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Full text of "Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec"

5450 
L55 

TI.S.4 






TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Literary and Historical Society 



OF QUEBEC 



SESSIONS OF 19O8-O9 



(No, 28 




X 

K 



QUEBEC 
<NicLE PRINTING Co. 

1910 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Literary and Historical Society 

/n 



OF QUEBEC 



SESSIONS OF 1908-09 



No. 28 




CjlEBEC 

CHRONICLE PRINTING Co. 
1910 



t 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page. 
Report of Council, I3th January, 1909 3 

The Treasurer i3,th January, 1909 7 

The Librarian, I3th January, 1909; 7 

Election of Officers, 1909 1 1 

Report of Council, i2th- January, 1910 12 

" " The Treasurer, I2th January, 1910 .' 15 

The Librarian, I2th January, 1910 16 

Election of Officers, 1910 18 

List of Past Presidents of the Society, 1909 19 

" " Honorary Members, 1909. 21 

" " Corresponding Members, 1909 22 

" " Associate Members, 1909 23 

" " Life Members, 1909, and Governors of Morrin College. .. .25 

" " Members of Council, 1908 26 

" " Members of Council, 1909 26 

Paper on Admiral Bayfield, by Capt. Boulton, R.N 27 

" on Early Transatlantic Steamship Service, by Dr. Douglas, 

Hon. President 96 



Literary and Historical Society of Quebec 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 
13TH JANUARY 1909 



The annual general meeting was held on the ijth Janu- 
ary, 1909, in the Rooms of the Society, at ten a.m. Dr. G. 
W. Parmelee, President, occupied the chair, and there were 
present: Messrs. C. Tessier, Col. Neilson, Dr. Harper, S. 
Lesage, E. T. D. Chambers, F. Lampson, W. Clint, D. H. 
Geggie, J. T. Ross, Col. Turnbull, Rev- F. G. Scott, John 
Hamilton, J. Brown, James Geggie, Capt. Boulton, P. 
Gagnon, A. Robertson, D. Watson, M. de Preston, P. B- 
Casgrain, A. H. Cook, Rev. A. T. Love. 

After routine proceedings the President read the report 
of the Council for the past year as follows: 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1908 

The Council of the Literary and Historical Society has 
to report a year of unusual success in several directions. 
The outstanding feature of the year has been the culmina- 
tion of a long and uninterrupted series of benefactions from 
Dr. J. Douglas, the Honorary President of the Society. As 
you all know, he has for some years given, apart from 
minor contributions, the sum of $500 annually to be ex- 
pended in the purchase of books and In the publication of 
Historical Documents. On his last visit to the Society as 
lecturer last winter, he suggested a commutation of his 
annual contribution which he undoubtedly all along intended 
to be a permanent annual gift. Through Col. Neilson as 
intermediary, Dr. Douglas conveyed the sum of $10,000 
to the Society by notarial deed on the 5th of May, 1908, 
constituting thereby John Theodore Ross, Esq., and A. H- 



Cook, Esq., trustees, with full power to invest and to ad- 
minister these funds, and to account for the dividends to 
the Society. 

This magnificent gift was duly accepted by the Society, 
and suitable acknowledgement was made to the generous 
donor. 

This endowment places the Society in such a sound finan- 
cial condition that the Society may expect not only to con- 
tinue the good work of the past, but to enlarge it in many 
ways in the near future. 

In respect of finances, upon which so much depends, the 
Society has improved its position notably during the past 
decade. The generous legacy of the late Mrs. Turnbull, in 
1904, of $5,000, brought the endowment over $8,000 so 
that the Society will have dividends in the future on about 
$18,000. 

It is fitting that reference should be made to the continu- 
ed good will of the Governors of Morrin College, to whom 
the Society is indebted for the use of its rooms free of 
charge, and for the continued annual contribution of $250 
towards our current expenses. 

Negotiations are under way by which it is expected that 
the room known as the Aylwin Library Room will be put 
in order and secured for the use of the Society, with the 
Aylwin books- 

Another annual meeting will probably have a report to 
the effect that the proposed scheme has been carried out. 
This will nearly double our floor space and will make our 
Library and Rooms compare very favorably with those in 
other cities similar in population to Quebec. 

LECTURES 

It is perhaps not too much to say that in the number and 
character of the lectures provided last winter the Society 
has never been more fortunate. The opening lecture was 
delivered by Mr. P. B. Casgrain, President at the time, 
and was succeeded by lectures given by Prof. Colby, of 
McGill, Prof. Wrong, of Toronto University, Dr. Douglas, 



J- B. Hance, Prof. Cox, of McGill, the Rev. Dr. Barclay 
and Sir Charles Fitzpatrick. Captain Boulton's lecture, 
delivered on the 4th of this month naturally falls into the 
lecture course which is being prepared for the present sea- 
son under arrangements similar to those of last winter. 
You will have noticed that the invitations to these lectures 
were issued in the joint name of the Society and the Gov- 
ernors of Morrin College. This was because of the fact 
that the Governors generously undertook to pay all the 
expenses that were incurred by securing lecturers from a 
distance and in giving them a reasonable remuneration. On 
this account the joint lecture committee of Morrin College 
and the Society were able to secure men who could hardly 
have been expected otherwise to come to Quebec- 

Although the membership of the Society, considering the 
advantages it offers, still leaves something to be desired, it 
is satisfactory to note the fact that the net accession to our 
membership this year amounts to twenty-six. The new 
members are thirty-five in number, and the losses by death 
and removal are nine. 

It is interesting and encouraging to note that while in the 
year 1902 the fees collected from members amounted to 
only $390, since then there has been a regular increase 
year by year, until now the Treasurer reports the receipts 
from this source as $621. Although it has always been the 
policy of the Society to keep the fees at a nominal rate in 
order to make the Library practically a public library, the 
additional income from this source is a welcome addition 
to the funds of the Society, but it is even more a gratifying 
indication of the appreciation shown by the citizens of 
Quebec of the work the Society endeavors to accomplish. 

It is known to all Quebecers that this city has the distinc- 
tion of claiming the first steamship, the "Royal William," 
that ever crossed the Atlantic wholly under its own steam. 
Last year Mr. F. C. Wurtele heard of an oil painting of this 
steamship in England which had been made from the object. 
Knowing that Dr. Douglas was soon going to England, 
Mr. Wurtele asked him to examine the painting. The re- 
sult was that Dr. Douglas purchased the painting and 
presented it to the Society through Mr. Wurtele. 



Valuable historically and intrinsically as the painting 
is, from a personal point of view more interest will be taken 
by the members of the Society in the portrait of Dr. Doug- 
las, which the Council has hung in the Rooms. 

Col. Neilson has been the fortunate possessor of the 
prayer-book of the celebrated missionary to the Indians, 
Pere Marquette, which had been translated into the Indian 
tongue, and which Pere Marquette had used for many 
years in his wilderness parish. This prayer-book has been 
reproduced in fac-simile as to the pages and bound, with 
the arms of the Society, at the expense of Dr. Douglas. 
To the Society he has given some 250 copies, which are to 
be used for exchange with learned societies, and for gift 
to distinguished persons to whom the Society may wish to 
return a compliment. 

Your Council considered very carefully many schemes 
for participating in the Tercentenary Celebrations of the 
memorable summer last year, but unfortunately for us the 
magnitude of the preparations made by the Tercentenary 
Committee with their almost unlimited financial resources 
was such as to make the Council feel the inadequacy of any- 
thing within the limits of its powers. 

However, special care was taken to offer the hospitality 
of the rooms to any who should like to visit them, and a 
certain expense was incurred in conjunction with Morrin 
College and St. Andrew's Society to illuminate the building 
in a fitting manner. 

At the end of last month the Council was invited to send 
delegates to a meeting in Washington of the American His- 
torical Association. The Council was fortunate in being 
represented at the meeting by the Honorary President, Dr. 
Douglas, and by Col. Neilson who has made an interesting 
report of the proceedings. 

So far this report has been one of progress and satisfac- 
tion. It remains to introduce a note of sorrow. 

Since our last annual meeting four members of the So- 
ciety have passed beyond the veil, leaving behind them 
memories of integrity, ability, and character beyond the 
common. Quebec as a whole, as well as this Society, mourns 



the loss of F. H. Andrews, William Brodie, William Sim- 
mons and Justice Blanchet. 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

G. W. PARMELEE, 

President 
A. ROBERTSON, 

Recording-Secretary 

Quebec, I3th January, 1909. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

Mr. James Geggie presented his Annual Report as 
Treasurer, which showed a balance to the credit of the 
various accounts of $1,205.82. Members' subscriptions 
amounted to $671.00. The annual grant of $250 10 the 
Book Fund was received from Morrin College, the Govern- 
ors of which also granted the Society the use of the Rooms 
rent free. 



LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 

The Report of the Librarian, Mr- E. T. D. Chambers, 
was as follows: 

At the last annual meeting of the Literary and Historical 
Society it was a matter of much gratification to your Honor- 
ary Librarian to be able to refer to the year then just ended 
as one of almost unexampled progress. In support of this 
statement it was shown that the issue of books from the 
Library for that year reached the large number of 4592 
volumes, against 3941 in the twelve months preceding. 
Without any very large increase in the membership of the 
Society, these figures were very gratifying. How much 
more so, therefore, is the record for 1908, showing a circu- 
lation during the year of 5130 volumes! 



Notwithstanding this large increase in the issue of books 
from the Library, it is eminently satisfactory to note that 
only 161 of the books at present in circulation have been 
out of the Library more than the prescribed period of two 
weeks. 

The following classification may be made of the books 
issued from the Library during the past year.- 

Fiction - .... 3,390 

History 554 

Biography ' 404 

Sport and Travel 308 

Science and Art 42 

Poetry 86 

General Literature 256 

Magazines 90 



Total 



The fact that nearly two-thirds of the books issued from 
the Library have to be classified as fiction affords some 
food for reflection. 

The Editor of Harper's Magazine recently reported 
that statements received from a number of English and 
American Librarians indicated somewhat of a falling off 
in novel reading, and without any intention of sermonizing 
it may be permitted to your Librarian to point out to the 
younger frequenters of the library that there is romance 
enough for every healthy taste in the carefully selected 
works of history, biography, science, sport and travel, con- 
stantly being added to our shelves, and of a character that 
seldom leaves a bitter taste behind. As far as it is possible 
to do so every precaution is taken to ensure a clean selec- 
tion of the fiction so much in demand, and which has been 
tolerated by the Society for the last few years; but it is 
constantly borne in mind in the purchase of new books that 
the Society was chartered for purposes of literary, historical 
and scientific research, and to works that may fairly be 
classified under these heads our grants for new books are 
mainly devoted. 

The Library has been enriched during the year by the ad- 



dition of 242 volumes by purchase, and of 68 bound volumes 
by donation and exchange, making a total addition to our 
shelves of 310 volumes altogether, exclusive of 225 un- 
bound donations and exchanges. 

A large number of English works ordered some time be- 
fore the end of the year has been expected for some time 
past. 

The Society has been extremely fortunate in many of the 
donations of books received by it during the year- By one 
of our corresponding members, George Parkin Winship, 
Esq., of Providence R. I., we have been presented with a 
reprint of the Invitation Serieuse aux Habitants des Illinois, 
of which the original was printed in Philadelphia in 1772: 
a very rare biographical item, being No. 13 of an edition 
of 100 copies. 

Mr. John T. Ross has placed us under deep obligations 
by his very handsome gifts of two remarkable sets of books, 
namely sixteen volumes of Italian Literature published by 
the Grolier Society, and nine volumes of the History of 
India, issued by the National Alumni. Both of these works 
are veritable editions de luxe, and to a due appreciation of 
the value of their contents it is a pleasure to add our testi- 
mony to the perfect triumph of the bookmaker's art achiev- 
ed in their printing and binding- Upon the acceptable char- 
acter of such gifts it is unnecessary to enlarge. 

Professor George W. Wrong, of Toronto University, 
generously sent me for presentation to the Society, volume 
I of Lescarbot's History of New France, in the elegant 
edition recently issued by the Champlain Society. 

From the Rev. A. T. Love we have received a copy of 
the memorial volume of St. Andrew's Church- 
On behalf of the Misses Nettle, of Ottawa, I was re- 
quested to present to the Society the handsome portrait of 
their late father, Richard Nettle, a former well-known 
Quebecer, the author of the "Salmon Fisheries of the St. 
Lawrence," and the father of Fish Culture in Canada. 
These ladies also sent us five volumes of the Library of 
Choice Literature. 

G. M. Fairchild, Esq., presented the Society with the 
bound volume of the Quebec Mercury for 1838, one of the 



most eventful years of the century in this province. The 
volume had previously belonged to the Society, but was 
"lost, strayed, or stolen" many years ago, and lately came 
by purchase, with other papers, into Mr. Fairchild's pos- 
session- 

Our President, Dr. Parmelee, has given us a photograph 
of Duberger's model of Quebec, and to Colonel Lindsay 
we are indebted for a volume of the "Journal of American 
History." 

Others from whom we have received donations for the 
Library and Museum are Messrs. Phileas Gagnon, who 
presented a copy of the last bulletin of the Geographical 
Society of Quebec, containing several valuable papers on 
Champlain ; Georges Roy who again sent us his interesting 
Bulletin Recherches Historiques; A. Gagnon, to whom we 
are indebted for two volumes of L'Amerique Precolom- 
bienne; F. C. Wurtele who has supplied us with the Diocesan 
Gazette, the New York State Museum which has sent us 
more of its memoirs, and an unknown donor from whom we 
have received a work entitled "Outlines of Theosophy." 

It is not surprising that the Champlain Tercentenary 
Celebration of last summer caused a noticeable demand for 
reading matter dealing with early Canadian History, and 
it is gratifying to note that some of our reference books 
proved of considerable assistance to the workers in the 
Pageant, and in some of the other features of the celebra- 
tion. 

And finally, duty and gratitude alike make it incumbent 
upon the undesigned to emphasize the indebtedness of the 
Library to Dr. Douglas and the Governors of Morrin Col- 
lege, for the special grants of money given by them for the 
purchase of new books, without which the additions to our 
shelves would be small indeed. 

The whole respectfully submitted- 

E. T. D. CHAMBERS, 

Hon. Librarian. 
Quebec, I3th January, 1909. 

The foregoing reports were then, on motion, adopted and 
ordered to be printed. 



II 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Captain Boulton and Mr. de Preston having been re- 
quested to act as scrutineers the meeting proceeded to ballot 
for Officers and Council for the ensuing year, with the fol- 
lowing results : 

Hon. President James Douglas, D.C.L., Spuyten Duy- 
vil, N.Y. 

Hon. Vice-President Sir James M. Le Moine, D.C.L., 
F.RS.C. 

President G. W. Parmelee, D.C.L. 

Vice-Presidents J. T. Ross, Col. J. F. Turnbull, 
A. H. Cook, K.C., Dr. J. M. Harper. 

Treasurer Jas. Geggie. 
Recording-Secretary A. Robertson, K.C. 
Council Secretary W. Clint. 

Corresponding Secretary - - Lieut.-Colonel Crawford 
Lindsay. 

Librarian E- T. D. Chambers. 
Curator of Museum Phileas Gagnon. 
Curator of Apparatus Col. H. Neilson. 

Additional Members of Council Rev. P. M. O'Leary, 
Rev. F. G. Scott, D.C.L., F.ft.S.C., S. Lesage, John Hamil- 
ton, D.C.L. 



12 



LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
OF QUEBEC 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

I2th January, 1910. 

The Annual General Meeting was held on the I2th 
January, 1910, in the Rooms of the Society at ten a.m. 
Dr. G. W. Parmelee, the President, occupied the chair and 
there were present: Messrs. P. B. Casgrain, John Hamil- 
ton, Rev. F. G. Scott, Col. Wood, Dr. Harper, A- Robert- 
son, E. T. D. Chambers, P. Gagnon, C. Tessier, W. Clint, 
Col. Neilson, James Geggie, A. H. Cook, J. G. Scott, D. 
Watson, H. Price, W. C. J. Hall, Major Davidson, F. 
Carrel, T. Aylwin, A. Joseph, F. C. Wurtele, Rev. A. T. 
Love, Major Morgan, C. de Preston, Capt. Boulton, M. 
Anderson, J. B- Hance, M. Macadam. 

After routine proceedings the President read the report 
of the Council for the past year as follows. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1909 

The Council of the Quebec Literary and Historical So- 
ciety has the honour to submit the following report upon the 
work accomplished during the year that has just closed. 

Not much of an unusual nature has occurred during the 
past year, but on the whole the progress of the Society has 
been satisfactory. There has been a slight increase in 
membership, we having lost 1 1 during the year and gained 
1 6. This makes a net gain of 5 and brings the total mem- 
bership to 174. 

Considering our limited constituency and the fact that 
all the members of a family have the privileges of our libr- 
ary when the head thereof is a subscriber, the advantages 
we have to offer are pretty widely used. However, there is 
still room for an expansion of our membership list. 



13 

During the year this Society has become a member of 
the recently formed Champlain Society, whose yearly pub- 
lications will hereafter be received. All the publications 
from the inception of that Society to the present time have 
been received and are on our shelves. It is a matter of 
gratification to us that one of our own members and past 
presidents, Col. Wood, is responsible for an important 
volume in the works of the Champlain Society, and is en- 
gaged on another. 

Your Council was invited last June to extend some wel- 
come and hospitality to the members of the International 
Council of Women who, to the number of one hundred, 
passed through Quebec on their way from the British Isles, 
Europe, and Australia to the quadrennial meeting which 
was held in Toronto. A Committee, consisting of Col. 
Turnbull, Col. Wood and the President, organized a recep- 
tion of the distinguished guests under the Presidency of 
Her Excellency the Countess of Aberdeen at a luncheon at 
the Chateau Frontenac. The guests were met at the docks, 
were driven around the City, taken to Montmorency by. 
train, and at the end of the day were conveyed to the train 
without any expense to themselves. Although the members 
of the Committee felt that it was an honour for the Society 
to be so well known as to be entrusted with such a task, 
they thought that the Society itself should not be called 
upon to meet the expenses necessarily incurred thereby. 
Accordingly an appeal was made to the City Council, which 
was supported by the Mayor, Sir George Garneau, and re- 
sulted in a contribution of $250. The balance was gener- 
ously contributed by the following persons to whom the 
thanks of the Council are hereby tendered. Col. J. F. 
Turnbull, Mr. H. M. Price, Col. Neilson, Col. Wm. 
Wood, Dr. Geo. Parmelee and Alderman P. Campbell. 

Your President received and accepted an invitation to 
deliver an address before the International Council in To- 
ronto, when he was gratified to hear from many sources 
the liveliest expressions of gratitude for the reception in 
Quebec, and words of praise for the opportunity of visiting 
the chief historical city of Canada. 



14 

It will be remembered that Dr. Douglas undertook last 
year to publish a fac-simile of the well-known Pere Mar- 
quette Prayer Book that was in possession of Col. Neilson 
and to give it to the Society for distribution as a memorial 
of the Tercentennial. The distribution has now been made 
to Universities, to a few distinguished individuals and to 
those learned societies from which we have received valu- 
able exchanges in the past. 

It is well-known that the late Judge Aylwin bequeathed 
to the Governors of Morrin College his large and valuable 
library, consisting not only of law books, but of classical 
and general works, some of them now quite rare. Recently 
the Governors of Morrin College have fitted up a spacious 
room adjacent to this and have had the books placed upon 
shelves. At present a catalogue is being made. Although 
this library is not under the control of the Literary and 
Historical Society it may be said that negotiations are now 
under way by which it is expected that the members of this 
Society will have free access to the Aylwin Library and to 
the books therein. 

The continued and practical interest in this Society was 
shown last year not only by a direct contribution from the 
Governors of Morrin College to the general funds of the 
Society, but by a special contribution which enabled the 
joint lecture committee of the two bodies to invite disting- 
uished lecturers from a distance to address the citizens of 
Quebec in this building. The Council is glad to report that 
a course of lectures under similar arrangements is provided 
for this season. 

The Council has thought for some time that the insur- 
ance carried upon the Library and its contents was alto- 
gether inadequate, and in consequence it has increased the 
policies form $6,500. to $16,500 quite recently. 

It will have been noticed that several portraits have been 
hung upon the walls of this building during the past few 
months. This is in pursuance of a plan to leave some per- 
manent memorial, before it is too late, of the distinguished 
past presidents of this Society from the first, the Hon. Chief 
Justice Johathan Sewell, down to such of the past presidents 
as will allow themselves to be so honoured while living. 



15 

The financial condition of the Society is now stronger 
than it has ever been before in its history. The most recent 
benefaction, that of Dr. Douglas of $10,000, which was 
reported at the last annual meeting, is now producing re- 
turns to the amount of $480 yearly, $9,000 being invested 
and $887.50 being still to invest. 

Since our last meeting four members of this Society have 
passed over to the silent majority. Dr. Colin Sewell, whose 
family name has been on our roll of membership for the 
past 86 years and whose own place in the affections of the 
citizens of Quebec was unique, Mr. Simeon LeSage whose 
interest in all that pertained to history and literature was 
well-known to members of this Society, Mr. Armitage 
Rhodes and Mr. David Rea, all are men whose loss we 
deeply deplore. 

Signed on behalf of the Council, 

G. W. PARMELEE, 

President 
A. ROBERTSON, 

Recording Secretary 

Quebec, I2th January, 1910. 



REPORT OF TREASURER. 

Mr. James Geggie presented his Annual Report as Treas- 
urer. 

It showed a balance to the credit of the Society of $i,- 
059.72. Subscriptions from members $665.00. Disburse- 
ments for Magazines and Periodicals $192.55, and for new 
books $535.81. 

The Governors of Morrin College kindly allowed the 
Society the use of the Rooms free of rent. 



i6 

LIBRARIAN'S REPORT 

The report of the Librarian Mr. E. T. D. Chambers 
was as follows: 

For the last two years your Librarian has been so fortu- 
nate as to be able to report unprecedented activity in the 
work of the Library and a largely increased issue of books 
from its shelves. Two years ago it was shown that the cir- 
culation for the preceding year had reached the large num- 
ber of 4592 volumes, against 3941 reported twelve months 
before. Last year the report showed a still larger increase, 
making a total output of books circulated during the year, 
of 5,130. Still larger and more gratifying is the progress 
which has been made during the year just ended, the circu- 
lation showing a total issue of 6,167 volumes, or an in- 
crease over the preceding year of no less than 1,037 books. 

In fiction, 4,503 volumes were issued in 1909, as com- 
pared with 3,390 in 1908; history shows a falling off from 
554 to 367, and biography from 404 to 324. On the other 
hand there has been a largely increased demand for books 
on almost every other subject of major importance in such 
a library as ours, and especially for those pertaining to gen- 
eral literature, the issue of which has increased from 256 to 
346. A good increased demand is noticeable for books on 
sport and travel and science and art. 

It is very satisfactory to note that the number of books 
now out of the library for over two weeks is only 207 out 
of the 6,167 issued during the year, a rather smaller pro- 
portion than last year- 

Apart from the usual unbound exchanges from sister 
societies, and others, we have to acknowledge 62 bound 
volumes of exchanges and donations, while 445 volumes 
have been added to the library by purchase, against 242 
during the preceding year. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. D. C. Thomson for a splendid 
Gallery of Illustrations of Shakespeare's works, to Pro- 
fessor Wrong for the Review of Historical Publications 
relating to Canada, for 1908, to Judge McCorkill for a 
copy of the History of Brome county, to Colonel B. A. 



Scott for three old sword blades, to Mr. F. C. Wurtele for 
the Diocesan Gazette for 1909, to Mr. P. Gagnon for a 
copy of Quebec il y a cent ans, to Mr. P. G. Roy for the 
Bulletin Recherches Historiques for 1909, to the late Mr. 
David Rae for the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, to Mr. 
David Mitchell for a bound volume of the Weekly Chron- 
icle, to Mr. F. McLennan for a copy of The Struggle for 
Imperial Unity, by Col. Denison, to the Chronicle Printing 
Company for the bound volume of the Chronicle for 1905, 
to Mr. F. A. Chisholm for "Joseph Howe a sketch," to 
Mr. J. M. Fisher for the Perfect Way, and to other indi- 
viduals and institutions, who have favored us with contri- 
butions to the Library, some of them, anonymously. 

But more than to anybody else is the Society indebted to 
the Governors of Morrin College and to Dr. James Doug- 
las, to whose liberality is mainly due the great bulk of the 
additions to the Library, irrespective altogether of their 
many other benefactions to the institution. 

The whole, nevertheless, respectfully submitted. 

E. T. D. CHAMBERS, 

Hon. Librarian. 

Quebec, January i2th, 1910. 

The foregoing reports were then, on motion, adopted and 
ordered to be published. 



i8 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Mr. Wurtele and Major Davidson having been request- 
ed to act as scrutineers, the meeting proceeded to ballot for 
Officers and Council for the ensuing year, with the follow- 
ing result . 

Hon. President - - James Douglas, LL.D., Spuyten 
Duyvil, N.Y. 

Hon. Vice-President Sir James M. LeMoine, D.C.L., 
F.R.S.C. 

President John Hamilton, D.C.L. 

Vice-PresidentsCol. J. F. Turnbull, J. T. Ross, B.A., 
Dr. J. M. Harper, A. H. Cook, K.C. 

Treasurer James Geggie. 

Recording Secretary A. Robertson, K.C. 

Council Secretary W. Clint. 

Corresponding Secretary Lt.-Col. Crawford Lindsay. 

Librarian E. T. D. Chambers. 

Curator of Museum Phileas Gagnon. 

Curator of Apparatus Col. H. Neilson. 

Additional Members of Council Rev. F. G. Scott, D.C. 
L., F.R.S.C., Major W. H. Davidson, Rev. P. M. O'Leary, 
F. C. Wurtele. 



PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY 



1824.. .. Sir N. F. Burton, Lt. -Governor. 

1828 Hon. Mr. Reid, Chief Justice. 

1829 Lieut. Frederick Baddeley, R.N. 

1830 Hon. Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice. 

1831 " 

1832 Hon. Andrew Stuart, K.C. 

1833 Hon. W. Shepoard. 

1834 " 

1835 Joseph Skey, M.D. 

1836 Rev. Daniel Wilkie, LL.D. 

1837 Hon. Andrew Stuart, K.C. 

1838 " 

1839 Wm. Kelly, M.D., R.N. 

1840 " 

1841 . ., Hon. Wm. Sheppard. 

1842 Hon. A. W. Cochrane. 

1843 Hon. Wm. Sheppard. 

1844 G. B. Faribault. 

1845 Hon. A. W. Cochrane. 

1846 John C. Fisher, LL.D. 

1847 Hon. Wm. Sheppard. 

1848 Hon. A. W. Cochrane. 

1849 G. B. Faribault. 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 E. A. Meredith, M.A. 

1856 W. Andrew. 

1857 " 

1858 G. B. Faribault. 

1859 " 

1860 E. A. Meredith, M.A. 

1861 " 

1862 John Langton, M.A. 

1863 

1864 " 

'1865 " 

1866 Com. E. D. Ashe, R.N. 

1867 " 

1868 Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau, LL.D. 

1869 Prof. James Douglas. 

1870 Dr. W. J. Anderson. 

1871 J. M. LeMoine. 

1872-3.. Dr. W. J. Anderson. 

!8 73 Com. E. D. Ashe, R.N., F.R.S. 

1874 ...Prof. James Douglas. 
i875 " " 



20 



1876 James Stevenson. 

187? 

1878 

1879 J- M. LeMoine, F.R.S.C. 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 Hon. D. A. Ross, Q.C. 

1884 " 

1885 G. Stewart, D.C.L., F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S. 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891.. 

1892 Cyrille Tessier 

1893 " 

1894 Archibald Campbell. 

1895 

1896 Rev. R. W. Norman, D.D., Dean of Quebec. 

1897 " 

1898 P. B. Casgrain. 

1899 " 

1900 William Wood. 

1901 " 

1902 Sir Jas. M. LeMoine, D.C.L., F.R.S.C. 

1903 " 

1904 Major William Wood, F.R.S.C. 

1905 " 

1906 P. B. Casgrain. 

1907 " 

1908 G. W. Parmelee, D.C.L. 

1009 " 



21 



Literary and Historical Society of Quebec 



FOUNDED IN 1824- 



Incorporated toy Royal Charter, 1831 



PATRON : 

HIS EXCELLENCY, THE RIGHT HON. EARL GREY, G.C.M.G., 
BARON GREY OF HOWICK, GOVERNOR-GENERAL 
OF CANADA. 

VICE-PATRON 

HIS HONOR THE LIEUT.-GOVERNOR, PROVINCE OF 

QUEBEC. 

HONORARY PRESIDENT : 
JAMES DOUGLAS, LL.D., Spuyten Duyvil, N.Y. 

HONORARY VICE-PRESIDENT 

SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L., F.R.S.C. 
HONORARY MEMBERS : 

The Earl of Minto, G.C.M.G. 

The Earl of Aberdeen. 

The Marquis of Lansdowne, G.C.M.G. 

The Duke of Argyle. 

Sir Sanford Fleming, K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

John Miller Grant, Esq., London. 

Revd. Charles Rogers, LL.D., F.S.A., Scotland. 

Sir "Gilbert Parker, D.C.L., M.P., London 

Sydney Robjohns, Esq., F.R.H.S., Scotland. 

John Reade, F.R.S.C., Montreal. 

James Ashbury, Esq., England. 

Henry Philips, Jr., Philadelphia. 

Arthur G. Bradley, Esq., Northampton, England. 

Arthur G. Doughty, C.M.G., Litt. D., F.R.H.S., England, F.R.S.C., 

Ottawa 

Wm. C Lane, Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S. 
Lt.-Col. George T. Denison, F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 
S. E. Dawson, Litt. D., F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 
Sir Louis A. Jette, K.C.M.G. 



22 
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS : 

Anderson, W P., Lt.-Col., Ottawa. 

Bartholomew, J. G., F.R.G.S., London. 

Boucher de Boucherville, Hon., M.L.C., Boucherville, P.Q. 

Brock, R. A., Richmond, Virginia, U.S. 

Bailey, Dr. L. W., F.R.S.C., Fredericton, N.B. 

Church, F. W., M.D., Boston. 

D'Abbadie, Antoine, Membre de L'Institut de France, Paris 

Denham, Edward, New Bedford, Mass., U.S. 

DeSechelles, Desmazieres, St. Malo, France. 

D'Urban, W. S. M., England. 

DePeyster, Gen. J. Watts, Tivoli, N.Y., U.S. 

Dansereau, Arthur, Montreal. 

Filippi, le Comte Waldemar, Paris. 

Ganong, W. F., M.A., Cambridge, Mass., U.S. 

Graham, Lt.-Col. U.S.A., Chicago, U.S. 

Gerin, E., Three Rivers, P.Q. 

Grazillier, L'Abbe, Saintes, France. 

Huget-Latour, Major, Montreal. 

Jack, D. Russell, St. John, N.B. 

Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, E., Montreal. . 

Le Gardeur de Tilley, le Comte Hypolite, Chantreau, pres-Saintes, 

France. 

Lighthall, W. D., M.A., B.C.L., F.R.S.C., Montreal. 
Madrazo, Don Pedro de, Secretary General of the Royal Academy 

of History, Madrid, Spain. 
Morgan, H. J., F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 
Provencher, Colonel N., Montreal. 
Raymond, Revd. W. D., St. John, N.B. 
Roberts, Charles G. D., M.A., F.R.S.C., New York, U.S. 
Scott, C. Percy, M.A., Windsor, N.S. 
Simmonds, Peter Lund, London, England. 
Strange, T. Bland, Major-General, England. 
Stone, W. L., Mt. Vernon, N.Y., U.S. 
Suite, Benjamin, F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 
Wynne, Thomas H., Richmond, Va., U.S. 
Wilson, Gen. James Grant, N.Y., U.S. 
Winship, Geo. Parker, Providence, R.I., U.S.A. 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS, 1909. 



Ahern, Arthur. 
Anderson, E. H. 
Aylwin, Thos. C. 
Auger, A. J. 
Atkinson, Mrs. H. 



Benyon, Capt. J. A. 

Bennett, W. S. 

Bennett, S. Sloan. 

Boswell, St. George, M.I.C.E. 

Boyce, J. G. 

Burroughs, L. F. 

Boulton, A. R. 

Bishop, E. A. 

Brown, W. H. 

Brown, John. 

Bank of Montreal, Quebec Staff. 

Bradley, T. C. 

Boulton, Captain R. -N. 

Belleau, Jos. 

Bartlett, Capt. 

Burstall, J. 

Brown, E. C. 



Carter, W. H. 

Carrel, Frank. 

Casgrain, P. B. 

Champion, C. P. 

Clint, W. 

Cream, R. F. 

Cook, A. H. 

Cook, W. 

Chambers, E. J. C., D.D.S. 

Chambers. E. T. D. 

Champion, W. S. 

Code, E. E. 

Colley, A. W. 

Commerce Bank of, Quebec Staff 



Davidson, Lt.-Col. W. H. 
Dunn, Rt. Rev. A. Hunter, Lord 
Bishop of Quebec. 



Dunn, S. H. 
Dumontier, J. F. 
Dobell, William. 
Doucet, A. E. 
Duggan, F. M. 
Duffett, Miss. 



Evans, Lorenzo. 
English, Col. 



Forsyth, Lt.-Col. Jos. Bell. 
Fairchild, G. M. 
Fitzpatrick, A. 
Falkenberg, Mrs. F. 



Geggie, D. H. 
Geggie, James. 
Gpodday, H. G. 
Gibson, Geo. F. 
Gagnon, Phileas. 
Garneau, Sir J. Geo. 
Grant, Miss. 
Hamilton. John, D.C.L. 
Holt, J. H. 
Holloway, Frank. 



Hall, W. C. J. 
Hance, J. B. 
Harper, Dr. J. M. 
Hoare, Mrs. 
Hamel, Mrs. E. 
Healey, Miss. 
Hossack, Geo. 



Jewell, David. 
Joly de Lotbiniere, E. G. 
Jones, Lt.-Col. G. E. Allen. 
Joseph, Montefiore. 
Joseph, Andrew C. 
Jones, Miss C. 
Judge, Edmond H. 
Johnston, W. W. 



Kennedy, Harold. 



LeMoinc, Sir Jas. D.C.L., 

F.R.S.C. 

LeMpine, Gaspard. 
Laurie, William. 
Lindsay, Lt.-Col. Crawford. 
Laird, John. 
Lampson, Fred. 
Lyster, A. N. 
Lawrence, Mrs. G. B. 
Laurie, Dr. 
Landry, Senator. 



Macnaughton, F. M. 
Macpherson, W. M. 
Machin, H. T. 
Macleod, Donald R. 
Meredith, E. G. 
McGie, Daniel. 
Moir, Gavin. 
Morgan, Major James. 
McLimont, J. C. 
McLimont, William. 
McGreevy, H. 
McLennan, Francis. 
McCorkill, Judge. 
Murray, David. 
Marsh, W. A. 
Macadam, A. 
Monaghan, M. 
Mahony, R. J. 



Neilson, Lt.-Col. J. L. H. 



Oliver, Stuart. 
O'Meara, D. D. 
O'Leary, Rev. P. M. 
Owen, P. G. 



Petry, Major W. H. 
Pope, Edwin. 
Pope, Miss Louisa. 
Price, H. M. 
Parmelee, G. W., D.C.L. 
Price, William, M.P. 
Price, Henry. 
Pentland, C. A. 
Pigot, C. J. 
Power, William. 
Price, A. J. 
Peacock, T. R 
Porteous, C. 
Preston, C. 



Quebec Bank, Quebec Staff. 



Rollit, C. G. 
Robertson, A. 
Ross, J. Theo. 
Ray, Lt.-Col. Walter J. . 
Ritchie, John. 
Renfrew, Gordon, 
Ross, F. W. 
Reed, William. 
Robertson, D. C., K.C. 
Redding, R. 



Shaw, C. H. 

Scott, Rev. F. G., D.C.L. 

Stuart, Gus. G., K.C. 

Sewell, E. D. 

Shaw, William. 

Staveley, Hairy. 

Sewell, Mrs. A. 

Stain, J. 

Stevenson, Miss E. 

Scott, James G. 

Smith, R. Harcourt. 

Scott, Lt.-Col. B. A. 

Sharpies, Mrs. H. H. 

Stanton, F. 

Stevenson, Dr. 

Sweezey, R, O. 

Slade, Mrs. 

Sheehan, Thos. 



Turner, Hon. Richard. 
Turnbull, Col. J. F. 
Thomson, G. H. 
Thomson, D. C. 
Tessier, Cyrille. 
Thomas, W. S. 
T. emaine. Miss L. L. 



Veasey, Arthur T. 
Verret, Hector. 



Weir, W. A. 

Webster, A. D. 

Winfield, Jos. 

Wood, Lt.-Col. W., D.C.L- 

F.R.S.C. 

Wade, E. Harper. 
Walcot, C. W. 
Williams, Very Rev. Dean. 
Wood, Miss Helen G. 
Willis, Henry. 
Watson, Major David. 
Winn, Miss H. E. 
Whitehead, A. B. 
Wurtele, Lt.-Col. Ernest F. 
Welch, J. A. 
Walters, H. 
Willrich, G. 
Webb, Mrs. E. E- 



^Sharpies, Hon. John. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



Wurtele, Fred. C. 



BY AGREEMENT. 
THE GOVERNORS OF MORRIN COLLEGE. 



Love, Rev. A. T., D.D. 
Clint, J. H. 
Bre'akey, John. 
Miller, Archibald. 
Geggie, D. H. 



MacNider, James- 

Cook, A. H. 

Ross, J. Theodore. 

Barclay, Rev. J., D.D., Montreal 

Clark, Revd. Wylie C. 



26 
COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1909. 

JAMES DOUGLAS, LL.D... ...lion. President. 

SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L-, F.R.S.C.. . . Hon. Vice-President. 

G. W. PARMELEE, D.C.L President. 

J. THEO. ROSS, B.A 

COL. J. F. TURNBULL ( v - n Pl ._ n _ 

A. H. COOK, K.C V p sidents. 

DR. J. M. HARPER I 

JAMES GEGGIE. . Treasurer. 

A. ROBERTSON, K.C Recoiding Secretary. 

LT.-COL. CRAWFORD LINDSAY Corresponding Secretary. 

W. CLI NT Council Secretary. 

E. T. D. CHAMBERS Librarian. 

PHILEAS GAGNON Curator of Museum. 

COL. H. NEILSOX Curator of Apparatus. 

REV. P. M. O'LEARY 

REV. F. G. SCOTT, D.C.L., F.R.S.C 



S. LESAGE 

JOHN HAMILTON, D.C.L. 



LT.-COL. W. WOOD, D.C-L., F.R.S.C. Und Past Additional 

P. B. CASGRAIN [Presidents! 

C. TESSIER J ex-Officio.; 



Council 
Members of 



MAJOR W. H. PETR^ Auditor. 

J. W. STRACH AN Custodian of the Rooms. 



COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1910. 

JAMES DOUGLAS. LL.D., SPUYTEN DUYVIL, N.Y...Hon. Pres. 
SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L., F.R.S.C.. . .Hon. Vice-President. 

JOHN HAMILTON, D.C.L President. 

COL. J. F, TURN'BULL ^ 

J. THEO. ROSS, B.A w . n . . 

DR. J. M. HARPER i Vlce Presidents 

A. H. COOK, K.C J 

JAMES GEGGIE Treasurer. 

A. ROBERTSON, K.C Recording Secretary. 

LT.-COL.' CRAWFORD LINDSAY Corresponding Secretary. 

W. CLINT .- Council Secretary. 

E. T. D. CHAMBERS .' Librarian. 

I'll I LEAS GAGNON ..Curator of Museum 

COL. H. NEILSON -.Curator of Apparatus 

REV. F. G. SCOTT, D.C.L., F.R.S.C 

MAJOR W. H. DAVIDSON 

REV. P. M. O'LEARY 

F. C. WURTELE.. 



LT.-COL. W. WOOD, D.C-L., F.R.S.C. 1 , p 

P. B. CASGRAIN p" d - H as1 

C. TESSIER f A " 

G. W. PARMELEE, D.C.L J ex 



Additional 
Members of 
Council 



MAJOR W. H. PETRY Auditor. 

J. W. STRACHAN Custodian of the Rooms. 




ADMIRAL BAYFIELD 



2 7 



Literary and Historical Society of Quebec 



A paper on Admiral Bayfield, read in Morrin College 
Hall before the Literary and Historical Society of Que- 
bec, on the 4th day of January, 1909, by retired Captain 
J. G. Boulton, R.N., Hydrograpical Surveyor, the Presi- 
dent, Dr. G. W. Parmelee, in the Chair. 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I fear you will 
derive less pleasure from the reading, than I have from the 
writing of this paper on Admiral Bayfield, partly because 
bad caligraphy does not conduce to good reading, and 
partly because this paper is nothing more than a scanty 
and disjointed account of the services, principally in Cana- 
dian waters, of a scientific naval officer, appealing more to 
surveyors and seamen than to the mixed audience wlip 
have honoured me and the memory of the late Admiral,,^ 
with their presence here to-night. . ; > ; 

But being anxious, as I am sure are many others j,i}. 
this city and Canada generally, to haye.the Admiral's use- 
ful services in this country recorded ere it be too late (and 
there being in. my opinion no fitter repository for such !( 
than the archives of this Society, of which the late AdrmV 
ral was a prominent member for some fourteen years) thi<>. 
wish cannot well be complied with, unless I afflict you for- 
a short time with a portion (about two-thirds) of what 
I have written, in order that the President and Council of , 
the Society may judge whether it is worth the expense of .,, 
publication. Should it meet with their favour, access can 
hereafter be had to the complete paper when laid upon the 
Reading Room table of the Society. 

The method pursued in the compilation of this rather ;( 
fragmentary memoir has been, first, to relate Bayfield's 
services, from his entry in the Royal Navy to his comple- 



28 

tion of the Hydrographical Survey of the Canadian shores 
of the Great Lakes. 

Then a brief account of the Services of Admiral Owen, 
under whom Bayfield commenced his surveying career, 
and with whom he was afterwards associated in similar 
work, later, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (though time does 
not allow me to read it). Next, a short description of the 
method of hydrographic surveying as pursued by Bayfield. 
Finally, an account of part of his services in the River and 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, from extracts from six journals and 
a letter book , which unfortunately only cover about two- 
thirds of the Admiral's time in that district, but are all that 
appear to exist. I am much indebted to the Admiral's 
son, Edward Bayfield Esq., barrister-at-law, residing in 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., for his kind assistance, and to Dr. 
Doughty C.M.G. Dominion Archivist, and James White 
Esq. F.R.G.S. Geographer, for the loan of the six jour- 
nals. 

Admiral Henry Wolsey Bayfield, the subject of this 
memoir, was born at Hull in the County of Norfolk, Eng- 
land, on the 21st January, 1795, being descended from a 
very ancient family, the Bayfields of Bayfield Hall, in the 
village of that name and in. the same county. Bayfield re- 
ceived an ordinary education, and, in 1806, at the early age 
of eleven years, entered the Navy as a supernumary vol- 
unteer on board His Majesty Ship Pompee of 80 guns, 
bearing the flag of Sir William Sidney Smith, and was in 
action with a French privateer six hours after leaving 
Portsmouth. Mr. Bayfield was transferred to H.M.S. 
Queen of 98 guns, the flagship of the great Collingwood. 
From her he was appointed to the Duchess of Bedford, 
hired armed ship commanded by Lieutenant F. B. Spils- 
bury, and was slightly wounded in a severe action in the 
Strait of Gibraltar, in which that vessel beat off two Span- 
ish feluccas with double her crew. For Mr. Bayfield's con- 
duct in this action, he was made a first-class volunteer and 
appointed 29th September, 1806, to H.M.S. Beagle, called 
the Golden Beagle from the number of prizes she cap- 



29 

tured. In her, commanded by Captain Francis Newcombe, 
he assisted in compelling the enemy to abandon an English 
vessel laden with naval stores, stranded on the Spanish 
Atlantic coast. 

He also assisted at different times, in the capture of 
the Hazard, Vengeur and Fortune, privateers, and partici- 
pated in Lord Cochrane's auction in Basque roads in April, 
1809, being present at the operations of the llth, 12th and 
18th of that month. On the latter date, the Beagle, in 
company with other ships, was engaged \vith the French 
vessels, Ocean, Regulus and Indienne, aground in the 
mouth of the Charente, the English ships being exposed to 
a heavy fire from the battery on Isle d'Aix. The Beagle, 
which gallantly posted herself on the Ocean's stern and 
quarter in barely more water than sufficed to float her, 
fought hotly for five hours and suffered more severely than 
any of her consorts. 

In the autumn of 190, Mr. Bayfield accompanied the 
Waleheren expedition, and in 1811 as midshipman, he re- 
joined Captain Newcombe, now commanding H.M.S. 
Wanderer of 21 guns, in which he served in Spain, Portu- 
gal, the West Indies and North America. Mr. Bayfield 
was promoted to Lieutenant on March 3rd, 1815, and while 
his ship was in Quebec that summer, Captain Owen, R.N., 
who was making a survey of Lake Ontario and in want of 
an assistant, was so taken with Lieutenant Bayfield's note 
books that he was ordered to accompany Captain Owen 
back to Kingston forthwith. He did not go willingly, be- 
cause he thought for a young naval officer it would be 
burial alive now that peace was declared. It should have 
been stated, that while on board the Beagle, Bayfield had 
for messmates two young officers who had received a col- 
lege education. Bayfield taught himself from their books, 
there being no Naval Instructor in those days. Lieuten- 
ant Bayfield remained with Owen until the latter returned 
to England in 1816. On June 17th, 1817, Bayfield was 
made Admiralty Surveyor, and eventually extended the 
survey over all the Canadian shores of the Great Lakes. I 



30 

regret to state that I have not had access to any journals 
or reports of his work upon the upper lakes, extracts from 
which would, no doubt, be extremely interesting; but we 
know that his survey of Lakes Erie and Huron was car- 
ried on by very inadequate means in two six-oared open 
boats, his sole assistant being Mr. Midshipman P. E. Col- 
lins, R.N. We also know that in 1823 he commenced the 
survey of Lake Superior, having the use of the Hudson 
Bay Company schooner Recovery, the only vessel on that 
lake. Ex-Surveyor-General Lindsay Russell, informed 
me recently that during his explorations in that re- 
gion he heard that the name of the Recovery's sailing mas- 
ter was Lamphere, construed by the French voyageurs 
into L'Enfer, his temper being anything but angelic upon 
occasion. Bayfield, by the Indians, was known as the 
"Great," Collins as the "Little Chief." 

Bayfield made Fort William his headquarters for Lake 
Superior, and in winter the survey of the shore line was 
proceeded with on the ice, as was done in Lakes Erie and 
Huron before, Bayfield living in camp with his French 
voyageurs. 

On 10th May, 1825, at Fort William, Lieutenant Bay- 
field met Captain (afterwards Sir) John Franklin R.N., 
and his party of 33 ,on their way to the Arctic coast of 
Canada from England, via New York and Penetangui- 
shene. The object of the overland journey was to gain 
time over the alternative passage to York Factory by one 
of the two annual Hudson Bay Company's ships. Among 
Franklin's officers was Lieutenant George Back R.N., 
whom as Commander on his way to the mouth of the 
Great Fish River for tidings of Captain (afterwards Sir) 
John Ross R.N., Bayfield again meets at Quebec in 1833. 

Towards the end of the year 1825, Bayfield having 
completed the survey of the Canadian shores of the Great 
Lakes, returns to England, and is employed at the Ad- 
miralty, preparing for the engraver his lake charts, and 
no doubt appreciating the rest and change of scene alter 



ten years incessant toil on shores mainly inhabited by In- 
dians and a few fur traders. 

Bayfield was promoted to Commander in November, 
1826, and, in recognition of his services in Canada, was ap- 
pointed in the autumn of 1827, to the command of the Sur- 
vey of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, making this 
city his first winter quarters. Before relating his services 
in this part of Canada, I shall, in accordance with previous 
announcement, say a little about Admiral Owen, followed 
by a brief description of the nature of hydrographic sur- 
veying pursued by Bayfield. 

Admiral William Fitzwilliam Owen, born in 1774, en- 
tered the Navy as a midshipman in June, 1788, serving in 
the West Indies and Home Stations until the end of 1794 
in H.M. Ships Culloden, Libra, Assistance, Vengeance, 
Hannibal, and Culloden again. In the latter ship, he was 
present at Lord Howe's victory. He afterwards served in 
the London, and was promoted to lieutenant for his con- 
duct during the mutiny at Spithead, and given command of 
H.M.S. Flamer in June, 1797. After serving in various 
ships in the English Channel, he commanded H.M. brig 
Seaflower in the East Indies, when he captured in July, 
1806, the French ship Le Charles. He explored part of the 
Maldive Islands and the west coast of Sumatra. He con- 
ducted Sir Edward Pellew's squadron into Batavia roads, 
and distinguished himself on that occasion in command of 
a division of boats. In September, 1808, he was taken 
prisoner by the French and detained at Mauritius until 
June, 1810, after which he was superintendent of trans- 
ports at Madras. He became commander in May, 1809, 
and served through the Java campaign in 1811 in H.M.S. 
Barracouta. In December, 1811, he was promoted to post 
rank and appointed to H.M.S. Cordelia, in which ship he 
captured the island of Palembang. He returned to Eng- 
land in June, 1813, and in March, 1815 was appointed for 
survey of the Canadian lakes. After completion of the sur- 
vey of Lake Ontario, Owen returned to England in the fol- 
lowing year, and was for a short time attached to the 



32 

Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty. From 1821 
to 1826 he was employed in H.M.S. Leven in surveying the 
west and east coasts of Africa, losing in the rivers on the 
latter coast more than half his complement from fever. 
Later he was employed in the survey of the Bay of Fundy 
and Nova Scotia until promoted to Rear Admiral in 1847, 
when he gave up the survey. He obtained the rank of Vice 
Admiral in 1854, retired with that rank in 1855, and died at 
St. John, N.B., 3rd November, 1857, aged 83 years. 

On Admiral Owen's arrival at Sheerness to pay off the 
Columbia, a slight misunderstanding occurred. H.M.S. 
Columbia was a paddle-wheel vessel, and her proportions 
anything but yacht-like ; and, on Owen's arrival at Sheer- 
ness he had good reason to know that the Commander-in- 
Chief at the Nore was temporarily absent, and the port in 
charge of an officer of much lower rank than Owen. This 
officer, never dreaming that a "clumbungy'' of a craft like 
the Columbia, could contain a live Admiral, got very angry 
that he was not waited upon by the Lieutenant or Com- 
mander, at most, of the Columbia, and made signals to her 
in accordance with his feelings. Nothing coming of them, 
the port officer boarded the Columbia to know why his 
temporary authority was set at defiance, and much to his 
surprise, was received at the gangway by Rear Admiral 
Owen, whose temper I have heard could be very short in 
the grain upon occasion. Admiral Owen possessed prop- 
erty on "Campobello Island, Passamaquoddy Bay, New 
Brunswick, from which circumstance he was sometimes 
known as "Campobello" Owen. 

Although coasts and harbours had been surveyed by 
the celebrated Captain Cook and others, the surveying 
service only became an organized branch of the British 
Navy on the 12th August, 1795, when the first Hydro- 
grapher, Mr. Alexander Dalrymple ,a retired East India 
Company officer, was appointed. Before this date, how- 
ever, there were two "Marine Surveyors to the Admiralty" 
employed in surveys of the English coast. The first, from 
1771 to 1778, was Lieutenant Murdoch Mackenzie, R.N., 



33 

and afterwards his cousin, a civilian, Mr. Graeme Spence, 
In 1808, Dalrymple was succeeded by Captain Thomas 
Hurd, R.N., who held the office until 1823, when the cele- 
brated Arctic navigator Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir) 
W. Edward Parry, R.N., became hydrographer, holding 
the office until 1829, a couple of years after Bayfield com- 
menced the survey of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir) Francis Beaufort, 
K.C.B., succeeded Sir W. Edward Parry, and held the post 
until the year before Bayfield retired. 

The important distinguishing feature of hydrographical 
surveying, as the term implies, is that its operations are 
carried on principally upon that unstable element water, de- 
pendent upon wind and tide, which, we know, "wait for no 
man." When a geodetic survey is carried across a country, 
such as the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, or the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey of the United States, an elaborate 
base line, 3 to 5 miles in length, is measured with the great- 
est possible accuracy, the operation occupying a party the 
best part of a year, and costing much money. Differently 
from this, Bayfield would measure small bases a quarter 
of a mile long or even less, every 20 or 30 miles, the same 
being measured by a chain or well stretched lead-line. 
The coast between would be triangulated by the land feat- 
ures, if suitable. If flat and wooded, use of the ship and 
boats would be made as temporary stations. In either 
case, the ultimate scale of the chart would be determined 
from the distance calculated between stations determined 
by latitude and longitude, and not from the triangulated 
distance, though the difference would not be great. Bay- 
field, took nearly all the observations for latitude, and 
mostly by meridian and circum-meridian altitudesof stars, 
with sextant. As regards longitude, he made the Quebec 
citadel his secondary meridian, determining its longitude 
west of Greenwich during the winter months, principally 
by moon occultations, and eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, 
keeping his chronometers rated for the local time, and 
orecious cold it must have been for their fingers in the ab- 



34 

sence of an observatory. The longitude of the Citadel was 
also determined by chronometric measurement with Cam- 
bridge Observatory, United States, through Halifax, al- 
luded to further on. The marvellous skill of Bayfield as 
an observer, is shewn from the fact of his position of the 
present Time Ball on the Citadel being retained to this day 
on the latest chart of Quebec harbour. His differences of 
longitude between the Citadel and other points east and 
west of Quebec were determined by chronometers, of 
which at one time he had as many as thirteen on board 
his schooner. Bayfield would not likely be in error more 
than 500 feet in any of his astronomically determined po- 
sitions. Every opportunity would be taken by himself and 
assistants to observe by theodolite the astronomical bear- 
ing of stations on prominent headlands, from each other. 
The above-mentioned possible error, therefore, for prac- 
tical purposes of navigation, would amount to nothing. 
Everything being relative, it would simply mean a prac- 
tically inappreciable difference of scale. The sextant ob- 
servations for difference of longitude were usually taken 
by day, those for latitude by night, both dependent upon 
cloudless skies, a consummation devoutly to be wished for 
but seldom attained on the Labrador shore of the Gulf, as 
his journals show. 

A large proportion of Bayfield's time would be ab- 
sorbed in the attainment and calculation of these observa- 
tions. The rest of his time would be occupied in sounding 
in the ship with the aid of Massey's sounding machine, the 
plotting of the stations on various large scale plans of 
harbours and smaller scale coast sheets, together with the 
superintendence and waiting upon his detached parties put- 
ting in the shore line and coast details. 

Considerable ground would have to be gone over in the 
course of these operations, and the Gulnare, being a sail- 
ing vessel, had very little rest or any one in her, when a 
fair wind offered. The winters were occupied in completing 
the plotting of the remaining details on the rough sheets 
and plans; the construction of more comprehensive small 



35 

scale charts on Mercator's projection, on. which the astro- 
nomically determined stations would be laid down by Bay- 
field himself, and between which the coast details and 
soundings from the roughs would be squared in. Fair 
copies would be made of the whole ,and in the spring be 
transmitted to the Hydrographer of the Admiralty for pub- 
lication. 

Accompanying Sailing Directions embodying informa- 
tion that cannot be written upon charts without causing con- 
fusion would also be written, and thus summer and winter 
would be fully occupied. 

From the time of Bayfi eld's appointment to the Survey 
of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence in the autumn of 
1827, until July 1829, I have seen no' journal, but the Que- 
bec Gazette of the 19th May, 1828, says: "The hired 
schooner Gulnare, 146 tons, built for Captain Bayfield, 
R.N., as a surveying vessel, was launched yesterday from 
Mr. Taylor's shipyard. She is a fine vessel, owned by Mr. 
Stevenson, merchant, and after the season will be em- 
ployed in the West India trade." 

The same paper of 20th October, 1828, states: "The 
hired schooner Gulnare, Captain Bayfield, R.N., returned 
yesterday, having been employed since June last in survey- 
ing the river under the orders of the Admiralty. She has 
been engaged the greater part of the time in surveying 
the North Channel below Quebec, but has been as low as 
Anticosti and Gaspe. The Gulnare is to be sold by auc- 
tion on Saturday next." She was advertised in the same 
number of the Gazette, in English and French for sale, 
the terms being 1,050 in cash, and the balance in sixty 
days, "the sale to carry certain advantages which will be 
transferred with her register." This probably alluded to 
the hire by the Admiralty. The agents of sale were 
James Bell Forsyth and Francis Bell, Esqrs. During the 
winter of 1828-29, Bayfield read before the Literary and 
Historical Society of Quebec a paper on the Geology of 
Lake Superior, which will be found among the Printed 
Transactions. This exhaustive treatise on so abstruse a 



36 

subject extraneous to his profession, is a good instance of 
his studious and observant nature. 

In July, 1829, Bayfield was in Ellis Cove, Anticosti, 
which seems to have been his principal rendezvous while 
surveying that island, and says : "Found that the wreck on 
West Point is the Hibernia, a merchant brig, whose mas- 
ter had died here of fatigue and is buried on the island. We 
were informed that another vessel, a barque, got ashore 
about 20 miles to the south-east, and that about half her 
crew had perished. This, added to the crew and passen- 
gers of the Granicus, who all perished miserably from cold 
and hunger after eating each other, is tolerably well for 
one year." 

In August, 1829, Bayfield was in Fox Bay on the north 
coast of Anticosti, and near East Point. From the crew of 
a Magdalen Island schooner, and from Mr. Godin in 
charge of the Provision Post maintained by the Govern- 
ment ; also from his personal inspection of the place, Bay- 
field tells the following story of the wreck of the ship Gran- 
icus, which sailed from Quebec on the 29th October, 1828, 
for Cork, Ireland : "In November, the Grancicus struck on 
the reef from the south point of Fox Bay. The crew got 
her off, but she soon after became unmanageable and ran 
ashore on East Point. The crew, from the sails, con- 
structed tents, in which they lived until early in March 
upon what they saved from the wreck. It is said they 
saved rum, which destroyed discipline and led to their 
ruin. Being able to get no more provisions from the Gran- 
icus, they came in a boat to Fox Bay, where they found 
nothing, the post not being supplied that winter, and conse- 
quently no one living at it. They lived, it appears, in the 
large building, being in all, seventeen men, two women and 
three children, who all perished. The fishermen who dis- 
covered the bodies in April last, found, upon opening the 
door of the large house, putrid and mutilated bodies, for as 
fast as any died the others appeared to have lived upon 
their remains. In this building there appear to have been 
most horrible scenes enacted. The bed places and bedding 



37 

were smeared with blood, and there were stabs of knives 
in the clothes. The partitions of the rooms and windows 
were broken as if by violent contention. I saw many ar- 
ticles of male and female clothing still remaining, and one 
hammock appeared to be smeared with blood. There was 
a pot in the fireplace with human flesh in it, and some 
pieces in a large chest. I saw a species of almanac on the 
wall in chalk, which appeared to be formed by first writ- 
ing the number of days in the month, as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and 
rubbing out each day until the month was finished. The 
same was done for the days of the week, which were rep- 
resented by their capital letters. In the small building, not 
larger than 12 feet by 8 feet, was found the body of a man 
of uncommonly powerful and muscular frame, who ap- 
peared to have died more recently than the rest, and not 
many days before the arrival of the fishermen. He was 
lying in his bed with his cjothes on, and was the only body 
whole and uninjured. In the same room with him were 
four bodies suspended. Whether the man found dead in 
his bed murdered these, or merely survived the rest from 
superior strength, is not known and never will be." 

The Quebec Mercury of 23rd June and 30th of June 
give practically the same account, with the addition -of the 
enumeration of articles, including money and a gold ring, 
taken by the fishermen to the Magdalen Islands. From 
the above sources of information and by Bayfield (who 
was no doubt, singularly able to sift evidence and draw 
correct conclusions) being on the spot soon after the trag- 
edy, we have the truest account it is possible to get. Still, 
one would like to know how the facts of the vessel strik- 
ing twice, together with the time of their repairing to the 
empty Provision Post, were arrived at, seeing that there 
were no survivors and that the first fisherman did not ar- 
rive on the scene till April. The date of Mr. Godin's arri- 
val, is not stated. 

The natives of Anticosti (black flies and mosquitoes) 
shew a deplorable want of appreciation of hydrography in 
their treatment of Bayfield on his landing for astronomical 



38 

observations near North Point : "I could not see, having 
received the most miserable biting imaginable from black 
flies and mosquitoes, and came on board half blind and 
bloody." 

The middle of August, 1829, finds him again in Ellis 
Cove. He says: "Mr. Gamache's schooner, and a 
merchant schooner which he had brought down from 
Quebec to take thence the cargo of the ship Hibernia 
wrecked on West Point of Anticosti, anchored just before 
us. We now learnt from Gamache's people, that three 
schooners had been seen off West Point, and that their 
people had plundered and burnt the wreck and cargo. It is 
well for these miscreants that I did not catch them at this 
work." 

At the end of this month, Bayfield is working in the 
vicinity of the Manicouagan River and advises the maste 1 * 
of a ship of his proximity to clanger, the disregard of which 
lands the said master in a tight place: "Observed the 
barque hailed last night to be close to the Manicouagan 
Shoals, with boats ahead towing for several hours. The ob- 
stinate fool might have saved himself all this trouble, had 
he minded what was said to him." 

Riviere du Loup was Bayfield's headquarters, for a few 
years for letters and provisions, and in calling for the same 
in the early part of September of the same year, 1829, he 
hears of the appointment of Captain (afterwards Admiral 
Sir Francis) Beaufort as Hydrographer to the Admiralty, 
from whom Bayfield received his orders. Beaufort suc- 
ceeded Parry of Arctic fame. The second week in Sep- 
tember sees Bayfield and the Gulnare at Tadousac, the an- 
chorage at which for a sailing vessel, he does not consider 
any too safe : "I conceive the vessel sufficiently secure for 
me to leave her and proceed up the Saguenay, in which 
opinion I am joined by Mr. Douglas, the master. At all 
events, there is no better harbour, and the Saguenay must 
be surveyed. 

He says of Tadousac, in 1829: "The trading post (the 
Indian fur trade) is on a larger scale than usual on the 




39 

coast. The buildings are good, and there is a chapel \..\ 
which prayers are read after the Roman Catholic ritual, a 
very uncommon circumstance among fur traders, and very 
creditable to Mr. Moreau, in charge of the po*v' 

The Gulnare carried two boats for her own use. <md, 
in addition, there were two larger boats 25 feet long, 6*4 
feet beam and pulling six oars, for the detached parties. 
These were capable of carrying their camp outfit and pro- 
visions for three weeks. Bayfield's staff, now and for some 
years later, consisted of Lieutenant P. E. Collins, R.N., 
who, as midshipman, was with him on the lakes; Mr. A. F. 
]. Bowen, mate R.N., and Dr. William Kelly M.D. R.N. 
The latter, in addition to his medical duties, assisted Bay- 
field in his accounts and correspondence. 

Mr. A. Gugy appears to have been the owner of the 
Gulnare in 1829, Mr. William Stevenson acting as his 
agent. The vessel was hired by the Admiralty from 20th 
May to 1st November, the owners supplying a master and a 
proportion of the men. The Admiralty paid 300 sterling 
per month, the owner being at liberty to trade to the West 
Indies in the winter, but the latter not being satisfactory, 
the owner in the autumn of 1829 was to keep the vessel all 
winter in Quebec and be allowed the additional sum of 
250 pounds sterling, compensation. 

Towards the end of October, 1829, Bayfield allows him- 
self a short holiday: "Finding that the sudden change 
from being constantly in the open air surveying, to the con- 
stant writing or work in the office, has damaged my health, 
I determined upon allowing 'myself a few days' respite, 
and accompanied the Hon. J. Caldwell on his yacht The 
Maid of the Mill - to Crane Island to shoot, and I also 
piloted him among the shoals and thus increased my own 
knowledge of the river." 

On the 2nd March, 1830, we find that Bayfield presented 
to the Literary and Historical Society geological speci- 
mens of the river below Quebec and from Anticosti, all ar- 
ranged by Dr. Kelly, R.N. 



40 

Before proceeding to sea each spring, it was Bayfiield's 
custom to make out tour bills on the Accountant-General 
of the Navy ,datecl 21st June, July, August and September, 
and lodge them \vtrh the Deputy Quartermaster-General at 
Quebec, to be delivered to the owner of the Gulnare or 
his agent, as they became due. The balance to the 1st No'- 
vember, Bayfield paid himself on his return to Quebec. 

The early part of June, 1830, finds Bayfield working in 
the vicinity of Hare Island and the Brandy Pots, and an 
entry in his journal on the 7th, shews that he was not alto- 
gether idle : "Plotted soundings obtained yesterday, into 
the plan, having worked all day until 11 p.m. at night. 
Very hard work. I never left the deck from 5 a.m. until 
7 p.m. except for a few minutes at a time." The following 
shews his confidence in the handiness of his vessel : "During 
the day we had occasion to examine several places in the 
vicinity of the Brandy Pots never before entered by a 
vessel of any size. Trusting to the known qualities of the 
Gulnare, we fearlessly stood in, to within two cables of the 
rocks, whether the wind was fresh or light. In wearing or 
staying, she equally answered our expectation's, working 
like a vessel of 30, instead of 150 tons. There was, how- 
ever, no small degree of nervous excitement in this sort of 
thing, for the coast was so bold that we had no bottom 
with 50 fathoms of line at a quarter of a mile from the 
shore. Yet there were rocks above water, with 20 to 30 
fathoms water alongside of them, and why not under water 
too? Now, to have got on such a rock, if such existed, 
would have meant certain destruction in such a tideway." 

The officer conducting a marine survey has many things 
to distract his attention. On this occasion, Lieutenant 
Collins' boat came to grief. He was detached near the 
Brandy Pots with one of the large boats : "Mr. Collins' 
coxswain on the 23rd June carelessly left the plug out of 
his boat, which was aground at low water after having 
been cleaned out. At night when the flood made, the boat 
filled and all his books and sextant were damaged, and 



about ten days' provisions destroyed. The coxswain must 
make this good, in part, out of his wages.'' 

On Bic Island, Bayfield measures a base line, and on ac- 
count of the slight inequalities of the ground, prefers to 
use a well stretched lead-line of 25 fathoms to the 66 feet 
chain, checking it by the latter before the line had time to 
contract or expand. Bayfield, at this time (July, 1830) had 
six chronometers. 

August, 1830, finds him again at Ellis Cove, Anticosti, 
with the wind in, and a heavy sea. He says : "In this bay, 
with the wind in, a heavy sea and thick weather, there is 
nothing left for it but to hold on. We have tried the 
ground well before this, but this night we will try it more ; 
there is nothing like being able to speak from experience 
in these matters." 

Bayfield tries to be philosophical under the wretched 
weather he is experiencing in Anticosti, in' August, 1830, 
and writes: "In such abominable weather, as we have 
been plagued with during the month, it is clear that little 
can be done in the way of surveying. In short, we are all 
out of patience and perfectly disgusted with the winds and 
weather, which cross us at every turn ; query, Is it a sign 
of wisdojn to rail at the winds and weather?" On the 18th 
August, he writes : "While at sea, spoke the ship London, 
the master of which vessel hauled towards us with his 
ensign half-mast and informed us of the death of our la- 
mented sovereign, George the Fourth," A fortnight later, 
Bayfield "spoke the Colonial Government brig Kingfisher, 
Captain Rayside, who came on board." 

Bayfield, soon after this, was anchored in St. Nicholas 
Harbour, a few miles west of Point des Monts and says: 
"I had just finished observing and was returning on 
board the Gulnare, when I met Mr. McLeod's boat, be- 
longing to the fur traders of the King's Posts, and was 
both alarmed and astonished to perceive in her, Lieutenant 
Collins and two of his men. Lieutenant C. informed me 
that he had lost his boat, and had been travelling all day 
over the mountains until he met Mr. McLeod, who had 



42 

kindly lent him his boat to come to me. Lieutenant C, tho 
tired, had evidently suffered more in mind than body. 
The circumstances of this somewhat laughable affair were 
these : Lieutenant Collins was camped in St .Pancras 
Bay, and at daylight found his boat was not to be seen; 
and he and his men having shouted for some time, without 
having an answer, Lieutenant C. concluded that his 
boat, from the carelessness of his coxswain, had been car- 
ried out of the cove by the wind or tide during the night. 
All the provisions, chronometer, records and instruments 
were in the boat. Lieutenant C. posted four of his men on 
high land within sight of the cove, and came on to me with 
the other two, the remaining two being adrift in the boat. 
The laughable part of the business was, that the boat was 
never out of the cove and not a quarter of a mile from the 
tents; and had Lieutenant C. sent a man along the rocks 
on each side of the camp, he would have seen the boat im- 
immediately. 

"The boat had been moored at low tide with too short a 
scope of cable, and as the tide rose, she lifted her anchor 
and quietly drifted out of the cove, while the boat-keepers 
slept. The boat's anchor, after drifting for a while, got 
foul of the rocks, which, when cleared, the boat returned to 
the camp and the keepers were as much astonished to find 
it deserted as Lieutenant C. had been to find the boat 
absent." 

The 12th September, 1830, finds Bayfield off Quebec in 
the Gulnare, on her way to finish the season between Lake 
St. Peter and Montreal, and he says: "For fear of delay 
which might arise from communication with Quebec, I 
suffered no one to leave the vessel excepting the steward, 
whose wife was sick." 

The folowing entry shows that Bayfield did not work 
on Sundays, except from necessity: "The angles taken 
to-day, I could only obtain under favourable circumstances 
of wind and weather like those of to-day. I therefore, 
seized the opportunity; otherwise I did not work to-day, 
Sunday." Under date of September 29th, he alludes to the 



43 

Berthier Channel above Quebec, having been surveyed in 
winter, which must have been that of 1827-1828, or!828- 
1829. 

Bayfield, for the more convenient prosecution of the 
Survey of the St. Lawrence River, leaves the ship and lives 
in tents at the west end of Lake St. Peter, remarking: "My 
sailors are not so well accustomed to encamping in the 
woods as the Canadians of the surveying boats, and could, 
therefore, neither make themselves nor me as comfortable 
as circumstances admitted; we therefore passed a wet and 
comfortless night. Up, as usual with the sun." 

In regard to the Richelieu River, Bayfield says, in mid- 
dle of October of this year, 1830: "If I survey the River 
Richelieu, it will be done on the ice, as it is too narrow to 
triangulate, and cannot be done othewise, in summer, with 
sufficient accuracy." The end of October finds the party 
in winter quarters, and Bayfield with his officers attend- 
ing the Levee of Lord Aylmer, the Governor, at Quebec. 

On the 16th November, 1830, he says: "About sixty 
sail of merchantmen which had been wind-bound for a 
long time, took their departure. Twas a beautiful sight 
to see them all going round Point Levis in a crowd." Un- 
daunted by the cold, we find him, on the 19th February, 
1831, trying to obtain the longitude of the Citadel. Bay- 
field states : "At night, Dr. Kelly and I sat up until mid- 
night endeavoring to obtain an occultation of Aldebaran 
with the moon. After sitting for an hour in the snow, with 
the thermometer near zero, we were disappointed by the 
star's just passing along the moon's edge without touch- 
ing." " 

The latter part of that winter seems to have, been se- 
vere, for Bayfield says : "Lieutenant Collins and Mr. 
Bowen measuring and making observations, etc., on the 
ice. Two regiments were reviewed on it, and the artillery 
practised at a target with round shot and shrapnell 
shells.' During this winter, Bayfield read before the Lite- 
rary and Historical Society, a paper on the coral animals 



44 

in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and which is among the So- 
ciety's Printed Transactions. 

An entry of the 30th May, 1831, states: "1 made my 
cash accounts up to this day, and thereby dismissed from 
my mind that part of my duty till next autumn, which 
will enable me to turn my undivided attention to the Sur- 
vey, observations, etc., etc." 

While working his way down the river in the spring of 
1831, the Gulnare gets badly ashore near the Stone Pillar 
north-east of Goose Island, and the following extract of 
7th May shews the reason of her going ashore, precautions 
taken to prevent injury, measures for refloating her, and 
his coolness during the time she was high and dry. He 
says: "Being anxious for the assistance of Mr. Hall the 
master (Mr. Walter Douglas had left to command the 
steamship John Molson) immediately after dinner, I re- 
quested him to go down to dinner with me, leaving Mr. 
Parry quartermaster in charge of the deck, cautioning 
him to mind South Rock, which I felt convinced he knew 
as well as I did. 

"We had just finished dinner when the vessel struck 
on South Rock. All precautions were taken to meet the 
case of her falling over towards the deep water as the tide 
fell. The chronometers, journals, public money, papers, 
etc., were landed on the Stone Pillar, and an approaching 
small schooner was detained. At 5 h. p.m. having made prep- 
arations for all circumstances, and rinding there was noth- 
ing more to be done, except wait with patience for the tide 
to flow, I went ashore upon the Stone Pillar about a third 
of a mile distant, and made a series of observations for the 
heights of mountains, variation of the compass, etc., etc. 
At 7 p.m., I returned to Gulnare, and found her completely 
dry fore and aft, which gave us an opportunity of examin- 
ing her bottom. She was resting upon three points of 
rock ; that upon which she appeared to be resting most 
heavily being abreast the fore part of the main hatchway, 
causing a. slight dent in the bottom 



45 

"To release this pressure as much as possible, we got 
large blocks of wood under her bottom between the point 
of rock and the bilge, but further aft, and wedged them in 
with great force by means of a heavy spar slung over the 
side and worked like a battering ram. We did the same 
under the keel aft, as, from the after part of the main 
chains to the stern post she rested on nothing until we had 
done this. At 3 a.m. w r e were afloat and anchored opposite 
the Wood Pillar, the vessel not making a drop of water. I 
w r as extremely annoyed at this accident, because I consid- 
ered that those who did not know the circumstances of the 
case would justly consider it discreditable that we should 
get ashore upon a part of the river that we had surveyed 
several years ago. Many vessels passed us, beating down 
with the ebb, but not one offered us the least assistance. 
The Gulnare, however, put a good face upon it in her mis- 
fortune, and I ordered the ropes to be hauled taut, yards 
squared, and the ensign and pennant to be kept flying, in 
order that they might see that we were not frightened out 
of our senses the rascals." 

Messrs. Collins and Bowen both have trouble with 
their boats' crews in June of this year, as the following ex- 
tracts show: "At 7, Mr. Bowen rejoined me, having been 
much detained by the desertion of four of his men, two of 
whom he had caught and brought back, but the other two 
escaped and warrants were out against them in Quebec."' 
The next day, the 10th June, he says: "Lieutenant Collins 
rejoined me, having had trouble with his men, and lost one 
of them. The best boatmen have engaged this spring in 
the service of the Hudson's Bay and King's Posts Com- 
panies. These fur. traders being in a state of fierce opposi- 
tion, give very high wages; -hence, we had a very indiffer- 
ent set to choose our boats' crews out of." 

The next day Bayfield says: "Lieutenant Collins re- 
turned from Riviere du Loup with three men who had 
never pulled an oar in their lives ; we shall have to teach 
them." Bayfield is off Matane on 7th July, and says of the 
weather : "Continued sounding in a variety of lines, by 



4 6 

the patent-log and compass all night. Extremely dis- 
agreeable on board this small vessel in this weather. 
Everything wet, or at least damp on board, rolling and 
tossing abount incessantly; besides, it is so cold that we can 
scarcely keep ourselves warm with thick flushing dresses 
on." 

Towards the end of July, 1831, Bayfield is sounding off 
Cawee Island on north shore of the Gulf, and says : 
"Sounding off Cawee Island in 191 fathoms, the patent 
s'ounding machine was used in this great depth contrary to 
my orders and the wings burst from pressure in conse- 
quence." 

On the 12th September, Bayfield rescued the master 
Mr. Marnock, and crew of the ship Jane of Belfast which 
was wrecked on Bicquette Island landing them at Riviere 
du Loup at much inconvenience. In the middle of the 
same month he passes Quebec on his way to resume the 
survey of the river below Montreal, and says : "We did 
not stop at Quebec, wishing to get on with our work with- 
out delay. The latter must have occurred had I permitted 
any of the crew to go on shore at the city, as they would 
have got drunk as a matter of course." To qualify him for 
promotion to acting lieutenant, Mr. Bowen has permission 
to proceed to Halifax to undergo his examination in sea- 
manship: "The Gulnare was towed up the St. Lawrence 
by the steamboat John Molson, commanded by Mr. Wal- 
ter Douglas, our master of last year." 

In returning to Quebec on the 19th October, Bayfield 
states that he had 14 feet water in crossing Lake St. Peter. 
The temptations of Quebec prove too much for a portion 
of the crew, as shown by the following: "Lieutenant Col- 
lins, leaving the men to find their own way on board after 
hauling up their boats in Sir J. Caldwell's store, River St. 
Charles, they became intoxicated as a matter of course, 
hence a scene of disorder and drunkenness at night. The 
truth is that our men are not under martial law, and we can 
never get much good out of them in port, in consequence." 



47 

Bayfield finds it difficult to punish hired men for mis- 
conduct : "Mr. William Stevenson, the agent for Mr. 
Gugy, paid off the crew to-day. There was one man, La 
Valle, in Lieutenant Collins' boat, who had been drunk, 
insolent and disobedient; but, upon reflection, I could not 
punish him by stopping his wages, the only mode in my 
power, without being subject to a lawsuit, the result of 
which would be doubtful, and even, if decided in our fa- 
vour we should have to pay the costs, as he would sue me 
in forma pauperis. This took place last year, when one of 
Mr. Bowen's men was declared to have partly forfeited his 
wages, but Mr. Gugy had to pay nearly double the wages 
forfeited, in the way of costs. Such is the Court of Admi- 
ralty. I had another motive for letting this man off, 
which was, that it appears discreditable to be, every year, 
in litigation with these blackguards, and the matter being- 
misrepresented in the parishes, might give the service a 
bad name and render it difficult for us to get men, another 
year." 

The boatmen's wages in 1831 appear to have been 
eleven, and the coxswain's wages fifteen dollars a month, 
and found, of course. Bayfield's assistants seem to have 
had usually a week for settling down in their winter quar- 
ters before commencing office work. 

The remark on the 26th November, 1831, "calculating 
observatoins till midnight," looks as if Bayfield had not 
much spare time. On the 16th December of that year, he 
says: "Commodore Barrie, R.N., stationed at Kingston, 
Ontario, departed for that place, leaving his son Mr. Wil- 
liam Barrie, under my charge. He is midshipman of the 
Cockburn, on Lake Ontario, and is to be considered as lent 
to me for the present. He is a fine talented boy of four- 
teen." 

On the 16th January, 1832, there is an entry: "Wrote 
officially to Lieutenant Collins, the senior assistant sur- 
veyor, censuring him for not paying more attention' to 
scientific subjects connected with his profession." This re- 
monstrance was, of course, entirely for the good and fu- 



ture advancement of his assistant. On the 1st February, 
1832,, he notes : "The first anniversary dinner of the Lit- 
erary and Historical Society of Quebec was given to-day, 
at which Lord Aylmer presided." On the 4th : "Dr. Kelly, 
R.N., read his paper on Mirage and Terrestrial Refraction 
to-night before the Society." 

Mr. Bowen had returned from Halifax, and we will 
hope, had passed a satisfactory examinatoin in seaman- 
ship; for on the 15th of March Bayfield commends his zeal, 
as follows: "Mr. Bowen still on the sick list, as well as 
Lieutenant Collins; the former with a zeal which does 
him credit, although unable to attend the office, sent for 
his work and continued it in his own lodgings. This, Mr. 
Bowen did of his own accord." The offce was in the Union 
Building, on the northwest side of Rue du Fort, leased to 
the Government for the Civil Service. 

On the 1st May, 1832, Bayfield records : "Received let- 
ters by the March Halifax mail, conveying to me the pain- 
ful intelligence of the death of my much loved and revered 
mother." On the 4th of the same month: "Solemn fast 
ordered today on account of the cholera. A great fire near 
Diamond Harbour, sixteen buildnigs burnt down." On 
the 23rd May : "Commodore and Mrs. Barrie arrived from 
Kingston to see their son off in the Gulnare, he being lent 
to me from H.M.S. Cockburn, bearing Commodore Bar- 
rie's broad pennant on the lakes." 

While at anchor in St. Patrick's Hole, Orleans Island, 
9th June, Bayfield says: "The cholera is undoubtedly es- 
tablished at Quebec, fifteen cases having occurred in all 
since the commencement yesterday morning, and, I regret 
to add, five have ben fatal. Thus, the quarantine estab- 
lished to board, examine and stop all suspected vessels, has 
proved ineffectual. No case of cholera has yet occurred at 
the Quarantine Station. We ought to consider ourselves 
fortunate in leaving Quebec at the commencement of this 
fearful disease, but any satisfaction of this kind is swal- 
lowed up in concern for our friends whom we have left be- 
hind us." 



49 

July 27th : "Lieutenant Collins pulled his boat the 
Cockburn, against Mr. Hall the master, in the ship's 
launch, with ten double-banked oars, the Cockburn beating 
by fifteen seconds. This race created a great deal of ex- 
citement and rivalry among the boats' crews, and served 
to enlighten, the tedious monotony, to them, of the serv- 
ice." 

The climate of Anticosti is not very warm even in Au- 
gust, for on the 8th of that month Bayfield writes : "I 
managed to calculate some observations to-day, but every- 
thing is so damp below and so wet on deck, and the vessel 
tumbles about so, that it is almost impossible to sit still for 
any length of time without being chilled through, or ren- 
dered very uncomfortable." 

In the last week of August, Bayfield is anchored in Keg- 
ashka Bay, Labrador, and says : "The roar of the surf was 
deafening and broke over the point nearly to the vessel's 
bow. The roar of the breakers all round and their nearness 
to us, gave a particularly wild appearance to our anchorage, 
which might not have been, agreeable to weak or unprac- 
tised nerves. Never saw the moschettoes and black flies 
thicker; their bites covered us with blood while observing, 
and we could not open our mouths without swallowing 
them. The torment of them was beyond description: the 
men, painting and working at the rigging, smeared them- 
selvse with paint-oil and tar, in vain." 

Bayfield had intended spending the balance of the sea- 
son in the more sheltered waters of the river about Lake 
St. Peter, as usual, but he says : "It is the opinion of the 
surgeon that our duties which cause us to be exposed to 
wet and cold constantly, would render us (and particularly 
the men) very likely to take the disease, cholera, and it is 
this considerati'on which has induced me to proceed to 
Gaspe, it being quite immaterial which place is surveyed 
first, or, if there be any difference, Gaspe is of more impor- 
tance. 

In the middle of September, being at Gaspe, he says: 
"Measured a base of about 1% miles, and observed at 
night the immersions of Jupiter's first and third satellites*, 



50 

for longitude. Blundell the quartermaster, who had it in 
charge to issue the provisions, had been for some time 
since suspected of watering the men's grog, to make up 
for what he plundered for his own drinking. He was this 
day convicted of this dishonest practice, for which I dis- 
rated him and reprimanded him severely before the crew, 
who were called aft on the quarterdeck for the purpose." 

The 29th "September, being Sunday: "Gave leave to 
men to walk on shore, the first they have had, or, I have 
had an opportunity of giving them, this year, excepting 
one Sunday, at Mingan." Shewing the Gulnare's fast sail- 
ing qualities, Bayfield, on the 10th October, says: "At 6.30 
p.m., tacked off Great Boule Island (Seven Islands). At 8 
a.m., there was a large barque about 4 miles on our beam. 
She carried a heavy press of canvas all day on the same 
tack as ourselves; nevertheless, at 4 h. p.m., she was half 
courses down on our lee quarter. When we tacked she 
was out of sight to leeward." On 19th October the Gul- 
nare picks up her mails on her way to Quebec for the win- 
ter. He says : "At 5 h. a.m., anchored off Riviere du Loup 
and sent boat for letters, after which I retired till 9 h. a.m., 
having been up all night piloting the vessel." 

In furnishing his office, Bayfield seems to have been act- 
uated by necessity, rather than luxury, for he says : "Paid 
A. S. Frazer the sum of 8. 3s. 6d. currency for a carpet 
for the office, the cold being so severe we could not do 
without it." On, January 6th, he says: "There is a custom 
in Canada that, at New Year everybody calls upon every- 
body, requiring two days at least, during which nothing 
can be done, for people are coming in or knocking at your 
door all day." February, 1833: "Mr. Barrie calculating 
the triangles of the survey of Gaspe, principally to teach 
him how a regular survey is made and conducted." April 
22nd : "Received a letter from Captain Back, R.N., request- 
ing me to lend him a mountain barometer. (He had lost 
his barometer in the fire at his hotel at Montreal.) We 
had none I am sorry to say, nor could I find one in good 
order in Quebec. Captain Back is going on an expedition 



to look for Captain Ross, R.N." Commander Back, ac- 
companied by Dr. Richard King, led a search expedition by 
land to the mouth of the Great Fish River, for tidings of 
Captain John and Commander James Clark Ross. Back 
commanded H.M.S. Terror in 1836, returning in 1839 to 
Ireland with his ship in a sinking condition, and was 
knighted. 

Relating to a chart prepared during the winter of 1832- 
1833, Bayfield says: "This chart, Point des Monts to Bay 
Chaleur, has been a work of very great labour, but it will 
also, I trust, be one of great utility, for it is very complete 
in soundings and detail* of every kind; and, I have reason to 
believe, there is no point in it that will be found in error 
more than five seconds of latitude or ten seconds of longi- 
tude." (500 to 600 feet.) May 28th, 1833, Bayfield was 
preparing for sea, and says : "Our greatest trouble is with 
the men; the fellows ship readily for so favorite a service, 
but they are always in debt and their creditors will not let 
them go until they pay. Hence, it becomes necessary to 
give a month's advance. A drunken bout follows, as a mat- 
ter of course, and, until that is over, there is no chance of 
keeping them on board a vessel alongside a wharf with 
grog shops close to it." 

On the 29th, the Gulnare proceeds down the St. Law- 
rence : "The Royal William steamer towed us and our new 
tender the Beaufort, 30 miles in 4 h. 20 m., against the 
flood stream, but in coming near to take us in tow, she un- 
luckily smashed our gig at the davits, to pieces. But Mr. 
Stevenson, the agent for both vessels, kindly offered the 
loan of another gig in her place, and would make no charge 
for towing us." The Royal William crossed the Atlantic 
this summer to England. In the middle of June, 1833, .the 
Gulnare had a stormy passage from Gaspe to the Magdalen 
Islands, and Bayfield says : "Few of us could sleep much 
under such circumstances, for we have not room to hang 
in cots or hammocks, and are therefore tossed about in 
standing bed-places at a great rate." On arrival at the 



52 

Magdalens, Lieutenant Collins is left there with the ten- 
ders Beaufort and Cockburn, with eight men. 

Bayfield, in the Gulnare, then proceeds to Little Natash- 
quan Harbour, on the Labrador Coast, where, on the 
22nd June he meets with Mr. Audubon, the celebrated 
American naturalist. He relates : "Mr. Audubon the nat- 
uralist we found here in the American schooner Ripley, 
with several young men, two of them being medical stud- 
ents. Mr. Audubon has come principally to study the 
habits of the water fowl, with which the coast of Labrador 
abounds, and to make drawings of them for his splendid 
work on the birds of America. We found him a very supe- 
rior person indeed. On returning Mr. Audubon's visit, was 
delighted with his drawings, the birds being represented of 
life size and beautifully painted. Mr. Audubon dined on 
board the Gulnare. It is said there are 300 vessels em- 
ployed in the fisheries on this coast, averaging 75 tons each, 
and manned by 50 men to each six vessels, equal to 2,500 
men. Of these, one half are French, one fourth British 
and the rest Americans. Each vessel takes away on an 
average, 1,500 quintals of codfish, at 112 pounds per quin- 
tal. The fish average about 4 pounds each in weight, be- 
ing small on this coast. 

"We heard from the Americans about the Eggers, a 
set of people, we, to-day, first heard of spoken of as a body. 
We had previously no idea of the extent of the egging 
business, as our informants termed it. It appears that, in 
some seasons, 20 small schooners or shallops, of 20 to 30 
tons, load with eggs from this coast. Halifax is the prin- 
cipal market for them, where they at times fetch a much 
higher price than hens' eggs. They are stowed in the hold 
in bulk and kept for several weeks without any preparation. 
These men, the Eggers, combine together and form a 
strong company. They suffer no one to interfere with 
their business, driving away the fishermen or anyone else 
who attempts to collect eggs near where they happen to 
be. Might makes right with them, it is clear. They have 
arms, and are said by the fishermen, not to be very scrup- 



53 

ulous about using them. As soon as one vessel is loaded, 
she is sent to market, others following in succession, so 
that the market is always supplied, but never glutted. 
One vessel of 25 tons is said to have cleared 200 by this 
egging business in a favorable season." 

In proceeding out of Little Natashquan Harbour, the 
Gulnare touches upon a rock, and Bayfield says : "The 
western channel appeared to be the widest, and Mr. Bowen 
thought he had found ail the rocks, but we soon added to 
his knowledge, for on the second board to the westward, in 
the narrowest part of the channel, we struck just after the 
helm was put down to tack.. We were not aground more 
than a minute or two, and it was dead low water. No in- 
jury was done, even to the rates of the chronometers, for 
Dr. Kelly instantly ran down and took them in his hands 
until we were afloat." 

Bayfield is away from the ship with tents and boat be- 
tween Cape Whittle and the Meccatina Islands, and ex- 
periences very miserable weather. He says : "Thus, day 
after day pass miserably away without advancing the serv- 
ice in the least, so constantly are we persecuted with these 
easterly and southerly winds, with rain and fog. This is 
the fifth day of our detention on this barren island, without 
a bush, wild fowl, or anything but moschettoes, during the 
whole of which time I have not been able to obtain a single 
observation. Yet, to the Meccatinas we will survey before 
we return, if it be possible. We began to-day to catch 
puffins and young gulls, and to collect mussels and clams, 
to make our provisions last out as long as possible. These 
are but indifferent food, and my men would not use them 
until they learnt my- determination of not returning to the 
vessel till the work was finished, and the consequent pos- 
sibility of their being on short allowance if they did not 
now economise their regular allowance." 

Having attained his object, Bayfield takes the Gulnare 
into Meccatina harbour at the end of July, and writes: 
"Depending upon the accuracy of Lane's survey, I shot her 
into Meccatina Harbour, and was astonished to find it not 



54 

more than one-half the size represented in his particular 
plan of it." Mr. Michael Lane was Captain Cook's assis- 
tant in his survey of Newfoundland, and carried on the 
work in Newfoundland and Labrador when Cook left to 
undertake his Pacific ocean voyages. Lane, however, had 
not the genius of Cook or Bayfield. 

In the first week in August, Bayfield proceeds to Green 
Island, Newfoundland, and of the Gulnare's sailing quali- 
ties, says: "In running across the Strait of Belle Isle to 
Green Island, Newfoundland, the Gulnare averaged ten 
knots; at times, eleven knots, wind abeam." 

Bayfield, on the 9th August, remarks: "Cook's plan of 
Red Bay, as well as of Chateau Bay (Labrador) is excel- 
lent." 

On the 12th of the same month, being in Forteau Bay, 
Labrador, he says : "This morning, I turned James Davis 
on shore for mutinous, disrespectful and abusive language 
and manner to Mr. Hall the master, given publicly when 
Mr. Hall was on the quarterdeck and in the execution of 
his duty. This man had amused himself yesterday in sprit- 
sail yarding' dogfish, a cruelty which I disapproved of, and 
ordered not to be allowed. When desired by Midshipman 
Barrie to cast loose a fish which Mr. Barrie had caught and 
which the man was about to torture, he complied, but said 
he could catch more, in a disrespectful manner. Soon after, 
Mr. Hall saw him committing the forbidden cruelty, and 
ordered him to desist, informing him that my orders were 
it should not be done, upon which he answered in an inso- 
lent way, and Mr. Hall ordered his grog to be stopped in 
consequence. This morning, when ordered to cease mak- 
ing more noise than necessary when washing decks, he 
burst out into the mutinous language which caused me to 
send him ashore." Sailors, though usually humane, have a 
deep-seated enmity to sharks. "Spritsail yarding" is pass- 
ing a spar through the shark's gills to prevent its sinking 
after being thrown back into the sea. 

On the 17th August, Bayfield is off the entrance to Port 
Saunders, west coast of Newfoundland, in which a French 



55 

war-schooner was anchored for the protection of the 
French fishermen, who, until the year 1904, had, as they 
interpreted the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, the exclusive 
right of fishing and landing on the Newfoundland shore 
from Cape Ray northward and eastward to Cape St. John. 
Bayfield says: "The French man-of-war schooner's boat 
came off with a very polite note from her commander, con- 
veyed by the master of the fishing brig Phoenix, who of- 
fered to pilot us in. We availed ourselves of this kind offer, 
for, as it was getting dark and the channel is very narrow, 
it was not easy to beat in, even with the assistance of 
Cook's excellent chart. 

"Lieutenant Maze, the French officer commanding the 
schooner Hirondelle, paid us a visit on board and made a 
very favorable first impression. Mr. Duville, master of 
the Phoenix, informed me that there are 300 sail of vessels 
from France employed in the fishery on the Newfoundland 
coast this season." (I presume this included the bankers 
which fished, and do still fish from St. Pierre.) "High en- 
couragement," he goes on to say, "is given to this fishery 
by the French Government, with the obvious view of form- 
ing seamen for their navy. Fifteen francs per quintal of fish, 
are given as bounty, and another bounty nearly equally 
high, if reshipped to their colonies. Moreover, a hundred 
francs are given to every man shipped each year from 
France, if under 25 years of age. This is certainly forcing a 
trade, but the intention is obviously that of forming sea- 
men. 

"The French all leave this coast before the commence- 
ment of winter, leaving their fishery establishments, build- 
ings, fishflakes, etc., in charge of a guardian, usually an in- 
habitant of Newfoundland (British) who is half hunter or 
fur trader and half fisherman. In the latter capacity the 
guardians are employed to fish the rivers and brooks for 
salmon, retaining one-half the salmon caught as payment 
for their labour, and delivering the other to their employ- 
ers. Cook's chart of Port Saunders is excellent, and so is 
his chart of the coast as far as we have yet seen." 



56 

In the early part of September he takes up the survey of 
Gaspe, and on the 8th is the following remark: ''Last night 
seevral of the men took the second gig on shore to purchase 
rum, and were discovered, upon inquiry, this morning. 
William Shannon and Byrnes, being the offenders, and hav- 
ing robbed the grog keg in the boats on a former occasion ; 
and being insolent worthless fellows who had shipped as 
able seamen without being able to take either helm or lead, 
I turned ashore as an example to the rest. I also stopped 
the grog of all those who were drunk with the liquor smug- 
gled off." 

On the 19th of September, 1833, the Gulnare is an- 
chored off Quebec on her way to finish the season in. the 
more sheltered waters of the St. Lawrence below Montreal. 
Bayfield says : "I remained on board all day and suffered 
no one to leave the vessel, nor any boat to come on board 
without leave, in pursuance of a rule which I have adopted 
and observed on all former occasions, to prevent all those 
irregularities arising from the men drinking with their 
friends after a long voyage. If I do not indulge myself on 
shore, the officers who know my reasons, cannot with pro- 
priety expect it, and if they are not allowed to go ashore, 
the men will not consider it hard that they are left on 
board." 

The vessel is again laid up in Quebec, and Bayfield and 
his staff are plotting their field work, and drawing fair 
charts for the engraver. On the 3rd January, 1834, he re- 
marks: "On the 1st and 2nd no work was done in the of- 
fice, everybody calling upon everybody that they knew 
ever so slightly, such being the custom of the country." 
On the 23rd January, he relates : "On this day at noon, the 
Castle of St. Lewis, the residence of the Governor-in-Chief, 
Lord Aylmer, was discovered to be on fire, and although 
every exertion was made to stop it, yet, such were the dif- 
ficulties opposed by the severe cold which froze the water 
in the engines, and the great height of the building which 
caught fire first in the upper story, that it was completely 
consumed after burning all day and all the following night. 



57 

As the fire burnt downwards, time was given to remove 
most of the property which it contained. Nevertheless, 
much was destroyed in the confusion." 

By an entry on the 12th May, 1834, it is evident the 
party is not idle : "We also attended to the fitting of the 
beats, repairing gear, drawing and purchasing stores, and 
principally before and after office hours." 

On the 2nd Tune, before sailing, Bayfield says : "I 
parted from my young friend Barrie with much regret, and 
I believe it was mutual, but his father, the Commodore, 
justly considers that he ought to serve the remainder of his 
time" (as midshipman) "on board a regular man-of-war, 
where he will learn the routine and etiquette of the service, 
which cannot be very strictly attended to on board a small 
surveying vessel, with a hired crew changing every sea- 
son." 

In middle of July, 1834, he continues the survey on the 
north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and leaving the 
Gulnare anchored in Mistanoque Harbour, he proceeds 
in company with Mr. Bowen, along the north coast of the 
Strait of Belle Isle with boats and tents, and has a miser- 
able time. Speaking of their drinking water, Bayfield says : 
"The water was brown and full of small water insects, 
which would doubtless have afforded good study to an en- 
terprising entomologist, but which we did not consider very 
agreeable at least, alive so we boiled our water and al- 
lowed it to cool before we drank it." 

Bayfield was, on this boat expedition, stormbound on 
Wood Island between Bradore and Forteau Bays, and 
says on the 22nd July: "Everything being wet in tents 
and boats, we accepted Mr. Bray's offer to sleep in his 
house, the men taking shelter in a store. It required hard 
weather to drive us to this, for these fishing people never 
clean their houses, which are shockingly dirty and smell 
abominably of putrid fish, seal oil, etc. They never re- 
move the offal of the fish or the carcasses of skinned seal, 
which remain in scores around their establishments, frying 



58 

in the sun, and alive with maggots, tainting all the air 
around." 

On Bayfield's return to the Gulnare in Mistanoque 
Harbour, he found two of the men had deserted: "On re- 
turning to the Gulnare I found that during my absence the 
boatswain and a man Thomas Paul, had deserted, stealing 
the second gig at night, in a thick fog. They had been 
concerned in stealing grog from the hold, and Mr. Hall 
the master told them he should report the affair to me on 
my return. They carried oft" what provisions they could 
steal from the messes, the Gulnare's binnacle compass, 
etc., etc., and the best of the clothes belonging to their ab- 
sent messmates. The chances of catching them now are 
very remote, and the loss of time certain; I do not, there- 
fore, feel myself at liberty to sacrifice the progress of the 
service for the mere chances of catching these rascals." 

A month later, Bayfield has to examine into the con- 
duct of one of the crew of the tender Beaufort. He says : 
"Found that Thomas Dwyer had done his best to generate 
a spirit of mutiny among the crew. I took him on board 
the Gulnare, to remain as prisoner until I arrived at some 
inhabited part of the country" (he is how anchored in 
Harbour au Lievres, Labrador) "when he will instantly be 
sent on shore." 

In the middle of September of 1834, Bayfield calls at 
Riviere du Loup, and on his way thither is pleased with 
the speed of his ship. "The vessels which had left Pte. des 
Monts with us were all out of sight, so that the Gulnare 
has beaten everything that she has sailed with during the 
summer, both free and on a wind." 

A couple of days later he stops at Grosse Isle, and 
writes : "Mr. Nicholas, the boarding officer, visited us and 
passed us, of course, as we had no sick. From this gentle- 
man we found that at least one-twentieth of the population 
of Quebec had been swept away by this second visitation 
of cholera. I regret to add that many of our friends are 
among the sufferers ; thankful, indeed, ought we all to feel 



59 

that our duties have kept us out of the way of this 
scourge." 

In calling at Quebec next day on his way up the St. 
Lawrence River, he remarks : "I allowed no one to leave 
the vessel, according to custom." 

On the 21st September, Bayfield says, in passing to 
Montreal across Lake St. Peter: "The waters of the St. 
Lawrence are lower than we ever before noticed them; 
there is only 10 feet in the lake over the flats." 

Being at Montreal, on the 10th October, 1834, he 
writes : "We all went ashore for a walk to see our friends, 
the first holiday we have allowed ourselves since we sailed 
in the spring." 

Bayfield returns in the fall to his winter quarters at 
Quebec as usual, and on the 15th January, 1835, remarks: 
"At the Castle last night, a large party, an agreeable re- 
laxation when it does not. come too often." Two days 
later he adds : "Attended the Literary and Historical So- 
ciety at night, and afterwards extracted remarks on winds, 
tides, currents, etc., to be inserted in my fair Sailing Direc- 
tions." 

The heating arrangements in Quebec at this time were 
not as perfect as we have them now, for in February, 1835, 
he says : "Could not keep a fire in the office, and therefore 
could not work there to-day" [It was blowing a gale]. 

On the 8th March, is the following entry in his journal: 
"I gave Mr. Bowen leave for the day on Saturday, which 
he well deserves, having worked with much zeal and assi- 
duity. By the measurements of Lieutenant Collins on 
the ice, the northeast corner of the King's bastion of the 
Citadel was found to be 308 feet 10 inches above high 
water of ordinary spring tides. The top of Wolf and Mont- 
calm's monument, 260 feet 9 inches, the summit of Ste. 
Anne's mountain, 20 miles below Quebec, 2,684 feet." 

On the 5th June, 1835, Bayfield is in Gaspe Harbour, 
and in reference to sextant observations for difference of 
longitude, says : "If the observations to be compared to- 
gether be always on the same side of noon, and at alti- 



6o 

tudes nearly similar, any errors in the instruments will be 
similar, and, consequently, not affect the difference of times 
between the observations, the thing to be obtained." 

On the 20th June, the same year, he experiences bad 
weather off Cape Gaspe, and writes : "The doctor and Mr. 
Bowen both seasick in bed, together with the steward, 
cook, boys, etc. ; in short, the whole of our domestic estab- 
lishment. I should have felt the cold and disagreeables 
more, if I had not other things to think of. The fog and 
uncertainty of the position of the vessel did not suffer me 
to mind much else." 

On the 23rd June, Bayfield is at the Magdalens, and 
enters the following: "At 8 a.m. we were just about to 
tack, when, by a mistake in the orders by the people for- 
ward, she took the ground, but soon got off again, having 
received nothing more than a salutary lesson to be more 
careful in future." Five days later, having left Lieutenant 
Collins with tender Beaufort to complete the survey of the 
Magdalen Islands, the Gulnare is at Red Island, New- 
foundland, west coast, for verification of its astronomical 
position. Bayfield eulogizes Cook's work here, as follows: 
"The chart of Red Island and adjacent coast, soundings, 
etc., by the celebrated Captain Cook is extremely correct. 
If, -in the style of drawing his charts, the nature of the 
coast, cliffs, etc., had been shewn, the survey would have 
been, perfect. He has, however, made up for this, by nu- 
merous views of the land, and by the remarks and direc- 
tions for navigating the coasts which he surveyed." I 
might incidentally mention here, that while assisting in the 
survey of the coast of Newfoundland, from 1871 to 1881, 
we had the same opinion, of Cook's work. Here, too, it 
may be mentioned that Captain Cook was employed on the 
survey of the coasts of that colony and the Strait of Belle 
Isle from 1763 to 1767, under the orders of the two succes- 
sive Naval Governors at that time, Captain (afterwards 
Lord) Graves, and Captain Sir Hugh Palliser, Baronet. 
Cook's last assistant in the survey of Newfoundland was 
Michael Lane, Esq., who had been a naval schoolmaster, 



6i 

and who was given charge of the work on the selection of 
Cook for the voyage to the Pacific. The name of Cook's 
vessel in Newfoundland was the Grenville, at first 
schooner, afterwards brig rigged. 

A brisk shore fishery was, in 1835, carried on by the 
French nation at Red Island, on the western coast. Bay- 
field relating that "there were twenty-seven sail of French 
schooners of 25 to 50 tons at anchor under Red Island. 
They all shewed their colours to us, and otherwise dis- 
played the politeness of their nation." 

On July 8th, the Gulnare is again at Mistanoque, on 
the Labrador, and Bayfield finds very similar weather to 
that he experienced exactly a year ago. He says : "Nine 
days have passed since our arrival, in which time we have 
done but one day's work ; such is the climate of Labrador 
for surveying." 

In the middle of July Bayfield is anchored in Bonne Es- 
perance Harbour, north shore of the Strait of Belle Isle, 
and writes : "Many of the French schooners put to sea 
yesterday, and I am told they were induced to do so for 
fear of a visit from our boats, which they saw with ensign 
and pennant up, sounding in the offing." The French 
treaty fishing rights did not extend to the Labrador. 

Towards the end of July, the Gulnare is anchored in 
Chateau Bay, where there is little improvement in the 
climatic conditions: "We found it extremely cold here, 
the temperature of the water outside the bay being at 
freezing point, 32 degrees Fahrenheit, and the air, 43 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. The first plants are just springing up, 
and the grass is only just beginning to show a shade of 
green. Yet, this is. the 25th July!" 

Bayfield leaves the vessel in Chateau Bay and surveys 
the coast to St. Lewis Sound in boats, and on the 17th 
August returns to the Gulnare, saying: "We were all glad 
enough to be on board again, for rougher work than the 
survey from this to Cape St. Lewis we have seldom expe- 
prienced. 'Tis, however, done, and well done, and there is 
a gratification in this which makes up for anything else." 



62 

At the end of August the rum trouble breaks out again, 
Bayfield saying: "Two men, Robinson and Fleming, the 
former my coxswain, drunk. Upon enquiry, found that 
some of the men and boys give or sell their grog to others, 
contrary to my orders early in the season." 

On the llth September, 1835, he is at Trinity Bay, on 
the north shore of the gulf, and remarks : "Here we met 
with some pilots not long from Quebec, and heard that our 
tender, the Beaufort, had passed up two or three weeks 
ago, and that it was reported in Quebec that Lieutenant 
Collins had died in the Magdalen Islands of aploplexy. We 
cannot, of course, learn any more of the circumstances of 
this melancholy event till we arrive in Quebec or Riviere 
du Loup. There seems, no doubt, however, that my old 
friend and assistant, who, with the exception of two years 
while he was at sea in the Herald, has been with me for 
eighteen years, is no more. He was but a boy of sixteen 
when he first joined me" (on the lakes). "I have seen him 
grow up to manhood, and thought to have seen, with pleas- 
ure, his further advance in the service, but it has pleased 
God to otherwise dispose of him, and who shall murmur at 
His will." 

Four days later, Bayfield is anchored at the Pilgrims, 
and says : "I received to-day an account from Mr. Dou- 
cette, magistrate at the Magdalens, of the death of my la- 
mented friend and assistant, Lieutenant Collins. He was 
taken ill very suddenly while sounding in the Beaufort 
off the islands, and ordered his coxswain to run. the vessel 
as soon as possible into Amherst Harbour. He, then, says 
the inquest, threw himself into the arms of his coxswain 
and died instantly. He had complained of a great head- 
ache several days before." 

On the 19th September, the Gulnare calls at Quebec 
on her way to continue the survey near Montreal, and Bay- 
field remarks: "Found lying here (Quebec) H.M. Ships 
President and Forte, the first being the flagship of the 
Right Honorable Vice Admiral of the Red, Sir George 
Cockburn ; the second bearing the broad pennant of Com- 



63 

modore Pell. The Admiral appointed Lieutenant John Or- 
lebar, R.N., of H.M.S. Forte to assist me, taking his chance 
of the Admiralty allowing him to remain with me as as- 
sistant surveyor if he qualifies himself during the autumn 
and following winter." The officers of the survey at this 
time were all on the flagship's books as supernumeries. 
Orlebar married, 5th February, 1838, Miss Elizabeth Har- 
riet Hale, sister of Jeffery Hale, Esq. 

At the end of October, 1835, the staff being once more 
in winter quarters at Quebec, we find Mr. Bowen is pre- 
paring for his departure to England on leave of absence to. 
pass his examination at the College (Portsmouth). 

On the 13th November, Bayfield says : "Wrote to Cap- 
tain Beaufort, R.N. (Hydrographer), requesting that Lieu- 
tenant Orlebar's appointment might be confirmed, and he 
be allowed to stay as assistant surveyor." 

On the 2nd January, 1836, he writes: "Paid more than 
a hundred visits, and received as many in the two days." 

There is an entry against the 17th February of that 
year, as follows: "I supplied to Mr. Henderson a trace 
copy of the St. Lawrence from Quebec to the Saguenay 
River, upon a very small scale; also, the latitude and longi- 
tude of Montreal and Three Rivers. The object, being to 
serve as a base for making a map of the routes of the va- 
rious exploring parties that have been sent out from time 
to time to examine the country north of the St. Lawrence. 
The map is for the Literary and Historical Society." 

Against the 4th April, 1836, there is the following en- 
try : "I received a letter from the Secretary of the Admir- 
alty, informing me that I and my officers had been placed 
on half pay in common with other officers employed in the 
Surveying S.ervice on shore. I answered representing 
that our case was that of officers employed at sea during 
the whole of the navigable season, and the same in every 
respect (excepting that our vessel is hired) as that of of- 
ficers employed in a man-of-war surveying vessel. I there- 
fore prayed that the new regulation would not be extended 
to us." 



6 4 

There is unluckily a gap in the journals here of four 
years and eight months, during which time no doubt many 
interesting events occurred. There was certainly one of 
great interest to himself, for on the 2nd April, 1838, Cap- 
tain Bayfield was married in Quebec to Fanny, only daugh- 
ter of Captain (afterwards General) Charles Wright, 
Royal Engineers. 

In January, 1841, Bayrield's assistants are Lieutenants 
Orlebar and George Augustus Bedford, R.N., the latter in 
place of Mr. Bowen probably, and oil the 15th of that 
month, he says : "I write in my own home when 1 have ac- 
counts to settle, bills to draw, or trigonometrical and as- 
tronomical calculations to make, because I find that I can 
proceed with such work when alone and uninterrupted 
much better than I can at the office, where also our accom- 
modation is only good for drawing, for which the tables 
are made." 

On the 8th April of that year, Mr. Stevenson, now the 
owner of the Gulnare, introduces Lieutenant Twiss, R.N., 
half-pay, to Bayfield. He is engaged as sailing master. 

A little later the Gulnare is examined: "Agreeable to 
my request, Mr. Munn, one of the principal shipbuilders of 
Quebec and a man universally esteemed, is to inspect the 
Gulnare as to her efficiency, and Mr. Stevenson will abide 
by his opinion. She will be opened along the water line 
and at the covering board." 

At the end of April, Bayfield is making preparations for 
the transference of the headquarters to Charlottetown, 
Prince Edward Island, the work now lying in the eastern 
part of the Gulf. On the 1st May, he writes: "We were 
obliged to evacuate our office because the Union Build- 
ings, in which the Colonial Government assigned us an of- 
fice, are to be given up to the proprietors, and are to be let 
as an inn or an hotel." 

Under date of the 20th, he says: "Our boats' masts 
are not finished, the recent fall of the Cape Diamond cliff 
having crushed the mast-maker's house, and killed part of 
the familv of one of his workmen." 



65 

On the 27th May : "Gave Lieutenant Orlebar orders to 
take command and charge of the Gulnare and all which 
she contains, and proceed to Charlottetown, P.E.I." 

On the 28th, he states: "Painful leave-taking of our 
numerous friends of thirteen years' standing. Received 
the thanks of the Trinity House of Quebec on the 26th, in 
a set of resolutions of that body, very handsomely worded 
and delivered to me by the Honorable J. Stewart in per- 
son. Wrote a letter of thanks." 

The resolutions and Bayfield's reply, taken from the 
Quebec Gazette of 2nd June, 1841, are as follows: "Re- 
solved that this Board entertain a high sense of the talents 
and scientific acquirements of Captain Bayfield. Resolved 
that the thanks of this Board be tendered to Captain Bay- 
field for the advice and assistance he has on different oc- 
casions rendered to this corporation; that, while they ex- 
press their regret that the province is so soon to be de- 
prived of his valuable services, the Board offer their best 
wishes for his future prosperity and happiness. Ordered, 
that the Master be requested to wait upon Captain Bay- 
field, and communicate to him the foregoing resolution." 

Bayfield replies : "Dear Sir : I request that you will 
receive yourself and favour me by communicating to the 
Trinity Board of Quebec, my best thanks for the highly 
honourable testimonial, contained in the resolutions, which 
you have this day delivered to me. Whilst, in my official 
capacity, I place the highest value upon, the favourable 
opinion which the Board has done me the honour to ex- 
press of my public services, I receive with no less gratifica- 
tion the expression of their regret at my approaching de- 
parture from the Province, and their kind wishes for my 
future prosperity and happiness. Begging that you will 
accept for yourself and them, the assurance of the same 
good wishes, I have the honour to be, Sir, your humble 
servant, Henry W. Bayfield, Captain R.N.*' 

The Quebec Mercury of 1st June, 1841, writes, in con- 
nection with the departure of the party: "It is almost 
superflous to say that Captain Bayfield's services are held 



66 

in the highest admiration by professional men and by the 
Lords of the Admiralty; since, during his employment 
upon this duty, he has been successively promoted to Lieu- 
tenant, Commander and Post Captain, and received 
other flattering proofs of the value set upon his able and 
unremitting exertions in the service assigned to him ; in the 
execution of which he has added largely not only to pro- 
fessional information, but has amassed geological facts re- 
lating to the extensive regions he has surveyed, in which 
little scientific investigation has previously been made. 
Captain Bayfield has passed the last fourteen years in Que- 
bec, and is, with his accomplished lady, whom he here mar- 
ried, highly esteemed in the leading society of the place. 
It must not be omitted to be stated that he was a warm 
supporter of the Literary and Historical Society in this 
city, and of which, we believe, he was one of the original 
members, and the contributor of some valuable papers. Dr. 
Kelly of the same service, has likewise been long a winter 
resident of Quebec, and is equally esteemed by a numerous 
circle of friends and acquaintance. To him, also, the trans- 
actions of the Society are indebted for several valuable pa- 
pers." (He was President for the years 1839 and 1840, 
and Vice-President for several years after.) "We have 
spoken of these officers particularly, because their long res- 
idence and part borne in literary and scientific pursuits has, 
in some sort, rendered them public characters. The Lieu- 
tenants attached to this service are equally estimable men, 
and the party now withdrawn from Quebec is an additional 
loss to the diminishing circle of its society." 

On May 29th, Bayfield leaves Quebec for Charlotte- 
town, and says: "At 11.50 a.m. the Royal Mail Steamer 
Unicorn cast off from the Government wharf, and we pro- 
ceeded down the river with all those feelings which are 
experienced by most people when leaving a place and 
friends with whom they have been intimately associated 
for many years. We looked upon the magnificent scenery 
of the Basin of Quebec as what we might ne'er see again. 
I had with me on board the Unicorn my own family, and 



6 7 

those of Lieutenants Orlebar and Bedford; Dr. Kelly also 
accompanies me. There are, therefore, three ladies, five 
children, five nurses, two men servants and the wife and 
child of one of them; two horses and innumerable cases, 
boxes, chests, etc. Captain Walter Douglas of the Uni- 
corn, was formerly master of the Gulnare, serving under 
me in the years 1828-29. He was extremely kind to me 
and our party. The steamship Unicorn is a very fine ves- 
sel of nearly 700 tons, and magnificenly fitted up." 

On the 1st June he arrives at Charlottetown, and says: 
"My house not being in a habitable state, my friend the 
Honble. T. Heath Haviland kindly received me and my 
family, also Dr. Kelly. Mrs. Orlebar and Mrs. Bedford 
went into lodgings until the arrival of the Gulnare. Waited 
upon the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Charles Fitzroy." 

The survey appears to have been principally carried on 
in Prince Edward Island this year, 1841, and the following 
entries show that some of the crew give trouble : 

"June llth. Two men deserted from the Gulnare; ad- 
vertized them, theatening to prosecute anyone who might 
receive or harbour them ;" and, again, on the 26th : "The 
boatswain, in the second gig, was sent to the Island" (the 
ship is in Bedeque Harbour, P.E.I.) "to cut brooms, but in- 
stead of landing, they proceeded over to the mainland. 
Mr. Twiss, the master, found him in a public house with 
the boat's crew, drinking, for which he forfeits his extra 
ten shillings pay per month. He stopped ashore all night, 
got drunk and lost his silver 'call' on the 17th at Charlotte- 
town, which I looked over because he seemed to have been 
led into such conduct by the boatswain of H.M.S. Ring- 
dove, whom he was with. The price of the 'call' will be 
charged against him, however, unless his conduct is bet- 
ter. The truth is, that we have not sufficient power by the 
'Merchant Seamen's Act,' and what we might have, is 
thrown away by the perncious system of giving a month's 
pay in advance." 

Again, on the 17th July: "The boatswain, Forster, and 
a seaman, Campbell, whom the former seems to have in- 



68 

duced, were detected in tapping the rum cask, which has 
not been secured as 1 desired. I directed both to be sent 
on shore and any wages they might have due, to be de- 
tained." 

On the 5th of August, the Gulnare is at Pictou, and 
Bayfield says : "There was a large French man-of-war 
brig lying here, but the service I am engaged upon not ad- 
mitting of delay or waste of time, I did not communicate 
with her." 

In the middle of the same month, at the same port, he 
states : "Robinson, the coxswain of my gig, came on board 
drunk and threatened to knock the second master down 
and throw the master overboard. The man ought to have 
been taken out of the vessel to jail immediately, but little 
exertion of any kind to repress such conduct appears to 
have been made by the master. On the matter being re- 
ported to me, I ordered Robinson to be dismissed from the 
vessel without his wages, and with a discharge stating it 
was for mutinous conduct." 

The party and ship winter at Charlottetown, and on the 
13th November, 1841, Bayfield says: "The small steamer 
Pocahontas from Pictou brought the new Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, Sir H. V. Huntley." 

On the 13th May, 1842, he notes : "Wrote to Mr. Stev- 
enson a letter to await his arrival in the Unicorn at Pictou, 
informing him that no seamen, were to be obtained here, 
and pointing out the neessity of his sending express to Hal- 
ifax for seamen, if he had not brought down the requisite 
number from Quebec." 

It appears that the contract time for hire of the Gulnare 
is still from 20th May to 1st November. 

On the 24th May, he says : "We could do but little to- 
day, being obliged to attend the Lieutenant-Governor at 
the Review and Levee held on the Queen's Birthday. It 
was a holiday, and the Gulnare was decorated and covered 
with flags, looking very pretty on the occasion." 

On the 26th, Bayfield mentions the birth of his second 
son, and under date of the 28th: "The Honble. James 



6 9 

Peake will act as Mr. Stevenson's agent at this place, with 
full powers in all matters relating to the Gulnare." 

By an entry on the 16th June, Mr. Parry appears now 
to have superseded Lieutenant Twiss, R.N., as master of 
the Gulnare. 

The survey during the summer of 1842 was prosecuted 
in Northumberland Strait about Pictou, and on the south 
coast of Prince Edward Island. 

On the llth July, Bayfield says: "We gave ourselves 
and all hands a holiday to-day" (they are at Charlottetown), 
"the third in fourteen years ; all the early part of the day, 
however, was occupied in cleaning the ship completely, 
fore and aft. We sailed three of the boats in the after- 
noon." 

Under date of the 17th, he remarks. "This, if it had not 
been the Sabbath, would have been a day in which we 
could have sounded over 70 miles. I am convinced, how- 
ever, that there is nothing lost in the long run by doing 
right, although I do not vainly and presumptuously expect 
that the course of nature should be altered by Him who 
sendeth the rain, upon the just and the unjust." 

Under date of 29th July, he says: "I had to descend 
to my cabin to plot the angles for each of these 41 posi- 
tions, and many additional times to consult the chart for 
the course to be steered, so that I am sure I may say that 
I have run up and down the ladder, to and from my cabin, 
60 or 70 times during the day; and this is nothing extraord- 
inary but what I have to do on any day which is favour- 
able for our work." 

On the 5th August, while the ship is at Pictou, Bayfield 
receives a visit from Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) Lyell, 
who came on board for the discussion of geological mat- 
ters." 

On the 8th: "The Honble. Samuel Cunard, accompa- 
nied by Mr. Beggs the Collector of Customs, and by Mr. 
Ross agent for steamboats, paid me a visit on board to- 
day." 



70 

Under date of the 10th: "Found eight hours' work 
plotting too much for me, and determined to work more 
moderately in the future." 

On the llth : "Many meteors or shooting stars to-night, 
as there were during the two previous nights." (The Au- 
gust shower or the Persiads, which annually occur on 
these three nights.) 

On the 25th August, Bayfield says : "Mr. Donaldson, 
one of the Commissioners for Light Houses in the Prov- 
ince of New Brunswick, paid me a visit" (the ship is at Pic- 
tou) "in connection with previous officcial correspondence. 
He was on his way to the Magdalen Islands, which belong- 
to his son-in-law, Captain, Coffin, R.N." 

On the 7th September, Mr. Simon Dodd the pilot is 
paid 51 pounds, 10 shillings, Halifax currency, wages for 
103 days at 10s. per diem. Mr. Parry the master of the Gul- 
nare, seems to interest himself in the surveying work, espe- 
cially in the measurement of base lines, in which he greatly 
assisted Bayfield. 

On the llth September, at Charlottetown, he says: 
"The Bishop of Nova Scotia confirmed 49 persons, among 
whom I was one, not having been confirmed before, in con- 
sequence of going to sea too young, and neglect after 
wards." 

Two days later, Lieutenant Orlebar goes to England 
on leave : "We all took leave of Lieutenant Orlebar and 
his family. They carry with them our best wishes, for 
they are deservedly esteemed by all." 

October 10th : "Considering and answering the propo- 
sitions submitted to me by Captain Boxer, R.N., the Cap- 
tain of the Port of Quebec, respecting the improvement of 
the navigation of the St. Lawrence." 

"On the 16th October, 1842, H.M. Surveying Steamer 
Columbia, and my old friend and Commander, W. F. W. 
Owen R.N., arrived at Charlottetown. He took up his 
quarters with us." Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen 
R.N., was at this time in command of the survey of the 
Atlantic coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. A 



brief summary of his services, it will be remembered, was 
given when he was first mentioned in connection with Bay- 
field's serving under him on the Great Lakes, 1815-1816. 

The next day, Bayfield says: "Lieutenant Bedford and 
Captain Owen's assistants were on board the Gulnare, 
making tracings of such of our surveys as Captain. Owen 
required for the purpose of joining his intended survey of 
the Bay of Fundy to our stations, etc, etc." 

On the 20th October, the party being now at Charlotte- 
town for the winter, he says : "I was occupied in writing 
to Captain Boxer R.N. of Quebec, respecting improve- 
ments in the navigation of the St. Lawrence, their Lord- 
ships of the Admiralty having referred him to me." 

On the 24th May, Bayfield remarks : "The Queen's 
Birthday; our people therefore did not work. The Gul- 
nare dressed out with flags, looked extremely well. Mr. 
Stevenson" (the owner of the vessel) "sent a barrel of beer 
on board for the men's dinner on this gala day. We issue 
no grog, having experienced it to be the cause of almost all 
the trouble that occurs among seamen." 

On the 31st May, Bayfield is at Charlottetown, prepar- 
ing for sea, and says : "Our hands are full, and unfortu- 
nately there are not hands enough for the duty which we 
have to perform; too much of my time being necessarily 
occupied in doing the duty of a clerk or midshipman." 

There i : s trouble with the crew on. the 6th and 7th June, 
on the eve of sailing: "The second master, Mr. Melville, 
having been drunk and fighting with the men last night, I 
ordered him to be discharged. Two seamen, Ev-erett and 
West, deserted." 

The Gulnare is at the end of June in Pugwash Roads, 
Nova Scotia, Lieutenant Orlebar having rejoined from 
leave. Bayfield states on the 30th : "I proceeded on shore 
to wait upon Captain Owen R.N., and had a long confer- 
ence with him respecting the connection of our respective 
surveys, and the settlement of the longitude of the pillar 
in the dockyard at Halifax as a meridian common to us 
both. He is to station a party w r ith rockets midway be- 



72 

tween the head of Cumberland Basin, Bay of Fundy, and 
Tignish, Bay Verte. The Columbia will lie at the former 
and the Gulnare at the latter. On the night of the 7th 
July we are to have chronometers rated, and the instant of 
explosion is to be noted at both vessels, and thus measure 
the difference of longitude across. Lieutenant Shortland 
brought a chronometer overland to compare with ours." 
Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) Peter Shortland was a 
very talented surveying officer, who took the unusual 
course of obtaining leave from the Admiralty to study the 
higher mathematics at Cambridge University, graduating 
therefrom, a "wrangler." He succeeded Owen in command 
of the Bay of Fundy survey in 1847. 

"July 7th Lieutenant Shortland of the H.M.S. Colum- 
bia, arrived with chronometer and a note from Captain 
Owen, informing me that he (Capt. O.) was at a point 
about midway between the two vessels with the rockets, 
which he intended superintending the firing of himself." 

July 8th he adds : "Altogether we saw and marked the 
time of the explosion of six out of the eight rockets. In 
the preceding evening I had calculated up the rates of the 
chronometers, so that altogether I retired to rest well tired 
with the day's work at 1 h. 30 m. a.m." 

July 26th, 1843 : "Mr. Heath Haviland came on board 
from Charlottetown, to take a cruise for his health with us 
at my invitation. He is the eldest son of my friend the 
Honble. T. Heath Haviland, Colonial Secretary of Prince 
Edward Island." 

July 29th the Gulnare was at Halifax, and Bayfield 
says : "Called on the Lieutenant-Governour, Lord Falk- 
land. One of Captain Owen's officers called on board, in- 
forming me that the Columbia was in Bedford Basin, and 
that observations with rockets would be made to-night. 
Accordingly we looked out and observed several of them. 
They were distinctly seen by us, though distant 28 miles." 

At Pictou, on the 15th August, he relates: "A large 
ship, the George, of Dundee, arrived to-day with a signal 
adopted here for sickness on board, viz., the ensign at the 



73 

main, union downwards. Thinking it a signal of distress, 
I sent a boat to her assistance, but, fortunately, warned 
the officer in her to ask the question if there was sickness 
on board, so that we escape being in quarantine by not 
going on board." 

At the same place, on the 2nd September: "Found 
H.M.S. Tweed lying off the town of Pictou. Her Com- 
mander, H. D. C. Douglas, an. old acquaintance of other 
years on the lakes of Canada, came on board and paid us a 
visit." 

October 5th, at Charlottetown: "Mr. Stevenson 
brought the good news of Lieutenant Bedford's promotion 
to Commander." 

On December 4th, 1843: "Visited the Gulnare and 
found her so decayed that I consider her unlit to be re- 
tained in H.M. Service. Wrote officially to Mr. Stevenson, 
notifying him that the contract must be considered to have 
ceased, unless he would consent to replace the old Gulnare 
by a new Gulnare of 175 tons, to be built here under my in- 
spection and to be ready on the 20th May next. The new 
vessel to be subject to all the conditions of the contract for 
the old one, and to be manned, victualled and equipped in 
the same manner, and to be employed next season or 
longer, at the option of the Admiralty." 

Under date of 7th December, 1843: "The Hydro- 
grapher decides that Lieutenant Orlebar, though junior 
in the service to Commander Bedford, is to be senior as an 
Assistant Surveyor." 

December 8th : "The want of a clerk or other person 
to assist me in writing, is severely felt, which may be imag- 
ined when, I state that I wrote fourteen pages of foolscap 
to-day." 

Bayfield states on 12th February, 1844: "Captain 
Vaughan., from Canada, delivered to me this morning an 
official letter from the Honble. H. H. Killaly, President of 
the Canadian Board of Works/requesting my opinion as to 
the line of operations best to be adopted for deepening 



74 

Lake St. Peter." Captain Bayfield sends in his recommen- 
dations. 

February 25th : "Mail informed me of Commander 
Bedford's appointment to a survey in Ireland, and directing 
me to discharge him from this service as soon as navigation 
opens." 

March 4th: "Engaged on the 1st, Mr. Stuart of Rose- 
bank to assist in. making the fair drawings, but finding he 
could not draw sufficiently well, I discharged him to-day, 
paying him 1 3s 9d., island currency, for four clays' at- 
tendance at the office." 

Commander Bedford left Charlottetown for England on 
29th April, and Bayfield says : "Their departure, after be- 
ing with us four and one-half years, seems quite a chasm 
in our happy little party, for his conduct, official and pri- 
vate, has been excellent." Commander (afterwards Ad- 
miral) George Augustus Bedford, after conducting surveys 
in Ireland and Scotland, succeeded Mr. Michael Walker at 
the Admiralty as Assistant Hydrographer in 1862. 

May 7th: "Wrote to Sir Charles Adam, Commander- 
in-Chief, requesting him to view favourably the intended 
application of Lieutenant John Hancock, of H.M.S. Pique, 
to be allowed to join, this service." 

May 16th: "Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson and two Misses 
Hale (the latter Lieutenant Orlebar's sisters-in-law) ar- 
rived here from Quebec." 

May 18th: "The Gulnare was launched and christened 
by Lady Huntley, the Governour and almost everybody in 
the place attending; but a sad accident destroyed the satis- 
faction we should otherwise have felt on the occasion. One 
of our best men got into the bow to try to save the bottle 
of water which he supposed wine, used in the ceremony, 
and had his hand so badly injured from the discharge of the 
ship's gun, that it had to be amputated. Mr. Duncan of 
Charlottetown built the vessel, and Captain Bayfield ex- 
presses himself well pleased with the liberality of her 
equipment. The Gulnare departs from Charlottetown in 
the early part of June with Mr. Mavor as master and a Mr. 
Ellis as the second master. 



75 

On the 2nd July, Bayfield is at Tignish, Bay Verte, and 
says : "Between 9 and 10 p.m. observed the explosion of ten 
out of eleven rockets for difference of longitude between 
Bay Verte and Bay of Fundy. The next day Bayfield drives 
across the isthmus and dines on board the Columbia. 

On the 9th July, 1844, he is at Charlottetown, and re- 
marks: "Found lying here H.M. Sloop Scylla, Comman- 
der Robert Sharpe, an old acquaintance of mine, we having 
served together on the Canadian lakes at the close of the 
War with the United States. I intend to leave Lieutenant 
Orlebar to work on the north coast of Prince Edward 
Island, while I proceed in vessel to make the important 
chronometric measurements designed to accurately con- 
nect the meridians of Quebec, Halifax and St. John's New- 
foundland, Captain Owen having done the same by Boston 
and Halifax." 

On the 30th July, he is at St. John's Newfoundland, and 
says: "Found lying here H.M.S. Eurydice, Captain G. El- 
liot. On my returning from my morning observation, at 
the Chain Rock battery, I found a midshipman of the Eury- 
dice on board, who had been sent to enquire what vessel 
we were, and he returned with full information. Neverthe- 
less, when I returned again from the noon observations, I 
found that a small boat with two men without an officer, 
had been sent to order the Master, Mr. Mavor of the Gul- 
nare, on. board the Eurydice, and that the pennant should 
be hauled down. The next day Captain Elliot called upon 
me, and although he made no allusion to the affair of yes- 
terday, I suppose I may conclude his calling as an acknowl- 
edgement that he was wrong. At any rate, it is not worth 
further consideration." 

On the 1st August, Bayfield writes: "I returned Cap- 
tain Elliot's visit to-day and was shewn all over the vessel, 
a fine new 26 gun. ship of about 700 tons." 

On the 6th, the Gulnare leaves St. John's: "With the 
sanction of the Governour Sir John Harvey, the mail 
steamer North America, bound to Halifax, towed us out of 
harbour." He has a tedious voyage to Prince Edward 



7 6 

Island, saying, on the 13th: "This has been a very fine 
day, the first without fog out of fourteen, but it is weary 
work making so little progress day after day." 

Lieutenant Hancock R.N., joined the survey on the 6th 
September; and on the 12th Captain Bayfield proceeds to 
England on leave : ''Left Charlottetown on the 12th in 
steamer St. George, our party consisting of Mrs. Bayfield 
and our two oldest children, Miss Anwyl and Dr. Kelly 
R.N., Miss M. Hale (Mrs. Orlebar's sister) accompanying 
us as far as Pictou, on her way to Quebec. Arrived at Dart- 
mouth at 6 h. 30 m., p.m., on the 14th, crossed the harbour 
in our coach and four horses, and at 7 arrived at the Halifax 
Hotel. On the 16th took places in the Royal Mail Steamer 
Hibernia, expected from Boston on the 18th. Terms, 24 
sterling per head, children and servants half price. 

"Arrived in Liverpool in nine and one-half days from 
Halifax, difference of time allowed for, and were received 
by my father-in-law, Major Wright. On the 4th October, 
I arrived in London after 17 years' absence." 

On the 15th October, Captain Bayfield pays a visit to 
his sister, Lady Page Turner, at Cippenham House. 

Under date of 15th November, 1844, he remarks: 
"Wrote also to the Hydrographer, stating expenditure for 
the quarter, etc. This does not feel much like being on 
leave, though !" 

On the 19th November, is the following entry: "Waited 
upon Sir George Cockburn, stating to him the unfavour- 
able position in which I and my officers have been so long 
placed by being kept on half pay nine years, contrary to the 
understanding at the commencement of the survey, and of 
the practice of the first eight years. He advised that I 
should address the Board and seemed favourable to the jus- 
tice of my request that we should be borne on the books of 
the Admiral's ship on the Station." Bayfield's application 
succeeded, for on the 25th he says : "Received official in 
timation. from Sir John Barrow" (the able Secretary of the 
Admiralty at that time) "of my appointment as additional 
Captain of H.M.S. Illustrious (the flagship on the North 
American Station)." 



77 

A week later he is informed that Lieutenants Orlebar 
and Hancock, together with Dr. Kelly, are also placed on 
the books of H.M.S. Illustrious. In the first week of 1845, 
Bayfield's opinion, and suggestions, in regard to a proposed 
observatory at Quebec, are asked by the Hydrographer. 
An observatory was erected near the present time-ball on 
the Citadel, the foundation still remaining, and Lieutenant 
Ashe, R.N. appointed by the Admiralty in 1850 as astron- 
omer in charge. It was demolished in 1874, the present ob- 
servatory taking its place. 

On the 24th February he hears that Mr. William 
Forbes, Master, R.N., is appointed as his third naval assis- 
tant. Orlebar appears to have been promoted to Comman- 
der early in this year, 1845. 

On the 20th May, Bayfield writes: "From 9th April, 
when I left London, to this day of my departure from Liv- 
erpool in the Royal Mail Steamer Cambria, I was on leave, 
and felt myself so, being for the first time since my arrival 
in England entirely free from official business." 

Bayfield says, on arrival at Charlottetown on the 4th 
June : "After an absence of eight months, have been re- 
stored to our home and the theatre of our duties in health 
and with hearts swelling with thankfulness to the Giver of 
all good." 

Mr. William Forbes, Master, R.N., arrives on the 7th 
June, 1845, and Mr. Thomas DesBrisay, of Charlottetown, 
is engaged as draughtsman, and I may mention that I had 
the pleasure of the latter's acquaintance, being present in 
church at Charlottetown when he was reading the lessons 
in April, 1881, and had an epileptic seizure, causing his 
death. 

July 16th, the Gulnare is at Charlottetown, and Bayfield 
says : "Found the master of the vessel had succeeded in 
recovering the best bower anchor and chain, by which he 
has saved himself from having to pay the value of them 
out of his wages, since I should certainly have charged 
them against him, as they were lost by his neglect." 



78 

The season's operations were carried on during 1845 in 
Prince Edward Island, at the close of which Bayfield re- 
turns to Charlottetown for the winter. Atlantic passages 
were longer then than now, for on November 4th there is 
an entry of the arrival at Charlottetown of the brig British 
Union, 62 days from London. On the 12th January, 1846, 
Lieutenant John Hancock R.N. marries Miss Elizabeth 
Cambridge, eldest daughter of Lemuel Cambridge Esq. 
of Prince Edward Island. 

May 22nd, 1846, Bayfield states: "Arrived from Que- 
bec our Canadian, boatmen and a boatswain, with eight 
seamen for the Gulnare," and on 2nd June : "Thus have I 
commenced the nineteenth year of the survey afloat, with 
all on board in good health and all we left ashore the same. 
We ought to be, and I trust, are, thankful." 

Under date of 8th June, he writes: "Wrote to Mr. 
Paine, the astronomer of Boston, sending him the times of 
the occultation of Spica Virginis on the 8th ultimo, in hopes 
of comparison with corresponding observations." (W 7 ith a 
view to difference of longitude.) 

On the 9th, at Port Hood, Cape Breton Island, Bayfield 
says: "Great changes appear to have taken place in this 
fine harbour since the time of Des Barres, 1779." 

As Bayfield mentions Des Barres again, later on, a short 
account of this energetic and talented officer may be inter- 
esting. 

Colonel Joseph Frederic Willet Des Barres, born in 
1722, was the descendant of French Hugenots, who, on the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, emigrated to 
England. He entered the British army, was present at the 
seige of Louisbourg in 1758, and at the taking of Quebec 
in 1759. He repaired the fortifications of this city, and as- 
sisted in designing those of Halifax. In 1762, he was at 
the retaking of St. John's, Newfoundland, where he met 
Captain Cook, and with whom he did some hydrographic 
work in Conception Bay. 

From 1763 to 1780 Colonel Des Barres was employed 
under the direction of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 



79 

miralty, in making a collection of charts of the east coast 
of North America for the use of the Royal Navy. These 
charts were published by him in 1780, 1781, in large vol- 
umes, bearing the title of the "Atlantic Neptune," a copy of 
which this Society possesses. The charts of Nova Scotia 
and Cape Breton Island appear to be from surveys by Des 
Barres himself, the remainder from surveys by Major 
Samuel Holland, "Surveyor-General of the Northern Dis- 
tricts of North America," and his assistants. Colonel Des 
Barres was, in 1784, appointed Governour of the Province 
of Cape Breton, Island, and in 1804, Lieutenant-Gover- 
nour of Prince Edward Island. He died in Halifax in 
1825, aged 102 years. 

On the 30th June Bayfield is at Pictou, and says : "The 
variable winds to-day caused us to make, shorten and 
trim sails repeatedly, and this, together with the deep sea 
lead going every five or six minutes, made a very heavy 
day's work for the men, who were at work from 4 h. 30 m. 
a.m., to 9 h. 30 m. p.m. It was this that induced me to 
anchor, that they might have the benefit of the night to 
rest." 

August 5th : "Caught codfish in abundance, one of 
them weighing 73 pounds. We have sounded over 50 miles 
to-day." 

On the 12th of August, 1846, the Gulnare calls at Char- 
lottetown, and Bayfield says : "We should have been 
ready for sea at night, but for the bad conduct of two of our 
crew, Macatee and Stalker, who refused duty in hopes of 
being discharged, and then getting the twelve pounds of- 
fered to seamen for the run home in the new ships." 

The Gulnare is at Pictou on the 23rd August, 1846, and 
Bayfield says : "Found here orders from the Admiralty to 
proceed to Canada and put myself at the disposal of the 
Governour-General for the examination of the channels 
of Lake St. Peter, with a view to the excavation of a 
channel." 

On 9th September, the Gulnare is at Montreal, and 
Bayfield writes: "Waited upon the Governor-General, 



8o 

Lord Cathcart, and having learnt his wishes, put myself 
in communication with the Commissioners of Public 
Works. The Honble. W. B. Robinson, of Toronto, is an 
old friend of mine, and dined with us." 

On 14th September: "Commander Orlebar requested 
and obtained leave to proceed to Sherbrooke to visit his 
brother-in-law, the Honble. E. Hale, and to bring down 
his nephew Mr. E. Cary, who is going to join H.M. Sur- 
veying Steamer Columbia. 

On the 19th: "Proceeded to Monkland, the residence 
of the Governour-in-Chief, Lord Cathcart, and presented 
my report on the navigation of Lake St. Peter. The Gov- 
ernour-General wished me and my officers to stay and 
dine, but being anxious to proceed 011 account of the late- 
ness of the season, and thinking, moreover, that as the 
duty entrusted to me was executed I had no business to be 
absent from my station any longer than I could possibly 
help, I declared my intention to commence my return im- 
mediately, if his Lordship had no further commands." 

On her passage back from Montreal, under date of 20th 
September, 1846, Captain Bayfield says: Ran over the flats 
of Lake St. Peter in & l /2 feet water, or 6 inches less than 
the vessel drew. At 6 p.m., anchored off Port Neuf, and, 
with Commander Orlebar and Dr. Kelly, called upon our 
old friend Mr. Edward Hale, the Seigneur of Port Neuf." 

23rd September, at Quebec : ''Paid the Montreal and 
Quebec Steamboat Company 41 15s. sterling for towing 
the Gulnare up from Quebec to Montreal." 

On the 9th October the vessel is at Charlottetown : 
"The Gulnare was hove down, keel out, to-day at the 
wharf; a great deal of copper had been rubbed off her 
keel and stern and some of her bilge; hence shewing the 
necessity of what we are doing. Gave the necessary di- 
rections for her repairs." 

The next day: "Employed balancing accounts and 
counting and packing up public money, which being partly 
in sixpences and shillings, took a considerable time." 



8i 

Under date of llth February, 1847, Bayfield says: "Ex- 
amining and destroying old papers, being purser's accounts 
of schooner Recovery, which I commanded in 1823, 24 arid 
25, on Lake Superior." 

On the 16th he remarks: "Commenced making- fail- 
copy of list of Variations through forty degrees of longi- 
tude, from the year 1816 to 1846, inclusive, and at 
night attempted to observe an immersion of Jupiter's first 
satellite, but did not succeed well on. account of the wind 
and extreme cold, the thermometer being twelve degrees 
below zero at the time." 

Under date of 23rd February, 1847, Bayfield says : "Re- 
ceived a letter from the Hydrographer, Admiral Beaufort, 
limiting the annual expenditure of this service to 2,400 
sterling, exclusive of the pay and allowances of myself and 
officers." 

On the 18th March: "Received a communication from 
the Admiralty, informing me that the Governour-General 
of Canada had been desired to put himself into commu- 
nication with me respecting harbours of refuge in the St. 
Lawrence River and Gulf, and directing me to give full 
replies to any questions he might put to me on that sub- 
ject." 

22nd April : "Computing occupation of Spica observed 
by Captain Owen, R.N., at Campo Bello last May, and 
found his observations and mine to agree." 

Under date of 21st May, he remarks: "The Lieuten- 
ant-Governour, Sir H. V. Huntley, inspected our fair plans 
(eight large sheets), the result of our winter's labours." 

On the 2nd June, Bayfield says : "Yesterday, the pin- 
nace and launch, under Lieutenant HaJncock and! Mr. 
Forbes, provisioned for four weeks with crews of eight 
and seven men respectively, departed for Georgetown. We 
have thus commenced the twentieth year of the survey 
afloat, the whole party in health and those we leave o 1 : 
shore tolerably so. May the Great and Gracious Giver of 
all good gifts rhake us thankful." 



82 

On the 22nd June, the Gulnare is at Port Hood again, 
Cape Breton Island, and Bayfield remarks: "Proceeded 
on shore to examine the geological formation of Smith's 
Island; the relation of the beds of gypsum to the coal 
strata among which they are found being full of interest 
to the geologist." 

The vessel is at Charlottetown on the 12th July, and 
he adds: "The second master, Mr. Canfield, got drunk 
and refused to come off. As I could not suffer him to re- 
tain his situation if brought on board by constables in a 
state of intoxication, 1 was obliged to order him to be left 
behind, the loss of his situation being as heavy a punish- 
ment as I thought it necessary to inflict." 

On the 6th August Captain Bayfield leaves Trepassey 
Harbour, south coast of Newfoundland, having made a 
survey of that locality in. connection with the choice of a 
site for a lighthouse on Cape Pine, at the request of Sir 
Gaspard le Merchant, Governour of Newfoundland. Bay- 
field, before leaving Canada for Newfoundland, had left 
Commander Orlebar and Mr. Thomas Des Brisay with 
their boats and tents, on the north coast of Cape Breton 
Island, and in communicating again with them on 25th 
August, he found that Mr. Des Brisay and his boat's crew 
had nearly lost their lives. He says: "On the 6th Mr. Des 
Brisay with the launch, were blown off the land by a 
heavy squall from the high land of Cape St. Lawrence. 
They were at sea for 30 hours in the greatest peril, and 
were eventually saved by getting on board a small sloop, 
which was also driving before the squall with all her sails 
split. The people saved the plans, instruments, etc. The 
boat being lightened of the men and things, rode out the 
gale astern of the sloop. They all landed at Aspee Bay, 
completely exhausted." 

On the 15th October, the Gulnare is back at Charlotte- 
town for the winter, and Bayfield finds a letter from Cap- 
tain Owen, saying that he was ordered home in the Colum- 
bia, and would sail from Halifax on the 1st November. 



83 

On the 20th Bayfield says: "Returned all the powder 
except a few cartridges for the gun for signals, and a few 
rounds of ball cartridges for the six musquets which I re- 
tain as sufficient with the cutlasses, if ever I should be 
called upon to aid the civil power. The large quantity of 
musquets we have hitherto carried has ever been, a useless 
lumber, although necessary formerly when we were on 
the Labrador Coast, and also as a precaution during the 
time of the troubles m Canada." 

On the 9th September, Bayfield notes : "The new Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Sir Donald Campbell, Baronet, arrived, 
this morning by a schooner from Pictou." 

There is a gap in the journals here until February, 
1851, but a few facts have been extracted from a letter 
book covering approximately this period. 

In a letter to the Assistant Hydrographer Mr. Mich- 
ael Walker on the 23rd of November of this year, 1847, 
Captain, Bayfield says : "I believe I have no news to give 
you, unless it be the birth of a fifth child and fourth son 
on the 28th ultimo, which will show you that that sort of 
riches is increasing with me much faster than any other is 
ever likely to do." 

In addition to Bayfield's purely professional duties, it 
will be seen from the following, dated Charlottetown, 22nd 
May, 1848, that the keeping of accounts and correspond- 
ence therewith, must have made a considerable inroad 
upon his valuable time : 

"Sir: I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 29th ult., requesting me to .return the 
tents specified therein to the Ordnance Storekeeper at 
Quebec. In reply, I have the honour to inform you that 
these tents, which are always half worn when supplied 
to us, are used by the officers and boats' crews who are 
constantly detached on service from this vessel, until they 
are completely unserviceable, and then they are cut 
up and painted for floor-cloths for the men to sleep upon, 
and for bags, thus saving the expense of purchasing ma- 
terials for those indispensable purposes. Such has hitherto 



8 4 

been our practice, and as it diminishes the expense of this 
service in some degree, I have thought it best to inform 
you of it and to request to know if you still wish me to re- 
turn the useless, wornout tents to the Ordnance Depart- 
ment at Quebec, which could only be done by shipping 
them in some vessel that may be going there. 

."I have the honour to be, Sir, 

''Your most obedient and humble servant, 

"HENRY AY. BAYFIELD, 
"Captain, Surveying Gulf of St. Lawrence/' 

"The Honble. Robert Dundas, 

"Storekeeper- General of H.M. Navy." 

Bayiield, in a letter to the Hydrographer dated 8th 
June, 1848, mentions probably the greatest Canadian 
coast change (Sable Island excluded) of which there is 
any record. He says : "Another point of some importance 
to the geologist as well as the seaman, is the change which 
has taken, place in the last- twenty years in the still fine 
harbour of Port Hood, Cape Breton Island; where a range 
of high and partly wooded sandhills, which formed the head 
of the harbour, has been swept away by the sea and a chan- 
nel formed two-thirds of a mile wide and fully nine feet 
deep at low water." I may incidentally mention here that 
I resounded this harbour in 1873, and found there had been 
no further change. 

That Bayfield's officers were occasionally entrusted to 
make latitude observations is evidenced by the following 
extract from his written orders to Lieutenant J. Hancock, 
R.N., 6th July, 1848: "... You had better also ob- 
serve at some station in Aspee Bay" (Cape Breton Island) 
"in order that we may see how much your sextant differs 
from the known latitude of those points." 

Apropos of the Society's recent unearthing of several 
folios of charts of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
etc. (already alluded to), many of which charts were by Des 






85 

Barres, some remarks by Bayfield on the latter's charts 
may be of interest. 

These remarks are extracted from a letter to the Hydro- 
grapher Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, on the 17th No- 
vember, 1848. "... I beg leave also to suggest to 
you the discontinuance of the chart of the Island of Cape 
Breton, or any other of Des Barres charts, for they might 
possibly cause the loss of one of Her Majesty's ships, sup- 
posing her to run for shelter, either to Ste. Anne's Har- 
bour or the Great Bras d'Or, the former being represented 
to have ten fathoms in the entrance, where there are 
only thirteen feet of water; and the other, deep water in 
the place of the most dangerous shoals." 

Here Bayfield relates how one of his assistants wit- 
nessed three vessels running in a gale for the breakers at 
the entrance of the Great Bras d'Or, and adds : "I have 
related this occurrence in order that you may perceive the 
evil that these charts of Des Barres may produce, for they 
are in. general sufficiently nearly correct in the delineation 
of the shores to inspire confidence, which is also increased 
by the pretension about them from their large scale, etc., 
but which in, the important matters of shoals and sound- 
ings especially, they are totally undeserving of. I do not 
know whether these charts are, or are not issued to Her 
Majesty's ships, but as they were supplied to me, it has 
occurred to me that they might be issued as the best that 
could be had. I believe the map makers compile from 
them." 

During the summer of 1848, the party was employed on 
the coast of Cape Breton Island, together with the Gut of 
Canso and its approaches. 

In his account of the survey to, and by request of the 
Lieutenant-Governour of Prince Edward Island, Sir Don- 
ald Campbell, Baronet, 16th December, 1848, Bayfield 
states the yearly expense of the survey (defrayed, of 
course, by the British Admiralty) was 3,900, not includ- 
ing the general service pay of the officers. 



86 

From the following extract from a letter to the Ad- 
miralty Hydrographer, dated 12th June, 1849, it would 
look as if a reduction in the annual vote for scientific serv- 
ices which include Admiralty Surveys) was contemplated. 
He says: "I have not in the least exaggerated the defects 
of the old charts of the Gulf, Cape Breton and Nova Scotia. 
There are none of them that can with any degree of safety 
be trusted by the seaman, excepting those of Cook and 
Lane. At least, none have come under my observation 
that are not a reproach to this age of improved hydro- 
graphy. When I consider the still greater ignorance that 
exists respecting the coasts of many other countries, I can- 
not but think that the Select Committee might at least 
have touched more lightly a department so evidently use- 
ful to the world." 

One of Bayfield's officers complained in writing of be- 
ing ordered to cross Northumberland Strait in his open 
boat and of other discomforts, which drew from Bayfield 
the following reply, dated 26th October, 1849: "Sir, I 
have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 22nd 
inst., representing to me the discomfort experienced by 
yourself and crew during your return voyage in your boat 
from Guysborough, from exposure to the weather; from 
having no other accommodation provided by the service 
than that afforded by canvas tents; the risk of crossing the 
Straits, etc., etc. In reply, however I may differ from you 
in my estimate of the amount of discomfort and risk attend- 
ing the discharge of the duty in question, I shall on this 
occasion content myself with reminding you that the dis- 
comfort, exposure and alleged risk which you have deemed 
it necessary to make the subject of an official communica- 
tion to me, are in no respect different from what have been 
cheerfully undergone often in far greater degree by other 
officers who have been attached to this service since its 
commencement in 1827, and I may add that I myself up 
to a much later period of life than you have yet reached, 
and even when holding my present rank, have not hesi- 
tated to impose them on myself when I considered the 
service required it. 



87 

"All, therefore, that I can further add, and I do it with 
pleasure as being due to the respectful manner in which 
you have submitted this matter to my consideration, is the 
assurance that the comfort of the officers serving under me 
will ever continue to be regarded by me, as far as the 
faithful discharge of the duties of the service we are em- 
ployed upon, will permit." 

The following letter from Bayfield in connection with 
the departifre of a party of "Forty-Niners" to California 
from Charlottetown, may be of interest : 

"Having been requested to furnish the California!! As- 
sociation, now about to sail from this port in the brig- 
Fanny, with a certificate which it has been thought may 
prove useful to them during the progress of their enter- 
prise, I hereby certify all whom it may concern that a resi- 
dence of nine winters in Charlottetown enables me to bear 
testimony, generally, to the steady, sober and industrious 
character of the members of the Association, whose names 
are upon the annexed paper. 

"From the character of the parties and the testimony of 
the numerous persons connected with them in this town, I 
have no doubt in believing the objects of the Association 
to be simply such as are stated on the annexed paper, to 
which I have affixed my signature, and I have, therefore, 
no hesitation in commending them to the favourable con- 
sideration, kind offices and, if need be, assistance of any of 
Her Majesty's officers whom they may chance to meet. 

"Given under my hand at Charlottetown, P.E.I., the 
6th day of November, 1849, 



"HENRY W. BAYFIELD. 

"Captain, R.N.. 
"Surveying- the Gulf of St. Lawrence." 



During the summer of 1849, the party were employed 
upon the coast of. Cape Breton Island and the Gut of 
Canso with approaches thereto. Deep water soundings 
with Massey's sounding machine were also taken in the 
Gulf. 

Bayfield, in a letter to the Hydrographer Sir Francis 
Beaufort, 10th January, 1850, mentions the effect of drift 
ice on shoals. He says : "I have given many additional 
soundings on. the Caribou sheet which do not always ex- 
actly agree with those of other years. This is owing to 
the ice which occasionally packs and grounds on the Pic- 
tou banks ; at one time, forcing the gravel and stones up 
into mounds and ridges, and at other times levelling them 
again; thus rendering the soundings uncertain to the 
amount of several feet." I may incidentally add that I 
noticed the same ice action in the survey of Georgian Bay 
and North Channel of Lake Huron, 1883 to 1893. 

In the spring of 1850 Dr. Kelly is superseded by Dr. 
Stratton R.N., the former having to relinquish service un- 
der Captain Bayfield by reason of ill health, aggravated, 
if not caused, by the long and exposed service in the River 
and Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

The summer of 1850 was spent by the party on the east 
coast of Cape Breton Island, and the eastern approach to 
the Gut of Canso. 

On the 4th February, 1851, Captain. Bayfield says: ''Re- 
ceived letter from the Admiralty, directing me to verify 
the position of Sable Island at a convenient opportunity." 
In connection with this, he, a week later, "requested of the 
Admiralty that the war vessel that visits the Gulf each 
summer may be placed at my disposal for two or three 
weeks to go to Sable Island." 

On the 25th of March, Captain Bayfield and officers at- 
tended on. the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Alexander Ban- 
nerman, at the opening of the Prince Edward Island Par- 
liament. Mr. Mavor is still the master of the Gulnare. 

Under date of llth April, Bayfield says : "Revising arid 
recalculating Admiral Owen's chronometrical measure- 



8 9 

ments to and from Boston, a most laborious job owing to 
the confused manner in which they have been stated, in 
consequence, I suppose, of the inexperience of his officers 
in 1843." 

21st May, 1851: "Examined most carefully some 
charges against the master, Mr. Mavor, by which his hon- 
esty is made very doubtful to say the least of it. I was 
obliged to direct his discharge by Mr. Stevenson, in conse- 
quence. Mr. Stevenson, by my desire, appointed Mr. Mc- 
Leoci (who has been mate of the Gulnare during the sev- 
eral last years) to be master in Mr. Mavor's place." Cap- 
tain Alexander McLeod was many years sailing-master and 
pilot of the surveying vessel after Admiral Bayfield relin- 
quished the survey, and a wonderful pilot he was. He and 
I were shipmates in the steamer Gulnare from 1871 to 
1881, and could I have known that I should have the pleas- 
ure of writing this paper, I might have had some interest- 
ing talks with Captain McLeod about Admiral Bayfield. I 
only remember his telling us that the Admiral, though ig- 
noring himself entirely when the service required it, was 
not averse to the comforts of civilization when within 
reach, as the Admiral used to give McLeod a kind of 
standing order that in bringing the vessel up at night, he 
was, "if possible, to moor with one anchor to the cow and 
the other to the post office." 

On the 24th May, 1851, Bayfield writes : "The Honour- 
able Samuel Cunard, who had made a brief visit to Prince 
Edward Island to see his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Peters, the 
wife of the Master of the Rolls, left for Pictou." 

Bayfield has been in ill health for some time, and on 
the 27th and 28th of May he says: "It is not without pain 
that I shall see the Gulnare sail without me, but when I 
remember that it is the first time for twenty-four years, all 
feeling of discontent is removed by the grateful sense of 
the goodness of a merciful Providence in enabling me to 
discharge my laborious duties for so many years." 

Some trouble again among the crew, for Bayfield ?ays : 
"The laws regulating merchant seamen seem made, on pur- 



90 

pose to encourage want of principle, fidelity and common 
honesty in seamen, who think nothing of breaking their 
engagement upon the slightest whim, or merely to carry 
off the usual month's advance without which they will not 
ship.." 

On the 3rd June, 1851, he writes to the Publishers of the 
British Nautical Almanac, pointing out errors. 

Under date of July llth, Bayfield says: "Received a let- 
ter from the Commander-in-Chief, Sir George Seymour, in- 
forming me that Their Lordships of the Admiralty had 
directed him to withdraw H.M. Surveying Steamer Co- 
lumbia from the Bay of Fundy survey to assist me in the 
survey of Sable Island." The Columbia and Bay of Fundy 
survey had, since Owen's retirement, been under the com- 
mand of Captain Peter Shortland, R.N. Bayfield has thir- 
teen chronometers at this time. 

On 22nd July, 1851, he arrives in Gulnare at Sable 
island, and anchors off the residence of Mr. McKenna, the 
Superintendent. After observing for latitude and longi- 
tude at three points on Sable Island, Bayfield, on the 24th, 
sails from it, leaving Lieutenant Hancock, with three men, 
to make a detailed survey of the island, and makes written 
arrangements for their removal, on the completion of the 
survey. 

On the 2nd August he is again at Pictou, and says: 
"Commander Orlebar proceeded by my desire to survey 
Haliburton Creek above the Bridge, and thus remove or 
confirm some suspicions that I entertain as to its accuracy. 
Being unnavigable and dry at low water, it is not of much 
consequence, but we should be accurate in every part of 
our work alike." This creek, done by a local surveyor dur- 
ing the winter, was found to be inaccurate. 

A week later he hears that the Columbia, Commander 
Shortland, was prevented from reaching Sable Island until 
1st August. She brought away Lieutenant Hancock and 
his men. .Under date of 12th August is entered : "Our ob- 
servations at Sable Island confirm the accounts of the peo- 
ple of the island that a good deal of the western part of the 



island had been washed away of late years, within the 
memory and under the observation, of the men now resid- 
ing in the island." 

On 22nd September, 1851, Mr. Forbes departs for Eng- 
land on leave of absence. On 27th, Captain Bayfield re- 
ceives a letter from Mr. W. C. Bond of Cambridge Uni- 
versity, Boston, asking Bayfield to assist him in the tele- 
graphic difference of longitude between Cambridge Ob- 
servatory and Halifax. Bayfield not being able to do so, 
the latter writes to Captain Shortland R.N., commanding 
H.M. Surveying Steamer Columbia, in the Bay of Fundy, 
to assist Mr. Bond at Halifax. 

On 16th October, he says: "Employed in various ar- 
rangements respecting the Gulnare, which is now so af- 
fected by dry rot as to be scarcely seaworthy. But the new 
vessel is building in Quebec, and is much larger and su- 
perior in every respect." 

A few days later: "Wrote to the Secretary of the Ad- 
miralty, declining the retirement" (I think this was in ref- 
erence to Admiralty Circular of June, 1851, offering op- 
tional retirement to the senior ranks in the Navy to relieve 
the congested state of the List.) 

On 23rd January, 1852: "Reading Reports of Ameri- 
can Coast Survey with reference to the longitude of Cam- 
bridge Observatory, which is being determined chrono- 
metrically in the Royal Mail steamers to and from Liver- 
pool." 

On the 6th March, 1852, . Bayfield says: "Writing 
to the Vice-Resident of the Toronto and Huron Railroad 
Company at his request as to the terminus to be adopted 
on Lake Huron. I recommended Penetanguishene Har- 
bour." 

On the 17th April, Mr. Forbes left England from leave 
to rejoin the survey. The new Gulnare, 212 tons, arrived 
at Charlottetown from Quebec. Mr. Forbes arrives on 
14th May. On the 22nd May, 1852, Bayfield says: "Ac- 
companied Commander Colin Campbell R.N., of H.M.S. 
Devastation, on a visit to Sir Alexander Bannerman, who 



consulted us about the Fishery Laws according to treaty 
with the United States." Three days later he "wrote to 
the Honble. James Uniacke, the Attorney-General of 
Nova Scotia, in reply to his letter respecting a proposed 
canal at St. Peters, Cape Breton Island." 

On the 3rd June, the Gulnare sails from Charlottetown 
for the Gut of Canso, to commence another season's opera- 
tions. "We have on board with us the Revd. Mr. S. Rand, 
who is missionary to the Micmac Indians, and a Baptist 
minister. My eldest son, Henry, also accompanies me. 
The new Gulnare, the third of that name, is much larger 
than the two former. The contractor, Mr. Stevenson, has 
dealt most liberally with us, giving us better cabins and 
equipment." The master now appears to be Mr. Mclntyre. 

On 20th June, while in the Gut of Canso, Bayfield 
writes : "This morning a boatman, John McLeod, out of 
his senses and violent from drink, came off at 6 a.m. He 
was discharged last night with his bedding, being insanely 
violent from drink, and drawing his knife upon the men. 
etc. I ordered him to be discharged, finally allowing him 
to take his clothes." 

On the 27th July, Captain Bayfield being unwell, re- 
turns from Pictou to Charlottetown. in the steamer Rose, 
having given orders to Commander Orlebar to take the 
Gulnare round to Halifax and commence the survey of the 
harbour." 

While unwell at Charlottetown, Bayfield says : "The 
Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Alexander Bannerman, called on 
me and consulted me respecting the American fishermen, 
whom it is now resolved to restrain from fishing within the 
limits assigned by treaty. My opinion is that this should 
be done mildly and discreetly, though firmly and in such a 
way as to give as little offence as possible. It should be a 
duty entrusted to responsible naval officers only." 

On the 10th August, Captain Bayfield rejoins the Gul- 
nare at Halifax, and on 8th October returns to Charlotte- 
town for the winter, leaving Commander Orlebar to bring 
the Gulnare round from Halifax, Bayfield "not feeling up 



93 

to the tumbling about in so small a vessel." On her way 
round, the Gulnare picks up Lieutenant Hancock, who had 
been detached near the Gut of Canso for the prosecution of 
the survey of Cape Breton Island. The vessel arrives at 
Charlottetown on the 15th October, 1852. 

Nothing of importance transpires during the winter of 
1852-53. 

On the 28th April, 1853, Bayfield says: "The brigantiue 
Peri arrived from Barbadoes; engaged her master, Mr. Mc- 
Leod as master of the Gulnare." Captain McLeod was 
absent in 1852. 

The Gulnare arrives again at Halifax, in command of 
Commander Orlebar, on the 29th May, 1853, and Bayrield 
joins her on the 10th June, having travelled from Charlotte- 
town by public conveyance, via Pictou and Truro. He has 
evidently not shaken off his illness of the spring of 1852. 

On 4th July, he says: "Wrote to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, Sir James Graham, Baronet , asking an entry 
for my son, Henry into the Navy as a Cadet." 

July 17th, he writes: "Sunday afternoon some of our 
party attended a prayer meeting on shore at Jedore. The 
preacher, a Baptist minister, a rough diamond, who deliv- 
ered an excellent sermon in indifferent English." 

The Gulnare returns to Charlottetown to winter, and 
under date llth November, 1853, Captain Bayfield says: 
"I heard by telegraph from Quebec of the death of Mr. 
William Stevenson, the owner of the Gulnare, an old es- 
teemed friend, whom I have known for 25 years." 

The party was principally employed in the completion of 
the survey of Halifax harbour and the coast northward of 
it, during the summer of 1853. 

Unfortunately, we have no further obtainable informa- 
tion as to his work. Bayfield's promotion to Rear Admi- 
ral, 21st October, 1856, necessitated his relinquishment of 
the survey. He remained on the active list (gaining the 
step of Vice Admiral 27th April, 1863) until 18th October, 
1867, when he retired with the rank of full Admiral. 

In 1874 the Admiralty bestowed on him a Greenwich 
Hospital pension of 150 per annum; this in addition to 



94 

his ordinary pension. Admiral Bayfield was a Fellow of 
the British Royal Society, and a member of the Societe 
Geologique de France. 

I might add that while making a survey of the Geor- 
gian Bay and North Channel of Lake Huron, from 1883 to 
1893, under the orders of the Dominion Government, I had 
a good opportunity of witnessing the marvellous quantity 
and excellence of Admiral Bayfield's work. He had neither 
the time nor the means to find all the outlying rocks and 
shoals, nor was it necessary ninety years ago in that local- 
ity, where his own open boats were probably the largest 
craft sailing thereon. 

The Admiralty Surveying Service has produced good 
men, from Cook onwards, but I doubt whether the British 
Navy has ever possessed so gifted and zealous a Surveyor 
as Bayfield. He had a marvellous combination of natural 
talent with tremendous physical energy, and was, I feel 
convinced, a man who would have gained the summit of 
any profession he might have honoured, for his one 
thought was his work. 

The Admiral wore himself out in the service of his 
country and the thousands of mariners who have used and 
still use his charts in the navigation of the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence; for, although he lived considerably longer than the 
allotted span, yet during the last few years of his life, he 
shewed evident signs of the concentrated strain. And in 
the few conversations I was privileged to have with him in 
Charlottetown, the irrelevant turn his conversation would 
occasionally take was always far away to the scenes of his 
surveying labours, appearing to me, unmistakably indica- 
tive of what he had undergone. 

The disappointments consequent upon hydrographic 
work, especially upon a coast like the Canadian Labrador, 
where, in a fortnight of the short summer, a couple of 
suitable days only were obtainable, can easily be under- 
stood. 

This continual struggle with the elements must, in the 
long run, tell upon an officer with the burning zeal which 



95 

Bayfield possessed. Add to this, his short and broken 
rests consequent upon his watch over the navigation of 
his schooner in unknown waters; also his many nightly 
astronomical observations on shore. 

Although not customary in those days, to bestow titles 
or erect statues to such men, Admiral Bayfield has more en- 
during monuments of natural masonry in the red sandstone 
of Prince Edward Island, the limestones of Lake Huron, 
and, where his work was the most trying, in the more dur- 
able laurentian rocks of the north shores of Lake Superior 
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Admiral Henry Wolsey Bayfield resided in Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I., after his retirement, and died there on the 
10th of February, 1885, at the age of ninety years and three 
weeks, and in concluding this imperfect memoir, I do not 
think I could do better than quote the Charlottetown Pa- 
triot of February llth, 1885, as follows: "The most dis- 
tinguished, and probably the most aged of our citizens, has 
passed away. On Tuesday, the 10th inst., Admiral Bay- 
field, who has been a resident of this city for 44 years, 
breathed his last. Long after he retired from active serv- 
ice, he might be seen taking his daily walk on our streets, 
his distinguished appearance and kindly countenance giv- 
ing him respectful recognition wherever he went. But for 
several years he has been an invalid and unable to leave his 
room. 

"The Admiral was a man of high religious principle, 
kind to the poor and disposed to aid every good work. His 
noble Christian example did much in past years to exert a 
beneficial influence on. the higher circles of our city life. 
Some, who have held a like exalted position in the Naval 
Service, may have had more brilliant careers, but few, in- 
deed, have rendered more practical benefit to the com- 
merce of the nation and to the Navy itself, than did Ad- 
miral Bayfield by his careful coast surveys and excellent 
charts. 

"And while faithful to his country and Queen, he ne- 
glected not to remember the higher allegiance he owed to 
the 'King of Kings,' " 



9 6 



THE STEAMSHIP "UNICORN," ON THE ST. LAW- 
RENCE BRANCH OF THE CUNARD COM- 
PANY IN 1840, AND SOME MEMORANDA ON 
EARLY TRANS-ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP 
SERVICE BY CAPTAIN WALTER DOUGLAS, 
HER COMMANDER. 

(Paper Communicated by James Douglas, LL.D., Honorary 
President of the Society.) 



Every great economical advantage, however beneficial to 
the people at large, is fraught with some inconvenience, if 
not injury, to certain sections. This was very notable when 
steam transportation by land and sea transferred from 
Great Britain in great measure to the United States the 
lumber trade from the St. Lawrence, and from Quebec 
as the port of shipment The lumber of the Ottawa 
formerly came down as square timber in great rafts 
and as such was shipped in a fleet of sailing ves- 
sels, that was so numerous that Indian Cove on the 
south shore exhibited a forest of masts. On the north 
shore there were not berths enough to accommodate the 
lumber ships, strung along in a continuous line from Cape 
Diamond to Cap Rouge, though the wharves were sup- 
plemented by detached piers built out in the stream. 
Champlain street was then densely populated for nearly the 
whole of those twelve miles. To-day, as a street, it can hard- 
ly be said to exist; the cribbing of those detached wharves 
has decayed; the rock filling has fallen in gentle slopes into 
the river; trees and verdure have found nourishment 
among the stones, and thus convert into picturesque islands 
what were formerly the scenes of busy commercial activity. 
Future generations of geologists will be puzzled to account 
for these isolated islands. 



97 

The first east wind, after the ice was out of the river, 
brought up a fleet of sailing ships which, as they rounded 
Cape Joseph, with full sail set, presented a more beautiful 
sight than will ever be realized again. Quebec, in its offices 
and along its shores, was busy night and day, until the spring 
fleet gradually vanished, to reappear as the fall fleet, which 
came in, not in bulk, but in detail. These hundreds of ships 
of small tonnage, making two voyages a year, carried less 
freight than a single line of steam monsters, each poking its 
nose into the harbour once a month. But these monsters are 
loaded and discharged by machinery, while the freight of 
yore was handled by man power. Therefore, until the city 
adjusted itself to the altered conditions and learned to fos- 
ter other branches of trade and commerce, and to provide 
for their accommodation, the change from the older, clumsy 
system to the newer, through the drain on population alone, 
hurt Quebec, not vitally, but painfully, for a time. Canada 
benefitted Quebec suffered. 

Few probably recollect when the little "Genoa," one fine 
May morning in 1853, steamed into the harbour, to be fol- 
lowed by the "Birkenhead" of tragic fate, and with other 
chartered ships, which were the forerunners of the Montreal 
Steamship Company and the Allan Line. The advent of 
these steamers meant as much to Canada as the building of 
the Canadian Pacific did later. They revolutionized the 
trade of the country. But being propelled by steam they 
could pass the old city by and push on to the headwaters of 
navigation. 

Long previous to that date, however, an ocean steamer 
had plied regularly between Quebec and Pictou, as a mem- 
ber in a transcontinental system. It was very small. In 
fact the progress in steamship construction as well as in 
steam navigation may almost be guaged by the difference 
between these old liners of 250 feet in length, and the mod- 
ern leviathan measuring a sixth of a mile. 

My first trip across the Atlantic was made in 1852 on the 
Cunard S.S. "Europa" my last on the "Lusitania." The 
difference in the size and power of the two ships, the 
"Europa" being 251 feet in length and her engines of 2000 



indicated horsepower, while the "Lusitania" is 790 feet in 
length, and her engines of 70,000 indicated horsepower, ex- 
presses less significantly the progress made during the inter- 
val in the arts and sciences than the introduction into the 
modern steamer of appliances that tend for comfort and 
have made the best specimens of the modern trans-atlantic 
liners sumptuous palaces. In days of yore the cabins were all 
small and dark, with ill-smelling wash basins and no appli- 
ances for forced ventilation. The bath, which is so con- 
spicuously advertised and used on the modern ship, was 
absent, while throughout the ship, which was then built of 
wood, there was a disagreeably suspicious odor of bilge 
water. In a small prismatic cupboard with ground glass 
panes, built into the partition between two adjacent cabins, a 
single candle hung, which was reached only from the pas- 
sage, and was extinguished punctually at a certain hour. 

The changed habits of society are also exhibited by the 
behavior of the passengers then and now. Everyone dressed 
punctiliously for dinner, which was a formal meal served in 
courses; and above the dining tables were suspended racks 
for wine decanters and glasses, for wine was used more gen- 
erously at meals than it is to-day. On the last day of the 
passage champagne was provided at the expense of the 
Company. Smokers were confined strictly to their own pre- 
cincts, and not allowed to add the foul odor of the weed to 
the other offensive smells. The contract with the British 
Government for the carriage of the mails was so liberal as 
to cover the main operating expenses. The mails were not 
sorted on board, but the mail agent was a Lieutenant of the 
Royal Navy, who sat at the head of the second table. And a 
cow supposed to give enough milk for all the passengers 
was supplied with a conspicuous stall on deck. 

When half-way across the Atlantic, we were startled by 
the stoppage of the engines, that they might be thoroughly 
overhauled, while at rest. All the old ships were square 
rigged and manned by a full crew of sailors. The engines 
being auxiliary to the sails, it was not till the speed of the 
vessels exceeded the average speed of the wind that the 



99 

sails, having become useless, were abandoned. Moreover, 
when higher speed was secured and economy of fuel ob- 
tained through improvements in the designing of steam en- 
gines, it became cheaper, even on tramp steamers, to use 
coal than to pay sailors. 

The modern ship is a floating hotel, with a basement of 
unfathomable depth, in which the machinery is hidden. 
Five or six stories are built for the accommodation of 
the first and second-class passengers, to each of whom is as- 
signed, in sleeping and general accommodation, at least one 
hundred times more space than in the old liner, and quite as 
much drawing room, dining room, library and smoking room 
accommodation as is afforded in the best hotels. On some 
lines you have the choice of using the common dining room 
or ordering your meals at a restaurant. Unlimited electric 
light by day or night; elevators to carry you from story to 
story; and a band of music at meals to help or hinder diges- 
tion. The motive power has increased in greater propor- 
tion than even the size of the vessel. The "Great Eastern" 
was almost as long as the "Lusitania" and "Mauritania," 
being 680 feet between perpendiculars, as against 790 for 
the big Cunarders. But this huge ship was proplled by eight 
engines, operating four paddle wheels and four propellers, 
the total horsepower being only 11,000. She took eleven 
days to cross the Atlantic. Her passenger accommodation 
was for 800 saloon, 2,000 second class, 1,200 steerage and 
400 officers and crew. Her keel was laid dowrt in 1854, 
but it was the end of 1859 before she started on her first un- 
fortunate voyage. Her career was one of disaster from the 
day she stuck on her ways till she was sold at auction in 
1888. She had cost 730,000. She brought when knocked 
down under the hammer only 58,000, or less than the 
money expended in launching her. 

The "Lusitania" and "Mauritania" are propelled by tur- 
bine engines of 70,000 horsepower, which, however, force 
these huge ships through the water at little more than double 
the speed of the "Great Eastern." If, therefore, improve- 
ments in both boilers and engines in the direction of econ- 



IOO 



omy of fuel had not during the interval been made, the cost 
of increased speed would be prohibitory. 

But the motive of this paper is to give some particulars 
with regard to a still earlier stage of trans-atlantic travel, 
gathered from the correspondence and note books of my 
father-in-law, Captain Walter Douglas. He was a well- 
known character on the St. Lawrence from 1825 till 1845. 
He belonged to an old-seafaring family, several members of 
which commanded sailing ships on the St. Lawrence. Cap- 
tain Douglas acquired his intimate knowledge of the Lower 
St. Lawrence as sailing master to Captain Bayfield on His 
Majesty's Surveying Ship "Gulnare." He also commanded 
a river steamer between Quebec and Montreal. 

On account of his acquaintance with the Gulf and River 
he was selected by Mr. Samuel Cunard to command the 
"Unicorn," which preceded the "Britannia," the first 
regular trans-atlantic liner of the Cunard fleet. The "Uni- 
corn" was assigned to the service of a branch line between 
Quebec and Pictou, from which port the transportation of 
mails and passengers was made by land to Halifax, there 
to be transferred to the regular Cunard steamships, which 
sailed fortnightly between England and Boston. Boston was 
the United States terminus, and the boats all called at Hali- 
fax. It was not till the Cunarders established a direct line 
from New York to Liverpool that their Boston line ceased 
to call at the Canadian port. Also when railroad and steam- 
boat communication was established between Montreal and 
the United States seaboard, the necessity expired for trans- 
porting the English mail from Pictou to Halifax. Then the 
"Unicorn" ceased to ply between Quebec and Pictou. 

Though this branch line of the British and North Amer- 
ican Royal Mail Steamship Company, appears never to 
have been profitable, from 1840 till 1844 the "Unicorn" 
was one of the best known and most important crafts on the 
River. I distinctly recollect when a child being impressed 
by her dining saloon, decorated, as all the trans-atlantic 
ships of that line were, by painted panels between the win- 
dows. 



lor 

The "Unicorn," therefore, instead of the "Britannia," 
may claim the honor of being the first Cunarder to cross 
the Atlantic, and as such she was recognized by the people 
of Boston, though, in fact, she did not belong to the trans- 
atlantic fleet. Among Captain Douglas' papers I find a 
copy of the log of the "Unicorn" on this memorable voyage. 

"She hauled out of the Clarence Dock into the stream on 
May 1 5th, with 453 tons of coal." The passengers came 
aboard on the i6th, and at noon she rounded the Rock 
Light House. On the iyth they consumed 18 tons of coal, 
the engines making 9 strokes per minute. But more details 
of her sailing than of her steaming are given. On May i8th 
at 8 o'clock A.M., they were off Kelwith Head. They con- 
sumed 17 tons of coal that day. Generally the consumption 
was about 18 tons and the number of revolutions lo 1 /^. She 
arrived at Halifax on the ist of June, and at Boston on 
the 3rd. 

I find no list of the crew, but there is a memorandum of 
the composition of the ship's company of the Steamship 
"Hibernia." It shows a very different distribution of force 
to that employed in the modern boat without sails. 

Captain I 

Officers 4 

Carpenters 2 

Boatswains 2 

Seamen 16 

Engineers 6 

Firemen 12 

Coal Trimmers 10 

Steward for Engineers i 

Boys 5 

Stewards and Cooks 27 

Captain's Boy i 

Doctor i 

Purser i 

Total 89 



102 

The Mayor of Boston wrote the following letter to Cap- 
tain Douglas and enclosed a card of invitation: 

CITY HALL, MAYOR'S OFFICE, 

June 4, 1840. 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to enclose you a card for our 
meeting to-morrow in honor of the arrival of the Unicorn. 
And it will give me much pleasure to welcome you at City 
Hall to-morrow at 3 o'clock. 

If there are any other gentlemen whom you desire to 
have invited, I shall be much obliged if you will communicate 
the names. 

Your obedient servant, 

JONA. CHAPMAN, 

Mayor. 
Captain Douglas, Esq. 

CARD. 

CITY OF BOSTON. 

* City Council Requests the Honor of the Company of 
CAPT. DOUGLAS 
at Faneuil Hall 
On Friday next, at half past 3 o'clock, P.M. 

to celebrate 

THE OPENING OF STEAM NAVIGATION 
Between the Kingdom of Great Britain and this City. 
Guests will assemble at City Hall, at 3 o'clock P.M. 
Tickets to be shown at the door of Faneuil Hall. 
June 4, 1840. 

The passengers presented Captain Douglas with a silver 
basket inscribed: "To Captain Walter Douglas from the 
passengers on board the Royal Mail Steamer Packet 'Uni- 
corn,'* on the voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and Bos- 
ton, in May, 1840, in testimony of their sense of his inva- 
riable kindness and attention to their comfort and of his zeal- 
ous and able conduct in command." 



* The name of the Company was then "The British and North America 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. 



io 3 

The "Boston Daily Advertiser," of June 2, 1840, an- 
nounced her approach: 

"The expected arrival of the 'Unicorn,' the pioneer of the 
line of British Steam Packets, about to be established by the 
Hon. S. Cunard, under the auspices of the British Govern- 
ment, between Liverpool and Boston, having led to en- 
quiries concerning the preparations for their reception at 
East Boston, I took occasion on Saturday to cross the ferry 
for a glance at the premises. 

The Cunard wharf, erected by the East Boston Company, 
under the superintendence of Mr. S. S. Lewis, has just been 
completed, and it is a work in all respects worthy of the 
occasion, and the liberality of the Company. The wharf 
is composed of a spacious bridge or pier, from a point on 
Marginal street, just below the ferry, and extending 750 
feet towards the channel, by 30 feet wide. 

"The pier is terminated by a cross wharf or T of 300 
feet by 50 feet wide. Thence are extended quite into the 
channel two wharves of similar dimensions and resembling 
the prongs of a fork, each being 250 feet long by 50 feet 
wide, and embracing an intermediate slip of 90 feet wide 
for the reception of the steamers, with fixtures and conve- 
niences of fastening a vessel of the largest class on each side, 
where the two can repose at a time in perfect safety in all 
kinds of weather. On the upper side of the western prong 
a berth is provided for another steamer in case three of 
them should chance to be in port at once. On each side of 
these slips the water is 15 feet at low water. 

"The 'Unicorn' will be the pioneer steamer in connection 
with this line between Liverpool and Boston. She is a fine 
vessel of about 700 tons, but is not designed as a regular 
packet between the two countries. It is ultimately intended 
to have her ply between Nova Scotia and Quebec. Mean- 
while the 'Britannia,' the 'Columbia,' the 'Caledonia' and 
another, whose name I have not yet learned, are to be the 
regular steam packets between Liverpool and Boston, touch- 
ing at Halifax. They are first-rate vessels of 1,200 tons 
each, and calculated for Atlantic navigation. Mr. Cunard 
has undertaken to carry a regular mail, twice a month, be- 



tween Liverpool and Boston the year round. Of course a 
steamer will arrive and depart every fortnight. As a trip 
from England to Boston is shorter by about 36 hours than 
from New York, and as the delay at Halifax will be short, 
we may hope to anticipate the New York foreign news by 
some 24 hours at least." 

The same paper on the 4th and 5th gives an account of 
the public welcome given to the Captain, officers and to Mr. 
Cunard, the son of Mr. Samuel Cunard, subsequently Sir 
Samuel. 

"Yesterday afternoon arrived at this port the Steam 
Packet 'Unicorn,' Captain Douglas, from Liverpool, May 
1 6th. She arrived at Halifax at 1 1 o'clock June ist, and 
left for Boston the following night, making the passage 18 
days, and brings London papers to the evening of May i8th, 
being 15 days later than those brought by the 'British 
Queen.' She brought 27 passengers, 24 of whom continued 
on to Boston. She had head winds nearly the whole pas- 
sage. Among her passengers was a son of Mr. Samuel 
Cunard. 

"The 'Unicorn' was first seen from Mr. Parker's observ- 
atory on Central Wharf, just before 5 o'clock P.M., then 
near the light house; she was saluted from India Wharf and 
Fast Boston, as well as from the United States revenue cut- 
ter, which was dressed in flags, while the English and Amer- 
ican flags were hoisted on the Observatory and Maverick 
House, at East Boston. Captain Sturgis, of the United 
States revenue cutter, went on board the 'Unicorn' to see 
her safely moored at the wharf, before which she passed by 
the end of Long Wharf, taking a turn round the North End 
Wharves and the Navy Yard, and thence by Copp's Hill to 
East Boston, where she was made fast at the Cunard 
Wharf; the vibration of the several salutes fired from the 
wharves and shipping unfortunately broke several lights of 
painted glass in her cabin. 

"On Saturday a jubilee celebration was given the officers, 
Captain and young Cunard at Boston's celebrated 'Cradle of 
Liberty,' Faneuil Hall, at which the Mayor and dignitaries 
of the city took part, as a greeting to the pioneers of this 



105 

great enterprise; after discussing the edibles and washing 
them down, His Honour the Mayor proposed the toast: 
'God Save the Queen and the United States of America.' 
This, of course, was heartily drunk, and three cheers given 
with a will. Captain Douglas was then introduced to the 
audience. The Captain made a few complimentary remarks 
and said his ship was the smallest of the ships of the intended 
line, the bulkiness of her machinery occupying much space, 
but the ships to follow would be first-class; that head winds 
which prevailed during the whole passage, impeded her 
speed, and her successors would turn out faster sailers. 
Toasts, song, puns and punch filled up a very pleasant hour, 
and the Cunard trial trip was duly inaugurated." 

The "Unicorn" was the first ship of the Cunard Company 
to cross the ocean, though the "Britannia" was the first ship 
of the regular line (fleet) of four steamers to make regular 
trips between Liverpool and Boston. 

Quebec was keenly excited over the prospect of close 
connection with Great Britain. "The Quebec Gazette," of 
the loth, and the "Mercury" of the nth June, 1840, have 
the following notices of the arrival of the "Unicorn" in 
American waters: 

From "Quebec Gazette," loth June, 1840: (From a 
Montreal Correspondent) : "A Mr. Cormac, who was a 
passenger on Mr. Cunard's steamer 'Unicorn,' Captain 
Douglas, to Halifax, arrived this morning, via Boston .and 
New York. The steamer arrived at Halifax on 3ist May, 
having sailed the i6th. She brought London morning pa- 
pers of the 1 5th, and from Liverpool of the i6th." 

Extract of a letter frpm Captain Walter Douglas, of the 
Steamer "Unicorn," dated Boston, 3rd June, to a gentleman 
in Quebec: 

"I dare say you have heard by way of Halifax before this 
time of our arrival, after a passage of 16 days, although a 
very boisterous one, nothing but gales of wind from west to 
northwest. The 'Unicorn' is a most splendid seaboat: it 
blew one night a perfect hurricane, so that we could not 
carry our close reefed foresail. We eased the engine to 



io6 

about half-speed, keeping the sea about a point or two points 
on the bow; she then went ahead about two knots as easy 
and as dry as possible. 

"We had a very agreeable party on board. The Nova 
Scotians gave us a very handsome reception, the wharves 
were crowded, guns firing, with flags flying and cheering, and 
I suppose that during the day we remained in Halifax there 
must have been at least 3,000 persons on board. 

"It is not decided when we leave for Quebec. (We un- 
derstand that another letter from Captain Douglas states 
that he expects to be in Quebec on i3th inst. (Saturday 
next.)" 

From "Quebec Mercury," June nth, 1840: "The Hal- 
ifax mail, which arrived this afternoon, brought the letters 
and papers by the packet 'Unicorn.' We have a file of Lon- 
don papers from the 7th to I5th May, inclusive; on the 
hasty glance we have been enabled to bestow upon them we 
find little to add to the extracts already made from the New 
York papers and from our Montreal contemporaries. 

"Halifax papers are of the 2nd and 3rd inst. Of course 
the arrival of the first of the steam mail packets caused a 
great sensation. The performance of the voyage, 16 days, is 
considered as good work for a boat not built for -crossing 
the Atlantic, and, at the commencement of her voyage, 
brought out of trim by the extra quantity of fuel she was 
obliged to carry. Captain Walter Douglas appears highly 
pleased with the performance of his craft, and his passen- 
gers highly pleased with their Commander, having testified 
the sense they entertained of his gentlemanly attention to- 
wards them, and of his zeal and ability in the performance 
of his duty by presenting him with a piece of plate, accom- 
panied by a handsome address, which, together with the 
Captain's answer, will have a place in our next number." 

The "Unicorn," however, made several trips between 
Halifax and Boston, while waiting for the sailing and the 
arrival of the "Britannia." On the 1 5th of June the Halifax 
correspondent of the "Quebec Gazette" wrote: 



107 

"The Steamer 'Unicorn' has returned from Boston in 
38^2 hours. She left Boston Wednesday evening and ar- 
rived here yesterday about noon. It is said the 'Unicorn' 
will proceed to Boston again on Monday next, provided as 
many as 40 persons engage to take passage." 

The "Quebec Gazette" of 22nd June, 1840, says: "It 
will be seen that the 'Unicorn' steamer arrived at Halifax 
from Boston in 38^2 hours. It is said she would return to 
Boston, but other accounts say that she will come to Quebec. 
The first of the regular line of mail steamers to Halifax was 
expected there from the loth to the i5th July." 

The same paper on June 29th announced her arrival: 
"The 'Unicorn,' steam packet, Captain Douglas, arrived 
here (Quebec) this day a little before noon in 84 hours from 
Halifax. Captain Douglas has favoured us with Halifax 
papers of Thursday last, from which we have taken the ship 
news. The news by the Great Western reached Halifax on 
Wednesday last, 23rd inst." 

The "Unicorn" was presumably the first trans-atlantic 
steamer which entered the Port of Quebec. But she was 
not the first which steamed out. That honor, as well as the 
credit of being the first steamer which crossed the Atlantic 
under steam from shore to shore belongs to the "Royal 
William," a Quebec built ship. She seems, however, never 
to have returned to her home. 

The Gazette mentions the report of the Governor- 
General proceeding to Halifax in the Unicorn, and says: 

"We trust their expectations will be realized. Great 
numbers of the citizens and the garrison of Quebec crowded 
the ramparts and the citadel and the wharves, when the 'Uni- 
corn' was coming in. All seemed anxious to get a sight of 
this precursor of the line of steamers which is to introduce so 
important a change in the communications of the North 
American Provinces with Europe, and between each other, 
and every one was delighted again to meet a friend and old 
acquaintance in Captain Douglas. Just after the 'Unicorn' 
came to the wharf a royal salute was fired from the Citadel, 



io8 

in honor of Her Majesty's coronation, suiting well two joy- 
ous occasions." 

The "Quebec Mercury" of 3Oth June, 1840, contains the 
following : 

"ARRIVAL OF THE UNICORN. Shortly after ten o'clock 
yesterday morning the repeating telegraph on Cape Dia- 
mond showed the signal for a steam vessel coming up the 
river, and the town was soon in a hustle with people pro- 
ceeding to the wharves and other places where they would 
be likely to catch a glimpse of the vessel, which was cor- 
rectly pronounced to be the 'Unicorn,' Captain Walter Doug- 
las, from Halifax. 

"In about an hour from the time she was first telegraphed, 
this pioneer of direct steam communication between Great 
Britain and her North American colonies made her appear- 
ance round the point, gallantly steaming against a strong 
ebb-tide. On coming abreast of the Steamer 'St. George,' 
lying at Gibb's Wharf, a salute was fired from the 'Unicorn,' 
followed by three cheers from the people on board, which 
were heartily responded to from the shore. 

"In a few minutes the 'Unicorn' was moored alongside the 
Queen's Wharf, to which all the numerous spectators who 
had witnessed her arrival from other wharves in the Lower 
Ttown reapaired, and numbers went on board to greet their 
old friend, Captain Douglas. From Captain Douglas we 
learn that the 'Unicorn' made the passage from Halifax to 
this port in the short period of 84 hours. The 'Unicorn' was 
again to have left Halifax on the 25th inst. for Boston, 
but on the 23rd instructions were unexpectedly received to 
proceed to Quebec, where we understand she awaits the 
orders of His Excellency the Governor-General. 

"The 'Unicorn' being ordered off from Halifax on so 
short a notice, brought only 1 1 passengers, namely, Charles 
Felix Aylwin, Esq., and lady; Mr. Ford, R.E., Mr. Nixon, 
R.A., Mr. Brown, Miss Murison, Miss Tremaine, Mrs. 
Macdonald, and three children. 



log 

"The numerous visitors on board the 'Unicorn' have been 
much pleased with the admirable order prevailing through- 
out the vessel, and the splendid manner in which the cabins 
are furnished. 

"The 'Unicorn' came up without a pilot, which, indeed the 
thorough knowledge Captain Douglas has acquired of the 
navigation of the river whilst master of the Surveyor 
Schooner 'Gulnare' enables him, under any circumstances, to 
do with perfect confidence. The total number of her crew is 
40 men." 

Between the date of her arrival at and sailing from Que- 
bec, she evidently went to exhibit herself at Montreal, for 
the first memoranda in one of Capt. Dougles' pocket-books 
is dated July, 1840, and gives the itinerary of the steamship 
from Montreal to Quebec. She made the trip between 8.40 
in the morning and 7.42 p.m. 

The "Unicorn" was advertised in the "Mercury" of July 
iith to leave Quebec with mail and passengers to connect 
with the "Britannia" on her first homeward voyage. 

"Advertisement of B. & N. A. Royal Mail Steamships of 
1,200 tons and 400 horsepower: 'Britannia,' Captain Rob- 
ert Ewing; 'Acadia,' Captain Robert Miller; 'Caledonia,' 
Captain Richard Cleland; 'Columbia,' Captain Henry 
Woodruff. For Liverpool, G.B. 

"The 'Britannia,' the first ship of this line, commanded by 
Captain Robert Ewing, will leave Boston 3Oth July and Hal- 
ifax, ist August, for Liverpool, G.B. 

"The ships will carry experienced surgeons, and their ac- 
commodations are not surpased by any of the Atlantic steam- 
ships. 

"The 'Unicorn,' Captain Walter Douglas, will leave Que- 
bec with the mails for England to meet the 'Britannia' at 
Halifax. 

"Passengers will please to make application at the office 
of G. B. Symes, St. Peter Street. 

"N.B. All letters intended to be sent by these vessels 
must pass through the Post Office. None will be received at 
the Agent's Office. 



no 



The "Britannia" was to leave Liverpool for Halifax and 
Boston on 2nd July, the mail being made up in London on ist 

July- 

The "Unicorn" wintered at Halifax in 1840-1841. On 
May 8, 1841, the "Mercury" announced her arrival at Que- 
bec. 

The advertisement in the "Mercury" of March 9th, 1841, 
of the summer sailings is as follows: 

"British and North American Royal Mil Steamships. 
Under contract with the Lords of the Admiralty. 'Acadia,' 
'Britannia,' 'Caledonia,' 'Columbia,' will said from Boston 
and Liverpool, calling at Halifax, as follows : (Then comes 
the time tables and rates of passage money. The fare was 
25 Sterling, Halifax to Liverpool, and $12 between Boston 
and Halifax). "The ships carry experienced surgeons." 

" The 'Unicorn' plies between Pictou and Quebec in con- 
nection with Halifax. 

"S. Cunard & Co., Halifax; G. B. Symes, Quebec; S. S. 
Lavis, Boston." 

The following letter from Mr. E. Cunard to Captain 
Douglas is of interest, as indicating the terms on which the 
mails were carried between Halifax and Pictou: 

"HALIFAX, August 4, 1841. 

"My Dear Sir: By the 'Acadia,' in 10 days 20 hours, I 
received a letter from Mr. Cunard on the subject of the 
mail and coaches between Halifax and Pictou. I intended 
to advertize for tenders in the United States, but Henry 
Boggs, who has just returned, says that there is some per- 
son who is engaged in conveying the mails between Quebec 
and Montreal, who was talking of coming down with you 
to look at the road, and offer to take the contract. I would 
therefore thank you to see him and talk to him on the sub- 
ject. The contract will be for eight years from ist January, 
1841, or for 7 years from next January. It is to continue 
certain until the 3 ist December, 1843, and then to be con- 
tinued until the expiration of the 8 years, unless Government 
give a full twelve months' notice and pay a fine of 750. 



Ill 

I 

This is intended as a guard to them if the contract is not 
performed to their satisfaction; but if it is, it will remain 
for the full period, as they do not wish to pay the fine. The 
work to be performed is to convey the county mails three 
times each week during the summer months between Halifax 
and Pictou, and the English mails every fortnight, and also 
to take the pasengers in proper coaches ; they, however, will 
pay for themselves, and as the travelling on the road is in- 
creasing rapidly, I am convinced that there is an excellent 
opening for any person who understands the business. If 
they do not, I would not wish to see them on the road. If 
the person in Quebec will come down and you recom- 
mend him as suited for the work, and able to carry it 
through, we will give him 1,500 per annum, and he will 
also be entitled to receive a bonus from the House of As- 
sembly of 500. I must have an immediate reply, as I 
must otherwise send to Boston. The party must have means 
to stock the road and have a sufficient number of good, 
well-built coaches. Let me hear from you. 
"I remain, 

"Yours truly, 

(Sd.) "E. CUNARD." 

"Captain Douglas, Care 'Unicorn,' Quebec." 
The "Unicorn" was taken off the St. Lawrence route on 
the close of navigation in 1844. I find from a file of the 
"New York Evening Post" that she sailed from Halifax in 
June, 1845, and was entered as arriving in New York, June 
23rd. Her Captain was transferred to Glasgow as Marine 
Superintendent of the Company. The ship continued to be 
owned by either the Cunard Company or by shareholders 
of the Company, for I find a letter of Captain Douglas 
from Glasgow to Mr. Cunard on September 2, 1847, to 
the effect that "Messrs. Caird & Co. are making new boilers 
for the 'Unicorn.' ' 

It is said that after the ship came to New York she was 
chartered out and made a few trips to the West Indies, but 
having so little cargo space, she was subsequently sold to 



112 



the Portuguese Government; was converted into a corvette 
of 8 guns and became the first steam warship of Portugal. 
If these traditions are correct, she had a more eventful ca- 
reer than most old ships. 

Boston remained the American terminus of the line till 
1850. On September 4th of that year the Niagara sailed 
from Liverpool to open the regular direct service between 
that port and New York- 

The history of ships, famous in their day, when grown 
old and decayed and turned to ignoble uses, affords material 
for almost as pathetic a story as the fate of old homes and 
old people. They pass us in mid-ocean, unobserved, unsa- 
luted and not decked with flags. They are not intentionally 
ignored or slighted, but overlooked, because no longer dis- 
tinguished by outer trappings. They had served their day 
and generation, and had outlived their usefulness and orig- 
inal purpose; and they consequently share the fate of all 
old things animate and inanimate. 

Among Captain Douglas' memoranda I find the follow- 
ing list of the steamers which sailed between New York and 
Liverpool from April, 1838, to October, 1839, with dates 
of departure and arrival. Our Quebec built steamer, the 
"Royal William," is one of the four. It is interesting to 
note that at that date the "Sinus" called at Cork on its way 
to Falmouth. The "Great Western," the most rapid of the 
boats, made Bristol its port of destination; the "British 
Queen" selected Portsmouth, and the two slower steamers, 
the "Liverpool" and "Royal William," (our Quebec built 
ship) sailed in and out of Liverpool. The distribution of 
traffic was then determined by the faulty means of land 
transportation, whereas its more recent concentration at 
certain favoured points has resulted from facilities which 
the railroads now offer : 

STEAMERS TO NEW YORK^ 1838 1839. 
NAME FROM SAILED ARRIVED TIME 

Sirius, Cork, 4th April, 23rd April, i8*4 days. 

Great Western, Bristol, 8th '' 2yd " 15 " 

Sirius, Cork, 3'st Mav, 1 8th June, 18 " 



Great Western, 


Bristol, 


2nd June, 


i7th " 


J 4/4 





Royal William, 


Liverpool, 


5th July, 


24th July, 


18 


it 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


2 ist " 


5th Aug., 


141^ 


' 


Great Western, 


" 


8th Sept., 


24th Sept., 


16 





Royal William, 


Liverpool, 


20th " 


roth Oct., 


20 


" 


Liverpool, 


" 


2oth Oct., 


put into Cork 


short 


of Fuel. 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


27th " 


i5th Nov., 


18^ 


days. 


Liverpool, 


Cork, 


6th Nov. 


23rd " 


17 


" 


Royal William, 


Liverpool, 


1 5th Dec., 


7th Jan., 1 839 


22^ 


ii 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


28th Jan., 1839 


i7th Feb., 


ig 


" 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


6th Feb., 


25th " 


18^ 


' 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


23rd Mar., 


I5th April, 


22 


" 


Liverpool. 


Liverpool, 


20th Apr.. 


7th May, 


16% 


ii 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


1 8th May, 


3 ist " 


'3 


" 3 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


i3th June, 


3oth June, 


'7 


it 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


6th July, 


22nd July, 




i 


British Queen, 


Portsmouth 


1 2th "" 


28th " 


i ^y 2 





Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


ist Aug. 


1 8th Aug., 


16% 


' 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


24th " 


loth Sept., 


'7 


< 


British Queen, 


Portsmouth 


, 3rd Sept., 


20th " 


'7 


' 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


2 1st " 


loth Oct., 


19 


' 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


i gth Oct., 


3rd Nov., 


'4 


6 


STEAMERS 


FROM NEW YORK 1838 1839. 


NAME 


FOR 


SAILKD 


ARRIVKU 




TIME 


Sirius, 


Falmouth, 


ist May, 1838 


i gth May, 


i 8 days 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


7 th < 


22nd " 


15 


" 


Great Western, 


" 


25th June, 


2nd July, 


12 


" '7 


Sirius, 


Falmouth, 


3oth " 


igth " 


'9 


" 


Royal William, 


Liverpool, 


4th Aug., 


i gth Aug., 


'4 


" " 19 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


i6th " 


3oth " 


'3 


" 


Great Western, 


" 


4th Oct., 


i7th Oct., 


12 


10 


Royal William, 


Liverpool, 


20th " 


5th Nov., 


'5 


" >9 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


23rd Nov., 


7th Dec., 


>4 


" 6 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


6th Dec., 


221ld " 


'4 


" 10 


Royal Wiliiam, 


" 


i6th Jan, 1839 


3rd Feb., 1839 


7 


" 12 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


251)1 Feb., 


1 2th Mar., 


14 


' 12 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


gth Mar., 


25th " 


16 


' 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


22nd Apr., 


7th May, 


'5 


' 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


1 8th May, 


2nd June, 


'4 


' 10 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


1 3th June, 


26th " 


13 


' 5 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


6th July, 


2oth July, 


13 


'7 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


ist Aug., 


1 4th Aug., 


12 


' 12 


British Queen, 


Portsmouth, 


ist " 


1 5th " 


'3 


12 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


24th " 


8th Sept., 


'4 


' 6 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


2ist Sept., 


4th Oct., 


13 


1 


British Queen, 


Portsmouth, 


ist Oct., 


1 5th " 


13 


' 20 


Liverpool, 


Liverpool, 


i gth " 


6th Nov., 


'7 


' 12 


Great Western, 


Bristol, 


1 6th Nov., 


3Oth Nov., 


3 


' 18 


British Queen, 


Portsmouth, 


2nd Dec., 


25th Dec., 


Off Dover. 



hrs. 



hrs. 



In those days the Captain was also the caterer for the 
boat. The result might prove a valuable perquisite, if he 
was an economical manager, or involve a heavy deficit if 
the reverse. Therefore, among Captain Douglas' papers I 



find copies of various bills of fare of the "Great Western," 
of which the following very substantial dishes composed the 
menus for breakfast and dinner on March 23rd, 1840: 

BREAKFAST BILL. 4 dishes Beefsteak, 4 dishes Pork 
Chops, 2 dishes Veal Cutlets, 4 dishes Stews and Potatoes, 
6 dishes Ham and Eggs, I dish Omelette. 

DINNER BILL. 2 dishes Baked Fish, 2 Roast Beef, 2 
Roast Pork, 2 Roast Turkeys, 2 Roast Geese, 2 Pair Roast 
Ducks, 2 dishes Roast Mutton, 2 Pair Boiled Fowls, 2 
Dishes Boiled Mutton, 2 Tongues, i Ham, 2 dishes Corned 
Beef, 4 dishes Pork and Beans. Pastry. 6 Raspberry 
Roily Polly, 4 Maccaroni Puddings, 4 Apple Tarts, 4 
Prune Tarts, 4 Mince Tarts. 

There is also a copy of Regulations issued by the "Great 
Western" Directors for the guidance of passengers and the 
instruction of stewards. 

REGULATIONS. 

"The Directors have been most anxious to avail them- 
selves of the experience afforded by the passages which have 
been effected, in all seasons and under all circumstances 
of weather, by the "Great Western," in order to adopt the 
system of arrangement which may most conduce to the com- 
fort of the passengers, and they beg to annex a copy of 
Regulations, which with that view have been issued to the 
Stewards. They earnestly entreat the assistance of the 
passengers in carrying them into effect. 

"In all cases of dissatisfaction with the servants, it is re- 
quested that the Head Steward may be informed, and if the 
grievance be not immediately reduced, that the Captain be 
appealed to, and if of a serious nature, that it be repre- 
sented in writing in order that it may be brought before the 
Directors at the conclusion of the voyage. 

"ist. When desirable, the skylight and stern windows 
are to remain open all night, or if the weather do not allow 
this during the night, from 5 in the morning in summer, and 
from 7 in the winter, weather permitting. 

"2nd. The saloon and ladies' boudoir to be swept every 
morning after breakfast. 



"3rd. The Stewards and boys are to attend at meals in 
becoming apparel. 

"4th- The staterooms to be swept and carpets taken out 
and shaken every morning after breakfast. 

"5th. Bedding to be turned, as soon as passengers quit 
their cabins; slops to be emptied and basins cleaned at the 
same time. Beds to be made once only each day, except in 
cases of illness, etc., and in one hour after the breakfasts 
are removed. 

"6th. Bed linen to be changed on the eighth day. Boots 
and shoes to be cleaned and put back into the staterooms 
every morning at eight. 

"yth. Two towels to be hung up for each passenger and 
to be changed every other day. 

"8th. Breakfast to be on table at 9 and removed by 1 1. 

"9th. The dinner gong to strike at half past 3. Dinner 
to be on the table at 4; the cloths to be removed the instant 
it is over. 

"loth. Tea to be on the table at half-past seven. 

"nth- Supper, if required and ordered, before 10 
o'clock. 

"i2th. Servants and young children's breakfasts at half- 
past 8, dinner at i, and tea at 6, in the fore cabin. 

"i3th. Lights to be put out in the grand saloon at n 
and in the fore saloon and staterooms at 12. 

"i4th. The Head Steward is regularly to see that the 
scuttles are open, when the weather will permit, and pas- 
sengers are earnestly entreated to let the responsibility of 
opening them rest with the Steward, as it will be impossible 
to change the bedding should it become wet in consequence 
of their being opened., 

"i5th. The Stewardess only to enter the ladies' state- 
rooms and boudoirs, to make their beds, at the time before 
stated. 

"i6th. Chairs not to be taken out of the saloon or state- 
rooms, camp stools being provided for the use of the deck. 

"i7th. Divine service will be performed on Sunday, 
when it is hoped that the arrangements of the passengers 



will admit of the servants' attendance in a cleanly and 
becoming manner. 

"Male servants are not allowed on the poop, or quarter- 
deck under it, except when in attendance on their masters or 
mistresses. 

"As the labor of the servants must be very great, the Di- 
rectors entreat the passengers to spare them as much as pos- 
sible between the meal hours, and particularly while pre- 
paring for dinner. 

"To ensure as much as possible, respect, civility and at- 
tention from the Steward's establishment, one-half of the 
fees is set apart for distribution by the passengers, the re- 
maining half being retained for breakages and other dilapi- 
dations connected with the accommodation. Out of the for- 
mer it has been agreed that the Head Steward is to receive 
$10 each voyage, as his proportion, in addition to his salary, 
and it is to be hoped a committee of passengers will take the 
trouble to apportion balance, for which purpose a list of the 
other stewards, cooks, etc., will be furnished by the Clerk 
two days before the ship may be expected to arrive. 

"In consequence of a representation that some rule with 
respect to places at table in the saloon would be productive 
of much general convenience, the passengers are respect- 
fully informed that the occupiers of staterooms in the sa- 
loon are entitled to seats opposite their several stateroom 
doors, and the places taken by the whole of the passengers, 
at the first dinner, are to be considered their's during the 
voyage. This rule is not, of course, to bar parties from 
changing seats with one another. 

"The Directors entreat that they may be favored with 
suggestions from the passengers on any point which may yet 
appear deficient in the management." 

The rate of passage in all parts of the ship, including 
wines, was $140, between Bristol and New York. Steward, 
$6.00. The rate of postage is stated at 25 cents for a single 
sheet and on heavy letters, $1.00 per ounce. 

Evidently the "Great Western" was the only rival the 
early Cunarder feared, and Bristol as a rival port of Liver- 






pool, judging from an interesting and very enthusiastic letter 
from Mr. David Mclver to Captain Douglas on 5th July, 
1842. 

Captain Douglas' correspondence also contains copies of 
letters to Hon. S. Cunard, which give some interesting data 
as to cost of engines in those early days. On August 2, 
1847, ne was contracting for three small steamers, and there 
is a difference of opinion as to whether the engines should be 
of 60 horsepower or 80 horsepower; and as to whether they 
should be propelled by paddle or screws. He says: 

"Elder recommends me to Messrs. Caird & 

Co., as he considers them to have more experience in pro- 
peller engines than any other establishment north of the 
Tweed; he has volunteered his services to assist in deciding 
on the application of the power, and now thinks the direct 
action, if not worked over eighty revolutions, to be the best. 
He goes with me to Leith next week to look at a vessel 
that has been very successfully running between that port 
and Hamburgh." 

On September 2, 1847, he writes Mr. Cunard that he has 
"contracted with Messrs. Caird & Co. for the first pair of 
engines, 5O-inch cylinders, with two-foot stroke, direct act- 
ing and 60 horsepower, for 2,600." 

The screw as a propeller was in those early days making 
headway against the paddle wheel. Captain Douglas writes 
to Mr. Cunard on October 2nd, 1847 : ~ 

"Mr. Napier recommends 36-inch cylinders, instead of 
30, which will give a power of about 80 horse, driving a 
nine-foot screw. He is at present experimenting on the dif- 
ferent forms of propellers in a yacht called the 'Fire Queen.' 
She is the only vessel on the Cylde that has beaten the 
Queen's yacht 'Fairy,' and this was done with a three-bladed 
screw, instead of two, as is generally used; the speed at- 
tained by that vessel is 14 miles an hour; but he is not yet 
satisfied, and is now making another screw with two blades, 
but at a different pitch and driven at a less velocity." 

He writes further with regard to screws on October 16, 
1847: 



n8 

"The additional cost of screws was not contemplated in 
the first offer made by Mr. Caird; he calculated on the screw 
being of iron, which is in general use in iron vessels; the 
screws for these engines must be of gun metal; in conse- 
quence of the near approach to the copper, the cost of which 
will be considerable, as they will be very heavy. The dimen- 
sions are 9 feet diameter by 2 feet; the aperture in dead- 
wood is 2 feet 2 inches the fore and aft way and 9 feet 2 
inches the up and down way. The boilers are to be tubular, 
with brass tubes instead of iron." 

On November 2 he writes to the same correspondent: 
"Mr. Napier is still experimenting on the screw, but is 
not yet satisfied. The last trial was an improvement on the 
one used when the 'Fire Queen' beat the 'Fairy Yacht.' 
They are now nearly ready for casting a third with two 
arms, but at an increased pitch, which will be driven at a less 
velocity, but giving greater propelling power at least he 
hopes so." 

Iron was first used in the construction of the hulls of 
ships by Brunei in the "Great Britain" in 1843, ^ ut though 
the Cunard Company's first iron ship was the Persia in 
1856; the employment of iron in constructing the hulls of 
their small steamers by the partners in the Cunard Co. was 
under consideration nine years earlier, for on December 26, 
1847, Capt. Douglas writes to Mr. Cunard: 

"There are now two vessels of iron that have been run- 
uning only ten months, with engines of 50 horsepower, 
which power has been considered inadequate by their pro- 
prietors. They have therefore been condemned, and 
Messrs. Caird & Co. are placing engines of 70 horsepower 
in them one of which, the 'Osmali,' has already started 
and worked admirably. The speed attained was nine miles, 
whereas before they only got six, and blowing hard could 
do nothing head to wind. These vessels are about 320 tons 
and are of iron. Your ships are 30 tons larger, and being 
of wood, will be more difficult to propel, as the aperture 
in the deadwood for working the screw in a wooden vessel 
cannot be constructed so successfully as in an iron one; con- 
sequently, more power is required." 



This discussion on design of screws for propelling ships 
was held more than sixty years ago, and yet the question of 
the number of blades, as well as their pitch, seems to be as 
far from solution as ever. 



ERRATA. Corrected by request of the Author. 

Page 112, lines 22, 23 Eliminate "Our Quebec built steamer, the 
"Royal William", is one of the four." 

Page 112, line 28 Eliminate "our Quebec built ship." 

The Quebec built steamer "Royal William" was sold to the 
Spanish Government on 10th September, 1834, and named "Isabella 
Segunda." 



n8 

"The additional cost of screws was not contemplated in 
the first offer made by Mr. Caird; he calculated on the screw 
being of iron, which is in general use in iron vessels; the 
screws for these engines must be of gun metal; in conse- 
quence of the near approach to the copper, the cost of which 
will be considerable, as they will be very heavy. The dimen- 
sions are 9 feet diameter by 2 feet; the aperture in dead- 
wood is 2 feet 2 inches the fore and aft way and 9 feet 2 
inches the up and down way. The boilers are to be tubular, 
with brass tubes instead of iron." 

On November 2 he writes to the same correspondent : 

"Mr. Napier is still experimenting on the screw, but is 
not yet satisfied. The last trial was an improvement on the 
one used when the 'Fire Queen' beat the 'Fairy Yacht.' 
They are now nearly ready for casting a third with two 
arms, but at an increased pitch, which will be driven at a less 
velocity, but giving greater propelling power at least he 
hopes so." 

Iron was first used in the construction of the hulls of 
ships by Brunei in the "Great Britain" in 1843, but though 
the Cunard Company's first iron ship was the Persia in 
1856; the employment of iron in constructing the hulls of 
their small steamers by the partners in the Cunard Co. was 
under c nn "' tA ~- ni - : : -~ 

1847, < 
"Th 
uning < 
which ] 
prietor: 
Messrs 
in then 
and wo 
wherea 
do notF 
and an 
of woe 
in the < 
cannot 
sequent 



This discussion on design of screws for propelling ships 
was held more than sixty years ago, and yet the question of 
the number of blades, as well as their pitch, seems to be as 
far from solution as ever.