Literary and Historical Society
SESSIONS OF 19O8-O9
<NicLE PRINTING Co.
Literary and Historical Society
SESSIONS OF 1908-09
CHRONICLE PRINTING Co.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Report of Council, I3th January, 1909 3
The Treasurer i3,th January, 1909 7
The Librarian, I3th January, 1909; 7
Election of Officers, 1909 1 1
Report of Council, i2th- January, 1910 12
" " The Treasurer, I2th January, 1910 .' 15
The Librarian, I2th January, 1910 16
Election of Officers, 1910 18
List of Past Presidents of the Society, 1909 19
" " Honorary Members, 1909. 21
" " Corresponding Members, 1909 22
" " Associate Members, 1909 23
" " Life Members, 1909, and Governors of Morrin College. .. .25
" " Members of Council, 1908 26
" " Members of Council, 1909 26
Paper on Admiral Bayfield, by Capt. Boulton, R.N 27
" on Early Transatlantic Steamship Service, by Dr. Douglas,
Hon. President 96
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING
13TH JANUARY 1909
The annual general meeting was held on the ijth Janu-
ary, 1909, in the Rooms of the Society, at ten a.m. Dr. G.
W. Parmelee, President, occupied the chair, and there were
present: Messrs. C. Tessier, Col. Neilson, Dr. Harper, S.
Lesage, E. T. D. Chambers, F. Lampson, W. Clint, D. H.
Geggie, J. T. Ross, Col. Turnbull, Rev- F. G. Scott, John
Hamilton, J. Brown, James Geggie, Capt. Boulton, P.
Gagnon, A. Robertson, D. Watson, M. de Preston, P. B-
Casgrain, A. H. Cook, Rev. A. T. Love.
After routine proceedings the President read the report
of the Council for the past year as follows:
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1908
The Council of the Literary and Historical Society has
to report a year of unusual success in several directions.
The outstanding feature of the year has been the culmina-
tion of a long and uninterrupted series of benefactions from
Dr. J. Douglas, the Honorary President of the Society. As
you all know, he has for some years given, apart from
minor contributions, the sum of $500 annually to be ex-
pended in the purchase of books and In the publication of
Historical Documents. On his last visit to the Society as
lecturer last winter, he suggested a commutation of his
annual contribution which he undoubtedly all along intended
to be a permanent annual gift. Through Col. Neilson as
intermediary, Dr. Douglas conveyed the sum of $10,000
to the Society by notarial deed on the 5th of May, 1908,
constituting thereby John Theodore Ross, Esq., and A. H-
Cook, Esq., trustees, with full power to invest and to ad-
minister these funds, and to account for the dividends to
This magnificent gift was duly accepted by the Society,
and suitable acknowledgement was made to the generous
This endowment places the Society in such a sound finan-
cial condition that the Society may expect not only to con-
tinue the good work of the past, but to enlarge it in many
ways in the near future.
In respect of finances, upon which so much depends, the
Society has improved its position notably during the past
decade. The generous legacy of the late Mrs. Turnbull, in
1904, of $5,000, brought the endowment over $8,000 so
that the Society will have dividends in the future on about
It is fitting that reference should be made to the continu-
ed good will of the Governors of Morrin College, to whom
the Society is indebted for the use of its rooms free of
charge, and for the continued annual contribution of $250
towards our current expenses.
Negotiations are under way by which it is expected that
the room known as the Aylwin Library Room will be put
in order and secured for the use of the Society, with the
Another annual meeting will probably have a report to
the effect that the proposed scheme has been carried out.
This will nearly double our floor space and will make our
Library and Rooms compare very favorably with those in
other cities similar in population to Quebec.
It is perhaps not too much to say that in the number and
character of the lectures provided last winter the Society
has never been more fortunate. The opening lecture was
delivered by Mr. P. B. Casgrain, President at the time,
and was succeeded by lectures given by Prof. Colby, of
McGill, Prof. Wrong, of Toronto University, Dr. Douglas,
J- B. Hance, Prof. Cox, of McGill, the Rev. Dr. Barclay
and Sir Charles Fitzpatrick. Captain Boulton's lecture,
delivered on the 4th of this month naturally falls into the
lecture course which is being prepared for the present sea-
son under arrangements similar to those of last winter.
You will have noticed that the invitations to these lectures
were issued in the joint name of the Society and the Gov-
ernors of Morrin College. This was because of the fact
that the Governors generously undertook to pay all the
expenses that were incurred by securing lecturers from a
distance and in giving them a reasonable remuneration. On
this account the joint lecture committee of Morrin College
and the Society were able to secure men who could hardly
have been expected otherwise to come to Quebec-
Although the membership of the Society, considering the
advantages it offers, still leaves something to be desired, it
is satisfactory to note the fact that the net accession to our
membership this year amounts to twenty-six. The new
members are thirty-five in number, and the losses by death
and removal are nine.
It is interesting and encouraging to note that while in the
year 1902 the fees collected from members amounted to
only $390, since then there has been a regular increase
year by year, until now the Treasurer reports the receipts
from this source as $621. Although it has always been the
policy of the Society to keep the fees at a nominal rate in
order to make the Library practically a public library, the
additional income from this source is a welcome addition
to the funds of the Society, but it is even more a gratifying
indication of the appreciation shown by the citizens of
Quebec of the work the Society endeavors to accomplish.
It is known to all Quebecers that this city has the distinc-
tion of claiming the first steamship, the "Royal William,"
that ever crossed the Atlantic wholly under its own steam.
Last year Mr. F. C. Wurtele heard of an oil painting of this
steamship in England which had been made from the object.
Knowing that Dr. Douglas was soon going to England,
Mr. Wurtele asked him to examine the painting. The re-
sult was that Dr. Douglas purchased the painting and
presented it to the Society through Mr. Wurtele.
Valuable historically and intrinsically as the painting
is, from a personal point of view more interest will be taken
by the members of the Society in the portrait of Dr. Doug-
las, which the Council has hung in the Rooms.
Col. Neilson has been the fortunate possessor of the
prayer-book of the celebrated missionary to the Indians,
Pere Marquette, which had been translated into the Indian
tongue, and which Pere Marquette had used for many
years in his wilderness parish. This prayer-book has been
reproduced in fac-simile as to the pages and bound, with
the arms of the Society, at the expense of Dr. Douglas.
To the Society he has given some 250 copies, which are to
be used for exchange with learned societies, and for gift
to distinguished persons to whom the Society may wish to
return a compliment.
Your Council considered very carefully many schemes
for participating in the Tercentenary Celebrations of the
memorable summer last year, but unfortunately for us the
magnitude of the preparations made by the Tercentenary
Committee with their almost unlimited financial resources
was such as to make the Council feel the inadequacy of any-
thing within the limits of its powers.
However, special care was taken to offer the hospitality
of the rooms to any who should like to visit them, and a
certain expense was incurred in conjunction with Morrin
College and St. Andrew's Society to illuminate the building
in a fitting manner.
At the end of last month the Council was invited to send
delegates to a meeting in Washington of the American His-
torical Association. The Council was fortunate in being
represented at the meeting by the Honorary President, Dr.
Douglas, and by Col. Neilson who has made an interesting
report of the proceedings.
So far this report has been one of progress and satisfac-
tion. It remains to introduce a note of sorrow.
Since our last annual meeting four members of the So-
ciety have passed beyond the veil, leaving behind them
memories of integrity, ability, and character beyond the
common. Quebec as a whole, as well as this Society, mourns
the loss of F. H. Andrews, William Brodie, William Sim-
mons and Justice Blanchet.
The whole respectfully submitted.
G. W. PARMELEE,
Quebec, I3th January, 1909.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER.
Mr. James Geggie presented his Annual Report as
Treasurer, which showed a balance to the credit of the
various accounts of $1,205.82. Members' subscriptions
amounted to $671.00. The annual grant of $250 10 the
Book Fund was received from Morrin College, the Govern-
ors of which also granted the Society the use of the Rooms
The Report of the Librarian, Mr- E. T. D. Chambers,
was as follows:
At the last annual meeting of the Literary and Historical
Society it was a matter of much gratification to your Honor-
ary Librarian to be able to refer to the year then just ended
as one of almost unexampled progress. In support of this
statement it was shown that the issue of books from the
Library for that year reached the large number of 4592
volumes, against 3941 in the twelve months preceding.
Without any very large increase in the membership of the
Society, these figures were very gratifying. How much
more so, therefore, is the record for 1908, showing a circu-
lation during the year of 5130 volumes!
Notwithstanding this large increase in the issue of books
from the Library, it is eminently satisfactory to note that
only 161 of the books at present in circulation have been
out of the Library more than the prescribed period of two
The following classification may be made of the books
issued from the Library during the past year.-
Fiction - .... 3,390
Biography ' 404
Sport and Travel 308
Science and Art 42
General Literature 256
The fact that nearly two-thirds of the books issued from
the Library have to be classified as fiction affords some
food for reflection.
The Editor of Harper's Magazine recently reported
that statements received from a number of English and
American Librarians indicated somewhat of a falling off
in novel reading, and without any intention of sermonizing
it may be permitted to your Librarian to point out to the
younger frequenters of the library that there is romance
enough for every healthy taste in the carefully selected
works of history, biography, science, sport and travel, con-
stantly being added to our shelves, and of a character that
seldom leaves a bitter taste behind. As far as it is possible
to do so every precaution is taken to ensure a clean selec-
tion of the fiction so much in demand, and which has been
tolerated by the Society for the last few years; but it is
constantly borne in mind in the purchase of new books that
the Society was chartered for purposes of literary, historical
and scientific research, and to works that may fairly be
classified under these heads our grants for new books are
The Library has been enriched during the year by the ad-
dition of 242 volumes by purchase, and of 68 bound volumes
by donation and exchange, making a total addition to our
shelves of 310 volumes altogether, exclusive of 225 un-
bound donations and exchanges.
A large number of English works ordered some time be-
fore the end of the year has been expected for some time
The Society has been extremely fortunate in many of the
donations of books received by it during the year- By one
of our corresponding members, George Parkin Winship,
Esq., of Providence R. I., we have been presented with a
reprint of the Invitation Serieuse aux Habitants des Illinois,
of which the original was printed in Philadelphia in 1772:
a very rare biographical item, being No. 13 of an edition
of 100 copies.
Mr. John T. Ross has placed us under deep obligations
by his very handsome gifts of two remarkable sets of books,
namely sixteen volumes of Italian Literature published by
the Grolier Society, and nine volumes of the History of
India, issued by the National Alumni. Both of these works
are veritable editions de luxe, and to a due appreciation of
the value of their contents it is a pleasure to add our testi-
mony to the perfect triumph of the bookmaker's art achiev-
ed in their printing and binding- Upon the acceptable char-
acter of such gifts it is unnecessary to enlarge.
Professor George W. Wrong, of Toronto University,
generously sent me for presentation to the Society, volume
I of Lescarbot's History of New France, in the elegant
edition recently issued by the Champlain Society.
From the Rev. A. T. Love we have received a copy of
the memorial volume of St. Andrew's Church-
On behalf of the Misses Nettle, of Ottawa, I was re-
quested to present to the Society the handsome portrait of
their late father, Richard Nettle, a former well-known
Quebecer, the author of the "Salmon Fisheries of the St.
Lawrence," and the father of Fish Culture in Canada.
These ladies also sent us five volumes of the Library of
G. M. Fairchild, Esq., presented the Society with the
bound volume of the Quebec Mercury for 1838, one of the
most eventful years of the century in this province. The
volume had previously belonged to the Society, but was
"lost, strayed, or stolen" many years ago, and lately came
by purchase, with other papers, into Mr. Fairchild's pos-
Our President, Dr. Parmelee, has given us a photograph
of Duberger's model of Quebec, and to Colonel Lindsay
we are indebted for a volume of the "Journal of American
Others from whom we have received donations for the
Library and Museum are Messrs. Phileas Gagnon, who
presented a copy of the last bulletin of the Geographical
Society of Quebec, containing several valuable papers on
Champlain ; Georges Roy who again sent us his interesting
Bulletin Recherches Historiques; A. Gagnon, to whom we
are indebted for two volumes of L'Amerique Precolom-
bienne; F. C. Wurtele who has supplied us with the Diocesan
Gazette, the New York State Museum which has sent us
more of its memoirs, and an unknown donor from whom we
have received a work entitled "Outlines of Theosophy."
It is not surprising that the Champlain Tercentenary
Celebration of last summer caused a noticeable demand for
reading matter dealing with early Canadian History, and
it is gratifying to note that some of our reference books
proved of considerable assistance to the workers in the
Pageant, and in some of the other features of the celebra-
And finally, duty and gratitude alike make it incumbent
upon the undesigned to emphasize the indebtedness of the
Library to Dr. Douglas and the Governors of Morrin Col-
lege, for the special grants of money given by them for the
purchase of new books, without which the additions to our
shelves would be small indeed.
The whole respectfully submitted-
E. T. D. CHAMBERS,
Quebec, I3th January, 1909.
The foregoing reports were then, on motion, adopted and
ordered to be printed.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
Captain Boulton and Mr. de Preston having been re-
quested to act as scrutineers the meeting proceeded to ballot
for Officers and Council for the ensuing year, with the fol-
lowing results :
Hon. President James Douglas, D.C.L., Spuyten Duy-
Hon. Vice-President Sir James M. Le Moine, D.C.L.,
President G. W. Parmelee, D.C.L.
Vice-Presidents J. T. Ross, Col. J. F. Turnbull,
A. H. Cook, K.C., Dr. J. M. Harper.
Treasurer Jas. Geggie.
Recording-Secretary A. Robertson, K.C.
Council Secretary W. Clint.
Corresponding Secretary - - Lieut.-Colonel Crawford
Librarian E- T. D. Chambers.
Curator of Museum Phileas Gagnon.
Curator of Apparatus Col. H. Neilson.
Additional Members of Council Rev. P. M. O'Leary,
Rev. F. G. Scott, D.C.L., F.ft.S.C., S. Lesage, John Hamil-
LITERARY AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY
ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING.
I2th January, 1910.
The Annual General Meeting was held on the I2th
January, 1910, in the Rooms of the Society at ten a.m.
Dr. G. W. Parmelee, the President, occupied the chair and
there were present: Messrs. P. B. Casgrain, John Hamil-
ton, Rev. F. G. Scott, Col. Wood, Dr. Harper, A- Robert-
son, E. T. D. Chambers, P. Gagnon, C. Tessier, W. Clint,
Col. Neilson, James Geggie, A. H. Cook, J. G. Scott, D.
Watson, H. Price, W. C. J. Hall, Major Davidson, F.
Carrel, T. Aylwin, A. Joseph, F. C. Wurtele, Rev. A. T.
Love, Major Morgan, C. de Preston, Capt. Boulton, M.
Anderson, J. B- Hance, M. Macadam.
After routine proceedings the President read the report
of the Council for the past year as follows.
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1909
The Council of the Quebec Literary and Historical So-
ciety has the honour to submit the following report upon the
work accomplished during the year that has just closed.
Not much of an unusual nature has occurred during the
past year, but on the whole the progress of the Society has
been satisfactory. There has been a slight increase in
membership, we having lost 1 1 during the year and gained
1 6. This makes a net gain of 5 and brings the total mem-
bership to 174.
Considering our limited constituency and the fact that
all the members of a family have the privileges of our libr-
ary when the head thereof is a subscriber, the advantages
we have to offer are pretty widely used. However, there is
still room for an expansion of our membership list.
During the year this Society has become a member of
the recently formed Champlain Society, whose yearly pub-
lications will hereafter be received. All the publications
from the inception of that Society to the present time have
been received and are on our shelves. It is a matter of
gratification to us that one of our own members and past
presidents, Col. Wood, is responsible for an important
volume in the works of the Champlain Society, and is en-
gaged on another.
Your Council was invited last June to extend some wel-
come and hospitality to the members of the International
Council of Women who, to the number of one hundred,
passed through Quebec on their way from the British Isles,
Europe, and Australia to the quadrennial meeting which
was held in Toronto. A Committee, consisting of Col.
Turnbull, Col. Wood and the President, organized a recep-
tion of the distinguished guests under the Presidency of
Her Excellency the Countess of Aberdeen at a luncheon at
the Chateau Frontenac. The guests were met at the docks,
were driven around the City, taken to Montmorency by.
train, and at the end of the day were conveyed to the train
without any expense to themselves. Although the members
of the Committee felt that it was an honour for the Society
to be so well known as to be entrusted with such a task,
they thought that the Society itself should not be called
upon to meet the expenses necessarily incurred thereby.
Accordingly an appeal was made to the City Council, which
was supported by the Mayor, Sir George Garneau, and re-
sulted in a contribution of $250. The balance was gener-
ously contributed by the following persons to whom the
thanks of the Council are hereby tendered. Col. J. F.
Turnbull, Mr. H. M. Price, Col. Neilson, Col. Wm.
Wood, Dr. Geo. Parmelee and Alderman P. Campbell.
Your President received and accepted an invitation to
deliver an address before the International Council in To-
ronto, when he was gratified to hear from many sources
the liveliest expressions of gratitude for the reception in
Quebec, and words of praise for the opportunity of visiting
the chief historical city of Canada.
It will be remembered that Dr. Douglas undertook last
year to publish a fac-simile of the well-known Pere Mar-
quette Prayer Book that was in possession of Col. Neilson
and to give it to the Society for distribution as a memorial
of the Tercentennial. The distribution has now been made
to Universities, to a few distinguished individuals and to
those learned societies from which we have received valu-
able exchanges in the past.
It is well-known that the late Judge Aylwin bequeathed
to the Governors of Morrin College his large and valuable
library, consisting not only of law books, but of classical
and general works, some of them now quite rare. Recently
the Governors of Morrin College have fitted up a spacious
room adjacent to this and have had the books placed upon
shelves. At present a catalogue is being made. Although
this library is not under the control of the Literary and
Historical Society it may be said that negotiations are now
under way by which it is expected that the members of this
Society will have free access to the Aylwin Library and to
the books therein.
The continued and practical interest in this Society was
shown last year not only by a direct contribution from the
Governors of Morrin College to the general funds of the
Society, but by a special contribution which enabled the
joint lecture committee of the two bodies to invite disting-
uished lecturers from a distance to address the citizens of
Quebec in this building. The Council is glad to report that
a course of lectures under similar arrangements is provided
for this season.
The Council has thought for some time that the insur-
ance carried upon the Library and its contents was alto-
gether inadequate, and in consequence it has increased the
policies form $6,500. to $16,500 quite recently.
It will have been noticed that several portraits have been
hung upon the walls of this building during the past few
months. This is in pursuance of a plan to leave some per-
manent memorial, before it is too late, of the distinguished
past presidents of this Society from the first, the Hon. Chief
Justice Johathan Sewell, down to such of the past presidents
as will allow themselves to be so honoured while living.
The financial condition of the Society is now stronger
than it has ever been before in its history. The most recent
benefaction, that of Dr. Douglas of $10,000, which was
reported at the last annual meeting, is now producing re-
turns to the amount of $480 yearly, $9,000 being invested
and $887.50 being still to invest.
Since our last meeting four members of this Society have
passed over to the silent majority. Dr. Colin Sewell, whose
family name has been on our roll of membership for the
past 86 years and whose own place in the affections of the
citizens of Quebec was unique, Mr. Simeon LeSage whose
interest in all that pertained to history and literature was
well-known to members of this Society, Mr. Armitage
Rhodes and Mr. David Rea, all are men whose loss we
Signed on behalf of the Council,
G. W. PARMELEE,
Quebec, I2th January, 1910.
REPORT OF TREASURER.
Mr. James Geggie presented his Annual Report as Treas-
It showed a balance to the credit of the Society of $i,-
059.72. Subscriptions from members $665.00. Disburse-
ments for Magazines and Periodicals $192.55, and for new
The Governors of Morrin College kindly allowed the
Society the use of the Rooms free of rent.
The report of the Librarian Mr. E. T. D. Chambers
was as follows:
For the last two years your Librarian has been so fortu-
nate as to be able to report unprecedented activity in the
work of the Library and a largely increased issue of books
from its shelves. Two years ago it was shown that the cir-
culation for the preceding year had reached the large num-
ber of 4592 volumes, against 3941 reported twelve months
before. Last year the report showed a still larger increase,
making a total output of books circulated during the year,
of 5,130. Still larger and more gratifying is the progress
which has been made during the year just ended, the circu-
lation showing a total issue of 6,167 volumes, or an in-
crease over the preceding year of no less than 1,037 books.
In fiction, 4,503 volumes were issued in 1909, as com-
pared with 3,390 in 1908; history shows a falling off from
554 to 367, and biography from 404 to 324. On the other
hand there has been a largely increased demand for books
on almost every other subject of major importance in such
a library as ours, and especially for those pertaining to gen-
eral literature, the issue of which has increased from 256 to
346. A good increased demand is noticeable for books on
sport and travel and science and art.
It is very satisfactory to note that the number of books
now out of the library for over two weeks is only 207 out
of the 6,167 issued during the year, a rather smaller pro-
portion than last year-
Apart from the usual unbound exchanges from sister
societies, and others, we have to acknowledge 62 bound
volumes of exchanges and donations, while 445 volumes
have been added to the library by purchase, against 242
during the preceding year.
Our thanks are due to Mr. D. C. Thomson for a splendid
Gallery of Illustrations of Shakespeare's works, to Pro-
fessor Wrong for the Review of Historical Publications
relating to Canada, for 1908, to Judge McCorkill for a
copy of the History of Brome county, to Colonel B. A.
Scott for three old sword blades, to Mr. F. C. Wurtele for
the Diocesan Gazette for 1909, to Mr. P. Gagnon for a
copy of Quebec il y a cent ans, to Mr. P. G. Roy for the
Bulletin Recherches Historiques for 1909, to the late Mr.
David Rae for the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, to Mr.
David Mitchell for a bound volume of the Weekly Chron-
icle, to Mr. F. McLennan for a copy of The Struggle for
Imperial Unity, by Col. Denison, to the Chronicle Printing
Company for the bound volume of the Chronicle for 1905,
to Mr. F. A. Chisholm for "Joseph Howe a sketch," to
Mr. J. M. Fisher for the Perfect Way, and to other indi-
viduals and institutions, who have favored us with contri-
butions to the Library, some of them, anonymously.
But more than to anybody else is the Society indebted to
the Governors of Morrin College and to Dr. James Doug-
las, to whose liberality is mainly due the great bulk of the
additions to the Library, irrespective altogether of their
many other benefactions to the institution.
The whole, nevertheless, respectfully submitted.
E. T. D. CHAMBERS,
Quebec, January i2th, 1910.
The foregoing reports were then, on motion, adopted and
ordered to be published.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
Mr. Wurtele and Major Davidson having been request-
ed to act as scrutineers, the meeting proceeded to ballot for
Officers and Council for the ensuing year, with the follow-
ing result .
Hon. President - - James Douglas, LL.D., Spuyten
Hon. Vice-President Sir James M. LeMoine, D.C.L.,
President John Hamilton, D.C.L.
Vice-PresidentsCol. J. F. Turnbull, J. T. Ross, B.A.,
Dr. J. M. Harper, A. H. Cook, K.C.
Treasurer James Geggie.
Recording Secretary A. Robertson, K.C.
Council Secretary W. Clint.
Corresponding Secretary Lt.-Col. Crawford Lindsay.
Librarian E. T. D. Chambers.
Curator of Museum Phileas Gagnon.
Curator of Apparatus Col. H. Neilson.
Additional Members of Council Rev. F. G. Scott, D.C.
L., F.R.S.C., Major W. H. Davidson, Rev. P. M. O'Leary,
F. C. Wurtele.
PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE LITERARY AND HISTORICAL
1824.. .. Sir N. F. Burton, Lt. -Governor.
1828 Hon. Mr. Reid, Chief Justice.
1829 Lieut. Frederick Baddeley, R.N.
1830 Hon. Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice.
1832 Hon. Andrew Stuart, K.C.
1833 Hon. W. Shepoard.
1835 Joseph Skey, M.D.
1836 Rev. Daniel Wilkie, LL.D.
1837 Hon. Andrew Stuart, K.C.
1839 Wm. Kelly, M.D., R.N.
1841 . ., Hon. Wm. Sheppard.
1842 Hon. A. W. Cochrane.
1843 Hon. Wm. Sheppard.
1844 G. B. Faribault.
1845 Hon. A. W. Cochrane.
1846 John C. Fisher, LL.D.
1847 Hon. Wm. Sheppard.
1848 Hon. A. W. Cochrane.
1849 G. B. Faribault.
1855 E. A. Meredith, M.A.
1856 W. Andrew.
1858 G. B. Faribault.
1860 E. A. Meredith, M.A.
1862 John Langton, M.A.
1866 Com. E. D. Ashe, R.N.
1868 Hon. P. J. O. Chauveau, LL.D.
1869 Prof. James Douglas.
1870 Dr. W. J. Anderson.
1871 J. M. LeMoine.
1872-3.. Dr. W. J. Anderson.
!8 73 Com. E. D. Ashe, R.N., F.R.S.
1874 ...Prof. James Douglas.
i875 " "
1876 James Stevenson.
1879 J- M. LeMoine, F.R.S.C.
1883 Hon. D. A. Ross, Q.C.
1885 G. Stewart, D.C.L., F.R.S.C., F.R.G.S.
1892 Cyrille Tessier
1894 Archibald Campbell.
1896 Rev. R. W. Norman, D.D., Dean of Quebec.
1898 P. B. Casgrain.
1900 William Wood.
1902 Sir Jas. M. LeMoine, D.C.L., F.R.S.C.
1904 Major William Wood, F.R.S.C.
1906 P. B. Casgrain.
1908 G. W. Parmelee, D.C.L.
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec
FOUNDED IN 1824-
Incorporated toy Royal Charter, 1831
HIS EXCELLENCY, THE RIGHT HON. EARL GREY, G.C.M.G.,
BARON GREY OF HOWICK, GOVERNOR-GENERAL
HIS HONOR THE LIEUT.-GOVERNOR, PROVINCE OF
HONORARY PRESIDENT :
JAMES DOUGLAS, LL.D., Spuyten Duyvil, N.Y.
SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L., F.R.S.C.
HONORARY MEMBERS :
The Earl of Minto, G.C.M.G.
The Earl of Aberdeen.
The Marquis of Lansdowne, G.C.M.G.
The Duke of Argyle.
Sir Sanford Fleming, K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.C.
John Miller Grant, Esq., London.
Revd. Charles Rogers, LL.D., F.S.A., Scotland.
Sir "Gilbert Parker, D.C.L., M.P., London
Sydney Robjohns, Esq., F.R.H.S., Scotland.
John Reade, F.R.S.C., Montreal.
James Ashbury, Esq., England.
Henry Philips, Jr., Philadelphia.
Arthur G. Bradley, Esq., Northampton, England.
Arthur G. Doughty, C.M.G., Litt. D., F.R.H.S., England, F.R.S.C.,
Wm. C Lane, Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S.
Lt.-Col. George T. Denison, F.R.S.C., Ottawa.
S. E. Dawson, Litt. D., F.R.S.C., Ottawa.
Sir Louis A. Jette, K.C.M.G.
CORRESPONDING MEMBERS :
Anderson, W P., Lt.-Col., Ottawa.
Bartholomew, J. G., F.R.G.S., London.
Boucher de Boucherville, Hon., M.L.C., Boucherville, P.Q.
Brock, R. A., Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
Bailey, Dr. L. W., F.R.S.C., Fredericton, N.B.
Church, F. W., M.D., Boston.
D'Abbadie, Antoine, Membre de L'Institut de France, Paris
Denham, Edward, New Bedford, Mass., U.S.
DeSechelles, Desmazieres, St. Malo, France.
D'Urban, W. S. M., England.
DePeyster, Gen. J. Watts, Tivoli, N.Y., U.S.
Dansereau, Arthur, Montreal.
Filippi, le Comte Waldemar, Paris.
Ganong, W. F., M.A., Cambridge, Mass., U.S.
Graham, Lt.-Col. U.S.A., Chicago, U.S.
Gerin, E., Three Rivers, P.Q.
Grazillier, L'Abbe, Saintes, France.
Huget-Latour, Major, Montreal.
Jack, D. Russell, St. John, N.B.
Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, E., Montreal. .
Le Gardeur de Tilley, le Comte Hypolite, Chantreau, pres-Saintes,
Lighthall, W. D., M.A., B.C.L., F.R.S.C., Montreal.
Madrazo, Don Pedro de, Secretary General of the Royal Academy
of History, Madrid, Spain.
Morgan, H. J., F.R.S.C., Ottawa.
Provencher, Colonel N., Montreal.
Raymond, Revd. W. D., St. John, N.B.
Roberts, Charles G. D., M.A., F.R.S.C., New York, U.S.
Scott, C. Percy, M.A., Windsor, N.S.
Simmonds, Peter Lund, London, England.
Strange, T. Bland, Major-General, England.
Stone, W. L., Mt. Vernon, N.Y., U.S.
Suite, Benjamin, F.R.S.C., Ottawa.
Wynne, Thomas H., Richmond, Va., U.S.
Wilson, Gen. James Grant, N.Y., U.S.
Winship, Geo. Parker, Providence, R.I., U.S.A.
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS, 1909.
Anderson, E. H.
Aylwin, Thos. C.
Auger, A. J.
Atkinson, Mrs. H.
Benyon, Capt. J. A.
Bennett, W. S.
Bennett, S. Sloan.
Boswell, St. George, M.I.C.E.
Boyce, J. G.
Burroughs, L. F.
Boulton, A. R.
Bishop, E. A.
Brown, W. H.
Bank of Montreal, Quebec Staff.
Bradley, T. C.
Boulton, Captain R. -N.
Brown, E. C.
Carter, W. H.
Casgrain, P. B.
Champion, C. P.
Cream, R. F.
Cook, A. H.
Chambers, E. J. C., D.D.S.
Chambers. E. T. D.
Champion, W. S.
Code, E. E.
Colley, A. W.
Commerce Bank of, Quebec Staff
Davidson, Lt.-Col. W. H.
Dunn, Rt. Rev. A. Hunter, Lord
Bishop of Quebec.
Dunn, S. H.
Dumontier, J. F.
Doucet, A. E.
Duggan, F. M.
Forsyth, Lt.-Col. Jos. Bell.
Fairchild, G. M.
Falkenberg, Mrs. F.
Geggie, D. H.
Gpodday, H. G.
Gibson, Geo. F.
Garneau, Sir J. Geo.
Hamilton. John, D.C.L.
Holt, J. H.
Hall, W. C. J.
Hance, J. B.
Harper, Dr. J. M.
Hamel, Mrs. E.
Joly de Lotbiniere, E. G.
Jones, Lt.-Col. G. E. Allen.
Joseph, Andrew C.
Jones, Miss C.
Judge, Edmond H.
Johnston, W. W.
LeMoinc, Sir Jas. D.C.L.,
Lindsay, Lt.-Col. Crawford.
Lyster, A. N.
Lawrence, Mrs. G. B.
Macnaughton, F. M.
Macpherson, W. M.
Machin, H. T.
Macleod, Donald R.
Meredith, E. G.
Morgan, Major James.
McLimont, J. C.
Marsh, W. A.
Mahony, R. J.
Neilson, Lt.-Col. J. L. H.
O'Meara, D. D.
O'Leary, Rev. P. M.
Owen, P. G.
Petry, Major W. H.
Pope, Miss Louisa.
Price, H. M.
Parmelee, G. W., D.C.L.
Price, William, M.P.
Pentland, C. A.
Pigot, C. J.
Price, A. J.
Peacock, T. R
Quebec Bank, Quebec Staff.
Rollit, C. G.
Ross, J. Theo.
Ray, Lt.-Col. Walter J. .
Ross, F. W.
Robertson, D. C., K.C.
Shaw, C. H.
Scott, Rev. F. G., D.C.L.
Stuart, Gus. G., K.C.
Sewell, E. D.
Sewell, Mrs. A.
Stevenson, Miss E.
Scott, James G.
Smith, R. Harcourt.
Scott, Lt.-Col. B. A.
Sharpies, Mrs. H. H.
Sweezey, R, O.
Turner, Hon. Richard.
Turnbull, Col. J. F.
Thomson, G. H.
Thomson, D. C.
Thomas, W. S.
T. emaine. Miss L. L.
Veasey, Arthur T.
Weir, W. A.
Webster, A. D.
Wood, Lt.-Col. W., D.C.L-
Wade, E. Harper.
Walcot, C. W.
Williams, Very Rev. Dean.
Wood, Miss Helen G.
Watson, Major David.
Winn, Miss H. E.
Whitehead, A. B.
Wurtele, Lt.-Col. Ernest F.
Welch, J. A.
Webb, Mrs. E. E-
^Sharpies, Hon. John.
Wurtele, Fred. C.
THE GOVERNORS OF MORRIN COLLEGE.
Love, Rev. A. T., D.D.
Clint, J. H.
Geggie, D. H.
Cook, A. H.
Ross, J. Theodore.
Barclay, Rev. J., D.D., Montreal
Clark, Revd. Wylie C.
COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1909.
JAMES DOUGLAS, LL.D... ...lion. President.
SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L-, F.R.S.C.. . . Hon. Vice-President.
G. W. PARMELEE, D.C.L President.
J. THEO. ROSS, B.A
COL. J. F. TURNBULL ( v - n Pl ._ n _
A. H. COOK, K.C V p sidents.
DR. J. M. HARPER I
JAMES GEGGIE. . Treasurer.
A. ROBERTSON, K.C Recoiding Secretary.
LT.-COL. CRAWFORD LINDSAY Corresponding Secretary.
W. CLI NT Council Secretary.
E. T. D. CHAMBERS Librarian.
PHILEAS GAGNON Curator of Museum.
COL. H. NEILSOX Curator of Apparatus.
REV. P. M. O'LEARY
REV. F. G. SCOTT, D.C.L., F.R.S.C
JOHN HAMILTON, D.C.L.
LT.-COL. W. WOOD, D.C-L., F.R.S.C. Und Past Additional
P. B. CASGRAIN [Presidents!
C. TESSIER J ex-Officio.;
MAJOR W. H. PETR^ Auditor.
J. W. STRACH AN Custodian of the Rooms.
COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1910.
JAMES DOUGLAS. LL.D., SPUYTEN DUYVIL, N.Y...Hon. Pres.
SIR JAMES M. LeMOINE, D.C.L., F.R.S.C.. . .Hon. Vice-President.
JOHN HAMILTON, D.C.L President.
COL. J. F, TURN'BULL ^
J. THEO. ROSS, B.A w . n . .
DR. J. M. HARPER i Vlce Presidents
A. H. COOK, K.C J
JAMES GEGGIE Treasurer.
A. ROBERTSON, K.C Recording Secretary.
LT.-COL.' CRAWFORD LINDSAY Corresponding Secretary.
W. CLINT .- Council Secretary.
E. T. D. CHAMBERS .' Librarian.
I'll I LEAS GAGNON ..Curator of Museum
COL. H. NEILSON -.Curator of Apparatus
REV. F. G. SCOTT, D.C.L., F.R.S.C
MAJOR W. H. DAVIDSON
REV. P. M. O'LEARY
F. C. WURTELE..
LT.-COL. W. WOOD, D.C-L., F.R.S.C. 1 , p
P. B. CASGRAIN p" d - H as1
C. TESSIER f A "
G. W. PARMELEE, D.C.L J ex
MAJOR W. H. PETRY Auditor.
J. W. STRACHAN Custodian of the Rooms.
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec
A paper on Admiral Bayfield, read in Morrin College
Hall before the Literary and Historical Society of Que-
bec, on the 4th day of January, 1909, by retired Captain
J. G. Boulton, R.N., Hydrograpical Surveyor, the Presi-
dent, Dr. G. W. Parmelee, in the Chair.
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I fear you will
derive less pleasure from the reading, than I have from the
writing of this paper on Admiral Bayfield, partly because
bad caligraphy does not conduce to good reading, and
partly because this paper is nothing more than a scanty
and disjointed account of the services, principally in Cana-
dian waters, of a scientific naval officer, appealing more to
surveyors and seamen than to the mixed audience wlip
have honoured me and the memory of the late Admiral,,^
with their presence here to-night. . ; > ;
But being anxious, as I am sure are many others j,i}.
this city and Canada generally, to haye.the Admiral's use-
ful services in this country recorded ere it be too late (and
there being in. my opinion no fitter repository for such !(
than the archives of this Society, of which the late AdrmV
ral was a prominent member for some fourteen years) thi<>.
wish cannot well be complied with, unless I afflict you for-
a short time with a portion (about two-thirds) of what
I have written, in order that the President and Council of ,
the Society may judge whether it is worth the expense of .,,
publication. Should it meet with their favour, access can
hereafter be had to the complete paper when laid upon the
Reading Room table of the Society.
The method pursued in the compilation of this rather ;(
fragmentary memoir has been, first, to relate Bayfield's
services, from his entry in the Royal Navy to his comple-
tion of the Hydrographical Survey of the Canadian shores
of the Great Lakes.
Then a brief account of the Services of Admiral Owen,
under whom Bayfield commenced his surveying career,
and with whom he was afterwards associated in similar
work, later, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (though time does
not allow me to read it). Next, a short description of the
method of hydrographic surveying as pursued by Bayfield.
Finally, an account of part of his services in the River and
Gulf of St. Lawrence, from extracts from six journals and
a letter book , which unfortunately only cover about two-
thirds of the Admiral's time in that district, but are all that
appear to exist. I am much indebted to the Admiral's
son, Edward Bayfield Esq., barrister-at-law, residing in
Charlottetown, P.E.I., for his kind assistance, and to Dr.
Doughty C.M.G. Dominion Archivist, and James White
Esq. F.R.G.S. Geographer, for the loan of the six jour-
Admiral Henry Wolsey Bayfield, the subject of this
memoir, was born at Hull in the County of Norfolk, Eng-
land, on the 21st January, 1795, being descended from a
very ancient family, the Bayfields of Bayfield Hall, in the
village of that name and in. the same county. Bayfield re-
ceived an ordinary education, and, in 1806, at the early age
of eleven years, entered the Navy as a supernumary vol-
unteer on board His Majesty Ship Pompee of 80 guns,
bearing the flag of Sir William Sidney Smith, and was in
action with a French privateer six hours after leaving
Portsmouth. Mr. Bayfield was transferred to H.M.S.
Queen of 98 guns, the flagship of the great Collingwood.
From her he was appointed to the Duchess of Bedford,
hired armed ship commanded by Lieutenant F. B. Spils-
bury, and was slightly wounded in a severe action in the
Strait of Gibraltar, in which that vessel beat off two Span-
ish feluccas with double her crew. For Mr. Bayfield's con-
duct in this action, he was made a first-class volunteer and
appointed 29th September, 1806, to H.M.S. Beagle, called
the Golden Beagle from the number of prizes she cap-
tured. In her, commanded by Captain Francis Newcombe,
he assisted in compelling the enemy to abandon an English
vessel laden with naval stores, stranded on the Spanish
He also assisted at different times, in the capture of
the Hazard, Vengeur and Fortune, privateers, and partici-
pated in Lord Cochrane's auction in Basque roads in April,
1809, being present at the operations of the llth, 12th and
18th of that month. On the latter date, the Beagle, in
company with other ships, was engaged \vith the French
vessels, Ocean, Regulus and Indienne, aground in the
mouth of the Charente, the English ships being exposed to
a heavy fire from the battery on Isle d'Aix. The Beagle,
which gallantly posted herself on the Ocean's stern and
quarter in barely more water than sufficed to float her,
fought hotly for five hours and suffered more severely than
any of her consorts.
In the autumn of 190, Mr. Bayfield accompanied the
Waleheren expedition, and in 1811 as midshipman, he re-
joined Captain Newcombe, now commanding H.M.S.
Wanderer of 21 guns, in which he served in Spain, Portu-
gal, the West Indies and North America. Mr. Bayfield
was promoted to Lieutenant on March 3rd, 1815, and while
his ship was in Quebec that summer, Captain Owen, R.N.,
who was making a survey of Lake Ontario and in want of
an assistant, was so taken with Lieutenant Bayfield's note
books that he was ordered to accompany Captain Owen
back to Kingston forthwith. He did not go willingly, be-
cause he thought for a young naval officer it would be
burial alive now that peace was declared. It should have
been stated, that while on board the Beagle, Bayfield had
for messmates two young officers who had received a col-
lege education. Bayfield taught himself from their books,
there being no Naval Instructor in those days. Lieuten-
ant Bayfield remained with Owen until the latter returned
to England in 1816. On June 17th, 1817, Bayfield was
made Admiralty Surveyor, and eventually extended the
survey over all the Canadian shores of the Great Lakes. I
regret to state that I have not had access to any journals
or reports of his work upon the upper lakes, extracts from
which would, no doubt, be extremely interesting; but we
know that his survey of Lakes Erie and Huron was car-
ried on by very inadequate means in two six-oared open
boats, his sole assistant being Mr. Midshipman P. E. Col-
lins, R.N. We also know that in 1823 he commenced the
survey of Lake Superior, having the use of the Hudson
Bay Company schooner Recovery, the only vessel on that
lake. Ex-Surveyor-General Lindsay Russell, informed
me recently that during his explorations in that re-
gion he heard that the name of the Recovery's sailing mas-
ter was Lamphere, construed by the French voyageurs
into L'Enfer, his temper being anything but angelic upon
occasion. Bayfield, by the Indians, was known as the
"Great," Collins as the "Little Chief."
Bayfield made Fort William his headquarters for Lake
Superior, and in winter the survey of the shore line was
proceeded with on the ice, as was done in Lakes Erie and
Huron before, Bayfield living in camp with his French
On 10th May, 1825, at Fort William, Lieutenant Bay-
field met Captain (afterwards Sir) John Franklin R.N.,
and his party of 33 ,on their way to the Arctic coast of
Canada from England, via New York and Penetangui-
shene. The object of the overland journey was to gain
time over the alternative passage to York Factory by one
of the two annual Hudson Bay Company's ships. Among
Franklin's officers was Lieutenant George Back R.N.,
whom as Commander on his way to the mouth of the
Great Fish River for tidings of Captain (afterwards Sir)
John Ross R.N., Bayfield again meets at Quebec in 1833.
Towards the end of the year 1825, Bayfield having
completed the survey of the Canadian shores of the Great
Lakes, returns to England, and is employed at the Ad-
miralty, preparing for the engraver his lake charts, and
no doubt appreciating the rest and change of scene alter
ten years incessant toil on shores mainly inhabited by In-
dians and a few fur traders.
Bayfield was promoted to Commander in November,
1826, and, in recognition of his services in Canada, was ap-
pointed in the autumn of 1827, to the command of the Sur-
vey of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, making this
city his first winter quarters. Before relating his services
in this part of Canada, I shall, in accordance with previous
announcement, say a little about Admiral Owen, followed
by a brief description of the nature of hydrographic sur-
veying pursued by Bayfield.
Admiral William Fitzwilliam Owen, born in 1774, en-
tered the Navy as a midshipman in June, 1788, serving in
the West Indies and Home Stations until the end of 1794
in H.M. Ships Culloden, Libra, Assistance, Vengeance,
Hannibal, and Culloden again. In the latter ship, he was
present at Lord Howe's victory. He afterwards served in
the London, and was promoted to lieutenant for his con-
duct during the mutiny at Spithead, and given command of
H.M.S. Flamer in June, 1797. After serving in various
ships in the English Channel, he commanded H.M. brig
Seaflower in the East Indies, when he captured in July,
1806, the French ship Le Charles. He explored part of the
Maldive Islands and the west coast of Sumatra. He con-
ducted Sir Edward Pellew's squadron into Batavia roads,
and distinguished himself on that occasion in command of
a division of boats. In September, 1808, he was taken
prisoner by the French and detained at Mauritius until
June, 1810, after which he was superintendent of trans-
ports at Madras. He became commander in May, 1809,
and served through the Java campaign in 1811 in H.M.S.
Barracouta. In December, 1811, he was promoted to post
rank and appointed to H.M.S. Cordelia, in which ship he
captured the island of Palembang. He returned to Eng-
land in June, 1813, and in March, 1815 was appointed for
survey of the Canadian lakes. After completion of the sur-
vey of Lake Ontario, Owen returned to England in the fol-
lowing year, and was for a short time attached to the
Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty. From 1821
to 1826 he was employed in H.M.S. Leven in surveying the
west and east coasts of Africa, losing in the rivers on the
latter coast more than half his complement from fever.
Later he was employed in the survey of the Bay of Fundy
and Nova Scotia until promoted to Rear Admiral in 1847,
when he gave up the survey. He obtained the rank of Vice
Admiral in 1854, retired with that rank in 1855, and died at
St. John, N.B., 3rd November, 1857, aged 83 years.
On Admiral Owen's arrival at Sheerness to pay off the
Columbia, a slight misunderstanding occurred. H.M.S.
Columbia was a paddle-wheel vessel, and her proportions
anything but yacht-like ; and, on Owen's arrival at Sheer-
ness he had good reason to know that the Commander-in-
Chief at the Nore was temporarily absent, and the port in
charge of an officer of much lower rank than Owen. This
officer, never dreaming that a "clumbungy'' of a craft like
the Columbia, could contain a live Admiral, got very angry
that he was not waited upon by the Lieutenant or Com-
mander, at most, of the Columbia, and made signals to her
in accordance with his feelings. Nothing coming of them,
the port officer boarded the Columbia to know why his
temporary authority was set at defiance, and much to his
surprise, was received at the gangway by Rear Admiral
Owen, whose temper I have heard could be very short in
the grain upon occasion. Admiral Owen possessed prop-
erty on "Campobello Island, Passamaquoddy Bay, New
Brunswick, from which circumstance he was sometimes
known as "Campobello" Owen.
Although coasts and harbours had been surveyed by
the celebrated Captain Cook and others, the surveying
service only became an organized branch of the British
Navy on the 12th August, 1795, when the first Hydro-
grapher, Mr. Alexander Dalrymple ,a retired East India
Company officer, was appointed. Before this date, how-
ever, there were two "Marine Surveyors to the Admiralty"
employed in surveys of the English coast. The first, from
1771 to 1778, was Lieutenant Murdoch Mackenzie, R.N.,
and afterwards his cousin, a civilian, Mr. Graeme Spence,
In 1808, Dalrymple was succeeded by Captain Thomas
Hurd, R.N., who held the office until 1823, when the cele-
brated Arctic navigator Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir)
W. Edward Parry, R.N., became hydrographer, holding
the office until 1829, a couple of years after Bayfield com-
menced the survey of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Captain (afterwards Admiral Sir) Francis Beaufort,
K.C.B., succeeded Sir W. Edward Parry, and held the post
until the year before Bayfield retired.
The important distinguishing feature of hydrographical
surveying, as the term implies, is that its operations are
carried on principally upon that unstable element water, de-
pendent upon wind and tide, which, we know, "wait for no
man." When a geodetic survey is carried across a country,
such as the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, or the Coast
and Geodetic Survey of the United States, an elaborate
base line, 3 to 5 miles in length, is measured with the great-
est possible accuracy, the operation occupying a party the
best part of a year, and costing much money. Differently
from this, Bayfield would measure small bases a quarter
of a mile long or even less, every 20 or 30 miles, the same
being measured by a chain or well stretched lead-line.
The coast between would be triangulated by the land feat-
ures, if suitable. If flat and wooded, use of the ship and
boats would be made as temporary stations. In either
case, the ultimate scale of the chart would be determined
from the distance calculated between stations determined
by latitude and longitude, and not from the triangulated
distance, though the difference would not be great. Bay-
field, took nearly all the observations for latitude, and
mostly by meridian and circum-meridian altitudesof stars,
with sextant. As regards longitude, he made the Quebec
citadel his secondary meridian, determining its longitude
west of Greenwich during the winter months, principally
by moon occultations, and eclipses of Jupiter's satellites,
keeping his chronometers rated for the local time, and
orecious cold it must have been for their fingers in the ab-
sence of an observatory. The longitude of the Citadel was
also determined by chronometric measurement with Cam-
bridge Observatory, United States, through Halifax, al-
luded to further on. The marvellous skill of Bayfield as
an observer, is shewn from the fact of his position of the
present Time Ball on the Citadel being retained to this day
on the latest chart of Quebec harbour. His differences of
longitude between the Citadel and other points east and
west of Quebec were determined by chronometers, of
which at one time he had as many as thirteen on board
his schooner. Bayfield would not likely be in error more
than 500 feet in any of his astronomically determined po-
sitions. Every opportunity would be taken by himself and
assistants to observe by theodolite the astronomical bear-
ing of stations on prominent headlands, from each other.
The above-mentioned possible error, therefore, for prac-
tical purposes of navigation, would amount to nothing.
Everything being relative, it would simply mean a prac-
tically inappreciable difference of scale. The sextant ob-
servations for difference of longitude were usually taken
by day, those for latitude by night, both dependent upon
cloudless skies, a consummation devoutly to be wished for
but seldom attained on the Labrador shore of the Gulf, as
his journals show.
A large proportion of Bayfield's time would be ab-
sorbed in the attainment and calculation of these observa-
tions. The rest of his time would be occupied in sounding
in the ship with the aid of Massey's sounding machine, the
plotting of the stations on various large scale plans of
harbours and smaller scale coast sheets, together with the
superintendence and waiting upon his detached parties put-
ting in the shore line and coast details.
Considerable ground would have to be gone over in the
course of these operations, and the Gulnare, being a sail-
ing vessel, had very little rest or any one in her, when a
fair wind offered. The winters were occupied in completing
the plotting of the remaining details on the rough sheets
and plans; the construction of more comprehensive small
scale charts on Mercator's projection, on. which the astro-
nomically determined stations would be laid down by Bay-
field himself, and between which the coast details and
soundings from the roughs would be squared in. Fair
copies would be made of the whole ,and in the spring be
transmitted to the Hydrographer of the Admiralty for pub-
Accompanying Sailing Directions embodying informa-
tion that cannot be written upon charts without causing con-
fusion would also be written, and thus summer and winter
would be fully occupied.
From the time of Bayfi eld's appointment to the Survey
of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence in the autumn of
1827, until July 1829, I have seen no' journal, but the Que-
bec Gazette of the 19th May, 1828, says: "The hired
schooner Gulnare, 146 tons, built for Captain Bayfield,
R.N., as a surveying vessel, was launched yesterday from
Mr. Taylor's shipyard. She is a fine vessel, owned by Mr.
Stevenson, merchant, and after the season will be em-
ployed in the West India trade."
The same paper of 20th October, 1828, states: "The
hired schooner Gulnare, Captain Bayfield, R.N., returned
yesterday, having been employed since June last in survey-
ing the river under the orders of the Admiralty. She has
been engaged the greater part of the time in surveying
the North Channel below Quebec, but has been as low as
Anticosti and Gaspe. The Gulnare is to be sold by auc-
tion on Saturday next." She was advertised in the same
number of the Gazette, in English and French for sale,
the terms being 1,050 in cash, and the balance in sixty
days, "the sale to carry certain advantages which will be
transferred with her register." This probably alluded to
the hire by the Admiralty. The agents of sale were
James Bell Forsyth and Francis Bell, Esqrs. During the
winter of 1828-29, Bayfield read before the Literary and
Historical Society of Quebec a paper on the Geology of
Lake Superior, which will be found among the Printed
Transactions. This exhaustive treatise on so abstruse a
subject extraneous to his profession, is a good instance of
his studious and observant nature.
In July, 1829, Bayfield was in Ellis Cove, Anticosti,
which seems to have been his principal rendezvous while
surveying that island, and says : "Found that the wreck on
West Point is the Hibernia, a merchant brig, whose mas-
ter had died here of fatigue and is buried on the island. We
were informed that another vessel, a barque, got ashore
about 20 miles to the south-east, and that about half her
crew had perished. This, added to the crew and passen-
gers of the Granicus, who all perished miserably from cold
and hunger after eating each other, is tolerably well for
In August, 1829, Bayfield was in Fox Bay on the north
coast of Anticosti, and near East Point. From the crew of
a Magdalen Island schooner, and from Mr. Godin in
charge of the Provision Post maintained by the Govern-
ment ; also from his personal inspection of the place, Bay-
field tells the following story of the wreck of the ship Gran-
icus, which sailed from Quebec on the 29th October, 1828,
for Cork, Ireland : "In November, the Grancicus struck on
the reef from the south point of Fox Bay. The crew got
her off, but she soon after became unmanageable and ran
ashore on East Point. The crew, from the sails, con-
structed tents, in which they lived until early in March
upon what they saved from the wreck. It is said they
saved rum, which destroyed discipline and led to their
ruin. Being able to get no more provisions from the Gran-
icus, they came in a boat to Fox Bay, where they found
nothing, the post not being supplied that winter, and conse-
quently no one living at it. They lived, it appears, in the
large building, being in all, seventeen men, two women and
three children, who all perished. The fishermen who dis-
covered the bodies in April last, found, upon opening the
door of the large house, putrid and mutilated bodies, for as
fast as any died the others appeared to have lived upon
their remains. In this building there appear to have been
most horrible scenes enacted. The bed places and bedding
were smeared with blood, and there were stabs of knives
in the clothes. The partitions of the rooms and windows
were broken as if by violent contention. I saw many ar-
ticles of male and female clothing still remaining, and one
hammock appeared to be smeared with blood. There was
a pot in the fireplace with human flesh in it, and some
pieces in a large chest. I saw a species of almanac on the
wall in chalk, which appeared to be formed by first writ-
ing the number of days in the month, as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and
rubbing out each day until the month was finished. The
same was done for the days of the week, which were rep-
resented by their capital letters. In the small building, not
larger than 12 feet by 8 feet, was found the body of a man
of uncommonly powerful and muscular frame, who ap-
peared to have died more recently than the rest, and not
many days before the arrival of the fishermen. He was
lying in his bed with his cjothes on, and was the only body
whole and uninjured. In the same room with him were
four bodies suspended. Whether the man found dead in
his bed murdered these, or merely survived the rest from
superior strength, is not known and never will be."
The Quebec Mercury of 23rd June and 30th of June
give practically the same account, with the addition -of the
enumeration of articles, including money and a gold ring,
taken by the fishermen to the Magdalen Islands. From
the above sources of information and by Bayfield (who
was no doubt, singularly able to sift evidence and draw
correct conclusions) being on the spot soon after the trag-
edy, we have the truest account it is possible to get. Still,
one would like to know how the facts of the vessel strik-
ing twice, together with the time of their repairing to the
empty Provision Post, were arrived at, seeing that there
were no survivors and that the first fisherman did not ar-
rive on the scene till April. The date of Mr. Godin's arri-
val, is not stated.
The natives of Anticosti (black flies and mosquitoes)
shew a deplorable want of appreciation of hydrography in
their treatment of Bayfield on his landing for astronomical
observations near North Point : "I could not see, having
received the most miserable biting imaginable from black
flies and mosquitoes, and came on board half blind and
The middle of August, 1829, finds him again in Ellis
Cove. He says: "Mr. Gamache's schooner, and a
merchant schooner which he had brought down from
Quebec to take thence the cargo of the ship Hibernia
wrecked on West Point of Anticosti, anchored just before
us. We now learnt from Gamache's people, that three
schooners had been seen off West Point, and that their
people had plundered and burnt the wreck and cargo. It is
well for these miscreants that I did not catch them at this
At the end of this month, Bayfield is working in the
vicinity of the Manicouagan River and advises the maste 1 *
of a ship of his proximity to clanger, the disregard of which
lands the said master in a tight place: "Observed the
barque hailed last night to be close to the Manicouagan
Shoals, with boats ahead towing for several hours. The ob-
stinate fool might have saved himself all this trouble, had
he minded what was said to him."
Riviere du Loup was Bayfield's headquarters, for a few
years for letters and provisions, and in calling for the same
in the early part of September of the same year, 1829, he
hears of the appointment of Captain (afterwards Admiral
Sir Francis) Beaufort as Hydrographer to the Admiralty,
from whom Bayfield received his orders. Beaufort suc-
ceeded Parry of Arctic fame. The second week in Sep-
tember sees Bayfield and the Gulnare at Tadousac, the an-
chorage at which for a sailing vessel, he does not consider
any too safe : "I conceive the vessel sufficiently secure for
me to leave her and proceed up the Saguenay, in which
opinion I am joined by Mr. Douglas, the master. At all
events, there is no better harbour, and the Saguenay must
He says of Tadousac, in 1829: "The trading post (the
Indian fur trade) is on a larger scale than usual on the
coast. The buildings are good, and there is a chapel \..\
which prayers are read after the Roman Catholic ritual, a
very uncommon circumstance among fur traders, and very
creditable to Mr. Moreau, in charge of the po*v'
The Gulnare carried two boats for her own use. <md,
in addition, there were two larger boats 25 feet long, 6*4
feet beam and pulling six oars, for the detached parties.
These were capable of carrying their camp outfit and pro-
visions for three weeks. Bayfield's staff, now and for some
years later, consisted of Lieutenant P. E. Collins, R.N.,
who, as midshipman, was with him on the lakes; Mr. A. F.
]. Bowen, mate R.N., and Dr. William Kelly M.D. R.N.
The latter, in addition to his medical duties, assisted Bay-
field in his accounts and correspondence.
Mr. A. Gugy appears to have been the owner of the
Gulnare in 1829, Mr. William Stevenson acting as his
agent. The vessel was hired by the Admiralty from 20th
May to 1st November, the owners supplying a master and a
proportion of the men. The Admiralty paid 300 sterling
per month, the owner being at liberty to trade to the West
Indies in the winter, but the latter not being satisfactory,
the owner in the autumn of 1829 was to keep the vessel all
winter in Quebec and be allowed the additional sum of
250 pounds sterling, compensation.
Towards the end of October, 1829, Bayfield allows him-
self a short holiday: "Finding that the sudden change
from being constantly in the open air surveying, to the con-
stant writing or work in the office, has damaged my health,
I determined upon allowing 'myself a few days' respite,
and accompanied the Hon. J. Caldwell on his yacht The
Maid of the Mill - to Crane Island to shoot, and I also
piloted him among the shoals and thus increased my own
knowledge of the river."
On the 2nd March, 1830, we find that Bayfield presented
to the Literary and Historical Society geological speci-
mens of the river below Quebec and from Anticosti, all ar-
ranged by Dr. Kelly, R.N.
Before proceeding to sea each spring, it was Bayfiield's
custom to make out tour bills on the Accountant-General
of the Navy ,datecl 21st June, July, August and September,
and lodge them \vtrh the Deputy Quartermaster-General at
Quebec, to be delivered to the owner of the Gulnare or
his agent, as they became due. The balance to the 1st No'-
vember, Bayfield paid himself on his return to Quebec.
The early part of June, 1830, finds Bayfield working in
the vicinity of Hare Island and the Brandy Pots, and an
entry in his journal on the 7th, shews that he was not alto-
gether idle : "Plotted soundings obtained yesterday, into
the plan, having worked all day until 11 p.m. at night.
Very hard work. I never left the deck from 5 a.m. until
7 p.m. except for a few minutes at a time." The following
shews his confidence in the handiness of his vessel : "During
the day we had occasion to examine several places in the
vicinity of the Brandy Pots never before entered by a
vessel of any size. Trusting to the known qualities of the
Gulnare, we fearlessly stood in, to within two cables of the
rocks, whether the wind was fresh or light. In wearing or
staying, she equally answered our expectation's, working
like a vessel of 30, instead of 150 tons. There was, how-
ever, no small degree of nervous excitement in this sort of
thing, for the coast was so bold that we had no bottom
with 50 fathoms of line at a quarter of a mile from the
shore. Yet there were rocks above water, with 20 to 30
fathoms water alongside of them, and why not under water
too? Now, to have got on such a rock, if such existed,
would have meant certain destruction in such a tideway."
The officer conducting a marine survey has many things
to distract his attention. On this occasion, Lieutenant
Collins' boat came to grief. He was detached near the
Brandy Pots with one of the large boats : "Mr. Collins'
coxswain on the 23rd June carelessly left the plug out of
his boat, which was aground at low water after having
been cleaned out. At night when the flood made, the boat
filled and all his books and sextant were damaged, and
about ten days' provisions destroyed. The coxswain must
make this good, in part, out of his wages.''
On Bic Island, Bayfield measures a base line, and on ac-
count of the slight inequalities of the ground, prefers to
use a well stretched lead-line of 25 fathoms to the 66 feet
chain, checking it by the latter before the line had time to
contract or expand. Bayfield, at this time (July, 1830) had
August, 1830, finds him again at Ellis Cove, Anticosti,
with the wind in, and a heavy sea. He says : "In this bay,
with the wind in, a heavy sea and thick weather, there is
nothing left for it but to hold on. We have tried the
ground well before this, but this night we will try it more ;
there is nothing like being able to speak from experience
in these matters."
Bayfield tries to be philosophical under the wretched
weather he is experiencing in Anticosti, in' August, 1830,
and writes: "In such abominable weather, as we have
been plagued with during the month, it is clear that little
can be done in the way of surveying. In short, we are all
out of patience and perfectly disgusted with the winds and
weather, which cross us at every turn ; query, Is it a sign
of wisdojn to rail at the winds and weather?" On the 18th
August, he writes : "While at sea, spoke the ship London,
the master of which vessel hauled towards us with his
ensign half-mast and informed us of the death of our la-
mented sovereign, George the Fourth," A fortnight later,
Bayfield "spoke the Colonial Government brig Kingfisher,
Captain Rayside, who came on board."
Bayfield, soon after this, was anchored in St. Nicholas
Harbour, a few miles west of Point des Monts and says:
"I had just finished observing and was returning on
board the Gulnare, when I met Mr. McLeod's boat, be-
longing to the fur traders of the King's Posts, and was
both alarmed and astonished to perceive in her, Lieutenant
Collins and two of his men. Lieutenant C. informed me
that he had lost his boat, and had been travelling all day
over the mountains until he met Mr. McLeod, who had
kindly lent him his boat to come to me. Lieutenant C, tho
tired, had evidently suffered more in mind than body.
The circumstances of this somewhat laughable affair were
these : Lieutenant Collins was camped in St .Pancras
Bay, and at daylight found his boat was not to be seen;
and he and his men having shouted for some time, without
having an answer, Lieutenant C. concluded that his
boat, from the carelessness of his coxswain, had been car-
ried out of the cove by the wind or tide during the night.
All the provisions, chronometer, records and instruments
were in the boat. Lieutenant C. posted four of his men on
high land within sight of the cove, and came on to me with
the other two, the remaining two being adrift in the boat.
The laughable part of the business was, that the boat was
never out of the cove and not a quarter of a mile from the
tents; and had Lieutenant C. sent a man along the rocks
on each side of the camp, he would have seen the boat im-
"The boat had been moored at low tide with too short a
scope of cable, and as the tide rose, she lifted her anchor
and quietly drifted out of the cove, while the boat-keepers
slept. The boat's anchor, after drifting for a while, got
foul of the rocks, which, when cleared, the boat returned to
the camp and the keepers were as much astonished to find
it deserted as Lieutenant C. had been to find the boat
The 12th September, 1830, finds Bayfield off Quebec in
the Gulnare, on her way to finish the season between Lake
St. Peter and Montreal, and he says: "For fear of delay
which might arise from communication with Quebec, I
suffered no one to leave the vessel excepting the steward,
whose wife was sick."
The folowing entry shows that Bayfield did not work
on Sundays, except from necessity: "The angles taken
to-day, I could only obtain under favourable circumstances
of wind and weather like those of to-day. I therefore,
seized the opportunity; otherwise I did not work to-day,
Sunday." Under date of September 29th, he alludes to the
Berthier Channel above Quebec, having been surveyed in
winter, which must have been that of 1827-1828, or!828-
Bayfield, for the more convenient prosecution of the
Survey of the St. Lawrence River, leaves the ship and lives
in tents at the west end of Lake St. Peter, remarking: "My
sailors are not so well accustomed to encamping in the
woods as the Canadians of the surveying boats, and could,
therefore, neither make themselves nor me as comfortable
as circumstances admitted; we therefore passed a wet and
comfortless night. Up, as usual with the sun."
In regard to the Richelieu River, Bayfield says, in mid-
dle of October of this year, 1830: "If I survey the River
Richelieu, it will be done on the ice, as it is too narrow to
triangulate, and cannot be done othewise, in summer, with
sufficient accuracy." The end of October finds the party
in winter quarters, and Bayfield with his officers attend-
ing the Levee of Lord Aylmer, the Governor, at Quebec.
On the 16th November, 1830, he says: "About sixty
sail of merchantmen which had been wind-bound for a
long time, took their departure. Twas a beautiful sight
to see them all going round Point Levis in a crowd." Un-
daunted by the cold, we find him, on the 19th February,
1831, trying to obtain the longitude of the Citadel. Bay-
field states : "At night, Dr. Kelly and I sat up until mid-
night endeavoring to obtain an occultation of Aldebaran
with the moon. After sitting for an hour in the snow, with
the thermometer near zero, we were disappointed by the
star's just passing along the moon's edge without touch-
The latter part of that winter seems to have, been se-
vere, for Bayfield says : "Lieutenant Collins and Mr.
Bowen measuring and making observations, etc., on the
ice. Two regiments were reviewed on it, and the artillery
practised at a target with round shot and shrapnell
shells.' During this winter, Bayfield read before the Lite-
rary and Historical Society, a paper on the coral animals
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and which is among the So-
ciety's Printed Transactions.
An entry of the 30th May, 1831, states: "1 made my
cash accounts up to this day, and thereby dismissed from
my mind that part of my duty till next autumn, which
will enable me to turn my undivided attention to the Sur-
vey, observations, etc., etc."
While working his way down the river in the spring of
1831, the Gulnare gets badly ashore near the Stone Pillar
north-east of Goose Island, and the following extract of
7th May shews the reason of her going ashore, precautions
taken to prevent injury, measures for refloating her, and
his coolness during the time she was high and dry. He
says: "Being anxious for the assistance of Mr. Hall the
master (Mr. Walter Douglas had left to command the
steamship John Molson) immediately after dinner, I re-
quested him to go down to dinner with me, leaving Mr.
Parry quartermaster in charge of the deck, cautioning
him to mind South Rock, which I felt convinced he knew
as well as I did.
"We had just finished dinner when the vessel struck
on South Rock. All precautions were taken to meet the
case of her falling over towards the deep water as the tide
fell. The chronometers, journals, public money, papers,
etc., were landed on the Stone Pillar, and an approaching
small schooner was detained. At 5 h. p.m. having made prep-
arations for all circumstances, and rinding there was noth-
ing more to be done, except wait with patience for the tide
to flow, I went ashore upon the Stone Pillar about a third
of a mile distant, and made a series of observations for the
heights of mountains, variation of the compass, etc., etc.
At 7 p.m., I returned to Gulnare, and found her completely
dry fore and aft, which gave us an opportunity of examin-
ing her bottom. She was resting upon three points of
rock ; that upon which she appeared to be resting most
heavily being abreast the fore part of the main hatchway,
causing a. slight dent in the bottom
"To release this pressure as much as possible, we got
large blocks of wood under her bottom between the point
of rock and the bilge, but further aft, and wedged them in
with great force by means of a heavy spar slung over the
side and worked like a battering ram. We did the same
under the keel aft, as, from the after part of the main
chains to the stern post she rested on nothing until we had
done this. At 3 a.m. w r e were afloat and anchored opposite
the Wood Pillar, the vessel not making a drop of water. I
w r as extremely annoyed at this accident, because I consid-
ered that those who did not know the circumstances of the
case would justly consider it discreditable that we should
get ashore upon a part of the river that we had surveyed
several years ago. Many vessels passed us, beating down
with the ebb, but not one offered us the least assistance.
The Gulnare, however, put a good face upon it in her mis-
fortune, and I ordered the ropes to be hauled taut, yards
squared, and the ensign and pennant to be kept flying, in
order that they might see that we were not frightened out
of our senses the rascals."
Messrs. Collins and Bowen both have trouble with
their boats' crews in June of this year, as the following ex-
tracts show: "At 7, Mr. Bowen rejoined me, having been
much detained by the desertion of four of his men, two of
whom he had caught and brought back, but the other two
escaped and warrants were out against them in Quebec."'
The next day, the 10th June, he says: "Lieutenant Collins
rejoined me, having had trouble with his men, and lost one
of them. The best boatmen have engaged this spring in
the service of the Hudson's Bay and King's Posts Com-
panies. These fur. traders being in a state of fierce opposi-
tion, give very high wages; -hence, we had a very indiffer-
ent set to choose our boats' crews out of."
The next day Bayfield says: "Lieutenant Collins re-
turned from Riviere du Loup with three men who had
never pulled an oar in their lives ; we shall have to teach
them." Bayfield is off Matane on 7th July, and says of the
weather : "Continued sounding in a variety of lines, by
the patent-log and compass all night. Extremely dis-
agreeable on board this small vessel in this weather.
Everything wet, or at least damp on board, rolling and
tossing abount incessantly; besides, it is so cold that we can
scarcely keep ourselves warm with thick flushing dresses
Towards the end of July, 1831, Bayfield is sounding off
Cawee Island on north shore of the Gulf, and says :
"Sounding off Cawee Island in 191 fathoms, the patent
s'ounding machine was used in this great depth contrary to
my orders and the wings burst from pressure in conse-
On the 12th September, Bayfield rescued the master
Mr. Marnock, and crew of the ship Jane of Belfast which
was wrecked on Bicquette Island landing them at Riviere
du Loup at much inconvenience. In the middle of the
same month he passes Quebec on his way to resume the
survey of the river below Montreal, and says : "We did
not stop at Quebec, wishing to get on with our work with-
out delay. The latter must have occurred had I permitted
any of the crew to go on shore at the city, as they would
have got drunk as a matter of course." To qualify him for
promotion to acting lieutenant, Mr. Bowen has permission
to proceed to Halifax to undergo his examination in sea-
manship: "The Gulnare was towed up the St. Lawrence
by the steamboat John Molson, commanded by Mr. Wal-
ter Douglas, our master of last year."
In returning to Quebec on the 19th October, Bayfield
states that he had 14 feet water in crossing Lake St. Peter.
The temptations of Quebec prove too much for a portion
of the crew, as shown by the following: "Lieutenant Col-
lins, leaving the men to find their own way on board after
hauling up their boats in Sir J. Caldwell's store, River St.
Charles, they became intoxicated as a matter of course,
hence a scene of disorder and drunkenness at night. The
truth is that our men are not under martial law, and we can
never get much good out of them in port, in consequence."
Bayfield finds it difficult to punish hired men for mis-
conduct : "Mr. William Stevenson, the agent for Mr.
Gugy, paid off the crew to-day. There was one man, La
Valle, in Lieutenant Collins' boat, who had been drunk,
insolent and disobedient; but, upon reflection, I could not
punish him by stopping his wages, the only mode in my
power, without being subject to a lawsuit, the result of
which would be doubtful, and even, if decided in our fa-
vour we should have to pay the costs, as he would sue me
in forma pauperis. This took place last year, when one of
Mr. Bowen's men was declared to have partly forfeited his
wages, but Mr. Gugy had to pay nearly double the wages
forfeited, in the way of costs. Such is the Court of Admi-
ralty. I had another motive for letting this man off,
which was, that it appears discreditable to be, every year,
in litigation with these blackguards, and the matter being-
misrepresented in the parishes, might give the service a
bad name and render it difficult for us to get men, another
The boatmen's wages in 1831 appear to have been
eleven, and the coxswain's wages fifteen dollars a month,
and found, of course. Bayfield's assistants seem to have
had usually a week for settling down in their winter quar-
ters before commencing office work.
The remark on the 26th November, 1831, "calculating
observatoins till midnight," looks as if Bayfield had not
much spare time. On the 16th December of that year, he
says: "Commodore Barrie, R.N., stationed at Kingston,
Ontario, departed for that place, leaving his son Mr. Wil-
liam Barrie, under my charge. He is midshipman of the
Cockburn, on Lake Ontario, and is to be considered as lent
to me for the present. He is a fine talented boy of four-
On the 16th January, 1832, there is an entry: "Wrote
officially to Lieutenant Collins, the senior assistant sur-
veyor, censuring him for not paying more attention' to
scientific subjects connected with his profession." This re-
monstrance was, of course, entirely for the good and fu-
ture advancement of his assistant. On the 1st February,
1832,, he notes : "The first anniversary dinner of the Lit-
erary and Historical Society of Quebec was given to-day,
at which Lord Aylmer presided." On the 4th : "Dr. Kelly,
R.N., read his paper on Mirage and Terrestrial Refraction
to-night before the Society."
Mr. Bowen had returned from Halifax, and we will
hope, had passed a satisfactory examinatoin in seaman-
ship; for on the 15th of March Bayfield commends his zeal,
as follows: "Mr. Bowen still on the sick list, as well as
Lieutenant Collins; the former with a zeal which does
him credit, although unable to attend the office, sent for
his work and continued it in his own lodgings. This, Mr.
Bowen did of his own accord." The offce was in the Union
Building, on the northwest side of Rue du Fort, leased to
the Government for the Civil Service.
On the 1st May, 1832, Bayfield records : "Received let-
ters by the March Halifax mail, conveying to me the pain-
ful intelligence of the death of my much loved and revered
mother." On the 4th of the same month: "Solemn fast
ordered today on account of the cholera. A great fire near
Diamond Harbour, sixteen buildnigs burnt down." On
the 23rd May : "Commodore and Mrs. Barrie arrived from
Kingston to see their son off in the Gulnare, he being lent
to me from H.M.S. Cockburn, bearing Commodore Bar-
rie's broad pennant on the lakes."
While at anchor in St. Patrick's Hole, Orleans Island,
9th June, Bayfield says: "The cholera is undoubtedly es-
tablished at Quebec, fifteen cases having occurred in all
since the commencement yesterday morning, and, I regret
to add, five have ben fatal. Thus, the quarantine estab-
lished to board, examine and stop all suspected vessels, has
proved ineffectual. No case of cholera has yet occurred at
the Quarantine Station. We ought to consider ourselves
fortunate in leaving Quebec at the commencement of this
fearful disease, but any satisfaction of this kind is swal-
lowed up in concern for our friends whom we have left be-
July 27th : "Lieutenant Collins pulled his boat the
Cockburn, against Mr. Hall the master, in the ship's
launch, with ten double-banked oars, the Cockburn beating
by fifteen seconds. This race created a great deal of ex-
citement and rivalry among the boats' crews, and served
to enlighten, the tedious monotony, to them, of the serv-
The climate of Anticosti is not very warm even in Au-
gust, for on the 8th of that month Bayfield writes : "I
managed to calculate some observations to-day, but every-
thing is so damp below and so wet on deck, and the vessel
tumbles about so, that it is almost impossible to sit still for
any length of time without being chilled through, or ren-
dered very uncomfortable."
In the last week of August, Bayfield is anchored in Keg-
ashka Bay, Labrador, and says : "The roar of the surf was
deafening and broke over the point nearly to the vessel's
bow. The roar of the breakers all round and their nearness
to us, gave a particularly wild appearance to our anchorage,
which might not have been, agreeable to weak or unprac-
tised nerves. Never saw the moschettoes and black flies
thicker; their bites covered us with blood while observing,
and we could not open our mouths without swallowing
them. The torment of them was beyond description: the
men, painting and working at the rigging, smeared them-
selvse with paint-oil and tar, in vain."
Bayfield had intended spending the balance of the sea-
son in the more sheltered waters of the river about Lake
St. Peter, as usual, but he says : "It is the opinion of the
surgeon that our duties which cause us to be exposed to
wet and cold constantly, would render us (and particularly
the men) very likely to take the disease, cholera, and it is
this considerati'on which has induced me to proceed to
Gaspe, it being quite immaterial which place is surveyed
first, or, if there be any difference, Gaspe is of more impor-
In the middle of September, being at Gaspe, he says:
"Measured a base of about 1% miles, and observed at
night the immersions of Jupiter's first and third satellites*,
for longitude. Blundell the quartermaster, who had it in
charge to issue the provisions, had been for some time
since suspected of watering the men's grog, to make up
for what he plundered for his own drinking. He was this
day convicted of this dishonest practice, for which I dis-
rated him and reprimanded him severely before the crew,
who were called aft on the quarterdeck for the purpose."
The 29th "September, being Sunday: "Gave leave to
men to walk on shore, the first they have had, or, I have
had an opportunity of giving them, this year, excepting
one Sunday, at Mingan." Shewing the Gulnare's fast sail-
ing qualities, Bayfield, on the 10th October, says: "At 6.30
p.m., tacked off Great Boule Island (Seven Islands). At 8
a.m., there was a large barque about 4 miles on our beam.
She carried a heavy press of canvas all day on the same
tack as ourselves; nevertheless, at 4 h. p.m., she was half
courses down on our lee quarter. When we tacked she
was out of sight to leeward." On 19th October the Gul-
nare picks up her mails on her way to Quebec for the win-
ter. He says : "At 5 h. a.m., anchored off Riviere du Loup
and sent boat for letters, after which I retired till 9 h. a.m.,
having been up all night piloting the vessel."
In furnishing his office, Bayfield seems to have been act-
uated by necessity, rather than luxury, for he says : "Paid
A. S. Frazer the sum of 8. 3s. 6d. currency for a carpet
for the office, the cold being so severe we could not do
without it." On, January 6th, he says: "There is a custom
in Canada that, at New Year everybody calls upon every-
body, requiring two days at least, during which nothing
can be done, for people are coming in or knocking at your
door all day." February, 1833: "Mr. Barrie calculating
the triangles of the survey of Gaspe, principally to teach
him how a regular survey is made and conducted." April
22nd : "Received a letter from Captain Back, R.N., request-
ing me to lend him a mountain barometer. (He had lost
his barometer in the fire at his hotel at Montreal.) We
had none I am sorry to say, nor could I find one in good
order in Quebec. Captain Back is going on an expedition
to look for Captain Ross, R.N." Commander Back, ac-
companied by Dr. Richard King, led a search expedition by
land to the mouth of the Great Fish River, for tidings of
Captain John and Commander James Clark Ross. Back
commanded H.M.S. Terror in 1836, returning in 1839 to
Ireland with his ship in a sinking condition, and was
Relating to a chart prepared during the winter of 1832-
1833, Bayfield says: "This chart, Point des Monts to Bay
Chaleur, has been a work of very great labour, but it will
also, I trust, be one of great utility, for it is very complete
in soundings and detail* of every kind; and, I have reason to
believe, there is no point in it that will be found in error
more than five seconds of latitude or ten seconds of longi-
tude." (500 to 600 feet.) May 28th, 1833, Bayfield was
preparing for sea, and says : "Our greatest trouble is with
the men; the fellows ship readily for so favorite a service,
but they are always in debt and their creditors will not let
them go until they pay. Hence, it becomes necessary to
give a month's advance. A drunken bout follows, as a mat-
ter of course, and, until that is over, there is no chance of
keeping them on board a vessel alongside a wharf with
grog shops close to it."
On the 29th, the Gulnare proceeds down the St. Law-
rence : "The Royal William steamer towed us and our new
tender the Beaufort, 30 miles in 4 h. 20 m., against the
flood stream, but in coming near to take us in tow, she un-
luckily smashed our gig at the davits, to pieces. But Mr.
Stevenson, the agent for both vessels, kindly offered the
loan of another gig in her place, and would make no charge
for towing us." The Royal William crossed the Atlantic
this summer to England. In the middle of June, 1833, .the
Gulnare had a stormy passage from Gaspe to the Magdalen
Islands, and Bayfield says : "Few of us could sleep much
under such circumstances, for we have not room to hang
in cots or hammocks, and are therefore tossed about in
standing bed-places at a great rate." On arrival at the
Magdalens, Lieutenant Collins is left there with the ten-
ders Beaufort and Cockburn, with eight men.
Bayfield, in the Gulnare, then proceeds to Little Natash-
quan Harbour, on the Labrador Coast, where, on the
22nd June he meets with Mr. Audubon, the celebrated
American naturalist. He relates : "Mr. Audubon the nat-
uralist we found here in the American schooner Ripley,
with several young men, two of them being medical stud-
ents. Mr. Audubon has come principally to study the
habits of the water fowl, with which the coast of Labrador
abounds, and to make drawings of them for his splendid
work on the birds of America. We found him a very supe-
rior person indeed. On returning Mr. Audubon's visit, was
delighted with his drawings, the birds being represented of
life size and beautifully painted. Mr. Audubon dined on
board the Gulnare. It is said there are 300 vessels em-
ployed in the fisheries on this coast, averaging 75 tons each,
and manned by 50 men to each six vessels, equal to 2,500
men. Of these, one half are French, one fourth British
and the rest Americans. Each vessel takes away on an
average, 1,500 quintals of codfish, at 112 pounds per quin-
tal. The fish average about 4 pounds each in weight, be-
ing small on this coast.
"We heard from the Americans about the Eggers, a
set of people, we, to-day, first heard of spoken of as a body.
We had previously no idea of the extent of the egging
business, as our informants termed it. It appears that, in
some seasons, 20 small schooners or shallops, of 20 to 30
tons, load with eggs from this coast. Halifax is the prin-
cipal market for them, where they at times fetch a much
higher price than hens' eggs. They are stowed in the hold
in bulk and kept for several weeks without any preparation.
These men, the Eggers, combine together and form a
strong company. They suffer no one to interfere with
their business, driving away the fishermen or anyone else
who attempts to collect eggs near where they happen to
be. Might makes right with them, it is clear. They have
arms, and are said by the fishermen, not to be very scrup-
ulous about using them. As soon as one vessel is loaded,
she is sent to market, others following in succession, so
that the market is always supplied, but never glutted.
One vessel of 25 tons is said to have cleared 200 by this
egging business in a favorable season."
In proceeding out of Little Natashquan Harbour, the
Gulnare touches upon a rock, and Bayfield says : "The
western channel appeared to be the widest, and Mr. Bowen
thought he had found ail the rocks, but we soon added to
his knowledge, for on the second board to the westward, in
the narrowest part of the channel, we struck just after the
helm was put down to tack.. We were not aground more
than a minute or two, and it was dead low water. No in-
jury was done, even to the rates of the chronometers, for
Dr. Kelly instantly ran down and took them in his hands
until we were afloat."
Bayfield is away from the ship with tents and boat be-
tween Cape Whittle and the Meccatina Islands, and ex-
periences very miserable weather. He says : "Thus, day
after day pass miserably away without advancing the serv-
ice in the least, so constantly are we persecuted with these
easterly and southerly winds, with rain and fog. This is
the fifth day of our detention on this barren island, without
a bush, wild fowl, or anything but moschettoes, during the
whole of which time I have not been able to obtain a single
observation. Yet, to the Meccatinas we will survey before
we return, if it be possible. We began to-day to catch
puffins and young gulls, and to collect mussels and clams,
to make our provisions last out as long as possible. These
are but indifferent food, and my men would not use them
until they learnt my- determination of not returning to the
vessel till the work was finished, and the consequent pos-
sibility of their being on short allowance if they did not
now economise their regular allowance."
Having attained his object, Bayfield takes the Gulnare
into Meccatina harbour at the end of July, and writes:
"Depending upon the accuracy of Lane's survey, I shot her
into Meccatina Harbour, and was astonished to find it not
more than one-half the size represented in his particular
plan of it." Mr. Michael Lane was Captain Cook's assis-
tant in his survey of Newfoundland, and carried on the
work in Newfoundland and Labrador when Cook left to
undertake his Pacific ocean voyages. Lane, however, had
not the genius of Cook or Bayfield.
In the first week in August, Bayfield proceeds to Green
Island, Newfoundland, and of the Gulnare's sailing quali-
ties, says: "In running across the Strait of Belle Isle to
Green Island, Newfoundland, the Gulnare averaged ten
knots; at times, eleven knots, wind abeam."
Bayfield, on the 9th August, remarks: "Cook's plan of
Red Bay, as well as of Chateau Bay (Labrador) is excel-
On the 12th of the same month, being in Forteau Bay,
Labrador, he says : "This morning, I turned James Davis
on shore for mutinous, disrespectful and abusive language
and manner to Mr. Hall the master, given publicly when
Mr. Hall was on the quarterdeck and in the execution of
his duty. This man had amused himself yesterday in sprit-
sail yarding' dogfish, a cruelty which I disapproved of, and
ordered not to be allowed. When desired by Midshipman
Barrie to cast loose a fish which Mr. Barrie had caught and
which the man was about to torture, he complied, but said
he could catch more, in a disrespectful manner. Soon after,
Mr. Hall saw him committing the forbidden cruelty, and
ordered him to desist, informing him that my orders were
it should not be done, upon which he answered in an inso-
lent way, and Mr. Hall ordered his grog to be stopped in
consequence. This morning, when ordered to cease mak-
ing more noise than necessary when washing decks, he
burst out into the mutinous language which caused me to
send him ashore." Sailors, though usually humane, have a
deep-seated enmity to sharks. "Spritsail yarding" is pass-
ing a spar through the shark's gills to prevent its sinking
after being thrown back into the sea.
On the 17th August, Bayfield is off the entrance to Port
Saunders, west coast of Newfoundland, in which a French
war-schooner was anchored for the protection of the
French fishermen, who, until the year 1904, had, as they
interpreted the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, the exclusive
right of fishing and landing on the Newfoundland shore
from Cape Ray northward and eastward to Cape St. John.
Bayfield says: "The French man-of-war schooner's boat
came off with a very polite note from her commander, con-
veyed by the master of the fishing brig Phoenix, who of-
fered to pilot us in. We availed ourselves of this kind offer,
for, as it was getting dark and the channel is very narrow,
it was not easy to beat in, even with the assistance of
Cook's excellent chart.
"Lieutenant Maze, the French officer commanding the
schooner Hirondelle, paid us a visit on board and made a
very favorable first impression. Mr. Duville, master of
the Phoenix, informed me that there are 300 sail of vessels
from France employed in the fishery on the Newfoundland
coast this season." (I presume this included the bankers
which fished, and do still fish from St. Pierre.) "High en-
couragement," he goes on to say, "is given to this fishery
by the French Government, with the obvious view of form-
ing seamen for their navy. Fifteen francs per quintal of fish,
are given as bounty, and another bounty nearly equally
high, if reshipped to their colonies. Moreover, a hundred
francs are given to every man shipped each year from
France, if under 25 years of age. This is certainly forcing a
trade, but the intention is obviously that of forming sea-
"The French all leave this coast before the commence-
ment of winter, leaving their fishery establishments, build-
ings, fishflakes, etc., in charge of a guardian, usually an in-
habitant of Newfoundland (British) who is half hunter or
fur trader and half fisherman. In the latter capacity the
guardians are employed to fish the rivers and brooks for
salmon, retaining one-half the salmon caught as payment
for their labour, and delivering the other to their employ-
ers. Cook's chart of Port Saunders is excellent, and so is
his chart of the coast as far as we have yet seen."
In the early part of September he takes up the survey of
Gaspe, and on the 8th is the following remark: ''Last night
seevral of the men took the second gig on shore to purchase
rum, and were discovered, upon inquiry, this morning.
William Shannon and Byrnes, being the offenders, and hav-
ing robbed the grog keg in the boats on a former occasion ;
and being insolent worthless fellows who had shipped as
able seamen without being able to take either helm or lead,
I turned ashore as an example to the rest. I also stopped
the grog of all those who were drunk with the liquor smug-
On the 19th of September, 1833, the Gulnare is an-
chored off Quebec on her way to finish the season in. the
more sheltered waters of the St. Lawrence below Montreal.
Bayfield says : "I remained on board all day and suffered
no one to leave the vessel, nor any boat to come on board
without leave, in pursuance of a rule which I have adopted
and observed on all former occasions, to prevent all those
irregularities arising from the men drinking with their
friends after a long voyage. If I do not indulge myself on
shore, the officers who know my reasons, cannot with pro-
priety expect it, and if they are not allowed to go ashore,
the men will not consider it hard that they are left on
The vessel is again laid up in Quebec, and Bayfield and
his staff are plotting their field work, and drawing fair
charts for the engraver. On the 3rd January, 1834, he re-
marks: "On the 1st and 2nd no work was done in the of-
fice, everybody calling upon everybody that they knew
ever so slightly, such being the custom of the country."
On the 23rd January, he relates : "On this day at noon, the
Castle of St. Lewis, the residence of the Governor-in-Chief,
Lord Aylmer, was discovered to be on fire, and although
every exertion was made to stop it, yet, such were the dif-
ficulties opposed by the severe cold which froze the water
in the engines, and the great height of the building which
caught fire first in the upper story, that it was completely
consumed after burning all day and all the following night.
As the fire burnt downwards, time was given to remove
most of the property which it contained. Nevertheless,
much was destroyed in the confusion."
By an entry on the 12th May, 1834, it is evident the
party is not idle : "We also attended to the fitting of the
beats, repairing gear, drawing and purchasing stores, and
principally before and after office hours."
On the 2nd Tune, before sailing, Bayfield says : "I
parted from my young friend Barrie with much regret, and
I believe it was mutual, but his father, the Commodore,
justly considers that he ought to serve the remainder of his
time" (as midshipman) "on board a regular man-of-war,
where he will learn the routine and etiquette of the service,
which cannot be very strictly attended to on board a small
surveying vessel, with a hired crew changing every sea-
In middle of July, 1834, he continues the survey on the
north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and leaving the
Gulnare anchored in Mistanoque Harbour, he proceeds
in company with Mr. Bowen, along the north coast of the
Strait of Belle Isle with boats and tents, and has a miser-
able time. Speaking of their drinking water, Bayfield says :
"The water was brown and full of small water insects,
which would doubtless have afforded good study to an en-
terprising entomologist, but which we did not consider very
agreeable at least, alive so we boiled our water and al-
lowed it to cool before we drank it."
Bayfield was, on this boat expedition, stormbound on
Wood Island between Bradore and Forteau Bays, and
says on the 22nd July: "Everything being wet in tents
and boats, we accepted Mr. Bray's offer to sleep in his
house, the men taking shelter in a store. It required hard
weather to drive us to this, for these fishing people never
clean their houses, which are shockingly dirty and smell
abominably of putrid fish, seal oil, etc. They never re-
move the offal of the fish or the carcasses of skinned seal,
which remain in scores around their establishments, frying
in the sun, and alive with maggots, tainting all the air
On Bayfield's return to the Gulnare in Mistanoque
Harbour, he found two of the men had deserted: "On re-
turning to the Gulnare I found that during my absence the
boatswain and a man Thomas Paul, had deserted, stealing
the second gig at night, in a thick fog. They had been
concerned in stealing grog from the hold, and Mr. Hall
the master told them he should report the affair to me on
my return. They carried oft" what provisions they could
steal from the messes, the Gulnare's binnacle compass,
etc., etc., and the best of the clothes belonging to their ab-
sent messmates. The chances of catching them now are
very remote, and the loss of time certain; I do not, there-
fore, feel myself at liberty to sacrifice the progress of the
service for the mere chances of catching these rascals."
A month later, Bayfield has to examine into the con-
duct of one of the crew of the tender Beaufort. He says :
"Found that Thomas Dwyer had done his best to generate
a spirit of mutiny among the crew. I took him on board
the Gulnare, to remain as prisoner until I arrived at some
inhabited part of the country" (he is how anchored in
Harbour au Lievres, Labrador) "when he will instantly be
sent on shore."
In the middle of September of 1834, Bayfield calls at
Riviere du Loup, and on his way thither is pleased with
the speed of his ship. "The vessels which had left Pte. des
Monts with us were all out of sight, so that the Gulnare
has beaten everything that she has sailed with during the
summer, both free and on a wind."
A couple of days later he stops at Grosse Isle, and
writes : "Mr. Nicholas, the boarding officer, visited us and
passed us, of course, as we had no sick. From this gentle-
man we found that at least one-twentieth of the population
of Quebec had been swept away by this second visitation
of cholera. I regret to add that many of our friends are
among the sufferers ; thankful, indeed, ought we all to feel
that our duties have kept us out of the way of this
In calling at Quebec next day on his way up the St.
Lawrence River, he remarks : "I allowed no one to leave
the vessel, according to custom."
On the 21st September, Bayfield says, in passing to
Montreal across Lake St. Peter: "The waters of the St.
Lawrence are lower than we ever before noticed them;
there is only 10 feet in the lake over the flats."
Being at Montreal, on the 10th October, 1834, he
writes : "We all went ashore for a walk to see our friends,
the first holiday we have allowed ourselves since we sailed
in the spring."
Bayfield returns in the fall to his winter quarters at
Quebec as usual, and on the 15th January, 1835, remarks:
"At the Castle last night, a large party, an agreeable re-
laxation when it does not. come too often." Two days
later he adds : "Attended the Literary and Historical So-
ciety at night, and afterwards extracted remarks on winds,
tides, currents, etc., to be inserted in my fair Sailing Direc-
The heating arrangements in Quebec at this time were
not as perfect as we have them now, for in February, 1835,
he says : "Could not keep a fire in the office, and therefore
could not work there to-day" [It was blowing a gale].
On the 8th March, is the following entry in his journal:
"I gave Mr. Bowen leave for the day on Saturday, which
he well deserves, having worked with much zeal and assi-
duity. By the measurements of Lieutenant Collins on
the ice, the northeast corner of the King's bastion of the
Citadel was found to be 308 feet 10 inches above high
water of ordinary spring tides. The top of Wolf and Mont-
calm's monument, 260 feet 9 inches, the summit of Ste.
Anne's mountain, 20 miles below Quebec, 2,684 feet."
On the 5th June, 1835, Bayfield is in Gaspe Harbour,
and in reference to sextant observations for difference of
longitude, says : "If the observations to be compared to-
gether be always on the same side of noon, and at alti-
tudes nearly similar, any errors in the instruments will be
similar, and, consequently, not affect the difference of times
between the observations, the thing to be obtained."
On the 20th June, the same year, he experiences bad
weather off Cape Gaspe, and writes : "The doctor and Mr.
Bowen both seasick in bed, together with the steward,
cook, boys, etc. ; in short, the whole of our domestic estab-
lishment. I should have felt the cold and disagreeables
more, if I had not other things to think of. The fog and
uncertainty of the position of the vessel did not suffer me
to mind much else."
On the 23rd June, Bayfield is at the Magdalens, and
enters the following: "At 8 a.m. we were just about to
tack, when, by a mistake in the orders by the people for-
ward, she took the ground, but soon got off again, having
received nothing more than a salutary lesson to be more
careful in future." Five days later, having left Lieutenant
Collins with tender Beaufort to complete the survey of the
Magdalen Islands, the Gulnare is at Red Island, New-
foundland, west coast, for verification of its astronomical
position. Bayfield eulogizes Cook's work here, as follows:
"The chart of Red Island and adjacent coast, soundings,
etc., by the celebrated Captain Cook is extremely correct.
If, -in the style of drawing his charts, the nature of the
coast, cliffs, etc., had been shewn, the survey would have
been, perfect. He has, however, made up for this, by nu-
merous views of the land, and by the remarks and direc-
tions for navigating the coasts which he surveyed." I
might incidentally mention here, that while assisting in the
survey of the coast of Newfoundland, from 1871 to 1881,
we had the same opinion, of Cook's work. Here, too, it
may be mentioned that Captain Cook was employed on the
survey of the coasts of that colony and the Strait of Belle
Isle from 1763 to 1767, under the orders of the two succes-
sive Naval Governors at that time, Captain (afterwards
Lord) Graves, and Captain Sir Hugh Palliser, Baronet.
Cook's last assistant in the survey of Newfoundland was
Michael Lane, Esq., who had been a naval schoolmaster,
and who was given charge of the work on the selection of
Cook for the voyage to the Pacific. The name of Cook's
vessel in Newfoundland was the Grenville, at first
schooner, afterwards brig rigged.
A brisk shore fishery was, in 1835, carried on by the
French nation at Red Island, on the western coast. Bay-
field relating that "there were twenty-seven sail of French
schooners of 25 to 50 tons at anchor under Red Island.
They all shewed their colours to us, and otherwise dis-
played the politeness of their nation."
On July 8th, the Gulnare is again at Mistanoque, on
the Labrador, and Bayfield finds very similar weather to
that he experienced exactly a year ago. He says : "Nine
days have passed since our arrival, in which time we have
done but one day's work ; such is the climate of Labrador
In the middle of July Bayfield is anchored in Bonne Es-
perance Harbour, north shore of the Strait of Belle Isle,
and writes : "Many of the French schooners put to sea
yesterday, and I am told they were induced to do so for
fear of a visit from our boats, which they saw with ensign
and pennant up, sounding in the offing." The French
treaty fishing rights did not extend to the Labrador.
Towards the end of July, the Gulnare is anchored in
Chateau Bay, where there is little improvement in the
climatic conditions: "We found it extremely cold here,
the temperature of the water outside the bay being at
freezing point, 32 degrees Fahrenheit, and the air, 43 de-
grees Fahrenheit. The first plants are just springing up,
and the grass is only just beginning to show a shade of
green. Yet, this is. the 25th July!"
Bayfield leaves the vessel in Chateau Bay and surveys
the coast to St. Lewis Sound in boats, and on the 17th
August returns to the Gulnare, saying: "We were all glad
enough to be on board again, for rougher work than the
survey from this to Cape St. Lewis we have seldom expe-
prienced. 'Tis, however, done, and well done, and there is
a gratification in this which makes up for anything else."
At the end of August the rum trouble breaks out again,
Bayfield saying: "Two men, Robinson and Fleming, the
former my coxswain, drunk. Upon enquiry, found that
some of the men and boys give or sell their grog to others,
contrary to my orders early in the season."
On the llth September, 1835, he is at Trinity Bay, on
the north shore of the gulf, and remarks : "Here we met
with some pilots not long from Quebec, and heard that our
tender, the Beaufort, had passed up two or three weeks
ago, and that it was reported in Quebec that Lieutenant
Collins had died in the Magdalen Islands of aploplexy. We
cannot, of course, learn any more of the circumstances of
this melancholy event till we arrive in Quebec or Riviere
du Loup. There seems, no doubt, however, that my old
friend and assistant, who, with the exception of two years
while he was at sea in the Herald, has been with me for
eighteen years, is no more. He was but a boy of sixteen
when he first joined me" (on the lakes). "I have seen him
grow up to manhood, and thought to have seen, with pleas-
ure, his further advance in the service, but it has pleased
God to otherwise dispose of him, and who shall murmur at
Four days later, Bayfield is anchored at the Pilgrims,
and says : "I received to-day an account from Mr. Dou-
cette, magistrate at the Magdalens, of the death of my la-
mented friend and assistant, Lieutenant Collins. He was
taken ill very suddenly while sounding in the Beaufort
off the islands, and ordered his coxswain to run. the vessel
as soon as possible into Amherst Harbour. He, then, says
the inquest, threw himself into the arms of his coxswain
and died instantly. He had complained of a great head-
ache several days before."
On the 19th September, the Gulnare calls at Quebec
on her way to continue the survey near Montreal, and Bay-
field remarks: "Found lying here (Quebec) H.M. Ships
President and Forte, the first being the flagship of the
Right Honorable Vice Admiral of the Red, Sir George
Cockburn ; the second bearing the broad pennant of Com-
modore Pell. The Admiral appointed Lieutenant John Or-
lebar, R.N., of H.M.S. Forte to assist me, taking his chance
of the Admiralty allowing him to remain with me as as-
sistant surveyor if he qualifies himself during the autumn
and following winter." The officers of the survey at this
time were all on the flagship's books as supernumeries.
Orlebar married, 5th February, 1838, Miss Elizabeth Har-
riet Hale, sister of Jeffery Hale, Esq.
At the end of October, 1835, the staff being once more
in winter quarters at Quebec, we find Mr. Bowen is pre-
paring for his departure to England on leave of absence to.
pass his examination at the College (Portsmouth).
On the 13th November, Bayfield says : "Wrote to Cap-
tain Beaufort, R.N. (Hydrographer), requesting that Lieu-
tenant Orlebar's appointment might be confirmed, and he
be allowed to stay as assistant surveyor."
On the 2nd January, 1836, he writes: "Paid more than
a hundred visits, and received as many in the two days."
There is an entry against the 17th February of that
year, as follows: "I supplied to Mr. Henderson a trace
copy of the St. Lawrence from Quebec to the Saguenay
River, upon a very small scale; also, the latitude and longi-
tude of Montreal and Three Rivers. The object, being to
serve as a base for making a map of the routes of the va-
rious exploring parties that have been sent out from time
to time to examine the country north of the St. Lawrence.
The map is for the Literary and Historical Society."
Against the 4th April, 1836, there is the following en-
try : "I received a letter from the Secretary of the Admir-
alty, informing me that I and my officers had been placed
on half pay in common with other officers employed in the
Surveying S.ervice on shore. I answered representing
that our case was that of officers employed at sea during
the whole of the navigable season, and the same in every
respect (excepting that our vessel is hired) as that of of-
ficers employed in a man-of-war surveying vessel. I there-
fore prayed that the new regulation would not be extended
There is unluckily a gap in the journals here of four
years and eight months, during which time no doubt many
interesting events occurred. There was certainly one of
great interest to himself, for on the 2nd April, 1838, Cap-
tain Bayfield was married in Quebec to Fanny, only daugh-
ter of Captain (afterwards General) Charles Wright,
In January, 1841, Bayrield's assistants are Lieutenants
Orlebar and George Augustus Bedford, R.N., the latter in
place of Mr. Bowen probably, and oil the 15th of that
month, he says : "I write in my own home when 1 have ac-
counts to settle, bills to draw, or trigonometrical and as-
tronomical calculations to make, because I find that I can
proceed with such work when alone and uninterrupted
much better than I can at the office, where also our accom-
modation is only good for drawing, for which the tables
On the 8th April of that year, Mr. Stevenson, now the
owner of the Gulnare, introduces Lieutenant Twiss, R.N.,
half-pay, to Bayfield. He is engaged as sailing master.
A little later the Gulnare is examined: "Agreeable to
my request, Mr. Munn, one of the principal shipbuilders of
Quebec and a man universally esteemed, is to inspect the
Gulnare as to her efficiency, and Mr. Stevenson will abide
by his opinion. She will be opened along the water line
and at the covering board."
At the end of April, Bayfield is making preparations for
the transference of the headquarters to Charlottetown,
Prince Edward Island, the work now lying in the eastern
part of the Gulf. On the 1st May, he writes: "We were
obliged to evacuate our office because the Union Build-
ings, in which the Colonial Government assigned us an of-
fice, are to be given up to the proprietors, and are to be let
as an inn or an hotel."
Under date of the 20th, he says: "Our boats' masts
are not finished, the recent fall of the Cape Diamond cliff
having crushed the mast-maker's house, and killed part of
the familv of one of his workmen."
On the 27th May : "Gave Lieutenant Orlebar orders to
take command and charge of the Gulnare and all which
she contains, and proceed to Charlottetown, P.E.I."
On the 28th, he states: "Painful leave-taking of our
numerous friends of thirteen years' standing. Received
the thanks of the Trinity House of Quebec on the 26th, in
a set of resolutions of that body, very handsomely worded
and delivered to me by the Honorable J. Stewart in per-
son. Wrote a letter of thanks."
The resolutions and Bayfield's reply, taken from the
Quebec Gazette of 2nd June, 1841, are as follows: "Re-
solved that this Board entertain a high sense of the talents
and scientific acquirements of Captain Bayfield. Resolved
that the thanks of this Board be tendered to Captain Bay-
field for the advice and assistance he has on different oc-
casions rendered to this corporation; that, while they ex-
press their regret that the province is so soon to be de-
prived of his valuable services, the Board offer their best
wishes for his future prosperity and happiness. Ordered,
that the Master be requested to wait upon Captain Bay-
field, and communicate to him the foregoing resolution."
Bayfield replies : "Dear Sir : I request that you will
receive yourself and favour me by communicating to the
Trinity Board of Quebec, my best thanks for the highly
honourable testimonial, contained in the resolutions, which
you have this day delivered to me. Whilst, in my official
capacity, I place the highest value upon, the favourable
opinion which the Board has done me the honour to ex-
press of my public services, I receive with no less gratifica-
tion the expression of their regret at my approaching de-
parture from the Province, and their kind wishes for my
future prosperity and happiness. Begging that you will
accept for yourself and them, the assurance of the same
good wishes, I have the honour to be, Sir, your humble
servant, Henry W. Bayfield, Captain R.N.*'
The Quebec Mercury of 1st June, 1841, writes, in con-
nection with the departure of the party: "It is almost
superflous to say that Captain Bayfield's services are held
in the highest admiration by professional men and by the
Lords of the Admiralty; since, during his employment
upon this duty, he has been successively promoted to Lieu-
tenant, Commander and Post Captain, and received
other flattering proofs of the value set upon his able and
unremitting exertions in the service assigned to him ; in the
execution of which he has added largely not only to pro-
fessional information, but has amassed geological facts re-
lating to the extensive regions he has surveyed, in which
little scientific investigation has previously been made.
Captain Bayfield has passed the last fourteen years in Que-
bec, and is, with his accomplished lady, whom he here mar-
ried, highly esteemed in the leading society of the place.
It must not be omitted to be stated that he was a warm
supporter of the Literary and Historical Society in this
city, and of which, we believe, he was one of the original
members, and the contributor of some valuable papers. Dr.
Kelly of the same service, has likewise been long a winter
resident of Quebec, and is equally esteemed by a numerous
circle of friends and acquaintance. To him, also, the trans-
actions of the Society are indebted for several valuable pa-
pers." (He was President for the years 1839 and 1840,
and Vice-President for several years after.) "We have
spoken of these officers particularly, because their long res-
idence and part borne in literary and scientific pursuits has,
in some sort, rendered them public characters. The Lieu-
tenants attached to this service are equally estimable men,
and the party now withdrawn from Quebec is an additional
loss to the diminishing circle of its society."
On May 29th, Bayfield leaves Quebec for Charlotte-
town, and says: "At 11.50 a.m. the Royal Mail Steamer
Unicorn cast off from the Government wharf, and we pro-
ceeded down the river with all those feelings which are
experienced by most people when leaving a place and
friends with whom they have been intimately associated
for many years. We looked upon the magnificent scenery
of the Basin of Quebec as what we might ne'er see again.
I had with me on board the Unicorn my own family, and
those of Lieutenants Orlebar and Bedford; Dr. Kelly also
accompanies me. There are, therefore, three ladies, five
children, five nurses, two men servants and the wife and
child of one of them; two horses and innumerable cases,
boxes, chests, etc. Captain Walter Douglas of the Uni-
corn, was formerly master of the Gulnare, serving under
me in the years 1828-29. He was extremely kind to me
and our party. The steamship Unicorn is a very fine ves-
sel of nearly 700 tons, and magnificenly fitted up."
On the 1st June he arrives at Charlottetown, and says:
"My house not being in a habitable state, my friend the
Honble. T. Heath Haviland kindly received me and my
family, also Dr. Kelly. Mrs. Orlebar and Mrs. Bedford
went into lodgings until the arrival of the Gulnare. Waited
upon the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Charles Fitzroy."
The survey appears to have been principally carried on
in Prince Edward Island this year, 1841, and the following
entries show that some of the crew give trouble :
"June llth. Two men deserted from the Gulnare; ad-
vertized them, theatening to prosecute anyone who might
receive or harbour them ;" and, again, on the 26th : "The
boatswain, in the second gig, was sent to the Island" (the
ship is in Bedeque Harbour, P.E.I.) "to cut brooms, but in-
stead of landing, they proceeded over to the mainland.
Mr. Twiss, the master, found him in a public house with
the boat's crew, drinking, for which he forfeits his extra
ten shillings pay per month. He stopped ashore all night,
got drunk and lost his silver 'call' on the 17th at Charlotte-
town, which I looked over because he seemed to have been
led into such conduct by the boatswain of H.M.S. Ring-
dove, whom he was with. The price of the 'call' will be
charged against him, however, unless his conduct is bet-
ter. The truth is, that we have not sufficient power by the
'Merchant Seamen's Act,' and what we might have, is
thrown away by the perncious system of giving a month's
pay in advance."
Again, on the 17th July: "The boatswain, Forster, and
a seaman, Campbell, whom the former seems to have in-
duced, were detected in tapping the rum cask, which has
not been secured as 1 desired. I directed both to be sent
on shore and any wages they might have due, to be de-
On the 5th of August, the Gulnare is at Pictou, and
Bayfield says : "There was a large French man-of-war
brig lying here, but the service I am engaged upon not ad-
mitting of delay or waste of time, I did not communicate
In the middle of the same month, at the same port, he
states : "Robinson, the coxswain of my gig, came on board
drunk and threatened to knock the second master down
and throw the master overboard. The man ought to have
been taken out of the vessel to jail immediately, but little
exertion of any kind to repress such conduct appears to
have been made by the master. On the matter being re-
ported to me, I ordered Robinson to be dismissed from the
vessel without his wages, and with a discharge stating it
was for mutinous conduct."
The party and ship winter at Charlottetown, and on the
13th November, 1841, Bayfield says: "The small steamer
Pocahontas from Pictou brought the new Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor, Sir H. V. Huntley."
On the 13th May, 1842, he notes : "Wrote to Mr. Stev-
enson a letter to await his arrival in the Unicorn at Pictou,
informing him that no seamen, were to be obtained here,
and pointing out the neessity of his sending express to Hal-
ifax for seamen, if he had not brought down the requisite
number from Quebec."
It appears that the contract time for hire of the Gulnare
is still from 20th May to 1st November.
On the 24th May, he says : "We could do but little to-
day, being obliged to attend the Lieutenant-Governor at
the Review and Levee held on the Queen's Birthday. It
was a holiday, and the Gulnare was decorated and covered
with flags, looking very pretty on the occasion."
On the 26th, Bayfield mentions the birth of his second
son, and under date of the 28th: "The Honble. James
Peake will act as Mr. Stevenson's agent at this place, with
full powers in all matters relating to the Gulnare."
By an entry on the 16th June, Mr. Parry appears now
to have superseded Lieutenant Twiss, R.N., as master of
The survey during the summer of 1842 was prosecuted
in Northumberland Strait about Pictou, and on the south
coast of Prince Edward Island.
On the llth July, Bayfield says: "We gave ourselves
and all hands a holiday to-day" (they are at Charlottetown),
"the third in fourteen years ; all the early part of the day,
however, was occupied in cleaning the ship completely,
fore and aft. We sailed three of the boats in the after-
Under date of the 17th, he remarks. "This, if it had not
been the Sabbath, would have been a day in which we
could have sounded over 70 miles. I am convinced, how-
ever, that there is nothing lost in the long run by doing
right, although I do not vainly and presumptuously expect
that the course of nature should be altered by Him who
sendeth the rain, upon the just and the unjust."
Under date of 29th July, he says: "I had to descend
to my cabin to plot the angles for each of these 41 posi-
tions, and many additional times to consult the chart for
the course to be steered, so that I am sure I may say that
I have run up and down the ladder, to and from my cabin,
60 or 70 times during the day; and this is nothing extraord-
inary but what I have to do on any day which is favour-
able for our work."
On the 5th August, while the ship is at Pictou, Bayfield
receives a visit from Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles) Lyell,
who came on board for the discussion of geological mat-
On the 8th: "The Honble. Samuel Cunard, accompa-
nied by Mr. Beggs the Collector of Customs, and by Mr.
Ross agent for steamboats, paid me a visit on board to-
Under date of the 10th: "Found eight hours' work
plotting too much for me, and determined to work more
moderately in the future."
On the llth : "Many meteors or shooting stars to-night,
as there were during the two previous nights." (The Au-
gust shower or the Persiads, which annually occur on
these three nights.)
On the 25th August, Bayfield says : "Mr. Donaldson,
one of the Commissioners for Light Houses in the Prov-
ince of New Brunswick, paid me a visit" (the ship is at Pic-
tou) "in connection with previous officcial correspondence.
He was on his way to the Magdalen Islands, which belong-
to his son-in-law, Captain, Coffin, R.N."
On the 7th September, Mr. Simon Dodd the pilot is
paid 51 pounds, 10 shillings, Halifax currency, wages for
103 days at 10s. per diem. Mr. Parry the master of the Gul-
nare, seems to interest himself in the surveying work, espe-
cially in the measurement of base lines, in which he greatly
On the llth September, at Charlottetown, he says:
"The Bishop of Nova Scotia confirmed 49 persons, among
whom I was one, not having been confirmed before, in con-
sequence of going to sea too young, and neglect after
Two days later, Lieutenant Orlebar goes to England
on leave : "We all took leave of Lieutenant Orlebar and
his family. They carry with them our best wishes, for
they are deservedly esteemed by all."
October 10th : "Considering and answering the propo-
sitions submitted to me by Captain Boxer, R.N., the Cap-
tain of the Port of Quebec, respecting the improvement of
the navigation of the St. Lawrence."
"On the 16th October, 1842, H.M. Surveying Steamer
Columbia, and my old friend and Commander, W. F. W.
Owen R.N., arrived at Charlottetown. He took up his
quarters with us." Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen
R.N., was at this time in command of the survey of the
Atlantic coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. A
brief summary of his services, it will be remembered, was
given when he was first mentioned in connection with Bay-
field's serving under him on the Great Lakes, 1815-1816.
The next day, Bayfield says: "Lieutenant Bedford and
Captain Owen's assistants were on board the Gulnare,
making tracings of such of our surveys as Captain. Owen
required for the purpose of joining his intended survey of
the Bay of Fundy to our stations, etc, etc."
On the 20th October, the party being now at Charlotte-
town for the winter, he says : "I was occupied in writing
to Captain Boxer R.N. of Quebec, respecting improve-
ments in the navigation of the St. Lawrence, their Lord-
ships of the Admiralty having referred him to me."
On the 24th May, Bayfield remarks : "The Queen's
Birthday; our people therefore did not work. The Gul-
nare dressed out with flags, looked extremely well. Mr.
Stevenson" (the owner of the vessel) "sent a barrel of beer
on board for the men's dinner on this gala day. We issue
no grog, having experienced it to be the cause of almost all
the trouble that occurs among seamen."
On the 31st May, Bayfield is at Charlottetown, prepar-
ing for sea, and says : "Our hands are full, and unfortu-
nately there are not hands enough for the duty which we
have to perform; too much of my time being necessarily
occupied in doing the duty of a clerk or midshipman."
There i : s trouble with the crew on. the 6th and 7th June,
on the eve of sailing: "The second master, Mr. Melville,
having been drunk and fighting with the men last night, I
ordered him to be discharged. Two seamen, Ev-erett and
The Gulnare is at the end of June in Pugwash Roads,
Nova Scotia, Lieutenant Orlebar having rejoined from
leave. Bayfield states on the 30th : "I proceeded on shore
to wait upon Captain Owen R.N., and had a long confer-
ence with him respecting the connection of our respective
surveys, and the settlement of the longitude of the pillar
in the dockyard at Halifax as a meridian common to us
both. He is to station a party w r ith rockets midway be-
tween the head of Cumberland Basin, Bay of Fundy, and
Tignish, Bay Verte. The Columbia will lie at the former
and the Gulnare at the latter. On the night of the 7th
July we are to have chronometers rated, and the instant of
explosion is to be noted at both vessels, and thus measure
the difference of longitude across. Lieutenant Shortland
brought a chronometer overland to compare with ours."
Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) Peter Shortland was a
very talented surveying officer, who took the unusual
course of obtaining leave from the Admiralty to study the
higher mathematics at Cambridge University, graduating
therefrom, a "wrangler." He succeeded Owen in command
of the Bay of Fundy survey in 1847.
"July 7th Lieutenant Shortland of the H.M.S. Colum-
bia, arrived with chronometer and a note from Captain
Owen, informing me that he (Capt. O.) was at a point
about midway between the two vessels with the rockets,
which he intended superintending the firing of himself."
July 8th he adds : "Altogether we saw and marked the
time of the explosion of six out of the eight rockets. In
the preceding evening I had calculated up the rates of the
chronometers, so that altogether I retired to rest well tired
with the day's work at 1 h. 30 m. a.m."
July 26th, 1843 : "Mr. Heath Haviland came on board
from Charlottetown, to take a cruise for his health with us
at my invitation. He is the eldest son of my friend the
Honble. T. Heath Haviland, Colonial Secretary of Prince
July 29th the Gulnare was at Halifax, and Bayfield
says : "Called on the Lieutenant-Governour, Lord Falk-
land. One of Captain Owen's officers called on board, in-
forming me that the Columbia was in Bedford Basin, and
that observations with rockets would be made to-night.
Accordingly we looked out and observed several of them.
They were distinctly seen by us, though distant 28 miles."
At Pictou, on the 15th August, he relates: "A large
ship, the George, of Dundee, arrived to-day with a signal
adopted here for sickness on board, viz., the ensign at the
main, union downwards. Thinking it a signal of distress,
I sent a boat to her assistance, but, fortunately, warned
the officer in her to ask the question if there was sickness
on board, so that we escape being in quarantine by not
going on board."
At the same place, on the 2nd September: "Found
H.M.S. Tweed lying off the town of Pictou. Her Com-
mander, H. D. C. Douglas, an. old acquaintance of other
years on the lakes of Canada, came on board and paid us a
October 5th, at Charlottetown: "Mr. Stevenson
brought the good news of Lieutenant Bedford's promotion
On December 4th, 1843: "Visited the Gulnare and
found her so decayed that I consider her unlit to be re-
tained in H.M. Service. Wrote officially to Mr. Stevenson,
notifying him that the contract must be considered to have
ceased, unless he would consent to replace the old Gulnare
by a new Gulnare of 175 tons, to be built here under my in-
spection and to be ready on the 20th May next. The new
vessel to be subject to all the conditions of the contract for
the old one, and to be manned, victualled and equipped in
the same manner, and to be employed next season or
longer, at the option of the Admiralty."
Under date of 7th December, 1843: "The Hydro-
grapher decides that Lieutenant Orlebar, though junior
in the service to Commander Bedford, is to be senior as an
December 8th : "The want of a clerk or other person
to assist me in writing, is severely felt, which may be imag-
ined when, I state that I wrote fourteen pages of foolscap
Bayfield states on 12th February, 1844: "Captain
Vaughan., from Canada, delivered to me this morning an
official letter from the Honble. H. H. Killaly, President of
the Canadian Board of Works/requesting my opinion as to
the line of operations best to be adopted for deepening
Lake St. Peter." Captain Bayfield sends in his recommen-
February 25th : "Mail informed me of Commander
Bedford's appointment to a survey in Ireland, and directing
me to discharge him from this service as soon as navigation
March 4th: "Engaged on the 1st, Mr. Stuart of Rose-
bank to assist in. making the fair drawings, but finding he
could not draw sufficiently well, I discharged him to-day,
paying him 1 3s 9d., island currency, for four clays' at-
tendance at the office."
Commander Bedford left Charlottetown for England on
29th April, and Bayfield says : "Their departure, after be-
ing with us four and one-half years, seems quite a chasm
in our happy little party, for his conduct, official and pri-
vate, has been excellent." Commander (afterwards Ad-
miral) George Augustus Bedford, after conducting surveys
in Ireland and Scotland, succeeded Mr. Michael Walker at
the Admiralty as Assistant Hydrographer in 1862.
May 7th: "Wrote to Sir Charles Adam, Commander-
in-Chief, requesting him to view favourably the intended
application of Lieutenant John Hancock, of H.M.S. Pique,
to be allowed to join, this service."
May 16th: "Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson and two Misses
Hale (the latter Lieutenant Orlebar's sisters-in-law) ar-
rived here from Quebec."
May 18th: "The Gulnare was launched and christened
by Lady Huntley, the Governour and almost everybody in
the place attending; but a sad accident destroyed the satis-
faction we should otherwise have felt on the occasion. One
of our best men got into the bow to try to save the bottle
of water which he supposed wine, used in the ceremony,
and had his hand so badly injured from the discharge of the
ship's gun, that it had to be amputated. Mr. Duncan of
Charlottetown built the vessel, and Captain Bayfield ex-
presses himself well pleased with the liberality of her
equipment. The Gulnare departs from Charlottetown in
the early part of June with Mr. Mavor as master and a Mr.
Ellis as the second master.
On the 2nd July, Bayfield is at Tignish, Bay Verte, and
says : "Between 9 and 10 p.m. observed the explosion of ten
out of eleven rockets for difference of longitude between
Bay Verte and Bay of Fundy. The next day Bayfield drives
across the isthmus and dines on board the Columbia.
On the 9th July, 1844, he is at Charlottetown, and re-
marks: "Found lying here H.M. Sloop Scylla, Comman-
der Robert Sharpe, an old acquaintance of mine, we having
served together on the Canadian lakes at the close of the
War with the United States. I intend to leave Lieutenant
Orlebar to work on the north coast of Prince Edward
Island, while I proceed in vessel to make the important
chronometric measurements designed to accurately con-
nect the meridians of Quebec, Halifax and St. John's New-
foundland, Captain Owen having done the same by Boston
On the 30th July, he is at St. John's Newfoundland, and
says: "Found lying here H.M.S. Eurydice, Captain G. El-
liot. On my returning from my morning observation, at
the Chain Rock battery, I found a midshipman of the Eury-
dice on board, who had been sent to enquire what vessel
we were, and he returned with full information. Neverthe-
less, when I returned again from the noon observations, I
found that a small boat with two men without an officer,
had been sent to order the Master, Mr. Mavor of the Gul-
nare, on. board the Eurydice, and that the pennant should
be hauled down. The next day Captain Elliot called upon
me, and although he made no allusion to the affair of yes-
terday, I suppose I may conclude his calling as an acknowl-
edgement that he was wrong. At any rate, it is not worth
On the 1st August, Bayfield writes: "I returned Cap-
tain Elliot's visit to-day and was shewn all over the vessel,
a fine new 26 gun. ship of about 700 tons."
On the 6th, the Gulnare leaves St. John's: "With the
sanction of the Governour Sir John Harvey, the mail
steamer North America, bound to Halifax, towed us out of
harbour." He has a tedious voyage to Prince Edward
Island, saying, on the 13th: "This has been a very fine
day, the first without fog out of fourteen, but it is weary
work making so little progress day after day."
Lieutenant Hancock R.N., joined the survey on the 6th
September; and on the 12th Captain Bayfield proceeds to
England on leave : ''Left Charlottetown on the 12th in
steamer St. George, our party consisting of Mrs. Bayfield
and our two oldest children, Miss Anwyl and Dr. Kelly
R.N., Miss M. Hale (Mrs. Orlebar's sister) accompanying
us as far as Pictou, on her way to Quebec. Arrived at Dart-
mouth at 6 h. 30 m., p.m., on the 14th, crossed the harbour
in our coach and four horses, and at 7 arrived at the Halifax
Hotel. On the 16th took places in the Royal Mail Steamer
Hibernia, expected from Boston on the 18th. Terms, 24
sterling per head, children and servants half price.
"Arrived in Liverpool in nine and one-half days from
Halifax, difference of time allowed for, and were received
by my father-in-law, Major Wright. On the 4th October,
I arrived in London after 17 years' absence."
On the 15th October, Captain Bayfield pays a visit to
his sister, Lady Page Turner, at Cippenham House.
Under date of 15th November, 1844, he remarks:
"Wrote also to the Hydrographer, stating expenditure for
the quarter, etc. This does not feel much like being on
leave, though !"
On the 19th November, is the following entry: "Waited
upon Sir George Cockburn, stating to him the unfavour-
able position in which I and my officers have been so long
placed by being kept on half pay nine years, contrary to the
understanding at the commencement of the survey, and of
the practice of the first eight years. He advised that I
should address the Board and seemed favourable to the jus-
tice of my request that we should be borne on the books of
the Admiral's ship on the Station." Bayfield's application
succeeded, for on the 25th he says : "Received official in
timation. from Sir John Barrow" (the able Secretary of the
Admiralty at that time) "of my appointment as additional
Captain of H.M.S. Illustrious (the flagship on the North
A week later he is informed that Lieutenants Orlebar
and Hancock, together with Dr. Kelly, are also placed on
the books of H.M.S. Illustrious. In the first week of 1845,
Bayfield's opinion, and suggestions, in regard to a proposed
observatory at Quebec, are asked by the Hydrographer.
An observatory was erected near the present time-ball on
the Citadel, the foundation still remaining, and Lieutenant
Ashe, R.N. appointed by the Admiralty in 1850 as astron-
omer in charge. It was demolished in 1874, the present ob-
servatory taking its place.
On the 24th February he hears that Mr. William
Forbes, Master, R.N., is appointed as his third naval assis-
tant. Orlebar appears to have been promoted to Comman-
der early in this year, 1845.
On the 20th May, Bayfield writes: "From 9th April,
when I left London, to this day of my departure from Liv-
erpool in the Royal Mail Steamer Cambria, I was on leave,
and felt myself so, being for the first time since my arrival
in England entirely free from official business."
Bayfield says, on arrival at Charlottetown on the 4th
June : "After an absence of eight months, have been re-
stored to our home and the theatre of our duties in health
and with hearts swelling with thankfulness to the Giver of
Mr. William Forbes, Master, R.N., arrives on the 7th
June, 1845, and Mr. Thomas DesBrisay, of Charlottetown,
is engaged as draughtsman, and I may mention that I had
the pleasure of the latter's acquaintance, being present in
church at Charlottetown when he was reading the lessons
in April, 1881, and had an epileptic seizure, causing his
July 16th, the Gulnare is at Charlottetown, and Bayfield
says : "Found the master of the vessel had succeeded in
recovering the best bower anchor and chain, by which he
has saved himself from having to pay the value of them
out of his wages, since I should certainly have charged
them against him, as they were lost by his neglect."
The season's operations were carried on during 1845 in
Prince Edward Island, at the close of which Bayfield re-
turns to Charlottetown for the winter. Atlantic passages
were longer then than now, for on November 4th there is
an entry of the arrival at Charlottetown of the brig British
Union, 62 days from London. On the 12th January, 1846,
Lieutenant John Hancock R.N. marries Miss Elizabeth
Cambridge, eldest daughter of Lemuel Cambridge Esq.
of Prince Edward Island.
May 22nd, 1846, Bayfield states: "Arrived from Que-
bec our Canadian, boatmen and a boatswain, with eight
seamen for the Gulnare," and on 2nd June : "Thus have I
commenced the nineteenth year of the survey afloat, with
all on board in good health and all we left ashore the same.
We ought to be, and I trust, are, thankful."
Under date of 8th June, he writes: "Wrote to Mr.
Paine, the astronomer of Boston, sending him the times of
the occultation of Spica Virginis on the 8th ultimo, in hopes
of comparison with corresponding observations." (W 7 ith a
view to difference of longitude.)
On the 9th, at Port Hood, Cape Breton Island, Bayfield
says: "Great changes appear to have taken place in this
fine harbour since the time of Des Barres, 1779."
As Bayfield mentions Des Barres again, later on, a short
account of this energetic and talented officer may be inter-
Colonel Joseph Frederic Willet Des Barres, born in
1722, was the descendant of French Hugenots, who, on the
revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, emigrated to
England. He entered the British army, was present at the
seige of Louisbourg in 1758, and at the taking of Quebec
in 1759. He repaired the fortifications of this city, and as-
sisted in designing those of Halifax. In 1762, he was at
the retaking of St. John's, Newfoundland, where he met
Captain Cook, and with whom he did some hydrographic
work in Conception Bay.
From 1763 to 1780 Colonel Des Barres was employed
under the direction of the Lords Commissioners of the Ad-
miralty, in making a collection of charts of the east coast
of North America for the use of the Royal Navy. These
charts were published by him in 1780, 1781, in large vol-
umes, bearing the title of the "Atlantic Neptune," a copy of
which this Society possesses. The charts of Nova Scotia
and Cape Breton Island appear to be from surveys by Des
Barres himself, the remainder from surveys by Major
Samuel Holland, "Surveyor-General of the Northern Dis-
tricts of North America," and his assistants. Colonel Des
Barres was, in 1784, appointed Governour of the Province
of Cape Breton, Island, and in 1804, Lieutenant-Gover-
nour of Prince Edward Island. He died in Halifax in
1825, aged 102 years.
On the 30th June Bayfield is at Pictou, and says : "The
variable winds to-day caused us to make, shorten and
trim sails repeatedly, and this, together with the deep sea
lead going every five or six minutes, made a very heavy
day's work for the men, who were at work from 4 h. 30 m.
a.m., to 9 h. 30 m. p.m. It was this that induced me to
anchor, that they might have the benefit of the night to
August 5th : "Caught codfish in abundance, one of
them weighing 73 pounds. We have sounded over 50 miles
On the 12th of August, 1846, the Gulnare calls at Char-
lottetown, and Bayfield says : "We should have been
ready for sea at night, but for the bad conduct of two of our
crew, Macatee and Stalker, who refused duty in hopes of
being discharged, and then getting the twelve pounds of-
fered to seamen for the run home in the new ships."
The Gulnare is at Pictou on the 23rd August, 1846, and
Bayfield says : "Found here orders from the Admiralty to
proceed to Canada and put myself at the disposal of the
Governour-General for the examination of the channels
of Lake St. Peter, with a view to the excavation of a
On 9th September, the Gulnare is at Montreal, and
Bayfield writes: "Waited upon the Governor-General,
Lord Cathcart, and having learnt his wishes, put myself
in communication with the Commissioners of Public
Works. The Honble. W. B. Robinson, of Toronto, is an
old friend of mine, and dined with us."
On 14th September: "Commander Orlebar requested
and obtained leave to proceed to Sherbrooke to visit his
brother-in-law, the Honble. E. Hale, and to bring down
his nephew Mr. E. Cary, who is going to join H.M. Sur-
veying Steamer Columbia.
On the 19th: "Proceeded to Monkland, the residence
of the Governour-in-Chief, Lord Cathcart, and presented
my report on the navigation of Lake St. Peter. The Gov-
ernour-General wished me and my officers to stay and
dine, but being anxious to proceed 011 account of the late-
ness of the season, and thinking, moreover, that as the
duty entrusted to me was executed I had no business to be
absent from my station any longer than I could possibly
help, I declared my intention to commence my return im-
mediately, if his Lordship had no further commands."
On her passage back from Montreal, under date of 20th
September, 1846, Captain Bayfield says: Ran over the flats
of Lake St. Peter in & l /2 feet water, or 6 inches less than
the vessel drew. At 6 p.m., anchored off Port Neuf, and,
with Commander Orlebar and Dr. Kelly, called upon our
old friend Mr. Edward Hale, the Seigneur of Port Neuf."
23rd September, at Quebec : ''Paid the Montreal and
Quebec Steamboat Company 41 15s. sterling for towing
the Gulnare up from Quebec to Montreal."
On the 9th October the vessel is at Charlottetown :
"The Gulnare was hove down, keel out, to-day at the
wharf; a great deal of copper had been rubbed off her
keel and stern and some of her bilge; hence shewing the
necessity of what we are doing. Gave the necessary di-
rections for her repairs."
The next day: "Employed balancing accounts and
counting and packing up public money, which being partly
in sixpences and shillings, took a considerable time."
Under date of llth February, 1847, Bayfield says: "Ex-
amining and destroying old papers, being purser's accounts
of schooner Recovery, which I commanded in 1823, 24 arid
25, on Lake Superior."
On the 16th he remarks: "Commenced making- fail-
copy of list of Variations through forty degrees of longi-
tude, from the year 1816 to 1846, inclusive, and at
night attempted to observe an immersion of Jupiter's first
satellite, but did not succeed well on. account of the wind
and extreme cold, the thermometer being twelve degrees
below zero at the time."
Under date of 23rd February, 1847, Bayfield says : "Re-
ceived a letter from the Hydrographer, Admiral Beaufort,
limiting the annual expenditure of this service to 2,400
sterling, exclusive of the pay and allowances of myself and
On the 18th March: "Received a communication from
the Admiralty, informing me that the Governour-General
of Canada had been desired to put himself into commu-
nication with me respecting harbours of refuge in the St.
Lawrence River and Gulf, and directing me to give full
replies to any questions he might put to me on that sub-
22nd April : "Computing occupation of Spica observed
by Captain Owen, R.N., at Campo Bello last May, and
found his observations and mine to agree."
Under date of 21st May, he remarks: "The Lieuten-
ant-Governour, Sir H. V. Huntley, inspected our fair plans
(eight large sheets), the result of our winter's labours."
On the 2nd June, Bayfield says : "Yesterday, the pin-
nace and launch, under Lieutenant HaJncock and! Mr.
Forbes, provisioned for four weeks with crews of eight
and seven men respectively, departed for Georgetown. We
have thus commenced the twentieth year of the survey
afloat, the whole party in health and those we leave o 1 :
shore tolerably so. May the Great and Gracious Giver of
all good gifts rhake us thankful."
On the 22nd June, the Gulnare is at Port Hood again,
Cape Breton Island, and Bayfield remarks: "Proceeded
on shore to examine the geological formation of Smith's
Island; the relation of the beds of gypsum to the coal
strata among which they are found being full of interest
to the geologist."
The vessel is at Charlottetown on the 12th July, and
he adds: "The second master, Mr. Canfield, got drunk
and refused to come off. As I could not suffer him to re-
tain his situation if brought on board by constables in a
state of intoxication, 1 was obliged to order him to be left
behind, the loss of his situation being as heavy a punish-
ment as I thought it necessary to inflict."
On the 6th August Captain Bayfield leaves Trepassey
Harbour, south coast of Newfoundland, having made a
survey of that locality in. connection with the choice of a
site for a lighthouse on Cape Pine, at the request of Sir
Gaspard le Merchant, Governour of Newfoundland. Bay-
field, before leaving Canada for Newfoundland, had left
Commander Orlebar and Mr. Thomas Des Brisay with
their boats and tents, on the north coast of Cape Breton
Island, and in communicating again with them on 25th
August, he found that Mr. Des Brisay and his boat's crew
had nearly lost their lives. He says: "On the 6th Mr. Des
Brisay with the launch, were blown off the land by a
heavy squall from the high land of Cape St. Lawrence.
They were at sea for 30 hours in the greatest peril, and
were eventually saved by getting on board a small sloop,
which was also driving before the squall with all her sails
split. The people saved the plans, instruments, etc. The
boat being lightened of the men and things, rode out the
gale astern of the sloop. They all landed at Aspee Bay,
On the 15th October, the Gulnare is back at Charlotte-
town for the winter, and Bayfield finds a letter from Cap-
tain Owen, saying that he was ordered home in the Colum-
bia, and would sail from Halifax on the 1st November.
On the 20th Bayfield says: "Returned all the powder
except a few cartridges for the gun for signals, and a few
rounds of ball cartridges for the six musquets which I re-
tain as sufficient with the cutlasses, if ever I should be
called upon to aid the civil power. The large quantity of
musquets we have hitherto carried has ever been, a useless
lumber, although necessary formerly when we were on
the Labrador Coast, and also as a precaution during the
time of the troubles m Canada."
On the 9th September, Bayfield notes : "The new Lieu-
tenant-Governor, Sir Donald Campbell, Baronet, arrived,
this morning by a schooner from Pictou."
There is a gap in the journals here until February,
1851, but a few facts have been extracted from a letter
book covering approximately this period.
In a letter to the Assistant Hydrographer Mr. Mich-
ael Walker on the 23rd of November of this year, 1847,
Captain, Bayfield says : "I believe I have no news to give
you, unless it be the birth of a fifth child and fourth son
on the 28th ultimo, which will show you that that sort of
riches is increasing with me much faster than any other is
ever likely to do."
In addition to Bayfield's purely professional duties, it
will be seen from the following, dated Charlottetown, 22nd
May, 1848, that the keeping of accounts and correspond-
ence therewith, must have made a considerable inroad
upon his valuable time :
"Sir: I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt
of your letter of the 29th ult., requesting me to .return the
tents specified therein to the Ordnance Storekeeper at
Quebec. In reply, I have the honour to inform you that
these tents, which are always half worn when supplied
to us, are used by the officers and boats' crews who are
constantly detached on service from this vessel, until they
are completely unserviceable, and then they are cut
up and painted for floor-cloths for the men to sleep upon,
and for bags, thus saving the expense of purchasing ma-
terials for those indispensable purposes. Such has hitherto
been our practice, and as it diminishes the expense of this
service in some degree, I have thought it best to inform
you of it and to request to know if you still wish me to re-
turn the useless, wornout tents to the Ordnance Depart-
ment at Quebec, which could only be done by shipping
them in some vessel that may be going there.
."I have the honour to be, Sir,
''Your most obedient and humble servant,
"HENRY AY. BAYFIELD,
"Captain, Surveying Gulf of St. Lawrence/'
"The Honble. Robert Dundas,
"Storekeeper- General of H.M. Navy."
Bayiield, in a letter to the Hydrographer dated 8th
June, 1848, mentions probably the greatest Canadian
coast change (Sable Island excluded) of which there is
any record. He says : "Another point of some importance
to the geologist as well as the seaman, is the change which
has taken, place in the last- twenty years in the still fine
harbour of Port Hood, Cape Breton Island; where a range
of high and partly wooded sandhills, which formed the head
of the harbour, has been swept away by the sea and a chan-
nel formed two-thirds of a mile wide and fully nine feet
deep at low water." I may incidentally mention here that
I resounded this harbour in 1873, and found there had been
no further change.
That Bayfield's officers were occasionally entrusted to
make latitude observations is evidenced by the following
extract from his written orders to Lieutenant J. Hancock,
R.N., 6th July, 1848: "... You had better also ob-
serve at some station in Aspee Bay" (Cape Breton Island)
"in order that we may see how much your sextant differs
from the known latitude of those points."
Apropos of the Society's recent unearthing of several
folios of charts of the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence,
etc. (already alluded to), many of which charts were by Des
Barres, some remarks by Bayfield on the latter's charts
may be of interest.
These remarks are extracted from a letter to the Hydro-
grapher Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, on the 17th No-
vember, 1848. "... I beg leave also to suggest to
you the discontinuance of the chart of the Island of Cape
Breton, or any other of Des Barres charts, for they might
possibly cause the loss of one of Her Majesty's ships, sup-
posing her to run for shelter, either to Ste. Anne's Har-
bour or the Great Bras d'Or, the former being represented
to have ten fathoms in the entrance, where there are
only thirteen feet of water; and the other, deep water in
the place of the most dangerous shoals."
Here Bayfield relates how one of his assistants wit-
nessed three vessels running in a gale for the breakers at
the entrance of the Great Bras d'Or, and adds : "I have
related this occurrence in order that you may perceive the
evil that these charts of Des Barres may produce, for they
are in. general sufficiently nearly correct in the delineation
of the shores to inspire confidence, which is also increased
by the pretension about them from their large scale, etc.,
but which in, the important matters of shoals and sound-
ings especially, they are totally undeserving of. I do not
know whether these charts are, or are not issued to Her
Majesty's ships, but as they were supplied to me, it has
occurred to me that they might be issued as the best that
could be had. I believe the map makers compile from
During the summer of 1848, the party was employed on
the coast of Cape Breton Island, together with the Gut of
Canso and its approaches.
In his account of the survey to, and by request of the
Lieutenant-Governour of Prince Edward Island, Sir Don-
ald Campbell, Baronet, 16th December, 1848, Bayfield
states the yearly expense of the survey (defrayed, of
course, by the British Admiralty) was 3,900, not includ-
ing the general service pay of the officers.
From the following extract from a letter to the Ad-
miralty Hydrographer, dated 12th June, 1849, it would
look as if a reduction in the annual vote for scientific serv-
ices which include Admiralty Surveys) was contemplated.
He says: "I have not in the least exaggerated the defects
of the old charts of the Gulf, Cape Breton and Nova Scotia.
There are none of them that can with any degree of safety
be trusted by the seaman, excepting those of Cook and
Lane. At least, none have come under my observation
that are not a reproach to this age of improved hydro-
graphy. When I consider the still greater ignorance that
exists respecting the coasts of many other countries, I can-
not but think that the Select Committee might at least
have touched more lightly a department so evidently use-
ful to the world."
One of Bayfield's officers complained in writing of be-
ing ordered to cross Northumberland Strait in his open
boat and of other discomforts, which drew from Bayfield
the following reply, dated 26th October, 1849: "Sir, I
have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 22nd
inst., representing to me the discomfort experienced by
yourself and crew during your return voyage in your boat
from Guysborough, from exposure to the weather; from
having no other accommodation provided by the service
than that afforded by canvas tents; the risk of crossing the
Straits, etc., etc. In reply, however I may differ from you
in my estimate of the amount of discomfort and risk attend-
ing the discharge of the duty in question, I shall on this
occasion content myself with reminding you that the dis-
comfort, exposure and alleged risk which you have deemed
it necessary to make the subject of an official communica-
tion to me, are in no respect different from what have been
cheerfully undergone often in far greater degree by other
officers who have been attached to this service since its
commencement in 1827, and I may add that I myself up
to a much later period of life than you have yet reached,
and even when holding my present rank, have not hesi-
tated to impose them on myself when I considered the
service required it.
"All, therefore, that I can further add, and I do it with
pleasure as being due to the respectful manner in which
you have submitted this matter to my consideration, is the
assurance that the comfort of the officers serving under me
will ever continue to be regarded by me, as far as the
faithful discharge of the duties of the service we are em-
ployed upon, will permit."
The following letter from Bayfield in connection with
the departifre of a party of "Forty-Niners" to California
from Charlottetown, may be of interest :
"Having been requested to furnish the California!! As-
sociation, now about to sail from this port in the brig-
Fanny, with a certificate which it has been thought may
prove useful to them during the progress of their enter-
prise, I hereby certify all whom it may concern that a resi-
dence of nine winters in Charlottetown enables me to bear
testimony, generally, to the steady, sober and industrious
character of the members of the Association, whose names
are upon the annexed paper.
"From the character of the parties and the testimony of
the numerous persons connected with them in this town, I
have no doubt in believing the objects of the Association
to be simply such as are stated on the annexed paper, to
which I have affixed my signature, and I have, therefore,
no hesitation in commending them to the favourable con-
sideration, kind offices and, if need be, assistance of any of
Her Majesty's officers whom they may chance to meet.
"Given under my hand at Charlottetown, P.E.I., the
6th day of November, 1849,
"HENRY W. BAYFIELD.
"Surveying- the Gulf of St. Lawrence."
During the summer of 1849, the party were employed
upon the coast of. Cape Breton Island and the Gut of
Canso with approaches thereto. Deep water soundings
with Massey's sounding machine were also taken in the
Bayfield, in a letter to the Hydrographer Sir Francis
Beaufort, 10th January, 1850, mentions the effect of drift
ice on shoals. He says : "I have given many additional
soundings on. the Caribou sheet which do not always ex-
actly agree with those of other years. This is owing to
the ice which occasionally packs and grounds on the Pic-
tou banks ; at one time, forcing the gravel and stones up
into mounds and ridges, and at other times levelling them
again; thus rendering the soundings uncertain to the
amount of several feet." I may incidentally add that I
noticed the same ice action in the survey of Georgian Bay
and North Channel of Lake Huron, 1883 to 1893.
In the spring of 1850 Dr. Kelly is superseded by Dr.
Stratton R.N., the former having to relinquish service un-
der Captain Bayfield by reason of ill health, aggravated,
if not caused, by the long and exposed service in the River
and Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The summer of 1850 was spent by the party on the east
coast of Cape Breton Island, and the eastern approach to
the Gut of Canso.
On the 4th February, 1851, Captain. Bayfield says: ''Re-
ceived letter from the Admiralty, directing me to verify
the position of Sable Island at a convenient opportunity."
In connection with this, he, a week later, "requested of the
Admiralty that the war vessel that visits the Gulf each
summer may be placed at my disposal for two or three
weeks to go to Sable Island."
On the 25th of March, Captain Bayfield and officers at-
tended on. the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Alexander Ban-
nerman, at the opening of the Prince Edward Island Par-
liament. Mr. Mavor is still the master of the Gulnare.
Under date of llth April, Bayfield says : "Revising arid
recalculating Admiral Owen's chronometrical measure-
ments to and from Boston, a most laborious job owing to
the confused manner in which they have been stated, in
consequence, I suppose, of the inexperience of his officers
21st May, 1851: "Examined most carefully some
charges against the master, Mr. Mavor, by which his hon-
esty is made very doubtful to say the least of it. I was
obliged to direct his discharge by Mr. Stevenson, in conse-
quence. Mr. Stevenson, by my desire, appointed Mr. Mc-
Leoci (who has been mate of the Gulnare during the sev-
eral last years) to be master in Mr. Mavor's place." Cap-
tain Alexander McLeod was many years sailing-master and
pilot of the surveying vessel after Admiral Bayfield relin-
quished the survey, and a wonderful pilot he was. He and
I were shipmates in the steamer Gulnare from 1871 to
1881, and could I have known that I should have the pleas-
ure of writing this paper, I might have had some interest-
ing talks with Captain McLeod about Admiral Bayfield. I
only remember his telling us that the Admiral, though ig-
noring himself entirely when the service required it, was
not averse to the comforts of civilization when within
reach, as the Admiral used to give McLeod a kind of
standing order that in bringing the vessel up at night, he
was, "if possible, to moor with one anchor to the cow and
the other to the post office."
On the 24th May, 1851, Bayfield writes : "The Honour-
able Samuel Cunard, who had made a brief visit to Prince
Edward Island to see his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Peters, the
wife of the Master of the Rolls, left for Pictou."
Bayfield has been in ill health for some time, and on
the 27th and 28th of May he says: "It is not without pain
that I shall see the Gulnare sail without me, but when I
remember that it is the first time for twenty-four years, all
feeling of discontent is removed by the grateful sense of
the goodness of a merciful Providence in enabling me to
discharge my laborious duties for so many years."
Some trouble again among the crew, for Bayfield ?ays :
"The laws regulating merchant seamen seem made, on pur-
pose to encourage want of principle, fidelity and common
honesty in seamen, who think nothing of breaking their
engagement upon the slightest whim, or merely to carry
off the usual month's advance without which they will not
On the 3rd June, 1851, he writes to the Publishers of the
British Nautical Almanac, pointing out errors.
Under date of July llth, Bayfield says: "Received a let-
ter from the Commander-in-Chief, Sir George Seymour, in-
forming me that Their Lordships of the Admiralty had
directed him to withdraw H.M. Surveying Steamer Co-
lumbia from the Bay of Fundy survey to assist me in the
survey of Sable Island." The Columbia and Bay of Fundy
survey had, since Owen's retirement, been under the com-
mand of Captain Peter Shortland, R.N. Bayfield has thir-
teen chronometers at this time.
On 22nd July, 1851, he arrives in Gulnare at Sable
island, and anchors off the residence of Mr. McKenna, the
Superintendent. After observing for latitude and longi-
tude at three points on Sable Island, Bayfield, on the 24th,
sails from it, leaving Lieutenant Hancock, with three men,
to make a detailed survey of the island, and makes written
arrangements for their removal, on the completion of the
On the 2nd August he is again at Pictou, and says:
"Commander Orlebar proceeded by my desire to survey
Haliburton Creek above the Bridge, and thus remove or
confirm some suspicions that I entertain as to its accuracy.
Being unnavigable and dry at low water, it is not of much
consequence, but we should be accurate in every part of
our work alike." This creek, done by a local surveyor dur-
ing the winter, was found to be inaccurate.
A week later he hears that the Columbia, Commander
Shortland, was prevented from reaching Sable Island until
1st August. She brought away Lieutenant Hancock and
his men. .Under date of 12th August is entered : "Our ob-
servations at Sable Island confirm the accounts of the peo-
ple of the island that a good deal of the western part of the
island had been washed away of late years, within the
memory and under the observation, of the men now resid-
ing in the island."
On 22nd September, 1851, Mr. Forbes departs for Eng-
land on leave of absence. On 27th, Captain Bayfield re-
ceives a letter from Mr. W. C. Bond of Cambridge Uni-
versity, Boston, asking Bayfield to assist him in the tele-
graphic difference of longitude between Cambridge Ob-
servatory and Halifax. Bayfield not being able to do so,
the latter writes to Captain Shortland R.N., commanding
H.M. Surveying Steamer Columbia, in the Bay of Fundy,
to assist Mr. Bond at Halifax.
On 16th October, he says: "Employed in various ar-
rangements respecting the Gulnare, which is now so af-
fected by dry rot as to be scarcely seaworthy. But the new
vessel is building in Quebec, and is much larger and su-
perior in every respect."
A few days later: "Wrote to the Secretary of the Ad-
miralty, declining the retirement" (I think this was in ref-
erence to Admiralty Circular of June, 1851, offering op-
tional retirement to the senior ranks in the Navy to relieve
the congested state of the List.)
On 23rd January, 1852: "Reading Reports of Ameri-
can Coast Survey with reference to the longitude of Cam-
bridge Observatory, which is being determined chrono-
metrically in the Royal Mail steamers to and from Liver-
On the 6th March, 1852, . Bayfield says: "Writing
to the Vice-Resident of the Toronto and Huron Railroad
Company at his request as to the terminus to be adopted
on Lake Huron. I recommended Penetanguishene Har-
On the 17th April, Mr. Forbes left England from leave
to rejoin the survey. The new Gulnare, 212 tons, arrived
at Charlottetown from Quebec. Mr. Forbes arrives on
14th May. On the 22nd May, 1852, Bayfield says: "Ac-
companied Commander Colin Campbell R.N., of H.M.S.
Devastation, on a visit to Sir Alexander Bannerman, who
consulted us about the Fishery Laws according to treaty
with the United States." Three days later he "wrote to
the Honble. James Uniacke, the Attorney-General of
Nova Scotia, in reply to his letter respecting a proposed
canal at St. Peters, Cape Breton Island."
On the 3rd June, the Gulnare sails from Charlottetown
for the Gut of Canso, to commence another season's opera-
tions. "We have on board with us the Revd. Mr. S. Rand,
who is missionary to the Micmac Indians, and a Baptist
minister. My eldest son, Henry, also accompanies me.
The new Gulnare, the third of that name, is much larger
than the two former. The contractor, Mr. Stevenson, has
dealt most liberally with us, giving us better cabins and
equipment." The master now appears to be Mr. Mclntyre.
On 20th June, while in the Gut of Canso, Bayfield
writes : "This morning a boatman, John McLeod, out of
his senses and violent from drink, came off at 6 a.m. He
was discharged last night with his bedding, being insanely
violent from drink, and drawing his knife upon the men.
etc. I ordered him to be discharged, finally allowing him
to take his clothes."
On the 27th July, Captain Bayfield being unwell, re-
turns from Pictou to Charlottetown. in the steamer Rose,
having given orders to Commander Orlebar to take the
Gulnare round to Halifax and commence the survey of the
While unwell at Charlottetown, Bayfield says : "The
Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Alexander Bannerman, called on
me and consulted me respecting the American fishermen,
whom it is now resolved to restrain from fishing within the
limits assigned by treaty. My opinion is that this should
be done mildly and discreetly, though firmly and in such a
way as to give as little offence as possible. It should be a
duty entrusted to responsible naval officers only."
On the 10th August, Captain Bayfield rejoins the Gul-
nare at Halifax, and on 8th October returns to Charlotte-
town for the winter, leaving Commander Orlebar to bring
the Gulnare round from Halifax, Bayfield "not feeling up
to the tumbling about in so small a vessel." On her way
round, the Gulnare picks up Lieutenant Hancock, who had
been detached near the Gut of Canso for the prosecution of
the survey of Cape Breton Island. The vessel arrives at
Charlottetown on the 15th October, 1852.
Nothing of importance transpires during the winter of
On the 28th April, 1853, Bayfield says: "The brigantiue
Peri arrived from Barbadoes; engaged her master, Mr. Mc-
Leod as master of the Gulnare." Captain McLeod was
absent in 1852.
The Gulnare arrives again at Halifax, in command of
Commander Orlebar, on the 29th May, 1853, and Bayrield
joins her on the 10th June, having travelled from Charlotte-
town by public conveyance, via Pictou and Truro. He has
evidently not shaken off his illness of the spring of 1852.
On 4th July, he says: "Wrote to the First Lord of the
Admiralty, Sir James Graham, Baronet , asking an entry
for my son, Henry into the Navy as a Cadet."
July 17th, he writes: "Sunday afternoon some of our
party attended a prayer meeting on shore at Jedore. The
preacher, a Baptist minister, a rough diamond, who deliv-
ered an excellent sermon in indifferent English."
The Gulnare returns to Charlottetown to winter, and
under date llth November, 1853, Captain Bayfield says:
"I heard by telegraph from Quebec of the death of Mr.
William Stevenson, the owner of the Gulnare, an old es-
teemed friend, whom I have known for 25 years."
The party was principally employed in the completion of
the survey of Halifax harbour and the coast northward of
it, during the summer of 1853.
Unfortunately, we have no further obtainable informa-
tion as to his work. Bayfield's promotion to Rear Admi-
ral, 21st October, 1856, necessitated his relinquishment of
the survey. He remained on the active list (gaining the
step of Vice Admiral 27th April, 1863) until 18th October,
1867, when he retired with the rank of full Admiral.
In 1874 the Admiralty bestowed on him a Greenwich
Hospital pension of 150 per annum; this in addition to
his ordinary pension. Admiral Bayfield was a Fellow of
the British Royal Society, and a member of the Societe
Geologique de France.
I might add that while making a survey of the Geor-
gian Bay and North Channel of Lake Huron, from 1883 to
1893, under the orders of the Dominion Government, I had
a good opportunity of witnessing the marvellous quantity
and excellence of Admiral Bayfield's work. He had neither
the time nor the means to find all the outlying rocks and
shoals, nor was it necessary ninety years ago in that local-
ity, where his own open boats were probably the largest
craft sailing thereon.
The Admiralty Surveying Service has produced good
men, from Cook onwards, but I doubt whether the British
Navy has ever possessed so gifted and zealous a Surveyor
as Bayfield. He had a marvellous combination of natural
talent with tremendous physical energy, and was, I feel
convinced, a man who would have gained the summit of
any profession he might have honoured, for his one
thought was his work.
The Admiral wore himself out in the service of his
country and the thousands of mariners who have used and
still use his charts in the navigation of the Gulf of St. Law-
rence; for, although he lived considerably longer than the
allotted span, yet during the last few years of his life, he
shewed evident signs of the concentrated strain. And in
the few conversations I was privileged to have with him in
Charlottetown, the irrelevant turn his conversation would
occasionally take was always far away to the scenes of his
surveying labours, appearing to me, unmistakably indica-
tive of what he had undergone.
The disappointments consequent upon hydrographic
work, especially upon a coast like the Canadian Labrador,
where, in a fortnight of the short summer, a couple of
suitable days only were obtainable, can easily be under-
This continual struggle with the elements must, in the
long run, tell upon an officer with the burning zeal which
Bayfield possessed. Add to this, his short and broken
rests consequent upon his watch over the navigation of
his schooner in unknown waters; also his many nightly
astronomical observations on shore.
Although not customary in those days, to bestow titles
or erect statues to such men, Admiral Bayfield has more en-
during monuments of natural masonry in the red sandstone
of Prince Edward Island, the limestones of Lake Huron,
and, where his work was the most trying, in the more dur-
able laurentian rocks of the north shores of Lake Superior
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Admiral Henry Wolsey Bayfield resided in Charlotte-
town, P.E.I., after his retirement, and died there on the
10th of February, 1885, at the age of ninety years and three
weeks, and in concluding this imperfect memoir, I do not
think I could do better than quote the Charlottetown Pa-
triot of February llth, 1885, as follows: "The most dis-
tinguished, and probably the most aged of our citizens, has
passed away. On Tuesday, the 10th inst., Admiral Bay-
field, who has been a resident of this city for 44 years,
breathed his last. Long after he retired from active serv-
ice, he might be seen taking his daily walk on our streets,
his distinguished appearance and kindly countenance giv-
ing him respectful recognition wherever he went. But for
several years he has been an invalid and unable to leave his
"The Admiral was a man of high religious principle,
kind to the poor and disposed to aid every good work. His
noble Christian example did much in past years to exert a
beneficial influence on. the higher circles of our city life.
Some, who have held a like exalted position in the Naval
Service, may have had more brilliant careers, but few, in-
deed, have rendered more practical benefit to the com-
merce of the nation and to the Navy itself, than did Ad-
miral Bayfield by his careful coast surveys and excellent
"And while faithful to his country and Queen, he ne-
glected not to remember the higher allegiance he owed to
the 'King of Kings,' "
THE STEAMSHIP "UNICORN," ON THE ST. LAW-
RENCE BRANCH OF THE CUNARD COM-
PANY IN 1840, AND SOME MEMORANDA ON
EARLY TRANS-ATLANTIC STEAMSHIP
SERVICE BY CAPTAIN WALTER DOUGLAS,
(Paper Communicated by James Douglas, LL.D., Honorary
President of the Society.)
Every great economical advantage, however beneficial to
the people at large, is fraught with some inconvenience, if
not injury, to certain sections. This was very notable when
steam transportation by land and sea transferred from
Great Britain in great measure to the United States the
lumber trade from the St. Lawrence, and from Quebec
as the port of shipment The lumber of the Ottawa
formerly came down as square timber in great rafts
and as such was shipped in a fleet of sailing ves-
sels, that was so numerous that Indian Cove on the
south shore exhibited a forest of masts. On the north
shore there were not berths enough to accommodate the
lumber ships, strung along in a continuous line from Cape
Diamond to Cap Rouge, though the wharves were sup-
plemented by detached piers built out in the stream.
Champlain street was then densely populated for nearly the
whole of those twelve miles. To-day, as a street, it can hard-
ly be said to exist; the cribbing of those detached wharves
has decayed; the rock filling has fallen in gentle slopes into
the river; trees and verdure have found nourishment
among the stones, and thus convert into picturesque islands
what were formerly the scenes of busy commercial activity.
Future generations of geologists will be puzzled to account
for these isolated islands.
The first east wind, after the ice was out of the river,
brought up a fleet of sailing ships which, as they rounded
Cape Joseph, with full sail set, presented a more beautiful
sight than will ever be realized again. Quebec, in its offices
and along its shores, was busy night and day, until the spring
fleet gradually vanished, to reappear as the fall fleet, which
came in, not in bulk, but in detail. These hundreds of ships
of small tonnage, making two voyages a year, carried less
freight than a single line of steam monsters, each poking its
nose into the harbour once a month. But these monsters are
loaded and discharged by machinery, while the freight of
yore was handled by man power. Therefore, until the city
adjusted itself to the altered conditions and learned to fos-
ter other branches of trade and commerce, and to provide
for their accommodation, the change from the older, clumsy
system to the newer, through the drain on population alone,
hurt Quebec, not vitally, but painfully, for a time. Canada
benefitted Quebec suffered.
Few probably recollect when the little "Genoa," one fine
May morning in 1853, steamed into the harbour, to be fol-
lowed by the "Birkenhead" of tragic fate, and with other
chartered ships, which were the forerunners of the Montreal
Steamship Company and the Allan Line. The advent of
these steamers meant as much to Canada as the building of
the Canadian Pacific did later. They revolutionized the
trade of the country. But being propelled by steam they
could pass the old city by and push on to the headwaters of
Long previous to that date, however, an ocean steamer
had plied regularly between Quebec and Pictou, as a mem-
ber in a transcontinental system. It was very small. In
fact the progress in steamship construction as well as in
steam navigation may almost be guaged by the difference
between these old liners of 250 feet in length, and the mod-
ern leviathan measuring a sixth of a mile.
My first trip across the Atlantic was made in 1852 on the
Cunard S.S. "Europa" my last on the "Lusitania." The
difference in the size and power of the two ships, the
"Europa" being 251 feet in length and her engines of 2000
indicated horsepower, while the "Lusitania" is 790 feet in
length, and her engines of 70,000 indicated horsepower, ex-
presses less significantly the progress made during the inter-
val in the arts and sciences than the introduction into the
modern steamer of appliances that tend for comfort and
have made the best specimens of the modern trans-atlantic
liners sumptuous palaces. In days of yore the cabins were all
small and dark, with ill-smelling wash basins and no appli-
ances for forced ventilation. The bath, which is so con-
spicuously advertised and used on the modern ship, was
absent, while throughout the ship, which was then built of
wood, there was a disagreeably suspicious odor of bilge
water. In a small prismatic cupboard with ground glass
panes, built into the partition between two adjacent cabins, a
single candle hung, which was reached only from the pas-
sage, and was extinguished punctually at a certain hour.
The changed habits of society are also exhibited by the
behavior of the passengers then and now. Everyone dressed
punctiliously for dinner, which was a formal meal served in
courses; and above the dining tables were suspended racks
for wine decanters and glasses, for wine was used more gen-
erously at meals than it is to-day. On the last day of the
passage champagne was provided at the expense of the
Company. Smokers were confined strictly to their own pre-
cincts, and not allowed to add the foul odor of the weed to
the other offensive smells. The contract with the British
Government for the carriage of the mails was so liberal as
to cover the main operating expenses. The mails were not
sorted on board, but the mail agent was a Lieutenant of the
Royal Navy, who sat at the head of the second table. And a
cow supposed to give enough milk for all the passengers
was supplied with a conspicuous stall on deck.
When half-way across the Atlantic, we were startled by
the stoppage of the engines, that they might be thoroughly
overhauled, while at rest. All the old ships were square
rigged and manned by a full crew of sailors. The engines
being auxiliary to the sails, it was not till the speed of the
vessels exceeded the average speed of the wind that the
sails, having become useless, were abandoned. Moreover,
when higher speed was secured and economy of fuel ob-
tained through improvements in the designing of steam en-
gines, it became cheaper, even on tramp steamers, to use
coal than to pay sailors.
The modern ship is a floating hotel, with a basement of
unfathomable depth, in which the machinery is hidden.
Five or six stories are built for the accommodation of
the first and second-class passengers, to each of whom is as-
signed, in sleeping and general accommodation, at least one
hundred times more space than in the old liner, and quite as
much drawing room, dining room, library and smoking room
accommodation as is afforded in the best hotels. On some
lines you have the choice of using the common dining room
or ordering your meals at a restaurant. Unlimited electric
light by day or night; elevators to carry you from story to
story; and a band of music at meals to help or hinder diges-
tion. The motive power has increased in greater propor-
tion than even the size of the vessel. The "Great Eastern"
was almost as long as the "Lusitania" and "Mauritania,"
being 680 feet between perpendiculars, as against 790 for
the big Cunarders. But this huge ship was proplled by eight
engines, operating four paddle wheels and four propellers,
the total horsepower being only 11,000. She took eleven
days to cross the Atlantic. Her passenger accommodation
was for 800 saloon, 2,000 second class, 1,200 steerage and
400 officers and crew. Her keel was laid dowrt in 1854,
but it was the end of 1859 before she started on her first un-
fortunate voyage. Her career was one of disaster from the
day she stuck on her ways till she was sold at auction in
1888. She had cost 730,000. She brought when knocked
down under the hammer only 58,000, or less than the
money expended in launching her.
The "Lusitania" and "Mauritania" are propelled by tur-
bine engines of 70,000 horsepower, which, however, force
these huge ships through the water at little more than double
the speed of the "Great Eastern." If, therefore, improve-
ments in both boilers and engines in the direction of econ-
omy of fuel had not during the interval been made, the cost
of increased speed would be prohibitory.
But the motive of this paper is to give some particulars
with regard to a still earlier stage of trans-atlantic travel,
gathered from the correspondence and note books of my
father-in-law, Captain Walter Douglas. He was a well-
known character on the St. Lawrence from 1825 till 1845.
He belonged to an old-seafaring family, several members of
which commanded sailing ships on the St. Lawrence. Cap-
tain Douglas acquired his intimate knowledge of the Lower
St. Lawrence as sailing master to Captain Bayfield on His
Majesty's Surveying Ship "Gulnare." He also commanded
a river steamer between Quebec and Montreal.
On account of his acquaintance with the Gulf and River
he was selected by Mr. Samuel Cunard to command the
"Unicorn," which preceded the "Britannia," the first
regular trans-atlantic liner of the Cunard fleet. The "Uni-
corn" was assigned to the service of a branch line between
Quebec and Pictou, from which port the transportation of
mails and passengers was made by land to Halifax, there
to be transferred to the regular Cunard steamships, which
sailed fortnightly between England and Boston. Boston was
the United States terminus, and the boats all called at Hali-
fax. It was not till the Cunarders established a direct line
from New York to Liverpool that their Boston line ceased
to call at the Canadian port. Also when railroad and steam-
boat communication was established between Montreal and
the United States seaboard, the necessity expired for trans-
porting the English mail from Pictou to Halifax. Then the
"Unicorn" ceased to ply between Quebec and Pictou.
Though this branch line of the British and North Amer-
ican Royal Mail Steamship Company, appears never to
have been profitable, from 1840 till 1844 the "Unicorn"
was one of the best known and most important crafts on the
River. I distinctly recollect when a child being impressed
by her dining saloon, decorated, as all the trans-atlantic
ships of that line were, by painted panels between the win-
The "Unicorn," therefore, instead of the "Britannia,"
may claim the honor of being the first Cunarder to cross
the Atlantic, and as such she was recognized by the people
of Boston, though, in fact, she did not belong to the trans-
atlantic fleet. Among Captain Douglas' papers I find a
copy of the log of the "Unicorn" on this memorable voyage.
"She hauled out of the Clarence Dock into the stream on
May 1 5th, with 453 tons of coal." The passengers came
aboard on the i6th, and at noon she rounded the Rock
Light House. On the iyth they consumed 18 tons of coal,
the engines making 9 strokes per minute. But more details
of her sailing than of her steaming are given. On May i8th
at 8 o'clock A.M., they were off Kelwith Head. They con-
sumed 17 tons of coal that day. Generally the consumption
was about 18 tons and the number of revolutions lo 1 /^. She
arrived at Halifax on the ist of June, and at Boston on
I find no list of the crew, but there is a memorandum of
the composition of the ship's company of the Steamship
"Hibernia." It shows a very different distribution of force
to that employed in the modern boat without sails.
Coal Trimmers 10
Steward for Engineers i
Stewards and Cooks 27
Captain's Boy i
The Mayor of Boston wrote the following letter to Cap-
tain Douglas and enclosed a card of invitation:
CITY HALL, MAYOR'S OFFICE,
June 4, 1840.
Dear Sir: I have the honor to enclose you a card for our
meeting to-morrow in honor of the arrival of the Unicorn.
And it will give me much pleasure to welcome you at City
Hall to-morrow at 3 o'clock.
If there are any other gentlemen whom you desire to
have invited, I shall be much obliged if you will communicate
Your obedient servant,
Captain Douglas, Esq.
CITY OF BOSTON.
* City Council Requests the Honor of the Company of
at Faneuil Hall
On Friday next, at half past 3 o'clock, P.M.
THE OPENING OF STEAM NAVIGATION
Between the Kingdom of Great Britain and this City.
Guests will assemble at City Hall, at 3 o'clock P.M.
Tickets to be shown at the door of Faneuil Hall.
June 4, 1840.
The passengers presented Captain Douglas with a silver
basket inscribed: "To Captain Walter Douglas from the
passengers on board the Royal Mail Steamer Packet 'Uni-
corn,'* on the voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and Bos-
ton, in May, 1840, in testimony of their sense of his inva-
riable kindness and attention to their comfort and of his zeal-
ous and able conduct in command."
* The name of the Company was then "The British and North America
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.
The "Boston Daily Advertiser," of June 2, 1840, an-
nounced her approach:
"The expected arrival of the 'Unicorn,' the pioneer of the
line of British Steam Packets, about to be established by the
Hon. S. Cunard, under the auspices of the British Govern-
ment, between Liverpool and Boston, having led to en-
quiries concerning the preparations for their reception at
East Boston, I took occasion on Saturday to cross the ferry
for a glance at the premises.
The Cunard wharf, erected by the East Boston Company,
under the superintendence of Mr. S. S. Lewis, has just been
completed, and it is a work in all respects worthy of the
occasion, and the liberality of the Company. The wharf
is composed of a spacious bridge or pier, from a point on
Marginal street, just below the ferry, and extending 750
feet towards the channel, by 30 feet wide.
"The pier is terminated by a cross wharf or T of 300
feet by 50 feet wide. Thence are extended quite into the
channel two wharves of similar dimensions and resembling
the prongs of a fork, each being 250 feet long by 50 feet
wide, and embracing an intermediate slip of 90 feet wide
for the reception of the steamers, with fixtures and conve-
niences of fastening a vessel of the largest class on each side,
where the two can repose at a time in perfect safety in all
kinds of weather. On the upper side of the western prong
a berth is provided for another steamer in case three of
them should chance to be in port at once. On each side of
these slips the water is 15 feet at low water.
"The 'Unicorn' will be the pioneer steamer in connection
with this line between Liverpool and Boston. She is a fine
vessel of about 700 tons, but is not designed as a regular
packet between the two countries. It is ultimately intended
to have her ply between Nova Scotia and Quebec. Mean-
while the 'Britannia,' the 'Columbia,' the 'Caledonia' and
another, whose name I have not yet learned, are to be the
regular steam packets between Liverpool and Boston, touch-
ing at Halifax. They are first-rate vessels of 1,200 tons
each, and calculated for Atlantic navigation. Mr. Cunard
has undertaken to carry a regular mail, twice a month, be-
tween Liverpool and Boston the year round. Of course a
steamer will arrive and depart every fortnight. As a trip
from England to Boston is shorter by about 36 hours than
from New York, and as the delay at Halifax will be short,
we may hope to anticipate the New York foreign news by
some 24 hours at least."
The same paper on the 4th and 5th gives an account of
the public welcome given to the Captain, officers and to Mr.
Cunard, the son of Mr. Samuel Cunard, subsequently Sir
"Yesterday afternoon arrived at this port the Steam
Packet 'Unicorn,' Captain Douglas, from Liverpool, May
1 6th. She arrived at Halifax at 1 1 o'clock June ist, and
left for Boston the following night, making the passage 18
days, and brings London papers to the evening of May i8th,
being 15 days later than those brought by the 'British
Queen.' She brought 27 passengers, 24 of whom continued
on to Boston. She had head winds nearly the whole pas-
sage. Among her passengers was a son of Mr. Samuel
"The 'Unicorn' was first seen from Mr. Parker's observ-
atory on Central Wharf, just before 5 o'clock P.M., then
near the light house; she was saluted from India Wharf and
Fast Boston, as well as from the United States revenue cut-
ter, which was dressed in flags, while the English and Amer-
ican flags were hoisted on the Observatory and Maverick
House, at East Boston. Captain Sturgis, of the United
States revenue cutter, went on board the 'Unicorn' to see
her safely moored at the wharf, before which she passed by
the end of Long Wharf, taking a turn round the North End
Wharves and the Navy Yard, and thence by Copp's Hill to
East Boston, where she was made fast at the Cunard
Wharf; the vibration of the several salutes fired from the
wharves and shipping unfortunately broke several lights of
painted glass in her cabin.
"On Saturday a jubilee celebration was given the officers,
Captain and young Cunard at Boston's celebrated 'Cradle of
Liberty,' Faneuil Hall, at which the Mayor and dignitaries
of the city took part, as a greeting to the pioneers of this
great enterprise; after discussing the edibles and washing
them down, His Honour the Mayor proposed the toast:
'God Save the Queen and the United States of America.'
This, of course, was heartily drunk, and three cheers given
with a will. Captain Douglas was then introduced to the
audience. The Captain made a few complimentary remarks
and said his ship was the smallest of the ships of the intended
line, the bulkiness of her machinery occupying much space,
but the ships to follow would be first-class; that head winds
which prevailed during the whole passage, impeded her
speed, and her successors would turn out faster sailers.
Toasts, song, puns and punch filled up a very pleasant hour,
and the Cunard trial trip was duly inaugurated."
The "Unicorn" was the first ship of the Cunard Company
to cross the ocean, though the "Britannia" was the first ship
of the regular line (fleet) of four steamers to make regular
trips between Liverpool and Boston.
Quebec was keenly excited over the prospect of close
connection with Great Britain. "The Quebec Gazette," of
the loth, and the "Mercury" of the nth June, 1840, have
the following notices of the arrival of the "Unicorn" in
From "Quebec Gazette," loth June, 1840: (From a
Montreal Correspondent) : "A Mr. Cormac, who was a
passenger on Mr. Cunard's steamer 'Unicorn,' Captain
Douglas, to Halifax, arrived this morning, via Boston .and
New York. The steamer arrived at Halifax on 3ist May,
having sailed the i6th. She brought London morning pa-
pers of the 1 5th, and from Liverpool of the i6th."
Extract of a letter frpm Captain Walter Douglas, of the
Steamer "Unicorn," dated Boston, 3rd June, to a gentleman
"I dare say you have heard by way of Halifax before this
time of our arrival, after a passage of 16 days, although a
very boisterous one, nothing but gales of wind from west to
northwest. The 'Unicorn' is a most splendid seaboat: it
blew one night a perfect hurricane, so that we could not
carry our close reefed foresail. We eased the engine to
about half-speed, keeping the sea about a point or two points
on the bow; she then went ahead about two knots as easy
and as dry as possible.
"We had a very agreeable party on board. The Nova
Scotians gave us a very handsome reception, the wharves
were crowded, guns firing, with flags flying and cheering, and
I suppose that during the day we remained in Halifax there
must have been at least 3,000 persons on board.
"It is not decided when we leave for Quebec. (We un-
derstand that another letter from Captain Douglas states
that he expects to be in Quebec on i3th inst. (Saturday
From "Quebec Mercury," June nth, 1840: "The Hal-
ifax mail, which arrived this afternoon, brought the letters
and papers by the packet 'Unicorn.' We have a file of Lon-
don papers from the 7th to I5th May, inclusive; on the
hasty glance we have been enabled to bestow upon them we
find little to add to the extracts already made from the New
York papers and from our Montreal contemporaries.
"Halifax papers are of the 2nd and 3rd inst. Of course
the arrival of the first of the steam mail packets caused a
great sensation. The performance of the voyage, 16 days, is
considered as good work for a boat not built for -crossing
the Atlantic, and, at the commencement of her voyage,
brought out of trim by the extra quantity of fuel she was
obliged to carry. Captain Walter Douglas appears highly
pleased with the performance of his craft, and his passen-
gers highly pleased with their Commander, having testified
the sense they entertained of his gentlemanly attention to-
wards them, and of his zeal and ability in the performance
of his duty by presenting him with a piece of plate, accom-
panied by a handsome address, which, together with the
Captain's answer, will have a place in our next number."
The "Unicorn," however, made several trips between
Halifax and Boston, while waiting for the sailing and the
arrival of the "Britannia." On the 1 5th of June the Halifax
correspondent of the "Quebec Gazette" wrote:
"The Steamer 'Unicorn' has returned from Boston in
38^2 hours. She left Boston Wednesday evening and ar-
rived here yesterday about noon. It is said the 'Unicorn'
will proceed to Boston again on Monday next, provided as
many as 40 persons engage to take passage."
The "Quebec Gazette" of 22nd June, 1840, says: "It
will be seen that the 'Unicorn' steamer arrived at Halifax
from Boston in 38^2 hours. It is said she would return to
Boston, but other accounts say that she will come to Quebec.
The first of the regular line of mail steamers to Halifax was
expected there from the loth to the i5th July."
The same paper on June 29th announced her arrival:
"The 'Unicorn,' steam packet, Captain Douglas, arrived
here (Quebec) this day a little before noon in 84 hours from
Halifax. Captain Douglas has favoured us with Halifax
papers of Thursday last, from which we have taken the ship
news. The news by the Great Western reached Halifax on
Wednesday last, 23rd inst."
The "Unicorn" was presumably the first trans-atlantic
steamer which entered the Port of Quebec. But she was
not the first which steamed out. That honor, as well as the
credit of being the first steamer which crossed the Atlantic
under steam from shore to shore belongs to the "Royal
William," a Quebec built ship. She seems, however, never
to have returned to her home.
The Gazette mentions the report of the Governor-
General proceeding to Halifax in the Unicorn, and says:
"We trust their expectations will be realized. Great
numbers of the citizens and the garrison of Quebec crowded
the ramparts and the citadel and the wharves, when the 'Uni-
corn' was coming in. All seemed anxious to get a sight of
this precursor of the line of steamers which is to introduce so
important a change in the communications of the North
American Provinces with Europe, and between each other,
and every one was delighted again to meet a friend and old
acquaintance in Captain Douglas. Just after the 'Unicorn'
came to the wharf a royal salute was fired from the Citadel,
in honor of Her Majesty's coronation, suiting well two joy-
The "Quebec Mercury" of 3Oth June, 1840, contains the
"ARRIVAL OF THE UNICORN. Shortly after ten o'clock
yesterday morning the repeating telegraph on Cape Dia-
mond showed the signal for a steam vessel coming up the
river, and the town was soon in a hustle with people pro-
ceeding to the wharves and other places where they would
be likely to catch a glimpse of the vessel, which was cor-
rectly pronounced to be the 'Unicorn,' Captain Walter Doug-
las, from Halifax.
"In about an hour from the time she was first telegraphed,
this pioneer of direct steam communication between Great
Britain and her North American colonies made her appear-
ance round the point, gallantly steaming against a strong
ebb-tide. On coming abreast of the Steamer 'St. George,'
lying at Gibb's Wharf, a salute was fired from the 'Unicorn,'
followed by three cheers from the people on board, which
were heartily responded to from the shore.
"In a few minutes the 'Unicorn' was moored alongside the
Queen's Wharf, to which all the numerous spectators who
had witnessed her arrival from other wharves in the Lower
Ttown reapaired, and numbers went on board to greet their
old friend, Captain Douglas. From Captain Douglas we
learn that the 'Unicorn' made the passage from Halifax to
this port in the short period of 84 hours. The 'Unicorn' was
again to have left Halifax on the 25th inst. for Boston,
but on the 23rd instructions were unexpectedly received to
proceed to Quebec, where we understand she awaits the
orders of His Excellency the Governor-General.
"The 'Unicorn' being ordered off from Halifax on so
short a notice, brought only 1 1 passengers, namely, Charles
Felix Aylwin, Esq., and lady; Mr. Ford, R.E., Mr. Nixon,
R.A., Mr. Brown, Miss Murison, Miss Tremaine, Mrs.
Macdonald, and three children.
"The numerous visitors on board the 'Unicorn' have been
much pleased with the admirable order prevailing through-
out the vessel, and the splendid manner in which the cabins
"The 'Unicorn' came up without a pilot, which, indeed the
thorough knowledge Captain Douglas has acquired of the
navigation of the river whilst master of the Surveyor
Schooner 'Gulnare' enables him, under any circumstances, to
do with perfect confidence. The total number of her crew is
Between the date of her arrival at and sailing from Que-
bec, she evidently went to exhibit herself at Montreal, for
the first memoranda in one of Capt. Dougles' pocket-books
is dated July, 1840, and gives the itinerary of the steamship
from Montreal to Quebec. She made the trip between 8.40
in the morning and 7.42 p.m.
The "Unicorn" was advertised in the "Mercury" of July
iith to leave Quebec with mail and passengers to connect
with the "Britannia" on her first homeward voyage.
"Advertisement of B. & N. A. Royal Mail Steamships of
1,200 tons and 400 horsepower: 'Britannia,' Captain Rob-
ert Ewing; 'Acadia,' Captain Robert Miller; 'Caledonia,'
Captain Richard Cleland; 'Columbia,' Captain Henry
Woodruff. For Liverpool, G.B.
"The 'Britannia,' the first ship of this line, commanded by
Captain Robert Ewing, will leave Boston 3Oth July and Hal-
ifax, ist August, for Liverpool, G.B.
"The ships will carry experienced surgeons, and their ac-
commodations are not surpased by any of the Atlantic steam-
"The 'Unicorn,' Captain Walter Douglas, will leave Que-
bec with the mails for England to meet the 'Britannia' at
"Passengers will please to make application at the office
of G. B. Symes, St. Peter Street.
"N.B. All letters intended to be sent by these vessels
must pass through the Post Office. None will be received at
the Agent's Office.
The "Britannia" was to leave Liverpool for Halifax and
Boston on 2nd July, the mail being made up in London on ist
The "Unicorn" wintered at Halifax in 1840-1841. On
May 8, 1841, the "Mercury" announced her arrival at Que-
The advertisement in the "Mercury" of March 9th, 1841,
of the summer sailings is as follows:
"British and North American Royal Mil Steamships.
Under contract with the Lords of the Admiralty. 'Acadia,'
'Britannia,' 'Caledonia,' 'Columbia,' will said from Boston
and Liverpool, calling at Halifax, as follows : (Then comes
the time tables and rates of passage money. The fare was
25 Sterling, Halifax to Liverpool, and $12 between Boston
and Halifax). "The ships carry experienced surgeons."
" The 'Unicorn' plies between Pictou and Quebec in con-
nection with Halifax.
"S. Cunard & Co., Halifax; G. B. Symes, Quebec; S. S.
The following letter from Mr. E. Cunard to Captain
Douglas is of interest, as indicating the terms on which the
mails were carried between Halifax and Pictou:
"HALIFAX, August 4, 1841.
"My Dear Sir: By the 'Acadia,' in 10 days 20 hours, I
received a letter from Mr. Cunard on the subject of the
mail and coaches between Halifax and Pictou. I intended
to advertize for tenders in the United States, but Henry
Boggs, who has just returned, says that there is some per-
son who is engaged in conveying the mails between Quebec
and Montreal, who was talking of coming down with you
to look at the road, and offer to take the contract. I would
therefore thank you to see him and talk to him on the sub-
ject. The contract will be for eight years from ist January,
1841, or for 7 years from next January. It is to continue
certain until the 3 ist December, 1843, and then to be con-
tinued until the expiration of the 8 years, unless Government
give a full twelve months' notice and pay a fine of 750.
This is intended as a guard to them if the contract is not
performed to their satisfaction; but if it is, it will remain
for the full period, as they do not wish to pay the fine. The
work to be performed is to convey the county mails three
times each week during the summer months between Halifax
and Pictou, and the English mails every fortnight, and also
to take the pasengers in proper coaches ; they, however, will
pay for themselves, and as the travelling on the road is in-
creasing rapidly, I am convinced that there is an excellent
opening for any person who understands the business. If
they do not, I would not wish to see them on the road. If
the person in Quebec will come down and you recom-
mend him as suited for the work, and able to carry it
through, we will give him 1,500 per annum, and he will
also be entitled to receive a bonus from the House of As-
sembly of 500. I must have an immediate reply, as I
must otherwise send to Boston. The party must have means
to stock the road and have a sufficient number of good,
well-built coaches. Let me hear from you.
(Sd.) "E. CUNARD."
"Captain Douglas, Care 'Unicorn,' Quebec."
The "Unicorn" was taken off the St. Lawrence route on
the close of navigation in 1844. I find from a file of the
"New York Evening Post" that she sailed from Halifax in
June, 1845, and was entered as arriving in New York, June
23rd. Her Captain was transferred to Glasgow as Marine
Superintendent of the Company. The ship continued to be
owned by either the Cunard Company or by shareholders
of the Company, for I find a letter of Captain Douglas
from Glasgow to Mr. Cunard on September 2, 1847, to
the effect that "Messrs. Caird & Co. are making new boilers
for the 'Unicorn.' '
It is said that after the ship came to New York she was
chartered out and made a few trips to the West Indies, but
having so little cargo space, she was subsequently sold to
the Portuguese Government; was converted into a corvette
of 8 guns and became the first steam warship of Portugal.
If these traditions are correct, she had a more eventful ca-
reer than most old ships.
Boston remained the American terminus of the line till
1850. On September 4th of that year the Niagara sailed
from Liverpool to open the regular direct service between
that port and New York-
The history of ships, famous in their day, when grown
old and decayed and turned to ignoble uses, affords material
for almost as pathetic a story as the fate of old homes and
old people. They pass us in mid-ocean, unobserved, unsa-
luted and not decked with flags. They are not intentionally
ignored or slighted, but overlooked, because no longer dis-
tinguished by outer trappings. They had served their day
and generation, and had outlived their usefulness and orig-
inal purpose; and they consequently share the fate of all
old things animate and inanimate.
Among Captain Douglas' memoranda I find the follow-
ing list of the steamers which sailed between New York and
Liverpool from April, 1838, to October, 1839, with dates
of departure and arrival. Our Quebec built steamer, the
"Royal William," is one of the four. It is interesting to
note that at that date the "Sinus" called at Cork on its way
to Falmouth. The "Great Western," the most rapid of the
boats, made Bristol its port of destination; the "British
Queen" selected Portsmouth, and the two slower steamers,
the "Liverpool" and "Royal William," (our Quebec built
ship) sailed in and out of Liverpool. The distribution of
traffic was then determined by the faulty means of land
transportation, whereas its more recent concentration at
certain favoured points has resulted from facilities which
the railroads now offer :
STEAMERS TO NEW YORK^ 1838 1839.
NAME FROM SAILED ARRIVED TIME
Sirius, Cork, 4th April, 23rd April, i8*4 days.
Great Western, Bristol, 8th '' 2yd " 15 "
Sirius, Cork, 3'st Mav, 1 8th June, 18 "
2 ist "
put into Cork
1 5th Dec.,
7th Jan., 1 839
28th Jan., 1839
1 8th May,
3 ist "
1 2th ""
i ^y 2
1 8th Aug.,
, 3rd Sept.,
2 1st "
i gth Oct.,
FROM NEW YORK 1838 1839.
ist May, 1838
i gth May,
i 8 days
7 th <
i gth Aug.,
" " 19
i6th Jan, 1839
3rd Feb., 1839
1 2th Mar.,
1 8th May,
1 3th June,
1 4th Aug.,
1 5th "
1 5th "
i gth "
1 6th Nov.,
In those days the Captain was also the caterer for the
boat. The result might prove a valuable perquisite, if he
was an economical manager, or involve a heavy deficit if
the reverse. Therefore, among Captain Douglas' papers I
find copies of various bills of fare of the "Great Western,"
of which the following very substantial dishes composed the
menus for breakfast and dinner on March 23rd, 1840:
BREAKFAST BILL. 4 dishes Beefsteak, 4 dishes Pork
Chops, 2 dishes Veal Cutlets, 4 dishes Stews and Potatoes,
6 dishes Ham and Eggs, I dish Omelette.
DINNER BILL. 2 dishes Baked Fish, 2 Roast Beef, 2
Roast Pork, 2 Roast Turkeys, 2 Roast Geese, 2 Pair Roast
Ducks, 2 dishes Roast Mutton, 2 Pair Boiled Fowls, 2
Dishes Boiled Mutton, 2 Tongues, i Ham, 2 dishes Corned
Beef, 4 dishes Pork and Beans. Pastry. 6 Raspberry
Roily Polly, 4 Maccaroni Puddings, 4 Apple Tarts, 4
Prune Tarts, 4 Mince Tarts.
There is also a copy of Regulations issued by the "Great
Western" Directors for the guidance of passengers and the
instruction of stewards.
"The Directors have been most anxious to avail them-
selves of the experience afforded by the passages which have
been effected, in all seasons and under all circumstances
of weather, by the "Great Western," in order to adopt the
system of arrangement which may most conduce to the com-
fort of the passengers, and they beg to annex a copy of
Regulations, which with that view have been issued to the
Stewards. They earnestly entreat the assistance of the
passengers in carrying them into effect.
"In all cases of dissatisfaction with the servants, it is re-
quested that the Head Steward may be informed, and if the
grievance be not immediately reduced, that the Captain be
appealed to, and if of a serious nature, that it be repre-
sented in writing in order that it may be brought before the
Directors at the conclusion of the voyage.
"ist. When desirable, the skylight and stern windows
are to remain open all night, or if the weather do not allow
this during the night, from 5 in the morning in summer, and
from 7 in the winter, weather permitting.
"2nd. The saloon and ladies' boudoir to be swept every
morning after breakfast.
"3rd. The Stewards and boys are to attend at meals in
"4th- The staterooms to be swept and carpets taken out
and shaken every morning after breakfast.
"5th. Bedding to be turned, as soon as passengers quit
their cabins; slops to be emptied and basins cleaned at the
same time. Beds to be made once only each day, except in
cases of illness, etc., and in one hour after the breakfasts
"6th. Bed linen to be changed on the eighth day. Boots
and shoes to be cleaned and put back into the staterooms
every morning at eight.
"yth. Two towels to be hung up for each passenger and
to be changed every other day.
"8th. Breakfast to be on table at 9 and removed by 1 1.
"9th. The dinner gong to strike at half past 3. Dinner
to be on the table at 4; the cloths to be removed the instant
it is over.
"loth. Tea to be on the table at half-past seven.
"nth- Supper, if required and ordered, before 10
"i2th. Servants and young children's breakfasts at half-
past 8, dinner at i, and tea at 6, in the fore cabin.
"i3th. Lights to be put out in the grand saloon at n
and in the fore saloon and staterooms at 12.
"i4th. The Head Steward is regularly to see that the
scuttles are open, when the weather will permit, and pas-
sengers are earnestly entreated to let the responsibility of
opening them rest with the Steward, as it will be impossible
to change the bedding should it become wet in consequence
of their being opened.,
"i5th. The Stewardess only to enter the ladies' state-
rooms and boudoirs, to make their beds, at the time before
"i6th. Chairs not to be taken out of the saloon or state-
rooms, camp stools being provided for the use of the deck.
"i7th. Divine service will be performed on Sunday,
when it is hoped that the arrangements of the passengers
will admit of the servants' attendance in a cleanly and
"Male servants are not allowed on the poop, or quarter-
deck under it, except when in attendance on their masters or
"As the labor of the servants must be very great, the Di-
rectors entreat the passengers to spare them as much as pos-
sible between the meal hours, and particularly while pre-
paring for dinner.
"To ensure as much as possible, respect, civility and at-
tention from the Steward's establishment, one-half of the
fees is set apart for distribution by the passengers, the re-
maining half being retained for breakages and other dilapi-
dations connected with the accommodation. Out of the for-
mer it has been agreed that the Head Steward is to receive
$10 each voyage, as his proportion, in addition to his salary,
and it is to be hoped a committee of passengers will take the
trouble to apportion balance, for which purpose a list of the
other stewards, cooks, etc., will be furnished by the Clerk
two days before the ship may be expected to arrive.
"In consequence of a representation that some rule with
respect to places at table in the saloon would be productive
of much general convenience, the passengers are respect-
fully informed that the occupiers of staterooms in the sa-
loon are entitled to seats opposite their several stateroom
doors, and the places taken by the whole of the passengers,
at the first dinner, are to be considered their's during the
voyage. This rule is not, of course, to bar parties from
changing seats with one another.
"The Directors entreat that they may be favored with
suggestions from the passengers on any point which may yet
appear deficient in the management."
The rate of passage in all parts of the ship, including
wines, was $140, between Bristol and New York. Steward,
$6.00. The rate of postage is stated at 25 cents for a single
sheet and on heavy letters, $1.00 per ounce.
Evidently the "Great Western" was the only rival the
early Cunarder feared, and Bristol as a rival port of Liver-
pool, judging from an interesting and very enthusiastic letter
from Mr. David Mclver to Captain Douglas on 5th July,
Captain Douglas' correspondence also contains copies of
letters to Hon. S. Cunard, which give some interesting data
as to cost of engines in those early days. On August 2,
1847, ne was contracting for three small steamers, and there
is a difference of opinion as to whether the engines should be
of 60 horsepower or 80 horsepower; and as to whether they
should be propelled by paddle or screws. He says:
"Elder recommends me to Messrs. Caird &
Co., as he considers them to have more experience in pro-
peller engines than any other establishment north of the
Tweed; he has volunteered his services to assist in deciding
on the application of the power, and now thinks the direct
action, if not worked over eighty revolutions, to be the best.
He goes with me to Leith next week to look at a vessel
that has been very successfully running between that port
On September 2, 1847, he writes Mr. Cunard that he has
"contracted with Messrs. Caird & Co. for the first pair of
engines, 5O-inch cylinders, with two-foot stroke, direct act-
ing and 60 horsepower, for 2,600."
The screw as a propeller was in those early days making
headway against the paddle wheel. Captain Douglas writes
to Mr. Cunard on October 2nd, 1847 : ~
"Mr. Napier recommends 36-inch cylinders, instead of
30, which will give a power of about 80 horse, driving a
nine-foot screw. He is at present experimenting on the dif-
ferent forms of propellers in a yacht called the 'Fire Queen.'
She is the only vessel on the Cylde that has beaten the
Queen's yacht 'Fairy,' and this was done with a three-bladed
screw, instead of two, as is generally used; the speed at-
tained by that vessel is 14 miles an hour; but he is not yet
satisfied, and is now making another screw with two blades,
but at a different pitch and driven at a less velocity."
He writes further with regard to screws on October 16,
"The additional cost of screws was not contemplated in
the first offer made by Mr. Caird; he calculated on the screw
being of iron, which is in general use in iron vessels; the
screws for these engines must be of gun metal; in conse-
quence of the near approach to the copper, the cost of which
will be considerable, as they will be very heavy. The dimen-
sions are 9 feet diameter by 2 feet; the aperture in dead-
wood is 2 feet 2 inches the fore and aft way and 9 feet 2
inches the up and down way. The boilers are to be tubular,
with brass tubes instead of iron."
On November 2 he writes to the same correspondent:
"Mr. Napier is still experimenting on the screw, but is
not yet satisfied. The last trial was an improvement on the
one used when the 'Fire Queen' beat the 'Fairy Yacht.'
They are now nearly ready for casting a third with two
arms, but at an increased pitch, which will be driven at a less
velocity, but giving greater propelling power at least he
Iron was first used in the construction of the hulls of
ships by Brunei in the "Great Britain" in 1843, ^ ut though
the Cunard Company's first iron ship was the Persia in
1856; the employment of iron in constructing the hulls of
their small steamers by the partners in the Cunard Co. was
under consideration nine years earlier, for on December 26,
1847, Capt. Douglas writes to Mr. Cunard:
"There are now two vessels of iron that have been run-
uning only ten months, with engines of 50 horsepower,
which power has been considered inadequate by their pro-
prietors. They have therefore been condemned, and
Messrs. Caird & Co. are placing engines of 70 horsepower
in them one of which, the 'Osmali,' has already started
and worked admirably. The speed attained was nine miles,
whereas before they only got six, and blowing hard could
do nothing head to wind. These vessels are about 320 tons
and are of iron. Your ships are 30 tons larger, and being
of wood, will be more difficult to propel, as the aperture
in the deadwood for working the screw in a wooden vessel
cannot be constructed so successfully as in an iron one; con-
sequently, more power is required."
This discussion on design of screws for propelling ships
was held more than sixty years ago, and yet the question of
the number of blades, as well as their pitch, seems to be as
far from solution as ever.
ERRATA. Corrected by request of the Author.
Page 112, lines 22, 23 Eliminate "Our Quebec built steamer, the
"Royal William", is one of the four."
Page 112, line 28 Eliminate "our Quebec built ship."
The Quebec built steamer "Royal William" was sold to the
Spanish Government on 10th September, 1834, and named "Isabella
"The additional cost of screws was not contemplated in
the first offer made by Mr. Caird; he calculated on the screw
being of iron, which is in general use in iron vessels; the
screws for these engines must be of gun metal; in conse-
quence of the near approach to the copper, the cost of which
will be considerable, as they will be very heavy. The dimen-
sions are 9 feet diameter by 2 feet; the aperture in dead-
wood is 2 feet 2 inches the fore and aft way and 9 feet 2
inches the up and down way. The boilers are to be tubular,
with brass tubes instead of iron."
On November 2 he writes to the same correspondent :
"Mr. Napier is still experimenting on the screw, but is
not yet satisfied. The last trial was an improvement on the
one used when the 'Fire Queen' beat the 'Fairy Yacht.'
They are now nearly ready for casting a third with two
arms, but at an increased pitch, which will be driven at a less
velocity, but giving greater propelling power at least he
Iron was first used in the construction of the hulls of
ships by Brunei in the "Great Britain" in 1843, but though
the Cunard Company's first iron ship was the Persia in
1856; the employment of iron in constructing the hulls of
their small steamers by the partners in the Cunard Co. was
under c nn "' tA ~- ni - : : -~
in the <
This discussion on design of screws for propelling ships
was held more than sixty years ago, and yet the question of
the number of blades, as well as their pitch, seems to be as
far from solution as ever.