variation of 
the dative Totes, similar to Ti/*an for r^ais : but this seems to open. 


the new question, whether TI/WUO-I itself is not abbreviated from. 
vifuuff'tv, and similarly Totere for Totes-en. In the singular, 
Tote-me is anomalous. Is it for Tote-ne ? If so, m changes to n in 
the middle of a word; and why is it not Tota-me, with all. as Armu-ne ? 
It seems a lame reply, " Tota-me would confound the thought with 
that of Totam-e." To avoid confusion, it would have been obvious 
nither not to corrupt n to m than to change ablative to dative. 

In fact in the o-declension this confusion does exist. Esonome 
(apparently) means in sacro, or in sacrum : whether from confounding 
Esono-me with Esonom-e(n), there are no means of deciding. 

In Ib. 14, we have Wapef-em awiecluf-e, represented in. Ylb. 51 
(later dialect) by Uapef-e auieclu. The former shows an attempt al 
concord, converting the postposition into a case, by adding -e to Awie- 
cluf. See III. 20. 

4. A new difficulty rises in two passages, where the meaning is clear : 
Ksme pople, in hoc populo (or intra hunc populum), and Esmei stah- 
mei, intra hoc templum. Why have we datives ? The question is the 
same as we just now put concerning Tofe-me. Apparently then the 
-me of Esme is the same as of Toteme. Is then Esme contracted from 
Eseme ? (I see nothing gained by inventing a new demonstr. Esmo = 
Eso.) Esme contracted is so closely in analogy to Menzne, that (the 
sense being the same) we seem forced to identify the -me with the -ne, 
although the latter governs an ablative in Armu-ne. 

Perhaps we ought to expect, in, regard to the case of Rest, such un- 
accountable irregularities, when in Greek the irrvotyi, ovpavoft, or^ea^ 
perplex us, while we have in Latin Brundusii, at Brundusium, Belli, 
at war ; which look like genitives, although we read Carthagini, at 
Carthage'; Tibure, at Tivoli. Whoever can believe that Brundisii is n 
" dative in disguise," may well believe the same of Armu in Armune. 

What if the radical o which generally vanishes in the dative of the 
Umbrian, stood its ground in the composition of the dative witli -no, 
exceptionally? Then Armune means Armoe-ne. I have no better 



Dersua has a moral notion akin to " favourable" in every passage. 

For instance VI b. 51, "Then let him. invoke Parrha dersua ; 

and let him not turn back until he get a sight of the dersua. After he 
has seen the dersua" etc. ; where the general idea is "the lucky bird." 
Dersecor in Via. 26, an epithet of armies, cannot mean appearing in a 
quarter of the heavens, but must mean something like well-omened. 
Again, Mersta is an opposite to Dersua, Via. 15, 16: yet it too in 
its own limits is lucky. This appears from the emphatic repetition, 
Merstaf aueif, merstaf anglaf esonaf, Via. 3. Notoriously in antiquity 
Dextra and Sinistra were, each in its turn, lucky ; although Sinistra 
might also be unlucky. Cicero says (Divin. 2, 39), " Haud ignoro 
quae bona sint, sinistra nos dicere, etiamsi dextra sint:" "I am not 
unaware that, whatever is good, we call sinister, even if it be on 
the right hand;" i.e., the true sense of sinister was fortunate, pros- 
perous; its secondary sense, left. This agrees with the two Greek 
words for " left," fvuvv/^os well-omened, and apia-Tcpbs an irregular 
derivative from &PUTTOS, as though Optimusculus, "second best?" 
Is it by chance that in Gaelic and Irish Sonas means prosperity, whence 
might come Sonas-ter = apio-repls ? Be that as it may ; if apiarfpos 
be connected with &PUTTOS, aperfy, 'ApTjs, then as 'Apris in Italy is Mars, 
(and apprjv is Mas, maris), so &PKTTOS might be Mersto. [I am aware 
that Vir, virtut, side by side with Marem, Martem deride a priori 
reasoning as to what must be.] On the other hand Dersua is certainly 
very like Seta. "When the sense of the two words Dersua, Mersta must 
fulfil just the conditions which 8eta and opto-repo do fulfil, it is far more 
probable that the words etymologically coincide, than that the double 
similarity of sound be the result of pure accident. Besides, Dersecor 
Via. 26, is excellently represented in sense and sound by Se^/cot : is 
this also accident? 

Dersua and Mersua certainly mean something : yet Messrs. A.K. do 
not help us to guess what they can mean. They have no counter 
theory. What is to be said against this obvious hypothesis, started 
(I learn from them) by Grotefend ? 1 . That we already have Destro 
for right, and Nertru for left. This is as though we refused to believe 
to mean right, and apto-Tfpbs left, because Seftrepbs is right, and 
left. Latin also has two words for left, viz., lacvus connected 

Ari'KNnix IT. 

with Greek ; and Sinister, perhaps Sabine, and connected with Umbrian 
and Gaelic. Moreover Destro is obviously 8n-epo in disguise, and 
Dersua is to Destra nearly as 8ejcb to $(iTcpd. Against such coinci- 
dences it is in vain to argue that " the r in Dersua remains unaccounted 
for." Such delicate accuracy assumes that a language is equably 
developed by one law ; whereas, in fact, it is the product of many 
inconsistent laws acting at once, and it is sure to import both words 
;ind analogies from foreign sources. Loyal and Legal are both English : 
this is but a type of a multitude of instances. Besides we have Desua 
as well as Dersua ; Aceronia, Acersonia, Acesonia, for the same place. 
2. A more formidable objection arises from comparing la. 1, 2, with 
Via. 1 ; which seem to show Pernaie Postnaie as replaced by Dersua 
and Mersta. Now if the former mean Antica, Postica, how can the 
latter mean Dextra, Sinistra ? for what is in front is not at tfo right 
hand. If there were no other way of escape, I should render Pernaie, 
Postnaie, early and late (as I did in my first paper) rather than abandon 
the obvious sense of Dersua and Mersta, while unable to imagine any 
substitute ; for our proof that Antica, Postica are the truer rendering, 
begins and ends in the fact that these are words common with Latin 
augurs. Nevertheless, Messrs. A.K. themselves, in a remarkable quo- 
tation from Paulus Diaconus, remove our difficulty (vol. i. 98) ; for he 
-ays : "Denique et quae ante nos sunt, antica, et quae post nos, postica 
dicuntur; et dexter am anticam, sinistram posticam dicimus." I am 
incompetent to canvass the subtle explanation offered of these words. 
!:< the cause what it may, the fact is attested that, through some confu- 
sion or oilier, what is one moment called Antica, may the next be called 
Dextera. The Sabine augury, used at the installation of Numn. Pom- 
I-ilius in Livy, is irreconcileable with Varro's doctrine, probably Latin; 
the former making Antica the east, the latter making it the south. 
10, above quoted, says that things on the right are called Sinistra, 
if they are good ; yet Virgil uses Sinistra of things bad. No a priori 
reasoning avails us in such a mixture of inconsistencies, nor must even 
verbal contradictions shock us. 



OOTJItTOIL, 1864-65. 




EDWIN GUEST, ESQ., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 
T. HEWITT KEY, ESQ., M.A., University College, London. 














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J_he old speech of the land -folk of the south-west of England, 
seems to have come down, with a variation hardly quicker than 
that of the usual offwearing of speech -forms, from the language 
which our foreelders, the followers of the Saxon leaders Cerdic 
and Cynric, Porta, Stuf, and Wihtgar, brought from the south 
of Denmark, their inland seat, which King Alfred calls " Eald 
Seaxan," or Old Saxony, in what is now Holstein, and from 
the three islands Nordstrand, Busen, and Heligoland; as the 
speech of some of the eastern, middle, and northern counties, 
which formerly constituted the kingdoms of the East and Middle 

1 Angles, the Mercians and the Northumbrians, might have been 
derived immediately from that of the founders of those kingdoms, 
the Angles, who came from "Anglen" as it is still called, or 
Old England, in what is now the duchy of Slesvig: and it is not 

;only credible, but most likely, that the Saxons of Holstein arid 
the Angles of Slesvig might speak different forms of the common 
Teutonic tongue even in Denmark. 

The Danish and Swedish are so much like English that some 
sentences of the common talk of a Dane or Swede might be, at 
once, understood by an Englishman; but we should not look for 
a likeness to English in Danish, so much as in Friesic, the speech 
of the Frieses and Angles of Slesvig and Holstein, and of some 
islands and lands west of them, with West Friesland in Holland. 
The Danes, though they are a Teutonic tribe, are of the Scan- 
dinavian division of the Teutonic family, and their sway and lan- 
guage have come over the fatherland of the Anglo-Saxons since 
they left it. In some of the Friesic and Anglic bailiwicks of 
'Slesvig, Danish is not only but little spoken, but hardly under- 


stood ; and Kohl, the German traveller, found that u the greatest 
diversity of languages, or rather of dialects, exists in the islands, 
arising probably from the fact of Friesic not being a written 
language. The dialect of the furthest West approaches nearer to 
English than any other. The people of Amrom are proud of 
the similarity. They retain the th of the old Icelandic (Anglo- 
Saxon and English), and have a number of words in which the 
resemblance of their ancient form of speech to the old Anglo- 
Saxon English is more apparent than in even the Danish of the 
present day: as, for instance, l Hu mani mile?' 'How many miles?' 
bradgrum, bridegroom; theenk, think, &c. At present Friesic is 
yielding to the Danish and the Low -German in the duchies of j 
Slesvig and Holstein. Many names are still common amongst the 
people, which seem to have descended from the heathen epoch," 
and among them are Ehle (S-S. ^Elle), and Sieg (X-S. Sige), 
'Victory/ Dr. Clarke, who observed the likeness of the speech 
of Anglen in Slesvig to English, says he was surprised at the 
number of English faces he saw there. 

The founder of the first West-English settlement was Cerdic. 
He landed in 495, with his son Cynric, and five ships, at ( Cer- 
dices Ora ', as it was afterwards called, a place which was some- 
where in Hampshire, and was most likely, as I think with Mr. 
Wise, Calshot, which has been heretofore written Caldshore, where 
4 the laud runs out into the sea with no less than ten fathoms of | 
water': and the word ora, or, would mean such a point of land. 
Turner says u a remarkable passage in the Saxon Chronicle, which 
indicates that he attacked 'West Seaxenaland' six years after his; 
arrival (501), induces a belief that his first attempt was on some] 
other part of the island." So Ethelwerd tells us (834) that " Sext 
etiam anno adventus eorum occidentalem circumierunt Britannic' 
partem quse Westsexe nuncupatur," though circumierunt , 'thq 
went round,' the verb used by Ethelwerd, may mean only tl 
they sailed round the west of England without landing. 

In 501, two or three hundred men, the crews of two shi] 
under Porta? landed and overcame the Britons at Portes-mutl 
mouth of the haven, Portsmouth; and thirteen years afterwui 
other English were brought to England by Cerdic's nephews, Sini 
and Wihtgar; though Wihlgar is an odd name for an Engli? 
man, as it is the English form <>! ihe British for an Islandi 
or a Wightinaii. 


I hold, fully, the opinion of De la Villemarque in his IJardes 
I Bretons' that the battle of Portes-mutha was the l>attlr of IJomj- 
borthy which has been sung, in a sad but high strain, by Lliwaivli- 
Hen, in his ode "Marwnad Geraint ab Erbin" and that Gcraiut 
was the young British man of high birth, who was there slain 
by the Saxon sword. 

I read Llongborth, with Villemarque, not as Forth y /font/, 
Porth long, the haven of ships, but as it is given by Lliwarch- 
II en 'Llong borth', the mouth or opening of the harbour, and 
that Geraint, who was son of Erbin of Cornwall, was of noble 
birth is clear from Lliwarch's ode, from which we may almost 
, gather he was young: as the ode calls him great son of his father, 
(niawr mab ei dad) as if his father was yet alive. 

Cerdic and Cynric could not have carried their sway, for 
many years, much beyond that side of Hampshire where they 
j landed, for in 508, thirteen years after their coming, they had 
to hold their footing against a British king, Natan-leod, whatever 
might have been the British form of his name, the Cornoak, l nad 
an lluydd\ 'the shout of war' or aught else, who withstood him 
with 5000 men, but fell at Natan-leag or Netly. 

It is not till the year 519, twenty-four years after their com- 

| ing, when they beat the Britons at Cedicsford, or Charford ? that 

they are said to have founded a kingdom at all ; as the Saxon 

I Chronicle tells us that then Cerdic and Cynric, "West Seaxena 

i rice onfengon," began the West Saxon kingdom. As they had 

) another battle with the Britons at Cerdices-leah in 528, and in 

530 took the Isle of Wight with great slaughter, we must infer 

that at Cerdic's death, in 534, Dorsetshire, with its important 

i towns Dwrin, Wareham ? and Durnovaria, Dorchester was still 

Jin the hands of the Britons, whose language was the only one 

spoken in the neighbourhood. 

In 552 Cynric defeated the Britons at 'Searoburh,' the Roman 
Sorbiodunum, now Salisbury, and four years afterwards at 'Be- 
ranlmrh,' considered to be Banbury in Oxfordshire; and unless 
the inhabitants of Dorset fell in union with those of Sorbiodunum 
.(Salisbury), or in some unrecorded battle of that time, they wi-iv 
,free at the death of Cynric in about 560. 

We cannot learn that his successor Ceolwin, third king of 
Wessex, came to Dorset, though he made great inroads upon the 
Britons, and took many of their towns in other directions; his 

A 'I 


brother having beaten them at Bedford, and taken four towns, 
Lygeanburh, jEglesburh, Bennington, and Egonesham, supposed 
by Gibson to be Leighton in Bedfordshire, (though it was most 
likely Lenbury in Buckinghamshire,) Aylesbury in Buckingham- 
shire, and Bensington and Ensham in Oxfordshire; and he him- 
self, six years afterwards, having overcome and slain three British 
kings, Conmail, Condidan (Cyndylan), and Farinmail, at Deor- 
ham, now Durham. In this war three of the great cities of the 
Britons, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath, submitted to him, and 
seven years afterwards the Britons met him at FeSanleag, sup- 
posed to be Freethorn in Gloucestershire; and after a hard battle, 
in which his son was slain, and he, although nearly defeated, 
won the day, he 'gehwearf thonan to his agenum,' - 'returned 
to his own people,' as the Saxon Chronicle tells us; a proof that 
the part of England where he had fought was not his own. 

The battle of Durham is the one in which fell Cyndelyn, 
Cynddylan, the Condidan of the chronicle, which has received 
(from a mistake of some scribe?) the letter d for /, and in some 
of these wars of Ceawlin the Dorset Britons seem to have yielded 
to English sway. 

Mr. Freeman said at the Congress of the Archaeological In- 
stitute at Gloucester, July 1860, that he had lately bought a small 
estate in Somersetshire, near the city of Wells; on taking pos- 
session he was surprised to find himself in the Parish of St. 
Cuthbert's at Wells, nearly two miles off; though the parish church 
of Wookey was almost within a stone's throw of his house. Aj 
glance at Dr. Guest's map at once explained the anomaly. The 
great campaign of Ceawlin in 577 carried the English conquests 
as far as the Axe: that river was for a considerable time the 
frontier of England, and of West Wales: but that same river 
was for a good part of its course the boundary of the parishes 
of Wells and Wookey and actually divided his own land from 
that of his neighbour. Ceawlin conquered Wookey, and did not 
conquer Wells. He conquered the lands of his neighbour, bur 
did not conquer his own. 

the I'.riiish neighbours of the West Saxons were so far 

from l.rin^ rxtirpait-d or pi-Hi-rlly overthrown, that in loll, uhen 

Cenwalh >vas iniplicau-d in hostilities with Penda, king of the 

Mercians, for having repudiated Penda's sister, his queen, the 

n." ii.\;.d..l his dominions, and he. beat them at I'enn-hill,! 


(near Crewkerne?) and drove them to the Parret, which rises 
i at Cheddingfon, and runs down about four miles west of Penn- 
hill. Turner infers that the hostile Britons defeated at Penn-hill, 
had come in from the British states of Devon and Cornwall; 
and it is not unlikely that the Durotriges of Dorset, a few miles 
distant, were among them. 

The Saxon Chronicle of the battle of King Cenwalh with 
tin- Britons at Penn, in the year 658, allows us to believe that 
after the Britons retired from the upper Axe, the river Parret, 
with the lower Axe, was for a long time the understood line of 
separation between the kingdom of the West Saxons and the 
land still holden by the Western Britons; as it tells us that, in the 
year 658, "Cenwalh gefeaht set Peonnum wiS Wealas, and h^ 
geflymde 08 Pedridan:" "Cenwalh fought at Penn with the Welsh 
(Britons), and pursued them to the Parret." Sir R. C. Hoare and 
others have placed this battle at Penn Selwood, near Mere, in 
Wiltshire, making the Saxons to have followed the Britons, 
through bogs, woods, and streams, between twenty and thirty 
miles ; but those who know the neighbourhood of Crewkerne, in 
Somersetshire, would rather believe that if Cenwalh chased the 
Britons from any place which still bears the name of Penn, it 
was Penn-hill, or Pen Domer, four or five miles east of the river 
Parret, which runs down between it and Crewkerne: and as we 
cannot well conceive why the Saxons should stop at the Parret 
unless it formed an insuperable barrier, or was an understood 
limit of their dominion, and as it could have been no greater 
obstacle to them than to their enemies, we can only take the 
other conclusion, that the land beyond it was at that time holden 
by the Britons. This opinion is allowed by a fact stated by Mr. 
Jennings, who, in his Observations on some of the Dialects of 
the West of England, says, that "the district which his glossary 
is designed to include, embraces the whole of the county of So- 
merset east of the river Parret, as well indeed as parts of Wilt- 
shire and Gloucestershire; many of the words being common to 
all these counties. In the district west of the river Parret, the 
pronunciation and many of the words are very different indeed, 
'so as to designate strongly the people who use them;" and, after 
giving some examples of verbs and pronouns from the dialect 
uwest of the Parret, he tells us that "it pervades, not only Mie 
more western parts of Somersetshire, but also the whole of De- 



Yonshire." This assertion is corroborated by Mr. Petheram, the 
author of tt An Historical Sketch of the Progress and Present 
State of Anglo-Saxon Literature in England," who says, in a 
very kind and valuable letter to the writer of this Essay, "It 
must have been often remarked by those conversant with the dia- 
lects of Somerset, east and west of the Parret, that the latter 
approximates to the Devon variety, whilst to the eastward it 
comes nearer to that of Dorset and Wilts. I do not think it 
easy to find any where so great a dissimilarity in places so near 
to each other as is to be met with in this instance. The fact is 
so, but I am unable to account for it." The fact is accounted 
for by the Saxon Chronicle, if it justifies the author's opinion of 
the early western limit of the Saxon dominions; though it may 
not be easy to learn whether the western parts of Somerset and 
Devonshire were afterwards taken by Saxons who were not ol 
the original Hampshire stock of West Saxons, or by mingled 
settlers from different Anglo-Saxon kingdoms; or whether the 
Saxons went west of the Parret, and the dialect of West Saxony 
was afterwards corrupted in Dorset, Wilts, and Hampshire by 
Saxons from other parts of England, after the union of the Hept- 
archy under Egbert. Athelstan seems to have first extended the 
Saxon rule to Exeter, which he is said to have separated from 
tin- British kingdom of Cornwall. There seems to be another 
hint that the Parret was a particular line of division, in an ac- 
count of a Danish invasion in Alfred's time, (894); in which the 
Saxon Chronicle says, "Then gathered ^Sered, the ealdonnan 
and TEBhelm, the ealdorman, and ^ESelnoS, the ealdorman, and 
tin- king's thanes, they that were at home, at the works of eact 
(Ayrt'0, fortress,) EAST OF PARHET (be east an Pedredan), and 
west of Selwood (the forest of Selwood, the set, groat, irudu- 
wood, by Frome Selwood), and east and also north of the Thames 
and west of the Severn," and other parts, and overtook the enem}!^ 
<m the banks of the Severn. 

Mr. 1 'ul man writes in his notes to his version of the ' Sonfjl 
I'.n.on. printed by H. H. Prince Lucien Bonaparte', "thai 
'"imnciation of M, as in French, is first heard at Kilmingtol 
.I'M, ul a mile and a half west of Ax minster, on tlu lower Ax 
N\l.i-h nearly shuts in with thr 1'arrct. At Axminster itself, si 
tutted as it is on the very verge of Dorset, and Somerset, therjr 
it no trace of the French u sound, at least not among the native 



of the town." So on the old coach road to Exeter from Dorches- 
ter, a few hints of the Devonshire speech -form, begin to show 
themselves below the chalk hills in the neighbourhood of Brid- 
port. Shutting in with the upper Axe is a stream called Mark 
yeo, on which is the village of Mark, a name which sounds strongly 
of metirc, a bundary, and if the Parrel is y Parwyd of Welsh, it 
means also the partition. 

^Escwine, Cenwalh's successor, took Wessex in 674; and in 
676 left it to Centwine, who is said to have driven the British, 
not yet extirpated, to the sea (08 sac), which might be the eastern 
par I of the English Channel. In 686 Mul, and Cead walla his 
brother, plundered Kent and the Isle of Wight, and Ceadwalla 
won Wessex : in 688 he went to Rome for baptism at the hands 
of the Pope, and died there. Then Ina took West Saxony, and 
reigned thirty -seven years. He must have possessed much of 
Dorset and Somerset, as he built a minster at Glastonbury, and 
his sister, CiiSburh, founded that of Wimborne. After Ina came 
jESelheard, and Cii>red, who had still to fight with the Welsh; 
and, in 754, followed Sigebriht, who was deposed by Cynewulf. 
Brytric, who followed Cynewulf in 784, must have possessed 
Dorsetshire, as he was buried at Wareham. In 800, Ecgbriht, 
took the crown of West Saxony, and, as every body knows, 
made himself Bretwald, by winning the kingship of all the Anglo- 
Saxon settlements in the island. ^E}>elwulf, his son, clearly held 
Dorset, Somerset, and Devon, if we are to trust to the Saxon 
Chronicle, which tells us that he led the men of those counties 
; against the Danes, who had first appeared, as enemies, off the 
English shores, in the days of Brytric. In 832 he was defeated 
:by the Danes off Charmouth; and >ZE]>elbald, his successor, with 
JE)>elbriht, who followed him in 860, was buried at Sherborne. 
^EJ>elbrit's brother and successor, ^Ej'ered, lies at Wimborne. 

The great Alfred collected his men at "Ecgbrihtes stane," 
(Brixton Deveril?), in Wilts, and we know possessed Wedmore 
in Somerset; as it was there that Godrum, the Danish king, 
whom he beat and induced to be baptized, kept his ' Crismlysing,' 
ror baptismal festival. Edward, the so-called martyr, who was 
slabbed, at the instigation of his mother-in-law ^Elfrida, at Corfe 
Castle in 978, was buried at Wareham, and his body was after- 
iWards translated to Shaftesbury. 

In 876 the Danes took the castle of Wareham, and invaded 


Dorsetshire from the mouth of the Frome in 998; and in 934 a 
Bishop of Sherborne took soldiers to Athelstan's camp. From 
all these circumstances, therefore, it seems likely that Dorsetshire 
fell under the power of the West Saxons, and received their 
language, the venerable parent of its present dialect, with Salis- 
bury in 552, though the Britons were not driven far beyond the 
Parret till after the time of Cenwalh, one hundred years later. 

As the Western English took place of the British east of 
the Axe and Parret, long before it went over them, and made 
its way into Devonshire, hundreds of years before it stilled the 
Cornoak in Cornwall, so the English forms of speech on the 
two sides of the Axe and Parret, and again in Cornwall, are 
marked by differences which, we may believe, are due to the facts 
of West English History. 

We must gather from the laws given by King Ina for Britons 
as such, as well as from the British names of many of our little 
dells, hills, and other spots, such that Englishmen could not have 
known without the presence of Welshmen , that many of them, 
free as well as theows, were living here among the English: but 
yet, in matching English with Welsh stems from the primary 
roots, I do not think that Western English has received from 
Welsh so many words as I was heretofore willing to draw 
from it. 

Many words which might be too readily taken as Welsh. 
are found among Teutonic tribes, who never lived with Britons 
either in England or elsewhere, and they seem to me to belong 
to Teutonic stems, and if there be two peoples who have the 
game stem in the same or like form, it would hardly be sound 
to hold that those who have the root -form of the word borrowed 
it from those who had it not. 

For instance, the Latins had catena and the Welsh have 
cadwyn a chain, and if it were holden that the Welsh took the 
word ctuhryn from catena, I should answer no. The Welsh have 
the stem cadte, formerly catw, to keep or hold, and their cadtnjn 
like cadarn, strong, is a Welsh -rooted word, whereas the Latins 
have riiti-mi without the stem, and therefore did not give it tc 
the NV, M,. 

How it was that the English took from the Britons the name* 
of places, and yet so little of their speech, we ought to under- 
stand from our settlers in New Zealand. 


The main raarks of south-western English, as it differs from 
the speech -forms of the north, even more than from those of 
eastern and middle English, are 

1. We have, in such cases as those in the grammar, V for the 
English F, and Z for 5, as the north has not. 

2. We keep the English sh for the old sc, whereas the north 
have often, like the tribe of Benjamin, the s for sh. 

3. We keep in full, the article, the, but the north men often 
have nothing but the consonant, and that has become T or 
D rather than TH. 

4. Our en, the objective caseform of he, is not, I think, to be 
found in northern speech. 

5. We have the full use of Do, in the present tense of the 
verb, and Did, with an habitual or imperfect tenseform, 
which is not owned in the north. 

6. For I be, we be, you be, they be, our forms of the Saxon- 
English verb Ic beo &c., northmen have I am or I is &c. 

7. The western affix a to the past participle of the verbs is 
now, I think, a mark only of western speech. 

8. We have the preposition to for the northern till, and 

9. we have the later or English consonants ch, dge, for the 
northern k and g, as church kirk, ridge riff. 

In searching the word -stores of the provincial speech-forms 
of English, we cannot but behold what a wealth of stems we 
have overlooked at home, while we have drawn needful supplies 
of words from other tongues; and how deficient is even English 
itself without the synonyms which our land -folk are ready to 
give it, and how many old root and stem forms of words are 
used by people who might be thought to have corrupted even 
later forms into them. 

The Dorset pank to pant is not likely to be a broken form 
of pant, for unless pant be a freely formed stem, it must itself 
have come down through the form pank. 

So again, of early roots little known to English, Scotland 
owns two, KING, DING, and the west of England another, IMSG. 

Friesian has KRING, and the dialect of Aix-la-chapelle has 
in almost primary root forms some verbs, which, with us, are 
stems of later shape : 

beng-e bind meng-e mean 

feng-e find 


and the Transylvanian speech holds some nouns of almost the 

earliest form 

frengd, friend 

hangd, hands. 

The following piece of Dorset is added to show that matter 
which is usually given in the language of hard words, as the 
poor call them, can be given them even in their own homely 
speech, and therefore could be given them in plain English. 



(In Dorset.) 

My Lords an' Gentlemen! 

We be a-bid by Her Majesty to tell you, that, vor-all the 
hwome war in North America, is a-holden on, the common treade 
o' the land, vor the last year, dont seem to be a-vell off. 

The treaden bargain that Her Majesty have a-meade wi' the 
Emperor o 1 the French, have, in this little time, yielded fruits 
that be much to the good o' bwoth o' the lands that it do work 
upon, and the main steate o' the income, vor all there be many 
things agefinst us, haVt a-been at all hopeless. 

Her Majesty do trust that thease fruits mid be a -took, as 
proofs that the wealth -springs o' the land ben't aweakened. 

'T have a-been a happiness to Her Majesty to zee the law- 
heeden mind, that happily do show itself all drough Her domi- 
nions, and that is so needvul a thing in the well-been and well- 
doen ov steutes. 

A vew plans, that wull be handy vor betteren o' things, 
wull be a-laid down vor your overthinken, and Her Majesty do 
earnestly pray that in all o' your meetens to wai'gh things over, 
the blewens ov Almighty God mid guide your plans, zoo as to 
set vorward the welfetire an' happiness ov Her People. 



1 ee in meet. 

2 ee the Dorset e. 

3 a in mate. 

4 ea in earth, or the French 

5 a in father. 

6 aw in awe. 

7 o as in rope. 

8 oo as in food. 

e in le. 

These 8 sounds are found in Dorset, both short and long, 
whereas the 2 nd , the Dorset e, is unheard, as a long one, in 
book -English. It is a sound between that of ee in meet, and 
a in mate; and, although it is often, if not mostly, heard in 
English as that of i in bid, (which is neither beed, nor bed,) yet 
it is not easily voiced as a long sound by others than Dorset or 
western people. It is I believe owned as a long sound by the 
Magyar speech. 

The tendency, (known in Latin,) of an open vowel in the 
root to become a close one, in the derivative, or in an unaccented 
breathsound, holds in the English, and more in Dorset. As in 
Latin, salio, yields insilio, so from the stems 

Man we have huntsman : pronounced huntsmin, i = 4, 
Spell Gospel: Gospil, i = 4, 

Ford Blandford: Blandfird, i = 4, 

House Malthouse: Malthis, i = 4, 

Coast Waistcoat : Waistc'it, i = 4, 

Starboard: Starbird, i = 4. 


The sound (1) of ee, as in meet, is mostly retained in Dorset, 
though it is sometimes a little shorter than that of the book- 


The same sound of ea in many other words becomes, in the 
west, a diphthong ea as 

bean, clean, lean, mead. 
Dorset, bean, clean, lean, mead. 

This diphthong stands, in some cases, for that of ea or eo 
in Saxon-English. 

In other words the English sound (1) of ea is a single one, 
n* 2, the Dorset e, and 

bead, meat, read, 
are not bead, meat, read, 
but bed, met, red; 

so that these words are still monosyllables, as they were in Saxon- 
English, in the forms bced, from biddan; mete, mate-, and rad. 

The sounds of head, lead, (plumbum,) day, whey, are hed, 
led, de, iche, with the sound of the Dorset e = 3. 

The variation of the vowel sounds in the speech -forms of 
English, as well as in the other Teutonic languages, are almost 
endlessly manifold. 

This sound 1 has a tendency in Ireland, and in Norfolk, 
and therefore in the eastern counties , to become a = 3 , as in 
u a hape, or a dale o' whate," a heap, or a deal of wheat, in 
Norfolk, and "a grate dale o' work" in Ireland. 

The Norfolk men are Angles, and therefore, as truly English, 
they should speak better English than is that of us of the under 
tribe of Saxons in the west: and who knows but that dale and 
trhate are the sounds of the old dcel, and hwaete of the early 

i = 1 in a few such words as 

bridge, ridge, will, 
tends to the sound 4 or even 6. 

ID the Vale of Blackmore will is, at different times, wooll, wull, and 
w&U, even in the same mouth; and Mr. Halbertsma, a Friesian, says, in 
a work on the Friesic and Anglo-Saxon, "In the village where 1 was 
born, we said, indiscriminately, after, efter, and after" 

80 walk and woll, for will, is found in the "Harrowing of Hell," a 
miracle-play of the time of Edward II. : 

' With resoan wolle ich haven bym:' 'With reason will I have them.' 

'Reaaoun wol y telle the:' 'I will tell thee a reason.' 


The North Friesian opens some of these close sounds, as 
Dat briijd as batter, 
The bread is bitter. 
For the English a = 3 we mostly hold ea = 1. 3. 

bake, cake, late, made, trade. 
D. beake, ceake, leate, meade, treade. 
As the Spanish has 

bien, cierto, invierno, sierra, tiempo, viento, 
for the Italian 

bene, certo, inverno, serra, tempo, vento, 

"What have you made of the old lame mare that you were 
leading up the lane from the mead" 
would be in Dorset 

"What have ye a -meade o' the wold leame mea're that you 
wer a -leaden up leane vrom the mead." 
The change of the English sound a = 3 into some such diphthong 
as 1. 3. is holden in the north as well as the west. I have marked it 
in ten of the northern English versions of Bible books, printed by H. H. 
Prince Lucien Bonaparte, though, in Mr. Robson's metrical Song of So- 
lomon. I find 3. 1 or 4. 1 for 3, as teyste, taste, pleyce, place. 

For e = 3 the Dorset often has a = 5 

beg, egg, keg, leg, peg. 
D. bag, ngg, kag, lag, pag. 

For ea or e = 4 , as in a few such words as earn, learn, 
fern, we have ea = 1. 3, as earn, learn, vearn, and in some few 
words with the sound a = 5 before r we have ea = 1 . 5, as 

arm, charm, card, garden, 
D. earm, chea'rm, ceard, gearden, 
So that, when we talk of playing ceards, and walking in the 
gearden, we do not affect fine English, but keep to homely 

In some words again with a = 5 and aw = 6 we have in 
Blackmore a = 3 

Father, la'gh, after, ha'f, 
for Father, laugh, after, half. 
Jaw, straw. 
Jae, strae. 

and = 6 before r, as in born, corn, horn, storm, is usually 
pronounced a little flatter than in English. 


The English long o = 7 mostly becomes with us wo = 8. 7 

bold, cold, fold, mould, oak. 
D. bwold, cwold, vwold, mwould, woak. 
Here the Dorset differs from English somewhat, though not 
quite, as the Spanish varies the Italian sound o = 7, into ue 
= 8.3 

It. foco, corpo, fonte, ponte. 

Sp. fuego, cuerpo, fuente, puente. 

It seems to be hard to English organs, however, to keep this long o 

as a single sound, for it is a diphthong in provincial speech -forms of 

the north, as well as of the south-west of England. 

I have found it, in six of the Bible versions by H. H. Prince Lu- 
cien Bonaparte, under the forms 2. 5, 6. 1, 7. 5, 8. 5, 8. 6. In 
many cases our English long o = 7 takes the form of the diphthong 
1. 2, 1. 3, or 7. 4, in Friesian, and I think that there is, with Londoners, 
a tendency to call a stone, a stown (7. 8). 

In Norfolk o = 7 is oo = 8 : as spook for spoke, and in Northum- 
berland it is aw = 6, as blaw for blow. 

In a few words with the short sound u = 7 we have a 
diphthong 7. 8 

crust, dust, rut. 
D. crowst, dowst, rowt. 
ow = 7 often takes on, as it sometimes takes on elsewhere, 
an r, as hollor for hollow. 

This r has most likely come in, as a needful division against 
the hiatus, before a vowel. 

The English ay = 3 or 3. 1 become in Dorset ay = 5. 1 , 
hay, may, pay, stay, 
hay, may, pay, stay. 

The English diphthong oi = 6. 1 is mostly, with us, woi 
= 8. 4. 1 or 8. 7. 1 

Boil, spoil, point, toil. 
D. Bwoil, spwoil, pwoint, twoil. 
In Norfolk oi seems to become 4. 1 , as vice, spile, for voice, 

We keep the English ou which, in the north, often becomes 
oo 8. 

A tendency to diphthongs holds in Teutonic speech through 
most if not through all of its forms, and those of Dorset arc 
N\ II ii|>lin|(lcii by the twin-vowels of Saxoii-Kiii;lisli and Fri.'sian. 






























And we sceolon mearcian ure foreweard heafod, 
And we shall mark our forehead (forward head). 
In West Friesian 








In West Friesian even many of our short vowels are di- 

brea', bread. oaf, of. 

fuot, foot. roast, rust, 

fuor, for. soan, son. 

beam, tree. 




lead, lied, 







to name. 












thoarst, thirst. 


Dear iz en griene leaf uwt-shetten, 
There is a green leaf out -shot. 
Hier rint en schiep, dear gie't en kuw, 
Here run'th a sheep, there go'th a cow. 



Lip - consonants. 

Tongue - consonants. 

4 D T 

5 J (French) SH (in she) 
Z S 


6 L 


7 TH (in thin) TH (in thee) 


Throat -consonants. - 
8 G in go 

K C (as king, call). 

In Blakmore. 

V = 2 before N sometimes becomes B, as 
heaven, hebn. 
eleven, elebn. 
seven, zebn. 

In Dorset. 
The English F often becomes V, 

Feed, fetch, fast, fall, fore, foot, find. 

D. Veed, vetch, vast, vail, vore, voot, vind. 

But the Dorset does not hold V for F in words that are 

brought in from other and not Teutonic languages. We must 

say Factory, false, family, famine, figure, in Dorset, as well as 

in English. 

In Swedish / is pronounced as v at the end of a word; ' Gif lif at 
den bild:' 'Give life to the image,' being pronounced 'Giv liv at den bild: 
and the / of High-Dutch is, by the same smoothing of the pronunciation, 
converted into v in Low-Dutch: 

High-Dutch, fett, frau, fier, freund. 

Low-Dutch, vett, vrouw, vier, vriend. 

English, fat, woman, four, friend. 

"Vixen has survived to us in the true sense in rustic speech only. 

Grim told Kemble he was much surprised at this v in vixen, from fox; 

and one would perhaps have as soon looked for filly, from foal." Mr. 


" The voxe bird," for " the fox heard," is found in a song of the 
fourteenth century, in which we find also, 'In pes withoute vyhte,' for 
'In peace without fight.' 

Th of the English sometimes, and mostly before r, becomes 
d; as draw for throw; drouyh, through; drash, thrash; drong, 
; droat,; drashel, threshold. So in German, 













Conversely, th (8) is substituted in Dorset for the English 
rf: aa blufter, u l.ladd, -r; Iu8er, a ladder. 


So in West Friesian 

Trog tjock en tin, 
Through thick and thin. 

The rough M, as in think, is mostly with us smooth, as Hi 
in thee. 

It is markworthy that th has given way to d in Sussex, as in 

dis, dat, dem, dere, 
for this, that, them, there. 

For s English the Dorset holds, in many English words, the 
kinsletter 2, as s in High-Dutch becomes z in Holland. 
E. see, set, sand, sorry, sun. 
D. zee, zet, zand, zorry, zun. 

s-headed words, however, which have come in, of later times, 
from other languages, retain the 5 sound in Dorset ; as 
scene, servant, sabbath, 
scene, sarvant, sabbath. 

Some pairs of like -sounded, s- headed, English words are 
distinguished in Dorset by s and *: 

E. D. E. D. 


set, (verb) 
set, (noun) 






There has been, either in the new, or older forms of speech, 
metathesis of s with a mute clipping, as 

English, clasp, crisp, hasp, wasp, ask. 
Dorset, claps, crips, haps, waps, ax. 

Saxon-Eng., ha3ps, waeps, 


Our Friesian bretheren have not the Saxon or Dorset order 
of the consonants. 

Saxon-Eng., On haeran and on axan. 

Matt. c. xi. 

Friesian, Yn sek ind yeske. 

Saxon-Eng., Betweox tham temple and tham weofode. 
Friesian, Twisk di timple int it alter. 

Between the temple and the altar. 

If it be asked who had the older form, or who shifted the conso- 
nants, the truth seems to be that the metathesis began with the Saxon- 



English, as we know that the British word esk , Welsh w-ysg, a stream 
of water, became with them, Ex or Ax, as in Exmouth, Ax-knoller. 
So the Saxon -English had 

crset, gaers, forst, flax, fixas, 
for cart, grass, frost, flask, fishes, 
and the Latin /warmer is the Russian mramor. 

The liquids such as rl often take d or otherwise e between 


twirl, twirdl, or twirel. 
harl, hardl, barrel, 
curl, curdl, currel. 
purl, purdl, purrel. 
Compare with this case that of 8 between VQ in Greek, as 

for avtQog. 

So tbe British pen, head, seems to have become, in Cornoak, 
. and in Norfolk a banner is a bander, as they say all 
man tier of colours. 

R before some open and close palate letters is thrown out: 

burst, first, verse, force, furze, 

bu'st, vu'st, ve'ss, fwo'ce, vu'zz, 

orchard, fardle. 

orcha'd, fa'dle. 

So in Latin r seems to have been dropped in ses, mas, flos, os, 
it is found in their genitive cases: seris, maris, floris, oris. 

/m are sometimes sundered by a vowel as 
E. elm, helm, overwhelm. 
D. elem, helem, overwhelem. 


The Dorset has more freedom tban the straitly-bound 
list), in the outcasting or holding of consonants, so that, for tl 
sake of smoothness, we may leave them out before hard cons 
nants, or retain them before vowels, against the hiatus. We 
may say 

*A bit o' cheese' or 4 A bit ov an apple.' 
4 The ground is green' or 'The groun' mid be wet.' 
H.ilfskim cheese, Cheese-loft, and softpoll, 

or Ha'skim cheese, Cheese-lo't, and so'tpoll. 


All ov it, All ov em, 

or All o't, All o'm: 

As the German may say 'von dem garten,' or 'vom garten.' 
Compare foveo, fov'tum, fo*tum: moveo, mov-tum. mo*tum. 
We may say 

'Let us,' 'let's,' or 'le's' play rounders. 
'Better than that,' or 'better'n that,' 

The old breathing /* is retained in some words from which 
the English has lost it. We say 

hwing, for wing, and rightfully, if the h represents the k of 
a root kw*ng, to be quick, to quiver. 

So the aspirate firing for ring is no corruption, but is the 
aspirate of k in some such root as kring, Friesic, to bend. 

We have, with the English, the consonants ch and dj for 
the older ones k and g (hard) of the north, as church, ridge for 
kirk, rig. 


The Dorset still owns a few nouns with the plural ending 
for s: 

cheesen, housen, piemen, vu'zen. 
cheeses, houses, places, furzes. 

The West Friesian holds many cases of this plural ending, 
('which, indeed, in the Short Grammar of Japix is given as the 
isual ending for the plural of consonant -ended nouns. 
In the West Friesian Gospel of St. Matthew we read 
'as scjippen midz yn di wolwen,' 
'as sheep-en midst in the wolv-en.' 
'hoedend as di slang-en, ind gol as di douwen,' 
'heeding as the snak-en, and harmless as the dov-en.' 
'Byn him hannen ind fuotten,' (Matt. 22) 
'Bind him hand-en and foot-en.' 

It is a pity that this s should have been taken, in a lan- 
guage that hisses like our own, instead of the good liquid-ending 
. hut this s will hold its place, and even take that of others. 
especially that of d and t. It is found in the English verb 
ling s for th, as 'he writes' for 'he writeth,' 



and in North Friesian 

Blees, Faihs, hiehs. 
Blade, food, heath. 

So in Cornoak s appears for the Welsh d or dd: 
W. y tad, y coed, gorfyn y byd. 

Corn, an tas, an cois, gorfen an beys. 

E. the father, the wood, end of the world. 
To ease the horrid cluster of consonants -sfs in the plural 
oft s/- tailed nouns. Dorset people often put an e with the 5, 
as coastes, postes, vistes, 
for coasts, posts, fists. 
The possessive case is in Dorset often given with of, o 
instead of the case-ending -s, as 'the veet o'n' for 'his feet 
though this form of case is mostly used in derision, as 'Loo 
at the veet o'n,' 'Look at his feet' as something laughworthy. 


Whereas Dorset men are laughed at for what is taken a 
their misuse of pronouns, yet the pronouns of true Dorset, ai 
littt-d to one of the finest outplannings of speech that I hav 

In Dorset speech, things are offmarked into two classes: 

1. Full shapen things, or things to which the Almighty o 
man has given a shape for an end; as a tree, or a tool: an 
such things may be called the Personal Class : as they have th 
pronouns that belong to man. 

2. Unshapen quantities of stuff, or stuff not shapen up int 
;i i'>nn fitted to an end: as water or dust: and the class of sue 
tilings may be called the Impersonal Class, and have other pro 
nouns than those of the personal class. 

Tin' personal pronoun of the personal class is he, tin- ol 
j.-riivr form of which is en, the worn form of the Saxon-Englis 
ke-enc, /line, AIM, en. 

S-E. He araerde hine up. 
D. I Ir ivaivd en up. 
S-E. Petrus axode hine. (Mark c. 15.) 
D. Peter axed en. 

1 IH nee it is said of western people that they make ever 
', but a tom-cat, which they call she. 


It is markworthy that en is the very form of this pronoun 
in the speech of Siebenburgen, or at least of Hermannstadt. in 
Transylvania, as I find in the song of Solomon, kindly given to 
me by H. H. Prince Lucien Bonaparte: 

ech saekt en, awer ech faand en net. 
D. I sought en but I vound en not. 

The personal pronoun for the impersonal class is it. We 
say of a tree 'he's a-cut down,' 'John vell'd en,' but of water 
we should say 'It's a-dried up.' 

Again, the demonstrative pronouns for the personal class are 
thedse (hie) and thik (ille, is), and for the impersonal class we 
have this (hoc) and that (illud, id), so that we have four de- 
monstrative pronouns against the English two. We should say 
'Come under thedse tree by this water.' 
'Teake up this dowst in thedse barrow.' 
' Goo under thik tree, an' zit on that grafs.' 
'Teake thik pick, an' bring a little o' that hay.' 
If a woman had a piece of cloth she might say "This cloth is 
wide enough vor thedse teable:" since, as long as it is unshapen 
into a table-cloth, it is impersonal; but as soon as she may have 
made it up into a table-cloth, it belongs to the personal class: 
and then we should say of it: 

Thedse or thik cloth do belong to 
thedse or thik teable. 

If a right-speaking Dorset man were to say ' thease stwone' 
1 1 should understand he meant a whole shapen stone, whereas 
"this stwone' would mean a lot of broken stone. 
Of a brick bat he would say 'Teake en up.' 
Of a lot of brick-rubbish, 'Teake it up.' 
''Thik ground' would mean a field, but 
'That ground' a piece of ground. 

There is much seeming grammatical personification in our English 
version of the Bible, but we should not take the use of his for our it*. 
be always a token of personification. 

The leviathan, the wild ass, the horse, and the raven, are given with 
pronoun he in the book of Job, but we have in Mark i) " if the suit 
ive lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season ft." 

In Saxon -English we have u >ys mihte beon geseald to miolum 
?eorf>e," (Matt. XXVI. 9). " This (ointment) might be sold for a groat 
ice," where ]>ys is the neuter Dorset impersonal pronoun: whereas 


sealf t ointment, is feminine, but we should still, in Dorset, call it this 
not thease, as a loose quantity of stuff. 

Mr. Akerman writes me that in his part of Wiltshire, the cases 
which are marked among us by our thease and thik, are shown by thik 
and thuk. 

The word thik is the Saxon -English pa-ylc, the Scotch the ilk, and 
the old English thulke, which, in Chaucer's time, was shortened to thilk. 

Thilke day that they were children, 
D. Thik day that they wer childern. 

And therof cometh rain-frost, as thulke mist doth fleo, 
And thereof cometh rain-frost as that mist doth flee. 

Lives of the Saints, 

I have sometimes almost felt that we had three uses, instead of two, 
of our demonstrative pronouns: one for a near thing, this, theasei one for 
a farther but outshown thing, thik, that-, and a third for a farthest thing, 
or a thing not before the speaker, yonder. 
The North Friesians may say: 

De hirre buhm as man; de dirre, dan; an janner, san. 
The here tree (beam) is mine ; the there, thine ; and yonder, his. 
So the Welsh, having these three kinds of pronouns, can say: 

Mae yn rhaid i hwn, a huna, vyned at hwnw. 
It is needful for this man (here) and that one (there) to go to th 
absent or farthermost (yonder) man. 

The objective form of 'they' is not 'them' but is em. the 
Saxon-English hym or him: 

Faeder, forgyf him (Luke XXIII. 34). 
Father, forgive them. 

We find hem for them in the " Metrical Lives of the Saints," writ 
in the time of King Edward I., and in " Sir John Maundevile's Travel 
written soon afterwards, in the early part of the fourteenth century. 
speaking of the antipodes, Sir John Maundevile says, "It semethe 
that wee ben under hem:' In Dorset, "Da seem to em, that we 
under em." 

ran trace the Dorset en and em, the Anglo-Saxon him: and 
to the Gothic, in which they are inn and ////. "Andliofun auk jainain 
anihaitandam in, (Dorset .-///), inthi/.ei ni attau'hun ///," (Dorset e, 
"Hut !ln-\ ;uis\u.,vd tht-in, asking why they had not brought him," &c 
hi,- 1 1, wily. The old personal pronouns //// and her, 1\-S. him anc 
lor tli.m and thnr, seem to have given place to the demonstrative 
ones PUIH and pr, of which th,,,, and thnr are modifications. Thai 
Uie Latin /,<- and ii, , have hem displaced by the Italian r/H, 


When a pronoun in an oblique case is emphatical, it is given 
in its nominative shape instead of its objective case. We should 
say, unemphatically, 'Gi'e me the pick,' or 'Gi'e en the knife/ 
or "Gi'e us the wheat,' or 'Gi'e em their money;' but emphatic- 
ally, 'Gi'e the money to /, not Ae;' or 'to we,' not 'to they.' 
This is an analogous substitution to that of the emphatical dative 
case for the nominative in French; as 'Je n'irai pas, woi:' 'I 
shall not go.' 

I often hear people, (who would be angry at being told that they 
could not speak English,) uttering me in the place of the nominative /, 
as "who would like a flower?" Me (should like one). 

But so it is with our bretheren, the North Frieslanders , who say: 
'Dat az me,' That is I (me). 








zeven or zebn, 




The Dorset owns the Saxon - English formula 'J>his temple 
wscs getimbrod on six and feowertigum wintrum:' 'Thease temple 
wer a-builded in six an' forty winters:' the lower digits being 
named before the higher ones: and with numeral pronouns of 
quantity the singular, instead of the plural form of the noun, has 
been much used in the west, as 

Five foot six. Two dozen and nine. 
Five score. Twenty pound. 

Dorset, in violation of English Grammar, holds analogically 
right forms of the pronouns of self. We say 
'He've a-hurt hizzelfj (not himself,) 
'The childern have a-tired theirselves' (not themselves,) 

My book, or self, Our books, or selves, 

Thy book, or self, Your books, or selves, 

His book, or self, Their books, or selves. 

If self is to be taken as a noun, the Dorset is right, and 
f self be a pronoun, with /, thou, he, &c., then those pronouns 
hould be inflected, as they are in the Icelandic and Saxon- 



English, as Icsylf, I -self. 'Fram me sylfum:' From me -self. 
Sydney and other old writers held the Dorset rule of Hisself and 

Dorset retains more than the English of the en- tailed ad- 
jectives, as wooden, made of wood; leatheren, made of leather; 
hornen, made of horn; peapern, made of paper; hempen, made 
of hemp; ashen, elemen, weaken, made of ash, elm, or oak. 

This termination should be retained in English for the sake of dis- 
tinction; for a paper-bag is rightly a bag to put paper in, as a wood- 
house is a house to put wood in: a bag made of paper is a papern bag, 
not a paper -bag; and a house built of wood is a wooden house, not a 

Our useful adjectives ending in some, German saw, as quarrelsome, 
noisome, equivalent to the Latin ones in ax, loqu-ax, given to talking; 
or bundus, vaga-bundus, given to wandering, naming the state of a noun 
likely or given to do an action, would have been well taken into thej 
national speech from any dialect in which they might be found, instead \ 
of those borrowed from the Latin; as heedsome, attentive; winsome, likely j 
to win or captivate; lovesome, disposed to love; blithesome, disposed to 
be blithe; fadesome, laughsome, runsome (as mercury), meltsome (as butter 
or lead). Winning and loving are bad substitutes for winsome and love-\ 
some, since winsome does not mean actually winning one, but likely to wii 
one; and lovesome is not amans, but amasius. 

The North Friesian owns many of these en -tailed adjectives, as 
betanksaam, bethanksome, grateful, 
wirksaam, wirksome, industrious. 

In a case in which a positive degree with a possessive 
is used in Dorsetshire for a superlative degree, its dialect coii 
cides with an idiom in Hindoostanee; as 'Bring the long pit 
the long woone ov all,' instead of the ' longest of all,' like 
llimioostanee 'Yee sub-ka hurra hai:' 'This is the great one 
all, 1 for 'the greatest' 

The verb TO HE is, in Dorset and Anglo-Saxon, 

Present Tense. 


I be, 

Thou bist, 
He it, 

A.- Saxon. 

ic beo. 
Bu byst. 

lit- i.s. 

We be, 
You be, 
They be, 

we bcoS. 
ge beoS. 
hi beo$. 


Past Tense. 

Dorset. A.-Saxon. 

I wer, ic wsere. 

Dorx< t. . 1 . 

We wer, we waeron. 

Thou werst, 8u wsere. You wer, ge waeron. 

He wer, he waere. They wer, hi waeron. 

The auxiliary verb may and wight is, in Dorset, mid. 

In negative expressions, the word not, after an auxiliary 
erb ending in d or s, becomes en or n\ as, I coulden, I could 
ot; I shoulden, I should not; I woiilden, I would not; I didden, 
midden, I muss en, I did not, I may not, I must not. 


Present Tense. 

I have, I've. We have, We've. 

Thou hast, Thou'st. You have, You've. 

He have, He've. They have. They've. 

Past Tense. 

I had, I'd. 

Thou hadst, Thou'dst. 

We had, We'd. 
You had, You'd. 

He had, He'd. ! They had, They'd. 

Future Tense. 

I shall have, shall've. 

Thou shalt have. 

He shall have, shall've. 

We shall have, shall've. 
You - 


Present Perfect. 
I have, I've a -been, &c. 

Past Perfect. 
I had, I'd a -been, &c. 

I shall have, I shall've a- been, &c. 

Present Habitual. 

I do* meake. We do meiike. 

Thou dost meake. You do meake. 

He do meake. They do meake. 

* do unemphatical is pronounced as de in French. 


The pronoun it is often left out before do as (It) do rain; 
(It) do grow; (It) do seem. 

Present Actual. 
I'm a-meaken, &c. 

The affix a- in this tenseform is not the same as the a- of the per- 
fect participle, but it is the Saxon-English preposition on with the verbal 

S-E. Ic waes on huntiuge. 
D. I wer a-hunten. 

I meade, &c. 

Imperfect or Habitual. 
I did meake, &c. 

We have, in Dorset, an aorist, and also an imperfect tense- 
form of repetition or continuation, like the Greek, Latin, Russian, 
Persian, and French Imperfect or Iterative, as offmarked from 
the Aorist, Semelfactive, or Preterite. 

A boy said to me, in speaking of some days of very hard 
frost, "They did break the ice at night, and did vind it avroze 
agean nex' mornen." That is they broke and found several times. 
It they had broken and found only once, he would have said: 
They broke the ice at night, an' vound it," &c. 

She beat the child, is "Ervye rov natSa. 

She did beat the child, is "Ervms rov TtatSa. 

Whence came this use of did? 

Not from the book -Saxon -English, or Friesian. They, with Old 
Kii-lish, have it not. 

Not from the Normans. It is not found in old or modern French. 

From the Britons of the west? 

It may be, as Britons lived among the English, and we find, iu 
Cornoak, a like use of do: 

u my a wra care." 'I do love/ 

This imperfect tense-form is a great mark of south- western Kn-lish, 
' !l ""-'h 1 tliink, it is missing in Devonshire, as it is in northern English, 
lint it hold* again in Cornwall. 

<'lu'v:iliri p.miM-u, however, once told II. II. Prince Liu-ion lioiu- 
parto, that he had heard it with the verb do in Germany, and 1 Iliink 
I have beard of its use in Saxony. 


I in perfect Act mil. 
I \ver a-meiikon, &c. 

Perfect Present. 
I've a-meiide, &c. 

I've a-been a-irieiiken, &c. 

I'd a-meiide, &c. 

Perfect Past Actual. 
I'd a-been a-meaken, &c. 

I shall meake, &c. 

Future Actual. 
I shall be a-meiiken, &c. 

Future Perfect. 
I shall' ve a-meiide, &c. 
or shall h'a-meade, &c. 

Present or Aorist. 
I mid meake, &c. 
I mid be a-meaken, &c. 

Present Perfect. 
I mid've a-meiide, &c. 
or mid ha' meiide, &c. 

I mid ha' been a-meaken. 


a -loved, or loved, &c. 
Im \ 


I wer a -loved, or &c. 
Present Perfect. 
I've a-been a- loved, or &f. 

Past Perfect. 
I'd a-been a -loved, or ^c. 


I shall be a -loved, or &c. 

Future Perfect. 
I shall' ve a -been 

, a-loved, &c. 
shall ha -been 


Present or Aorist. 
I mid be a-loved, or loved, &c. 

I mid've a -been 

. a-loved, &c. 
mid h a -been 

Jennings, in his Observations on the Western Dialects, says, 
u Another peculiarity is that of attaching to many of the common 
verbs in the infinitive mode, as well as to some other parts of 
different conjugations, the letter y. Thus it is very common to 
say, / cant seiry, I can't nursy, he cant reapy, he can t sairy, 
as well as to sewy, to nursy, to reapy, to sawy, &c.; but never, 
I think, without an auxiliary verb, or the sign of the infinitive 
to." The truth is, that in the Dorset the verb takes y only when 
it is absolute, and never with an accusative case. We may say, 
4 Can ye zewy?' but never 'Wull ye zewy up thease zeam?' 
Wull ye zew up thease zeam?' would be good Dorset. 

Belonging to this use of the free infinitive 0-ended verbs, is 
another kindred one, the showing of a repetition or habit of the 
action, as 

'How the dog do jumpy,' i. e. keep jumping. 'The child 
do like to whippy,' amuse himself with whipping. 'Idle chap, 
He'll do nothen but vishy, (spend his time in fishing,) if you do 
lefive en alwone.' 'He do markety,' He attends market. 

The Magyar language has both a form for the applied action, 
as /ram, and for the free action, as (Irek). 

It seems a pity that we should have lost the free use of the affix 
for (off, or out) in such words as /orgive, /orswear. The Friesians, like 
the Germans with ver, make good use of it. They have many such 
words as 

forlitteti, to forlet, neglect; 

forminderjen, to lessen off; 

forlajngtrn, to forlong, or lengthen out; 

fortfnncn, to forthin, or thin off or out; 


and Japix, the Friesian poet, writes 'Ily forlear it sian fen't Ian. lie 
forlost, or lost off, the sight of the land, forlear being the verb of our 
participle forlorn. 

JEr-ended verbs are iterative or frequentative verbs, as 

beat, batter, 
chat, chatter, 
climb, clamber. 

fret, fritter, 
gleam, glimmer, 
wind, wander. 

The stem of the word slumber was marked in my Philological Gram- 
mar, p. 174, as wanting; though I knew it must be, or have been, some- 
where in Teutonic speech; and I have lately had the pleasure of finding 
it in Mr. Littledale's Craven version of Solomon's Song, kindly given 
me by H. II. Prince Lucien Bonaparte: 

A slaums, bud man hart wakkens, 
I sleep, but my heart wakes. 

We have a few of these er- ended words: 
Blather, blether, to keep bleating. 
Shatter, to shoot or cast about, as corn. 
Happer, to keep hopping, as hail rebounding from the ground. 

Many words which, in English, are strong or moulded, are 
in Dorset weak or unmoulded: 

English past tense. Dorset past tense. 
Blow, blew, blowed. 

Build, built, builded. 

Catch, caught, catched. 

Crow, crew, crowed. 

Gild, gilt, gilded. 

Grow, grew, growed. 

Hide, hid, hided. 

Know, knew, knowed. 

Run, ran, runned or rinned. 

Slide, slid, slided. 

Throw, threw, drowed. 

On the other hand, some verbs that are weak and mixed 
in English, are strong in Dorset: 

creep, crope. heave, hove. scrape, scrope. 
It once seemed to me, that, as the Britons were much mingled 
with the English in Dorset, and as we Dorset men have there- 
fore some British blood, the mingled thought of the English and 
Saxon mind in the West, might have taken the unmoulded tense- 



forms, from some such analogy, as we even now find will take 
unusual forms of words. I have heard a child, who had most 
likrly learnt that his zuny or sung, should be sang, take brany 
as the past-tense of bring. 

We need not think, however, as we see how unsettled these 
two classes of tense-forms are among the whole Teutonic race, 
that their use should be imputed to British or any other foreign 

The following few cases will show the unsettled state of the 
weak and strong verbs: 

Puck. (Hereford) 
Quat. n. 
Raught. (Wilts.) 
Rieb. (German) 
Ruse. n. 
Scrope. (Dorset) 












Shupe. (0. English) 
Squoze. (Hereford) 
( Tell'd. (Friesian) 
I Tell't. n. 
Ta'ed. (W. York) 

Brung, brang. n. 
Clomb. w. 
Cum'd. n. 
Fun. (Lancas.) 
Fot. (Wilts.) 
Fotch. (Hants.) 
Give Gov. n. 

Heave Hove. (Hereford. 


Leap Lap. n. 

Make Maked. (Friesian) Take 
Milk Molk. (German) 

The true Dorset retains, what one could wish the English 
had not lost, an affix or syllabic augment to the perfect parti- 
ij'l . answering to one in the Saxon-English and German. 
In German it is ye-, as 

4 Haben sie ge-funden das buch?' 
D. 'Have ye a-vound the book?' 

In Anglo-Saxon it is also ge, which has become a in Dorset- 
shire; as 'He've tlost his hatchet.' 'She've Abroke the dish.' 

A.-Saxon. 'Paulus Gtbunden wearth Gzsend to Rome.' - 
Saxon Chron. A. D. 50. 

Dorset. 'Paul abound wer Azent to Rome.' 
A.-Saxon. 1'Ylu dwilda waeron G^seyen and GEhyred. 1 
Dorset. ' Many ghosts wer Azeed an' Ahierd.' 
'I'll.- augment or affix ye, by aphaeresis of the g, became y 
,,f i| lt . Saxon-English into the English: as 

" r ' '" 

:ill.-|. from i| n . Anglo-Saxon cltjpian, to call, a 
word used l.v Mih,,.,: 


* Come, thoti goddess fair and free, 
In heav'n vclep'd Euphrosyne." L' Allegro. 

In a semi-Saxon poem, believed to be of the twelfth century, 
printed by Mr. Singer, the affix is almost constantly i; as 
' his deaz beoth -gon;' 'his days are gone.' 
' thu weren f-freoed;' 'thou wert freed.' 
' scr thu beo i-brouht;' 'ere thou be brought.' 
And in the works of Spenser we find the affix y in common use: 

"She was \clad, 
All in silken camus, lily white." Spenser. 

In the legend of Saint Margaret, of the 1 3th century, lately 
edited by Mr. Cockayne, the affix i- is in full use, as it seems 
! to have been in the time of Chaucer, who writes 

'When Hector was i-brought all fresh i-slain.' 

(Knight's Tale.) 
D. 'When Hector wer a-brought all fresh a-slai'n.' 

How much smoother is this line in old English or Dorset, 
1 than it is in our English, 

J'When Hector was brought all fresh slain" 
with heaps of hard consonants unsundered by the vowel i- or a-. 

-ing the ending of the active participle and verbal noun is 
kn. It is markworthy that this ending -ing, which is truly Eng- 
lish and Teutonic, is hardly any where -ing in Provincial speech. 
In the north it is mostly -in and -aw, or -un in other parts of 

Dorset is, in many cases, more distinctive than our book- 
speech, inasmuch as it has many pairs of words, against single 
ones of our books, and gives sundry sounds to other pairs, that, 
in English, are of the same sound; so that it withholds from 
the punster most of his chances of word-play. 

'The people told the sexton and the sexton tolled the bell' 
is in Dorset 

'The people twold the sex'on, an' the sex'on tolfd the bell.' 

ale, ail. 

eal, ail. 

board, bor'd. 

bwoard, bor'd. 
breach, breech, 

brech (e=2) breech. 

cane, Cain. 

ceane, Cai'n. 

fall (verb), fall (autumn). 

vail, fall. 

foul, fowl. 

foul, vowl. 




( sale, 
( zeale, 




( son, 
j son, 




j firs, 




( virs, 





That the Dorset is not indistinctive will be seen from a few 


Tough. Reamy. 

A stick may be tough, when it will bend without breaking, 

but cheese or bread is reamy when it will reach out into string- 

iness without breaking off. 

Reamy is elastic in the sense of reaching out, but not in 
that of shrinking back. 

Bank. Balk. 

A balk is a strip of turf between two lawns, as those of an 
open corn field; a bank is a high ridge. 

Blowsy. Frouzy. 

Blowsy is having the feace reddened by labor or heat. Frouzy 
is loosely clad; slack. 

Bundle. Lock. 

A bundle of hay is a lot bound up; a lock is as much as 
an ! taken up in the two arms. 

Bush. Wride. 

A wride of hazel or wheat, is the lot of stems growing out 
of one root or one grain; a bush may be of many w r rides. 

Blackberry. Dewberry. 

The dewberry is a big kind of blackberry. 

Burn. Zweal. 

To weal is to burn superficially; to singe. 

Bloom. Blooth. 

B tooth IB blossom collectively, or the state of 1 doom ing. 

Bloat. Blather. 

To blntltn. Idethrr, i s to keep, bleating, or talking, loudly 


Ceare. Ho. 

To ho is to be uneasy for uncertainties of after time. *Ne 
beo ge na hogiende.' Do not be ho-ing or anxious. 

Chump. Log. 

A chump of wood, is a very short cutting, a log a longer 
one, or a length. 

Chimney. Tun. 

The tun is only that part of the chimney that reaches above 
he roof. 

Crack. Craze. 

To craze a dish, is to crack it a very little, so that it does 
not open. 

Crow. Croodle. 

To croodle is to make little Growings, as a happy babe. 

Cry. Churm. 


A charm is a mingled sound, as that of many children learn- 
ng lessons aloud. 

Cry(v). Tooty. 

To tooty is to weep with broken sounds. 

Print. Daps. 

A print is a mark printed by a die or type. Daps is a 
ikeness of a thing so close as if it were printed with it. 'He 
s the very daps of his father.' 

Deaf. Dunch. 

Dunch is a little deaf', hard of hearing. 

Faggot. Baven. 

A haven is a bundle of long, uncut, sticks. 

Flinders. Flankers. 

Flankers are outflying bits of fire. Flinders are outflying 
^particles, as of a hard body smashed. 

Gift. Hansel. 

A handsel is a hand-gift, a gift given from hand to hand. 
A house may be a gift, but not a handsel. 

Gully. Brook. 

A gully is a channel that takes surface water. A brook is 
i spring-head stream, running into a river. 



Hackle. Rwof, roof. 

A hackle is a small overhanging roof, as that of a bee-hive. 

Hill. Knap. 

A knap, cnaep, knob, is a small, low, hill. In Somerset it 

is a batch. 

Hop. Hick. 

To hick is to hop on one leg. A bird may hop, not hick, 
on both legs. 

Hobble. Scraggle. 

To hobble about is to go hoppingly. To scraggle about is 
to go with the limbs screwed out into queer shapes. 

Job. Choor. 

A job is one full piece of work. A choor (char) is a turn, 
as a weekly turn, at occasional work. 

Linch. Lawn. 


A /tncA, or linchet, is a flattened ledge, as of corn-ground 
by a hill-slope. A lawn is a strip of land in an open field, asj 
Fordington Field. 

Lancet. Fleam. 

A fleam is a lancet of arrowhead shape, for bleeding cattle.] 

Leavens. Orts. 

Orts are the leavings of hay, from cows fed afield. 

Litter. Lai'ter. 

A litter of piglings is one bed or sow's breed of them. A| 
loiter of eggs is all the eggs laid by a hen at one time, before] 

Lease (Leiize). Mead. 

A Mead is a mown field; a leaze is an unmown field, tor 
the zummer run of stock. 

Limp. Sumple. 

Limp is loose to bend. Sumpfe is yielding to pressure. 

Marry. Marry \\T. 

To marry, as the clergyman. To marry with, as the man. 

Moot. Root. More. 

A moot is the bottom of the stem of a felled tree, with 
it* roots; a root is a single outreacher; and a more is a taj 


Musheroom. Tusheroom. 

A lusher oom is an unwholesome white fungus. 

Mouldy. Vinny. 

A cinny cheese is one with blue fungus (feu), from damp, 
hut a cheese may be mouldy, in a mouldy or crummy state, with- 
out fenniness. 

Muggy. Hazy. 

Muggy weather is that with the air mingled with mist or 
damp. Hazy is that with a covering of cloud. 

Ment. Mock. 

To ment another is to take the likeness of his form or be- 
havior, in a good way. To mock is to do so in derision. 
'He do ment his father.' He is very like his father. 

Nitch. Nicky. 

A nitch of wood is a great cutting or faggot, carried home 
by hedgers at night. A nicky is a small cutting or bundle of 
sticks for lighting fires. 

Nettled. Angry. 

Nettled is angry at something in which we cannot ourselves 
cast all blame on the speaker. Pricked to the heart. 

Peave. Stean. 

To peave a yard is to ram down stone. A road may be 
steaned* not peaved, by only casting down gravel. 

Poll. Shroud. 

To poll a tree is to cut down the whole head. To shroud 
it is to cut off its side boughs that it may grow up tall. 

Plush, plash, plesh. Fell. 

To fell wood is to cut it off. To plush a hedge is to cut 
the wood -stems, half off; and lay them down, that their side 
sprouts may grow up. 

Run. Scote. 

To scote is to shoot along close to the ground. 

Reed. Straw. 

Reed is hulm reached out straight for thatching. 

Shelter. Lewth. 

Shelter is a screening from something falling, as rain or hail, 
is a screening from cold wind. 



Smoke. Smeech. 

A smeech is a smoke-like body of upsmitten dust. 

Slit. Slent. 

A slit is an opening, it may be intentional, as in a hard body. 
A ifenl is an offtearing in cloth. 

Spotted. Sparked. 

A spotted cow is one with roundish spots, a sparked one is 
one with longish marks. 

If you throw ink, plumb, on paper, you will make spots. If 
it be cast obliquely, it will make sparks. 

Stitch. Hile. 

A stitch is a cone of sheaves set up with their heads in a 

point. A hile is a long rooflike pile of sheaves, with their heads 

in a ridge, and with a sheaf at each pinion end. 

Sprack. Spry. 

A sprack man is one given to spring about; active: a spry 
man is one that can spring or jump high or far. 

Seat. Settle. 

A settle is or rather was a long seat with a high back, as 
a screen from door -draughts. 

Skillen. Outhouse. 

A skillen is a roof with open sides, an outhouse would most 
likely be inclosed. 

Zwell (swell). Plim. 

A bad hand may sire//, when it is not wished that it may. 
Bacon may plim in boiling, as it should. 

Storm. Scud. 

A storm is a rising of rain-bringing wind. A scud is a short 
do\\n-sliooting of rain, as a shower. 


A itm-ky man is a short thick stiff- bodied one. A 
man is a short corpulent or outswelling one. 

Xuicy. Voreright (Foreright). 

Sniifii is -p.-aUin^ ones mind with offensive or intentional 
I ",-ri i>/hf is talking or doing right on without think- 
ing of tin- I.IVX.-IMVH of others, but without an offensive will. ' 


Tack. Rack. 

A lack is a shelf reaching out from a wall: a ruck \va> a 
wooden frame fastened up under the floor over head. 

Like, in Dorset, as in some other counties, qualifies an ad- 
ective. 'He's down-hearted like-.' 1 'He is rather down-hearted." 
He is all mwopen like.' The adjective like (saa, sae, see.) is 
exactly so applied in Hindoostanee; as i JE,k kaalaa-sa g'horaa:' 
'A black-like horse ; a rather black horse.' 

The old speech of the West, will be holden for some time, 
as the language of the house, though the children may learn 
English, and speak it to their betters abroad; since, if a man 
comes home, with what his friends would call 'a clippen ov his 
words,' a clipping of his words, or talken fine, it is only laughed 
at as an affectation of gentility. This will be understood by a 
case of which I was told in a parish in Dorset, where the lady 
of the house had taken a little boy into day-service, though he 
went home to sleep. 

The lady had begun to correct his bad English, as she thought 
ais Dorset was; and, at last, he said to her, weeping "There 
now. If you do meiike me talk so fine as that, they'll laef at me 
at hwome zoo, that I cant bide there." 


'The vu'st bird, the vu'st eass.' The first bird, the first 
earthworm. The first come the first served. 

Of deep alluvial soil, like that of Blackmore, it may be said 
in Johnsonian English. It is remunerative to the inhabitants, 
but inconvenient to travellers. In Dorset it might be shorter: 
'Good vor the bider, bad vor the rider.' 

We have a rather free use of to, as an adverb, meaning to 
rather than fromward, in or up in union, rather than out or off 
from union, as 'zet to,' set yourself on the work. 'Put to;' Put 
the horses on to the waggon. 'Hold or Pull to;' Hold or pull 
in or up to you. He's a-took to; He is taken back, or stopped 
in his course. 'Go to' of the Bible is our '/et to.' (Jo at tin- 

So in North Friesian 'to an auf,' to and oiV. to and fro; 
jo dohr as to,' the door is to, i. e. shut, as in our 'shut to the 


Vail in wi', coincide. 
Vail out, quarrel. 

Give ) Give, yield. 'The vrost do gi'e.' It begins to thaw. 
Gi'e \ Gi'e in, concede. 

Gi'e op, surrender. 
Gi'e on, Hand on. 

Gifts, white spots on the finger nails. 
Gifts on the vinger 
Sure to linger, 
Gifts on the thumb 
Sure to come. 

Put. Put out, make crabbed by adverse circumstances. 
Put to, driven into a strait. 
Put up, to take quarters, as at an inn. 
Put up wi', to bear, endure, as trying the patience. 
Put upon, imposed on. 

Shrow-crop. The shrewmouse. The folklore of Dorset is 

that if it run over a man's foot, it will make him 

lame. Thence, in Hampshire, it is called the Over- 



Sluggard's guise, 
Lwoth to bed, an' Iwoth to rise. 
Spring months. 

March wull sarch, Eapril wull try, 
May 'ull tell if you'll live or die. 

Teake] Teake off, imitate, make a drawing of. 'He's a-teakt-n 
Take \ off the church.' 

Tedke after, be like in mind or body. 'He do teiike 

after his father.' 
Whippence, whoppence. 
Half a groat, want two pence. 
More kicks than halfpence. 

A bangen, brushen, lincen, or triinmeii, big heare. 


I do not wish it to be understood that ray rules of Dorset grammar 
are every where kept by Dorset people. I have given the grammatical 
form which is known, and felt, by me, as that of my mother tongue in 
I Hack more. Some of the best speakers of Dorset are children, and as 
the grammatical laws of the speechform have not hitherto been taught, 
the violations of them are not so much known as felt. 

A Dorset friend, a lady, to whom I was once giving the rule for the 
personal and impersonal pronouns, said "Yes, I should have heard and 
felt that one was right, and the other wrong, but I could not have told 
you why." 

The most grating to my ears of all language is that of some Dorset 
or Western people who on coming into towns try with too fast muta- 
tion to speak English. 

Analogy is their ruin. I have heard one who, having found that his 
lag and bag should be leg and beg, called a bag, a beg-, and another, who 
had Jearnt that his dree and droat ought to be three and throat, talked 
of thriving for driving, some cattle to market. 

Such mistakes are more creditable to our minds than our know- 
ledge, and we western people must be Saxons in speech or mind till our 
life's end. 




A-S. Anglo-Saxon. 
Go. Gothic. 
Ic. Icelandic. 
Ger. German. 
Du. Dutch. 


Da. Danish. 

Sw. Swedish. 

O.E. Old English. 

N. C. Northern Counties. 

Sco. Scottish. 

Lat. Latin. 
Gr. Greek. 
Fr. French. 
Corap. Compare. 
Heref. Herefordshire. 

A-cothed. [X-S. coS, disease. ' Swilc co8 com on mannum :' ' Such 

a disease came on men.' Chron. 1087.] Rotten or diseased 

in the liver, as sheep. 

A-drawen. Drawing. 'The days be a-drawen in:' 'The days are 

contracting or shortening.' 
A-fefird. [X-S. a-fered, or afyrht] Affrighted; afraid. 

" )>a weardas wa?ron afyrht." Matt, xxviii. 4. 
Agefin, [X-S. agen, on-gean.] Against. 

* Rowed agein the flod." Song temp. Edw. II. 
"Din broker hae'ftS aenig ]>ing agen ]>e." Matt. v. 23. 
A-lasaen. [X-S. >y-laB8.] Lest. 

u )>y-lns )>e Pin fot apt stane a?tsporne." Matt. iv. 6. 
Alik'. [X-S. geh'c.] Like. 

"All the days o' the week 
Vriday idden a- ////:" 
All the days of the week 
Friday is not alike. Saying of the Weather. 
All's. All this. 'All's day:' 'All this day.' 


Amper. [X-S. ampre; a crooked swelling vein.] Pustules, or the 
matter of them. 'The child is all out in an amperS 

Aller. [X-S. aler.] The alder tree. 

Anby. [X-S. an, at, and bi, near.} At a near time; soon; by- 

Annan? An interjectional exclamation, as in the sense of "What 
did you say?" Mid unnan, in Anglo-Saxon, means with per- 
mission, and vnnan is to yield as a favour; so that ami (in 
seems to be an elliptic expression, like the French plait-il? 
meaning, 'May I ask the favour of your saying it again?' 

Anewst, or Aniste. [X-S. an-nyhst? or, as Mr. Vernon thinks, a 
corruption of nigh by sigmation, as in along-st for alony, 
&c.] At nearest. ' Anewst the seame:' 'Very nearly the same.' 
'Don't goo aniste en:' 'Don't go near him.' 

Ankly. [X-S. ancleow.] The ankle. 

Any-when. At any time. 

A-piggy-back, A-pig-a-back? A-pack-a-back ? A mode of carrying 
a child on one's back, with his legs under one's arms and 
his arms round one's neck. 

A-pisty-poll. A mode of carrying a child with his legs on one's 
shoulders, and his arms round one's neck or forehead. 

A-ponted. (see Ponted.) 

Arn. A contraction of " e'er a one." 

Ash-candles. The seed-vessels of the ash-tree. 

Asker. A water newt. 

A-strout. [X-S. streht, stretched.] Stretched out stiffly, like frozen 

A-stooded. Stood (as a waggon) immoveable in the ground. 

A-stogg'd. Having one's feet stuck inextricably into clay or dirt. 

At, To play at, or have at; to contend with, or take or meet 

in a game, or otherwise. "We dree'll at you dree.' 
Lthirt. Athwart; across. So, in the Isle of Wight, sailors say, 

"Are you going athirt?" meaning over the Channel, 
ivore. Before. [X-S. atforan, a compound of at and fora: a> 
before is of be, near, and fore, the forepart.] 'Wo syml lu'-r 
atforan Se:' 'We are here before thee.' .K/frics Dialogue. 
i-vrore. [X-S. and Ger. ge-froren ; O. E. i-irore.] Fro/en. "So 

cold that he al i-frore beo." Metrical Li res of Saints. 
Lwaked. Awake. 


Ax. [S-S. axian, or acsian.] To ask. 

1 Hi ne dorston acsian.' Luke ix. 45. 

' A question wold y axe of you.' Duke of Orleans' Poems. 

Axen. [S-S. axan.] Ashes. 'On hacran and on axan: 'In sack- 
cloth and ashes.' Matt. xi. 21. 

Axanhole. An ash-hole, or a place to stow wood-ashes in. 

A-zet. Set, or planted. 

A-/rw. [On-sew. S-S. on, and sucan, to suck? or soak.] To be 
dry of milk; no longer giving suck: 'The cow's a-zew.' To 
sew a pond, is to drain or draw it dry; thence sewer, a 
drainer, a drain. To sue land is, in East Suffolk, to drain it. 


Backside. The back yard of a house. 
Bad off. (see Off.) 
Bally wrag, or Ballawrag. [N. C. bullirag; Heref. bellrag; S-S. 

bealu, evil, and wregan, to accuse?] To scold or accuse in 

scurrilous language. 
Bandy, (from bend.) A long heavy stick with a bent end, used 

to beat abroad dung in the fields. 
Bandy-lags. Crooked legs, or one having crooked legs, as if like 

a bandy. 
Bangen. Banging. Used as an intensitive; as a 'bangen girt 


Bargen. A small farm or homestead. 
Barken. An inclosed yard. A grange yard; a barton. 
Barrow-pig. [X-S. bearh, bearg, or bearng; Ger. burg.] A young 

male pig castrated. 
Barnaby bright, "the longest day, an' the shortest night." Said 

of St. Barnabas-day, about the summer solstice, 
i. A hunch r faggot of long un trimmed wood. 
Bay. A bunk across a stream. 
Bea'nhan', (bear in hand.) To think or hold an opinion; to main- 
lain. So maintain is from main, the hand, and tenir. to hold. 
Beta? Beast s; applied only to neat cattlr. 

1 'I '' hedge, Tin- hu>h<>* or umlrnvooil growing out on 

the ditch lee s side of a single hedge; or the givensward be- 

'lii- IM-HM-II road in a lane. 
Befins, (betas). I!- 1 <- :m 'f do it to-day, keens 1 must u 



Recall. To call by bad names. 

Heelle-head. The bull- head, or miller's thumb, bunch -head, 

(cottns gobio.} 
Bennets. The stems of the bent-grass, (agrostis.) 
" He cared not for dint of sword or speere, 
No more than for the stroke of straws or huitx." 

Bettermost. Best; of the best kind. 'Bettermost vo'k.' 

Beacon-weed. The plant goosefoofr, (chenop odium}. 

Bide. [X-S. bidan; Go. beidan; Du. beiden.] To dwell, abide, or 
stay. 'Where d'ye bide now?' 

Bird -batten. The catching of birds by night with a net. Bird- 
batting is described by Fielding, who lived in Dorsetshire, 
in the tenth chapter of his Joseph Andrews; and, as the 
word is now understood among boys, it means beating birds 
out of the hedge with sticks or stones, some of the boys 
being each side of the hedge. 

Bird-keeper. A bird-boy; one employed to keep birds from corn. 

Bird-keepy. To keep birds from corn. 

Bissen. Bist not; art not. 

Bit an' crimp. Every bit an' crimp ; every particle of any thing. 
Criiw, in Wiltshire, is a small quantity. 

Bit an' drop. A bit of food and a drop of drink. 

Biver. [S-S. bifian; Du. beeven; Kent, bibber.] To bunch up, 
or shake, as with cold or fear. 'Daet wi'f eallum limon - 
bifodei" 1 'The woman shook in all her limbs.' Apollonius 
of Tyre. 

Black-bob. The cockroach, (blatta orientatis.) 

Black Jack. The caterpillar of the turnip-fly, (afhalia spina- 

Blatch. Black or soot. 

Blather. Bladder. Also to talk or cry with a bleating sound. 

Bleame off. To impute the blame which lies on one's self to 
another. 'He done it, and now do bleame it off to me.' 

Bleare. [Ger. blarren; Du. blaaren.] To low as a cow. or bray 
as an ass; or to cry loud as a fretful child. 

Blind-buck-o'-Deavy. The blind buck of David? blimlmaifs-buff. 
u Blind-buck-o'-Deavy gives the clue to the origin of blind- 
man's-buff: I find in many countries it is an animal, anil not 
a person that is called blind in this common game: th 
blind-bock;' Dan. 'blinde-buk;' Portuguese 'cabra 


blind goat or kid; Span, 'gallina ciega;' Ital. 'gatta orba,' 

blind cat; or mosca cieca, blind fly; Ger. 'blinde kuh,' blind 

cow; Du. alone has 'blinde mannetje.'" Vernon. 
Blit Blighty. 
Bloodywarriors. The garden wall-flower (cheiranthus cheiri), so 

called from the bloodlike tinges on its corolla. 
Blooth, or Blowth. The blossom of fruit trees collectively. 
Blooens. Blowings; blossoms, singly. 
Blooms. [Ger. blume, a flower.'] A rosy colour or flushing on 

the cheeks. 

Blue-vinny, or vinnied. (see Vinny.) 
Boar-stag, (see Stag.) 

Bonce. A bunch; stone ball; a very large marble. 
Book o' Clothes, [buck, to wash? Germ, beuche; Da. byg.] A 

wash of clothes; the linen of one washing. 
Boarward. Wanting the boar. Spoken of a sow. 
Botherum, or Botherem. [I. of Wight, bothum; X-S. bo]>en. 'Lo- 

lium and oSra ly}>ra cynne:' 'Darnel and other injurious 

kinds.'] The yellow oxeye ; corn marygold, {chrysanthemum 

Boris-noris. Going on blindly, without any thought of risk or 


Boy's-love. [N.C. lad's-love.] The herb southernwood. 
I'.ru.-k. A breach. 

Brags. Boastings. 4 To meake woone's brags:' 'To boast.' 
Branten. Bold; impudent; audacious; upbearing one'sself. In the 

Northern counties (teste Brockett) brant means consequential; 

pompous in one's walk. 

Ura-hy J.iml). Overgrown with brushwood, rushes &c. 
r>r:i\\lrr. A brushwood faggot. 
Breatt-plough, A turf -cutting tool, consisting of a broad blade 

N\ith a T-tVaiM.-, and driven by a man's breast. 
I Jr. /. To bear up against or on. 

1" I'l.-ak; t,, fail in business. 'Mr. Chapman's 

So ibc word bankrupt (Du. bauUbrccker) is from tin- Italian 
", a merchant's or tradesman's counter; and rotto. (rup- 

tU8) bn.l, ..!' bri.-k. 
W Brockly, (tnun Am//,-). Brittle. 'How bruckly this 


bread is.' "Though we ho more brickie than glasse." 
Bisses Sermon at Saint Pants, 1580. (A. 3.) 

Brimward. [X-S. breman, to raye.~\ The same as boarward. 
Spoken <>!' u sow; "cum vere calor redit ossibus." I am helped 
to the true etymology of this word by Brockett's tt Northern 
Counties' Glossary." 

Bring woone gwai'n. To bring one going; to bring one on one's 
way. "The expression is equal to the Greek nQon^nKiv, 
(see Acts xv. 3,) and seems to be much wanted in our vo- 
cabulary. The Yorkshire dialect has 'to set' for its syno- 
nyme, and the Scotch 'to convoy;' illustrated by the pro- 
verb 'A Kelso convoye: a stride an' half owre the door- 
stane.' 'I pray you, my lord, to commune with him, whiles 
I briny my Lord of Durham going? Philpott's \\th Exami- 
nation, p. 1 12, Parker-Society Edition." Note by Mr. Bingham. 

Brockle. [S.-S. brecol, from brecan, to break.] Apt to break out 
of field. Applied to cattle. 

Brocks. [X-S. brecan, to break', Du. brok.] Broken pieces, as of 
bread. 'There's nothen a-left but brocks.' 

Broody. Wanting to sit. Spoken of a hen. 

Bron', Brand, or Backbron', Backbrand. [Go. brannian, to burn.] 
A brand; a large log of wood put on at the back of the 
fire, particularly at merry-makings in winter. 

Brow of a hedge. Brushwood overhanging the outside of a ditch. 

JBrownshell-nut. A kind of brown-rinded apple. 

'Brouse. Brushwood, twigs. 

Bruckle. A quantity of broken pieces of rock, or other hard stuff. 

Bruff. Brittle: (used in West Dorset). 

JBucky. Stringy and tart. Said of cheese. 

|Brushen. An intensitive of size; as, "a brushen girt rat." 

ranstone-buck. The stag-beetle (lucanus cervus), so called from 

being often found in the neighbourhood of Bryanstone. 
budget. A leathern pouch, in which a mower carries his whet- 
l-stag. (see Stag.) 

d. Wanting the bull. Spoken of a cow. 
Gumptious. Captious, 
mdle. To bound off. 
int. To butt as a lamb, 
roar-stag. A castrated boar, (see Stag.) 


Bwoilen. Boiling; the whole bunch or lot. 'I'd hike out the whole 

hwoilrn o'm.' 

Bur, or Daker. A whetstone for scythes. 
Burn-beat, or Burn-beak c. To cut up and burn turf, and dress 

the ground with the ashes. 
I'd f. A bunch: hence emmet-but? 
I)in it r an' aggs. Yellow toad -flax, (linaria vulgaris) ; so called 

from the yellow and white of its corolla, 
liutter-deaisy. The great, white ox-eye. 

Caddie. Intanglement, perplexity. 

mag. Bad meat. 'I wou'den have sich cag-mag in a gift.' 

Call. Necessity. 'There's noo call vor't.' 

(ailed hwome. Having one's banns published in church. 'They 
wer a-called hwome o' Zunday.' 

Cammick, Cammock. [X.-S. camoc.] The plant restharrow, (ono- 
nis arvensis). 

Capple-cow, or Cappled-cow. [S-S. ceafl, a muzzle, or beak:, in 
the plural cheeks, or jaws.] A cow with a white muzzle. 

Capsheaf. A small sheaf of straw, forming the tip of a thatched 

Car. To carry. 'To car hay:' 'To stack hay.' 

Cassen. Canst not. 

Cat. A small cutting of stick. A chump of clay stone. 

Catch het. Catch heat. "She is accustomed to inarch with leisure, 
ami \\ith M en-tain granditie rather than gravity; unless it 
be when she walketh apace for her pleasure, or to cuich 
her a heate in the cold weather." Puttenham, of Queen 
Klixalu'th; ([tioted by Mrs. Markham. 

Caselty weather. Casualty weather; stormy. 

Chaden. rluiwden. [chawdron, Shakspeare.] The inwards of a 

Cham, or Champ. To chew or champ. 

('hanker. A chink. 

('hanks. The under part of a pig's head. 

' ' ; \ young man or youth. 

Charm. [A-S. cyrm; O. K. dicnu.] A nois^ or confusion of \ 

as of rliiMn-ii or birds. 'Synnigrn cyrnr/ 'Uproar of sin- 
ners. 1 I'n-.lntnn. \XXiv. 17. 


Charm. [Lat. carmen. u Carminibus Circe sori<s mutavit t'l\ 

Viryi/.~\ Bed-charm. The author, when a child, was taught 
a bed-charm, comprehending the one given by Hone in his 
"Year-book." Dec. 1ft. 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, an' John, 

Be blest the bed that I lie on; 

Vow'r corners to my bed, 

VowV angels all a-spread: 

Woone at head an' woone at veet, 

An' two to keep my soul asleep. 

Chattermag. A chattering magpie; a chatterbox; a much-talking 

Cheat. Bearded darnel, (folium temulentum). 

Cheese. A bag or pile of pummice from the ciderwring. 

Cheese-lo't. A cheese-loft or floor to dry cheese on. 

Chetlens, or Chetterlens. The entrails of a pig, cleaned and twined 
up in knots. Also a frill formerly worn on the bosom of 
shirts, and so called from its likeness to chitterlings. 

Chetten. To bring forth young, as applied to cats, hares, or rab- 
bits; to kitten. 

Chilver. A ewe lamb. [3.-S. cilferlamb. Thwaites' Hept. Levi- 
ticus, v. 6.] 

Chimp. A young shoot, as of a potato. 

To chimp. To pick off the chimps of potatoes, when they have 
begun to sprout in the spring. 

Chine. [S-S. cyne, a chink. u lc ge-seah ane lytle cynan:" 'I saw 
a little chink.' BoetJ] The groove in the staves of a eask 
for the head; or the prominence of the staves beyond the 
head of it. Thence a chine, in the Isle of Wight, a chink 
or ravine formed by a stream running down into the sea ; 
as, Shanklin Chine, Blackgang Chine. Chimb is the English 
for the end of a barrel. 

[Chisom. To germinate or throw out chimps, as potatoes in the 


lock. A part of a neck of veal. Choke-full; full to choking, 
loke-dog. An epithet bestowed with more humour than com- 
placency on the hard Dorset cheese. 

loor. [S.-S. cer, cier, or cyr, turn, occasion, business. 'He het 
set suman cyrre onbajrnen Rome byrig:' 'He commanded on 



some occasion to burn the city of Rome.' Alfred's Orosius, 

lib. vi. c. v.] A char or job of household work, done by an 

occasional helper or charwoman. 
Chop. [A-S. cypan, to sell, or deal.] To barter or exchange; to 


Chubby, chubby. Round cheeked. 
Chuck. To toss any thing underhanded for a catch. Also, a term 

used in calling pigs. 

Chucks of wheat. Pinched grains in the husk. 
Chump. A short cutting of wood. 
Chunk, (in some parts chuck). A large cutting or chip; as 'a 

chunk of wood.' 

Cider-wring. A cider-press, (see Wring.) 
Clacker, or Bird-clacker. A kind of rattle, to frighten away birds 

from a corn-field. 
Clappers. Fox-earths. 
Clavy. A shelf clinging on a wall, without footing. A mantel- 
Clay-cat A kind of large roundish stone found in clay. In Hants 

and elsewhere, a salt-cat is a kind of cake to entice pigeons. 
Cleden, Clydern. [Wiltshire clytes; S-S. clare, a burr sticking 

to a man's clothes.] Goosegrass, (galium aparine). Callec 

also cleavers, clavers, or clivers, from their cleaving to any 


Clinker, (from cling). An icicle. 
Clint. To clinch a nail; and figuratively, to complete one joke 

or exaggeration by another outdoing it. 
Clips. [X-S. clyppan.] To clasp between the thumb and fingers, 

or between the two arms. 'I can clips thik tree.' (seeWey 

and bodkins.) 

11. Having, clinging, or curled hair on one's poll, or head 
(Tmy. [Hante, clit.] Clingy and sticky; tangled in clods or lumps; 

dotted, or clotty. 
Clock. A clinger, door-beetle. 
Clodgy, cludgy. Clumplike. 
Clog. A wooden bow at one head of a hay-rope, or a block 

' I" '-ml of a haltrr for tying a horse to a manger. 
[Semi-Saxon, clot] A clod. 
Clote. The yellow water-lily, (///>//<// lulea}. A clout, or clut 
be North is a inn-dock. 



Clout. A blow with the flat hand. 'I'll gi'e thee a clout in the 

Clum. [X-S. clumian, cling, clasp.] To handle roughly or clumsily. 

Clumsy is from cluman; and one is clumsy, when he clums 

any thing. 

Clumper. A lump. 'A clumper o' gingerbread.' 
Clunchy. Clinging, close, clodlike. 

Cockle, or Cuckle. The burr of the burdock, (arctium). 
Cod. [S-S. codd.J Apod or legume; as a bean-cod, or peas-cod. 

u Da gewilnode he his wambe gefyllan of Hm bean-coddum." 

Luke xv. 1 6. 

Cod-gloves. Bag-gloves, without fingers. 

Cole, or Coll. To inclose, embrace. "To coll the lovely neck." 

Ovid's Metamorphosis. 

Colepexy [in Norfolk, to pixy; in Somerset, to go pixhy hording, 
from pixy or colepixy, Ic. puki, a puck or fairy?'] To beat 
down the few apples that may be left on the trees after the 
crop has been taken in, to take, as it were, the fairies' horde. 
In Wilts it is called grig g ling, from grig, a fairy? and in 
Hants a colt-pixy is a fairy, said to come in the shape of 
a horse. 

Colt. Footing; a novitiate's fine. 'You must pay your colt.' 

Come. To be ripe. ' The pears ben't quite a-cowe.' 

Come o'. To come of; to be altered from a state. ' She wer pirty 
woonce, but she's finely a-come o't. 

Conker. The ripe fruit or hep of the wild rose; the single or 
"canker" rose. Also, an excrescence on it. "I had rather 
be a canker in a hedge, than a rose in his grace." Much 
Ado about Nothing, i. 3. 

I Contraption. A contrivance. 

[Cooch. Couch-grass; quitch-grass; creeping wheat-grass, (triticum 
repens). Mr. Vernon suggests that it was originally quick- 
grass, from its lively growth. Sw. qvick-hvete, quick-rot-, 
Da. qvick-hvede. 

[Coop. Come up. A call to fowls. So co"p (cup), come up, for 

come? the French allons. 
>ps. [S-S. cops, a fetter.] A connecting crook of a harrow. 

(see Wey and bodkins.) 
>re of a rick. The middle of it when it has been cut away 

all round. 




Cornish Jack. The Cornish chough, (corvus graculus). 

Cothe. A disease of sheep. 

Count. To reckon; to guess. 'I do count:' 'I guess; I calcu- 
late,' as they say in America. tt lt has been remarked by 
more then one writer, that the words guess, calculate., reckon, 
slick, (sleek,) smart, and others used by the Americans, though 
not heard at all in England, or else taken in a different 
sense from that which they have in the United States, are 
either English provincialisms, or words for which authority 
might be adduced from the old dramatists, and other writers 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries." Mr. Petheram. 

Cow. To stop, daunt. 

Cow-beaby. A boy or girl childishly meek-hearted , or mother- 
sick. One easily cowed. 

Cow-cap. A metal knob, put on the tips of a cow's horns that 
she may not wound another. 

Cowheart, (from cow; Sco. and Essex cowe, to stop, daunt, 
whence to cower.} A coward. 

Cows an' calves. Lords and ladies. The barren and fertile flowers 
of the arum. 

Cravel. A mantel-piece; sometimes called "the clavy." 

Craze. To crack a little. 

Creeze. Dainty; taffety. 

Crick. Creek. Corner, nook. 

Crick. [X-S. cryc, a crook.] To hurt the neck or back-bone by 
a sudden and hard crooking or wrenching of it. 

Cricket. A low stool for a child. 

Crinkle. A bending, zig-zag. 

Crimp, Crub. A little bit, crumb. 

Cripner. A crupper. 

Cripph i>h. Like a cripple; rather lame. 

Crisg-cross-laYn. Christ-cross-line; the alphabet, "so called," says 
I' imin^s, "in consequence of its being formerly preceded in 
tin horn book by a cross." 

Cristn. A small kind of plum. 

Criit h. A pitcher, jug. 

Crock. [A-8. crocca, an earth, uunre vessel, whence crockery.] 
An in>n pot is so called in some parts of Dorset. 

Croopy. ['A-S. cre6pan, in bend or creep.] To sink one's body. 
bending tin- tlii^hs lu-hiiul the legs. 'Ball liclionia 



and snicaoV 'The whole body stoops and creeps.' Alfred's 

)wd. An apple-pie, apple-filled crust, baked. 
)rowsty, Crusty. Warped, crabbed. 

Crowshell. The fresh water mussel-shell, (unio). The uniones are 
thus called, because the crows take them from (lie water 
and open them; and having eaten their contents, leave them 
in the meadows. 

Crumped up. Bent or folded up, as if for warmth under exces- 
sive cold. 

Crumplen. A small apple, crumpled from defective or constrained 

Cubby-hole, Cubby-house. A snug inclosure for a child, as be- 
tween his father's knee's. A cubby, in the dialect of Shet- 
land, is a kind of basket or box; most likely akin to coop, 
whence cooper. Heref. cub, a coop. 

Culver. [S.-S. culfre.] The wood-pigeon, or ring-dove, (columba 
palumbus). Hence 'Culver Cliff,' in the Isle of Wight. 

Cunnen man. [S-S. cunnan, to know.] A cunning man, or wizard. 
A man to whom is imputed supernatural knowledge, and of 
whom folk inquire after lost goods. 

Cut, Cutty, Cutty-wren. The kitty wren, (troglodytes culgaris). 


Dabbet. A little dab. 

Dabster. [Essex, dapster.] A proficient in a game or art; one 
who is dip in it. 

Dadder, or Dudder. [Heref. dither; S.-S. dyderian, dydrian, or 
be-dydrian.] To daunt; to bewilder or entangle. u Me )incj> 
)>set ]ni me dwelige and dyderie:" "Methinks thou deceivest 
and bewilderest me." Boet. xxxv. 5. From dydrian comes 
most likely the name of the tangled plant dodder (cuscula.') 
a parasite on furze and other plants. 

Daffidowndilly. Daffodil, (narcissus). u Show me the ground with 
daffadowndillies." Spenser's Shrpherd's Calendar. 

Dag, (from dake). A small projecting stump of a branch. Com- 
pare dagger; Ger. degen; Du. dagge. Brockett gives dag 
as an old North Country word for a pistol. 

Dag, or Chill-dag. A chilblain. 



Dake, (from the same root as dagger?) To prick or run in a 

Daker. A whetstone. 

Dangerous. In danger, as well as dangerous to another. 

Dap. To bound as a ball. 

Daps. Exact likeness. 'He's the very daps of his father.' 

Dark. Blind. 'She's quite dark.' 

Dawdling. Slow and inefficient in work. 

Dead-alive. Dull; inactive; moping. 

De-da. Simple; foolish; of inactive mind and body. 

Dent. A hollow mark made in the surface of any thing by a 
dint (O.E. dunt) or blow. "He beleeved his fingers made a 
dint upon her flesh." Ovid's Metamorph. a Er thu shuldest 
eni dunt i-hure." Lives of the Saints. 

Dew-berry. A large kind of blackberry. 

Dewbit. The first meal in the morning, not so substantial as a 
regular breakfast. " The agricultural labourers in some parts 
of Dorsetshire were accustomed, some years since, to say 
that in harvest time they required seven meals in the day, 

dewbit, breakfast, nuncheon, cruncheon, nammet, crammet, 
and supper. But this seems to have been rather a quaint 
jingle than an enumeration of meals, as some of them, nun- 
cheon and nammet for example, clearly indicate the same." 

Note by Mr. Sydenham. 
Didden. Did not. 

Didder. To ding or dunt with cold. 

Die-dapper. A dabchick. 

Disfugure. To disfigure. "Lie weltering with disfigured face." 

Ovid's Metamorphosis. 

Ditt.-r, or Datter, or Tig. [N. C. tig, a slight touch; Du. tik, a 

pat or touch.] A game of touch and run among children. 
Dishwasher. The wagtail. 
hi \\-cluc,k. A dabchick. 
Dob. A dab; a knob or lump, as of earth. 
Dock. I 'h plant rumex. Children rub dock-leaves on their skin 

aa an antidote to the stinging of a nettle, singing "Out 

iM-ttlr: iii dock." 

Dock-fjuii. -r. A ti.i.l r,.r pulling or cutting up docks. 
Dogs. And-iroiis. Once common iron utensils, standing at the 

sides of the hearth to kr-p nn the sticks of a wood fire. 


Doughbeaked. Of weak or inactive mind; half-witted. "The 
Yankee 'under-baked,' our 'sam-sodden ;' S-S. sam-soden, 
half-sodden. The Midland phrase is 'Put in with the loaves^ 
and taken out with the cakes" Note by Mr. Vernon. 

Dout. To do out; to extinguish. 

Dowse. A dash, blow. 

Dowst. To ding, dash. 

Drabble-taVl. [X-S. drabbe, dirt? comp. O.E. be-drabylyd.] Having 
one's gown-tail dirty. A drab colour is a dirt colour. 

Drai'l, of a plough, (from draw). A toothed iron, projecting from 
the beam of a plough for hitching the horses to. To walk 

Drashel. [X-S. >yrscol.] A flail. " He afeormaS his >yrscol flore." 

Matt. iii. 12. Also, a threshold. This word affords one of 
many instances in which the rustic dialect is full and dis- 
tinctive, while English is defective. The drashel, in English 
the flail, consists of two staves; the handsta/f and the rtaif, 

flail or flegel, flying staff, from the Anglo-Saxon fleorjan, 
to fly, connected with the handstaff by a free socket called 
a runnen keaple, or capel, from the Anglo-Saxon ceafe, a 
beak or nozzle? so that the flail is only one part of the 
whole tool, for which the English has no name. 

Draught faggots. Faggots of long underwood. 

Drawlatchet. Walking lazily and slowly. The Midland word latchet 
means to loiter, or saunter about. 

Drawty. Draughty. Full of draughts of air; as a cold house. 

Drean. Drant. [X-S. dragan, by syncope draan, to draw.'] To 
drawl in speaking. Drawl is the frequentative form of to 

Dredge. A bush harrow, drawn over spread dung. 

Dreve. To drive. To dreve a common, is to drive together all 
the stock on it, and pound such as are not owned by those 
who have a right of common. The hay ward does so occa- 

Dribble, (among boys). To shoot the taw weakly, and by Miiall 
shots, towards the pound or a marble. 

Dringe, or Drunge. [X-S. Jringan.] To squeeze or push; as in 
a crowd. 'Don't ye dringe woone zoo.' 

Dripper. A small shallow tub to catch drippings or take slops. 


Drith, or Drowth. [S-S. drygS, dryS; O. E. dryth.] Thirst or 

Drong, or Drongway. [S-S. ]>ringan, to compress.] A narrow 
way between two hedges or walls. 

Drostle. To thrust, squeeze, or push; as in getting through a 

Drove. A way between hedges, where cattle are driven to or 
from fields. A narrow drove is a drong. 

Drub. To throb or beat. 'My head do drub:' 'My head throbs.' 

Dubbed, or Dubby. Dunted, blunt. 

Duck, Duckish. [S-S. >eorc-ung.] The twilight. ' In the duck of 
the evening.' 

Duddles. Little dumps. Thicky-duddle. Flour and water. 

Dumbledore. [Dumble or dummel, dull, as in the German dum- 
ling, a dolt', or from its sound, as the Dutch dommelin, to 
buzz or hum, and dora, a drone.'] The bumblebee. In Ger- 
man rohr-dommel is the 'booming bittern.' 

Dummet. Dusk. 

Dumpy, (from dump, a heavy mass). Short and thick: thence 
dumpling, a little dump. 'Down in the dumps:' 'Down in 
the heavy feelings.' 

Dunch. Deaf, dull. 'He's quite dunch.' 

Dunch-pudden. Hard or plain pudding of only flour or water, 
without plums or suet. 

Dungy. Downcast, dull, as a horse. 

Dunnick. [Dunnock, diminutive of dun; comp. reddick.] A hedge- 

Dun-piddle. [S-S. dun, brown, and padda, or diminutive padl, 
a hite?] The kite, or moor buzzard, Piddleswood, near Stur- 
minster Newton, may be so called: as 'the kite's wood.' 

Dunt. To blunt. 

Durns. The upright posts of a door. "Hann festi J>at upp yfir 
dyrnor," Icelandic: 'He fastened that up over the door.' 

Ee-grase. [O. E. edgrow; S-S. ed, anew, or again, and grcrs, 

gran.] h. In Lancashire, eddish; in the North, ed- 


Eiger. Sharp, sour. 
Elemeo. Made of din. 


Elt. [In Wiltshire, hilt.] A young sow or pig. 

Eltrot, Eldroot. [In Somersetshire, oldrot or oldroot; S-S. eald, 
and root] The stalk and umbel of the wild parsley. 

Em. Them. 

Emmet-but, or Emrnet-hill. An ant-hill. 

Einpt. To empty. 

En. Him. 

Eve. [S-S. ea, irater?] To become damp, as a stone from con- 
densation of vapour on its surface. 'We shall ha' rain : the 
stwones do eveS 

Evet. [S-S. efeta.] An eft, or newt. 

Every, or Ever-grass. A species of grass; rye grass, (lolinm pe- 

Ex. [S-S. eax.] An axle or axis. "HwerfeB on ]>a3re ilcan eaxe:" 
"Turns on the same axis." Boet. xxviii. 

Faddle. A fardel; a pack or bundle. 

Fall. The fall of the leaf; the autumn. 

Falter. To fail; as a crop. 'I be a-feard the tea-ties watt/fetter. 1 

Fay. [S-S. fadan, ge-fegan; Da. foie; Ger. fiigen, to fit, join, &c. 
to fadge.] To fit ; to succeed ; to coincide or go on favour- 
ably. 'Things don't fay as I should wish em.' So, to fay 
timber is still used in our dock-yards, (Mr. Vernon); and 
timber likely to fit, is said "to fay fair." Brockett. 

Feast. A village wake. 

Fess. Fussy. Meddling and eager in what is going on ; assum- 
ing a high position in consultation. 'There's a less fellow.' 

Figged-pudden. Plum-pudding. 

Fincg. [Forneg, from S-S. for, and hnigan, to bend off?] Not 
to answer the calls of duty. As not to play to trumps, as 
one ought, at cards, 'You fineged.' 

Flannen. Flannel. 

Flick, or Flip. To snap lightly with a whip. 

Flinders. Flying particles, as of a thing smashed. 

Flip. Very kindly or friendly in talking. 'How flip hr werJ 1 

Flisky. Flying, as mist. 

Flook, or Fluke. [S-S. floe, a plaice, a flat-fish; Ger. flach. flat; 
thence flook, the flat part of an anchor.] A worm (distoma 


hepatica), found in the livers of coathed sheep, and so called 
from its flatness. 

Flop. A mass of thin mud. 

Flounce. A flying stroke. 

Floush. Flying, flouncing. 

Flummocks. A flurry. 

Flump. Pitching heavy and flat in a fall. 

Flush. Fledged. Applied to birds: 'The young birds be nearly 

Footy. Little; insignificant. 

Forrels. [Lat. foricul99, little doors or window- flaps; in Old French 
fourrel (fourreau), a case or sheath?] The covers of a book. 

Freemarten. The female calf of a twin, of which the other is a 
bull. "When twin calves are born, they may be both per- 
fect bull or perfect cow calves. When one is a bull calf 
and the other a cow-calf, the latter, in general, will not 
breed; from malformation of the genital organs." Mayors 
Physiology, 4th ed. p. 390. 

Frith, or Vrith. Brushwood. 

Froghopper. The whole of the genus cicada or tettigonia of Lin- 
naeus are often so called. 

Furlen, Furlong. [X-S. furh, a furrow, and lang, long.] A piece 
or strip of corn-ground of a furrow's length. 


Gad. [X-S. gad, a goad or spur.] A hedge stake, or stout stick. 
It once meant also a bar of metal. "As when a gad of steele 
red hot in water quenched is." Ovid's Metamorphosis. Gad 
is preserved in #d-fly, which is a goad-fty. 

Gaffle. To dress or pad the less hardy parts of the body for 
-MI, i,. |,.-iriii-ul;ir operation, especially for cudgel-playing. 

Gake, or Gawk. [X-S. gaec; Sco. gowk; Ger. gauch; a cuckoo.] 
To go or stand and stare about idly, like a cuckoo. 

Gakey, Gawky. [Ger. gauch, geek.] One who gakes or gawks; 
a fool; a cuckoo. 

[X-S. a-giclwian.] To frighten, as from one's action. 'You 
ben't a-gwain to gaily me.' O. E. gallon: "The wrathful 
ikies ijallotr the very wanderers of the dark." King Lear. 
.... >. 


Gally-bagger. A scare-beggar; a bugbear. 
Gally-crow. A scarecrow. 

Gammel, or Gambrel. [Lat. camurus; Welsh, cam, crooked; Gr. 
xa^TTTco, to bent-, Fr. cambre, arch or bend; cambrer, to vault \ 

Fto camber timber, to bend it or cut it archwise; N. C. cam- 
merel; Ital. gamba, the leg.] A bent staff, upon the two 
ends of which butchers hang carcases by the tendons of the 
Gammen. [X-S. gamen.] Play or sport with another: thence 

game, and gambol. 
Gannywedge. [S-S. ganian, to yawn, open, spread.'] A thick 

wooden wedge, to open the fissure of more acute iron ones. 
Gap. A large breach in a hedge, a small one being a shard. 
I Gawly. [Heref. gaily.] Springy and wet. Applied to land, 
jay. Fresh or green. Applied to mown grass: 'That's too gay to 

carry yet.' 
jear. [S.-S. geara, apparatus.] Iregear, iron utensils; cider gear, 

cider-making apparatus, 
eat. [X-S. geat] A gate. 

jee, Jee, (a form of go]. To fit; to agree; to go on well to- 
gether. 'He an' I don't gee.' 
ee ho! Go ho; Go off, ho! Addressed to horses, 
iddygander. The early purple orchis (orchis mascula), and the 
green-winged meadow orchis (orchis mono), and other com- 
mon species of orchis, are so called in the Vale of Black- 

ifts. White spots on the finger-nails, believed to betoken com- 
ing presents. Of these it is a saying, 

"Gifts on the thumb, sure to come; 
Gifts on the finger, sure to linger." 
il'cup, or Giltycup. Giltcup; the buttercup, (ranunculus bulbo- 

sus); so called from the goldlike gloss of its petals. 
immy. [Lat. gemellus, a pair or tirin; O.K. gemmow, or giin- 

mal.] A hinge of two parts, working on a joint, 
irt. Great, 
lene. [S-S. gliwian, to joke or jest.] To sneer; to smile with 

malignant gratification, 
low. [O. E. glow; Cumberland, gloar; Cheshire, glop; Sco. 

glowr.] To stare; to watch with fixed and wide-open eyes, 
lutch. To swallow; to glut; to gulp. 





Gnang (see Nang). 

Go-cart. A wooden frame on truckles, to shut a child into when 
he begins to walk. 

God Almighty's Cow, or, sometimes, the Lady-bird. The coci- 
nclla septem-punctata. Children will often catch this insect, 
and, as Howitt says children do in Germany, put it on the 
tip of a finger, repeating 

"Leady bird! leady bird! vlee away hwome; 
Your house is a-vire, your childern wull burn." 
So in Spain, also, children put the lady-bird on their fin- 
gers, repeating 

Sola, sola, tana, 
Vete a la montaTia; 
Y dile al pastor 
Que traiga buen sol 
Para hoy, y maTiana, 
Y toda la semana. 

A Dios. 

Alone, alone, lady-bird, 

Get thee to the mountain, 

And tell the shepherd, 

That he should bring a good sun 

To-day, and to-morrow, 

And all the week. 


Gond, or Gund. [S-S. gund, corruption, pus.] A disease of sheep, 
a kind of itch or corruption spreading on the skin in yellow 

Goo. 'All the goo:' 'All the fashion.' So vogue, in French, is 
the going or rowing of a galley. 

Goo wi', or Goo after. To court; to go with, as a young man 
walks with his sweet-heart. 'He do goo wi' Polly Hine.' 

Goodhussey, Good-housewi'e, (good housewife). A threadease, 
in which a good housewife will keep her thread. 

Good-now. Mostly equal to "do you know," or "you must know." 
'Ya ben't gwaYn to put upon me, good now.' 'You are not 
going to domineer over me, you must know.' 

Gookooflower. The cardamine prafensis, on which gookoospettle 
is often found. 

Gookoospettle. The frothy nidus of the cicada spumaria* attri- 
buted to the spitting of the cuckoo. 

Goolden-chaVn. Laburnum. 

Goolden-drop. A variety of wheat. 

Gout [0. E. gote; Here!', gout; Dti. goot; North-easl Sussex and 
West Kent, gut.]. An underground gutter. 

drab. [X-S. gripan.] To snatch up greedily: akin to grapple, 
grasp, gripe, grip, &c. Also, the crab-apple. 


Grabble. To keep grabbing. 

Grabstock. A young crab-tree, or the cutting of one. 

Gramf er. Grandfather. 

Gramm'er. Grandmother. 

Gret. [X-S. gretan; Ger. grussen, to greet.] Very friendly. 'How 

gret they two be.' 
Greygle. [X.-S. graeg, grey. Gncgl or greygle means what is grey, 

greyish blue?] The bluebell, (Jiy acini hits non scriptus). 
jiribble, (diminutive of grab). A young crab-tree or black-thorn; 

or a knotty walking stick made of it. 
jriddle, (by syncope from grindle, diminutive of grind). To grind 

corn very coarsely or imperfectly, 
jrrintern. A compartment in a granary, 
jrrip. [S-S. gripan, to gripe', Du. greep, a handful.] A handful 

of wheat. Wheat is said to be in grip (handful), as it is 

left by the reapers. 
G rotten. A sheep-slade; a run or pasture for sheep. 
Ground ash. An ashen stick growing from the ground, and much 

tougher than a branch of the tree, 
ground. "To ground a pick," is to put the end of its stem on 

the ground, as a bearing in raising a pitch of hay; a help 

of which a smart young man, proud of his strength, would 

be ashamed, 
udgen, (diminutive of the X-S. gdd, a goad or pointed rod). 

A cutting of thorn or other wood, driven into the ground 

to strike root. 

rwoad. [S-S. gad, a goad or rod.] A measure of fifteen feet. 
Gurgens. Pollard; coarse flour. 
Guss. A girth. 


Hag-rod, hag-rode, or hag-ridden. The nightmare is attributed 

to the supernatural presence of a witch or hag ^ by whom 

one is ridden in sleep, 
flacker. [S.-S. haccan, to hack or cut, Du. hakker, a chopper.] 

A hoe. 
rlackle. [S-S. hacele, a cloak or mantle.] A bee-hackle; a straw 

roof over a beehive. 


Haggler. One who buys up poultry to sell again. I. of Wight, 
a kind of head man at a farm dwelling in the house, who 
looks after the stock on Sundays in the absence of others. 

Hail. [X-S. hal.] Hale; sound; strong. 

Hai'n, or Winterhai'n. [Heref. haine, an inclosvre.] To lay up 
grass land; not to stock it. 'The mead wer winterhai'ned.' 

Hacker, (frequentative of hack, to strike or chop ; as in a hack- 
ing cough). To strike the teeth together, in a shaking from 
cold or fear. 

Halterpath. A bridle-path ; a road for one on horseback, but not 
for a carriage. 

Hame. [X-S. healm.] Haulm. The stalks of plants; as beanhame 
peashame, teatyhame, &c. 

Handy. [X-S. ge-hende.] Useful. Also near, or near at hand. 

Hangen. [X-S. hangian, to hang.] The sloping side of a hill 
called by the Germans ein abhang. 

Hangen -house. A shed under a continuation of the roof of a 

Hanger. A cover, a wood. 

Hang -gallows; fit for the gallows; that ought to be, or is likely 
to be, hanged. 'A hang-gallows rogue.' 

Handpat. Fit or ready at hand; at one's fingers' ends. 'He ha( 
it all handpat.' 

Handsel. [Sw. hand-sol; Du. hand-gift; X-S. hand-syllan, to give 
into one's hands.] Something given to a young woman at 
her wedding towards housekeeping is called a " good hand 
sel" in the Vale of Blackmore. 

Happer, (frequentative of hop). To hop up or rebound as hail 
at falling. 

Haps. [X-S. haps.] A hasp. 

Hard. A hard boy, is a big boy; hard being opposed to tender 
in a child of tender years. 

Hardle. [I. of Wight, harl.] To entangle. 

Hard - worken. Industrious. 

Harrow of a gate. [S-S. heorra, a hinge; N. C. har.] The backei 
upright timber of a gate by which it is hung to its post 
'I'll'- one in the middle, between the harrow and the head 
is the middle spear, which is also the name of the uprigh' 
beam that takes the t\vo leaves of a barn's door. 

Harness, Apparatus; as cider harness, apparatus for making cider 


Hart-berries. [S-S. heorot-berg.] The whortle- berry; bilbt-n-y. 

Harvest -man. The cranefly, or daddy-long-legs (tipida oleracca\ 

Ha'skim cheese. Halfskim cheese; cheese made of milk skimmed 
only once. 

Hassen. Hast not. 

Hassock. A large sedge -mock; a tuft of sedge. "Land so full 
of hassocks, as to be impossible to find the deer amongst 
them." Hutchinsori's Drainage of Land. 

Hatch. [S-S. hseca.] A wicket or little garden-gate, thence but- 
tery-hatch at the Universities. 

[lathe. A thick covering, as of small pocks. 

Elav. [Du. haver, oats-, Norf. and Suff., and Hants, haw; Ic. 
hafrar, oats.'] The spikelet of the oat. 'The woats be out 
in hav.' 

Hawked cow. [Sco. hawkie.] A cow with a white or white- 
patched face. 

Elaymaiden. A wild flower of the mint tribe; ground ivy, (ale- 
choma hederacea). Used for making a medicinal liquor, ' hay- 
maiden tea.' 

[-laymeaken. Hay- making consists of several operations which, 
with fine weather, commonly follow each other in Dorset- 
shire thus: The mown grass in zwath, swath, is thrown 
abroad tedded, and afterwards turned once or twice: 
in the evening it is raked up into little ridges rollers, 
single or double, as they may be formed by one raker, or 
by two raking against each other; and sometimes put up 
into small cones or heaps, called cocks. On the following 
morning the rollers or cocks are thrown abroad in passels 
parcels, which, after being turned, are in the evening 
put up into large ridges weals; and the weals are some- 
times pooked, put up into larger cones pooks, in which 
the hay is loaded. In raking grass into double rollers, or 
pushing hay up into weals, the fore raker or pickman is said 
to rake in or push in, or row or roo, and the other to close. 

Hayward. [3.-S. hege or haga, a hedge, and irard.] A warden 
of the fences, or of a common, whose duty it is to see that 
it is not stocked by those who have no right of common. 
He sometimes "drives the common;" t. e. drives all the stock 


in it into a corner, and pounds such as is not owned by 

those who have a right of common. 
Hazen. In some parts the same as Hiessen. 
Head, "To zet their heads together." To consult or conspire. 

The word conspire is itself from con together, and spiro to 

breathe, which conspirators do while "setting their heads 

together." Thence the Persians call an intimate friend hum- 

dum, from hum, together, and dum, breath. 
Headland, or Hedlen. The ground or ridge under hedge, at the 

heads of the ridge where the horses turn in ploughing. 
Heal. [X-S. helan.] To cover. 'To heal beans:' 'To earth up 

beans.' 'The house is unhealed:' 'The house is stripped,' 

as by a rough wind. "Nis nan ]>ing oferheled, J>e ne beo 

unheled." Luke xii. 2. 

"And if his house be un-heled." Piers Plowman. 
Heames. [Du. haam.] The pieces of wood put on the collar of 

a horse with staples to take the traces. 
Hean. [Derbysh. hawn.] The handle; as of a knife. 'The knife's 

a-broke off up to the hean.' 
Heart, to Out o' heart." Discouraged, which is from dis, un, and 

coraggio, great heart; meaning, not having a heart. 
Hedlen. Headlong; giddy; precipitate. 'There's a hedlen chile.' 
Heft, (formed from heave). Weight. 
Hele. [N. C. hell; X-S. a-hyldan, to make to lean\ as to make 

a vessel heel over.] To pour out fluid. 'Shall I hele ye out] 

another cup?' 
Herence. Hence. 

Hereright. Here on the spot; at once. 
H.i. [X-S. hat-an.] Heat. 
II- th. The hearth, or a heath. 
Hethcropper. A horse bred on a heath. 
lli<-k. [N. C. hitch.] To hop on one leg. 
Hnllork. A hiding, inclosure. 
Higssen, Halsen. To forebode evil. ' 'T'll rain avore night,' saj 

one. 'There, don't ye hiessenny,' answers another, who ho] 

il may not. 

Hidy-lmrk. [ I Iil--lox. - llumlvt. iv. 2.] A game of hide and seel 
Highlows. A kind of high shoes, lower than kitty boots. 
Hike off, or out. [X-S. higian, to hie, to hasten?] To go 


hastily by compulsion: or actively, to expel. 'You shall 
hike out.' 

Hile. [X-S. hilan, to cover?] Ten sheaves of corn set up in the 
field, four on each side and one at each end, and forming 
a kind of roof. So a N. C. word for a hile is huttock, a 
little hood or stook; and two sheaves put on the top of the 
stock are called hood-sheaves, or hoods. 

Hinge, (from hang). The heart, liver, and lungs of a sheep, which, 
when hanging to the head, are called the sheeps head-and- 

Hitch, hang on. To fasten. 'Hitch in the bosses.' 'They wera- 
hitched up:' 'They were arm in arm.' 

Hith. Height. 

Ho. [X.-S. hogian, to be careful, or anxious J\ 'I don't know, an' 
don't ho.' "He ymbe manegra ]>eoda )>earfe hogode:" "He 
was anxious for many nations." - jElfrics Homily on St. 

Hobble. [N. C. hopple.] To tie an animal's legs to keep him 
from wandering. 

Hobbles. A wooden instrument to confine the legs of a horse 
while he is undergoing an operation. "He's a -got into a 
hobble," is a figurative expression, meaning he is in a diffi- 

Hobbly-hoy, or Hobbledy-hoy. Defined by a rhyme, "Neither 
man nor boy." 

jHodma-dod. A bunchy, dumpy, thing. 

Hog. A sheep one year old. 

Hoils. [Essex, ails.] The beard or awn of barley. 

[Hold wi'. To hold or side with; to follow in opinion. 'To hold 
wi' the heare, an' run wi' the hounds. 

[Holm. Holly, especially low and more prickly holly, in distinc- 
tion from taller and smoother leaved. 

Homble. A duck, 
toney-zuck. The honeysuckle, 
tontish. Haughty, 
[ook. [Somerset, hoke.] To gore with the horns. 'A hooken 

bull:' 'A bull that gores.' 
[opscotch. A game of children, consisting of hop/riny over a 

parallelogram of scotches or chalk lines on the ground, 
[orridge, Whorage. A house or nest of bad characters. 


Hoss. A horse. Also, a plank or faggot to stand upon when 
digging in wet ditches, moved forwards by a knobbed stick 
inserted through it. 'Not to hitch woone's bosses together:' 
'Not to agree or coincide in opinion.' The shaft-horse or 
wheel-horse of a team is called a thiller, from the X-S. ]>il, 
a shaft or pole; the next before him the body-horse. The 
next forward is the lash-horse, being within reach of his 
lash while keeping by the side of the body -horse; and the 
fourth would be a tollier, or fore-horse. 

Iloss-stinger. The dragon-fly, (libellula). 

Hoss-tongue. Hart's tongue, (scolopendrium vulgare). 

Hounds, or Bussels, of a waggon. The slides or felloe - pieces, 
(see Waggon.) 

Howsh. An exclamation to swine, to incite them onwards. 

Huckle. The hip. 

Hud, (from hood}. The hull or legume of a plant. 

Huddick, Huddock. [N. C. bottle; Norfolk and Suffolk, hutkin; 
all diminutives of hood."] A bag or case for a sore finger. 
In the Northern counties the covered cabin of a coal-barge 
is a huddock. 

Hull. A pod. 

Humbuz. A thin piece of wood with a notched edge, which, 
when swung round swiftly on a string, yields a humming j 
or buzzing sound. 

Hummick. A heat or sweat. 

Humstrum. A rude musical instrument. 

Hungered. [X-S. hyngrian, which is an impersonal verb.] Hungry.] 
(see Matt. xxv. 35.) 

Hus-bird, Whore's-bird. [X-S. mir, and byrd, birth or offspring. 
'Nais na of earmlicum birdtim geborenum:' 'Neither of those] 
born of low birth.' Appollonius of Tyre.] A term of 
proach, like the Haraamzaadah, 'son of the haraam,' of th( 


indlc. An icicle. 
Ich, Ucli. [X-S. ic; Ger. ich.] I, in some of the lower parts 

I ><>rset. 

lnji-i. Almost; very nearly. 
Ire-gear. Iron ware, (see Gear.) 


Jack-o'-lent. A scarecrow of old clothes, sometimes stuffed. Field- 
ing, who was some time in Dorsetshire, uses the name in 
the second chapter of his Joseph Audrcirs. 

Jack-rag. "Every jack-rag o'ni," means every single individual. 

Jams. Wire shirt- buttons, of which many used to be made HI 
and near Blandford. 

Janders. The jaundice. 

Jaw. A tenon for a mortise. 

Jiffy. A moment of time; a very short time. 

Jimmy. The hinge of a door, (see Gimmy.) 

Jist, Jis'. Just; jist about. To be 'jist about' any thing, means 
to want nothing at all of being so. 'Jist about merry.' 'Jist 
about work.' 

Jobbet. A little job. 

Jobbler. Under-ground jobbler. The bird wheatear. 

Jog woone's memory. To put one in mind of a thing, particu- 
larly of the subject of a former promise, or of a duty. 

Junk. Same as Chunk. 

Jut. [Som. jot; Essex, julk, to jolt.'] To give one a sudden blow 
or concussion when still, particularly when writing. 'Don't 
jut zoo.' 'She jutted en:' 'She nudged him.' 

Kecks, or Kex. A dead stalk of hemlock or cowparsley. 

Keepen. Keeping of a song; the burden or refrain of a song. 

Keeve, or Kive. [X-S. cyf, a rat.~\ A large tub, used for the 
, wort to work in at brewing. 

Kerf. [S-S. ceorfan, to r//A, whence car re.] The cut of a saw in 
wood. "And his svvySre eare ofacerf." Luke xxii. 50. From 
ceorfan comes, most likely, the name of Corfe Castle, which 
is by a kerf, cut or opening in the hills. 

Kernel. [Diminutive of corw; Ger. kern, a grain.] This word is 
commonly applied to the pips of pomaceous fruit, which JIH? 
sometimes playfully shot from between the thumb and tore- 
finger by young folks after saying, 


" Kernel, come, kernel ! hop over my thumb, 

And tell me which way my true-love will come; 

East, west, north, or south, 

Kernel, jump into my true-love's mouth." 
Krieh. Reach. To set hard, as melted fat cooling. 
Ketcher. The membrane over the viscera of a pig. 
Keys. The seed-vessels of the sycamore and maple. 
Krakehorn. The windpipe, particularly of a slaughtered animal. 
Keaple. (see Drashel.) 

Kid. [S-S. cod.] A pod or legume; as a bean-kid, a pea-kid. 
Kimberlin. Not a Portlander; a mainlander. (A Portland word.) 
Kind. Sleek, as spoken of fur. Also keen, as of a knife. 
Kitpat, or Kitbat. The old clogged grease in the stocks of wheels. 
Kittico. To push with one's elbows, as in getting through a 

Kittyboots. A kind of laced boots reaching up only over the 

Kitty-coot. The water-rail. 

Knap. [S-S. cnaep.] A small hillock or rising. What is called 
in Somerset u a batch;" the brow of a hill. u Lseddon liine 
ofer ]>aes muntes cnsep." Luke iv. 29. From the X-S. cnarp, 
we have knop, (Exodus and 1 Kings, passim,) our knob\ 
Ger. knopf; and knap-weed (centaurea), the involucrum of 
which forms a knob or ball. 

K nrc -knaps. [S-S. cna3p.] Leathers worn over the knees by 
thatchers at work. 

Lagwood. (see Rundlewood.) 

Laii, -r. Our laving of eggs, before sitting. 

Lamb's grass. Spring grass; early grass: as distinguished from 

' i^er. [N. C. lamiter.] One recently become Jame. 
Lammorkrii. Loose-limbed. 

[loo. AII nui-iloor jjjime among boys. 
Lam. (in MHfte \>; in ^ /.) i. s , ;,, Westmoreland and Cumberland, 

a game at cards. 
Lawn in , . Wln-n one is seen lo be la/y, Lawrence is said lo 


have him; mid when one feels a loathing of exertion, lie 
sometimes cries 

"Leiizy Lawrence, let me goo! 
Don't hold me zuinmer an' winter too." 
Lathy. Tall and thin. 

Lullen. [0. E. latten; French, leton.] Tin. It is glossed in Eng- 
lish as a kind of brass, or rather tin-plate, as dfetingoished 
from the metal tin. 

Lavish. Rank. 'That wheat is lavish.' 

Lawn, or Lawnd, (land). Unploughed land; the unploughed part 
of an arable field. 

"And under a lynde, upon a launde, 
Lened I a stouncl." Piers Plowman. 

Lawnder, (from ' /as f). An iron in the forepart of a sull, sliding 

on the lawn before it is turned. 
Leade. [S-S. hladan.]. To dip up or draw off a liquid. 'Hladao' 

nu:' 'Draw out now.' John ii. 8. 
Leadecart. A cart with raves, so as to be loaded with hay or 


Leades. The same as Raves, which see. 
Lease, Leasy. [S-S. lesan, to gather or collect.] To glean after 

the reapers. 

Lea't. To leak; to let out liquid. 
Leaze, or Zummerleaze. [S.-S. Ia3su, pasture.'] A field stocked 

through the summer, in distinction from a mead which is 

mown. "Ic drife mine sceap TO heora laese:' 'I drive my 

sheep to their pasture." JElfrics Dialogue. 
Ledgers. [S-S. leger, what lies down? Compare sleepers of rail- 
ways.] The rods that are fastened down by spars on the 

thatch of a rick. 
Leer, or Leery. [Ger. leer.] Empty in the stomach; wanting 

Lence, [from lend; Som. and East Sussex, lent,] The loan of 

any thing. 'I thank ye vor the lence o't.' 
Let. [S-S. lettau, to hinder.'] A stopping or interruption: used 

by boys in playing marbles. 'Let shall be:' 'An accidental 

stopping shall be fair.' 
Levers or Livers, Lever or Liver-leaves. [S-S. liefer.] The great 

yellow flag or its leaves, (iris). 


Lew. [S-S. hleow, or hleo, shelter, shade, covering \ Du. lainv.] 
Shelter from the wind. 'In the lew zide o' the hedge.' 'On 
Ksses holtes hleo:' 'Within this grove's shelter.' Thence 
tee-ward, the opposite of windward; and a /ee-shore. Also 
tepid, as lew-warm, luke-warm, which is from the X-S. hleo; 
(ii-r. lau, lau-warm; Da. luuken; Du. laauw. 

Lewth. Shelter from the wind. 

Libbets. Rags in strips. 

Lie. The lie of the country; the relative position of places. 'I 
thought I coulden be wrong, by the lie o' the country.' 

Ligget. Small long rag. 'Every ligget o't.' 

Light, or Light-headed. Delirious. 

Like, in Dorset, as in some other counties, qualifies an adjective. 
'He's down-hearted like:' 'He is rather down-hearted.' 'He 
is all mwopen like.' The adjective like (saa, sse, see,) is 
exactly so applied in Hindoostanee; as '^Ek kaalaa-scw, 
g'horaa:' 'A black-like horse; a rather black horse.' 

Limber. Limp; flaccid. 

Limbers. Shafts of a waggon. 

Limbless. 'I'll knock thee limbless:' Til knock thee to pieces; 
thy limbs off.' 

Lincen. An intensitive of size; as, 'a lincen girt heare.' 

Linchet or Linch, Lynchet or Lynch. [S.-S. hlinc.] A ledge of 
ploughed ground on the side of a hill; or the strip of green 
ground between two ploughed ledges. 

Linded. A linded cow: a cow with a white streak down its back. 

Linliay, Linnedge. [X-S. hlynian, to lean, and ha3g, an inclosure?] 
A low-roofed shed attached to a house; a penthouse. 

LiniiM. Lint; tinder. 

Lin-man. [X-S. lin; Lat. linum, flaxJ] A man in the flax-trade: 
tln-nce /tw-seed. 

Lip. [X-S. leap, a basket or chest.] A vessel; a seed -lip, or 
seed-box, in which a sower carries his seed. 

Lipprn. or Lippy. |Som. lipary; N. C. lipper, spniy from trarcs.] 
Wet, rainy. 4 'Tis a very lippy time : ' ' The weather is very 
rainy, (p >lonny.' 

1 '- !!. lias, o lisl or hunter.'] A streak or layer: a stra- 
""" 'There's a lissen o' bad hay in thik rick.' in (Jlonc.-si. 
u linen is a cleft in a rock. 

: Of Ussom. Lithesome; of li^lit and cluvrlul mind. 


Litty, (from light). Of light and easy bodily motion. 

Livers. Same as Levers. 

Lock (of hay). An armful. 

Long. 'By long an' by leiite:' 'After a long time, and much 

Lop, Loppy. To walk or hang about lazily and idly. 'Don't 

loppy about here: goo an' do zome'at.' 
Loplolly. One who lops and lolls; a lazy or idle person. 
Lo't. A loft; the floor of an upper room; the ceiling. 'I can 

reach up to the lo't.' 
Love-child. [German, liebes-kind.] An illegitimate child. 
Lovvl. To loll loosely. 
Lowsen. To listen. 

Lug. A pole. A pole in land measure is 5 yards. 
Lumper, (to lumber). To strike the foot heavily against the ground 

or projections; to stumble. 
Lure. A disease of sheep; an ulcer in the cleft of the foot. 


Madders, or Mathers, (in some parts Meaden). The stinking 
chamomile, (anthemis cotula). 

Mag. A mark or stake to throw at, as in quoits or pitch-half- 
penny. Also, the name of a game among boys, in which 
the players throw at a stone set up on edge. 

Magot. A whirn or fancy; an experiment. 

jignty. Fanciful; fond of experiments; crotchety. * Wliat a mu- 
goty man he is.' 

MaVn. [S-S. maegen, strength, wight."] Very. 'A main girt tree:' 
'A mighty or very great tree.' Comp. 'with might and nniin.' 

Maiden tree. A tree not polled; not a pollard. It is believed, 
that if a young maiden ash be split and a ruptured child 
drawn through it, he will become healed. The writer has 
known of two trees through which children have been so 

Mainpin of a waggon. A pin put through the fore- axle of a 
waggon, for it to turn upon in locking, (see Waggon.) 

Malter, rightly used instead of maltster, which is properly a imnutn 
in after. 

Mammet. An image, scarecrow. 


Mampus. A great number; a crowd. 'A mampus o'vo'k.' 
Man, or Mawn. [X-S. mand.] A large withy basket with two 

handles, for apples, potatoes, &c. of the shape of a frustrum 

of a cone. 'Sweete-smelling apples in a maunde, made flat 

of osier twigges.' Ovid's Metamorphoses. 
Mandy. Saucy. 
Many. [X-S. manig.] Used in a similar sense for much, as in 

Anglo-Saxon: 'Do the cow gi'e many milk?' 
Mark vor. To show tokens of becoming. 'He do mark vor to 

be tall.' 

Marten. A heifer that will not breed ; a barrener. (see Freemarten.) 
Mash-mortar. 'To hit into mash-mortar.' 
Mawken. A wet cloth fastened to a poll, to clean out the oven 

before setting in a batch of bread. 
Mazzardy. Knotty. 
Meaden. Same as Madders. 

Meal of milk. The milk of one milking, or of one time. 
Meat-ware. Potatoes, pulse, and other farinaceous food. 
Meech, mooch. To gather up, as by picking, or begging. 
Mel. Meddle. 
Ment. [X-S. myntan, to make up, form.] To be like, or repi 

sent. 'He do ment his father.' 

Merry. [French, merise.] The wild cherry, {primus aeivm). 
Mesh. Moss. 

Mesh. The run or lair of hares or other wild animals. 
Mess. A dirty condition, or disagreeable circumstances. 
Mid. May, or might. 
Miff. [N. C. tift; Essex, tiff.] An offence; a coolness between 

friends or neighbours. 
Miggy. or Muggy. [N. C. muggy.] Misty and damp. Spoken of 

Miller, or Millard. A large white moth, such as the puss-moth 

(phaluma tinula), and the pale tussock-moth, (pfinla-na pu\ 

ililniinlfi). Children sometimes catch these moths, or millers; 

and having interrogated them on their taking of toll, make 

i linn plead guilty, and condenfh them in these lines: 
" .Millrry. millery, tlmisty jmll! 
11"\\ many /arks hast thee a-stole? 
Vowr an' twenty, an' a peck. 
Hang the miller up by's neck." 


Min, (most likely man). [N. C. num.] A word of contempt. "Tlir<- 
bissen gwai'n to gaily me, min.' 

Minnets. 'Noo minnets!' a warning among hoys at marbles; 
meaning the player is not to remove small obstacles on the 

Mint, A mite. 

Mixen. [3.-S. mixen.] A dung-heap. "Ne on orfrin ne on my- 
xene." Luke xiv. 35. 

Miz. Bad. 'A miz job.' 

Mock. A root or stump of a cut-off bush, or large stick; a tuft 
of sedge. 

Money-spider. The aranca scenica, which, when they see it hang- 
ing by its thread, folks sometimes take and try to swing it 
round their head three times without throwing it off; and 
then put it into their pockets, whither it is believed it will 
soon bring money. 

Moot. The under-ground part of a felled tree; the bottom of its 
trunk, and its roots. 

More. The root of a flower or small plant; a single root of a 

Mote. 'A straw mote:' 'A stalk of grass.' 

Mouel. A field mouse, (rrnis syfvaticus). 

Mould. The skull. 

Much. To much down; to stroke a hairy animal. 

Mullum. Soft or crumbling; as 'a mullum cheese.' 

Mammock. A fanciful or ugly figure, such as a Guy Fawkos. 

Mummers, a set of youths who go about at Christmas, decked 
with painted paper and tinsel, and act, in the houses of 
those who like to receive them, a little drama, mostly, though 
not always, representing a fight between St. George and a 
Mohammadan leader; and commemorative, therefore, of tl it- 
Holy wars. One of the characters, with a humpback and 
bawble, represents 'Old Father Christmas.' The librcttn of 
the Dorset mummers is much the same as that of the ( 
nish ones, as given in the specimens of the "Cornish Pro- 
vincial Dialect," published 1846. 

Mutton-tops, or Mutton-chops, (in the Isle of Wight lainb's-yiuir- 
ters). The young tops or shoots of the goosefoot (chcmijto- 
diurn), sometimes boiled in the spring for food. 

Mwope. The bullfinch. 



Natse, Noise; a scolding. 'To dreve a naVse,' is an expression 

which means to keep up or keep making a noise, and seems 

exactly equal to the phrase xo^o? ikavvsiv. 7/iarf, A. 576. 

So, ' Don't ye dreve sich work,' means ' Do not make such 

an uproar.' Note by Mr. Bingham. 
Nammet. [S-S. non-mere, noon-meat?] A luncheon. 
Nang, or Nangy. [East Sussex, 'to nang your jaws.'] To mock 

one by half articulate sounds, wagging the jaw with a grin. 

A great insult. 

Nar. Never. 'Nar a cow:' 'Never a cow.' 
Na'rs'ha. An odd contraction for 'ne'er such a.' 
Neat. [S-S. naht, nought.'] 'To play vor neat:' 'To play for 

nothing,' i. e. without stakes. 
Ne-na. Simple; foolish. Same as De-da. 
Nesh. [N. C. nash; S-S. nesc, or hnesc.] Tender; soft. 'This 

meat is nesh.' 'Do veel nesh.' 

"]>onne hys twig byS hnesce. Matt. xxiv. 32. 

"The nesh tops 
Of the young hazel." Crowe's Lewesdon Hill. 

Nessletripe. [Heref. a niscal, diminutive of the S-S. nesc, tender.] 

The most weakly or last born of a brood of fowls, a fare 

of pigs, or a family of children. 
Netlens, or Knotlens. [Ic. hnytla, a little knot.] The same as 


Nettle. To pique. 
Never' stide. [S-S. tid, time or tide.] 'That'll be next never'stide:' 

meaning that it will never happen. 

r-thc-near, or Never -the- nigher. [S-S. neah, niyl/, nearre, 

in;/ her.] That does not advance the argument; it is to no 

Nicky, (from nick, to cut short?) Very small short-cut bundles 

<>f wood for lighting -oal fires. In some parts of the county, 

>"ctiie$ are long faggots. 

Niggle. To complain of trilles. from ill temper or bad humour. 
Nippy. Hungry, \\ith a keen appetite. "1 he rather nippy.' 

"ip. A donk- 
Nil Not yet. 


Nitch. A burthen; as much as one can carry of wood, hay, or 
straw, and sometimes of drink. Iledgers are sometimes al- 
lowed to carry home every night a nitch of wood , which 
they put on the end of a pole called a s/icfiln-r, spiker. 

Noggerhead. A loggerhead; a blockhead. 

Noohow. After no regular mode or shape. 'Thease rick's a- 
meade noohow.' 

Noo-when. At no time. 

Not. [S-S. hnot, shorn or cUnpcd.] Witliout horns: as 'a imt- 
cow:' 'a not-sheep.' 

Nother. [The right offspring of the S-S. naSer.] Neither. 'You 
can't do it.' 'Nor you nother.' Nother and other were tin- 
Old English. "Nother of flesh ne of blod." Lires of the 

Nounse. The eyelet-hole of a rope. 

Nudge. To jog one. particularly with the elbow. 

Nunch, or Nunchen. Luncheon. 

The stock of a wheel. Also, a lobe of fat in a slaughtered 

Nunnywatch, Ninnywatch. A Quandary. 


0'. Of. 

0'. On. 'O'Zundays:' 'On Sundays; or 'Of Sundays;' as. in 
Anglo-Saxon, "Rode-tacn wcar'S at-emved on ]>am inonaii, 
fines Wddnesdceges:" "A token of tlie cross was seen on 
the moon of a Wednesday.'" Sa.r. Citron. 806. 

Odds. Difference. "Because there was no oddes." Orid'a Mrtit- 

Off. The line from which boys shoot in beginning at marbles. 

Off vor. To be well off, or bad off, for any thing, means to be 
well or badly furnished with it. 'How b'ye off vor apples 
to-year?' 'He's bad off.' 

O'n, Ov en. Of him or it. 

On -light. [S-S. on-a-lihtan.] To alight; to dismount from a 

Ooser, or Oose. (Wurse, in "Lazamon's Unit," is the name of 
the arch-fiend.) A mask with opening jaws, put on with a 
cow's skin to frighten folk. 


Orte. [X-S. orettiin. to spoil, fo defile.'] Waste hay left by cows 
fed a-field. 

O's. Of us. 

Out ov axen. Out of asking: having had one's banns of mar- 
riage published three times. 

Outstep. Out of the way; lonely. Applied to a village or house. 

Oves, Ovis. Eaves. 

Overlook. To look on with the evil eye. 

Overright. Right over against. 

Pank. To pant. 

Panshard. [pan, and 3.-S. sceard, a fragment.'] A piece of a broken 

pan. (see Shard.) 
Par. To inclose, shut up. 
Pai-rick. [S.-S. pearroc; Westm. parruck; Northum. parrick, a 

lambing inclositre.~\ A paddock; a small inclosed field. "On 

}>isum lytlum pearroce:" "In this little inclosure." Alfred's 

B oet him, xviii. 2. 

"ITadde parroked hyraselve, 

That no man mighte hyra se. v Piers Plowman. 

Passons an' Clarks. The running fiery spots on burning paper 
are sometimes so called by children, who watch them to see 
which will run last: parsons, the large ones, or clerks, 
the small ones. 
Payze. To ooze. 

IVane. [S-S. pan, a piece, or hem? thence panel?] This word, 
which in Knglish is confined to a piece or compartment 
(pane) of glass, is in Dorset extended to others, as in Anglo- 
Saxon. A IK due. for example, is a compartment of teddfc| 
grass between the raked divisions. 
It NV.-ll; lively. 
Hoar*, Paving-stones; Hag-stones. 

upon. To domineer over. 

P-!i. A jianixysm of anger. 'He went off in sich a 
Pewit Th.- lapwing. 

A hay-furU or duiig-lnrk. 

I: haviim a sharp top. Applied to human beings, 
thin. "NYilh a pikee top the cypresse." Orid 's 


Filer. [X-S. pilere, a pounder?] A tool, consisting of an iron 
frame of many compartments, for pounding off the hoils of 
thrashed barley. 

Pillem, Pelm. [Welsh, pilm.] Dust, in some of the lower parts 
of Dorset. 

Pin-sweale. [S-S. pin, pain; and swel-an, to burn.'] A boil, or 

Pissabed. The dandelion, more especially the narrow dandelion, 
(Icontodon taraxacum, ft of Smith); said to be very diuretic, 
whence its name in Dorset, as in France. 

Pitch. [N. C. pick.] The quantity taken up at once on a pick 
or hay-fork. 

Pitch. [N. C. pick.] To put or throw up hay on a waggon ; to 
subside, as dirt in water; to sit down, 'Do ye pitch your- 
zelf in a chair;' to lay down, "pitchen." 

Pitcher. A willow plant. 

Piers, or Pyers. Hand-rails of a foot bridge. 

Plain. Middling; far from being excellent or handsome. "Tis 
but a plai'n crop.' 'He's a very plain man,' is an euphemis- 
mus for 'He is an ugly man.' Plai'n also means quile: as. 
'The wind is plain south.' Also unaffected, simple. 

Planched. [Fr. plancher.J Boarded. 

Plesh, Plush, or Plash. [0. E., Hereford, and N. C. to pleach.} 
To cut the larger sticks (pleshcrs, pi ushers, or plashers) of 
a quickset hedge nearly but not quite off, and lay them down 
on the bank, so that the sap may come up over the cut, 
and they may throw out perpendicular shoots. 

Pleck. [S-S. plaBc, an open place.'] A small inclosure. 

Plim. To swell or expand. 'This beacon do p/im in bweilen.' 

Plock. A block; a large block of wood, particularly a u choppn 
plock," for chopping up small wood upon. 

Plough, or Plow. A waggon is mostly called a phuijh. or p/oir. 
in the Vale of Blackmore. where the Knglish plough, tira- 
Irum, is a zull, the Anglo-Saxon s>jl. "These an- in his 
Ma ties name to require you forthwith, on sight hereof, to 
press men and ploires" Colonel Kirk's order to the parish 
of Chedzoy, in the Monmouth rebellion. 

Plounce. To plunge down. 

Ply. To bend. 

Pockfretten. [pock and fret, to eat; X-S. freten, eaten.] Marked 


by small-pox. "Like as it were a moth fretting (eating) a 

garment." Psalm xxxix. 

Ponted. Bruised with blows. 'Theiise vish is a-ponted.' 
Pook. [N. C. pike; X-S. peac, a peak.] (see Haymeaken.) 
Popples, or Popplestwones. [X-S. papol, or popolstan.j Pebbles. 
Pot. A stick witli a hemisphere of wicker-work on it, as a shield 

in cudgel-playing. 
Pott, or Putt. A dung -pott, or dung -putt. A kind of broad- 

wheeled dung -cart, that tips to shoot the dung. 
Praise, or Prize. To show, by some motion, a feeling of pain, 

as from a hurt. When a horse is touched on a wounded 

or bruised part, he is said to praise it or not. by flinching 

or otherwise. 
Pricked. Sharp, as beer. 
Pride o' the mornen. A foggy mist in the morning, likely to be 

followed by a warm day. 
Proof. Fattening quality. Spoken of food. 'There's some proof 

in that hay.' 

Proofy. Having much proof; likely to fatten. 
Prove. To fatten; to gain flesh. 
Pud. A hand. 'Gi'e's a pud.' 
Pudding-stone. Conglomerate; tt so styled because the stones and 

their matrix resemble pudding." Roberts. 
Pug. To pull, poke. 
I'n.mry. Peking out, protuberant. 

Pummel-vooted. [Somerset, pumple- footed] Club-footed; OfduvovJ 
rummy. Piimmiee. [Fr. pomme, an apple] The dry substance 

of apples after the cider is expressed from it. 
Pun-. .(Jnite well. 'How b'ye?' 'Pure, thenk ye.' 
1'ur lam'. [X-S. put-lamb.] A sound male lamb, as in Kxodns 
xii. .: though in Dorsetshire a purhinib is a castrated ram 

in. (>ee Haymeaken.) 
A-pul out. I'm out of one's usual equanimity; out of track; 

made anury. 
A- put to. To be in a strait or difficulty; to have circumstances 

(res) set against one (adtcrsfi'): in rcfuts mlrrrsis. 'lies a 

put -to vor iiion. \ . 
Put up. To stop lor relre-hment, or take board or bed. at an 

inn. 'NYhere d'ye put up?' 'At ihe Bell.' This expression, 


like its equivalent in some other languages, is elliptic: ;md 
means to \>nt vp a horse or goods, or what else mav he 
committed to the innkeeper. In Greek we have xarttP.rr. 
to take down 'the burdens; ' as in the Kast tlie word ///>///://, 
an inn, is from (he Arabic root n<i~-ahi, to take down. 

Put up wi'. To bear patiently. "To put up wi' any thine;/' i* 
a figurative a [(plication of. the expression "to put up'" at an 
inn; and means to be so far reconciled to it, as to abide 
along with it. 'Who's to put up wi' your fancies?' 

Puxy. [N. C. pulk.] A miry or boggy place; a puddle. 

Pwope. A bunchy thing. 

Pyer. (see Pier.) 'Pyer and lug;' a rude bridge over a ditch, 
consisting of a pole (lug) to walk on, and a hand-rail, 


Quaddle. [To coddle?] To make limp or flabby, or shrivelled. 
Quag. [S-S. cwacian, to shake.] A quagmire, which shakes when 

walked on. " Continuall colde and gastly feare possesse this 

queachie plot." Grid's Metamorphoses. 
Quar. A stone quarry. 
Quarrel. [Fr. quarre.] A window-pane. 
Quarterevil, or Quartere'il. A disease of sheep; a corruption of 

the blood. 

Quetter. A working or quabby ulcer. 
Quickzet hedge. [S-S. cuic, livinf/.] A planted living hedge, in 

distinction from a dead fence. u Might see the moving of 

some quiche." Spenser s Shepherd's Calendat. 
Quirk. [Exmouth, querk, to grunt.'] To emit the breath forcibly, 

after retaining it in violent exertion. 
Quob. To quiver, like jelly. 
Quot. Very low in proportion to its breadth. 'There's a little 

quot rick.' 


Rack. The under part of a barn's door, the upper one being 
called the door. 


Raft. To rouse or excite one when going to sleep or dying, or 

to irritate a beast, 'The cow's a-rafted.' 
Rafty. [Hereford, raisty; Somerset, rasty.] Rancid. 'Rafty 


Rake. [X-S. rec-an.] To reek. 
Ram, Rammish. Strong smelling. 
Hainmil. Rawmilk. Applied to cheese, made of raw unskimmed 

Ramsons. Broad-leaved garlic, (allmm ursinum). The ramesan, 

in Anglo-Saxon, was the buckthorn. 

Ram's claws. The stalks and stalk -roots of the creeping crow- 
foot, (ranunculus repens). 
Ramshackle. [X-S. ream, a ligament, and sceacan, to shake.] 

Disjointed and loose; rickety. 
Ram-stag, (see Stag.) 
Ran, or Run. The hank of a string. 
Randy. A merry-making; an uproar. 
Rangle. To reach about, like trailing or climbing plants. 
Rap. To barter; to exchange articles. 'I've a-rapped away the 


Ratch. [X-S. raeca'n; Sco. rax.] To stretch. 
Rate. To scold ; to accuse. u J>oet higwrehton hyne." - Matt. 

xii. 10. 

"And foule y-rebuked 

And a-rated of rich men." Piers Plowman. 

Rathe. [X-S. hraeS.] Soon; early. Thence tt ratheripe," the name 

of an apple. tt Sometime more rathe thou risest in the east." 

Ovid's Metamorphoses. 
Rather. Lately; just now. ' He's rather a-come.' Thence 'I wou'd 

rather do so:' t. e. 'I would sooner do so,' or 'do so sooner 

than otherwise.' 

ii-7K>vf, (to roe, to sift or cleanse.) A sieve, used chiefly in 

(I. .-, using clover. 
Read. [X-S. hreddan, to rid, lo pull.] To read inwards, is to strip 

them of their fat, &c. Also, to be sick. 
Read. The fourth stomach of ruminant animals. The masticated 
<!' ruminant animals passes into the first stomach - 
and second honeycomb -bag, where it is formed 

into (u. Is, and sent back to the mouth to be chewed again. 

The thin] -ti.iiiach, to which it next goes down, is in Dorset 


the fadge, from which it passes on to (lie read, or fourth. 
These last words are further examples of the fulness of the 
rustic dialect where English is defective ; for in an English 
translation of Cnvier's Animal hin/jdom the ftnlyc, for the 
want of an English name, ag it is fair to believe, is called 
by its French one the feuif/el, or bookleaf. from its dis- 
sepiment. , which are like the leaves of a book, and the read 
is given as the cailletle. A calve's read, salted in water, is 
used to curdle milk. 

Headship. [X-S. rred-scipe, sense, reason.] A rule by which one 
may act, or a truth to which one may trust. 'You've a-put 
the knives across: we shall quarrel.' 'Ah! there idden much 
re ad ship in that.' 

Ream. To reek. 

Reames. [X-S. ream, a ligament, Ger. rahm; Dan. ramme. a 
frame.] A skeleton; the frame or ligaments of any thing. 
'Here be the reames of a bird.' 

Reamy. Reaching out, stringy. Spoken of slack bread. 

Rean. [Somerset, rawn; Exmouth. ranish, ravenous; X-S. rea- 
lian, to seize or snatch away.] To eat up greedily. 'The 
bosses do rean in the vatches.' 

Rear. [X-S. rajran.] To raise; to rouse; to excite. "You'll rear 
the weather," is sometimes said to one who, for a wonder, 
comes into the hay-field, 
cleaves. [Ger. reif, edge, hoop.] The ladder-like frame-work at- 
tached to the sides of a waggon, to uphold the load ex- 
tended laterally over the wheels. The reaves are propped 
by strouters, or stretchers. 

Reddick, Reddock, (a diminutive of red). [X-S. rudduc.] The 

Reef. A broad piece. 'They've a -mowed sich a reef o' groun' 
to-day.' Thence the reef of a sail. 

Reelly. To dance reels. 

Reer, or Rare. [X-S. hrere.] Underdone, as meat. 

Renge. [X-S. rennan, or yrnan, to run or floir.] A hair sieve 
for flour or liquor to run through. 

Reremouse. [X-S. hreremus.] A bat. (Midsummer Night's Dream, 

ii. 3.) 
Rice. Brushwood. 


Rick. [A-S. hricg, a ridge, back, or pinnacle; Ger. rucken.] A 
stack or mow, with a sharp ridge or a pointed top. " Ge- 
sette hine ofer ]>aes temples hricg," Luke\\\ 9. 

Rid out a hedge. To cut off unnecessary wood in laying or 
pleashing a hedge. 

Ride. To be angry when teazed or jeered. 'I meiide en ridr.' 
Comp. the French 'Monter sur ses grands chevaux.' 

Rig. To climb in play or wantonness. 'Zit down! a-riggen about 

Rig, or Rudger. An uricastrated, but yet imperfect horse. 

Rig. Part of a cider-harness. " Cider from the rig," before it is 
put into cask. 

R iggy> gg ish - Sour - 

Rights. A right state. "To put to rights," is to mend, or re- 

Rile. To reach as a restless child. 
Rimer. A tool for enlarging screw-holes in metal. 

Rine. Rind. 

u The gray moss marred his ryne." 

S2)enser's Shepherd's Calendar. 

Rise. To raise; to get. 

Ringle, (diminutive of ring). To ring with a small sound. 'I 
heard the glass ringle when the window wer a-broke.' 

Rivelled. Shrivelled. 

a She cast 

Her old wive's riveted shape away. Ovid's Metam. 
Rix. [S-S. rics, a rush or reed.] To intwine reeds, rushes,. 

furze, &c. 
Etobinhood. The red campion (lyc/mus dioicd), and the ragged 

robin, (ti/c/tnus flos cnculi). 

Roll-er. (see Haymefiken.) Roll-er also means a cylinder of wool. 
When wool was hand -carded, the quantity carded at once 
was rolled off the receiving card by a reversed action of 
i IK- working one into a cylinder called a roll-cr; from the 
\\. alviM-ss of which, originated the expression "as weak as i 
a roll-er." 

Rong. [In the Northern Counties (teste Brockett) a rung, nu-an- 
ing also a cudgel or walking-staff; Mies. Goth, lining, a rorf.]| 
Tin- nuullr or step of a ladder. 

re mild ago your vitals nip, 
Ami l;iy yu t\\;itald owre a rumj. Old Scotch Song. 


Rottlepenny. The yellow rattle, (rMnniil/tus 

Rottletraps. Rickety old household-goods, &r. 

Roughcast, or Roiicast, To cover walls, particularly mud-walls. 
with roughcast; a composition of sand, mortar, gril. &c. 

Roughleaf. A true leaf of a planl, in distinction from its seed- 
leaves or cotyledons. When its first true leaves arc out. it 
is said to be "out in rough leaf." 

Rounders. A boys' game at balls. 

Rout. A rut. To poke as a pig. 

Row, or Roo. (see Haymeiiken.) 

Rowet. Rough tuft of grass. 

Rowets. [S-S. hreo, roiiyh?~\ The rough grass that grows up 
among furze or brushwood. 

Rowse. To drive off with impetuosity. ' Rowse the vowls out o' 

Rudder, Ruther, Ruddle; Riddle. A coarse sieve. 

Ruddern or Ruthern-sieve. [S-S. hrudrian. to siff.] A sieve for 
cleaning wheat. 

Ruddock, (see Reddick.) 

Budge-tie, or Ridge-tie. A chain lying over the ridge tree, to 
hold up the shafts of a waggon or cart. 

Rudger. (see Rig.) 

Rundlewood, Randlewood. The small sticks from the head of an 
oak tree ripped of bark. The larger ones are called lug- 

Run down. To depreciate; to find fault with; to speak ill of. 
The Dorset dialect often affords excellent examples of ninn- 
iny down, particularly of work; not from the ill -nature of 
its speakers, but from a wish to show their own discrimi- 
nation. The following specimens are from life: u Well; what 
d'ye think o' the new waggon?" "Why, the vtfst thing I 
do vind fault wi" is the draughts; the\ be too crooked: an" 
the tug-irons be a-put in mwore than dree inches too v in- 
back. An' jis, look here, where the rudge-tie an' breechen 
rings be: why, nar a carter in the worold can't put a i 
in to en. I don't call the head an' tail a-put out o' hand 
well. They be a-pai'nted noo-how. Why he woon't bear half 
a Iwoad; they've a-mcude en o' green stuff a-shook all to 
pieces. The vu'st time he's a-hauled out in the zun. he'll 
come all abroad. The strongest tiling 1 do zee about en is 




the mai'npin; an' he is too big by half." And so on. tt What 
did ye gi'e vor they vish?" "Two-pence a-piece." "Lank! 
how dear they be. Why I wou'den gi'e a penny vor the lot. 
Why they be a-ponted an' a-squotted all to pieces: they 
woon't keep till to-morrow." 
Rusty. Reaching, restive, as a horse. 

Sar. [N. C. sarra; Sco. sair.] To feed animals. Also, to earn. 
Say. An essay; a trial. 'Gone say, two say, dree an' away.' 
Scammish. Awkward; scram. 
Scoop, or Scoopens. Scope -law: space given one in running 

against him. 

Scote. To shoot along in running. 
Scrag. A twisted branch of a tree. 
Scraggle. To walk with difficulty, bending out the legs like sci 

'He can hardly scraggle about.' 
Scram. Distorted; awkward. 'Hxvsy scram you do handle it." 
Scrape. A sheep-scrape; a bare place, where the turf has boon 

scraped off by sheep's feet on a steep down-side. 
Screed. To shun; to eschew. (West Dorset.) 
Scrip. A hedger's or shepherd's coat, frequently made of leather. 
Scroff. Small bits of dead wood fallen under trees; or leavings 

under piles, or from faggots. 
Scroop, Scroopy. To make a low crackling sound, as that of 

new shoes. 
Scrounch, or Scrunch. To crunch; to crush with an audible 

sound. 'The dog do scrunch the bwone.' 
Scrush, Scrowge. To screw up, squeeze. 
Scrush. A game, much like shinty, between two sides of boys, 

each with bandies (scrushes), trying to knock a roundish 

fltone over the others limit. 
Scud. [In Somerset, scat; most likely from the Anglo- Saxon 

sceotan, to shoot or cast.] A short slight shower cast from 

a flying cloud. 
SrnlV. |'.\-S. M'i'if'aii. to shin- 1", Ic. skafa. In scrti/x'.} To strike 

ill'- font alonr tlu floor or ground after putting it down in 

walking like .ne slip-shod. 


Scuff of the neck. [S-S. scaf-an. In shurc or ntakc sninolh.] The 
bare part of the neck close below the hair, and sometimes 
called the scroff of the neck. 

Scute. [S-S. sceotan, to pay.] A reward: pay: scot. (West 

Scwoce. To barter or exchange. 

Scale, or Zeiile. [S-S. sahl, a stake.] A shore or stake to fasten 
up hurdles to. 

To Scale, or Zeale. To make sales; to be readily convertible 
into sales. Said of coppice wood. 

Seated. Applied to eggs. Having been sitten on; with the for- 
mation of the young bird begun. 

Sess. An exhortation to a dog to set on somebody, or some- 

Set out. An outset; a starting, or a proceeding. u ln the outset 
of this inquiry, the reader was directed to consider." &c. 
Pulefs Hora> PauJiiKf. 

Settle. [S-S. serle; Ger. sessel; Lat. sedile, a seat.] A Ion- 

with a high plank back. "J?set ge sittath ofer twelf sell:" 
"That ye sit on twelve seats." Matt. xix. 28. 

Sew. (see A-zew.) 

Shab. [X.-8. sceab, a scab.] The itch, applied to brutes. 

Shale. [S-S. seel, a shell, and aescealian, to shale.] To take off 
the shell; as, to shale beans or nuts. 

Shard. [X-S. sceard.J A broken piece, or a breach: as. a fxin- 
shard, a piece of broken pan; or a shard, a small breach 
in a hedge. 

Shark or Shirk off. To sneak off softly, from shame or an ap- 
prehension of danger. 

Sharps. The shafts of a cart or other carriage. 

Shatten. Shall not. 

Shatter. [H.-S. sceotan, to shoot? or frequentative of shed.] To 
drop accidentally small quantities, as of hay or other loose 

Sheakes. 'Noo girt sheakes.' 'No great things:' nothing to 
brag of. 

Shear. [S-S. scear.] A ploughshare. Also, a crop of grMfe 

Sheen. To shine. 

Sheeted. A sheeted cow is one having a white band, like a 
sheet, round the body. 


Shirk. To evade, (see Shark.) 

Shittle-exe. A timber of a waggon, taking the summers. 

Shock of corn. A cone of sheaves, with one on its apex to shoot 

off the wet. 
Shockle, (diminutive or frequentative of shake). To shako lightly, 

but with audible concussions; as marbles in a boy's pocket. 

or ripe seeds in a dry capsule. 
Shockly. That shockles. 
Shon't. Shall not. 

Shook. Split; as wood by shrinking. 
Shoot. A steep hill, or the road down it. 
Shotten. Shalt not. 
Showl. A shovel. 
Shrimpy. [X-S. scrimman, to dry tip, wither.] Thin; arid: poor. 

Applied to land. 
Shroud. [X-S. scrud, shroud, covering; or screadan, to shred, to 

prune.'] To lop or prune the heads (shrouds) of timber trees. 

"With a shadowing shroud." Ezekiel xxxi. 3. 
Shram. To screw up, benumb with cold. Cornish, shrim. 
Shrovy. Shabby. 
Sbrovy, [from shrive, 3.-S. scrifan, to confess']. "To goo a- 

shroven" is to go begging at Shrovetide, the time of shriv- 
ing, or confessing, in the Romish church. 
Shrovy, (allied to scrubby?) Poor; mean. Applied to land. 
Shut out, or Shut off. 'To shut out, or shut off work:' 'To 

leave off work.' Comp. the Latin conclt'do. to shut up. 
Shut. To join, as to weld two pieces of iron, or connect two 

pieces of wood; to agree. 'We two can't shut.' 
Sight. tf Such a zight o' vo'k," or any thing else, means siu-li a 

i' umber, or (/ntnitily. 
Sil^rcm. [S-S. sel, a dtrcl/itt;/ or house, or set, continuous; S-S. 

8in-gre"ne; Ger. sin-grim; Da. sin-gron.] Houseleek. (seniprr- 

eivnm tectorutn). Its leaves are thought to be cooling, and 

are used with cream for eruptions. 
Sith. To sigh. 

Cliive: i^irlir. (aUinin BChcenoprasttm,) used as a potherb. 
(see Snead.) 

i. [N. C. 8kitler.] To l>e relaxed in the bowels. Applied (o 



Skew-Avhiff, [a-skeir, and the A-S. hwealf, bending? (Jer. srhief; 
Da. skjev.] A-skew; distorted; a-skaut. 

Skicer. [Cornish, skeyce, to frisk about.] A lamb which runs 
itself to death from excess of energy. 

Skiff. [Ger. schief; Da. skjev.] Distorted; awkward (as left- 
handed, scfpvola a axat'ng, scrm/.s); .skiff- handed; having a 
distorted hand. 

Skillen. [X-S. scyldan, to protect.] A penthouse; a shed. From 
the S-S. scyt-an, to divide, to scale off, and sccala, a scale. 
we have shell and skull', sew/e-like plates; shilling (skilling), 
a scale of metal; and shield, a scale-like protection. 

Skim, or Skimmy. To mow the bunches of rank grass in a 

Skit. [S-S. sceotan, to shoot.] To run or walk lightly; to 
shoot on. 

Skiver. A skewer; a shaving, or shiver of wood. 

Skiver-wood. Spindle-tree (euonymus EwrojWBWf), of which skew- 
ers are made. 

Skurrick, or Skurrock, (a diminutive of score, a cutting. [N. C. 
scuddock, a diminutive of S-S. sceat, a part; X-S. scearan. 
to cut or divide; scear, scearu, a portion.] A small part. 
'Every skurrick o't:' 'Every bit, every farthing of it.' 

Slack-twisted. Inactive; without energy. Applied to a person. 

Shut, Slite, or Slade. [S-S. sljed, a plain, or open land.] A 
sheepslait; a sheep-plain or down; a sheepleaze. 

Slat. [S-S. slat, past tense of slit an.] To split or crack. Fn.m 
slit an, slat, conies slate, which is called a slat in Dorset- 
shire, and in German tin- srhicfer, a shiver. 

Slalch. To slake lime; to make slack. 

Sleepy. Slack, as a rotten apple. 

Slent. To tear as linen. Also, a slit. 

Slides of a waggon. Felloe-pieces or arcs of circles fastened on 
the fore-axle, as a bearing for the bed of the waggon when 
it locks. 

Slim. Slender. 'What a slim chap!' 

Slim. Sly; scowling; ill-looking. U A partial retention of ili- bad 
old sense: Ger. schlimm; Da. slem: Du. slim, meaning Innl. 
Slitjht has undergone a like change for the better: der. 
schledit, is bad, though sometimes implying also sliy! 
Da. slet has both senses. Slight had formerly a bad - 



'Away! slight man.' Julius Ccesar." - - Mr. Vernon. Slight 

has still a bad sense in 'a girl of slight character.' Slim is 

glossed in an old dictionary, (Coles's,) crafty; naughty: a 

Lincolnshire word. 
Slip. A cord or chain to fasten a cow's neck to the tying in 

a stall. 
Slips. Young pigs running loose. Those somewhat older are 

hard slips', and others nearly fullgrown are store pigs. 
Slommock. A slatternly woman. 
Slommocken. Dirty, or slatternly. 
Sloo. [S-S. sla.] A sloe. 
Sloo, of a horn. The inner bony prominence from the skull or 

or quick core of a cow's horn, fitting, as it were, into a 

socket of it. It bleeds when broken. 

Slooworm. [X-S. slaw, and wyrm.] The slow-worm, or blind- 

Sluck-a-bed. [S-S. slaec, slow., dull.] A sluggard. Thence a slug. 
Sluggard's guise. A sluggard's manner. 

" Sluggard's guise, 

Lwoth to goo to bed, an' Iwoth to rise." 
Sniani. To smear. 
Smash. To beat up small into one mass; to mingle. Ger. mischen: 

Da. maske; Sw. maska, to mash (mingle) beer; Sco. u mask 

the tea." 

Smatch, (from smack, to taste). A taste. 
Smatter. A mess. 
Smitcli. or Smeech. [X-S. smic, smoke? a }>onne gscb se w;em 

lit mid >am smice;" "Then goes the wet out with the 

smoke." - X-S. Astronomy.] Fine dust, like smoke, stirred 

up in a room, or on a road. 
Smock-frock. A man's round frock of linen. 
Snioor. [X-S. smyrian; Da. smore.] To smear. 
Smudge. [X-S. be-smitan. fn soi/i Ger. be-schmutzen.] To smear, 

particularly with ink. 

Snabble, (frequentative of min/i?) To eat up hastily or greedily. 
Snack. A share. 
Snags, (s-nugs. Itimt/s?) Stumps; as, u snags o' teeth." Thence 

ilie snags or stimi|t> <>f trees washed down by the rivers of 
Aim-rim, and sticking up above or sometimes a little under 

water, and likely to hit a hole in the boat: in provision for 


which accident the Americans have built boats with \\ater- 
tight compartments at the bow, called xiniii-v\iuui\n 

Snags. The fruit of a species of black-thorn, smaller than - 
(pruntis spinosd). 

Snape, (West Dorset). A spring. 

Snapy. Springy; wet. Said of land. 

Snappen tongs. A game of forfeits. Those playing it stand up 
in a room, in which are seats for all but, one of them; and 
when the tongs are snapped, all run to sit down, and tin- 
one that fails to get a seat, pays a forfeit. 

Snappish. Peevish, snubbing. 

Snead. [X-S. snrcd.] The pole of a scythe; in Dorset zive, or 
sive. The scythe is fixed to the snead by a projection or sicart, 
that goes into a socket, and a ring hing-ring, and wedges 
king-wedges. Upon the snead are two short crooked hand- 
les tugs, or tinesfocks. That part of the blade nearest the 
snead is its heel. 

Sniggle. To snarl a little. 

Snorter. The bird wheat-ear. (Portland.) 

Snoatch. To speak or breathe hardly through the nose. 

Snock, (s-nock, by sigmatiori?) A knock; a short sound of a 
sudden blow. 

Snout. To snub one. 

Sock. To sigh with a short loudish sound. 

Sog. [S.-S. socian, to soak- Du. zaght, soft, //v/.v/*//.] To saturate 
or loosen with wet, Spoken of land, or a road. 

So'jer. Soldier: the pyrochroa rubens. 

Solid. Solid. Also, serious or gentle; as 'She do look solid.' 
'Come solid, goo saucy.' 

Somewhen. At some time. 

Sooner. A spirit; a ghost. 

So's. [Cornish, sos.] Souls, meaning-folks or men in distinction 
from brutes. 'O so's!' 'O folks!' eqnal to the (ireek w 

So't. Soft, 

So'tpoll. [O. E. poll, the head: thence a poll-td.r. a capitation 
tax; to poll, to count heads, as of voters: and a pollard, a 
beheaded tree.] A silly person; a soft-poll. To say on.- has 
a soft poll is, in Blackmore. the same as asserting that he 
has a weak mind. 


Sowel. or Sole. [X-S. sahl, a pole, staff. tt Ge synd cumene mid 
sweordum and mid sahlum" - - Matt. xxvi. 55.] A shore or 
stake, such as is driven into ground to fasten up hurdles to. 
Same as Sale. 

Span-new. 'Spick-an'-span new:' 'Quite new; wholly new.' Span- 
new, as is shown by the Icelandic span-n^r, of the same 
signification, means chip-new; as, a thing made of timber, 
and not yet removed from its chips. From span, a chip or 
wooden spoon, of our Teutonic forefathers, might come our 
spoon; so that "chips and porridge" might not have been 
barely imaginary with them. 

Spargads. Gads, or sticks, to be split up into spars, (see Gad.) 
Sparhook. A small bill-hook, for making or cutting spars. 
Spars. [X-S. spere; Ger. speer; a spear, or long sharp body.'] 
Sharp sticks, usually of withy or hazel, twisted in the middle 
and bent, for fastening down thatch under ledgers. The spars 
of a ship are the yards, and other small bars. 
Spark-ed. [S-S. spearca, a spark.] Speckled or spotted; marked 

with longish white spots. 

Spawl. A splinter or fragment flown off, as from stone. 
Spe/ik an' deab, (spike and daub?) A wall of wattles or hurdle- 
work plastered over with mortar. 

Speaker. [Ger. spieker; Du. spijker; Da. spiger; a spike or fa rye 
nail. A s-pike, Ger. speiche, spitze, is a sharp end.] A stake 
to carry a faggot. 

Spears. [S-S. spere: see Spar.] The stems of the reed arumio 
phragmites, sometimes employed instead of laths to hold 
plaster. In I. of Wight spires are the tall blades of the 
carex panim/alti and other lofty sedges. 
<!e. A spade. The stem of a* spade is called the tree, and 
the cross handle on its top, the critch, (X-S. cricc; Ger. 
knieke. the crutch.) 
Sjtik. Spike. Lavender: spike- nard. "(Lat. spicanardi , so called 

from its spike of flowers). 
Spile. \ vi-nt |n-jf tor ;i c;i>k. 
Spindh- out. To begin to i^ro\v into stalks or spindles. Spoken 


Spin- l!> oiiiintr mi-!' of ground lately sown down to gra-. 
Spirl. \.\ :,n: 1. \Vijrhl. sprit; CUT. spriessen.j To sprout; 


to vegetate. Comp. I)u. spriet, a/tear or spar, a sprout a- it 

were, as in boeg-spriet, bow-sprit; (ler. brig-spriet 
Spil. As much as is turned at once by a spade in digging. 
Spitisli. Spiteful; snappish. 
Spitter. [X-S. spitu, a spit or spct/r; or from spit.] \ dock- 

spitter, or thissle-spitter; a tool to cut up docks or thistles 


Sprack. [N. C. sprag.] Lively; active. 
Sprethe. [Som. spry; Wiltshire, spreaze.] To chap. 'Mylipslu- 


Spry. Strong of muscle; of light and nimble bodily motion. 
Spuddle. To dig slightly and incontinuously. "To spuddle teat 

is to turn up ground out of which potatoes have been dug, 

to find left ones. 
Spudgel. A hollow kind of shovel for baling out water. Alt. 

to bale. 
Spur. [X-S. spurnan, to kick, to cast back.] "To spur dun.ii." 

is to throw it abroad from the heaps left by the. dung-putt. 

To spirtle, seems a diminutive of spur. 

S(|iiail. To throw stones, or any missiles, at birds or other tilings. 
Squit. To make a very short slight sound. 'I heard the vat s(/nit 

drough the glass.' 
Squot. To flatten by a blow. 
S-quot. To make quot, which see. 
Staddle. [X-S. staftol.] A wooden frame- work, or a bed of 

boughs, upon which a rick is made so as not to touch the 


Sraddlen. Staddling. Stuff to make a staddle. 
Stag. [Ic. steggr, a male quadruped?] A castrated male animal; 

as, a ram-stag, a boar-stag, a bull-^ag: Hereford. bnU 

a ram. boar, or bull castrated. In Cumberland, a tttt 

young horse, and a stcy is a gander. 
Staggers. The giddiness in sheep, occasioned by a worm in the 

brain; the cfniiims ccrebrnlis. 
Stai'd, in years. Elderly. 
Stairvoot. The bottom of the stairs. 
Stall. [X-S. sta^el. a station; Ic. sto^all. u initlfiiKi-sttrtion : thence. 

by syncope of ft, stall.] A cow-stall or crib-house, in which 

cattle are fed, being fastened by loose s'ips round their necks 
to tyetis (tyings), upright poles behind the cribs. The\ an 


sometimes served from behind, and sometimes from a pas- 
sage (forestall), running on before the cribs. 

Stan' to. 'To stan' to a child:' 'To be sponsor.' 'To stan' to 
an assertion:' 'To insist on it.' 

Stare. [X-S. stare; Ger. staar.] A starling. 

Stean. [X-S. stan.] To lay or furnish with stones. 'A good 
steaned road.' 

Stean. [X-S. stan, a stone.] An old cheese -press consisted of a 
frame with a shelf, upon which the vat (vetit) was put. The 
cover of the vat was the vollier, which was wrung down 
upon the cheese by a large box of stones called the stean. 

Steare. To stand up stiff, as hair. 

Steart. [X-S. steort; Du. staart; Da. stjert.] An extremity, or a 
sharp point; a tail. Hence the red-start, a bird with a red 

Stem. [O. E. Steven.] The handle of a pick or rake. Also, a 
period of time; from the X-S. stemn. "Hie hrcfdon hiora 
stemn geserenne:" "They had their time set." - Saxon. 

To Stemmy. [X-S. stemn, a set time.] To work or take on in 
turns, or set times, with another; to take one's turn. Cornish, 
stem, a day's work. 

Stick. A tree is often called a stick. 'That's a fine stick.' 

Stickle. [X-S. sticele.] Steep. 'Thease hill is rather stickle." 

Stick's-end. The unburnt end of a stick from the fire. 

Stitch, (from slick: seeStreech.) A cone of sheaves stuck up in 
the field, top to top. 

Stocky. Thick of growth. 

Stomachy. [Latin, stomachosus. "Of a high stomach." - Psnlin 
ci. 5.] High-minded when insulted. 

Stools. The roots of copse or hedgewood cut down nearly to 
tin' ground. 

Stoor. [X-S. st^rian; Ger. storen; Du. stooren.] To stir, as a 

stop-gap. One called in from necessity to fill the place of a more 
eligible but absent one. k l ben't gwain to be a stop-yap vor 
anntin i. 

St. .MI. I'A-S. suit.] The gadfly. 
A iii'>!<-. A -talk of 


Stratcher, or Spreader. A stick to keep out the traces from (he 
horses' legs. 

Slr;ek. One strip of the bond of a wheel. 

Strawen, Strawing, (from strew or straw, to spread). A strawing 
of potatoes, is the set of potatoes or stalks growing from 
one mother-tuber. "And others cut down brandies off the 
trees, and sf rawed (hem in (he way. Mark xi. P. Thence 
straw, what is strown. 

Strent. Same as Slent. 

Streech, (from strike). The space taken in at one sfrikinif of 
the rake. Streech measure, (N. streeked measure.) is that in 
which a straight stick is struck over the top of the vessel. 
Streech belongs to a class of English nouns formed from 
verbs by turning the hard sound k into the soft one of ch, 
as batch from bake; watch from wake; speech from speak. 
Thence strichel or strickle, a straight-edge for striking corn 
off a measure: allied to the Latin striy-it? 

Stubberds. A variety of the apple. 

Stumpy, or Stump. To walk with short firm steps, as of a short 
stout person. 

Stunpoll. Stunhead, blockhead. 

Suent. [Cornish, suant; Hereford, suity.] Smooth; even. 

Sample. Supple. 

Sweale. To scorch, (see Zweal.) 

Sweetheart. A lover. 

Swipes. Very thin beer. 

Swop. To barter or exchange. 

Swop. A whop. 

Sword, of a dung-putt. An upright bar with holes for a pin. by 
which the putt is set to any pitch for shooting manure. 


Tack. A shelf. 

Tackle. To manage; to cope with; to undertake. 'I could tackle 

Taffety. Dainty or nice of food; of delicate and discriminating 


Taffle. To beat down wheat or grass. 
Tail- on -end. Eager to do any thing; setting at it with great 




TaYK-n. [Heref. tail.] Refuse small corn, driven farthest from the 

middle of the heap to the tail of it in winnowing. Not fit 

for the market, but mostly used by the farmer at home. 
TaTt. [Som. the, to weigh; Wilts, weigh -jolt; Norf. titer.] To 

play at see-saw, in which one raises up the other. 
Tallet. A hayloft over a stable. 
Tammy. Reaching out as toasted cheese. 
Tap. The sole of a shoe. To tap, to sole. 
Tardle. To entangle. 
Tcaken. A taking; a being taken off by passion. So rapture, 

a being borne away by feeling, is from the Latin rapio, to 

snatch away. 
Teake off. To reprove; to rebuke: to chide. ' He took en off so 

quick.' So compere, in Latin, (from cow, up, and rapio, to 

take or snatch.) "Correpti consules." Livy, lib. ii. cap. 28. 

Also, to mock or irritate in derision, and to draw a likeness. 

'He took off the church:' 'He made a drawing of the church.' 
Teake vor. An ellipsis for "to take a direction for" a place. 

'The heiire took vor the copse.' 
T'-a're. Reaching, eager. 
Teart, or Tert. [X-S. teart.] Tart; sharp; severe. 'A teart ineas- 

ter.' 'A teart cheese,' is a sharp or stinging cheese. 
Teave. [Cornish, tarving, struggling; N. C. tave.] To exert one's 

self violently; to struggle or move one's limbs with great 

energy. 'The child did teave zoo to goo to his mother.' 
Teery. [X-S. tedre. by syncope of rf; Du. teer.] Weak; slender: 

frail. Said of plants. "Se wlite )>a?s liehoman is swifte 

li'tlre:" "The beauty of the body is very frail," 
ii. 2. 

. tajyjge.] A young sheep: a lamb from one year 

old till its first shearing-time. In Swedish, Inclm is a ewe. 
"t- Tetiy. A teat or nipple of a breast or udder. 
Tetchy Irritable. 

iv. Small and weakly. Spoken of a diild or plant. 
TliraMim. These. 
Tin -live. A sheep three years old. 


I'a-r-rihlr.j 1 mmetliately ; without leaving llu 1 
pfcM! i-(|iial to tli.- Frciifh SHI- fc clunnp. "And hiii' I'a-r- 
rihtf forli-iiMi hcora net." Mull. iv. 70. 


Thick. Close; intimate; friendly. They l>r so thick as inkle- 
weavers. 1 

Thirked milk. Milk thickened with Hour, and boiled. 
Thik. [Cornish, thicey.] That, 
Thiller. [^-$. >il. a pole or shaft.] The shaft or \vhi-cl-hc, i 

a team. 

Thill-harness. The harness of the thiller. 
Thirtover. Perverse; morose. u So overtwart as this.'' -- forms 

of tlte Duke of Orleans. 
Thoroughpole. (see Waggon.) 
Thrums, Drums. Twisted ivy stems. 
Tidden. 'Tis not, 
Tidy. [S-S. tid, time.'] Neat; having every thing done ai its 

right time. 
Tiers, or Tyers. Two persons who tie] that is. who count equal 

in a game. 
Tile. [S-S. tilian, to prepare; Hereford, till, to tilt.] To set a 

Tilesbard. A piece of broken tile. "A tyleshard made it even." 

Ovid's Metamorphoses. 
Tilty. Irritable; of warm temper. 
Timmersome. Reaching about like a restless child. 
Tine. To kindle, as fire. 
Tines. Teeth as of a harrow. 
Tinestocks. (see Snettd.) 
Tip. u To tip a rick." is to make its top conical or sharp, so 

as to shoot the wet. This is done by raking and pulling 

loose hay from its side and undercutting it. and putting the 

hay gotten from these operations on the top. 
Tisty-tosty. A child's toss-ball of cowslips. 
To-do. A bustle; an uproar; an affair. A synonyme of a/fair: 

an a faire. French, or a fare, Italian, a to-do. 
Toft. A piece of ground on which a house has stood. A man. 

who has neither house nor land, is said to have neither "toft 

nor croft." 
Tole. [//,//, Chaucer.] To entice; to allure. * Meute tollde in 

meate." OvieTs Metamorphoses. 
Tole-boy. A decoy, as a cheap article to draw buyers; any thins 

to coax one to take unpalatable food. 


Took to. One is said to be n-took to, when he has met with 

his match; or when he is stopped by an insuperable power. 

'He's a-took to at last, then.' 
Tooty. [X-S. totian; Ger. tuten; Sco. tout, to blow a horn.] To 

cry in a low broken sound, like a child beginning to cry. 
Torrididdle. Bewildered; distracted in mind; out of one's senses. 
Touse. [In Wiltshire and the Northern Counties, dowse.] A very 

slight blow with the hand. 'I jis' gi'ed en a louse in the 

head; that's all.' Towse, in West Dorset, is a row, or an 

Towards. Mostly with the accent on the last syllable; as, 'He 

went towards the house.' Yet, in a couplet, it rhymes with 

fro ward : 

"The fair an' the froward 
The smoke do draw toward." 

To-year. This year. Used like to-day, to night, to-morrow. 

Track. Right course; order. 'To get things into track.' 

Tramp, or Tramper. A vagabond. 

Trant, Tranty. To carry goods, as a common carrier, in a wag- 
gon or cart. 

Tranter. A common carrier. 

Trap-beetle. A small bat for playing trap. 

Treade. [Cornish, traade, physic.] Trash; unwholesome sweet- 
meats. 'You'll be bad, eaten sich treade.' 

Trendle. [X-S. trendle. circle or round body. "An wunderlic 
trendel wearS ateowed abiitan ]>?ere sunnan:" "A wonderful 
circle was seen about the sun." Chron. 806.] A shallow 
tub. tt Des monan trendel is ge-hal:" "The moon's orb is 
full." - S-S. Astronomy. This word is sometimes wrongly 
spelt trendal in handbills. Thence trundle* to roll like a 
circle. "Atrendlod of |>am torre:" "Rolled from the high 
rock." Boethius. In Lancashire, a trindle is the rim of a 
wheelbarrow wheel. 

Trig. To prop or hold up. 'Trig the door;' or 'Trig the wheel.' 
'Sw. trygg, safe, r it/ lit.'] Sound and linn. 

Trim. |'\-S. trymian, to set right, to dispose.] A right state. | 
u To keep woone in trim," is to keep oiu> in ronvci l.c- 
li.-iviour. or in a good slate. Thence, to trim a boat : !<> Ba- 
lance it, or set it in a right position. MiHrynuMle his t'olc :" 
"Disposed his folk." Orosius, iv. 10. 


Trimmen, (an intensilive). Groat of its kind. -A trimnien crop 

o' grass.' 'A trimmen girt heare.' 
Trimmer. A great or fine thing of its kind. That's a trimmer!' 

'What now, trimmer?' 'What now, rny line fellow?' 
Trip. A culvert over a ditch or small watercourse. Also, a fan- 

(troop) of young pigs, or a set of goslings. 
Trot. [N. C. old trot, an old gossip.} Foolish talk. 'Don't hearken 

to her trot.' 

Truckle. To trundle, (see Trendle.) 
Tuck. [S.-S. teogan, teon, to draw.] "To tuck a rick," is to draw 

out the loose hay from its side in tipping it. 
Tuen. A tune. 
Tug-iron, of shafts. An iron on the shafts to hitch the trace.- i<>. 

(see Waggon.) 
Tump. [Welsh, twmp?] A hump or tuft; a very small hillock 

or mound. 

Tun. The chimney -top from the ridge of the house. 
Tunniger. A funnel for tunning liquor. 
Tup. [Sco. toop.] A young ram. 

Turk. "A turk of a thing" is an intensitive expression, mean- 
ing a big or formidable one of its kind. 'There's a turk of 

a rat.' 

Tussle. A struggle or contest with another. 
Tussock. A grass tuft. 
Turn over in one's mind. To weigh; to deliberate upon. 

"Multa secum ipse 

Volvens." Sallust. Cataline, 32. 

Tut. To do work by the tot, is by the piece, or lump; not by 

the day. 
Tutty. A nosegay; a bunch of flowers. 

"And Primula, she takes the tutty there." 

Curturdes Caltha Puetarum, 1 
Twiddick. A little twig. 
Twilade. [X-S. twi, two or twice-, and hid, had.] To load a 

waggon lightly and hale out, as from a coppice or bad road. 

and then go back and partly load auain: and lastly, hale 

out and take up what was unloaded. 
Twite. [X-S. jet-wftan, or ed-witan.] To reproach: to twit. 


Twoad's meat. Toadstool. 
Tyen. (see Stall.) 


Undercreepen. Undercreeping; underhand; working against an- 
other slily. Exactly equivalent, to surreptitious; which is 
from sub, under, and repto, to creep. 

Ungainly. Not going or working well. 

Unhele. To uncover, (see Hele.) 

Up-on-end. Perpendicular. 

Uppen-stock. A horse-block; a large block fastened into the 
ground, and cut in steps to get on horseback from. 

Upzides wi'. Even with; having given another tit for tat. 

Vail. Fall. 'To vail out:' 'To quarrel.' "See that ye fall not 
out by the way." - Gen. xiv. 24. Also, to happen; as lu- 
cid o , from t, and cado, to fall in, means to happen, in 
Latin. 'To vail away:' 'To lose flesh; to become ema- 

Van, of a winnowing machine. [Lat. vannus.] The winnowing 
sheet. "Mystica vannus lacchi." 

Vang. [X-S. fangan, fon; Ger. fangen; to take, to receire.] To 

Veag. [S-S. faegS, vengeance.] A paroxysm of anger. 'He went 
off in sich a reag? 

Veare. [X-S. fiiru, u faintly OT generation.] A farrow or litter of 
pigs; to farrow. Also, the smallest of the weasel kind. 
's' feazen, or Vearies' hearts. Fossil echini, common in ihe 
chalk and other formations of Dorset, and thought to he the 
heads or hearts of fairies. The sjHifanf/tts cor-anyuinum, is 
called the fairy's heart: and the yaler'tlcs caslancu. and some 
other species, fairies' heads. 

V.-;iry-rinf. A f;iirv-rinu. The belief in fairies, one of the most 
pnrii,-al and h.-anl iful of superstitions, still lingers in the 
West. In SonnT-1'i ha\\- ai-e /li.vy -fn'ttr^. or fairy-|>ear>. a 
name which dm-.s not violate botanical cla>silieation , since 
ih- hau thorn is of the [>ear tribe; and toadstools are 


stools, or fairy-stools; for as they enrich the soil, and bring 
the fairy-ring by rotting down after they have seeded out- 
ward from its centre, so that the ring of actual fungi is out- 
side of the fairy-ring, it was natural for those who believt <1 
the ring to be brought by the dancing of fairies to guess 
that the fungi were stools upon which they sat down when 
tired. The fungus is one of the beneficent natural agents 
in enriching the soil for grass plants. An agricultural friend 
told the author that, on breaking up some fairy-rings, they 
were afterwards shown in greener and ranker circles of wheat, 
as they would have been in grass. 

Veat. [X-S. fset.] A cheese-vat. The Anglo-Saxon fat, like the 
English vat, was applied to many kinds of vessels. " Stai- 
nene wseter-fatu : " "Stone water-pots." John ii. 6. "Leoht- 
fet:" tt A light vessel, or lamp." - Matt. v. 15. "Arfet:" 
U A brazen vessel." Mark vii. 4. 

Veath. A striking the limbs about, funk. 

Veil. To fell; to sew down a seam joining two pieces of stuff. 

Veil. [S-S. fell, a skin.] A skin or film, such as one growing 
over the eye. 'I can't zee veil nor mark o't:' 'I can see 
no traces of it;' an expression which seems first to have 
been spoken of lost sheep or cattle. Also, the placenta of 
a cow. 

Vess. A verse. 'To vessy:' 'To read verses in turn.' 

Vetch. 'To vetch the water:' 'To throw water into a pump with 
a leaky piston, so as to seal it and make it act.' 

Veze. To fidget about. 

Villet. A fillet; a cloth put round a cheese in vat. 

Vinny, or Vinnied. [S-S. fynig, finie; O. E. fenny, nionldy; Kent, 
fenny, from fynigan, to become mouldy, from the S-S. /V/i//, 
wetness?] Mouldy, or mildewy, from damp. u Finie hlafas:" 
"Mouldy loaves." -- Josh. ix. 5. 'The stwones be vinny:' 
'The stones are mouldy,' from condensed vapour. 'Blue 
vinny, or vinnied, cheese:' 'Blue mouldy Dorset cheese.' 
" Thou vinned'st leaven." Troilus and Cressida, ii. 1 . 

Vitty. [Cornish, fitty; Sco. feat.] Fitly; properly; neatly. 

Vlanker. A flake of fire. 

Vleare. To flare; to stream out like hair in the wind. "With 
flaring haire unkempt." Ovid*s Metamorphoses. 


Vleiike, Flake. [Hereford, flake, a hurdle.} A bar of wood set 

horizontally on the ground, with holes to take tlio soles of 

a hurdle while the maker wreathes it. 
Tlee. To fly. 

Vloh-vlee. The blow-fly, (musca vomitoria). 
Vlocks. Knobs of wool in a bed. 

Voody, (from food}. Like food; with a good appetite. 
Vo'k. Folk. 

Voket. To fidget about. 
Voreright. Going right /brward, without thinking of consequences 

or seemliness. 'A girt voreright fellow.' 
Vowel. [S.-S. fell, a skin?} The placenta of a cow. 
Vower. Four. a Mid feower and bund scipum:" "With a hundred 

and four ships." Saxon Chron. 994. 
Vrog-hopper. (see Frog-hopper.) 
Vuddicks, (diminutive of fat?) A coase fat woman. 
Vuz. [X-S. fyrsas.] Furze. 
Vuzzen. Furzes. 
Vwo'th. Forth; an exit; a way out, in opposition to obstacles. 

'Water 'ull have its vwoth.' 


Wad. A large folded wisp, as of hay or straw. 

Wag. [X-S. wegan.] To stir; to move. "Winde a-weged hreod?" 
Matt. xi. 7. 

Waggon. To show the Dorset names of the chief parts of a \vaij- 
gon, it may be well to say that its axles are exes (see Kxe): 
the bottom (bed) of the waggon consists of planks on strips 
(shoots), reaching from side to side through mortises in 
timbers (summers) lying from end to end over a bearing 
pillar on the hinder axle, and on two pillars (the hanging 
pillar and carriage pillar) bearing on the fore -axle. The 
fore-axle is connected with the hinder one by a thorotigh- 
pole, the fore end of which has a five motion on a pin (the 
nnrinpin), which takes it Nvith (he two pillars and fore-axle; 
and its hinder end, reaching through the hinder axle, is con- 
nected by a tail-bolt with the shuttle-exr. that takes the 
hinder end of the summers and the tail-board. A parallelo- 
gram of limber- is fixed on ihe fore-axle to take the shafts 


(drf/ughts or sharps), the hinder end of which is the sirccp. 
and the sides of which are called (/nidi's, and on them .-in- 
set the slides or felloe-pieces (hounds or bassets), which hear 
the pillars when the waggon locks. The sides and r art's an- 
propped by brackets called sfrouters, or stretchers. The 
sharps (shafts) have in them three pairs of staples, the 
dra'its or slpiiples, to draw by with a chain from the collar; 
the ridge-tie steaples, to take the ridge-tie passing over the 
cart-tree on the thiller's back, and keeping up the shaft-*: 
and the breechen sfedple, to take the breeching. 

Wag-wanton, (from way and wanton). Quaking grass, (brizti). 

Wanleass. The windlass of a cider-press. 

Washdish. Same as Dishwater. 

Watshed. Wet-shod. 

Waxen-kernels. [S-S. weaxen, grown, and cyrnel, a gland.] The 
glands of the neck, swollen. 

Wayzalt. A children's game, in which two, locking their arms 
in each other back to back, alternately lift each other from 
the ground. 

Wease. [N. C. weeze, a roll, as of hay or cloth, put on one's 
head under a burden.] A wisp of hay or straw to suckle a 
calf with, one end of it being dipped into milk. 

Weale. (see Haymeaken.) 

Week's end. Saturday night. 

Weir, or Ware. [S-S. waer, a dam.] A set of hatches, or tin- 
deep water above a hatch; a bay or dam. "La>tao' cower 
net on }>one fisc-wer." Luke v. 4. 

Well-to-do. In easy circumstances. 

Welshnut. A walnut. The affixes, welsh and wal, are both from 
the Anglo-Saxon Wealas, the Welsh or foreigners: or treat - 
Use, British or foreign; which seems to show that the wal- 
nut was unknown to the Anglo-Saxons till they came to 
Britain. See Vernon's Anglo-Saxon Guide, p. 118. n. 3. 
and p. 173. 

Werden. Were not; was not. 

Werrit. To worry; to teaze. 

Wet. To rain slightly. 'Do wet a little.' 

Wevet, or Wivet, (from trcoce, quasi a weft or web). A cobweb. 
'So thin's a wevet,' 


Wey an' bodkins. A set of spreaders for hitching two horses to 
the same part of a sull or harrow. The first, the wey, is 
fastened at its middle to the plough or harrow by a cops, 
(an iron bow with a free joint); and the bodkins are con- 
nected by a crook on their middle to clipses on the two ends 
of the wey, and have the traces hitched by clipses to their 
own ends. They are sometimes called whippences, and by 
coachmen simply bars. 

Whack. A smart close blow. 

Whang, Wherret. A swinging blow. 

"Where the waggon can't goo over me." Upstairs; in bed. 

Whimsy. What whirls, a machine. 

Whindlen. Small and weakly. Spoken of a child, or of a plant 
growing in the shade. 

Whicker. [Ger. wichern ; N. C. nicker.] To neigh as a horse. 

Whippences. (see Wey an' bodkins.) 

Whippens, whoppens; 'half a groat want two-pence:' 'Not 
but blows; more kicks than halfpence.' 

Whips-faggots. Faggots made of the tips of wood cut off i] 

Whip's-while. The time of smacking a whip. 'Every whip's 

Whittle. [X-S. hwitel, pallium, from hwit, because white?] A child's 
woollen napkin. 

Whiver, or Whivel. To hover. 

Whop. A heavy blow. 

Whoppen, or Whopper, (an intensitive). Very big. 'A whoppen 
child.' 'A whoppen lie.' 

Whout, or Whog. Said to horses, to make them go away from 
the driver, t. e. to the right. 

NVhur. To fling overhanded. 

Wi', (pronounced wee'). With. 

Widdock, or Widdick. A small withe or twig. 

Willy-basket. [X-S. wilie.] A large withy basket. "Twelf wilian 
tulle:" "Twelve baskets full." Mark. vi. 43. 

Willy-nilly. [X-S. willes nilles.] Willing or not; nolens volens. 

Wim. To winnow corn. 

Wimsheet. The fan or \vinnowing-sheet. 

NVindmow. A mow of wheat-sheaves in the field. 


Wink. [X-S. wince: hence winkle, a twisted shell.] A winch or 

Withwind. [S.-S. wiS, against or about? and windan, to icind,] 

The convulvulns arvensis. 
Wizzen. The windpipe. 
Woblet. The handle of a hay-knife. 
Wold man's beard. Mare's-tail, (clematis vitalba, or hippuris vul- 


Wont. [X-S. wond, a mole-hill.] A mole. 
Wonthill. A molehill; a molewarp. 
Woodquest. [wood, and X-S. casceote; N. C. cushat or cowshut, 

from X-S. cusc, chaste] The woodpigeon or ringdove, (co- 

lumbus palumbus). 
Woodwex. [woad, Ger. waid; and wex, waxen, Ger. ge-wachs; 

Da. and Sw. vaxt, a plant-, what grows or waxes] The 

plant genista tinctoria; dyer's green weed, (woadiraxen). 
Woppen, (an intensitive). Big; weighty. 
Wops. A wasp. 

Work. To suppurate; to discharge matter; to ferment; a distur- 
bance. 'Here's work!' 
Wornai'l, Wornil. [X-S. waer-nsegel.] The larva of the gadfly 

(oestrus boms}, growing under the skin of the back of cattle. 
Wot-shed. Wet-shoed; wet-shod; having the inside of one's shoes 

wet. Opposed to dry-shod. 

" For weet-shoed thei gone." Piers Plowman. 
Wrack. [X-S. wracu, vengeance] 'Mind, you'll stan' the wrack 

o't:' 'You will stand the consequences, the anger it may 

Wrag. [N. C. rag; X-S. wregan, to accuse] To scold; to a. - 

cuse with bitter words. "Of ]>em ]?e ge hine wregaS." 

Luke xxiii. 14. 
Wride. [S-S. wrid-an, to bud or sprout] A bush of many sti'in* 

from one root; as, a wride of hazel or ash; or tlu- family 

of stalks growing from one grain. u ^urh )>6ne lea to )>ara 

miclan haesl wride:" tt Through the field to the great hazel 

wride, (bush). A Charter of Eadmund, A. n. 944. 
Wride. To wride out; to throw out stalks. 'The wheat do 

out well.' 
Wring. [X-S. wringa.] A press; as, a cider-wring. "And 

>a>ron win wringan." Matt. xxi. 33. In a tract of the 


"Library of Useful Knowledge" on Geology, there is given 

a wood-cut of a pile of rock called a cheese-trriiit/ . which 

is wrongly spelt cheese-ring. 

Writh. [X-S. wriftan, to wreathe.] The bond of a faggot. 
Wrout. [X-S. wrot-an; O. E. wrote; Ger. rod-en.] To grub up, 

as pigs to the ground. 


Yean. [X-S. eaicnian. The Anglo-Saxon e before a or 0, is our 

y. See Vernon's Anglo-Saxon Gvide, p. *?3.] To lamb. 
Yeaze, Yiz. Ease. 
Yis. To earth-worm. 


Zaw. To saw. 

Zedgemocks. Tufts or roots of sedge-grass in meadows, (see 

Zeedlip. (see Lip.) 

Zennit, Seven nights; a week. 'This day zennit:' 'This day- 
week.' The Anglo-Saxons reckoned by nights instead of 
days, and by winters instead of years: thence we have a 
fortnight, fourteen nights. 

Zet down. To give one u a good set down." is to rebuke very 
sharply. Comp. the Latin, reprehendo, to take back. 

Zet-to. A contest or opposition; which last word is from ob, 
against, and pono, to set. 'I had sich a zet-to wi' en.' 

Zew. (see A-zew.) 

Zidelen. Sidelong; slanting; sloping. 

/iltfree'n. (see Silgreen.) 

Zilt. [X-S. syltan, to salt?] A vessel for salting meat in. ".Etc 
man b^r5 mit tyre gesylt." - Mark ix. 4P. It' a silt is so 
named from si//t<iti. to salt, "a sailing st/f," as it is some- 
times called in handbills, seems an objectionable tautology. 

/i\e. [A'-S. vjiV.j A scythe, (se-e Snead.) u Sive, from sit/n: as 
strife, strive, from the S-S. striB, striBan. The S-S. siB 
points out sit/ie as the orthography: scythe is a inert' cor- 
ruption, like rlivine lor rime, scent for sent. (Lat. sentio.) 
ecitc ,or site. (Lat. situs)."-- Note by Mr. Vernon. 

/onndy. [Midland, swouml; A'-S. s\\ind-an.] To swoon. " For 
Soduine HOITOW -\\dunded down. 1 ' Ovid's Metamorphosis. 


Zowel, or Zole. (see Sowel.) 

Zull. [S-S. syl.] A plougli. (see Plough.) "Nan man |v his hand 
a-set on his sulh:" "No man who has set his hand on hi> 
plough." Lulte ix. 62. 

Zummerleaze. (see Leaze.) 

Zun. Back-zunned. Said of a house having a northern aspect, 
and its back to the sun. 

Zwcal. [S.-S. swelan, allied to swelter, ftwry.] To singe: to 
scorch: to burn superficially. "Seo sunne hit forswaclde:" 
"The sun scorched it up." Markiv. 6. 4 Do ye scald your 
pigs, or zweal em?' 'He is lik' a swealed cat; better than 
he do look vor.' 

Zwath. [X-S. swreSe, a track or wake; any long band: hence 
sir tithe, swaddle.'] The ridge of grass of the track of one 
mower, or his track itself. " Nyle he rcnig swsefte aefre for- 
Ia3tan:" "Nor will he ever forsake any track." 

The author is thankful for words from the Rev. C. W. BINGHAM, M. A., 
the late Mr. JOHN SYDENHAM, author of The History of Poole, &c., and Mr. 
ISAAC HANN, of Dorchester, and he is now happy to acknowledge the further 
communication of several provincialisms from the Rev. C. W. BIN<;IIAM. and 
from a friend signing himself G. P., of Bridport; also many excellent Notes 
from E. J. VKRNON, Esq., Newchurch, Isle of Wight, author of A Gui<l> / 
tin 1 Anglo-Saxon Tongue, and some from ITi.NKv KICK SK^.MKH, 1 '.- \ M. 1 . 
Hanford-house, F. A. CAREINOTON, Esq., of the Oxford Circuit, and CHAIM.I N 
WAUXE, Esq. 

Berlin, printed by A. W. Schade, Stallschreiberstr. 47. 










[The Philological Society is indebted to Mr. EDWIN NORRIS the editor oi 
"The Cornish Drama" &c. for seeing this work through the press, and addin 
a few various readings &c. distinguished by his initials, on account 
Mr. Stokes's absence in India. F. J. F.J 


THE text of the 'Creation', the Cornish drama now printed, was, 
like the poem of the 'Passion', which forms part of our last 
volume, thrust forth on the world by Mr. Davies Gilbert. In 
the case of the 'Creation', as in that of the 'Passion', Mr. Gilbert 
interpaged the Cornish text with an English version by John 
Keigwin. 1 So erroneous is Mr. Gilbert's book, in text as well 
as in translation, that no argument seems needed to justify the 
Philological Society in printing a corrected edition of the only 
important relic of Cornish literature which, since the late publi- 
cation of the Passion, has been unattainable in a trustworthy 

Mr. Edwin Norris, in his Cornish Drama, II, 441, good- 
naturedly observes that the average number of errors in Mr. 
Gilbert's edition of the 'Creation' is not more than twenty in a 
page. Two or three examples will give some notion of tin* 
nature, though not of the number, of these mistakes: 
Pp. 2, 3. Try Person yn idne Dewaes 

ow kys rayny a bys vickar 

"Three Persons in one Godhead 

Do reign of the world sovereign." 
The same, rightly read and translated: 

Try person yn idn dewges 

ow kys raynya bys vickan 

44 Three Persons in one Godhead, 

Reigning together for ever." 

1 The title of Mr. Gilbert's edition of the 'Creation' is as follow 
The Creation of the World, with Noah's Flood; written in Cornish in 
the year 1611, by William Jordan; with an English translation, by John 
Keigwin. Edited by Davies Gilbert, F. R. S., F. S. A. (fee. London, 


Pp. 4, 5. Can hasawe them danveys 

Rage ou servia bys Vichar 

"Songs unto me sending 

For the serve me the world's Sovereign." 
The same rightly read and translated: 

Canhasawe them danvenys 

rage ow servia bys vickan 

"Messengers sent to me 

to serve me for ever." 
Pp. 6, 7. Them y fethow can, hag ow av 

Hag y wrowgh ow aradowa. 

"To me you shall be singing and answering 

And doing my commands." 
The same rightly read and translated: 

Them y fethow canhagowe 

hag y wrewgh ow aradowe 

"To me ye [the Angels] shall be messengers, 

And ye shall do my commands." 
Pp. 66, 67. May moyghen y lavyerhy 

Der weyll o gorhemen trogha 

a But most of her labour shall be. 

By gripings I shall command to cut;" 
The same rightly read and translated: 

May myghea y lavyer hy 

der weyll ow gorhemen troghe. 

tt Let her travail increase 

Through breaking my command." Genesis iii. (16.) 

The division of the lines in the printed copy is also mar- 
vellously inaccurate. 

Four copies of the present drama are known. A. (from which 
the text now printed has been taken) is the oldest; it is a 
paper MS., in small folio, dated Aug. 12, 1611, preserved in 
the Bodleian library, ami marked N. 219. B. is a copy of A. 
riiiiiaim-d in the first volume of a quarto paper MS. lately 
>tl by Mr. Ley of Bosahan to the Bodleian. C. is in (he 
\\\\\\>\\ Museum, Ilarl.-ian, N. 1867. It appears from a note in 
\\.-Uli ai the cud that Lhuyd collated this copy with A. in 1702. 
D. is preserved in a paper folio MS. lately in the possession 


of Mr. Hotten of Piccadilly, and containing al><> a .pv of tht- 

The language of the mystery now printed differs from that 
of the 'Passion' and of the drama published by Mr. Norris chii-flv 
in the following respects: 

1. The vowel e has often become o, as in arnn 'until' = 
erna: carenga 'love' for kerenge, kerense, tha'to' for '/// 
'fold' 1614 = /?/e&, resacke 'a running' 1828, for resek = 

2. th and gh (cA), in inlaut and anslaut, have become mute, 
and are consequently interchanged. Thus bedna 'blessing' 1541, 
for bennath, a vy 'is' 4, for a vylh, and hunylhe 2246 for huny. 
bean 'little' 118, for beghani rjh is put for th in segh 'arrow' 
1573, and th for gh in war-lerth 'after' 1795 marth 'horse' 406, 
peth 'sin' 586, gwreth-tye 'housewife' 945, kerth 'oats' 1066, 
gorthell 'ark' 2254. 

3. m (mm) has become bm: thus lebmyn 'now' 70, 2239, 
2489, thybma 'to me' 570, 2495: kybmar 'take' 692, mabm 'mother* 
1203, 1910, a lebma 'hence' 1208, 2079, kebmys 'so many' 1220, 
1350, 2l45 = lfybmys 1284, cabm 'crooked' 1603, 2501, hebma 
'this' 2193: obma 'here' 2523. 

4. n (mi) has become dn: thus idn 'one' 6 = udn 1752, 
2539, radn 'part' 2356, gwadn 'weak' 1275, 1679, 2479, Imln 
'bullock' 1361, 2365, badna 'drop' 1364, pedn 'head' 182, 916, 
1019, 1597, defednys 1 - forbidden' 1803, blet/njdnyoir 'years' 2404, 
skydnya 'to descend' (s%rfw 2369, skydnys, 2305) 2207, Af<//m 
'blessing' 1541, hedna 'that' 2447, 2491, 2509. 

5. The corruption of s into g soft (as in George} is i, 
frequently met with: thus canhagowe 'messengers' 67. drenyys 
'Trinity' 126, 2238, 2007 6/owa#a^=voluntas, 96, carengn ' 
359, 847, 1754 = carensa 840, sallugye 'to salute' 721 - 
1776, sengys 'held', 438, 2236 = synges 2050, //m////r ' 
2349, cre^e 'to believe' 1602, pegy=petere 220U. For tliis 
soft </, we find > (mjnjew 'is not' 263) and </</ (denjdgtjoir 'sheep' 
1070, pydgyaf'I desire' 1364,) 1509, 1670, marrudyyan -inn 
1764, 2123 (= marodgyan 1803, 1897, and mnro,,y<in 1875) 
crydgyans 'belief 2316. 

6. Matters of spelling rather than of language are, a. the 



frequent occurrence of an inorganic mute e at the end of a word 
(e. g. hawe mabe 'and my son' 9, tase 'father' 12, neve 'heaven' 
15, bothe 'desire' 16, ywreage 'woman' 834), b. the use oft for 
u (idn 6 'one' = im 10) and u for i (t*, 1909, 'in') the using ae to 
express A (taes): the using ea to express e: thus call 'angel' 
47, wheag 'sweet' 95 = wheake 759, dean 'man' 254, 417, teake 
'fair' 412, gwreag 'woman' 877 = gwreage 834, beam 'grief 
1092, steare 'star' 102, gear 'word' 164, 896 = geare 211, seath 
'sit' 66 *= seathe, 54, and c. the using of oo or oe to express 
6: (e. g. oole 'weep' 2304, wooJAa 'nakedness' 969, boes 'to be'). 

7*. Pronominal infixation is less frequent: e. g. 'I am named' 
is me etc henwis 1. 12 instead of y-m gylwyr as in the cor- 
responding passage, O. 1. So dro hy 'bring it' 1488, my trrug 
'made me' 1766. 

8. Lastly, loanwords from the English occur in far greater 

Passing from the language to the subject matter we may remark 
that the author imitates and often copies the ordinale called ' Origo 
Mundi', which stands first in Mr. Norris's Cornish Drama. Some 
parts, however, are his own ; for example the fall of Lucifer and 
his angels, Cain's death, Enoch's translation, Seth's prophecy 
and erection of the pillars. Who the author was remains uncertain. 
The William Jordan mentioned at the end may well have been 
only the transcriber, and the occurrence in the stage-directions 
of such forms as sortis, beastis, garmentis, every ch-on 'every 
one' and car[t]eth 'they carry' seems to indicate a date prior to 
1611, when Jordan completed his manuscript. The author's 
mention of limbo, too, may tend to shew that the play was com- 
posed before the Reformation. 

The text has been transcribed for press and the translation 
and notes written, during a voyage to India, apart from books 
and philological friends. This circumstance will, I trust, induce 
Celtic scholars to deal leniently with the errors and defects which 
they will probably find in the following pages. 

1- I. 8. 'Clarence' lat. 39* 27' S. long. 10 25' W. 
August 21, 1862. Whitley Stokes. 



The first dale [of] y e playe. 

[The father must be in a clowde and when he speakethe of 
heaven let y e levys open] 


Ego sum Alpha et Omega 
heb dallath na dowethva 

pur wyre me ew 
omma avy than clowdes 
5 war face an dower in sertan 
try person yn idn dewges 
ow kys raynya bys vickan 
in mere honor ha vertew 

me hawe mabe han spiris sans 
10 try ython in vn Substance 

comprehendys in vdn dew 

[Genesis capite primo] 
me ew henwis dew an tase 

ol gollousacke dres pub dra 
skon y fythe gwrys der ow rase 
15 neve place ryall thorn trigva 

hawe thron setha owe bothe ewe 
may fo henna 

han noore in wethe a wolhis 

scon worthe compas avitfh] gwryes 
20 honna a vythe ow skavall droose 
rag ow pleasure pub preyse 
ha thorn honor maga ta 

neve omma ew gwryes genaf 
orthe ow devges in serten 1 
35 hag yny y fythe gorrys 

neb am gorth gans ioye ha cane 
MS. serten also in line 95. 



Ego sum Alpha et Omega, 
Without beginning or end 

Right truly I am. 
Here are under clouds 
5 On (the) face of the water certainly 
Three Persons in one Godhead, 
Reigning together for ever, 
In great honour and virtue. 

I and my Son and the Holy Ghost, 
10 Three are we in one Substance, 
Comprehended in one God. 

[Genesis chap. I.] 
I am named God the Father, 
Almighty above everything. 
Straightway shall be made by my grace 
is Heaven, a royal place for my dwelling 
And my throne -seat: my will is 
That it be that. 

And the earth also below 

Forthwith shall be made straight. 
20 That shall be my footstool 
For my pleasure always 
And to my honour as well. 

Heaven here is made by me 

According to my deity certainly; 
25 And in it shall be put 

Who worship me with joy and song. 


naw order elath gloryes 

y a vythe ryall ha splan 
canhasawe them danvenys 
so rage ow servia bys vickan 

me a vyn may fons nevra 

lemyn pub order thy seat 

me a vyn may fo gorrys 
ha pub onyn thy thecree 
35 a vyth gorris thorn service 

pan vidnaf ve comanndya 

omma nessa thorn throne ve 
an kensa try a vithe gwryes 

cherubyn an vghella 
40 ty a vyth des a rage vskys 
seraphyn inwethe tronys 

owe gwerthya oil why a wra 
pare dell ywe owe bothe nefra 
omma pub pryes 

45 ha te lucyfer golowe 
yn della yw tha hanow 
vgha pub eall ty a ysa 

fo. 1, b. an kensa order ty ywe 

gwayte ow gworria war bub tewe 
50 jeso gy par del gotha 

in second degre yfithe gwryes 
try order moy yn sertan 

des arage thyra pryncipatys 
Tee aseathe omma poran 
55 potestas in barth arall 

domynashon yn tewma 
ow praysya hag ow laudia 
tha hanow nefra heb gyll 


Nine orders of glorious angels 

They shall be royal and splendid: 
Messengers sent to me 
so To serve me for ever 

I will that they be always. 

Now every order to its seat 

I will that it be put, 
And every one to his degree 
35 Shall be put for my service, 
When I shall command. 

Here next to my throne 

The first three shall be made: 

Cherubin, the highest 
40 Thou shalt be, come forth quickly 
Seraphin, also Thrones. 

All ye shall worship me, 
As is my will ever, 
Here always. 

45 And thou Lucifer of light, 
Such is thy name, 

Above every angel thou shalt sit; 

Of the first order thou art: 
See that thou worship me on every side, 
50 Unto thee as behoveth. 

In (the) second degree shall be made 

Three orders more, certainly. 
Come forth to me, Principalities; 

Thou shalt sit here aright 
55 Power on (the) other part. 

Domination on this side, 
Praising and lauding 

My name ever without guile, 


an tryssa degree a wolas 
GO me a wra try order moy 
arthelath order pur vras 
dewgh a rag omma 3 a vee 
ha vertutis kekeffrys 

65 ban elath yn barth dyhow 

why a seath omma heb gowe 
them y fethow canhagowe 
hag y wrewgb o\v aradowe 

gans joy bras ha cane pub preyse 

70 lebmyn pan ew thymo gwryes 

neve ha noore orth both ow bryes 
han naw order collenwys 
ban kynsa jorne spedyes 

my a[s] sone gans ow ganow 

75 hag a vyn diskynnya 

than noore in dan an clowdys 
hag ow both gwethill ena 
me a vyn may fo gwellys 
ow bosaf dew heb parow 

so lebmyn yn second jorna 

gwraf broster a thesempys 
yn yborn es a wartha 

me a vyn bos golow gwryes 

hag ynweth bos deberthva 
85 sure inter an gyth han noos 
ny fyll thym conduyke a dra 
war an byes der ow gallus 

an moar brase yn cutt termyn 
adro thorn tyre a vyth dreys 
90 rag y wetha pur elyn 

orth harlutry prest pub preys 


The third degree below 
60 I will make three orders more: 
Lordship, an order right great, 
Come you forward here to me; 
And Virtues likewise; 

And the angels on (the) right part, 
65 Ye shall sit here without a lie; 
To me ye shall be messengers, 
And ye shall do my commands 
With great joy and song always. 

TO Now since to me are made 

Heaven and earth according to my mind's desire, 
And the nine Orders filled up, 
And the first day sped, 

I will saine them with my mouth. 

75 And I will descend 

To the earth, under the clouds 
And my wish perform there 
I will, that it may be seen 
That I am God without peer. 

so Now in (the) second day 

I will make Majesty immediately 
In (the) sky which is above, 
I will that light be made. 

And also that there be a division 
85 Surely between the day and the night. 
That there fail not to me conduct of aught 
On the world through my power. 

The great sea in a short time 

About my earth shall be brought 
90 To keep it full bright 

From corruption always. 


fo. 2 a. an tryssa dyth me a wra 

than gwyth sevall yn ban 
ha doen dellyow teke ha da 
95 ha flowres wheag in serten 

ow blonogath yw henna 

may tockans vnna pur splan 

frutes thorn both rag maga 
seyl a theyg bewnans hogan 

100 in peswera dyth bith gwryes 

an howle han loer in tevery 
ban steare in weth kekeffrys 

rag gwyle golow venary 

an ryma yw fyne gonethys 

105 ow bannath y rof thethy 

in pympas dyth orth ow breis 

an puskas heb falladowe 
hag oil an ethyn keffrys 

me a gwra thorn plegadow 1 
no hag oil an bestas yn beyse 

gans prevas a bub sortowe 
an ryma ew oil teke gwryes 

me as sone war barth heb gowe. 


Pays I say oil elath nef 
us golsowowh tha ve lemyn 
cresowh ow bosaf prince creif 
hag in weth thewhy cheften ' 
bean ha brase 

lucyfer ew ow han owe 
uo pensevicke in nef omma 
ow howetba ew tanow 
why a wore ynta henna 
ow bosaf gwell es an tase 

1 MS. falladow. 
MS. chefter. 


The third day I will make 

The trees to stand up, 
And bear leaves fair and good, 
95 And s\veet flowers surely. 

That is my desire 

That they bear here full sheen 
Fruits to my wish to feed 

Whomsoever shall bear mortal life 

100 In (the) fourth day shall be made 

The sun and the moon glittering, 
And the stars also 

To make light for ever. 
These are finely wrought, 
105 My blessitig I give to them. 

In (the) fifth day according to my mind 

The fishes without fail, 
And all the birds likewise, 

I will make to my pleasure; 
no And all the beasts in (the) world, 

With worms of all sorts, 
These are all made fair: 

I bless them together without a lie. 


Peace, I say, all angels of Heaven! 
115 Hearken ye to me now: 

Believe ye that I am a strong prince 
And also a chieftain to you 
Small and great. 

Lucifer is my name: 

A Prince in heaven I am: 

My comrades are Firrs, 
Ye well know that, 

That I am better than the Father. 


me ew lantorn nef ywys 
125 avell tane ow collowye 
moy splanna es an drengys 
henna degowhe destynye 

om bosof prynce pur gloryous 

oil gans ower ow terlentry 
130 y thesaf heb dowte in case 
splanna es an howle deverye 
why a yll warbarthe gwelas 
ow bosaf sertayn pub preyse 

ny vannaf orth eale na moy 
fo. 2 b. 135 dos thorn statma menas me 

henna ew ow thowle devery 

maga vras ove avele dew 
me a gomannd war bub tew 
myns es yn neif thorn gworthya 

140 elathe oil why a glowas 

pandra gowsow thym lemyn 
delnagoma polat brase 
gorrybowhe all pub onyn 
why a wore pythoma 

145 an tase gallas a lemma 
my a dowle nythe omma 
bis vyckan mara callaf 

Lucyfer te ew henna 

sure abashe myns es in nef 
150 creatys nobell omma 

ythota [a] nature creif 
ha me an creys 

sur rag hennu tlictli honora 
me a vyn vhan drenges 


I am (the) lanthorn of heaven certainly, 
125 Like a fire shining, 

More sheener than the Trinity; 
Of that bear ye witness 

Of my being a Prince right glorious. 

All with gold a glittering 
130 Am I, without doubt in the case, 
Sheener than the sun surely 
You may together see 

That I am certainly always. 

I wish not that any angel ever 
135 Should come to my state except me 
That is my will certainly. 

As great am I as God : 
I command on every side 

All that are in heaven to worship me. 

uo Angels all, ye have heard 

What say you to me now? 
Thus am I not a great polat? l 
Answer ye all every one; 
Ye know what I am. 

145 The Father has gone from hence: 
I will cast that He come not here 
For ever if I can. 

Lucifer, thou art that 

Surely above (?) all that are in heaven 
150 Created noble here 

Thou art of nature strong. 
And I believe it. 

Surely for that honour thee 
I will above the Trinity. 

1 L. 142. A note in the first Edition says here: 'It is a common 
tpression in Cornwall to call a great man, a great polat, perhaps from 
W, a head or top'. 


ANGELL OF GOD in that degre. 

155 te creature unkinda 

warbyn }a vaker ow cowse 
predery prage na wreta 

y festa gwryes te gwase lowse 
gans dew omma 

160 gansa pan wres comparya 
raer tha vlamya y thosta 
ha payves yfyth ragtho. 

ASGELL OF LUCYFER in the second degree speaketh kneelinge. 
pyw henna a veth mar void 

cowse gear warbyn lucyfer 
165 heare he hath unto you told 

that in heaven ys not his peare 

ha me an creyse 
why an gweall ow terlentry 
splanna es an howle devery 
ITO me ath honor them del reyse 

ASGELL OF GOD in that degre. 

A taw na gowse a henna 

me ath pys creys ow lavar 
neb an formyas ev omma 

an deform arta predar 
175 y voth pan vo 

mar tregowhe in gregyans na 
morath why as byth ragtba 
trustyowh jotha 

A M.I. i i, OF LUCYFER in the 3 degree speketh kneeling. 

pennagel ew na lavara 
180 nagew lucyfer worthy 
omma thagan governa 
ha bos pedn in nef defry 
a lavar gowe 


ANGEL OK GOD in that degree 

155 Thou unnatural creature, 

Speaking against thy Mak r. 
Why dost thou not consider 
Thou wast made a foul fellow 
By God here? 

160 With Him when thou dost compare 
Much to blame art thou, 

And pains thou shalt have for it. 

ANGEL OF LUCIFER in the second degree 
Who is that will be so bold 

To speak a word against Lucifer? 
165 Here he hath unto you told 

That in heaven is not his peer, 

And I believe it. 
You see him glittering 
Sheener than the sun surely 
170 I will honour thee as (is) needful to me. 

ANGEL OF GOD in that degree 
O be silent, speak not of that 

I pray thee believe my word 
Who formed him here 

Will imform him again consider! 
175 When (it) is His will. 

If you abide in that belief, 
Sorrow you shall have for it - 
Trust ye to this. 

ANGEL OF LUCIFER in I IK' third dcj/rrc 
Whosoever it is that says 
iso Lucifer is not worthy 
Here to govern us 

And to be head in heaven, certainly 

Tells a lie. 



yea ha worthy pub preyse 
185 tha vos in trone ysethys 

avel dewe sure hep parowe 
me an gorth orama del ryes 
war ow dew glyen kekeffrys 

rag y bos mar garadow 


190 dell wrama raynya omma 

yn trone wartha gans glorye 
why a sethe warbarth genaf 
myns a golla ortha vee 
poran ryb ow thenewan 

[Let hem offer to assend to y e trone the 
Angell stayethe hem] 
195 I was made of a thought 

ye may be glad of suche wight 
and in heaven so gay I wrought 
semely am [I] in every sight 
com vp to me every chone 
200 hag in yrna gwraf assaya 

a vos mar war an trone 

3 ANGELI. OF GOD in the 3 degree 

te lucyfer vnkinda 

meer ythos ortha vaker 
dowt ythow theis rag henna 
205 gawas meare y displeasure 
del os worthy ja henna 

pra na wreta predery 
y festa formys devery 

der y wreans eve omma 

3io der henna predar inta 
ef a yll der geare arta 

ilrsim\\ hy 


J .' 

Yea and worthy always 
185 To be seated on a throne 

Like God surely without peer; 
I will worship him here as need (is) 
On my two knees likewise, 

Because of his being so loveabJ,. 


190 As I do reign here 

On a throne with glory, 
Do you sit together with me, 
All that hearken to me, 
Close by my side. 

195 I was made of a thought: 

Ye may be glad of such a wight: 
And in heaven so gay I wrought 
Seemly am I in every sight. 

Come up to me, every one, 
200 And then I will essay 

To be great on the throne. 

ANGEL OF GOD in the third degree. 
Thou, Lucifer, unnatural 

Greatly art thou towards thy Maker; 
A fear there is to thee for that 
205 To have much his displeasure 

As thou art worthy for that. 

Why dost thou riot consider 
That thou wast formed surely 
By his workmanship here? 

210 For that consider well 
He can by a word again 
Destroy thee accursed. 




ty myhall re stowte ythos 

pan wres ortha vy settya 
215 me a grys hag an suppose 
y iynses sche comparya 
lemyn genaf 

na wres na wres na barth dowte 

ty na oil tha gowetha 
220 mar qwreth me ages clowte 

rag henna gwrewh owe gorthya 
ha warbarth trustyowh vnnaf 

why am gweel ow terlentry 
splanna es an tase deffry 
225 henna cresowhe om bosaf 


[the father commeth before hecen 
fy speaketh to lucyfer] 
A lucyfer lucyfer 

ty a ve oil lanthorn nef 
ha drethaf serten pub eare 

ty a ve exaltys breyf 
230 hag ath settyas pur vghall 

fo. 3 b. lemyn mere os vnkinda 

orthaf vy pan wres settyji 
rag }a oth [leg. eth] tha bayne nefra 

ty a wra dyiskynya 
885 mahellas ysall 

determys ove ja vn dra 

ha concludys magat.i 
tha wythyll vn dean omma 

a thore ha sleme jom serviu 
4o hath place she tha opea 


Thou, Michael, art too proud 

When thou dost set against me. 
215 I believe and suppose it 
Thou wouldst compare 
Now with me. 

Thou shouldst not, thou shouldst not, have no doubt 

Thou nor all thy comrades. 
220 If thou dost I will clout you, 
Therefore do ye worship me, 
And together trust in me. 

You see me a glittering, 
Sheener than the Father surely 
225 That believe ye that I am. 

THE FATHER in Heaven 

Ah Lucifer, Lucifer 

Thou wast all (the) lanthorn of heaven. 
And by me certainly always 

Thou wast exalted soon (?), 
230 And thou wast set very high. 

Now greatly unnatural 

Since thou wouldst set against me 
For it thou goest to pain for ever. 

Thou shalt descend 
235 So that thou shouldst go below. 

Determined am I on one thing, 

And concluded as well, 
To make a man here 

Of earth and slime to serve me 
240 And thy place to ope. 


rage collenwall an romes 
a vyth voyd yn nef vskys 

drethas sche hath cowetha 

[lett hell gape when y* 
father nameth yt] 
efarn ragas a vyth gwrys 
245 vskys commandyaf henna 
ena ty a vyth tregys 

ha myns assentyas genas 
genas sche an naw order 

in paynes bys venary 
250 heb rawnson vetholl na fyne 
yna pub eare ow murnye 
rag gallarowe bis worffen 
why a vith me a levar 


Ay a vynta ge orth mab dean 
255 pan vo gwryes a slem hager 
occupya rage sertayne 

ow rome ve nagevas peare 
omma in neve 

henna vea hager dra 
260 den a vynta gule a bry 
ja thos omma then plasma 
neb es lenwys a glorye 
ragtha warthy nynjew ef 

Ha na ny vythe in della 
365 me a worthib theis henna 
an place sure lowre ja warta 
me a wyth whath rom lowta 
ha tha worthys sche keffrys 

ty am gweall ve creif omma 
270 wlialh purbrowt trebytchya 


To fill up the rooms 

That will be void in hcavm straightway 
Through thee and thy comrades. 

Hell for thee shall be made 
245 Straightway I command that: 
There thou shalt dwell, 

And all that assented with thee, 
With thee of the nine orders. 

In pains for ever, 

250 Without ransom at all nor fine, 
There always a mourning 
For griefs unto (the) end 
Ye shall be, I say. 


Wouldst thou that the son of man 
255 When he shall be made of ugly .slimt 1 . 
Should occupy for certain 

My room, who never had peer 
Here in heaven? 

That would be an ugly thing 
260 Man whom thou wouldst make of clay 
To come here to this place 
Which is filled with glory; 
For it worthy he is not. 

And it shall not be so: 
265 I will answer thee that. 

The place sure enough from him 
I will keep yet, by my loyalty, 
And from thee likewise. 

Thou shalt see me strong here 

270 Yet , full proud (?) 

L. 270. The word trebytchya which the Translator has left doubtful, 
-:s clearly the French trtbucher, and it is used in that sense ;it liiu- I 

meaning may be 'proud falling being', though it seems ; 
lewhat forced. E. N. 


banter an elath genaffa 
assentyes ythyns sera 

thorn mayntaynya in spyte thys 
del welta ge 

275 for well nor wo 
I will not go 
I say yowe so 

this will not be 
thymo ve creis 

280 rag me a vinsens* 
serten vgb pub myns 

a ve bythgwath whath formys 


Taw lucyfer melegas 

in gollan del os tha go thys 
285 rag skon ty a tha baynes 

heb redempcyon thyma creys 
sure thymo creys 

oil tba splandar ha tectar 
y trayle skon theis tha hacter 
290 ha mer vtheck byllen[y] 

myghale pryns ow chyvalry 

ban elath an order nawe 
an rebellyans ma deffry 

than doer ganso mergh * ha maw ; 
295 the effarn hager trygva 

ena tregans yn paynes 
ha golarowe mere pub pryes 
yn pur serten rag nefra 

[All the AiKjcl/s nttisl /unit' xirords and 

st<ir<-s & must come to the rome irher ys] 

MS. m 


Half the angels with me 
They are agreed, Sir, 

To maintain me in spite of thee, 
As thou see>t. 

275 For weal nor woe 
I will not go: 
I say you so, 

This will not be, 
Believe me. 

280 For I shall ... (?) 

Certainly above every one 

That was ever yet formed. 

Be silent, Lucifer accursed, 

In heart as thou art proud, 
285 For straightway thou shalt go to pains 
Without redemption, believe me, 
Surely believe me. 

All thy splendour and beauty 
Shall soon turn to thee to ugliness 
'290 And very awful villainy. 

Michael, prince of my chivalry, 
And the angels of the nine orders 

This rebellion quickly 

To the ground with it; girl and boy, 
295 To Hell, an ugly dwelling; 

There let them dwell in pains, 
And great griefs always, 
Very certainly for ever. 

L. 280. Vinsens must be the borrowed Latin rj/iow ; tf <i will tht-n 
be the verb 'to go'. 'I go a conqueror'. See Juno's 'divum incedo re- 
gina' Virgil, Aen. i. E. N. 



Dewne warbarth an nawe order 
300 hellyn yn mes lucyfer 

a thesempys mes an nef 


ty chet gwraf tha examnya 
prage y fyn dew ow damnya 
ha me mar gollowe ha creif 


305 rag y bosta melagas 
hag in golan re othys 

der reson thys me a breif 

ty foole prag na bredersys 

a thorn dew y festa gwryes 
310 ynweth ganso exaltys 

dres myns call in nef sethys 
oma yn y drone sethys 

[let lucyfer offer to go vpe 
to the trone] 


even in trone manaf setha 
han keth place mannaf gwetha 
315 whath yn spyta theis 

keffrys me ham cowetha 
der gletha a vyn trea 
ow bosaf moy worthya 

agis an tase sure pub pryes 



Let us come together, the nine orders, 
300 Let us hunt out Lucifer, 

Forthwith out from heaven. 


Thou fellow, 1 will examine thee. 
Why will God condemn me 
And I so bright and strong? 


305 Because thou art accursed, 
And in heart overproud, 

By reason I will prove to thee. 

Thou fool, why consideredst thou not 

That thou wast made by God's hand, 
310 Also by Him exalted 

Above all angels in heaven seated, 
Here in His throne seated? 


Even on (the) throne will I sit, 
And the same place I will keep 
315 Yet in spite of thee. 

Likewise I and my comrades 

By sword will try 

That I am more worthier 

Than the Father surely always. 



320 wanothans myns es yn nef 

gwren in kerthe helly yef 

tha effarn tha dewolgowe 
fo. 4 b. 

ha why oil ye gowetha 

kewgh in kerth in weth gon^a 
325 crownkyowhe y gans clethythyow 
[Let them fight w' h swordis and in the end Lucyfen 
voydeth $ goeth downe to hell apareled fowle w' h fyrei 
about hem turning to hell and every degre of derylls on 
lether 4" fSpirytts on cordis runing into y' playne and sol 
remayne ther, 9 angells after Lucyfer goeth to hell] 


owte ellas gallaf fasowe 
ythesaf in Tewolgowe 

ny allaf dos anotha 
in pyth downe ythof towles 
330 abarth in efarn kelmys 

gans chayne tane a dro thymo 

Kyn nam bona lowena 
yma lower skym[n]ys genaf 
an Elath sure tha drega 

fo. 5 a. 335 Gallas Lucifer droke preve 

mes an nef tha dewolgowe 
ha lemyn vn y lea ef 
me a vyn heb falladowe 
vn dean formya 

[Adam and Eva aparlet in whytt lether in a plan 
apoy tiled by the convey our $ not to be sene tyll lhe\ 
be called % thei knell $ rysej 

Till-: CREATION OF THE W<>1;U>. 


320 Let work all that are in heaven! 
Let us hunt him away 
To Hell, to darkness! 

And all ye his comrades 
Go ye away also with him, 
325 Smite them with swords. 


Out, alas 

I am in Darkness: 

I cannot come from it. 
In a deep pit I am cast, 
330 Within Hell bound, 

With a chain of fire around me. 

Though I am not joyful 
There are enough damned with me 
Of the angels, sure to dwell. 


335 Gone hath Lucifer, evil worm, 

Out from the heaven to darknrs-s: 
And now in his place 
I will, without fail, 
Form a man. 


340 in valy ebron devery 
rag collenwall aredy 
an le may teth anotha 

dell ony onyn ha try 

tus ha mab in trinitie 
345 me a wra ge dean a bry 

havall thagan face whare 

hag a wheth yn [th]y body 

sperys may hallas bewa 
han bewnas pan an kelly 
350 jan doer te a dreyli arta 

[Let Parody ce be fynelye made wyth ii" fayre trees in 
yt And an appell vpon the tree fy som other frute one\ 
the other 

Adam save in ban in cloer 

ha trayle ja gyke ha tha woys 
preda[r] me thath wrill a thoer 
havall y ro then pen ha tros 

[A fowntaine in Paradice $ fyne flotcers in yt painted]} 
355 myns es in tyre hag in moer 

warnothans kymar gallus 
yn serten rag dry ascore 
ty a vew may fota loose 

[Let the father put Adam into paradise]! 
rag tha garenga lemyn 
360 me a vyn gwyll paradice 
place delicyous dres ehan 
rag ow fleasnre yta gwrys 

[Lett flowres apeare in paradicejt 
lower flowrys a bub ehan 
yn place ma yta tevys 
365 ha frutes war bub gwethan 

y teyf gwaf ha hav<> kelfrys 

ha lemyn war oil an place 

me a wrotit theis boa gwethyas 


340 In (the) valley of Hebron (?) certainly 
To fill up readily 

The place that he went from. 

As we are one and three 

Father and son in trinity. 
345 I will make thee, man, of clay 
Like to our face anon. 

And blow into thy body 

A spirit, that thou mayst live, 
And the life when thou losest it 
350 To the earth thou shalt turn again. 

Adam, stand up clearly(?) 

And turn to flesh and to blood, 

Consider that I have made thee of earth 
Like to me to the head and foot. 

855 All that is in land and in sea 

On them take power. 
Certainly to bring offspring 

Thou shalt live till thou art gray. 

For love of thee now 
360 I will make Paradise, 

A place delicious above (any) kind: 
For my pleasure it is made. 

Abundance of flowers of every kind 

In this place are grown; 
365 And fruits on every tree 

Shall grow winter and summer likewise. 

And now over all the place 

I grant to thee to be guardian: 

L. 340. Better 'in the valley of the sky' or 'under the sky'; eftron, 
variously spelt regularly occurs in this sense. See 0, 18, 1245, and 
mpra 1 82 yborn. Williams in his Dictonary gives also ybron, ybbeiii, (fee. 


war bub frute losowe ha hays 
370 theth pleasure theis me a ase 

[poynt to the tree] 
sowe byth ware thymmo pub pryes 

an keth gwethan ma amma 
gwayt na fe gansy mellyes 

me athe chardg a vhe pub tra 

375 an wethan ma ew henwys 

gwethan gothvas droke ha da 
mar pyth y frute hy tasty s 

te a vyth dampnys ractha 
ha subiect ankowe dretha 
aso te a vyth predar henna 

fo. 5 b. tra morethack ew serten 

gwellas adam y honyn 
heb cowethas 

[let the father take a bone owt of adam is syc 
adam cuske tha ge lemyn 
385 ahanas tenaf asen 
me a vyn ath tenewan 
hag a honna pur serten 

me a vyn gwyll theis pryas 

[Let adam laye downe $ slepe wher eta ys $ she 
the conveyour must be taken from adam is syde] 

skon a wonyn ^a asowe 
390 me a wra the} a parowe 

pub ower thes rag je weras 


A A A ow Arluth da 

lu'iiyn hy a v* henwys 
om corf ve gwressys 
3 i J5 i-vu am asan rw gwryes 
ragtha ythose benegas 


Over every fruit, herbs and seeds 
370 To thy pleasure I leave thee. 

But be thou ware for me always 

This same tree to kiss: 
Take care that it be not meddled with, 

I charge thee above everything. 

375 This tree is named 

(The) tree of knowledge of evil and good: 
If its fruit be tasted 

Thou shalt be damned for it; 
And a subject of Death through it 
380 Thou shalt be consider that. 

A mournful thing (it) is, certainly. 
To see Adam by himself, 
Without companionship. 

Adam, sleep thou now: 
385 From thee draw a rib 
I will from thy side, 

And of that right certainly 

I will make for thee a spouse. 

Straightway from one of thy ribs 
390 I will make for thee an equal, 

Every hour for thee to help thee. 

Oh, Oh, Oh, my good Lord! 

Woman she shall be called. 
Of my body thou madest that. 
395 Eve of my rib was made: 

Wherefore thou art blessed. 



[Let fyshe of dyuers sortis apeare $ serf en beastis as 
oxen kyne shepe $ such like] 
Adam yta an puskas 
ethen in ayre ha bestas 

kekeffrys in tyre ha more 
ioo ro thothans aga henwyn 
y a [thue] theth gorwmyn 

saw na bashe y ' war neb coore 


[At the Father is comandem' she [leg. they] eryseth] 
yth henwaf bewgh ha tarow 
oil an chattall debarowe 
405 aga henwyn kemerans 

marth ha casak hag asan 

ky ha cathe ha logosan 

deffrans ethan ha serpentis 

[A fyne serpent made ir th a riryyn face $ yolowe 
vp on her head] 

i rof henwyn than puskas 
410 shewyan pengarnas selyas 

me as recken oil dybblans 

[Let the serpent apeare $ also gees $ hennes] 

rag bonas oil teake ha da 

yn whea dyth myns es formys 
aga sona me a wra 
415 may fon sythvas dyth henwys 

an dyth sure a bowesva 
a bub dean a vo sylwys 

1 MS. ym. 



Adam, behold the fishes, 
Birds in air and beasts, 

Likewise in land and sea. 
4oo Give to them their names: 

They will come to thy command, 

But do not abash (?) them in any way. 


I name thee Cow, and Bull: 

All the cattle separately (?) 

405 Their names let them take. 

Horse and Mare and Ass, 
Dog and Cat and Mouse, 

Divers Birds and Serpents. 

I give names to the Fishes, 
410 Breams (?) Gurnets and Eels, 

I will reckon them all distinctly. 


For that all are fair and good, 

In six days all that are formed, 
I will bless them 
415 So that the seventh day may be called 

The day surely of rest 

By every man that shall be saved. 



in desquethyans ' a hena 
me a bowas desempys 
[After the father hath spoken left hem departe to heaven 
in a clowde] 


420 Gallas genaf hager dowle 

tha pytt effarn mes an nef 
ena me a theke an rowle 
ha lemyn in payne pur greif 
ythesaf [}]a thewer nefra 

425 nynges thymo remedy 

an trespas ytho mar vras 
ny amownt whelas mercye 
my a wore ny vyn an tase 
ow foly j[y]mmo gava 

fo. 6 a. 430 rag henna oil an vengens 

a allaf tha brederye 
me a vyn goneth dewhans 
der neb for a vras envy 
ny wraf vry warbyn pewa 

435 me a wore yma formys 

gans an tas yn dean a bry 
havall thotha ythew gwryes 
oil y gorffe m[ar] pur sembly 
ny allaf perthy henna 

440 envyes ove war y bydn 
me a vyn towlall neb gyn 

the dul I; i i nar; i en Hat' 

gans dew ythew apoyntes 
warden war oil paradys 
445 der henna ythof grevys 
y wellas eve exaltys 

ha me dres ja yseldar 
1 MS. dowhethyans. 


In declaration of that 
I will rest forthwith. 


420 There has gone with me an ugly fall 

To (the) pit of Hell out of the Heaven. 
There I shall bring the rule, 
And now in pain full strong 
I am to endure always. 

425 There is not a remedy to me, 
The trespass was so great: 
It avails not to seek mercy: 
I know the Father will not 
Forgive me my folly. 

430 Therefore all the vengeance 

Which I can think on, 
I will work forthwith 

Through some way of great hatred - 
I make no account of living. 

435 I know there is formed 

By the Father a man of clay: 
Like to Him is he made: 

All his body so very seemly - 
I cannot bear that. 

440 I am envious against him: 
I will cast some gin 

To deceive him if I can. 

By God he is appointed 

Warden over all Paradise: 
445 Therefore I am grieved 
To see him exalted, 

And me brought to lowness. 


tha hena yma gwreghty 
benyn yw henwys eva 
450 gwryes ay ason y fe hy 

marthys teke a vhe pub tra 
saw y skeans yw brvttall 

me a vyn mara callaf 
whelas neb for the themtya 
455 par del oma gwase suttall 

now ad am ma ow lordya 
avell duke in paradise 

ha me sevyllyake omma 

yn efarn yn tane pub preyse 
460 yn powan bras ow lesky 

Sow an keth adam yw gwryes 
me a wore heb dowte in case 

tha golenwall an romys 

es yn nef der ow goth brase 
465 a voyd drethaf hawe mayny 

Sow mar callaf der thavys 

gwyll tba adam thym cola 
me an drossa tha baynes 

na thefa then nef nevera 
470 mar a mynna thym cola 

sowe Eva manaf saya 
hy ew esya tha dulla 
es adam in gwyre ynta 
ha moy symp[e]ll 

475 in weth ny dale } m bos gwelys 

ow honyn in keth shapema 
hager ythof defashos 
ny yll tra bonas hackrn 
why oil a gweall 


To that (man) there is a housewife. 

A woman (who) is named Ev. : 
450 Made from his rib was she, 

Marvellous fair above everything, 
But her knowledge is brittle. 

I will if I can 

Seek some way to tempt her, 
455 As I am a subtle fellow. 

Now Adam is lording (it) 
Like a Duke in Paradise, 
And I a loiterer here, 

In hell, in fire always 
460 In great pain (?) a burning. 

But the same Adam is made, 

I know without doubt in (the) case, 
To fill up the rooms 

That are in heaven, through my great pride, 
465 Empty through me and my meyny. 

But if I can through a device 

Make Adam to hearken to me, 
I shall have brought him to pains, 

So that he shall never come to the heaven 
470 If he will hearken to me. 

But Eve I will essay. 
She is easier to deceive 
Than Adam right truly, 
And more simple. 

475 Also it behoves me not to be seen 

Myself in this same shape. 
Uglily am I defaced: 
Nothing can be uglier 
Ye all see. 



480 hager lower os me an vow 
yn myske oil an thewollow 
nyges hackra 

rag henna whela neb jyn 

po an vyadg ny dale oye 
485 eva thysa a theglyn 

mar uthicke pan wella by 
theth fegure yn kethe delma 

ha mar gwreta bargayne sure 

ty a vith lower honorys 
490 awos dew kenthewa fure 

in forma mar pyth tullys 
me a vyth compes ganso 


na berth dowte me an prevent [leg. preves] 
hage thro lower tha paynes 
495 me a levar jes fatla 

[Let the serpent wait in the plain) 
an tas a rug der entent 

in myske oil prevas in bys 
formya preve henwis serpent 
hag ythew wondrys fashes 
500 tha virgin deke pur havall 

sottall ythew gans henna 

a vghe beast na preaf yn bys 
yn henna manaf entra 

ha prevathe tha baradice 
505 me a vyn mos heb fyllall 

kyn na wore hy cowse banna 
me as rowle hy del vannaf 



480 Ugly enough thou art, I vow it: 
Amongst all the devils 
There is none uglier. 

Therefore seek some gin 

Or the journey will not be worth an egg. 
485 Eve at thee will wince (?) 
When she sees so ugly 

Thy figure in this same manner. 

And if thou makest thy bargain sure 

Thou shalt be honoured enough, 
490 Notwithstanding God, though He be wise; 
In this way if He be deceived 
I shall be straight with Him. 


Have no fear I will prove him, 
And bring (him) enough to pains; 
495 I will tell thee how. 

The Father did by intent 

Amongst all (the) worms in (the) world 
Form a worm named Serpent, 

And (it) is wondrously faced, 
500 To a fair virgin very like. 

Subtle (it) is therewith 

Above beast or worm in (the) world. 
Into that I will enter, 

And privately to Paradise 
505 I will go without fail. 

Though she knows not (how) to speak a drop, 
I will rule her as I wish; 


ha kyns es dos a lena 
tha adam ha tha eva 
510 me a wra neb enfugy 


gura in della me ath pys 

par dell osta jowle wylly 
mar gwreth henna honorys 

ty a vyth bys venarye 
515 ha pen rowler warnan ny 
heb dowt in case 


[Let Lucyfer com to the serpent and offer to goe in to her]\ 
by and by thou shalt se that 
ba pur vskes gvvraf an pratt 

then serpent in spyte thy face 

[The serpent voydeth $ stayeth and [Lucyfer ayayn]\ 
ofereth to go in to her] 
520 Ay redeball dowethy 

gorta ha byth thym rowlys 
gas ve tha entra agye 

rag ty ny vethys dowtyes 
drefan y bosta mar deke 

[Lucyfer entreth into y r serpent], 
525 ty a vyth yntertaynes 
ha gans eva sure cregys 

thyth fysmant ^ethy a bleake 
aban oma close entrys 

vnas sche [ajbarth agye 
530 ow voice oil yta changis 
avel mayteth yn tevery 
me ne vethaf confethes 
om bos ynaff fallsurye 
sottall lower ove l me a greys 

fo. 7 a. 535 hag a vyn mos heb gwill gycke 
in wethan pur smoth heb mycke 

avell call wheake afynes 
1 MS. eve. 


And before going hence, 
To Adam and to Eve 
sio I will do some harm. 

TORPEIN a Devil 
Do thus, I pray thee, 

As thou art a wily devil. 
If thou doest that, honoured 

Thou shalt be for ever, 
sis And chief ruler over us, 

Without doubt in (the) case. 


By and bye thou shalt see that. 
And right quickly I will do the trick 
To the serpent in spite to her face 

520 Ah very evil (one), stop (?), 
Stay and be ruled by me: 
Allow me to enter thee, 

For thou wilt not be feared, 
Because thou art so fair. 

525 Thou shalt be entertained 
And by Eve surely believed, 

Thy visage will please her. 
Since I am close entered 

In thee, within, 
530 My voice lo! it (is) all changed, 

Like a maiden in earnest. 
I shall not be found out, 

That there is in me falsehood. 
Subtle enough I am, I believe. 

535 And I will go without doing .... 
Into a tree right smoothly without . 
Like a sweet angel adorned. 



[The serpent singeth in the 
me a vyn mog tha wandra 

omma yn myske an flowrys 
540 oil pub pleasure an bysma 
yn plasma yta tevys 

may thew confort }a wellas 

SERPENT in the tree 
eva prage na tbeta nes 

rag cowse orthaf ha talkya 
545 vn dra a won am gothvas 
pur lowenake am gwressa 
cola orthaf a mennas 


[Then eva wondreth of the Serpent when she speakethf 
pew ostashe es in wethan 
a wartha gans troes ha cane 
550 marth ew genaf thath clewas 

worthys me nembes negys 
na byle es devethys 

marth ew genaf tha wellas 


na gymmar marth v* benynvas 
555 me a theth [j]a the wheres 

mes a neif gans hast pur vras 

rag cowsall theis a henna 

omma lemyn pur brevath 
me athe pys awos neb tra 
660 na gymar marth anotha 

na owne v* es ow gwellas 



I will go to wander 

Here among the flowers. 
540 Every pleasure of this world 
In this place see it grown, 
So that it is a comfort to see. 

Eve, why dost thou not draw near 

To speak to me and to talk? 
545 One thing, I know of my knowledge. 
Very joyous would make me, 
If thou wouldst hearken to me. 


Who art thou that art in (the) tree 
Above with noise and song ? 
550 A marvel is it to me to hear thee. 

With thee I have no business, 
Nor whence thou art come 
A marvel is it to me to see. 


Take no wonder at all, Goodwife, 
555 I have come to help thee 

Out of heaven with full great haste. 

To speak to thee of that 

Here now very privately; 
I pray thee on account of anything 
560 Take no wonder at it, 

Nor any fear in seeing me. 



nynges owne thym ahanas 
drefan bose mar deake tha face 
na whath dowte vethol in bys 

565 rag der tha ere yth falsa 

ty tha thos an nef totheta 
ha mara tethe a lena 

pur welcom ythose genaf 
ha thawell ythe fythe cregys 

570 lavar thybma thathe negys 
ha mar callaf 3 a weras 

na berth dout ny vyth nehys 


ow nygys a dreyle tha les 
mar a mynta ow kyfye ' 
575 saw yma thym ahanes 

dowte pur vras a anfugye 
mara gwrees ow dyskevera 


[Eva talketh famylyarlye to'* the serpent and cometh 
neare hem] 

na vannaf tha theskyvra 

ow hothman a tra in bys 
580 rag henna ineare tha volta 
ty a yll gule tha negys 
ha ow thrcst yw y vos da 


da cotha yw na thowt peri 11 
war ow honesty benyn v:is 
1 'ri-|ry in the British Museum M. S. 





There is no fear to me of thee, 
Because thy face is so fair, 

Nor yet doubt at all in (the) world. 

For by thy word it seemed 

That thou earnest from the heaven directly: 
And if thou comest thence 

Right welcome art thou to me, 
And thy gospel shall be believed. 

Tell to me thy errand, 
And if I can help thee 

Have no fear, thou shalt not be denied. 



My errand will turn to thy profit 
If thou wilt believe me: 

But there is to me from thee 
Very great fear of misfortune, 
If thou dost discover me. 


I will not discover thee, 

My friend, for aught in (the) world. 
580 Therefore if thou wishest (?) 
Thou mayest do thy errand, 

And my trust is that it is good. 


Good it ought to be, fear no peril 
On my honesty, goodwife; 


585 pokeean y whressan fyllell 
hag y fea peth pur vras 

ha ine gweiFa the vos punyshes 


why a lavar gwyre dremas 

henna vea hager dra 
590 yma thymma hyrathe bras 
rag gothevas pan dra vea 
in cutt termyn ages negys 
cowsow y praya 


me a levar thys eva 
595 ha coole orthaf os ehan 
maga fure te a vea 
avel dew es awartha 
hag a vffya pub tra 


myhall sera thewgh gramercy 
eoo a callen dos then pryckna 
yth alsan bos pur very 
henna vea reall dra 


bos cooth ja thew awarja 
ha in pub poynt equall gonsa ' 
605 ha maga fure accomptys 

yn erna re sent deffry 
yth halsan rowlya a pur gay 
ha bos stately jom deuise 

y praytha lavar fatla 
eio perthy ny allaf pella 

1 MS. gousa. 
MS. rowtya. 


585 Or else I should fail; 

And it would be a very great sin, 
And I ought (?) to be punished. 

You say true, excellent one, 

That would be an evil thing. 
590 There is to me a great longing 

To know what thing it may be; 
In a short time your errand 
Say, I pray. 


I tell to thee, Eve, 
595 And listen to me quietly (?) 
As wise wouldst thou be, 
As God who is above, 
And know everything. 


Sir, I may thank you; 
GOO If I could come to that point 
I might be full merry; 

That would be a royal thing 

To be known to God above, 
And in every point equal with him. 
605 And as wise accounted; 

Then by (the) saints really, 
I might rule very gaily, 

And be stately (according) to my device. 

I pray thee tell me how; 
cio I cannot bear longer: 


me a v* sure tha lacka 
mes te thym a lavara 
en by and by. 

skeans benyn ew brotall 
615 ha me nygof over sottall 

lavar thym kyns es hythy 
me athe pyese an nowethys 


me a levar thys eva 
mar gwreth tastya an frutema 
620 es oma war an wethan 

maga fure te a vea 
avell dew es a wartha 
in nef vhall a vhan 
gow vyth ny lavaraf 


[Let eva look angerly on the serpent and profer 
to depart.] 

625 what ew hena tha thevyse 
tarn v* nyvyth cregys 
henna me a levar theis 

theth cussyllyow in poyntna 
me a levar theis praga 

eso dew a ornas contrary 

na thesan tastya henna 
hay gommandement pur thefry 
a rose straytly dres pub tra 
na wrellan mellya worty 
ess prag y whreth genaf flattra 

fo. 8 a. golsow golsow eva ha des nes 


I shall be sure to faint 
Unless thou speak to me 
By and bye. 

Woman's knowledge is brittle, 
615 And I am not over -subtle; 

Tell me before thou stoppest (?), 
I pray thee, the news. 


I will tell thee, Eve, 
If thou dost taste this fruit 
620 That is here on the tree 

As wise thou shalt be 

As God that is above 

In Heaven, high of high - 
I will not tell a lie at all. 


625 What is that thy device? 

Any jot will not be believed 
(That I will tell to thee) 

Of thy counsels in that point, 
I will tell to thee why. 

630 God ordained (the) contrary 

That we should not taste thai. 
And His commandment full surely 

He gave straitly above everything. 
That we should not meddle with it 
635 Why dost thou flatter with me? 


Hearken, hearken, Eve, and come near: 



shame ew genaf tha glowas 
ow cregy then gyrryaw na 

praga me a levar thies 
640 y wruge dew ry an chardgna 
genas a peva tastys 
maga fure te a vea 

in pub poynt sure avella 

an tas ef ny vynsa sure 
645 worthe dean vetholl bos mar fure 

tha othvas a droke ha da 
rag henna benynvas eva 
genas ny vannaf flattra 

na ny vanaf usya gowe 
650 kooll ge thym men tha gesky 

mar mynta bos exaltys 
poken sertayne venarye 
why a vyth avell flehys 

bo yn assentys te a glow 
655 eva gent[i]ll 


yea yea me a glow 

hag a rose jym chardge mar strayte 
me am byth payne ha galarow 
mara gwren terry vn ieit 

y gommandement thyn reyse 
par hap in efarne neffra 
ny an bythe agen trygva 

mar ny vyth y voth sewyes. 


Taw Taw eva ythos foole 
665 ny vynnys kola orthe da 
me a ragtha ty an owle 

ow husyll mar gwreth naha 
genas nygof contentys 

Till-: CRKATION <>F Till- \\<>|;U). 

Shame there is to me to In-ar ihcc, 
Believing those words. 

Why -- I will tell to thee 
640 Did God give that charge? 
By thee if it were tasted 
As wise thou wouldst be 

In every point surely as He. 

The Father, He would not surely 
645 That any man should be so wise 

(As) to know of evil and good; 
Therefore, goodwife, Eve, 
With thee I will not flatter, 

Nor will I use a lie. 
650 Listen thou to me .... 

If thou wouldst be exalted, 
Or else certainly for ever 
Ye shall be like children: 

Or thou hast assented to it, thou hearest, 
655 Gentle Eve. 

Yea, yea, I hear, 

And He gave to me a charge so strait 
That I should have pain and griefs 

If I should break a jot 
eeo His commandment given to us; 

Perhaps in Hell for ever 
"We shall have our dwelling 

If His wish be not followed. 


Be silent, be silent, Eve, thou art ;i fool: 
665 Thou wilt not hearken to good. 
I will go: for it thou shalt weep 
My counsel if thou dost deny. 
I am not contented with ther. 


na vea me theth cara 
670 ny vynsan theth cossyllya 

tha vos bargayne mar vras gwryes 


[She commeth anear the serpent agayne am 
geveth heed to his words] 
a cuff an y voja gwyre 
me a sewsye tha thesyre 

drefan te tha thos an nef 


675 why a levar gwyre benynvas 
ny ryse thewh mystrustya ' 
an nef ny the mes tues vas 
me ew onyn an sortna 

[Lett \f serpent bow downe the appll to 
$ she takethe y' appell] 

re why kam a thages dremas 
eso po an vyadge ny dale tra 
mes y bart ef an geffa 


ny vannaf bos mar grefnye 
tha wetha oil ow honyn 
ad am sure dres pub hwny 3 
685 me an kare po dew deffan 
the wetha heb shara* 

fo. 8. b. SERPENT 

me a ysten an skoran 
kymmar an frute annethy 

1 MS., apparently, mystunstya. 
* British Museum MS. ran. 

3 MS. hwnyth. 

4 Br. Mus. MS. heb y shara, "without his share". 


Were it not that I love thee, 
670 I would not counsel thee 

That a bargain so great should be made. 


If 1 knew that this were true 
1 would follow thy desire, 

Because thou hast come from the heaven. 


675 You say true, goodwife; 

No need to thee to mistrust: 
From the heaven there comes not save good folk; 
I am one of that sort. 

Give you a bit (?) to your husband, 

Or the journey will not be worth aught 

TJn-f Viio wo+ Vi L-liinilil ifi>i if 


>r the journey will not be wort 
But his part, he should get it. 


I will not be so greedy 
To keep all myself - 
Adam surely beyond everyone 
685 I love him or God forbid 

To keep him without a share. 


I will stretch the bough 
Take the fruit from it. 



me a ra in pur serten 
690 ny allaf ra pell perthy 

pan vo reys tastya anothy 

nefra na gybmar dowte 

te a yll bos pur verry 
gans tha lagasowe alees 
695 te a weall pub tra omma 
ha pur fure te a v* gwryes 
evell dew na thowt henna 
eva me a levar thyes 

na vea me theth cara 
700 ny vynsan awos neb tra 

yn ban tha vos exaltys 


mear a rase thewhy sera 

ow ry cusyll jym mar stowte 
orthowh me a vyn cola 
705 ha by god nynges jym dowte 

tha dastya a[n] keth avail 
haw dremas a wor thym grace 

tha weyll vyadge mar nob[e]ll 
ha re thew an drengis tase 
710 ef am sett yn ban vhall 

hag am gornvall meare heb dowt 


ke yn ker eva benynvas 
te a yll gothvas thym grace 
rag an vyadge 

715 hag adam dell ew dremas 

THE CKKATION <>K Till: \\OKI.D. 57 


I will do (so) full certainly: 
690 I can no longer forbear, 

Since it is needful to taste of it. 

Never take fear, 

Thou mayest be right merry. 
With thine eyes abroad 
695 Thou wilt see every thing here. 
And full wise thou shalt be made 
Like God doubt not that - 
Eve, I say to thee. 

Were it not that I love thee, 
TOO I should not wish on account of anything, 
On high that thou shouldst be exalted. 


Much thanks to thee, Sir, 

Giving to me counsel so strong, 
To you I will hearken, 
705 And by God there is not to me fear 

To taste the same apple. 
And my husband will give me thanks 

To make a voyage so noble, 
And by God the Trinity Father 
710 He will set me up on high, 

And will praise (?) me much without doubt. 


Go thou away, Eve, goodwife, 
Thou mayst give me thanks 
For the voyage. 

715 And Adam, as he is excellent. 


abanas a wra pur vras 

an bargayne ny vyth eddrack 


Farewell ow hothman an nef 

me ath kare bys venary 
720 tha adam kerras pur greyf 
me a vyn the sallugye 
ban avail y presentya 

[Eva departeth to Adam $ presenteth hem 
the appll] 


gwra yn della me ath pys 
ty a glow keen nawothow 
725 kyns ow gwellas ve arta 

adam adam pythesta 

golsow thymmo ha des neese 
yma genaf theth pleycya 

na barth dowt a bratt es gwryes 
730 may woffas thym grassow 

welcom eva os benynvas 

marsew an nowothow da 
te a vythe rewardyes 

ham hollan yn weth ganja 
735 te a v* prest theth plegadow 


[Shew the appell to 
fo. 9 a. merowgh merowgh orth henma 

tomma gaya ' avail theys 
1 MB. gaya a avail. 


Of thee will make very much: 

Of the bargain he will not be repentant. 

Farewell, my friend from heaven! 

I will love thee for ever. 
720 Unto Adam full strongly go 
I will, to salute him, 

And the apple to present it. 


Do so, I pray thee. 
Thou wilt hear other news 
725 Before seeing me again. 


Adam, Adam, who art thou? 

Hearken to me and come near. 
There is with me (somewhat) to please thee. 

Do not bear doubt of a trick that is done; 
730 So that thou mayst give me thanks. 

Welcome, Eve, thou art a good wife! 

If the news be good 
Thou shalt be rewarded, 

And my heart also with it 
735 Thou shalt have ready to thy pleasure. 


Look you, look you at this 

See here a gay apple for thee; 


mar gwreth tastya anotha 

eve a drayle thejo tha leas 
740 moy eas myllyow a bynsow 


[Adam is afrayde [at] the sight of the apple 
des nes gas ve the wellas 
mara sewa avail da 

lavar p[l]e veva kefys 


praga adam ow fryas 
745 der dowte es thyes y wellas 
lavar jymmo me ath pyes 


ny bleig thym sight anotha 
dowt pur vras yma thyrna 

nagewa vas me a gryes 
750 ty mar pe hemma terrys 
mes an wethan defennys 
ragtha me a v* grevys 


neffra na thowt a henna 

adam wheak ow harenga 
755 me a levar thys mar pleag 
yn pan vanar yn beina 

sera ha me ow gwandra 
me a glowas awartha 
war an weathan ven eal wheake 
760 sure ow cana 

me am be wondrys fancye 
orth y wellas in weatlian 


If thou dost taste of it 

It will turn to thee to profit, 
740 More than thousands of pounds. 


Come near, leave me to see 
If (it) be a good apple, 

Say where (it) was found. 


Why, Adam, my spouse, 
745 Much doubt is (there) to thee to see it 
Tell to me, I pray thee. 


(The) sight of it does not please me 
A very great doubt is to me; 

It is not good, I believe; 
750 Thou if this be plucked 
From the forbidden tree, 

For it I shall be grieved. 


Never doubt of that, 

Sweet Adam, my love. 
755 I will tell thee, if it please (thee) 
In what manner I had it 

Sir, as I was wandering, 
I heard above 
On the tree a sweet angel 
760 Surely a singing. 

I had a wondrous fancy, 
Seeing him in (the) tree, 


ha thevy in curtessye 

y profyas aveli cothman 
765 mere a dacklow ram lowta 

ha pur worthy 


A eva. eva. ty a fyllas 

ow cola orthe an eal na 
droke polat o me a gryes 
770 neb a glowses owe cana 

hag 1 athe cossyllyas tha derry 
an avail na 


sera eve a gowsys }ym mar deake 
775 ny wothyan tabm y naha 
hay bromas o mar wheake 
may wruge eve thyma cola 
ny thowtys war ow ena 
a falsurye 

780 hay bromas ytho largya 

mar gwrean tastya an frutna 
avell dew ny a vea 
ha maga furre 

my a fylly in vrna 
785 a callan dos then prickna 
y fea bargayn pur fuer 


a owte owt warnas eva 
me a yll cussya henna 

towles on tha vyshew bras 
790 ha worthy tha gemeras 

MS. na. 

Till: CREATION or Till: WORLD. 3 

And to me in courtesy 

He proffered like u friend 
765 Many things, by my loyally, 

And full \vorlliv. 


Ah Eve, Eve, thou hast failed 

Hearkening to that angel. 
An evil polat he was, I believe 
Whom thou heardest singing, 
770 And (who) counselled thee to pluck 

That apple. 


Sir, he spoke to me so fairly 
775 I knew not (how) to deny him aught; 
And his promise was so sweet 
That he made me listen; 

Thou shouldst not doubt, on my soul, 
Of falsehood. 

780 And his promise was large, 
If we do taste that fruit 
Like God we should be, 
And as wise. 

Meseemed then 
785 If I could come to that point 

It would be a bargain full wise. 


Ah out, out on thee, Eve, 
I may curse (?) that. 

Fallen are we to great mischief, 
790 And worthy to take it. 


fo. 9 b. henna o hagar vargayne 

eva me a lavar th-i- 
nebas lowre a vyt[h] an g way in* 

pan vo genas cowle comptys 
795 soweth aylaas 


[Profer the appell to Adam, he refuse! h yt] 
taw adam na vyth serrys 

ny theth droke whath anotha 
an keth perill yth towtys 

hag a Iavery8 thotha 
soo oil an perill in pub poynte 

saw eve thema a wrontyas 
nago thema dowte in case 

war y porill wondrys coyrit 


a molath then horsen kam 
805 ha thage in weth gansa 
ny an gevyth sure droke iarn 
rag tha veadge in tornma 
ha worthy ja gawas blame 


[Lett her spcal; ////// f/7// in Adam]\ 
Yea yea me an gevyth oil an Maine 
HIO tha worthis ge lemyn adam 
pynag[e]ll for ythe an game 

saw a pony dewyow gwryes 
ny veas mal bew serrys 
me ;i won- hoiiu ynta 


sift Taw Taw na vyth jymmo mar ucky 

'I III'. < 

<>K 'mi. \\(,|:l,h 

Thai was .-in ugly bargain, 

Kv. 1 \\ill tell lu (I..-,-; 

Little enough will be the gain 

\Vhen il is willi the,- .juih- . ouui-d. 

795 Woe, ft] 


!>< silent, Adam, do not be angered: 

I'ivil hath nol yi-1. mm<- of it. 
The same peril J feared, 

And told to him 
sou All the peril in every point. 

J^ut he, to me warranted 

That there wa.s not to nx- doubt in (the) case, 
On his peril, wondrous quaint. 

Ah! a curse to the, (-rooked whoreson, 

And to thee also with him: 
We shall Hiin-ly have it a bad h-ap. 
For thy voyage this turn, 
Arid worthy to gel Mann*. 

Yea, yea, I Hhull get all ih<- Maim- 
MO I'Yom thee now, Adam. 

Whatsoever way the game has 

Kill if we were made 
Thou wonldst not be at all (?) an- 
I know that well. 


815 I'eaee. pi-an-. do not 

10 |i..ili>h to me: 


an serpent o re wylly 

ragas she in keth tornma 

ef a brefyas lowre gow theis 
ha genas ymons cregys 
820 ow gyrryow a vyth prevys 

may fyth lowre payne ractha 


yea yea ythosta ge dean fure 

ny vynnys orthaf cola 
mar ny vethaf ow desyre 
825 neffra nyn gwellaf omma 
methan vn spyes 

[Lett her profer to depart 

an eal ega in wethan 
y cowses gyrryow efan 
ha me an creys 

830 syr war nebas lavarow 
tast gy part an avallow 

po ow harenga ty a gyll 

[profer hem the appU 

meir kymar an avail teake 
po sure inter te hath wreage 
835 an garenga quyt a fyll 

mar ny vynyth y thebbry 


henna ytli<-\v hv\v:illi trn 
a ban reys ;ymmo cola 
840 po kelly an garensa 

es ordnys interranye 

fo. 10 a. eva gent[i]ll na vyth serrys 
me a ra <>ll dt-1 vynny 


The serpent was too wily, 

For thee in this same turn. 

He told enough lies to thee, 
And by thee they are believed; 
My words will be proved 

So that there will be pains enough for it. 


Yea, yea, thou art a wise man, 

Thou wilt not listen to me; 
If I have not my desire 
825 Never .... here 
.... one space. 

The angel that was in (the) tree 
Spoke plain words, 

And I believe him. 

830 Sir, in few words, 

Taste thou part of the apples, 
Or my love thou shalt lose. 

See, take the fair apple, 
Or surely between thee and thy wife 
835 The love quite shall fail, 

If thou wilt not eat it. 


That is a mournful thing 
Since it is needful to in*' to hearken. 
840 Or to lose the love 

That is ordained between u.*. 

Gentle Eve, do not be angered; 
I will do all as thou wishest: 



drova thymo desempys 
845 ha me a ra ye thebbrye 

[Eva gevethe hem the appllj 


yea gwra thym indella 
drevon bew ow harenga 

ty a vyth bys venarye 
meer an avail ma omma 
sso kymar ha debar tothta 

dowt me genas tha serry 

[Adam receveth the appll and doth last yt and so 
repenteth and throweth yt away] 


ogh ogh trew ny re behas 

ha re dorras an deffen 
a teball benyn heb grace 
855 ty ram tullas ve heb kene 

agen corfow nooth gallas 

mere warnan pub tenewhan 

om gwethen ny gans deel glase 

agen prevetta pur glose 

860 y whon gwyre dew agen tas 
y sor thyn y teige pur vras 
me an suppose 

[Eva loketh vpon Adam very stranyly and speketh 
[not] eny thing] 

meere mere an gwelta eva 
yma ef ow toos omma 
865 rag nii-ili dean ny a lemma 
tha gutha in tellar close 


adam adam pnnilr.-i \\rHli 

prage ny tlu'th thoui welcomma 


Bring (it) to me immediately, 
845 And I will eat it. 


Yea, do* thus to me, 
Because my living love 
Is to thee for ever. 
See this apple here, 
850 Take and eat quickly, 

Lest I be angry with thee. 

Oh, oh, sad! we have sinned, 

And have broken the prohibition. 
O evil woman, without grace, 
855 Thou hast deceived me without pity. 

Our bodies have gone naked; 

Look upon us (on) every side: 
Let us clothe ourselves with green leaves, 
Our privities full close. 

860 I know truly God our Father 

His anger to us will carry very great, 
I suppose it. 

Look, look, seest thou him, Eve? 
He is coming here: 

865 For shame let us come from hence. 
To hide in a close place. 


Adam, Adam, what dost thou? 

Why comest thou not to welcome me? 



drefan ow bos nooth heb queth 
870 ragas ytheth tha gutha 
yn tellar ma 

[ffig leaves redy to cover ther members^ 

pyw a thysquethas thyso 

tha vos noth tryes corf ha bregh 
lemyn an frute grace na[th]vo 
875 monas the thibbry heb peyghe 
prag y Wresta in della 

thyma ve why a rose gwreag 

hona yw all tha vlamya 
hy a dorras an avail teake 
sso hag an dros thym tha dastya 

a ban golsta orty hy 

ha gwythyll dres ow defan 
in wheys lavyr tha thybbry 
ty a wra bys yth worffan 
885 eva prag y wresta gye 

tulla tha bryas heb ken 

fo. 10 b. an serpent der falsurye 

am temptyas tha w[rjuthell hena 
hag y promysyas tha vee 
890 y fethan tha well net 
lit-mma ew gwyre 



Because of my being naked without a 
870 From thee I went to hide 
In this place. 


Who discovered to thee 

Thy being naked, feet, body and arm ? 
Now the fruit, grace there was not to thee 
875 To go to eat it without sin: 
Why hast thou done so? 


Unto me you gave a wife; 

She is all to blame: 
She broke the fair apple, 
880 And brought it to me to taste. 


Since thou hast hearkened to her, 
And done against my prohibition. 

In sweat labour to eat 

Thou shalt, even to thy end. 
885 Eve, why didst thou 

Deceive thy spouse without mercy? 


The Serpent, by falsehood 
Tempted me to do that; 
And promised to m- 

890 That we should be the better always 
This is true. 


rag ty tha gulla ortye 

ha tulla tha bryas leel 
nefra gostyth thy gorty 
895 me a ordayne bos benyn 
trust gy thorn gear 

may moyghea y lavyer hy 

der weyll ow[?] gorhemen troghe 
na heb mear lavyer defry 
900 benytha nystevyth floghe 

[the father speketh to the serpent_ 

prag y wresta malegas 
lavar aga thulla y 


me a lavar theis an case 
rag bos dethy joy mar vras 
905 ha me pub ere ow lesky 

serpent rag aga themptya 

mer a bayne es thyes ornys 
malegas es dres pub tra 

ha dreis preif ha beast in bys 

910 owne ahanas rag neffra 

dean an gevyth pub preis 
ha te preif a wra cruppya 
ha slynckya war doer a heys 

ynter ye hays hy ha tee 
915 me a wra envy neffra 
ha henna theth pedn ja gy 

than doer sure a wra croppy a 
M8. cruppya. 


GOT) Till; F \TIIEK 

Because thou didst hearken to her, 

And deceive thy loyal spouse, 
Ever subject to her husband 
895 I ordain Woman to be 
Trust thou to my word. 

Let her travail increase 

Through breaking my command, 
Nor without much travail surely 
900 Shall she ever have children. 

Why didst thou, Accursed, 
Say, deceive them? 


I will say to thee the case, 
For that there was to her joy very great, 
905 And I every hour a burning. 


Serpent, for tempting them 

Much pain is ordained to thee. 

Accursed art thou beyond every thing, 

And beyond snake and beast in (the) \vorld. 

910 Fear of thee for ever 

Man shall have it always; 
And thou, Serpent, shalt creep, 
And slink on (the) ground along. 

Between her seed and thee 
915 I will put hatred ever, 
And she thy head for thee 

Shall surely pierce (?) to the Earth. 



attoma hager vyadge 

ma hallaf kyny ellas 
920 yth om brovas gwan dyack 

may thof poyntyes 3 a bayne bras 
tha pytt efarn ow cheif place 

[Let Lucyfer com owte of the serpent, the serpent re- 
mayneth in the tree. And lett hem crepe on his belly 
to hell w th great noyse] 

me a vyn dallath cruppya 

ha slyncya 1 war doer a heys 
925 them shape ow honyn ytama 
why a weall omma treylys 
drog pullat ha brase 

kynnam boma lowena 

an chorle adam hag eva 
930 tha effarn y towns thymmo 
haga asshew rag neffra 
poyntys der ganaw an tas 

fo. tl a. han serpent tregans yna 

nefra nythe alena 
935 rag ythew malegas bras 


a dase dew athe Wullowys 
aban ove tha throke towlys 
graunt tbeth creator me ath pys 
na part a oyle a vercy 


940 adam kyns es dewath an bys 
me a wront oyle mercye theis 

ha tha eva theth wrethtye 
1 MS. slyntya. 



Here is an ugly voyage, 

So that I may lament alas. 
920 I have proved myself a weak husbandman, 
So that I am appointed to great pain. 
To (the) pit of hell, my chief place. 

I will begin to creep 

And slink on (the) ground along; 
925 To my own shape I am 

Turned, you see here 
An evil pullat and great. 

Though I have not joy, 

The churl Adam and Eve 
930 To hell will come to me, 
And their issue for ever 

Appointed by the Father's mouth. 

And let the serpent dwell there: 
Never let it come thence 
935 For it is accursed greatly. 


O Father God, from thy light 
Since I am cast to evil, 
Grant to thy creature, I pray thee, 
Some part of (the) oil of mercy. 


940 Adam, before (the) end of the world, 
I will grant oil of mercy to thee, 
And to Eve thy goodwife. 


sow pur wyre thymo ve creis 

worth tba wreak drefan cola 
945 rag terry an keth frutes 

a wrug defenna 311 wortes 
spearn y teg thym ha speras 
han earbes an keth dorna 
ty a thebar in tha wheys 
950 theth vara pur wyre nefra 
arna veys arta treyles 

an keth doer kyns a wruga 1 
a thowst onima y fus 2 

ha tha thowst y theth arta 

[Let the father ascend to heaven] 


955 theth voth rebo collenwys 

arluth nef han byes keverys 
me a yll bos lowanheys 

kyns es bos dewath an bys 
cawas an oyle a vercy 

960 kynthaw paynes ow cortas 
in effarn in neb place 
my ew 3 neb an dendyllas 
drefan an defan terry 

mehall yskydnyow 4 eall splan 
965 hellowgh adam gans cletha dan 
hay wreage mes a baradice 

ha deaw gweth dothans gwra doen 
thaga hutha pub Season 

aga nootha na ve gwellys 

1 MS. wruffaf. 

a MS. fens. 

3 MS. ow. 

4 MS. yskydrnyow. 


But right truly believe me; 

Because of hearkening to thy \vi! 
945 To break the same fruits 

Which I did forbid thee, 
Thorns shall bear for me (leg. thee) and briars 

And the herbs that same earth. 
Thou shalt eat in thy sweat 
950 Thy bread right truly ever, 
Until thou art again turned 

The same earth I made first. 
From dust here thou wast, 

And to dust thou goest again. 


955 Thy will be fulfilled, 

Lord of Heaven and the world likewise. 
I may be glad 

Before is (the) end of the world, 
To get the oil of mercy. 

960 Though there be pains waiting 
In hell, in every place, 
It is I who have deserved it, 

Because of breaking the prohibition. 


Michael, descend you, bright Angel. 
965 Hunt you Adam with a sword of fire, 
And his wife, out from Paradise. 

And two garments carry unto them 
To cover them in every season, 

That their nakedness be not seen. 

962. British Museum Manuscript, has ?/: u we have deferred it 



[desend angell] 
970 arluth me a wra henna 
parys yw genaf pub tra 

tha vose thothans a lemma 

adam ke in mes an wlase 

tha greys an bys tha vewa 
975 te tha honyn tha ballas 

theth wreag genas tha netha 

[ The garmentis of skynnes to be geven to adam and evc\ 
by the angell. Receave the garmentis. Let them depart 
owt of paradice and adam and eva folowing them. Lew 
them put on the garmentis and shewe a spyndell and i\ 

adam attorn a dyllas 
hage eva thages quetha 

ffystenowgh bethans gweskes 

980 ffystenowgh trohan daras 

rag omma ny wrewgh trega 
ages tooles tha ballas 
hages pegans tha netha 
y towns parys 


985 me yw cannas dew ankow 
omma drctlm appoyntys 
r:ii^ trrry gnrmrmtdow 

tha udam gans dew ornys 
ci' ;i vcrvr hay ayshew 

990 yn della ythew poyntyes 
ilia vyns a vewa in byes 

m<> flu* India gans ow gew 



970 Lord I will do that: 

Ready with me is everything 
To go to them from hence. 

Adam, go out of the land 

To (the) midst of the world to live. 
975 Thou thyself to dig, 

Thy wife with thee to spin. 

Adam here is raiment, 
And Eve, to clothe you. 

Hasten ye, let them be worn. 

980 Hasten ye through the door, 

For here ye shall not dwell. 
Your tools to delve, 

And your needments to spin 
Are prepared. 


985 I am God's messenger, Death, 

Here by Him appointed. 
For breaking commandments 
To Adam by God ordained. 
He should die and his issue. 

990 Thus is it appointed 

To all that shall live in (the.) world, 
I to slay them with my spear. 


adam na eva pegha 

ha deffan an tas terry 
995 mernans ny wressans tastya 
mes in pleasure venarye 
y a wressa prest bewa 

omma eve ytho poyntyes 

cheif warden war paradice 
1000 ha der pegh a coveytes 

oil y joye ythew kellys 
may fetha paynes ragtha 

gans an Jowle y fowns tulles 
der an serpent malegas 
loos dell welsowgh warbarth omma 

[Death departeth 


henna ythew trewath bras 
der an serpent malegas 

ny tha vonas mar gucky 
may thew kellys thyn an place 
1010 o ornes thyn lean a ioye 
tha vewa omma neffra 

lemyn Eva ow fryas 

henna ytho tha folly gye 
rag henna paynes pur vras 
1015 yma ornes ragan ny 

may hellyn kyny dretha 


me ny wothyan gwyll dot ha 

kemys gyrryo\\ i<nkc am b[r]eff 
der henna war ow ena 
i -" me a supposyas eall neff 
\ilmva clriivriivs lliyni 


Had Adam or Eve not sinned, 

And broken the prohibition of the Father, 
995 Death they would not have tasted, 
But in pleasure always 
They would ever live. 

Here he was appointed 

Chief -warden over Paradise, 
1000 And through (the) sin of covetousness 
All his joy is lost, 

So that there should be pains for it. 

By the devil they were deceived, 
Through the accursed serpent, 
loos As ye have seen together here. 


That is great sadness, 
Through the accursed serpent 

That we were so foolish; 
So that lost for us is the place 

Which was ordained to us full of joy, 
To live here for ever. 

Now Eve my spouse, 

That was thy folly: 
Therefore pains full great 

Are ordained for us, 

So that we may lament through it. 


I knew not (how) to do to him. 

So many fair words he said to UK-; 
Therefore, on my soul, 
1020 I supposed an angel of heaven 
Was sent to me. 


sera ken foma cregys 

y flattering o mur gloryes 

ny wothyan guthell nahean 
1025 ram lowta 1 

a soweth te tha gregye 

than Jowle bras hay anfugye 
rage ytho ef re wylly 

pan 2 eth in serpent agye 
1030 rag tha dulla 

fo. 12 a. a ban omma cowle 3 dyckles 
hag a paradice hellys 

me a vyn dallath palas 

rag cawas susten ha boos 
1035 thymo ve ha thorn flehys 

hag aparell [h]a thyllas 


yn weth me a vyn netha 
rag gule dillas thoni cutha 
ha thorn flehys es genys 


1040 ethlays gwef pan ove genys 
ow terry gormenadow dew 
hellys 4 on a paradice 

than noer veys er agen gew 
tra vetholl a rella leas 
1045 ny gavaf omma neb tew 
na susten moy es bestas 

fetla wren omwethu bew 
1 MS. ram lea lowta. 

* MS. p.-uv 

MS. towle. 
4 MS. gellys. 


Sir, though I were hanged, 
His flattering was so glorious, 

I knew not (how) to do otherwise, 
By my loyalty. 

Ah, grief! that thou believedst 

In the great devil and his mischief! 
For he was too wily 

When he went into a serpent within 
1030 To deceive thee. 

Since we are quite helpless, 
And hunted from Paradise, 
I will begin to dig, 

To get sustenance and food 
1035 For me and for my children, 
And apparel and raiment. 


Likewise I will spin, 

To make raiment to cover me, 

And for my children that are born. 


1040 Alas, woe is me that I am born! 
Breaking God's commandments: 
Hunted are we from Paradise 

To the earth -world for our woe. 
Anything at all that will do advantage 
1045 I shall not find here (on) any side, 
Nor sustenance more than beasts; 
How shall we keep ourselves alive? 




nynsew lielma paradice 

a nagew adam nagew 
1050 ena ythesa flowrys 

ha frutes teke aga lew 
thagan maga 

orta meras pan wrellan 
channgys yw an rowle lemyn 
1055 Ellas orthan prif cola 


[shew her ij sonnes 
deaw vabe yma thym genys 
ha tevys ythyns tha dnes 
why oil as gweall 

cayne ythew ow mabe cotha 
loeo ha abell ew ow mabe younka 
flehys evall ha gent[e]ll 

[He speahethe to Cayne, 

me a vyn thewhy poyntya 
service tha teag hay gela 

rage rowlya eys ha chattell 
1065 cayne tha chardge ge a vyth 
war kerth barlys ha gwaneth 

tha wethill an dega leall 

[He turnethe to Abell) 

hag abell an oblashyon 
war an beastas han nohan 
1070 han devidgyow oil in gweall 

ha penvo reys degevy 

gorowgh y than mownt tabor 
hag ena gwrewh aga lyskye 




This hall is not Paradise, 

Ah it is not, Adam, it is not! 
1050 There were flowers, 

And fruits, fair their hue, 
To feed us. 

On them when I do look, 
Changed is the rule now, 
1055 Alas, to listen to that worm! 


Two sons are bdrn to me, 
And they are grown to men 
Ye all see them 

Cain is my eldest son, 
loeo And Abel is my youngest son 
Children humble and gentle. 

I will unto you appoint 

Service to bear(?) and his fellow 

To rule corn and cattle. 
1065 Cain, thy charge shall be 
Over oats, barley and wheat 

To make the loyal tithe. 

And Abel the oblation 
On the beasts and the oxen 
1070 And all the sheep in [the] field. 

And when there shall be need to make tithe, 

Put them to the Mount Tabor, 
And there do you burn them, 


dowt dew genow tha 1 serry 
1075 mar ny wreen oblacon leall 


adam ow thas caradowe 
me a ra heb falladowe 

tha worhemyn yn tean 

reys yw pur -ryes lavyrrya 
loso ha gones an beise omma 

tha gawas theny susten 

[A lamb redy with fyre and insence 

mos then menythe me a vyn 
ha gwyll an dega lemyn 

ha lesky holma pur glane 

fo. 12 b. loss han degvas oil a bub tra 
oblashion sure anotha 

me a dylla oil gans tane 


ye lysky ny vannaf ve 
an eys nan frutes defrye 
1090 taw abell thy mo pedn cowge 

me a guntell dreyne ha spearn 
ha glose tha leskye heb beam 
hag a ra bush brase a vooge 


cayne nyngew henna gwryes vas 
1095 yn gorthyans tha thew an tase 
gwren agen sacrafice leall 
1 MS. that. 


Lest God be angry with you 
1075 If we make not loyal oblation. 


Adam, my loveable father, 
I will do without fail 

Thy command altogether. 

It is needful, right needful to labour, 
loso And to till the world here, 

To get sustenance for us. 


I will go to the mountain, 
And make the tithe now, 

And burn all this right clean. 

1085 And all the tithe of everything, 
An oblation surely of it 

I will set forth all with fire. 


Burn it I will not 
The corn nor the fruits certainly: 
1090 Be silent, Abel, to me, dolt -head! 

I will gather brambles and thorns 
And dry cowdung to burn without regret, 
And will make a great bush of smoke. 


Cain, that is not well done; 
1095 In honour to God the Father 

Let us make our loyal sacrifice. 


dew a therfyn bos gwertbyes 
gans an guella frute pub preys 
me an gwra a vs merwall 

1100 cayne ow brodar 
mere ha predar 

henna yw moog wheake 


taw theth cregye 
hema yw gwell defry 
1105 te foole crothacke 

ny yll bos 

pan wreth gans glos 
thethe sacrefice 


re thew an rose 
1110 mensan tha vos 
ughall cregys 

rage errya sure war ow fyn 
me ath wiske harlot jawdyn 
may th-omelly theth kylbyn 1 

[A chawbone ready e) 

1115 kymar henna 
te ploos adla 
war an chala gans askern an chala 


lAbell ys strycken with a chawc bone and dyeth] 
a trew ay lace 
1 MS. kylban. 


God determines (?) to be worshipped 
With the best fruit always; 
I will do it above marvel. 

1100 Cain my brother, 
Look and consider; 

That is a sweet smoke. 


Be silent, hang thee! 
This is better certainly. 
1105 Thou bigbellied fool! 


It cannot be, 

Since thou makest with dried cowdung 
Thy sacrifice. 


By God who made him, (?) 
1110 I should wish [him] to be 
Hung high. 

For striving (?) against me 

I will strike thee, rogue, rascal (?), 

That thou fall on top of thy back. 

iii5 Take that 

Thou foul knave (?) 

On the jowl, with (the) bone of the jowl. 


O sad! alas! 
1099. The Museum Copy has a vo in well, "That it may he for the best' 


te 1 rom lathas 
1120 cayne ow brodar 

yn bysma rag tha wreans 
ty a berth sure gossythyans 
ken na bredar. 


otta marow horssen chorle 
1125 ny vannaf bos controllys 

he is now ryd owt of the world [Englisch] 

y fensan y voos cuthys 
in neb toll kea 

an gwase a vynsa leskye 
H30 agen esowe in tevery 

ny yllan perthy henna 

tha thew nyngeis otham vythe 
awoos cawas agen pythe 
me a wore gwyre 

[Cast Abell into a dychejl 

1135 ow thase ken fova serrys 
pan glowa an nowethys 

y vos lathys me ew heare 
ny sensaf poynt 

merough pymava towles 
1140 in death tha vonas peddrys 
nymbes yddrag vythe yn beise 

[gans] owe doarn ke thewe lethys 
par del oma gwicker coynt 

[when y' father speakethe to Cayme left hem looke don-in 

cayme thyma pyma abell 
1145 ow gweryby vskys gwra 
1 MS. to. 


Thou hast slain me 
1120 Cain, my brother. 

In this world, for thy deed, 
Thou shalt surely bear affliction 
Think not otherwise. 


Dead is a whoreson churl: 
1125 I will not be controuled: 

He is now rid out of the world: 
I would that he were hidden 
In some hole of a hedge. 

The fellow would have burnt 
USD Our corn in earnest 

I could not bear that. 

Unto God there is no want at all 
On account of having our property, 
I know truly. 

1135 Though my father should be angered 
When he hears the news 

That he (Abel) is slain, I am heir: 
I shall not feel(?) a point. 

See ye where he is cast 
luo Into a ditch to be rotted: 

I have no repentance in (the) world, 
By my hand though he be slain, 
As I am a quaint dealer. 


Cain, for me where is Abel? 
1145 Do answer me quickly. 



ny won arluthe dyhogall 
henna ty a wore ynta 
my nyngof warden thotha 

perhaps blygh so mot I go 
iiso an lathas pols a lema 
an harlot ploos 

cooth ew eve hag avlethis 
pan na ylla omweras 

y vaw ny vidna boos 

1155 yta voice mernans abell 

thethe vrodar prest ow kyllwall 
an doer warnas pub tellar 

malegas nefra reby 
hag oil an tyer a bewhy 
HBO ew malegas yth ober 

frute da bydnarre thocka 

na dadar avail neb preise 
ow molath y rof thyja 

molath ow mabe haw sperys 
lies thyso kymar 


[Let not cayme looke in the father is face but look dowm 
$ quake] 

theth voice arluth a glowaf 
saw tha face me ny wellaf 
sure er ow gew 

moy ew ow gwan oberowe 
ii7o hag in wethe ow fehasowe 



I know not, Lord, certainly - 

That - - Thou knowest well 
I am not warden to him: 

Perhaps so mote I go, 

1150 Killed him a little from hence - 
The foul rascal! 

Old is he and wretched: 
Since he could not keep himself, 
His servant I would not be. 


1155 Lo! (the) blood of (the) death of Abel, 
Thy brother, is always calling 

From the earth on thee, every where. 

Accursed ever be thou, 
And all the land thou ownest 
IIGO Is accursed in thy deed. 

Good fruit let it never bear, 

Nor goodness of apple (at) any time 
My curse I give to thee; 

(The) curse of my Son and my Spirit 
ii65 Take unto thee. 


Thy voice, Lord, I hear, 
But thy face I do not see, 
Surely for my woe. 

More are my weak deeds, 
1170 And also my sins, 

1149, A wolf? See Bleit, in Vocabulary. 


es tell ew tha vercy dew 
thym tha ava 

lemyn deffryth ove ha gwag 

pur wyre dres oil tues in byes 
1175 me ne won leverall prage 

gans peb na vethaf lethys 
en rage [?] an keth obarma 


cayme na vethys in della 
rag tha lath a dean mar qwra 
HBO eve an gevyth vij kemmys 

[Let the father make a marche in his forehead this 
word omega] 

token warnas me a wra 
henna gwelys pan vova 

ny vethis gans dean towches 


me a vyn mose thorn sera 
1185 tha welas pana fara 

a wra ef an nowethys 

now god speda theis ow thase 
me a wrug oblashion brase 

hag a loskas shower a yees 

[The father depart to heaven] 


1190 henna ytho 1 gwryes pur tha 
pyma abell cowes henna 
der nagewa devethys 

1189. Lowes a yse, "corn enough". Brit. Mus. Codex. 
1 MS. ythe. 


Than so is Thy mercy, God, 
To forgive me. 

Now feeble am I and empty 

Right truly beyond all folk in (the) world : 
1175 I know not (how) to say why 

By every one I shall not be slain 
Here for this same deed. 


Cain, thou shalt not be so: 
For if any man shall slay thee 
HBO He shall get it seven (times) as much. 

A token on thee I will make 
When that shall be seen 

Thou shalt not be touched by a man. 


I will go to my Sire, 
To see what notice (?) 

He will take of the news. 

Now God speed thee, my father 1 
I made a great oblation, 

And burnt a shower of corn. 

1190 That was done full well. 

Where (is) Abel say that - 
That he is not come back? 

1185. "To see what an affray lie will make at the news." See the 
rnish Drama D. 340, where the word should have been so render. 


anotha marsses predar 

worth y wothyas govena 
lias a rogella ye vrodar 

me an syns gwethe es bucka 
ny won py theth tha wandra 

fo. 13 a. hemma ythew gorryb skave 

yma ow gwyll ow holan clave 
1200 war tha glowas in torn ma 

ty ren lathas rom lowta 

ow molath theis rag henna 
ha molath tha vabm ganso 

te a vith sure magata 
1205 an nowothow pan glowa 

y holan terry a wra 
omskemynes del ota 

quicke in ker ke a lebma 
ny berraf gweall ahanas 

1210 rag cavow sevall om saf 
war doer lemyn vmhelaf 

ow holan ter deaw gallas 

omskeni[i]nys lower ythove 

nyngew reis skemyna moye 
1215 nyth a nea perth ge cove 1 
na ow dama in teffrye 
me a vyn kyns es hethy 
mos a IciiKi 

I Kna cometh to adam irltcr lit' Jt/eth and she proffer tt 
take hem vpe] 

1 M8. vetou. 



For him if thou art .anxious 
Ask of his acquaintance 

1195 If he have hidden (?) his brother: 

I hold him worse than a goblin - 

I know not where he has gone to wander. 


This is a light answer 
It is making my heart sick 
1200 Hearing thee at this turn. 

Thou hast slain him, by my loyalty 

My curse to thee for that, 
And thy mother's curse with it 

Thou shalt have surely as well. 
1205 The news when she hears 

Her heart will break. 
Accursed as thou art 
Quickly go away hence; 

I cannot bear sight of thee. 

1210 For sorrows I stand upright: 

On (the) ground now I cast myself, 
My heart is gone in two. 


Accursed enough am I, 

It is not needful to curse more. 
1215 I will not deny thee bear thou remembrance 
Nor my mother seriously: 
I will, rather than stay, 
Go from hence, 

L. 195. a rag ella, "if he be gone forward." B. M. < 


ha gwandra a dro in powe 
1220 kebmys yw an molothowe 

dowt yw thyni cawas trygva 


adani pandra whear thewhy 
yn delma bonas serrys 

vn ow holan pur thefry 
ythoma pur dewhanliees 
ortha welas in statema 


a Eva ow freas kear 

ow holan ew ogas troghe 
oil owe joye ythew pur wyre 
1230 kellys der mernans ow floghe 
neb a geryn an moygha 


sera ny won convethas 

ages dewan in neb for 
agen deaw vabe ja thew grace 
1235 y thins pur vew byth na sor 1 
whath nyngew pell 

cayme hag abell tc a wore 
ornys yns tlia vmvnt tabor 
tha weyll oftren dehogall 

1240 ha nu-cr cayne via ena 

devclhvs tha drc totlita 
raj; liciina >al' \ piaytlia 
ha i^as cavoNV ja waiulra 
me nc hivdrraf t^Nvcll I'or 

1 MS. for. 

I.. I'J-Jt'.. . ,il> tin //V/M.S. |;. M. Co.l.-x. 

Till-: rUKATloN OF T11K \V<)1;L1>. 99 

And wander about in (the) eoimn 
1220 So many are the curses, 

I have fear of finding a dwelling. 


Adam, what vexeth you 

Thus to be angered? 

In my heart full surely 

1225 I am greatly grieved, 

Seeing thee in this state. 

Ah Eve, my dear spouse, 

My heart is nigh broken; 
All my joy is full truly 

1230 Lost, through (the) death of my child 
Whom I loved the most. 


Sir, I know not (how) to understand 

Your grief in any way. 
Your two sons thanks to God 
1235 Were quite alive be not angry 
It is not long since. 

Cain and Abel, (as) thou knowest, 
Are ordered to Mount Tabor. 
To make offering certainly. 

1240 And see! Cain is there, 

Come home very quickly: 
Therefore stand up, I pray tti 
And leave sorrows to wander: 
I think not of a better way. 



1245 eva nyngew tha gellas 
an obar ma tha wellas 

lethys yw abell na sor 


[Eta is sorrotrf'ulle tereth her haire $ falleth downe 
rpon adam. he conforteth her] 
pewa abell y\v lethys 

dew defan y foja gwyre 
1250 nynges dean vytholl 1 in byes 
tha wythell an kethe murder 
mes te haw rnabe cotha cayne 


a gans cayne oniskemynes 
ow mabe abell yw lethys 
1255 may thove genys tha veare payne 

sor dew ha trub[e]ll pub tew 
yma pub ower ow cressya 

yn bysma ha drevon bew 

ow sure a wra penya 
1260 nymbes ioy a dra in byes 


owt aylas pandra vyth gwrys' 
henima ew yeyne nawothowe 

ow holan ythew terrys 

fensan ow bosaf marowe 
1265 soweth bythqwathe bos forinys 

a te cayne omskemunys 

ow molath thejo 1 pub preys 

1 MS. vytlu-ll. 3 MS. 

T11IC CREATION <>! rill. \\<i|M.I'. 



1245 Eve, U is not to hide 
This work to see. 

Slain is Abel: be not troubled. 


What? is Abel slain? 

God forbid (it) should be true! 
1250 There is no man at all in (the) world 
To do the same murder, 

But thee and my eldest son Cain. 


Ah! by Cain accursed 
My son Abel is slain, 
1255 So that I am born to great pain. 

God's wrath and trouble on every side 

Are every hour increasing. 
In this world and whilst we be alive 

He surely will punish me: 
1260 I have no joy of aught in (the) world. 

Out! alas! what shall be done? 

This is cold news: 
My heart is broken: 

I would that I were dead! 
1365 Alas ever to be formed! 

Ah thou Cain accursed! 
My curse to thee al \va\~' 


henna o gwan obar gwryes 

may ma dew ban noer koffrys 
1270 warnas pub ere ow crya 


rag henna wo^a hemma 
nefra ny wren rejoycya 

mes pub ere oil ow mornya 

heb ioy vyth na lowena 
1275 der tha wadn ober omma 

rag henna voyde a lema 
na whela agen nea 

mab molothow par del os 

ow molath thejo pub preys 
1280 ha molath tha dase keffrys 
te a v* in gyth ha noos 


me ny wraf vry a henna 
me a levar theis dama 
kybmys molothow omma 
1285 me a wore ny sewenaffa 
nefra yn beyse 

[Cayme speakethe to hys 

rag henna mos a lema 
me a vyn ny won pylea 

rag bythqwath me nyn kerys 

1290 malbew yddrag es thy inn 

an chorle abell vs latha [leg. lethys] 
a voyd da ma 

cuntell warbarth ow fegans 
me a vyn mos pur vskys 
1295 ha woja hemma dewans 

pell in devyth tha wandra 

TIM. < m;.\Ti<N <M i in. \\OKI.II. 

That \vas a \\cak \\ork done. 

So that CJod and tin- arth also are 
1270 Crying on llicc every hour. 

Therefore after this 

Never shall we rejoice. 
But always all a -mourning, 

Without any joy or ghuln- 
1275 Through thy weak dei-.d here. 

Therefore begone from hence, 
Nor seek to deny us, 

Son of curses as thou art. 

My curse to thee always, 
1280 And thy father's curse likewise 

Thou shalt have by day and night. 

I do not make account of that, 

I say unto thee mother: 
So many curses (are) here 
1285 I know I shall not prosper 
Ever in (the) world. 

Therefore go from hence 
I will, I know not \\lierr. 
For never (was) I loved. 

1290 No manner (?) of repentance i* to me. 
The churl Abel is dead; 
Begone, mother. 

Gather together our needments 

I will go full quickly. 
1295 And after this speedily 

To wander far in (the) desert. 


OILMAN A his Wlf 

A cayne cayne ow fryas kere 
ty a wruge pur throog ober 
tha latha abell dean da 

fo. 14 b. 1300 theth owne vrodar ythova 
haw brodar ve magata 
rag henna warbyn cunda 
ytho theis motty latha 

sor dew yma thyn ragtha 


1305 tety valy bram an gathe 

nynges yddrag thymo whath 
awos an keth oberna 


ow fryas gwella tha geare 

gas tha ola hath ega 
isio gwrew grasse thagen maker 
agan lavyr in bysma 
ny an dyllas ha moye 

rag henna woja hemma 

in chast gwren ny kes vewa 
1315 ha carnall ioye in bysma 
ny a vyn warbarth naha 
der vothe an tase a vercye 

adam na wrethe in della 

bewa in kethe order na 
i32o theth hays a wra incressya 

heb number tha accomptya 

in della ythe\\ jipjH.yntyes 
\4. 1308. ow gear, tt my word." B. M. Codex. 

Till, CREATIOM OF T11J-: \Voi;u>. 


Ah Cain, Cain, my dear spouse, 

Thou hast done a lull evil deed 

To slay Abel, a good man. 

i3uu Thy own brother was lie, 

And my brother as well. 
Therefore against nature 

Was it for thee to go to slay him 
God's anger is to us for it. 

1305 Tety vahj! a cat's wind! 

There is not repentance to me yet 
On account of that same deed. 

My spouse, behold thy gear; 

Leave thy weeping and thy groaning(P), 
1310 Give you thanks to our Maker; 
Our labour in this world 

We have deserved it and more (?). 

Therefore after this 

Chastely we shall live together, 
1315 And carnal joy in this world 
We will together deny (us), 

By (the) wish of the Father of N 


Adam, thou shalt not thus 
Live in that same order. 
1320 Thy seed will increase 

Without number to count : 
Thus is it appointed. 


ty a vyth mabe denethys 

a the corf sure na wra dowtya 
1325 henna a vyth havall theis 
na yll dean bos havalla 
ha genaf yfyth kerrys 


[Adam kneleth] 
arluth benegas reby 

orth o\v gwarnya in della 
1330 theth vlonogath pur theffry 
rebo eollenwys neffra 


Kalmana ow lioer ffysten 

gas ny tha vos a lemma 
rag nangew hy pryes ynten 1 
1335 mathew res in ker vaggya 
degen genan agen pegans 

par del osta ow fryas 
haw hoer abarth mamm ha tase 
gallas genaf sor an tase 
1340 rag latha abell pen braas 
ynweth molath mam ha taes 

reys ew thymo moy es cans 


A cayme te a fylles mear 

rag gwethell an keth obar 

1345 ragtha ythos malegas 

fo. 15 a. agen tase ha mamm eva 

lower y mow us y ow miirnya 

^anssy ny vylh ankt-vvs 
an murder bys venarv 
1 MS. ytteru. 

THE CREATION <>| I III, \\<>i;i.|>. 

Thou shall iiavc a son horn 

Of thy body surely - <!<> n ,,t doubt 
1325 He shall be like to thee, 
Man cannot be liker, 

And by me he shall be loved. 


Lord, blessed be Thou, 

Warning me thus! 
1330 Thy will full surely 

Be fulfilled always. 

Calmana, my sister, hasten: 

Let us be hence, 
For now is it quite time 
1335 That it is necessary to voyage away: 
Let us carry with us our needments. 

As thou art my spouse 

And my sister on (the) side of mother and father. 
The Father's anger hath gone with me 
1340 For slaying Abel (the) big -head, 

Also (the) curse of mother and father 

Is given to me more than a hundred. 


O Cain thou hast failed greatly 
For doing the same deed, 
1345 For it thou art accursed. 

Our father and mother Eve 
Enough are they a -mourning 
By them will not be forgotten 
The murder for ever. 


1350 kebmys ew ganssy murnys 
aga holan ew terrys 

rag cavow methaf y dy 


awos henna ny wraf vry 
na anothans y bys voye 
1355 me ny settyaf gwaile gala 

genaf lower y a sorras 
hag am molythys mar vras 
ny sowynaf gon yn ta 
nefra yn byes 

iseo rag henna dune a lema 

yn peldar tha worthe ow thase 
yn cosow mannaf bewa 

po in bushes ha brakes brase 
rag ny bydgyaf bos gwelys 
1365 awos mernans 

rag an murder o mar vrase 

ny yll dew thymo gava 
na ny vethaf in neb case 

tham taes awos descotha 
1370 unwith tha whelas gevyans 


[Let hem sheir the march] 
yn henna ythos tha vlamya 

dew a settyas marke warnas 
en in corne tha dale omma 

ha in delma y leverys 
1375 an gyrryow ma pur thefry 

pynagell dean a \\call henna 
hag a \vrrll;i fha latha 

ef astevyth vij plague moy 

THE CREATION < >F THE Wnlil.l). 

1350 So much is by them mourned. 
Their heart is broken 

For griefs I say ? 


On account of that I will not can-. 
Nor of them ever more 
i35r, Will I set (the) value of a straw. 

With me they have been angry enough, 
And have cursed me so greatly 
I shall not prosper, I know well, 
Ever in (the) world. 

1360 Therefore let us come hence 

Into (the) farness from my father: 
In woods I would live, 

Or in bushes and great brakes, 

For I desire not to be seen 
1365 Because of death. 

For the murder was so great 

God cannot forgive me, 
Nor shall I speak in any case 

To my father, because of discovery. 
1370 Once to seek forgiveness. 


Therein thou art to blame: 
God hath set a mark on thee. 

In the horn of thy forehead here 

And thus he said 
1375 These words right surely: 

Whatsoever man shall see that 
And shall slay thee. 

He shall have sevenfold more. 


an promas me ny roof oye 
1380 y dristya ny vannaf vye 
dowt boos tulles 

aban ew pub tra parys 
deen ny in kerth kekeffres 
peldar adro in byes 

[Some fardell to carre with then 

1385 hagen flehis kekeffrys 

whath kethyns y mar venys 

me a thog ran war ow hyen 
vskes lemyn 

K A L. \i.\\ A 

gwra in della me ath peys 
1390 me a lead an voos am dorn 
ow holan ythew serres [terres] 

that sithe the time that I was borne 
bythqwath me nynbeys moy dewan 


[ShoiP Set ft] 

fo. \ 5 b. gorthys rebo dew an tase 

1395 mabe thymo yma genys 
ha tevys tha boya 1 brase 
seth ow mabe ythew henwys 
why an gweall yta omma 

me a bys than leall drenges 
1400 ha drevo omma yn beys 

ilia voes leall servant thojo 


adam me a levar tlu-ys 
1 MS. that Baga. 

TIII: CITATION OF Tin w.,i;u>. Jn 


For the promise I will not gm- an egg: 
1380 Trust him I will not, 

For fear of being deceived. 

Since everything is readv. 
Let us come away also. 

Afar, round in (the) world. 

1385 And our children also - 

Yet since they are so small, 

I shall carry part on rny back 
Quickly now. 

Do so, I pray thee: 

1390 I will lead the maid by my hand. 
My heart is broken, 

So that since the time that I was born 
Never had I greater grief. 


Worshipped be God the Father! 

A son unto me is born, 
1395 And grown to a great boy: 

My son is named Seth 
Ye see him, behold him here. 

I pray to the loyal Trinity. 
And while he shall be here in (the) world 
To be a loyal servant to it. 


Adam, I will say to thee 


tha vabe seth ew dowesys 

genaf prest thorn servya ve 

1405 a skeans y fyth lenwys 

hog a gonycke magata 
ny vyth skeans vyth in beys 
mes y aswon ev a wra 
der a planantis mes a chy 

1410 der howle ha steare awartha 
ef a ra oil desernya 
an pyth a v* woja hemrna 
kekefrys a throg ha da 


[Adam kneleth $ Seth a/so) 
mear worthyans theis ow formyer 
1415 ha gwrear a oil an beyse 
y bosta arluth heb pare 

in pub place rebo gwerthys 
neb ath honor ny throg fare 

yn seth rebo collenwys 1 
1420 par dell vo tha voth nefra 
omma pur greyf 2 

ha me in weth arluth neif 

ath leall wones del vo reys 
par dell osta arluth creif 
1425 ha drevon omma in byes 
clow ge ow leaf 

may 8 boine grace woja hemma 
theth welas in lowendar 
gans tha elath awartha 
1480 vlmll in neyf 

1 MS. tollen\\ys. 
1 MS. greys. 
3 MS. maym. 


Thy son Seth in chosen 

By me always to serve me. 

1405 With knowledge he shall be filled, 

And with cunning as \\vll. 
There shall be no science in (the) world, 
But he shall know it; 

Through the planets without and within, (?) 

1410 By sun and stars above, 
He shall discern all, 
The thing which shall be hereafter, 
Likewise of bad and good. 


Much worship to Thee, my Former, 
1415 And Creator of all the world. 
Thou art a Lord without peer, 

In every place that shall be worshipped ! 
Whoso honours thee shall not fare ill. 

In Seth shall be fulfilled 
1420 As is thy will always 
Here full strong. 


And I also, Lord of heaven, 

Will serve thee loyally as shall be need, 
As thou art a strong Lord; 
1425 And while we are here in (the) world, 
Hear thou my voice! 

That I may have grace after this 
To see thee in gladness, 
With thine Angels above 
1430 High in heaven! 


LXMKI in tent 
peys I say golsowogh a der dro 

orthaf ve myns es omma 
lamec ythew ow hanowe 

mabe ythove cresowgh thyma 
1435 tha vantusale forsoth 

o cayme mabe adam ythove 

Sevys an Sythvas degre 
arluth bras sengys in prof 

nymbes pur suer ew bewa 
1440 peb am honor par dell goyth 

drog polat ove rom lowta 
na mere a dorn da ny wraf 

mes pub eare oil ow pela 

a dues wan mar a callaf 
1445 ow fancy yw henna 

whath kenthew ow hendas cayne 
pur bad dean lower accomptys 

me an kymmar in dysdayne 

mar ny vethaf ve prevys 
1450 whath mere lacka 

moye es vn wreag thym yma 
thorn pleasure rag gwyll ganssy 

ha sure me ew an kensa 

bythqwath whath a ve dew wreag 

1455 han mowyssye lower plenty 
yma thym nyngens dentye 
rne as kyef pan vydnaf ve 
ny sparyaf anothans y 
malbew onyn a vo teag 

1460 saw ythove wondrys trebles 
skant ny welaf vn banna 


Peace I say! hearken ye round about 

To me (as) many as are here! 
Lamech is my name: 

Son am I believe ye me 
1435 To Methuselah forsooth. 

Of Cain, Adam's son, am I 

Raised, the seventh degree. 
A great lord held in proof; 

There is not full surely living 
1440 Any one that honours me as he ought. 

An evil polat am I, by my loyalty: 

Not much with a good hand do I, 
But always a -coercing 

The weak folk if I can 
1445 My fancy is that. 

Yet though my grandfather Cain is 
A very bad man enough accounted, 

I take it in disdain 

If I be not proved 
1450 Yet much worse. 

More than one wife is there to me 
According to my pleasure to do with 

And surely I am the first 

That ever yet had two wives. 

1455 And maids plenty enough 

Are to me they are not dainty 
I find them when I wish, 
I spare not of them 

Especially (?) one who may be fair. 

1460 But I am wondrously troubled. 
Scarce do I see a drop. 



pew an iowle pandra v* gwryes 
me ny won war ow ena 
na whath ny gavas gweras 

1465 an pleasure es thym in beyse 
ythew gans gwaracke tedna 
me a vyn mos pur vskes 
than forest quyck alema 
ha latha an strange bestas 

1470 a vs kyck an bestas na 

na a veast na lodn in beyse 
ny wressan bythqwath tastya 
na whath kyke genyn debbrys 
na gwyne ny vsyan badna 

1475 vyctuall erall theyn yrna 

ha pegans lower tha vewa 
gans krehen an bestas na 
me a ra dyllas thyma 

par del wrug ow hendasow 

1480 haw hendas cayme whath en bew 
yn defyth yn myske bestas 
yma ef prest ow pewa 

drevan serry an taes dew 

towles ew tha vyshow bras 
1485 rag drog polat par dell ew 
ha lenwys a volothowe 

IBoir and anr redy irith the Servant] 

fo. 11 b. ow servant des ines omina 

haw gwaracke dro hy genas 
me a vyn mos tha wundra 
U90 bestas gwylls tha asspeas 
hag a vyn gans ow sethaw 

latha part anothans y 
L. 1464. ny gavaf, u I find not". B. M. Codex. 

TI1K CKKATION ,| m, \vn|:i.M 

Who is the devil? what shall be done? 
I know not on my soul, 

Nor yet hath help been got. 

1465 The pleasure that is to me in (the) world 

Is to shoot with a bow. 
I will go full speedily 

To the forest quickly from hen 
And slay the strange beasts. 

1470 What is (the) flesh of those beasts, 

Nor of beast nor bullock in (the) world, 
We never did taste, 

Nor yet (is) flesh by us eaten, 
Nor wine do we use a drop. 

1475 Other victual to us there is, 

And needments enough to live: 
With skins of those beasts 

I shall make for myself raiment, 
As did my grandsires. 

use And my grandsire Cain yet alivt 
In (the) desert, among beasts, 
He is still living. 

Because God the Father was angry 

He is cast into great mischief. 
1485 For a wicked polat as he is. 
And filled with curses. 

My servant, come thou out hero. 

And my bow bring thou it with thee: 
I will go to wander, 
1490 Wild beasts to espy, 

And I shall with my arrows 
Slay a part of them. 



ages gweracke ha sethow 
genaf y towns y parys 
1495 me as lead bez yn cosow 
hag ena y fythe kevys 

plenty lower in pur thefry 

[depart lameck. his servant leadethe hem to the Forest 
near the bushe] 

gans pob me ew ankevys 

nyn aswon na mere a dues 
isoo cayne me a vythe henwys 
mabe cotha adam towles 

why a weall tha vysshew bras 

whath ow holan ythew stowte 
awos latha abell lowte 
isos na whath vs molathe an tase 

nymbes yddrack v* in beys 

why am gweall over devys 

ythama warbarth gans bleaw 
ny bydgyaf bonas gwelys 
1510 gans mabe den in bysma bew 
drefan omboos omskemynes 

haw thas adam y volath 

gallas genaf hay sor braes 
drefan henna in neb place 
1515 ny allaf cavos powas 

mabe molothow yjof gwryes 

der henna my ny vethaf 

doos in myske pobell neb pryes 
mes pub ere ow omgwetha 
1530 yn cossowe hag in bushes 

avell beast prest ow pewa 


Your bow and arrows 

With me they are ready: 
1495 I will lead you to (the) woods. 
And there will be found 

Plenty enough in very earnest. 

By every one I am forgotten, 

I know not much people; 
isoo Cain I am called 

Adam's eldest son, cast, 
You see, to great mischief. 

Yet my heart is stout: 
Because of slaying Abel (the) lout, 
isos Nor yet of the father's curse 

Have I repentance at all in (the) world. 

Ye see me overgrown 

I am altogether with hair: 
I do not desire to be seen 
1510 By a son of man in this world aliv. . 
Because of my being accursed. 

And my father Adam his curse 

Hath gone with me, and his great anger : 
Because of that in any place 
1515 I cannot find rest 

A son of curses I am made. 

Through that I am not 

Come among people at any time: 
But always keeping myself 
1520 In woods and in buslio. 

Like a beast ever living. 


ow folly ythew mar vras 

haw holan in weth pur browt 
ny vanaf tha worth an tase 
1525 whylas mercy sure heb dowte 
kyn namboraa lowena 

owne yma thym a bub dean 

ganso tha von as lethys 
saw an tase dew y hunyn 
1530 y varck warnaf y settyas 

poran gans y owne dewla 
why oil an gweall 

[Shew the marcke 
hag yth cowses yn delma 
na wra dean vyth ow latha 
1535 war b[e]yn y thysplesure leel 

fo. 17 a. hag owe latha neb a wra 

vij gwythe y wra acquyttya 

y cowses gans chardge pur greyf 

saw whath wos an promes na 
1540 mere y thesaf ow towtya 

y bedna jym ny vyn ef 

[Let hem hyde hem self in a 

rag henna war ow ena 
me a vyn mos tha gutha 

in neb bushe kythew thym greyf 


1545 mester da der tha gymmyas 
me a weall un lodn pur vras 
han[y]s in bushe ow plattya 

sera in myske an bestas 
strange ythew eve tha welas 
1550 merough mester 1 pymava 

MS. A. 

THE CREATION OF Till- \\(i; U , 

My folly is so great, 

And my heart also very proud, 
I will not of the Father 
1*25 Seek mercy surely without doubt, 
Though I have not joy. 

Fear is to me of every man 

By him to be killed; 
But the Father God Himself 
1530 His mark on me hath set 

Rightly with his own hands 
Ye all see it - 

And hath spoken thus; 
That no man shall be slaying me, 
1535 On pain of His loyal displeasure. 

And he that shall slay me, 
Seven times he shall pay, 

He said, with a very strong charge. 

But still notwithstanding that promise 
1540 Greatly am I a-fearing 

His blessing to me He will not (give). 

Therefore on my soul, 
I will go to hide 

In some bush, though it be a grief for me. 


1545 Good master, by thy leave, 
I see a very large bullock 

From thee in a bush a-crouching (?). 

Sir, among the beasts 
Strange it is to see 
1550 Look you, master, where he is. 


bythware thym na vova dean 

rag me ny allaff meddra 
set ow seth the denewhan 
may hallan tenna thotha 
1555 na berth dowt y fythe gwyskes 


[let his man levy II the arrotoe; and then shote^ 
nefra na wrewgh why dowtya 
ken es beast nagew henna 

ha strange yw tha vos gwelys 

now yta an seth compys 
iseo tenhy in ban besyn peyll 
pardell os archer prevys 
hag a lathas moy es myell 
a vestas kyns es lemyn 


now yta an seth tennys 
1565 ban beast sure yma gweskes 
y vernans gallas ganja 

[when cayme is stryken left bloud appeare $ let hen 

lead ve quycke besyn thotha 
may hallan ve attendya 
pan vanar Ion ythewa 

1570 owt aylas me yw marowe 

nymbes bewa na fella 
gwenys ove der an assow 

hau srtrli gallas quyte drethaf 
pur ogas marow ythof 



Be thou ware for me that it be not a man, 

For I cannot aim; 
Set mine arrow to a side, 

That I may shoot at it; 
1555 Have no fear, it will be struck. 


Do not you doubt: 
Other than a beast that is not, 
And strange it is to be seen. 

Now behold the arrow straight: 
iseo Draw it up to the head, 
As thou art a proved archer, 

And hast slain more than a thousand 
Of beasts before now. 


Now behold the arrow shot, 
ises And the beast surely is struck; 
His death has gone with it. 

Lead me quickly even unto it 
That I may consider (?) 

What manner of bullock it is. 


1570 Out! alas! I am dead! 

1 shall not have life longer. 
Pierced am I through the ribs, 

And the arrow hath gone quite through me 
Very near dead am I. 


[Lamec cometh to hem $ fyleth kem\ 

1575 pardell vema vngrasshes 
lemyn ythoma plagys 

dell welowgh why oil an prove 


owt te vyllan pandres gwryes 
sure hema ew dean lethys 
isso me an clow prest ow carma 

ow karma yma an beast 

me an gweall ow trebytchya 
gallas gonja hager feast 

r 7 y grohan thym I pray tha 
1585 tha wyell queth thym tha wyska 

fo. 12 b. blewake coynt yw ha hager 

ny won pane veast ylla boos 
yth falsa orth y favoure 
y bosa neb bucka noos 

1590 ha henna y fyth prevys 

[hear Lamec feleth hem 


gorta gas vy the dava 

drefan gwelas mar nebas 
pew osta lavar thymma 

marses den po beast bras 
1595 dowte ahanas thym yma 

a soweth vmskemynes 

me ew cayne mabe tha adam 

THE CREATION OF THK tt'uKl.h. j -,;, 

1575 Even as I was graceless, 
Now am I plagued, 

As ye all see the proof. 


Out thou villain! what is done? 
Surely this is a man slain, 
I hear him still a -crying. 

A -crying is the beast, 

I see him a -tumbling; 
Gone (it) has with him, ugly beast: 
Give his skin to me, I pray thee, 
1585 To make a garment for me to clothe (me). 

Hairy, quaint he is and ugly; 

I know not what beast it can be: 
It should seem by his favour 

That he is some goblin of night, 
1590 And that shall be proved. 


Stay, let me feel (?) him, 

Because of (my) seeing so little. 

Who art thou? say to me 

If thou art a man or a great beast 
1595 A doubt of thee is to me. 


Ah unhappy ! accursed ! 
I am Cain, son to Adam. 


genas y thama lethys 

molath theis ow thas 1 ha mam 
leoo haw molath ve gans henna 

pewa te ew cayne mab tha adam 

ny allaf cregye henna 
defalebys os ha cabm 

overdevys oil gans henna 
1605 ythos gans bleaw 

prag ythosta in delma 
yn bushes ow crowetha 
marth bras ythew 

me ny allaf convethas 
i6io y bosta ge ow hendas 

na care v* thym in teffry 

am corf ythos devethys 

hag a adam tha hendas 
lemyn ythos melagas 

ha vij plag te hath flehys 
1615 a v* plagys creys |a ve 

marcke dew warnaf ew sethys 
te an gweall in come ow thale 

gans dean penvo convethys 

worthaf ve serten ny dale 
i62o bos mellyes a vs neb tra 


te a weall veary nebas 
banna ny allaf gwelas 

tha vos accomptys rom lowta 
MS. theis tha thas. 


By thee I am slain. 

A curse to thee of my father and mother, 
leoo And my curse with that. 

What? art thou Cain, son to Adam? 

I cannot believe that. 
Deformed thou art and crooked; 

Therewith all overgrown 
1605 Thou art with hair. 

Why art thou so 
In bushes a -lying? 

A great marvel it is. 

I cannot discover 
IGIO That thou art my grandsire, 

Nor any kinsman to me in earnest. 


Of my body thou art come, 

And of Adam thy grandsire. 
Now art thou accursed, 

And sevenfold thou and thy children 
IBIS Shall be plagued believe me. 

God's mark on me is set, 

Thou seest it in (the) horn of my forehead; 
By man when it shall be discovered, 

With me certainly ought not 
1620 To be meddled on any account. 


Thou seest very little, 
A drop I cannot see 

To be accounted, by my loyalty. 
L. 1620. See 0. 163, 480. 


prag y wruge dew settya merck 
1625 in corn tha dale thym lavar 
kyn verhan warn as mar stark 1 
ny welaf mere ath favoure 
na merke vetholl yth tale 

fo. 18 a. me a levar heb y dye 

1630 genaf dew a wrug serry 
hay volath in pur theffry 
thym a rose 

drefan lath a ow brodar 
abell o henna predar 
less mara mynta y wothfas 

der henna me a thowtyas 

gans peb a fethan lethys 
saw dew thy ma a wrontyas 

war y thyspleasure ef ryes 
1640 ny vethan in keth della 

ha pennagle a wra henna 
plages y fetha ragtha 
hay verck y settyas ornma 

in corne ow thale rag token 

1645 ha tha ganas she omskemynys 
o me tha vo[na]s lethys 

en ath dewlagafs] lemyn 

LA me 

a soweth gwelas an pryes 
genaf y bosta lethys 
1650 marsew ty cayne ow hendas 

ow boy a o tha vlamya 
1 MS. start. 


Why did God set a mark 

1625 In (the) horn of thy forehead? tell to in<- 
Though I look on thee so strongly, 
I see not much of thy favour, 

Nor any mark at all in thy forehead. 


I will tell without swearing it: 
1630 With me God was angry, 

And his curse in good earnest 
Gave to me, 

Because of slaying my brother 
Abel that was think - 
1635 If thou wouldst know it. 

Through that I feared 

By every one I should be slain, 
But God to me granted, 

On His displeasure (it was) given, 
1640 That I should not be so. 

And whosoever should do that, 
Plagues he should have for it, 
And His mark he set here 

In (the) horn of my forehead for a token. 

1645 And by thee accursed 
O me to be slain, 

In thy two eyes now! 


Ah unhappy! to see the time 
By me thou art slain, 
1650 If thou art Cain my grandsire. 

My boy was to blame, 
1647. B. M. Codex: en ath dewla ena Itmyn: "in thy hands there now. 


ef a ornas thym tenna 
ba me ny wellyn banna 

me nebas pur wyre in faes 

1655 a lamec drog was ythos 

ha me in weth mear lacka 
bemma o vengeance pur vras 
ha just plage ornys thyma 
soweth an pryes 


1660 cayne whath kenthota ow hendas 

tha aswon me ny wothyan 
na ny wrugaf tha wellas 
nangew sure lyas blethan 
drefan bos defalebys 


1665 defalebys ove pur veare 

hag over devys gans bleawe 
bewa ythesaf pub eare 

in tomdar ha yender reaw 

sure nos ha dyth 

1670 ny bydgyaf gwelas mabe dean 
gans ow both in neb termyn 
mes company leas gwyth 
a bub beast 1 

oil an trobell thym yma 
1675 an chorle abell rag lath a 

hema ew gwyer thymo trest 


prag ye wrusta ye latha 
1 MS. beastas. 

THE CREATION OF Till. WoKl.h | 3 \ 

He bade me to shoot, 
And I saw not a drop 

I right truly little ? 


1655 Ah Lamech, an evil fellow art thou. 

And I also much worse: 
This was vengeance full great, 

And a just plague ordained for me, 
Unhappy the time! 


i860 Cain, yet though thou art my grandsire, 
To recognize thee I knew not (how), 
Nor did I see thee, 

Now it is surely many years, 
Because of being deformed. 


1665 Deformed am I very much, 

And overgrown with hair; 
I am living always 

In heat and coldness of frost, 

Surely night and day. 
1670 I desire not to see a son of man 
With my will at any period, 
But company many times 
With every beast. 

All the trouble is to me 
1675 For slaying the churl Abel - 
This is true, trust to me. 

Why didst thou slay him? 



hag eve tha vrodar nessa 

henna o gwadn ober gwryes 


fo. 18b. 1680 drefan eve thorn controllya 
ha me y vrodar cotha 

ny wrug refrance thym in beys 

der henna me a angras 

ha pur vskys an lathas 

1685 nymbes yddrag a henna 

molath dew ha tas ha mam 
gallas genaf ve droag lam 
poran rag an ober na 

ow holan whath ythew prowte 
1690 kynthoma ogas marowe 

mersy whelas yma thym dowte 

thymo rag an oberow 
me a wore y vos dew stowte 

thymo ny vidn ef gava 
1695 na gevyans me ny whelaf 

yethesaf ow tremena 

theso ny vannaf gava 
ow ena ny won pytha 

tha effarn ew y drigva 
1700 ena tregans gwave ha have 

ah soweth gwelas an pryes 

cayne ow hengyke ew marowe 
ragtha ty a vyth lethys 

a false lader casadowe 
1705 squattys ew tha ampydnyan 1 

I kill hem with u sta/'J 
1 MS. apydgnyan. 

THE CREATION OF Till-: \\oKl.h. 

And he thy nearest brother - 

That was a weak deed done. 

leso Because that he controuled me, 
And I his eldest brother, 

Nor did reverence to me in (the) world. 

Through that I was angered, 
And very quickly slew him - 
less I have not repentance for that. 

(The) curse of God and (my) father and mother 
Hath gone with me an ill leap 
Right for that deed. 

My heart yet is proud, 
ifiao Though I am nearly dead. 

There is a fear to me to seek mercy 
To me for the deeds. 

I know that God is stout: 

Me will He not forgive, 
1695 Nor forgiveness will I seek. 

I am dying: 

Thee I will not forgive: 
My soul I know not where it will go: 

In hell is its dwelling; 
1700 There let it dwell, winter and summer. 


Ah unhappy! to see the time. 

Cain my ancestor is dead: 
For it thou shalt be slain, 
O false, hateful robber! 
1705 Dashed out (?) are thy brains. 



owt aylas me ew marow 
haw fedn squatyes pur garow 

why an gweall inter dew ran 


rag henna moes a lemma 
1710 my a vydn gwell a gallaf 
ny amownt gwythell duwhan 
lemyn ragtha 

[depart away I 


yma cayne adla marowe 
devn the hethas tha banowe 
1715 han pagya lamec ganso 


deas a ena malegas 
theth vrodar te a lathas 

abell neb o dean gwirryan 

yn tane te a wra lesky 
1720 han keth pagya ma defry 

yn effarn why drog lawan 
/ the devills car[i]elh them w' k great noyes to hett 


yn pytt ma y wreth trega 
genaf ve a barthe wollas 

hag a loske in tomdar tane 

1735 nefra ny thewh a lena 

myns na wra both an tas 



Out! alas! I am dead, 
And my head dashed very cruel I v. 
(You see it) into two parts 


Therefore go from hence 
1710 I will, the best I can. 

It avails not to make lamentation 
Now for it. 


Cain (the) outlaw is dead: 
Let us come to fetch him to pains, 
]? is And the manslayer (?) Lamech with him. 

Come, O accursed soul ! 
To thy brother, whom thou slewest, 
Abel, who was an innocent man. 

In fire thou shalt burn, 
1720 And this same manslayer (?) certainly. 
In hell, ye wicked fiends. 


In this pit thou shalt dwell 
With me on the lower side, 

And shall burn in heat of fire. 

1725 Never shall ye come from thence, 

As many as do not the Father's will 


fo. 1 9 a. seth ow mabe [thym] des omma 

ha golsow ow daryvas 
hyrenath bew ove in bysma 
1730 ma thove squyth an lavyr bras 
es thymo pub noos ha dyth 

rag henna ke a lemma 
tha baradice heb lettya 
ban oyle a vercy whela 
1735 mar kylleth a vs neb tra 

na thowt gorryb ty a vyth 
oil ath negys 


a das kear ny won for thy 
na ny vef bythqwath ena 
1740 me ny allaf prederye 

pan a gwarter ythama 
ser tha whylas paradice 


gwyth in bans compas tha yest 
na gymar dowt na mystrust 
1745 mes an for a vyth kevys 
yn vaner ma 
der ow oberow ena 

ty a weall allow ow thryes 

pan deth ve a baradice 
1750 en an very prynt leskys 

pan ve an noer malegas 
[An angell in the gate of paradice, a bright sworde in 
his hand] 

ha pan deffasta than plas 
ty a gyef in yet vdn call 


Seth, my son, come here (to me), 

And hear my declaration; 
A long time am I alive in this world, 
i<3o So that I am weary of the great labour 
That is to me every day arid night. 

Therefore go from hence 
To Paradise without stopping, 
And seek the oil of mercy, 
1735 If thou canst; for anything 

Do not fear, thou shalt have an answer 
Of all thy errand. 

O dear father, I know not a way to it, 

Nor was I ever there: 
1740 I cannot think 

What quarter I am, 
Sir, to seek Paradise. 


Keep in the straight road to (the) east, 
Nor take fear nor mistrust, 
1745 But the way shall be found 
In this manner 
Through my works there. 

Thou wilt see (the) tracks of my feet, 

When I came from Paradise, 
1750 In the very print burnt, 

When the earth was cursed. 

And when thou shalt have come to the place 
Thou wilt find in a gate an angel, 


a ro gorthib theis in case 
1755 haw desyre ny wraff fillall 
byth avysshes a bub 1 tra 
a welyth ow mabe ena 


[Let seythe depart and folow the pry nt of adam is feel 
to paradice J 

ow thas kere mos a lema 
me a vyn en by and by 
1760 hag y teaf the why arta 

gans gorryb kyns es hethy 
der both an tas awartha 

me a weall ooll tryes ow thas 

am lead ve tha baradice 
1765 hema ew marudgyan bras 
an noer sure ny sowenas 
in for my wruge eave kerras 

der temptacon bras an iowle 

chasshes on a baradice 
1770 me thyeth genaf hager dowle 
ha tha vysshew bras cothys 
ythene der order an tas 
trew govy 

[A tree in paradice irith a rneyd in the topp $ recking 
in her armes the serpent] 

me a weall an place gloryes 
han call yn yet ow sevall 
1775 splan tha welas ha precyous 
me a vyn mos pur evall 
en thotha thy salugy 

fo. J 9 b. call dew an nef awartha 

theis lowena ha mear ioy 

1 MS. but. 


Who will give an answer to thee in (the) case, 
1755 And my desire I shall not fail - 
Be advised of everything 
Which thou seest, my son, there. 


My dear father, go from hence 

I will by and bye, 
1760 And I will come to you again 

With an answer before stopping (?) 
By (the) will of the Father on high. 

I see a print of my father's feet, 

Which leads me to Paradise: 
1765 These are great marvels: 

The earth surely hath riot prospered 
In (the) way he hath made me go. 

By great temptation of the devil 
Chased are we from Paradise, 
1770 So that there went with me an ugly cad 
And to great mischief fallen 
Are we by the Father's order. 
Sad! woe (is) me! 

I see the glorious place, 

And the angel in a gate a -standing, 
1775 Bright to see and precious. 
I will go very humbly 
Unto him to salute him. 

God's Angel of the heaven on hiph! 
Gladness to thee and much j.\ ' 


1780 devethis ythof omma 

gans adam ow thase thewhy 
mar della mar thewgh plesys 

seyth des nes ha [thym] lavare 
tha negissyow heb daunger 
ITSS ha na gymar owne in bys 


ow negys ythew hemma 

tha whelas oyle a vercy 
chardges ythof in della 

[gans] ow thas omma thewhy 
1790 ages bothe marsew henna 

rag ythew ef cothe gyllys 

hag in bysma nangew squyth 
y drobell ythew kemys 

whansack nyngew tha drevyth 
1795 mes pub eare ma ow crya 

war lerth an oyle a vercy 

des nes then yet seth ha myer 

te a weall oil paradice 
avice pub tra ha lavar 
isoo pandra welleth o strangnes 
in iarden abarth agy 

[Let srylh look into paradice] 


ages bothe marsew henna 
me a vyn skon avycya 
an marodgyan es ena 


1780 Come am I here 

From Adam my lather to you, 
Thus if it please you. 

Seth, come near and tell (to me) 
Thine errands without delay, 
1785 And take no fear in (the) world. 

My errand is this: 

To seek oil of mercy: 
Charged am I thus 

By my father here to you, 
1790 If that be your will. 

For he is become old, 

And in this world is now weary. 
His trouble is so much 

Desirous he is not of aught, 
1795 But always he is a -crying 

After the oil of mercy. 

Come near to the gate, Seth, and look, 

Thou wilt see all Paradise. 
Behold everything and say 
isoo What thou seest of strangeness 
In (the) garden within. 


If that be your wish, 
I will straightway behold 

The wonders that are there. 


[Ther he vyseth all thingis. and seeth ij trees and in; 
the one tree, sytteth mary the virgyn $ in her lappe herl 
son jesus in the tope of the tree of lyf, and in the othetl 
tree y e serpent w eh caused Eva to eat the appell] 


1805 lemyn Seyth lavar thyma 
abervath pandra welta 
na wra kelas vn dra 


me a weall sure vn gwethan 
ha serpent vnhy avadn 
isio niarow seigh hy avalsa 


hona ew an keth wethan 

a wrug kyns theth vam ha tas 

debbry an avail an ankan 

o defednys gans charge bras 
1815 a anow an tas gwella 

han serpent na a welta 
ythew an very pryfna 1 

a wrug an iowle tha entra 

vnyn hy rag temtya 
1820 theth vam eva 

der henna dew a sorras 

ha tha ve eve* a ornas 
alena aga chassya 
lavar pandra welta moy 

1825 me a weall goodly wethau 

MS. prydna, 
MS. ave. 

THE CREATION OF THK \\<>Ul.h | j ; 

isos Now Seth, tell to me 
What thou seest within: 

Do not hide one thing. 


I see surely a tree, 
And a serpent in it a -top 
isio Dead dry she seemed. 


This is the same tree 

Which heretofore caused thy father and niothrr 
To eat the apple of the sorrow, 

Which was forbidden with a great charge 
isis By the mouth of the best Father. 

And that serpent which thou seest 

Is that very serpent 
Which the devil did enter 

Into it, to tempt 
1820 Thy mother Eve. 

Therethrough God was angry 
And me he ordered 

To chase them from thence - 

Say what thou seest more. 

1825 I see a goodly tree, 


hay thop pur vghall in ban 
besyn neave ma ow tevy 

hay gwrethow than door ysall 
yma ow resacke pur leall 
isao besyn effarn pytt pur greyf 

fo. 20 a. hag ena ow brodar cayne 

me an gweall ef in mur bayne 

hag in trob[e]ll may thew gwef 

hag in tope an keth wethan 
isss me a weall vn mayteth wheake 
ow setha in pur sertan 

hag in y devra[n] flogh teake 
der havall thym indella 


[ The Angell goeth to the Tree of Lyf and breaketh an 
appll and taketh iij coores and geveth yt to seyth] 

me a lavar theis dibblance 
1840 henna lell ythew henwys 1 
ew an wethan a vewnans 
me a heath ran an frutyes 
hag a thro parte anetha 
avail pur vras 

1845 meyr attomma tayre sprusan 

a theth mes an avail ma 
kemerthy ha goer in ban 
in neb tellar tha gova 

ha doag y genas theth tas 

isso pen vo dewath y thethyow 

hag in doer tha vos anclythys 
goer sprusan in y anow 
han thew anil I krkcflrvs 

bethans gorrys in ye thyw fridg 
1 MS. hemwys. 


And its top full high above - 

Even to heaven it is growing. 

And its roots to the ground below 
Are a -running full loyally, 
1830 Even to hell, a pit full strong. 

And there my brother Cain, 
I see him in great pain, 

And in trouble, so that there is woe to him. 

And in (the) top of the same tree 
1835 I see a sweet maiden, 
A -sitting very certainly, 

And in her bosom a fair child, 
As seemeth to me so. 


I say to thee clearly, 
1840 That is truly called, 
It is the Tree of Life: 

I will reach part of the fruits, 
And will bring part of them. 
An apple full great. 

1845 See, here are three kernels, 

Which have come from this apple: 
Take them and put (them) up, 
In some place to hide (?), 

And carry them with thee to thy father. 

1850 When shall be (the) end of his days, 
And (he is) in rarlh lo In- Imru'd, 
Put a kernel into his mouth. 
And the two others likewise 

Let them be put in his two no>tril>. 


1855 hag y teiff an keth spruse na 
vn gwethan woja henma 

na berth dowt av 1 pur deake 

ha penvo hy cowle devys 
hy a v* pub ear parys 
i860 tha thone an oyle a vercy 

pan vo pymp myell ha pymp cans 
a vlethydnyow clere passhes 

in vrna gwaytyans dewhans 

warlerth oyle mercy pub pryes 
1865 ha Salvador in teffry 

an dora mes a baynes 

lavar theth tas in della 
ha thotha ythyll trustya 

in delma ythew poyntyes 
1870 ffysten dewhans a lemma 

ow banneth theis 


mear a ras thewhy eall due 

ow tysqwethas thyin pub tra 
thow thas kere oil par dell ew 
1875 me a vyn sure y thysca 

an marogyan dell ew braes 

me a vyn mos alema 
in hanow dew a wartha 

tha dre tha adarn ow thas 

[Seyth goes to his father with the coores $ gyvelh >it 

isso Lowrnn 1 1 if why ow thas 

devethis a paradice 
ythof li-invii tlui ihew gras 
ow negyssyow ythew gwryes 
par dell wrussowgh thym orna 


1855 And there shall come from those sam 
A tree after this 

Have no fear it shall be very fair. 

And when it shall be quite grown, 
It will be always ready 
i860 To bear the Oil of Mercy. 

When (there) shall be five thousand and five hundred 

Of years clear passed, 
Then let him look eagerly 

After oil of mercy always, 
1865 And a Saviour indeed 

Shall bring him out of pains. 

Tell thy father so, 
And to it he can trust, 

As is appointed. 
1870 Hasten quickly hence: 

My blessing to thee! 

Much thanks to you, God's Angel, 

A -shewing me everything. 
To my dear father all as it is 
1875 I will surely teach it, 

As the wonders are great. 

I will go hence, 
In (the) name of God above, 
Home to Adam my father. 

1880 Gladness to thee, my 

Come from Paradise 
Am I now, thanks to God! 
My errands are done, 

As you did order me. 





fo. 20 b. 1885 welcom os Seyth genaf ve 
pana nowethis es genas 
marsew an oyle a vercy 
dres genas omma theth tas 
pur lowan me a vea 


1890 nagew whath ow thaes forsothe 
me a levar thewgh dell goeth 
an gwreanathe a bub tra 

pan defa an termyn playne 
a pympe myell ha v cans vlethan 
1895 an oyle a vercy in nena 
a vyth kevys 

yn paradice y whelys 

defrans marodgyan heb dowt 
specyall vn gwethan gloryes 
1900 ow hethas in ban pur stowte 
besyn net* sure me a gryes 

hay gwreythow than doer ysall 

besyn effarn ow hethas 
hag ena pur wyer heb fall 
1905 ythesa in trobell braes 

ow brodar Cayne in paynes 

now in toppe an wethan deake 
ythesa vn virgyn wheake 

hay floghe pur semely maylyes 
1910 vn y defran wondrys whans 


gorthis rebo dew an taes 
ow ry thyni an nowcili\> 



Welcome art thoii. Soth. w |th m .-: 

What news are with thee? 
If the Oil of Mercy is 

Brought by thee here to thy father, 
Very glad shall I be. 


1890 It is not yet, my father, forsooth, 
I tell to you as behoves, 
The truth of every thing. 

When the time shall come plainly 
Of five thousand and five hundred years, 
1895 The Oil of Mercy then 
Shall be found. 

In Paradise I saw 

Divers marvels without doubt: 
Especially a glorious tree, 
1900 Reaching aloft full stoutly, 

Even to heaven, I surely believe. 

And its roots to the earth below 

Even to hell reaching, 
And there right truly without fail 
1905 Was in great trouble 

My brother Cain in pains. 

Now in (the) top of the fair tree 
Was a sweet virgin, 

And her child full seemly swaddled 
i9io In her bosom, wondrous desirably. 


Worshipped be God the Father, 
A -giving me the news, 


sure nymbes bes v* mar vraes 

nangew termyn tremenys 
1915 a vlethydnyowe' moy es cans 


me a wellas gwethan moy 
ha serpent in ban ynny 
marow seigh hy afalsa 


honna o drog preyf heb nam 
1920 a dullas eva tha vabm 

der henna ny a kylsyn iam 
ioyes paradice rag nefra 


attoma tayr sprusan dryes 
mes a baradice thewhy 
1925 a avail y fons terrys 

a theth an wethan defry 

ew henwys gwethan a vewnans 

an call a ornas thy ma 3 

panvo dewath theth dythyow 
1930 hath voes gyllys a lema 

gorra sprusan yth ganow 

han thew arall pur thybblance 
in tha thew freyge 

fo. 2 1 a. nies an spruse y fyth tevys 

1935 gwethan a vyth pure precyous 

wosa hernia marthys teake 
in pur theffry 

1 MS. vlenydnyowe. 

a MS. I. 

J MS. thewy. 

THE CREATION 0* Tfflt WORLD. | ;, | 

Surely I have not anything?) ! 

Now is passed a Him-. 
1915 Of years more than a hundred. 


I saw (one) tree more, 
And a serpent above in it - 
Dead dry she seemed. 


This was an evil worm without except ion (?) 
1920 Who deceived Eve thy mother: 
Therethrough we have now lost 

(The) joys of Paradise for ev r 


Here are three kernels brought 

Out of Paradise to you: 
1925 From an apple they were broken, 
Which came from a tree surely 
(That) is called (the) Tree of Life. 

The angel ordered me, 

When should be the end of thy days 
1930 And thou wert gone hence, 

To put a kernel into thy mouth. 
And the two others full clearly 
Into thy two nostrils. 

Out of the kernels will be grown 
1935 A tree that will be very precious 
After that, marvellously fair 
In very earnest. 


ha penvo by cowle devys 
hy a vyth pub eare parys 

tha thone an oyle a vercy 


1940 mere wortbyans tban drenges tase 
ow crowntya thymmo sylwans 
woja henrna ken tbew pell 

seyth ow mabe golsow themma 
ha theth cbarrdgya me a ra 
1945 in dan ow bannethe pur leall 

gwayte an tas an neff gorthya 
ha pub ere orta cola 
yn pub otham a vesta 
ef a wra sure tha succra 
1950 hag a vydn the vayntaynya 
in bysma pell tha vewa 
ow mabe merke an gyrryow ma 


A das kere mere rase thewhy 
agis dyskans da pub preyse 
1955 me a goth in pur thefrye 

gorthya dew an leall drengis 
ban mabe gwelha 

ban spyrys sans aga thry 

dell yns onyn me a gryes 
i960 try fersons yns pur worthy 
ow kys raynya in joyes 
in gwlase nef es awartlia 

ha rag henna y coth thyma 
gans colan pure aga gwerthya 


And when it shall be quite grown, 
It will be always ready 

To bear the Oil of Mercy. 


i94u Much worship to the Trinity Father, 
A -granting me salvation, 

After this though it is far. 

Seth, my son, hearken to me, 
And thee will I charge 
1945 Under my blessing very loyal. 

Take care to worship the Father of the heaven 
And always to hearken to Him. 
In every need which thou hast 
He will surely succour thee, 
1950 And will support thee 

In this world long to live 
My son, mark these words. 


O dear father, much thanks to you 

For your good teaching at every time: 
1955 It behoves me in very earnest 

To worship God the loyal Trinity, 
And the best Son, 

And the Holy Spirit, (the) three of them, 

As they are one I believe: 
i960 Three Persons are they full worthy 
A -reigning together in joys, 

In (the) country of heaven that is above. 

And therefore it behoves me 

With a pure heart to worship them. 



[Lett Death apeure to adam]\ 
1965 coth ha gwan ythof gyllys 
nym beas bewa na fella 
ankaw ythew devethys 

ny vyn omma ow gasa 
tha vewa omma vdn spyes 

1970 me an gweall prest gans gew 
parys thorn gwana pub tew 
ny geas scappya deva 
an preys mall ew genaf 

me a servyas pell an beyse 
1975 aban vema kyns formys 

naw cans bloth of me a gryes 
ha deakwarnegans recknys 
may thew pryes mos a lema 

fo. 21 b. flehys am bes 1 denethys 

i960 a Eva ow freas mear 
dewthack warnygans genys 
a vybbyan hemma ew gwyre 
heb ow mabe cayne hag abell 

yn weth dewthack warnugans 
1985 a virhas in pur thibblans 

my ambe heb tull na gyll 
a thalathfas an bysma 

han bys ythew incresshys 

drethaf ve hag ow flehys 

1990 heb number tha vos comptys 

tha thew y whon a gras ractha 

adam gwra thy m mo parys 

1 MS. bef. 
MS. whom. 



1965 Old and \vcak am 1 become: 

I have not life longer: 
Death is come: 

He will not here leave me 
To live here one space. 

1970 I see him now with a spear 

Ready to pierce me (on) every side: 
There is no escape from him: 
The time is a desire with me. 

I have long served the world: 
1975 Since I was first formed 

Nine hundred years I am, I believe, 
And thirty reckoned; 

So that it is time to go from hence. 

Children have I born 
1980 Of Eve my spouse many; 
Thirty -two born 

Of sons -- this is true - 

Without my son Cain and Abel. 

Also thirty -two 
1985 Of girls, very clearly 

I have had, without deceit or guile, 
From (the) beginning of this world. 

And the world is increased, 
Through me and my children, 
1990 Without number to be counted: 

To God I give thank* tor it. 

Adam, make ready for me. 


te am gweall ve devethys 
theth vewnans gans ow spera 
1995 the gameras alemma 
nynges gortas na fella 
rag henna gwra theth wana 
der an golan may thella 


ankow y whon theis mur grace 
2000 ow bewnans tha gameras 
mes an bysma 

rag pur sqwyth ove anotha 
tha thew y whon gras ragtha 

gwyn ow bys bos thym fethys 
2005 lavyr ha dewban an beyse 

pel me ren sewyas [leg servyas?] omma 

ha rag henna gwraf comena 
then leall drengys ow ena 


cowetha bethowgh parys 
2010 an thev[o]llow pub onyn 
ena adam tremenys 

dune thy hethas than gegen 

then pytt downe barth a wollas 


na na ny wreth in della 
2015 yma ken ornes ractha 
yn lymbo barth awartha 
ena ef a wra trega 

del ew ornes gans an tace 

THE CREATION OF THK \V<M;| .!> j ;,; 

Thou seest me conic. 
Thy lii'e with my spear 
1995 To take from hence. 

There is no longer delay; 
Therefore I will thrust thee 

That it go through the heart. 


Death, I give thee much (hanks 
2000 For taking my life 

Out of this world. 

For full weary am I of it, 
To God I give thanks for it- 
White (is) my world that for me are vanquished 
2005 (The) labour and sorrow of the world - 

Long have I followed [leg. served] it here. 

And therefore I do commend 
My soul to the loyal Trinity. 

Comrades, be ye ready, 
2010 The devils every one! 
Adam's soul has passed: 

Let us come to fetch it to the kitchen, 
To the deep pit on the lowest side. 


No, no, thou shall not do so, 
2015 It is otherwise ordained for him. 
In Limbo on the highest side, 
There shall he dwell, 

As is ordained by the Father. 


ty a wore in Effarnow 1 
2020 yma mansyons heb gow 
neb yma an thewollow 
a theth mes an nef golow 

genaf ve ow teen rowle vras 

fo. 22 a. an chorll adam y drygva 

2025 a vyth abarth awartha 

in onyn an clowster[s] na 
neb na vyth tarn lowena 
mes in tewolgow bras ena 
ow kelly presens an tase 

2030 ban moygha payne a vetha 

y vabe cayne in paynes brase 
ef a dryg bys venytha 
yma ef barth a wollas 
in pytt downe ow leskye 


2035 prage na v* an chorle adam 
in kethe della tremowntys 
me a wra then horsen cam 
Boos calassa presonys 

mar callaf kyns es hethy 
2040 drefan terry gorhemyn 


me a lavar theis an case 
kyn wrug adam pegh m r vras 
ef an geva yddrage tyn 

ha dew thothef a awas 

L'ui;, y Hiys|ilc;isiirc li;i\ sor bras 

liag in della ny Avnijjj ravm- 

Ef a lathas ye vroilar 

ny gemeras yddrag vvili 
1 MS. Effariie owe. 


Thou knowest in H< II. 
2020 Are mansions without a li.-. 
Where are the devils 
Who came from the heaven of li-'lii 
With me bearing great rule. 

The churl Adam his dwelling 
2025 Shall be on the upper side 
In one of those cloisters, 
Where shall not be a ot of gladn* 
But in great darkness there, 

Losing the Father's presence. 

2030 And the greatest pain shall havr 

His son Cain : in great pains 
He shall dwell for ever. 
He is on (the) lowest side 
In a deep pit a -burning. 

2035 Why shall the churl Adam not be 

Tormented in that same way? 
I will make the crooked whoreson 
Be most hardly imprisoned, 

If I can, rather than stay, 
2040 Because of breaking a commandment 


I will tell to thee the case - 
Though Adam did a sin so great, 

He had for it sharp repentance. 

And God to him forgave 
2045 His displeasure and His great anger, 
And so did not CM in. 

He slew his brother, 

Nor had repentance at all, 


mes y regoyssyas pur vear 1 

2050 hag a sor an tas trevyth 

yn serten ef ny synges 

rag henna bys venary 
eve a dryge ena deffry 
in paynes bras avel ky 
2055 ioy nef ew thotha kellys 

[They go to hell w th great noyes] 

yea Cayne hay gowetha 
in keth order a vewa 
an place ew ornas ractha 
in efarn barth a wollas 

2060 hag adams vengens thotha 
lymbo ew ornys thotha 
da ragtha ef ha[y] gowetha 

ny dastyans an payne bras 

[An Angell convey eth adams soole to lymbo] 


yth oil agen vyadge ny 
2065 ren iowle bras ny dalvyth 3 oye 
tregans an chorle neb yma 

dvne ny warbarth a 'gowetha 
tha effarnow a lema 

then paynes a thewre neira 

2070 a ena adam dremas 

des genuf ?:i rtl'animv 
ena ornys thies ew place 
gans an tas theso heb gowe 

tha remaynya rag season 
1 MS. vean. 
1 MS. duly. 


But rejoiced very much, 
2050 And for the Father's anger aught 
Certainly he did not car. . 

Therefore for ever 
He shall dwell here surely, 
In great pains like a dog - 
2055 Joy of heaven to him is lost. 

Yea, Cain and his comrades 
In (the) same order shall live. 
The place is ordained for him 
In hell, on (the) lower side. 

aoeo And Adam, vengeance to him! 
Limbo is ordained for him: 
Good for him and his comrades 
They taste not the great pain. 


See, all our voyage, 

2065 By the great Devil, will not be worth an egg! 
Let the churl dwell where he is. 

Come we together, O comrades! 
To hell from hence, 

To the pains that endure for ever. 

2070 O soul of Adam excellent! 

Come with me to hell: 
There a place is ordained for thee, 
By the Father for thee without a lie, 
To remain for a season. 


fo. 22 b. 2075 pan deffa an oyle a vercy 
te a vith kerrys then ioye 

than nef vghall a vghan 

[Lett adam be buried in a fayre tombe w th som churcfn 
songis at hys buryall] 


ow thas pan ewa marowe 
me a vyn y anclythyas 
2080 dvn a lebma heb falladow 
gorryn an corf in gweras 
gans solempnyty ha cane 

mes an dore eve a ve gwryes 
hag arta then keth gwyrras 
2085 ef a v* trey lyes serten 

ha del ve thym kyns ornys 
an dayer sprusan yw gorrys 
in y anow hay fregowe 

[The 3 kernels put in his mowthe $ nostrels ] 

del o ef an kensa dean 

2090 a ve gans an tas formyes 

yn beth yta ef lebmyn 

then tas dew rebo grassies 
omma rag y oberowe 


enoch ythew owe hanowe 
2uw, leal servant then drengis tas 
mabe Jared ythov heb gowe 
Sevys a lydnvatlu- pur vras 
ln-b dowt ythof 

ha pur leall an sythvas degre 
2100 desendys a adam ove 


2075 When the oil of mercy shall com*-. 
Thou shall be carried to the joy, 
To heaven, high of height. 


Since my father is dead, 

I will bury him. 
2080 Let us come from hence without fail. 

Let us put the corpse in (the) ground 
With solemnity and song. 

Out of the earth he was made, 
And again to the same ground 
2085 He shall be turned again. 

And as was formerly ordained to me, 
The three kernels are put 

Into his mouth and his nostrils. 

As he was the iirst man 
2090 That was formed by the Father, 
In a grave behold him now. 
To the Father God be thanks 
Here for his works. 

Ersoc ii 

Enoch is my name, 

2095 A loyal servant to the Trinity Father 
Son of Jared am I without a lie: 
Sprung from lineage full great 
Without doubt am I. 

And very loyally of the seventh 1. 
2100 Descended from Adam am 1 : 



in oydge me ew in orma 
try cans try vgans in prove 
ha whath pymp moy pan es thym coof 
in geth hythew 

2105 me a beys tha wrear neff 

may fon pub eare plegadow 
tha vonas y servant ef 
in bysrna heb falladowe 
ha drevone bewe 


[Enoch kneleth when the father speketh] 
2110 enoch me a levar thyes 

owe bothe tha vos in delma 
may fosta qwyck transformys 

tha baradice a lemma 
rne a vyn may foes vskys 
2115 [bjethis in corf hag ena 

byth parys in termyn ma 

hag ena y wres gortas 

ogas tha worvan an beyse 
an mystery ythew pur vras 
2120 genaf ny vyth dysclosyes 

tha thean vytholl in bysma 

[Enoch is caried to paradicej 

fo. 23 a. gorthyes rebo dew an tas 

th;i vlonogath rebo gwryes 
hemma ythew marrudgyan bras 
2125 ythesaf ow pose gorthys 
ny won pylea 

me a wore hag a leall gryes 
gwreans dew y vos henma 

THK <'KKATI<>\ OF T!1K \\C|;l.l. 

In age I am at this hour 

Three hundred three scon- in proof. 
And yet five more \vln-n I nvoll.-ri. 
This day. 

2105 I will pray to the Maker of heaven, 

That I may be always 
To be his servant 

In this world without fail 
And whilst I live. 


2110 Enoch, I say to thee 

That my will is thus 
That thou be transformed alive, 

From here to Paradise, 
I will that thou be quickly; 
2115 Thou shalt be in body and soul - 
Be ready at this time. 

And there thou shalt tarry 

Nigh unto (the) end of the world. 
The mystery is very great, 
2120 By me it shall not be disclosed 
To any man in this world. 


Worshipped be God the Father I 

Thy will be done. 
These are great marvels. 
2125 I am being put 

I know not where. 

I know and loyally believe 
That this is God's doing. 


devethys tha baradice 
2130 me a wore gwyre ythoma 

place delycyous 1 ew hemma 
peldar ynno me a vewa 

der temptacon an teball 

ow hendas adam pur weare 
2135 eave regollas der avail 

an place gloryous pur sure 

maythew gweve oil thy asshew 

rag henna pobell an beise 

na wreugh terry an deffan 
2140 a vyth gans dew thugh ornys 

dowte tha gawas drog gorfan 
ha myschef bras war bub tew 

mara qwrewgh orthaf cola 
why asbythe woja henma 
2145 ioies nef in vdn rew 


kebmys pehas es in byes 

gwrres gans tues heb amendya 

mathew dew an tas serrys 

bythquath gwyell mabe dean omma 

2150 distructyon yma ornys 

pur serten war oil an beise 

may fyth consomys pub tra 

henna ythew convethys 
der an discans es thy m ma reis 
3155 gans an tas es a vghan 

an planattis es awartha 
han steare inweth magata 

ow poyntya mowns pur etan 
MS. delycyans. 


Come to Paradise 
2130 I know truly I am. 

A delicious place is this: 
Long in it I shall live. 

Through temptation of the evil one, 

My grandsire Adam full truly 
2135 He lost through an apple 

The glorious place full surely. 

So that there is misery to all his isnue. 

Therefore, people of the world, 

Do not ye break the prohibition, 
2140 Which is by God ordained to you. 
Fear to get an evil end, 

And great mischief on every side. 

If ye do hearken to me, 

Ye shall have after this 

2145 Joys of heaven in a gift. 

So many sins are in (the) world 

Done by folk without amending, 
That God the Father is angered 

That he ever made a son of man here. 

2150 A destruction is ordained 

Very certainly over all the world, 

So that every thing shall be consumed. 

That is understood 

Through the teaching that is given to me 
2155 By the Father that is on high. 

The planets that are on high, 
And the stars also as well. 
Are pointing very plainly. 


[ Let hem poynt to the sun the moone $ the firmament] 

an howle ban loor kekeffrys 
2160 oil warbarth ew confethys 

than purpose na mowns ow toos 

ban distructyon a vyth bras 

may fyth an byes destryes 
der levyaw a thower pur vras 
2165 po der dane y fyth leskys 

creseugh thyma marsewhy fure 

rag henna gwrens tues dowtya 
an tase dew tha offendya 

der neb maner for in beyse 

fo. 23 b. 2170 rag voydya an peril na 

scryifes yma thym pub tra 
a thallathfas an bysma 

may fova leall recordys 

a vyns tra es ynna gwryes 

3175 an leverow y towns y omma 
why as gweall wondrys largya 
ha pub tra oil in bysma 
skryffes yma yn ryma 

dowt na vans y ankevys 

2180 deaw pillar mannaff poyntya 

rag an purpas na whare 
bryck a v 1 onyn anetha 
ha marbell a vyth y gylla 

rag sawment a vyth gwryes 
3185 than leverowe 

an bricke rag na vons leskys 
der dane v* henna ew gwryes 

ban marbell tarn consumys 

der thower ny v* hema ew gwrez 


The sun and the moon likewise 
2160 Altogether are understood - 

To that purpose they are coming. 

And the destruction will be gn\-it, 

So that the world will be destroyed 
Through floods of water full great, 
2165 Or through fire it will be burnt: 
Believe me if ye be wise. 

Therefore let people fear 
To offend the Father God 

In any kind of way in (the) world. 

2170 To avoid that peril, 

Written for me is everything 
From (the) beginning of this world, 
So that there may be loyal records 
Of all things that are done in it. 

2175 The books behold them here: 
Ye see them wondrous large; 
And everything in this world 
Is written in these: 

Fear not that they shall be forgotten. 

2180 Two pillars I will appoint 
For that purpose anon : 
Brick shall one of them be, 

And marble shall its fellow be. 

For preservation shall be made 
3185 To the books. 

The brick that they be not burnt 
By any fire, that is made; 

And the marble, a jot consumed 

By water that there be not, this is made. 


2190 d re fan y vos mean garow 

wondrys callys' 

an pillars y towns parys 

gorrowgh ynria an leverow 
nynges art v e ankevys 
2195 na tra arall sur heb ow 

mes vnna [y] mowns skryves 

a bub sort oil a leverow 
egwall vnna ew gorrys 
pekare ythew an sortow 
2200 gorrys vnna der devyes 
in diffrans ha kehavall 

lemyn me as goer in badn 
hag in nyell sure bys vickan 

an record a vythe heb fall 
2205 pur wyer kevys 


[Putt the pillers upright] 
rag henna pobell dowtyans 

ha then tas gwren oil pegy 
na skydnya an keth vengeans 

in neb termyn warnan ny 
2210 nagen flehys 

drog ew genaf gwythill dean 
preshy ous 1 havan thorn honyn 
rag cola orthe vdn venyn 

glane ef regollas an place 

1 In the MS. this and the preceding line come after line 2185. 
1 MS. preshyons. 


2190 Because of its being a rough stone 

Wondrous hard. 

The pillars behold them ready: 

Put ye the books therein : 
There is no art whatever forgotten, 
2195 Nor aught else surely without a lie, 
But in them are written. 

Of every sort of books 

Equally in them are put, 
As are the sorts 
2200 Put in them by twos, 

Differently arid similarly. 

Now I will put them up, 
And strongly sure for ever 

The record will be without fail 
2205 Right truly found. 


Therefore let people fear, 

And to the Father let, us all pray. 
That the same vengeance may not fall 

At any time on us, 
2210 Nor our children. 

I am sorry that I made man 
Quite like to myself: 
For hearkening to a woman 

He hath clean lost the place. 


2215 am leff dyghow pan wrussen 
pan wrega dryes ow defen 
mes a baradice pur glane 
whare an call as gorras 

fo. 24 a. an sperys ny drige neffra 

2220 in corf mabe dean v* in byes 
ha reason ew ha praga 

rag y voos kyg medall gwryes 
ha pur vrotall gans henna 

nynges dean orthe ow seruya 
2225 len ha gwyrryan sure pub pryes 
saw noye in oil an bysma 
hay wreag hay flehys keffrys 
ow bothe ythew in della 

gweyll deall war oil an byes 
2230 may fythe pub tra consumys 
mes serten mannaf sawya 


noy mabe lamec gylwys ove 
arluthe brase oil perthew cove 
ythof omma in bysma 

2235 substance lower ha byth ha da 

yma thyma tha vewa 
maythof sengys rag neffra 
tha worthya ow arluth da 
an drengys es a wartha 

[Noy commeth before heren $ kneleth ] 


3240 noy des thymma ve lebmyn 

ha ^olsoNv tliyin a gowsaf 


2SM. r i With my right hand when I had made (him). 
When he -lid beyond my prohibition, 
Full clean out of Paradise 

Anon the angel put them. 

The spirit shall not dwell always 
2220 In (the) body of any son of man in (the) world; 
And a reason is and why. 

Because of his being made soft fle>h. 
And very brittle therewith. 

There is no man serving rne 
2225 Faithful and innocent surely at all time. 
Save Noah in all this world, 

And his wife and his children likewise: 
My will is thus: 

To make a flood over all the world, 
2230 So that everything be consumed; 
But certain I will save. 


Noah son of Lamech I am called; 
A great lord, all ye bear remembrance - 
Am I here in this world. 

2235 Substance enough of property (?) and good 

Is to me to live, 
So that I am held forever 
To worship my good Lord, 
The Trinity that is on high. 


2240 Noah, come to me now, 

And hearken to me what I shall 


No YE 

parys ove arluthe brentyn 
tha vlanogathe lavartha 


noy mar lenwys ew an byes 
2245 lemyn a sherewynsy 

maythow dewathe devethys 
vnna a gyke pub huny 1 
gans peagh pur wyre ew flayrys 

ny allaf sparya na moye 
2250 heb gwethill mernans a vear spyes 

war pobell oil menas tye 
ha tha wreag ha tha flehys 
han pythe along thejo gye 

[tooles and tymber redy. w th planckis to make the arcke, 
a beam a mallet a calkyn yre[n] ropes ntass[t]es pyche 
and tarr] 

rag henna fysten ke gwra 
2255 gorthell a planckes playnyes 
hag vnna leas trigva 

rowmys y a vythe henwys 
a veas hag agy inta 

gans peyke bethauce stanche gwryes 
2260 ha try cans kevellyn da 

an lysster a vythe in heys 

ha hantercans kevellen 

inweth te a wra yn leas 
han vheldar me a vyn 
2265 deagwarnygans may fo gwryes 
war tew a thella[rg] dnras 

ty* a wnt port ef a v l henwys 
jystes dretha ty a place 3 

a leas rag na vo degys 

1 MS. hvnythe. 
MS. da ty. 
3 MS. playne. 

THE CREATION <>K I UK W<.|;|.|> | ; ;, 

No A H 

Ready am I, noble Lord, 
Speak Thou Thy will. 

Noah, the world is so filled 
2245 Now with wickedness, 
That there is an end come 

In it of flesh of every kind; 
With sin full truly it is fetid. 

I can spare no more 
2250 Without doing death of long duration. 

On all people except thee, 
And thy wife and thy children, 

And the property that belongs to tliee. 

Therefore hasten, go, make 
2255 An ark of planks planed, 
And in it many dwellings, 

Rooms they shall be named. 
Without and within well, 

With pitch let it be made staunch: 
2260 And three hundred cubits good 
The vessel shall be in length. 

And half a hundred cubits 

Also thou shalt make in breadth, 

And the height I will 
2265 That it be made thirty. 

On (the) side behind, a door 

Thou shalt make a port it shall l.o call.-d 

Joists through it thou shalt place 
Across, that it be not shut. 


2270 a bub ehan a gynda 

gorrow ha benaw in wethe 
aga gorra ty a wra 
in tha lester abervathe 

pub maner boos in bysma 
2275 es ja thybbry gwayte m[a]y treytbe 
rag dean ha beast magata 
in tha lester gweyt ma fethe 


fo. 24 b. arluth kref tha arhadowe 

me a vra so mot y go 
2280 tur lythyowe heb falladowe 

me a vyn dallathe strechya 

gans ow boell nowyth lemmys 
me a squat pub pice tymber 
hag a pleyne oil an planckes 
2285 hag a sett pub plyenkyn sure 

me a galke thew \vondres fyne 

nagella dower v' ynno 
kyn fova gwryes a owerbyn 

y fyth stanche me a ragtba 


2290 yma peyke thym provyes 
ha lavonowe pub ehan 
deffrans 1 sortowe a wernow 
yma parys pur effan 


marthe ew genaf a vn dra 
2295 y vosta mar vcky noye 
1 MS. dreffrans. 


2270 Of every sort of kind 

Males and females also, 
Thou shalt put them 
In thy vessel within. 

All manner of food in this world 
2275 That is to eat take care that thou bring, 
For man and beast also 

In thy vessel take care that there be. 


Strong Lord, thy commands 

I will do, so. mote I go. 
2280 Through obstacles (?) without fail 
I will begin to strike. 

With my axe newly sharpened 

I will split every piece of timber, 
And plane all the planks, 
2285 And set every plank sure. 

I will caulk for you wondrously fine, 

So that there shall not come any water into it 
If it be done all over 

It will be staunch, I will go for it. 


2290 There is pitch by me provided 

And ropes of every kind, 
Different sorts of masts 
Are ready very plainly. 


A wonder is to me of one thing 
2295 That thou art so foolish, Noah, 


praga cw genas she omma 
buyldya Icster mar worthy 

yn creys powe tha worthe an moare 

me a syns tha skeans whath 
2300 tha voes in cost an parna 
oil tha lyvyer nyn dale cathe 
me an to war ow en a 
gucky ythoes 

[Lett Tuball fall a lauyh[i]ng] 


ow hothman na gymmar marthe 
2305 ty an oole ha lyaa myell 
kynthota skydnys in wharthe 
in dewathe heb tull na gyle 
why a weall deall vskys 

gwarnys of gans dew an tase 
2310 tha wythell an lesster ma 
rag ow sawya haw flehys 

tha worthe [an] kethe deall na 
why a weall agy tha space 

der lyvyow a thower an brassa 
2315 oil an beise a v* bethys 


gwell vea a vosta kregys 

ty hag oil an grydgyan[s]na 
a chorll coth te pedn pylles 

flatla vynta ge henna 
2320 y fythe an beys COHMIMI\> 

oil an dorrowe in beysma 
kyn fons warbarthe contyllrs 

ny wra dewath an |>:irn:i 

SOW ythntll 

2325 oil an beyse a yll gothvas 

TIIF. CRKATIOX ( >I Till: \V<M.'I.I>. 

Why is it with Ihee In-iv 
To build a ship so worthy. 

Amid (the) country, oil' from tin- sea? 

I hold thy science a puff, 
2300 To be at cost like that: 

All thy labour is not worth a cat, 
I swear it on my soul; 
Foolish art thou. 


My friend, do not have wonder, 
2305 Thou shalt weep it and many thousands 
Although thou art fallen into laughter 
At (the) end without fraud nor guilt-. 
You shall see a flood quickly. 

Warned am I by God the Father 
2310 To make this ship, 

To save me and my children 

From that same deluge. 
You shall see within a space 

Through floods of water the greatest, 
2315 All the world shall be drowned. 


Better were it that thou \vert hanged, 

Thou and all of that belief, 
Oh old churl, thou peeled head! 

How wouldst thou that, 
2320 That the world shall be consumed? 

All the waters in ihis world. 
Though they be gathered together. 

Will not make an end like that. 

But thou art foolish 
2325 All the world may know 



vengens war tha ben krehy 
nynges omma dean in wlase 
a greys thybm malbe vanna 

fo. 25 a. praga pandrew an matter 

2330 a vyn dew buthy an beise 
mara custa lavar thym 
an occasion me athe pyes 
der vaner da 


an occasion ew hemma 

2335 kemmys pehas es in beyse 

ha nynges tarn amendya 

may thew an tas dew serrys 
gans oil pobell an bysma 

hag eddrag thothef yma 

2340 bythquath mabe dean tha vos gwryes 
rag henna gwrewgh amendya 

ages foly byth nehys 
yn vrna der vaner da 

mara pethowgh repentys 
2345 an kethe plage a wra voydya 


pew athe wrug ge progowther 
tha thesky omma theny 

y praytha thymma lavar 

a wrug [dew] cowsall thagye 
2350 only heb dean arall v* omma 

me a wore yma in pow 

leas dean a gowse an tase 
tues perfyt me an advow 

ythyns i ha polatis brase 
2355 a wayt boos in favour dew 


Vengeance on thy head hang! 

There is not here a man in (the) country 
Who will believe me in any way. 

Why, what is the matter? 
2330 Will God drown the world? 
If thou knowest, tell to me 
The occasion, I pray thee, 
In a good way. 


The occasion is this 
2335 So much sin is in (the) world, 

And there is not a jot of amendment, 
That the Father God is angered 
With all (the) people of this world. 

And repentance to Him there is 
2340 That a son of man was ever made 
Therefore do you amend, 

Let your folly be denied. 
Then, in a good manner 

If you be repentant [lit. repented], 
2345 The same plague will depart. 

TUB \ i. 
Who made thee a preacher 

To teach us here? 
I pray thee, say to me, 

Did God speak to thee 
2350 Only, without another man at all here ? 

I know there are in (the) country 

Many men to whom the Father speaks, 
Perfect folk, I avow it, 

Are they, and great polats, 
2355 Who wait to be in God's favour. 


sera tha radn an ryna 
ef a vynsa disclosya 

an distructyon brase ban lywe 

rag henna thethfo] cregye 
2360 me ny vannaf moy es kye 
na mendya ny venyn ny 

a woos theth gyrryan wastys 

da ew theso gy boes fure 

hag oil pobeli an bysma 
2365 ny v* dew nefra pur wyre 

kevys goacke trest thyma 1 
ragtha bethowgh avysshes 

mar ny wrewh vengence pur vras 
a skydn warnough kyns na pell 
2370 rag dew a vydn agen tase 

danven lywe a thower pur leall 
serten tha vethy an byese 

rag omsawya ow honyn 

keflrys ow gwreak haw flehys 
2375 an lester a vythe genyn 

der weras dew vskes gwryes 
rag voydya an danger ma 


tety valy brain an jjathe 
my ny i^ivsal' llu-jo \vliatlir 
2380 y f'ydn dew gwill indella 

fo. 25 b. mo a woor nv \vrui; an beys 

han bolu'll iii\ n> cs vniia 
tha voos mar gwicke desh-yi > 

1 MS. thymo. 


Sir, to part of those 

He would have disclosed 

The great distraction and thr Hood. 

Therefore believe in thcc 

1 will not, more than a dog, 

Nor will we amend 

Notwithstanding thy words (be) wasted. 

No \n 

Good is it for thee to be wise, 
And all people of this world, 
2365 God will not full truly ever be 
Found a liar, trust to me: 
For this be ye advised. 

If ye do not, vengeance full great 

Shall fall on you before long, 
For God our Father will 
2370 Send a flood of water full loyally, 
Certainly to drown the world. 

To save myself, 

Likewise my wife and my children. 
2375 The ship shall be by us, 

Through God's help, quickly made 
To avoid this danger. 


Ti'ttj rr////, the cat's wind! 
I believe thee not yet 
2380 (That) God will do .so. 

I know He made not the world, 

And the people all that are in ii, 
To be so quickly destroyed. 


vnpossyble ythewa 
2385 an dower na tha vose kevys 


vnpossyble nyngew tra 
tha wrear all an bysma 

awos destrowy an beyse 
agy tha ower 

2390 rage der gear oil a ve gwryes 
nef ha noer myns es omma 
ha der gear arta thym creys 
ef a yll mar a mynna 

y thystrowy der an dower 


2395 ny amownt thym ma resna 
genas noy me a hevall 
me a vyn mos a lemma 
rag ythota drog eball 
na vyn nefra bonas vase 

2400 pyrra foole ne ve gwelys 
me a levar theis praga 
an lester ew dallethys 

why a woer nangew polta 
a vlethydnyow pur leas 
2405 moy es vgans 

rag mar vras yw dallethys 
neffra ny vithe dowetliis 

me an to war ow honssyans 

[Let them both depart] 


now an lester ythew gwryes 
2410 teake ha da tharn plegadow 


It would he impossible 

That that water be found. 



Impossible is not (any) thing 
To a Creator of all this world, 

On account of destroying the world 
Within an hour. 

2390 For by a word all was made 

Heaven and Earth, what ever is here, 
And by a word again, believe me, 
He can if He will 

Destroy it by the water. 


2395 It avails not to me to reason 
With thee, Noah, meseems. 
I will go hence, 

For thou art an evil colt 
(That) will never be good. 

2400 A verier fool was never seen: 

I will say to thee why: 
The ship is begun 

Ye know it is now very long while, 

Of years full many 
2405 More than twenty. 

For so great is (it) begun, 
Never will it be ended, 

I swear it on my conscience. 



Now the ship is built 

Fair and good to my pleasing. 


a bub ehan a vestas 

drewhy quick jym orthe copplow 
chattell ethyn kekeffrys 

dew ha dew benaw ha gorrawe 

[The arck redy and all maner of beastis and fowles to 
be putt in the arck] 


2415 nynges beast na preif in beyse 

benaw ha gorawe omma 
genaf the why yma dreys 
in lester ytowns ena 

[Let rayne oppeare] 


a dase lemyn gwrewh parys 
2420 an lyw nangew devethys 
yma lowar dean in beyse 
kyns lemyn sure a gowjas 
ages bos why gucky 

pan wressowh gwyl an lester 
2425 omrna prest in creys an tyer 
moer vyth nyngeja defry 
the doen in ker 


geas a wressans annotha 
dowte sor dew nyngessa 
2430 thothans nena me a wore 1 gwyer 


fo. 20 a. an lywe nangew devethis 

may thew da thyne fystena 

1 MS. woja. 


Of every kind of beasts 

l>ring ye quickly to me l>\ couples, 
Cattle, birds likewise, 

Two and two, females and males. 

2415 There is not beast nor worm in (the) world, 

Females and males here, 
(But) by me to you are brought 
In (the) ship behold them there. 


O Father, now make ready! 
2420 The flood is now come. 

There are enough of men in (the) world 
Before now surely said 
That you were foolish; 

When you did make the ship 
242.<> Here just in (the) midst of the, land, 
There was not any sea really 
To carry her away. 


A jest they made of it: 
Fear of God's wrath there was not 
243d To them mere. 1 know truly. 

No \ n 

The flood now is come 

So that it is good for us to hasten : 


pub beast oil ymma gyilys 

in lester thaga kynda 
2435 dell yw ornys thymo ve 

Kewgh abervath ow flehys 
hages gwregath magata 
ogas an Noer ew cuthys 

der an glawe es awartha 
2440 te benyn abervath des 

ow der bethy a vynta 


res ew sawya an pyth es 
nyn dale thym towlall tho veas 
da ew tbyn aga sawya 

2445 I costyans showre a vona 
an keth tacklowe es omma 

noy teake te a wore hedna 


[a raven $ a culver ready] 
nangew mear a for pur wyer 
aban gylsen sight an tyre 
2450 rag henna thym ke 1 brane vrase 

[ let the raven fie and the colver after] 

nyedge in ker lemyn ha myer 

terathe mar kyll bos kevys 
hag an golam in pur sure 

me as danven pur vskys 
2455 sight an noer mar kill gwelas 

marowe ew pub tra eja 

sperys a vewnans vnna 
MS. te. 


Every boast is gone 

Into (the) vessel according to tln-ii kind, 
2435 As is ordained to inc. 

Go ye within, my children, 
And your wives as well: 
The earth is nigh covered 

Through the rain that is above. 
2440 Thou woman, come within: 

Wouldst thou quite drown me? 


Needful is it to save what there is. 
I ought not to throw away - 

Good it is for us to save them. 

2445 They cost a shower of money, 
The same tackles that are here - 
Fair Noah, thou knowest that. 


Now is it much of way, full truly, 
Since we lost sight of the land 
2450 Therefore for me go, Raven (lit. 'great crow'). 

Fly away now, and look 

If land can be found, 
And the dove very surely 

I will send her very quickly, 
2455 Sight of the earth if she can see. 


Dead is every thing wherein was 
Spirit of life: 


me a worhemyn whare 

than glawe namoy na wrella 

[The culver comet h ir"' a branche of olyf in her moufhe] 


2460 Then tase dew rebo grassyes 
an golam ew devethys 

ha gensy branche olyf glase 

arall bethans delyverys 

does ny vydnas an vrane vras 
2465 neb caryn hy a gafas 

nangew ogas ha blethan 

aban dallathfas an lywe 
marsew bothe dew y honyn 

neb ew gwrear noer ha neef 
2470 tha slackya an kyth lyw brase 

y vothe rebo collenwys 
omma ii;enan ny pub pryes 
kekefrys ha mabe ha tase 

noy me a worhemyn theis 
2475 ke in meas an lester skon 

thethe wreag bathe flehys keffrys 
ethyn bestas ha pub lodn 

fo. 26 b. mr.-irc wortliv.-ms (lives arlulli nrf 

te a weras gwadn ha creaf 
2480 in othom sure panvo 

den in im-s IM-MII lia l>ras<- 
chat (M II filivii ha ln-stas 

inviis :i ve in lo.slrr tiro 

TlfE CREATION <>F Tl I K W< Mil I > j<>] 

I will command anon 

To the rain thai if do no more. 


'-MI-.II To the Father God In- thank.s! 
The dove is come, 

And \vitli her a branch of green olive. 

Be another let loose: 

Come the raven would not: 
2465 Some carrion she has found. 

Now it is nigli a year 

Since (the) beginning of the Hood. 
If it be (the) will of God Himself. 

Who is Maker of Earth and Heaven, 
2470 To slacken the same great Hood, 

His will be fulfilled 
Here with us always, 

Likewise both son and father. 

Noah, I command thee 
2475 Go out of the vessel forthwith. 
Thy wife and thy children likewise, 
Birds, beasts and every bullock. 


Much worship to Thee, Lord of heaven. 
Thou hast helped weak and strong 
2480 In need surely when it is needful. 

Let us come away, small and great. 
Cattle, birds and beasts, 

All that were brought into (the) 


[An alter redy veary fayre] 

yn dewhillyans pehosow 
2485 grwethill alter me a vydn 
me a vidn gwythyll canow 

ha sacryfice lebmyn 
radn ehan a bub sortowe 

keffrys bestas hag ethyn 
2490 gans henna thy honora 

[Som good church songes to be songe at the alter 

ha rag hedna gwren ny cana 
in gwerthyans 5 en tase omma 

and frankensens] 


hebrna ythew sawer wheake 

hag in weth Sacrifice da 
2495 pur wyer noy ef thybma a blek 
a leyn golan pan ewa 
thyma ve gwryes 

rag hedna sure me a wra 
Benytha woja hebma 
2500 in ybbern y fyth gwelys 

[a Rayne boire to appeare] 

an gabm thavas in teffry 

pesqwythe mays gwella why by 
remembra a hanaf why 

me a wra bys venarye 
2505 trestge thyma 

distructyon vythe an parna 
benytha der thower ny wra 
wos destrea an bysma 
ha rag hedna 



In atonement for sins 
2485 I will make an altar; 
I will make songs, 

And sacrifice now 
Some kinds of all sorts; 

Likewise beasts and birds, 
2490 With that to honour thee. 

And for that let us sing 

In worship to the Father here. 


This is a sweet savour 

And also a good sacrifice; 
2495 Right truly, Noah, it pleaseth me, 
Since it is with loyal heart 
Made unto me. 


Therefore I will surely make 
A blessing after this, 

In (the) sky it shall be seen. 

The rainbow really 

That you see it always, 
Remind you of me 

I will for ever; 
2505 Trust thou to me. 

Any destruction such as that 
Never by water shall I make 
On account of destroying this world; 
And therefore 


2510 cressowgh collenwouh keffrys 

an noer vyes a dus arta 
pub ehan ha beast in byes 
puskas in moer magata 
a v e thewgh susten omma 

2515 nynges tra in bysma gwryes 
mes thewhy a wra service 
bethowh ware na vo lethys 

mabe dean genawhy neb pryes 

ha mar petha in della 
2520 me a vidn ye requyrya 

a thewla an kethe dean na 
y woose a theffa scullya 
yn havall thymma obma 
ymadge dean gwregaf shapya 
2525 mar am kerowgh dell gotha 
why a wra orthaf cola 


fo. 27 a. ny a vidn gwyll in della 

del ewa dewar theny 
ha thethe worthya rag nefra 
2530 par dell ew agen dewty 

an kethe jornama ew de 
jen tase dew rebo grassyes 

why a wellas pub degre 
leas matters gwarryes 
2535 ha creacon oil an byse 

In weth oil why a wellas 
an keth bysina consumys 

der lyvyow a thower pur vras 

ny ve udn mabe dean sparys 
64o menas noy y wreag hay flehys 


2.10 Increase ye, fill ye up likewise 

The earth -world with folk again. 
Every kind of beast in (the) world, 
Fishes in (the) sea as well, 

Shall be to you sustenance here. 

2515 There is nothing in this world made, 

But to you shall do service: 
Beware lest there be slain 

A son of man by you at any time. 

And if it be so, 
2520 I will require him 

Of (the) hands of that same man 

Who shall come to spill his blood. 

Alike to me here 

Man's image I shaped, 
2525 If you love me as behoveth 

You will hearken to me. 


We will do so, 

As it is a devoir to us, 
And worship thee for ever 

2530 As is our duty. 

This same day is a day, 

(To the Father God be thanks,) 

You have seen every degree, 

Many matters played, 
2535 And all (the) creation of the world. 

Also ye all have seen 

This same world consumed 
Through floods of water very great: 

There was not one son of man spared, 
3540 Except Noah, his wife, and his children, 



dewh a vorowe a dermyn 

why a weall matters pur vras 
ha redempc[y]on granntys 

der vercy a thew an tase 
2545 tha sawya neb es kellys 

mynstrels growgh theny peba 
may hallan warbarthe downssya 
2548 del ew an vaner han geys 

Heare endeth the Creacon of the worlde w th noyes flude wryten 
by William Jordan: the XHth of August 1611. 


Come ye to-morrow in time: 

Ye shall see matters very great 
And redemption granted, 

Through mercy of God the Father, 
2545 To save (him) who is lost. 

Minstrels, do ye pipe to us, 
That we may together dance, 
2548 As is the manner and the jest. 


L. 2. dowethva from doweth, deweth = W. diwedd 'end' and ma 'place' 

= 0. Ir. mag, Gaul, magus. So trig-va 1. 15, deberth-va 84, powes- 

va 416. 

L. 4. auy 4s' for a vyth (a+byth) 1914. 
L. 6. idn 'one' = c?n 11, 1759, 1969, 2145. A fuller form is onyn 

34, 343, 2182, wonyn ' 389. The other cardinal numbers which 

occur in this play are: 

2. deaw (masc.? deaw vabe 1056, 1234, deaw pillar 2180, 

deaw gweth 967). dew, c^w, de (fern. ? c?eto <?/yen 188, 
dew wreag 1344, Jew la 2521, e?e?0 fa^os 1647, dew ran 
1708, dew ara# (sprusan) 1852, rfew a deu> 2414, dyw 
fridg 1853 = dew freyge 1933, ae uran 1836. plur. 
devyes 2200. coppfow 2412. 

3. try masc. 36, 343, 1958, try. person 6, try fersons 1960, 

tayr fern. 1923, tayre 1844, teyer 2087. 

5. pymp 1861, 2103, joympe 1894. 

6. whea 413 (whegh 4 th Commandment). 
9. naw> 27, 248, 1976, nawe 292, 299. 

10. deak 1977, rfea^ 2265. 

12. dewthacTc 1980. 

20. e^ans 1976, ugans 2101, ^ans 1980. 

30. deakwarnegans 1977, deagivarnygans 2265. 

32. dewthack warnygans 1981. 

50. hantercans 2262. 

60. try ugans 2102. 

65. try ugans ha pymp 2102, 2103. 
100. can* 1861, 1894, 1915, 2102. 
365. try cans try ugans ha pymp 2102, 2103. 
900. naw cans 1976. 
930. naw cans ha deakwarnegans 1976. 
1000. myell 1562, 1861, 1894, 2305; plur. myllyow 740. 
5500. pympe myell ha v. cans 1894. 

1 Cf. Lith. 0-e'fkM, Lett, w-enas. So in English one is pronominal .,-<?. 

NOTES. 199 

The ordinals are as follows: 

1. kensa 36, 48, 2089, kynsa 73. 

2. second 51 (nessa Genesis 1. 8). 

3. tryssa 59, 92. 

4. peswera 100. 

5. pympas 106. 

7. y<Aww 415, 1437, 2099. 
10. degvas 1085. 

'Sevenfold' is expressed by w)' p/a<? 1614, vij plague 1378, where 

plag, plague (Mid. C. />Ze&) = Lat. plica, and 'Seven times' is made 

by vij gwythe 1537, where gwythe = Ir. fecht. 
7. kys-raynya 'to reign together' re-occurs tn/ra 1961. So kys-vewa 

'to live together' 1314. The prefix kys- = 0. Corn, cet- (chetva 

gl. conventus vel conventio, Vocab.), W. cyd. Bys-vickan = Bret. 

L. 10. ython = the prefix yth + on, the 1. pers. plur. pres. indie, of of 

'I am', which occurs (ythof} with the same prefix in 1. 445. 
L. 14. skon 'forthwith' = NHG. schon: rase seems a blunder for grase, 

for ow does not cause vocalic infection. But ow ras occurs in R. 


L. 20. skavall from Lat. scabellum like scauel in the Vocab. 
L. 29. canhasawe pi. of cannas 'messenger' = W. cennad. 
L. 61. arthelath 'lordship' for arlethath (arluit[hj gl. dominus, Vocab.), 

[more probably archelath 'archangels'; see elath 'angels' in 1. 65. N.] 
L. 74. sone 'bless', inf. sona 414 = W. swyno, Ir. se'nad, NHG. segen, 

Engl. same, all from Lat. signare, scil. with the cross. 
L. 79. bosof (also in 11. 116, 123, 133, 225 = bosof 128) is 605 'to be' 

with -a/, here apparently a suffix after the possessive pronoun ow. 
L. 82. yborn 'sky', ybbern 2500 = ebron 0. 18 = huibren (gl. nubes) 

Vocab. = W. wybren. 

L. 90. elyn = W. ellain 'radiant', 'splendid'. 
L. 96. blonogath = bolungeth 0. 873, 1165, 1277 for *volunseth, *volun- 

teth. From Lat. voluntas. 

L. 99. seyl W. sawl 'such', is spelt sttel, suell in P. 2, 1 and 119, 4. 
L. 104. ry in ry-ma = W. r%?r. With gonethys cf. ivanothans 320 and 

gunithiat ereu (gl. agricoia) Vocab. 

L. 107. falladowe pi. of *fallad, afterwards /a/fa* 'a failing'. 
L. 118. fcean (a dissyllable) for behan, beghan. W.bychan. Ir. 6ecc ' little'. 
L. 120. pen-sevicke 'prince' = pen-devig (gl. princeps) Vocab. W.pen- 

L. 125. oio collowye 'a- shining', from gollowye with the usual provection 

of the initial medial after oiv. So ow cortas 'wailing' (gortas) 960, 

ow carma 'crying' (garma) 1580, ow crowetha 'lying down' (gro- 

wetha) 1607, ow crowntya 'granting' (growntya") 1941, ow pewa 

200 NOTES. 

'living 1 (bewa) 1521, ow pose 'being' (bose) 2125, ow toos 'coming 1 
(doos) 2161, ow towtya 'doubting' (dowtya} 1540, ow tysquethas 
'shewing' (dysquethas} 1873. Other instances of provection oc- 
curring in the present drama are: after mar or mar-a, mar qwreth 
'if thou dost' (gwretK) 220, mara qwrewgh 2143, mara qwrees 577, 
mara callaf 'if I can' (gallaf} 442, 1444, mar callaf 466, mar 
kylleth 1836, mar kill 2455, mara custa 'if thou knowest' (*gusta, 
*gudhsta} 2331, mar petha 'if it be' (betha) 2519; after a, a cuffan 
'if I had known' (guffan, goth-fen) 672, a callan 'if I could' (gallon) 
785; after y or yth, y whressan 'I should do' (gwressan} 585, y 
whreth (gwretti) 635, # wAon 'I know' (gon = Skr. vinddmi) 860, 
#A towtys 'I feared' (dowtys) 798. 

L. 149. abashe is translated 'above' on Keigwin's authority. [Is it not 
rather abafhe, borrowed from the English? N.] 

L. 158. lowse = Bret, louz 'sale'. 

L. 188- dew glyen 'two knees', an instance of the Cornish practice of 
prefixing the numeral ' 2 ' to the parts of the body which occur in 
pairs. So dew lagas 'two eyes' 1647, defran 1910, devran 1836 
'two breasts' (de + bran, iron), dyw fridg 'two nostrils' 1853 = dew 
freyge 1933. 

L. 252. worffen (= worvan 2118, worffan 884), a mutation of gorfen 
= W. gorphen, Ir. forchenn. 

L. 254. ay = the Welsh interrogative particle ai. 

L. 270. trebytchya re -occurs infra 1. 1582. 

L. 294. mergh (pi. mirhas infra, 1985) = W. merch, Lith. merga, merge'le. 
Mawe = Ir. TWM</ gen. moga, Goth, magus. Hence moioes 'girl' D. 
1877, pi. mowyssye infra, 1455; and perhaps in 1. 295 we should 
read moz = moos 1390. 

L. 320. wanothans better wonethans (gonethans). But why the vocalic in- 
fection of the initial g found in goneth 432 &c.? 

L. 321. Note the prosthetic^ in yef 'he' and^e 'his' 1.323, 'its' 1088. 

L. 354. 'y m ' is to be read dhym 'to me'. So 'J OT ' in 1. 475. 

L. 406. wiarM for margh = wiarcA (gl. equus) Vocab. Ir. marc, Gaulish 
ace. [tdgxav = Ohg. marach, f. meriha. Mhg. march (marc), Ebel. 

L. 410. pengarnas pi. of pengarn = W. pengernyn 'gurnard': selyas pi. 
of seZ/t (gl. anguilla) Vocab. 

L. 411. dybblans 'distinct' Keigwin: pur thybblance 1932. 

L. 458. sevyllyake W. sefyllian. 

L. 485. theglyn a mutation of deglyn, which occurs with the initial pro- 
vected in D. 3048: cf. too ou> teglene D. 1217. According to the 
Rev. R. Williams this is from the negative particle de- and gleny 
'to adhere'. 

L. 495. fatla 'how', apparently from pa '^rhat' and della = del-na, 
delu-na 'that manner'. In 2318 flatla seems a blunder for fatla. 

NOTES. 201 

L. 520. dowethy is perhaps connected with deweth 'end'. 

L. 530. yta 'is' (occurs also in 11. 541, 1155, 1240, 1398, 1559, 1564, 
and appears to be formed from the prefix yth and the verb subst. 
/a, which occurs in the Juvencus- codex compounded with ar (arta 
gl. superest). See also 1. 362 and 364. [Qu. rather otta 'see'. N.] 

L. 531. maytclh tixththeid (gl. virgo) Vocab. 0. Ir. macdact in romac- 
dact gl. superadulta, virgo. 

L. 569. awel 'gospel' from evangelium, as el from angelus. The geaweil 
(gl. evangelium) of the Vocab. is certainly a mistake for aweil which 
occurs, spelt aweyl, in R. 2464, 2482, and, spelt awayl in D. 551, 
924. Compare Bret, auiel pi. auielou, Buh. 50, 52. 

L. 598. uffya a mutation of guffya ex *gothfya cf. re woffe 'may he know' 
0. 530 = godh-fe (VID, BHF). 

L. 603. cooM from AS. cuff. So e/ew tinctfrA (MS. denunckut) gl. advena 
Vocab. = dean uncouth 'a stranger' in the Cornish versions of the 
fourth Commandment. 

L. 672. cuffan provected from guffan = *godhfan, gothfen D. 1297. 

L. 682. grefnye a mutation of crefnye, W. era/am. 

L. 711. ffornvall, better perhaps gorvol: cf. W. gorfoli 'to flatter' = gor 
+moli 'to praise', Ir. mofad. 

L. 737. towma for attoma 918. 

L. 813. wza^ 6e?# occurs also in 1290 and 1459, and cf. perhaps malbe 
vanna 2328. 

L. 858. om-gwethen 'let us clothe ourselves', a reflexive verb formed by 
the prefix om-, W. ym-, Br. em-. So om-brovas 'I have proved 
(provas} myself 920, om-wetha 'to keep (gwetha} oneself 1047, 
um-helaf 'I cast (whelaf) myself 1211 (cf. omelly 1114), om-sawya 
'to save oneself 2373. 

L. 881. aban golsta .... ha gwythyll lit. 'since thou hast heard and to 
do\ This is the Cornish (and Welsh) idiom when two verbs are 
connected by 'and'. Compare the English 'Let their habitation be 
void, and no man to dwell in their tents'. Psalm Ixix, 26 (Prayer- 
Book version). See my note on the 'Passion' St. 175, 1. 2. 

L. 917. croppya = cropye P. 134, 3, where it seems to mean 'pierce'. 
Cf. the Engl. 'to crop up' 

L. 920. dyack a mutation of tyack = 0. Corn. *tioc pi. tioyou Vocab. 

L. 939. na part for neb part. 

L. 965. cletha dan 'a sword of fire' (tan, Ir. tene). Here note the vocalic 
infection of the initial of tan the reason being that cletha (W. 
cleddyf, 0. Ir. claideb} is a fern, a -stem. Similarly fynten ways P. 
242, 2 'a fountain of blood' (goys), kymmys ras 'such a quantity 
of graces' (gras) 0. 1745. So a fern. ia-stem like myl (= Ir. mile) 
'thousand', vocalically infects the governed substantive: myl ivoly 
'a thousand of woun ds ' (ffoly), R. 998, myl vyl 'a thousand of 

202 NOTES. 

thousands' R. 142, myl vap mam 'a thousand of sons (map) of 
mothers' 0. 324. So in Irish: mile chemenn 'a thousand of paces' 
Southampton Psalter, University Library, Cambridge. The same 
phenomenon occurs in Breton: poan benn 'a pain of (the) head' 

L. 967. dothans 'to them' (also in L. 2430) = W. iddynt. The usual 
forms are dhedhe, dedhe. 

L. 974. ballas (leg. fta/as) a mutation of palas 1033 'to dig', W.paliad, 
Ir. CAL in the reduplicated form cechlatar ' 'they dug', tochlaim 
(do -\-fo-\-calaim) 'I dig': cf. Lat. pala. 

L. 1037. netha, Bret, neza, W. nyddu 'to spin', vrj&eiv, vs'eir, nere. 

L. 1040. ethlays (= ellas 1055) 'alas', an example of an attempt to the 
sound of the Welsh and Cornish II. So tavethlys D. 551 (W. ta- 
fellu) Behethlen 0. 2588. 

L. 1069. han n-ohan 'and the oxen' (W. i/chen, 0. Bret, ohen, Goth. 
auhsans, Skr. ukshanas*). The apparently prosthetic n also occurs 
in P. 206, 3: dhen n-edhyn 'to the birds' and P. 134, 3: dhen 
n-empynnyon 'to the brains'. It appears to correspond with the 
second n (d) of the 0. Irish dunnaib, dundaib 'to the'. 

L. 1090. bern = bern 'grief D. 2933 &c. Bret, bernout, ne vern ket 
' it is of no consequence', Norris, Cornish Drama II, 210. Ir. brdn. 

L. 1105. crothacke = W. croihawg 'big -bellied'. 

L. 1114. -may th-omelly (better may th-omwhely). This is also a Breton 
idiom. See my note on the 'Passion' 14, 3. Kylbyn (so the rhyme 
requires us to read the kylban of the MS.) for kylben, from kyl 
'back' = chil (gl. cervix) Vocab. W. cil, Ir. cul, and pen 'head', 
'top', cf. pol oil 'occiput'. 

L. 1122. cossythyans = W. cystuddiant, from cystudd, a loan from Lat. 
custddia (cMc?-todia). 

L. 1152. avlethis = aflythys D. 451. W. aflwydd 'misfortune'. 

L. 1168. er ow gew; cf. er agen gew 1043, gweue 2136. Gew is identi- 
fied by the Rev. R. Williams with W. gwae 'woe'. But cf. W. 
gwaew 'pang'. 

L. 1173. deffryth = W. difrwyth 'feeble'. 

L. 1225. dewhanhees part. pass, of duwenhe R. 1415 is equated by Rev. 
R. Williams with W. duchanu 'to lampoon'. The subst. dewan 
(W. duch 'sigh' 'groan'?) occurs infra 1233. 

L. 1243. cavow (also infra 1352) = Bret, cajffbu 'solicitudines'. Buh. 

L. 1254. bys-voye = byth + moy 'evermore'. 

L. 1303. motty = mos 'to go' + thy 'to his'. 

L. 1305. bram 'crepitus ventris', (also infra 2378) = Ir. breim which 

1 O'Clery, in whose Glossary this interesting form is found, modernises 
it into ceachladar. 

NOTES. 203 

occurs in the proverb Is fedrr breim nd cnead ' raelior crepitus ven- 
tris suspirio. Is brant for *brag-m (cf. Ir. braiyim. \. pedo) root 
BHRAG, Lat. FRA(N)G, Engl. break? or it is connected with /9^'^cy? 

L. 1332. hoer 'sister 1 = huir (gl. soror) Vocab. Bret, c'hoar, Ir. sitt/-. 

L. 1352. methaf y dy cf. me a levar heb y dye, infra, 1629. 

L. 1354. anothans 'of them' also occurs infra 1458, 1492, and is the 0. 
Welsh onadunt, now onaddynt 'of them'. 

L. 1386. venys, a mutation of menys, borrowed from Lat. minutus. So in 
0. Welsh munutolau gl. fornilia. 

L. 1446. hendas (pi. hendasow 1479) = hendat (gl. avus) Vocab. From 
hen 'old' = Ir. sen and tat 'father' of Terra? 

L. 1471. lodn 'bullock', the modern form of Ion, which occurs infra 1569, 
is = the Gaelic Ion, explained 'elk' in the Highland Society's Dic- 

L. 1488. Observe the pleonastic pronoun in this line. So in 11. 2453, 
2454 : an golam me as danven ' the dove I will send her ', and in 
11. 1830, 1831: ow brodar cayne me an gweall ef 'my brother Cain 
I see him'. So in Breton: eguidot Jesu me an suppli Buh. 194, 
' Jesus I supplicate him for thee '. 

L. 1490. gwylls 'wild' = W. gwyllt, Goth, viltheis. 

L. 1491. sethaw, better sethow 1493, pi. of seth 1. 1553 = 0. Ir. saigit, 
Lat. sagitta. 

L. 1512. haw thas adam y volath lit. 'and my father Adam his curse'. So 
in I. 2024 an chorll adam y drygva: 'the churl Adam his dwelling'. 
See for other Cornish examples of this idiom in my edition of the 
'Passion' note on St. 3, 1. 2. So in English: 'for Jesus Christ 
his sake' in the Collect for all conditions of men, and 'I did pro- 
myse hym x 1. sterling to pray for my father and mother there 
sowles ', Letter written in 1528 cited in Bagster's Hexapla Introd. 
p. 44. For examples of this practice in the Romance languages 
see Diez III, 70 (2' 1 ed.). 

L. 1545. gymmyas 'leave' a mutation of kymmyas (kemeas P. 230, 2, cum- 
myas D. 3146) = Ital. commiato. 

L. 1603. defalebys (also in 1664, 1665) from the negative particle de- 
and hevelep 'form', a derivative from haval = Lat. similis, Gr. 

L. 1611. care = car (gl. amicus) Vocab. Br. kdr 'relative'. 

L. 1687. lam 'a leap'. W. Ham (0. Welsh lammam gl. salio), Ir. tiim, 

Goth, and Engl. lam-b. 

L. 1702. hengyke = hengog (gl. abavus) Vocab. 
L. 1721. lawan = lawethan 'fiends' (?) R. 139. 
L. 1724. tomdar = tumder (MS. tunder} gl. calor, Vocab. 
L. 1743. hans. I conjecture to be for *hens (=a Bret, hent) hins (in i <////- 

hinsic gl. injuriosus, eun-hinsic gl. Justus, Vocab.), Ir. s#, Goth. 

204 NOTES. 

sinps. [But cf. yn haus c down' 0. 1750, and hauz in Pryce's Vo- 

L. 1748. allow, better alow, pi. of ooll 1. 1763. W. ol 'track'. 
L. 1828. gwrethow pi. of grueit[h]en (gl. radix) Vocab., W. gwreiddyn. 

Cf. Skr. root vro?A, <n s% J?(>tia, Lat. radix, Goth, vaurts. 
L. 1829. resacke = ra% in redeg-va (gl. cursus) Vocab. Cf. Mid. Welsh 

rafec 'currere', Z. 518. 0. Ir. rt*A. 
L. 1919. nam = W. nam 'exception'. 
L. 1973. mall = W. matt 'desire'. 

L. 1976. bloth 'year' = W. blwydd, Bret, ftfoaz, Ir. ftftarfan. 
L. 2012. gegen a mutation of kegen = keghin (gl. coquina): Vocab. 
L. 2081. gweras = #uere* (gl. humus) Vocab. W. gwered. 
L. 2137. #u;ewe = W. gwdew 'pang'? See note on 1. 1168. 
L. 2199. pekare = pokara, which occurs in one of the Cornish versions 

of the Paternoster gava do ny agan cabmow pokara ny gava 'for- 
give us our sins as we forgive'. 
L. 2200. devyes 'twos' = W. devoedd. 
L. 2201. ke-havall = Ir. co-smail, Lat. con-similis. 
L. 2242. brentyn (also bryntyn) W. brennhyn 'king', which is often 

wrongly compared with Gaulish Brennus. 
L. 2260. kevellyn = kevellen 2262, W. cyfelin 'cubit'; from cev- and elm 

(gl. ulna) Vocab. Goth, aleina, attevij, ulna. 
L. 2266. a dhellarg = Br. adi-lerch, from ZercA 'trace': cf. war tu dy- 

larg 0. 961. 
L. 2282. boell 'axe' = 0. Welsh bahell, bad (in lau-bael), 0. Ir. 6idt7, 

Ohg. bihal, pihal, bigil, pigil (Ebel), Engl. bill. 
L. 2299. wAa^A for wheth (see 1. 347) = W. chwythya. 
L. 2304. hothman a mutation of cothman 'acquaintance', 'friend', from 

Engl. coth, couth 'known' (0. S. cwcT) (see note on 1. 603) and man. 

Coth-man is thus the opposite of den uncuth (MS. unchut) , gl. ad- 
L. 2398. eball = ebol (gl. pullus) Vocab., a derivative from 0. Celtic 

*epos (in Epo-rnulos) = Lat. equus, Gr. irtTtoe, Ir. ecA, Skr. apra, 

0. Sax. ehu. 

L. 2403. poZia is perhaps = pols + da 'good'. 
L. 2425. creys (also cres, crys) 'middle', is identified by the Rev. R. 

Williams with Ir. aide 'heart'. 
L. 2480. reys = Bret, reiz, Mid. Welsh rew, reith = Ir. recA<, Lat. rec- 

tus, Goth. rat'A/s. 
L. 2531. de 'day' for de*A = W. dydd, Bret. (few. [Rather the participle 

of dones 'to come'; altered from des to preserve the rhyme. The 

meaning will be 'This same day has come'.] 


P. 2, 

n r> 

P. 3, 

P. 4, 1 
P. 8, 1 
P. 9, 1 
P. 10, 
P. 15, 

P. 16, 

P. 18, 

P. 19, 
P. 21, 
P. 23, 

P. 26, 
P. 30, 
P. 31, 
P. 33, 
P. 35, 
P. 39, 
P. 40, 
P. 42, 
P. 43, 

8 for 'sent to me' read 'to me sent' 

24 for 'rayghea' read 'mojighea' 

4 for 'drama' read 'dramas' 

10 for 'consequently interchanged' read 'consequently dropt, 
added or interchanged 1 

13 after 1573 insert 'blygh 'wolf 1149' 

26 add ' So in Icelandic double n after ei, e, i, 6, u and se is 
sounded like dn. For example einn 'one 1 is pronounced eidn 
= Corn, idn, udn' 

1 from bottom, for 'transcribed' read 'transscribed' 

52 for 'moy' read 'moy'. 1. 58 for 'tha' read 'tha[m]' 

29 for 'sent to me' read 'to me sent' 
. 73 for 'jorne' read 'jorna' 

. 129 for 'a glittering 1 read 'a-glittering', so in p. 21, 1. 223. 
. 130 for 'in the case' read 'in (the) case' 
. 162 for 'payves' read 'paynes', and as to yfyth compare D. 


. 168 for 'terlentry' read 'terlentry' 
. 184 add in margin 'fo. 3 a.' 
. 193 for 'golla' read 'golha' 
. 191 for 'a throne' read 'a highest throne' 
. 231 after 'Now' insert 'thou art' 

. 251 for 'a mourning' read 'a-mourning'. 1. 254 read '(the) son' 
. 270 trebytcha may here perhaps be translated 'overweigh', see 

Cotgrave S. v. tr Mucker. 
. 300 for 'lucyfer' read 'lucyfer' 

. 344 for 'tus' read 'tas.' 1. 358 for 'may' rcml 'may' 
. 344 read 'Son in Trinity' 
. 395 for 'was' read 'is' 

. 410 read 'Gurnets (and) Kels'. 1. 414 for 'bless' reml 'saine' 
. 460 for 'a burning' read 'a-burning' 
. 480 add in margin 'fo. 6 b.' 
. 527 for 'jethy' read 'jethy' 
. 508 for 'hence' read 'thence' 
. 520 for 'Ah' read 'Wilt thou'. 1. 530 for ' lo ! it (is)' read 'is 

206 ERRATA. 

P. 44, 1. 555 jor 'wheres' read 'wheras' 

P. 45, 1. 541 Jor 'see it' read 'is' 

P. 46, 1. 564 for 'vethol' read 'vetholl'. 1. 577 for 'gwrees' read 
1 qwrees ' 

P. 48, 1. 605 for 'accomptys' read 'acomptys'. 1. 608 for 'deuise' read 
' denyse ' 

P. 50 in the stage- direction for 'angerly' read 'angerly' 

P. 54, 1. 686 after 'heb' inert 'y' 

P. 55, 1. 686 for V read 'his' 

P. 56, 1. 693 for 'verry' read 'verry' 

P. 58, 1. 736 for 'henma' read 'hemma'; and in the note for 'gaya' 
read 'gaye' 

P. 59, 1. 718 after 'from' insert 'the' 

P. 61, 1. 760 for 'a singing' read 'a-singing' 

P. 63, 1. 764 for 'proffered' read 'proved' 

P. 64, 1. 805 after 'gansa' add '[MS. ganso]'. 1. 813 for 'ny' read ' ny' 

P. 66, 1. 822 delete the second 'yea'. 1. 836 read 'thebbry' 

P. 67, 1. 822 delete the second 'yea' 

P. 70, 1. 887 read 'falsurye' 

P. 72, 1. 897 read 'moyghea' 

P. 73, 1. 905 read 'a-burning'. 1. 909 for 'snake' read 'worm'. 1. 912 
for 'Serpent' read 'worm' 

P. 76, 1. 953 after 'fus' insert 'gnryes' 

P. 77, 1. 953 after 'wast' insert 'made' 

P. 78 in the stage-direction, 1. 5 read 'dystaf 

P. 80, 1. 1018 for 'kemys' read 'kemmys' 

P. 82, note 2 delete '?' 

P. 84, 1. 1065 for 'cayne' read 'cayine' 

P. 85, 1. 1055 'for 'that' read 'the' 

P. 86, 1. 1084 for 'lesky' read 1 lesky'. 1. 1090 for 'cowge' read 'cooge'. 
1. 1092 for 'leskye' read Meskye' 

P. 88, 1. 1117 for 'chala' read 'challa' 

P. 89, 1. 1112 after '(?)' insert 'surely' 

P. 93, 1. 1149 after 'Perhaps' insert 'a wolf, and add to the note ' blyoh 
is for bleith (W. blaidd) as segh 'arrow' 1. 1573 is for set/i.' 
1. 1155 read '(The) voice of (the) death of Abel' and com- 
pare Genesis IV, 10. 

P. 96, 1. 1194 for 'y' read 'y\ In margin fnr ' \:> a.' rend ' LS !>.' 

P. 97 note, for '195' read '1195' 

P. 100, 1. 1248, insert in /<///// 'to. 14 a.' 

P. 104, 1. 1298 read 'A cayne cayme'. I. I.'U).", /-W 'inoitv' 

P. 105, 1. 1305 for 'a' read 'the' 

P. 110 for 'CAYNE' read 'CAYMK'. 1. l.'JO.'J f<,r '[terres]' />/</ '[log. 
terres] ' 



P. Ill, I. 1397 for 'behold him' read 'he is' 

P. 113, 1. 1403 for 'in' read 'is' 

P. 114, 1. 1441 insert in nmryin ' fo. 16 a.' 1. 1444 for 'a' read 'an' 

P. 115, 1. 1455 after 'And' insert 'the' 

P. 116, 1. 1470 for 'kyck' read 'kyek'. 1. 1487 in margin for '11 b.' 

rend ' 16 b.' 

P. 121, I. 1531 afler 'own' insert 'two' 
P. 122, 1. 1558 for 'strange' read 'strang'. 1. 1559 for 'seth' read 


P. 1-23, 1. 1556 for 'doubt' read 'fear'. 1. 1564 for 'behold' read 'is' 
P. 124, 1 1586 in margin, for '12' read '17'. 1. 1594 after 'po' m*r< 


P. 125, 1. 1594 for 'a 1 read 'some' 
P. 130, 1. 2 from bottom, for 'LAMEC' read 'LAMECK' 
P. 134, 1. 1725 for 'ny' read 'ny' 

P. 135, 1. 1708 for '(You see it)' read 'You see it' 
P. 136, 1. 1740 read 'prederye'. 1. 1745 read 'gymmar' 
P. 137, 1. 1743 for 'in the' read 'in a' 
P. 140/or 'CHERUBIN' read 'CHERUBYN' 
P. 142, stage-direction 1. 3 for 'Jesus' read 'Jesus'. 1. 1825/or ' wethau' 

read ' vvythan' 

P. 148, 1. 1905 read 'ythesa' 1. 1910 read 'vny' 
P. 153, 1. 1950 for 'support' read 'maintain' 
P. 156, . 1998 for 'may' read 'may' 

2012 for 'dune' read 'dvne' 
P. 159, . 2027 for 'of read 'jot' 
P. 160, . 2056 for 'hay' read 'hay' 

2060 for ' adams ' read ' adam ' 
P. 163, . 2085 for 'again' read 'certainly' 
'behold him' read 'he is' 
'neff read 'neffe' 
'behold them' read 'they are' 
'behold them' read 'are' 

2279 for 'vra' read 'ra' 

2304 for 'gymmar' read 'gybmar' 
. 2308 for 'flood' read 'deluge' 
. 2334 after 'this' insert ': '. 1. 2355 for 'wait' read 'look' 

. 2358 for 'distraction 1 read 'destruction' 
. 2398 for 'drog' read 'droge' 

. 2391 for 'whatever' read 'whatever'. 1. 2403 for ' now very' 
read 'now a very' 
. 24-J4 for 'fcwyl 1 read 'gwyle' 
. 2418 for 'behold them' read 'they are' 
. 2440 for 'abervath' read 'abervathe' 




2085 for 
2091 for 
2105 for 
2175 for 
2192 for 



P. 189, 1. 2442 for 'what there is.' read 'the things;' 

P. 192, 193. In the MS. lines 24852489 stand in this order : 2485, 

2488, 2489, 2486, 2487. 
P. 202, . 12 after 'to' insert 'represent' 
P. 203, . 11 for 'of read 'cf.' 
P. 204, . 5 for '*' read 'ex' 

17 for 'devoedd' read 'deuoedd' 

29 for '0. S.' read 'A. S.' 

7 from bottom for 'identified' read 'identified' 


IRISH GLOSSES. A mediaeval Tract in Latin Declen- 
sion, with Examples explained in Irish. To which 
are added the Lorica of Gildas with the Gloss thereon, 
and a Selection of Glosses from the Book of Armagh. 
Dublin: Printed at the University Press, for the Irish 
Archaeological and Celtic Society. 18GO. 

PASCON AGAN ARLUTH. The Passion of Our Lord. 
A Middle -Cornish Poem edited with a translation and 
notes. Published for the Philological Society by A. 
Asher & Co. Berlin, and forming part of the Philo- 
log. Society's Transact. 1861-2. 

ARY, Codex A. (from a MS. in the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy), O'Davoren's Glossary from a 
MS. in the Library of the British Museum, and a 
Glossary to the Calendar of Oingus the Culdee from 
a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. With 
a Preface and Index. Williams and Norgate, London 
and Edinburgh 1862. 

Drama. Edited from a MS. in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, with a Preface and Glossary. Pu- 
blished for the Philological Society by A. Asher & Co. 
Berlin 1862. (Philolog. Soc. Transact. 1861-2.) 

Berlin, printed by A. W. Schade, Stallschreiberstr. 47. 





o o TJ nsr c i L. 




EDWIN GUEST, ESQ., LL.D., Master of Cains College, Cambridge. 
T. HEWITT KEY, ESQ., M.A., University College, London. 




D. P. FRY, ESQ. 

















Professor Immanuel BEKKER. University, Berlin. 
Editor of " Anecdota Graca," etc. 

Signer Bernardino BIONDELLI, Milan. 
Author of " Saggio sui Dialetti" etc. 

Professor Franz BOPP. University, Berlin. 

Author of the " Vergleichende Grammatik" etc. 

Montanus de Haan HETTEMA, Leeuwarden, Friesland* 
Editor of " De Vrije Fries," etc. 

Professor Christian LASSEN. University, Bonn. 

Author of the " Indische Alterthumskunde" etc. 

Professor Johan N. MADVIG. University, Copenhagen. 
Author of the " Latinsk Sproglcerc" etc. 



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1842. J. G. PHILLIMORE, Esq., Q.C., M.P. Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn. 

1855. I. L. PHILLIPS, Esq. Beckenham. 

1859. J. T. PRICE, Esq. Shaftesbury. 

1859. Newton PRICE, Esq. Grammar School, Dundalk. 

1842. *W. RAMSAY, Esq. The College, Glasgow. 

1860. William H. REECE, Esq. Oak Mount, Edgbaston. 
1859. F. REILLY, Esq. 22, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn. 
1858. Christ. ROBERTS, Esq. Norwood, Surrey. 

1842. John ROBSON, Esq. Clifton Road, St. John's Wood. 

1862. *D. Ross, Esq. 14, Parkside Street, Edinburgh. 

1858. Ch. SAUNDERS, Esq. Plymouth, and 3, Hare Court, 

1842. *The Rev. Robert SCOTT, D.D., Master of Baliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

1863. Professor SERLEY. University College, London. 

1854. The Rev. J. E. SELWYN. Grammar School, Black- 

1863. The Rev. S. SHARPE. The College, Huddersfield. 

1859. The Rev. George SMALL. 5, Featherstone Buildings, 

1859. Bassett SMITH, Esq. 1, Elm Court, Temple, E.G. 

The Rev. Philip SMITH. Grammar School, Hendon. 

1843. The Very Rev. Arthur Penrhyn STANLEY, Dean of 
Westminster. Deanery, Westminster, S.W. 

1858. Whitley STOKES, Esq. High Court Buildings, Madras. 

1857. The Right Rev. A. C. TAIT, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

London. St. James's Square, S.W. 
1842. H. Fox TALBOT, Esq. Laycock Abbey, Wilts. 

1859. The Rev. C. J. F. TAYLOR. Cemetery, Ilford. 
1842. The Rev. J. J. TAYLOR. Woburn Square, W.C. 

1847. Tom TAYLOR, Esq. Board of Health, Whitehall, S.W. 
1842. *The Right Rev. Connop THIRLWALL, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of St. David's. Abergwili Palace, Car- 

1842. *The Rev. Professor W. H. THOMSON. Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

1842 *The Venerable Archdeacon THORP. Kinnerton, 

1857. The Very Rev. R. C. TRENCH, Archbishop of Dublin. 

1859. Nicholas TRUBNER, Esq. 60, Paternoster Row. 

1842. The Hon. E. TWISTLETON, 3, Rutland Gate, S.W. 

1848. A. A. VANSITTART, Esq. New Cavendish Street, 

Portland Place, W. 

1861. F. WATERMEYER, Esq. 

1856. The Rev. J. D. WATHERSTON. Grammar School, 


1861. The Rev. J. S. WATSON. Montpellier House, Stockwell. 
1847. Thomas WATTS, Esq. British Museum, W.C. 
1842. Hensleigh WEDGWOOD, Esq. 1, Cumberland Place, 


1851. *R. F. WEYMOUTH, Esq. Portland Villas, Plymouth. 
1863. H. B. WHEATLEY, Esq. '53, Berners Street, W. 
1842. The Rev. W. WHEWELL, D.D., Master of Trinity 

College, Cambridge. 

1842. The Rev. R. WHISTON. Grammar School, Rochester. 
1859. Professor WHITTARD. Cheltenham College. 
1859. The Rev. T. C. WILKS. Hook, Winchfield. 


1846. J. W. WILLCOCK, Esq. Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 

Inn, W.C. 
1842. The Eev. E. WILLIAMS. 

1842. Cardinal WISEMAN. 8, York Place, Marylebone, N. 
1858. H. D. WOODFALL, Esq. 14, Dean's Yard, West- 
minster, S.W. 

1858. B. B. WOODWARD, Esq. Eoyal Mews, Pimlico ; and 

Library, Windsor Castle. 
1862. Eev. E. WORLLEDGE. Whitelands, Chelsea, S.W. 

1843. James YATES. Lauderdale House, Highgate. 

Assistant Secretary. John WILLIAMS, Esq., Eoyal Astrono- 
mical Society, Somerset House, London, W.C. 

Bankers. Messrs. EANSOM, BOUVERTE & Co., 7, Pall Mall 

Publishers of the Transactions of and after 1858, Messrs. ASHER 
& Co., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London; 
and 20, Unter den Linden, Berlin. 

Publishers of the Transactions before 1858, BELL & DALDY, 
Fleet Street, London. 


FROM NOVEMBER 6, 1863, TO JUNE 17, 1864. 

Friday, November 6, 1863. 
The Rt. Eev. the Lord Bishop of ST. DAVID'S in the Chair. 

The Papers read were 

1. On the origin of the term " Beachy Head/' by Pro- 

fessor Key. 

2. On the Prefixal Elements of Sanskrit Roots, by Pro- 

fessor Groldstiicker. 

Friday, November 20, 1863. 
Professor KEY in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected Members of 
the Society Henry Bradshaw, Esq., Rev. Samuel Sharpe, 
and C. P. Brown, Esq. 

Mr. H. T. Parker (a Member of the Society) presented a 
folio volume containing Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 
and Sir Matthew Hale's Primitive Origination of Mankind, 
which had been marked by Samuel Johnson for his Dic- 
tionary, and has still the marks and occasional notes. Mr. 
Parker stated that he had picked the book out of a catalogue, 
and had verified the references by comparison with the dic- 
tionary. Mr. D. P. Fry said that he had found that several 
of the passages marked had not been used in the dictionary, 
though many had. The thanks of the meeting were voted to 
Mr. Parker for his valuable and interesting present. 

The Paper read was 

On the English Genitive, by Mr. Sergeant Manning, Q.C. 

Friday, December 4, 1863. 
Professor MA.LDEN in the Chair. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected members of the 

Society Bryan Haughton Hodgson, Esq., and Edward Dow- 
den, Esq. 

The Papers read were 

1. A note on the word " Cocoa," by Reginald Hanson, 


2. Our elder brethren, the Frisians, their language and 

literature as illustrative of those of England, by 
the Rev. W. Barnes. 

3. Traces of roots f'ng or fi, ing or i, in the Indo- 

European languages, by the Rev. Dr. Barnes. 
The Rev. J. D. Watherston proposed for discussion by the 
meeting, " Is the word skirrid applied to local names, Scan- 
dinavian or Keltic ?" 

Friday, December 18, 1863. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 
The Paper read was 

Language no test of Race, by the Rev. G. 0. Geldart. 

Friday, January 15, 1864. 
The Rev. G. C. GELBART in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of 
the meeting returned for the same : A Comparative Vocabu- 
lary of the Languages of the Broken Tribes of Nepal, by 
Biyan Haughton Hodgson, Esq. On the Eclipses recorded 
in the ancient Chinese historical work called Chun Tsew, by 
John Williams, Esq. 

An extract was read from a letter by Tom Taylor, Esq. to 
Dr. Bath Smart, on his Vocabulary of the English Gypsies, 
published by the Society " I have looked over your paper 
on the English Romany Rockeropen. Your vocabulary is 
much fuller than mine, but in every case where we both have 
the gypsy word for the same thing, your vocabulary agrees 
with mine. I can fully corroborate the exactitude of all 
your introductory and collateral matter, the admixture of 
English and slang with which it is usually spoken," etc. 

The Paper read was 

English Etymologies, by Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 


Friday, February 5, 1864. 
The President, the Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of ST. DAVID'S, 

in the Chair. 

"W. B. Hodgson, Esq., LL.D., was duly elected a member 
of the Society. 

A copy of the Papyrus of Yas-khen, Priest of Amen-ra, 
discovered in an excavation made by direction of H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales during his journey through Egypt, was pre- 
sented to the Society by the Prince's direction. The thanks 
of the meeting were voted to the Prince for this present. 
The Paper read was 

Some Keltic Etymologies, by Mr. J. Rhys, with com- 
ments by the Rev. G. C. Geldart. 

Friday, February, 19, 1864. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

Alfred Elwes, Esq:, was duly elected a member of the 

The Paper read was 

The Characteristics of the Southern Dialect of Early 
English, Part I., by Richard Morris, Esq. 

Friday, March 4, 1864. 
The Rev. G. C. GELDART in the Chair. 

The Paper read was 

On English Heterographers a historic notice of the 
would-be reformers of English Spelling, by H. B. 
Wheatley, Esq. 

Friday, March 18, 1864. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

Hugh Hastings, Esq., was duly elected a member of the 

The Paper read was 

On the so-called alpha privative, preceded by some 
matters supplementary to a former paper on ava, by 
Professor Key. 

Friday, April 1, 1864. 
Professor FITZ-EDWARD HALL in the Chair. 

The Papers read were 

1. On the verification of the Homeric Accentuation, by 

C. B. Cayley, Esq. 

2. On a peculiarity in the quantity of the word vaSes, by 

the Eev. Alfred Church. 

Friday, April 15, 1864. 
THOMAS WATTS, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the 
Society 1 Professor Leitner, and W. Scott Dalgleish, Esq. 
The Paper read was 

On the Temporal Augment in Sanskrit and Greek, by 
the Rev. John Davies. 

Friday, May 6, 1864. 
Professor KEY, Y.P., in the Chair. 

Shadworth H. Hodgson, Esq., was duly elected a member 
of the Society. 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to Dr. Beke for his 
Lecture on the Sources of the Nile. 
The Paper read was 

The Characteristics of the Southern Dialect of Early 

English, Part II., by R. Morris, Esq. 
Mr. Morris also made some remarks on the word gleym in 
the Creed of Piers Ploughman, which he translated "words'* 
(Swedish glam, "to talk"), and on the word time in the sense 
of " leisure," which he showed represented the Early English 
torn or tome, meaning " leisure," and was connected with toom, 

Friday, May 20, 1864. 


Sir J. F. DAVIS, Bart, in the Chair. 
R. D. Osborn, Esq. was duly elected a member of the 

The following members of the Society were elected its 
officers for the ensuing year : 

President : 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Rt. Rev. the Lord Archbishop of Dublin. 
The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of London. 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Lyttelton. 

E. Guest, Esq., LL.D., Master of Caius College, Cambridge. 
T. Hewitt Key, Esq. M.A. University College, London. 

Ordinary Members of Council : 

Professor Cassal. J. Power Hicks, Esq. 

P. J. Chabot, Esq. E. R. Horton, Esq. 

Rev. Derwent Coleridge. Professor Maiden. 

Rev. Dr. B. Davies. R. Morris, Esq. 

Sir J. F. Davis, Bart. J. Muir, Esq. 

Danby P. Fry, Esq. The Yery Rev. the Dean of 

Rev. G. C. Geldart. Westminster. 

H. Hucks Gibbs, Esq. Thomas Watts, Esq. 

Professor Goldstiicker. H. B. Wheatley, Esq. 

George Grote, Esq. B. B. Woodward, Esq. 

Professor Fitz-Edward Hall. 

Treasurer : Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq. 

Hon. Sec. : F. J. Furnivall, Esq. 

The Treasurer's Cash Account, as approved by the Auditors, 

Mr. Chabot and Mr. H. B. Wheatley, was read and adopted. 

A statement of the liabilities of the Society, and the 

arrears of subscriptions due to it, was also made by the 


The thanks of the meeting were voted to the Auditors for 
their services. 

It was resolved that henceforth the accounts of the Society 
be made up to the 31st of December every year, and be laid 
before the next anniversary meeting. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, for the use of its rooms free. 
The Paper read was 

On certain Popular Comparative Etymologies, by Pro- 
fessor Goldstiicker. 


Friday, June 3, 1864. 

Professor FITZ-EDWAKD HALL in the Chair. 
The Papers read were 

1. A few Shakspere Notes, by A. C. Jourdain, Esq. 

2.a Some old English words wholly or almost left out of 


b. Notes on Language and the Stone Age. 
By the Rev. W. Barnes, B.D. 

Friday, June 17, 1864. 
HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD, Esq. in the Chair. 

Bhau Daji, Esq., of Bombay, was elected a member of the 

The Papers read were 

1. On a Family of Reduplicated Words, by H. B. 

Wheatley, Esq. 

2. On Anglo-Saxon Derivatives, by the Rev. J. Baron. 
The thanks of the meeting were voted to the Royal 

Academy of Amsterdam, for a present of their Proceedings, 
and other works. 



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6 vols., 1 2 guineas, reduced to 3. 

-5, -6, -7, one guinea each; for 1858, 1859, 1860-1, 1862-3, 1864, 
half-a-guinea each. 
Members can obtain the Proceedings, and the Transactions before 1858, at a 

reduced price, on application to the Assistant Secretary. 

VOLUME, 1863-4, containing 

I. LIBER CURE COCORUM, an Early English Cookery Book in Verse 
(ab. 1440 A.D.) Edited by RICHARD MORRIS, ESQ. 3*. 

II. THE PRICKE OF CONSCIENCE (Stimulus Conscientise). A Nor- 
thumbrian Poem, by Richard Rolle de Hampole, (ab. 1340 A.D.). Edited by 

III. THE CASTEL OFF LOUE, an Early 14th century Version of Bp. 
Grosteste's Chasteau d' Amour. Edited by R. F. WEYMOUTH, ESQ., M.A., London. 
(Just ready.} 

The Society's previous Early-English Texts are in the Transactions 
for 1858 and 1860-1, and can be had separately of the Publishers : 

the wicked birds Pilate and Judas), 1250-1460, edited by F. J. FURNIYALL, M.A., 
Camb. 55. (Trans. 1858.) 

THE PLAY OF THE SACRAMENT, a Middle English Drama (ab. 1461), 
edited by WHITLEY STOKES, ESQ. 3s. (Trans. 1860-1) 


by RICHARD CHENEVTX TRENCH, D.D., Dean of Westminster. Second 
Edition, revised and enlarged. To which is added a Letter to the Author 
from HERBERT COLERIDGE, ESQ., on the Progress and Prospects of the 
Society's New English Dictionary. J. W. Parker & Son, 1860. 3s. 

PROPOSAL for the Publication of a New English Dictionary by 
the Philological Society. Triibner & Co., 1859. Qd. 

COLERIDGE. Triibner & Co., 1859. 5*. (Being the Basis of Comparison 
for the First Period, 1250-1526.) 

BASIS OF COMPARISON. Third Period. Part L, A to D (out 
of print). Part II., E to L. Part III., M to Z. 

VOCABULARY OF WORDS beginning with the letter B, com- 
piled by W. GEE, Esq. 

LIST OF BOOKS already read, or now (July 12, 1861) being read, 
for the Philological Society's New Dictionary. 

CANONES LEXICOGRAPHICI ; or, Rules to be observed in 
Editing the New English Dictionary of the Philological Society. 

win i 



Philological Society, London