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Full text of "Transactions"

m. 



m^ 



:.m.^ 



Cransacttons 



THE SOCIETY 



Biblical Archeology, 



9, CONDUn^ STREET, W. 



VOL. IV. 



LONDON: 

LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1876. 



HAEKISON AND SONS, 
PBIHTERS IN ORDINARY TO HEE MAJESTY, 

ST. martin's lane. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 



PAGE 



La Destruction des Hommes par les Dieux. Par 

Edouard Naville. 5 Plates i- 19 

On some Cypriote Antiquities discovered by General Di 

Cesnola at Golgoi. By S. Birch, LL.D. 3 Plates .... 20- 24 

On Human Sacrifice among the Babylonians. By Rev. A. 

H. Satce, M.A 25- 31 

On a Karaite Tombstone broug-ht from Djuffet Kalea, in 

the Crimea. By Rev. Dr. L. Loewe. Plate 32- 35 

Revised Translation of a Passage in the Great Astrono- 
mical Work of the Babylonians. By Rev. A. H. 
Sayce, M.A 36- 37 

On a Digraphic Inscription found in Larnaca. By D. 

PlERIDES 38- 43 

Les Quatre Races an Jugement Dernier. Par E. Lefebure 44- 48 

Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. By H. F. Talbot, 

F.R.S., &c 49- 83 

On a historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. By W. 

Boscawen 84- 97 

On a Unique Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. By 

the Rev. Albert Lowy, M.A 98-117 

Ancient Metrology. By Francis Roubiliac Conder, C.E. i 1 8-128 

A Tablet in the British Museum, relating apparently to 

the Deluge. By H. Fox Talbot, F.R.S 129-131 

On an Early Chaldean Inscription. By W. Boscawen .... 1 32-1 71 

The Tablet of Antefaa II. By S. Birch, LL.D. Plates. 172-194 

Himyaritic Inscriptions lately discovered near San'a, in 
Arabia. By Capt. W. F. Prideaux, F.R.G.S., Bom- 
bay Staff Corps 195-201 

Inscription of King Nastosenen. Translated by G. 

Maspero 203-225 

On the date of the Nativity. By Dr. Lauth 226-246 

Addenda to Dr. Lauth's Paper on the Nativity. By J. W. 

BosANQUET, F.R.A.S 247 



IV COXTENTS. 

PAGE 

On an Egyptian Shawl for the Head as worn on the 

Statues of the Kuigs. By Samuel Sharpe. Cuts 248-250 

Some Observations on the Skeleton of an Egyptian 

Mummy. By Joseph Bonomi 251-252 

Note upon the Skeleton of an Ancient Egyptian. By 

Prof. William Henry Floaver, F.R.S 253-255 

Babylonian Contract Tablets. Presented by Lady Tite. 

Plate 256 

Notice of a very Ancient Comet. From a Chaldean Tablet. 

ByH. Fox Talbot, F.R.S 257-262 

Fragment of the First Sallier Papyrus. Translated by 

Prof. E. L. Lushington, B.A 263-266 

Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

By W. St. Chad Boscawen 267-301 

Babylonian Augury by means of Geometrical Figures. 

By Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A 302-314 

On the Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. By Rev. 

JosiAH Miller, M.A 315-331 

Note on an Egyptian Bust, formerly in the Harris Col- 
lection. By Joseph Bonomi. Cuts 33^-333 

Observations on an Inscription in an unknown Character. 

By C. T. Newton, C.B. Plate 334-335 

On a New Hamathite Inscription at Ibreez. By Rev. E. 

J. Davis, M.A. Plate 336-346 

Notes on an Ancient Assyrian Bronze Sword bearing a 
Cuneiform Inscription. By W. St. Chad Boscawen. 
Plate 347-348 

The Revolt in Heaven, from a Chaldean Tablet. By H. 

Fox Talbot, F.R.S 349-362 

On some Fragments of the Chaldean Account of the 

Creation. By George Smith. 6 Plates 363-364 

Society of Biblical Archajology. Condensed Report of 
the Proceedings during the Fourth Session, Novem- 
ber, 1874, to July, 1875 .365-372 

Index to Vol. IV 373-395 

Society of Biblical Archaeology. Rules of 396-402 

List of Members 403-415 



— '— »»~ua::s: 



TRANSACTIONS 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHiEOLOGY. 



Vol. IV. JUNE, 1875. Part 1. 



LA DESTRUCTION DES HOMMES PAR LES DIEUX. 

Uapres une Inscription Mi/tlwlogiqne chi Tomhean de Seti /, 
a Thebes. 

Par Edouard Naville. 

Read \sf December, 1874.. 

L 'inscription qui doit faire le sujet de ce memoire reiitrt; 
dans ce qu'on peut nominev I'histoire mytbologique egyp- 
tienne. Dans la mytliologie egyptienne, comme dans celle 
des Grecs, il y a deux faces a considerer, ou plutot deux 
degres de developpement dont nous ne pouvons pas fixer 
exactement les limites, mais qui n'en existent pas moins. II 
y a la periode dans laquelle la mythologie n est encore que le 
reflet des phenomenes naturels qu'elle represente ; les dieux 
ne sont que des personnifications cosmogoniques, ce sont des 
agents qui dans I'enfance de I'humanite tiennent lieu de ce 
que nous nommons les causes. Rien ne se passe, rien ne s'est 
passe dans le monde sans la volonte ou sans Taction d'une 
divinite. Mais viennent les poetes, et aussitot c'est I'Olympe 
qui se peuple de divinites ayant cliacune sa vie propre, son 
caractere, ses passions, ses qualites, quelquefois ses vices. 
L'idee physique, naturelle, s'efft^ce de plus en plus, et nous 

Vol. IV. 1 



2 La Destruction des Honancs par les Dieuj.'. 

eprouvons d'aiitant plus d'interet pour cette mythologie 
nouvelle quelle s'eloigne davantage de sou poiut de depart 
et qu elle se rapproclie plus de I'humanite. Apollon, Hereule. 
Jupiter, Venus, parlent bieu plus a notre imagination par c< 
qu'ils ont de commun avec nous que par les phenomenes d' 
la nature dont ils sont la representation lointaine ; et nous 
oublions volontiers leur origine pour ne voir en eux que des 
etres surnaturels qui se melent avec passion de la lutte 
d'Achille et d' Hector. 

La mytliologie egyptienne n'a point atteint les brillantes 
regions de la poesie grecque. Elle a conserve bien plus 
longtemps son caractere primitif de culte de la nature; a 
I'exception d'Osiris, les dieux de I'Egypte sont des dieux 
physiques, des representations de plienomenes terrestres ou 
celestes, n'intervenant pas spontanement dans les affaires 
humaines, et ayant tons a peu-pres les memes attributs sous 
des noms differents. Dans la plupart des textes, Ra ou 
Amnion, Hatlior ou Mut sont des etres impassibles comme les 
colosses de pierre qui sont leur image ; leur vie n'ofire aucun 
changemeut et ils n'interrompent leur mutisme eternel que 
pour repeter au roi ou au defunt quelques formules ste- 
reotypees de benediction. Aussi comprend-on I'opinion de 
Jablonski lorsqu'il dit que les Egyptiens n'attribuaient jamais 
k lem's dieux ni la colere, ni d'autres passions. 

Cependant ce serait une erreur de croire que I'Egypte en 
soit restee a ce point ; il y a un autre cote de la mytliologie 
dans lequel les dieux sont des etres vivants qui agissent et 
qui parlent, qui se melent des affaires des liumains et qui 
sont sujets a plusieurs des memes faiblesses qu'eux. II y a 
une histoire des dieux. Nous savions deja par les auteurs 
anciens qu'il y avait eu des dynasties divines; nous con- 
naissons maintenant un petit nombre d'episodes de ces r^gnes, 
comme les grandes guerres d'Horus qui conquit I'Egypte 
pour son pere. L'inscription dont j'ai essaye I'interpretation 
nous en raconte un autre tres anterieur dans I'histoii-e divine, 
puit-qu'il se passe sous le r^gne de Ra. 

Lorsqu'on penetre aussi loin que possible dans Timmense 
tombeau du roi Seti I, on arrive dans une salle a colonnes 
uu-flela de laqnelle le souterrain devait encore se prolonger. 



La Destruction des Hoinines par les Dieux. 3 

Du cote di'oit de cette salle s'ouvre mie petite chambre 
obscure et basse ; en face de la porte, un grand bas-relief 
represente ime vache peinte en rouge, sous le ventre de 
laquelle se trouve le dieu 'Scliu, 1' Atlas egyptien, avec huit 
autres divinites qui personnifient des etoiles; entre les jambes 
de fanimal sont suspendues deux petites barques de Ea. Ce 
bas-relief a ete public par Champollion (Momts. de I'Egypte 
III, 245) mais non le texte qui Taccompagne. Les quatre 
j)arois de la chambre sont recouvertes d'une longue inscrip- 
tion qui a certains endroits est fort endommagee. D'autres 
petits bas-reliefs Tornaient aussi, mais le vandalisme des 
fellahs et je dirai des voyageurs les a fait disparaitre. Malgre 
les ordres du vice-roi et la surveillance de M. Mariette-Bey, le 
tombeau de Seti I est I'une des carrieres les plus fructueuses 
ou les Arabes viennent se pourvoir de fi-agments de sculpture 
qu'ils vendent aux etrangers. J'en ai ete temoin moi-nieme; 
il m'est arrive en y rentrant le matin de ne plus trouver un 
dessin que j'avais vu la veille et j'estime que la publication 
complete de cette tombe magnifique qui a servi de modele a 
un grand nombre d'autres, serait une oeuvre tres utile pour 
I'avancement de I'egyptologie, car elle sauverait d'une mine 
certaine ces precieux restes, 

C'est, comme je I'ai dit, un episode du regne de Ra que 
I'inscription nous rapporte. Or Ra, s'il n'est pas le premier 
roi divin, est cependant un des plus anciens. J'ai cherche a 
demontrer dans un autre travail d'apres un passage du Livre 
des Morts^ que le commencement du regne de Ra etait 
anterieur au soulevement du firmament et remontait, par 
consequent, aux premieres periodes de la creation. Ce regne 
dura peut-etre longtemps puisque nous devons voir les 
hommes jouer un grand role dans le recit qui nous occupe. 
Oil se passe la scene ? probablement a Heliopolis, I'expression 
de 44> "^ le grand temple, se rapporte par excellence au 
sanctuaire de cette localite ; d'autres textes nous en four- 
nissent la preuve ; d'ailleurs le nom meme d'On (Heliopolis) 
se trouve dans le corn's du recit. Le choix de cette cite n'a 
rien qui nous etonne, puisqu'Heliopolis jouissait parmi les 

' Voyez Zeitsclirift, 1874, p. 57. 



4 La Destruction ties Honmies par les Dieux. 

Egyptiens d'lin graiid i-enom d'antiquite, et que ses habitants 
s'attribuaient une origine bien plus reculee que celle de tous- 
leurs compatriotes (of. Diod. Sic.V, 57). Cette inscription dor 
avoir fait partie des livres du prophete, ainsi que nous I 
prouve la rubrique finale : 

" Lorsque Thotli veut lire ce livre a Ra, il se purifie par 

des purifications de neuf jours, les prophetes et les hommes 

doivent faire de meme." 

La saintete du livre ne I'a pas preserve mieux que 
d'autres des outrages des hommes et de Taction du temps ; 
les estampages que j'ai rapportes d'Egypte en 1869 et 
d'apr^s lesquels cette traduction a ete faite, indiquent de 
nombreuses lacunes resultant de fractures de la pierre ; beau- 
coup de phrases sont incompletes, le has des lignes a presque 
toujours beaucoup soufiert, le titre du livre fait entierement 
defaut, et il ne reste que quelques mots des premieres 
colonnes du texte. II y aura done dans le cours du recit 
bien des mots a suppleer. 

" Le dieu qui existe par lui-meme 

apres qu'il est devenu roi des hommes et des dieux tons 

ensemble ; les hommes a sa Majeste, vie saine 

et forte, dans sa vieillesse. Ses membres sont en argent, sa 

chair en or, ses articulations en lapis-lazuli vrai 

Dit par sa Majeste, vie saine et forte, a ceux qui ^taient 
avec lui : J'appelle^ devant ma face^ 'Schu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, 



' D O A n N^ expression qui se retrouve a plusieurs reprises 

avec des variantes d'orthographe : n ^'' ■'^vj? ■ Partout la preposition 

a I'air de faire corps avec le verbe ; les designations de conjugaison ne 



viennent qu'apr^s. Brugsch, Diet. p. 1669, f] [1 n) ^^^N^ Rv I herbeigerufen 
tvurden die Orossen. 



I l/n <^ ^^' substantif pronominal se rapportant a un dieu 

est suivi ici d'un determinatif divin ; il est plus frequent au pluriel avec 
le sens de tous les hommes (St&le de Ilorcuiheb h, Londres, 1. 6.) 



La Destruction des Homnies par les Dieux. 5 

et les peres et les meres qiii etaient avec moi quand j'etais 
encore dans Nun, et j'ordonne (?)^ a Nun qui amene ses 
compagnons avec lui (disant): Amene-les en petit nombre^ 
afin que les hommes ne te voient point et que leur coeui' ne 
s'efFraie point ; tu iras avec eux (tes compagnons) dans le 
sanctuaire (le grand temple), s'ils donnent leur consente- 
ment,^ jusqua ce que j'aille avec Nun dans le lieu ou je me 

tiens. Quand ces dieux furent arrives 

ces dieux dans son lieu; ils se prosternerent devant sa 
Majeste qui parla devant son pere, devant les anciens dieux, 
les createurs des liommes et des etres purs, et ces dieux 
parlerent devant sa Majeste, disant : Dis-nous tes paroles 
afin que nous les entendions. Dit par Ra a Nun; Toi, 
I'aine des dieux, de qui je suis ne, et vous, dieux antiques ; 
voici* les hommes qui sont nes de moi-meme, ils prononcent 
des paroles contre moi ; dites-moi ce que vous ferez a ce 
propos, voici, j'ai attendu, et je ne les ai point tues avant 



te leves, tons les homnies sont dans la Joie. La meme mot sans determinatif 
et avec une negation se trouve plus bas : ^^^^^^ persomie, ainsi que I'expression 

suivante, 1]^;^-==:^^ I ^"^^1^1^ '"" '" '"""" 
/'adorent comme un dieu. 

KJ| Ici le texte parait incomplet ou fautif. Ce mot depend 

peut-etre de | ^ ^ qui precede, comme dans la conjonction composee 

(1 n ^ 'v\ S\ lorsque. 



KA mot uouveau que j'ai pris pour une variante de ^~^ "^-^^ 
(Brugsch, Diet. p. 1502). ^'--^ tb;^ ^ (Bii-ch, Diet. p. 410). 

^iii c^ ~'-^- ^M 

3 Voyez Brugsch, Diet. p. 1558, sous le mot "^ (1 1 ^ I'exemple qu'il 

<-ite : ^^ WAAA I ^^_^ ^12 ' 'StP; 1 ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ *^«»«* ^^^^^ 
welcher Beifall spendete dem Plane seines Gottes. 

/ ^ <=>\A % I . / ^ 

4 AAAWA^ ^ rVArOV I 6tc. . . voici que les hommes, etc. . . . /\^wv\ 

_ — D I I 1^^=* ^.'ili I a I I I 

manifere assez frequente d'entrer en matiere, de commencer une phrase, meme 



6 La Destruction des Homines par les Dieiw. 

d'avoir entendu vos paroles. Dit par la Majeste de Nun : 
mon fils Ra, Dieu plus grand que celui qui Fa fait et que 
celui qui I'a cree, je demeure (plein) de graude craiiite 
envers toi ; que toi-meme tu reflecbisses en toi-meme (sui- 
ce que tu as a faire). Dit par la Majeste de Ra : voici, 
ils s'enfuient dans le pays, et leurs coeurs sont efFrayes 

dit par les dieux : que ta face le 

permette et qu'on frappe ces hommes qui trament^ des 
choses mauvaises, tes ennemis, et que personne (ne sub- 
siste parmi eux) " 

Ainsi Ra a regne depuis longtemps puisqu'il est sur ses 
vieux jours ; blesse de I'audace des hommes qui se sont 
permis de parler contre lui, il convoque le conseil des dieux, 
il s'adresse a son pere Nun, k plusieurs divinites et a toute 
une assemblee d'anciens, de peres et de meres, qui repondent 
aussitot a son appel, et qui, arrives devant lui, se prosternent 
avec respect. La conversation s'engage ; Ra leur expose ses 
griefs, il se plaint de ce que des hommes dont il est lui-merae 
le pere puissent parler contre lui, et il les consulte sur ce 
qu'il y a a faire. Comme le plus age, Nun prend la parole et 
temoigne a Ra sa profonde veneration ; et les dieux qui 
Tentourent proposent au monarque outrage de detruire ces 
rebelles qui complottent contre lui. Malheureusement une 
lacune nous empeche de voir quelle est celle des di\anites qui 
est deleguee pour cela et qui prend la forme d'Hatlior ; 
j'incline a croire que c'est la deesse Tefnut. 11 manque ici 

plusieurs mots ; il ne reste plus que ceux-ci : — •' 

descendre comme (ou sous la forme d') Hathor." 



lorsqu'on s'adresse h une seule personne. i]| (1 \/ V I 

■ AAAAAA ^ etc., dii par la Majeste du dieu a Tholh : J'iens, quit 



A/V\AA^ 
AAAAAA 



tons, etc. On trouve aussi aaaaaa V\ N|\ litteralemcnt : vous et moi. 

' jp I ^\ ^ I complot, conspiration, rebellion. C'est le meme crime 
qui oblige Horus a marcbor confre ses ennemis. Voyez Naville, Mythe 
d'Horus, pi. XIT, 4. \ jfyf } ^h (J ^ wife J^ conspirent eontre leur seigneur. 



La Destruction des Homines par les DieiLV.. 7 

"Cette deesse partit, et elle tua les hommes sur la 
terre. Dit par la Majeste de ce dieu : Viens en paix, 

Hathor, tu as fait (ce qui t'etait ordonne) dit par 

cette deesse : Tu es vivant, que j'ai ete plus forte que les 
hommes, et mon coeur est content. Dit par la Majeste de 

Ra : Je suis vivant que je dominerai sur eux (et que 

j'acbeverai) leur mine. Et voici que Secliet^ pendant 

beaucoup^ de nuits foula aux pieds leur sang jusqu'a la 
ville d' Heracleopolis." 

La deesse a bien su s'acquitter de son mandat ; elle a 
detruit les bommes, leur sang a ete foule aux pieds ; et Ra 
lui accorde des louanges sur ce quelle s'est raontree obeis- 
sante, louanges dont il ne tardera pas d'ailleurs a se repentir. 
Tout lo pays done jusqu'a Heracleopolis est convert du sang 
des hommes. Devons-nous admettre que la destruction de 
ces hommes imj)lique celle de toute I'humanite? Cela me 
semble evident, car I'inscription ne parle pas d'autres humains 

que des ^ .^Jt ' ''0^-««, les hommes par excellence, a moins 

qu'on ne puisse considerer comme des hommes les ennemis 
de Ra auxquels les .^nt ' ''^'^"''' auront plus tard a 



faire la guerre. Or si les ^ 'Sr^T ' ''^^"" sont condamnes 

a mort, a plus forte raison, les ennemis de Ra sont-ils voues 
a une destruction certaine. 

Mais voici que la scene change. Apres avou- fait mas- 
sacrer les hommes, le courroux de Ra va s'apaiser par une 
ceremonie assez etrange. 

" Dit par Ra : J'appelle vers moi mes messagers ; qu'ils 
se hatent, qu'ils se depechent, qu'ils courrent de toutes 



© K ... 

(J Je considere le nom de Sachet comme une autre denomination 



de la deesse Tefnut ou Hathor, qui a massacre les hommes. 

Jn ;^ ( -) AAAAAA r\ o ^ 

W V ' V ' litteralement melange, carieie de 

nuits, de meme racine que I'adjectif i ^'v i \ X (Brugsch, Grammaire, p. Sti), 
maint, divers, different. On peat le comparer aussi au Copte Cyii€ sepfante. 



8 Ln Deatriicfion de>< Honimes par les Dieux. 

lenrs forces !' Et les messagers arriverent immediatement. 
Dit par la Majeste de ce dieu : Qu'ils coramencent a 
Elephantine et qu'ils m'apportent des fruits^ en qnantite. 

Lorsqu'ils eurent apporte les fruits, le Sekti 

d'Heliopulis broyait ces fruits tandis que les pretresses 

faisaient couler (?) dans des vases. On mit ces 

fruits dans des vases ronds avec le sang des 

hommes, et on fit de boisson sept mille cruclies. Et voici 
que la Majeste de Ra, le roi de la Haute et de la Basse 
Egypte vint avec les dieux en trois jours de navigation, 
pour voir ces vases de boisson apres qu'il eut ordonne a la 
deesse de tuer les hommes. Dit par la Majeste de Ra: 
Cast bien, cela ; je vai^ proteger les hommes a cause de 
cela. Dit par Ra: J'eleve ma main a ce sujet, que je ne 
tuerai plus les hommes." 

Les pretres ^gyptiens aimaient generalement a rattacher 
leurs rites religieux a quelque grand evenement qui s'etait 
passe dans la vie des dieux. Nous savons par exemple par 
les textes ptolema'iques qu'en souvenir de la grande victoire 
qu'Horus avait remportee a Edfou sur Set et ses compagnons, 
les rois versaient quelques gouttes de vin dans une coupe 
d'eau qu'ils buvaient ensuite. Ici, il n'y a pas I'institution 
positive d'une ceremonie, ou du moins nous ne savons pas 
ou elle se eelebrait. Ra ordonne lui-meme qu'on aille lui 
chercher des fruits dont les pretres font une boisson probable- 
ment melee du sang des hommes. A la vue des 7,000 cruches 
qu'ils ont preparees, le coeur de Ra est plein de joie, et il 
jure de ne plus detruire les hommes. Pour le moment, il est 
satisfait, cette sorte d'oifrande I'apaise et il ne songe plus aux 
rebelles dont il se plaignait si ^nvement. 



1 \ v^ A^^AAA . de tontes leurs forces, litt. durUies cordis; cf. 

^-^° "' . f?CP 

Copte CyOT (Peyron, Diet. p. 310) duritios, aimloguo a I'cxprcssion l) 

(Brugsch, Diet. p. 1366) ajUOOT It ^HT, sustinere, pad. 

' ' 1 Le determinatif est celui des fruits, un petit disquejaune 

^^— DSi III] 
horde de rouge. Copt. 2<^IXI pomus. 



La Destruction des Hvmnies par les Dieiix. 9 

Le texte qui suit devient encore plus difficile a com- 
prendre, a cause de plusieurs mots nouveaux. 

" La Majeste de Ra, le roi de la Haute et de la Basse 
Egypte ordonna^ au milieu de la nuit de verser I'eau des 
vases,^ et les champs furent completement (?) ^ remplis 
d'eau, par la volonte de ce dieu. La deesse arriva au 
matin et trouva les champs pleins d'eau ; son visage en fut 
joyeux, et elle but en abondance et elle s'en alia rassasiee. 
Elle n'aper9ut point d'hommes. Dit par la Majeste de Ra 
a cette deesse : Viens en paix, gracieuse deesse. Et il 



ran . , 1 rOc:.,^ 

^ variante de v 

O D ^ 



Veau des vases. Traduction tout-a-fait conjecturale. II est probable cependant 
qu'il s'agit de vases ou de libations, puisque nous trouvons plus loin a deux 
reprises le mot 1 <CZI> j^% V" I que le determinatif me force a traduire par 
libations. Cette eolonne etant ceUe du coin, les estampages n'ont pas par- 
fjiitement reussi. 

AAA^^ 1 W _M\S> A \> I -^^ 11 I I I I 1 r '"^ I W^ AAAAAA 

furent completement (?) remplis d'eau /^=^ se lit. "Sep, et signifie la paiime des 
mains ; de-la la mesure de la palme. cf. Todt. ch. Ill, 1. 4, d'apres le pap. de 

AAAAAA AW*, ■ ^«=^ . . , . , 

AAAAAA .^fsiit. V. 6 ie suis Ihommequi revet ta face et qui rufraichit la 



paume de ta main. A^\\ ou /'=^ veut dire deux. cf. Todt. ch. Ill, 2, 

Q "^ Z2^ ^£ ^v <^^ ''^-=— o^ 1^ p^p- cie i^ey^e lit. n 

il a deux coitdees de longueur. Todt. 112, 7, d'apres le pap. de Nebseni. 
I Va y I I VX , , VN "tnets en deux a Pe et deux a 

Chen. L' expression quatre palmes parait avoir ici une sens adverbial, 

des quatre cotes, entierement ; de meme dans le description de la vache 
^ n ' .... ^C\ A fl elle est de tons les cotes peinte en ro'i. Je ne 

Mill .B^ ' qtj III 

donne cette dernifere traduction que comme une hypothese qui exige des preuves 
en plus grand nombre. 



10 La Detitruction ties Iluiinnes par les Dieax. 

naqnit les jeimes pretresses d'Amii.^ Dit par la ^Majeste 
de Ra a la deesse : On liu fera des libations a chacune des 
fetes de la nouvelle annee sous la direction de mes pre- 
tresses. De la vient que des libations sent faites sous la 
direction des pretresses a la fete d'Hathor par tons les 
hommes depuis les jours anciens." 

Dans ce qui precede le lieu de la scene a change. Nous 
ne somnies plus a Heliopolis ; nous sommes maintenant a 
Textremite du Delta, pres du lac Mareotis, dans le dernier 
nome occidental, le nome Libyque dout la ville d'iVmu etait 
la capitale. Le noni d'Amu veut dire : la ville des dattierp, 
et d'apres ce qui va sui^Tc, il me semble evident qu'elle etait 
situee dans le district appele == [1 x ^u~3 l^ pays de la 
vache, qui est mentionne dans une inscription geographique 
du temple d'Edfou. Cette ville doit sans doute le role qu'elle 
joue dans ce texte aux conditions exceptionnelles de ses 
environs. En effet a I'ouest du nome Libyque vivaient des 
barbares qui portaient un nom tres semblable : les barhares 
},^K^ 000 ' Ci^ ^^^^ champs de dattiers, et nous savons par la 
meme inscription d'Edfou, qua TEst de leur pays ces barbares 
vivaient de I'eau du Nil, tandis qu'a f Quest ils vivaient de 
I'eau de puits. Ainsi ce nome formait la limite extreme 
cntre le sol inonde par le Nil et la region qui n'avait d'autre 
eau que celle des puits ; il etait done dans des circonstances 
differentes des autres ; il ne dependait pas uniquement du 
fleuve. A la fin du siecle passe, un membre de I'expedition 
fi-an^aise, le general Andreossy, visitant le territoire de ce 
nome et surtout I'emplacement de Marioutli, I'ancienne 
Marea, nous dit qu'on y trouve des puits profonds et bien 
entretenuR, mais que ces puits ne sont remplis que par la 
pluie. Ce pays etait cependant d'une grande fertilite, car 
de nombreux autcurs arabes ou autres temoignent que les 
envii'ons du lac Mareotis etaient jadis une foret de palmiers, 

' 000® '^^^^ '■^^^ *^^ nome |)J^ que M. Brugsch appelle Libyque 
(cf. Geogr. I, 244 et 245, et III, 15) que M. Jacques de Rouge (Moiinaics de 
I'Egypte, p. 70 et 71) divise en deux, Mar§otique et Libyque. Yoyez aussi les 
texte? geograpliiques de M. Diimichen, et en particulier I, 98, 5. 



La Destruction des Iloinmes par lea Dieux. 1 1 

ce qui justifie pleiuement solt le Horn de la ville soit celui • 
des barbares Libyens qui liabitaient daus le voisinage. Les 
inscriptions hieroglypliiques nous apprennent que les dieux 
d'Amu etaient Hatlior et Osiris, et il y a vraisemblablement 
une mention d'une ceremonie toute analogue a celle dont 
nous venous de voir Tinstitution dans cette phrase d'une 
invocation a Osiris : 

" Tu es a Amu, tons les homines versent de I'eau 

en I'honneur du createur de leurs persounes." 
Quant au sens de cette ceremonie, il me semble que c'est 
une representation symbolique de la pluie qui venait remphr 
les puits des habitants du nome Libyque et qui etait 
necessaire a leur existence. C'etait en souvenir de ce que 
Ra avait fait inonder les champs et qu'Hathor etait venue 
s'y desalterer que tons les hommes repandaient de I'eau 
chaque annee en I'honneur de la deesse. 

Le recit continue sous une forme qui devient de plus eu 
plus familiere. Les dieux sont descendus de leur piedestal ; 
ils se sont rabaisses au niveau de I'humanite ; ils ont meme 
des aventures triviales. Voici Ra qui se repent d'avoir ete 
trop magnanime envers les hommes, qui trouve que cette 
destruction dont il n'est pas lui-meme I'auteur n'a point ete 
faite comme il le desirait et qu'il est toujours importune de 
la societe des humains. 

Dit par la Majeste de Ra : 
"II y a une douleur cuisante qui me tourmente ; qu'est-ce 
done qui me fait mal ? Dit par la Majeste de Ra : Je suis 
vivant, que mon coeur est lasse d'etre avec eux (les 
hommes) je ne les ai nullement detruits ; ce n'est pas une 
destruction que j'aie faite moi-meme ! ^ Dit par les dieux 

AAAAAA ■^:5 JO v\ ; Nts litt. : ce n'est pas wjie 

destruction ou J'aie eiendu ma main. Etendre sa main reut dire : agir soi- 
meme avec violence, payer de sa personne (Stfele de Tliotliin^s, 1 5 ) 

A^mi=:vGivii^^ 

le dieu dit : J'etends mes mains moi-meme et je lie pour toi De Ijl 

dans le mauvais sens : Jo (Pap. Abbott, III, 6) faire main 

basse siir. Chabas, M61. Ill, 64. 



AA^AAA 



12 La Destruction des Ilomnies par les Dieux. 

qui I'accompagneiit : Arriere avec ta lassitude, tu as 

obtenu tout ce que tu desirais. Dit par la Majeste de ce 

dieu a la Majeste de Nun : Mes membres sont soufFrants 

depuis fort longtemps ; je ne pourrai pas marcher jusqu'a 

ce que j'atteigne un autre (pour m' aider)." 

Ici, il n'est uiallieureusemeut plus possible de continuer 

une traduction suivie, le texte est trop gate, raais il parait 

d'apres ce qui en reste que Nun appelle ses enfants 'Schuet 

Xut pour qu'ils viennent au secours de Ra et qu'apres les 

recommandations de son pere la deesse Nut se decide a 

charger Ra sur son dos. A ce moment les hommes paraissent 

de nouveau ; ils voient passer Ra porte par la deesse, et, 

autant que je peux en juger, ils offrent au monarque d'aller 

combat tre ses ennemis. Le dieu continue son voyage et 

arrive en bonne sante dans un sanctuaire. Pen apres nous 

voyons le mot vache ; probablement qu'il se passe la une 

transformation de la deesse Nut qui prend la forme de cet 

animal. II etait encore nuit ; au matin les hommes sortent, 

portant leurs arcs, et le dieu leur dit : " Vos peches sont derriere 

vous" Un combat a lieu, il est vraisemblable que les 

ennemis de Ra sont enveloppes dans une destruction complete. 
Ensuite Ra veut aller au ciel. " J'ai resolu," dit-il, " de me 
i'aire enlever au ciel ; qui est celui que Nut en chargera?" ' 
Quelqu'mi se presente, dont Ra se sert pom* son ascension, 
et il penetre dans un lieu que je ne puis determiner. Arrive 
la, le dieu veut embellir sa residence et sans doute faire 
plaisir a cette vache dont le nom a paru dans I'inscription, 
et qui doit etre I'embleme de la deesse Nut. 

" Le dieu dit ; Je rassemble en ta possession des 
milliers (?) d'hommes et il iiaquit ...."' le reste manque. 
" Dit par sa Majeste, vie saine et forte : Qu un champ de 
repos s'etende ; et il naqnit un champ de repos. J'y fais 



□ *V\ ^ { ' I I ^ y^ III M ^ '^ qui est celui qwe Nut en 



chargera ? J'ai adopte pour le verbe ^ V la traduction de M. Brugseh, 
Todt. I, 5, uhertragen. Ra demande k qui Nut remettra la charge de le porter 
au ciel. 



La Destruction des Honanes par les JJleud'. 13 

croitre des fleurs ; et il naquit le champ des Aalu. JV 
mets comme habitants les etres de toute espece qui sont 
suspendus dans le ciel, les etoiles. Alors Nut se mit a 
trembler tres fort. Dit par la Majeste de Ra : Je rassemble 
les multitudes pour qu'elles I'adorent, et les multitudes 
naquirent. Dit par la Majeste de Ra : Mon fils 'Schu,^ prends 
avec toi ma fille Nut et gardez les multitudes qui vivent 
dans le ciel nocturne ; place les sur ta tete et sois leur 

nourricier on dit ce chapitre a la vache (qui se 

nomme) la multitude des etres." 
Suit une longue description de cette vache, dont nous 
avons signale la representation sur une paroi de la chambre 
oil se trouve notre texte. Cette description interrompt 
raomentanement le recit ; elle est longue, embarrassee, remplie 
de noms propres dont le sens mystique nous echappe. II 
ressort cependant de ce que nous avons traduit qu'il faut 
oonsiderer cette vache comme un embleme du ciel ou sont 
rassemblees des milHons d'etoiles, appelees des etres vivants. 

Ainsi, apr^s avoir essaye en vain de detruii-e les hommes 
sur la terre, soufFrant de ce sejour ou leur societe I'importune, 
Ra laisse aux humains le soin de combattre ses ennemis, et 
lui-meme se fait porter au ciel. La il cree le champ des Aalu, 
PElysee des anciens Egyptiens, et le peuple d'etoiles ; puis il 
s'occupe a repartir entre les dieux qui Taccompagnent le soin 
des diverses parties du monde. 'Schu et Nut deviennent des 
divinites celestes chargees de garder les multitudes d'etres 
qui vivent dans le ciel ; I'une a la forme cl'une vache ; I'autre 
comme un Atlas soutient de ses deux mains le ventre de 
cette vache qui porte toutes les etoiles. Voyons mamtenant 
k qui Ra va confier les etres qui sont sur la terre : — 

"Dit par la Majeste de Ra a Thoth : Appelle-moi la 
Majeste de Seb et dis lui : vieus en hate, sur-le-champ ! 
Apres que la Majeste de Seb fut venue, le dieu lui dit : 
Prends sous ta garde les serpents qui sont en toi (dans ton 

' '^^ ^^t) U W^ '"'^'^ "^^^ ''^"' ^^^ mots Jils et fille sout sans doute ici 
des noms d'atfection. Ces divinites sont en realite les enfants de Nun et non do 
Ea. 



14 La Destruction des Ilornmes par le>> Dieux. 

sein), qui me craignent tel que je suis ; tu connaitras leur 
sagesse et ensuite tu iras dans le lieu ou est mon pere 
Nun et tu lui diras : Garde soigneusement les reptiles de 

la terre et de I'eau " 

Une lacune regrettable dans mes estampes m'empeche de 
traduire la fin de ce fragment. Seb est connu pour etre le 
dieu representant la terre ; il est naturel que Ra lui parle des 
serpents qu'il a en son sein, ou plus litteralement en lui ; 
dans la repartition que Ra fait aux diverses divinites, c'est 
done Seb et Nun qui sont cbarges de garder les creatures 
qui rampent sur le sol ou qui vivenc dans I'eau. D'apres ce 
qui reste des lignes incompletes qui suivent, on voit qu'il est 
question d'enchantements ou de formules magiques, destinees 
a faciliter la taclie des dieux. On sait en effet que de tons 
temps les reptiles, surtout le serpent et la grenouille (dont 
le nom en egyptien rappelle celui d'enchantement). out joue 
un grand role dans les arts magiques et la sorcellerie. 

Selon toute apparence, il y a dans la mention speciale 
des serpents et des reptiles ampliibies une signiHcation 
symboKque. Dans les nombreuses representations des dieux 
des elements, on trouve que ces divinites out presque toujom's 
des tetes de grenouille ou de serpent, suivant qu'elles sont 
considerees comme male ou femelle. Or, si la division des 
elements en quatre ou huit date peut-etre des Ptolemees, 
le symbolisme qui leur donnait I'image de reptiles est cer- 
tainement d'ongine plus ancienne, et il me semble Evident 
que lorsque Ra remet a Seb et a Nun la garde de ces ani- 
maux et les enchantements par lesquels ces dieux pourront 
les maitriser, c'est dire qu'il leur donne la domination sur les 
Elements et les moyens de regler leur action. 11 reste encore 
un dieu a qui Ra va faire la plus belle part : 

" Dit par la Majeste du dieu a Tlu)tli : Viens, quittous le 
ciel et allons dans ma demeure, parceque je veux faire un 
luminaire brillant dans le ciel inferieur et dans la region 
profonde,^ c'est-la que tu inscris et que tu gardes ceux qui 
ont commis des actions mechantes les serviteurs 



^AA^^^A ^ l*^^^ X, ^^^ ^ ^'^'^- '"^ I'ig'wn de ht caverne. 



La Destruction des Hoinmes par les Dieujc. 15 

que halt mon coeur. Mais toi, tu es daus nia demeure, le 
dieu de ma demeure ; on t'appellera Thotli, la demeiire de 

Ra ; je te donne d'envoyer des messagers vers et 

il naqiiit I'ibis de Thotli ; je te donne d'elever ta main a la 

face des grands dieux 

et il naqnit les deux grues' de Thoth ; je te donne 

d'entom'er les deux parties du ciel par ta grace et par 

tes rayons, et il naqnit le disque lunaire de Thoth ; je te 

donne de te tourner vers les loniens, et i] naquit le 

cynocephale de Thoth qui est dans son escorte ;^ tn es 

sous mes ordres ; les yeux de tons sont ouverts sur toi, et 

tous les hommes t'adorent comme un dieu." 

Apres avon remis a la garde de diverses divinites le ciel 

et la terre, Ra devait encore choisir le gardien de la region 

inferieure, celle que nous nommons I'abime ou I'enfer. C'est 

le dieu Thoth qui en est charge, et, en meme temps que Ra 

lui impose ses fonctions, nous voyons naitre les symboles par 

lesquels il est le plus souvent represente : Tibis, le cynocephale, 

le disque lunaire, et un autre beaucoup plus rare, les deux 

grues, ou les deux ailes de grue. C'est le dieu que Ra 

traite avec le plus de faveur, c'est le seul auquel il parle 

avec une sorte de bienveillance et qu'il appelle sa demeure, 

c'est-a-dire, par une metaphore assez frequente a la langue 

egyptienne, I'objet de ses affections. II ne faut pas s'etonner 

de ce qu'il semble n'y avou' aucun rapport entre les 



Origine du noin de "O" ^ J^ donue a Thoth. M. Goodwin nous apprend 

® . ^, , . %^ "^ 

aue Thoth est quelquefois represente par deux oiseaux, Jg^ J);^ (Zeitschr. 

*^^~ ''"^^ 
1874, p. 38.) Peut-etre aussi faut-il traduire : les deux ailes de la grue de Thoth ; 

Ci serait alors TexpUcatiou du signe ^ qui accompagne souvent le nom 

du dieu. 

- fvf^-f rV) Je traduis ce mot par compagywn escorte, (Leps- 

't)^-, a^ Tk &. Q. Ill 

Denkm. II, 149. fx/^ Vvv k\. compagnons, escorte 

d' Horus a son couronnement.) Voy. aussi Todt. 145, 3. 



16 La Dcft ruction dei< llunune>< par les DUuj:. 

promesses de Ra et les symboles qui y correspondent. 
Pom- quiconque a le texte egyptien sous les yeux, ce con- 
traste s'explique de lui-meme par ces alliterations que les 
Egyptiens affectionnaient. lis aimaient a rapprocher des 
mots ayant un son analogue, quand meme I'idee qu'ils 
representent est peut-etre tres difFerente; c'est pour cela 

qu'ils derivent nH^^X^''^^ '^'^^'^ du verbe rO^^J a 

envoyer, et rf<j cynocephale de /wnaaa aaa^ se tourner. 

C'est avec ce discours de Ra que finit le recit proprement 
dit ; apres quoi vieiit I'indicatiou de la maniere dont il doit 
etre lu : 

"Celui qui prononce ces paroles lui-meme," est-il dit, 
" doit se frotter de baume et d'buile fine ; il doit avoir un 
encensoii- dans les mains et des parfums derriere les deux 
oreilles ; ses levres doivent etre purifiees avec du het ; il est 
vetu de deux tissus tout neufs ; il est chausse de souliers 
de bois ; I'image de Ma (la Verite) est sur sa langue peinte 
en couleur roi fraiche d'ecrivain. Lorsque Thotli vent 
lire ce livre a Ra, il se purifie lui-meme par des purifica- 
tions de neuf jours ; les pretres et les bommes doivent faii-e 
de meme." 
A la lecture de ce conte bizarre, il est impossible de ne 
pas etre frappe a quel point il dilFere de la grande masse des 
inscriptions funeraires qui garnissent les tombeaux des rois, 
ou du Livre des Morts. Au lieu de descriptions monotones 
de la course du soleil aux dilFerentes beures du jour et de la 
nuit, ou d'invocations mystiques aux genies, nous avons ici 
une sorte de dialogue, une espece d'histoire des dieux. Ra 
n'est plus la diviuite cosmogonique a tete de belier que les 
esprits trainent sur sa barque ; c'est un roi, un Jupiter, qui 
r^gne depuis longtemps sur les hommes et les dieux et qui 
exerce son autorite meme sur son pere et sur ses ascendants. 
Iriit^ de I'audace des hommes, il veut les detruire, inais il se 
laisse apaiser par une offrande et jure de ne pas les faire 
perir. Cependant il se fatigue bientot d'etre toujouvs avec 
eux ; il les quitte et se fait porter au ciel par Xut. II remet 
a cette dernitjre et a 'Schu la garde des etres du ciel ; a Seb et 



La Destruction des Ilommes par les Dieiw. 17 

k Nun la garde des etres de la terre et de I'eau ; et il s'en va 
faire sa demeure avec Thotb, son prefere. Etrange recite dans 
lequel au milieu d'inventions fantastiques et souvent pueriles, 
nous trouvons cependant les deux termes de rexistence telle 
que la comprenaient les anciens Egyptiens. Ra commence 
par la terre, et, passant par le ciel^ s'arrete dans la region 
de la profondeur, I'Ament, dans laquelle il parait vouloir 
sejourner. C'est done une representation symbolique et 
religieuse de la vie qui, pour chaque Egyptien et surtout 
pour un roi conquerant, devait commencer et finir comme le 
soleil. Voila ce qui explique qu'un chapitre qui a certains 
endroits parait si peu respectueux pour les diviuites dont il 
parle, puisse etre inscrit dans un tombeau, et que meme, 
d'apres les ceremonies qui doivent en accompagner la lecture, 
il soit considere comme d'une saintete presque redoutable. 
Pour qu'il fut a I'abri des regards profanes, cette inscription 
avait ete mise dans une petite cbambre probablement tenue 
fermee, et rien dans les quelques bas-reliefs qui s'y trouvent 
ne pouvait faire connaitre le contenu du texte. 

II y aurait peut-etre des comparaisons a faire avec d'autres 
mythologies, peut-etre aussi des traces de ce mytbe a re- 
trouver dans d'autres morceaux de la litterature egyptienne. 
Je voudrais en finissant m'arreter sur im seul j)oint, sur le 
recit du massacre des hommes. II me semble que c'est la 
qu'il faut cliercber I'origine des sacrifices bumains qui nous 
sont rapportes par plusieurs auteurs grecs et auxquels 
Herodote ne veut pas croire. Plutarque nous dit (de Is. et 
Os. p. 129, ed. Partbey) que dans la ville d'llitbyia, on brulait 
vivants des hommes qu'on appellait typhoniens et qu'on 
repandait leurs cendres aux vents. Porpbyre nous parle 
d'hommes qu'on immolait a Heliopolis, et Seleucus, cite par 
Atbenee, rapporte qu'a la place des victimes bumaines qu'on 
sacrifiait dans les temps anciens, les Egyptiens offraient aux 
dieux des gateaux Tre/xfMara. Or ici, nous voyons que Ra 
fait tuer les hommes, et qu'une deesse foule aux pieds leur 
sang ; puis, satisfait d'une oifrande dont la nature n'est pas 
parfaitement certaine, il jure de ne plus tuer les hommes. 
II semble done qu'il ait accepte cette offrande a la place des 
humains dont il avait ordonne la destruction. A la vue des 

Vol. 17. 2 



18 Im Destruction des Honimes jJcir les Dieux. 

vases de boisson qui lui rappelleut ses exploits, il lui suffit 
que la mort des hommes soit commemoree de cette maniere, 
de meme que les victoires d'Horus sont celebrees par le vin 
que le roi verse clans sa coupe. Cette legende detournera 
les Egyptieus des saciifices humains ; ce ne sera pas chez 
eux uue coutume, et, en particulier, ils ne sacrifieront pas 
des Egyptiens, des hommes de leur race, a moins qu'ils ne 
portent sui- eux-memes la marque de Typlion. Car la pro- 
tection de Ra ne s'etend pas a toute I'humanite, il a jur^ 
d'epargner les I'ot-u, les hommes par excellence, ceux qui sont 
nes de sa personne et qui sont le type de la race egyptienne ; 
a cote d'eux sont les ennemis de Ra que les hommes com- 
battent et qu'ils doivent percer de leurs Heches : le serment 
de Ra ne s'applique pas a eux. Rien d'etonnant done a 
ce que dans certaines occasions, on immolat les hommes 
typhoniens, ceux qui par leur couleur ou leur origine etaient 
consideres comme des ennemis du roi divin. Tel est aussi 
I'un des sens de ce conte mythologique que nous a livre le 
tombeau de Seti I. 

Les mythes egyptiens n'ont pas de charme en eux-memes . 
il ne s'y trouve ni Timagination brillante ni la fraicheur qui 
distuiguent ceux des poetes grecs. Le style est aride, et la 
lecture en est trop souvent rendue fastidieuse par une grande 
ambiguite de langage, et par des details triviaux et puerils. 
C'est I'interpretation seule qui en fait I'interet, I'idee philc- 
sophique qui les a dictes, la conception de I'esprit qui se 
cache sous un vetement si bizarre et quelquefois si grossier. 

C'est la le but vers lequel nous devons diriger nos 
recherches, et nous saurons alors si les Egyptiens meritent 
bien reellement ce renom de grande sagesse dont ils se sont 
pares dans I'antiquite. 



Note. 

Ce memoire etait deja sous presse, quand j'ai re9u de 
Monsieur le Dr. Birch la proposition que j'ai acceptee avec 
empressement, d'y aj outer le texte hieroglyphique. Cette 
decision n'ayant etc prise que cet hiver, cela explique 



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La Destruction des Ilommes par les Dieux. 19 

pourquoi le lecteur ne trouvera dans le cours clu memoire 
aucmi renvoi au texte egyptien. 

Grace a I'obligeance cle M. Edwin Smith et de M. le 
Prof. Mills, j'ai pu combler la lacune qui existait au milieu 
des lignes 58-62 par le fait de la perte d'un de mes 
estampages. 

Les cinq planches ci-jointes contiennent tout ce qui rests 
sur les quatre murs de la Chamhre de la Vache. Elles con- 
tiennent, outre les parties ti'aduites, celles que j'avais omises 
a dessein, et dont I'interpretation devra faire I'objet d'un 
travail subsequent, a savoir ; La description de la Vache 
celeste (1. 44-55), et I'invocation aux esprits de I'Orient 
(1. 84-fin). Sauf la lacune sus-mentionnee, I'inscription a 
etc copiee en entier d'apres mes estampages, et collationnee 
par M. Birch sur ceux de M. le Prof. Mills. L'etat de la 
pierre ne permet pas d'esperer qu'on puisse combler les vides 
considerables qui se trouvent dans la planche B. 




20 



ON SOME CYPRIOTE ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED BY 
GENERAL DI CESNOLA AT GOLGOI. 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Head bth January, 1875. 

The excavations made by General di Cesnola, United 
States Consul at Larnaca. in Cyprus, at the ancient sites of 
Golgoi, Salamis, and Curium, have been productive of many 
fine monuments of art, and several inscriptions in the Cyprian, 
Greek, and Phoenician languages. It is not my intention at 
present to give an account of all the monuments discovered, 
but it is not possible to omit mention of all the interesting 
examples found ; and amongst others which deserve remark 
is the so-called royal sarcophagus found in the spring of the 
past year at Golgoi. This, which is of the usual limestone 
of the country, resembles in many respects the coffins dis- 
covered from time to time in the Etruscan temtory. It 
belongs to the Greek period, and is not older than the fourth 
century B.C. The top or cover is pointed, and has four lions 
crouching, two at each end, facing outwards ; the sides have 
subjects in relief derived from Greek mythology. On one 
side is the death of Medusa by Perseus — the horse Arion and 
the girl Chrysaor springing out of the neck of the decapitated 
Medusa, while Perseus stands holding the kibins or Cyprian 
wallet in which he carried off the head of the decapitated 
Gorgon. The other scenes of this sarcophagus represent a 
four-horse chariot or tethrippos, two hoplitai or armed warriors, 
chasing a boar, perhaps the celebrated boar of Kalydon, and 
two others attacking a bull, possibly Jason and the Cretan 
fire-breathing bulls. There is also a symposium or enter- 
tainment of four persons with kitharutriai or female musicians, 
with harps and pipes, and a boy waiter carrying round the 



HE TEMPLE OF COLCOS 



t 



M/i^/D. 



k>^ 



::^--V- 




itr^sF 



r L/fi/£ AND ENTIRE. 

(vs possible^ aunJb of the/ 
^ they are/ oolored red/ 
letters (u-e as claccr as if 
letbers with ihe ^KcepUorv 
servedy. the/ others Jvot/so 
worny oict/. 



Jl 



CYPRIOTE INSCRIPTION FOUND IN THE NEICHBOURHOOD OF THE TEMPLE OF COLCOS 
BY CENL Di CESNOLA. 



>^Ax/v^'f^*)r^f)TX>^ 



i^im^^)^>^y^i 



A 



>^ 



ktir/l'f+ 



THIS INSCfttPTION tS AU IN ONE LINE AND ENTIRE 
Tke betters are ccpteA ajt faithftiUy a>s possiMU and of tht/ 
same sixe- at th^' are in the ort^uwU thfy arc- cchorej netb 
so is lAe. bas-i-eli^^, the drft eUven^ letters art as clrar aji W 
nxadej^Asteniay. iJu/ neayt- st^xteen' letters H-itk- the eax*ffitntn. 
tf(Jt»firft-,ar6 alae yety clearfy praierred' t)ie- ethers rwf so 
■t of tJiA sfon^ hetno worn ciii^ 



F 



».,/? , 



m 



Oil some Cypriote Antiquities discovered at Golgoi. 21 

(£nochoe or wine jug. This sarcophagus so much resembles 
vases of the older style of art, that it is probably of the 4th 
century B.C. Unfortunately it is not accompanied by any 
inscription either in the Cyprian or Greek character. Of the 
Roman period, and very late in it, is a glass vase discovered at 
the same site by the same explorer. The letters are in relief, 
as they almost always are on the Roman glass. They read 
METHZ EflOHZE 'Meges made' [it] the e epsilon and c 
sigma being round, and the H eta of a very late shape, perhaps 
not earlier than the thu-d century A.D. A second inscription 
on the same vase reads MNHZGH O AfOPAZAZ 'Let 
the buyer remember,' that is let the buyer recollect Meges 
made it, should he requu-e another of the same manufacturer. 
Not having seen the vase itself, it is not possible for me to say 
from which of the ancient manufactories, Rome, Alexandria, or 
Sidon, it probably came. Among the objects decidedly of 
Cyprian fabric, is a lamp with a long flat upright handle to 
hang it up against a wall to illuminate an apartment ; there 
being a hole for the purpose of affixing it at the top of the 
handle, and the lamp itself at the other end. These lamps 
are quite novel, and rarely if ever found in Greece or Italy, 
although several examples have been discovered at Cyprus. 
On the handle is a Silenus in relief, said to resemble a Colossus 
found at Amathus. Silenus is full-face, and round are four 
Cyprian letters Q^ GC "f" V pi-l-ti na, or i, according to the 
alphabet of Brandis. In it may be a proper name such as 
^Fhilitia ' or Philtias. Another small monument found at 
Salamis (see Plate) is an alabaster unguent vase of very un- 
usual shape. It is more Oriental than Greek in type, having 
a cylindroid body tapering to the base, ornamented with two 
horizontal rectangular bauds, and four perpendicular ones to 
the base of the neck with chevron lines ; a horizontal band of 
plain Imes, surmounted by anotlier of ovolos, runs round the 
shoulder, and two small wings or handles project from the 
sides ; a long cylindi'ical neck terminating in an expanding 
mouth completes the vase with a species of alabastros of 
unusual shape. The ten letters are disposed four on the 
upper part and six on the lower part of the body. Some clue 
to their arrangement is probably given by the fact that ::|: 



22 On some Cypnote Antiquities discovered at Golgoi. 

is generally an initial and } j-l a final letter, so that the lower 
characters are to be read J |-l IT )( I X \I/' ^^ ^^^i^ ^^^® *^^® 
upper must be read 4" /) /K ^* I^ is evident that the 
values hitherto assigned to some of the letters are inadequate 
to explain all tlie inscriptions which have been discovered. 
The lower word indeed may be Theanou of Theanes, if read 
horizontally, but it is just possible, as two letters occur 
in two compartments, that it might be read vertically ; 
but the meaning of short inscriptions is always difficult, 
if not doubtful, owing to the small Cypriote vocabulary 
known. If the first letters are to be read horizontally, 
the fii'st word Ktyo^a, or Koivo/Sa, according to the reading 
of Schmidt, would be the name of the vase, equivalent to 
alabastros or leythos, and the second that of the possessor, 
or ' the Kanoba vase of Theanus.' This vase was dis- 
covered on the site of Salamis. There was also discovered 
on the same spot the pediment in limestone (see Plate) of a 
small monument having the following subject in relief — two 
females standing draped in tunics, the chiton poderes reaching 
to the feet, then- hands raised to the top of the head as if 
dividing the hair in the attitude of the Aphrodite Anadyomene. 
At each side of these two central figures is a lion of rather 
large proportions, and of archaic style, crouching and. looking 
round with protruding tongue, and long spirally curled tail; 
while at each end of the pediment is a standing figure of a 
boy or youth draped, and holding his garment round his 
waist. The meaning of this group or composition is very 
obscure. On the moulding beneath the pediment is a line 
of Cyprian characters, unfortunately imperfect. 

As in the previous case, the transliteration does not give 
any very certain result, the only word, as Professor Merx 
has suggested, being evident is [^/I^^^^IjI-I uergesias. 
The words at the beginning, which are partly mutilated, 
probably were the commencement of the dedicator of the 
monument, if not the names of the gods to whom the monu- 
ment was dedicated ; one may be ^^ '^ ^ }^ \j^ ^;^^i: d, |- , 
but owing to the mutilation of the inscription at the 
beginning, even that is involved in uncertainty. The foi"m 



On some Cypriote Antiquities discovered at Golgoi. 23 

X ^ V h occnrs on the Bronze Plate of Dali, but its 
meaning is not quite clear. Altogether this inscription offers 
considerable difficulties, and will probably require other 
monuments to explain it, for the meaning in its present 
condition appears very obscure. Besides the Cyprian inscrip- 
tion, General di Cesnola obtaii:^ed a terra cotta jug of the 
shape known as the oenochoe or olpe, on which was scratched 
in Phoenician II^ri^i^T' Leantash, 'of Antosh,^ the name of its 
proprietor. Several vases of this nature, some inscribed in 
black pamt or ink, with the name of the proprietor in 
Phoenician, have been found at Dah, Golgoi, and other sites, 
and were no doubt placed upon them by their Phoenician 
proprietors. The above mscriptions have been communi- 
cated in letters, with accompanying photographs, by General 
di Cesnola, who has kindly allowed then* pubhcation. The 
mutilated condition of the inscription on the pediments 
prevents a satisfactory reading of the whole line of the 
inscription, and difficulties will always present themselves, 
owing to the Greek being transcribed by a syllabic instead 
of a purely alphabetic system. The great advance, however, 
made in the explanation of the inscriptions, will clear away 
much of the difficulty when more inscriptions are found, and 
the power of comparmg the different words is increased ; 
but the script itself differs according to the period when 
written, and there will always remain a certain ambiguity 
about some words on account of the difficulty of the 
paloeography as well as that of the exact word, which lies 
dormant under the syllabic cloak in which it is enveloped. 

The object, however, of the present paper is rather to 
publish the inscriptions here represented than to enter anew 
on the subject of the interpretation of particular words, 
which would require considerable research to evolve, but the 
following are certain in the Cyprian portion, < )( ^ T J N ^^ 
the end, preceded by the word J ^ /) 'Y' J I"! and the pre- 
ceding word quoted in the previous page. The first word of 
the inscription in the fuller copy is read % J) jj-| and the 

second appears to be [^ \j^ "X^^^^- "F J^li /K l^/^- * H' ^^^^ ^^^ 
of which is apparently kathes. The next word reads 



24 On some Cypriote Antiquities discovered at Golgoi. 

,y pj ^ ^ ^gi', and is remarkable for the \J at the end 
ot the word, which more rarely occurs tlian the final |^ 
which ends so many of the common forms, and the repetition 
of which final s shows the language to be Hellenic, in con- 
junction with the constant appearance of the prefixed t, the 
article in many names, — these bemg both common Greek 
forms, the last of which lingered till a late period in such 
words as talla and tanta. 

In the apphcation of the Greek language to the in- 
scriptions, and the assumption that certain words must be 
represented in some Cyprian forms, and the consequent 
deductions of the values of individual characters in conse- 
quence, great divergence will hereafter necessarily arise, but 
a certain check will always be held over these conclusions 
by the occasional discoveries of bilingual inscriptions, which 
will control and help to prove or confute the values thus 
derived. 

The difficulty of interpreting these ancient and dead 
languages depends very much on the amount of material 
at the disposal of the student, and short inscriptions are 
.always the most arduous to interpret. At present, with the 
exception of the Bronze Tablet of Idalion, no inscription in 
the Cypriote characters of any length has been found, most of 
them being short. There is, however, one pccuharity hi the 
Cypriote, that it rarely uses, except on corns, contractions, 
and does not present the same peculiarity as the Etruscan 
and Roman of ofi:ering to the inquirer the enigma of incom- 
plete words. 




A /a bast ei 



Atabasler Vase found ,il Go/gei h General ,/i Cesnohi. 




25 



ON HUMAN SACRIFICE AMONG THE 
BABYLONIANS. 

By Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. 
Read 2nd February^ 1875. 

The sacrifice of the first-bom in honour of the Sun-god 
was one of the most notorious rites of ancient Semitic wor- 
ship. Not of all Semitic worship, however. While the hor- 
rible practice was of common occmi-ence among Phoenicians 
and Hebrews and Arama3ans, traces of it are doubtful and 
scanty among the south-western Semites of Arabia and 
Ethiopia. Now the northern branch of the Semitic family 
is precisely the one which was closely connected with Baby- 
lonia in language, cultm-e, mythology, and tradition. The 
so-called Assyrian language of Assyria and Babylonia is more 
nearly related to Hebrew than to any other Semitic idiom ; 
it was from the shores of the Persian Gulf that the Phoenicians 
beHeved themselves to have migrated, while Ur, the primitive 
capital of Chaldea, was the birthplace of Abraham ; and the 
ancient legends of Babylonia find their parallels in Phoenician 
story and Hebrew tradition. Such being the case, it is 
natural to look to Babylonia for instances of the sacrifice of 
the first-born, similar to those that we find among the kindred 
populations of the West. Here, too, the worship of the 
Sun-god and of the powers of nature held a foremost place 
in the national creed, and gave rise to a rich mythology and 
the growth of an epic cycle. 

The first poem or lay of this epic cycle, into which were 
interwoven twelve older independent lays, embodying some 
of the most favourite myths of the people, seems to have 
been one on " the Sacrifice of Bel" or, as it is also called, 
" the Sacrifice of Righteousness.'" The epic was arranged on 
an astronomical basis, each of its twelve component lays 



26 On Hunuin Sacrifice among the Babylonians. 

answering to the name of a sign of the Zodiac and of the cor- 
responding month. Just as the 11th book, Avhich recounted 
the story of the Dehige, answered to Aquarius, the 11th sign 
of the Zodiac, and the 11th or " rainy " month of the ancient 
Babylonian Calendar, so the first book must have answered 
to the first sign of the Zodiac and the first month of the 
year, which were termed the sign and month of " the Sacra- 
fice of JJel." We are reminded at once of the Phoenician 
myth which told how El — the Phoenician Bel —offered up his 
first-born Ye[d]ucP, "the beloved," in time of trouble, by 
burning him on a high place ; and of the parallel offered 
by the Bibhcal narrative of the sacrifice of Isaac. 

Now the poems of the epic, together with the religion 
and mythology upon which they were founded, were borrowed 
by the Semitic Babylonians from their Turanian predecessors, 
the Accadians. As I tried to point out in a paper read before 
this Society three years ago^ and as has since been more 
fully worked out by Professor Schrader^, \^rriting and civilisa- 
tion, theology, art and science, were derived by the northern 
Semites — the Aramaeans, Canaanites and Hebrews — from 
those Accadian builders of the great cities of (Jhald^ea, who 
invented the cuneiform characters. It was in Accadian, not 
in Semitic, that the first month and zodiacal sign were named 
after "the Sacrifice of Bel," and from this the inference follows 
that it is to Accad, and not to Phoenicia, that we must look 
for the origin of human sacrifice in Western Asia. It was 
not only the worship of the Sun, and all that it imphed, which 
was borrowed by the Semite from the Accadian, but the 
dreadful rites with which it was associated as well. 

This inference is verified by two cuneiform texts in which 
mention is made of human sacrifice. One of these texts is 
part of an Accadian poem, to which an Asspian translation 
is attached, and which therefore goes back to prae-Semitic 
times ; the other is a passage from the great astronomical 
work drawn up for the library of Sargon of Agan6 between 

' I accept Bunsen's correction of the manifestly incorrect Yeud of the Greek 
text. 

2 Published in the Transactions of the Society, Vol. I, pp. 29t, 299. 

3 " Die Abstammung der Chaldaer und die Ursitze Semiten,"in Z. D. M. G., 
Vol. XXVII, pt. iii. (1873). 



On Human Sacnfice among the Babylonians. 27 

2,000 and 1,700 B.C., and based on Accadian originals. Atten- 
tion has been drawn to the first text hj M. Fr. Lenormant, in 
his " Premieres CiviHsations." VoL II, p. 197, and the fol- 
lowing copy of it I owe to the kindness of Mr. Boscawen.' 
The beginning of the tablet is unfortunately lost ; the 
Assyrian translation, as usual, is interlinear. 

Accadian — 

1 ^ /\-\ - /\-\ • 1^ ' ij^ ' / J^ • /V^ —l> >" T 1 ^~ www ^ / < ■< < ' 

Y7,'y<i~.',<\-,',-<s—,'j-^~,'j<yz~';<'^~.'.< li "^ — 111 '^ ^^ 1 

[kha] - e - in - de 

may he extirpate ; 

Assyrian — 

2. y «y tyy? ^tgyy ^y >pyy b) 

Ana (?) li - is - ^i' -va 

the sin (?) may he extirpate"^ ; and 

Accadian — 

3. ^y4 V tyy^ ^yyy^ mgy ^ey 

biru gar sak - il " - la 

tlie offspring loho the head raises 

nam - D.P. - mu - lu - ge 
among mankind ; — 

Assyrian — 

*■ m^ -n<T i-^ TT -nr- v t? Meu -^i< 

'u - ri - tsu'* [sa-risa-nas-]u sa a -ve- lu - ti^ 
the offspring loho raises the head among mankind ; — 

^ A copy of the tablet (the first two hnes excepted) is given, with a translation, 
by M. Lenormant, in the recently-published 1st Part of the 2nd Vol. of his 
" iitudes Accadieyines" pp. 297-299. The tablet is marked K 5139. 

" Third sing. pret. Kal. Heb. '^'Qy 

3 Oadhu, " high," was pronounced Hi or il in Accadian. A is the participial 
(or relative) ending. 

■• Cf. Ar. i^j} "to lay eggs." 

^ Fem. absti-act oVavelu, " a man" ; perhaps from a root "l"^^, whence H'^S.S, 
" mighty man," " possessor." It is possible, however, that the e of the second 
syllable implies an original *'//» in the first syllable. We might then compare 
71i^ " a suckUng " or " youngster." 



28 On Human Saaijice amony the Babylonians. 

ACCADIAN — 

5- -TA -IV^ ]]^m -M -! ti'r 

bii'u zi^ - a - ni - cii ba - an - ^un 

the offspring his-life-for he gave it; 

Assyrian — 

e. tyiT- -IH ?T T -^! Eu< -T< I ^ t^IIT <B 

'u - ri -tsa ana na - pis - ti -svi it - ta -din 
(his) off^spring for his life he gave; 

ACCADIAX — 

7. '^]]^ ^14 -pTI^ e:s m --T --T si? 

sak biru sak - mulu - cu ba - an - ^un 

the head of the off'spring head-of-the-man-for he gave it ; 

Assyrian — 

8. Cf: JT m^ -TT<y tETT Is: JI £::« 

kik - kad "u - ri - tsi ana kak - kad nisi 
the head of the off'spring for the head of the man 

Sill !£in <ii 

it - ta - din 

he gave ; 

ACCADIAN — 

9. 4:^ ^14 4:^ E^ lEi -^r --] tEf 

tik^ biru tik - mulu - cu ba - an - sun 
the front of the offspring for-the-front-oftlie-man he gave it ; 

Assyrian — 

.0. <^ \< tTUf -TT<T ^ETT T <]S ^^ e^ 

ci - Had 'u - ri - tsi ana ci - sad nisi 
the front of the offsp^'ing for the front of the man 

it - ta - din 
lie gave ; 

* Also zil, with the suffix I {la). 

2 Tik is rendered makhru " before," and makhirtu " front." 



On Human Sacrifice among the Babylonians. 29 

ACCADIAN — 

n. t'^ ^T^ c^4^ e:s? m --T -T ti? 

gab' biru gab - mulu - cu ba - an - sun 

the breast of the offspring hreast-of-the-man-for he gave it ; 

Assyrian — 

12. ^ ^y< ^yyyjr ^yy<y -^yi y ^ -^y< t"^ 

ir - ti 'u - ri - tsi ana ir - ti nisi 

the breast of the offspring for the breast of the man 

it - ta - din 

he gave. 

This highly interesting test gives us distinct evidence of 
the doctrine of vicarious sacrifice among the Accadians, as 
well as of the Accadian origin of the sacrifice of the first-born. 
Nothmg is said as to the way in which the child was put to 
death, but the passage I shall now quote informs us that 
it was by burning on a high place. 

W.A.I. Ill, 60, 161.2 

1- -- -^^ i^;^m >>£m ^n -£ -II ^T «< -s 

ina arkhi Sivani istu yumi I. adi yumi XXX. 
In the month Sivan, from the first day to the 30th day, 



an 


- ta 


- lu it - tab - 


liv 


sibu-ri 




an 


eclipse failed ; 




the crops 




■3^ 


^TT <T^T 







mati la duinki 

of the land not prosperous. 

^ Gab is rendered malcharu, "before." 'Irti is perhaps from As.-, T^'^'^ 
" to be naked," like "^"^V " skin." 

2 Translated in my Paper on tbe " Astronomy of tbe Babylonians," in the 
7 ransactions of the Societi/ of Biblical ArchcBologi/, Vol. ITI, pt. i, p. 274. 



30 On Human Sacrifice amonr/ tlie Babylonians. 

enuva D.P. Raminanu ca -su- yw} se- gu - uv 
when the Air-god (is) Jine, J)ro.</:)er^7^/. 

ina niduti^ 'ablu a - ru - ur.^ 

On the high places the son is burnt. 

Here, then, we have clear indications of the sacrifice of 
children such asit took place at Carthage, in Phoenicia, and in 
Palestine. The northern Semites seem to have carried the 
rite with them to the west, and may perhaps have taught it 
to the Aryan nations of Europe. 

The latter, however, is a point upon Avhich I shall not now 
dwell. It is certaia that in later days human sacrifice was 
practised at Rome, as indeed might have been expected from 
a people whose chief delight was to witness a gladiatorial 
show. But human sacrifice among the Greeks is a much 
more doubtful matter. The theory that it was replaced by 
scourging before the altar of Artemis at Sparta, has little to 
recommend it, and if any conclusions are to be drawn from 
myths like that of Iphigeneia among the Taurians, it is that 
the practice was regarded by the Greeks as distinctly bar- 
baric and non-Hellenic. At all events the Rig-Veda knows 
of no more costly sacrifice than that of the horse, and all our 
evidence tends to show that it was utterly unknown to the 
primitive European Aryans. Myths like those of Athamas 
and Iphigeneia are but the misunderstood and forgotten 

' Cf. Heb. Aram. *^'\^3 " to be good," " to thrive," " to be prosperous." 

2 The Accadian ei-^ar ,(" place of light"?) is rendered by the Ass. suluv 
(shaphel pass, derivative of '^y^'rf), nidutu [Av. Atf.'), and tericti (from *7"^^ 
" to extend"). 

3 ^Arur is a somewhat anomalous form of a passive (or neuter) permansiTe 
Kal from "^^^ " to burn." The i of the second syllable is changed into u, after 
the example of the nomen mutati Sacun (see my Ass. Grammar, p. 106), as in 
the case of a few other neuter verbs. TlH is translated by isa/u " lire," khamanu 
("heat"), nararu and arur. Cf. Ilcb. "^2' *^'\2ri' tl'l'^ (" *^o burn "), Ar.^ 
("fire"), yi ("to shine.") 



On Human Sacrifice among the Dahylonians. 31 

metaphors of an early nature-worship, and we cannot infer 
the practice of human sacrifice from them, any more than we 
can conclude that Greek fathers were in habit of eating their 
children, from the myth of Kronos and his offspring. It is 
just possible, however, that the legend which makes Busiris, 
the Egyptian king of the Delta, attempt to sacrifice Herakles, 
had an historical basis in the religious rites of the Phoenician 
settlers at the mouth of the Nile. For instances, real or 
supposed, of human sacrifice, especially among Semites and 
Aryans, see Kalisch's " Leviticus," pt. 1, pp. 323-351, 381- 
396, and Bollinger's "Jew and Gentile" (as translated by 
Darnell, I, pp. 74-85, II, 37-91.) 

Postscript. — The Cassite deity identified by the 
Assyiians with the Babylonian Bel, whose name I have 
given^ as Kharhat or Murhat (^^ >^), must be read Mur-iis 
or Murdus. In a newly-discovered fragment of the Synchro- 
nous History Tablet, the word is written ^/ <« X ^T JI^YY 
Uru-du-is, where the initial m has been dropped after first 
becoming v; while in W.A.I. 62, 24, we are told to read 
-<^^ >-< as Urus (= Assyrian tirtuv, a "form" or "figure"). 
This is a fi-esh instance of the elision of the dental between 
two vowels. It is just possible that the Mardokentes 
and Sisimardokas who appear among the kings of the 
" Arabian " dynasty in Berosus may have been named after 
this Cassite god Murdus, rather than after Merodach. 

' In my paper on " The Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Elam 
and Media " in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology, Yol. Ill, 
part ii, p. 476. 



82 



ON A KARAITE TOMBSTONE BROUGHT FROM 
DJUFFET KALEA, IN THE CRIMEA. 

Br Rev. Dr. L. Loewe. 

Read 2nd March, 1875. 

This inscription I read as follows : — 
Line 1, "^^n 

„ 2. ..nn pDrr 
„ 3. . . in^ ^1 i-iD'' 

„ 4. >^^T\ PIDV 

„ 5. -^«n:^fe^ 

IpTil *' the old man." This word does not always indicate^ 
that the individual to whom it refers, was full of years : 
it signifies sometimes, "distinguished by learning and ex- 
perience." 

"jn^n " i^Q priest," must not be taken in the sense of 
" officiating priest," as the word would be understood when 
referring to a person in any non-Israelite community. 
Among Israelites, since the destruction of the Temple at 
Jerusalem, it simply signifies, that the individual to whom 
it refers, was a descendant of the " High-priest Aaron " ; 
certain marks of respect are shown to him in the Synagogue, 
and he must not defile himself for the dead among his 
people (Lev. xxi, 1). In accordance with an injunction of 
the Sacred Scripture, he pronounces, on solemn festivals, 
the blessing prescribed in Numbers vi, 22-27 ; and every 
first-born son, after the thirtieth day from the child's birth, 
must be redeemed from him with the amovnit of 2\ ounces 
of pure silver, equal to the weight of 1,920 grains of barley. 
(See Exodus xxx, 13 ; Lev. xxvii, G ; Talmud Treatise 
Bekhorot, p. 49/'>, and Yore Deah, sect. 305, § 1.) 



K'i>->ufi- Towhsloue now in lliv Brifis/i Mii. 



m 




On a Karaite Tombstone^ ^x. 33 

in. These two letters forming part of a word which is 
not complete, it is difficult to say what the word may have 
been intended for. As the letter ^ may perhaps be a part of 
the letter Q, especially as the lower part of ^ is, in the 
inscription, more extended than the upper part, leaving room 
for the 1 to be added, the two letters OH might possibly be 
a part of the word ll^TSri, signifying " the honoured," which 
attribute is often used among the Karaites when describing 
the character or rank of a person. Thus in a manuscript 
Bible which I saw in the Karaite Synagogue during my stay 
at Cairo, we find on the blank page preceding the title the 
following inscription : — 

// // // // // 

Dn nn nn ir^n p:o 

" Consecrated unto the Eternal God, the God of Israel — not 
to be sold nor redeemed. It has been consecrated by His 
Great Holiness, the Perfect, the Wise, the Innocent, the 
Honoured^'; the letters T^Tl being the abbreviated form of 
I^^Dil. Among the Rabbanites we generally find the 
word ISlDSPf. 

irr^ "^2 nS'' " Japhet, the son of Jehu." The last word, 
which is incomplete, may have been intended for "rnirT^" 
Jehuda. 

■^"112(1 HDV Joseph Hanoori ("the enlightened," or "who 
can see far by the light of his intellect";) the word *T1]3 being 
the Arabic ,y, and ^"Tlin would be the same as iCr>^'' 
A prophet in Hebrew is known by the name of nh^hn, 
"the Seer," because by the light of his prophetic vision, as 
R. David Kimkhee ' says, he sees into the future. 

n«"in:2n n^^^inn n^i^iti? 

^ Commentarj on 1 Samuel, cliap. ix, t. 9. 
Vol. IV. 3 



34 On a Karaite Tombstone broiujlit j'ron) 

A learned and distinguished man, bears in the Tabnud^ 
the appellation of '^^^lii^iS, the Syriac "jjoiOJ^ because, as 
it is observed there, he enlightens the eyes of the students 
in the law. 

niD^nn u^^yn ^i^j; -i^rrirD^ ^«nini "^ My^ «^p: rv:h^ 

In the same Treatise, p. 38^* and 45a, a man of great 
learning is mentioned of the name of R. Yokhanan ben Noori 
inii 11 pnV ""y ; and, as it happened that there has been a 
Karaite author of the name tlt^in f)D1% " Joseph Haroeh " 
(the Seer) : he wrote a book entitled I'^li^n ")CD, and was 
known among the Arabs by the name and attribute of 
Aboo Jacoob, "Elbaseer," ^--'-2-5^ c__>jJU_.;^^, which is merely 
the translation of Jlt^lil. 1 am not quite out of order 
by bringing the idea to bear on the word '^"^l^n, in the 
inscription now before us, 

lt^il27^^ is the Arabic word \::sxu\\-, and signifies " the 
carpenter." This word, I am inclined to think, ought not to 
be taken as signifying the trade of the person to whom it 
referred ; — the inscription being on marble, shows that he 
must have belonged to a family of high standing. The 
family name of "ni^^^T't^ might suggest, that the person here 
mentioned was a descendant of the famous Israel Najarah, 
c X:^ Jj^ >^\ author of a book containing religious hymns, 
entitled ^^-it^*" Hll^'P't, printed in Safed, Holy Land, in the 
vear 1587, or a relative of Moses Naiarah, the father of the 
above, who was the author of a book entitled Uto t^p7, 
printed in Constantinople, in the year 1571. But the 
name Japhet ]nD^, which is so rarely met with among the 
Rabbanites, and, on the contrary, so frequently met with 
among the Karaites, makes me think, that the individual 
in question most likely belonged to a Karaite family ; 
and, as the inscription states that Japhet was a ^n^, it 
is possible, he may have been a relative of the family 
pDH nU?D ]n nC"' \1 nt?'^, "Moses ben Japhet ben 

' Treatise Eroobin, p. 136. 



Djuffet Kalea, in the Crimea. 35 

Moses Hacohen," whose members were known as great 
colJectors of books; or, he may perhaps have been a rela- 
tive of " Joseph Haroeh " himself, the name of the latter 
in full being H^^hH JTOH p DH^n^^ f^DV, and has also 
been known, according to some authors, by the attribute 
"•^-lini^^, and pn, so that the words i-|i:n, jHD and "p^n 
in the inscription, might refer to him (See Pinsker's Lickute 
Kadmoniot, pp. 115 and 1G9). 

The piece of marble bearing the inscription may probably 
have been brought by one of the English soldiers from the 

Karaite Cemetery in Djuffet Kalea i-tl* L::--%i:=^ or 'isi>~ in the 
Crimea. 

This is all I can say of the few words contained in the 
fragment of a tombstone. 




36 



REVISED TRANSLATION OF A PASSAGE IN THE GREAT 
ASTRONOMICAL WORK OF THE BABYLONIANS. 

By Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. 

Read 6th April, 1875. 

The last line of the Colophon attached to the first tablet 
or book of the great astronomical work of the Babylonians, 
pubhshed in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical 
Archseology, III. 1, p. 315, is somewhat obscure, and the 
translation that I have given of it mnst be emended. The 
characters >->-Y ^Y are not to be read phonetically and taken 
to represent a Semitic word, as I once thought, but are 
Accadian ; while, (conversely, the groupof characters which 
follows is not Accadian, but Semitic. This uncertainty as 
to whether we are dealing with a Semitic or an Accadian 
word illustrates the chief difficulty attendant on the decipher- 
ment of these astronomical inscriptions. The line in question 

is written y; ^y ff tyy^ ^ ..y gy ^je .yy<y ^^ib. 

About the first word a-na " to " or " for " there can be no 
question ; but the next word must be read tsa-mar, and 
separated from the character which follows. Tsa-mai' is 
connected with the Aram. 1?22 "to glow," ^^^^^ "heat," 
^^jn'T'?2^ "burning"; and in the bilingual tablets is a synonyme 
of zarakhu (Heb. rTl!^) "to rise" or "dawn." The final 
vowel of the word is not expressed in writing, according to 
a common practice among the Assyrians, who allowed the 
case-ending to be understood if the last syllable was denoted 
by a character wliicli began and ended with a consonant. 
>^ will be the preposition ina, and >->-Y ^Y is the Accadian 
" divine place," which is explained by the Assyrian nalhar- 
same or " zenith." We thus get " for the meridian " (or 
possibly "the rising") "in the zenith," as the rendering of 



Revised translation of a Passage, ^x. 37 

the first part of this difficult line. The first two characters 
of the verb which follows must be read ip-ial, the verb being 
in the Iphteal conjugation; but as I do not know what 
phonetic value to assign to the last character in this place, 
ilthough it ought to begin with I, I cannot venture to trans- 
late the word. Probably, however, it means "he has noted" ; 
md the whole Colophon will have to be rendered : — (1) " The 
3rst tablet (beginning) ' the moon at its appearance (showed) 
whiteness ' ; (2) according to the papyri of the tablets in 
Darallel columns [Assyrian and Accadian] from Babylon ; 
'3) by Nebo-Zukup-cinu, son of Merodach-mubasa the 
istronomer; (4) for the sight of himself and his cotem- 
ooraries ; (5) according to the meridian (or rising) in the 
senith he has noted.'''' 

Before leaving the passage, I would note that tsamar 
nay be connected with tsarar or tsirir, which will be found 
n a tablet translated on p. 193. I have there rendered it 
' body " ; but it is more probably related to "^fl^ '' light," 
\.ram. "^Htp, Arab. ,^ and hence strictly signifies ''bright- 
less" or "rising." I now thmk, therefore, that the two 
ines in which tsir'i and tsarar occur ought to be : (1) " The 
star (Jupiter) rises, and its rising, like the day, is bright. 
2) In its rising, like the blade of a double sword, a tail it 
brms." This would refer to the streak of hght thrown by 
he rising planet upon a misty atmosphere. 

In a hymn to Istar, recently brought from Assyria by 
Av. Smith, I find sereti (1. 40) given as the Assyrian ren- 
lering of the Accadian -^Y ^|y >-^Y par-zaUa or "sun-rise." 
riiis fixes the meaning of sereti in p. 199 of my paper, as 
veil probably as of serim (p. 224) and serrim (p. 198). The 
h'st passage must therefore be translated, " Venus in the 
iionth Sebat rises at dawn." 



38 



ON A DIGRAPIIIC INSCRIPTION FOUND IN LARNACA. 

By D. PlERIDES. 

Read Qth Ajml, 1875. 

The fortunate discovery of a bilingual inscription by Mr. 
R. H. Lang, and his demolition of tlie Due de Luynes' theory 
respecting the value of the groujD H HP 8 'vl if: ; the simul- 
taneous exhibition in London of many Cypriote texts collected 
by General di Cesnola and Mr. Lang ; and the masterly treat- 
ment of the problem of Cyprian Palaeography by Mr. G. 
Smith, of the British Museum, were soon to be followed by 
the brilliant achievements of Brandis and of Moritz Schmidt. 

To the literary results which have been obtained, the 
Society of Biblical ArchcBology has contributed in no small 
measure, from the very commencement of its labours, by 
stimulating the study of this ancient writing, and by the 
puMication of several valuable papers relating thereto, in 
the first volume of its Transactions. 

Encouraged by the interest thus shown by the Society, I 
take the liberty of submitting a small contribution to the 
subject. 

In the summer of 1873 I became possessed of an inscrip- 
tion in Greek and in Cypriote, then discovered in Larnaca, 
the ancient Citium. As far as I know this is the first 
Cypriote text found in this place. As the language is the 
same in both parts, and only the writing diifers, I prefer 
calling this inscription digrajyldc, instead of hilimjnal, until a 
better definition is proposed. The stone on whicli it is 
engraved, now sadly mutilated, measures 2^ inches by 13 
inches on the surface ; tlie depth is 16 inches, and the original 
space between the upper edge of the stone and the first line 
was only aboiit an inch. On the side o})p()site the digraphic 
is a later Greek inscription of the time of the Romans. 



Oit a Dlgraphic Inscription found in Larnaca. 39 

I annex a transcription of the di^'raphic, as well as of some 
" squeezes." The two Greek inscriptions are seriously in- 
jured ; the Cypriote is damaged to a smaller extent. This 
last is read from right to left. 

The letters in the Greek part of the digraphic preceding 
SraaiKpdr7]9, and seemingly forming one single word, are 
irretraceably gone, except vestiges of two, which I consider 
to be the two first of the inscription, and which look like 
lA . . . This gap is much to be regretted, as I do not see 
its counterpart in the Cypriote ; and where so much is left 
to conjecture, particularly as regards persons to whom a 
historical interest attaches, a positive indication, be it ever 
so small, is of the highest importance. The remaining lacunae 
of the Greek text are easily filled in by the aid of the 
Cypriote ; though it would have been more satisfactory if 
the second name had been preserved, in order to positively 
fix the value of the sign Q ; but I think Dr. M. Schmidt 
is right in takuig it for an a. 

Of the Cypriote portion of the digraphic, the only group 
that ofiers any serious difficulty is also the first, which, 
allowing sufficient space for the point of separation from the 
next word, must have consisted of four letters. The first 
and third are plain and recogDisable ; the fourth is almost 
entirely erased ; the second is so very like the first, that I 
always took it also for an ^ ; and I worked upon this pre- 
sumption, giving various phonetic values to the last sign of 
the group ; but the results obtained were unsatisfactory. So 
I recently took fresh squeezes of that particular group, and 
I was agreeably surprised to observe that the upturned 
angles of the second letter lie closer to each other than those 
of the first ; that their limbs are shorter ; and that in the 
second letter, over the horizontal line at the base, another 
horizontal line is faintly — very faintly — visible. The second 
sign is therefore ^ so ; the fourth letter, or what remains 
of it, resembles more a jCj v, than anything else ; and thus 
we have 6 SoXcov — ^oXoov being here the genitive of the 
masculine plural XoXoh (Soli), the name given in honour of 
tlie great Athenian legislator to a town which, by his advice, 



40 On a Digraphic Inscription found in Larnaca. 

was built to replace tlie more ancient Aipeia : ' 6 ^6\<av 
BacriXevs (the King of Soli Stasicrates, &c.). I hope the 
reading now proposed will meet with the approbation of 
more competent decipherers than myself. 

In the first group of the second line, the fourth and 
fifth characters, though partially injured, can easily be made 
out ; the third is as bad as lost ; but, on close examination, it 
may be identified with [-, wdiich is the right thing in the 
right place. Dr. Moritz Schmidt has already pointed out the 
name of the Goddess of Wisdom in the bronze plate of 
Idalion. 

The two names of persons occur also in the Cypriote 
inscription from Soli, published by the Count de Vogiie 
(Journal Asiatique, Juin, 1868, pi. IV, No. 8), but, unfor- 
tunately, one of the characters in Stasicrates is partly oblite- 
rated in both inscriptions ; nevertheless, in the digraphic 
before us, it is a little better preserved, resembling in 
form, and no doubt corresponding to, the sign Q, often 
repeated in the Bronze Plate of Idalion, and which Dr. 
Schmidt also reads as p. The name Stasicrates is also seen, 
but not entire, on one of the coins published by the Due de 
Luynes (plate V, No. 2). In the digraphic, Stasicrates is the 
S(v.i of a King Stasias ; whereas, in the Soli inscription, 
Stasias being in the nominative, and Stasicrates in the geni- 
tive [UraaiKpaTeos), the relative position of the parties is 
reversed, and three generations appear before us. For 
reasons which will be explained in the sequel, I consider the 
Larnaca digraphic as beuig the older of the two ; and thus 
we have : 

— Stasias,^ kiiig, father of 
— Stasicrates, king, father of 
— Stasias, aya^, or prince. 

The Soli uiscription I take to be the more recent, because 
of the finer style and more modern appearance of the 
writing: another reason is the title borne by the Soli Stasias. 
By/antios, in his Greek Lexicon (Athens, 1852). under the 

' See Pliitarcli in Solon. 

- Tlie tiamp Stasias oiriirs in Corp. Tnser., No. 1758 



On a D'ujrapliic Liscription found in Larnnca. 41 

word ava^, gives a second meaning to it, besides the one 
generally accepted ; and that meaning, he says, was peculiar 
to Cyprus : " vlos rj avyyevr]^ /Sao-iXeo)?." It might be objected 
that the dua^ of the Soli inscription became afterwards 
BaacXevs, and was the father, not the son, of the Stasicrates 
of the digraphic ; but I think the objection need not be 
entertained. I must not fta-get to observe that the Soli 
inscription is only a fragment, so that the regal title of 
Stasicrates is missing there. 

Remark a curious coincidence. The inscription of Stasias 
the prince, son of Stasicrates, comes from Soli, and the 
Larnaca digraphic speaks of Stasicrates king of Soh. Now 
Plutarch,, in his life of Alexander the Great, mentions a 
Pasicrates king of Soli, who, on Alexander's return to 
Phoenicia from Egypt (B.C. 331), appeared at the court of 
the Macedonian hero, and took a prominent part in its 
festivities. I cannot help thinking that this king is the 
Stasicrates of our inscriptions, and that his transformation 
into Pasicrates may be owing to one of the many errors 
committed by copyists. Some such errors, relating to the 
history of this island, have been pointed out by me in a 
paper on the Coins of Nisocreon, published in the Numismatic 
Chronicle for 18G9, and other examples are not wantmg, as 
we all know.^ In pomt of chronology there would be no 
difficulty, as, judging from the letters of the Greek portion 
of the digraphic, I would assign to it the 4th century B.C. ; 
and the Count de Vogiie, in speaking of the Soli inscrijition, 
inclines to the belief that this last belongs to the Macedonian 
epoch; and his opinion [unlike mme) is unbiased, because 
given before the Cypriote writing was deciphered. 

One of the Cypriote princes who followed Alexander into 
Central Asia was Stasanor of Soli, son or brother of the king 
Pasicrates, but not a reigning prince.' The particulars 
correspond admu-ably with the description of Stasias in the 

1 The King of Soli, who ivas the host and Mend of Solon, is by some authors 
called Pasicyprus, and by others, Cypranor. See Engel, " Kypros," vol. I ; and 
Lacroix, " lies de la Grece." 

- Engel, vol. I, page 357- 



42 On a Diqrapluc liificription found in Larnaca. 

Soli inscription — dva^, not /3acn\eu9, and the son of Stasi- 
crates (or Pasicrates). There is certainly a slight difference 
between Stasanor and the name as it appears in Cjiiriote ; 
bnt we are not quite certam as to the value of the sign Q ; 
and we must alw^ajs make allowances for the mistakes of 
early transcribers. 

All these circumstances are strongly in support of the 
presumj)tion that in the Stasicrates of the Larnaca inscrip- 
tion, and in the Stasias of the Soli fragment, we have the 
Pasicrates and the Stasanor (father and son), the friends of 
Alexander the Great. 

The later Greek inscription on the surface of the Larnaca 
stone, opposite the digraphic, is very much injured, as I said. 
A correct copy, in small letters, of what remains of tins 
inscription, is subjoined. 

Larnaca, Cyprus, Fehruarj/, 1875. 



THE LATER GREEK INSCRIPTION. 

To KoLvov TO KvirpLcov Tt/depiov 

KA,ay[ Mvjaaeov vlov 

\ Mva(T]eav Aovklqv 

[ ap] ■)(^cep€a tmv 

[ ].T.[ ] 

in the last line, perhaps Kin 



0/i a lJigra2'>hic Inscrij^tion found in IjCirnaca, 



43 




44 



LES QUATRE RACES AU JUGEMEKT DERNIER. 

Par E. LEFibBURK. 

Read 6th April, 1875. 

M. Chabas a signale ' ranalogie remarquable qui existe 
entre les croyances cliretieDues et les idees egyptiennes au 
STijet du jugement dernier; des deux cotes les justes sont 
places a droite, et les meclianta (condamnes au feu ou a la 
chaudiere) a gauclie. La meme disposition se retrouve 
geiieralement dans les tpmbes royales, ou le soleil nocturne 
traverse en barque des scenes de beatitude et de supplices. Le 
cel^bre tableau des quatre races fait partie cVune de ces repre- 
sentations, toucliant laquelle on pent consulter les noticLS 
de Champollion et les Denkmaeler. ^ La traduction qui va 
suivre a ete faite d'aprcs le sarcopliage de Seti I, public par 
M M. Sliai-pe et Bonomi, ^ et etudie par M. Pierret. * L'inter- 
pretation consciencieuse de M. Pierret eut rendu celle-ci 
inutile, s'il ne restait a mettre en lumiere un point important, 
celui de la creation des hommes, dont la legende ne parait 
pas encore avoir etc expliquee d'une maniere satisfaisante, 
bien qu'elle ait attire depuis loiigtemps rattention des 
egyptologues. " 

La scfene entiere se divise en trois series superposees, 
mais il n'y a la, comme dans les dessins chinois, qn'nn nrtifice 

■ ^lelanges eyyptologiqucs, 3" serie, t. IT, p. IGS a 172. 

2 Denkiua-ler, III, 136. 

^ Cf. Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions. 

* Revue Archeologique, Mai, 1870. 

» Champollion, Lettres gtrites d'Egypte et de Niibie, 13* lettre; De Rouge, 
M6iiioire sur les six proiiiicros dynasties, p. ; Cliabas, Etudes siir I'aiitiqiiile 
hiatorique, p. 98, etc. 



Les Qiiatre Races au Jmjemeid Denuer. 45 

(le perspective eclielonnant le milieu, la droite et la gaiu-lie, 
qui ne pouvaient, en efFet, figurer sur le meme plan, puisque 
les tableaux egyptiens ne montrent les personnages que de 
profil. A la droite de Ra, on mesure des champs pour les 
elus, et a sa gauche on amene le troupeau des humains 
pour y choisu' les ames qui seront detruites. La creation des 
quatre races composant I'espece humaine est attribuee, sauf 
pour les Negres, aux pleurs d'Horus et a la deesse Sekhet, une 
des personnifications de I'oeil d'Horus, le soleil. Les textes 
disent que les hommes etaient nes de I'oeil et les dieux de la 
bouche de Ra ou d'Horus, et Ton retrouvera un symbolisme 
analogue, faisant venir les plantes et les betes d'une 
emanation divine, dans un papyrus magique traduit par 
M. Birch. 1 

Au sarcophage de Seti I, ^ en C, la barque solaire sort 
par la porte que garde le serpent Tek-her, ou Face etin- 
celante ; le dieu est represente sous la forme d'un criocephale 
debout dans un naos qu'entoure de ses replis le serpent 
Melien. Sau est a la proue, Hakau a la poupe, et quatre 
personnages nommes les iyifernaux remorquent la barque 
avec une corde vers la porte Neb-t-Hau, les maitresse de la 
daree. Devant eux neuf dieux en gaine tiennent un long 
serpent, les porteurs du serpent NenuH, precedes par 12 hommes, 
les dmes humaines qui soiit dans Venfer, en marche vers un dieu 
a sceptre qui leur fait face, celui qui est sur son angle. 

A droite, en B, 12 hommes, dans une posture d'adoration, 
les adorateurs qui sont dans Venfer^ et 12 porteurs de corde dans 
(I'enfer), se dirigent vers quatre personnages a sceptre, 
tournes en face d'eux. 

On voit a gauche, en D, Horus hieracocephale, appuye sur 
im long baton, 16 hommes appeles les Hommes, les Amu, les 
Nahesu et les Tamehu, (les Egyptiens, les Asiatiques, les 
Negres et les Libyens), 12 personnages portant comme une 
corde un long serpent (symbole probable de la marche du 
temps), que surmonte derriere chacun d'eux, sauf le dernier, 
I'hi^roglyphe de la duree, les porteurs de Vemblhne de la 



^ Revue Arclieologique, 1863. 
2 PI. 7, 6 et 5. 



46 Les Qudtre Races an Jiujenioit Dernier. 

dari'e dans V Occident, et enfin liuit dieux, les dicins niagis- 
trats de fenfer. ♦ 



B. lis rendent hommage a Ra dans I'Occident, et recon- 
fortent Har-khuti ; ils ont connu Ra sur la terre, et ont fait 
des oblations pour lui ; leurs offi'andes sont a leurs places, et 
leurs honneurs dans le lieu saint de I'Occident. Ils disent a 
Ra, " Viens, Ra ! Remonte I'enfer ! Hommage a toi ! Entre 
dans les chapelles (qui sont) dans le serpent Mehen ! " Ra 
leur dit, " Offrandes pour vous, Bienlieureux ! J'ai etc 
satisfait de ce que vous faites pour moi, (soit que) je Lrille a 
rOrient du ciel, (soit que) je me couche dans le sanctuaire de 
mon oeil." Leurs aliments sont (faits) des pains de Ra, et 
leurs breuvages de sa liqueur T'eser ; leur refraichissement 
est de I'eau ; il y a des oblations ]30ur eux, a terre, a cause 
de I'hommage (qu'ils rendent) a Ra dans I'Occident. 

Les porteurs de corde, ceux qui preparent les champs des 
Elus, " prenez la corde, tirez, mesurez les champs des Manes, 
qui sont des Elus dans vos demeures, des Dieux en vos 
residences, Elus divinises dans la campagne de la Paix, 
Elus verifies pour etre dans (I'enceinte de) la corde ; la 
justification est pour ceux qui (y) sont, et il n'y a pas de 
justification pour ceux qui n' (y) sont pas." Ra leur dit, 
" C'est la justice, la corde dans TOccident. Ra est satisfait 
par le mesurage en coudees des possessions de ceux qui sont 
des Dieux, et des domaines de ceux qui sont des Elus. Ra 
cree vos champs, et designe pour vous vos aliments, qui sont 
avec vous." 

" Oh ! navigue, Khuti ! Les Dieux sont satisfaits de leurs 
possessions, les Elus sont satisfaits de leurs demeures."' 
Leurs aliments sont dans la campagne d'Aru, et leuis 
offrandes sont (faites) de ce qu'elle produit. 11 y a des 
oblations pour eux, a terre, dans les champs de la campagne 
d'Aru. Ra leur dit, " saintete a vous, cultivateurs, qui ctes 
les maitres de la corde dans I'Occident ! " 

C. Ce dieu grand est remorquc par les dieux infcrnaux, 
qui (le) font cu'culer dans le lieu mysterieux. " Reraorquez 
pour moi, infernaux ! Rendez moi hommage, vous qui ete& 



Les Quatre Races an Jagetneiit Dernier. 47 

dans les enfers ! Force a vos cordes, avec lesquelles vous 
me remorquez ! Fermete a vos bras, vitesse a vos jambes, 
protection a vos ames, acclamation a vos coeurs ! Ouvrez 
le bon chemin vers les cavernes des choses mysterieuses ! " 

Ceux qni sont dans ce tableau, porteurs de ce serpent, 
tirent et (le) font apparaitre devant Ra et devant eux, pour 
qu'il (Ra) se place dans (la porte) Neb-t-Hau, Ce serpent 
s'eleve vers elle, sans la depasser. Ra leur dit, " Tirez 
Nenut'i ! Ne lui laissez pas d'issue, afin que je m'eleve au- 
dessus de vous ! Enveloppement a vos bras, destruction a 
ce que vous gardez, vous qui gardez ce que deviennent mes 
formes, vous qui emmaillottez ce que deviennent mes splen- 
deurs ! " Leur nourriture est d'entendre la parole de ce 
dieu ; c'est une oblation, pour eux, d'entendre la parole de 
Ra dans I'enfer. 

Ceux qui ont dit la verite sur la terre, et ont magnifie les 
formes de Dieu. Ra leur dit, " Acclamation a vos ames, 
souffles a vos narines, et vegetaux pour vous, de votre 
campagne d'Aru ! Vous, vous etes d'entre les Justes. Vos 
demeures sont, pour vous, a Tangle ou Ton examine ceux qui 
sont dans la flamme, en lui." Leurs aliments sont (faits) de 
pain, et leurs breuvages de la liqueur T'eser; leur rafraicliisse- 
ment est de I'eau. II y a des oblations a terre, pour eux, 
comme Bienheureux, selon ce qui leur appartient. 

Ra dit a ce dieu, " que le grand qui est sur son angle 
appelle les ames des Justes, et les fasse se placer dans leurs 
demeures, aupres de Tangle, ceux qui sont avec moi-meme ! " 

D. Horus dit aux troupeaux de Ra, qui sont dans Tenfer 
de TEgypte et du Desert, " Protection a vous, troupeaux de 
Ra nes du grand qui est dans le ciel, souffles a vos narines, 
renversement a vos cercueils ! Vous, vous avez ete pleures 
par mon oeil, en vos personnes d'Hommes superieurs. Vous, 
je vous ai crees en vos personnes d'Amu : Sekliet les a crees, 
et c'est elle qui defend leurs ames. Vous, j'ai repandu ma 
semence ' pour vous, et je me suis soulage par une multitude 
sortie de moi en vos personnes de Negres : Horus les a 
cr^es, et c'est lui qui defend leurs ames. (Vous), j'ai clierche 

' Le mot propre est manuetvprare. 



4S Zcs Qnatve Races an JiKjcinent Deniier. 

mon oeil, et jc vous ai crees en vos personiies dc Tamcliu : 
.Sekhet les a crees. et c'est elle qui defend leurs ames." 

Ceux qui installent I'embleme de la duree, font lever les 
joiu's des ames qui sont dans rOccident, et designent pour le 
Keu de la destruction. Ra leur dit, " Etant les dieux, 
habitants de Tenfer, (j[ui portez la (corde-) Equite pour trainer 
Tembleme de la duree, tirez la (corde-) Equite, trainez 
rembleme de la duree, par elle, des ames qui sont dans 
rOccident, et designez pour le lieu de la destruction ! qu'ils 
ne voient pas la retraite mjsterieuse ! " Ce sont les divins 
raagistrats qui detruisent les ennemis. Leurs aliments sont 
faits de parole veridique. II j a une oblation pour eux, a 
terre, (faite) de parole veridique, aupres d'eux. 

Ceux qui ordonnent la destruction et son enregistrement 
pour la duree des ames dans I'Occident, " Que vos destruc- 
tions soient pour les ennemis, et vos enregistrements pour le 
lieu de la destruction ! Je suis venu, (moi) le grand, Horus, 
pour examiner mon corps, et pour lancer des tleaux contre 
mes ennemis." Leurs aliments sont (faits) de pain, leur 
breuvage de liqueur T'eser, leur rafraicliissement est de 
I'eau. 




49 



COMMENTARY ON THE DELUGE TABLET. 
By IL F. Talbot, F.R.S., &c. 

Read Uh May, 1875. 

In the last part of our Transactions Mr. G. Smith has 
pubhshed the cuneiform text of the Deluge Tablet, Avhich 
has been long looked for with great interest, together with 
an excellent translation. But some parts of the tablet are 
so broken and defaced as to leave considerable uncertainty 
as to the meaning of the narrative. In the following pages 
I have endeavoured to remove some of these difficulties. I 
should not perhaps have attempted it so soon but as I have 
no doubt that our French and German friends will very soon 
publish commentaries upon it, my remarks, if deferred, would 
probably be more or less anticipated and rendered useless. 

The account of the Deluge in Genesis appears to me to 
offer some remarkable points of agreement, which have not 
yet been pointed out, with the Chaldean tablet as I interpret it. 

Genesis viii, 20. And Noah huilded an altar unto the Lord, 
and took of every clean beast and of every clean fowl, and offered 
burnt offerings upon the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet 
savour. 

Now since we know from chapter vii, 2, that Noah had 
taken " of every clean beast by sevens, and of fowls of the air 
also by sevens,'' it seems not improbal^le that when he made 
this great burnt offering, to return thanks for his unparalleled 
deliverance, he took of " the clean beasts and birds '' by 
sevetis for his sacrifice. If I am right in this, there is here a 
great agreement with the Chaldean tablet, which says that 
Xisuthrus built an altar on the very summit of the mountain 
and sacrificed thereon victims by seven at a time m ^ ty 
[seven and seven]. * ' 

Vol. IV. 4 



TYY 
YYY 



50 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Then Genesis says " he offered them as burnt offerings upon 
the altar." So the tablet, " Beneath them I placed sweet 
cane, cedar wood, and spikenard." 

Genesis : And the Lord smelled a sweet savour. 

The Chaldean tablet : " The gods smelled the smell of it. 
The gods smelled the good smell of it. The gods in swarms 
assembled over the sacrifice." 

Here the gods are imagined as floating in the air over the 
altar. 

]\Ioreover, the Chaldean account agrees Avith Genesis 
vi, IG and viii, G, in describing the Ark as furnished with a 
door, and only one window. 

Column I. 

Lines 1-7 form a kind of introduction to the stoiy. 
1-4. Izdubar said to Xisuthrus, 1 am troubled concerning 
this matter. Why is it tliat thou makest to me no 
answer ? 

5. Determine thy heart to make a clear narrative 

6. Avhy thou didst emigrate to this foreign land 

7. and didst found this city : and livest now in the company 

of the gods? 
The last three lines stand thus in Roman characters : 
the portion within brackets being restored. 

5. gwamur ka libbi ana epis tuquntu 

determine thou thy heart to make a clear narrative, 

G. [fa ta~\uada atta eli tsiri-ka 

how thou didst emigrate unto thy foreign land 

7 ki tazbat-ma, as pukliri 

[and this] city thou didst found, and in the company 

Hi balada tasum 

of the gods tliy life thou hast placed. 

Remarks. — Gummur (from the Ileb. "^^^Jl terminare, perficere, 
absolvere, &c. Ex. gr. on one of the tablets a king rewards 
and promotes his officer because his heart is perfect {libbiir 
su gummur) in the king's service. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 51 

Tuqiintu. The Heb. verb pjl means to arrange or set in 
order a book, or statement of any kind, ex. gr. a book of 
proverbs (Eccles. xii, 9). I have here rendered it ' a clear 
narrative.' 

Tanada : from the well-known Heb. root lli migrare : 
emigrare. 

Tsiri: forest, desert, open field. Also foreign country. 
A very common word, but usually written by the symbol 
^^^ ^f as in Col. 2, 29 of this tablet. 

Tazhat. We frequently find Azbat "I founded," ex. gr. 
Alani suatun ana issuti azbat, those (ruined) cities I founded 
anew. Hence zibit the foundation of a city or state, ex. gr. 
" the remote days of the foundation of Assyria " (G. Smith, 
Transactions, Society of Biblical Archteology, vol. 3, p. 378). 

Tasum. Heb. 72^'^ ponere. 

The name Xisuthrus has been discovered by Mr. Smith 
to be latent in the Assyrian name Khasis-adi'a. This seems 
a very probable conjecture. I would suggest that Khasis- 
adra means " the Sage," being composed of Khasis ' intelli- 
gence ' and adra ' great.' The word khasis occurs frequently- 

In lines 8-10 Xisuthi-us replies to Izdubar, •' Be it revealed 
to thee the concealed story, the secret of the gods." 

Nitsirti, here translated ' concealed,' is from Heb. "IJ^i^ to 
lock up. Treasuries are generally locked up, hence nitsirti 
ekali-su ' the treasures of his palace ' a very frequent phrase. 
So in Hebrew ' treasure ' is 1!J1^^ from "^^^ to lock up. 

In this tablet Xisuthrus has usually the epithet ruki ' the 
remote,' because he dwelt in such a remote country. It 
does not imply that he was remote from the person who was 
speaking to him, for in Col. iv, 39 it is said ' his ivife then 
spoke to Xisuthrus the remote.' Muku is a standing or 
constant epithet, as Homer calls Achilles TroSa? co/cu9 even 
when he is sitting still. 



Commencement of the story. What caused the building of the 
Ark i^ Why were the gods angry f Who gave the warning ? 



At this important point the tablet is greatly injured. 
One-half of each line is broken off. Only by help of 



52 Commentary on the I)ehif/e Tahlet. 

conjectm-es can a tolerable sense be obtained. I place in 
brackets the words I have restored. 

Col. I. 11. The city Surippak, the city which thou 
knowest, stands on the seacoast. 

12. That city was grown old, and the gods who dwelt in 

it [were neglected] 

13. The service of the great gods [was disused] 

14. The god Anu [grew angry] 

15. The god Bel [grew angry] 

16. The god Ninip [grew angry] 

17. But Hea lord of Hades 

18. repeated to me their words [in a dream] 

19. I heard his voice, and thus he spake [to me] 

20. Surippakite son of Ubaratutu 

21. Build a ship after the [fashion that I will tell thee] 

22. [to preserve in it] the seed of life. 

Remarks. — In line 11 >-<y< ^^T ^T tidu-sii thou knowest 
it. Ida he knows : from ^"f to know. 

Saknu ' is situated.' pU? to place. Tamti ''^Y >-<y< on the 
seacoast. 

In line 13 *->^ \ *}f~ ' their service.' 18. amat-zmi 
usannd, their words he repeated, anaki (to me) as sunati- 
ma (in a dream). The last word is restored from com- 
parison with Col. iv, 22 where this dream of Xisuthrus 
^Y >~^y *"^III S>anata is mentioned. Moreover Berosus 
says that the god Cronos appeared to Xisuthrus in a vision 
and warned him that a flood was coming by which mankind 
would be destroyed. He therefore commanded him to build 
a ship (see Mr. G. Smith in the Transactions, vol. 2, p. 227). 

Line 19. Tunamtu-ssu his voice ? '"Y<YV' '^'^"^ ^^ used for 
nahu ' to speak' (see Smith's phonetic values, No. 5Q). 



After this broken part the tablet becomes much clearer 
and Mr. Smith's translation seems very good. Xisuthrus 
builds the ship as lie had been commanded. 

I, 41. Here "^ >Y- is rendered (jrain ; but may it not be 



money ? 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 53 

42. I would read <^Jg[ \< kilat. Ardat (a female 
servant) is frequentlj^ rendered Kil 

44. inazzaru from "^iJi^ atzer to shut up : passive natzer 
to be shut up : inazzaru bah-ka they shall be shut up, 
within thy door. We had the verbal form natzer in Col. 1, 
1. 9 {nitsirti shut up, or concealed) 



Column II. 

The buildhig of the ship is continued. In line 8 its j)ort- 
holes are mentioned. I have shown J:Y JTI \<m to be 'doors' 
in vol. 3, p. 515 of the Transactions. Therefore with YI |-<^ 
(waterj added they are ' water- doors ' or 'port-holes.' 

II, 10. Attabah from p12 evacuavit. 

II, 11. Here we see that the ark of Xisuthrus was 
daubed with pitch both outside and inside. This agrees 
fully \\dth the account in Genesis vi, 14 where a command is 
given to Noah, " Thou shalt pitch it ivithin and loithout with 
pitch." ■ 

When the ship was nearly completed, Xisuthrus made 
great sacrifices to the gods to obtain a prosperous voyage. 
But this part of the tablet is difficult. I think JSI jrY 
(kisallu, see Mr. Smith's phonetic values No. 104) means an 
Altar, for it often has that meaning clearly. For instance, 
the following passage leaves no doubt, see 2 R 58, 31 

c^ 5ry y^ >- yf f<^ ^-ry gyy jgj ^ The altars 

with libations they sprinkle. Nadaluni is Chald. 7^^ nazal. 
S}T. 7!Ji fluxit : super fudit. 

I do not think that bissatu in line 20 has the same 
meaning as ^yy >:y. Mr. Smith says that the unusual 
character ^^^ is a variant of 4:^. Perhaps so ; but I also 
think that this character is the same as the old symbol for 
' stone ' ^^(^ Avhich is found in the Michaux inscription 
1 R 70, 22. I therefore render ^^{ ^Jfy^ i^] ' a stone 
altar.' I suppose this altar was on the shore, near to the 
ship ; it could not well have been on board the ship, which 
would probably have been set on fire by it. 



54 Commentary/ on the Deluge Tablet. 

The passage about altars and sacrifices may perhaps be 
explained thus : 

Col. II, 12. yyy <^< zaU nash zuzzid 

Three stone - cutters carrpng pickaxes (?) 
sha izabhilu lisallu 
for to build up an altar 

II, 13. itzuh ^^^^ ^ Y]. ^Y sa ikulu 

erected the stone altar on which to burn 

the sacrifices. 

14. YY <^^^^ >yy ^Y upazziru malakhi 

two stone-altars thej added for the boatmen. 

■^l y-<^ Zahi in 1. 12 (and probably in many other places) 
seems to mean ' young men '; Arab sabi (Schindler has ^3!J 
'juvenes.' See more on this word in my note to V. 25). 
And with i,^^(, (stone) added, it T\all mean ' stonemasons.' 
I observe that there were three of them and three altars, 
therefore each made one altar. 

Izabbilu, in same line. AVe find the verb stibiil 'to build' 
in Smith's Assurbanipal p. 227 and elsewhere. 

Itzub iz^X >^>^YY J:"^ i^ !• 1^? erected or set up, from 
1!^"' to erect. 

Ikulu ' to burn '; future used as infinitive : from HTp to 
burn (occurs fr-equently), 

Upazziru ' they added.' I give this on the authority of 
Buxtorf, who says, p. 1785 that ")2JD means 'to add to' or 
' multipl}-.' 

The tablet then goes on to describe the sacrifices of oxen, 
&c., which were offered on these altars every day. Wine 
was poured on them " as freely as the waters of a river." 

Line 20, which concludes the account of the sacrifices, is 
remarkable. The first half of it is broken off, but the end 
remams, thus : hissati qati adcli, Avhich I think means " I 
placed white linen (or byssus) on my hands." Because we 
know (Ezek. xliv, 15) that when a Priest oifered a victim to 
the Lord on the altar he always wore linen. Any other 
dress was rigorously forbidden. Now, that bissati means 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 55 

wliite linen or byssus I think I have clearly shown in the 
last volume of the Transactions, p. 499. But I may briefly 
explain it here. The original text of this line 20 has 
^TT^ T IT "^l"^ pissati, which word being in the genitive 
case shows that some other substantive had preceded it 
when the tablet was entire. The nominative is jyif^satu 
^}j[< y ^Jl which is explained in 2 R 25, 28 by 
J^JJ^ ^^IT which I have shown to mean ' white linen.' 
Indeed, it is translated (see p. 499) by '^ ^^^ Sis, wdiich is 
the Heb. )i})iy Byssus. 

At length, in 1. 21 we find that the ship was completed 
"^ *"| 1*^ gd'^irat. But before loading it, they measured its 
shape and dimensions. At least so I understand lines 23 
and 24. Elis u siplis ' up and down.' Sinipat-zu ' its circuit,' 
from Heb, QJ^ zinip ' circuit.' For I do not think that sinijyat 
can mean two-thirds, in this passage. 

Then comes a long narration very well translated by Mr. 
Smith, relating how Xisuthrus entered into the ark with all 
his goods, his family, and all creatures of the earth of every 
kind. 

The predicted time had now arrived. A voice was heard 
in the night time crying aloud, " The great Flood is coming. 
Enter into thy ship and shut thy door." In line 31 I render 
hikru ' a voice ' or ' cry,' from t^")p clamavit. In the same 
line I have to propose an important correction as likewise in 
line 34. >^ has been twice written instead of JrV gab. 
The word is shagabta ^ J=^ ■'^f 'heavy rain,' Usaznannu 
I will cause it to rain, shagabta kibati, a heavy down-pour. 

There are many other examples of this word, g.r. cfr. 
1 R. 43, 43. "In the month of December a great storm 
arose, and ^ J^ ^IH ■^^^"9'^^t^'' (^ deluge of rain) la ziztu 
(irresistible, from ziz to withstand), illik (came). Shalgu 
(the snow), &c., &c. Another account of the same event 
is found in 1 R 40, 75. " In the month of December a 
great storm arose, and shagabtu (a deluge of rain) mattu 
(very great : same as mahidu) usaznin poured down. 
y][ >->J[- \^< ^ Jy >->^ \*M (rains upon rains) u shalgu (and 
snow) &c., &c. Oljserve that the verb usaznin (it rained) is 



56 ./ Commentarij on the Delwje Tablet. 

the sam/as on the Dehige Tablet maznannu (future, I will 
cause it to rain). This completes the proof. In the second 
passage which I have adduced the word sJiagahtu is mis- 
printed ^ "^ ^T^ just as it is on the Deluge Tablet. 
Hence I presume there can be no doubt as to the propriety 
of this correction. 

Shagabtu is related to the Heb. m^^ a pouring forth of 
water. There is a remarkable passage in Job xxxviii, 37, 
which accordmgto some means "Who can cause the swelling 
clouds of Heaven to pour down their rain when the earth is 
all hard and dried up?" 

" The swelhng clouds of heaven." Vulg. utres cosli 
ry^'^^ ^^21. Gresenius says, " This is a very common meta- 
phor in Arabic." 

2^311?'' '^12 quis eflfundet? Schindler : who explains it thus: 
Quis eflficiet ut nubes coeli demittant pluviam ? I think then 
that we may render shagah or 22)1^ ' to rain heavily.' 

Enter into thy ship, and shut thy door. 

n. 32. -^Y>- -s^ ^'■^■/"' {hah-hd), close thy door ! Ime 37 
aptihld I closed it. This verb occurs in the legend of the 
first Sargina (Transactions, vol. 1, p. 275) hah-ya ijykhi, she 
closed my door ^]] ^. 

The next hnc 33 says "the Flood happened as pre- 
dicted" '^Y<T-^ '^TT<T *^]] ikrida 'it happened,' from rT^p 
to happen. 

H, 40. Bagmu seri, the pelting of a storm, from ^J^-^ 
lapidare : obruere. Sern is the Heb. "y^O procella : turiio. 

Ij^ 42. ^>1- 4^Jpf- (Jupiter Tonans) the god of the sky 
in libbi-su, in his rage (a very frequent nieaning of lib) 
irtamma-mma, thundered loudly, from 72^"^ to thunder. 

II, 4(). Ninip mikhn usardi, hurled down thunderbolts. 

II, 49. Sumnrmt-zu, his terrors, from -)^D to terrify 
(horruit, Buxt.). 

Column III. 

The storm increased. Line 4 says " Brother saw not his 
brother." This is a Hebrew idiom meaning " One person 
could not see another." No relarionship is implied in the 



Commentari/ on the Deluge Tablet. 57 

plirase, ex. gr. ' said one man to another ' VHi^ h^ 117'^i^ (alter 
alteri). 

Ul utaddd nisi as sami : "Men could not discern the sky." 
This verb is used of viewing the sky in 4 R 15, 8. I will 
give the passage ^ ^ ^ -fJJ ^ ^ ^T <^-^ . i^]^ . 
fzYYTj: >-^yYy ^^y ^>^y J^yyy?^ «« kaUkab samami val utaddu, 
they do not regard (or know) the stars of heaven. Utaddu 
is a T conjugation of i^"T*^ to know, as appears from its 
being occasionally translated by the Accadian verb Zu ' to 
know.' 

Ill, 6. The gods sought refuge, ittikhzu, the verb is nDll 
' to seek refuge.' 

Lines 5, 6 seem very well translated : " The gods feared 
the tempest and sought refuge. They ascended to the 
heaven of Anu." But for Ime 7 I would propose a different 
translation. 

7. Hi kima'kalbi kunnunu: as kamati rahitzu, "the gods 
crouched down like dogs : they hid themselves in the 
standing corn." For, there were harvests in heaven, 
according to their niythology. 

Kunnnnu ' thefy crouched down,' from the Heb. )Vy2 
Kanan humble, lowly, depressed : which is from verb J?2^ to 
stoop down, to humble oneself (submisit se, Gesen). 

Kaniat, standing corn, is the Chaldee word ^72p ' Seges' : 
see Schindler, p. IGOl. 

Rahitzu is the Heb. verb JJ^I recumbere : also, ' recubare 
fecit gregem.' Substantive ^^1 is ' a place where flocks and 
herds lie down.' Many examples of this word occur on the 
tablets. 

Ill, 18. Katma sajyta-sim, ' they closed their lips ' (spoke 
not : their lips were sealed) from ^ilH to shut, or seal. 

Ill, 21. Read W ^"^ M shagahta suJm, that deluge of 
rain, see note on Col. II, 31. 

in, 22. kima haialti. Mr. Smith has. ' earthquake ' ; 
pei;haps from 7in a trembling. 

Ill, 24. sakin qidu, ' making a tossing ' (Smith). Perhaps 
from 7p. Gesenius explains hphp ' motitavit.' 



58 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

111,26. usallu, 'they floated' (Smitli). Doubtless from 
Heb. 77D sustulit : elevavit. 

Ill, 27. I opened the wmdow and the light fell on my 
face : imtakut. 

Ill, 31. The land appeared high and mountainous, for 
it rose 12 degrees above the horizon. This curious passage 
seems to show that the Chaldeans used instruments for 
measuring or surveying : astrolabes perhaps. And smce 12 
degrees is a very reasonable and probable elevation for a 
mountainous coast, seen not far off, it is likely that they 
divided the circle into 360 degrees, as we do. 

Ill, 32. On the coast of Nizir the ship struck, or stood 
fast J:^ "^y >-<. This verb may be itihat (Arab. riUH 
' stetit firmus ') : but itiziz is a possible reading. 

Ill, 33. val iddin, gave not (allowed not) the ship to pass 
over it. 

The lines III, 43 and 44, I understand differently. I do 
not thhik that the raven met with corpses. I would trans- 
late the passage thus : 

43. illih arihi ma hharura sa mi iniur 
went the raven and the dryness of the waters it saw, 

i.e., it saw that the waters were now quite dried up. 

44. ikkal isakkhi itarri ul issikhra. 

it did eat, it did drink, it remained, and did not return. 

^T ■'tin ^►^yy klmmra ' the dryness ' from Heb. 'yyT\ 
siccitas (Buxt.). I think there can be no doubt of this word 
if we refer back to line 23 of this column, aabba uskharir 
'the sea became dry' ^j ][J< ^yy<y 5fff the chief difference 
is that in one passage we have jy \<« ' the waters ' and in 
the other passage aabba ' the sea.' 

Ill, 26. Isakkhi 'it did drink.' Heb. rfp):):! to drink. 

Itavj-i ' it remained.' Heb. "iri"' to remain : "iHI^ ' the 
remainder.' 

Ill, 46. Surqinu, an Altar. The discovery of this word 
by Mr. Smith is most valuable, and I think it a great addition 
to our knowledge. The Hebrew ]nW 'an altar' by the 
permutation of the cognate letters L and R has become 
ini'C? in Assyrian. Few words are more curious than |n7tI7. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 59 

it originally meant ' a table,' from the root nbll? ' to spread ' 
(compare the Homeric ravveiv rpaTre^av). But most 
frequently a dinner table. 2 Sam. ix, 11, 'he shall eat at 
my table.' 1 Kings xviii, 19, 'the prophets which eat at 
Jezebel's table.' Thence it came to mean food : cibus : 
convivium. Psalm Ixxviii, 19, ' Can God furnish a table in the 
wilderness ? ' And thence by a natui-al transition "iHT'ti^ came 
to mean a table spread fo7' the gods, that is, "an Altar." 
Isaiah Ixv, 11, " Ye forsake the Lord, and prepare a table for 
your idol Gad, and a drink offering for Mmni." And thence 
again by a natural, but still a very important change 
nin*' ]n7\I? came to signify ' the table of the Lord,' meaning 
' his altar' rQ'??2- For, the prophet Malachi ch. i, lines 7 and 
12 uses these terms indiiferently. 1 Corinthians x, 21 is an 
important text, contrasting the Table of the Lord with the 
table of the heathen gods. We read in Ezekiel xli, 22 and 
xliv, 16 that when the priests offered a victim to the Lord 
(at the Lord's table or altar) they were commanded to wear 
linen garments only. 

Ill, 46. Ashm surqinu as eli ziggurrat sadi 

I made an altar upon the peak of the mountain 

47. Sibitti u sibitti duh adagur 
seven by seven the victims I slew 

ulitin 
and I laid them down. 

48. in sipli-sun itabak kan 
beneath them I poured forth sweet cane 

erinu u simbur. 

cedar wood and spikenard. 

49. Tli izinu iri-sa : Hi 
the gods smelled the smell of it : the gods 

izinu iri-sa dabu. 

smelled the sweet smell of it. 



60 Conimentarii on the Deluge Tablet. 

50. Ill hima zwnhi elin niqi 

the gods like flies over the sacrifices 

iptakhru. 
assembled. 

The word >^\^ sometimes means harpat a flaggon : but 
in line 47 it has its usual value namely dnk ' a victim ' ; from 
the verb duk 'to slay' either a man or an animal. It is a 
very common verb. See Norris's dicty. p. 218 YJ >^i^ or 
Tt ^ -2lEE "^"-^^ ' I slew.' In Syll. 339 t^] |j[ Tgf daku 
is explamed t{^_^ which means ' a victim.' 

ibid. J.c?a^wr ' I stabbed.' From Heb. "ipT transfixit. 

ibid. Uktin is the T conjugation of Ukin I placed. 

Ill, 48. Itabak I poured forth (or placed abundantly) 
from P^'Zl, 

ibid. Kan, sweet cane, the Calamus aromaticus ; men- 
tioned in Solomon's song, see Furst lex. p. 1244. 

ibid. Cedar wood gives out when burning a very sweet 
smell. 

ibid. Simbur is Spikenard : Spanish azumbar wliich is 
derived from the Arabic sunbal ' spica odorata ' vel ' spica 
nardi.' The root of these words is the Heb. 7lti? spica. 
Schindler says that the spikenard is sometimes called sunbal 
Hindi or spica Indica. The Nat'dus is a very celebrated 
Indian aromatic. Galen calls it vap8o'aTaj(y<;, the aTa)(ys 
being spica. 

Ill, 49. izinu they smelled. Chald. zin Vn"^ 'a strong 
smell' (Schindler p. 1543). 

ibid, iri: probably Heb. n"^"^ 'odour,' or n^")!! 'to be 
sweet scented.' 

Ill, 50. Zwnbi ' flies.' A variant of znbbi or zebidn. 
Ileb. niT niusca. 

This is followed by several difficult lines, sajang that the 
god Bel was formerly a welcome guest at the table, or altar, 
of Xisuthrus, but shall be so no more, since in his rage he 
brought this deluge upon the earth. I think we may translate 
thus : — 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 61 

III, 51. Of old, whenever this deity came 

52. to celebrate the great festivals of heaven with 

his conipanions, 

53. those gods I never rejected from my side at my 
, table of alabaster [or lapis lazuli] (i.e. I never 

refused to receive them as my guests). 

IV, 1. In those days I received them kindly. Never at 

any time did 1 reject them. 

2. The (other) gods may still come to my table. 

3. But Bel shall never more come to my table, 

4. because he fell into a rage, and made a deluge. 

I would read in 1. 52 >^TT ^T*^ ^^Y j-^^ Issinuti 
'festivals.' I bav^e explained this word in my Glossary 
No. 153. 

ibid, ibusu, he had made, i.e. had been accustomed to 
make, those feasts. 

ibid, hi zukhi-su, ' with his invited companions ' — Zukhi 
•^^ ^ ' invited ' or ' assembled,' from pi^t accersivit : con- 
gregavit se. (Gesenius). 

III, 53. Lit J^JJ >=yyyf= frequently means 'a table' (Glos- 
sary No. 389), and may therefore be an equivalent of surkina 
in IV, 2. It is the Heb. niS tabula. 

ibid. Kisadi ' the side,' is a frequent word. 

ibid, amsi ' I rejected ' : from the verb 0^12) sprevit : 
respuit : aversatus est. This verb is specially used of re- 
jecting or despising the gods. Tarqu danan Assur imsi : 
Tirhaka despised the power of Assur. And Gesenius says of 
the verb Dh^Q dicitur de hominibus Deum respuentibus. 

IV, 1. akhziiza-mma is a doubtful word, Perhaps the 
root is T'^DH benignus fuit. 

IV, 4. La imtalku ' he fell into a rage.' The tablets 
frequently use the verb malik to be wise or reasonable 
(Heb. ']ht2 consilium) whence in the T conjugation amtallik 
(I was wise) and the verb of opposite signification la malik 
' to fall into a rage,' whence la imtallik ' he was enraged.' 



62 Commentary on the Deluge Tahlei. 



Column IV. 

At line 6 the stoiy goes back a little to explain one cause 
of this wrath of Bel. It was becanse some one had betrayed 
the secret to mortals that the gods were going to cause a 
deluge, and had therefore advised them to build an ark of 
safety. 

IV, 6. At a former time Bel in his course 

7. saw the ship; and Bel went full of anger and 

said to the spirits 

8, Let not any one come out aUve ! let not a man be 

saved from the deep ! 

(This provoked an expostulation on the part of Kinip, 
who was a god of milder character). 

IV, 9. Ninip opened his mouth, and said to the warrior 
Bel 
10. Wlio, except Hea, can have built this ship ? For 
Hea knows everything. 
This passage is interesting. Hea was the god to whom 
all clever contrivances were attributed, and an almost 
universal knowledge. Lines 10, 11 are — 

10. Mannii-mma sa la Hea ahatu ihanmi 

Who then, if not Hea, the ship built ? 

11. u Hea idi-ma kalami. 
for Hea knows everything. 

The important word here is Abatu ' a ship ' of which I 
have once before pointed out an example (Glossary No. 397). 

It occurs in the annals of Assurbanipal page 192 of Mr. 
Smith's edition, in the description of a storm at sea which 
assailed the ship of Tammaritu king of P^lam. I gave the 
following version in my glossary : " The ship of Tammaritu 
was caught by a terrible tempest. The steersman of the 
ship leaped from the ship upon the sand. Tammaritu fol- 
lowing him was thrown upon the dangerous rocky ground 
and very much injured." In this passage we find Sihidi 
abati, the steersman of the ship, ^ ^T .-<T< abati being the 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. (53 

genitive case of ahatu ' a sliip ' wliicli is found on the deluge 
tablet. Now this is a most interesting word because it occurs 
once, and once only, in the Old Testament, being in all 
probability the pll^ of Job ix. 26^ where the commentators 
disagree exceedingly as to its meaning (except that it is a 
ship of some kind), it is therefore very satisfactory to find it 
in Assyrian. 

ibid. ^^ ^T?f^ ^"^^^' ' ^1® knows,' from J^T^ to know. 
(Hea then sjjeaks for himself and expostulates thus with 
Bel.) 

IV, 13. Art thou a just prince of the gods, 
14. ki ki la tamtalik, abuba taskun 

who when thou wast enraged a great storm did'st 
make. 

La tamtalik ^^J ^ ^J ^)]] If^ " thou did'st fall into 
a rage." See my remarks on the verb la nialik ' to rage ' at 
line IV, 14. The second person is tamtalik, the third person 
imtalik. 

IV, 15. The sinner may (justly) die for his sins ; the 
criminal may (justly) die for his crime, 

IV, 16. But a just prince will never cut off the pure. 

^y ^y "^y ' the pure,' from Heb. TWV purus (see 
Schindler p. 1407). This word occm-s again in Col. V, 39 
isuda ' he is purified,' and V, 44 tassuda ' thou art purified.' 

IV, 17 to 20. Hea now says that a deluge was unneces- 
sary. Bel might have sent lions and leopards ; famine and 
pestilence : which would have sufficiently reduced the num- 
bers of mankind. 

Hea then goes on to say : 

IV, 21. It was not I who revealed the secret of the gods. 

22. They sent a dream to Xisuthrus and he thus 

heard the secret of the gods, 

Bel appears to have been satisfied by this discourse of 

Hea, and his wrath was appeased (or his judgment returned 

to hivQ, milik su milku : the reverse of his former state of rage, 

la malik). 



tJ4 Commeniary ou the. Deluge Tahlei. 

IV, 23. When liis niiiul grew calm, Bel went np into the 
ship, , 

24. he took my hand and raised me up, 

25. and brought my wife to my side. 

Immediately after this, Xisuthrus and his people were 
transported to a happy region " at the mouth of the rivers " 
perhaps on the shores of the Persian Gulf, for we see by the 
sequ.el that their dwelling was accessible to ships. 

Xisutlu'us has now answered the question put to him, 
by what means he had been so much exalted as to dwell 
henceforth in the company of the gods? And he now turns 
to Izdubar and thus addresses him : 

IV, 31. And lo ! again, some one of the gods has brought 
thee hither also ! 

32. The health which thou soughtest, thou hast now 

attained to it : 

33. Thy disease has been made quite well in six 

days and seven nights. 

The original is : 

31. Eninna-ma ana kc'isa mannu ill 

lo ! again thee some one of the gods 

upakhard-hku-ma. 
has brought thee also ! 

Note. — Upakhara 'has brought': ivoiw jxikhar to assemble 
or bring together ; a very common verb. Ku • thee ' ( = ka) 
the K being doubled because ka is an enclitic pronoun 
casting back the accent. 

IV, 32. Balada sa tuhahu, 

the health which thou soughtest, 

tuttd atta 
thou art come to it. 

Tuttd from Ch. and Syi'. h^ri^ vcnit, advenit, pervenit. 
33. Ganai tafJd T^<1 urra 

Of thy disease thou hast been cured in six days 

u »»» musati 

and seven nights. 



Commentary on the. Deluge Tablet. <6b 

Gana 'a foul disease.' Syr. '^^^2:1 turpitudo, see Schindler 
p. 330. Buxtorf p. 454, also mi:i ganat, from gan ' turpis.' 

Tatbi ' thou hast been cured ': ' hast been made quite well ' : 
from Heb. i:^'^ ' to be well ': from root It^ bonus : bene. 

Six days and seven nights. Tliis agrees with Col. V, 1 
wliich says that Izdubar was quite well at daijbreak on the 
seventh day. 



The Story of Izdubar ; his Illness and his Cure. 

The story now goes back a good deal, in order to relate 
how the cure of Izdubar took place. This mode of narration 
is very unsldlful, but perhaps the Scribe could not help it : 
for if the account had been introduced earlier, it would have 
interrupted the story of the deluge. 

IV, 34. Kima asbu-ma as birit burdisu 
35. Mistu kima im-bari inappus eli-su. 

" As he was sitting one day in the interior of his 

garden, 
" An effluvium like a gust blew over him." 

IV,. 36. Xisuthrus said to his wife : 

37. Amri idlu sa irisu balathu, 

" I see a Chieftain whose health is bad !" 

38. " For, an effluvium like a gust blows over him ! " 

39. Then his wife replied to Xisuthrus 

40. Lubus-su, likkabdd nisu 

Give him a dress of honour, and reverence hin:i 

41. And then, by the road that he came let him 

return in peace ! 

42. Open the great gate, and let him return to his 

country ! 

43. Xisuthrus replied to his wife : 

44. raggat amiluttu iraggik-ki 

The malady of the man might make thee ill also. 

■ibid. Buridisu or Puridisu 'his garden.' I consider this 
word to be the Heb. DT^Q Paradis 'a garden,' which is found 
in Greek as Hapahetao'^. 

Vol. IV. 5 



66 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Mlstu >^yy *^^^T Effluvium. From the verb DD^ conta- 
buit, difliuxit. In Isaiali x, 18 Gesenius explains it " de 
segToto contabescente." The verb Di^T2 is nearly related, 
and has the same meaning. Job, who suffered from a similar 
kind of leprosy, says (vii, 5) " My skin, {yX)) is crusted, and 
(D^^'2'') sanie diffluit (Gesen.). 

Inappus ' blows,' from "C^Q^ spu'avit. 

Line 37. Amr% I behold : from the Assyrian verb m,ar 
' to see.' 

Idlii ' a chief ' : or ' man of distinction,' occurs frequently. 

Balathu ' health.' Iri ' it is bad,' from "JS mains. 

Slia iri-su balatli a, literally : ' who, his health to him is bad.' 

IV, 40. Lnbus-sa .tfl^ is ' a dress ' : but especially a dress 
wliich is splendid {Gesen.). 

Likkabdd is the same as likkabad ' let him be honoured, 
from 113 honoravit. Similarly izzabtd = izzabat, and many 
other examples might be given. 

IV, 44. jRct^^f/a^ 'the disease': from ^;i1. See the passage 
just now quoted from Job vii, 5. 

Iraggi-lcM ' will infect thee.' Same verb. Ki is the femi- 
nine pronoun ' thee.' Being an enclitic without accent, the 
accent falls on the end of the preceding word, and thus 
doubles the letter K. So panu-ssun ' to them,' and very 
many other examples. 

IV, 45. Gana epi kurummati-sii, 

guard against the infection of his leprosy : 

sitahkan in risi-su 

he has an ulcer upon his head. 

Notes. — Gana, guard against ! from Heb. p;i ganan (fut. 
p^ igaii) to guard or protect, p^ kanan has nearly the same 
meaning e.v.gr. HjD kana protect! Psalm Ixxx, 16. The same 
in Arabic, kan (Gesen.) 

Epi the giving or commnnicatlng (the disease). We have 
here I think an example of the verb in'' ' to give,' which is 
so important in Chaldee and Syriac. 

Kurummat : a kind of leprosy or skin disease from the 
Syriac ^")p the skin : or a skin-like incrustation. Castelli 
gives i^^lp (1) uKU'ustatio (2) t-gumentum. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 67 

Sitakkan 'ulceratiis est': from Sikkan or Zikan 'ulcus,' see 
the clear example in IV, 50 ipti zikani-su he opened the ulcer. 
It is the Heb. inU? of the same meaning. Line 47 reads 
istakkari, which is better than sitakkan. 

IV, 47 is a line of similar meaning to IV, 45, and there- 
fore superfluous. 

It appears that there were two editions of the deluge 
tablet, varying a little in diction, and the scribe has here, 
by some oversight, introduced both readings, IV, 47 reads 
aS^ ipi kurummati-su, istakkan in risi-su which differs from the 
former, by using the verb Si instead of gana ' guard agamst.' 
This verb Si appears to be the Heb. nill^ timuit (see 
Gesenius). 



The Seven Days' Cure of Izdubar's Illness. 

IV, 48. Every day [Xisuthrus] ascended to the deck of 
the ship. 

49. Istat samunat kurummat-zu 
the first day [he brought] ointment fur his leprosy 

50. Sanatu rmissnkat : salsatu 
The second day pie brought] musk : the third day [he 

radhat : ribatii ipti zikani-ssu 

brought] the fourth day he opened his ulcer 

51. Khamsatu siba ittadi : 

the fifth day ointment he spread on it : 

sissatu basmat : 

the sixth day [he brought] balsam : 

V, 1. Sibiitu in pit-imma ilbiis-su-ma 

On the seventh day at daybreak he gave him a dress of honour 

ikkabdd nisu. 
and exalted the man. 

Observations.— The text of 1. 49 has ^ "^^j- V" sabunat. 
If this is correct, I cannot explain it : but I suspect that we 
should read »^ instead of '^>^, which gives samunat ' oint- 
ment' Heb. Vt2)l^ unguentum. Compare VI, 23 samnut ' oint- 
ment ' 



68 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Mush has the same name in Arabic. 

Zikan, an ulcer, is the Heb. Vn)!^ ulcus : inflammatio. 

Siba ' ointment ' in 1. 51 is from the Chald. CU? nnxit. 

Basmat is the Heb. t^tTl balsamum. 

In pittimma, at daybreak. Piti, the opening ; imma, of 
the day. Immu (Heb. Z2V) ' the day ' is not a frequent word, 
but i have given examples in my Grlossary No. 66. Inmui u 
musa 'day and night' occurs in 0pp. Khors. 1. 190, written 



IzDUBAR Prepares to Depart. 

V, 2. Izdubar said to Xisuthrus 

3. Anni mis-inistu irkhu eli-ya : 
That leprosy has been softened upon me 

4. Khandis tallatt-annima 

with sweet ointments thou didst bandage me 

taddini atta ! 

and didst anoint me thou ! 

Notes. — Irhhu has been softened: from ^"^n 'to soften' 
(fi-om Heb. 'T"^ mollis). The leprosy or incrustation of the 
skin (knrummat) had been softened by these dressings, and 
was now apparently ready to fall off and leave the skin clean 
and healthy. 

Mis-mistu 'leprosy': from the root DD?3 or Dt^^ which 
denotes this disease in Job vii, 5. 

Khandis, adv., 'with sweet ointments or unguents.'' 
From the Heb. verb lO^n 'condivit aromatibus,' and subst. 
'conditura: balsanntm ' Schindler p. 612. In Chald. and 
Syr. 'unguentura.' 

Tallata 'thou didst bandage,' annima 'me.' From 1^17 
' a bandage.' Gesenius has obvolvere, obvelatio, velamen. 

Taddini ' thou didst anoint me.' For we had in IV, 51 
siba ittadi, 'he spread the ointment' on the diseased part: 
whi<_']i shows that tb'^ verb addi, whicli is Heb. PIT jecit, was 
used also as a ni(jdical term. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 69 

V, 5. Xisuthrus said to Izdiibar. 

6. ( ) mwia hurummati-ka < 

I [this was] the remedy of thy leprosy. 

7. ( : .) lu-edakka kasa 

[in this way] I cleansed thee. 

I have restored the beginnmg of lines 6 and 7 as I think 
must have been. 

Muna or 7nina 'a remedy' is a Avoi'd which occurs fre- 
quently on the tablets. It is written in two ways >^ *~^\ IT 
and {^Ct- '-^y ]]■ Example, 4R 7, 29 where Marduk 
wishes to cm-e a sick man, but knows not how to do it. His 
father Hea says to him : Mina la tidi, knowest thou not the 
remedy? Mina lu-raddi-ka, I will tell thee? the remedy. 
Sha anaku idu, atta tidi, whatever I know, thou shalt also 
know. 

Edakka I cleansed, or purified. Chald. ^^3"T is same as 
Heb. riDt purum fecit. 

Ha^ang said, ' In this loay I cleansed tliee^ Xisuthrus then 
recapitulates the seven days' cure in the same words as 
before. The next few lines are too much broken to trans- 
late. Xisuthrus speaks to Urhamsi the boatman (jnalakhi, 
Heb. fyyo a sailor), but the lines are injured till we get to 
luie 21. 

V, 21. Nis sha tallaka pand-ssu 

the man whom, thou wentest before him (i.e., whom 
thou didst conduct; or bring hither in thy ship) 
iktazu malu pagar-su (disease had hardened his 
body). 

V, 22. Masku uktattu: udumuk seri-su 

* his skin was broken : was lifeless his flesh. 

Iktazu from HIZ^p durus fuit : rigidus vel asper fuit. This 
' hardness ' agrees well with the previous term kunimma 
Syriac kurma, incrustatio. 

Afalu should perhaps be read Balu Heb. Tl/^ 'disease': it 
occurs again in line 24. 

Masku, the skin. Chald. ^1i?D ' skin ' occurs frequently. 

Uktattu ' was broken,' from riH^ fregit. 



70 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Udiimuk 'was lifeless' from Syriac ^^1 inortuus, see 
Schindler p. 398. 

V, 23. Take him, Urhamsi ! cany him to be cleansed. 
V, 24. His disease may it be washed off in the water 

like 

V, 25. Laddi mashi-su-ma 

may he cast off his (diseased) skin, and 

lihil tamtu dahu 

may the sea carry it away: (that) a good (one) 

lu-zabu zmnur-su 

may grow young again over his body. 

Notes. — Laddi from Heb. HT jecit. 

Lihil: from bil ' to carry': frequent in Assyrian. 

Lii-zabu is a remarkable word. It exactly represents the 
Arabic verb zabi which Schindler (p. 1, 513) translates juve- 
nem se facere : juvenescere : re-puerascere : the root of the 
word being '^12 juvenis (see Schindler same page). Cata- 
fago's Arabic dictionary has young, shdb : youth, shabdb : boy, 
sabi : boys, subyan : boyishness, subd. This is the same word 
as Tl'2'^ ill Schindler. 

V, 26. Luddus par sign sha kakkadi-su 

(and that) may grow new the hair(?) of his head. 

Notes. — Tjuddus (from Heb. 'C^in ' new,' a very common 
verb in Assyrian) means ' be it renewed or restored.' 

Parsigu'iB an unknown word. Mr. Smith conjectures ' hair.' 

V, 27. Tidiki lu-labis zubat 

take care that he keeps covered the cloak 

bulti-su 
of his body. 

V, 28. adi illaku ana ali-su : adi 

until he shall come to his city: until 

ikassadu ana urhlii-su 

he shall .-irrive at his road (destination ?) 

Notes. — Tidiki, take thou care! from Heb, n^i«^1 'to be 
careful ': sohV-itiis fiiit. Gesenius has many examples. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 71 

Zuhat bulti-su occurs also in the legend of Ishtar. 

V, 29. Tidiku sipa ai iddi-ma 

take care that the ointment never he may cast off, 

edis lidis. 

(but with) new let him renew it. 

These two words edis lidis are from the same root Heb. 
tDin ' new.' See note to V, 26. The spelling of this verb 
varies a good deal. 

Sipa, ointment. Chald. D^ unxit. This word has already 
occm-red in IV, 51. 

Iddi 'he may cast off.' Heb. TW jecit, abjecit. 

After this the narrative goes on to say (in nearly the 
same words) that Urhamsi followed these orders, washed 
Izdubar in the sea, and nearly completed his cure. The only 
word necessary to point out is ^T J I ''^Y>- izzapi ' it grew 
young again,' the preterite of the verb in V, 25 where we 
had its optative 1^11 II '^>- lu-zabu. 



Departure of Izdubar. 

V, 36. Izdubar and Urhamsi got into their ship (irkabu 
elappii). 

V, 37. [ana id^du-sun irtahbu 

side by side they rode. 

V, 38. Then his wife said to Xisuthrus. 

V, 39. Izdidmr illaka : inakha, 

Izdubar is going away : he is purified, 

isuda. 
he is bright. 

V, 40. Mina tattadanna-ma : itar ana 

a remedy thou hast given him : he returns to 
mati-su. 
his comitry. 

Notes. — Inakha he is purified, from Heb. T^^2 purus, 
mundus. 



72 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Isuda fi'om Heb. rWl^y uitidum esse : to shine : to be 
bright : used of the skin in Jerem. v, 28 " ^2t2'^ they; are 
anointed (or fat), IHI^i^ and they shine." Furst also says 
(p. 1105) ntrV 'to shine' (of the skin). 

V, 41. U su islim parissa 

then he (Xisuthrus) saluted the departure 

Izduhar 
of Izdubar. 

Notes. — Islim : from salam, to salute. 

Parissa, departure : separation. Heb. 'C^'lD 
separare. 

V, 42. Elappu uddikha ana klpri. 

the ship was pushed to the shore. 

Uddikha was pushed (close to the shore, so that the parties 
could converse) : from nii to be pushed, the Niphal of nil"! 
to push. 

It seems quite unnecessary to admit aha a primitive pr\1 
which Buxtorf gives us. 

V, 43. Then Xisuthrus said to Izdubar. 

V, 44. Izduhar tallika : tannakha : tasuda 

Izdubar, thou goest : thou art pure : thou shinest. 

V, 45. Mina addanakku-mma : tatar 

a remedy I have given to thee, and thou returnest 

ana mati-ka. 
to thy country. 

V, 46. Lup)ti Izduhar amat nitsirti 

I have revealed Izdubar the concealed story, 

V, 47 lu-ukbi-ka 

[and the secret of the gods] I have told unto thee. 

Note. — Mina ' a remedy ' in line 45 is written in the 
usual way ^^^ *'^] Tt ^^®*^ ^^^^ *^^^ previous line V, 40). 

V, 46 to VI, 10. I think I can clear up some parts of this 
obscure narrative. I will first go over it briefly, and then 
examine the words more in detail. 



Commentar>/ on the Deluge Tablet. 73 

46. " I have revealed to thee, Izdubar, the concealed 

stoiy. 

47. I have told unto thee the secret of the gods. / 

48. This history, as I have told it to thee, in writing 

49. Engrave! as a sacred Scribe^ would engrave it 

50. If he were to take this History in his hand !" 

51. When Izdubar heard this, he opened [his hand] ^. 

52. and moved a great stone ; 

VI, 1. They dragged it along, to 

2. Then he carried it away [to write on it?] 

3. and he carved the great stone, 

4. and set it up as a memorial, 

5. Then he said to Urhamsi [the boatman] 

6. Urhamsi ! tliis History [which I have Avritten] 

7. if a man shall retain it in his mind 

8. let him repeat it'^ in the midst of Erech Suburi* 

9. Move than the graving tool has w^ritten 

10. I shall remember; and I will return to engrave it. 
(The homcAvard voyage of Izdubar is then related.) 

I will now examine the words more particularly. . 

V, 48. Sammu su Jdma id did, in miisari 

History this as I have told it, in writing 

49. zikhil-su, kima khartannum 

do thou engrave it I like as a sacred scribe 

\TLikitzah~\ , 

would engrave it. 

50. summa samma sctsu ikassada katd-su. 

if history this were to reach his hand. 

Notes. — Sammu, history. Heb. ^212^ monumentum : vel 
memoria {Gesen.) 

Iddid ' I have shown it' or 'related it." 



' lepoypa^fiarevs, one who wrote or carred hieroglyphic or other sacred 
writing. 

^ The words within brackets are restorations. 

^ By making a similar monument ? < 

* The great city so called. 



74 Commentary on the Deluge Tahlet. 

From Heb. TV monstravit : indicavit ( Gesen.) Musari, 
Avriting : a very frequent word. >^ ^ *"yT"^T' ^^^ ^^^^ 
1 'tter >^ is broken off, but I think there can be no doubt 
about it. 

Zikhil, engrave! ^jy 4^ ^I^IT (see Smith's Assur- 
banipal p. 54) " two lofty obeHsks covered witli beautiful 
carving" II Xl^ *-^^Y<T Zakhali. These were part of the 
plunder of Thebes. The carving was therefore executed in 
hieroglyphics. ZakJial occurs as a verb ' to adorn with 
figures ' in Assurbanipal p. 227. 

Kliartannum is a most interesting word. It is the Heb. 
Khartwmnim ly^lSSH (the first ^ being doubled), which 
Gesenius renders Scribal sacri, scriptura3 sacrse, i.e. hiero- 
glyphicae periti, L€poypaiJ,fj,aTeL^, The word is used both of 
Egyptian scribes who of course used hieroglyphic characters, 
and also of the Babylonian Magi in Daniel i, 20 and ii, 2, &c. 
Gesenius says the origin of the word is to be sought in the 
Hebrew lO'^H stylus, in which I quite agree with him. Line 
49 seems to read A-khartannum (for T hardly think that the 
^1 can belong to the previous word kima). This initial A 
seems to represent the Hebrew article n which is prefixed to 
the word in Daniel thus : ^"^T2I5"^n PT. It is possible that 
from this fi'equent usage the H may have become part of the 
word in common parlance. 

The broken word ^TyT>= J^f ^tc^|t:^^ at ^^^ end of line 49 
I would restore thus : J^lffj^ f^yff adding |[|[ ^>-\ ^^ 
^Z >^>i^Y to complete the line. Tliis gives ukitzaha ' he 
would carve or engrave it,' from 2!in 'to carve stone,' or 
from n!Jp ' to cut.' 

V, 51. Izduhar annitu as semi-su ipti-ma 

Izdubar this when he heard, he opened 
\_katd-s^i\. 
[liis hand]. 

The phrase annitu as semi-sa is also found in the legend 
of Ishtar, Col. II, 20. 

V, 52. iirakkiz abni kaptu. 

and mov^ed a stone great. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. lb 

VI, 1. ildudu-su ana ( ) 

They dragged it along to ( ) 

(The last word m this hue is broken off.) 

VI, 2. Su ilki-sa-ymna \izkur] 

He carried it away [to write on it ?] 

VI, 3. uhattik almi kaptu 

he carved the stone great (and) 

VI, 4. ana id itzuU-su. 

for a monument he erected it. 

Here we have the same verb l!i^ statuit. I can hardly 
doubt that the scribe wrote or intended to write the two 
first words of this line thus: J ^^f «'*« Id. Id is 'a 
monument,' (Hebrew T) and usually takes the verb n^ii 
statuit. Gesenius says: T monumentum, idem quod ?21I? 
(the sammu of our tablet). 

Thus we read in 2 Sam. xviii, 18, " Now Absalom in his 
lifetime had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which 
is in the King's dale, and he called the pillar after his own 
name, and it is called unto this day Id Absalom, the 
monument of Absalom. 

In this passage of Scripture 'he reared up' is in the 
original itzub, and 'pillar' is matzabat, derived from the same 
verb 12?*' itzub. 

VI, 5 and 6. Izdubar said to Urhamsi : sammu annu (this 
history). 

VI, 7. sa nisu in libbi-su ikassadu 

if a man in his mind shall retain it 

VI, 8. lu disu ana libbi Uruk 

let liim renew it in the midst of Erech. 

Note.— iMC^^'sM JgfJ il^^f ^ 'let him renew': one 
of the forms of the verb idis U;"Fn ' novus fuit ' which occurs 
so frequently, and varies so much in its spelling. Let him 
repeat it : make a similar monument, at Erech. 

VI, 9. il sa sibu izkur 

More than the graving tool has written 



76 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

VI, 10. anahu lu-zikir-ma lu-tuf 

I may remember (and) I may return 

ana zilli 
to engrave it. 

Notes, //(preposition) above: beyond: more than : The 
same as eli. Occurs rather frequently. 

Sibu a graving too], a stylus. Schindler p. 478 has D'^t 
Zip Stylus. Buxtorf p. 665 says h^D'^t Zipa Stylus : Coelum, 
sculpendi instrumentum, quoting Exodus xxxii, 4 et formavit 
illud stylo ^^D"'T1. This is from the Targum, the Hebrew 
text has lO'^rf. 

ZiJiir is here (and elsewhere) written by the Accadian 
sign >^ for the sake of brevity (see Col. I, 28). 

Zil ' to engrave.' Same as zihil which Ave had in Col. 
V, 49. 



IZDUBAR' RETURNS HOME. 

The account of the homeward voyage of Izdubar now 
commences, but as it is greatly damaged I can only offer a 
few observations. 

VI, 11. A7ia / kasbu 

About ten kasbu (70 miles) 

iksitpn kusapu : ana , 

they had reckoned the reckoning : (but) about 

« kasbn ( ) 

twenty kasbu [they had really gone] 

Note. — The last word is broken off. The sense of the 
passage (and especially what follows) appears to require the 
translation which I have given. Iksupu. Heb. ItTH is to 
count, reckon, or estimate. 

VI, 12. imur-ma bur a Izdubar 

then Izdubar perceived a lighthouse. 

Bwa a lighthouse or beacon (Chald. y]^'2, lanipas fVom '^))1 
ignis. What follows next is very much broken; but the part 



Cormnentarij on the Deluge Tablet. 11 

wliicli is left implies that Izdubar found, to his great sorrow, 
that his calculation (or reckoning) had been very erroneous. 
On discovering this he lamented himself: 

VI, 17. Tears ran down his cheeks, and he said to 
Urhamsi 

18. To what purpose, Urhamsi, have I spent my time in 

deep thinking? 

19. For what has my mind been searching ? 

20. I did not obtain this success for myself 

21. But this great light upon the land has caused this 

success. 
By ' this success ' he means their safe arrival. The 
beacon of lire probably guided them to the entrance of the 
port. 

22. For lo ! now at the twentieth kasbu this fiery beacon 

blazes up. 



23. Now I will open the cover of the Vase and I will 

pour away the ointment. 

24. For, the sea will not bring back what I now throw 



away 



25. Then the ship grounded upon the shore, and they 

reckoned the reckoning to be 20 kasbu. 

26. And after 30 kasbu they made joyful music, and 

arrived at the city of Erech Suburi. 

So primitive a narration cannot be without its difficulties. 
But I think that they sailed on the Persian Gulf and having 
reached the land after 20 kasbu they were employed during 
several more kasbu in ascending the river to Erech. The joy 
of Izdubar on making the land is very quaintly expressed : 
"Now I will throw away my medicaments, and all signs of 
my illness shall disappear in the sea." 

Observations.— VI, 18. ^^ ^^] ^ f {< ^^ ^y| J} yj 
in khaidai ' in my deep thoughts.' 

This is the Chald. ^^TH I'es perplexa : senigma: calliditas. 
He means his calculations to discover the ship's course, or 
perhaps his observations with the astrolabe, which they were 
in the habit of employing. 



78 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

VI, 19. f:^ *"'^T (""I^I) ^'^<^'^"' ' li'^s been searching; 
Heb. ni^l ' to search ' occurs frequently. 

VI, 21. J3y ^^11 Ur makJi the great Hght: from Heb. 
■^It^ Ur, hght. Written exactly the same as Ur 
makh 'a Lion,' which is likely to cause mistakes 
of translation. I "vvill therefore add a few re- 
marks. One meaning of TJ*^T Ur m Assyrian is 
'a dog' (Syllab. 762 Q^ ^ iz]]} V^-) w . kalbu 
(Heb. 17D a dog). Hence most Ass^n^-iologists 
are of opinion that a Lion Avas called Ur makh, 
quasi ' Canis maximus.' Similarly a Leopard was 
called Ur barra. But as Ur has several meaniugs 
so Ur mahh may have as many, makh being merely 
an adjective magnus: pr^gi'andis. 

I will take this opportunity of remarking that in vol. 3 
p. 593 of the Transactions Mr. Smith says that Jff^ >^\ ^T*- 
nlsi sometimes means 'a Lion,' being explained by TJ>^T *^^IT 
in the tablet S 954. But is not this gloss susceptible of a 
quite different explanation ? The consideration of the 
passage in VI, 21 makes me think that the scribe meant to 
explain nisi by ur makh a great light, or beacon. This is 
strongly confirmed by the fact that Nis (in Hebrew D^) 
signifies ' a beacon.' Gesenius says : ' res elata : signum 
late conspiciendum.' Also in Syriac ^^D'^i nisa. 

Urru (day) is derived from Ur (light) as the Latins say 
Iaix for ' a day.' Centesima lux est heec : this is the hun- 
dredth day (Cicero). 

The next few lines stand thus in the original : 

VI, 22. eninna ana 20 kashu edu unassa - mma. 
behold ! after 20 kasbu this fire is displayed. 

23. dada ki ahfu, attakhu 

the vase now I will (ipen, I will pour away 

sainnut. 
the ointment. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 79 

24. tamta ai itasha slia ki anahu 
the sea not will bring back what now I 

lu-akkldz. 
tkrow away. 

25. u elappu etiziz as kipri. Ana 20 
then the ship stood fast upon the shore. At 20 

kasLu iksupu kusapa. 

kasbu they reckoned the reckoning 

26. ana 30 kasbu iskunu nuhatta. Tksudu - mma 
at 30 kasbu thej made music. And they arrived 

27. ana llhhi Uruk Suburi. 

within Erech Suburi. 

Notes. — VI, 22. Edu unassa-mma. 

this beacon fire is displayed. 

Edu J=y} ^y Heb. Tl^ S}T. i^ll^ a burning brand ; 
Lampas. Lignum ardens (Scliindler). Hence any fire signal 
or beacon might be so called. 

Unassa - mma ' blazes up.' From i^ty^ to blaze up (Sch. 
p. 1170) whence Heb. 7«a.sa nt^tl'?2 ' a fire ' : incendium: and 
nt^tiJO a fii-e signal: signum igne datum (Gesenius). Ex- 
ample : Jerem. vi, 1, Blow the trumpet : set up a fire-signal ! 

[This was to alarm the country and give notice of the 
approach of the enemy's army], 

Dada, the cover of the Vase. In Chaldee 1"l dad (see 
Buxt. p. 503) who says, 11 epistomium vasis, aquam con- 
tinentis, quod instar mamm^ muliebris factum erat, et aquas 
effundebat. A more usual form is in mammee : ubera. It is 
the same as the Hebrew 1^ mamma. 

It is possible however that Dada may be the Heb. f 1"7 ' a 
pot.' 011a. 

Ki. Now. Heb. pTD nunc. Also in 1. 24. 

Aptu. J:j=y '^BB] ^yyy^ ' ^ ^m open.' 

Attakhu. I mil pour away : from Sp'iac ^^p;3 libavit which 
occurs frequently on the tablets. 

Samnut ^^yyy^^ *^ "^y ointment. This word is not un- 
frequent m Assyrian : it is the Heb. pty ointment. (Un- 
guentmn : oleum : pinguedo : Buxt. ' oil, fat, or miguent.') 



80 Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 

Itaslia (1. 24) ' it will bring " : from ^^tT- ' to bring ' : 
poiiavit. 

Akkhiz ' I tln-ew away' — foras ejeci : from 5J^n foras. 

Etiziz (1. 25) stood fast — was aground — I think we should 
read in the text t:Yy "j^Y >-< as in the nearly similar passage 
III, 32 " the ship f:^ "^Y >-< itiziz stood fast, or was ashore, 
on the land of Nizir." 

Line 26 may perhaps mean that when the travellers drew 
nigh to the city of Erech, the inhabitants 'made joyful 
music ' in honour of their safe return. The words are 
^yy I^ ^ *^ *~^ *'^yyy ^'■^^'^'^"^ nulatta. I have treated 
of this word in No. 494 of my glossary and also in vol. 2, 
p. 42 of our Transactions. ^A >--< *^^yyy nubatta means a 
festival accompanied with IVIusic. It comes from the Arab. 
nobat music, whence nobati a musician (see Catafago's dic- 
tionary). And the word has been adopted into Persian 
nobat-khanali or nobat-gah ' a music gallery ' Richardson's 
Dictionary, p. 1608. 

In the older Assyrian it is nabd, plur. nahdan, see line 
70 of the obelisk of Salmaneser, where the king says that 
he reached with his army the source of the Tigris, and 
nabdan khudut askun " I made joyful music." It will be 
observed that the same verb is used (as/mn on the obelisk, 
iskunu on the tablet). 



The remainder of the Deluge Tablet appears not to 
present any points of salient interest. Urhamsi is sent for- 
ward to examine the present state of the city of Erech, and 
he reports (though I translate this doubtfully) that one-third 
of it contains the citadel, one-third gardens, and one-third 
the temple of Ishtar with its precincts. However tha t may 
be, the next line VI, 32 says : " these three joined together 
(attabak from pyi to join) are the sections or divisions of the 
city of Erech." Mr. Smith renders i:.]^]] ^J^ bitru ' the 
divisions,' in which I think ho is nght, for the Hebrew has 
the word ini sectio. 

Tlio title of the tablet is found in line 34, which says 
" Eleventh tablet, -sa nwibi imuru T^T ^-^ Jzdubar. 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 81 

Mr. Smith renders T^ ^^^ " ^lie hero " but ought we 
not rather to read T^ ^^ Kuhur 'the Hero'? Heb. 111^ 
heros : (so Gesenius translates it). It seems to be jnst the 
word we want. Genesis vi, 4, " there were Giants ('Q'^ll^) 
in the Earth in those days." 

I would suggest the following translation: "Eleventh 
portion of the wandermgs (or adventures) of the hero 
Izdubar." 

*^>^IHJ ^ naqhi : from the verb Qp^. Gesenius says it 
means in orhem ire, both in Job and Isaiah : both passages 
refer to the circulating year and its festivals. This suits the 
idea of Izdubar being Hercules with his twelve labours, or 
Ohvaaevs the tixiveller. 



Although I have made numerous remarks upon the 
Deluge Tablet^ yet I agree very generally with Mr. Smith 
in his translation of all the essential parts of the narrative — 
the building of the Ark — the flood — the sending birds out 
of the Ark to see whether the land was dry — the sacrifice 
of thanksgiving offered by Xisuthrus or Noah after he came 
out of the Ark, &c., &c. I differ from him chiefly in the 
unimportant sequel of the story, the details of the illness 
and cure of Izdubar. 



REilARKS ON THE NAME OF THE FATHER OF XlSUTHRUS. 

Lhara-tutu according to Mr. Smith p. 533 means ' servant 
of the god Tutu.' And in p. 590 he quotes the tablet 
K 2107 where this god is named Tutu muallat Hi, muddis ilt, 
"the geiierator and restorer of the gods." Such a title 
implies one of the princijjal deities. Now I find on tablet 
140 (otherwise marked 109^) an Ode to Nebo, in the first 
line of which he is called bimu *->[- *~-t:^] '^^^^ 't^^® servant? 
of the god Tutu, whereas on the tablet Ilia he is called bunu 
*'*"YTT the servant? of Bel. Hence Tutu is no other than 
Bel himself. 

Vol. IV, - 6 



82 Commentary on tlie Dehiqe Tahh't. 

Tutu or Uttu is used in the Accadian language for parent 
or father. This agrees well with his title of "generator and 
restorer of the gods." And the Greek name Ardates in 
Berosus may easily be exj^lained as Arda-uttu 'servant of 
Uttu': while Otiartes may be the same name reversed viz. 
Uttu-arda. 



Addendum to the Notes on III, 48, the Sacrifice 
OF Thanksgiving. 

There is a passage in ' the tablet marked 52a, which 
describes a similar pile of aromatic substances. The list 
of them is as follows : JrY T^IT^ *^yiTy (Cedar-wood) 
J=T ^V « (Cypress-Avood). >-]]^ -^^^TII^ (^"^'^ ^'^"^^' 
sweet cane). ^^TY '^^TTT {Simhur, Spikenard). 
^^|T >-^Yi^ (Simbul, Spice. This is the Heb. 7IU? spica) 
/ (and) TpY V" {Kunat, Cinnamon ? this last is doubtful). 



Addenda. 

III, 44. Ul issikhra, ' it did not return ' — This verb is the 
Heb. inD rediit, conversus est. 

IV, 32. Tuttd may be from the Heb. root pi^^ help : 
succour. Tuttd atta, thou hast been succoured. 

V, 21. Xisuthrus says to the boatman : ' the man whom 
thou hast brought hither iktazu mala pagar-su, ' his whole 
body is diseased.' 

Iktazu from i^JJp decorticavit {Schindler). 

V, 23. The boatman is then told to nurse Izdubar witli 
the greatest care, during his homeward voyage. And he is 
directed to bathe him in the sea. 

Line 23 says : Carry him, Ui'hamsi ; take him to be 
washed {ana namsi^ from J?U?^ to Avash). 

Line 24. Mali-su in mi kima illi limsi, dip the whole of 
him into tlie sea, "like an infant." 



Commentary on the Deluge Tablet. 83 

Limsi, ' dip ' or ' plunge ' : from the same verb ^)i^}2- 
Illi, ' an infant,' is the Heb. and Syr. 71^^ infans : parvulus. 

The word occurs elsewhere in the inscriptions. 

In lines 30, 31 the boatman obeys these commands, 

which causes the same words to be repeated again. But the 

verb imsi is now in the preterite tense. 

V, 41. This passage should be translated : " Xisutlirus 
assisted the departure of Izdubai-." 

Jn^TY /Y>~- Issi ' he assisted,' from Heb. i^ti^^ to help or 
assist. This verb occurs in several other places. 

VI, 1. He chose a great stone. Ildudu su ana zumhiy 
* and they dragged it to a waggon ' : su ilki-samma, ' and he 
carried it away.' The broken word zu .... may be zumhiy 
waggon. 

VI, 12. Bura seems identical with the Greek Uvpa, a 
fire-beacon. This shows the connection between Uvp and 
the Hebrew root "^^2 of the same meaning. 

VI, 24. I would now translate this passage : Tamti ai 
itaslia sa ki anaku lu-akkhiz, ' it will not pollute the sea, what 
I now throw into it.' The sense remains nearly the same, 
but I think itasha means 'it will pollute,' from Heb. tl?1tf> 
in Hiph. t^'^lO^^ polluit, 

Akkhitz ' I throw away ' : from Arabic '^p2t nakhits 
abrogavit ; sustulit : delevit {Schindler), 



84 



HISTORICAL INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON. 

By W. Boscaaven. 

Mead 4th Mai/, 1875. 

This inscription, which contains a fragmentary account 
of the tenth campaign of Esarhaddon, in Phoenicia and 
Egypt, was brought by Mr. Smith from Assyria on his last 
expedition there, and was briefly noticed by him in his paper 
read before this Society in July last. Through the kindness 
of Mr. Smith I have been enabled to copy the inscription, 
and, with his assistance, to restore portions of it, so as to get 
a fair text. The translation is as follows : — 

1 The second time 

2. I caused to sit. Bihilu 

3. Bil-idina in the city of Kullimir 

4. To the borders of Assyria I restored 

5. Tributes to my lordship. 

6. In my 10th expedition 
7 my face to 

8. (which in the language) of the people of Kush and 

Muzur (are called) 

9. I gathered the strong armies of Assur, which within 

10. (Nisan) the fii'st month from my city of Assur I 

departed. The rivers Tigris and Euphrates I 
crossed 

11. Regions difficult I penetrated 

12. in the course of my expedition against Bahal king 

of Tyre, who to Tirhakah king of Ethiopia had 
entrusted 

13. The yoke of Assur my lord he threw off and made 

defiance 



Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 85 

14. Towers against him I raised food and diink (?) 

to their Hves I stopped 

15. from the land of Egypt the camps I assembled, to the 

land of Miluaha I directed the march 

16. 30 kaspu (210 miles) of ground from the city Apqn 

(Aphek) which is near the land of Samaria to the 
city of Raphia 

17. To the frontiers of the land of Egypt a place which 

has no water a very great desert (?) 

18. water with buckets for the army carried. 



Reverse. 

1. Then the command of Assur my lord my ears 

entered mind 

2. camels of the kings of Arabia all of them .... 

them 

3. 30 kaspu of ground a journey of 15 days in I 

marched 

4. 4 kaspu of gound "uath stones great (covered) I 

went 

5. 4 kaspu of gromid a journey of 2 days 

snakes with two heads death and 

6. I trod and crossed 4 kaspu of ground 

a journey 

7. of 4 kaspu of ground a journey of 2 

days 

8. 15 kaspu of ground a journey of 8 days I marched. 

9. Merodach the great lord to the assistance came 

10 the lives of my army 20 days seven .... 

11. From the border of the land of Egypt 

12. From the city of Makau 

14. this ground like stones 

15. like birds. 

16. red and sarku 

17. enemies violent to 

18. (from) the city I sicept (?). 



86 Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 

JEsarhaddon, the son of Sennacherib, ascended the Assy- 
rian throne in 080 B.C., and during the earher portion of his 
reign was engaged in wars in various parts of the East, the 
first of these campaigns being against the Phoenician king of 
Sidon, Abdimilkut {] tt] {]^ J^ff Jgf "^f -^y< Ab-di- 
mil-ku-ut-ti). This monarch had revolted, but on the 
approach of the Assyrian king he fled across the sea, pro- 
bably to the Island of Cj^^jrus, the Jl^jJ Jl^J )"^y >-^y 
Ydt-nan of the inscriptions, the usual refuge of the Phoenician 
kings. Here he was followed by the Assyrian king, and 
brought back and beheaded in company mth the king of 
some of the northern Syrian nations, named Y ,^7 >->-! 
^:^1 ^I*"*^yT^I *"IT^I Sa-an-du-ar-ri. Sidon was demolished 
and an Assyrian fort raised in its place. Tyre, which had 
been captured by Shalmaneser, was tributary to the Empire ; 
and in these annals we find the names of Y *"^T -s^>">^Y T^lT 
Ba-ha-lu, Bahal Mng of Tyre, and ] ]^ ^^J *;^]] iz]] 
Mi-na-si-e, Mennaseh king of Judah, as paying tribute to him. 
Phoenicia and Syria seem to have remained peaceful until the 
ninth campaign of this king, which was his most important, 
but of which we have but few contemporary annals. But a 
very full account of it may be gathered from the annals of 
his son and successor Y >">"|<^ ^Z jy Assiwhanipal, the 
Sardanapalus of the Greehs. From these we learn that 
Essarliaddon had attacked TirhaJcah and captured the whole 
of Upper Egypt, which he divided into twenty minor king- 
doms, under various kings, the chief of whom was Necho. 

The Ethiopian portion of the Empii-e seems still to have 
been subject to Tirhakah Q ^r;;^ >^^ O *^^^ t^ 



ClI^^V) ^ Cm ^T^ ^ ^""'1' 

of the hieroglyphics, and on the departure of the Assyrian 
king or his army the banished king renewed liis hostilities. 
From the inscription, discovered by Mr. Smith, it appears 
that he induced the Tyrian king Bahal to revolt, at the 
same time probaljly attacking the Assyrian viceroys in Egypt 



Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 87 

himself. The expedition of the Assyrian king to suppress 
the revolt forms his tenth expedition, and probably was in 
in the year B.C. 672. 

Hastily gathering his army, he started from the city of 
Assur, the ancient capital of the Assyrian empire, the site of 
which is marked by the modern Kcdah Shergat ; he crossed the 
Euphrates and Tigris, and marched to Apqn >-^Ty ^^T^I^^, 
the Biblical Aphek, a city at the northern extremity of 
Samaria, Detaching a portion of his army to blockade Tyre, 
he marched on to Raphia *-'tX\ ^^TT ''^T*" -<^ Ra-pi-hi, a 
town on the borders of Egypt. This town was of consider- 
able importance in the history of the Assyrian and Egyptian 
wars. It was here that Sargon defeated the Egyptians, 
under Sahahu, the Sabaco of Herodotus, and founder of the 
XXVth Dynasty. On arriving here, after the forced march 
from Aphek, a distance of 30 kaspu, about 200 miles — the 
kaspu being equal to about seven miles — they found the 
boundary stream dry. The aid of the kings of Arabia was 
obtained to draw water and carry it on camels for the use of 
the army. One of the most important of the wars of this 
king had been against a confederation of Arab nations in 
the land of Bazu, "^^^ *~>-\ If '"'^11 -Ba-a-zu, which appears 
tj denote the nomadic tribes of Arabia. Amongst the alhes 
are found the names of four queens, a custom peculiar to 
these nations.^ 

The king noAv marched on to reach the seat of the revolt 
in Lower Egypt, but the inscription unfortunately does not 
state whether he was successful or not. But from his son's 
annals it appears that he re-established order in the kingdom 
of Upper Egypt, which he had divided into twenty small 
kingdoms, the principal of Avhich was at Memphis 
"-IT y A^T "^I" Mi-im-pi, under ] ^ Jgf ^]\]iz Ni-ku-u, 
and extending as far inland as Thebes *^X^\ X^ ■^^*~\ 
Ni-ha. 

Having established order here he returned to Assyria, and 

' In the Annals of Tiglath-Pileser II, Samsi ,5x7 >^^^k *^| | 
Queen of the Arabians, is spoken of as ruling over the laml of ^jlii ^'^T 
Sa-ba, the Biblical fc'^D.U^ Sheha, that is the Sabeans, or Arabia. 



88 Historical Inscnption of Esarhaddon. 

probably, soon abdicated the throne of Assyria in favour 
of his son, retaining that of Babylon for himself. This took 
place probably in the year B.C. 668, and in the latter part of 
that year Esarhaddon died, and Assurhanipal reigned alone. 

In no other inscriptions of liis reign do we find any 
mention of the capture of Tyre, and it seems to be very 
probable that the blockade was retained during the remainder 
of the reign, and the capture completed by Assm'banipal in 
his second or third year. 

In the Annals of Assurbanipal, translated by Mr. Smith, 
we read as follows : — 

Page 58. 

ma salsi gar ri - ya eli 

In my third campaign against 

y ^^y ^..y .^gyy « - <^ .Ty<y 

Ba - ha - Ji sar mat zur - ri 

JBahal king of Tyre 

In - u - al - lik 
/ icent. 

From this it would appear that it was in his third war 
that Assurbanipal renewed his attack on Tyre, for in hue 8 
Ave read — 

hal - zu - ti eli - su u - rak - kis 

fortresses \towers~\ against liini I raised 

li - c nisi -su u - dan- nin 

his people I strengthened 

ma zir - tu 
tlie watch 



Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 89 

ina tarn - ti va iia - ba - li 

on sea and land 

Ef?<-!T<i--j< I m- ^? tim 

gar - li - ti - su u - zab - bit 

his roads I took 

(v. T{ ^JI! jtyyy j -T^JH^-W •) 

a - lak - ta su ab - ru - uz 
his going aid 1 stopped^ 

The inscription then goes on to state that the people were 
forced to surrender for want of water. From this and the 
previous inscription it would appear that the blockade of 
Tyre extended up to the second or third year of Assurbanipal, 
when it was taken. 

But a contradiction to this idea seems to appear in the 
list of kings who paid tribute to Assurhanijml, as given in 
Cylinder C. We find there the name of Bahal king of Tyre. 

This list is, as far as it is perfect, a duplicate copy of the 
one given in the annals of Esarhaddon, and the scribe ir 
compiling the annals of Assurbanipal may have copied that 
list and inscribed the name of Bahal amongst the kings by 
an error. Still I think there is little doubt that the siege of 
Tyre did extend imto the reign of Assurbanipal, and that 
the city was finally taken by him. 

The events spoken of in the first lines of the inscription 
refer to a revolt in a city »-^^^ >-^g^YY -<^>-yT T>- »^yT<T 
Kul-li-im-mi-ri, Kidliniir on the east of the Tigris. There 
appears to have been a revolt here^ and a person named 
Bel-idina Y *-J^ >— , was placed over it as ruler. The city is 
mentioned once in an inscription of Tiglath-Pileser II, as a 
place in which he erected an image of himself; but the exact 
locality is not known. 



90 Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon 

Fragment S 2027. 

'• WS^Ii<l!?= -TW IT I Tf^I 

di - ri su a - ua 

2nd time to 

2. ^yyyt v T- T :::; A--T [IgJliiii^^ 

u - se- sib Bi - ha - lu 

/ caused to set Bildlu 

5- T -II - -E -^I -^TI -<^ -E^II T- -IMilil 

Bil-iclina i - na alu Kul - li -mi- ri .... 
Bel-idina in the city Kullimur .... 

4. ]} ^] ice -^^w \< --w <m -w y^i;j? 

a- na mi - zir mat Assm*i u - tir 

to the borders of the land of Assyria I restored 

«• « tSI tt] ^V -II -^I< ^ETf 

Man- da - at - ti bilu - ti ya 

tributes of my lordship 

c. ^ < "pyj ^.TT ceyf 

ina X kliarrani • ya 

In my 10th — my expedition 

T. tyyyt v WB t^TII ^ -^ < 1} ]} -1 

11 - sa .... pa - nu - u - a a - na 

.... my face to 

8. [7 >- ^h] f E ^]]}^ h- \^ m < -TI 

[sa - ina - pi] - i iii«i mat Ku - u - si 

u'hich in (?) the language of the men of the land of Rush 

<y.lEU V -¥ <- 

\\ mat j\Iu - zur 

and Muzur 



Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 91 

ad- ki - e ummanati Assur(?) gab-sa-a- ti 
/ gathered armies of Assur (?) strong 

w <m HI}] 

sa ki - [rib] 
which within 

'"■ [E&] --? -IT^-eE! < <-V^^1 -^IT KTf 

[Nisaii] arkliii - ris - tii - ii ul - tii alu - ya 

Nisan the month first from my city 

Assur at - tu - zir 

Assur I depar-ted 

[]] s 4^ <:z < Tf a n "ft -t? A-B^ 

[Nalir Diglat u Nahr Purat e - bir] 
The river Tigris and Euphrates I crossed 

"• [V ^M -]v T>^ ^m^ -y< wmmm 

[matai] mar - zu - u - ti 

regions difft^cult 

ud - di - ikh 
/ penetrated^ 

12. ^ y. ^y< .y<y^ :^iy -^y{ <.-y 

ina mi - ti - ic kliarran - ya eli 

in the course of my expedition against 

T--T A-'iti<j « '-^ <:: -IH V 

Ba - li - al ear mat i^ur - ri hi\ 

Bahal king of 'Tyre, who 



92 Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 

T? -1 ]»^--i « ^.^ m < -n 

a - iia Tar - qii - u sar mat Kii - u - si 

to Tirhakah king of Kush (Ethiopia) 

si - ip - ri - su it - ku - lu 

/u's letters had entrusted 

13. [cf eTTTMj] -^l A -II cET? ^T -ET I? 

[niru] Assur bel - ya is - la - a 

the yoke of Assnr my lord threw off 

ab - lu mi - li - ikh - tu 

defiance 

hal- zu - ti eli -su u -rak- Ids 

toicers against him I raised 

]} -^H m <!-© -^ mmrnmm 

a - ka - lu va mu 

food and drink (?) 

napisti su- un ak - la 

their lives 

15. <tT^^T V -^k;:: <iei^ik tt]<m-]} 

ul - tu mat Mu- zur Karasi ad - ki - e 

from the land of Egyp>t the camp I assembled 

T? -n *^^ T- m< 1? ^] '^\ ^^ EcTT 

a - na mat ]\Ii- lull -a us - te - se ra 

to the land of Milulia I directed 

khar - ra - nu 
the road 



Historical Inscription of Esarlwddon. 93 

16. <« ^ ^^- ^^k <-!-" ^T --TI --T tx^ 

XXX kas-pii kak-kar ultii alu - ap - qu 

30 kaspu of ground from tlie city Ajyqit (Aphek) 

W i^ <I^ ^.^ ^ T>- HT<T -^n II <l^ 

sa pa - di mat Su -mi - [ri - na] a - di 
which (is) near Samaria to 

alu Ra - pi -lia 

the city Haphia 

17. y} ^] tE ^^1 ^]} ^y< >- \< >^ <:: y? j£H 

a - nu i - te - e - ti ina mat Mu - zur a - sar 
^0 ^/'g frontiers in the land of Egypt a place 

T? a -E! =;E £\ < 4S^ AS: ^TW m AW '} 

nahru - la - i - su - u khar - khar - ri dan - dan - ut 
river (?) Ms not a desert (?) vevy great 

me ina di - lu - u - ti 

uKiters loith buckets 

ummani u - sa - as - ki 

the army carried 

Reverse. 

Ki - i ki - bit Assur bil - ya ina 

Then the commatid of Assur my lord in 

^T-TTl^ ^EU fcII<^ ET Si-^H -- ^r< 

usni - ya ip - si va ka -bat- ti 

my ears heard (?) mind [liver) 



94 Historical Inscription of Esarltaddon. 

Gam - inal - li sa sarrani mat A- ri -bi 

Camels of the kings of Arabia 

-^H -£^i I -]}} mmmB'^ ^ -i< 

ka - li sun su - nu - ti 

all of thenn them 

Kas - pu kak - kar ma - lak — immi ina 
30 Kaspu of ground a journey 15 days in 

<T-IWgiSiii<MH<T* 

ar - di 
/ marched 

kas - pu kak- kar ina abni gab - e .... 

4 kaspu of ground with stones great (?) .... 

a - lik 
7 went 

kas - pu kak- kar ma - lak immi tsiru 

4 kaspu of ground a journey of two days snakes 

TT "^i^}^ mmm -^ ^ ^ 

kakkadi mu - ut - va 

with two heads death and 

0. c£l t?n ^TI El -]} ^^T -T<T^ V ^ V- 

ad - das - is va e - ti - ic kas - pu 

7 trampled on and crossed 4 kaspu 

kak- kar ma - lak 

of ground a journey 



Historical Inscription of Esarhaddon. 95 

7- V t"^ ^^ ^- ^- If mm V #« ^' 

sa zu - "lib - bu - bu .... — kas - pu 

of zuhhuhu 4 kasiou 

^^^ EI-JII TT^TT- 

kak - kar ma - lak — immi 
of ground a journey 2 days 

8. <m ^ ^. ^ ^ ty ^ y,]] ^y y.spg 

— kas - pu kak - kar ma - lak — immi .... 
15 kaspu of ground a journey 8 days .... 

<T--TT<T <Ts^ 

ar - di 
/ marched 

9- M <::]*! -II Ei- -IT!- -TT<i t^-s --r< 

Marcluk Bil-rabiT- u ri - zu - ti 

Marduk the great lord to the assistance 

il - lik 



cajne. 



10. 



u - [pal-] - lad mapisti ummani ya 

he saved the lives of my army 

« -^T T- ?? 

— immi 7 
10 days 7 

... ^yy y^ ^^yyy< [v .^ <::■] -^yiy^^^ 

istu mi - zir mat Mu - zur Ma - kan - nu 

from the border of the land of Egypt to Mahan 

12. Ci ]} ^T -xiy ET i^m 

ut -tu alu Ma - kan 
from t]ie city Mahan 



96 Historical Inscription of EsarlKuldon. 

13. <-- <^ ^.^yyy ^r< [«] ^ y^ c^ £^ 

mi - si - ildi - ti — kas - pu kak- kar 

a measui'ement of 20 haspu of ground 

<MT<T <\^ 

ar - di 
/ marched 

14. IP ^T ^jn 1 1{ -m <m er js^?t^ 

kak-qa - ru sii-a- tu ki -ma abni 

ground this like stones 

ki -ma tsip - ri 
like birds 

'«■ tSTI -^ < t^Id IeI 

da - mu - u sar - ku 

red and 

nis -nakir aq - zi a - iia 
enemy ea'tremc to 

19. --yy jry -y<yi^ 

alu is - ic 
the city 



Notes, 

LIKE 

1. \ Su is frequently used to denote plurality of time, as 

in the Black Obelisk; the reading of it is doubtful. 
8. Ina pi nisi ; literally, in the mouths of the people. 

iieb. rrc. 

10. Attuzir, I departed, to go forth ; ebir to cross, 
Heb. nnV. 



Historical Inscinjytion of Esarliaddon. 97 

LINE 

10. ^Tp?. The month Nisan was the first month of the 

Assyrian year. I have supplied this here as the tablet 
is worn; but I have little doubt of its correctness. 
This would be the first expedition of the year, pro- 
bably B.C. 672. 

11. Sipri, letters, from IQD to write. Probably letters of 

command over the Tyrian army. 

12. [Irakis, literally, bound round, denotes the incircling by 

the besieging army. Comp. Heb. 05"^ tied or fastened. 

18. Diluti, buckets. Heb. ')7'7 bucket. 

20. Gammal, a camel. Heb. T'D^. 

21. Malak, ix, journey, from alik 'to go.' Comp. Heb. '^^TyD 

a journey. 

33. Tsipri, fowls or bnds. Chald. "1p^ a bird. 

34. Damu, red, probably refers to the desert of the march. 

Comp. Heb. D'l, blood. 




TOL. IV 



98 



ON A UNIQUE SPECIMEN OF THE 
LISHANA SHEL IMRANI, 

The Modern Syriac or Targum Dialect of the Jews in Kurdistan and adja- 
cent Countries ; with an Account of the People by whom it is spoken. 

By The Rev. Albert Lowy. 

Head 4t7t May, 1875. 

In Kurdistan and in neighbouring Persian and Turkish 
possessions, comprising the countries which once were famed 
under the names of Media, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, 
and under minor designations, Jews continue to reside who, 
hke their Christian neighbours and probable kinsmen, have 
retained their identity and their ancient Semitic dialect, 
notwithstanding the constant oppression, or perhaps in con- 
sequence of the oppression, they had to endure. To those 
Jews it is my object to advert, in the present paper ; and it is 
my ardent desire to give an impulse to systematic researches 
that should be made into the Hving dialects of the Jewish 
and Christian people in those remote regions, which now 
possess a far greater interest for the student of civihsation 
than they could claim at any former age. At the same time, 
it is needless to point out how important it is to pursue an 
inquiry into the dialect of a people, which, since time out of 
mind, has remained in and about the territory where successful 
discoveries have disclosed the wondrous ruins of bygone 
empires, and where perennial and profitable studies might, 
and sliould be made of the idiom and habits, the household 
traditions and proverbs, the deep-rooted benedictions and 
maledictions, the popular songs, the recitations which mothers 
teach their children, and the various historical poems of a 



Spechyieri of the lAshana Shel Imrani. 99 

neglected and decaying population. Before treating of the 
linguistic specimen, to which I wish to direct attention (the 
specimen is a translation of the first chapter and of three 
verses of the second chapter of the Book of Genesis), I will 
reproduce a portion of the scanty information I have gathered, 
partly from viva voce communications and partly from the 
published statements of writers who have lived or travelled 
in Urmiah and in various parts of Kurdistan ; and as I have 
never set foot on countries beyond the limits of Europe, it 
moreover is my duty to mention how the subject of the 
present paper first came under my notice. 

In 1871, I was for some months, in daily communication 
with a Persian of a superior class, who gave me some curious 
information of the degraded and deplorable state of the Jews 
in his native country. From that time I remained more or 
less in frequent intercourse with natives of Persia. 

Two years later, when travelling ou the contment, I 
undertook, for reasons totally apart from the purpose of the 
present essay, to inquire into the condition of the Jews in 
Persia. I noted down many valuable facts communicated to 
me by honest and keen observers, among whom I mention, 
with especial acknowledgment. Dr. Polack of Vienna, who 
for many years had been physician to the former sovereign 
of Persia, and who fm-nislied me with many data supple- 
mentary to those which are contained in his highly in- 
teresting work on modern Persia. He corroborated the 
statements made by other travellers, that in the impenetrable 
Alpine mountains of Kurdistan, no less than in the plain of 
Urmiah, there are Jews who speak the language of the 
Targum, that is, the language in which the existing Chaldean 
paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures have been more or 
less faithfully preserved since ancient times. The number 
of Jews in the Persian and the Turkish dominions who 
speak the language of the Targum, or modern Syriac, is not 
ascertained. 

Dr. Grant, in his anxious search after the lost ten tribes, 
assumed that those Syrian Christians in Media and Assyria, 
who are known by the "name of Nestorians, may be computed 
as numbering about 200,000, and that the Jews scattered in 



100 Specimen of the Lishana Shel Jmrani. 

the same regions may be about 20,000 in nimiber ; but these 
figures are mere vague guesses, and are here named solely for 
the pm'pose of suggesting to future travellers in Kurdistan to 
do their utmost in order to obtain correct and trustworthy 
statistics. I may also mention here, that both the late Dr. 
Grant and the Rev, Justin Perkins, in their details concerning 
the Nestorians, assert that the Jews and Nestorians stand in 
fierce antagonism to each other ; whilst the Rev. Dr. Badger 
remarks that those two oppressed portions of the population 
live in concord with each other. The information I received 
fi-om natives of Persia confirmed Dr. Badger's statement ; but 
it is quite possible that among the indigenous multitudes the 
two contradictory statements may be found to be recon- 
cilable and comparatively correct. 

Many of the travellers in the land of the independent 
Nestorians (in Central Kurdistan) make mention of villages 
solely mhabited by Jews. Among such, for instance, may 
be mentioned the village of Sindor, near Amadieh, which, 
according to one of the Rev. Dr. Badger's informants, con- 
tained 360 Jewish families, whilst according to another 
person the number consisted only of 50 families. Near 
Bash-Kaloh, Mr. Layard found Jewish wandering shepherds, 
li\'ing in black tents, and tributary to the Turkish governor. 
They were unable to give an account of their history. Other 
Jews, poorer perhaps, were found to rove about as small 
traders, and as workers of golden trinkets which they 
remodelled for the ladies inhabiting the ]\Iahomedan harems. 

Ground down l^y the chiefs of Kurdish hordes and by 
irresponsible Turkish governors, the Jews and Chnstians 
share with each other a common levelling state of distress. 
Hence it happened very often to some uninitiated Syrian 
and foreign travellers that they did not know by the mere 
appearance, or by the vernacular idioms of the people, 
whether the natives whom they visited, and who spoke in a 
peculiar Syiiac dialect, were Jews or Christians. 

But this alleged identity of the Je\^'^sh and Nestorian 
idioms does not seem to be borne out by facts. The Rev. 
J. T. Stoddardt, a missionary at Urmiah, who wrote a useful 
gi-ammar of tiie modern Syriac language (published in 



Specimen of the Lisliana Shel Imraui. 101 

New Haven, U.S., 1852), states that he had designed to give, in 
an appendix to his grammar, an outline of the Jews' language 
as now spoken in the province of Urmiah. Unfortunately he 
desisted from this plan. Yet there can be no doubt, even if 
there were no other evidence, that the Jews in the Persian 
and Tui'kish highlands, tenaciously faithful to their ancient 
traditions, shrmking from marriages beyond the pale of then* 
own religion, and compelled by the professional robbers, the 
Kurds, always to be on the alert for the safety of their 
secluded hovels, have retained numerous usages and sayings 
which gradually became invested with irremovable sanctity, 
and which invite the student of the Semitic languages, or of 
Biblical and Judaic antiquities, to seek golden grauis of 
knowledge in those remote hiding-places of the Jews. 

By an extraordinary occurrence, of which, however, I 
could not sufficiently avail myself for philological purposes, I 
came in contact with a Persian Jew from Salmas, a district 
situated on the north-western side of the lake of Urmiah, and 
about two days' journey from the city of Urmiah. Although I 
had many interviews with that Persian, who is an extremely 
intelligent man, there were but few opportunities for digress- 
ing from the consideration of the main subjects which 
brought him to my house. 

When I first asked him what was the language spoken 
in his native place, he correctly told me that it was Turkish ; 
and as I am not acquainted with that language, our conversa- 
tions and correspondence were conducted in Hebrew, which 
he spoke and wrote with considerable fluency. One thing, 
however, struck me as characteristic of the native of the 
East who is under the necessity of travelling in the crowds 
of caravans, and whose language reflects this gregarious 
habit : he never said or wrote E-lecU ("[7^^) " I shall go," 
but always Ne-lech {"pi) "We shall go." This word was 
not used as the plural of self-sufficient dignity, but showed 
that the individual, as a member of a multitude, regards 
himself as a mere fractional \)dvt of the entire mass. 

Shortly before the departure of that native of nortli- 
western Persia he brought some of his Christian countrymen 



102 Specimen of the Lisliana Shel Jinrani. 

to my house. He did not converse with them in his native 
Tm-kish language, but in an idiom of which, notwithstanding 
its pecuhar guttural sounds, I could understand some few 
sentences, they being very much like those occurring in the 
Chaldean parapln-ases of the Bible (paraphrases which are 
generally familiar to a Jewish Hebraist). He then explained 
to me that in his intercourse with brother-Israelites of his 
native land he spoke a Targum language, and he added that it 
differs somewhat from the dialect in which he conversed with 
his Christian fellow-countrymen. He also stated that on 
Sabbaths, the Jewish congregations in his country read their 
weekly pericopes of the Mosaic Law in the synagogue (in 
accordance with an ancient Rabinical rule) b^'^p»2 D"'jU^ 
D1^")n ini^l that is, " tivice in the Scriptural te.vt, and once in the 
Targum^ First, they read the text in Hebrew, and then they 
translate it into their Chaldean vernacular ' for the purpose 
of impressing it on the memory of those who should under- 
stand the meaning of every word. They then read the text 
again in Hebrew. This Chaldean or Syriac Jewish dialect is 
called, according to my informant, the '^ilQ'^i^ "'tlj t^2'C?'^7 or 
" the fmrani language." I asked him for the derivation of the 
word Tmrani, l)ut he could only conjecturally state that it is 
connected ^vdtli Amram*, the father of Moses. It seemed to 
me at first that the word was misspelt, and that it was de- 
rived from imrah Tnt^i^ " speech," but it is more likely that 
imrdni signifies " inhabitant " or " native " The lishana shel 
imrdni would then be tantamount to a " vernacular language." 
The time being close at hand when my Pei'sian friend 
was about to depart, I was unable to obtain from him such 
information about liis dialect and domestic customs as I 
would fain hav.e desu*ed. I had therefore to content myself 
with the request that he should translate for me into his 
vernacular dialect the first chapter of Genesis and three verses 
of the second chapter (the latter relating to the institution of 
the Sabbath). As hitherto the Jews of Kurdistan, speaking 



' It should be ascertained whether this is really the case, or wlicther it 
is not the Targum of Onkelos which is read in Persian synagogues. 



Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. 103 

a modern Syriac dialect, have not been prevailed upon to 
commit their language to paper for the purpose of philo- 
logical inquiry, it is no exaggeration, if the specimen, placed 
before the Society of Biblical Archaiology, be described as 
unique; and I hope it will not continue to remain unique. 

I may observe, that the Jews in Persia, as in many other 
countries, write their vernacular in Hebrew characters, 
and, like the writers of other Semitic languages, they omit to 
note down the vowel points. I therefore asked this Persian 
translator, for obvious reasons, that the vowels be inserted 
in his manuscript. My obliging friend carefully added the 
vowel signs to the best of his ability, and forgot only here 
and there to mark the vowels. He then read to me a short 
passage of his version, and I found to my surprise that his 
vowels were of no use to me. He appeared to pronoiuice 
them with even more disregard to apparent rules than many 
of the English vowels are ordinarily pronounced. I there- 
fore transliterated the text into English characters in his 
presence and under his dictation. 

I now come to the translation itself. If compared with the 
modern Syriac version, printed in Urmiah, it presents constant 
and consistent differences, some of which are characteristic of 
the peculiarities in the various Chaldean or Aramean dialects, 
or are characteristic of the Jewish phraseology or of local 
Jewish versions, which in several details might be improved 
by learned .Jews in Urmiah or in some parts of Kurdistan ; 
for it is very obvious that the writer was frequently at fault 
both in his spelling and in the meaning assigned to some 
parts of the Hebrew text. I have reproduced the Jewish 
version without interfering with it m any way whatsoever, 
and it must suffice that a beginning has been made. 



104 Specimen of the Lishana Shel Lnrani. 



• T ; ■ .'V T T • 

Genesis 1. 
•.^■jbii n^^i^"} ^^""^ vrh^ «n^^ ""^^T? ^V^y^ i. 

n^pbD b^ ^yp^y\^ ]'^p^t<in-)3 ^n^i^ ^^\ ^y^^, 2. 

•'^i^ji'^p t^r^^D^'ir? -r^:? n^m (sic) rrh^^ «n^^ ^^^p 4. 

: «:]ty^3 n^n:Q"i mrvi n^n:a t^n^t^ 

- ; . • - t i - t •• • 1 • - : • 

-rn^^ av d : «i^ii^iD n^n'i'' rt^i'pn ^i'^ht "i^pir ""i^rT ^^^^n 
"^«n n^n^n ^7i^rp npnn n-^^st b^n^t^ ^^-r^i 7. 



Spechnen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. 105 

i^pi? ^n^riT ^m^ n''^^ npnn h^ t^ri^« '^^■^-^^p s. 
•'::tr^ dv d : nti^n^n n^^v i'^iapn ^n^ni 

••fc^JD ^'^'^'V9 ^^ «1^ b^^^^^") h^ ^rhvi, 'h:^y^\) 10. 
: «-)^D^t!r T^ ^ri^b^ ^Ipn^D '•nn'i'' ^^rp 

•"Tp ^t:^nt ^^.t *On^p) ^^n i^"^t>i ^^1 «ri^« ^")^r? n. 
n''^^ vi;'t<i ^t^'i'nt n''''.^ ^"hp^V ^^ ^^TP. n^-Ti^i<i i^TP 

^:^n; n^^^;'-:im *C?^P) ^'•"^^'i^ «")^ rii^^s 12. 
S« vi^fc:^ •'i^i^] n^"ii^ t^Tp (sic) -rp i^n'ip n^;i^a^^i 

J ^^-j^D^itir t;i ^n^iii ^^np v^itpii 

Dv h J itrii^^-in ni^v vp,":! ^n-^m i^pi? '•i^rr 13. 

* The translator subsequently substituted ^^^^ for ^^'^p. 



10(3 Specimen of the Lisltana Shel Tnirani. 

t^im n'hi^ ■'ii'i ^■:!n^2 ''^^n n^^« i^n^« 'hy) 16. 

: ^131^ n^'^b^i 'h^h^. 

b^ini n^i^i ^ni3^^ ^« ^Yh^!. ^^''^^ ^i'^'*"'? ^^ i^- 
:«1^D^^ t:i (sic) nn^t^ •'^^r^ t^5Xi>p n^n^n 

^i^^n-t Di*" D ti^^in-).^ n^nv i^topi ^n^rr i^pi? ^^;t 19. 

: ^}2X^ ^\^ ^PJ^p. ^'^^9 n-h^i^ «-}i<i n^^^« ^^i^iD 

•'jji^^ "iSi;) n^^i^') ^i"!"^ ^mji« rrh^^ «n^^* ^^^"^^n 21. 
^5-)D ^Vi3 rr^^si "ir^if; ^« ''^^^ "^i?>n? n^."^i5i ^i^D^i ^n^n 
t^^TQ^is;'' '^^A «n^« ^^T5 "^^i?*^ ^^^^^ "'^'PP- 

:n-)^in -^p^:: ^d^q "'nn;? '«^ n^^t^ ]')72'hv 
^^^72n DV D : n^tritD'p^ n^72v vtoppn ^n^rr "i^dv ^i^rr 23. 

n^nA ^b^ (?) ^n^n ^y^^^ n-)^ nl^^D i^n^^ n;rp 24. 



Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. lOT 

^;h^^ vn«:i h'^ i^*^« n«:: rrh^i^ ^rh^ ^Sti 25. 

^tt?i2 ]5i:j'? I'^T'^ \^^^ ^''^''^ ^"^^ TT^ ^n^^ 'T^ 26. 

:nn«ri (sie) ^i^ (sk) 1^1^?^^-, ^'iyiyy\ hyy^. 

t^n^« vii:i^ v^:?;.m ny^ (sic) n^b« «n^i^ '^'l';! 27. 
nb« 'Vl'^ ^Ol^T i^5ii^i rh^ h-^yi 

p-Tit ]inn;D t^n^^^ i^st n;q «n^« i^t^ '^^'T5 28. 
rTT\p^ v^] ri^^DDi )i\r>lD \rr\i net «^« n^^« Jip'^^n 

t^^^:? ^^iD n^^« pD'iS^ ^^i^n t^iin i^n^« n;^ 29. 
X\:h^ ^^r\\ nn t^ivp nhp^^ rn^si n^^.^^ «ivp ^^"i^ 

^;tr;-) 'h^':h^ ^^;^ n^D^Q ■iSi::^.i. n^i.b^ rv'^ ^^i3 ^« 30. 
i«^;:p^Q hs^ rvh^ «n^^:D «:«:3 vr^ n:^b^ n"i« n\^i< 

i^^^D^iir t^iiri hy^ n^"!^ ^^.i^ n^St<t ^nS« ••^n:: 31. 



108 Specimen of the Lishana Slid Imrani. 

Chapter II. 

tt^nn*'^ m iSi^ rryyf] ^^^iz? iSi3 i. 

•»Sti n'':i^ vn^2''p «nt;r^i^ n^pvi «riS« 'h?^'?^ 2. 
i^^Ti n^^t>> vn^^'p i^lDQ ^<nur"i« n^^'i^'n ^^^;i^n 

rhy^ ^'^^'Ti? t^ntri^ •'^^^ ^^nv nh^ «riS« ''^^"i^n 3. 

: ii?-np nn^z^ n^r^v pnt^ n^« : «ii^i<> 



Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. 109 



Genesis I. 

1. Me-re-sha he-re-le el-ha a-let slii-me ve-a-let 

I I II II 

a-ra. 

2. Ve-a-Q^a ve-ld cha-rdht che-rab-estan ve-chesh-ka 

II I II I 

el ^''sal-met chd-ra-bi qood-shoo-let el-ha ma-jeb-iva al 
II III 

*sal-met mdw-e. 
I I 

3. Me-re el-ha he-vi he-che-ra ve-ha-vl be-cM-ra. 

I ill II 

4. Che-ze-le el-hd a-let be-che-ra gid shpi-ra 

me-jeb-le el-ha be-gd-ivat bech-rd u-be-gd-wat chesh-Jca. 
I III II 

5. Qe-re-le el-ha el be-che-ra be-yoy-ma ve-el 

III I 

chesh-Jca qe-re-le ba-le-le, he-wi dw-ser ve-he-vi 
I I I I I I 

ba-qat-yoy yoy-met choy-she-ba. 
I I I 

6. Me-re el-ha he-vi ta-bd-qa be-ga-vet mo-e 

ve-he-vi ma-jd-be be-ga-vet mo-e la-mo-e. 
Ill I 

7. Ved-le el-ha d-let ta-bd-qa me-jeb-le be-ga-vet 

III I ' I 

md-e a-yet men-tu-ket td-ba-qe be-ga-wet mo-e a-yet 
I I I ' I II 

lel-ya men-ta-ba-qa ve-le hdt-cha. 

* The s in sahnet sounds like ih in the. 



110 Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. 

8. Qe-re-le el-ha el tcib-hd-qd a-yet sliim-me 

III II 

ve-hevi div-ser ve-he-vt ha-qat-yoy yoy-met ti-ru-shch. 

I I I 

9. Me-re el-ha ha-dhe-ru nio-e men-tu-ket she-me 

I II II 

el ttt-ka cha chezt vi-shu-la he-vi hdt-cha. 
I II II 

10. Qe-re-le el-ha el vi-shu-la a-ia el meq-roy-ve 
I I I I I 

md-e qe-re-le yoy-ma-ve che-ze el-ha gid shpi-ra. 



I I 



11. Me-re el-ha he-It d-ra he-It gel-la ze-ri 

I III I I 

ze-ro-e ; stve one-da i-va-dat me-da el shiq-lev d-yat 
III I I II 

ze-ro-e e-hev elet a-ra ve-la had-chaw. 
I I I I 

12. Fe-litt d-ra ho-da-rat gel-la men-zdr-yd-net 

II I I II 

zer-ya-nach el hu-ta-qet si-ica wut meda a-yet za-ro-e 
I II III 

e-hev al hu-ta-qev che-ze-le el-ha gid shjn-ra. 
I III 

13. He-vi dw-ser ve-he-vi ha-qat-yoy yoy-met 

II II ' I ' I 

te-la-wil-sheh. 
I 

1 4. Me-7'e el-ha he-vi meh-choy-re he-ta-ha-qa ay 

I I I I I 

she-me el ma-joy-he hc-ga-vet yoy-md ivii-he-gd-vet le-U. 
Ill II 

ve-lu el o-ni el eld-ve el yoy-ma-ve ve-el she-ne. 
I I ' I i 

15. Ve-lu mah-he-ri-va he-ta-ha-qe ayt shc-oiie el 

III I 

mah-choy-re a-let a-ra ve-le liat-cliaw. 



I I I I 



Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. Ill 

16. Ved-le el-hcl d-let te-re he-che-re ru-ve a-lat 

I II II II 

he-che-ra ru-va el mam-loy-he yoy-ma ve-a-ht bc- 
I I i I I I 

che-ra zoy-ra el mam-loy-he ha-le-le ve-a-let cdch-ve. 
I I I I I 

17. He-vel-U a-lu el-ha he-ta-ha-qa ay she-me 

I II ( 

he-che-rd el a-ra. 
I I 

18. El pa-ro-qe hc-yoy-ma ivu-ha-le-le el ajoy-he 

I I 

he-ga-vet he-clie-ra be-ga-vet chesh-ka che-ze-le elha gid 
II I II 

slipi-7Xt. 

19. Ve-le aw-ser ve-le ba-qat-yoy yoy-7net arbu-sheb. 

I III 

20. Me-re el-ha pe-ru-shun mdw-e j^e-o^u-she ga-na 

chay-ta ; jjar-clia paro-che d-let a-ra e-let ^^ sal-met 
II I I I I 

par-da-qa ay she-me. 
I I 

21. Be-7^e-le el-hd a-let ash-do-he ru-ive ve-d-let 

I 11 II I 

hil-lu gd-na cha-yt-taw rach-sha-ne a-yet pa-ru-she 
III II I 

md-e el-qa-no-tu a-let ku-le p>ar-che qa-na-tav a-lH 

II II 

shlq-lev che-ze-le el-hd gid shpl-rd. 
I I 

22. Be-rech-le a-lu el-hd el i-ma-ra je-ri-mwi 

I III 

zu-dun me-li-mun a-let maw-e ba-ya-ma-we ; pdr-che 
I III I 

hoy-shi ba-a-ra, 
I I 

* s like ih in the. 



112 Specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani. 

23. He-ivi aw-ser he-vi ha-qat-yoy yoy-met 

II II 

cliam-shu-sheb. 

24. Me-re el-ha pc-lut a-ra ga-na cha-yl-taw 

I I I I I 

el-ga-het qen-ya-na rach-sha-ne he-cha-vu-e a-ra 
I I III 

el-ga-iuat ve-le het-cha; 

I I I 

25. Ved-le el-ha a-let cha-ah a-ra al ga-hav ve-d-lat 

I I 11 II 

ken-ya-ne el ga-hav ve-a-let kit-le rach-shc a-ra el 
I I I I i I 

ga-hav che-ze-le el-hd gid shjyi-ra. 
Ill I 

26. M6-re el-ha oy-den a-dam ma-goyn shik-lan 

I I I I I I 

ma-goy-ndn koy-sh he-mathiet ya-ma he-par-chat she- 

me. Ba-qen-ya-ne he-kii-le a-ra he-kii-le rach-sha-ne 
I III I 

rach-shi al ha-arah (sic). 
I I 

27. Be-re-le el-hd d-let adam he-shik-lev ma-goy-nev 

I III I I 

el-Jm he-re-le a-lev he-roy-na uv'-rd-ta he-re-le a-lii. 

II I II 

28. Be-rech-le a-loy el-ha me-re e-lil el-ha fe-ri-mun 

I I III II 

zu-dun me-U-mun a-let a-ra zaft vudun kii-shun he- 
I III I 

"'mas-iet yd-ma he-par-chet she-me he-kii-le cha-ah 

II i I 

rach-sha-ne a-let a-ra. 
I I I 

29. Me-re el-ha hav-na he-ve-li e-lo-chun a-lat kii-U 

I 11 I I I I 

* s like th in the. 



Specimen of the Lisliana Shel Inircmi. 113 

gel-la ze-rial za-ivye a-yet al '''sal-7net kU-la a-ra; vd-let 
I III I III 

kii-la si-'iva a-yet e-hev sheq-let si-iua ze-ri za-ro-e 
II I I 

a-le-chun ha-v6h ali-cha-la. 
Ill I 

30. Al kii-le cha-at a-ra wel-kii-lil par-chat sho-me 

III I I 

vel-kii-lu raxih-sha-ne a-yet a-ra ehev ga-na cha-yi-ta 
I I I I I I 

a-lat hU-le pal-ta-na ge-ld el ichd-ld ve-le hat-chd. 
I I I I I I 

31. Che-ze-le el-hd d-let hil-le a-yet ved-le liav-na 

I I I 

shpi-ra me-chad; ve-le aiv-ser ve-le ba-qat-yoy yoy-met 
I III I I I 

a-roy-ta. 



Genesis II. 
1. Kil-lu she-me vd-a-ra ku-lil mat-it-wa. 



I I 



2. Per-eq-U el-hd he-yoy-met ush-va se-ne-tev a-yet 

I II I II 

ved-le; he-7ie-le he-yoy-met ush-va me-ku-lu se-ne-tev 
I I I I I 

a-yet ved-le. 
I I 

3. Be-rech-le el-hd d-let yoy-ma ay ush-va 

I I I 

Jca-dish-le a-lev gid e-hev sha-hat me-kli-lu se-ne-tev 

a-yet he-re-le el-hd dl-iva-daiv. 
■ I II 

* s like th ill the. 
Vol. IV. 8 



114 Specimen oj the Lisliana Shel Jinrani. 



Notes. 

1. The syllables in the transliteration are divided by 

hyphens. The syllable which has the main accent of 
a word is marked by a small perpendicular stroke ( • )• 
In some cases when the accentuation of the translator 
indefinitely varied in recurring words, I did not lay 
down my own rule, but marked the accent according 
to each case of pronunciation. 

2. The vowels a, e, i, o, u, are sounded as in German or 

Italian ; il sounds as in the German Hiitte. 

3. The accents placed over the vowels have the same force 

as the corresponding French accents. 

4. When a has the sound of aw in awful, it is accompanied 

by a ?t>, for example maw-e ("water"). Consistently 
with the change of a into aw, the ancient Targumists 
(Onkelos, &c.) and the Ai-abic writers present the 
double spelling >'yo, and t^^^, ^ and ^\^., Tlie 
transition, on the one hand, of a into o, and, on the 
other hand, of a into e or h explains an endless nimiber 
of difficulties and apparent anomalies in Hebrew and 
the cognate languages. Compare for instance the 
radical of the first word in Genesis ^dth its various 
forms in Hebrew and in the kindred dialects. In this 
mutability of sound is to be discovered the true 
cause of the sliding of the « (t or Kametz gadol) into 
that of 6 (-f or Kametz chatoph). 

5. The e is equal to an audible sheva ( : ) in Hebrew words. 

The translator in using the mark of sheva, the lower 
point of which he always placed 45 degrees to the 
left, merely intended to denote his inabiHty to assign 
the proper vowel sound to the respective word, and 
often he omitted altogether the vowel mark. 



Specimen of the JAshana Sliel Jinraid. 115 

6. h^ Aieph, as a final letter, is sounded softly, differing- in 

this respect from a he final. 

7. 1 Beth, influenced by a preceding vowel, assumes the 

sound of vaic (l), with which it often interchanges ; 
f.e. I, 3, 'in^'H he-vi " let there be." The softening of 
the 1 is perceptible even after the efiicient preceding 
vowel has been dropped ; f.e. Ved-le chl^y) " he 
made," is derived fi-om n"'711V- This 1 often 
turns in the modern Syriac dialect into \ for which 
numerous instances may be found in Stoddart's 
"Modern Syriac Grammar" and in Noldeke's 
'Neusyrische Grammatik." See also I, 26, the third 
word. 

8. ^ Gimel has a guttural pronunciation. AVhen ;i bears a 

dot at the top (jj) it is pronounced like J in Jew. 

9. 1 Daleth as a final letter is subject to elision; f.e. cho 

in chosheba I, 5, is derived from in "one." In 
regard to sheba or sheb, see note 19. 

10. pf He gives to the preceding vowel a hard sound. It is 
liable to turn into n. See note 13. 

11.1 Vaio. Its normal sound is a shade between v and w, 
but it imperceptibly assumes the sound of v, by which 
it is generally represented in the transliteration. 

12. t Zayin sounds like tli in ther^e. 'S'VXn " let there be 

gathered" in I, 9, is transliterated ''^hadlieror 

13. n Clxetli is not distinguished from the guttural sound 

of the 2, by which it is therefore frequently replaced. 

n is used as a harsh substitute of the n occurring 
hi the writings of the modern Syrian Christians, 
as for instance niPl''!! " hght," instead of mn^Il. 
This n, as a sonant, stands midway between n and 
the thickly pronounced guttural p. Thus it happens 
that ini "lustrous," passing in the Jewish pronuncia- 
tion through the stage of IPQ, reappears in the 
Hebrew word IpS. boqer " morning " or " lustrous " 
period of the day. 



IIG Specimen of the JJsIiana Shel Jinvani. 

14. t^ Tetli is a palatal sound, the utterance of which is 

difficult for Europeans, it being pronounced by the 
tip of the tongue being turned back towards the roof 
of the mouth. It occurs in baqtlo " morning." 

15. "^ Yod, often a mater lectionis of the ^, does not protect 

this vowel from sounding indistinctly as a shade 
between e in pet and i in pit. 

16. D Kaph replaces the H in many instances, and has, as in 

Hebrew, the sounds both of ch and k ; for instance ^^^tT^ 
(cheshka), ecpial to the Hebrew "^tppl " darkness." 

17. 7 Lamed is used as an accusatival demonstrative with 

prefixed Alepli. Before feminine nouns this 7i^ 
receives the suffix it. See il^7h^, I, 1. This com- 
bination is a prolific source of pronominal forms in 
various Semitic dialects. 7^^ (a/) as a sign of the 
accusative case may have passed from an accusatival 
to a nomitival signification, as has happened in various 
Arian languages, and here perhaps may be found the 
true origin of the Arabic definite article. 

18. D Samech is often sounded like th in "thither." n?27D 

"visage" ( = image) is pronounced thalmat. The D 
replaces the !J in the word just named. Another 
instance of such replacement occurs in "^DV "evening," 
which the modern Sp'ian derives from the same radical 
as the Hebrew verb '')'^^ " to withhold " or " to re- 
strain." The light of the sun being withdrawn or 
witlilield at the decline of the day. 

1[). ^ Ai/in differs by a thickness of sound from the simple 
breathing of the A leph. It gives way to ^^ or n iu 
^"1i^ or n*^^ " earth " ; or vanishes altogether as in 
nil?")3 instead of «nU?i:: (^2 " one," and 1^^ or 
i^y^, from yy^ "seven"), t^l';!^'):! thus denotes 
one (day) of the hebdomas, or "first day of the 
week." 

20. Q P^ varies in sound just as in Hebrew. It is pronounced 
like 79 in 1, 12, pcliit " let go forth." (This word seems 
identical with t^''7D "a runaway." Compare also 



Specimen of the Lishana Sliel Iinvani. 117 

the Italian fuoruscito). It sounds like / in ferimun 
" be fruitftil." 

21. !J Tsaddi is a sharp kind of s. Its sound is in no case 

akm to the modern Jewish pronunciation of the 
Tsaddi. See D, No. 18. 

22. p Kuph is expressed by g, and has a deep guttural 

sound somewhat resemblmg the French r grasseye. 
Its rough gargling sound cannot be easily represented 
by the pen. 

23. "1 liesh, when a final radical, absorbs the suffixed 7 of the 

third person singular past tense. For example, in- 
stead of using the form '^7"''^^ merele ("the saying 
belonged to him,^' i.e., " he said "), the lamed disappears, 
and the simple form "il^?2 (" he said ") is used. See I, 3. 

24. 1^} Skin somids always sh. 

25. il Taw stands for t only. It is the common sign of the 

feminine gender. 

The conflux of Persian, Arabic, and Turanian with purely 
Syriac words, marks the phases of national convulsions arising 
from successive invasions and conquests. Yet the Hebraic 
element preponderates. The lexicographer will notice that 
the untutored Persian Jew ingeniously explains various 
etymological difficulties. The Hebrew 12"'^7 is rendered by 
Shiqlev "its image." Thus V^72 becomes clearly connected 
with the enlarged vocable njl^ri a "likeness," or "form." 
The word gelah " grass," may help to give a more natural 
signification to the sentence n^llJHin illi^Q^ h'^^ " the 
hills gird themselves with verdure.^' (Psalm Ixv, 13) 

All further remarks must be left to a future emendation 
of the foregoing Syriac version. 




118 



ANCIENT METROLOGY. 
By Francis Roubiliac Coxder, C.E. 

Bead \st June, 1875. 

The Jewish law treats, Avith extreme precision, the 
questions of measurement, number, and weight. Exactitude 
in these matters was regarded as essential; both as affecting 
civil rights and as demanded by religious duty. ]\Iinute 
questions as to dower, marriage portions, alimony, inheritance, 
and distribution of alms, were decided according to the value 
of a detailed monetary system. The religious observances by 
which the agriculturist was bound were regulated by a very 
precise system of land measure. The precise quantities of 
meal, oil, and wine that were to accompany each different 
class of sacrifice were prescribed by law; and were verified 
by standard measures of capacity kept in the Tem})le.' 
Standard measures of length were also there preserved.^ 
The entire system of measure, weight, and value was based 
upon the language of the Pentateuch, and its maintenance 
was thus a portion of religion. 

In face of the full body of information wdiich the records 
and the monuments of Jewish history offer to the research 
of the patient student, what is the state of om- actual know- 
ledge of the subject? 

The most positive English wiiter (before the publication 
of the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem) who has treated of 
Hebrew linear measure tells us ^ that " according to the 
rabbis" there were three Jewish cubits, of 15, 18, and 21 
inches respectively. It unfortunately happens that not one 
of the three dimensions quoted is either a HebreAv measure 
or an alii^uot part of a Hebrew measure. Further, Mr. 
Fergusson observes, that we know "for certain that Hecateus 

' Min<hoth ix, 1. - De Yasis, xvii, 9. 

* FtTgUBSon's " ITolv Sppulclirc," p. 80. 



Ancient MetroUxjij. 110 

and Josepliiis were using the Greek cubit of 18 inches," and 
that " for all these Temple measurements they used the 
cubit of 18 inches, and that only." This is in contradiction 
of the Bible, as well as to the Mishna, and is further inaccu- 
rate even as regards Grecian measures. 

The latest and ablest English writers on Hebrew weights 
estimate the shekel at 220 troy grains.^ 1'h^y imagine that 
three separate talents, regarded as measures of weight, 
existed at the same time, respectively applicable to gold, 
silver, and copper. Of these, they state that the gold talent, 
notwithstanding the greater intrinsic value of the metal, 
was double the weight of the silver talent. And they 
overlook the fact that their estimate of the copper talent is 
inconsistent with the plain language of the Pentateuch.^ 

The costly Bible Dictionary contains the admission of the 
writer of the article on Jewish measures, of his inabihty to 
decide, as he says, between Josephus and " the Rabbinists." 
It gives two estimates of the contents of the Epha, one of 
which is double the other. What the writer should have 
said is, that he was unaware of the existence of sources of 
positive information in the Talmud, and its great commenta- 
tor; and that the approximate determinations of capacity 
to be found m Josephus are utterly worthless, inasmuch as 
five distinct passages exist which are completely discordant 
among themselves. 

AVith regard to land measure, the outcome of our present 
information is indicated by the fact that the statements of 
the Book of EzechieP are thought to involve such enormous 
areas as to be either mcredible or unintelligible. 

It follows that there is ample room for a scientific and 
authoritative resume of the information, as to Hebrew mea- 
sures, that is to be recovered from Hebrew literature, and 
verified by existing monuments, monetary or architectural. 

It is true that we can nowhere find a statement as to the 
bases of this ancient system of metrology, such as that 
which would be drawn up by modern engineers. Details 

' .\rad(len's Jewish Coinage, p. 286. - EsoJ. xxxviii, 2!1. 

^ Ezecli. xlii, 16 ; xlv, 1-7. " Atlienseum," No. 2459. 



120 Ancient Metrology. 

and indications are to be sought, where they occur, broadcast 
in the Tahnud and in the Bible. But these references, when 
collected, are both numerous and minute. Their accuracy is 
vouched by the extreme reverence paid, by the Jewish sages, 
alike to the written and unwritten Law. Precision in these 
details was an element of daily life in Palestine ; and tlie 
comparison of literary with monumental evidence leaves no 
doubt as to the accuracy of our determinations. 

The general field of metrology may be naturally divided 
into the provinces of linear dimension, whether simple, 
square, or cubic ; weight, which is intimately connected, 
through monetary denominations, with value ; and time. 
As to the last, 1 shall not now attempt to do more than call 
attention to the general unity of fonn that becomes apparent 
in the arrangement of these three independent branches of 
ancient study. 

The general outline of that most ancient metrical system 
into which we are now inquiring is as follows : The primary 
linear dimensions are taken from the proportions of the 
human body, and are denoted by corresponding names. But 
the fixity of standard is mamtained by a reference to the 
length, capacity, or weight of some natural product of organic 
life, the average value of which was regarded as stable. In 
linear dimensions this check or means of verification is the 
barley-corn. In capacity it is the hen's egg.^ In weight- it is 
the barley-corn. 

Two steps are thus necessary before we can speak 
with certitude as to the basis of Hebrew measm*es. We 
must ascertain the average value of the units, or rather 
measures of verification, prescribed ; and we must discover 
whether such value is unchanged, as referred to the ancient 
value. 

When those bases are laid down, the remainder of the task 
will be comparatively simple. The divisions, and multiples, 
of the units of measurement are similarly arrived at in all 
the (liftV'rent scales, or tables of value. 

The barley-corn is the nominal unit of Englisii long 
measure. Since tlie time when that scale was determined, 

' Buxlurff, Lex. Ilcb. voce y\^, - Maimonides, Coiistit. De Siclis, 1, 2. 



A ncien t Metrology. 121 

the actual length of the average grain has not altered. The 
inch still accords with the length of three central divisions 
of a well-groAvn ear of barley. The measurement is more 
readily made thus in the ear itself, than by placing the 
naked grains end to end. 

There is adequate reason to conclude that our long 
measure barley-corn is historically identical with that of the 
Chaldean scale. The setting out of the rock-scarps, width 
of piers, and other original work, of the noble Sanctuary at 
Jerusalem, is exactly commensurate with English inches. 
We may refer to the span of each of the two great 
bridges from the Temple to the City ; to the piers and 
recesses at the tiiple gate ; and to the piers of the gallery 
under the Chel, to the north of the existing platform of the 
dome of the rock,' as good examples of that accordance. 
And the entire plan of the noble Sanctuary, as drawn by the 
Royal Engineers on a scale of -^-^, is so exactly spaced out 
by a- modulus based on this commensurate length,^ that it 
would seem to have been actually plotted on the paper on 
that scale. 

Two barley-corns, we learn from the Rabbinical writers, 
made a digit ; four digits a palm ; ^ five palms a small cubit 
and six palms an ordinary cubit. There was also a third, or 
sacred cubit, the proportion of which is recorded in the Book 
of Ezekiel,^ as one-twelfth greater than the ordinary dimen- 
sion ; the reed used to describe the measurements of the 
Temple being 6^ ordinary cubits long. 

We thus arrive at the artificer's cubit of 13|- inches ; the 
surveyor's and builder's cubit of 16 inches; and the Temple 
cubit of 11^ inches; all precise equivalents of those English 
dimensions. 

The length of the unit of linear measure once determined, 
square measure becomes only a question of tabulation. I 
propose to exhibit the various scales synoptically. It is, 
therefore, only necessary here to say, that the satum or unit 

' In plans No. 23-27 of Palestine Exploration Fund, and Ordnance Survey 
of Jerusalem, ^i^j. 

2 "Edinburgh Review," No. 279, p. 28. 

^ Le Talmud de Baliylon. Par I'Abbe Cliiarini, p. 22 1-. ■• Ezecli. xl, 5. 



122 Ancient Metrology. 

of area, of 50 cubits square, was taken from the size of the 
Court of the Tabernacle, which covered two sata of ground.' 
Three sata form a zemeed; and 30 sata, a kor, the largest 
land measure mentioned in the Talmud, which contained 
I5-06 English acres. 

The Priests' Court of the Temple (including the Court of 
the Holy House itself) covered, according to the dimensions 
given in the Book of Ezechiel, eight sata, or four times the area 
of the Court of the Tabernacle. The second Court, within 
the chviphactos, of 500 cubits on a side, as stated in the 
]\Iishna, covered 100 sata. The fortress wall, according to 
the Ordnance plans, enclosed an area of 100 koin, measured 
l)j the 104-inch reed.- 

The oblation of land, mentioned in the same prophetic book, 
was composed of 100,000 Iwi, destmed to the support of the 
Temple; an equal area allotted to that of the Priests; and 
50,000 kori attributed to the Prince. The total area of a 
(juarter of a million of korP amounts to rather less than a 
tenth part of Palestine, if we reckoji the district east of 
Jordan as equal to half the area of Judea. Thus this hitherto 
obscure passage, which has been the stumbling block of 
theologians, inchoates the plan of a commutation of tithe for 
glebe ; or is, at all events, in accordance with such a substi- 
tution. 

The satujn and the /or recur as measures of caj)acity. 
The only direct measurement, in linear terms, of a unit of 
capacity, is that given by ]\Iaimonides ; in which, however. 
he uses the pollex, Avhich is an undetermined width. AW- 
are thus driven back to the standard of verification, the egg.' 
A series of measurements of full-sized hen's eggs, gives a 
capacity of 4 cuhlc inches, as an average. This is very rarely 
exceeded by as much as five per cent. There is an obvious 
convenience in adopting so simple a unit of capacity. We 
shall return to the check upon this determmation which 
is afforded by weiglit. Taking the egg at 4 indies, 
the ioii or twelftli part of the Jdit, contains 24 cubit incites. 

' De Anno Scptimo, 1, 3. Bsiba Bathra, tu, 1. 

" Ezech. xlii, 20, cJ. Middutli, ii, 1. Ordnance Survey, t-,V(T- 

^ K/.ecIi. xlv, J. ' De Angulo, i, 6. 



Ancient Metrolo(jii. 12H 

The hin, 288 (or 1"0198 gallons) ; and the epha, as a dry 
measure, and the hath, the equivalent liquid measure, exactly 
a cubic foot. Thus the kor, as a measure of capacity, is the 
equivalent of ten cubic EngHsh feet, or "993 of a quarter. 

We thus arrive at the consideration of the system of 
weight. 

The inquiry here becomes simple. It is clear from the 
Book of Exodus,^ that the shekel or unit of weight there 
employed, was the 3000th part of a larger dimension, called 
the ciccar ; which we usually tianslate talent. And it is 
deducible from the Mishna, and is plainly stated by Maimo- 
nides^ that the shekel itself was of the weight of 320 
grains of barley. 

If we repeat, as to the weight of the barley-corn, the 
investigation before entered on as to its length, we arrive at 
a corresponding result. The full-weight barley-corn of the 
present day, weighed in the time of harvest, is still the 
equivalent of the troy grain. 

Nor is monumental verification absent. The Hebrew 
talent, according to the Bible and the Mishna, weighed 
960,000 grains. A Babylonian talent, at the British Museum 
(the individual out of twenty-three specimens of weights 
which is in the most perfect condition), actually weighs 
959,040 tro]/ grains;^ or within one per mille of the proper 
weight. 

I am unaware of any valid reason for concluding that 
there were diiferent talents, considered as weights, for gold, 
silver, and copper. A single passage of Josephus has been 
rehed on as indicating that such w^as the case. But the 
statements of this great historian, as now found in the text, 
as to numbers, are so self-contradictory that they have no 
critical value. Analogy would point out that if any differ- 
ence of system really existed, the more precious metals 
would be measured by the smaller, and not by the larger 
scale. But the gold pieces mentioned in the Bible are 
usually spoken of simply as aurei, and reckoned by tale.* In 
one or two places the expression "golden shekel" is em- 

' Exod. xxxviii, 25. - Constit. De Sk-lis, 1, 2. 

^ Madden's Jewish Coinage, p. 260. ■• Judges viii, 2(5. 



124 Ancient Meirology. 

ployed in the Bible ; ^ in one or two places the " golden 
denarius " is mentioned in the Talmud ; where it is stated 
to be of the value of 25 silver dinars.- This would make the 
aureus, before the Captivity, to weigh 106|- grauis troy, the 
coin being almost exactly the same size of the garmes, or 
sixth part of the shekel. 

As to the introduction of a new silver unit, the " sela," of 
384 grains weight, or one-fifth more than the shekel, after 
the Captivity; the relation of that coin to the Persian daric ; 
the relation of the systems of gold, silver, and copper coins, 
both on the shekel and sela system ; the legalisation, late in 
the course of history, of the half-righia, or three-eighth part 
of a shekel, for the annual Temple tax ; the actual existence, 
in the Sicilian currency, of the equivalents of the shekel, 
the beka, the sela, and the maah ; and the identification of 
the existing Jewish coins, — I propose to make a detailed 
communication at a future time to the Society. 

I return to the verification of the measures of capacity 
by weight. Rabbi David,^ the sixth from Maimonides, in his 
comment on the determinations given by that writer, states 
the weight of the quartarius, or quarter log, of water, at 
twenty-five drachms. If these are the drachms of the 
apothecary, the log measure should contain 6,000 troy grains 
of water. Twenty-four cubic inches of water, at the tempera- 
tm-e of 113° Fahrenheit, weigh 6,000 troy grains. This tem- 
perature is within two degrees of the mean of boiling* and 
freezing water. The calculation considers the water to be 
pure. If the water of the Euphrates or the Nile were 
employed, it is possible that the result would be yet more 
accurate. But as it is, it is so close as to leave little room for 
doubt that the ancient measures of capacity were linked to 
those of linear magnitude in the mode I have described. 

We have thus seen what were the units of the systems 
of ancient Plebrew measures in length, in area, in capacity, 
and in weight. We have determined the actual value of 
eacli of these units in dimensions of the English scale ; and 

' Genesis xxiv, 22. - Kctuba ii, 2. 3 Tract Peah, 3, fi. 

* Tlie mean arrivi'd at bv mixture of equal loeights is 1:^2°. Tliat obtained 
by mixtxn'c of equal bidks is 111 '1. 



Ancient Metrology. 



U5 



we have indicated the relation existing between length, 
capacity, and weight. 

It remains to speak of the tabulation, or system of 
division into aliquot parts, that was common to all the 
dimensions. 

Each unit, or primary division, appears to have been 
divided by two, by three, and by five. Subdivision, chiefly 
by two, was also carried to a very minute extent. In every 
denomination there exists a corresponding unit, which M^ould 
at once take its rank as the basis of the scale, but for the 
fact that it is not a term in the quinary or denary divisions. 
It is not the salum which is divided into ten parts but 
the wpha or 3 sata. The oqiha is both divided and multiplied 
by ten ; the smaller dimension being the omer, and the 
larger the korus. 

This larger dimension we find under the same name in 
measures of capacity and of area. The horus of 30 sata is a 
land measure ; the korus of 30 sata is a measure of capacity ; 
the tirtemar or maneh is a weight of 30 shekels. The half 
lihra^ in Roman measures, is equal to 10 solidi or 120 denarii. 
The oeplia and the solidus are the only two names known as 
those equivalents in the scale, but they form members of a 
symmetric system. 

The division of the second dimension, cubit, satum, or 
siclus, by 6, is a feature of all the Hebrew scales. It does 
not occur in the Roman or Sicilian systems. 

The correspondence of the other aliquot parts of each 
unit of dimension can be seen from the annexed table. 



Tables of Hebreic and Chaldean Measures. 
LONG MEASURE. 



2 Barley 


Corns 


Digit 


1 Inches 


8 „ 


)) 


Palm 


2| J, 


40 „ 


)) 


Ai-tificers' Cubit .... 


13* „ 


48 „ 


)' 


Laud Cubit 


16 „ 


52 „ 


55 


Sacred Cubit 


17^ „ 



l-2(] 



. 1 iirietit Metro/uiji/. 
SQUARE MEASURE. 



104-15 Cubits 


Rebah 


416-6 


J) 


Cabus 


2,500 


)> 


Saturn 


7,500 


»j 


Zemeed 


75,000 


?) 


Kw 



! 

20-5 


Sq. Yds. 


2-67 


Poles 


16-32 


5J 


•306 Acre 


3-06 


5? 



CUBIC MEASURE. 



24 


Cubic Inches 


Log 


•675 Pint 


96 


?) 




Cabus 


-675 Quart 


288 


)5 




Hiu 


1-0128 Galiou 


576 


)) 




Saturn 


2-0385 „ 


1,728 


») 




Ephah 


6-2355 „ 


172-8 


') 




Omer 


2-494 Quart 


17,280 


)) 




Kor 


•993 Quarter 



SHEKEL SYSTEM. — SILVER. 



Weight 








40 Troy 


Grains 


Octave 




53i „ 




Garmes 




80 „ 




Zuza 




120 „ 




Half Righia 




160 „ 




Beka 


Half Ducat 


240 „ 




Kighia 




320 „ 




Shekel 


Ducat (Neapoiitau) 



SELA SYSTEM. — SILVER. 



Weight. 






48 Troy Grains 


Octave 




^'* J) j> 


Garmes 




96 „ 


Dinar 




^^ )) » 


Half Righia 




192 „ „ 


Thebah 


Six-Carlino Piece 


288 „ 


Righia 




384 „ 


Sela 


Piastre (Neapolitan) 



A iicient Meti'oloiii/. 



127 



SELA SYSTEM.— COPPEE. 





Weight. 




About 20 


Troy 


Grains .... 


Prutha 


„ 53i 






Shemuu 


„ 1061 






Hanitz 


„ 213i 






Hadres 


„ 40 






Koutrinek 


„ 80 






Musmes 


„ 160 






Assarion 


„ 320 






Pondion 


„ 640 






As^jer 



Tlie traces of these ancient systems are to be found in the 
irregularity of our various tables of dimension. 

In linear measure the foot has proved a more convenient 
measure than the cubit, but has preserved its commensurate 
relation, and its natural base of the barley-corn. 

In capacity, the gallon is very closely approximate to the 
hill. But the exactitude of relation between hnear and 
cubic measures has been lost. 

In weight, we preserve the grains ; and the same relation 
exists between the shekel and troy ounce that obtains 
between the foot and cubit. The diamond carat is n 
member of the same system of weight, being the 100th part 
of the shekel, and the 150th part of the ounce troy. The 
ducat is still divided into 100 grcmi, which are the equiva- 
lents of the carat. 

To the influence of the Phoenician system of natural 
division, crossed and compounded with the Roman, we thus 
appear to owe the complex irregularity of our various 
metrical tables. 

The position of the penny and the shilling, the repre- 
sentatives of the denarius and the solidus, is indicated in the 
annexed table. 



12^ 



Ancient Metrology. 







Ducat 
Half Ducat 

Three Carliiii 
Carlino 
Five-Grain Piece 




«S : : : : i 

P-i ... ^ 

^ CO p 

3 '-z '' '' % ' ' 1 

W c» Pi cc 




o .2 '-^ =^ 

: : S '^ rt 'S +2 : : : 
: : fL, a 00 ;3 s : : : 

CO o t« i2 ;- 
<(^ ^ -<< ffl Ph 


l3 


d CO 

a> : ^ c« a! fi "t: : : d 
-u : -^ li; N Sh 5 : : u 
• b 2 ^ S - lis <^ 
H 03 pq N O ^ O 




" .3 ' ' 

i = 1 .3 ^ 1 ^^ = = ^ 




W W a3 H O O" O 




t, i = i : ^ rf Si: 






d M H ft 




<1 W O 



129 



A TABLET IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, RELATING 
APPARENTLY TO THE DELUGE. 

Translated hij H. F. Talbot, F.R.S. 
Read 6th Jul//, 1875. 

This tablet, of which the beginning and end are lost, 
describes a Panic Terror which seized mankind and all 
animals at a time when some great calamity was impending 
over the world. I think it may have been the visible 
approach of the Deluge : but other calamities may have 
happened in the earliest ages of which we have no record. 

This tablet has been lithographed in plate 27 of the 
fourth volume of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western 
Asia. It has not been previously translated to my know- 
ledge. Several lines at the beginning of the tablet are 
broken and illegible. Afterwards it proceeds as follows : — 

1. One man ran to another. 

2. The girl ascended to her topmost story. 

3. The man ran forth from the house of his friend. 

4. The sou fled from the house of his father. 

5. The doves flew away from their dove-cote. 

6. The eagle soared l^p from his eyrie. 

7. The swallows flew from their nests. 

8. The oxen and the sheep fell prostrate on the earth. 

9. It was the great day. The Spirits of Evil were 

assembled. 
The remainder of the story with the exception of a few 
words is broken off. 

I will now give the cuneiform text. 

mata ana mati ittanallaku 

man unto man ran 

Vol. -IV 9 



130 A Tablet in the British Museum, 

ardata anta ki sha usillu 

the girl to her highest room ascended. 

itla as bit eburi - sa 

the man from the house of his friend 

tin- *s^ ^-s < 

usitzu 
ran forth. 

4. ET T? EcTT - -TTIT T? t^ I -TTT^ v tV^e < 

mara as bit abi-su usitzu 

the son from the house of his father ran forth. 

Zummati as apati - sin imasru 

the doves from their doye-cotes fleio aioay. 

itzuru as aj)ri-su usillu 

the eagle from his nest soared up. 

sinunta as kiuni - sa usiprasu 

the sivalloivs from their nests flew aicay. 

8. till ^y cE ^]yj - miT ^fl y Etyi 

alpi isibbithu immira 

the oxen fell prostrate the sheep 

tE j?=tll :=: !!iT 

isibbithu 
fell i>roi>tvate 



relating apiparently to the Deluge. 131 

9. ^1- ^ ey. y^ tyyyt it igy <y^ ^ ^% 

tami rabi udukku sinutu 

(it was) the great time : the Spirits of Evil 

zaidu - sun. 
were assembled. 



Notes and Observations. 

Usilln, S conjugation of Heb. Tlh^ to ascend. 

Itla is properly a man of distinction : a gentleman. 

Ehur, a friend : is exactly the Heb. llJl amicus. 

Zwmnati, doves. This word occurs rather frequently. In 
411 29, line 56, we read kima zwmnati adammum, "I 
mourned like a dove." This bears an interesting 
resemblance to the words of Isaiah, ch. xxxviii, 14: 
"I did mourn as a dove"; and ch. lix, 11: "We 
mourn sore like doves." Compare Nahum ii, 8. 

Imasru should perhaps be read iparru, the sign >t- being 
ambiguous. 

Sinunta, the swallows. Chald. r\'^313D hirundo. Buxtorf 
p. 1517. 

Usiprasu, S conjugation of paras to fly. 

Isibbithu. This verb is somewhat doubtful : it may be a 
conjugation of t^lH prostravit. 

Zaidu " they united," occurs in the same sense elsewhere : 
it may be the Arabic zud or zid ' adjunxit ' : see 
Schindler, p. 472. We might, however, translate 
(using another meaning of the same verb) "the evil 
spirits rose up impiously, or arrogantly." 




132 



ON AN EARLY CHALDEAN INSCRIPTION. 
By W. Boscawex. 

Read 6th Juli/, 1875. 

The most important portion of this inscription was dis- 
covered by Mr. George Smith during his last expedition to 
KoTunjik, a fragment of it being already in the Museum and 
lithographed in W.x\.L II, 38. Mr. Smith has given a 
translation of a portion of the inscription in his work on 
Assyrian discoveries. The inscription is marked S 27. 

The inscription in oiu* possession is wi*itten m Assjrrian 
and is a translation of the ancient Accadian text of the king^ 
probably preserved in one of the Chaldean libraries. The 
colophon states that it was copied for Assurbanipal and 
placed in his palace. 

The inscription is important as supplying us with the 
names of five new Chaldean kings, and also for the great 
light it throws on the religious feeling and ritual of the early 
Babylonians. 

The mscription gives the names of the following persons 
as kings of Bahylonia : — 

Ummiah-ziriti. 
Agu-ragas. 

Abi 

Tassigurumas. 
Agu kak rimi. 

These monarchs appear to form a dynasty, or at least 
the opening of one, and they appear also to have succeeded 
one another from father to son. 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. VA'd 

Au examination of these names appears to show that they 
are those of Kassite or Elamite persons. The first of the 
names li -jVi^ J^^fff "^^tl ^Q" ^TT'^T f'^ ^g^^-ka-ak-ri-mi, 
probably means the " Moon makes our brilliance." The first 
portion of the name, Agu, being the name of the Moon-god, 
an element of very frequent occurrence in the early Chaldean 
names. The second portion *^^]y *"]^ -ka-ak = kak, is a 
very common Accadian verb, usually written in an ideographic 
form, ^, and corresponding to the Assyrian hani to create; 
this verb in its Assyrian form is an element m the name of 
Assur-bani (^-) pal. 

The last portion of the name is somewhat difficult. It is 
apparently composed of a noun and a possessive pronoun, 
Y>- being the Accadian possessive pronoun of the first person 
plural ; '^TT<y is rendered in Assyrian in W.A.I. II, 48, 
by ^'^y ^»^T T jIg^ Y na-ba-dhu, brilliance ; so that the two 
signs Rl. SU. read as "owr hrilliance.'' The whole name 
apparently meaning, " The Moon makes our brilhance." 

The name of the fourth monarch in the list is written 
jy "J;^i^ >^^^TTT ^^TT *^ *^^-> ^^^ i^^^y be read Aqu ra-bi, and 
tliis reading is the one adopted by Mr. Smith in his translation, 
and on etymological grounds it is no doubt correct. But it 
seems to me that the final i J:^ is an error of the scribes, 
and that the more correct reading would be Rak KAS, or, the 
name being Kassite or Elamite, a II in place of the p GAS. 

Ra gas or Ra kas is a common verb in Elamite and in 
the Kassite, and has the signification of to beget, or hear, being 
connected with the noun t>- Rak, a female. 

It appears to me that the scribe who rendered the text 
into Assyrian had but a slight knowledge of Accadian, and 
as the original text probably had the simple termination 
^^|T ^, he added a final f:^ in transliterating the name 
into Assyrian, through the error of reading ra-bi. As the 
name is written, the reading Agu-ra-bi-i is no doubt correct 
but it appears to me that the error is the scribe's. 

It must be noticed here that in no case is final ^^ added 
in the name yl^ ^^^^ "^ ^►^TT C^ Kham muragas ; and 



134 On an eurhj Chaldean Inscription. 

in a bilingual list of Kassite kings in W.A.I. II, Qo, Avhich can 
be restored iroin a duplicate, we have this name rendered by 
Y JSi ^i;^ '"^yi *-^ Tpyj *"**"! Sa-am-si-i tib-na, the latter 
part of the name iz^ J^JJ *-^^, itibna, being from the verb 
bani to create, which leaves little doubt of the reading here 
being ^CTY ^Z^ ragas or rakas. 

Of the other names we can say but little, they evidently 
are those of Kassite or Elamite persons. The Ummah in 
Ummali may be the name of the Elamite deity of that name. 
The second name is imperfect. 

In the tliu-d line of Col. I, the king speaks of himself as 
son of Tassigurumas, of the noble seed of Suqamuna — 

-<^ t^•^TyT ^^ "^IT "^T JT "^T ^ "^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

Suqamuna ; in this it appears to me we have another proof of 
the Kassite origin of these persons. 

Now Suqamima is identified with the Kassite deity Sumu, 
for in the bilingual list in W.A.I. II, 05, we have — 

^T 

na 

Mili is the Kassite term for man — compare the Accadian 
mulu. The name, therefore, means "Man of Sumu." In the 
same list we have also Mili-kit, rendered by Amil-Shamas, or 
" Man of the Sun-god." 

From this it seems to me that the king Agu, in speaking 
of himself as of the " Noble seed of Suqamuna " (Sumu), 
was claiming for himself descent from the gods ; a custom of 
frequent occun-ence in the genealogies of kings, and in this 
it seems that he has furnished a clue to his nation. 

In his enumeration of his dominions this monarch Agn 
calls himself king of the ^ ^j^- 5:^ Kas-si-i, the Cassidim 
of the Bible; king of the Accadi, or Highlanders, and, king 
V' t^} ^^y ^::y <Igf ^lat Babihi-rapastuv, " King of the 
vast land of Babylonia." 

In lines 34-5 the king calls himself " colonizer (musesib) 
of the vast land of Asnunnak." This land is quite new, and 



y^ ^t^yy jy ^ . 


. ESS -I JI ^T -^ 


Mu- h - su - um 


Anil Su - qa - mu 



On an early Chaldean InscrijJtion. 185 

I have not met with the name m any of the inscriptions. 
The king calls himself king of Padan or the Plain ; king of 
Alman ; and king of the Guti or Go'im, a collection of tribes 
in the north of Elam, the old home of the Accadi. 

Of the position of these monarchs in the canon of 
Babylonian kings it is as yet impossible to say anything; 
futui-e excavations may bring to light more texts which will 
enable us to do so. 

From the inscription it appears that the images of Marduk 
and Zirat-panit, his consort, had been carried off to the land 
of yy^ Jipf- >:^ Kha-ni-i: this land is not, that I am aware of, 
mentioned in any of the Babylonian or Assyrian texts.' This 
custom of carrying off the images of the gods of conquered 
nations was of frequent occurrence, both in Assyrian and 
Babylonian wars. The image of the goddess Nana was 
carried off to Elam during an Elamite invasion, and restored 
by Assurbanipal 1635 years after, he in his turn carrying off 
the Elamite deities. This explains the desire of the Israelites 
to take the Ark into battle, a desire caused by seeing the 
importance attached to the presence of the sacred images by 
the nations around.^ The taunt of Rabshak to the messengers, 
— as to the gods of the nation not being able to stand against 
the Assyrians — is explained by this custom of carrying off the 
images of the gods of conquered nations. Agu sent an ex- 
pedition under an official named Saru-Samas to recover these 
images, and to bring them back to Babylon. The embassy 
was successful, and the gods were restored to the temple of 
Bit-Saggadh u. 

The temple of Bit-Saggadhu at Babylon was one of the 
most important of the Babylonian temples ; it formed, as its 
name indicates, the acropolis of the city.^ It was the famous 
temple of Bel or Marduk. The date of the building of the 
great national temple is lost in the dim azure of antiquity ; 

' See page 154. 

^ Compare also Hosca x, 6 ; Jeremiah xliii, 12 ; and Baruch or Ep. Jeremy. 

" *>^TTjxZ J=Y|Ti^ TTT^Y Sag-gaclLu is explained in W.A.I. II, by nasu- 
sa-risi, or " raising of the head." 



136 On an early Chaldean Inscrijdion. 

this king- Agu only speaks of restoring it, it had been built 
before his time. It is this great temple of which Herodotus 
gives such an elaborate description, and to which the prophet 
Daniel refers to in '■'Bel and the Di^agon^ 

There is in the British Museum a small bilingual 
fragment which appears to refer to the building of this 
temple. As the identity of the temple depends on the 
variant reading oi i\ie Assyrian n,ndi Accadian in lines 3 and 4, 
I will give both. They are — • 

ACCADIAN — 

ca - abzu - ta e - ki - aka - ge - a - ni 

in the gate of the deep a house of his delight 

mu - un - di -ma 
/ raised it. 

Assyrian — 

[cTin -pyyj^ ^m^] mEif ^ -^] «y «T -pyy ^t 

[Bit - sag - ga - dhu ma ba - ab ab - si - i 
Bitsaggadhu in the gate of the deep 

^tEt£y titt]]t:A'^ ^T?v-5?y 

bi - i - tu i - ra - am - nu e - pu us 

a house of delight {illumination) I made. 

This inscription states that the king, Avhose name is un- 
fortunately lost, established the temple and appointed music 
and services, and raised an altar to the gods Marduk and 
Zirat-panit.' 

' See Appendix. 



On an 


early Chaldean Inscription. U 


We recad — 




[^^T <^ "^I] 


<MEii -]m ^ ^ ^i 


Amar - ucl 


va Zii-at - pa - ui - tur 


Marduk 


and Zirat-panit 


* t^- --H 


t?^miEii tx^-^m^m 


pa-rac- ka 


el - lu ra -mu- u 


an altar 


noble and high 



Samas itibna repaired this temple and placed cheritbim and 
figures of Marduk of gold in it, and we find contract tablets 
dated in the year that Samas itibna placed these images in 
the temple of Bit-Saggadhu.^ 

All the later Babylonian kings, Nabuchadnezzar, Naboni- 
dus, &c., added to or adorned it, and even the Persian 
kings repaired it ; for on a brick of Cyrus, translated by 

Mr. Smith, we read, " Cyrus who the temples of 

Bit-Saggadhu and Bit Zida repaired." It was to this temple 
probably that Alexander the Great was conducted by the 
Babylonian priests. When we think that, perhaps three 
thousand years before the Christian era, sacrifices were dail}'- 
ofiered, and music and prayer made before the images of 
Marduk and his Queen in tliis sacred fane of Babylonia, how 
young and modern seem the temples of Greece and Rome, 
and even the sacred edifice of Jerusalem, sacred to the One 
True God, seems but a relic of the middle ages, compared 
with this patriarch of temjDles. 

The king Agu states that he restored the shrine (as-rat) 
of Marduk and Zirat-panit, and adorned the images with 
horned crowns and robes of rich material, inlay ed aiid 
studded with jewels. He also states that he restored the 
5f: 5^ yy^ ^^T' papakhat, of Marduk and his Queen — this 
was probably the topmost story of the pile. The Zuggurats 
or temple towers of Babylonia appear to have been built in 
heights of three, five, or seven stages, and the top one 

' See Mr. Smith ou Early Hist, of Babylonia, Trans. Sue. Bib., vol. I, pari 1 : 
and Appendix. 



138 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

usually contained the shrine proper, or papakhat, of the deity. 
This shrine was built of the richest possible material, and in 
it were the images of the gods. The king Agu states that 
he made doors of cedar-wood, and a throne, and a seat for 
the '•'' papakhat'''' of these gods. 

The last columns of the inscription contain prayers made 
by the priests for the well-being of the king, both in this and 
in the next world. 

These prayers are most important, in the light they throw 
on the fact of the belief of the Accadians in the immortality 
of the soul, or at least in a future state. The priest prays 
that " he (the king) may behold the highest heaven," and 
that "Ann and Anunitu may be propitious to him in heaven," 
and that " Bel and Beltis may cause him to dwell in the 
land of life." The gods are desired to endow the kmg with 
various virtues and blessings : Hea to make hun wise, &g. 
In conclusion, I must express the hope that the time may not 
be fiir distant when we shall read the inscriptions of this and 
many other of the early Chaldean kings, not as now through 
the medium of Assyrian translations, but that we may have 
in our possession accurate Accadian copies, if not the original 
texts themselves. 

Owing to the ideographic nature of the cuneiform 
writing the reading of proper names is one of the greatest 
difficulties the student has to contend with. I must therefore 
state my attempt at their explanation must be received only 
as conjectural. I hope, however, others may be induced to 
examine them, as the dynasty or line of kings mentioned 
here is evidently both powerful and important. 

The text is as follows : — 

S 27. 

A - gu - u ka - ak ri - mi 

A fju kak rimi 

2- -% ifc! <T- t-i "m >f 

alihi Tas - si - gu - ru -jnas 
><on of Tassigiiramas 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 139 

zir el - luv 

the noble. Seed 

*■ "iTI -T JT *-I -^ ^ 

sa Su - qa - mu - nu 

of Sugamuna 

=. ^ :^ ^I ->-] ]\ <n < -^TII -TTT 

ni - bi - it A - nuv u Bel - u 

the O^ory of A nu and Bel 

He - a u Amar-ud 

Hea and Marduk 

7. .^y <« ..y i^y 

Sin Sliamas 

Sin {the Moon) Shamas {Sun) 



8- Sti 


^t ^IT --T ^ 


id - 


luv da - an - nu 


the 


hei'o powerful 


^•'glT 


^^y ^yy ^ j.yyy,< ^jyy ^y< 


sa 


Is - tar ga - sit - ti 


of 


Istar archer 



i - la - a - ti a - na - cu 

of the goddesses. 1 {am) 

sar mi - ci u ta siiii - ti 

king of kings and princes 



1-lU On an early C/ialdean Inscription. 

sar - ta.s - mi - e sa - li - mi 

kinfj of the obedient and faithful 

13. ts itj <y^ :v^ ^jn + 

abhi Tas - si - gu - ni -mas 
son of Tasi- gumma K 

u. .£gyy tjj .|Eyy [i^] 

li - ib - li - il, 
grandson 

15. ^rr T? ^mmi^i^w^ 

>— II I 1 * — < NT. '/AT. ',--■>-<."->.. 'ANT. -'--->-':■< 

sa A - kas - orbi (?) 

of A kas (?) 

gar - ra - dn 
f/<^ icarrior 

i - na 

m 

H— >i I I ^T.•'.<ST.^^^T.<■"'^T.■i~~^T.•i--^T.'i■^ 

maru 

offspring 

sa A - gu - iim - ra - kas - i 

of ^%" ragas or 9'u/>? 

'I^ir el - Inv zir - .saru - ti 

the noble and roi/al seed 



On an earlt/ Chaldean Inscription. 141 

sa Um - mi - ah - zir - ri - ti 

of Ummah- ziriti 



car (r) ru a - iia - 


cu 


/ am 




24. -yy<y jryyyy jr^ 




ri - e - i 




</<g shepherd 





25. jryff y^ 5^ y^ ^^ 

nisi - rapsu - tiv 
of a vast people 

2«- £^ E-n ^T 

gar - ra - du 
i/ie; ivarrior 

"■ -IT<T -HIT T} ^^ITT 

ri - e - a - iiv 
shepherd 

28. >^ <]^ 5^!^ 

mu - ci - in 
establisher 

2». ^jy ty ^.^ y, y? ::; i 

isid kussu a - bi -su 

of the foundation of the throne of his fathers 

30. ]} ^y igy 

a - na - CU 
/ (am) 



142 




On 


an eat 


^ly 


31. 




>— < 


<T- 






sar 


Kas- 


- si - 


i 




king of 


the 


Kassi 





va Ak - ka - di - i 

and Accadi 

sar -mat Bab - ilu 

king of the land of Babylonia 

34. E-yy s?= - t?Sr 

ra - pa - as - tiv 

35. >^ *^ <y^ idJ 

Mu - se - si - ib 



mat As - nun - na - ak nisi 

o/ the land of Asnunnak a ■people 

37. 5^^ t^V 5^5S <^ * SIT — T 

rapsu - tiv sar mat Pa - da - an 

vast king of Padan 

38. t][<j Ey --T tE?s *.* j^-^ -<r< -£ 

Al -ma- an sar mat Gu - ti - i 

Ahnan king of Crutium (Goim) 

39. ty;? y^ -^yy-^ ►sy y? ^y< 

nisi sak - la - a - ti (?) 
a people 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 143 

sar - mus - ta - as - kin 
the king estahllsher 

41. -} ^]h <I-TT<T --T A-T ^£ 

kip - I'at ar - ba - ah - i 

of the four regions 

42. <— ^{}< --y ^y^ ^y^ -^y 

mi - cir Dingir-gal -gal - la (ili rabati) 
loorshipper of the great gods 

i - nil Amarud 

Lo ! Marduk 

saru Bit - Sag - ga - dim 
king of Bit-Saggadhu 

Babilu 

Babylon 



46. [--y] ^y- ty 


>-»=" 


diiigir gal- gal - 


la (ili rabati) 


The great gods 




47. ^y^ i^B jy "^ 


>_YYY yy^ 


pi - i - sii - nil 


- El - Km 


their noble 


mouths. 



"■ [t^m T? H] <MT<T I -W V" < 

ta - ai - ar su ig - bu - u 

Ids return ordered 



144 (hi nil I'ltrli/ Chaldean Inscription. 

Amai'ucl ana Din- tir - ki 

Marduh to Babylon 

50. ^ :^ I i<]] <IEJ ^T 

pa - ni - su is - ku - na 
his face set 

I \> — < 1 s'Tr'>>'Tr<s<-fr'',<s'-n'x-A'Tr<.<NT?-'y< 

Amarud 

Marduh 

ai 

not 

Column II. 

ac - gal - lit at - ta - id - va 
/ glorified 

a - na li - ki - e Amarud 

to take Marduk 

0. yj ^1 e^^ -^y £tn 'M 

a- na Babilii 

to Babylon 

4.^^^] fe A--TIT £T 

pa - ni - su as - cun - va 

his face J set and 

ta - bu - ut Amarud 

in the, paths of Marduk 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 



145 



ra - im pal - e - a 

lover of my life 

al - lik - va 

/ walked and 



Saru - Shamas 



a - na mat a - na - mat Kha- ni - 

to to the land of Khani 

lu - u - as - pur - va sii Amarud 

/ sent and him Marduk 

n. <J^]^ --] M ^ ^ ^l£ 

va Zirat - pa - ni - tu 

and Zirat-panit 

.2. IgJ e\ -^] ^£11 <n El 
lu is - ba - tu - niv - va 
they had taken hold, of and 

Amar- ud va Zirat - pa - ni - tu 



Marduk 

H. EcTT A-TT 

ra - im 

lovers 
Vol. IV. 



va 
and 



Zirat-panit 



pal - e - a 
of my reign 



10 



146 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

'=• r? -^i -iTrT -Ti* ^iir^ hut 

a - na Bit - Sag - ga - dhu 

to Bit - Saggadhu 

16. <y.;^ ^^] ..y E^yy <^ 

va Bab - ilu 

and Babylon 

u. -^ syyyt ^^1??? JT -^ ^T< 

lu - u - tir su - im - ti 

/ restored them 

18. ^t ^] ^W V H ^T 

i - na Bit - sa - Samas 

in the temple of the Sim 

i - na pa - ra - ats arcu 

for the division of the future 

20. tyyy^ gn ^y 

u - kin - na 
/ fixed. 

The next two lines are damaged ; the inscription again is 
perfect at line 23. 

23. -- J^ i:]]] 

irba - tik - un (bilati) 
four talents 

2*- Tr ^! m y- S^T -T< 

a - na lu - bu - us - ti 

for the robes 

25. --y <::^T <y-M --] m ^ ^ ^% 

Amar - ud va Zirat - pa - ni - tu 

Marduk and Zirat-panit 



- nu 


va 




and 








> — < 


^y 


ra - 


bi 


ta 


large 


{ample) 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 147 

lu - u - ad - di 
/ had given 

". m ^- ^] jEiiT 

lu - bu - 118 - ta 
a dress 

28. M y- s^l <H -TT^ ^m? 

lu - bu - us khuras - dii- 

a dress of gold and Hue 

Amar - ud va Zirat - pa - ni - tu 

Marduk and Zirat-panit 

30. igii tin^ m ^ <Ti ^ iT ^ -i< Ei 

lu - u - lab - bi - kin(?) su - nu - ti - va 
I had clothed (?) them and 

The next five lines consist of the enumeration of precious 
stones which were given to adorn the gods. They are hard 
to identify, so I have omitted them ; they are printed in 
W.A.L II, 38, Col. IL 

These stones — 

35, ]] ^T gE -IT- --I c: 'T 

a - na as - rat Amar - ud 

to the shrine of Marduk 

36. <y.]g[j ^^\ '^ ^ x^ tilE 

va - Zirat - pa - ni - tu 

and Zirat-panit 

87. 1^ kT <l!^ ^ ET _ 

lu - ad - di - nu - va 
/ had given 



148 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

.38. >^ ^^^yyy ^ jgj -^^ ^] ^]< 

mu - ukli - klii lu - bu - us - ti 
{with) quantities of robes 

i - lu - ti su - nu 
their divinities 

40. t-yy :::; i\ 

ra - bi - tuv 
great 

lu - u - za - ah - i - nu 
/ had adorned 

40. yj .yy^^ ^yr ^yyy^ <y.^yy<y ^ 

a - gi - e ga - ar - ui 

crowns horned 

43. tt]] E^yy y? -y< 

zi - ra - a - ti 

a - gi - e bi - lu - ti 

crowns of divinity 

45. tyy <,< tE lai -<y< 

si -mat i - lu - ti 
an image of divinity 

«• "iTT "eTT <- ET -^I< 

sa sa - lum - ma - ti 
of perftclion 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 149 

47. ^y >~t] ^]< 

ma - la - ti 
full 

Extracts from III, IV, V, VI will be given at the end. 
Columns VII and VIII, being more perfect, they are now 
given. 

Column VII. 

Amarud 
Marduk 

2. y? -^y ^jii ^y< i 

a - na - sub - ti - su 
to his throne 

3. tryy^ ^^ ^yy<T tJy 

ii - se - ri - ib 
1 caused to enter 

*■ m "gyy y? ^^^ 

ki - sa - a - tuv 
a hand 

abli um - ma - ni 

of sons of the people 

6. B] *^ ^y< 

su - nu - ti 
them 

7-^H^ ^yyyy y?*yyy <^y^-EEy 

ca - du bit ecil ul - tu 
the house and field 



150 On an earhf Chaldean Inscription. 

a - ua Marduk 

to Marduk 

va Zii'at - pa - ni - tu 

and ' Zirat - pa nit 

10. tlTT- £^< <m J! ^ -<< 

u - zak - ki - su - nu - ti 
/ dedicated them 

sa - sar A- ga - u 

of the ling Agu. 

n. ^T T^ I lai <T-Ti<y m\ 

immi -su In - ar - cu 
his days may they be long 

13. .^ 1^ I ►ssTi -rr<T -^id 

sanati -su li - i"i - ka 

/w's years may they he extended 

u. .^y^ I - ^m<m 

palu -su iua dum - ci 
his life in Miss 

lu - bu - ul - ]u udh 
may he live 

u. ^.yyy< .yy<y ^y .^y ^y? 

zi - ri it same. 

the summit of heaven 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. 151 



17- tisr ^T -^I< 

rap - su - ti 
vast 

,8. ^ggyy tu :^ !£m I 

bi - ib - bi - ta - su 
may he behold it 



The inscription here is broken for several lines. 

25. ^^} ^p^^^>^^^^ 

ilu 

the god 

26. -t]] <7 

zi - bat 

a - na da - ris 

for ever 

in - ba - sa - a 
(may) he exist (?) 

29. .£^yy yy ^yyy .ggyy 

li - te - el - li 
may he exalt 

30. y]f v^y 5^;;^ t?^^ 

a - na sar - nin 

to the lordly king 



152 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

A - gu - urn 
Agu 

sa - pa - klia - at Araarud 

lolio the shrine of Marduk 

33. iz^ ^^^ ^y 

i - bii - su 
has made 

34. jr£ y^ jr::yyy ^y ^ 

abli- iim -ma ni 

sons of the people 

11 - zak - cu u 

/ias dedicated 

36. ..y yj ^ < ..y t^jg 

A - nu u Anatu 

^?ZM awc^ Anatu 

37. ^ _y ty{ ly ^jH <^. jy 

ina - same lik - ru - bii - su 

in heaven tnay they he favourable to him. 

Bel - u u Bilatu 

Bel and Beltis 

^■■>- - -TUT < X* -!< -ti 

ina Bit - u mat- ti - la 
in the house and the land of life 



Oil an early Chaldean Inscription. 



153 



40. 



41. 



-E^T <T- y- JT 

u - si - bu - sii 
may they seat him 

He - a 
Hea 



u Dav - ki - na 

and Dav-kina 



43. 



T? <T- tn -^T «T £T- 

a - si - ib abzu - gal 

dwelling in the great deep 



44. 


^|< ^^y .^y y^ 

ti - la immi 
a life of days 




45. 


bu - da 
lo7ig 




46. 


lad - di - nu - su 

7nay they give him 






47. 


h-je::i H--<:r 






Tzira Bil - lat 


mat gal - gal 


1 


Tzii^a lady 


the gi^eat land. 



154 On an, ec^rly Chaldean Inscription. 



Column VIII. 

mil - el - qa 
g7'eat7iess 

2. .ggjy ^yy-f: t<E 

li - sak - lil 

mai/ he complete. 

3. _y <« ..y ^;^^ <iEy ..y cy; 

Sin uru - ki same 

the Moon illuminator of heaven 

4. >^ ^y<yi^ ^"^ t^ 

mu - gal sar abu 

revolver the king paternal 

5. yr ^y x<y y^ ^. t^yy 

a - na immi bu - da 

for days long 



6. 


<::: <]i'-- ^1 




lad - di - is 




Tnar/ ^rawf /«'m 


7. 


^! *t -T ^T 




id - luv Samas 




the prince the Sun 


8. 


cT? - -t ^T? 




e - bil same 




ruler heaven 



On an eavly Chaldean Inscription. 155 

va irsituv 

and earth 

10. ^'^ j=Tyyj= -^y< i 

sar - u - ti -su 
his reign 

a - ua immi bu - da 

for many days 

12. ^^n <;gj j^ 

li - ki - in 
may he establish. 

He - a 
Uea 

u. ^11 ^ 

Bil labiru 
i/ig oZc? lord 

15. ^ y^ \ 

ni - mi -gav 

16. ^^^y >pyyjfi ^<^ jy 

li - sak - lil - su 
may be complete for him 

n. H <::^T E^n 44f -^i^ i 

Amar ud ra - im pal - eu 

Marduk lover gJ his reign 



156 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

Bil - el iia - ak - bi 

Lord of fountains 

19. jr^ ^]<]^ -^y jy 

i - gal - la - su 
his fertility 

20. ^^y "pyy^ e<E JT 

u - sak - HI - su 
may be complete for him 

Notes. 
Col. I. 

LINE 

3. >-/i^ ziru, seed or race. Heb. i^lt 

9. t^yyy-^ -^yy >-^y< ga-slt-ti, "archer," a title of the goddess 
Istar. She appears as such in the vision of Assur- 
banipal See W.A.I. Ill, pi. 32, 16, &c. Heb. ntTp 

10. S:^ >-^y yj '-^y< ilatl, a rare word, feminine genitive 

plural of ilu. 

11. Cl^yy ^y^ milci-. kmgs, usually used in the Assyrian 

texts for "petty monarchs." Heb. '']h'^- 
14. lib lib, literally Heart of Hearts. Heb. m^. 
18. ^^ ^i^y maru, offspring : used ideographically, com- 
posed of two signs J:^ = zakaru = small + ^y 
us = a male. 

27. *-yy<y ^yyyy yy ^^^ll I'i-^-^-uv, a shepherd; ortheM^ord 

is used in the sense of prince sometimes. Heb. ni^l* 

28. Mucin. Participle from, kinu. Heb. )^^ to establish. 

29. isid, foundation. Comp. Heb. "ID'' beginning, Kussu, a 

seat or throne. Comp. Heb. h^D^- 
34. Musesib, Colonizer, from Asabu, to dwell, the Shapael 

Participle, literally "causer to dwell in." Comp 

Heb. n1I^^ 
39. Mustashin, establisher. Participle of pli^. 



On an early Chaldean Inscriptian. 157 

Col. IL 

LINE 

2. likie, take. Heb. Mp^. 

3. ^^YY 4^>^YY ra-im, lover. Heb. Dn^ 

19. ^ ^t-]] g^^vYv Parats, outlet, or division. Heb. yiQ 
24. lubusti, robes, dresses. Heb. ti^'^lT', vestis. 

28. /n >-YYa^ **^TIIt '^■^^"^'^^ '^^^'''- The last of these signs 
has many values, and, among- others, those of adaru, 
dark, and also samu, blue. The signs may, there- 
fore, be read either gold and blue, or khuras adaru. 
dark ff old ; probably the red Arabian gold. 

38. Mukhkhi, quantities. Comp. Arab, mi'k-dar. 

42. garni, horned. Heb. \yp- In the Babylonian a ^ often 
replaces the Assyrian p. 

44. Agie, crowns. 

45. Simat, an image. Heb. D"^D- 

46. Salvmmati, perfection. Heb. D7U? ; malati, fall, Heb. 

iih72 ; — both these words are in the feminine. 
49. Abli wnmani, literally sins of the army or multitude. 



Col. VII. 

3. Usirib, I caused to enter, the Shapael of eribu to enter. 
Heb. n-iir. 

7. This line is very difficult ; the scribe seems to have 
been unable to render the Accadian original. There 
are only two words in the line which are clear, 
these are J^YYTY in Accadian e — Assyrian, Bitu, a 
house — and y][ ^]^^ asa, the Accadian for field or 
ground, rendered ecil in Assyrian. The king 
appears to be speaking of the land, &c., given to 
the ffods. 



158 On an early Chaldean Tnscriptiov. 



LINE 



11. >-^Yi^ palu, has the siguification of "time," hence life. 
Dumca, bliss or prosperity ; usually written ideo- 
graphically ^Y*- ^\. 

18. Libhita-su, may he behold it. Heb. 1213- 

'2%. libasd, may he exist, from bam, to be. This line is 
difficult. 

3(3. Annunitu was the wife of Ami. 

37. likribusu, may they be propitious ; used very fre- 
quently in astronomical reports. Heb. 2"1p. 

38. 

Note. — An abbreviated form of this prayer is found in 
W.A.I. Ill, pi. ^Q, rev. Col. III. 



Col. VIII. 

3 and 4. These notices of the Moon-god are curious, and 
indicate the early nature of the inscription. Id a 
hymn to the Moon-god in W.A.I. IV, 9, we have : 
Abu Nannar beluv ilu dabu Ebil ilani = Father, 
illuminator, good god, prince of the gods, where 
>-*-Y >^ ^^ -^ ^T^y is explained by >->-T *^^^ >->-T B1^ 
Na-an-nar, from Nuru, light. 

7-12. Another title of the Sun was »^y<yV »">k- i^\} \*m 
dian nisi, "judge of men." 

13-17. Hea was the lord of wisdom, or depth of mind. 
Compare Istm- tablet, Col, II, line 11. 

n^ ^y~ J^^ khani. Mr. Smith has shown me this 
name in a variant form, y^{ *"^*'T ^t kha-na-i, on a 
broken obelisk of Tiglath-Pileser I, Here it is 
mentioned in comiection Avith the Naiti, the tribes 
north of Assyria, and it probably is again found in 
the Ilani-rabbat of the Tiglath-Pileser cjdinder — 
which is mentioned in connection v/itli Mi-li-dia, tie 
modern Malativeh — on the north-west of AssATia. 



On an Early Chaldean InscHption. 159 

5:^ ^^yyy ^y >TT abli-ummam. I have rendered this, 
sons of the people, in my translation ; but I am 
inclined to think it here indicates a picked guard of 
soldiers for the temple, and should be rendered, sons 
or youths of the army. In my first reading I 
followed Mr. Smith in the reading given in the 
Deluge Tablet, where "sons of the people" is 
certainly correct. 

Mr. Sayce has pointed out to me a peculiar indication in 
the inscription of its Babylonian origin, in the fact of the use 
of ^ in words which in Assyrian take t), as in — 

Col. I. 
9- ^=yy|i^ "211 ^y< ga-sit-ti. Heb. T^Xdp_ archer. 

Col. II. 
42. J^yyy-'^ <|y^^yy<y ^ ga-ar-m. Heb. )^\) horn. 

Col. VIII. 
g rir Y>- ^ ni-mi-gar, usually ni-mi-gu = p 

Another mark is the use of h for an Assyrian ^:>, of which 
we find examples in the inscription. 



Itio On cm earlii Cliahlean htscription. 



Appendix. 

Having been requested by Mr. W. R. Cooper to give the 
remaining portions of the unpublished columns, I now do so. 
I have translated them as far as I can, but owing to their 
broken state no connected translation can be given. 

Column III. 

I. [5^f] \] "^ <MEII <f} ^IIA 

[abu] - ukin va - khunas 

crystal and gold 

2. ct ^y vyy^ ^y jy 

i - na kakkadu - su 

for his head 

•3- IeIJ tyyy^ s^ ley ^ et 

In - u - as - cu - nu - va 
I appointed and 

4. tE ^y <^^H n -UA >gT 

i - na eli - a - gi - su 

upon his croivn 

abu za - dhu - va - zir - cir 
zadhu stone and 

Tin I 1 ^! I s--'-<s--',<Nr.'i<NT.'C<s-':.< 1 

abu - sib - ni ti 

stone 

'■ m ^Tir- ^ iej ^ Ey 

hi - u - as - cu - nu - va 
/ (ijjjioinled^ qv. 



On an earlij Chaldean Inscription. 161 

abu - za - clliu abu zir - cir 

zadhu stone zireir stone 

9. ^i] -cH -TT- ff< <T; :s^{ H HISS 

abu - ca rat - khu - si abu - za 

caratkhusi stone (?) stone 

10. ^^i TTT^r i^^ mmw$. 

abu - dhu - ud 

stone 

"• -< -tU I? -]\A 

bat - ca a - gi 

the opening (?) of the croivn 

lu - u - za - i - nu 
/ Aac? adorned 



zir - vussu a - ru 



i - lu - ti [su - nu] 

their divinities 

Khuras 

gold 



Ki 
Ki 



The remainder of Column III is lithographed in W.A.I. IT, 38. 
Vol. IV. 11 



H]2 On an early Chaldmn hn^eriptirtn. 

COLmiN IV. 

This column is so broken that it is of little use to pro- 
duce it ; it relates the ornaments, &c., given by the king to 
the temple ; these appear to be a throne of cedar, a couch, 
and doors of cedar to the pa-pa-khat or upper shrine. 

Column V. — Reverse. 



2. WiM^w^^s^ ]] \^y\Wi^:^^ 

abu - za [mat] (ukni) 

crystal 

'i ^^^"^^^^^^^ ^V^ /Y^ Y! ^^^J>^^^^y^ 
gab - si - a 



za samullu - a-al 






,. .y .y<y.. y^ ^^yyy .^gyy ^^^ 

dalti - el - li - tuv 
nohle doors 

.0. tE ^] ^ ^ ?;< cET 

i - na pa - })a - kha - at 

for the shnne 

Amar - \u[ 
Mnrduk 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. Ifi3 

•^- <MEII H m ^^ ^Ie 

va Zirat pa - ni - tii 

and Zirat banit 

13. ^ tint lEii <y^ ^] ^y< 

lu - u kin - si - na - ti 

/ had fixed them (?) 

n. <vm m] -iT^ m^^ vm 

va Bit - Sag - ga - ahu 

and Bit-Saggadhu 

sak zir du - du 



■«• s^Tir ^TTI^ <^T^ -E^T m £T 

ta - u - ul - li - lu - ma 

18. - t^iv -^ Jf< tyi 

bi - tu bat - kha zi 
the house 

zu 



. bab - mudi (?) 

hi/ (?) of wisdom (?) 

2.. :^ ^ ??< tey --y <:: --i 

pa - pa - kha - at Amar - iid 

the shrine Marduk 

22. ^ syyyp -^ ^yy? jy ^ ^y< 

lu - u - se - rib - su - nu - ti 
/ caused them to enter 



164 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

23. ^ ^]]]^ ^y J *^ 

iii - ga - ti su- nu 

to (?) tlteir divinity 

24. E-n -ty If ^y< 

ra - ba - a - ti 
great 

25. ^ tyyyt ^yj y^ ^^y 

lu - u - e bu - lis 

/ 7nade 

20. tyyyyt ^y? t^yy <yj?b c^ .y<y.. 

Bit (?) e - da - di gan - ic 
a hotise 

27. ^ tyyyc v «T ^TTT- iS 

lu - u - sa ab u .... 

them .... 

28. yj v^y ^ c^ < ^ ^^yyy ^y< 

a - na bil ni be - el - ti 

to lords and ladies (?) 

2!>. <m V -ET JT -j^ IeU tt] ill 

ki - sa - at su - nu lu - ad - din 

a multitude of them I gave 



Column VI. 
This column is veiy much broken. 



Nuru - same (?) 
the light of heaven (?) 



On an ea7'ly Chaldean Inscription. 105 

a - di 

to 

3. T} ^YTT ^Y mmm 

IT III >^ I s--',<<-fr'i<s-n-'>' 

ecil - su 

his field 

4. y V -^Y ^^Y mmm 

sa - ba - an 

Sahdn (?) ' 

barbar (?) a - liiv 

ecil 8U ba 

his field and his plantation (?) 

Amarud mu - pal - tuv (?) 

Marduk mupaltuv ^ 

a - di bit su ecil 8u 

to his house his field 

va D.P. ciru su 

and his j^l'^ntation 

a - na sar A - gu - mu 

to the king -^^S'?' 

' This may be a proper name of the person to -whom the lands given 
had formerly belonged. 
2 Ibid. 



166 On an early Chaldean Inscription. 

sa pa - pakhat Aniarud 

wJio the shrine of Marduk 

12. i^B "^- ^I 

i - pu su 
he made 

13. syyyy ^yy^: tiyy<^ -miy ^y <yrif: jy 

Bit - Sag ga - dliu na - di su 

Bit-Saggadhu he restored 

The remainder of tliis column is printed in W.A.I. II, 38. 



Texts Relating to the Te^iple of Bit-Saggdhu at 
Babylon. 

The following texts, some of M^hicli are as yet un- 
published, refer to the repairs, &c., of this famous temple. 
Mr. Smith has pointed out to me the fact that the signs 
were probably read as Bit-Saggal ; in support of this state- 
ment he refers to the opening passage of the inscription on 
the Nebo statues, in which the god Nebo is spoken of as 
iz^ jryjiy *pyy^ p abil-bit-sag-gil, son of Bit-Saggil, 
whilst in other inscriptions he is called abil bit ^yyjt ^tyy^^ 
TTT^y sag-ga-dhu.^ 

Some of the earliest references to tliis temple are found 
in the bilingual hymns to the gods, a collection of which 
will appear with the fourth volume of the "Cuneiform 
Inscriptions." 

*■ T? < -T? -my -^11 ►-y< -et -yyyy -^yy 

c Make - til - la e - su 

the house of Makh'tilla thy house 

' The signs M l^y has the phonetic value al in a n^w Syllabarj. 



On cm earlif Chaldean Inscription. 167 

5. ^ 4^..|yy ^ s^^yiy ^yyyy yy ^yyyy .^y 

nu - ah - Li il Bit - Tilla Bit - ca 

rest lord of Bit Makh-Tilla thy house 

e. tyyyy ^yy^ ^yyy^ jm -TUT -^T sBlT< 

e sak - ga - dim e - na - ram 

the temple of Bit-Saggadhu a house of delight 

Tf ^^] E - ZU 
a - ba 

thy house 

''■ -m TT ^TTTT -< IeU -T< -^H ^TTTT -^H 

Bit Sag-GADHU bit bi- lu - ti - ca Bit ca 
The temple of Saggadhu the house of thy lordship thy house. 

This hymn is addressed to the god Auu whose shriiie was 
situated — 

*^^II "^I^ "^^y Makh-Tilla is composed of the two 
words makh, meaning great, and rendered in Assyrian by 
ruhu and tsiru, and TlLLA, a word meaning high, being- 
equated with the word accada, high, the whole meaning the 
great height. 

Another important fragment is the bilingual text of 
which I have spoken, and which I will now give in full; as I 
have said before, the name of the king to whom the text 
refers is unfortunately lost. 

4. t:^} -^yy rty j^yy tyyyy <m »^ ^] T? ^ 

ca - abzu - ta e - ki - acca - ge - a - ni 

In the gate of the deep a house of delight 

-^ ^]\} <ETT ET 

mu - un - dim ni 
/ made it 



168 0)1 an earli/ Chaldean Inscv'qition. 

5. [tyyyy -^^^t^W'] IIIEI - --! ^-I «I^n-E 

Bit - Sag - ga - dhii ina ba - ab ab - si - i 
Bit Saggadhu in the gate of the deep 

- 1£ ^eeT V f E E^TT :^ -^ ^T? -k K<T 

bi - i - tu sa i - ra - am - mu e - hu - us 
a house of delight ]ie made 

The Assyrian of the remainder is — 

■>■ mm Tf -EiT -iT<T V T? -mi <hM 

a - tu - ri - sa - a - tu - va 

the commencement and 

kliu - da - a - tu u - ma - al - li 

joyfully completed it 

Part of this text is Accadian. 

ri - si - su ki -ma same ul - \\ 

its head like heaven shone 

10. [e:^|] t^y ^y tt ^^^ tyyy< ^yyy v ^^ b] 

bab ab - si - i pu - chu - ta sa - lum ma 

In the gate of the deep reverence worship 

E-yy ^^ tyyy^ y{ ^y ^yy v ►.-y ^y< jy 

ra - mu - u a - na si -mat iluti - su 

high to the image of his gods 

MMmm 

su - lu - ku 

he offered 



On an early Chaldean Inscription. IGD 

1^- [-T <:: ^1] <MEU -T S! ^^ ^^ 

Amar - ud va Zirat - pa - ra - tur 

Marduk and Zirat-panit 

pa - rac - ca el - lii ra - inii - ii 

an altar noble high 

ba- su -bat im - ah - liv u - se -sit 

and a seat of rest lie caused to he seated 

a - na lib - bi - su ip - tii - u 

to lis interiori he opened 

The Asspian line 18 is so broken that it cannot be read. 
The Accadian (17) is a little more perfect. 

17, ^\<Y^ ^ ^ cHT^ it.t ^ cicw [V] ttW 

nam - tar - khi - ga mi ni - iri gar - ra (?) 
good judgment he established 

20. A sir T? -EEi ^^mwmi- 

khi - da - a tu is - ku nu 

rejoicing he established 

22- i^H -m ^ t-^ !£TT -^ iT < 

i - sit - tu ri - gu ta siimii- su - u 

the foundation his name 



Ifcj it]] m !£TTT 






170 On an early Chaldean Jnt<criptiun. 

^'T -n<T «< *^^ -!< ^Ti im ^w ^] 

ri - is ma - ti - is - cu - u - nu 
the head of the land he made. 

Notes. 

4. *"»^TT >^>^] *"^ni -■^^zuta, the deep or "chaos"; ta is 

the Accadian locative preposition, corresponding 
to the Assi/rian f:^ *"^''| ^^^'^^* 

5. irami has more the sense oi exaltation or elevation than 



of dehght, from ramu, high, t-i^^^ acca is also 
rendered by nasu, " to raise.'* 

10. ^^T The Accadian is C^Cf^r ca-abzu-ta, •' the gate 
of the deep." 

12. paraca. The Accadian has ^|CX 

17. *-T<TV' nam forms abstracts in Accadian. 

>'>v tar is rendered by danu in Assyrian, meaning to 
judge. 

j^ khi is rendered by dahii, good, in Assyrian ; see 
Smith's Syllabary, 303. 

^TTT-^ ga is the post-position used to from adjectives 
in Accadian, and in the word f^YYr ^!yT-t^ danga 
poioerfid^ &c. 

1-SlT-TU, the Accadian has >-^y^y, which is rendered 
by Isittii, see Smith's Syllabary, 23. 

Another text which refers to this temple is the brick of 
Cyrus, published by Mr. George Smith in the Society's 
Transactions, Vol. II. part 1, it reads — 

Cyrus builder of Bit Saggadhu and Bit-zida, son of 
Cambyees the powerful king, I am. 



Oa an early Chaldean Inno'iption. 171 

Other texts refeniug to restorations, &c., of it are — 

1. Black stone of Essarliacldon, W.A.I., Vol. I, plate 49. 

2. A text of Assurbanipal in Vol. Ill, plate 38. 

3. The Nebuchadnessar Inscription, W.A.L, Vol. i, 

plate 59. 

4. Colophon dates of Samsi-itibna in W.A.I., Vol. IV, 

plate 38 ; these are translated by Mr. Smith in his 
notes on Early Babylonian History. 

5. Some of the hymns and mythological texts in the 

IVth Vol. Cuneiform Inscriptions. 




172 



THE TABLET OF ANTEFAA 11. 
Bv S. Birch, LL.D. 
Read 2nd March, 1875. 

By the extreme kindness of Mariette-Bey, who has for- 
warded to me, through M. Maspero, a copy of the tablet of 
Antefaa II, which has been added to the Museum at Boulaq, 
but which was formerly placed before the tomb of the 
monarch in the valley of the El Assasif at Thebes, it is in 
my power to give some account of that monument. The 
lower portion of it only remains, the upper part having 
been broken away, comprising the representation of the body 
of the kmg from the head to the waist, and the portion of 
the commencement of the first seven lines. This is the more 
to be regretted, that the loss embarrasses the continuity of 
the text which presents some difficulties. The tablet repre- 
sented the king standing and facing to the left, liis right 
hand raised as if addressing the god, his left pendent, and 
holding a symbol of life. In accordance witli Egyptian art, 
one foot, the left, is advanced, and both wear recurved 
sandals. The king has worn a long triangular tunic round 
the loins : of this tunic the lower portion remains, while the 
pendent leonine sash falls down his back behind. Before the 
king are three dogs, placed one above another, and a fourth 
between his legs. Each of these dogs has a collar round the 
neck. They are marked A, B, C, D in the accompanying 
woodcuts. The first of these d( >gs, marked A, is called ' the 
dog Bahakaa, alias Mahut,' and it wears a narrow collar 
round the neck with a tie in front. The phrase "alias" is here 
expressed by <=> ^T). er f''t ' that is to say,' and the second 



Tlif r.ilil.l of Aillefaa //. frmn the Tomb In Ike 
I My of El . h!,ui/. 




The Tablet of Antefaa II. 



173 



name Mahut is accompanied by the determinative of a gazelle, 
and means the leucoiyx or 'white antelope.' This expression 
probably refers to the colour and swiftness of the hound. It 
has pendent ears, and resembles a foxhound; and dogs of the 



Jl^\v^'*H5 ^ 




same kind, and of a white colour, are said to be brought at 
the present day from Nubia. They also appear amidst the 
tributes of Kush or ^Ethiopia brought to Thothmes III, and 
depicted in the tomb of ]-{ekmara^ at Thebes, and in the 
similar tributes offered to Rameses II, at Beitoually^ in Nubia. 
Another hound of the same breed, with a nose rather 




more pointed, is represented by Sir Gardner Wilkinson^ in 
the work already cited, and has also a collar round the neck. 



Hoskins, Ethiopia. - Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, MR. xviii. 

3 The Egyptians p. 82. 



174 The Tablet of Aniefaa 11. 

It is only a sub- variety of the same kind of hound which had 
to be restrained by a rope, and not let loose till the game 
appeared in sight. All these, like the greyhound, stood 
high, were of slim proportions, and evidently dogs of great 
swiftness. A similar dog is seen in the tomb figured l)y 
Rosellini^ running in pursuit of a gazelle amidst scenes 
where the jackal, dorcas, and addax goats and a bird like 
the ostrich flies before it. Sir Gardner Wilkinson has also 
figm-ed a pair of hounds of different breeds, one of which 
resembles it in general appearance, but is of a pied colour. 
There can be no doubt that this dog was a kind of hound, 
and used for purposes of hunting. This is the dog men- 




tioned in the Abbott Papyrus by which the tablet of the 
king was distinguished, although in the plate and inscription 
it is not in the place mentioned in the text of the papyrus.^ It 
was probably the most celebrated of the king's dogs, and by 
its name and peculiarity enabled the tomb to be at once 
recognised. There is another dog of a similar breed given 
from the tombs by Rosellini'^ and Sir Gardner Wilkinson,* 
and also a kind of hound ; it has a larger nose and tail, and 
is mottled black and white. The dog resembles a Pomeranian 
one in some respects, and has a collar apparently of beads 



' Monumonti Civili, xiii, 5. 

■^ For tlie acccount in the Papyrus, see Birch, Ecvue Archcologique, 1859, 
p. 257 and foil. Maspero, Une Enquete Judiciare a Thebes', 4to. Paris, 1872. 
^ Men. Civ., xvii, 10. 
* The Egyptians, 8vo. Lond., 1857, p. 82. 



The Tablet of Antefaa II. 



17;") 



round its neck, of a yellow, red, blue, and white colour. 
Both these dogs are rarely represented in the scenes, althougli 




occasionally seen employed in the chase ^ at an early period. 
They are as old as the Vlth Dynasty. 

The second dog, B, bears the name of Abakaru. Two or 



T J JK^i^ K^ ° 




three explanations might be given of this name, but as they 
would be purely conjectural they are not attempted. The 
<log has a pointed nose, upright ears, and curled tail, hke the 



Lepsins, Denkm., ii, 96, 107. 



176 The Tablet of Ant ef a a TL 

modern spitz. This collar is a cord four times tied round the 
neck, and also tied in front. This dog has a very sharp and 
active look. It is the oldest dog seen on the monuments, 
appearing at the time of Cheops of the IVth Dynasty, and 
called by some the Khufu dog In the tombs of that period 
he appears as a house dog attached to the chau- of his master ; 

he was of the kind called ^ tasem, and one under the 

— M— _HV 

chair of an officer of the Xllth dynasty^ Avas named Xafmes. 
Another with a cord lashed five times round the neck is seen 
at the foot of an officer named Ra-§aaf-an')(^ of the period 
of the IVth Dynasty, who goes out with it to the fields.'^ 
A similar dog in the tomb of another officer named Tebhen 
Jias no collar, but has the name of Ken . . ., while the same 
breed is represented in the huntmg field with other dogs 
pursuing animals,^ and rinis with the cord round its neck. 
It appears also as a household dog, named 7h)i or Katem, 
under the chair of an officer, and one whose name was 
Akena is seen lying down in another scene* of the time 
of ^epeskaf. Similar dogs constantly are seen in the tombs 
of the old Empire, and were used in small packs, as many 
as four being represented held by ties round the neck.'' 
Roscllmi^ has figm'ed some of this breed of a black and 
liver colour ; one with the name of Menemmuf, perhaps an 
epithet of his quality of a water-dog, and the name ' NahsC 
A female dog of this breed has also the name Satekai.'' 
According to M. Pichot,^ this dog with pointed ears is still 
found in the bazaars of Cairo, and is not to be mistaken 
for the tame jackal, which the Egyptians represented in a 
different manner. 

Several dogs of this breed appear in the monuments, and 



* SharjK', Egypt. Iiiscvipt., ))1. 87. 

2 Lepsius, Deiikm., Abtli. II, Bl. 9. 

3 Ibid., Bl. 46. 

* Ibid., Bl. 50-52, 77, 78. 

^ Duemichen, die Resullatc, fo. 1869, Taf. viii. 

* Monumcnti Storici, xvi. 5. 
7 Rosfllini, Mon. Cir., xvi, 3. 

** Societo d'.Acclimatisation, 2c Pories, torn. VII, 1870, p. 100. 



The Tablet of Antejaa IL 111 

have been depicted by Rosellini and Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
and are chiefly of a pied colour,^ as in the following 
example. 




According to Youatt, it is a dog not unlike the old Talbot 
hound or Eskimaux dog.' 

The modern Egyptian dog, described by that author, is 
not the same, but many varieties of the race with pointed 
ears appear on the monuments ; one^ a female dog of a black 
and liver colour, like a turn-spit, with short legs and pointed 




nose,® evidently a household dog, and unsuited for the chase. 
Others occur with Avhite and brown spots like the poodle or 
spaDiel,* or yellow and white with red eyes.^ A remarkable 
variety of this type resembles closely such dogs of mongrel 
origin as are often seen at the present day, and were perhaps 
half-breeds of the dogs with pointed noses and the flat- 
nosed dog or hound, and were used either for in or out door 

' The word T J «6 amongst other significations has that of ' piod 

- Youatt, The Dog, 8vo. Lond. 1875, p. 56. 

^ Rosellini, Mon. Civ., xvii, 6. ■• Ibid, xvii, 2. * Ibid, xriii, 2. 

Vol. IV. 12 



178 



The Tahlet of Anfefan ff. 



purposes. Such is t^ie dog* called Xahasu,^ the name conferred 
on the animal given in Rosellini and having a red and blue 
colour, a spotted dog Avith a yellow skin,- and another 
flitter and liver coloured,'' with a white and yellow variety: 




all of which were apparently house dogs, or pets, and not 
suitable for other purposes. The older breed of the dogs 
held ready to start or actually running is constantly seen in 
the tombs till the close of Xllth Dynasty.* This dog was 
indigenous to Egypt, is not seen brought as a foreign animal, 
and has remained till the present day. 




A*AAA\ 



> 



The third dog, C, is called ' Pahatcs, alias Kamu.' The 
first name is, like the preceding, of doubtful meaning. Tlie 



' Rosellini, Mon. Civ., xvii, 7, - Ibid. xtH, 4. ^ Ibid, xvi, 6. 

* Lepsiu8, Denkra., Abfli, IT, Bl. 131-131. 



The Tablet of Antefaa II. 



179 



second means ' Black,' probably referring to the colour of the 
dog. It is a kind of mastiflT, and was probably used for the 
chase of large animals, although it has not so large a collar 
of coiled rope round the neck to protect it from their claws. 
It is clearly a mastiff,^ a breed rarely represented m the 
sculptures, but which, however, is found,'' but not at the 
earlier period of the I Vth Dynasty. ^ This was probably an 
Indian or ^Ethiopian dog, and resembles in type the large 
hounds seen in the Assyrian sculptures. It was probably 
introduced into Egypt from ^Ethiopia after the progress of 
the arms of the early Pharaohs had penerated into Ethiopia. 
Such hounds were suitable for hunting the lion, and the 
monarch of the forest appears among the various animals of 
the mountains at an early period. In the Assjaian sculptures 
this kind of dog is seen thus employed, and the large and 
powerful hounds of the breed were brought from India. 




It is represented with a leash round its neck in the sculp- 
tures, and at this early period had been introduced into 
Egypt, although it does appear like that with the pointed 
ears, the indigenous dog mentioned before, to have been used 
as a house dog. In the letter of Candace, the queen of 
Ethiopia, to Alexander the Great,* she mentions "canes 



' Youatt, p. 100. ' Eosellini, Mon. Civ., xvii. 3. 

3 Lepsius, Denkra., Abth II, BJ. 107. 
■• Mai, Classic. Veter. 8vo. Eomse, t. viii, 1835, p. 200. 



180 



The Tablet of Antefaa IT. 



etiara in homines efferaeissimos nouagmta," apparently ninety 
blood-hounds, or some other kind of dogs, which might be 
used either in the chase of men, or employed like that by 
Rameses II in war agamst his enemies. All these different 
breeds appear intermingled, and to have produced the 
different varieties of hounds seen in the sculptures. 

The fourth dog, which stands between the legs of the 
king, is called Tekir or l.'ekal, the name conferred upon him. 



^ A 



\f. 




Like two of the others he has a second appellative, Uha t 
neb "^ar naf or ^(ar J\ Avliich does not appear like the preceding 
to refer to the colour of the animal. It is not preceded by 
the expression -^-^v en let, as in the other cases. The first 
word of the appellative \».V "^Jjs.* tcha.t, perhaps a variant 
of the word "V if^ "^Jn*. .-sS^ "/'" * to lay waste, plough up, or 
destroy,' a word analogous to \^V^v«~ t(h 'to cut off or raze.' 
It is followed by the wcjrd -^^ neb 'lord' or 'all,' and the 
Avord ' — -^ • ■)(^cir neft ' under his breath.' The meaning of this 
epithet seems very obscure. There is one peculiarity about 
it, the presence of two feminine articles from which it would 
appear that the dog was female, although the bold and erect 
attitude it assumes gives it the character of a male dog. 
Round its neck is a cord thrice lashed round its neck. This 
dog closely resembles the Dalmati;ui hound.' It is rarely if 

' Youiitf, Y>. 28. 



llie Tablet of Antpfaa IT. 181 

ever represented in the hunting scenes, and was not, hke the 
preceding dogs, indigenous to tJie country, nor is it known 
whence it came. In the case of the dogs A. and C, their 
colour is mentioned in their epithet. B. has probably his 
expressed m his name, as the first syllable ab means ' pied ' or 
' spotted,' and A kar may signify a ' Sphinx,' and his name ' the 
Spotted' or 'pied Sphinx' may express his colour. It is 
consequently fair to suppose that the appellative of this dog 
expresses also the colour ; but it is difficult to know what it 
is intended to express. 

The hieroglyph 7^7? a dog walking with its tail raised^ 

was used for the determinative of the word tasem or 'hound,'' 
perhaps the female or watch dog, as it is written in hieratic 
tas^mer or as-niut. It is a word also applied to certain parts 
of a fortification, perhaps as the watch-towers or look-outs of 
the wall. Some varieties of this form are found, as *1^^^ the 

determinative of the word uliar, the male dog, the Coptic 
niOYP OJp pi-nhor. Another variety of dog was called au or 
au-aii,^ and appears to have been employed in the chase. It 
had the same determinative with the raised tail,* or else was 



represented seated _^-'' ^'^^^ 1* would appear that this 
was either the wild dog or the jackal, as it is found Avith the 
determinative "^^ of that animal, the great peculiarity of 
the dog being that it turns on one side, or curls its tail, while 
the jackal and wild dog carry the tail pendent. The 
Egyptians used the same jackal or cajiis aureus for the chase, 
and it no doubt closely resembles the dog B., indeed Laborde 
states that he hunted with this kind of dog in Arabia. In 
the campaigns of Meneptah, the Libyans are said to have 
come down on Egypt like these mi dogs, a metaphor more 
applicable to the wild dog or the jackal, whole troops of 
which still range the desert and disturb the stillness of the 
night by their lugubrious howl or wail. Amongst the many 

1 Brugsch, Worterb. s. 96. ^ ib;j_ g. 268. ^ Ibid. s. 539. 

^ Papyrus. Brit. Mus. No. 9,900, in the passage Lepsius, Todtenbuth, c. 1 7, 
line 65. 

^ Brugscli, Mon. d'Egypte, ii, Taf. Ixyi, 4. 



182 The Tablet of Antefaa II. 

liunting scenes already mentioned, several of these wild 
dogs are seen in pursuit of game. The word mi evidently 
indicates a peculiar breed or kind of dog different from the 
tasem and the nhar^ and was probably that descended from 
the jackal or hyajna, an animal domesticated in Egypt, and 
even at the time of the IVth Dynasty prized as a luxury 
of the table. It is, indeed, just probable that one of the 
varieties of ancient dogs may have resulted from a crossing 
with this animal. Another name apphed to the dog Wi s 

'^~|^\fc »? - unki or ci2zzd I Ajh. f? - unsau ' wolves,' a very 

singular one, as favouring the derivation of the dog from the 
domesticated Avolf. There is a very remarkable letter of the 
scribe Enna, in the days of Meneptah of the XlXth Dynasty, 
in which that scribe speaks of large packs of hounds, 200 of 
the kind called 'iiSiXh »5 uau, and 300 more unia — 500 in all. 
" They stand," he says, " daily at the door of his house at the 
time of his rising out of sleep. They make a breakfast 
when the amphora is opened. He does not, he continues to 
say, wish to have any of the little dogs or pups of the breed 
of Nahar Hu, the royal scribe, staying in the house, for it is 
an annoyance to me. Hour after hour, every time of his 
going out, in his going in the road, this dog must be kicked 
and flogged, making the thongs of the whip fall out one after 
another. The red long-tailed dog goes at night into the 
stalls of the hills. He is better than the long-faced dog. 
He makes no delay in hunting, his face glares like a god, 
and he delights to do his Avork, the kennel where he abides 
he does not make it " ; ' that is, he does not stop anywhere in 
the pursuit of his prey. It is remarkable to find these 
animals classed together, but the term 'w^olf was })robably 
applied to one of the breeds of dogs on account of its resem- 
b'lance in appearance or quality of mind and huntmg powers 
to that more ferocious animal. 

' This passage is Select Papyri, pi. xciii, 1. 12, to xciv, 1. 5. I liave followed 
Mr. Godwin's translation, Cambridge Essays, 8vo. 1858, p. 25, but many pasi^agcs 
are doubtful and obscure; for example, in the Harris Papyrus, ji. xli, 6, 1. 4, 

■■ I *m^ Wk *S^ - sabaru is applied to some part of grapes. 



The Tablet of Autefaa II. 183 

The Egyptian was much attached to this animal, and by 
no means hekl it in abhorrence, as the Jews appear to have 
done, and who always speak of it and the ass in terms of 
contempt, and there is no record of its use amongst them 
either for the protection of the house or purposes of the 
chase. The only instance of familiarity with the dog being 
m the Apocrypha, where the dog of Tobias runs home before 
him to announce his approach. 

Another kind of hoimd is supposed to be mentioned in 
the romance of the Doomed Prince, and to have been called 
the boarhound. The boar hunt was probably a favourite 
pursuit of the Assyrians ; at all events, the wild boar, although 
not chased, is seen in the rehefs, the other animals hunted 
by Assurbanipal or Sardanapalus being the hon, the wild ass, 
the deer, and the wild goat. There is no instance of the 
Egyptians ever following the boar, an animal held by them 
in abhorrence, and which they could not touch, or even 
allow to touch them. It is indeed possible, that in the days 
of Thothmes III the boar may have been pursued as now 
in the plains of Mesopotamia, and that the romance in 
question is the translation or reproduction of some Aramaean 
work of imagination. But it is also probable that the expres- 
sion of the Harris Papyrus does not refer to that hound. The 
word for dog in the romance^ is 'i^ 'W »5 cm, or, as some 
Egyptologists persist to read it fu, the au bemg probably 
the onomatopoea of the familiar ivoio — or hoio looiv by wliich 
the dog is known — the short cry or bark of the dog. The 
passage about the supposed boarhound is much mutilatecl, 

and reads either I '5 %ei 'x^et vera, " follower of the 

boar," or if^^" %e^%ei5sgm, "follower of the youth,"' 

that is, a dog that went about with a boy, a harmless 
domesticated animal, or even if the word kra applies to 
the dog itself, a pup, it being probable that the alarmed 
father of the prince sent the least dangerous kind of dog 
he could to pacify his son rather than a fierce boarhound, 

' Harris Papyrus, 500, 1. 4. - Ibicl. 1. 10. 



184 The Tablet of Autefaa 11. 

^v]ncll would liave been more likely to soon fulfil the con- 
ditions of the oracle. At all events, the hieratic form favours 
the hypothesis. Without doubt he was ultimately destroyed 
by the dog, but in what manner the mutilated tale does not 
describe. The dog, subsequent to the Moslim conquest of 
Egypt, has been allowed to roam wild in herds through the 
streets and suburbs, and are all said^ to be affected by 
mange, leprosy, or some other cutaneous malady. The 
Arabs, however^ had harehounds. 

In the articles brought at different time« to Egypt by the 
neighbouring countries dogs occasionally appear, as m those 
brought to the Queen Hatasu or Haseps from Punt or 
Arabia, others which came from the ^Ethiopians at the time 
of Thothmes III, and the bloodhounds mentioned in the 
letter as sent by Queen Candace from Ethiopia. 

In the examination n^ade in the IGtli year of Rameses IX 
of the tombs violated by robbers, one of the principal tombs 
investigated was that of Antefaa of the Xlth Dynasty. The 
passage reads : — 

"The tomb of the king of Upper Egypt, son of the Sun, 
Antefaa the living, which is north of the temple of Amenhept 
[I] the living, of the forecourt his tomb placed in it is damaged 
— its tablet is placed before it. There is a figure of the king- 
standing on the tablet with his dog between his legs, it is 
called Buhaka, examined on that day (the 18th of the month 
Athor] it Avas found uninjured."^ 

The tablet, as will be seen, is considerably mjured, and it 
is of course possible that it may have been so at the remote 
period when the inquest was held. The description of the 
inquest does not exactly correspond with the copy of the 
tablet chscovered by Mariette-Bey. The dog Buhaka is the 
(log A, and M. Maspero's copy makes that dog to stand 
before the legs of the king, the first of a perpendicular row 

' Prosper Alpinus, Hist. ^gypt. Nat. 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1735, p. 230. 

2 Maspero, Une Enquete Judiciare a Thebes, 4to. Paris, 1872, pp. 13-14. 
There is some difficulty in this passage as to wliat was 'damaged' and what 
was ' intact,' apparontl}' only the ahu forecourt of the sepulchre, the tomb being 
uninjured. Originally I translated tasem "cat," misled by the animal, Sharpe, 
Eg^^pt. Inecr. 87, 108. 



The Tablet of Antefaa 11. 1H5 

of three dogs A, B, C, the dog between the legs being D, 
named Tekal, and the word Buhaka being differently 
written as Bahakaa. These variations often occur, the 
transcription of words pronounced but not seen being 
differently written, thanks to a j^liant polyphonic system. 

The custom of naming dogs was by no means uncommon, 
and several instances of appellatives being applied to these 
animals occm*. At Beitoually, Rameses II has at the foot of 
his throne a dog called Antaemnext, or 'Anaitis in power,' 
and in the tombs of the IVth and Xllth Dynasties many dogs 
have names. Thus at the time of Xllth Dynasty dogs are 

seen named '7^ i 1 Satekai,^ © 1 V J ' \»> Xabeszf, 

>s..>^ »W *^ S^ '^■""^ Tl!^ 1 ^J^enmaufnahsi,^ I ^-"^^ I Snab,* 
and ©1 1|^'^— ^ jfj Xafmes,^ i I Akena,^ and ^'l-^ 

Ken ...,'' and %k Temaa.^ 



Names, in fact, wore freely conferred in Egypt on horses 
and other animals, and even tools had particular and distin- 
guishing names : these names often expressed metaphorically 
the qualities and uses of the object on which they were 
conferred. 

The pack of Antefaa Avere named agreeably to the usual 
custom, This pack of hounds of Antefaa is like the same 
animals in the royal kennels of Assurbanipal, Avhich were 
used in the lion hunts of that monarch, and of which terra 
cotta figures with their names were found placed behind the 
slabs of the lion hunts at Kouyunjik. That Antefaa was 
attached to the chase is evident, for the different kind of 
dogs are all varieties of hounds used for that purpose by the 

Egyptians. Besides the dog an officer named ^^^ \^ 

Tekenru, draped in a collar us-)(^ and tunic Sejiti Avith pendant 
arms, and of smaller size, follows the king. He is unaccom- 
panied by any title, but may be the huntsman of the king. 

' Rosellini, Mon. Civ., xvi, 3. ^ Ibid, xvi, 7. ' Ibid, xvi, 5. 

* Sharpe, Egypt. Inscr., 87. ' Ibid. 108. ^ Lepsius, Denkm., ii, 52. 

7 Ibid, ii, 36. » Ibid. 47. 



186 The Tablet of Antcjaa II. 

At tlu- time of Cheops the officer Amten held amongst other 



iVvisr^ 



employments that of H " Sk '%s^-^^ X^'"^ "" °^* X^^P 

uH with the determinative of a man holding a dog.^ It is 
difficult to know wdiat this expression exactly means, but the 
determinative favours the sujiposition that it may be intended 
to express master of the hounds. Such an office must have 
evidently existed for the packs of hounds used by the 
Pharaohs, and the chief nobility of Egypt, ever engaged in 
the chase, but it is not otherwise found. 

The subject of the Xlth Dynasty has been already treated 
by the late Vicomte de Rouge in the Revue Archeologique, 
and its relation to the Xllth Dynasty proved by the tablet of 
Leyden,^ which had formed part of the sepulchre of an officer 
named Antefakar, who had been superintendent of the Canals 
of Abydos. Amongst the persons represented on that tablet 
is one Amensu, w^ho states that the father of the father of 
his father, that is his great-grandfather, was appointed to 
the same office in the reign of the "Horus augmenting life the 
king, son of the Sun Antef" Now this king has the same 
Horus title as Antefaa, and is probably the same monareh. 
The time of the erection of the tablet was the thirtj'-third 
year of Osortesen I; and as Antefaa reigned from this 
tablet 50 years, it gives 83 years from that period to the 
commencement of the reign of Antefaa. But as four gene- 
rations are invoh'ed by the statement, the whole period was 
probably 120 years. In this inscription Antef has not the 
usual cartouche ; but this is not uncommon in the Antef line, 
and was probably due to the fact that the whole line, always 
local, derived its origin from a nomarch or collateral branch 
of a royal family. 

The succession of the Xlth Dynasty has indeed been 
arranged by Lepsius;^ but as the reasons on wliich it is 
based are not given, it will be necessary to cast a glance on 
the state of the inquiry as it stands at present. 



' Lopsius, Dciikm., Abth. II, 3. 

' Revue Arcli^ologiquc, vol. vi, 1819, p. 557, et seq. 

^ Konigftbucli, Taf. xi. 



The Tablet of Antefaa 11. 187 

According to the epitoinists of Manetho, tlit^re were 13 
Idiigs of the Ime, who reigned 43 years only. It will be 
seen from the inscriptions that Antefaa reigned fifty, and 
another monarch 43 years, so that ]\Ianetho's account is 
obviously incorrect. Lepsius' series is — 

1. Antef [called 'the good god']. 

2. Mentuhetp, king of Upper and Lower Egypt. 

3. Antef II, Horus hapt ma, and same title in cartouche 

prenomen. 
His wife ]\Ientuhetp. 

4. Antef III. Har hi ma. 
His queen Nubsas. 
Another queen Xonsu. 

A king Har uah anv Antef not in cartouche. 

5. Mentuhetp II, prenomen Ra neb ;)^ru. 
(). Antef IV, prenomen Ra nub ;^eper. 

Usersen. 

7. Mentuhetp III, prenomen Ra neb hetp. 
A queen mother Ama, 

8. Ra san;i^ ka. 

9. A king whose name is destroyed. 
10. Ra neb nem. 

The Karnak list,^ the order of which is in other instances 
unfortunately misplaced, and consequently not absolutely 
authoritative, gives six monarchs of this line, five in the 
first row and one at the end of the fourth close to the kings 
of the XVIIth Dynasty. They are as follows :— 

1. The Horus Antef in a cartouche. 

2. The Horus Antefaa in a cartouche. 

3. The Horus ha Antef in a cartouche. 

4. The Horus ancestor Mentuhetp. 

5. The Repa ha [Heir-apparent] not in a cartouche. 

All these are in the second line. 

G. The good god, lord active, Ra an;^ X^pfi" (Antef). 

In the 4th line, amongst the kings of the XVIIth and 
XVIIIth Dynasty. 

' Burton. Excerpta Hieroglypkica ; Prissc, Mouumens, PI. I. 



188 The Tablet of Anfe/aa II. 

The tablet of Abydos gives only two monarclis of this 
line — 

1. Ra-neb-;^ru or Mcntuhetp IT, 

2. Ra-san%-ka, 

as the 57th and 58th names of the list ; and the same only 
are found in the tablet of Sakkara as the 45th and 46th of 
the list.^ Their names are not found in the Papyrus of Turin, 
so that the reconstruction of the dynasty depends entirely 
on the internal evidence the monuments afford, and the 
monuments cannot be arranged according to the official lists. 
The principal information that these afford is, that some of 
the so-called dynasty had not assumed the title of king, but 
were only princes, heirs-apparent to the throne, or else local 
lords of the nome over which they ruled. 

The monarch Mentuhetp II was one of the ancestors of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, and his statue was carried in the ancestral 
processions of that line. The title ' Horus ancestor,' applied 
in the Karnak tablet to one of these kings of the Xlth, pro- 
bably has reference to the XVIIIth Dynasty having descended 
from him. In the absence of positive information, it will be 
necessary to consider the general facts connected with this 
line. It does not under any circumstances appear to have 
ruled beyond Egypt, for no tablet erected in their reign is 
found at the mines of the Sarabit-el-Khadim or the Wady 
Magarah. Nor in Egypt itself up to the present date has 
any monument been found dated in the reigns of any of the 
rulers of this line. 

The outer case of the mummy of Antefaa exists at present 
in the Louvre, and the prmcipal point of interest connected 
with it is that this monarch, who is the supposed Antef II, 
received a burial from his brother, Antef III. On the coffin 
he is called Antef only ; but the prenomen of this monarch 
is well known, and is found on a pyramidion from Thebes,^ 
on one side of which is part of the title of a sovereign named 
Mentuhetp, supposed by some to be a queen aiul the wife 
of Antefaa. It is not possible to decide this point, owing to 

' Bunsen's Egypt's Place, vol. i, 1867, pp. 52-57. 
- Now in the British Museum, No. 520. 



The Tablet of Antefaa 11. 189 

a fracture of the monument, but a queen of the name of 
Mentuhetp is known, as also that she was a queen-mother. 
The Hst of Lepsius give two queens for Antef III. The 
first of these queens was named Nubsas, the second Xonsu. 
The evidence of their belonging to this monarch rests on the 
assignment of Lepsius only. It will be observed that in the 
list of Lepsius an Antef is given, not in the usual cartouche 
and preceded by the Horus title Uali any^^ 'augmenter of 
life ; ' this phrase is the Horus or so-called standard title, 
but ought rather to be termed the palatial title of Antefaa. 
The square m which this title is inscribed represented a 
doorway, not a banner ; and in some examples the bolts by 
which the door was secured are depicted at the lower part 
of the hieroglyph. These Horus titles, prior to the Xllth 
Dynasty, were constant, not changed during the life of the 
monarch, nor assumed by their successors. It is therefore 
conclusive that the Antef j)laced after Antef III was Antefaa, 
or Antef II. The case of Antef III has also been found at 
the El Assasif,' and is in the Museum of the Louvre. His 
prenomen, Ra., xerp apu her ma, appears to have been added 
to it after the other inscriptions, but there is no reason to 
suppose that the cave had been usurped by a later king, that 
beuig impossible. He bears in the inscriptions the name of 
Antef only. The coffins at this period were hewn out of 
a single tree, and fashioned in the shape of the mummy. 
Mentuhetp II appears to have been a victorious monarch, 
and is represented on the rocks of Konosse as havuig 
vanquished thirteen nations or tribes. This king is repre- 
sented as the worshipper of Khem or Coptos. The most 
illustrious monarch of the series was Mentuhetp III, and 
dates of his reign are found as high as his 43rd year. The 
inscriptions of Coptos represent him worshipping the god Khem 
on the rocks of El Hammamat, the entrance of valley leachng 
to Coptos. A tablet discovered by Mr. Harris, the co23y of 
which was unfortunately lost at the time, represented him 
worshipped by his successor, Antef IV. It is this monarch 
who, as has been already observed, was the predecessor ot 

' Zeitschrift fiir Agjptische Spraclie, 1869, s. 49. 



190 The Tahlet of Anfefaa If. 

the monarclis of the XVIIIth Dynasty. The earher inscriptions 
on the same rocks record the second year of the reign of 
Mentuhetp III.^ 

From excavations made many years ago at Medinat 
Habu, by Lord Dufferin, it appears that a shrine of that site 
was founded by one of the Antefs, whose name was in- 
scribed on the border of a wooden tablet dedicated to the 
god Amen Ra, or the Theban Jupiter. A beautiful statue of 
that god, probably of the same age, was found by Mr. Cyril 
Graham during the course of the excavations. 

Another monarch of this line was Ameni, a king mentioned 
on 839 tablet in a fimeral inscription describing the titles of 
a person named Sanaru, who bore the title of royal priest in 

the land of A^eni .erp ^^.f ^jf k {\T:\\ )] lA-', 

suten ah ern Aineni 'xerp ahmer. The numerous persons 
named Ameni at the commencement of the Xllth Dynasty 
show that the name was given to those born in the reign of 
a pre^dous monarch, and Ameni must be added to the list 
of Antefs as closing the line of kings of the Xlth Dynasty. 

A tablet of the British Museum, No. 5G9, throws some 
light on the reign of Ameni of the Xlth Dynasty. The 
officer Hathorsa or Saenathor, for whom it had been made, 
and who hved in the reign of Amenemha II, records his 
services both on the Egyptian frontiers in the south, where 
he had penetrated as far as the Nahsi or Negroes, and had 
occupied himself in the obtaining of gold from Ethiopia. 
He has also been engaged in the construction of the palace 
of Ameni-;)(;erp abmer or Ameni, the consecrated Pyramid, 
or consecrator of the Pyi-amid. Here he had under him 

fifteen chiefs at the <==> "Vl. \ rot either the "steps" or 

the base of the edifice. Saenathor appears to have com- 
pleted his labours in a day less than two months. - 

The seven lines of hieroglj^ohs placed before the king 
appear to relate to certain donations he had made to the 
temple of Amen at Thebes, probably to the original shrine 

' Prisse, Monumons. PL 

'- Zoitsc-lirifl fiir Agyptisoho Spraclic, 1874, p. 113. 



The Tablet of Ant ef a a 11. IDl 

at Medinat Habu, and to liis sepiilclire. The upper part ot 
each line is wanting owing to the fracture of the monument. 
The purport of the whole is rather obscure. 

LINE 

1 The persons of Amen, his divine abode was filled 

with noble vases to pour out libations, never has been 
found what has been done to Amen the first of all 
existent types. 

2 [for ever] and ever. For then were built their 

divme abode, laid their staircase, chiselled their halls, 
appointed their sacred supplies in it for ever. Was 
found. 

3 its limit behind the pool, made by the work in 

tlie noble hill. The East was also occupied, all its 
enclosures were open, being made open in fi'ont. 

4 like the Heaven, greatest of things, hke the sea, 

noblest of the glories of the places of waters surrounded 
by that arable land. I myself ordered my son, I gave 
my commands. 

5 without cessation coming out of [the] mouth. 

Not commanded the passage of that word. He who was 
in the desert did not strangle that word prepared in 
place of my fathers, not neglecting to hear his word. 

it for ever and ever. The 50th year this tablet 

was set up at the sepulchre of the Horus, augm enter of 
life, Iving of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Son of the 
Sun Antefaa. 

7 thousands of loaves, jars of beer, flesh, fowl, 

thousands of all goods things, to the Horus augmenter 

of life, king of Upper and Lower Egypt, son of the 

Sun Antefaa. 

The philological difiiculties of this text are very great. 

At the beginning of the first line, the part preceding the 

word Amen, requires to be restored apparently in connection 

with the two determinatives that follow the name of that 

god. The part which follows the name of the god Amen 

when it is mentioned a second time is also wanting, but was 

evidently part of the titles of the same god, and is one of 

those difficult mystical titles of the god, other examples of 



192 The Tahlet of Ant of a a II. 

which are seen on the tablets of the Xllth Dynasty, as in one 
in tile British Museum dated in the 13th year of Auienemha II, 
api sut %eper kar hat " forthwith produced at first," ' the 
hitter part of which is perhaps to be restored in this text. 
In tlie 2nd Kne is a word I V^ ij- ^ — ' *"^-^'«? or ratlier 
s-kahii, the hand at the end being used at this time for a 
determinative. This verb is applied to constructions and 
may be in connection with the word akhu a hatchet,^ and 
occurs in the great Harris Papyrus before the word men§ ' a 
galley,' in the lists apparently in the sense of ' shipbuilding.' 
Here it belongs to the word oxf, or steps of the edifice. In 
the 93rd line is the word 1 q afh or tah, a word in some 

variants supposed to mean ' marsh,'^ but apparently not with 
that meaning here, being accompanied with another deter- 
minative usually found in the word ■yenem'^ and supposed to 
relate to the inner apartments in that word, and it also occurs 
in the word ')(ener^ or ')(Q\va'^ to shut or inclose, apparently 
connecting this particular form with the idea of an ' enclosed 
place* which was 'open.' The word ar 1L v\ in line 3 
rarely occurs in inscriptions, although this group forms the 
final syllable of the words Ta-ar and ma-ar in the sense of 
to bind, chain or imprison. The present form is probably 
connected with the Coptic ^Xoo'ffe a noose to strangle 
with, and hence the sense of the passage that "he who 
was in the desert or the Her-sa was never strangled" or 
' suffocated.' But the form is so rare as to suggest that 
the 1, which is sometimes seen transfixing as it were the 
eagle, may have been omitted in the copy or by the 
masons. Altogether the word before the titles of the king- 
has 1 a alone remaining. It has been partly erased, but 
as the other signs are uncertain, the sense of the passage 



' Sharpc, Egypt. Tnscr. pi. 78, 1. 5. 

- Cf. Brugsch, Wui'tei'b. 11. 

3 Brugscli, Worterb. 658, 27. 

•• Lepsius, Denkm., Abf. II, Bl. 100, 6 ; Brugsch, Worterb. 70G. 

^ Tablet, Egypt. Gall. Brit. ]\Ius. 159. 

* Pup. Biirker, Brit. Mits. ; Lepsius, ToJtt. c. 1, 1. 3 ; Brugsch, Worterb. 116. 



The Tablet of Antefaa IL 193 

and condition of the monument requires that the word 
a[bmer'\ sepulchre, should be supplied, as the tablet was 
placed before that monument of the king. The form sen or 
sent is usually accompanied by the determinative of the slug, 
but here has the cake, a form wliich occasionally occurs on 
the monuments. The passage is rather difficult, as the word 
when the determinative of sent ' terror ' is the plucked goose, 
and it may read "Unspeakable it was the terror of that word," 
meaning that the effect of his commands were such that the 
Herusa or supposed Bedouins could not dare to disobey it ; 
and the following sentence means ' the Herusa could ' or ' did 
not strangle that word ' or order which Antefaa had given to 
his son. There are many difficulties in this part of the 
inscription, the chief interest of it being the high date of 
the king's reign, and it is remarkable that there is no allusion 
to the hunting expeditions of the king, in which he no doubt 
engaged. The text appears to refer to the occupation of 
this part of the country for the pm*pose of executing these 
monuments, and that it was done without either opposition 
or oppression on the part of the monarch or his family. 
There is not much wanting, as the king having his arm 
elevated, and the text being arranged so as to meet the 
requirements of the figure, about one third of the whole 
is probably absent. The inscriptions of the Xlth Dynasty 
are however so rare, that the present is a most valuable 
addition to those already known for the light it throws on 
the obscure period of that dynasty. 



I owe to the kindness of M. Mariette the following 
account of the Tombs of the Xlth Dynasty — 

"La tombe ou la Stele a 4te trouvee existe encore a 
Drah-abou'1-neggah. Elle est situee plus pres du Nil que de 
la montagne et juste a la lisiere des terres cultivees. Elle 
consiste en une pyramide de briques crues qui n'a pas dil 
avoir plus d'une quinzaine de metres de base. Au centre et 
dans le massif de cette pyramide est une chambre dont le 

Vol. IY. 13 



lilt Tlie Tahhi of Antefaa II. 

fond etait occupe par la Stele en question. Cette cliambre 
avait une porte parfaitement visible du dehors, et dans I'an- 
tiquite on la visitait par consequent quand on voulait. 

" Mais ce qui etait cache, c'est la chambre mortuaire pro- 
prement dite. La pyraniide etant construite sur le roc, c'est 
dans le roc qu'a ete creusee la tonibe et que se trouve la 
chambre ou repose la momie. Je ne Tai pas trouvee. La 
pyramide, en effet, n'est pas orientee. D'un autre cote I'entree 
du couloir qui conduit a la chambre pent se rencontrer au 
sud, au nord, a Test, a I'ouest, et meme assez loin du monu- 
ment. II faut dire aussi que ce qui reste de la pyramide se 
trouve enclave dans une propriete particuliere. Je n'ai done 
pu faire sur la pyramide que des tentatives d'autant moins 
serieuses que je n'avais aucune regie pour me guider, ni 
aucun precedent a suivre. 

" J'ajouterai que I'usage de disposer les morts dans les 
tombes ayant la forme exterieure de pyramides et baties en 
briques, est comniun a tout le Moyen-Erapire, depuis la XI^ 
jusqu'a la XIIP dynastie. J'en ai trouve plus de cent a 
Abydos. Dans ce cas les pyramides ne sont pas orientees. 
Comme la tombe d'Antef-aa, elles ont deux chambres, une 
accessible en tout temps, I'autre a jamais cachee. Les tombes 
de Drah-abou'1-neggah qui appartiennent a cette periode sont 
regies par les memos lois, meme quand elles sont creusees 
dans le roc vif. En ce cas une ou plusieurs chambres donnent 
acces aux visiteurs, et on n'arrive a la chambre mortuaire que 
par un puits rectangulaire le plus souvent vertical, quelque- 
fois incline. J'ai trouve autrefois la tombe d'Antef Ra-neb- 
Xeper. En avant de la porte etaient deux ob^lisques, ce qui 
prouve qu'on n'avait pas du tout I'intention de rendre cette 
tombe invisible du dehors. Le tout, comme vous le voyez, 
rentre dans les conditions des mastabas de I'Ancien-Empire. 

" Quant a tons ces petits objets, meubles, ustensiles, 
armes, vases, paniers, ble^ fruits, pains, etc., que les tombes 
de la XI^ dynastie nous restituent si souvent, c'est dans la 
chambre mortuaire, avec la momie ou a cote, qu'on les trouve, 
jamais dans la salle exterieure, reservee seulement aux prieres 
des survivants." 



=1 

> 



The Tablet of Antefaa II. 195 



Appendix. 

The following letters from Mr. A. D. Bartlett, F.Z.S., were 
read at the meeting, and ordered to be printed after the 
paper by Dr. Birch : — 

"Zoological Society's Gardens, 

"Regent's Park, London, N.W., 

'' February 2Q, 1^75. 
" Dear Sir, 

" In reply to your note, I consider the figure of the dog 
A closely resembles the Dalmatian Hound in form, and probably the 
Gazelle Hounds are descendants of this breed. B well represents a 
dog found iu the North of China, barely distinguishable from the 
Esquimaux, which may be regarded as half wolf. We have also 
the Wild Dog of Australia (the Dingo), not in any respect different in 
form or general character from the figure B. The fonn of C is doubt- 
less that of the Mastiff; and D appears to be a smaller and probably a 
pet house dog ; it appears to have had its ears cropped, 

" Yours faithfully, 

"A. D, BARTLETT." 
" W. R. Cooper, Esq., F.llA.S., 
" Secretary to the Society of Biblical Archceology" 

" Zoological Society's Gardens, 

" Regent's Park, London, N.W., 

''March 8, 1875. 
" Dear Sir, 

" In reply to your letter of this day, you have my 

permission to use the remarks I made upon the subject of the dogs 

in any way you may think proper. I am glad to hear of the ' Dog 

of the White Antelope.' Last year I was in Hamburgh on the 

arrival of a large collection of living animals from Africa, in which 

collection were many Gazelles and other Antelopes, together with 16 

or more Giraffes. With this large lot were many attendants, who 

brought with them two of the dogs used for the capture of the Gazelles 

and other of the Antelopes ; these dogs are in form hke the one 

figured on your paper. 

" Yours faithfully, 

"A. D. BARTLETT." 
" IF. E. Coox>er, Esq., F.R.A.S." 



11)6 



HIMYARITIC INSCRIPTIONS LATELY DISCOVERED 
NEAR SAN'A IN ARABIA. 

By Captain W. F. Prideaux, F.R.G.S., Bombay Staff Corps. 
Read Qfh July-, 1875. 

The following inscriptions, which have recently been 
brought to Aden from the vicinity of San'a in Yemen, are 
published in continuation of those printed at page 28, 
Vol. II, of the Transactions of the Society of Bibhcal 
Archaeology. 

No. XI. — Ox A Perfect Slab op Ldiestone. 



V <■> D 


H 1 D ? i^ 


% A 4" 


V 1 S V S ^ 


h h n 


V m M 


D V X > V n 1 tn 


® V * ' 


D SI IJ 1 <» 


h I ) 


* V h > D 




h n H 



Himyaritic Inscriptions lately discovered near Sand, Sfc. 197 

No. XII. — On a Small Block of Limestone, 

Of which the upper portion is fashioned into the form of an 
elephant. The head is broken off, but the body and legs 
are perfect. Below the forelegs the heads and scaly necks 
of two snakes are carved upon the stone. An endowment 
of Wadd by Ham'atht son of Shafkm. 



In front, below the Elepha)it. 



1 X s 


o 


Q 


f 




n H 1 


i 





* 


^ 



Oil the side. 




No. XIII. — On a Sacrificial Altar of Limestone. 



>)^ I n I X H" n H D 

nn I" } D H I? s 

n a n 'n H 1 




1D8 Himyaritic Inscriptions lately discovered 

No. XIV. — (BOUSTROPHEDON). 

On three slabs of limestone (a), {h\ and (c), each of 
which is unfortunately broken, but which apparently are 
consecutive. The dotted lines show where the stone is 
fractured. 



(«.) 



os?i)vv<i>ioBni'ii> 

si)jnin?)i]MoiHfs 
<»AnHiinHirtAioHa.ino 

)4'IIISHI?1oniha>HoTH 



(6.) 



«> I ? 1 o V D A I h n I ) X ® I ) D A 
^«i>HU<i.OrJ|i;nr'V^<i>inHlho 

isiv*ihni) i^n v?Hiii)<» 

ofDfh I® V HH^X A TI1®m 



near Sand in Arabia. 199 



vxTiAnihhVAiiihnA 
ri's^AXfuxogiTVrt 
VTnona.i)(i.giiA 

ri®rt(?«xirtrrirxH 
oaxtonihxogaiii 



No. XV. — On a Broken Slab of Limestone. 

As the characters are very much worn, only those of 
whose identity there can be no doubt are transcribed. 



^'""I'-f^'i- 



l*8?<f I XA A mio^HV 

^Sihn in^Aonxisninj 
XHni<i>v m?! I DgSBoi^ 



>:>'>:- 



200 



Himyaritic Inscriptions lately discovered 



No. XVI. — On a Fragment of Ldiestone. 
Characters much worn. 



wmmt D V a on A 1 o A I X 

©B^VfHIIlMftlXlhll 



H® I n ? 



•-T/V^ '-T/ >^ uT/^s ir/\A iT/^s lr;^-^ —i^'^ 



H n« 



No. XVII.— On a Small Fragment op Limestone. 
Characters very legible, long and slim. (Boustrophedon.) 



: h o? ? V 1 


s n : 


: iSr^H nrtr^ : 



No. XVIII. — On a small Limestone Slab. 
Perfect. 



s h I h h n A 3 I o 
^ > o n <i> M iS 



near San' a, in Arabia. 

No XIX. — On a Fragment of Limestone. 
(Boustrophedon.) 



201 



^ X n MS 


1 Vor?lHHI i^ 


So)^31l ho 



Note. — ^Although it is my intention to defer submitting 
a full translation of the inscriptions wliich I have discovered 
until a commentary and vocabulary of the Sabaean dialect, 
which I have in preparation, is completed, there are one 
or two points to which I should like to call attention in 
the preceding transcripts, as they serve to confirm the 
accuracy of some of M. Halevy's translations, lately pub- 
lished in the " Journal Asiatique." One is the use of the 
verb O 9 y ill No. XVIII, which is the causative of a verb 
equivalent to the Arabic «_»J6, res effusa fiuxit, and which 
means in Sabaean, to jyrovide tcith loater, or to construct a 
receptacle for water; whence the noun 0*f y^' '-'' ^^^*^' °^" 
reservoir ("Journal Asiatique,'' viiserie, tom. iv, pp. 498, 565). 
In the case of my inscription, the receptacle is called a 
fh n ["t ^ ' f^o^ ^ verb equivalent to the Arabic U~j , of which 
the modern signification is limited to draioing wine. Here, 
however, the word clearly denotes a trough or tank for 
holding water, probably placed by the roadside as a chari- 
table act, for the use of ^^On^i^nin' ^""^''^^" beings 
and camels^ or as we should say, man and beast, p O j| is the 
Arabic ^-tj, the common word for camel at the present 
day among the tribes in the vicinity of Aden, and it occurs 
in juxtaposition, ^0|| ®|)o§|"^^, every bullock and camel, 
in the tripartite inscription, No. XIV c, line 3. The final 

^ iii ^ A h fh ^^^^ ^ ^ ^ n ^® ^^® ordinary masculine 
plural in Sabssan. 



202 Himyaritic Inscriptions lately discovered near San^d, Sfc. 

Another receptacle for Avater we find m No. XIX. O)^ ^ 

is the modern Arabic hs.Jl^^, a jjlace ivhere cattle are icatered. 

The final \ in h fh fl 1^ 3 and h^)?^ is the Sabsean 
enclitic demonstrative. 

Again, the correctness of M. Halevy's reading of 
(dJ^ in the phrases V^>^1fS|cD^^ (I.e. p. 564) and 
hJBTllXHI^JJ (P- '''S''^)' i« confirmed by the phrase 
hX'Ifh'lfh IX^^^rH' which occurs in the tripartite 
inscription No. XIV c, line 4. The word is here in the 
plural feminine, "priestesses." 




HAKniSON AND SONS, PRIKTEBS IN OBDINABT TO HEE MAJESTT, ST. MABTIN'S LAKE. 



TRANSACTIONS 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



Vol. IV. DECEMBER, 1875. Part 2. 

INSCRIPTION OF KING NASTOSENEN. 
Translated by G. Maspeko. 

Read 5th January, 1875. 

This stele was found at Dongolah by Dr. Lepsius, and 
brought to Berlin, where it is now preserved. It has been 
published in the "Denkmaler aus ^gypten und ^Ethiopien," 
Abth. V, bl. 16. 

King Nastosenen is represented twice on it ; first, accuni- 
panied by the "Royal sister, royal mother, queen of Kush 
Pelkha," who " shakes her sistrum to thee ": he '• offers two 
necklaces to his father, " the god " Amen Ra, lord of the seats 
of both worlds, residing in Thebes, the giver of life, stability, 
power all, like unto Ra for ever." Behind the queen is the 

legend, " She has given the crown of Napita, " 

The god saith : " I give thee all the countries, the foreign 
lands, the barbarians collected under thy two sandals, like 
unto Ra, for ever." In the second pictm-e the same king 
offers two necklaces to " Amen of Napita, residmg in \I)il\- 
udb, the great god in the land Kens, that he may give all 
life and power for ever. The god saith : " I give thee Hfe 
and power all, all stability, all health, all joy; I give thee 

Vol.. lY. ^/ li 



204 Inscription of Kiny Xa><tosinitn. 

the years of time, the rising upon the seat of Hor, for ever." 
Behind the king stands " the royal sister, royal wife, queen 
of Egypt, Sekhmakh." In both scenes the kmg is styled 
" King of Upper and Lower Regions, Rakaankh, son of the 
Sun, Nastosenen." 

Some parts of the inscription have been summarily 
analysed by Dr. Brugsch, in his " Geographische In- 
schriften," t. I, pp. 163, 164. 



Obverse of the Tablet. 

1. In the eighth year, the 9th of the first month of 

Per (\), under the Hor, the powerful bull, the love of 
the cycle of Gods, risen in Napita, Lord of diadems, 
Son of the Sun, Nastosenen ; the Hor, the bull who 
tramps his foes under his sandals, (2) 

2. the great lion . . . . ,^ the thoughtful, the niaintainer of 

the whole earth, the Son of Amen, [victorious by] his 
great sword, [the conqueror] who widens his boun- 
daries over all lands ,^ the [true] seed of 

Gods, the leveller of whatever is high, the worshipped 
by the [whole] earth, 

3. Lord of the Gody, instructing all beings (?)^ like Thot; 

coming to build the temples of the wliole earth like 
Pet,^ the giver of life for all creatures, even like unto 
Amen, son of Isi ; crushing whoever affi-onts the Gods, 

4. the Child, protector of the world, Son of the Sun, Nasto- 

senen, Son of Amen, praised even in Heaven : I bid 
ye know the King of Ujoper and Lower countries 
Ra-ka-ankh, Son of the Sun, Lord of both Lands, 
Nastosenen, overliving, that he saith [saying : When] 
I [was] the Gracious Child ^ in Be[roua],^ He 

5. summoned me, (3) Amen of Napita, my gracious father, 

saying : " Come ! I bid them summon the twice gra- 

' An indistinct word. - Two words wanting. 

3 An unknown sign of uncertain value : the translation of the word is given 
conjecturally, •* Heaven. 

* A common title for Hereditary Chief, Crown-prince. 

* The Meroe of classical gcop;raphy, ncMr Shendy. 



Inscription of Kiny Na.-itosenen. 205 

cious king who is in Be[roua (4)]." Then I spake 
unto them, saying : " Come, [let us go] 

6. "and seek for him amidst us, to show our [zeal]. (5)" 

They spoke unto me, sayhig : " No, we will not go 
[seeking for hira] amidst us. (6) [For] Thou art his 
Gracious Child whom he loveth, Amen of Napita, 

7. thy gracious father. (7)" I left : the morning (8), [I] 

arrived at Astamouras,' I put on my kingly gar- 
ment ; (9) when they heard it those who live in 
Napita, (10) they said : " He 

8. "is the Judge sovereign of all Lands. (11)" I went 

away: the morning I reached Taheh,^ which is the 
great Lion, the vineyard planted by King Piankhi-Aler, 
while my hand was [stretched out] 

9. upon the spot to relieve [from its distress] the temple 

of Amen, (?)'^ they went [to the place] which [I was 
in], the men and the priestess of Amen of Napita, 
with three of the female denizens of the town and 
all the great men and beings (?) who were there ; 

10. they spake unto me, (12) saying : " He layeth down 

before thee the Sovereignty of the Land [of Kens],* 
Amen of Napita, thy gracious father." Said the 
mouths all: "He shall land at Dongoul." (13) 

11. I spake unto them, saying: "Go down the river, (14) 

and be zealous in your praises of Amen of Napita, my 
gracious father. Go ye, and going, humble yom-selves 
to do [honour] to A- 

12. men of Napita." I proceeded [by water] to the landing- 

place, crossing [the liver] before the house of Ra. (15) 
I mounted (16) a great horse, I reached the great 
temple. They 

13. lay down before me the great men (17) and priestess ot 

Amen : Then they shouted for me with all their 

' It is a town near the Astahoras of Grecian writers ; perhaps the Primis 
Major of Ptolemy. 

^ A town, of site unknown, between Napita {Gebel- Barkal) and Dengoul 
{Bongolah), if not a part of Napita itself. 

^ The sense is doubtful, owing to a lacune at the end of line 8. 
* n Kens wanting in the oi-iginal. 



206 Inscription of Klny Nastosenen. 

mouths. I went up, I opened the great door : they 
did [honour], I did [honour], while 

14. they were zealous in their praises of me, the magistrates 

and great chiefs who live in the Ap, in the Golden 
House/ (18) I said unto him : " Amen of Napita, my 
gracious father, the being (?) ^ 

15. " to me, Amen of Napita, (19) my mouth. May Amen of 

Napita, my gracious falhei-, give me the kingdom of 
the Land of Kens, the royal helmet of King Hor-si- 
atef, 

16. "the valour (20) of King Piankhi-Aler." The thii-d 

month of Sha, on a great day, I caused Amen of 
Napita, my gracious father, to rise : gomg out of the 
great temple, (21) He gave me the kingdom of the 
Land of Kens, Aloa,^ 

17. the Barbarians, both strips of land on both banks of 

the Nile, the four quarters of earth, (22) saymg: "0 
my gracious creature, like unto Ra!" (23) I said 
unto him, " Amen of Napita, the Being (?) ! Thou 
hast 

18. " done it for me that all lands, all men, be obedient unto 

me. Thou summonedst me up in Beroua, and I came 
to do [honour] unto thee. Grant that the sovereignty 
of the Land Kens be laid down before me." They 

19. did not make him a king, that day. The 24th [they] 

gave me the sovereignty. There were men fighting 
with men, offering all kinds of offerings on the way, 
capering for joy in front of 

20. Ra. (24) I reached the spot [of the sacrifice], (25) smote 

the two bulls, went up [the steps of, and] sat on, the 
golden throne in the golden Ap, under the shadow 
of the great royal flabella, that day. Said all men, 
saying : 

21. "He will make all beings happy! Amen of Napita, He 

gives him the sovereignty ]. h. s. of the Land Kens, 



' That is, in the consecrated ground of the town, in or near the temples. 

^ One-third of the Hne is wanting. 

^ The Kingdom of'Aloali, nnd tlio town of Suboh. 



Inscription of King Nastosenen. 207 

[him] the Son of Sun, Nastosenen ; [He grants him] 
to go up and sit upon the golden throne under the 
shadow of the great royal flabella, (26) 

22. " this day, and he will make a king sit in his place in 

Beroua." The fii-st month of Sha, the 12th, I went 
down (27) the river to do [honour] unto Amen ot 
Pakem, my father 

23. gracious. I caused Amen of Pakem to rise : coming to 

me out of the great temple, [he] said, " my gracious 
creature, even like unto Ra." He gave me the 
kingdom 

24. of Keus ; He gave me both strips of land on both banks 

of the Nile, Aloa, the Barbarians and his own crushing 
bow. After He had spoken unto me, speaking unto 
me, Amen of Napita, my gracious father, I went up 
and sat up- 

25. on the golden throne. I went to do [honour] unto 

Amen of Pnoubs : ^ going out of the great temple, he 
gave me the sovereignty of the Land of Kens 

26. and his crushing [mace], saying : " my gracious crea- 

ture, even like unto Ra ! " Going up, I sat upon the 
golden throne. I went up to do [lionour] unto Amen 
of Napita, 



Reverse of the Tablet. 

1. my gracious father. The second month of Per, the 19th, 

[rose] 

2. Amen of Napita ; going out of the great temple, [He] 

said : " my gracious 

3. " Phra ! " [So] He spake unto me, calHng me '* gracious 

creature " (?), and then Amen of Pakem, Amen ot 
Pnoubs, the Gods 

4. all jumped for joy. Reaching the place of the sacrifice, 

[I] smote the two bulls, I went down unto the 
pyramid, and lay wrapped there four nights, and made 

' Tlvoi)-^ of Ptolemy, near Onadi/- Haifa. 



208 Inscription of King \asiosene7i. 

5. all kind of ofFeriugs, four days. [Then] going up, He 
reached the place of the sacrifice, smote the two biills, 
[and] entering the temple, sat upon the chau- of 
state in 

G. the House of the Golden Wine (?). The 24th, I went up 
to do [honour] unto Bast of Tel,' my gracious mother: 
(28) She gave me Life, a long and happy old age. 
Her breast [to suck] ; 

7. She gave it to me m her embrace, a happy life (30) ; She 

gave me Her crushing club. I went mto Napita, the 
29 th, 1 caused 

8. Amen of Napita to rise : He gave me the whole of 

Heaven, the wdiole of earth, the Nile all, the men all. 
Going up [I] sat on the golden throne ; I caused the 
four qema-B (31) to be done unto thee, 

9. Amen of Napita, m Napita, and there were thirty-six 

men in it. I gave thee three great vessels of bi-ass 
[full of] incense, four jugs [full of] honey, three ditto 
of essence, 

10. One image of Amen of Paqem-aten in gold, two of Hor 

in gold, [the three weighing] three ten,- three scent- 
bottles of electrum, three vials of electrum, seven 
cups of electrum, making in all, thirteeii [pieces and 
weighing] one hundred thirty and four ten^ ; two 
great jugs of bronze, 

11. thirteen basins of bronze to preserve milk, two bronze 

mugs for [drinking] beer, six bronze vessels, [six] 
bronze jugs, six scent-bottles in bronze. I offered 
thee, Ameii-em-ap, in tlie first month of Sha (?), in a 
great day, two bullocks 

12. and two fine (?) bulls, in all four; two milch-cows (?) 

and two heifers (?), being four in all ; one calf fed 
with herbs and another sucking, bemg two in 

all ■* sixteen bronze kldrolteh, two 

bronze tekhtet, ten bronze roh, 

13. two bronze hats, two bronze ap (32). Going up like a 

' A town on the Nile, near Napita ; also called Ter. 

2 After Cliabas' evaluation, 27414 grammes. 

^ 122l1-rt2 crrammes. * Six or seveji word? wanting. 



Inscription of King Nastosenen. 209 

fleet (?) bull, my bow[men] went to Aloa (?). (33) 
They made a great slaughter amongst its [men] all, 
and took the .... ship^ of the chief; they smote 
what there was in all his laud ; (34) 

14. All the beasts of burthen (35) and horned cattle (36) 

which had been spared,^ [even] those the towns of 
Kartep the great and Teloureq'' gave [unto me]. 
The town of n. . . . ka'* (37) sent men : there was 
slaughter [done] amongst them, and there was sparing 
of life 

15. done amongst them, and I cut down all the timber. 

The town of Tormenmou gave me twelve . . . . ^ bulls 
for Amen of Napita and they were brought to Napita. 
The fourth mouth 

16. of Sha, the 26th, on the birth-day of the Son of the Sun, 

Nastosenen, the town of Saqsaqdimou gave six out 
of its bulls for Amen of Napita, my gracious father, 
and they were led to Napi- 

17. ta. The fourth month of Sha, the great day, [being the 

return of] the day on which the crown had been 
given unto the Son of the Sun, Nastosenen, people 
offered unto thee. Amen of Napita, twelve victims (?) 
with floiu' (?) and garlands of flowers (?), the people 
of Kalo- 

18. tep the great and Terouleq; people offered unto thee. 

Amen of Napita, my gracious father, a big lamp from 
the town of Taqtat ; people brought thee .... bulls 
400, horned cattle 300, men 200, [for], Amen of Napi- 

19. ta, thy two thighs are prospering, and thy virtue is 

beneficent ; people gave thee, Amen of Napita, the 
land Reteq in offering of the people of Kasoua,*' 
together with poultry (?) and 

' A mutilated word. 

^ The text appears to be corrupt here. I corrected it after the passages 
in lines 25, 26, 29, 33. 

^ Perhaps Kartep and Sateloureq. The site of these towns is unknown to me. 

■* The name of the town has been partially erased. 

' An illegible word. 

^ Kasoua appears to be the Kacrou of Axumitan inscriptions, erroneously 
printed Kaeov in Salt's Travels and Boeckh's Corpus (t. iii, p. 515) , the Khasas 



210 Tnscription of King Aostosene)i. 

20. female slaves for tliee, 110 in all.^ And again, (38) I 

sent my bow[men] against the foes in the town of 
Makhendnen : they smote it and made a great 
slanghter amongst that which was with the (39) 

21. chief of Aikhentka; taking all the women prisoners, 

all the beasts of burthen, a deal of gold, bulls 209fi59, 
horned cattle 505349, women 

22. 2236, aqit^ belonging to the town of Katoldi, 3229 ; I 

obliged [the chief] Pekak to give it all unto me. 
After I had smitten all lands (?), I caused a lamp 
to be made unto thee, Amen of Napita, with 
Katol- 

23. di twelve of its oqit ; I made thee two big bronze 

censers, which I caused to be set up in the Theban 
temple, Amen of Napita, my gracious father ; I 
offered thee six victims (?) from amongst [the spoils 
of] Katoldi ; 

24. I opened the house of the Golden Bull [to put in] the 

aqit belonging to Amen of Napita, my gracious father. 
And once more again I sent my bow[men] against 
the hostile lands of Robal and Aka- 

25. Ikar. I made a great slaughter amongst that which 

was with the chief of the land of Lobarden ; all the 
gold he had, which was considerable [and even] more 
than could be counted, bulls 203246, horned cattle 
603108, all the women whom 

26. they spared from the rest, the chief gave it to me, [for], 

Amen of Napita, my gracious father, thy khopesh 
is crushing and thy counsel is beneficent. And once 
more again, I sent the multitude 

27. [of my soldiers] against the hostile lands of Arrosa. I 

made a great slaughter, I made, amongst those who 
were with the chief of the town of Mesha in the land 
Abeskhent, taking all women prisoners, all the beasts 
of burthen, ten of gold 121 2,^ bulls 22110, 

of Matjoudi (Quatrcinere, Memoires sur I'Effi/pte, t. ii, p. 155) between Souakiu 
and the Tacazze ; to-day, Gash or Khas. 

' Lit., " witli tliy poultry and thy ivonien." 

- T do not know wliat these nr/if are. •' 10rt752"5f» fjranimes. 



JiifiO'ipt/oii (if h'liKi Ndsioftoieri. 211 

28. all the wonion, horned cattle 45200; the chief gave it 

[all] to me, which was all he possessed (?j, [for], 
Amen of Napita, mj gracious father, thy name is 
right gracious and thy virtue is beneficent. And 
once more again, I 

29. sent my bow[men] against the hostile land of Makhi- 

sherkhert. I made a great slaughter, and the chief 
gave me from what was his whatever had been 
spared, all [the men], all the women. He gave it unto 
me, and I 

30. took bulls 203146, horned cattle 33400, [for], Amen 

of Napita, my gracious father, thy khopesh is crushing, 
and whatever thou dost for me is greatly magnificent. 
Once more a- 

31. gain, I sent the multitude of mj soldiers against the 

hostile land of Mikhentka. The foe made a stand 
against me in the town of Nehasarsar. I struck a 
blow against it, I made a great slaughter : 

32. I made [the same] against those who w^ere with the 

chief of Tamakhi. I took all their wives, all their 
horses, gold [to the value of] ten 2000,^ bulls 35330, 
horned cattle 555 

33. 26, whatever was spared amongst them ; for, Amen of 

Napita, my gracious father, giveth me all the lands : 
His khopesh is crushing. His virtue is beneficent, 

34. His names are greatly beneficent, and He caused me 

to act, Amen of Napita, my gracious father. And 
once more again, they upset (40) the tilings of Amen 
residing in Paqem-A- 

35. ten. I sent the multitude of my soldiers 

the prowess (?) of king, 1. h. s. Aspalut 

[I sent my bowmen] against the hostile land of Madi,^ 
and it gave to them 

36. [all] its things. My great prowess (?) which my 

gracious father Amen of Napita had given unto me, 
my gracious father Amen of Paqem-aten gave it unto 
me ; 

' 182740 grammes. 

- The so-called Maddi of tlie Horsiatef inscription. 



212 Ttti^cripflon of King \a.'itose7ie7i. 

37. He said unto me, my gracious father Amen of Paqera- 

ten, sapng, "I give thee my bow and the strength 
which is in it, and my valour. I give thee all hostile 
lands in captivity, 

38. under thy two sandals." And once more again, the foes 

of Madi (41) robbed the things of the estates of Bast 
residing in Ter, [which had been conquered] by the 
prowess (?) of King 

39. Aspalut. My prowess (?) came : she granted it to me, 

Bast residing in Ter, my gracious mother ; she gave 

me her greatly gracious, a happy old age, the 

light 

40. of her excellent virtues, for, thy Majesty it is, thy great 

splendour it is that made me, Amen of Napita, my 
gracious father, that 

41. made my prowess (?) excellent, and my khopesh^ crush- 

ing, truly, Amen of Napita my gracious father, the 

being that 

42 



' Lit., "his khopesA." 



[Nsrripfioji of Khuj N't-'^tosfncii, 213 



Notes. 

The tablet of Nastoseuen is not written like Pianklii's, 
Nuat Miamonn's and Aspalut's texts, in the conventional 
style of Egyptian epigraphy : the inscription thereon is 
mixed from the beginning to the end with a great many 
forms peculiar to the dialect of Ethiopia. Since the days 
of early colonisation by the great sovereigns of the 
Xllth Dynasty, and even since the less remote times 
of Thotmes III and Ramses II, the pure Egyptian first 
spoken by the settlers had been sadly corrupted, both 
by a slow but steady infiltration of alien words and by 
the natural work of years. So long as Ethiopia was 
a part of Egypt, or remained in direct relations with 
Egypt, the priesthood of Napata kept intact the for- 
mulas of classical Theban language : Tahraqa's or Piankhi's 
deeds are told in the same phrases and with nearly the 
same words as Thotmes's or Seti's conquests. But imme- 
diately after Nuat Miamouu's retreat, when communications 
between the lands to the north and the lands to the south 
of the first cataract became scarce and difficult enough 
to change the province of To-Qens and vice-royalty of 
Koush into the distant and almost fabulous kingdom of 
Napata, the literary and grammatical traditions began to be 
put aside, and soon ended in being utterly forgotten : new 
words drawn from the popular stock of words filled up the 
place of the old unintelligible vocables, new idioms super- 
seded the turns and shades of expressions in which the 
scribes, heaux-esprits of Thebes, had delighted hundreds of 
years before. 

The Demotic inscriptions of Candace are mute till now : 
Nastosenen's and Horsiatef's records are the only monu- 
ments of the Ethiopian dialect known to me. It would be 
difiicult to gather, from two texts only, the elements for a 
grammatical outline of Ethiopian dialect. I must content 
myself with explaining as well as possible some of the new 



214 Inscription of King Nasiosenen. 

forms I have been able to find in tlie stele of Nastosenen, 
leaving to others the care of correcting and completing my 
work. 

] , In 'T^ ra , the first month of Per, VU is evidently 
written for n. Cf. line 8, rn I ]M, () instead of C^ | ]M, ()' 
rl "^ instead of n "^ L and m l] instead of 



ci 



1^"^^ 



It was known already that <=> (from ' *=- ' 

facere) was used frequently to build the causative or inten- 



AfV^AJ\ 



sive form of the verbs : thus \^ „ is found concur- 

ra 

AA/W\A 



rently with \\ „ and I ""^ r p from ra 

inclinare, admovere. Phrases in which it is used to form 
substantive nouns are to this day peculiar to the Ethiopic 

dialect. Besides C (1 (1 ^ P J ^ ^^ ^^"^ pctoKe, 

we find, line 0: ^^\\^^^\ H ^^^K 



neqpajepert itoqp, and hue 7, .^cji^^^nf ^ ^ v^i 

fa A.WSAA r\ r\ ■ o. 

^ D Is^ ® I ca3Tx«.q pcr^ep ax n^.m-^^.■, 

which phrases I have ti'anscribed in Coptic characters to 
show that I consider the <:r:> to be identical witli the 
Coptic p, ep. I tliink, but I Avould not affirm, that the <=> 

of such phi-ases as (line 5) I J ^^ ^V> ^ ^ ^ ' 

lie caused me to be called, (line 8) IJ V^ ^. [I [I 

-^Jj ' He governs all ea/'fh, is not the preposition 

<=> (Coptic e) of the old conjugation, but the p of prtoqpe, 



Inscnj^tiou of Kuuj Aastoseuen. 



215 



It must be said, once for all, that in Ethiopian texts 
has exactly the value of the old Egyptian ^ and vice 
versa, W^ the sense of ^ 



».^^[^^^±] 



n%.i 



i^i\'\ 



[-ri 



JC=^ 



&c. 



i^Tfi] ; 



5. The text gives 






MID 'U-^ 



To 



understand and to restore this phrase, one must put oneself 
into the spirit of Ethiopic etiquette. The priests ot Ammon 
send from Napita to Meroe to call in the name of God the 
Gracious Child who dwells in that town. The gracious child, 
being no other than Prmce Nastosenen, feigns not to under- 
stand that the call is intended for him, and addresses his 
subordinates with the half-broken formula. They answer, as in 
duty bound, that he is the twice gi'acious king whom Ammon 
loves. By the help of their answer, I restore the end of 

H AAA/vv\ rv 

^, , &c. I related either to the gracious child or to 

the word 1»J| king, is not the feminine pronoun —**—, but 
the masculine — h— for \\>^ The last half of the 
phrase is of doubtful meaning. The lost character after 
p for Egyptian 



^^^^^^ is probably ^ for Egyptian QA ; but ^^^ M^ 
is a word of rare occurrence. It seems to signify to dispose 
(with Q7\ for a determinative, to disjjose one's thoughts or 
words), hence to resolve, and even to praise (?). If so, 
1^1 ^^^i^ti^ ^® translated " Let us 



V " 



I I 



manifest (lit. open) our resolutions," or perhaps, "our zeal." 



216 /iiscription of Kiiuj \astose,ne)i. 

fi. J (1 %7r N "!! ^ ' ^ ^ " "'^ ^^^iii not go 

[to search] amongst ine.'^ Sudden changes of pronouns are 
very frequent in Egyptian. The officers of King Nastosenen 
begin with speaking collectively " We will not," and before 
the end of the phrase is reached every one of them, 
thinking only of himself, subsides into the first person 
singular, " amongst me." 

7. For the explication of the form A^ |1 [1 o, ^ '^:i::^ see 
Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, t. i, p. 327 note 1. 

8. '^ V^v V^ is e-iven by Brugsch (Dictionary, 
p. 1564), It has two meanings : 1, pellere, jmlsare, pede, 

{Papyrus gnostique du Louvre a transcriptions grecques, pi. v, 
lines 13 and 14) Au-ar-k teham n p a'iten n rat-tu-h, Pulsas 
terram pede tuo ; 2, hence, aJ>ire, ptroficisci, as is the case here. 

^•>- ■^^P5^15^^D^"3'3^X The lion 
passant ^o^ h^^s often the value of ^?^T (Brugsch, Diet., 
p. 1705). P^^"^ i'*^ ^n ideographical variant of J"^^ 
(Brugsch, Diet., p. 1705 and 1358) involvere, involvere sese. 1 
do not know the precise meaning of n | '^ : it must be 
a kind of garment, perhaps the great royal cloak of the 
Ethiopic kings. 



The subject of ^l^) ^^ '^^=^ Jieard that, is ""^^ ^-^ J\\ 

which is built after the fashion ( )f <c^n J] \\ \P^ I i^i D ^ 
The word / 7\ is borrowed from a Semitic root 

which has been preserved in the Arabic ^s. coluit, incohdt. 
<=>^"^^j^ ^ (jj|^ ^ J arc "the citizens of 
Napita." 



In^crlptioiL of Kunj Aastofse/ien. 217 



ii-u^^^vjt ,5iii=r- i"-"^ 



A/WVNA 



i 

is probably identical in regard of 



_M^ W 1 i ^ I O 
the form to <==> ^j" "^ 7^ | ' <===* ^ J 1 ^^ 1 ' ^« ^o^" 
it is n2"'"Tp (tt[:^v\-^) '^^ province, a 



w ^^c^ I 



toion, fi"om I'l to judge, to govern : — <:n>^^^^ (In r>,(>/i 

pJULeii^irtX, seems to signify " to govern, to judge " all 
earth. 



13. W'^^^-if^^W. ^ "^S%^^ The 

sign j£_ is a rectified fonn of the hieratic J^ ^ >^:v<. : thus 

we may restore I O J ^ I ] J >^:^ instead of "^^ "yPf^ ^ 

^^ J^ " May he land !" or " he will land." ^"^^ S "^ ^^ 

mnst be the name of a place, though the determinative ^ 
be wanting by some inadvertence of the scribe. Such 
omissions are by no means uncommon at the end of a 
line. At the end of line 16 we have (I ^T^ for the 

(I ^ of line 24. The whole phrase must be read 

[1%^^^^D^1^"^S%^^^ He will land at 

Den(iour. S \> ^^^r^ is old Donqolah, where the 

stele of King Nastosenen has been found. 



14. /5^ [r ' ^^zsssc. 



15. Read J^ [01 ""^^^^^^ for ^8'^ 
The subsequent characters want some explication to be 



AAAAAA 
AAAAAA 
AAAAAA . 



21 {5 Inscription of Kiny j\'aistosenen. 

correctly understood. They are written ^^ . , O 

I I a 

I take >-n*<; to be the ideograph of h ^^ ; ^i' «ome other 
verb of the same meaning. woukl be totally luiintel- 

ligible miless we had further a phrase in which it occurs 

^, , , . ,. r. © 7 rn ^ ra o 

as the determmative oi „ versus, aaversus : .. ., 

^ ^ O I J| dancing, dancing to the face of Ra, before 

Rd. or O I must be evidently intended for the usual 

'^ determuiative of ^ or k.c=^@' The meaning of 

the whole phrase must be therefore : " I proceeded to 
( V\ lit., at the spot of) the landing-place of the 

Nile, crossing [the river] before the temple of Ra." 

16. 1 1] 7^' no or even 1 7\ is the verb of motion 
generally used by the Ethiopic scribe. It has been found 

H 

only once under the form ^^ ^^^ "^ '^^^ Egj-ptian 
monuments (Brugsch, Diet., p. IIG:^). It is the Coptic ce 
transire, transgredi. We have here the conapoimd 1(1 7^ f=^^ 
written otherwise (1. 13) ' ll ^ !^=^^ ''"^ supra, to ascend; 
and further (Obv. 1. 4) pO^ ^''^ infra, to descend. In 

compound verbs of that form, the subject is either inserted 
between the root and the preposition, or put immediately 
after the preposition, as m U M "^ f=^ Q() ^ ^ M 

M S ^^ Lc^U ^^* ^*^) ^ tL'ent np to do honour 

7tnto Amen of Napita, and \\ \\ " t=^ QA (1 ^ \}}~<:<^ 

\7 a\ (1. 6) / icent up to do honour unto Bast. 

17. The form ^^ m is very curious, as beiuc: 
brought to tiiliteration by intercalation of ^. The 

AAAA/V\ a V 

inserted dental is sometimes a ^-=^ as in '^-==^ ^^ o^ 



Inscription of King Nastosenen. 219 



Si' men 
I I 



instead of 1^ \ ' but commonly a c^ . 
for ^ ^^^ P\\^^^^ (Brugsch, Diet., p. 1339) for 
P^"^^ (W., p. 1217), P-^^ (Id., p. 1344) for 
P^^^ ™^ (Id., p. 1386) for ™ ^, and many 
others which I have cited elsewhere. 



l/m AAA/w. 1 Ji <=>\\ i/yfK 2i/ <^r> Win I I I ->-=> 1 

CI] I fSSS^ The chief difficulty of the phrase lies with 
©4- sr . . . . If we were to judge after other passages 
© would be the ® of Egyptian texts, and "^© should 
be read 5?-;^ ; I take it, however, to be the sign of redupli- 



cation © or W© or \\0 sep sen, his, © ser {sep sen) must 

be read srsr, which is the quadriliteral form of the 

above quoted " ^ As for 4- , it is to be found 
frequently in our stele (B, lines G-7) ^——^^^ \ (B, line 26) 
^^^"^^1^. (B, line 28) ^^^~°d|)j-%, where the variants 
prove it to be meant for 1^ Indeed, it is only the 
common hieratic form f-|- of 1 ^^ slightly rectified to 
suit the style of hieroglyj)hic characters. <rr>®T ^^ ^^^ 
same as S()l V- ^"^^ i^ preceded 

by the possessive /^^^ is one of those nouns formed 
by the suffixion of the pronouns ^.-^ — •♦— ^ 1 ^ ^^' 
masculine — h— to a root. In old Egyptian each part of 
the compound retains its own value, so that the root, 
although turned into a noun, keeps its verbal power and 



Vol. IV. 15 



remains able to take a regime : ^^^^ ^ V ^""^"^ 



220 Inscription of King Nastosenen. 

pi, V, line 1). he is loved by him who curves his back 
[before him]. aK^ ra ^^ ^^^ w "^ 



AAAAA^ 



is a noim Ax' ID ^^ The : he has curved, 

T\4th a regime "^.^"^ /'^''^^ ^^«^^'- <c=r><rr> i^ ^'^ 

formed with the root ~^ ^~ and the pronoim 1+ y ; [the] 

A(? has praised or ?Y /ms been p>raised: A^ QA ©+ 

doing my it is praised, doing my praise. 

19. In the variant _ ~vvaa^ ^ compared Avitli 

"^HtlS O ^' ■^^^^^'^^S'" f] is evidently a homophone 
of ■= to, fa. Now the temple of Amen of Napata 
was situated upon a hill called /^^ dn-vah, the Sacred 

Hill. I think that v^ is a picture of the hill upon which 
the temple stood ; in which case it would be easy to 
understand how it is that <r> a hill, variant of Cr^ tti, du 
a hill, has been substituted for <= in the name of 

t 



A\^AAA 
[~1 ^ "i AAAAAV 



20. ^_ © r n is evidently a mistake of the Ethiopia 

scribe for "^''^©r^ n- it must have oiiginated in the 

hieratic original of the inscrij^tion f^ ^-^^ where ^^^^ 
= ^:7-^ may be easily mistaken for - I j = —^— . 

^-^ Indeed, we have but to turn the determinatives 
^5=2 into hieratic to feel convinced that X ig onlj- a 
variant of ^-^ . The engraver seeing ""^ - and perhaps 



Inscription of King Nastosenen. 221 

not knowing hoAv to transcribe it, rectified a little the 
hieratic and transformed "y^ into /f 

22. The gifts of Amen to the king are enumerated 

twice m this stele. 1st (Ime 16-17), ^IJ) 

j^^^__ 21' T ill D I c^ 

(line23-24), A'^^IJ™-^^!^— ^[|||(lv§. 

. ©I IIIIK^ D W ^ i|'B^U=^- As I have observed 
already, the !\^^ of line 16 is the (j ^ ^ " 
of line 24 : the engraver forgot to pnt the determinative 



after (1 ^ _ The name of the conntry has been 

preserved in the ^A^ Aloah of Arabian geographers. 

The kingdom of Aloah lay along the banks of the Bahr- 

el-Azrek, and Cailliaiid fonnd two sphinxes of red granite 

in the ruins of its capital ^Jya. Aloah was the south 

part of Knsh, and \\ To-qens, the Nubia, the north 

part of it, tpp \paiit\ must be the same, and is 

^ I 1 1 1 1 ^ ^ , , 

a dialectic variant of In Ethiopic, the phonetic 



value of , was "^ .. ^ , (A, line 24), 






(B. hne 20-29), ^^ ^ "^ (B, line 24), ^ (B, line 37) : 

[J \\ Ci I. U W ci I 

® being thus a homophone of ^^'' , ^ , , , becomes only 
a phonetic variant of in 1 1 1 _ The question is : Was the 
reading ^\. peculiar to Ethiopian people, or is it to be ex- 
tended to Egyptian monuments ? Ethiopian people seem to 
have frequently inverted the order of letters in alliterative 
words; thus we have (B, line 8) g f=^ tep, heaven for 



222 hiscription of King NaMosenen. 

pet. It is liiglily probably that the Ethiopian r^ ^\\ 
is only an inversion of the Egyptian '-' ' Coptic (^Y^, 
4)HT"T"e. 

I have not found elsewhere the y which begins the word 
Y ^, and I feel unable to decipher it, though it 

occurs very frequently in this stele. 

O W The group m. is for m or ^ m 

people : ^ is a hoard for offerings and an ideographic 
variant of , o „ to offer. Instead of ]1 v\ ~^^ 
the text gives \^^^~^s the first sign being a 

kind of goose holding a bud of lotus. The determinative 
^^ proves that the whole group must be read zewau. 
I think that T^^ is not a legitimate variant, but only a 
fault of transcription. ]) written in hieratic is ^^J^ '• 

now there are many birds which assume in hieratic a 
form not unlike that of ^^^, ^lit; ^\^ the ''^^ the 
7\ ^ &c. It is highly probable that the engraver took 
yj^ tor a bird holding a lotus-bud, making a new sign of 
what ought to have been ||_ At all events, the sense 
offenngs is certain. 

25. -:^ti^ltl^1fl^||. I do not know the 
reading of [1 ^j^ " thfe spot of sacrifice." ^^ is only 



Inscription of Khig Nastosenen. 223 

an erroneous form of article A^ derived from hieratic 
^22-^, Line 35 p.f. there is /'^^ for A^^ owing to a 
i^ = /tg and fy^ ^ 

°ii-l^[k]liy!P. 

/ is lit. " a shade." 



confusion between 



2^3. Correct 
The last word 



27. ni^ 
/^^ wwvs and "^ 



O 



^'t^ [I /wwvv is called 

A^ Q iu the stele of Horsiatef (hne 20, 
160). It must have been situated between Dongolah and 

^ — ^ NV\f\/V\ A 

jj n(^ the nvov-\lr of Ptolemy (Brugsch, 6^. //?«., t. i, 

p. 104), but I have not been able to identify its exact 
site. 

have been ^iJU^^ \N with a feminine article; but 
the Ethiopians had lost the notion of gender as well as 
that of number. We have in line 36 another instance of 



29. "^^^Vy-l- The sign I or 1 (cf. p. 219, note 17) 
is used here as in Egyptian Demotic texts for feminine 
— H— . For the explanation of that gift, see the numerous 
wall-pictures in wliich goddesses are represented suckling 
a king, and giving him, with their milk, life and power. 

30. ^1%^^ ^ M^-?-I- "Sl^e gave it to 
me, in [her] embrace, the good life " The unknown 
determinative LJ {^ only a hieratic form of the usual 



224 Jntcriptioii of King Nastosenen. 



o, A /eR -^s:^ ^'^'^ iL^ ^ A"n 

31. /\ ^ SA /5v\ 4 U ^^'^ 



.^O;::^ A/WVAA <ly^ ^ A ' ' n l"^'"^^ ''^^''^ /WVAAA ^^^^ 

^ □ AAAAAA Q 



;^^ . JD 11 ^-^^ 1 nnn '" t\ ^ 



I cannot guess of Avhat kind the four hema were, in each 
of which nine men were, unless the scribe has designated 
by it the mats de cocagne, which are not unfrequently seen 
in the representations of Ptolemaic times. 

32. For the names of vases and other metallic objects, 
see Lepsius, Die Metalle, p. 100-101. 



33. It is necessary to correct thus : [1 



w 



34. -^ T \S ft ^ «. __ The ri™ 



&^ 



is another form for ^^^ and the whole passage must be 
translated "it killed ro rrjs avrov 7j)9." I do not remember 
having seen in Egyptian a phrase in which a^ had the 
sense it has in Nastosenen's narrative ; but there are' 
numerous instances of such like constructions in Ethiopia 

text. Th™(Hne24): tM^'^^lKM^ 

J , • — a |N>~^ \ "9 ^<? r\ r\ III V y hj\r\N\r\ 
^ A^W^^ c^^""^- ^'^" - '^ ^^^"^ (^^^^ 20) 

^ \\ 1 NSN^N^ /WWVA t>==i] I _S^ JiLc:^ i -^^ 1 1 <f=' (f^ 1 1 AAAWV 

In the last phrase, the possessive jji'onoun 
takes the luial ^' '^J\\ ^ , («f- °^, ^ 
^r^^ &c., and governs its regimen by means of the 
preposition -«-*»«. 



Ltacription of King Naatosenen, 225 

^^' W J V ' ^'^^'' \\ J ^ W AT' ^^ ^^® prototype 
of Coptic T-ejS.nH, ni, jumentum ; pi. TeELltaJOTI, 
jwnenta, quadriipeda, not to be found in Brugsch's Dictionary. 

36. ^^^n?^ Correct ^^^ 



AAAAAA 



37. ^:^ U' Correct -l-FiC' U 

38. £> — > is for A- on, rursus, iterum. Trans- 

lated into hieratic ZV becomes . /a ^ > which 

accounts for the confusion between i*^ — . and A.. 



39. A^ v\ is exactly the form of the Theban article 
ne, as well as D \^ is the exact form of ne to he, and 
^^^(1"^^-^ of cyepe. The old ^ at the end of 
Avords becomes e in middle Egyptian and in Coptic. 



40. Read : ^ i ; ° 'L^ instead of 



41. R.ad ^Tiflrti '--^°^MT^ir:i. 




226 



ON THE DATE OF THE NATIVITY. 

Lettek addressed to Mk. Bosanquet by Dr. Lauth (Munich). 
Read 2nd Fehruary, 1875. 

Dear Sir, 

You have treated in these same Transactions^ most 
interestingly, and as it seems to me, most successfully, upon 
the date of Christ's nativity. As this subject concerns not 
only our belief as Christians, but also oui* science as chro- 
nologists, you will not deem it superfluous that I shall 
endeavour to afford several new points of view, in order to 
corroborate your result, tending- to fix the year 3 before our 
common era as the very year of Christ's nativity. 

I. This date is borne out as the true one by the simple 
computation that the Roman indictions, even in our own 
calendar down to this day, are reckoned by the addition of 
3 years to the number of the current year. Thus, for 
instance, we obtain the corresponding indictional cipher of 
1874 by dividing -Lf|-^, making 125 cycles, remainder 2, and 
this number 2 forms the signature of our present year 1874. 
Hence it follows that the pentekaidekaeteric period must 
have begun originally just with the year 3 before our ei-a. 
K it be objected that the indictions really, as a practical 
cycle, begin with 312, in the reign of Constantine, it must be 
borne in mind that the first general enrolment of the great 
Roman empire issued from Augustus, and that Quiiinus, as 
governor of Syria according to St. Luke, Avas the executor 
of the imperial edict, during his governorship fi-om —4 to + 1» 
as is demonstrated by Dr. Zumpt's valuable essay. This 

> " Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology," 1872, p. 98. 



On the Date of the Nativity. 227 

enrolment {a'7ro'ypa(J3i]) of Quirinus' is styled ttocott;, even as 
much with respect to his second diroypacf)'!] in A.D. 9 — which 
was a partial one, and only relating to Archelaiis and his 
provmce — as because it was the Jirst of all, the model of the 
subsequent enrolments for military or census purposes. In 
the same manner as we in our calendars continue to en- 
register the Roman indictions, without making any use of 
them, so they may have been latent or dropped between 
Augustus and Constantine ; this omission is owing to circum- 
stances either unknown to us for the want of sources, or to 
the intrusion of other cycles during the above-mentioned 
interval. We call in German this indictional number 
" Roemer-Zins-Zahl " = i?o?/ia?wn<?w censualis niimerus, and, 
indeed, the existence of this entry, even in our calendars, 
warrants us that the primordial census happened in the year 
3 before our common era. 

II. When Dionysius Exiguus in A.D. 525, 200 years after 
the decree of the Niceean Council (a.d. 325) concerning the 
Passover-feast, fixed for the first time the Christian era, he 
chose this very year 525, just because^ with it the 35th in- 
dictional cycle expired {-j-^ = 35), and he thus indicated 
expressly that our Lord's nativity comcided with the begin- 
ning of an indiction, viz., he acknowledged the temporal 
concurrence of the Virgin Mary's delivery with Augustus' 
edict, carried out by Quirinus. If so, it is the more to be 
wondered at that he made a blunder of 3 years, for, by all we 
know of him, he was a learned man, who must have had 
knowledge of the true epoch of the indictions. 

I am going to explain this notory contradiction, and to 
prove that Dionysius' error originated not from ignorance, 
but from a current system of the Alexandrian mathematicians 
and chronologists. 

Let us begin with Theon. This very accurate astronomer 
fixes the epoch of IMenophres or the Sothiac period as hap- 
pening 1705 years before 384 A.D. Hence it has been 
generally concluded that the year 1322 before Christ was the 

' It may be that also the beginning of a new Apis -period with anno I 
aerae Dionysianae co-operated in this determinate fixation, so that our jubilees 
coincide with the 25-eteric cycle of the sacred Bull. See further under VI. 



22y On the Date uf the jWitiviti/. 

first of this cycle. But, on tlie other side, our astronomical, 
yea, the simplest mathematical calculations, prove strikingly 
that the 1st Thoth vague coincided \\dth the 20th July 
during the tetraeterid 1325, 1324, 1323, 1322. Theon, then, 
has chosen the last or fourth year (when the intercalation 
was made) of the tetraeterid instead of the first. 

The same difierence of 3 years is met M^th in Censorinus, 
who states that in the 100th year before 238 the dogstar rose 
on the 20th July. This is 139 A.D., but we find that this 
coincidence took place during the whole tetraeterid 13G, 137, 
138, 139 A.D. It is evident that once more the fourth year 
is chosen for the first. 

Another instance is afforded by an Arabic A\Titer,^ who 
counts the first regnal year of Abtinus (Antoninus) as the 
886th of the era of Bochtenasr (Nabonassar). The latter 
part of this year 886 belongs to 139 A.D. His warrant is 
Ptolemy. 

After having observed this constant system of Alexan- 
drian astronomers or chronologists, I was led to the conviction 
that this manner of reckoning was owing to Egyptian sources, 
and that it was derived from an astronomico-calendaric 
method connected with the apparition of a memorable star. 

In reading this word you will have guessed instantly 
that I am going to speak on the celebrated staj' of the 
Magians ; but I intend not to treat this matter at large or to 
an especial purpose. This star has been deemed a meteor, 
rising suddenly and vanishing again after a short delay. 
Others have thought of a comet with a longer apparition. 
Kepler and Ideler have identified it with the conjunction of 
Saturn and Jupiter, happening 747 A.U.C., or 7 B.C. Kepler 
was himself an eye-witness of such a conjunction in 1603; 
in 1604 it was associated with Mars, and there also appeared 
a new fixed star, " Stella nova in pede Serpentarii." Why 
should there not have been at the same time a memorable 
coincidence, for instance, in the Egyptian calendar, so that 
the Magi of the East, led by the apparition of an extraordinary 
phenomenon, went to Jerusalem in search of the new-born 

' Idi'liT. " ITandbucli dor Clirouologie," ii, 627. 



On tlie Date of the Nativity. 229 

•'Kiug of the Jews "? I think such a plurality of heavenly 
signs would not be ill suited to the chronological centre of 
mankind. 

III. It is generally allowed and acknowledged that the 
bu'th of the Messias Avas thought of in connection with a 
peculiar star. When in the time of Hadrian, 120 A.D., a 
Jewish pretender arose, with the professed intention to 
resuscitate the Davidic kingdom and the political power of 
the Jews, he assumed the name Bar-Cochab {Bap-')(^o-)(e^as), 
'' Son of the Star.''' This presumptuous title was converted, 
after his defeat, into Bar-Cozab, '• Son of the Lie," and Jeru- 
salem levelled with the soil was called Aelia (Hadiiani). 
I am now going to establish that even in the time of the 
first overthrow under Vespasianus and Titus, the idea of an 
extraordinary star prevailed. Suetonius tells that it was a 
general opinion in the whole world, " in fatis esse, ut 
(homines) Judaea profecti, rerum potu-entur," and that Ves- 
pasianus, because he had vanquished Galba and Vitellius, 
after his starting up from his province of Judaea, referred this 
omen to his own person ; indeed, he was styled, like the other 
emperors, " the god," ^' pe nuter\" by the Egyptians. But it 
deserves especial notice that this word nuter, " god," is found 
expressed bi/ a star {))<.) for the first time in the cartouche of 
Vespasianus. We see therein a confirmation not only of Sue- 
tonius's report, but also of the fact that Vespasian annexed 
to himself what was meant originally as an attribute of the 
Messias. Hence we could easily infer that really an extra- 
ordinary apparition of a star had happened at the bu'th ot 
the Messias. 

Now let us consider the Egyptian calendar, consisting of 
the so-called Avandering (vague) year and the fixed (leap) 
Sothiac year. These double forms prevailed not only 
amongst the astronomers, but also in civil life, notwith- 
standing the fixation performed in 25 B.C., under Augustus.^ 
Thus, for instance, a Gra^co-demotic inscription^ is dated, 

' Of. my treatise on this subject, entitled "Die Schalttage des Euergetes und 
Augustus " (The Intercalary Days of Euergetes and Augustus) in the Trans. 
of the Eoyal Academy of Munich, February, 1874. 

- Cf. Zeitschrift fiir aegyptische Spraehe u. Alterth, 1872, p. 31. 



230 On the Date of the N'ativity. 

"year 17th of Tiberius, the 18th Tybi of the Ionian = 1st 
Mechir of the Egyptian." Both these dates correspond to 
the 13th January, 31 a.d. Then, if we make the appHcation 
of this double calendar backwards to the temporal horizon 
of Christ's bu'th, we find that the dogstar, or Sirius {Sothis), 
rose heliacally on the 1st Mesoi'i vague during the tetraeterid 5, 
4, 3, 2 before our era. I shall prove in a larger work of 
mine (" Sothis ") which I am now composing, that the 
Egyptians noticed the minor coincidences as well as the 
chief ones when the rising of Sirius coincided with the 
first day of the first month (Thoth vague). It is not 
required to enter here into a more especial investigation ; it 
may suffice to cite the great authority of the Tanitic decree, 
where it is stated that the coincidence of the rising dogstar 
(aarpov to tt}? "Iat,os) with the first day of Payni vague 
(dyerai tP] vovfirjVLO, rov iravvl ixtivos) caused the fixation of 
Euergetes I. 

Thus, then, it must be considered as a proved fact that 
the learned Egyptians noticed the apparition of the most 
splendid dogstar in the tetraeterid 5, 4, 3, 2 as a very 
memorable one. Now we conceive (better, I think, than 
before) why Herod, that jealous and cruel tyrant, when he 
ordered the innocent babes to be slaughtered, asked from 
the Magians (St. Matthew ii, 7) the accurate time of the 
appearance of the star, and why he slaughtered the Bethle- 
hemitic children, a-Ko Sierous Kal Karwrepw (ii, 16), "a himatu 
et infra." For, indeed, according to your thesis and my addi- 
tional proofs, that 3 before our era = birth of Christ, there 
were two years of the tetraeterid elapsed, in which tlie heliacal 
rising of the dogstar had cori'esponded to the 1st Mesori 
vague. I think no other hypothesis accounts so well for the 
8t6Tov<i or bimatus as mine, and we have thus found the very 
source of Ilerod^s questioyi and the Magians answer. 

IV. This question of Herod's about the exact time of the 
appearance of the star was not made ^\dtliouta good reason, 
concerning, as it did, the birth of a new king : irov 6 rexdel<t 
^aaiXeu^ tow 'lovhalcov^ " Where is the (new-) born King of 
the Jews ? " the Magians themselves had asked. This 
character as a " King of the Jews " remained, in fact, 



On the Date of the A^ativity. 231 

attached intimately to the Messias till His death, the death 
on the cross, with the inscription, " Jesus Nazarenns Rex 
Judseorum." Hence the very excited suspicion of the jealous 
tyrant, who was himself an intruder upon the last national 
dynasty of the Hasmoneans. In the sacred books was 
announced a new king fi-om David's stem — the more reason 
to Herod for fear, who did not spare even a son of his in the 
general slaughter of Bethlehem. 

It has been deemed a proof to the contrary, that Flavins 
Josephus keeps a deep silence about this Herodian deed ; 
but he may have forgotten to mention it, not having found 
it in the work of his warrant, Nicolaus Damascenus, court- 
historian of Herod. But this lacuna is fully compensated by 
Macrobius. This author, who in his book, " Saturnalia," 
nowhere bespeaks himself a Christian, tells (ii, 4) as an 
anecdote of Augustus, " Quum audivisset, inter pueros, quos 
in Syria Herodes rex Judseoram infra himatum jussit interfici, 
filium quoque ejus occisum (esse), ait, 'Melius est Herodis 
porcum esse quam. filium.' '' Had Macrobius said "... porcum 
. . . puerum," he would have committed an ambiguity, puer 
signifying also slave, but the quibble would have been 
more striking in Latin. I warrant that Augustus spoke it 
in the Greek language, uu elvat ?) vlov. The same quibble 
between ue? and vUU is met with already in Aristophanes. 
The UK-aning of Augustus was, "It is better to be one of the 
sioine of Herod than his son, for the former, he, being a Jew, 
does not slaughter." 

I am going now to produce a further reason in behalf of 
my hypothesis, that the search after the two -years'- old 
children originated from the Egyptian double year and the 
coincidence of the rising dogstar with 1st Mesori dui'ing the 
tetraeterid 5-2 B.C. 

In a former work^ I have proved that the name of the 
month Mesori is to be decomposed into mes, " birth," and 
Hori, "of Horus." I have stated that in this month's 
name is revealed a great dynastic festivity, Horus being the 
type and model of all legitimate successors or crown-princes. In 

' *' Les Zodiaques de Denderah," 1864. 



232 On the Date of the Nativity. 

another treatise^ I have sliown that the serpent lield by 
Horus is an emblem proper to this youthful god, who, like 
Hercules, even in his cradle overthrows all fiendish reptiles. 
Now, this emblem of Horus is always met w4th in his hand 
as symbolical of the month Mesori. Then the Magians could, 
with full reason, ask for the horn king, because the rising 
dogstar was announcing meanwhile the first tetraeterid of 
Mesori. But it is to be noted that even in the fact that 
Christ's nativity is not congruent with ihe first year, we pos- 
sess a warrant for His historical and independent existence. 

V. Taking into consideration the nationality of the ]\Ia- 
gians, I cannot help citing Clialcidius,- although his passage 
may be founded upon St. Matthew's : " Sane notanda est 
alia sanctior et venerablior historia, quas perhibet de ortu 
stelhe citjusdam, non m or bos mortesque denuntiantis, sed 
desceusum Dei venerabilis ad human ae conversationis re- 
rumque mortalium gratiam, quam stellara, quum noctnrno 
itinere suscepissent Chalda^orum profecto sapientes viri et 
consideratione rerum coelestium satis exercitati, qusesisse 
dicuntur recentis Dei ortum; repertaque ilia majestate puerili, 
venerati esse et vota Deo tanto convenienter nuncupasse."' 
But how do we explain the peculiarity that these three wise 
men have received the title of kings in the tradition, the sacred 
text styling them only /ndyoL? Perhaps the Eusebian list of 
Manetho's XXVHth Dynasty throws some light on this 
point ; whereas Africanus had placed Aapelns after Kambyses 
as second reign, Eusebius exhibits after Ka/x/Buarjs the read- 
ing, ^^ /xdyoi, 7 months," e/SaaiXevaav, in full harmony with 
Herodotus, iii, 07 : 6 Be St] fxd'yos — e/Saa-lXevae. Hence it 
follows that in the time betwixt Africanus (222) and Euse- 
bius (325) a change had taken place in respect to the 
designation of the interregnum. This circumstance may 
possibly account for the peculiarity of the names — legendary 
ones — formed afterwards as nomina j^^'opria of the three 
Magians, perhaps with respect to their gifts — gold, frankin- 
cense, and myrrh. 

' "liber aUiigyptischo Musik " (Sitzungshcrichte d. K. Akad. d. W. 1873. 
summer). 

•-' In Plato's "Tim.," p. 325. 



On tlie Date oj the Nativity. 233 

If we consider tliese names, Caspar, Melcbior, Balthasar, 
under such a point of view, we may find a meaning therein. 
It is well known from Berosus and Syncellus, that the most 
ancient town Sipara, near Babylon, was dedicated to the 
Sim, and held the sacred books concerning the flood ot 
Xisuthros. Supposing, now, that a syllable or word like 
i^DS hisse, meaning " throne," was prefixed, we should 
obtain a compound name Cas-sipar, or Caspar, with the mean- 
ing " throne of Sipara." In the same manner Balth-asar 
would be decomposed into Tw^^ baalth, " domination," and 
l^ti^h^ AscJmr, "Assyria," written ^ sarin the oldest Egyptian 
texts. There is a representation in one of the Roman cata- 
combs^ where one Magian of the three wears a cap or hat 
like the Assyrians. 

If we look on the third one, Avho occupies usually the 
middle of them, he is always represented as a black man, but 
not of the usual negro type. It is the Melcli-ior, whose name 
betrays, no doubt, the Semitic root *^7^ melech, "king." As 
to the second constitutive part of his name, it is surely the 
Egyptian word aur written *^^^'^ jeor, " the Nile." Now, in 
the same manner as Homer takes AiyvrrTos both for the 
river and the land of Egypt, so we obtain for Melch-ior the 
meaning, "King of Egypt"; and his black colour may be 
attributed to the original meaning of Cham : Kemi, X7]/j,La, 
the " black-grounded land," /xeXajjaioi;. At any rate, the 
three names were formed with respect to the three oldest 
kingdoms of the ancient world, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt^ in 
order to state that these states, or their representatives or 
kings, might be considered as doing homage to the new-born 
King of the Jews. 

VI. There is another pomt which betrays an Egyptian 
origin — the exact day of Christ's nativity, as related by 
Clemens of Alexandria. You have already made mention of 
it in your valuable paper by translating, " Our Lord was 
born in the twenty-eighth year" (that is, the 28th year of the 
Egyptian era of the battle of Actium, Aug. B.C. 3-2), " when 
first the census was ordered to be taken in the reign of 

' Wiseman, " The Church of the Cataconihs." 



284 On the Date of the Nativitii. 

Augustus. And there are those who have determined not 
only the year of the Lord's birth, but also the day ; and they 
say that it took place in the 28th year of Augustus, and in 
the 25th day of Pachon(s)." — Strom. 1. 

I may here observe, that the 28th year since the battle of 
Actium, if we pay no attention to the Nabonassarian era, 
was counted from September B.C. 31, as you have stated in 
your note. Thus we have once more the year 3 before our 
era as the exact year of Christ's nativity. 

As to the tradition that the 25^/i Pachon{s) was His birth- 
day, it is of course merely Egyptian, and must be judged 
by the Egyptian calendar, of the vague year, in the same 
manner as we have met with the month Mesori. Now it is 
very remarkable that the god Chons, the third member of 
the divine triad at Thebes, performs the same w/g with 
respect to the 7noon as Horns mth respect to the sim. The 
representations agree perfectly with this hypothesis, sho\\dng 
the god Chons always with the full moon on his head, viz., 
in his highest degree of development. 

FurtJiermore, in my above-mentioned work, " Les Zo- 
diaques de Denderah," I have proved by evidence that the 
name Pa-Chons was derived from a great festival, held in 
the night of the full-moon. A Greek papyrus in the Museum 
at Leyden bears : HeXrjveLipt^ Ua')(^Mv Ke, and I have noted, 
" Cette date du 25 Paclion(s) pour la fete lunaire des 
(Te\riveii]a est tres - remarquable." Indeed, the Egyptians 
could not choose another date of their whole calendar, if 
they intended to make the Lord's birth-day coincide with the 
most striking lunar festivity. 

If we pay but a little attention to the character of the 
vague year, ^ve are convinced in a short time that the same 
lunar phases returned after every 25tli year; this number of 
vague years being equal to 309 synodic mouths of about 29^ 
days each, so that 59 days represent a double lunation. You 
perceive that I am speaking of the so-called Apis-period. In 
the work I am now occupied with, I have stated, on monu- 
mental proofs from Edfu, that the year 3 before our common 
Dionysian era is the 22nd of the cycle, having as signature the 
number 44 i-e., on the 1 st Thoth the moon had aboul; three 



0)1 the Date of the Nativity. 235 

days passed its plenikmium. Counting until 25 Pachons we 
obtain 248 days, Avdiich divided by 59, or the double lunation, 
gives the quotient of 4, equal 8 months of 29^ days each, 
with remamder 12, that is, very near a full-moon} Q.E.D. 

Besides this great lunar festival on the 25th Pachons, every 
22nd year of the Apis-period, there was annually, in the same 
month, at the full moon, another feast, which I have pointed 
out in Plutarch, " De Is. et Osir.," ch. 8, " les Egyptiens croient 
le cochon un animal impur " (in this respect the Egyptians 
were the instructors of the Jews) . . . . " mais le motif qu'ils 
en donnent lors du sacrifice et du rejpas d'un cochon, celebre une 
fois tannee, au temps de la pleine lune, en disant que Typhon 
Osiris on le croit une fable," etc. I have men- 
tioned, moreover, the passage of Herodotus, ii, 47 : " (il) 
rapporte cette meme fete ou Ton immolait et ou Ton man- 
geait les cochons, a la lune (ry ^e\i]vr]), et dit expressement, 
que cela ne se faisait c\\x une fois par an, au temps de la j^leine 
lune." Lastly, I have proved the truth of these testimonies 
by showing, in the " Zodiac of Denderah," a man within the 
lunar disc, holding a hog by the tail or the hind-legs, with 
the unquestionable gesture and intention of an oiFermg, as 
the symbol of the month Pachons. You Avill perhaps wonder 
that I here insist upon a fact which seems not to be con- 
nected wdth our question ; but allow me to direct your 
attention to the circumstance that we have herein a double 
exception of the rule, and " exceptiones semper sunt strictis- 
simge interpretationis." For the Egyptians offered and ate 
hogs only once a-year, and in this very point there is the 
only difference betwixt them and the Jews in regard to 
XOLpoXoyla. The meaning of the Egyptians, when they had 
become Christians, and fixed Christ's birthday on the 25th 
Pachons, seems to have been a double one — this night (full 
moon !), within which falls the birth of our Saviour, was the 

' It must be borne in miud that 309 synodical months are too short by 
1^ 8™ 33* of 25 vague years, and that in the year we are speaking of about 
\^ of the whole Sothiac-period, to which the Apis-period was attached, were 
already gone. Difference, 2'' 11'' 24'" 36^ If we add these to the remainder 12, 
we shall have 14'' ll'' 24™ 36S almost exactly a full moon. I have obtained this 
result by mere calculation, without any help from astronomical or lunar tables. 

Vol. IV. 16 



230 On the Date of the Nativity. 

death of all impurity, and at the same time began the al)oli- 
tion of the Jewish exclusive law with respect to eating 
hogs'-flesh. 

I feel confirmed in this hypothesis by a passage of St. 
Hieronymus ad numerum Euseb. mmclii = 120 A.D. : " Aelia 
(Jerusalem) ab x\elio Hadriano condita .... et in fronte ejus 
port^e, qua Bethlehem egredimur, sus sculptus in marmore.' 
It is clear that Hadrian intended this emblem as an ignominy 
for the Jews, not for the Christians. But its application just 
on the door leading towards Bethlehem, points also to the 
above-mentioned overthrow of impurity, if not to Augustus 
quibble (v^; — i'i69) with respect to the Bethlehemitic 
slaughter. 

Returning to our 2oth Pachons of the year 3 before 
our era, and reckoning backwards from the fixed point 
1 Mesori = 20th July, we find the 25th Pachons correspond- 
ing with the 14th May. It is, at any rate, worth noticing 
that in a great part of southern Germany people Avrite 
C+M + B+ on all their doors on the night preceding the 1st 
of ^lay, and let these signs stand until the end of that month. 
Here we see Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar as a sort of 
Averrunci, or aXe^iKaKot saints, and invoked against all impure 
spirits. How far pagan or old Germanic traditions are 
mingled in these proceedings, I leave for others to examine 
and to decide. 

Finally, it seems that the Egj^ptians, in fixing our Lord's 
nativity on a fall-moon, have intended to comprehend His 
whole lifetime between two memorable plenilunia. A similar 
remark may be made on the traditional birth-day, 25th of 
December,^ in the ecclesiastical calendar. I think the meaning 
was to give him the normal lengtli of life, 33-i- years, or an 
average generation, three of which make a century ; but this 
and many other questions may yet remain undiscussed until 
a favourable discovery afi"ords new materials.^ 

1 Plutarch (" De Is. ot Osir.,'" ch. n55) relates tliat the young Horus 
{'ApnoKpdTTjs = Har-pu-chrat, " Horus, the child ") is horn, nepl tus rponas 
Xfiptpivai areKr) Koi veapov, and that the conceptional days (tliis nieaniufr must 
belong to the expression ras 8e Xo;^€totir fjpepas) are feasted, fiera rfjv eapivfjv 
l(Tj]p.ip'iav. Here we liave the same two epochs as in 25th ilarch to 25th 
December, 9 months. 



Oh the Date of the Nativity. 237 

VII. If I have not been unsuccessful in explaining the 
reason why we must maintain ann. 3 before our Dionysian 
era as Christ's birth-year, by the help of Egyptian sources, I 
wish once more to draw your attention to Augustus' general 
enrolment, performed in the same year by Quirinus through- 
out Syria and Palestine. It has been /or many years my full 
conviction that the idea of this cadaster was inspired in the 
mind of the Roman emperor by an Egyptian custom. As 
this act of government forms the genesis or starting-point 
of the true Christian era, you will perhaps not neglect a hint, 
although of a slight kind, derived from Egyptology. 

We learn from Diodorus and others, not least by the nature 
of the land itself, that geometry was thought an Egyj)tia7i 
discovery, the yearly inundation of the Nile necessitating 
continual measurements ; indeed we find almost in all tem- 
ples that the inferior slabs represented the Egyptian nomes, 
or provinces personified, with the respective productions, 
doing homage to the king, as has been pointed out by Mr. 
Harris.' Dr. Brugsch's geography of ancient Egypt is 
founded chiefly on such representations. He mentions, be- 
sides others,^ a list of the Egyptian nomes and protecting 
divinities on the outer wall of the Theban temple of the 
goddess Ape (hippopotama). Although the figures and 
texts are greatly damaged, we read, nevertheless, without 
any difficulty or uncertainty, the names of Atitokrator Kai- 
sar{os) = Emperor Augustus. This monarch leads succes- 
sively all the nomes with their productions to the god 
Osiris-Unnophris (" the Good Being "), and in harmony with 
this is another monument, dedicated also by Augustus to 
the goddess Isis, of the town Pe-she-n-Hor, "the lake of 
Horus" (Shenhoor of the modern inhabitants). We learn 
by this that Augustus had done homage to the great general 
triad, Osiris, Isis, Horus, precisely in the Theban nome, the 
centre of the country. It is much to be regretted that no date 
is preserved; only we may conclude from the indications of the 

* " Hieroglyphical Standards representing places in Egypt, supposed to be 
Nomes and Toparchies." London, 1853. 

2 "Geograph. Inschriften," i, p. 96, Tafel xvii foil. Cf. p. 146, 198. 
Cf. " Eeiseberichte," p. 135. 



238 On the Bute of the Nativity. 

text, which mentions the nomes of Nubia us pacified, that the 
representation in the temple of Ape falls after the prefecture of 
Petronius, perhaps at the time when his successor, ^lius 
Gallus, with Strabo, travelled in the southern parts, 20 B.C. 
A more precise date might be derived from the inscription 
of the first compartment, where Augustus says to " Osiris- 
Unnophris, the great one at Thebes, the prince at Hehopolis, 
the only lord of Memphis ": " Thou art the king of heaven, 

the prince of the divine star (of Orion) of the month.'' 

A very regretable lacuna deprives us of the means of 
determining the epoch ; we can only infer that Osiris is 
apostrophised here in his double quality as Orion and Osiris- 
Aah-Lunus. 

The sacred bull Apis being an incarnation of Osiris- 
Lunus, it is to be hoped that we can approximately point 
out the year of the 25-eteric period. I shall mention also, 
by the way, that amongst the lunar eponymies^ of the 
month, Osu'is occupies the 3rd day, named mes r-mah tep, 
"prime of the moon" (first quarter), to which corresponds 
the 16th day, with the denomination mes r-mali snau, "wane 
of the moon" (second quarter). According to the great 
calendar of festivals at Edfu," the chief feasts of Osh-is were : 
at Thebes, the months Phaophi, Choiakh, Pachons, Payni ; at 
Memphis, Tybi I, Mechir I ; at Heliopolis, the neomeuy, the 
sexta, and the decima quinta. We see in these last ones the 
true lunar character of Osiris-Lunus distinctly expressed, 
and as the monument of Augustus at Thebes apostrophises 
Osiris-Lunus in his threefold presidency of these three capi- 
tals of Egypt, we may search for a combination. 

There is a very curious double-date at Edfu,^ which reads, 
" This fair day, year 30, Payni 9, feast of the conjunction of 
Osiris-Lunus with the Sun : this is the sexta of the month 
Paoni (in the lunar calendar)." I have found that this is the 
exact year of Euergetes II, 140 B.C. (counted from 170 B.C.), and 
is the 11th of the Apis-cycle, whose signature is -J4' The feast 
of the 15th day (like the god Chons) represents the fullr-moon ; 



' Brugsch, " Materiaux," &c., pi. iv. - Ibid., pi. v, 4 ; vi, 1, 13. 

^ Zeitschrift fiir aegjptische Sprache, &c., 1872, pp. 14 and 41. 



On the Bate of the Nativity. 239 

so we have one of the three lunar phases recorded under 
Heliopolis. The second phase, the sexta, is hkewise clearly 
indicated, and indeed corresponds with Payni 9th, in the 
13th year of the Apis-cycle. Two years before, in the 28th 
of Euergetes II, the same text of Edfu presents the double 
date, 18 Mesori = 23 Epiphi, difference 25 days, corresponding 
to a full century, if we reckon backwards from 142 B.C. to 
242 B.C., in which jn-ecise year Euergetes I. introduced the fixed 
year} Moreover, the same text says that " between year X, 
Epiplii 7 of Euergetes I, which was a sexta, the first sexta 
of all," and "year X, Epiphi 7 of Philopator, elapsed 25 
years." This reckoning is fully borne out. 

Now it must be remembered that Augustus, with respect 
to his Egyptian reform of the calendar {2b B.C.), only 
resumed the work of Euergetes I; hence the eminent role 
of the sexta in the temple of Edfu, founded by Euergetes I, 
and hence the same meaning of the sexta in our general text 
of Thebes. The third phase, the neomeny, is indicated under 
Memphis, Tybi I, Mechir I, whereas the previously cited 
Payni appears under Thebes, without any further indication 
of the precise day. 

Now if we combine these instances, Augustus addresses 
Osiris-Lunus at Thebes in a triple character: (1) the neomeny 
records his calendaric reform, B.C. 2b, where the first Thoth 
coincided with or |-|; (2) the sexta, reminds of Payni 9 at 
Edfu, and the 13th year of the cycle 13 B.C.; (3) the full 
moon, -i-f, indicates the 19th year of the Apis-cycle. The 
year 6 B.C. therefore is probably the true date of Augustus' 
monument at Thebes, relating to the general cadastration of 
Egypt under the form of an offering to the generally 
worshipped triad. At any rate, notwithstanding the uncer- 
tainty about the exact year, owing to the most regretable 
lacuna^ of the text, the Theban monument of Augustus 
demonstrates clearly that he borrowed from thence the idea of 
enrolling the estates of his tchole empire. 



' Cf. my " Schalttage des Euergetes I." 

■^ It would be worthy the zeal of a scientific society to make, or order to be 
made, further excavations on the southern wall of the Ape temple. 



240 On the Date of the Xutivity. 

YIII. It is an accepted fact, that of all the Gospels that of 
St. Luke aflbids the most precise chronological indications. 
The legend takes tliis companion of St. Paul to have been a 
painter and in intimacy with, the Virgin ]\Iary. Although T lay 
no great stress on this tradition, nevertheless it deserves 
noticing that those records which belong to the inner family 
events are followed by the remark r) Se Mapca/j, iravra 
(TvveTi'jpei ra pijfiara ravra avfM^dXXovaa ev rfj Kaphia avrr}^. 
Tims, ii, 19, about the adoration of the shepherds. The 
same remark is met with ii, 51, /cat ?} f^V'^VP clvtov SieTi']pei, 
irdvra rd p/j/Mara ravra ev rfj KapBia ainrjs. This concerns 
the answer of the twelve-years'-old Jesus, ovk rj^eire, otl ev 
ToU rov Trarpo? /xov Sec elval /uue, to the words of the Virgin 
Mary, ISov, 6 ttutijp aov Kajo) oBvvw/jl^voi i^7]TOV/jbiv ere. 

There is undoubtedly a sort of parallelism between these 
two passages, and as the former relates to the irpoiTr] 
diroypacf)?] of Quirinus, why may not the second belong also to 
a similar event, which for its not lesser importance was fixed 
likewise in the memory? Surely there were in our Lord's 
life until His 30th year more facts and siDceches worthy to 
be recorded, and legend has afterwards sought to fill up 
this great lacuna or gap with fictitious ones. Surely, at 
every \asit paid to Jerusalem on the Passover festivity, 
there had happened something of like nature which might 
be registered in a written account of his life. But such a 
record not existing, the historian was confined to oral com- 
munications, which dwell for the most part on the striking 
and chronological events. If Ave consider the above-cited 
travel to Jerusalem under this point of view, we shall be 
struck with the fact that at the same time Quirinus 
once more officiated as taxator of Archelaus and the people's 
possessions. For, according to the list drawn by Dr. Zumpt, 
P. Sulpicius Quirinus came back to Judaja in the year 6 A.D., 
and his successor, Q. Creticus Silanus, in the year IL Alio wing- 
to Quirinus the same duration of governorship as the first 
time, from — 4 mitil + 1, viz., 5 years, the 12th year of Jesus 
will correspond to the middle of his second quinquennium ; 
and this fact, as a most memorable one, because the same 
Quirinus being also connected with the birth of the child, 



On the Date of the Nativitij. 241 

might cling very closely to tlie memory of the Virgin Mary. 
For this second enrolment was made under the protestation 
of Judas Galilseus (Gaulanites) and his partisans. The 
same ISt. Luke mentions this riot (Acts v, 37), in perfect 
harmony with Flavins Josephus/ in the following manner: 
fiera tovtov {&6vBdy^) aveaTrj 'Iov8as 6 FaXiKalos, ev rals 
•qfiepais Trj(; (second) dTro^^a^?}?, Kal aireaTrjae \aov iKavov 
oiriaoi avrov, k.t.X. This adds an additional weight to my 
proof, that the second census of Quirinus is intimately 
connected with our Lord's presence in Jerusalem in His 
12th year. If we read St. Luke's narrative, influenced by 
this consideration, we shall better account for the difficulty 
that Joseph and Mary ovk eyyoo " knew not" that the young 
Jesus had remained in Jerusalem, while they themselves re- 
treated (viroarpecpeii^), and that they made a whole jom'ney, 
presuming he would be with the caravan. This negligence is 
in open contradiction to their sorrowful inqim-ies after Him 
amongst their relations and acquaintances, and as they did 
not find him there, to their three days' researches in Jeru- 
salem, where they discovered Him finally with good luck 
amidst the masters of the divine law. 

But the whole difficulty would be removed by suj^posing 
as I do, that the rebellion of Judas Galilasus against 
Archelaus and the 7rpoTL/j,r]ai.<;, from political reasons of 
national independence, broke out even at the Passover 
festivity, where a great crowd of Jews had come to Jeru- 
salem. In this riot the members of the Holy Family, as 
well as others, might be separated and scattered in diffisrent 
duections. Joseph and Mary, as Galilceans, had the more 
reason to fear and to fly, because Judas, the leading head of 
the rebeUion, was himself a Galilcvcm, who was himself slain 
on this occasion with his fellow-mutineers. Not having found 
the beloved Jesus amongst the caravan, they returned to 
Jerusalem, braving the danger. Thus what was a seeming 
negligence is converted now into a proof of their love. 

Meanwhile Jesus Avas sitting in the temple amidst the 



> " Antiquitt.," xrii, 1, 6 ; xviii ; Bell. Jud. ii, 17, 8. 
2 Cf. Acts xxi, 38. 



242 On the Date of the Nativity. 

doctors of the law hearing and questioning. This peaceful 
occupation, close to a dangei'ous rebellion, is rendered 
intelligible by Josephus/ stating that the high-priest Joazar 
had succeeded in persuading the Jews /cat Trep to Kai'ap-)(as 
ev Seivfj (fiepovre^ ttjv ri]9 a7roypa^fj<i aKpoaacv, to admit 
Ta<; ayoypa(f)ds : i']TTr)devTe<; rou ' I(oat,apov tmv Xoycov, direrifjicov 
'^p7]fjiaTa /jbi]^ev ivhotdaavres. 'lovBas Be Tav\av[Tr]s, k.t.X. 
Thus the high-priest and his fellow brethren in the ministry 
might converse quietly with the young Jesus, and we obtain 
through this hypothesis an account for the name of Annas, 
besides that of Caiaphas, in St. Luke iii, 2 ; for it was the same 
Quirinus who, according to Josephus, in the 37th year after 
the battle of Actiura, had substituted Annas (Ananus) 
for Joazar. We see here once luore the fact confirmed 
that the 15th year of Tiberius' hegemonship, St. Luke iii, 1, 
must be counted from his 15th tribunicise potestatis, which 
coincided with the beginning of the second indictional cycle 
(12 of our era), and that Annas was named by him only for 
the purposes of this saine cadastration. 

IX. Again, a few (3) years afterwards, was renewed the 
indiction of 15 years. I deem it not a mere accident that 
Tiberius was assumed by Augustus as " collega imperii, 
consoi's tribunicia^, potestatis," the 15th time, just in the 
year 12 of our common era. For Tiberius, who died after a 
reign of 23 years, counted 38 years of tribuniciae potestatis ; 
he must, therefore, needs have had 15 when he was '• umnes 
per exercitus ostentatus."^ Moreover, St. Luke, whose 
3rd chapter begins with the much talked- of chronological 
signature ev eVet 8e irevTeicaiheicdTU) rrj<i ■)]jefMovta<i Ti^epiov 
Kaiaapos, seems not to have meant his fifteenth regnal year 
since the death of Augustus, else he would have chosen 
another expression than i^yefjiovia, which corresponds to the de- 
cree next following of Pontius Pilatus, r^yefiovevovTos JJovriov 
UiXdrov T?;? ^lovhaia'^. I am therefore of nearly, but not 
exactly, the same opinion as Nicolas Mann and others,* 
that the 15th year of Tiberius' hegemonship relates to his 



' " Intiquitt.," xviii. - " Tacit. Animl.," i, 3. 

* Cf. "Qiarterlr Review," 1872, p. 511, note, and Dr. Ziimpt's essay. 



On the Date of the Nativity. 24:3 

association with Augustus, who assumed him as " collega 
imperii " in the year 12 of the Dionysian era. We will now 
find the reason why St. Luke has preferred this mode 
of reckoning to the common computation, which counts 
Tiberius' years from Augustus' death.^ He states, then, that 
in the I5th year of Tiberius' hegemony, "the Word of God 
came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the desert." 

As we know by Flavins Jose])hus' own experience,^ there 
was a general rule about public service in Judasa, that none 
should enter it before his 30th year, either at the beginning or 
expiration of it. Now St. John Avas older than Jesus by half 
a year, and if we fix the beginning of his preaching and 
baptizing in the middle of the 15th year of Tiberius' hege- 
mony, at the end of this year, 26 of our era, the second 
indiction expired, and a new one began, Tvnth Christ's having 
attained the same normal age of 30 years, for public activity. 
Again, it is St. Luke who (iii, 23) states, kuI avros rjv 6 
'Ii]crovs axrel ercov rpiaKOVTa ap-)(ofxevo<;, " Also Jesus himself 
(like John) was about 30 years old when he began " (to enter 
the public career). These words refer back to verse 21, 
where it is said that Jesus had been baptized by John after 
the other people. Instead of ap-x^ofievo^, verse 23, Clemens of 
Alexandria, Strom. 1, reads ep^op-evos, " when he came (to 
be baptized) " ; or, in connection with verse 1 6, epx^rac Se 6 
la-)(yp6Tep6^ fjbov. In no case can dp'^^o/xeva be construed 
with erwv, 30, because wael appears. In this manner we 
obtain tico indictions from Christ's birth to His entrance upon 
His public career ; and now, I think, we have fully accounted 
for St. Luke's especial mode of counting Tiberius* years of 
rjyefiovLa. But a new difficulty presents itself when we come 
to the question of the four (or three) Passovers. I do 
not feel disposed now to enter here into a more minute 



' "Suetonius in Vita Tiber.," xx, 21, " dedicata est ab eo Concordiee eedes 
(Tauro et Lepido coss.) (Dio Cass.) .... non multo post lege per Consules lata, 
ut ProTincias cum Augusto communiter adminislraret, censumque simul ageret." 

2 "Yitse Josephi," vii ; " Bell. Jiid.," xx, 4; " Photius Cod.," Ixxvi, eira 
Wfpi TO X' (30th) eros neinrtTai 6 'laxrrjinros, &c. Cf. " Havercamp.," ii, 
Append, p. 57, " missus deinde anno setatis tricesimo (a Christio, Ixvii) cum 
potestate in Galilseam." 



244 On the Date of the Saticity. 

inquiry, as 1 intend only to present to you a short sketch. 1 
restrain myself, therefore, to declaring that I adopt the full 
moon of the 15th Nisan, Friday, 7th April, 30 a.d.,^ as the 
exact date of Christ's crucifixion ; but this memorable date 
not falhng into the consulate of the two Gemini'- (if we 
pay no respect to the termini " a PaliHbus ad Palilia "), it 
would seem that I have not satisfied all the conditions of 
the question. For the present I only state that the very 
accurate Julius Africaims presents the same date under the 
form Olympiad 202, 2 = 30 of our common era.^ As to the 
legendary day of the Holy Fathers for the crucifixion, '• Vlil 
Kal. Apriles," 25th of March, it seems to me obvi*us that it 
arose from the intention to make Chiist's death coincide with 
the day of His presumed conception, and betrays a depen- 
dency on the ecclesiastical Christmas Day, 25th December. 
We should, I think, now write, "vui Idus Apriles" as the 
true day of the crucifixion ; but this question, as also many 
similar ones, may remain open to further discussion. 

X. Corresponding to the star of the Magians at Christ's 
birth, a darkness (TK6T0<i (an eclipse) of the sun is related 
to have happened at His death, by three of the four Gospels. 
Theophilus of Antiochia quotes (libr. iii, sub finem sseculi ii) 
a passage of Thallos, who had entitled this dai'kness an 
eclipse. Phlegon of Tralles, who flourished under Hadrianus 
and Antonius, had mentioned, as Origenes (ii contra Celsuni) 
relates, in the 13th or 14th book of his Chronica, that an eclipse 
happened under Tiberius airo copwi eKrrjs fxi'^^pis ivvdTi]<; ; 
and Afiicanus, in one of his fragments, adds the words : 
B'r]\ov t«9 TavTTjv, " evidently this " (related by the Gospels). 
It needs not that we care for the discrepant date. Olympiad 
202, 4 as given by Eusebius and Syncellus, For these writers, 

' Your own thesis, 3rd A]iril, 33 A.D., is congruent \\\{\i the crucifision-daj 
of our present year 1874. 

* Cf. Sanclementius, " De vulg. ser. Emendat.," p. 493, s. 99. 

^ Epiphanius brings the Consulate of the two Oemini twice — under this 
name, anno 29 ; and under the designation of Rufus (Fufius) and Sabellius, 
anno 30. Tacitus keeps an eloquent silence about the year 30, relating only the 
events of the years 29 and 31. In the last chapter (ii) of Book V, he mentions a 
disagreement between the consuls Trio and Segulus, who are nowhere to be 
found. 



Un the Date of the Nativity. 245 

like many others, misunderstood or completed Africanus' era 
5500 to 5502, and thus they must have set down Olympiad 
202, 4 instead of 202, 2, as Africanus himself had done in order 
to obtain three years for the preaching of Jesus. At any rate, 
there is no question of an ordinary eclipse of the sun caused 
by the new moon, whereas the death of Christ coincided 
with the full moon. I am not willing to enter into an 
especial inquiry about the weight of Thallos' and Phlegon's 
testimony; I insist only on the fact that, according to the 
thi'ee Gospels, an extraordinary darkness or eclipse of the 
srm happened for three hours until the death of Christ. 
P'or it makes no difference through what cosmical body the 
darkness was caused ; at any rate, there was an eclipse 
(failing, obumbratio) of the sun. And as in scientific 
matters the difficulty is not solved by throwing it aside or 
entitling it nonsense, we must seek a plausible exiDlauation. 

For the sake of shortness, I declare that this aK6To<i seems 
to me intimately connected with the stai- of the Magians. 
In the same manner as this peculiar phenomenon had 
announced with a bright light the birth of Christ, His 
death might be symbolized and brought to general know- 
ledge by the extinction of this especial light above. 

There are in our common calendar three saints : Pancra- 
tius, Servatius, Bonifacius (12, 13, 14 May!), called the 
" cold saints/' and highly feared by the gardeners, who do 
not care to expose their tender plants to the open air 
during these three days, Alexander von Humboldt, in his 
" Kosmos," explains this extraordinary cooling of temperature 
by supposing that meteoric or planetoid bodies obstruct the 
passage of a part of the rays of the sun, so that they do 
not reach our earth. 

Moreover, it is a well known fact that the considerable 
number of little planets between Mars and Jupiter are 
supposed to have formed at one time a greater planet. 
Kepler, in discovering the famous rule of the planetary 
distances, had conjectured that between Mars and Jupiter 
something would be found — long before the planetoids 
themselves were discovered. In following this rule Uranus 
and Neptune were alec pointed out. I have already quoted 



246 On the Date of the Xativiti/. 

Lis observation of the " Stella nova in pede Serpentarii,'' 
which was no doubt a Jixed star, appearing with a bright 
light and vanishing again after a year and three months. 

Likewise the sta?' of the Magians, Avhich was presumably 
a suddenly revealed one, may have disappeared or become 
dark after a short delay, witnessing once more by its adum- 
bration of the solar disc its undisturbed ejsistence, but 
scattered into many parts like i\\& veil of the temjDle and 
the rocks, following or causing the earthquake (St. Matthew 
xxvii, 51). It has been objected that St. John, an eye witness 
of Christ's death, does not at all mention this darkness ; 
but it must be borne in mind that his Gospel, written after 
the others for their completion, could neglect facts already re- 
lated; in his Apocalypsis vi, 12-17, there is a vision perfectly 
similar to the fact related by the three other Gospels, which 
might be a recollection of the celestial events at the day of 
the Crucifixion ; for again it is question of a great day, 
■fjfjbepa r) /xeydXr]. 

Accept, dear Sir, this decad of mine about Christ's 
nativity with indulgence, and believe me to be. 

Yours truly, 

Lacth. 



Addenda to Dr. Lautlis Paper on the Nativity. 247 



ADDENDA TO DR. LAUTH'S PAPER ON 
THE NATIVITY. 

With reference to pages 242 and 243 of the foregoing 
learned paper of Dr. Lanth, I would suggest that it is 
unnecessary to enter into the question, whether in speaking 
of the fifteenth year of Tiberius, St. Luke intended really 
to refer to the twelfth year of his reign, after the death of 
Augustus ; considering that Dr. Lauth is satisfied that the 
Nati\dty of Jesus Christ must be placed in the year B.C. 3. 

It appears to me that the years from the Nativity to 
the Crucifixion should be counted thus : — 



j Birth of Jesus Christ in Autumu 3 

One year old in Autumn .... 2 

Two years old in Autumu .... 1 

A.D. 

Three years old in Autumn .... 1 

Ten years old in Autumn .... 8 

Thirty years old in Autumn .... 28 

Thirty-one years old in Autumn 29 

"And Jesus himself was about 
thirty years of age," 
Luke iii, 23, 
from Autumn a.d. 28 to Autumn 

A.D. 29. 

Thirty -two years old in Autumn 30 

Thirty -three years old in Autumn 3 1 

Thirty-four years old in Autumn 32 

About thirty-four in April ... 33 



Clatsmore, Dec. 21th., 1875. 



Death of Herod in February 
or March B.C. 1, soon after 
the lunar eclipse 10th Jan. 1 



The fifteenth of Tiberius ended 
in August .... .... .... 29 

Baptism of Jesus in May or 
June, A.D. 29. 



First Passover, Spring 30 

Second Passover Spring 31 

Third Passover Spring 32 

Crucifixion, old style, 3rd April 33 
at the full moon on Friday. 

J. W. BOSANQUET. 



' The only alternative is the full moon on Friday, 7th April, A.D. 30. 



248 



ON AN EGYPTIAN SHAWL FOR THE HEAD, 

AS WORN OX THE STATUES OF THE KINGS. 
Br Samuel Sharpe. 

Read 1.?/ June, 1875. 




An artist may sometimes wish to clothe a figure like an 
Egyptian statue, with the shawl upon the head. For this 
purpose take a square piece of striped cloth, measuring a 
double royal cubit, or about forty-two inches on each side. 
Such a side {a} or) will go once and a half round the head. 

In our figure the stripes are marked only on that part 
of the shawl wdiich will remain in sight when it is worn. 
(C), (c^) and (c^) will be the three folds on the top of the 



On an Egyptinn Shairl for the Head. 249 

head ; such a thickness of cloth is needed to shiekl the head 
from the sun's rajs. (F), (f), and (f) will all be on the 
middle of the forehead; (b) at the back of the head; (E^) 
(a') and (r-) at one ear, (E^), (a'-) and (r') at the other ear; 
and (S^ TO will lie on the right breast, and (S^ T^) on the 
left breast; (xy) will be the Ime where we shall use a 
string. 



We have here shown the striped side of the cloth upper- 
most, but when putting it into shape it will be more con- 
venient to turn the face of the cloth to the table, and to 
have the hem (a^ cr) nearest to yourself. 

Begin by putting a mark at (F), on the middle of the 
hem furthest from you. Take the measure of the head, and 
put marks at (/^ and (/-) on the hem nearest to you, so 
that (/^ h /-) may go round the head and meet at the fore- 
head ; (a} r-) for one ear, and (a- r^) for the other ear, will 
find their own places presently. Fold the cloth as if into a 
cylinder, so that (P) may fall on (/-). Pin them together, 
and at the same time pin (a^) to {cr) and (or) to (7-^). Tie a 
string round the cloth at a place rather nearer to the hem 
(a} or) than to the hem (S^ S-). Spread out the rest of the 
cloth on the table with the face still downwards ; while 
the skull cap, (b), at the back of the head, touches the 
table. Then pull the further hem of the cloth towards you, 
so that (F) falls upon (/') and (/-) ; pin them all together 
with one pin. Then pin (E^ to (a}) and (r-) with one pin, 



250 



On an Egyptian Shawl for the Head. 



and (E-) to (a^) and (r^) with another pin. These will be 
at the ears. The shawl is then completely made up and 
ready for Avear. The string will be out of sight. 

Before putting it on it will be convenient to turn it over, 
so that (F, p, and p) may be downwards on the table. 
Then the followiiig figure will represent the two hems of 
the shawl, and the letters will correspond with those on the 
former figure. 




You may now stoop down and put your head into the 
skull cap, as it lies on the table. Pull it down close to the 
eyebrows, throw the rest of the shawl back upon the 
shoulders, and the folds will find then- own places. (C) will 
be on the crown of the head ; (/^ /- F) will be on the fore- 
head; fS^ Ti) and (S' T^) will be on the breast; and the 
other spots marked with letters \\\\\ be out of sight. 




251 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE SKELETON OF 
AN EGYPTIAN MUMMY, 

UNROLLED AX STAFFORD HOUSE, 15x11 JULY, 1875. 

Br Joseph Bonomi. 
Mead 2nd Novemher, 1875. 

The extensive collectiou of skeletons of the human 
species fi-om various countries contained in the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, has recently been augmented 
by the addition of the skeleton of an Egyptian mummy, 
presented by His Grace the Duke of Sutherland; which, so 
far as I am aware, is the only skeleton of an Egyptian 
mummy hitherto exhibited, excepting the one in tlie Museum 
of Turin. 

I have no reliable notes of that specimen, but it is what 
is called a natural skeleton, that is to say, the bones adhere 
together by their own natural ligaments, while the skeleton 
in the College of Surgeons has the bones articulated by the 
usual contrivances. 

This Egyptian skeleton, when compared with the other 
examples in the Royal College of Surgeons, presents some 
features so remarkable that I venture to think the details 
may prove interesting and useful. 

The two characteristics which I will especially point out, 
are — the great width of the shoulders, and the unusual 
straightness of the vertebral column. 

The height of the skeleton as articulated, is estimated at 
5 feet 4 inches and a-half ; and the height of the European 
skeleton which has been selected for comparison is 5 feet 6 
inches, or 1 inch and a-half taller than the Egyptian. 

Beginning with the measurements of width. 

The greatest width of the head in the Egyptian is 5 inches 
and 4-8ths. The same measure iu the European is 6 inches 
Vol. IV. 17 



252 Observations on the Skeleton of an Egyjiiian i\/nm)ni/. 

and l-8th. Thus the European exceeds the Egyptian by 
5-8ths. In the Egyptian the measurement across the shoul- 
ders is 17 inches and 3-16ths. In the European the measure- 
ment across the shoulders is 15 inches and 8-16ths; so that 
the Egyptian exceeds the European by 1 inch and ll-lGths. 

The clavicle of the Egyptian is 6 inches and a-half long, 
Avhile the clavicle of the European is only 6 inches. 

The greatest width of the pelvis in the Egyptian is 10 
inches and 9-16ths, in the European it is only 10 inches, 
so that the Egyptian here also exceeds the European by 
9-16ths. The greatest width of the foot in the Egyptian is 
o inches and l-8th. 

It may be considered scarcely fair to compare this 
measure with the European foot, which has been in bondage 
during the whole of its existence, while the Egyptian never 
wore any other clothing for the foot than a sandal, yet it 
turns out to be that the foot of the European we have chosen 
for comparison is wider than the Egyptian by l-4th of an inch. 
Whether this man had been a sailor all his life, or by some 
chance never a wearer of the shoemakers' contrivances for 
distorting the foot, it is impossible to say. 

Having now completed the measurements of width, we 
next proceed to examine those of hmgth. 

In the Egyptian the measurement from the top of the head 
to the top of the sternum is 12 inches, while in the Em-opean 
this measurement is 12 inches and a-half. In the Egyptian 
from the top of the sternum to the pubis is 20 inches and 
2-l(iths, while in the European this measure is 21 inches. 
In the Egyptian from the pubis to the ground is 32 inches, 
making the whole height to be 5 feet 4 inches and 2-16ths, 
that is, exactly 6-16ths less than it was estimated to be. In 
the European this measure is 33 inches and a-half, making 
the whole height 5 feet 7 inches, or one inch more than the 
skeleton was estimated to be. 



2oo 



NOTE UPON THE SKELETON OF AN ANCIENT 
EGYPTIAN, 

Presented to the Mi(se2(,7n of the Royal College of Surgeons by 
His Grace the Duke of Stctherland. 

By Prof. William Henry Flower, F.R.S., Conservator 
of the Museum. 

Read 2nd Novemher, 1875. 

The mummy was prepared without bitumen, aiid the 
ethmoid bones were intact, showing that the brain had not 
been extracted through the nostril in the manner described 
by Herodotus, and as is generally the case with mummies 
from Thebes. When divested of their wrappings, the soft 
tissues of the body were all dry, and perfectly friable, 
separating from the bones, and crumbling at a touch. The 
hair that remained upon the scalp was fine, soft and wavy, 
probably originally white or grey, but now stained of a 
yellowish-brown colour, much the same hue in fact as that of 
the dried flesh and bones and the cloths in which they Avere 
enveloped. The bones were very light and brittle, having 
lost much of then animal matter, and could only be made 
firm enough to bear the wires necessary for articulation by 
impregnation w4th gelatine. 

The skeleton is that of a man (as the character of the 
pelvic bones show without question), of short stature, i.e., 
five feet four inches in height, and considerably advanced in 
age. It is well proportioned, and tolerably muscular, and 
shows that great length of clavicle and squareness of shoulder 
so well known in ancient Egyptian sculptures. The left ulna 



254 Note upon the Skeleton of an Ancient Eijyptian. 

has been fractured near its lower end, at some period long- 
before death, and has reunited with scarcely any displace- 
ment. Some chronic inflammatory disease, probably of a 
rheumatic nature, has affected the anterior sui'faces of the 
bodies of the two lower lumbar vei-tebrai and the articula- _ 
tion between them, leading to irregular deposits of new ^ 
bone, which has met in front of the articulation, causing 
partial ankylosis. There is also a thickening of the middle 
of the tenth right rib, which may possibly be the effect of 
injury. 

Some of the teeth have been lost during life, and the 
others are very much worn, the incisors almost down to the 
roots. It is, however, fair wear, owing to age and the pro- 
bable admixture of sandy particles with the food, for there is 
no appearance of caries. 

The skull presents the general ruggedness of surface, 
prominent supraorbital ridges, and the large mastoid pro- 
cesses characteristic of the male sex. The face is perfectly 
orthognathous. The chin long and projecting. The nasal 
bones are long and compressed, indicating a prominent thin 
nose, of aquiline form, which must have deviated somewhat 
towards the right of the middle line. The lower edges of 
the malar bones are rough and prominent. The cranial 
cavity is capacious, of a very symmetrical, elongated, oval 
form. The forehead is rather low, and the vertex flattened, 
but the occipital region is large. The capacity is 94 cubic 
inches, or 1,540 cubic centimetres, whicli exceeds the average 
capacity of thhteen ancient Egyptian skulls in the Museum 
by six and a half cubic inches, but this average includes 
some female as well as male skulls. Three of the male 
skulls in the series measure more than the present example, 
being respectively 98, 99 and 104 cubic inches. 

The circumference, taken immediately above the glabella, 
is 21 inches, or 53"4 centimetres. The extreme length 7'8 
inches, or 19*8 centimetres. The parietal width 5*5 inches, 
or 14-0 centimetres. The greatest height 5"8 inches, or 14*7 
centimetres. The skull then is eminently dolichocephalic, the 
cephalic index, or proportion of breadth to length (the latter 
being taken at 100), being 71. By way of comparisou, I 



Noie upon the Skeleton of an Ancient Egyptian, 255 

may add that of twenty ancient Egyptian skulls in the 
Museum, none are brachycephalic, or having a cephalic index 
of 80 or higher ; 12 are mesocephalic, or with a cephalic 
index between 75 and 79, and eight are dohchocephahc, 
having a cephalic index ranging from 70 to 74, while the 
general average of the twenty is 75, 




25G 



BABYLONIAN CONTRACT TABLETS, 

Presented to the Society of Biblical Archceolojy^ Qth April ^ 1875, 
by Lady Tite. 

These two fine contract tablets, the fac-siniiles of which 
are given in the annexed plate, were formerly in the posses- 
sion of the late Sir William Tite. They belong to the Persian 
period, and are dated {a) in the tAventy-sixth of Artaxerxes, 
and {b) in the seventeenth year of Darius. A full description 
will be hereafter given, accompanied with a translation and 
transliteration of tlio cuneiform text. 











U;b,ll„ma}i Tfilltls j,n.le«ti'-l liu Luhi file to Ih, Sociclu uf lIMnal Arclmd«ilii. 



257 



. NOTICE OF A VERY ANCIENT COMET. 
From a Chaldean Tablet. 
By H. F. Talbot, F.R.S. 

Read *ltli Decemher, 1875. 

This interesting tablet was pointed out to me by 
Mr. G. Smith, to whom I am likewise indebted for a clear 
explanation of it, accompanied by the necessary proofs. 
But Mr. Smith is not responsible for any errors I may have 
committed in drawing up this brief account of it, as he had 
left this country on his Eastern expedition before these 
sheets were printed. 

The tablet is lithographed in Vol. Ill, plate 52, of the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. I have only trans- 
lated the most important portions of it, which I think may 
be given as follows : — 

First portion. 

1. The star is hairy : its orb (or crown) is like a shining 

light 

2. and it has a tail receding from it like a creeping Scorpion 

[then the tablet goes on to say that this is an excellent omen 
for the peace and prosperity of the land. This I omit.] 

Second portion. 

3. A great star from the Northern horizon 

4. unto the Southern horizon 

5. extends its measure like a creeping \_scoipions tail]. 



258 Notice of a very Ancient Comet. 

Third portion. 

6. This on the face of the tablet \ivas lorltten'] 

7. at the time when Nebuchadnezzar had marcheil into the 

hind of Elam. 

The itahc words A\'ithin brackets are broken off, but they 
are easily restored. 

This great comet therefore appeared in the days of 
Nebuchadnezzar the first. This ancient monarch may be 
estimated to have reigned about the year 1150 B.C.^ 

The tail of a comet cannot have extended quite literally 
from the north to the south horizon, but supposing its head 
to have risen a little above the south horizon, its tail may 
have reached considerably beyond the zenith : for this im- 
mense lengtli is recorded of other comets, notably of that 
which appeared in Newton's time, in the year 1680. And it 
is not impossible that this may have been a former appear- 
ance of the same comet. For, astronomers give a period of 
575 years, or thereabouts, as the length of one revolution of 
this comet in its orbit.^ Therefore if we calculate backwards 
from 1680 (five revolutions) we find that it appeared about 
the year B.C. 1195. Let us now see how far this agrees with 
the date of Nebuchadnezzar's reign. 

Sennacherib says in the Bavian inscription that when he 
conquered Babylon (about B.C. 704) he recaptured the images 
of the gods which Marduk-haddon^ had captured from the 
Assyrians 418 years before, and therefore about the year 
1122. Now, Nebuchadnezzar was the predecessor of Marduk- 
haddon, adding therefore 33 years for one generation we get 
B.C. 1155 for the date of Nebuchadnezzar's reign. But a 
rough calculation gives (as I have said) B.C. 1195 as the date 
of the comet. The difference is 40 years, which is not much, 
considering the various elements of uncertainty which exist, 
as to the dm-ation of the reigns of the two Babylonian 
monarchs, as Avell as the great perturbations which the orbit 

' See G. Smith, "Records of the Past," Vol. V, note to p. 87. 
* See Pingr6 traite des Com^tes, torn, ii, p. 136. 
' So I think his name may have been prononnced. 



Notice of a very Ancient Comet. 



259 



of the comet may have experienced chirmg the Lapse of so 
many ages. IMoreover the difference disappears if we sup- 
pose that ]\Iarduk-haddon captured the Assyrian gods in the 
40th year of his reign, and not in his first year. But we 
have no information on this point. 

I will now give the cuneiform text with some observa- 
tions upon it. 



Line 1. XX}^>{- 
Kakkab 
The star 

kima udda 

loas like a light 



sur-ma : 
uns hairy 

namh 
fshining 



:t]] >-TT<T m I 

zirir-su 
its orb (or croum) 



Sur 'hairy.' Heb. "^^IH; or ')'^y)^ hirtus, hirsutus, 
horridus. So the Greek Coinetes means " the hairy star," 
and so Milton, ''from his horrid hair shakes pestilence and ivar.' 

Zirir is I think a reduplicate form of Heb. "nt orbis : 
corona : for, other comet texts which I will give, have 
4*^ ^JlTT tsipra, which is Heb. ID!? corona caput ambiens. 



Line 2. ^ ?? E^T! -fM I <EIT 

As zarari-su kima 

Receding from it like a 



nammasti 
creeping 



girtab 
scorpion 



kun isakin 

a tail it had. 



Observations. — As zarari-su, diverging from it, or turned 
away from it. Root ^IT same as Heb. l^T or "^f recedere ; 
divertere. The Niphal IfD has same meaning, ex. gr. Isaiah 
i, 4, 1"^t3, where the Latin has ' aversi smit retrorsum,' and 
the authorized version has ' they are gone away backward.' 



260 Notice of a very Ancient Comet. 

Hebrew scholars^ say this verb is very close to IID, which 
means ' to go back.' Therefore I transLxte " going back 
from it was a tail." 

Girtab, a Scorpion. The meaning of this word was fii'st 
discovered by Oppert, in a curious passage of the annals of 
Esarhaddon (1 R 46, 29 and 3R 15, 13) where the king 
relates the hardships he suffered in marching through a 
province of Arabia. The account of it in 3R 15 is the 
clearest of the two. It is as follows : — 



-^^^ 



Tf EiH 


v^Hfflf< < -^ITT 5^ 


<^IT 


ashar 


tsir u girtab 


kima 


ivhere 


of snakes and scorjnons 


like 




ET iMK t; ^ 




zirbabi 


main agar 




flies 


loas full the land 





which means, I think, " where snakes and scorpions Avere as 
common as flies are in other lands " — an exaggerated account 
of the horrors of this desert. 

Ohservations. — Ashar, ' the place ' or ' the place where,' 
often used for the adverb • where.' 

Zirbabi ' flies.' Heb. niT a fly : a gad fly : and in Eccles. 
X, 1, a kind of poisonous fly. 

This conjecture of M. Oppert has since been fully verified 
by a tablet in the British Museum which Mr. Smith had the 
kindness to explain to me. It is a fragment of a cu-cular 
planisphere which once contained the names of the 12 months 
with the signs of the Zodiac which ruled over them. At 
present I think only two remain legible on the fragment, but 
fortunately one of them is the sign of the Scorpion. It 
stands as follows ; but the letters are arranged in the curve 
of a circle : — 

( ) -tET t*^ n 

Arakh Marchesvan 

month the eUfhth 

' See Gescnius and Schindler, p. 1203. 



Notice of a verii Ancient (hmet. 2(il 

kakkab girtab 

tlie consteUation of the Scorpion 

The Accadian month >^^y J^V" Ty is known to be the 
eighth month of the year; indeed it is called in Assyrian 
arakh samna ' the eighth month ' ; and so in Latin October (the 
year beginning with March). And the eighth sign of the 
Zodiac is Scorpio. Therefore we have reason to suppose that 
the signs of the Zodiac have remained unchanged from a 
remote antiquity. 

Lines. — j[^>f ty i^]^-m -^T<IdJ[ ] 

Kakkab rabu ultu tib [ ] 

star great from tlie horizon \iiortli\ 

unei. yf^y ^y<tU A4f-tynTIEU 

ana tib 

to the horizon south 

Line 5. <c- <F ^^^ J <^yy ^y<y-^ j^^\<( ) 

misikh-su kima namasti ( ) 

its measure like a creeping [scorpions taif\ 

Liner,. .+ :^< -gyy ^y^cg c-yyy 

anniu sha pi dippi 

7Vi^'s on the face of the tablet [loas written'] 

Line 7. <J^ t:^ y ^>f -^ Igf ][Ey ^ -,- 

ki Nabukudur-ussur mat 

ichen Nebuchadnezzar the land 

Elamti itbuni 

of Elam had gone to. 

Observations. — Tib probably means the Horizon. I think 
it may be identified with r|1 the original root of Syriac ^Ql 



262 Notice of a very Ancient Comet. 

' the side.' The North side (of the sky) woukl mean the 
North horizon. 

Jtbtmi, he had gone to. The restoration of this word is 
easy. Instead of "j<^>- / C^ the hthographer has given 
■^ >--< ^rf. which has no meaning at alh He has detached 
a wedge from the first letter and added it to the next, the 
closeness of the Avriting preventing him from knowing which 
it belonged to. This error is not unfrequent. Ithuni :'s 
mnch the same as ithu (he had gone) ; in proof of 
which it will be snfficient to addnce a passage from the 
Bavian hiscription 3R 14, line 48, where one copy reads 
^~^^YY ^^ *-TU^ ^'^5'^^ (■'■ captnred, from T^ph to captnre), 
and the other copy reads ^Z^^TT ^^ >yy. ilqum. 



I will now advert to some other notices of comets which 
I have fonnd on the tablets. In No. 399 of my glossary, 
published some years ago, I said : " I will add the Assyrian 
description of a comet, viz., " Star Avhich has before it a 
corona or glory, {tsipra Heb. "^3^ corona caput ambiens) and 
behind it a tail," 3 R 52, 55, this curious passage has been 
noted by Sir H. Rawlinson and Mr. G. Smith. The original 
words are 

^^{-•f V - <M ^E^IT - ^Wi I -lAHff 

kakkab sha as pan-su tsipra as arka - su Icun. 
" star ivhich has before it a glory, behind it a tail." 

And in vol. iii, p. 443, of the Transactions I quoted the 
follo^ving description of a comet from 2 R 49, 13 : 



^ t^E ^n 


-lA-m 


<l£jET 


^^^- 


as arki-su 


kun 


kima 


sallummu 


" After it nms 


a tail 


lihe a 


shadoio.^^ 



FRAGMENT OF THE FIRST SALLIER PAPYRUS. 

Translated by Piiofessor E. L. Lushington. 

Read 7tk. Becemher, 1875. 

This very defective fragment, cousisting, when complete, 
of two pages and three Hnes, refers to the obscure period 
when foreign invaders, commonly called Hyksos, or shep- 
herds, held dominion in Egypt, entrusting the government 
of the Southern region to a subordinate native viceroy. 
Apapi, the Hyksos king here mentioned, Apophis in the 
Greek form, is apparently the last of his dynasty. The 
struggle of which this fragment indicates the commence- 
ment, resulted eventually in the re-estabUshment of Egyptian 
independence and supremacy. The native prince, Sekenen- 
Ra, or perhaps a descendant of his named likewise Sekenen- 
Ra, was the predecessor of Ahmes (Amosis), generally 
reckoned the 1st king of the XVII Ith Dynasty. 

The interest of the subject has attracted the attention 
of several eminent scholars to this relic of early history. It 
was first recognised by De Rouge, translated in part by 
Brugsch, Z. S. £ d. D. Morg. Ges., 9, 200, in 1855, and again 
later in his Histoire de rEg}^te, 1859, p. 78 ; more fully by 
Mr. Goodwin, Cam. Ess., 1858, p. 243; more recently it has 
been treated by Dr. Birch, in Bunsen's Egypt, vol. v, p, 730, 
18G7 ; Chabas, Les P;isteurs en Egypte, 1868, p. 16; and 
Ebers, ^gypten u. d. Biicher Moses, 1868, p. 204. 

The style of the fragment is in general simple and easy ; 
the difficulties that remain even after the labours of these 
admu-able pioneers in vanquishing obstructions are mainly 
due to its dilapidated condition. At the end of line 3, p. 3, 
it breaks off in the middle of a sentence, and line 4 com- 
mences with a different subject. 



2(54 Fr(i(j)iH'iit of the First Sallier Papi/rus. 

Page 1. 

LINE 

1. It came to pass that the land of Egypt was held by 

the impure ; there was no sovran master on the day 
when tliis came to pass. Tlien King Sekenen-Ra 
was ruler in the Southern region, tlie impure in the 
district of Amu, (a) their chief, 

2. King Apapi, in the city Avaris ; the whole land did 

homage to him with their handiwork, paying tribute 

alike from all good produce of Tameri. King Apapi 

o. took to himself Sutech for lord, refiising to serve any 

other god in the whole land he built for him 

a temple of goodly and enduring workmanship ; Kmg 
Apapi (appointed) 

4. festivals, days for making sacrifice to Sutech (with all 

rites), that are performed in the temple of Ra Har- 
machis . . . . (b) 

5. ... Apapi .... King Sekenen-Ra .... many days after 



this 



[Three or four lines lost.] 



Page 2. 

1. with him (c) not assent (to serve) any of the gods in 

the whole land except Amen Ra, king of gods .... 
many days after this 

2. King Apapi sent to the ruler of the South a notice, 

according as liis scribes knowing in affairs said. 

3. Now Avhen the messenger of Kmg Apapi (came to) the 

ruler of tlie South, he was conducted before the ruler 
of the South. 

4. He said to tlie messenger of King Apapi, " AVho sent 

thee to the Southern region ? For what art thou 

come to the roads ? " The messenger said to him, 
F). '' King Apapi sent me to thee to say .... touching the 

well for cattle which is the city ; verily, no 

G. sleep came to me day or night." .... the ruler of the 

South (was amazed). It came to pass he knew not 

how 



Fragment of the First Sallier Papyrus. 2\^b 



LINE 



7. to reply to the messenger of King Apapi. (At length) 

he said, " Has not thy royal master 

8 which he sent . . . } 

9 cakes of bread (?) 

10 all that thou hast said I find . . . 

11 (the messenger of) King Apapi rose to depart to 

where 

Page 3. 

1. his royal master was. Then the nder of the South bade 

summon his mighty chiefs, likewise his captams and 
expert guides ; he 

2. repeated to them the tale entire of the words which 

King Apapi sent to him concerning them. They 
were all silent at once, in great dismay (?) 

3. they knew not how to answer him good or ill. King 

Apapi sent to ... . 



Notes. 

(rt.) Line 1. Tliis is the version now generally accepted ; but 
if the copy of the papyrus published by the British Museum 
is exact, the words seem most naturally to read O^ 
" city of the Sun-god." What follows is more obscure, 
\fc g I I f^ , if that be the word, is only known to me 
from a passage quoted by M. Chabas, Pap. hier. d. Berlin, 
fol. 1, \ ? U • 1 ^^\ rendered by him " tribe." The space 
between this word, whatever it means, and the edge of 
the papyrus is rather longer than in the other lines. Can 
any characters have been lost ? one might expect the usual 
prefix to the royal name Apapi. 

' Of lines 8, 9 and 10 hardly anything can be made; they seem to contain 
the words given in the translation, but their connection of course is obscui-e. 



2()t! Fraguwnt of the First Sallicr Papyrus. 

(b.) Lille 4. AVliat follows here reads iK. 1 1 '^"'^^ 

a difficult phrase admitting' of more than one explanation ; 
M. Chabas finds in the debris of this line the meaning "royal 
statues with head-tires, as in a temple, with figures of Ra 
Harmachis facing each other." 

(c.) Line 1. Chabas renders this " except that I do not 

assent," explaining the group after V -^ i as JUL-X-LI. 

Though he generally writes T and not X for ^ — ' , I pre- 
sume he means \k -^ — ' i i -"^ the negative force of which 
he discussed, Mel. 1. 90, and in other passages. A doubt as 
to the grammatical usage of this phrase suggests itself to 
me — is it certain that it can be put adverhiaUy as " except, 
without," in a different construction from the imperative 
" do not, be not done " ? He translates %k ^ * \\ 

"v.^^ lIV* '^'^ ' ^'^^^- ^' ^1 "^vitliout loss of time," 
and Mr. Kenouf, " Records of the Past," line 140, gives the 
passage " my elder brother wishes me to return -without 
delay." The words of the original seem to me in strictness 
to present a more decidedly imperative plu-ase, reported by 
Bata as addressed to him by Anepu II \ ^ m. 

A i \\ "^^^ |k ^"^ "return to me, make no delay." 

For the gap supplied by Mr. Renouf with the Avord 
"wishes,"! should rather conjecture "says" or "bids."' 

Ebers, p. 205, translates \k-A — ' M ""^ ""■' ^^^® *^^^* ^^^ 
will not assent," &c. 



' Since writing lliis, I observe that de Eouge in his Clircslomathie, part 3, 
p. 132, gives the direct prohibitive force to these words, making Bata say to his 
brother's wife, " delay me not." This may be preferable lo the interjn'etation 
suggested above. 



267 



NOTES ON THE RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY OF 
THE ASSYRIANS. 

By W. St. Chad Boscawen. 

Read 1th December, 1875. 

In these notes on the religion of the Assyrians which I 
bring before the Society, I have selected the snbject of the 
belief in the immortality of the soul as found in the Assyrian 
religious system. 

Of all the varied beliefs held by the human race, there is 
none so universally met with as that of a belief in the 
existence of a future state for the soul of man after death. 
It is therefore but natural to expect to find this doctrine 
held by the Assyrians, a people who had reached a high 
state of civilization. 

From time to time Assyriologists have brought forward 
texts and quotations from texts to show the existence of 
this behef. Mr. Fox Talbot, in two interesting papers read 
before this Society, has done much to establish the fact of 
the existence of such a doctrine. I will, in this paper, 
endeavour to add some more evidence to that contributed 
by him and other Assyriologists. The text I have chosen 
as most fully illustrating this doctrine as held by the 
Assyrians, is the twelfth Izdubar legend. This legend, which 
is the last of that famous cycle of Chaldean legends, relates 
to the state of the soul of Hea-bani, the companion and 
counsellor of Izdubar, after death. Before proceedmg to 
consider tliis legend, it will be as well to retrace our steps, 
and examine the relations of Izdubar and Hea-bani, as re- 
lated in the preceding tablets. 

Vol. IV. 18 



268 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

The first of the Izdubar legends, of which we possess but 
a very small portion, appears to relate to the siege of Erech 
by a foreign nation, whose ships (^^J *;zyyy^ had come into 
the river. In this account we find the gods taking part in 
the war, and the goddess Istar is spoken of as being able to 
render no assistance; and the other gods, being overpowered 
with fear, transformed themselves into flies. We read 
(K 3200) :— 

--T ^ V -<Siy <IEf -,£!! ^- -1T<T 

Hi sa Uruk su - bu - ri 

The gods of Unik Suhuri {the blessed) 

^T -^I m I? -^T --TT -m ^ -T? 

it - tu - ru a - na zu - um - bi - e 
turned to flies. 

And a few lines on we read that "Istar against the enemy 
could not hold up her head." 

Of the termination of this siege we know nothing, but 
probably Izdubar was instrumental in delivering the city, 
and became king of the land. 

After his accession to the throne, Izdubar has a dream, 
which no one in his court can explain, but some one tells 
him of a very wise man named Hea-bani, Avho lives in a wild 
remote place. Izdubar, on hearing of this, sends his court 
huntsman, named Zaidii, to go and bring Hea-bani to Erech. 
In the third tablet of these legends we have an account of 
this expedition of Zaidu Qy^ TI Yy ^T)- By the direction 
of Izdubar he takes two women with him to tempt Hea-bani 
('>-^yn ^T^ Cf^) to leave his den, and come to the corn-t 
of Izdubar. 

Hea-bani sees these women, who stand in the mouth of his 
den, and he comes and speaks to one of them. She tells 
him of all the greatness of Izdubar, the ■^>- ^Y T^IJ I'U-va-li 
>^W »-T^ K^^y G-mu-ki = the giant of strength, and of all 
the wonders of his city of ^^j:<< Y ^T^Y Erech ; and at last 
she induces him to come and see Izdubar. Having seen 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 269 

Izdiibar, lie becomes his companion and friend, aiding liim 
by liis counsel and advice, and assisting him in his labours 
with his strength. 

Hea-bani is represented as a satyr, having the body of a 
man, with the horns and legs of a goat or ox. The figure 
of Hea-bani occurs very frequently on the seals and gems, 
and may always be recognized by these characteristics.^ 

Hea-bani accompanies Izdubar in his labours, assists him 
to slay the bull sent by the goddess Istar against Izdubar as 
a punishment for refusing her amours. This occurs in the 
sixth tablet (W.A.I. IV, 48). Of the seventh tablet, we have 
so small a portion that of its contents, nothing can be said ; 
but of the eighth we have several fragments. In this tablet 
Hea-bani, who is accompanying Izdubar on a jom-ney, is slain 
by some creatures called MiMe (K^^C^ ^I^ ^It) ^^^ Tam- 
bilkku -^Y ■^>- ^^£>2^ T^Y tam-bu-uk-ku ; but of the nature 
of these creatures Ave know nothing as yet. The ninth 
tablet opens with a lamentation of Izdubar over Hea-bani. 

From the Ninth Izdubar Legend (K 3060) : — 

.. -.y ti mil Jf- 1? ^i ^tm <IeJ :^ Idl -IM JI 

Iz- du -bar a- na Hea -bani ip - ri -su 

Izdubar for Hea-bani his friend 

... cir - i -bak- ki -va i - rap - pu -ud zir 
icept and lay out on the groun 

A- na - ku a -mat ul - ki - i Hea -bani 

/ the advice have taken of Hea-bani 

va - a 
also 



» Cullimore, Oriental Cvlindprs, Plate XVIII, < 3, IM, !)5 ; XIX, 98 ; 
XXI, 105, 110; XXII, 169! 



270 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

4. :^ ^1 4S Tr ^lE -E VT 'art tt^ - 

ni - is - sa a - tu i - te - ru - ub ina 

Bitterness entered into 

kar - si - ya 
7ny sold 

•'• -^ iB]] ^t] ^riT- ET I? :£:+ ^^- ^1 -y^^ 

mu - ta ab - luh va a - rap - pu - ud zir 
Death I feared and lay down on the ground. 

,. y; ^] .^yy ^y y ^y ^yyy ^^ 

a - na li - id Hasis - adra ablu 

To find Hasis-Adra son of 

Ubaru tu - tu 

Uhara-Tutu 

■■ tn u< ^? ^m ^ ET H< H <I- ti<y tju 

ur -klia lakh- ta -ku-va klia- an - si al - lik 

The ivay I xcas taking and joyfully 7 ireut. 

Notes. 

Line 2. ibbakki-va, wept. Compare 'n'2'2 flevit. 

irapinid, lay down, at full length. This was a 
very strong expression of sorrow. Compare 
this with the mourning of David, as given in 
2 Kings xii, 16. 

Line 4. nisatu, bitterness. 

The tenth and eleventh tablets of this series are devoted 
to the journey to, and interview with, Hasis-adra, the Chal- 
dean Noah; but in the twelfth tablet we again find Izdubaf 
lamenting over his friend and companion, Ilea-hani. 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 271 

Of this tablet half the obverse is gone, therefore wo 
commence the translation in the middle of the narrative ; 
but from the nature of the portion remaining, and precedmg 
events, it seems to me that the contents may have been as 
follows : — 

The three columns of the obverse contain a lamentation 
and incantation uttered over the body of Hea-bani. In this, 
Izdubar appears to be assisted by a seer, or magician, who 
raises the spirit, or t^TTTj^ TJ*^ T^T u-tuk-ku, of Hea-bani. 

The fourth column contains a dialogue between Izdubar 
and this seer ; and the sixth column (the fifth is lost) an 
account of the spirit of Hea-bani in Heaven, in peace after 
its wandering in Hades. 

There is something extremely beautiful in this primitive 
lamentation over the body of a dead warrior and friend. We 
may see, in the description drawn here of the utter helpless- 
ness of the cold dead body, somewhat the same feeling that 
prompted David to say, " How are the mighty fallen ! " The 
lack of power to use the bow or staff, and above all the 
" derision by the captives " ; which, again, may be compared 
with the anxiety of David to keep the death of Saul and 
Jonathan from the ears of the Philistines, "lest the uncir- 
cumcised triumph." 

The statements in lines 14-17 fm-nish us with an insight 
into the domestic life in Assyria or Babylonia, at a very 
early period. The favourite wife is kissed and exalted, whilst 
the less fortunate rival is beaten and forced to do the menial 
work of the house. The same applies to the children, and 
by the use of 7na')ni, it would seem to indicate that this 
applied equally to girls as well as boys. 

"The enfolding- of the earth has taken thee. 
Oh Darkness ! Oh Darkness I Mother Ninazu ! Oh Darkness ! 
Her mighty power, like a cloak, has covered thee." 

These lines contain one of the most beautiful similies yet 
met with in the Assyrian texts. Mother Ninazu, would be 
Davkina, or Nin-ki-gal, the wife of Hea, the Proserpine of the 
Assyrian Pantheon, the Queen of the Hades, or Underworld. 

Nin-a-zu, as the wife of Hea, was the female deification 



272 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians, 

of tlie Eartli, and thus explains the expression '■'■irizitu i 
zahat SH," "the Earth took him," A curse {iiamtai-), or fever 
(asakkii) did not take him, but the Earth, his mother^ takes 
him. As his name indicates *-C^yj][ KI^ >f^ Hea-bani 
(Hea makes) is the son of Hea the Earth, and as such, 
Nin-a-zu is his mother. Even to the Assyrian, Earth was 
mother ! 

This idea of death wi'apping round Hea-bani Hke a 
cloak is very fine. 

" The resting-place of Nergal did not take him." This 
applies to the deceased Hea-bani in his character of a 
warrior, Nergal being the god of war. The region of Nergal 
is called " asar takhazi-zikari,*' " the place of the battle of 
the heroes " (or renowned). The expression " ra-bi-z," 
"Nergal," the resting-place of Nergal, is a very beautiful 
idea. The weary warrior, after the well-fought fights and 
hard-won victories, goes to the resting-place of the god of 
war, the place of heroes, and the sixth coknnn of the inscrip- 
tion furnishes us with a description of this Val-halla of the 
Assyrian pantheon to which Hea-bani is finally admitted. 

The description of Heaven as given in this insci'iption is 
very curious, as it resembles the accounts met with in the 
Scandinavian and Norse legends rather than those of 
Semitic people. 

I now give a translation of Columns I and H, with a 
portion of Column IH, it being too mutilated to give in full, 
and Columns IV and VI in full. 



Column I. 

I I L> — I I J ^-■'--»^--i■-^r.^~■^-<■■^^-<■■-^■i^'i>■ 
Iz- du -bar 



2. ->^ j^Y y; ^^^^mmMM:^^ 



sum -ma a - na 
When to 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 273 

^- If -1 ]} <h im -<]< ^E! immmmm 

a - ua a - si - ir - ti at - ta 

To happiness thou {art not admitted) 

zu - ba - ta za- ca - a 

a pure dress (thou dost not wear). 

ki -ma u - ba - ra ta -ma... e -mar 

Like the glow 

6. ^yi « V. ^yyy^ .yy<y syy yj ►.^y 

sa man bu - u - ri da - a - ba 

with the enlightening of good 

la tap - pa - si ka 

they do not overspread thee. 

7. yT ^y tt .yy<y ^y. jy ^y. .yj ^j^ ..y 

a - na i - ri - si su lab -khu - ru - ka 

To its inhentance they do not choose thee 

8. ^ ^ ^y ]} ^y KTEy ^^ ^ty ^yyy --y ^ 

mit-pa- na a - na irzituv la - ta - na -sic 

The hovo from the ground thou dost not take 

9- %Vi -^ ^"! ^ ^ ^\ t^"'- V-J -£EII ->^ 

sa i - na mit - pa - na [nu] raakh -khaz 

Who with the bow to strike 

mm ^E ^11 -^ -^H 

i - lav - vu - ka 

gather round thee. 



274 Notes on the Religion and Mi/tliology of the Assyrians. 



"•• 5!^fcU 




]} -^T 


MM^ 


--H 


sab 


bi - dim 


a - na 


qatti 


ka 


A 


staff 


in 


thy 


hands 



la - ta - na - as - si 
thou dost not carry. 

u. ^]} <^yy ^ imm ^ <I-TT<1 ^ iffl -cid 

e - kim - mu i - ar - ru - ru - ka 

The captive abhors thee (or curses thee). 

se- e - ni a- na sepi - ka la - ta -mat- ni 

A support to thy feet thou dost not use. 



3. ^n<y 


-T<T^ El 


T? -^T 


<m tNv 


Ri - 


ig - ma 


a - na 


irzituv 


A 


friend 


OIL 


earth 



la - ta - sak - kan 
thou dost not make. 



• s \^ -tlx 


-gTI 


jH'TT w^^T -^ 


as - sat - ka 


sa 


ta - ram - mn 


Thy wife 


whom 


thou delightest in 



^ET im ^\ II 

la - ta - na - sic 

tliou dost not kiss. 



5. r ^.< ^x::- 


"iiT 


as - sat - ka 


sa 


Thy icife 


loliom 


-EI t=TTI -=EII 


»->^ 


la - ta - makh - 


khaz 



ta - zi - ru 
thou despisest 



tfion dost 710 1 beat 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 275 

ma - ra ka sa - ta - ram - mu 

Thy child whom thou delightest in 

-B] iBV ^T II 

]a - ta - na - sic 
thou dost not kiss. 

^1- ET E^n -tid "iTT j^m -TT^ ^jn 

ma - ra - ka sa ta - zi - ru 

TAy child whotn thou despisest 

-ET !£TTT -^11 -^ 

la - ta - makli - khaz 
thou dost not beat. 

18. jtyiy .|y^ ^.yy. ^y< <^ ^i^ ^t^y ^ .^y 

Ta - si - mi - ti irzituv i -is -bat ka 

The enfolding of the earth has taken thee. 

19. V Cff y V :« <" ^^TIT -^ -T t-^ ]] -^ 

sa zal-mat sa zal-mat um -mu Nin -a- zu 

Oh darkness, Oh darkness, Mother Ninazu, 

sa zal - mat 
Oh darkness, 

20. ^.^yy V ^^yyy .^^yy .y, ^g 

Elibu sa el - li - e - tuv 

Her mighty power (as) 

tVET -^T T? -eET mm <^l^ ^ -m ET 

zu - ba - a - tu ul - tar - tu va 

a garment (cloak) covers thee. 



276 Notes on the Religion and Mytlioloyy of the Assyrians. 

Column II. 
All the upper portion is lost. 

1. tl [E::TT V] cE ^<^ -^ tc ^!< II 

ma - [ra sa] i - ram - mu i - ua - sic 

The child ivho he loves he raises iqy (or kisses). 

2. B] [E-TT V] fE -11^ m A-TT -- 

ma - [ra - sa] i - zi - ru im -khaz 

The child icho he hates he strikes. 

3- i^m -T^ A-iT -^y< <mit^ -t v -< -^tt 

Ta - zi - im - ti irzituv i - za -bat- su 

The enfolding of the earth has taken him. 

4. V :?? ^ [V cs <' -^m -^ Hl^►E!T?--!T 

sa zal-mat [sa zal-mat mn -mu Niu-a- zu 

Oh darkness ! Oh darkness ! Mother Ninazu ! 

sa zal -[matj 
Oh darkness ! 

ellipu - sa el - li - e - tu zu - ba - ta 
Her noble strength (like) a cloak 

ul - tar - tu -su 
covers him. 

6. ^t -]y t] ^- ifci <--ti -^!< 

i . pu - ur 






Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 211 

I - nu Hea - baui ill - tu 

Whe7i Hea-hani from 

irzituv a - na 

the earth to rise (?) 

s, „y .y<yv -. i^^ M ^ ^£11] y} tyyjjfr jgy 

Nam -tar ul [is -bat- su] a- sak -ku 

Namtar did not take him, a fever 

ul is -bat- su ii'zituv is -bat- su 

did not take him, the eai'th took him. 

ra - bi - [is Nergali] la -khad- du - u 

The resting-place of Nergal the unconquered 

<ty^ cy ^ .-^yy <iej ^t\ ^y ^ .-^yy 

ul -iz-bat- su irzituv iz-bat- su 

did not take him, the earth took him. 

">• T? slid s^yyy ??< ^2ee -yy;^ -^ti -yy<y 

a - sar ta - kha- as zi - ka - ri 

The place of the battle of the heroes 

<-v A-]] -. I <mt^ A -< >3£yy 

ul - im -kliaz-su irzituv iz -bat- su 

did not strike him, the earth took him. 

"■ ^z '^ mmmm ^ ^s -y t>b] -^y 

I - nu ni abli Nin - sun 

When ni son of A\»-swn 

y -try I ^tm <m c^. '^e ^ < . 

ana ardu-su Hea -baui i - bi - ki 

for his servant Hea-hani he wept. 



278 Notes on the Tleligion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

a - na , Bit - Elu 

To the temple of Bel 

tT? y I ^T c^iiT m 

e - dis - sii it - ta - lak 

alone he icent. 

13. T? V- H -tUl -III ^T ^- ^SiL IeJ 

A- bu Elu Tam-bu - uk - ku 

Father Bel Tamhukku 

I? -^! <^ -^^ ^-TI -- -T ^ 

a - na irzituv im -khaz an - ni 

to the earth struck me. 

Mi - ki - e a - na irzituv 

Mikie to the earth 

A^TT^ ^^ ^^T ^ ^T 
im -khaz an - ni - va 
struck him, me. 



The Raising of the Spirit of Hea-Bani. 

This curious scene appears to have taken place in the 
temple of Bel, as we read in Col. II. 

("^ ^E V- wmmm ^ ^s -t t^i <^ 

I - nu ni abli Nin - sun 

When Son of Nin-sun 



T -^T I -::TII <IeJ ^. ^£ ^ < 

ana ardu-su Hea -bani i - bi - ki 

for his servant Hea-hani wept. 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 279 

(*) mrnmm -m h -^iii -tit ^ij t i 

ana bit Elu e -dis-su 

to the temple of Bel by himself 

^T !£TTT *III 

it - ta - ru 
he turned 

And thus lays the matter before Bel : — 

(0) Tf ^- -T -^TII -TTT ^T ^- ^SiL IeT 

A- bu Elu Tarn- bu - uk - ku 

Father Bel Tambukku 

T? ^T <IeT i!^ A-TT >^ -T ^ 

a- na ii-ziti im -khaz- an - ni 

to the ground has struck me. 

w [<tt <IEJ] tlT T{ -^T <IeT t^^ A-TT ►>- 

Mi - ki - e a - na irzituv im - khaz 

Mikie to the ground has struck 

-T ^ ET 

an - ni - va 
me. 

Then by the assistance of one of the priests or magicians 
of the temple, he has a vision or seance in which the spirit 
of Heabani is raised from the ground, and by the intercession 
of Izdubar, and by means of prayei's and sacrifices, is admitted 
to peace in Heaven. 



280 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 



Column III. 

Of this Column we possess a small portion of the upper 
part of it, this I will call No. 1. 

Hea -bani sa a- na su - li - mi .... 
Hea-hani who to rest (was not admitted) 

2. ..y .y<y^ ^ <ty^ ey ^ ^yy gHUge 

Nam - tar ul iz - bat - su 

Namtar did not take him, the earth took him 

3. E-yy ::: ^] ^.y <t]\ ^ ^t] ^ ti] < [<ty^ 

i-a - bi - iz Nergali la -kliad- du ^^ u ul 

the resting place of Nergal the imconquered did 

tT -< >-£TT <l£j -t?Sv ^T -< -,£TT] 

iz -bat- zu irzituv iz -bat- su 

vot take him, the earth took him. 

4. I? slid s^ni }} ^iilE -r^ -^H -TI<T 

a - sar ta - kha - as zi - ka - li 

The place of the battle of the heroes 

did not take him, the earth took him. 

a - bu Elu a - mat ul iz - bat - su 

Father Bel amat did not take 1dm 

<■'■ n V- -I <« ^T -^^ <si <m wmm 

a - bu iSin tarn- l)u - uk - ki 

Fatlier Sin Ttnuhukka 



Notes oil the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 281 

Mi - e ki - e 

Mikie 

Hea -bani a - na su - li - ma 

Hea-bani to peace (rest) 

Fragment 2. 

Ra - bi - iz N ergali la -khad- du - u 

The resting place of Nergal the unconquerecl 

a- sar ta -kha- as zi - ka - ri 

The place of the battle of the heroes 

3. y; ^- ..y tyyyy [y}] 

a - bu Hea 

Father Hea 

4. y? -^-y ^ Ecyy <yjf= [^^y <::^y] 

a- na qar - ra - di Marduk 

To the icarrior Marduk 

5- ^ KIT ^? ^ IeD -T< SHi^Si 

qar - ra - du id - In - ti 



The warrior heroic 



6- HI « -^ --H m^ummmm^mm 

ip -iiis- tak - ka va 

The divider (?) 

u - tuk - ku 

The Spirit 



282 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

s- T? -^! T? ^^- I 

a - uu a - bu su 
To his father 

qar - ra - du id - lu - ti jiarduk 

The warrior heroic Marduk 

ib uis- tak - ka - ba irzituv ip -te - e -va 

The divider (?) the earth opened and 



U - tuk - ku sa Hea - bani ki - i 



as 



The Spirit of Hea-hani 

}] m m <^^ <i£j -t!^ wmm 

za - ki - ku ultu irzituv 

glass from the earth rose{?) 



lu Columu IV, we have the account of the effect of 
this raising of the soul (uttuc) of Hea-bani, on Izdubar (?) 
and the assisting magician overcome with mental exertion 
and grief; they weep and mourn, and they make an agree- 
ment to keep all secret — " Let the earth conceal all thou hast 
seen." What a curious parallel is here afforded to the 
interview between Saul and the Witch of Endor. (1 Samuel 
xxviii, 7-25). Here Saul, overcome with fasting and the 
excitement of the interview with Samiiel, " falls prosti-ate on 
the ground, and was sore troubled." 



Column IV. 

>• <m --] T? tU -TH <IeI --! If HI -TW 

Ki - ba - a ip - ri ki - ba - a ip - ri 

Mysterious friend, uiyxterious friend, 



Notes on the Religion and Mytlwlorjij of the Assyrians. 283 

2- IH -t\ m-t^ V sETlT -^ ^JII <IEJ -^\ Tf 

lik - tim irzituv sa ta -mu- ru ki - ba - a 

May the earth hide that thou hast seen, mysterious 

111 -a -gab- ba - ku ip - ri ul -a-gab-ba-ku 
/ rcill not tell to thee, friend ! I loill not tell to thee, 

ip - ri 

friend I 

*■ Wf -^ El] Ik! -i--iv <m-tiv W Vj-^ "211 

[E -nuva] lik- tim irzituv sa a-mu- ru 

[ When^ the earth covers that I have seen 

a -gab- bi - ka 
/ will tell thee. 

•s- ',<<.- <,-<<i-^/^-'',<ii\C<s-',-< I *T^:t — H ^^ \i^—\ 

ti - sab bi - ki 

thou sittest iceeping. 

lu - sib - it - va lu - ub - ki 

may he sit ! May he iveep ! 

sa - ri - bu - tu va lib - ba - ka 

shall cause to increase, and thy heart 

A-W. ^ < 

ikh - du - u 
shall rejoice 

Vol. IV. 19 



284 Azotes on the Religion and Mijtlioloijij of the At^sifnan.-<. 

tal - la - bi - ri kal -ma- tu e - rib 

thou groivest old the worm enters 

[sa] - ri - bu - tu lib - ba - ka 

l_shalQ cause to increase ; thy heart 

ikli - du - u 
shall rejoice 

10. mmtmmmm jri; ^r^ -tt<t t] -^^]] 

sfr'^<STr';<s:i^'/-'N-7r<ssTy/<>-c~->Ty> IT I III »~ I » 1 I 

[ana] e - pi - ri ma- li 

to dust all things 

STr<.<ST,':<s-<:.<Nr,c--^ry>STy>Nr>^-->T,C< >"-^*^^ I ^^ — Ml I II ^^ III 

it - ta - pal si - ikh 

(^ichen?) thou hast passed corruption 

it - ta - pal si - ikli 

(when) thou hast passed corruption 

a - ta - mar 

J shalt see 



Column VI. 



lua ma - . ai li 

(hi a couch 



a - lil - \'a 
reclining and 



Notes on the lielvjion and Mythokxjy of the Assi/riam. 285 

mi pi - zu - ti i - sat - ti 

Pui^e li-aters lie diinks 



sa ina ta -klia- zi di ^- e - kii ta - mur 

icho in the battle xvas slain (?) thoa seest 

abu-su nmmu-su risa - su 
Ids father and his mother his head support 

assat - su bi - ka madu 

and his loife weeps much 

6. V V <^n ssin I ^ ^^? mmmm 

sa sa - lam - ta -su iua ziru 

Those toho (are) his friends on the ground 

ta - mur a - ta - mar 

Thou seest {and) tliou slialt see 

e - kim -ma i - ua irzituv 

His spoil on the (jround 

"• V A\ <E'i El I * mm c^ii -ET tE ir 

sa e - kun - uia-su ki - i - su 

of his ■■<i>otl he has not 



286 Notes on the Religion and Mijtliologij of the Assyrians. 

10. JT m -El ^El <T* ^T Sgii T I IeJ -^II <V 

su - ku - la ad - di - qa ku - si - pat 

The captives conquered come after 

a - ka - li 
foods 

10. V - -^TI IeJ iii s?n I? -M^ -IIJ 

sa ma zu - ku da - a ik - kal 

lohich in the tents are eaten 



Colophon. 



Dippi XII Nak - bi - i - mu ru 

The twelfth tablet of the fountain he has seen 



Hea-bani. 

Hea-bani, tbe hero of this ancient story, is one of the 
most curious characters yet met with in the legends of 
Assyria, and to me seems to bear a close resemblance to the 
Greek deity Pan. 

Pan was the god of flocks and shepherds amongst the 
Greeks, and remote wild places, such as reed beds and damp 
caves were supposed to be his abode. In works of art he 
is represented as a sensual being, with horns, puck nose, and 
goat's feet. 

The Romans identified Pan witli Faunus, who besides 
having the attributes of the Greek god, was also the inspii-er 
of oracles. Pan was usually called the son of Hermes. 

Hea-bani, as his name indicates, was the creation of the 
god Hea --y --yjT <;jg[ or ^^] iz]]]] ff , a god who 
combines in his various titles and attributes, those of several 



Azotes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 287 

classical deities. Primarily he may have been identified with 
Poseidon or Neptune, but as the god of the lower worlds 
he resembles Pluto ; again in his character of wisdom and 
counsel he resembles Hermes. In the Deluge Tablet he is 
spoken of as " Hea, who knows all things." Hea-bani there- 
fore derives all his wisdom and knowledge from his patron 
god. 

Hea-bani is represented in the text as dwelling in a 
remote place, three days' journey from Erech, the city of 
Izdubar, and as living in a cave and associating with the hulu, 
or cattle of the field, and the simmasi, or creeping things of 
the field. The exposure of the women before his den, and 
the subsequent events of the text, are well suited to the 
nature of the classic god. 

The deification of Hea-bani probably followed on his 
gaining admittance to Heaven, but I have not as yet met 
with the name in any other texts than the Izdubar legends. 



Notes. 

The religion of Assyria was in constitution essentially a 
natiu'e worship ; its pantheon was composed of deifications 
of nature powers. In this opinion I know I differ consider- 
ably from other Assyriologists, Mr. Sayce and ]M. Lenormant 
and others being of the opinion that the system was one of 
solar worship. I will here give a few reasons which have 
led me to adopt this theory. 

1. The first beginnings are the blending of two nature 
powers, the abyss (abzii) and the sea (tiamat) ; these pro- 
duce Moimis,' who, according to Mr. Smith, is the Mummu 
of the Creation Tablet,^ and with him I am inclined to agree, 
whilst Mr. Sayce identifies it with Miani, the waters.^ The 
creation and introduction of two deifications of force, Lakima 
and Lakuma,^ into this blended mass, tear it in half, pi-o- 
ducing the upper and lower expanse or place, viz., Assuri 

' Daraascius, Cory, 318. ' Chaldeau Genesis. 

3 Academy, March 20tli, 1875. '' Uoiiiparo Heb. QH^ 



288 Xofef! on the Religion and Miitlioloijy of the Assyrians:. 

and Kisuri. From tlieso spring the first triad oi Ann, Bel or 
Elu, and Ea} 

2. The second line of the first Oeation Tablet is thus 

written and read, ^JdJ "7 ^ <IhJ t^A- JI ^T ^^T 
^S^^ >-'X\>~ saplis ina irsiti snina la zicrat, " Below on the 
earth a name was not recorded." This indicates the exis- 
tence of the earth in a state of shapeless waste, as described 
in Genesis i, 2. 

3. In the inscription we find the three divisions of nature 
thus produced divided between the three gods, Anu, Elu, and 
Ea. and their titles may thus be clearly and briefly stated : — 

(1) -'] trr ;£;p J! -<v ii -< -'T n <:ri t^id -im 

That is, sami rapmti suhat Anu mrri, the wide heaven 
the seat of Anu the king.^ 

(2) ^^y ^ ^ t!^in '^^ T^ ^^^"' ^^^ "^^'^'' -^^^' ^'^'"^ *'^ 

countries, or the world (all lands). ^ 

p) -I -!in TfiiSTf <T- tU -^TI ^^T iV ^«- 

.... asih abzu rahii, Hea dwelling in the great deep.'* 
In the old Accadian cult, from which the Assyrians 
borrowed so much of their religion and mythology, each of 
these deities were recognised as the *-TTV' ^^' ^^' spirit, that 
is, the ^^ fetish" of each of these divisions.^ Such being the 
ground-work of the Assyi'ian system, it was but natural that 
in its belief in the future life it should admit of two states 
of being — a happy one in Heaven, a state of torment in 
Hades ; and these we find in the Assyrian inscriptions thus 
described : — 

Heaven, the place of reward for the good, is called " the 
abode of blessedness," ° "the land of the silver sky,"'' "the 
house of life," "the land of life."^ " The wide heaven, the 
seat of Anu the king." The life of the blessed is described 
as one of ease ; they reclme on couches, drinking pure 

' See Cory, 318, Damascius. - W.A.I. IV, 5-50. 

5 W.A.I. IV, 1, Col. iii, 30. 

■• Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaolofjij, vol. iv, pt. 1, p. 153. 
* Lenormant, " La Magie." 

6 W.A.I. III, m, iii. 7 Ibid. 

^ Transactions of /tie Sociefi/ of Bitjlical Archcpology, vol. iv, pf. 1, p. 153. 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 289 

liquors, in company Avith friends and relations,^ feeding on 
rich foods.- The warrior here is surrounded with all the 
spoil he has gained in battle, the captives are paraded before 
him, and he feasts in tents.^ 

Such was the Assyrian conception of Heaven ; and it is 
exactly what we should expect from a people whose one 
great aim in life was war, the "pomp and circumstance of 
glorious war" "^vould find its fulfilment in this conception of 
Elysium, "the happy fields."'' Perhaps there is no one tiling 
which so clearly indicates the character of a nation as the 
ideas which its people form of the future state, either of the 
blessed or the wicked. The North American Indian, whose 
great object in life was to be a great hunter, looks forward 
to his "happy hunting ground." With most nations Avho 
have attained to any degree of civihzation the conception of 
Heaven is a reproduction of their ideal of life on this earth. 
As the Assyrian life was one of alternate periods of luxurious 
ease at home and warlike expeditions abroad, followed by 
the division of spoil and captives : so the Elysium is a con- 
tinuation of these. Such was the Greek, and the Latin, as 
well as the Valhalla of the Norseman. In the latter, we find 
the deceased reclining on his golden bed, drinkmg " mead " 
out of golden cups. As yet we have, with the exception of 
the Twelfth Izdubar Legend, and a few notices in prayers, 
no direct account of Heaven, but future excavations may 
produce other texts which will help to clear up this im- 
portant point in the Assyrian religion. 

If in the accounts of Heaven we have to complain of a 
lack of material from which to gain our information, we have 
no reason to do so with regard to the texts relating to Hades. 
We have two principal texts, viz., 

(1.) The legend of Descent of Istar K 102 W.A.I. IV, 31. 

(2.) A small fragment printed in W.A.I, IV, 49 No. 2. 

And we have also a number of notices of the land, of the 
depar-ted in mythological fragments in the British Museum 
Collection. 



' Twelfth Izdubar Legend, eol. iv. - W.A.I. Ill, 66, iii. 

^ Twelfth Izdubar Legend. ■• W.A.I. Ill, 66, iii. 



290 jVotes on the Religion and Mi/lhoIo<ji/ of the Assi/iians. 

The kingdom of the Underworld was, as I have stated, 
the realm of the god Hea, and the Hades of Assyrian legends 
was placed in the Underworld, and Avas ruled over by a 
goddess >->-Y "jV^Y ^I^ By*~ Nhi-ki-gal, or the Lady of 
the Great Land. 

The description of this land, given in the Tablet of the 
Descent of Istar, is one of the finest pieces of writing yet met 
with in Assyrian texts. 

I, To the land of no return, the regions of corruption. 

4. The house of corruption, dwelling of the god Irkalla. 

5. To the house whose entrance has no exit. 

6. By the road whose going (has) no return. 

7. To the house at whose entrance they bridle in the light. 

8. A place where much dust is their food, their nourish- 

ment mud. 

9. Where light they see not, in darkness they dwell, 

and — 

10. Its chiefs also like birds are clothed with feathers. 

II. Over the door and threshold much dust. 

The Assyrian idea of Hades appears to me to be derived 
from the ruins of some vast city, or house, which had as it 
were sunk down into the underworld, and became the "city 
of the lost." Seven walls encircle it, each "vsnth its gate 
(bahi) and porter (nigab), its outer wall being a watery moat, 
filled with the "waters of death which cleanse not the 
hands." The porter of this gate is called "the porter of the 
waters." 

The deceased as he arrived at each gate of Hades was 
deprived of some article of dress, as Avas the goddess Istar 
in her descent. I have little doubt but that Ave shall find 
that the objects mentioned in the Istar Tablet as being taken 
from her, and tlie order in Avhich they were taken, had 
a mystic meaning, but as yet I do not see my Avay to 
explanation. 

The deceased here symbolised by Istar arrives at last at 
the innermost circle of this labyrinth. Here is situated the 
palace of Xui-ki-gal, and the palace of justice, resembling the 
Hall 1)1' tlic Forty-two Accukcts in the liitual of tlie Egyptians. 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 291 

From the statements in lines 20-37, it would appear that 
the deceased was kept waiting at the gate until the punish- 
ment which was to be given to him was decided by the 
court of Nin-ki-gal. 

The Palace of Justice, in which the judgment of the 
deceased takes place, is situated in the innermost circle. 
Here is the throne on which the judge sat and delivered the 
judgment. But the most important point is, here rose the 
stream of the " waters of life " (^|y \<*< >-< >-^y mie-balati). 
This raises the important question, Was the Hades here 
described merely a place of punishment, or, was it a place of 
loaiting, in which the deceased underwent a judgment, and if 
this were favourable, was given to drink of the " waters of life ' 
and rose to Heaven, if unfavourable he was consigned to one of 
the circles of the doomed, there to undergo his punishment ? 
To answer this question decisively as yet seems to me 
impossible, but I think there appear indications of the Hades 
being other than a place of torment. The release of Hea-hani 
by aid of Hea and Marduk, and of Istar by the aid of the 
Phantom, seem to leave some indications of a chance of 
release. And in a hymn to Marduk, of which I have given a 
translation, he is called the " vivijicator,"" and he who raises 
the dead to life. But, until we obtain more inscriptions, the 
question must remain in an unsettled state. 

Of the nature of the punishment we know nothing more 
than that fire formed an element, as well as perpetual hunger 
and thirst. 

NiN-KI-GAL. 

w,A.l.li.59. ^1 \ ^ <TEJ Bh . --] t>El <l£j El- . 

-] m -ET t^lE- 
W.A.I. II. 1 7. ..] t>ET <^ th m <- H !>£! ]} --IT- 

By these two quotations we k-arn that Nin-ki-gal w;is 
called Allat, and was the wife of Hea. 

Allot, like Istar, is used in the inscriptions in a very 
general sense, and denotes the begetter, the wife, and is 
applied to other goddesses. 



202 y^ofes on the Religion and ^[l)^ho^o(|y of tlie Assi/r/'an.'^. 

Nin-ki-gal was the wife of Ilea, Nin-a-zu being an Accadian 
name of Hea. Hea, as liis common ^ccac?ian name indicated, 
^-^yjT ^y^y Eh-M, was the earth, or the god of the earth, 
that is, in a Phitonic sense. 

But Ilea is one of the most complex of the Assyrian 
deities in his characteristics, but by aid of his female con- 
sorts in each of these characters, we can gam some idea ot 
his powers. 

(1). He is associated with a goddess >->-y "jV^T ^I^ ^'^^ 
Dav-ki-na, the lady of the earth, that is, the material eartli, 
and she may be identified with the Greek Ti^ixr^Tqp, the earth 
mother, and Demeter. 

(2). He is associated with Xin-U-gal, and here he may be 
identified with the Greek god A k/es, Xin-ki-gal, " the lady of 
the great land,"' being the Assyrian Persephone. 

(3). A thu'd character of Hea was the god of wisdom, and 
here he does not appear to have any companion goddess, 
withont we here connect him with Bau *~>^'1 ^^TTT^ f^iQ 
void, Heb. irTH- 

It is with the first two of these that we are most 
concerned, and Dav-ki-na and Nin-ki-gal may evidently be 
identified with Demeter and Persephone, " the mother and 
daughter," though in no case is Nin-ki-gal called the daughter 
of Dav-ki-na, but both are wives of Hea. Mr. Gladstone has 
pointed out, in his work on the " Mythology of Homer," the 
strong indications of the Eastern influence in the conception 
of Aides and its queen Persephone; this he attributes to 
Phoenician influence ; this is probably right ; but may the 
Phoenicians not have received the idea from Assyria? The 
god Tammuz is evidently the j J:^ *^TI'if^ Dum-zi, the Son 
of Lie, to seek whom Istar descends into Hades. He also 
states that the entrance to the underworld was in "the East, 
by the ocean river, at a full day's sail from the Euxine, in the 
country of the chnid-capped Kimmerioi." The Kimmerioi are 
evidently the ^]]j^ ^IH^I ^^T^ Tt Tt ^^''" Gi-mir-ra-ai 
with whom Essarhaddon fought in the north-east of Assyria. 

These people, during the period of depression in Assyria, 
in the eio-htli century ]'..('.. ]i;id conic down from the shore^! of 



JVotes OH the RelUiion and M)jtJiolo(j>j of (he .l.w/;"/a».«(. 293 

the Euxine and penetrated as far as Armenia. May they 
not in the early days have been connected with the primitive 
Accadi, or " highlanders," whose traditions centred round the 
Kar-sak-Kurra ^^ *^]]^' ^< ^^TT ^^® "Mountain of 
the Workl," situated in Armenia ? From these Accadi the 
Assyrians received their traditions ; may not the Gimirra i 
have done so ? Or perhaps at that period at which the 
mythology of Homer was settled, the Gimirrai may have 
been in Armenia, the land of the "Karsak Kurra," and 
hence the placing there the entrance to the Underworld. 

The existence of a palace, the ^]]W ^*- ^^ *^ ^I^IIA 
the "Hekal mat Nu-ga," as is also found in the Greek con- 
ception of Hades. 

In a magical text I find the following notice of the porter 
of Hades: — f ::^::y 5:^^ ^ J^^^ <Igf tj^" Ne-gab, 
porter of the earth. In place of ^T^T "JI^Ar ^^^® Accadian 
has V" ^C^TT kurra, with the post position >=TyT ge, which 
denotes lower, under, so that we must read, Negab, porter of 
the Underworld. 

In another text the seven gates of Hades are referred to 
as the " seven doors {dalti) of the Underworld." 

W.A.I. IV, 49, 2. 

This fragment, which appears to be a portion of the 
Seventh Izdubar Legend, relates to the descent of Istar into 
Hades to obtain revenge on Izdubar for refusing her offer of 
marriage, as narrated in the sixth tablet. 

Text. 

til' - ra - an - ni 

/ turn myself 



[a - na qaq- qa] - ri i - di - ya 

To the land of my desire 



294 Notes on the Religion and Mytliology of the Assyrians. 

3- mmmm t? '^i< -^ ^tu --t =m ^m -et 

a - ti mu - sab Ir - kal - la 

the abode of the god Irkalla 

e - ri - bu -su la - a - tzu - u 

Its entrance [has) no exit 

la - ta - ai rat 

no return 

zu - raw - niu - ti lui - u - ra 

Tliey hridle in the light 

''■ mmmmmm -n - 1 et i? ^ m <t- ^i 

va - a - cal - si - na 

a)id their food 

<]^ »^] niEy 

di - id - dim 
mad 

ZU - bat ga}) - })i 

'ire clothed trith ndjigs 

0- mmmm ^i e^h - ^t? mu -r< s --r 

va ilia e - dim - ti as - ba 

in darkness the// dwell 

«a - e - ru - ))u a - na - kii 

irhich I in'/l enter 



Notes 071 the Beligion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 295 

ana ku - um - niu - su a gn u 

To its palace I hasten. 

12. ^n jy ^y ]} ^]\^ ty? v <sy^ Ely ^y y^ 

na - su - ut a - gi - e sa ul - tu immi 

weanng crowns who from former 

^--'] tE^iaj eyyj'^y 

pa - na i - bi - In ma - a - tu 

days ruled the land 

13. ^^y y? <-y < -^yji ^yyy ^yy -si^ ^-y ^ 

a - nuv u Elu is tak - ka - nu 

Anu and Bel have appointed 

jy<::-eyf <y^tE^yy<y 

su me - e si - i - ri 

it loaters stagnant 

is - tak - ka -nu Ka - zu - ti 

they have ajypoinfed 

^y-^::=^< y?K ^i^Tl^!< 

it - tak - ku -u mie na - da - ti 

they pour out the waters of streams 

>'• Tf ^i ^m fcu -iM V ^Tf ^jii ^- y? ^y m 

a - na bit ip - ri su e - ru - bu a - na - ku 
To the house of the earth, lohich I will enter 

16. s^- ^}}^ < -Ey^yyy^^jn 

as - bu e - nu - u - la - ga - ru 
the abode of the afflicted and 



21)6 Azotes on the Relujion and Mt/thologi/ of the Assi/rians 

as - bu i -sib- bu D.P. rnaku - kim 

the abode captives great men 

18. ^^^- AMI! y- --T^c!^- V -1^- EI-H 

as - bu ukli -sib absuti sa ili rabaii 

The dweUlng counselhis of the icise things of the great gods 

mi - e a - sib Ner 

icatersi^^) the seat of the god N^er 

Notes. 

2. J:^ ^y^^ ^'^^':' tltsire, may be compared with Heb. '^-yi 

amans, or perhaps from idu to know. 
6. ziimmu. BricUe in or hold back. Cf. Targiim, Q^t bridle. 
8. didd.u, mud. Heb. tO''IO. 
11. Kummu, palace or building, a word of frequent occur- 
rence. Cf. W.A.I. IV, 2. 

^ ^-y ^^^ -y >pyy ^t - le ^^yyy y- 

Ina na - kab ab - si - i ina ku - um - mi 
In the fountain of the deep in a palace. 

Here the Accadian has f^yyyy •^yyyy <?-'""«, a royal house 
Agu, I hasten, perhaps Arab. i^;i^^ fugit. 

18. Siri, stagnant. Heb. "l^ti^, horrirlus, foedus. 

14. Ittahku, pour out, fi'om Heb. ^ri3. 



JVotes OH the Relujloii and Mi/tholu(ji/ of the Assi/rians. 207 



A Hymn to Marduk. 

This Hymn, wliicli is found on a tablet, K 2962, printed 
in W.A.I. IV, 29, is in praise of the god Marduk the Baby- 
lonian Demi-urgus. It is very much broken, but some 
portions can be restored. 

[Sar] ma - a - ti be - el ma - ta - a 

King of countries Lord of the land {par excellence) 

2. [tgE tTys=] -^I tine V ^^T EITIT Tf 

[ablu ris] - tu - u sa E - a 

.Eldest son of Hea 

3- [V --I ^T?] < <!eI t^ JI -SEl ^011 

[sa sami] u u-zitu su - tu - ru 

who heaven and earth turns {or regulates) 

4. 



i - lu sa ih 

yod of gods 

Same u irzituv sa sa - ni - na 
Lord (?) of heaven and earth ivho an equal 

-ET -E JT ^ITT^ 

la - i - su - u 
luis not 



298 Azotes mi the Religion avd Mijtliology of the Assp^ians. 

^- [-:^i] V -T y? <:rT < -^yii -in 

ardu sa A - uu ii Elu 

Servant of Anu and Elu 

8. [.yy<y] <- -^ m^ - -T W 

ri - mi - nu - u ina ili 

Merciful (one) amongst the gods 

ri - mi - nu - ii sa mi - ta bill - In - da 

Merciful one loho dead to life 

i - ram - mn 
raises 

!«■ -y <- ^y tiH ^jii -y ^y? < m^ t^ 

]\Iardnk sar - rn sami u ii'zitu 

Marduk hing of heaven and earth 

"• seh -^y^<y- -^t^-^yyy ^yyyy-yys^-yyy^niy 

Sar Ba - bi -lim be - el Bit Sag - ga - al 
King of Babylon and Lord of Bit Saggal 

12- ^H -yyyy-yy;^syy -^t^yiy ^yyyy-aHy<-£y 

Sar Bit - zi - da be- el Bit -Makli- ti - la 

King of Bit Zida Lord of Bit Makhtila 

,3. ..y:.y; < <mt-^ iej ^^lyy -^ 

Same n Irsitn kn - um - mu 

Heaven and Earth siqyporthig 

14. tT? EI H ^Vi < <iEy :^v iei <yyy -^ 

E -ma Same u Irsitn \u\ - nm - mn 

The circuit of Heaven and Earth supporting 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 299 

15. iy V --T -ET IHT M ^:TTI -^ 

Eni - sa ba - la - dim ku - um - mu 

The eye {sight of life supporting 

.6. tE \< -^T -ET iniT m -m -^ 

i -mat ba - la - dhu ku - um - mu 
The strength of life supporting 

sar elu - gu (?) abzu ku - um - mu 

Nohle king of oracles of the deep supporting 

a - mi - lu - tu ni - si ni - sat qaqadu 

among mankind the man who raised a head 

19. ^'^'^I'^ii'i'F:^^:^^!^^^^^^ 



kip - rat ir - bit - ti ma - la ba - sa - a 

the four races the whole of them. 

21. H W TT V <7K \^ "T ^} < <l£l ^.ir 

Ilgi sa - kis -sat sami - u - irzituv 

The Spirits of the Hosts of Heaven and. Earth 

22. ty ^t] --T W T? 

ma - la ba - sa - a 

the whole of them. 

The rest of the obverse is very much l)roken, but the 
Hymn is continued on the reverse. 

Vol. IV. 20 



300 Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyrians. 

Reverse. 

at - ta - va 
Thou also art 

at - ta - va la - mas - su 

Thou also {art) the poicerful one 

at - ta - va mu - bal - lad 
Thou also {art) the life-giver 

at - ta - va mu - sal - li im 

Thou also {art) the prosperer. 

r.. ^yT<T <-f ^ ^ni- - -] h- 

Ri - mi - nu - u ina ili 

Merciful one among the gods. 



Notes, 

Col. I, Line 3. Asirte. Compare Heb. "^tTt^ felicitas. 
„ „ 4. Zacd, pure. Compare Heb. TJT punis. 
„ „ 5. Ubara, perhaps borrowed from the Accadian 

>-^l ^^ I Ubara, as in Ubara-Tutu, and has 

the meaning of the gloio. 

„ „ 7. Lab-khurit-ka, they do not choose thee. Com- 
pare Heb. "ini delegit. 

., „ 8. Lata-na-sic, tliou dost not raise. Compare 
Heb. 'TU^i removit, or perhaps Heb. "^tT^ 
momordit. in the sense of talcc firm hold of 



Notes on the Religion and Mythology of the Assyriaiis. 301 

Col. I, Liiie 9. Makh-khaz, strike. Compare Heb. yHD cou- 

cussit. 

Ilav-vu-ka, gather round thee, probably fi'om 

lavu to cling. Heb. i^l7 deglntire, or serbere. 

„ „ 10. La-ta-na-si. Heb. ^^tl}^ sustulit. 

,, „ 12. Seni, a support. Compare Heb. |!^^*^ (root 

Ji?tZ7 fulcrmn. 
„ ,, 14. Tarammu, thou delightest in, from ramu, to 
raise, perhaps more correctly rendered whom 
thou exaltest, and compare Heb. DD'^ and 
Q'!)"^ elevare.- 
Ta-na-si-k, kiss. Compare Heb. p'Qj^ osculatus 
est. 
„ „ 15. Ta-ziru. Compare W.A.I. II, 10, izru, shall 
turn from, repudiate. 
Col. II, „ 9. Rahis, resting place. Compare Heb. root V^l 

recubuit. 
Col. Ill, ,, 3. Nergal, the god of war, meaning the great man 
„ „ 7. U-tuk ku, a borrowed Accadian word. 
„ „ 10. Ipteva, opened, TlU'D aperuit. 
,, „ 11. Zakku, glass, or a transparent object. Com- 
pare Heb. rr^^l^t Job xxviii, 17, vitrum, 
crystallus. 
Col. IV, „ 8. Kalmatu, worm. See list of worms, Delitzsch 
Assyrische Studien, pp. 79, 85. 




302 



BABYLONIAN AUGURY BY MEANS OF 
GEOMETRICAL FIGURES. 

By Rev. A. IT. Sayce, M.A. 

Mead ^th December, 1875. 

Just as astronomical observations were made to serve the 
purpose of astrological predictions among the Babylonians, 
so the first beginnings of geometry were bonnd up with a 
similar superstition. That considerable progress had been 
made by the Chaldeans in mathematics is shown not only by 
the calculations requisite for the solution of various astro- 
nomical problems which they attempted, but also by the 
tables of square and cube roots from Senkereh, translations 
of which are appended to the present paper. As yet, how- 
ever, almost our only knowledge of the proficiency of tlie 
Babylonians in geometry is derived from the use made of 
geometrical figures by the augurs and prophets, instances 
of which will be given below for the first time. 

Birt before we deal with these, it is necessary to re- 
member that the Chaldeans were not the only people arnono- 
whom the lines and angles of geometry have been degraded 
to a superstitious office. Astronomy begins with astrology, 
chemistry with alchemy ; and so. too, geometry begins with 
what we may call grammamancy. To this day this pseudo- 
science flourishes among the Chinese, and the eight trigi-ams 
of Fohi are not only supposed to be the bases and principles 
of all things, but to act as efficacious cliarms as well.^ Even 
in our own country persons are still to be found who profess 

' See " Meinoires ties Chinois " (by the Pekin Missionaries), II pp ]r)3 ]91 
(I'aris. 1777). 



Babylonian Augury by means of Geometrical Figures. 303 

faith ill the mystical properties of the pentagon ; and we 
have all heard of the " houses " into which the astrologer 
di^ades the heavens. The Greeks, indebted to the East and 
especially to the Assyrians for the germs of that art and 
science which they afterwards brought to such marvellous 
perfection, owed to the East also a lingering belief in the 
magical properties of numbers and geometrical figures. 
Philolaus, the true founder of the philosophy ascribed to the 
semi-mythical Pythagoras, held that the earth was produced 
from the cube, fire from the pyramid, air from the octa- 
hedron, water from the icosahedron, and the universe from 
the dodecahedron ; ^ and TeTpdj(t}vo<; avrjpj " a square man," 
was the ordinary Greek expression for a person of vii'tuous 
character.^ Among the half-orientalised mystics of a later 
day similar ideas prevailed. We find the author of the 
treatise " de Vita Contemplativa," a work commonly attri- 
buted to Philo, representing the Therapeutae as holding their 
great feast on the fiftieth day, " because Jifty is the most 
holy and natural number, through the influence of the right- 
angled triangle, which is the first principle of the origin and 
existence of the world." ^ 

Now, it is very probable that these notions had originally 
been disseminated fi-om Chaldea, the cradle of the civiliza- 
tion of Western Asia, and we might even add of Europe 
also. A curious tablet from the library of Assur-bani-pal 
(marked K 99), now in the British Museum, has been given 
by M. Fr. Lenormant in his Clioix de Textes Cuneiformes 
(III, p. 94), under the title of a " Fragment of the augm-al 
explanation of certain figures." The whole of the reverse 
and the first column of the obverse are unfortunately en- 
tirely gone ; so also are the beginning and end of the 
second column. What is left I give here, together with a 
translation. 

1 Stob. Eel. I, p. 10, compared with Plut. de PI. Ph. II, 6 ; and see Aristotle 
Met. N. 5. 

* Aristot. Eth. Nic. I, 10, 11. 

■^ irevTrjKOVTCLS . . . ayLcoTarov Kai (^vcriKaraTov apidiiov, ex t^s tov opBnywviov 
Tpiycovov hwafxeuii, onep icrriv apxh t^s fSiv oXcav yevea-fuis lu (TV^Tciirews. 
Ed. Gelen., p. 899. 



304 Babylonian Augury by mearis of Geometrical Figures. 



[Five lines are wantiug here.] 



S 



1 ,^ >:Y YJ=Y >^?j£^t<^rJy^Z<^C<>J:7i^ii<^^^^ 

enuva tncultu , 

When the augury 

tucultii imnu 

the augury on the right hand (is made^ ' 



libitu(?) sarr-ii sanna 

The omen (is) : the king for a year 






cara yuma tsabu ibassi . . . . 

(i?t) the fortress during the day the soldier is . . . . 



5. ^ {tt 

adamatu VI 
An omen of evil 6 









c^ 



li ibaiina 
.... it produces 

tucultu isit ali 

The augury (is): the foundation of the city 

7. >^ « t:W -^ 5f <M tM 

libitu(?) ^aiT-ii sanna ci^alla ibanna .. 
The omen (is) : the king for a year an altar makes. . 

8. .^ M -^ cw <3T J^ 

libitu(?) allatu su sanna ci^alla ibanna . . . 
The omen (is) : his wife for a year an altar makes. . . 

a - tsi - tuv izz - az 



ea;ii 



IS allowed 



Babylonian Augur i/ by means of Geometrical Figures. 305 



O 



enuva tucultii imnu ibbaiia zi - kip 

When the augury on the right is made, a stake 

kharats TSI - IL birku za-kip 

the production of life the lightning the staking. . . . 



19 >^ >-Y ^^}^^^^^^>!^<^^^>^?^ 

I ST. <,<)•- ^^<>~ <ss- -",<>- <,^y~ '--At, i.<\C-'7^'ii\c^yii<,< 

enuva tucultu 

When the omen 



Much more perfect is another tablet of the same natm-e 
(marked K 2087), a copy of which I owe to the kindness of 
Mr. W. Boscawen. This is as follows i — 



Column I. 

D.P. silik - ma 

The god loho protects the land {probably Merodach). 



EI! 

da 

smites 



V 



az 



3. <MH -W ^- 

limnis 
in hostile fashion 

limnuti - su 

that which is hostile to him. 



z 



t: 



t:;/ 



' Perhaps Aram. VV"T ' ^'^ infix.' 



306 Bahijlonian Augury hij means of Geometncal Figures. 

duni - ka 
Prosperity {this figure) 

6. tyyis. ^^ <^ I 

yu - sat - lim - su 
conferred on him ; 

^■-m- 1211 I 

yu - cin - su 
it established for him 




jTi^Y ,-YYTY 
5^T ^TTTT 



tag - li - me^ dumku 

offspring. Omen of luck. 



9. !=:<: ►£! -tiT 

al - la - tu 
A loife 



10. ^yy iH A I I 



sa ui- 



-kki 



on the road 



^ 



g^T I 



^_^ »^^* C- V [within the figure is the 

11- ^t: >-*-I >4T-| »^| ideogi-aph of "joximeying."] 



i - du - us - su 
his hand 

12. jr^ -^y ^— y 

i - ba - ali^ 
obtains. 



'■ Cf. Heb. D7il "the embryo." 
- Literally " coines to" (If^^^)- 



Babylonian Aitgary hy means of Geometrical Figures. 307 

13. vf ^-Id eEf V -^Id Til ►-I< A4f y- tElT 

GAR- CA^ anaili- GAR- CA III TI - IM GID - DA^ 
The configuration of a geometrical figure of 3 lines. 




;il 




[ The ideograph inside the figure means " great."] 



14. 



tap - rat' 
delight. 



15. 



l^/V^ :J'/V^ ir"/ ^\ IJT/ ^\ '^1 ^v l-T/ ^^ 



dumku 
Good luck. 



^ ^/V^ ^; -^ i:r;V^ ^/\^ 1r/V^ rr>\,v ■ 



r-,/"--.",/^/". 



Nr. '',~At, <•-->- '^^nt. C-->— '-■-■N 



16. 



^ 



sa 



Ii^ 



[in both Assyrian and 
Babylonian forms.] 



a bond (?) 



17. ^l<^ 



tap - ga 
Double {lines) 



18. 



<V 



TT 



"ina RAT >|< ^^■^'■^"^ IL 

/?t ^/ie arc (?) of heaven (?) 



' The Accadian words signify litei'ally " the making of a form " or " outline," 
" delineation." 

2 »_t^Y is explained in the syllabaries as lavu (Heb. fll^) °^ ananu. 

3 Literally "long ropes" or "lines," tim in Accadian being "cord" or 
" line." The woi'ds refer to the figures which follow. 

< The words, however, may be Accadian, " a double are," referring to the 
preceding figure. 



308 Babylonian Augury by means of Geometrical Figures. 



19. wm t;<] tl ^T 

[The ideogi-aph of " walking " ^^ ^^ 

beween the two lines of a path.] enclosure of (?) 



20. V<STT 



[The ideogi-aph of "creation" within the figure.] 

21. -<^< jryyfjr *^ 

alu isittu 

a city {and its) foundation. 

Column II. 

1. ^ ^T ET 

libitu (?) yu - ma 
Omen: during the day^ 

libitu (?) gap itstsuri issacan 
Omen : the icing of a bird is made. 

3. ^ IhIIe -y^ 

libitu (?) sac - mi 
Omen : established. 

libitu (?) kliu - uts - ba 
Omen : (for) cuttitig. 

5. ^ -^yy tyyy^ itj 

libitu (?) lamad giri nacari 

Omen : knowledge of the invasions of the foe. 

1 Or sarsu ma, " an omen of good (is) this." 



Babylonian Augury hy means of Geometrical Figures. 309 

libitu(?) damka - ta - su 
Omen : good luck to him. 

dibbu erba - ma 

the tablet one enlarges as above. 

[About three lines lost.] 

radd - u lamadi 
addition of knoivledge : 

12. V -£T -^TT ^W m^ 

sa la id - u sam(ma) 

[For] xohoever hioios not the same 



bunnu^ ibbanu ana pa - sac - ci^ 

The draiving is made for soothsayings. 

14. ^ >p|y^ <jEj ^y ., ^jn ^y y^ 

ina risi ci - na libitu(?) tsabi 

At the head plant (it) : the omen (is) an army 

.^ < ETT 

libitii(?) mikhiltu 
_^^,„__ (Another) omen: battle 



> 



libitu(?) kliarrats pale 
(A^iother^) omen: the production of a campaign. 



I, " an image," from |^^^, 
2 Eabbin. p^rjj-)^ "bewitched," ri^'ilpDD 111*) " spiritus derisorius." 



310 Bahylonian Aiigurii by means of Geometrical Figures. 

saniyanu ^'7i'^'^'7i'-^^':^'^>^'7i'?"''r^'cr>''Fi'^ 

ditto (i.e. draw the fiqure) .... I >'7^y>7^rS>^7^lc^7^':^lf;S::^>'7^<; 

bunnu ana damkati '^^lyhlYMvlWlWlW 

a drawing jor good luck. '/x^/X:&/x^y^<^yx^/.<^/.<^ri't 



\vc/\>^^>^^j,•^/^-■^l.c/\^;.c•'\^tv'\^i.v'\^^c/\>l.\>\^l.v'^ 



Some of the curious figures delineated on these tablets 
may have been suggested by the cu'cles, semicircles, and 
angles into which the heavens were divided for astrological 
as well as astronomical purposes. This was certainly the 

case with the two symbols of the degree (>{<) given above ; 
and the fragment of an astrolabe discovered by Mr. Smith 

(marked S 162) has on the back the figure p (0 ^ placed 

in a compartment by itself, and followed by an account of 
the kind of weather that would follow the appearance of 
various stars. In other cases, however, where such events 
as the building of a city or an altar are dependent on the 
augury derived from a geometrical figure, the figm-es seem 
to have been borrowed from geometry ; and Ave may infer 
that a superstition prevailed among the Accadians similar to 
that called fung shui, " wind and water," by the Chinese. 
This assumes an inherent good or bad luck in a place or 
situation, which must be discovered by careful observation 
and diligently provided for. The mere influence of a locality 
determines the fortune of its occupants, and a special kind of 
geomancy is required to find out beforehand what this influ- 
ence irs likely to be. Straight lines are accounted ])articularly 
unlucky, and it is a curious fact that the only figure in the 
tablets translated above which is strictly connected with the 
founding and erection of cities and altars is entirely formed 
of curves. 



Bahiiloniau Aufjurij hy means of Geometrical Figures, oil 

Besides the figures which may owe their origin to the 
surveying of the sky and the earth, there are some which 
seem phiinly derived from different objects. The last figure 
but one may be regarded as an example of this. 

The Accadian origin of the figures and of the explanation 
attached to them is clearly indicated, not only by the fact that 
the Accadian text is left untranslated in various places, but 
also that line 13 of the second tablet, which describes the 
character of the figures which follow, is wholly in the old 
Chaldean language, one of the words in it which might be 
represented by a single sign, >-|i^ tim, "a rope" or "line," 
being written phonetically, not in Assyrian but in Accadian. 
It is probable that the ideograph inside the semicircle below 
line 13 is intended to point out that the area within the 
arc ought to be a large one. The double (Assyrian and 
Babylonian) form of the character attached to the next 
figure imphes that the text from which the tablet was 
copied belonged to some Chaldean library, and that for 
some reason or other, in this particular instance, the original 
form of the character was preserved along with its Assyrian 
equivalent. 

It is probable that the " Babylonios numeros " of which 
Horace speaks (Odes I, 11), included geometrical figures 
as well as mathematical ciphers. This brings me to the 
tables of square and cube roots from Senkereh, already 
alluded to, of which I append a translation. The original 
texts will be found in W.A.I. IV, pi. 40. M. Fr. Lenormant 
devoted a special work to them as far back as 1868. 

1 (from the) root (^|J) y^T (is) the cube (^f^fS^ ^Jf 

hadie) ^ 
8 „ \/ 2 (is) the cube. 

27 „ \/ 3 (is) the cube. 

64 ., \/ 'i (is) the cube. 

125 ,. a/ 5 (is) the cube. 

216 „ \/"6 (is) the cube. 

' It is evident, as M. Lenormant has pointed out, tlmt both the Accadian 
words badie " a eube," and ihcU " a square," are connected with one anotlier. 



312 Babylonian Augury by means of Geometrical Figures. 



343 (from 


the) root 


^/ 7 (is) the cube. 


512 


>> 


-\,/' 8 (is) the cube. 


720 


5? 


V 9 (is) the cube. 


1000 


55 


V 10 (is) the cube. 


1331 


>5 


\/ll (is) the cube. 


1728 


1' 


s/V2 (is) the cube. 


2187 


55 


v/l3 (is) the cube. 


2744 


95 


v/l4 (is) the cube. 


3375 


55 


V^15 (is) the cube. 


4096 


5' 


v/l6 (is) the cube. 


4913 


5? 


y/ll (is) the cube. 


5832 


55 


-^18 (is) the cube. 


6859 


55 


v/19 (is) the cube. 


8000 


., 


\/20 (is) the cube. 


9261 


55 


v/21 (is) the cube. 


10648 


»J 


^y'2'2 (is) the cube. 


12167 


5» 


^23 (is) the cube. 


13824 


>5 


^24 (is) the cube. 


15625 


55 


y/'Ib (is) the cube. 


17576 


55 


'v/26 (is) the cube. 


19683 


55 


y/27" (is) the cube. 


21952 


55 


y/28 (is) the cube. 


24389 


55 


y^29 (is) the cube. 


27000 


55 


V^30 (is) the cube. 


[20791] 


55 


^y'^\ (is) the cube. 


[32768] 


55 


-y/32 (is) the cube. 



[ 1 (from the) root \/ 1 (is) tlie square. (^Jl^j^ K^^I 

ibdi) ] 
„ Ak/ 2 (is) the square.] 

„ x/ '6 (is) the square.] 

" [\/' ^ 0^) ^^^ square.] 

„ \_^y 5 (is) the square.] 

„ \^y/ 6] (is) the square. 

,5 [^ 7] (is) the square. 



[4 

[9 
16 

25 

36 
49 



Babylonian Augury by means oj Geometrical Figures. 313 
64 (from the) root [y^ 8j (is) the square. 



81 


„ [\/ y] (is) the square. 


100 


„ [ \/lO] (is) the square. 


121 


„ Lvll (ii^) the square. 


144 


x/12 


(is) the square. 


169 


a/13 


(is) the square. 


196 


a/14 


(is) the square. 


225 


a/15 


(is) the square. 


256 


a/16 


(is) the square. 


289 


a/17 


(is) the square. 


324 


a/18 


(is) the square. 


361 


v/19 


(is) the square. 


400 


a/20 


(is) the square. 


441 


v/21 


(is) the square. 


484 


^/^^ 


(is) the square. 


529 


a/23 


(is) the square. 


576 


/24 


(is) the square. 


[625] 


a/25 


(is) the square. 


[676] 


\/-2^ 


(is) the square. 


[729] 


a/27 


(is) the square. 


[784 


,, \/28] (is) the square. 


[841 


,. \/29] (is) the square. 


[900 


,, a/30] (is) the square. 


[961 


„ a/31] (is) the square. 




[a lacuna here 


of 12 lines.] 


[1936] 


(from the) root 'v/44 


(is) the square. 


[2025] 


,, a/45 [(is) the square.] 


[2116] 


a/46 


(is) the square. 


[2209] 


a/47 


(is) the square. 


2304 


a/48 


(is) the square. 


2401 


a/49 


(is) the square. 


2500 


a/50 


(is) the square. 


2601 


-v/51 


(is) the square. 


2704 


a/52" 


(is) the square. 



314 Babylonian Augiiri/ by means of Geometrical Figures. 

2809 (from the) root ^ 5'6 (is) the square. 

291(3 „ \/54 (is) the square. 

3025 „ \/55 (is) the square. 

3136 „ -s/SH (is) the square. 

3249 „ y/5f (is) the square. 

3364 „ -v/58" (is) the square. 

3541 „ ^^59 (is) the square. 

3600 „ \/6() (is) the square. 

The sexagesimal system of the Chaldeans allowed their 
calculations to be made with as much rapidity as our own ; 
and the digits occupied, on the whole, as little room as the 
Arabic numerals. Indeed in some instances they occupied 
less : T, for example marking 3,600, and tyy ^^^ 37,000. At 
the same time their system required ready powers of multipli- 
cation and addition ; a multiple 60 was always understood 
(like a denominator 60 in the case of fractions), and the 
difference betAveen the Avhole sum needed and the result of 
the multiplication by 60 had to be added. Thus 3,541 is 
expressed by Lix • I i.e., 59 x 60 + 1 ; 21,952, by VI • v • Lil, i.e., 
(6 X 60 4 5) X 60 -f 52. Such a mathematical facility must 
have seemed strange to the Semites, whose clumsy mode of 
representing the numerals by letters of the alphabet fitly 
reflected their ignorance of the science and the little chance 
they had of progressing in it. 

I may here add that Prof. Cantor, of Heidelberg, in a 
review of M. Oppert's " L'Etalon des mesures Assyriennes,"' 
has pointed out that the formula tt = 3 was known to the 
Chaldeans, from whom it seems to have been taken by the 
Babylonian Talmud {Siiccah, fol. 7, verso). Prof. Cantor 
also suggests tliat the saTne formula might have been bor- 
rowed from Chaldea by the Greeks as well as by the Chinese, 
to whom it was known {see Biot, " Traduction et examen 
d'un ancien ouvrage chinois intitule, Tcheou-Pei "). 



315 



ON THE NUMBERS OF THE JEWS IN ALL AGES. 
By Rev, Josiah Miller, M.A. 

Head 'ith January, 1876. 

The statistical history of the Jews may be said to begin 
with the Divine call of Abraham (Gen. xvii, 1-5), when it was 
said to him, "Neither shall thy name any more be called 
Abram (D"Jlb;Jt), exalted father — but thy name shall be 
called Abraham ( II "^Ib*!), father of a multitude — for a 
father of many nations have I made thee. And I will make 
thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and 
kmgs shall come out of thee." The words " I will make 
thee exceeding ft-uitfid," in which we have the same word 
(rri5) as in the original command, " Be fruitful and 
multiply and replenish the earth," are suggestive of great 
increase, and may relate to rapid growth of numbers. The 
way is thus prepared for the large numbers we afterwards 
meet with. Admitting that tlie chronology given in the 
margin of our Bibles is of no authority and of great uncer- 
tainty, yet, pending more reliable conclusions, we adopt the 
date for the call of Abraham, 1898 B.C., from Usher, as 
usually given in the authorised version. 

Advancing to the year 1705 B.C., a period of 193 years, 
we read that " all the souls of the house of Jacob which 
came into Egypt, were tln-eescore and ten" (Gen. xlvi, 27), 
the names of those referred to being given in the chapter. 
The Septuagint and Acts vii, 14, read "seventy-five," 
probably adding in the wives of nine of the sons to 
the sixty-six descendants of Jacob. Have we here a true 
starting point for statistical calculation and comparison in 
reference to the Jews ? We believe not. We cannot 
Vol. IV. 21 



31() The JVionhem of the Jeu-s in all Ages. 

suppose that this was the whole party that went down to 
Egypt. It is reasonable to believe that many of their own 
people accompanied them ; it is mentioned that their " house- 
holds " went with them (Exod. i, 1 ) and that others jomed 
them afterwards, for Abraham had several other children 
besides Isaac, and a band of 318 servants born in his house. 
(Gen. XXV, 1 and 6). And when Jacob and Esau met, 
Esau had with him 400 men, and Jacob had two bands. 
(Gen. xxxii, 6, 7). Egypt was a land of plenty, and on 
that account a place of attraction. Ewald, in his " History 
of Israel," vol. i, p. 397, says, " We must therefore suppose 
that a great movement of nations from the north to Egypt 
took place in the earliest times, and carried the inhabitants of 
Northern Arabia in multitudes thither." That the little 
band of voluntary exiles who went to New England in the 
" ]\Iayflower " should in time have grown to the millions of 
modern America seems at first sight almost incredible, but 
when we learn that two and a-half centuries have passed 
since they went, and that other bands followed them, it 
becomes less marvellous. The Scriptures are exact in fixing 
the time the Israelites remained in Egypt (Exod. xii, 40), 
" Now the sojom-ning of the children of Israel who dwelt in 
Egypt was 430 years." And Ewald, who can scarcely be 
regarded as timid or over-scrupulous in manipulating Scrip- 
ture dates, adheres to this number, and Bunsen, Milman, and 
others hold the same view, though on account of some 
difiiculties others have divided the 430, and take 215 as the 
number of years from the descent of Jacob to the Exodus, 
and in this they are supported by Josephus. We know 
what the number of men capable of bearing arms was 
at the time of the Exodus. Exod. xxxviii, 26, gives 
the number of the men from twenty years old and upward 
who paid their half-shekel as 603,550. Numb, i gives 
an account of the numbering of the men of war in 
each tribe, and at v. 45-6 we read, " So were all those 
that were numbered of the cliildren of Israel, by the house 
of their fathers, from twenty years old and upward, all that 
were able to go forth to war in Israel ; even all they that 
were numbered, were six hundred thousand and three 



The jVumhers of the Jetvs in all Ages. 317 

thousand and five hundred and fifty." This number, multi- 
phed by four to show the total number, inchiding wives and 
children, gives a total of 2,414,200, and it is thought that the 
narrative is given as if the narrator had before him census or 
taxing papers. Two objections are taken to this number. 
First, the difficulty of reaching it from so small a beginning. 
But if it be admitted that the rate of increase was the sam'e, 
for example, as that in this country between 1750 and 1850 
—threefold in a century— «.e., from 6,000,000 to 18,000,000 ; 
then if it be supposed that as many as 25,000 went in one or 
more bands down to Egypt at the beginning — the 75 only 
representing the members of the leading family — then in 430 
years the larger number could be reached. It is further 
objected, that the sandy unproductive peninsula of Sinai, 
which has at present but 6,000 inhabitants, could not support 
so great a body of people. The Scripture furnishes an 
adequate reply to this objection. The people were appre- 
hensive that they should perish from hunger (Exod. xvi, 3), 
and they were miraculously fed. Probably their flocks and 
herds were driven from oasis to oasis. It is also to be 
observed that the fact of their rapid increase is mentioned 
as the cause of Pharaoh's apprehension. They became so 
numerous that he feared them, and sought to lessen their 
numbers by oppression ; but the more they were afilicted 
"the more they multiplied and grew" (Exod. i, 12). These 
large numbers are in accordance then with the promise to 
Abraham, and with the acknowledgment of their enemy 
Pharaoh. We take them as at once a proof of rapid increase 
in that early period of the history of Israel, and as the true 
starting-point of the statistics of the people. 

To obviate difficulties, it has been proposed to translate 
the word ^^^ thousand, " family " or " band," as in 
Judges vi, 15. We should thus read that 600 households or 
families came out of Egypt, but this interpretation is only 
mentioned to be at once dismissed as inconsistent with the 
facts that the Israelites built treasure cities for Pharaoh, and 
so multiplied and filled the land as to cause apprehension to 
the Egyptian monarch that they might become mightier 
than his people, and with the assistance of others overcome 



318 The AhimherK of the Jews in all Ages. 

them. Josephus also gives the larger number, as in Scrip tm'e ; 
and Philo-Judams thus speaks of the Exodus in his "Life 
of Moses," book 1, chap, xxvii : " Of those Avho now went 
forth out of Egypt and left their abodes in that country, the 
men of age to bear arms were more than 600,000 men, and 
the other multitudes of elders and children and women were 
so great that it was not easy to calculate it. Moreover, there 
also went forth with them a mixed multitude of promiscuous 
persons collected from all quarters, and servants, like an 
illegitimate crowd with a body of genuine citizens. Among 
these were those who had been born to Hebrew fathers by 
Egyptian women, and who were enrolled as members of 
their father's race." 

In accounting for the rapid increase, due allowance must 
be made for polygamy. It ought also to be considered that 
there is a possible rate of increase much larger than the 
ordinary rate,^ for example, two parents might in a single 
generation increase to eighteen persons, and even if they 
themselves died, there would remain an eightfold increase. 
And the language of Scripture suggests an unusual growth 
of population. At this rate of increase the larger number 
could be reached, even if we grant that the time from 
Jacob's descent to Egypt to the Exodus was only 215 years. 

Thirty-eight years later Moses was again commanded to 
number the people, and the result then obtained is an im- 
portant confirmation of the correctness of the record of the 
statistics as given at the earlier date. According to the laws 
of natural increase, there should have been an addition 
of perhaps one-third in that time, i.e., some hundreds of 
thousands. But if there had been such an increase, a census 
of men capable of bearing arms would have been scarcely 
necessary. But if there had been special events to prevent 
the increase of numbers, and even to cause apprehension 
that the numbers had actually decreased, such a command 
might have been expected. Now, in addition to the trying 
circumstances of their wandering, which might be expected 
to have a repressive effect on the increase of their numbers, 

' Vide Birks' " Exodus of Israel," pp. 29, 30. 



The Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 319 

there were plagues by which large numbers died. About 
nineteen years after the Exodus occurred a plague of which 
we read (Numb, xvi, 49), "Now they that died in the plague 
were fourteen thousand and seven hundred, beside them 
that died about the matter of Korah," i.e., several hundreds 
besides (Numb, xvi, 32 and 35). And of the plague that 
befell the Israelites just before the census was taken, we 
read, "And those that died in the plague were twenty 
and four thousand " (Numb, xxv, 9). And at the beginning 
of their wanderings, when, after complaint, quails were 
given, we read (Numb, xi, 33), " And the Lord smote the 
people with a very great plague." The numbers are not 
given, but we may suppose thousands died. And soon after, 
when the people complained, we read (Numb, xxi, 6), 
"And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, 
and they bit the people ; and much people of Israel died." 
The expression renders it probable that on this occasion also 
thousands died. If then we find in a period of less than 
forty years there were four occasions on which thousands 
fell, and that in general they were passing through circum- 
stances unfavourable to the increase of population, we may 
reasonably suppose that at the end of the time, although 
they had been increasing rapidly just before that time, they 
would be found either to have remained stationary in numbers, 
or to have decreased. AVe find from Scripture that there 
had been a slight decrease. The numbers of each tribe are 
given, and we read (Numb, xxvi, 51) : " These were the 
numbered of the children of Israel, six hundred thousand, 
and a thousand seven hundred and thirty." This multiplied 
by four gives 2,406,920, a decrease of only 7,280 as compared 
with the nmnber at the Exodns. In both cases the tribe of 
Levi is excluded, because their males were not reckoned 
amongst the fighting men, and because the census was taken 
differently, — from infancy, instead of from twenty years old. 
The similarity of the numbers at the end of nearly forty 
years seems to prove a strong tendency to increase, when we 
take into account the repressive causes at work and the 
special losses we have mentioned. Then there is the further 
general teaching of Scripture, that the forty years' wandering 



320 The Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 

in the wilderness was in order that a large number might 
pass away (Numb, xxxii, 11). In order to replace these 
there must have been a great natural increase. That during 
this period the Israelites were a great host is confirmed by 
the fear of Balak, who said, "Behold they cover the face of 
the earth" (Numb, xxii, 5). 

Advancing about 430 years, we come to the important 
census taken under king David, of wliich we have two 
accounts (2 Sam. xxiv, 9) : " And Joab gave up the sum 
of the number of the people unto the king : and there were 
in Israel eight hundred thousand valiant men that drew the 
sword ; and the men of Judah were five hundred thousand 
men." But in 1 Chron. xxi, 5 : " And Joab gave the sum of 
the number of the people unto David. And all they of 
Israel were a thousand thousand, and an hundred thousand 
men that di*ew sword ; and Judah was four hundred three- 
score and ten thousand men that drew sword." The 
difference between the two returns is 270,000, the census 
being reckoned, we may suppose, on a different plan in one 
case from that employed in the other, or some military force 
being in the one case included and in the other excluded. 
Multiplying the largest number by four, for wives and 
children, we reach the number 6,280,000 in the times of 
David's prosperous reign, a number that must have veiy 
fully populated Palestine. And we are able to deduce 
this interesting conclusion, that in about 430 years the 
Israelites had increased two and a-half times. This is a 
remarkable increase, because we read (2 Sam. xxiv), that no 
less than 70,000 fell by the plague that followed the census, 
and much of the period was spent in war. More than 40^000 
fell in one contest between the tribes, the tribe of Benjamin 
being reduced very low (Judges xx, 25 and 46). Many 
wars were waged with the Moabites, Canaanites, and 
Midianites, who were in turn strong enough to hold the 
Israelites in subjection for years. By these contests and the 
wars with the Philistines they were much repressed, and 
suffered great losses. But for these deterring causes their 
rate of increase would have been, we may suppose, very 
high. 



The Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 321 

The extension of population seems to have involved an 
extension of territory in the days of David and Solomon. 
(1 Kings iv, 20, 21 and 24) : " Judah and Israel were many, 
as the sand which is by the sea in multitude. And Solomon 
reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of 
the Phihstines [or over the land of the Phihstines] and unto 
the border of Egypt : they brought presents and served 
Solomon all the days of his life." " For he had dominion 
over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even 
to Assah [probably Thapsacus on the Euphrates to Gaza], 
over all the kings on this side the river : and he had peace 
on all sides round about him." 

The times following the prosperous days of Da^nd and 
Solomon were disturbed by the division of the people and 
the contest between Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and by wars 
with Syrians, Moabites and Amalekites. But if we advance 
to the time when Uzziah was king of Judah (B.C. 800) there 
is no sign of diminution, but rather we perceive marks of 
extension and prosperity. He overcame the Phihstines and 
Arabians, and the Ammonites gave him gifts, "his name 
spread abroad to the entering in of Egypt." He had " a host 
of fighting men," and the numbers given under the hand of 
Jeiel, the Scribe, are 2,600 chief officers, and "under their 
hand an army, three hundred thousand and seven thousand 
and five hundred, that made war with mighty power, to help 
the king against the enemy." And if we advance another 
century to the time of king Hezekiah, we are again reminded 
of the continued greatness of the military power of the 
people by the largeness of the army brought against them by 
Sennacherib. We can form some idea of its magnitude from 
the fact that 185,000 were smitten in the Assyrian camp in 
one night and died. 

Advancing again somewhat more than a century, we 
come to the time when the people were conquered, and 
deported, probably in several large bodies, to Babylon {vide 
2 Kings XV, 29; xAni, 6; xxiv, 10-16). Some were taken 
from Samaria, some from Galilee, and the larger part of the 
population of Jerusalem. We read, " Nebuchadnezzar carried 
away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty 



322 Tlie Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 

men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the crafts- 
men and smiths : none remained, save the poorest sort of the 
people of the land." But we have no important total number 
of those who were carried into captivity. The impression 
from the small figures given is that the people had become 
reduced by their civil war and by the attacks of the 
Assyrians and Egyptians. Besides those m captivity, many 
remained behind, and they were joined by others who rallied 
round Gedaliah. ISome, however, at length went into Egypt. 

In a great dearth of statistics we have at length the 
number of those who returned after the seventy years of 
captivity. (Ezra chap, ii) gives the names and numbers of 
the famihes, and says {v. 64), " The whole congregation 
together was forty and two thousand three hundred and 
threescore." This is a much larger number than we have 
given in connection with the deportations. And it has been 
generally held that many remained in Babylon, in Egypt, 
and other places. This is argued from the length of time 
many of the families had been settled in the countries of 
their exile, extending far beyond the seventy years, and 
Josephus says (Antiq. Book XI, chap, i), "yet did many of 
them stay at Babylon, as not willing to leave their posses- 
sions." And in our judgment, the sharp division that is made 
from this time by some, of the ten tribes and the two, as if 
they remained apart, is neither reasonable nor according to 
the Scriptures. 

From this pomt we are launched in a sea of uncertainty 
with regard to the statistics of the Israelites, without, we 
believe, anythmg fixed, until we reach our own time. At 
the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, 
Josephus says (BelL Jud. VI, ix, § 3), "The number of those 
that were carried captive during this whole war was calculated 
to be 97,000 ; as was the number of those that perished during 
the Avliole siege, 1,100,000." He explains that they had come 
from all parts to the Passover, and were shut in by the 
Roman army. To justify this large number, he says that 
Cestius, to inform Nero of the power of Jerusalem, learned 
of the high-priests the number of sacrifices at the Passover, 
and from this it was seen that the number of those Avho 



The Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 323 

joined in the feast Avas 2,700,200. Josephus had previously 
spoken of those who came up to the feast as an " innumerable 
multitude " (Bell. Jud. II, i, § 3). Such numbers, even if 
greatly exaggerated, would nevertheless, we think, justify 
the belief that at that time there were four millions of Jews 
in Palestine, and two or thi-ee in countries outside of it. We 
have details also of the long and terrible conflict carried on 
with the Roman power, from which we may be sure the 
number of the Jewish people must have then been consider- 
able. But such losses must have seriously checked their 
increase. In addition to those that fell at Jerusalem, some 
hundi-eds of thousands fell, Josephus informs us, in other 
places in the same war. Then followed the terrible contest 
with the Greeks in Egypt in the beginning of the second 
century, in which more than half a million Jews perished. 
And now and again in the sad history we read of massacres, 
as at Alexandria, Seleucia, Cyprus, Damascus, &c., in which 
in each case several thousands fell. 

Of the period preceding the destruction of Jerusalem, 
Philo, who was a contemporary, says in his " De Legat. ad 
Caium," chap, xxxi, that " the inhabitants of Judea are in- 
finite " ; and he says (chap, xxxvi), that the Jews then were in 
Asia Minor, Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria, Greece, and the islands ; 
that "Babylon and all the satrapies around have Jews 
settled in them," and that a favom- to them is not to one 
city only, " but to ten thousand of them in every region of 
the habitable world, in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa, on the 
continent, in the islands, on the coasts, and in the inland 
parts." See also New Testament, Acts ii, 5-11, a remarkable 
list of countries whence Jews had come, " out of every nation 
under heaven." Strabo also bears the same testimony. 

Dion Cassius says at the beginning of his History, " The 
Romans have often lessened the number of the Jews, and 
yet they have multiplied so extremely that it is not now in 
the power of laws to extirpate them." He further says that 
when Julius Severus subdued the revolt in the time of 
Hadrian, 50 forts were destroyed, and 985 towns and 580,000 
men fell in battles, and " so prodigious a multitude perished 
by famine, sickness, or fire, that it was impossible to count 
them, in so much that Judea remained a very desert." 



324 The Numbers of the Jews in all Ages. 

Basnage, in his " Histoire des Juifs," book VI, chap, v, 
§ 19, says of losses in Egypt, " It is said that there were a 
miUion of Jews dispersed in Egypt, of which the greatest 
part perished." 

The Jews also suffered great losses at the hands of the 
gi-owing Mahommedan power in Persia, and especially in 
Arabia, in the seventh century. 

It is most disappointing that the statistics given in the 
Travels of Benjamin of Tudela are so much open to doubt. 
If they were entirely reliable they would be of the greatest 
interest, and would give us much light on the statistics of 
the Jews m the twelfth century. But it has been shown by 
B. Gerraus, in his dissertation placed before his translation of 
the " Travels through Europe, Asia, and Africa," 1873, that 
the numbers given are not reliable, and that it is almost 
certain that Benjamin did not visit many of the countries of 
which statistics are given. It is, for example, a singular and 
suspicious fact that he speaks of China but does not mention 
Poland, where the Jews were already beginning to be 
numerous. 

But is it not probable, to say the least, that his statistics 
are approximately true, and accord with the best knowledge 
of his time. If so, we find that several cities had a much 
smaller Jewish population than at preeent; for example, 
Kome 200, now 5,000; Constantinople 2,500, now 80,000; 
Thessalonica 500, now 30,000 ; but that cities near the 
Euphrates, whose very sites are since lost, such as Hamadan, 
near Ecbatana, Amaria, and Rudbar, had many thousands 
of Jewish inhabitants. Mosul, in his nan-ative, has 7,000, 
Babylon 20,000. Even supposing the traveller had not 
visited these places, or even drew to some extent on his 
imagination, yet he witnesses to a belief in his day in a large 
Jewish population at or near the places of their former 
captivity, a view not out of accordance with history, and 
that receives some sanction from the fact that Layard and 
other travellers have met with many Jews, probably 
descended from the ancient resident families, in the sanje 
districts in our day, and, in the belief of some, their numbers 
there are considerable. 



The Nwnhers of the Jews in all Ages. 325 

Moses of Chorene, the Armenian chronicler, who wrote in 
the fifth century A.D., speaks of Jews in captivity in Armenia 
and Persia, who received many favours m the time of 
Tigranes. And Basnage, who in his history has given much 
attention to the Dispersion, speaks of the long continuance 
of the fame of Nehardea, Sora and Pumbaditha near the 
Euphi-ates, of the princes of the captivity, and the courts of 
justice. And the schools of learning, whence the Babylonian 
Talmud came, were founded there late in this era. But while 
recognising this step in the movement, it is manifest that at 
the present time the millions of the Jews are not in Persia, 
as men fancied formerly ; indeed the Jewish population of 
Bussorah and other towns has decreased in the last century, 
both in the North and West of Eurojje. Gibbon's eiDitome of 
a somewhat obscure and difficult period in the history of the 
Jews is singularly inaccurate. He says, "Decline and Fall of 
the Roman Empire," chap, xv, " The Jews, who, under the 
Assyrian and Persian monarchies, had languished, for many 
ages the most despised portion of their slaves, emerged from 
obscurity under the successors of Alexander; and as they 
multiplied to a sm-prising degree in the East, and afterwards 
in the West, they soon excited the curiosity and wonder of 
other nations." That the Jews declmed under the Persians 
is very doubtful ; that they were despised by them he gives 
on the doubtful authority of fragments of Diodorus Siculus, 
books xxxiv and xl, and on the authority of the false and 
scandalous charges that were the result of the prejudice of 
Tacitus (Hist, v, 1-9). From the twelfth century to our own 
the Jews have in most countries suffered from repression and 
from political disabilities and religious persecution. The exile 
from Spain under Torquemada and the Inquisition, in the 15th 
century, when several hundred thousand were cast out of 
the home of their adoption, being a terrible typical instance. 

Coming to our own time, we learn two important statis- 
tical facts in reference to the Jews, first, that they are 
increasing at a more rapid rate than the general population, 
e.g.^ the " Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," says, 
" Between 1816 and 1867 — a period of 50 years — the general 
population of Prussia increased 91 per cent., whilst the 



326 The Numbers oj the Jeios in all Ages. 

Jewish population was augmented by 112 per cent. And 
from the statistics of Joseph Hain, of Austria, and others, it 
has been shown that in Austrian Gahcia, in 50 years, 1821- 
1870, the ordinary population increased 25 per cent., and the 
Jewish population 150 per cent. The same fact has been 
observed at Bucharest and other places. Pressel and Neuf- 
ville give similar statistics. The other fact is, that there has 
been a great increase in the last few years in the number of the 
Jews. This was remarked recently by the President of the 
Anthropological Society, and Holland, Switzerland, Bavaria, 
and Hungary were mentioned as countries in which it 
was manifest. It has been further stated frequently, 
although it is not to me certain, that the Jews do not suffer 
as the non-Jewish population suffer, from acclimatisation. 
What, then, is the number of Jews in the world at present ? 
If, beginning a century after the destruction of Jerusalem 
with 6,000,000, they had doubled each century, they would 
now be as numerous as the present population of the whole 
world. If they had increased as fast as we have in this 
coimtry, where we are shut in and lose many by emigration, 
they would number now 40,000,000 or 50,000,000. Their 
present numbers we believe to be nearly as follows. Our 
numbers are based upon those given by Jost, Milman, Kolb,' 
Alexander and others, and corrected by recent returns, and 
in some cases by inquiries made when visiting the countries 
themselves. In some cases actual numbers are given from 
census returns ; in others, round numbers. The probability 
is that the census returns are in some cases below the actual 
numbers. This applies especially to the large numbers in 
Russia, where there is a desire to avoid the conscription. In 
the opinion of some there are a million more Jews in Russia 
than are found in the census. This would add a million to 
the total given. 

' Handbucli der verglcicheudcn Statistik dcr Vulkcrzustunds luid Staatcn- 
kunde, 1857. 



The Numbers of the Jeios in all Ages. 327 

EUROPE. 



Countries. 


Jews. 


England 


70,000 


London, 30,000 




France 


95,000 


Belgium 


3,000 


Holland 


68,892 


Amsterdam, 30,000. 




Switzerland 


6,996 


Italy . . 


53,000 


Rome, 5,000 








Venice, 3,000 




SicUy, 2,000 




Livorno, 7,688 




Turin, 2,500 > 








Sweden 


2,000 




500 


Denmark 


8,263 




5,000 


Geumany 


512,171 


Bavaria, 56,000 




Wurtemberg, 12,000 




Berlin, 36,000 








Baden, 25,000 




Silesia, 34,373 








Rliine Provinces, 31,656 




Munich, 12,000 




Hamburg, 12,000 




Hanover, 12,000 




West Prussia, 24,447 




Pomerania, 10,434 




Brandenburg, 89,900 




Westphalia, 15,499 

Carried forward . . 




824,822 



328 The iVumher.'i of the Jeu'i< in all Agea. 

Yj\]RO?^— continued. 



COFNTRIES. 


Jews. 


Brought forward . . 


824,822 


Austria 


1,300,000 


Vienna, 60,000 




Prague, 18,003 




Galicia, 500,000 




Cracow, 27,000 




Brody, 20,000 




Lemberg, 30,000 




Hungary, 554,000 




Pestli, 50,000 




Presburg, 7,000 




RcssiA, including Poland 


2,647,036 


St. Petersburg, 22,000 








Odessa, 55,000 




Kischinev, 40,000 




Grodno, 18,000 




Wilna, 47,000 




In Caucasus, 23,000 




Berditchev, 30,000 




Lodz, 40,000 




EOUMANIA 


255,000 


Jassy, 55,000 




Bucharest, 7,000 




Botushany, 25,000 




Turkey in Europe . . 


200,000 


Constantinople, 80,000 




Saloniki, 30,000 




Adrianople, 15,000 




Eustchuk, 2,200 




Total Europe . . 


5,226,858 



The Nvmhert^ of the Jfwf< in all Agefi. 



329 



ASIA. 



Countries. 



Turkey in Asia 

Smyrna, 15,000 
Jerusalem, 13,000 
Damascus, 2,000 
Bagdad, 18,000 
Safed, 10,000 
Tiberias, 1,000 

Yemen 

Persia and Arabia 

Shiraz, 5,000 
Teheran, 600 
Ispahan, 1,000 

Turkestan 

Samarkand, 10,000 
Bokhara, 13,000 

Russia in Asia 

India . . 

China . . 

Other Parts . . 



Total Asia 



Jews. 



130,000 



200,000 
160,000 



40,000 

25,000 

15,000 

1,000 

20,000 



591,000 



330 



The Ahimhers of the Jews in all Ages. 



AFRICA. 



Countries. 


Jews. 


Algeria 


50,000 


TUKIS 


G0,000 


Tripoli 


20,000 


Egypt . . 


12,000 


Cairo, 2,000 




Morocco 


400,000 


Morocco, 15,000 




Mequinez, 12,000 




Tangiers and Gibraltar, 5,000 




Tetuan, 20,000 




Mogador, 5,000 




Fez, 12,000 




Abyssinia (Falashas) 


200,000 


Other Parts 

Total Africa . . 


50,000 


792,000 


AMERICA 


450,000 


New York, 80,000 




Chicago, 30,000 




Jamaica, 5,000 




BRITISH COLONIES 


15,000 


New South Wales, 2,395 




Queensland, 3,305 




Victoria, 3,571 




New Zealand, 1,262 





The Nmnbers of the Jews iu all Ages. 331 

TOTALS FROM ALL PARTS. 



EUROPE 

ASIA 

AFRICA 

AMERICA 

BRITISH COLONIES 

Grand Total . . 


Jews. 


5,226,858 

591,000 

792,000 

450,000 

15,000 


7,074,858 



Basnage, 170 years ago, gave the total as only about 
three milhons. In conclusion, be it observed, that both the 
outline of history and the statistics given, are but imperfect 
elements and hints, by their very manner of presentation, 
inviting supplement and completion by other and abler 
hands. To others also I must remit the question how the 
smallness of the present numbers of the Jews can be ac- 
counted for. It may result in part from suffering, by the 
attempt to acclimatise in all parts of the world, or from per- 
secution and repression, or it may be that there are millions 
of the mhabitants of various countries who have in the 
course of ages become merged in the general population, 
and, wliile either wholly or partly of Jewish origin, are no 
longer reckoned in the census returns of the Jews. That 
there are some of this class we know, especially, for example, 
in America, but to determine then* numbers is a most difficult 
problem. The soberest statistician may venture to predict a 
large increase in the opening future of this ancient and 
wonderful people. 




Vol. 1Y. 



332 



NOTE ON AN EGYPTIAN BUST, FORMERLY IN 
THE HARRIS COLLECTION. 

By Joseph Bonomi. 

Read 2nd November, 1875. 

This fragment is a part of an erect statue of a royal lady ; 
it is much broken, the head and all below the waist being- 
wanting. The right arm seems to have been straight down 
by her side, while the left is bent, and holds in the left hand 
the usual instrument terminating in three lobes, commonly 




seen in the liand of Egyptian queens. On tlic shoulders are 
the remains of four spiral locks of hair, similar to those whicli 
occur as the head-di-ess of the Greek female statues of the 
second century B.C., and of the loose outer garment tied in 
front over the breast. Below this outer garment is a vest 
fitting close to the neck, and having tight sleeves reaching 



Note on an Egyptian Bust, Sfc. 



333 



to about the middle of the upper arm. On the square 
column at the back of the figure are the hieroglyphics 
"Ptolema lady daughter," then follow the remains of two 
hieroglyphics beginning the name of Ptolemy. It is to be 




remarked, the t in the word daughter is repeated, and the 
name Ptolema is not enclosed in an oval, as royal names 
usually are. The fragment is of black granite, and of ex- 
cellent work ; it is 1 foot 4 inches in height, and must have 
belonged to the statue, 5 feet 1 or 2 inches in height, of a 
matronly person about twenty-five years of age. 

By means of the scale of one English foot and inches, the 
mquirer can measure the extent, and carry in his mind the 
shape of the upper and lower fractures, so that if other 
fragments of this Egyptian statue should exist in any pubhc 
or private collection in Europe, or elsewhere, it will be easily 
identified. 



334 



OBSERVATIONS ON AN INSCRIPTION IN AN 
UNKNOWN CHARACTER, 

Found on a Fragment of Base in the Temple of Diana at Eiihesus. 
By C. T. Newton, C.B. 

Head Ath January, 1876. 

Mr. Newton exhibited a paper impression from an inscrip- 
tion on a base found by Mr. J. T. Wood in the Temple of 
Diana at Ephesus. This inscription consists of five characters, 
very deeply and legibly cut on the curved face of a fragment 
of marble, which has evidently formed the base of some sculp- 
ture, as the outline of a foot may still be traced on its upper 
side. The section of this base is rectangular, and its depth 
\\ inches. It is uncertain how far the inscription extended 
on the right, but on the left the marble is left perfectly plain 
after the last letter. Beginning from the left the two last 
characters 1 ^ might be either archaic Greek or Semitic, the 
third would be the Greek iota, but the fourth character ( 
cannot be at present recognized in any ancient alphabet, un- 
less we suppose it to be a new variety of the "j^. There are 
two finer strokes under the lower cross-line, which seem 
part of the original character. Whether we read this in- 
scription from right or left, the characters do not suggest 
either a Greek or a Semitic word. 

The curve of the base and its rectangular section cor- 
respond with those of other fragments of bases found in the 
Temple of Diana, to which are still attached portions of sculp- 
tm-ed figures in relief in a very archaic style. On striking 
the curve of these bases it has been found that we obtaiii a 
circle six feet in diameter, a dimension very nearly corre- 



OF DIANA EPHESUS. 



T 



,,•.. 



k 



ASCRIPTION ON FRAGMENT OF BASE FROM TEMPLE OF DIANA EPHESUS- 



"% 



Observatiojis on an Inscription in an nnhioion Character. 335 

spending to that of the bases of the sculptured columns which 
Mr. Wood discovered, and which unquestionably belong to 
the temple built in the time of Alexander the Great, and which 
Pliny describes as ccclatoi columnw. After a carefal examina- 
tion of all the fragments of archaic sculpture already alluded 
to, Mr. Newton has come to the conclusion that they belong 
to the earlier temple, some of the columns of which were the 
gift of Croesus, and that they are in all probability fragments 
oiccelatai columnce, a peculiar architectural feature, which would 
thus seem not to have been the invention of the architects 
of the later temple, but to have been adopted by them in 
accordance with the tradition of the original design. The 
fragment of inscribed base of which an impression was ex- 
hibited, may belong to one of these ccelatce columnce of the 
earlier temple, though its depth (4^ inches) is less by half an 
inch than that of the other fragments of base of the same 
character. We may, however, in any case, assume that it is 
the inscription on the base of some piece of sculptiire, and 
that it is most probably part of a dedication. If this dedi- 
cation was made in the earlier temple, the date of the inscrip- 
tion may be as early as B.C. 560, though the mode of cutting 
in the letters suggests a more recent date. We may now be 
quite sure that there were originally in Asia Minor several 
alphabets derived in the main from the same source as the 
Greek, but which, unlike the Greek, never spread beyond the 
district where they first came into use. The question which 
has now to be examined is, assuming the inscription before 
the Society to be Asiatic, to what alphabet do its characters 
belong ? 




33C. 



ON A NEW HAMATHITE INSCRIPTION AT IBREEZ. 

Br Rev. E. J. Davis, M.A. 
Head ^th Decemher, 1875. 

At the south-eastern extremity of the great Lycaonian 
Plain — near the point where the chain of Mount Taurus 
reaches its greatest height in the snow-clad peaks of Bulghar 
Dagh — are two httle Turkish cities, Karaman and Eregli, the 
former on the site of ancient Laranda, the latter on the site 
of Cybistra. 

The easiest approach to them from the plain of Cilicia is 
by the famous pass of the Cilician Gates (now called " Kulek 
Boghaz"), and it requnes a journey of about five days on 
horseback to reach the great plateau from Tarsous or Adana. 
The whole distance lies through the grandest sceneiy, amid 
peaks and ranges of Alpine height, crowned with magnificent 
forests or perennial snows, and pierced by many river ravines, 
nearly, if not altogether, impracticable to human foot. 

The pass of the Cilician Gates is the only passage 
through this portion of Mount Taurus that is open all the 
year round. For many days' journey towards the north-east 
there is absolutely no other opening ; towards the west there 
are other passes, but they can only be traversed during two 
or three months in the year, owing to the deep snowfall. 

A little beyond the village of " Oloukishla," the traveller 
enters upon the great Lycaonian Plam — a vast and perfectly 
level expanse — extending towards the west, till the horizon 
line faints away in the blue misty distance. At various 
points of the compass great volcanic mountain chains rise 
grand and abrupt from the level surface. The double cone 



ION AT IBREEZ 



^ 




C/ 



?^ 



BAS RELIEF AND HAlvIATHITE INSCRIPTION AT IBREEZ. 




On a New Hcunathite Inscription at Ihreez. 337 

of Hassau Dagli (over the site of ancient Nazianzus) lies 
due north, north-west by west is the jagged chain of Karaja 
Dagh. From its south-west extremity extends a long line of 
abrupt smaller hills and rocky heights, amongst them two 
extinct volcanic cones, of a form so strangely regular, that 
even Art itself could not shape them more evenly and 
smoothly. Far away to the west rises the great volcanic 
mass of Kara Dagh. 

The soil of the plain is mostly of chalk, very little of it 
fitted for agriculture, but supplymg plentiful and excellent 
pasturage, which, before the terrible Avinter of 1873-74, 
supported innumerable flocks, the property of the various 
callages. Some idea may be formed of the great extent to 
which these poor people depended on their flocks, by the 
vast number of sheep and goats that perished from cold and 
hunger in the winter of 1873-74. Several of the villages I 
visited had lost from 15,000 to 20,000 animals ; one had lost 
30,000 ; another not less than 48,000 head, principally sheep. 
Nor was this calamity confined to one or two districts ; it 
extended more or less through the whole interior of Asia 
Minor, and as a government register of the flocks is kept for 
the purposes of taxation, this is no exaggerated estimate, 
but plain matter of fact. Indeed, the whole inteiior of 
Karamania has suffered so much that many years must pass 
before it can recover its former prosperity. 

The plain is treeless, and even "^vithout so much as a bush 
or thicket far as the eye can reach ; but the extreme beauty 
and variety of the flowers are truly wonderful. I passed 
through the country in the early part of June, 1875, and 
there must have been then at least fifty different species in 
bloom. There were five or six species of flowers of different 
tints of red or of yellow, some of a red or yellow the most 
brilliant that can be imagined. There were flowers of 
crimson and orange and scarlet, and mauve and pink and lake • 
the ground was a veritable flower garden. Yellow trefoil 
and clover grew in the greatest profusion, and mingled with 
all these was a great variety of aromatic herbs. I noticed 
wild thyme, lavender, rosemary and mignonette, but there 
Avere several other kinds, two then in flower, A^'hich I had 



888 On a New Hamathite Inscription at Ihreez. 

never before seen. Now that I had seen this plain I, could 
understand how it was that the villagers could keep such 
great flocks of sheep and goats. 

Of the two little Tarkish towns, Karaman and Eregli, the 
former still shows many relics of former magnificence, but 
excepting here and there a stray fragment of column or a 
bit of architrave, I saw absolutely no remains of the old 
Greek city on the site of which it stood. 

It w^as, however, the seat of a Turkish dynasty, which 
arose upon the dissolution of the Seljoukian empu-e. After 
the fall of the Sultans of Iconium, Laranda remained in the 
possession of Karaman Oglou. The dynasty he founded 
dates from 1294, but in 1386 Ala-ad-cUn, Sultan of Karaman, 
was defeated by the OsmanU sultan, Amurath, his city 
besieged, the prince forced to surrender, and in token of 
subjection obHged to kiss the hand of Amurath. 

A little later Sultan Bayazid attacked the Prince of 
Karaman, without provocation, and took from him Iconium. 
After a short interval the prince revolted. At first he gained 
some brilliant successes, bi.it was finally defeated in a great 
battle near Iconium, taken prisoner, and put to death, together 
wnth his two sons, by order of the victor. 

Although now a poverty-stricken and decaying place, 
Karaman must have been, under the dynasty of Karaman 
Oglou, a rich and flourishing city, as is evident from its fine 
old citadel, and from the number and beauty of its mosques, 
many of which, though now in ruin, are remarkably interest- 
ing, one of them (the " Khatounieh ") possessing a white 
marble gateway — a perfect gem of art — and another (the 
mosque of Karaman Oglou) a walnut wood folding door of 
very fine design and workmanship, and the minarets of many 
are of a style of architecture equalling that of the finest 
mos(jues in Cairo. 

Next as to Eregli : I could not discover the slightest relic 
of the ancient city, and the modern town is nothing but a 
collection of hovels, built of unbaked mud-brick. Until 
within the last three centuries, it was comparatively a rich 
and flovu-ishing place, but it lay on the direct route between 
Constantinople and Syria, and after the conquest of Syria 



On a Neto Hamathite Im^cription at Ihreez. 83i' 

and Egypt by the Osmanli sultan, Selim II, the ill-disciplined 
troops of those times used to commit such atrocities as they 
passed through, that the population fled, and Eregli gradually 
decayed. 

Owing to the geological formation of all this district, the 
rivers which here rise from the northern side of the Taurus 
have no outlet, but are lost in a series of lakes and vast 
marshes, extending for several days' journey from Eregli 
westwards and north-westwards. A large extent of most 
productive land is irrigated by the rivers, which supply 
respectively Karaman and Eregli, and the gardens and 
orchards of both places are magnificent, owing to the abun- 
dant water supply ; but both places are unhealthy, dysentery 
and malarious fever being extremely prevalent and fatal, 
especially at Eregli. 

But after this long introduction, it is time to mention the 
circumstances under which I discovered the bas-relief and 
inscription, a di-awing of which I have the pleasure of laying 
before you. Whilst at Eregli I was strongly recommended 
to visit the source of the river by which Eregli and its 
district are watered. I was told that the stream burst out 
of the cliff '• a full-born river." No one however mentioned 
anything about the antiquities of the place. 

Accordingly, on June 8th, I engaged a guide, and we 
started for the spot. It is at a place called " Ibreez " (incor- 
rectly given in Kieppert's map as " Iwris"), situated in a deep 
ravine, close under an outlying range of Bulghar Dagh, and 
about three hom-s to the south-east of Eregli. 

The ride to Ibreez is very beautiful. The route lay 
through a richly cultivated district, magnificently wooded, 
and full of wheat, just now in full bloom. The weather 
resembled the finest June weather in England, though of 
course the sun was very much more powerful than with us. 

On the left, in a grove of the greenest trees, is a large 
village named Tont, of a deep red colour, being built of red 
earth bricks ; below it, and near the route, is Dourlaz. The 
fruit of these villages is excellent, especially the grapes. 
Wine is not made, but plenty of bad •' raki," which meets 
with a ready consumption, principally from the Armenian 



340 On a New Hcn/iathite htscr'iptio)t at Ihreez. 

Christians of Eregli and its neighbonrliood. Atter passing 
Dourlaz, I entered a beautiful little lane, quite overgrown 
with fine trees, chiefly walnut, and traversed by a rapid 
babbling brook, clear as crystal, an offset of the river of 
Ibreez. Very remarkable was the number and tameness of 
the nightingales ; they were singing in all directions, and 
several times I passed within a few feet of one of these 
little warblers, without his showing the slightest sign of 
fear. It was a scene quite in contrast with the arid and 
desolate solitude of the great plain. But amongst many 
other things, these strong and sudden contrasts are some of 
the great charms of travel in Asia Minor. 

After passing through the lane, I saw high up on the 
mountain side upon the i-ight a great precipice of red rock, 
separated from a similar rock by a deep ravine. Ibreez is at 
its foot. In the valley in front is a lai-ge village called 
Xanapa. Its river, fed by rain and melted snow, comes from 
a ravine far up under Bulghar Dagh, but unfortunately this 
muddy torrent discolours the stream from Ibreez. 

The Ibreez river is very deep and rapid, clear as crystal, 
and of a deep blue tint. After riding alongside of it for 
some time 1 turned towards the right over a low rocky hill 
towards Ibreez. Just then a violent thunderstorm burst over 
the mountains. I hurried through the green lanes and up 
the rocky ascent that led to the village, and toolc shelter in 
the house of the village chief, AH Aga, a retired sub-officer 
of the Turkish army. 

When the rain had ceased, I went out to see the village. 
Its position is very beautiful : just at the mountain foot, 
under the red rocks and deep ravine before mentioned. It 
is built of mud-brick, and contains about 700 inhabitants, all 
IMusliin. I noticed at the mosque a few columns and a white 
marble Corinthian capital, but could not learn whether they 
had been found here or not. The great charms of Ibreez 
are its stream, the great mass of verdure around it, and the 
pure, cold bracing air of the place. The river issues in a 
most plentiful stream from the rock, under the more westerly 
of the two precipices which form the ravine ; but the Avhole 
ground around is full of springs, and by the time it reaches 



On a Nnr Hantatliiip /jiscription at Ibree:. o41 

the little bridge, not a hundred yards from the source, it has 
become a deep raging torrent, foaming and leaping over the 
great rocks in its channel, of red, black, white and yellow 
marble, and white and yellowish limestone. 

After admiring the stream a long time, the chief said 
there were some antiquities to be seen. Accordingly we 
crossed the bridge, and he led me through a fine grove of 
walnuts, some 200 yards down the side of the stream. Here 
a branch from the main river flows in a deep narrow channel 
along the foot of a high limestone rock of deep red colour, 
and on a portion of its face, that had been prepared for the 
purpose, are carved the bas-relief and inscriptions I have now 
the pleasure of submitting to your notice. 

I at once determined to remain and make a careful draw- 
ing of them. The chief offered his house for our lodging. 
It was, however, too late to begin upon the drawing that 
evening, but one of the villagers offered to show me some- 
thing in the mountain above the village ; but I must go on 
horseback. Accordingly we proceeded up the mountain side, 
till the guide led me into a wild and savage glen, with 
precipitous sides of red rock, winding far up into the heart 
of the mountain. 

Our road Avas the bed of a torrent, now dry, full of loose 
angular limestones. Before us, high up, was a great natural 
arch of rock. After about half-an-hour's ascent, we saw high 
up at the sides of the glen three small buildings ; to the 
largest of them, on the east side, we with difficulty mounted. 
It proved to be a little Christian chapel, probably a hermitage, 
now completely ruined ; but it must once have been very 
pretty, for the Avhole interior had been lined with cement, on 
which had been painted the figure of our Lord and saints. 

The apse had been carved out of the overhanging rock. 
But few fragments of these frescoes still remain, and only one 
head to show what it once was. But the style of art is by no 
means bad ; the expression of the face is very fine, and the 
colouring still vivid, though it had probably been exposed to 
the air six or seven hundred years at least, perhaps more. 
The overhanging rock shelters it from sun and rain. It must 
have been a very lonely residence. We did not visit the 



842 On a Ay?r Hamailiite Inscription at Jbreez. 

other chapels, as we were told no fresco remained. As we 
descended to the spot where we had left the horses, for they 
could not mount, the intense silence of the glen, only broken 
by the distant song of the thrush, was very striking. 

We found Ali Aga's house comfortable enough, but two 
very unwelcome guests had arrived later than ourselves, two 
tall and fine-looking men — very devout Muslims — (one of 
them was praying all day, and night too). They were 
Ushiijis (tax-gatherers) come to value the Dime, and their 
arrival caused great consternation amongst the villagers, for 
they had orders to value even the honey, and the little crop 
of fruit and nuts hi the gardens, and they themselves 
intended to farm the Dime. The complaints of the villagers 
were loud and bitter. The poor people have literally nothmg 
left, and are deeply in debt. They had not suffered so much 
as most of the villages round ; but they had lost nearly all 
their sheep and goats, and most of their cows and horses. 
Many of then* children had died for want of proper food, and 
seven or eight families had died from absolute hunger. 
The Government was exacting the arrears of taxation with 
much severity, and they said that the moneylenders were 
afraid to advance them any more money. Some of the 
villagers openly declared " any government would be pre- 
ferable to the present." 

After the evening meal there was a long discussion about 
the stream, and the Ushirjis told some very foohsh legends 
about it. Amongst other things they declared that it Avas 
not in existence before Muslim times, but had been called 
forth by one of the Prophet's ^' Companions," and I inadver- 
tently gave them much offence by saying that in all proba- 
bility the bas-relief was only carved in that particular spot on 
account of the proximity of the stream, and if so, that 
certainly the bas rehef was at least 2,500 years old, probably 
more, and long before the time either of Issa or Mohammed. 
The stream, therefore, could not have arisen in the manner 
they supposed, but probably existed from the beginmng of 
this present world. Hereupon they were silent and spoke no 
more. 

.Iniic 9tli. r rf)se at daybreak and proceeded to draw the 



On a New Hainatkite Inscrljjtioii at Ibreez. o43 

bas-relief. The rock on which it is carved rises like a wall 
from the water of the stream to a height of about 40 feet. 
Its colom' is of a deep dull red, or yellowisli red, but stained 
and dyed in lighter and deeper patches by exposure to the 
sun and air through so many centuries. The portion on 
which the bas-relief is carved has been chiselled down and 
prepared for the work, the rest of the rock surface remains 
in its natural state. The bas-relief consists of two figures 
(one much larger than the other), cut in considerable but not 
very high relief, not exceeding I think more than four or five 
inches. I can, however, only give the various dimensions hy 
guess, as I had no means of measuring the figures, which 
were quite out of reach from the side of the stream on 
which I stood, and indeed quite inaccessible without a long 
ladder. But by dint of careful comparison I think my con- 
jectural measurements are not very far wrong. The larger 
figure is about twenty feet in height, the smaller about 
twelve feet, and the feet of the larger figure are fi-om eight 
to nine feet above the level of the stream, which flows at the 
base of the rock. It seems to be a representation of some 
great personage offering prayers or thanksgiving to a deity, 
the god as it would seem of corn and wine. The design of 
both figures (though naturally somewhat rough in the out- 
line, owing to the coarseness of the material, and natural 
decay) is very good, the anatomy is extremely well indicated, 
much after the manner of the Assyrian sculptures. The left 
hand of the larger figure is especially well executed, the 
delicate outline of the thumb articulations being very well 
rendered, not in the conventional style of the Egyptian 
sculptures, but as if copied directly from nature. The limbs 
of the larger figure are massy and bulky, in this point also 
the work resembles Ass}Tian rather than Egyptian work. 
The god is represented with a high conical hat or helmet, 
from which project four horns, two in front, two behind. 
The rim is formed by a flat band, and a similar band or ribbon 
runs round the hat above. A snake seems to be attached to the 
hat. I was for some time in doubt whether this was meant 
to represent a snake or only another ribbon, but the peculiar 
shape renders it more probable that this was meant for a 



344 On a New Hainuthite Inscriptiun at Ibreez. 

Buake ; and after long examination with the glass undei* 
various lights, I came to the conclusion that it must be so. 
The beard is very thick and close curled, and runs quite up 
to the temples. The hair is of a similar character, disposed 
in rows of thick curls, but without ornament. Neither of 
the figures appear to have ear-rings. The god is clad in a 
close fittmg tunic reaching half-way down the thigh, and 
turned up both in front and behind in a species of " volute " 
ornament. The lower part of the arms from above the elbow 
is bare, but while the fold of the tunic sleeve is represented 
on the left arm, it is quite omitted on the right arm. On the 
wrists are massy but plain bracelets ; round the waist is a 
broad girdle, ornamented with carved parallel lines like arrow 
heads, but obviously not intended to represent arrow heads. 
The legs from the middle of the thigh downwards are bare, 
the muscles of the calf and the knees being well rendered. 
He wears boots turned up in front, and bound round the leg 
above the ancle by thongs, and a piece of leather reaching 
half-way up the shin, exactly as it is worn to this day by the 
peasants of the plain of Cilicia round Adana. In his out- 
stretched left hand he holds a large handful of ears of wheat 
— bearded wheat, the wheat of the country — the stalks 
reaching the ground behind his left foot, which is stepping 
forward, and between his feet is represented a vine stock. 
In his left hand he holds a cluster of grapes, two other 
larger clusters hang from the branch he is grasping, and 
behind him hangs a fourth cluster. The expression of the 
face is jovial and benevolent, the features well indicated, 
especially the highly aquiline nose. The lips are small and 
not projecting, and the moustache is short, allowing the 
mouth to be seen. The inscription is carved on the space 
between the face and the line of the arm, hand, and ears 
of wheat. 

In fi'ont of him stands the other figure. The expression 
and character of feature in this is very different. The eye 
seems more prominent, the nose more curved and flattened 
upon the face, the lips more projecting, the hair and beard 
eq\ially or even more crisped and thickly curled. On the 
head is a tall rounded cap, with flat bands round it, on 



On a Neio Htunathite Intscfiption at Ibreez. 345 

which seem to be sewn square plates (of gold perhaps?). 
In front of the cap is an ornament of precious stones, such 
as is still worn by oriental princes. The figure is clad in a 
loose long robe covered with squares, and heavily fringed 
at the bottom : compare Deuteronomy xxii, 12, and Numbers 
XV, 38, also the dress of Aaron as it is described in Leviticus 
ii, 7, 8, 9. A mantle, embroidered below, and secured at the 
breast by a clasp of precious stones, covers the robe ; round 
the waist is a massy girdle, from which hangs a heavy tassel 
or fringe. On the right leg, just below the fringe of the 
under robe, appears to be the lower part of the trousers, 
and the feet are shod with shoes curved up m front. 
One hand, with the forefinger erect, is extended in front of 
the face, as if in the attitude of prayer or praise. After 
long and close examination, I could not decide whether this 
was the right or left hand. On the whole I concluded it was 
the left hand, especially as I thought I could detect the 
indication of the nail of the forefinger. On the other hand, 
the position of the arm rather resembles what would be the 
position of the right, the left arm being in that case wrapped 
up in and hidden by the mantle. A heavy collar or necklace 
surromids the neck ; it appears to be of rings or bands of 
gold, surrounding some other material. The end of the 
necklace hangs upon the shoulder. As in the Assyrian 
figures, perspective is only in part observed in the drawing 
of both these figures. 

Behind the smaller figure there is also an inscription 
carved upon the smooth portion of the rock. Some of the 
characters are similar to those of the upper inscription ; 
some appear to be heads of aniraals ; one represents unmis- 
takably the head of a man, the eye, beard, nose and conical 
cap being very distinct. In my drawing I have not sufiiciently 
rendered the conical cap. 

But this inscription is much obliterated, and I was not 
able to decypher the first letter of the upper line. 

There is another inscription below the bas-relief, and just 
above the present level of the stream. This also seems to 
consist in great part of the heads of animals, A portion of 
the rock surface has been smoothed for it ; but it is so very 



346 On a N^ew Himmthite Inscrqition <(t Ibreez. 

much obliterated that it is utterly impossible to make out a 
considerable part of it, the outlines even of that I have 
represented are very faint and indistuict. The villagers said 
that there were yet other inscriptions, but below the present 
water level, and only visible when the stream is at its lowest 
— at the end of summer. 

Such is a brief description of this very interestmg monu- 
ment. The drawing I have the pleasure to submit to your 
notice is an accurate reproduction on a larger scale of the 
careful drawing I made on the spot. 

The villagers could give me no information as to the 
existence of the ruins of any ancient town in the neighbour- 
hood ; but it is obvious that the bas-relief mounts to a period 
antecedent to the settlement of the Greeks in this part of 
Asia Minor. But Ibreez with its magnificent stream (whose 
pm-e ice-cold waters would be so grateful during the burning 
heat of summer), with its forests, and the wide extent of 
fertile land below it, might well have been the favourite 
summer residence of some satrap or prince of the ancient 
times, who desired to display, by this monument, his devotion 
and gratitude. 

The modern name of the village is derived from the 

Persian j , ( jj " Ab-reez," " water-pouring." The same 

words are also used as a composite noun substantive, and 
mean " a vessel for pouring water," " a waterspout." 




Bronze Siivrd, bearing lllc jiame or I'ltlnirari /. found near Diarbekr 




^>aa<-^H»V BSTgWgB? ?-«H»»'-iHffl^^>S?g>>?)->»>^g>^ )iUfS& 



o 



m 



347 



NOTES ON AN ANCIENT ASSYRIAN BRONZE SWORD 
BEARING A CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTION. 

Contributed hy W. St. Chad Bos ca wen. 

Read 6th April, 1875. 

This sword, which was lent for exhibition by Colonel 
Hanbur J, was obtained at Nardin from the Arabs, but where 
it originally came from was not ascertained. 

The sword bears the following inscription inscribed on it 
in three places. 1. On the whole length of the flat blade on 
the inside edge. 2. Along the back portion. 3. And on the 
outside edge, being here divided into two lines. 

The inscription is : — 

^m^h T < ^?-^ « <2<i n y-<i*-T 

E -kal^ Vul-nirari sar kissati abli Bu - cU - il 
The Palace of Vul-nirari king of Nations, son of Budil 

« \^ —7 Tt --T -^ ^? -''^ « '-" —W t] 

sar Assuri abli Bel - nirari sar Assuri - va 
king of Assyria, son of Bel-nirari king of Assyria {also). 

The inscription supplies us with the names and relation- 
ships of three Assyrian monarchs, who reigned from B.C. 1375 
to B.C. 1300. These monarchs ruled in the capital city of 
Assur (Keleh Shergat), and it was probably from this place 
that this sword was obtained. Of the reigns of these 
monarchs we know but little. 

' In a bilingual tablet, W.A.I. IV, 5, 31, we find the Accad. f:YYTY ^Y>-, 
explained by Assyrian ^TI ^TTy e-kal. 

Vol. IV. 23 



348 Azotes on cm Aticient Assyrian Sword. 

Bel-uirari was the son of Assur-ubalid. His only expedition 
of which we have any account was one against Nazi-bu-gas, 
the king of Kar-dimi-yas. 

Budil his son succeeded him in B.C. 1350, and appears to 
have been more warHke than his father ; he marched against 
and defeated people to the north-east of Assyria, the Nari, the 
Guti or Goim ; he also built a palace in the capital city of Assur. 

Budil was succeeded by his son Vul-nnari the First, the 
monarch from whose palace the sword came. He was one of 
the greatest of the early Assyrian monarchs. He extended 
the empire of Assyria both on the north and east, and added 
to the royal buildings at Assur. There is in the British 
Museum a long inscription of this monarch's, recording the 
restoration in his reign of the causeway of the temple of 
Assur. 

The dimensions of this sword are as follows : — 

Length of blade .. .. 16 inches. 

Do. of hilt .. .. 5f „ 

Total length 21f „ 

Width of blade at hilt .. 1^ „ 

Width at base of hilt . . 1| « 

The sword has had a richly jewelled hilt, which has been 
inlaid with ivory. It is of the kind known as ^^ ^iz ^^fT 
Sa-jM-ra in the Assyrian inscriptions, and similar to those with 
which the god Marduk is armed in his fight with the dragon 
on the Assyrian Cylinders.' 

It was probably placed in the hands of a statue, perhaps 
one of the god Marduk, but there is no indication on the 
sword of its having been dedicated to any particular god. 

Note. — Colonel Hanbury has kindly lent this sword for 
exhibition to the British Museum, and it is now on view 
there. 

' See Smith, Chaldean Genesis, pp. 62, 95. 




349 



THE REVOLT IN HEAVEN. 

From a Chaldean Tabid. 

By H. F. Talbot, F.R.S. 

Read Lit Felruary, 1876. 

In the following paper I propose to examine the first of 
the two tablets lithographed in pp. 42-45 of Delitzsch's recent 
work. Three principal narratives are contained on those 
tablets — the Revolt in Heaven — the Creation of Man — and 
the fight between Bel and the Dragon. The connexion of 
the latter with the two former is not quite certain (being 
given on a different tablet), but it seems likely that the 
Dragon was the instigator of the revolt, and likewise the 
Tempter who seduced mankind, although I cannot find that 
this is distinctly stated. Therefore Bel in his vengeance 
destroyed the Dragon. 

Plate 42 describes the revolt of the gods, or angels. It 
seems to have been preceded by an account of the perfect 
Harmony which existed in Heaven previously. And here I 
Avotdd call to mind a noble passage in Job, ch. xxxviii, which 
deserves particular attention, since it is not derived from the 
Mosaic narrative, but from some independent source, namely, 
that when God laid the foundations of the World, " the 
morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted 
for joy." By "the sons of God" in this passage are to be 
understoodthe Angels. In the beginning, therefore, accorduig 
to this sacred author, all was joy and harmony and loyalty to 
God. But this state of union and happiness was not to last. 
At some unknown time, but before the creation of man, some 
of the angels ceased to worship their Creator : thoughts of 
pride and- ingratitude arose in their hearts, they revolted 



350 Jlie Revolt in Heaven. 

from God, aud were by his just decree expelled from heaven. 
These were the angels of whom it is said in the Book of Jude 
that "thev kept not their fii'st estate, but left their own 
habitation." The opinions of the Fathers and of other 
rehgious writers on this mysterious subject it were useless to 
examine, since they admit that nothing can be certainly 
known about it. The opinion that one third of the heavenly 
host revolted from their Creator is founded on Rev. xii, 3, 
Avhere it is said : " And there appeared a dragon in heaven, 

having seven heads a7id his tail drew the third jmrt of the 

stars of heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was 
ivar in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon^ 
and the dragon fought and his angels. And prevailed not : neither 
was their jjlace found any more in heaven. And the great dragon 
was cast out — he was cast out into the earth and his angels were 
cast out ivith him.^^ 

The Revelation of St. John was ^^Titten in the first 
century, but some of the imagery employed may have been 
far more ancient, and for that reason more impressive to the 
religious mind of the age. 

The war between Michael and the Dragon bears much 
resemblance to the combat of Bel and the Dragon recounted 
on the (Chaldean tablet.^ And it is not unworthy of remark 
that the Chaldean dragon had seven heads, like that spoken 
of in Revelations.^ 

At the Creation harmony had prevailed in heaven. All 
the sons of God, says Job, shouted for joy. What caused the 
termination of this blissful state ? We are not informed, and 
it would be in vain to conjecture. But the Babylonians have 
preserved to us a remarkable tradition, which is found in the 
tablet of p, 42, and has not, I believe, been hitherto under- 
stood. It is unlike anything in the Bible or in the sacred 
histories of other countries. While the host of heaven were 
-assembled and were all engaged in singing hymns of praise 
to the Creator, suddenly some evil spirit gave the signal of 
revolt. The hymns ceased in one part of the assembly, 
which burst forth into loud curses and imprecations on their 

' See G. Smith, p. lOU of lijs Chaldean Genesis. 

* See 2 R 19, col. ii, I'l, and niv Assyrian GloBsarv, No. 108. 



llie Revolt in Heave?!. 'M)l 

Creator. In his wrath he sounded a loud blast of the trumpet, 
and drove them from his presence never to return. Then 
follows a passage of the highest importance : — 

15. In their room he created Mankind. 

16. The first who received life dwelt along with him. 

17. May he give them strength, that they may never 
neglect his w^ord ! 

18. Following the voice of the Serpent whom liis hands 
had made. 

There is a difficulty in the word I have translated 
" serpent " : I will give my reasons for it elsewhere. I may 
be wrong in this point, but I am much swayed by the 
expression "whom his hands had made." It seems to say 
that the Tempter was also a creature that the Almighty had 
made. Perhaps some member of this learned Society will 
be able to inform us whether a similar tradition is to be 
found elsewhere, namely, that Mankind were created to fill 
the void in creation Avhich the ungrateful rebellion of the 
angels had caused. 

After a few more lines comparatively unimportant the 
remainder of the tablet is unfortunately broken off. 

I think it will be found that I have given a correct view 
of the meaning of this important tablet. In the notes which 
I propose to add, I shall carefully examine each word of 
difficulty. Almost all the words are found in Hebrew or 
Chaldee with the sense I have here attributed to them, and as 
the sentences flow easily and unite in giving the same 
history, I have little doubt that what I have given is nearly 
what the scribe intended to relate. 

The following are the words of the inscription as nearly 
as I can render it. 

The Revolt in He.wtcn. 

(The first four lines, and probably several more, are 
broken. They related, no doubt, that a Festival of Praise 
and Thanksgiving was being held in Heaven, when this 
rebellion took place). 

5. The Divine Being spoke three times the commence- 
ment of a Psalm. 



352 The Revolt in Heaven. 

6. The god of holy songs, lord of religion and worship 

7. Seated a thousand singers and musicians : and esta- 

blished a choral band 

8. who to his hynm were to respond in multitudes 



9. With a loud cry of contempt they broke up his holy 
song 

10. Spoiling, confusing, confounding, his hymn of praise. 

11. The god of the bright crown (') with a wish to summon 

his adherents 

12. sounded a trumpet blast which would wake the dead, 

13. which to those rebel angels prohibited return, 

14. He stopped their service, and sent them to the gods 

who were His enemies. (^) 

15. In their room he created Mankind. 

16. The fii'st who received life, dwelt along with him, 

17. May he give them strength, never to neglect his word, 

18. following the Serpent's voice, whom his hands had 

made. 

19. And may the god of divine speech (^) expel from his 

five thousand (^) that wicked Thousand 

20. who in the midst of his heavenly Song, had shouted 

evil blasphemies ! 

21. The god Ashm-, who had seen the malice of those gods 

who deserted their allegiance 

22. to raise a rebellion, refused to go forth witli them. 

The remainder of the tablet (9 or 10 lines more) is too 
much broken for translation. 

I will now give the original cimeiform text, with some 
observations. 

Lines 1 to 4 broken. 

1 The Assyrian scribe annotates in the margin that the same God is meant 
tliroughout, under all these different epithets. 

2 They were in future to serve the powers of Evil ? 

3 See note 1. This is anotlier epithet. 

* The total number of the gods is, I believe, elsewhere given as five 
thousand. 



The Revolt in Heaven. 353 

Ilu zi illiti salsish imbu mukil 

The god of life divine three times spoke the commencement 



^T ^<k-< -^T< 






tililti 






of a psalm. 






6. .Jf- VI? -IH 


^11 IT >— < 


-< t^^TyT 


Ilii sari 


dabi 


bii 


The god of songs 


good. 


lord 



tasmi u magari 

of religion and, icorship 



7.^ -^HJ 


<T- -ETT A4f 


vy." 


< 


mil sab 


ilpa zimri 




u 


seated 


a thousand singers 




and 



knbutti mukin kanik 

musicians, (and) established a choral hand 

8. V ^.E| ^ cE ^v^ T? ^T tT 4i->f <l:^ tT? 



sha ninnit-zu 


ana mahadi 


^cho his songs 


in multitudes 


m^ -^-Wi} m 




utaiTu 




responded to. 




s. tt ^] y- 5^" <!eI 


tn?^ :w::ElT-?^ 


ina buski 


danni irzinii 


rvith derision 


^rea^ i^^i/ broke tip 



Afl I ^IT T? ^- 

im - su dabu 

A{« hymn good 



354 The Revolt in Heax^en. 

likbii lattaliidu lattibla 

spoiling confusing confounding 

-gn -£ET<T -£ET<T I 

salili - su 
Ms song of praise. 

Ilu mir illi in sai lisarrikhu 

the god of the crown bright, with a wish to summon 

abrati 
his adherents 

12. ^t'^m y-m <}\-t^ -^-H^<:z 

bil sibtu illitu mubullat 

sormded a strain loud giving life to 

miti 
death 

,.,. V ►+ ^Jf- -Jr -^H -^^ --T< ^ JT -W 

sha an ili kamuti irsu 

which to the gods rebellious prohibited 

tairu 

14. ety V -^T -11 =^I tyiTc V t^ "^TT 

absan indu iisassiku 

their service he stopped. He removed them 

eli ili nakiii-sn 

nnto the gods his enemies 



The Revolt iii Heaven. 355 

15. yj ^y ^ <|^ J ^- I^ ^ < yT y^ -^ .«y 

ana padi-sun ibnii amilutu 

in their room he created Mankind. 

riminu sha bulluthu basii 

the first tvho received life dwelt 

^-A< I 

itti-su 
with him. 

u. .ety<y jgy ^y gy yr yj ^^ ^y '^ yj 

likuna-ma ai immasa 

m,ay he give them firmness never to neglect 

Tf ET -m I 

amatu-su 
/it's ifjorc? / 



18. 



^y^ ^ -^ "^yy:^ t<] vf hj ^y y? 

as pi zalmat-kakkadu sha ibna 

according to the voice of the serpent lohich had created 

^] ssiiT n I 

qata-su. 
his hands. 



19. ^Jh -t^m±] <u ^ v; <T- s^m y? i 

Ilu illiti as khamis ilpata su 

The god of divine from his five thousand 

<}?-fr <y^^y <:ij=^^y^ 

ilpa siiia lattabbul 

(that) thousand wicked may he expel 



356 The Revolt in Heaven. 

,,.x;f ^ I .jp J <{} ^^^ .y ._£yy .y<y 

sha ill sibti-su illiti izzvikhu 

%oho in his song divine had shouted 

^-] j:^^ <y- ^ ^y< 

nagab sinuti 

blasphemies had. 

Ilu libzu mudi libbi ili 

The god Assur knowing the mind of the gods 

V tE + ^JI! < ^TI? I 

slia imasru kar-8U 

tolio had abandoned. their station 



22. 



tij E??< <h j^ ^]] -i< ^t] tlTT-^t^S -W 

episli sinieti la usitzii 

to make a rebellion, not xoent forth 

^{-<V I 

itti-8u 
icitli them. 



Observations, 

Line 5. Imbu, he spoke or pronounced. Put for inhu^ 
euphonice causa. From J?li to speak Avith eloquence. The 
word imJm occurs frequently. 

Mukil, 'the beginning.' Heb. hTTO exordiiun: from 
Cliiild. hr\^ incepit : exorsus est : same as Heb. TTlH Hiphil 
of 77n to begin. This verb 7)1 is used for the beginning of 
a book or writing (here of a song or psalm) : ex. gr. Hosea 
i, 2, "The beginning (nSnn) of the word of the Lord by 
Hosea." 



The Bevolt in Heaven, 357 

Tililti, a Psalm. The same as the Heb. HTTin a Psalm ; 
from hh'n hillel, to praise. I have already pointed out this 
word in the catalogue of an Assyrian library (Transactions 
vol. iii, p. 434), which contained among other religious works 
" the book of Psalms {tililti).''' So in Hebrew D'^T'rm "IDD 
" the book of Psalms." It is observable that tililti is written 
here with the same three cuneiform signs as in vol. iii of the 
Transactions, so that there can be no doubt of the identity 
of the word. 

Line 6. Tasmi, from y}2ll^ to hearken or obey. Religious 
obedience. 

Musab, from Ity^ to seat, or be seated. 

Ilpa, a thousand. Hebrew ^^^ mille. See line 19. 

Zimri, singers. Ch. and Syr. nOt plur. pH^t cantores, 
musici, tibicines. 

Kubutti, tibicines : flute players. Chald. Hp^ a flute ; so 
called because it is hollow. Ezekiel xxviii, 13, uses this word 
for a flute or pipe. 2,p and Ip^ are used indifferently. 

Kanik, a Choral band : a Choir, is the Chald. Khanga t^^^n 
Chorus : chorea : tripudium. It also occurs in the forms 
b^^n^n and n*'^in according to Schindler, who says, this word 
is formed from ^^H a Chorus [clagesh in N resoluto.] This is 
closely related to ^ a festival, joyful day, solemnity, &c. 
The word kanik probably occurs in many other places in this 
sense, but has been hitherto overlooked, as when Khammurabi 
says that he ruled his people in peace and joy (kanik). 

Line 8. Ninnit, a Song (choral or responsive) from n^^ 
' to sing ' (ita ut ubi unus desiit inde alter oriatur, sicut in 
choris et choreis solent). Schindler. 

Line 9. Buski is the Syriac ntl Sprevit, contempsit, 
illusit : whence i^TMl scurrilitas, ludibrium : nearly the same 
as the verb Htl, said in other passages (as here) of despisers 
of the word of the Lord {Schindler). 

Irzijiu, " they broke up." The first letter is ^77i ir (see 
Dehtzsch's note). From ^^il or TTD confregit : concussit. 

^Jp[- Im, for >-J][ In, a holy song : a hymn. The change 
of M for N is frequent, according to a law of euphony which 
made one letter more pleasant to the ear than the other. It 
is remarkable that the English language has a similar change. 



358 The Revolt in Nmren. 

saying hymn for the Italian mno. The Greeks borrowed the 
word vjjbvos probably from the Assyrian temple worship when 
they took to worshipping the gods of the East. The meaning 
of >-TT In, is very clearly ascertained to be a sacred song or 
hymn from the following gloss, (see Syllabary, p. 20, of 
Delitzsch's work, No. 43) 

-II . I -*f . <T- HI t<iE 

In Su-an Sibtu 

All three words occur on the tablet I have here translated. 

Line 10. Here Ave have three verbs commencing with 
the letter L which usually marks the optative. How to view 
them is a question of Assyrian grammar. The pure optative 
does not give a suitable sense. It may be used for the 
infinitive (as Latin ut veniret for venire). Perhaps the best 
rendering into English is by a participle. 

Line 10. Likbu is probably from y2p to spoil, (corrupit. 
Sch.). We may render it 'spoiling,' or perhaps 'so as to 
spoil.' 

Lattahidu, from "Tin to use dark or puzzling words : to 
speak unintelligibly. 

Lattihia, from ~hl confundere : whence Chald. 7^ri 
confusio extrema (Sch.) 

Salili, praise or thanksgiving. "'70 for 7D7D in Chaldee 
' extulit laudibus.' 

Line 11. As sai, with a wish — probably from "^nil? 
desideravit, Schindler, p. 1812. 

Lisarrikhu ' to summon ' especially with a trumpet : from 
mS to sound a loud strain, or to clamour loudly. 

Ahrati, fi'iends : companions : from "l^H amicus, whence 
rr^^n societas, communitas. Apparently he summoned the 
whole community of the gods who remained faithful. 

Line 12. Here it would be natural to take Bil in the sense 
of IJominus. But then we ought to have Bil sibti and not 
sibtu. Moreover a verb is wanted. Can bil be the verb 72'^ 
' he blew a trumpet,' Avhence hiV sonus, jubilum? If so, one 
would have expected ibil sibtu, but the vowel i may have 
been lost from coalescing with the final iin abrati. This kind 
of absorption is very frequent, but only occurs when the 



The Revolt m Heacen. 359 

diction is rapid and impassioned. The trumpet's sound 
(1 Cor. XV, 52) in Scripture, raises the dead. Muhullat miti, 
' which would cause the dead to live.' Compare Ishtar 
muhulladat miti, ' the goddess who causes the dead to live 
again,' in vol. ii of the Transactions, p. 30. 

Line 13. Here the scribe seems to have written >^>4- for 
ana (ana Hi ' to the gods.') 

Kamuti insurgent : from Chald. D^p insurgere (Schindler 
says : Db^p qui surgit contra aliquem : hostis.) 

Irsu is, I have little doubt, a metathesis of isru ' he pro- 
hibited,' since that is the proper word in Hebrew for vetare, 
' to forbid.' Schindler says, "^Di^ prohibuit ne quid fieret. 
Isru tairu, it prohibited their return. 

Tairu, return. From an Assyrian verb 7ur to return, 
which also occurs with some slight modifications in Greek 
and Latin. Taii^u occurs frequently, for example in the legend 
of the descent of Ishtar, 

Tt %III jf tit ^^T ^TTT Tf Tt ^TT^ ^^"'^'^^ ^^ ^«^'^^^^' 

a path which has no return. 

Line 14. Absan, service, from IZ^IJ? to serve, an Assyrian 
form of 11 J?. 

Lidu, ' he stopped.' Put for i7ndu euphonias causa. Tmdu 
from "T^i^ to stay: to stop. Ahsan indu, he stopped their 
service. 

Usassiku, S conjugation of nD2 to remove forcibly ; to 
pull up. Schindler has ' de loco in locum transtulit.' 

Line 15. Ana j^adi-sun, 'in their room.' In Chaldee and 
Syriac i^PiB means ' broad ' or ' roomy ' (latus vel amplus 
fuit). Now, the word jylace (Germ, platz) is the Latin 
platea, from TrXaru? broad. Also, as a substantive, the 
Chald. ^^riQ means platea 'place.' Hence ana jmdi-sun is 
'ill their place.' 

Line 16. Riminu, ' the first ' : from DT^ primus fuit 
(whence DTlH 'primitiss'). In the E.I.H inscription we find 
Riminu Marduk, Marduk first, or highest, of beings. 

Line 17. It is not evident who is supposed to have offered 
this prayer at the time of the Creation of Man. 

Likuna from p3 to ]:»e firm or stable. 



360 The Revolt in Heavoi. 

Inimasd, Chald. O'i^'Q spre\at, coutempsit, abjecit, rejecit. 
Especially used of rejecting the word of the Lord (as in the 
present passage). 

Line 18. Zalmat kakkadu (crowned head), usually signifies 
'a king.' Clear examples of this will be found in the 
Appendix to this paper. In some texts it replaces malku 
sha kipratl 'kmg of the nations.' Li the present passage 
I think the phrase means 'a serpent,' not generically, but 
that particular serpent which was fabled to wear a Crown 
upon its head, and was for that reason called the Basilisk, 
h-om BaaiXiaKos ' a little king.' In some mediseval pictures 
I think that the Tempter Serpent wears a Cro^voi. For 
fin-ther proof see the reverse of this tablet in Delitzsch, 
plate xliii, line 25, where an elaborate curse is pronounced 
against whoever shall listen to the King (^^^ rfz 1^11) 
or his posterity (nakidi). Here the King must mean the 
Serpent. 

Line 19. The total number of the gods is, I beheve, else- 
where given as five thousand. 

Ilpa, a thousand, Heb. Pp^, see line 7, where apparently 
the same thousand are spoken of, before their rebellion. 

Line 20. Izzukku ' they shouted.' Heb. TDI to shout. 
The verb pJ^JJ seems very nearly related. 

Nagah curses or blasphemies. Heb. np^. 

Lme 21. Imasrn 'they had quitted,' from "^DD to 
abandon. 

Kar is used for ' order ' in 4 R. And see Syllabary 
No. 313 in Delitzsch p. 27 ^^]]] ^ ^]] {]^ ^ Kar. Ediru. 
This word edir is the Heb. -y\^ • ordo,' but frequently grew, 
as grex Domini, ' the people of the Lord ' or ' the Lord's 
flock' is caiTied away captive (Jeremiah xiii, 17). Hence in 
the present passage, the angels sha imasru kar-su ' who had 
abandoned their flock, or their company.' 

Line 22. Epish siniti 'to raise rebellion' is a well known 
phrase ex. (jr. ' When Assurdanina against Salmanussur his 
father raised a rebellion ' {ebus siniti). 1 R 32, 40. 



The Revolt in Heaven. 361 

The scene of this Legend is laid in Heaven, but it is 
evident that the scribe had in his mind the Temple Worship 
of his own time and country ; with its singers, musicians, and 
responsive Chorus. Nor was the temple worship of the 
Israelites very dissimilar in these respects. 



Appendix. 

I will add a few remarks on the word ^w a.*" **-yT>t ^*^f» 
which I have translated 'king,' as some have rendered it 
' the dark race of men,' which I shall endeavour to disprove 
It is of great importance to arrive at its true meaning 
because it is here an epithet of the Tempter. 

In the Bavian inscription 3R14, 4, Sennacherib says, 
" Malki sha kiprati sebu-ya usaknis, the kings of the nations I 
caused to bow down to my feet " ; and he repeats this in the 
Bull inscription 3 R 12, 3, only changing the order of the 
words, ' gimri malki sha kiprati usaknis sebu-ya.' Also in 
Layard's inscriptions 38, 4 he says the same thing, but he 
varies one important word, saying zahnat kakkadu instead of 
malki sha kiptnti. The passage is as follows, (Ashur father 
of the gods) gimir zalmat kakkadu usaknis sebu-ya (has 
caused all Kings to bow down to my feet) : ana rihut mati 
u nisi ulla risi-ya (to the sovereignty over land and people 
he has raised high my head) : iddina ispa isartu murappisat 
mati (he has given me the sceptre of justice to rule my 
people) : kakku la khaddu ana takkut zairi usatmikh gatii-ya 
(and a sword which cannot be broken, for the smiting of my 
enemies, he has placed in my hand). I have given the 
passage at length, to show that the subject of it is Senna- 
cherib's preeminence among kings, and nothing else. 

Now let me add the beginning of the Bavian inscription 
where Sennacherib names all the principal gods and then 
says : " ( These are the gods), sha as gimir atnati ana itarri 
zalmat kakkadu enu inassu inambu malku {who, lohen they had 
raised me above all other ^zalmat kakkadu^ that is, crow)ied heads, 
or kings, of all the world, named me their sovereign." ) There is 



362 



The Recult hi. Heaoeu. 



as 



here do question at all of 'dark races' or 'negro races 
some have supposed. 

In the above, adnati is for admati 'the world.' n?21^^ 
orbis terrarum, Genesis iv, 11, &c. See Gesenius. 

Itai'ri ' the rest ' is Heb. ")n'' ' the rest ' as for example 
TDi^n "in"' 'the rest of the people': *|"^1T in'' 'the rest of 
the acts ' (of Solomon, are they not written in the book, &c. 
1 Kings xi, 41). 




363 



ON SOME FRAGMENTS OF THE CHALDEAN 
ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION. 

By George Smith. 

Bead 2nd November, 1875. 

The Fragmentary luscriptious here brought before the 
Society are the principal portions now remaining of the 
Chaldean account of the Creation. 

The circumstances of their discovery I have narrated m a 
letter to the Daily Telegraph, March 4th, 1875, and I have 
since continued to find fragments of these and similar legends 
down to the end of September, when my search ceased, as I 
began to prepare for my next journey to the East. 

I have prepared for publication in a popular form an 
account of these Inscriptions and translations of the fi'ag- 
ments, but as I am about to return to Assyria to endeavour 
to obtain more fragments of the texts, and as in my absence 
there might be some delay in the publication of the Inscrip- 
tions, I have given copies of the principal fragments to the 
Society, that they may be available for the study of Assyrian 
scholars. 

I intend at a future time to bring under the notice of the 
Society the whole of the Genesis Legends, and I only desire 
to fii'st make them as complete as possible before doing so. 
In the meantime, my brother Assyriologists will receive the 
present instalment, which will show the style and matter of 
one of the principal works. 

The present copies of the Chaldean account of the 
Creation were written during the reign of Assurbanipal, 
B.C. 673-626, but they appear to be copies of a much older 
Chaldean work, the date of the composition of which was 

Vol. IV 24 



864 On Fraavieiits uf the Chaldean Account of the Cvcation. 

probably near B.C. 2,000. The legends existed, however, 
earher than this, and were in the form of oral traditions, 
handed down from time to time, until during the great 
literary age in Babylonia they were committed to writing. 
I have given these fragments on six sheets as folloAvs : — 

1st. Upper part of first tablet of Creation series. 

2nd. Upper part of fifth tablet of Creation series. 

3rd and 4th. Obverse and reverse of tablet describing 
the Fall. 

5th and (3th. Obverse and reverse of tablet, witli war 
between the Gods and Chaos. 




/ 



[IJ 

First Tablet of Creation Series. 
Obverse. 

^- »Idj' '1 - [< gj] giE jr ET -ET EE < -ir- 

3. ^" Etr ET i^ * ^r «=m«= i? 'jii jt tn? 

^^^^ 

- -y >=3TT > y -^T< t?-^- -y gi<j -eett Err >et <sr -m i =!?; 

•'■ n T-"'^ j _ V- gin yT « t^ ^ gr^ yW,_ e j 

«■ MTA * sr i -ET <IEI ■=! ^?-fe EcTt t^>ft; ?! Ti -eT y A-T 

7. ;=yf ,^ El >>-T T— >Et jr V' ^W ET ^r EI 

«■ JT ET -ET J© JE ^JH <T- ET^ "W-J^I^Iiil 

n. tU - ^T ^ '=TTT»= ET - T .4,^,«;'''^-^ff'*'"*f'*'^**'i 

.0. --T ■^TTT< -y ~T -ET !!< -^ m gTTT y- ^ '"= 

n. T? <(*: :s V- cTTTe 



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IfcT -TT<T !!• -^^ '■- V- , ■; 



H. --T Tf -^ 



uj,<^i",V.sV.',uJ_.t.v«.Wj;_/ 



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T— 










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-1 



II 



l-'ifth Tablet of Crcalion Sen 



■=111= 


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vT * T! 


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* 


■=111 


= cEr<T#:c^eTJr-Si 


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'T< 


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-ET 


T! 


-T< 



^ ^fr -^T 


-i: 


r T! 


kTIT 


T 'T ^ 


eTTT= V ET ■¥•('' 


cE -^T " 


T 


V 


c|E 


Tf s^TTT-^ 


TfW^t'^'fl 


S<^ ^eET 


m 


=ITT= 


JT*T 


-I<T -TT- T 


'"'- 


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cE 


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an ~T 


=« - xjj.;j.;;^ld 


^'gp^-T<T- 


T<JT 


-e? 


STT-J^TS^ETI^ISP 


-^T(')--ff|^T 




Tf ^ 


T A* E=TT 


-T -T *T 


■ST =*^ ^"^^ 




m 


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'T -T 


<T -TT- - 


-T *T M V -^T 



-^T A-T =E '=TTT= '31 A-TTT V 
-TT.T -tT ET <TS^ -'! <T* -^ 



--T 



JT 



-ETt If --T< 



' .'" ' *TT<T ( ) -I I— 


- # <~ I 


'• "iTTT *T- W i^ T- 


'=Tf -s^ ET tTf 1 




.. \^ y „T ^ Cfr Tf « 


I « V H A <E 


FidiVmis.- <"eT- '"tTITs= 


"JT <"I- .»<=E 



J'ltbict describiup the Fall. 



OnVEBSB. 

tja -s-iu -ill =11! t _,;u>i V. 



j^H! <V an A-TT -Tr<T < IeI y- ^T vl >=T! -^ IeII ^E -H^ 



gE -^f ¥' sf5T m trr, sp :?? eeti v^ a-h i eimTv- 

ifcj V- =11!= <:r sEin AH n<T <::: M -et -w -eeit -Egrr i 

~tn ~T Eiimr <!i - v >=£ -eeit s^ti -rf<T -w «i ecit r? vy 



i?!=m I- 



^r <!! -t\ -^ -i'T* <z <« !* 



V -r H "T -=id -^ -r< 



jr »^nT= !£m r? w -mi 



«i V -^r -n t=^ >=m'= v en -^ir :ei <-c]a -r \~~ -^\ m -m i 



If 



^T S= <I^ I V- fcU ■s^ < T! V M -ee! 



>TH V ^ ■=11^ V ^ IeU IHB -^T jr '=111= ^T xr< I 
-eeir IeJ -^T eT If If A-II eT V T! If El ^T I 



^ *y- cE 



=11:?= n<l V fcU -^I If ^I sEIII If I 



"in 



"jj^ -jgn I <f! - y,' <i- gin n i <!f ^ <i- >^i <:r ^ -^^k 
V - i~i I <f! ►i'-v tf -£n -i<i -^i ^ <i- -J- ^v 



"I 'in --II -^ <i*^ ti; 'ni s ~i F- V -E + -an ^nf i 



■^if E!!< <r- 



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eI't -^I< -ET =111= ¥ <rt= cUTc ^r - 
- • ■■'" . JT 



V A? <T""-' 






~T -ITv -- 



p: EI ^EjE en -Ef 



•^^^Pf- A-in If <i* 



e 



^ 



i 



I 



Tablet describing the Fall. 



m 



m ^u'E 





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..A 




:: 


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A\\\ 


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I M "T SP " tra T! ^ '-" 



V EcM r— V ET T- =I<J i»-III -gn -i- -gETT L^ ^ '^'^^ 

<£ir :^n -^t; -^ -eE-'t sm girr r; -t --t ^sti e^tt i •=!!! 

A"-\\\ ErTT IH ■=!!! T— -ET -=T »=Tt#: 'T T- 
T <V EI -ET KSi sETTT -E^rT -eEit ^^^ttTITt; ^< 



* I ft -TT<T IdJ -^T T! fclT --T< *-T' 



"^Tl! 



tS=TTT 



-¥ I SkT eBHT ^ T! 



-tTlI cTir 



- <Si -TT<T H WTT A-TT y- < -^I ty i tTf? 
!=srT T- ET "T «=rfTT T! -=H -< -TIT I * vt -iT^ 



ET Tf V cET T- I '=TTT= ^tl -TT4 -T<T ^2 



W < I 



JT '^TTT'^ <IB ET ^ETU?) T! H< ET H .^TTTT T? M < gg^ I 
>-TT<T <SI -'T !:eTT ?eT! -eld -eBTT I V- -eB TT e4=T eT 

<s:iT -n<T ¥T -Tr<T -t< cet; b m^ <r: t -^-v 



-TT<T 



„, „T "T ET- ET- 



,r „y ^ ,^„ I ^4,. y_ ^ tiyy^ ^ ^,, ^jjj ^j<j ^jjj ^^jj 



iiT «=T 'f 'T(.' ET -En -an <" 



E^TT tTT! <T- 



-II 



^ K<T < -- IK -TI* <T- -TT<T JT 



-EEfl V -T RP ET I! ¥- < EI -TT<T --MV'' V 4 tf 

V tSs: S=M< -^I <lj"<f*'°' -EST <V !£TIT T! v-H ^f I<=HI 

-T <"'^T 
t> ET 



T -T< T^ -TT4 ET T! -^T -^=111 ■^ITT T -T -T 

-m <:= T V Ti JT ■=111'= lai 



<IET -^T ST If ^-^ -£TI -ET tTf -^y ceT'"' <IEf >=tttt -£TT 
CETT ^I ^I- "^E I -ET -m yl *T- a:^TT -I T! T! »cTri ET 
-I<^ <1ET <T- -y ET JA" ^W -^ (eeTT) <l;-"ffl" .^fy 
- JS --T -^TI I ¥-T<T If I <:^T* tE -£II ^ft I -T ET e^ « 



'jn < =r:: 



*TIT 



^T I JT 4-T Sai yllK?) ^ 




n <".m '"-^ '"tTn= < 

NoTK.— Miie H to Line 13 < 



""ciTT <«T-TT '"'=TIT '"-f^ 



[s] 



War between the Gods and Chaos. 






. t<n s= t^i «=E ^T si^i 


I >=£ JT'= 


' ^~ni <i^i -^nr * -^t 


* ^ I 



-A* I- maf -^IT AS I ■==!!! -TT<T '■'^\ 

[^E] y- sii ET ^ * E-n <i=i?i! -y < E',;< EH< 'A< t' -^- 



[^y ni -^T< V !! ■ n<T ^-^I »=! =:~jn T -em; ::e1T =Jf[^- <== V 

i^E^ ^i 4s » &n^f^ -rT'T '-1 <gj i^n '^!< -ei i -i f? <::r 

hT^' A'W <r-lM -eT j4j^<lh^T T- H< Ti W ^W JT !=^Ie 

^ir t'^'^ <4-n T -Af ly A-n V- <f» j! 

v^JI^'f^ET-T-T -T< ■!?" =m= til", I 

. 55:!= n V- -■=! :=T lEl I ET- T! 

-ET ™II -TM_ '=nk <:^ '^^^_ 1^1 

-T-ry ET Rs "^ym -^T «iSS: ET <!* tE 5*51 K^y V =E JT^ 

^T v"n A-n lEm 






«=! D 






E=n * '^^ < -EE' ^:^ ^T!? ^m 

— — — y<Vi^ f ' ' '■ 

^ grr J T(?) a^T I 

^!U" I em>= sEtl <T* E! 

f HI- tfTv^"" s^i I !^>A-m 

'"A-m "iffl JEI^ I 
=E <!ir lai J 



c 






IVar between the Gods and C/mos. 



m 



Ef jr V- ''E v'! 






sp ■=!! -r< ¥1 ««) 



V^^ T >Er -ET =1! t! -eMlt -tU i£rir <EI"' Ifc ;!: g 
y V-I EH aT -^-nt y <Igf EB ^.ffllg -£tT JI v ^ ■=! IB T— <lgl 
-II <I» A -II er T! -^1 IB _< -i:tl li <> «« 5F„v^_-JgT_V feJl 



-^T< 



-r ^ cm 



<" V 



^11 -H ItJ '^ yl <-- ■=nr'= Y ~I SF ^::T -II V 

ci ■^n EI -^v -Cr-i- ^m -y -11:;= ^i; -£Bt ■=: th 

-V Ea;■^ ET :=I<J ET T ^T -gl e:tl E'TT EIT K ~ 
rE « B P I- -III ^I gm -My <T^ cITI I t 

<HEij -r "T V -Big i^m- v a~\ i; mji -a^ ■=! ib t— i m 
tgg? ^VET =^ EI -^i< <?-y -mr i- -i r— -r <"^t 
v g; T— ^i El y- =-111 "jn y- £i^ i!< -Tiy j^^n 



SI Sf= -IH B? EI -* *:= 45 * BII I cTHc e- <t= 



<I- 



4-n<I-IH -er- i! m iV'M --Id -<I< S= ^ 5?^ V"' <TII W Jld 



Idl yy EI 'I- 'E V 



tv-.- I! -^I -el A-I I! -I< V" 



<^-TT <T-IH -El Si<I yy -IK -■^T II "'I -ET -tH '] ^Id3 -^I< V 
a, -f=Ti -<\<"- A4f r— yTTi 'Ell "gTI i^E !! -^ eT 
~m ^ -^ 'in -■^T Y ET ^ Ti Eir" SPT -''^ <I@ 
■=T ISI "!~T ~i~! -EI <4-lTT yT 'T- -=U ^ J5f'" 



Ei!< - Y clllt 



■<T< *-T m<^ 15- <= 'Til --=1 



-I.T^ <r:: <T- ET e>! V m rrr[.= 
Y <-lI Y al Ell n <--fcI Y 



<cT* -ai --i< 5?^ 



IH * ^ «=E 



^i 'jn 



<IEj tT -TI<1 Y -=1^ -^ -1M etTT y- A'^ Y -=1 »ldl !!< 
<|-lgll -T -T -IT<T t>fe Y T! -eMIT IB ^t <T^ Y 
^1 -. 'Jl fcll -ET -T<T ■=TTT=^ =TTI A 'Jl <MT<T'"' ■^III -.£11 =1!! 

(.nm- y i?-fe et -t y lai =1; <Ta= '.m 

(?) gp gin -ET -y »=TT1- -^1 '1 JI 1 «1» aU) -ET -eEJI ^"T =1! 
(?) t y- I V- --T< EI =T IB I— I V =111= *fcll At- 



P), 



s{: tns= -^T =!T EI -=fcl ET -IT* 5?I y- 



(?).y ^\ -gis J-T T! -<!< ET IBI ^TT-^ !=?! ET -y 

y =.m -£11 -^T JT -^m^ --IJ m <=w <m <y <«<: 

<T-I@I =^11 25 <« =JII -=! W^ -^I< JI '1 Si !!< -^1< i=E (I -f 



<cc c<^TT -ET EI- • 



=1! TI -eBI EI --fcl EDO 



Y 



SiT EIIT <IS= y-III< -IM ■=!! --'■ 



rTTfrtlJfc EI 



-T< I ■jt Y -t' 



"-cH "T- "'fl-iaiiBi '"I "1 "'=m "w '"-^n "-ny^tii! 



365 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 



CONDENSED EEPOET OF THE PROCEEDINQS DUROa THE 
FOURTH SESSION, Noteotee, 1874, to July, 1875. 

Tuesday, Novemher 3, 187-1- 
S. Birch, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were duly nominated in December for election : — 
Rev. Dr. Muehleisen Arnold; William Baker, B. A ; Rev. Mourant Brock, M.A. ; 
Miss Amelia B. Edwards ; Miss Foster ; Henry William Fry, Walthamstow ; 
Theodore Fry, Darlington ; Edward Falkener, F.S.A. ; T. Claxton Fidler ; 
Thomas R. Gill ; Ernest Hartland, Chelt;'nham ; E. Sidney Hartland, Swansea ; 
Mrs. Robert Holloud ; Wentworth Huyshe ; Marcus Keane, M.R.I. A., Ennis, 
Clare ; Llwyelyn A. Mills ; Dr. Aldabert Merx, Giessen ; Rev. J. Marshall, 
M.A. ; William Palmer, M.A. ; Mrs. S. G. Rice ; Rev. Canon Tristram, D.D., 
F.E.S. ; Rev. Arthur Rendell ; Rev. Watkin H. WilUam.s, St. Asaph. 

Messrs. S. Bagster & Sons presented a valuable collection of Biblical Works, 
published by their Firm, to the Library of the Society. 

The following papers were then read : — 

, 1. On the Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Elam and Media. By 
the Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. — The dialect to which the agglutinative idiom of 
the Persian inscriptions belonged was spoken by one of the four tribes of 
Susiania or Elam, probably by the Amardi. It was closely akin to two other 
dialects of Susiania, which have also been revealed by cuneiform discovery, — 
those of the Cassi or Kossseans and of Anzan or Susa, — as well as to the modern 
Vogid-Mordvinian group ; and was more remotely connected with the Accadian 
of ancient Babylonia. Two dialects of the latter may be detected, both of 
which are marked by such an extreme simplicity of agglutination as to render 
the Accadian the Sanskrit of the Turanian tongues. The Amardi were the 
primitive population of Media, the Aryan invadei's not having appeared before 
the 9th century B.C. Additions were made in the paper to our knowledge of 
the Amardian dialect, an older form of which exists in the inscriptions engraved 
at Mai-Amir by king Sutur-Cit, and translations were given for the first time of 
brick-legends from Susa. All three Susianian dialects, together with that of 
the Cassi, were compared with the Accadiaus, and the origin and explanation 
of many grammatical forms, obscm'e not only in the modern Finnic idioms but 
also in those of ancient Elam, were thus pointed out. 

2. On Four Neiv Sgllaharies and a Bilingual Tablet. Translated and Edited 
by H. F. Talbot, F.R.S. — These precious documents were brought from Nineveh 
by Mr. G. Smith this summer. They are marked S 23, 15, 14, 17, 12. The first 
tablet mentions a City, IS, ittu or idd^i, probably bitumen (Herodot. Roman city 
IS : now called Hit, where bitumen still abounds) . Kish (Heb. Kattish) (? our 
cotton) passus (byssus) = sis (Heb. shish) fine linen. The Accadians knew of 
white, black, yellow, and green cloth, perhaps also Tyrian purple cloth. On one 
of these tablets one word stands by itself, and in Mr. Smith's opinion this 
was to catch the student's eye and to refer him to the next tablet. Another 
tablet gives a list of the various classes of palace-guards of the coui't : gate- 



oGT) Condensed Report of the Proceed inqs. 

keepers, guards of defiles, niglit watchers, fortress guards, prison warders, 
guardhouse warders of palace gate, of great city gate, of treasury, of roval 
granary, hou^e guards, temple guards, field guards, orchard guards. Also 
the titles of honour, lord and lady of the palace ; the glorious epithets of the 
monarch (as the Profoundly Wise, Active, Intelligent) . An Assyrian reader 
has written his way of pronouncing sib, viz. siba, a useful marginal gloss. The 
paper is intensely lexicographical, and presents to the student some most valuable 
materials. 



Tuesdat/, Decemher 1, 1874. 

S. BiKCH, LL.D., President, in the Chaii". 

The following candidates were nominated for election : — Eev. T. D. Harford 
Battersby, Keswick ; Col. N. D. Barton ; Rev. Waldegrave Brewster, Man- 
chester ; Mrs. Henrietta Brogden ; Mrs. De Bergue, Palace G-ardens, W. ; Eev. 
Thomas Pelham Dale, M.A. ; Dr. Friedrich Delitzch, Leipzig ; Alexander 
Forbes, M.A., Aberdeen ; W. Jesse Freer, Leicester ; Eev. Dr. Kessen, Dover ; 
John Walter Lea, B.A., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.E. Hist. S. ; Rev. Charles Lee, M.A., 
Bilston ; Septimus P. Moore, LL.B., B. Sc. ; R. M. Mills ; Rev. Fredk. P. 
Napier ; Eev. Dr. Bobbins, Kensington ; E. Neville Eoberts ; Frederic Seebohm, 
Hitchin. 

The foUovring papers were then read : — 

1. On a Miiiliolog'ical Inscription, on the Tomb of SETI I, at Thebes. By 
Edouard Naville. Geneve. — In this paper the author begins by referring to 
the primitive deification of physical causes, and their gods then influencing 
human aifairs, whereby (with the aid of the poets) Mythology became so interest- 
ing to its behevers. He obtained squeezes from the original inscriptions at 
Thebes, formerly known to be perfect, but now mutilated by the Arabs, who 
noctumally abstract pieces for sale to tourists, in spite of the Khedive's orders 
to the contrary. This inscription, which belongs to the areliaic period, repi'e- 
sents EA, as t)ie creator of mankind, being so disgusted with their insolence, 
that he resolved to exterminate them: but previously convokes an assembly of 
the other gods to take their advice ; his father Nun in this council on their 
behalf urges him to tliis step, and the goddess Tefiiut descends as Hathor for 
that purpose. The massacre makes human blood flow to Heliopolis. Ea after- 
wards repents, and orders certain deities to drink up the inundated country ; to 
gather at Elephantine, a quantity of fruits, whicii, mixed with the said human 
blood, fills 7,000 vases, the sight of which number rejoices Ea, and the human 
i-ace reappears. Ra swears with uplifted hand not to kill mankind again. These 
offer their warrior-aid to Ra against his foes, the barbarians of the date-fields 
at Amu : who are subdued. Ra soon tires of hmnan society, re-ascends fatigued 
into heaven on the back of the Cow-transformed goddess Nut : previously granting 
to his favourite Thoth a field with Aalu flowers ; the ibis and cranes ; the 
solar and lunar orbs and stars, etc., which appear immediately at his wish. 
He also gives commands to Seb about the serpents he carries about him. 
M. Naville points to the separatio i of the human race, who di'ank from the Nile- 
water, from others who di-ank from well-water, as indicative of the outside 
Lybians and Ai-abians, from the true Egyptians. He suggests that the latter as 
Typhonian men were not extinguished, and tliinks human victims were originally 
Kacrificed as Typhonian foes, and pleasing to the great god Ra. The inscription 
concludes with prece2:)ts for the purification of the intending reader of tiiis most 
sacred record. He quotes Plutarch, Porphyry, and Seleucus as authorities for 
human immolations at Heliopolis, which tliis record, he siipposes, was to abolish. 
The resemblance to Jupiter couunanding Saturn, and Scriptural analogies, is 
very striking. 

2. On a Monument of Harptiemhi in tJte Mu.tetim at Turin. By S. Birch, LL.D. 
— The paper contained an account of an inscription relating to the coronation of 
the monarch Haremhobi. or Horns. The ))rincipal points of interest are the 



CuHilensed Report of the Pvoceediiigs. H()7 

iiientiou of the ceremoaies in houoiu' of the king, and his restoration of llie 
worship of the god Ammon, which had been overthrown by the heretical wor- 
shippers of the Sun's disk. The endowment of the temple of Ammon at 
Thebes, Heliopolis, and Memphis are also alluded to in the inscription. 



Tuesday, January 5, 1875. 

S. BiECH, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were nominated for election in February : — Mi^8 
Ann Cavendish Bentiuck ; Rev. Canon St. Vincent Beechey, M.A. ; Rev. 
William Boyd, F.S.A., Scot. ; Mrs. Colonel Gawler (Tower of London) ; Miss 
L. Hope ; Rev. Dr. Newman (Chaplain to the Senate, U.S.A.). 

The Council and Officers for the ensuing year were elected. 

The following papers were then read : — 

1. Ethiopian Annals. Translated by Gr. Ma.spero. — Stile of King Horsiatef. 
— This stele, the text of which has been published in Mariette's Monumens 
divers, relates the war of king Horsiatef against the people of the Nahasi Land, 
and the district of Maddi (the Mataia of the G-reeks). It then describes the 
grand ceremonies which took place at the Temple of Amen of Napata, after 
the Ethiopian king had obtained success, which he as usual attributes to the 
direct favour of the deity. Some further adorations to Osiris, and a long list 
of votive offerings concludes the inscription, which, as well as that which followed, 
was accompanied with critical and geographical notes. 

2. On the Stele of King Nastosenen. — This interesting stiile, which has been 
partly translated by Brugsch-Bey in his Geographie, relates the wars made by 
King Nastosenen against the various petty monarchs of Southern Egypt, including 
Dongola and the district around Wady Haifa, and many other districts as yet 
unidentified. After recording these victories the st6le relates the adorations paid 
by the king to his tutelary deity Amen of Napata, and the amount of treasure 
and offerings presented to the temple of that divinity. 

3. On some Cypriote Antiquities discovered hy General di Cesnola. Described 
by S. Birch, LL.D. — In opening up the foundations of a ruined temple at 
Golgoi, a variety of votive statues and terra cotta figures were discovered, 
executed in various styles of art, and with a greater or less degree of care. T'he 
princijjal object was a small limestone pediment, the typanum of which was filled 
up with two draped female figures, represented as upholding the architrave, 
while at either of the angles was figiu'ed a crouching lion, having the tongue 
protruded over the lower lip, as is common in archaic Greek art. The whole were 
in very low relief, and were represented as facing the spectator. On the plinth 
below was a long Cypriote inscription, filled in witli red paint. 



Tuesday, February 2. 1875. 
S. Birch, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were nominated for election in March : — Williaui 
Appleford ; Miss Mary Basset ; Miss Emma Brown ; Robert Cust ; Rev. Dr. L. 
Lcewe, Broadstairs ; Rev. Josiah Miller, M.A. ; Robert Monteith, Carstairs ; 
W. J. Cockburn Muir, Putney; Rev. John Sharpe, B.A., Cambridge. 

The following papers were then read : — 

1. On Human Sacrifice among the Babylonians. By Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A. — 
In this interesting paper the author derived direct evidence of the prevalence of 



■ 3fi8 Condensed Report of tJie Proceed i)i<j.s. 

the awful custom of human sacrifice among the ancient Chaldeans from the 
translation of two Accadian tablets, one of which declared the immolation to 
have a vicarious efBcaey, especially in the case of children when offered as atone- 
ments for the sins of their parents. There was also a special name given to the 
act, it being called "The Sacrifice of Bel, or of righteousness," and a description 
of the rite forms the subject of tlie first tablet of the great epic cycle of mythical 
legends, under the head of the first montli and tlie first sign of tlie zodiac. The 
paper concluded with a series of references to the performance of human sacrifice, 
derived from clerical authorities and the recently discovered Carthaginian 
Inscriptions. 

2. On the date of Christ's Nativity/. By Dr. Lauth, of Munich. — The learned 
author agrees with Mr. Bosanquet (Trans. S.B.A., 1872) in assuming 3 B.C. of 
ordinary era as the date of the nativity: and adduces what he thinks ) roofs 
from the Roman Indiction, Egyptian Apis Tablets, etc. He considers the cruci- 
fixion to have occurred on Friday, 7th April ; that the darkness was caused by a 
planet obscuiing the sun, which planet has since disappeared. He assumes the 
three Magi to be Caspar (Thane of Sipara), Belshazzar (Ruler of Assyria), and 
Melchior (King of the River, Nile). Many hieroglyphic and classic writers are 
quoted ; also the circumstance that on the niglit of the 30th April-May the 1st, the 
Germans have C f M + P + marked on their doors : that gardeners do not like to 
plant out on 12-14 May, the three days of the cold saints. (Humboldt tliinks 
this connected with tlie Meteor group passing the solar disc.) Reference is also 
made to the Egyptian sacrifice of a swine ; to the Massacre of the Innocents ; 
to the flight of Joseph and Mary (probably from connivance with the Gralilean 
insurrection of Judteus against Archelaus), etc. ; also that the second census of 
Quirinius occurred when Jesus was in his 12th year, i 



Tuesdaij, March 2, 1875. 
S. Birch, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The following candidates were nominated for election in April : — J. L. Evans, 
Bristol ; Edwin Freshfield ; Rev. P. Digges La Touche ; Rev. Andrew Melville ; 
Prof. C. Seager, MA. ; Rev. Prof. D. H. Weir, D.D. (University, Glasgow) ; 
Dr. Carl Zimmerman, Basle. 

The following papers wei-e then read : — 

I. Letter on the Chamber of the Com in the Tomb of Seti I, at the Biban el 
Moluk, Thehes. By Prof. R. H. Mills.— In this letter Prof. Mills stated that, 
owing to the courtesy of Mariette Bey, he had been enabled to take stampings 
of the whole of the incriptions in the chamber of the cow, extending over 160 
square feet. These stampings were exhibited at tlie meeting, and they entirely 
corroborated the translation which had been previously given by M. Edouard 
Naville, of the text which they contain, viz., the unique Egyptian tradition of 
the destruction of mankind by the god Ra and his coadjutor deities. 

II. Observations on a supposed Karaite Tombstone in the British Museum. 
By Rev. Dr. L. Loewe (Broadstairs). — According to the learned Hebraist and 
Archajologist the inscription on this tombstone, wliich is now in the British 
Museum, might be read — " The Old Man, the Priest (the honored) Joseph 
Hanoch Hanouri (the enlightened), the Carpenter, of the famdy of Israel 
Najaruh." The tombstone was probably brought by English soldiers from the 
Karaite Cemetery in Djulfet Kalea in the Crimea. 

III. On the Tablet of Antefaa II in the Tomb of the VaUeij of the TJ Assasif 
at Thebes. By S. Birch, LL.D. — This paper gave an account of the inscription 
on the tablet from a copy sent to the writer from Mariette Bey, through 
M. Maspero. The tablet represents the King Antefaa standing with three dogs 



Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 3()'.) 

before him and one between his legs, accompanied by their names, and followed 
by an oiBcer of the royal household. From the inscription on the tablet it ap- 
pears it was set up in the 50th year of the king's reign. It is mentioned in a 
papyrus of the British Museum recording tlie examination of the tombs at tlie 
El Assasif in the reign of Eameses IX. The paper was accompanied by some 
account of tlie monarchs of the Xlth Theban dynasty, and the monuments as 
yet known of this time. The relations of the dogs to the purposes to whicli 
they might have been used in the chase was also mentioned. 



Tuesday, April 6, 1875. 
S. Birch, LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Tlie following Candidates were nominated for election in May : — James 
Backhouse ; Rev. Artliur Carr ; Dr. Amos Beardsley, F.L.S., F.G-.S. ; Rev. Prof. 
John Dury Greden ; Arthur H. Hobson ; Thos. John Moaksom ; Eev. Geo. A. 
Trevor ; James Walter. 

Lady Tite presented to the Society two very fine Babylonian Contract Tablets, 
from the collection of the late Sir WiUiam Tite. Mr. Greo. Smith gave a short 
account of the same to the Members present. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. Description of Lady Tite's Tablets. — These Contract Tablets were described 
by Mr. Smith as belonging to the Persian period, and as possessing several points 
of interest ; one of them was dated in the 17th year of Darius, and the other in 
the 26th year of Artaxerxes. 

II. On an Ancient Assyrian Sword bearing a Cuneiform Inscription, imth the 
name of Vulnirari king of Assyria. By George Smith. — This interesting and 
very ancient weapon is the property of Robert Hanbury, M.P., who kindly lent 
it for exhibition. It is wrought in bronze, and bears incised upon one side the 
name of " Vulnirari king of Assyria," thus dating from the 14th century B.C. : it 
was foiuid near Diarbekr, in which region the Assyrians at that early time made 
conquests. 

III. Herised Translation of an Obscure Passage in the Great Astronomica t 
Work of the Chaldeans. By Rev. A. H. Sayee, M.A. — The learned philologist 
explained that, in continuation of his studies upon the early Babylonian Astro- 
nomical Tablets, he had ascertained that certain characters were not to be read as 
heretofore phonetically, and therefore the passage in question, which occin-s at 
the close of the first Tablet of the Astronomical Cyclopoedia, must be read — "The 
star (Jupiter) rises, and its rising hke the day is bright, in its rising like the 
blade of a double sword a ring it forms." This would refer to the streak of 
liglit thrown by the rising planet upon a misty atmosphere. 

IV. On a Digraphic Inscription found at Larnaca. By D. Pierides. — The 
inscription, which is unfortunately much mutilated, is properly to be called 
digraphic, as the language is the same throughout, only written in Greek and 
Cyjwiote characters respectively. It appears to have been a votive inscription 
incised by the order of " Stasias, the prince, son of Stasicrates," king of Soli, 
both of whom it mentions. Besides the digrapliic texts there are the remains of 
a later Greek inscription which is nearly unintelligible. 

V. On the Four Races in the ^Egyptian representations of the Last Judgment. 
By E. Lefebure. — This paper was chiefly an account of several Tableaux which 
occur on the famous Sarcophagus of Seti I, now in the Soane Museum. The 
text, here translated for the first time, consists of the addresses of the represen- 
tatives of the four divisions of mankind to the deity Ea at the entrance of the 
ker neter, and of his several replies to them. The progress of the deity along 
the heavenly Nile is then related, and the rewards of the justified are ascribed to 
them. 



370 Co}idetised Report of the Proceedings. 

Tuesday, Mai/ 4, 1875. 
S. Birch, LL.D., President, in the Chaii-. 

The following candidates were duly nominated for election in June : — Mrs. 
E. Cable ; Rt. Rev. Monsignor Capel, D.D. ; Rev. V. S. Coles, M.A. ; Rev. Prof. 
Robert Clark ; Dr. DoUinger ; Talfourd Ely, M.A. ; Robert R. Greig ; Miss 
Susannah Harris ; Rev. H. Tully Kingdon, M.A. ; Rev. Gustavus Kienie, M.A. ; 
Admiral Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. ; William Payne, F.R.G.S. ; Rev. Canon 
Prothero ; Rev. S. G-. F. Perry ; J. Josselyn Ranson ; IVLiss WoodrooflPe. 

The following papers were then read : — 

I. A Commentarti u-ifh Notes on the Deluge TalJef. By H. Fox Talbot, Esq. — 
The learned author refers to the recently published text, and compares the 
sacrifice of victims by seven at a time, and the deity smelling a sweet savour of 
the bimit offerings, with the Mosaic nan-ative. Other points of contact are noted, 
as that the ark had only one door and one window. The cause of the divine 
wrath, of the building of the ark, and of the warning are also noted. The 
sacrificer wore white linen. (Cf. Ezek. xliv. 15) . The peculiar illness of 
Izdubar is then explained fi'om a kind of malaria (Isaiah x. 18; Job vii. 5), 
causing a cutaneous disorder, probably leprosy, which was to be purified by 
immersion in water. Mr. Talbot considered that Izdubar directed his return 
voyage by the "astrolabe." In conclusion the author generally agreed with 
Mr. Smith's translation of the narrative in its essential points, but not so in 
the imimportant sequel of Izdubar's illness and cure. Ubara-tu-tu leads to 
Tutu being the same as Bel, Tutu being the Accadian for parent or father. 
The Greek Ardates is Arda-uttu ; Otiartes probably being the same as Uttu-arda. 

II. On an Historical Inscription of the \Ofh Expedition of Esarhaddon. By 
"Wilham Boscawen. — The talented translator stated that the inscription in ques- 
tion showed that the cause of the 10th warlike expedition of the king of 
Assvria was the revolt of Bahal, king of Tyre, in conjunction with the king of 
E^vpt, whom he had previously subdued. Hastily gathering his army, Esarhaddon 
started from the city of Assur, B.C. 672, and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris 
marched to Apqu, the Biblical Ajjhek, a city at the northern extremity of 
Samaria. Detaching a portion of his army to blockade Tyre, he took a forced 
march of 200 miles to Raphia, a town on the borders of Egypt. Here the 
boundary river between Egypt and Assyria being dry, the kings of the Arabians 
supplied the Assyrians with water, and thus sustained the army till it arrived at 
the seat of war in Lower Egypt. Unfortunately the inscription bi-e:ik> off at 
this point of interest, but from the annals of Assurbanipal, the son of Esar- 
haddon, we learn that the Egyptians were defeated, and order re-established, 
and the kingdom itself divided into twenty petty states, the chief of which was 
Memphis. Soon after this event Esarhaddon resigned the empire of Assyria to 
his son Assurbanipal, retaining that of Babylon for himself. He died not long 
afterwards, B.C. 668. 

III. On the LISHANA-SHEL-IMRANI, the modern Syriac or Targum 
dialect of the Jews in the vast territories of ancient Media and Assyria ; toith 
some account of the People hy ivhom it is spoken. By the Rev. A. Lowy. — 
The author gave a short statistical account of the Jews of Kurdistan and adjacent 
districts. He drew attention to existing similarities and differences between the 
Nestorians and the Jews. He further pointed out the peculiarities of the impor- 
tant Jewish Imrdni dialect, and produced the first written specimen of this 
hitherto unrecorded member of the Semitic languages. The paper tended to 
show that philological investigation in this direction would probably throw much 
light on some of the most interesting questions in the history of language and 
of race. 

In the discussion which ensued Dr. Birch, Dr. Giusburg, and the Rev. \.. H. 
Sayce took part. 



Condensed Report of the Proceedings. 371 

Tuesday, June 2, 1875. 

S. Birch, LL.D., President, iu the Chair. 

The following candidates were duly nominated for election in July : — W. 
C. Allen ; Eev. P. Barker, M.A. ; Miss E. H. Busk ; E. M. Butt ; Miss Clen- 
dining ; Theodore Harris ; Hiram Hitchcock (U.S.A.) ; Mrs. Huish ; S. Petty 
Leather (Burnley) ; Eev. W. D. Maclagan, M.A. ; James Pincott ; Mrs. Silvester ; 
Eev. Percival Smith. 

The following Papers were then read : — 

I. On Ancient Metrology. By F. E. Conder, C.E. — In this paper Mr. 
Conder indicated the confused and contradictory state of our present knowledge 
of the subject, and proceeded to establish an absolute metrical base, identifying 
the barley corn, which the Hebrew writers state to be the unit of length and of 
weight, with the long measure barley corn and with the troy grain. The 
grounds of identification were (1) actual measurement and weight of full-sized 
grains of barley at time of harvest ; (2) determination of specific gravity 
according to statements made in Hebrew literature ; (3) actual dimensions of 
ancient Jewish buildings ; and actual weight of a Babylonian talent now in the 
British Museum, which corresponded to Mr. Conder's determination of 960,000 
troy grains within one per mille. The remarkable double division of the Chaldee 
metrical system, which is both decimal and duo-decimal, was then explained, and 
shown to apply to measures of length, area, capacity, and weight. The origin of 
the troy ounce, the diamond carat, the Spanish ducat, and other existing 
divisions, is traced to the early system employed by the Phoenician traders. 
Appended to the paper was a tabular statement of the comparative weights and 
measures of the ancient Greeks and Hebrews. 

II. On the Egyptian Shawl for the Sead, as ivorn on the Ancient Statues of 
the Kings. By Samuel Sharpe. — In this brief paper the veteran Egyptologist 
showed that the head-dress with apparent folds and lappets could be formed out 
of a square yard of striped calico, arranged in a pecuhar manner ; and, to prove 
the truth of his statements, an actual shawl thus folded was exliibited to the 
Society. 

III. On an Assyrian Inscription in the Vatican Museum. By E. Eichmond 
Hodges, F.E.G.S. — This inscription, which has hitherto been unpublished, is in 
a very mutilated condition, and the commencement is missing. It appears to 
commemorate the foundation of a city and the receipt of tribute ; it also 
mentions the tribes of the Nakli and Sapiri ; but owing to the imperfect state of 
the monument its date and history cannot be ascertained. 

Miss Amelia B. Edwards exhibited and described a collection of water color 
sketches made during a journey on the Nile from Cairo to the 2nd Cataract. The 
views were chiefly of Egyptian and Nubian temples, and more e8]:)ecially of a 
small rock cut Speos of the period of Eameses II. at Abou Simbel, which was 
discovered by Miss Edwards' party on 1-ith February, 1874, and which is in 
perfect preservation. The decorations and inscriptions of this Speos were given 
in detail. With the sketches was also exhibited a fine funereal stele in painted 
sycamore wood, of the period of the XXIInd Dynasty. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which arose during 
the meeting:— Dr. Birch; Eev. W. Denton; William Simpson; Joseph Bonomi. 



Tuesday, July 6, 1875. 
S. BiscH, LL.D., P.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

In addition to the candidates nominated for election in last mouth, the 
following candidates were, by a special vote of Council, also duly nominated and 
ballotted for on the same evening, and declared duly elected: — Eev. Eichard 



372 Condensed Report of the Proceedin(]s. 

Apploton (Trinity College, Cambridge) ; Major G. R. S. Black: Miss Brockle- 
hiirst ; Charles Buxton ; Miss Freeman ; Rev. William Grant (Toronto) ; Rev. 
A. F. Kirkpatrick (Trinity College, Cambridge) ; Mrs. Maxwell; Rev. Selah 
Merrill ; Mrs. Charles Seager ; Silvanus P. Thompson, B,A., F.R.A.S. ; Rev. 
Canon Tit comb; Dr. Gr. A. Zimmermann (Illinois). And as Honorary Members : 
Dr. W. D. Whitney, Yale College ; Rev. Dr. Hackett, Boston ; ' and M. E. 
Lefebure. 

The following Papers were then read : — 

I. On a Tablet in the British Museum, relating apparentli/ to the Deluge. 
By. H. Fox Talbot, F.R.S.— This tablet, of which the beginning and end are 
lost, describes a Panic Terror which seized mankind and all animals at a time 
wlien some great calamity was impending over the world, probably the visible 
approach of the Deluge ; biit other calamities may have happened in the earliest 
ages of which we have no record. This tablet has been lithographed in plate 27 
of the fourth volume of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia ; it has 
not been previously translated, and several lines at the beginning of the tablet are 
broken and illegible. After this lacuna it proceeds as follows : — 

" 1. One man ran to another. 
" 2. The girl ascended to her topmost story. 
" 3. The man ran forth from the house of his friend. 
" 4. The son fled from the house of his father. 
" 5. The doves flew away from their dove-cote. 
" 6. The eagle soared up from his eyi'ie. 
" 7. The swallows flew from their nests. 
" 8. The oxen and the sheep fell prostrate on the earth. 
"9. It was the great day. The Sjjirits of Evil were assembled." 
The remainder of the story, with the exception of a few words, is broken ofE. 

II. On an Early Chaldean Inscription of Agti-kak-rimi and other Kings. 
By William Boscawen. The author pointed out the importance of the text as 
furnishing the names of five new early Chaldean kings, whose names were — 
Agu-kak-nini, the monarch of the inscription ; Sasi-quru-mas, Abi-orakas, Aqu- 
ragas, and Ummah-zii'ite. This last appears to have been the founder of the line. 
The author also pointed out the indications in the text of the probable Kns.site 
origin of these persons as shown in the king claiming descent from the noble 
seed of the god Sugamuna; this deity is identified with the Elamife or Kassite 
god Sumu, W.A.I. II, 65, 2. The king in his titles calls himself first of all '^King 
of the Kassi," and of the "vast land of Babylonia." The inscription also illus- 
trates the belief of the Chaldeans in the future life, for the gods are besought to 
be "favourable to him in heaven " and in the " house and land of life," and then 
follows the prayer that " he may attain to the highest heaven." The inscription 
also furnishes the names of the Chaldean goddesses in company with their consort 
gods. Reference is made to the great temple of Bit Saggadhu at Babylon. 

The Assyrian Grammar, by Rev. A. H. Sayce, published by Messrs'. Bagster, 
under the sanction of the Society, was exhibited and ajjproved of. 

The following gentlemen took part in the discussion which ensued : — Rev. 
Selah Merrill ; Robert Cust ; Dr. Birch ; W. Boscawen ; Professor Seager ; 
Professor Donaldson. 



o7, 



INDEX TO VOL IV. 



PAeE 

Aahlu, the god Ra returns to the fields of.... .... .... .... .... 13 

Abab, an Egyptian dress so named.... .... .... .... .... .... 205 

Abbott Papyrus, liuntiug liounds mentioned in .... .... .... .... 174 

Abdiuiilkut king of Sidon, conquered by Esarhaddon .... .... .... 86 

Abeskhent, a district near Nubia, conquered by king Nastosenen.... ... 210 

Abilbitsaggil, a title of the god Nebo .... .... .... .... .... 166 

Aboo Jaeoob, the Arabic name of the Karaite author Joseph Haroeh .... 34 

Abraham, the reason of his change of name .... ... .... .... 315 

Abreez, water pouring, the origin of the name of Ibreez .... .... .... 346 

Absalom, his memorial pillar referred to .... .... .... .... .... 75 

Abtinus, the Arabic form of the name of the Emperor Antoninus .... 228 

Abu-nannar, a title of tlie god Sin .... .... ..,, .... .... 158 

Abydos, tablet of, its reference to the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... 188 

Abzu, the Assyrian word for Abyss .... .... .... .... .... 287 

Accadi, the, probably the Gimirrai.... .... .... .... .... .... 293 

Accadians, their belief in a future state .... .... .... .... .... 138 

,, their great powers of Civilisation . .. .... .... 26 

Aelia Hadriani, Jerusalem rebuilt as .... .... .... .... .... 229 

Africa, table of the number of Jews in .... .... .... .... .... 330 

Agu adorns the statues of Marduk and Ziratpanit ... .... .... .... 137 

„ the moon god .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 133 

Agukakrimi, an early Chaldean king .... .... .... .... .... 132 

,, meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... .... 133 

Aguragas, an early Chaldean king .... .... .... .... .... .... 132 

Aikhentka, a town in Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... 210 

Akalkar, a district in Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen ... .... 210 

Akena, an Egyptian dog so named ... .... .... .... ... .... 176 

Ala-ad-din, Sultan of Karaman, defeated by Sultan Amaruth .... .... 338 

Alabaster Unguentarium, a peculiar one found at Golgoi by Gen. di Cesnola 21 

Alexander the Great hospitably receives Stasicratis king of Soli .... .... 42 

,, ,, receives a present of ninety hlooilliounds from queen 

c'andace 179, 180 

Allat, a name of several Assyrian Goddesses .... .... .... .... 291 

Alman, a country ruled by the Chaldean king Agu .... .... 135 

Aloa, a kingdom in Ethiopia .... .... .... .... .... .... 206 

Aloa, remarks on the kingdom of .... .... .... .... 224 

Altar and table synonymous in Hebrew and Assyrian 59 

„ questionable if it is mentioned in the Deluge text 53 

Ama, a queen mother of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... 187 



374 INDEX. 

PAGE 

Aiuadii'b, number of Jews in .... .... .... .... .. . .... 100 

Ameni, a king of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 190 

„ Kherpabmer, a palace so named .... .... .... .... .... 190 

Amen Ra, a statue of, found at Mediuet llabu .... .... ... .... 190 

,, his mystical titles .... .... .... .... .... .... 192 

„ his speech to king Nastosenen .... .... .... .... .... 203 

America, astonisliing growth of the population .... .... .... .... 316 

„ table of the number of Jews in .... .... .... .... .... 330 

Aiiiilsliamas, meaning of the name.... ... .... .... .... .... 13-t 

Amosis, the Greek form of tlie Egyptian name Ahmes .... .... .... 263 

Amten, the master of the hounds under king Cheops .... .... .... 186 

Anm, Hathor and Osiris, the gods of .... .... .... .... .... 11 

,, the chief town of the Libyan nome of Lower Egypt 

,, the, one of the Four races of mankind .... .... .... .... 45 

Amurath, Sultan, defeats Sultan Ala-ad-din .... .... .... .... 338 

.\ncient Metrology, by F. R. Conder .... .... .... .... .... 118 

Andreossy, General, his exploration of ilarea .... .... .... .... 10 

Angels, the, the cause of tlieir revolt .... .... .... .... .... 350 

„ the, their song in heaven before the revolt .... .... .... 351 

Annas, how he became called High Priest .... .... .... .... .... 212 

Antef, peculiarities of the royal line of .... .... .... .... .... 186 

„ III and IV, their place in the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... 1S7 

„ III had two queens .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 189 

Antefaa, his hunting dogs described .... .... .... .... .... 172 

„ his tomb violated by robbers in the time of Rameses IX.... .... 184 

„ II, his donations to the temple of Medinet Habu .... .... 190 

„ 11, Mariette-Bey's letter describing the tomb of .... .... .... 193 

,, II, subdues the Herusa or Bedouins .... .... .... .... 193 

„ II, the outer case of his mummy is in the Louvre Museum .... 188 

or Antef II, on the tablet of, by S. Birch 172 

Antefaker, a great Egyptian officer of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... 186 

Antiquity of the zodiacal signs .... .... .... .... .... 261 

Ann, and Anunitu, ])rayers to by king Agu .... .... .... .... 138 

„ his temple of Bit" Makhtilla ....' 167 

„ the god, his pedigree.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 288 

„ wrath with mankind .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 52 

Apapi or Apepi commands the sole worship of the god Sutech .... .... 264 

Apepi, the last of the Hykshos kings of Egypt .... .... .... .... 263 

Aphek, forced march of Jlsarhaddon from, to Raphia .... .... .... 85 

Apieia, the ancient name of the town of Soli .... .... .... .... 40 

Apis period referred to .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 234 

Apophis, the Greek form of the name of king Apapi .... .... .... 263 

April 3rd, 33 A.D., probably the true date of the Crucifixion .... .... 214 

Aps, a country near to Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... 209 

Aqurabi, see Aguragas .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ]33 

Arabiii, dangerous march of Esarhaddon tlirough ... .... ... .... 260 

„ kings of, assist Esarhaddon on his march to Raphia .... .... 85 

Arabian Dynasty of Berosus, several of its loyal names examined .... 31 

Arabs, use of harehounds by the .... .... .... .... .... .... ISl 

Archer, the, a title of tlie goddess Ishtar .... .... .... .... .... 156 

Ardates, origin of the natue .... .... .... .... .... .... 82 

Ardiittu, the probable original form of the name Ardates .... .... .... 82 

Arion and Chrysaor represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus .... .... 20 

Ark, the, its building described .... ... .... .... .... .... 52 

.Armenia, probably the Land of Kharsak Kurra .... .... .... .... 293 

Arrosa, a district near Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... 210 

Arti-mis, people scourged beffire her altflr at ?parta .... ... .... 30 



IXDRX. 87') 

PAGE 

Arm, a mystical country mentioned on the sarooiihagus of Seti I.... .... 46 

Asar-takhazi-zikari, the heaven of Nergal, described .... .... .... 272 

Ashur, tlie god, his tidolity to the supreme deity .... .... .... .... 352 

Asia table of tlie numljer of Jews in .... .... .... .... .... 329 

Asia Minor, general characteristics of the scenery of .... .... .... 310 

Asmut (tasmut), an Egyjitian word for a hound .... .... .... .... 181 

Asnannak, an uncertain country colonised by Agu.... .... .... .... 134 

Asrat, the Babylonian name for a shrine .... .... .... .... .... 137 

Assasif-el, Tomb of Antefiia at ... .... .... .... .... .... 172 

Ass, wild, hunted by the Assyrians.... .... .... ... .... .... 183 

Assurbanipal, made joint king of Assyria by his father Esarhaddon .... 88 

,, the Creation tablets copied in his reign .... .... .... 361 

„ the kSardanapalus of the Greeks .... .... .... .... 86 

Assuri and Kissuri, the mythical children of Chaos .... .... .... 288 

Assyrian and Jewish services, their analogies .... .... .... .... 360 

„ and Phoenician origin of Homeric ideas of Hades .... .... 292 

„ Comets, other notices of ... .... .... .... .... .... 262 

,, language, its close affinity to Hehrew .... .... .... .... 25 

„ Sculptures, dogs of, referred to .... .... .... .... .... 179 

„ year began in March .... .... .... .... .... .... 261 

Assyrians hunted the wild boar .... .... .... .... .... .... 183 

„ notes on the religion and mytliology of, by W. St. C. Boscawen 267 

„ practised wife beating .... .... .... .... .... .... 271 

Astamouras, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... 205 

Asteroids, their supposed origin .... .... .... .... .... .... 245 

Astrolabes, probably used by the Chaldeans .... .... .... .... 58 

Astronomy and astrology, their intimate connections .... ... .... 302 

Athamas and Iphigenia, oi'igin of tlie myths of .... .... .... .... 30 

Athenseus relates the custom of human sacrifices in Egypt .... .... 17 

Athense, her name occurs on the tablet of Idalion .... .... .... .... 40 

Augury, Babylonian, by Rev. A. H. Sayce.... .... .,.. 302 

Augustus Caesar derives his idea of the national enrolment from Egypt .... 239 

„ „ his pun upon the cruelty of Herod .... .... .... 231 

„ ,, his inscriptions to Osiris Unno|ihris cited .... .... 238 

Au, a kind of dog or jackal used in the chase .... .... .... .... 181 

Australia, the dingo of, compared with Egyptian dogs .... .... .... 195 

Avaris, possible meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... 265 

AverrunH. the three magi so regarded .... .... .... .... .... 236 



B. 

Babylon conquered by Sennacherib .... .... .... .... .... 258 

Babylonian contract tablets, presented by Lady Tite to the Society .... 256 

Babylonians, human sacrifice among .... .... .... .... .... 26 

Babylonios numeros, referred to by Horace .... .... .... .... 311 

Badger, Rev. Dr., his account of the Jews and Christians of Kurdistan .... 100 

Bahal king of Tyre, war of Esarhaddon with .... .... .... .... 81 

Bahal induced to revolt by Tirhakah king of Ethiopia .... .... .... 86 

Bahakaa, an Egyptian dog so named .... .... .... .... .... 172 

Bahr el Azrek, bounded the kingdom of Ah)ah .... .... .... .... 221 

Balak, the reason of his dread of the Israelites .... .... .... .... 320 

Balthasar, probable meaning of the name.... .... .... .... .... 233 

Barcochab, the reason of his revolt... .... .... .... .... .... 229 



37G INDEX. 

PAGE 

Barley corn the Semitic unit of lengtli .... .... .... .... .... 12U 

Bartlett, A. D., two letters on the subject of the Egyptian dogs .... ... 195 

Basnage, his account of the losses of the Jews .... .... .... .... 32-± 

„ his total of the number of the Jews .... .... .... .... 331 

Bash-kaleh, the Jews of .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 100 

Bath, the, its capacity .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 123 

Bavian inscription of Sennacherib, refers to Marduk-haddon .... .... 258 

Bau, the Assyrian goddess of the void .... .... .... .... ... 292 

Bazu, a country in Arabia .... .... .... .... .... .... ,. . 87 

Beacon, a, welcomes the return of Izdubar .... .... .... .... 77 

Bedouins, see Herusa .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 193 

Beitoually, temple of Rameses II, there referred to .... .... .... 173 

Bel and Beltis, prayers to by King Agu .... .... .... .... .... 138 

„ and the Dragon, Chaldean legend of, referred to .... .... ... 349 

„ „ site of the temple of .... .... .... .... .... 136 

„ his anger with mankind .... .... .... .... .... 52 

„ nature of the worsliip called the sacrifice of Bel .... .... .... 25 

,, no longer honored by Xisuthrus .... .... .... .... .... 61 

„ or Elu, his pedigree and affinities .... .... .... .... .... 288 

„ temple of, raising of tiie spirit of Heabani in .... .... .... 278 

„ the reason of his anger with mankind .... .... .... ... 62 

Belidina, made ruler of Kullimir .... .... .... .... .... .... 89 

Benjamin of Tudela, his travels inauthentic .... .... .... .... 324 

Berosus, his account of the Deluge, referred to .... .... .... .... 52 

„ records the history of the Flood as preserved at Sippara... .... 233 

Beroua, the ancient name of the island of Meroe .... .... .... .... 204 

Bihilu, a town in Phoenicia conquered by Esarhaddon .... .... .... 84 

Bilidina, a town conquered by Esarhaddon .... .... .... .... 84 

Birch, S., on some Cypriote Inscriptions discovered at Golgoi by General 

diCesnola 20 

on the Tablet of Antefaa II 172 

Bitmakhtilla, a temple of the god Anu at Babylon.... .... .... .... 167 

Bitsaggadlm, repaired by Cyrus .... .... .... .... .... .... 137 

„ the temple described .... .... .... .... .... .... 135 

Bitzida, this temple repaired by Cyrus .... .... .... .... .... 137 

Blood of the human race gathered by the gods into vases.... .... .... 8 

Bloodhounds presented by Queen Candace to Alexander the Great .... 180 

,, used by Rameses II in his wars .... .... .... .... 180 

Boarhound, probably known to the Egyptians .... .... .... .... 183 

Bochtenassar, the Arabic form of Nabonassar .... .... .... .... 228 

Bonifacius, St., why called a " cold " saint .... .... .... .... 245 

Bonomi, Joseph, note on an Egyptian bust formerly in the Hay Collection 332 

„ some obsei'vations on the skeleton of an Egyjjtian mummy 251 

Bosanquet, J. W., his views on the date of the Nativity confirmed by 

Dr. Lauth 226 

„ „ addenda to Dr. Lauth's paper on the Nativity .... 247 

Boscawen, W. St. Chad, on an historical inscription of Esai'haddon .... 84 

„ ,, on an early Chaldean inscription .... .... 132 

„ ,, notes on the religion and mythology of the 

Assyrians .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 267 

Bonlaq Museum, tablet of Antefaa, now in the .... .... .... .... 172 

Boustrophedon, Himyaritic inscription .... .... .... .... 198, 200, 201 

Brandis, Dr., his valuable researches into the Cypriote language .... .... 38 

Britisli colonies, table of the number of Jews in .... .... .... .... 330 

Bronze tablet of Idalion, its importance .... .... .... .... .... 24 

Brugsch-Bey, the sources of his Egyptian geography .... .... .... 237 

Busiris, a king of tlie Delta who attempted to sacrifice Herakles ... .... 31 



INDEX. 



PAOE 

Caelatae coluiimae of the temple of Ephesus described .... ... .... 335 

Calydoniau boar represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus .... .... .... 20 

Candace, ber inscriptions still nnread .... .... .... - .... .... 213 

,, presents some dogs to Alexander the Great .... .... .... 179 

Canis Aureus used in the chase by the Egyptians (or jackal) .... .... 181 

Cantor, Prof., shows that the Babylonians knew tlie formula tt = 3 .... 31-i 

Cartouches not used by all the Antef line .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Caspar probably meant throne of Sipara .... .... .... .... .... 233 

Censorinus, his date for the rise of the dv-^g star .... .... .... .... 228 

Censorship of Quirinius, why called npoiTT] .... .... .... .... 227 

Census of Israel under David, its true amount .... .... .... .... 320 

Cesnola, Gen. di, on some Cypriote Inscriptions discovered by .... .... 20 

„ „ the value of his Cypriote collections .... .... .... 38 

Chabas. Fran9ois, points out the analogies of Christian and Egyptian belief 44 

Champollion, one of the first to describe the four races .... ... .... 44 

Cham, why Egypt was so designated .... .... .... .... .... 233 

Chaos, the Assyrian account of .... .... .... .... .... ... 287 

Chalcidius, his reference to the Chaldean Magi .... .... .... .... 232 

Chaldean arithmetic, its sexagesimal system .... .... .... ... 314, 

,. gods afraid of the deluge, take refuge in heave.n .... .... 57 

,, „ tlieii- delight at Xisuthrus' sacrifice .... .... .... 50 

„ inscription, on an early, by W. St. Chad Boscawen .... .... 132 

„ kings, five new ones enumerated .... .... .... .... .... 132 

Chaldeans probably used astrolabes .... .... .... .... .... 58 

„ the, divided the heavens into mathematical figures .... .... 310 

,, „ their high matliematical knowledge .... .... .... 302 

Cheops, a species of dog peculiar to the time of .... .... .... .... 176 

Chinese, the, their use of the trigrams of Fohi .... .... .... .... 302 

„ „ their use of the Fungshui .... .... .... .... .... 310 

Chons, the character of the deity as a lunar god .... .... .... .... 234 

;^bousu, a queen of tbe Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Christian era, first fixed by Diouysius Exiguus .... .... .... .... 227 

Clironology of our Bible margin of little authority .... .... .... 315 

Chrysaor, a girl born from the blood of Medusa .... .... .... .... 20 

Ciccar, a Jewish square measure, its area .... .... .... .... .... 123 

Cilicia, tbe route to .... .... .... .... .... .... ... 336 

Citium in Cypros, now called Larnaca .... .... .... .... .... 38 

Clavicle, great squareness of the Egyptian .... .... .... .... 252 

Clemens Alexaudrinus, his date for the Nativity .... .... .... .... 233 

Coffins of the Xlth Dynasty, theii- characteristics.... .... .... .... 189 

Cold saints, the, reason of their name .... .... .... .... .... 245 

College of Surgeons, Royal, their fine collection of human skeletons .... 251 

Comet, notice of a very ancient, by H. Fox Talbot .... .... .... 257 

„ of 1680 compared with an ancient Chaldean one .... .... .... 258 

Comets, Assyrian, other notices of .... .... .... .... .... .... 262 

Compound words, rules of, in the Egyptian language .... .... .... 219 

Conder, F. K., ancient Metrology .... .... .... .... .... .... 118 

Coptic language, its affinities with the later Egyptian .... .... .... 214 

Coptos, see Khem .... ... .... .... .... .. . .... .... 189 

Coui-t of the tabernacle, its square area .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Cow, the goddess Tefuut assumes the form of .... .... .... .... 6 

Creation, on some fragments of the Chaldean account of, by George Smith 361 

Crimea, a Karaite tombstone found at DjufFet Kalea in .... .... .... 32 

Cronos, the god, foretells the deluge to Xisuthrus .... .... .... .... 52 

Crowns with horns, given to the deity Marduk by king Agu .... .... 148 



378 INDEX. 

rAGE 

Crucifixion, the true date of .... .... .... .... .... .... 244 

Cube roots, Biibylonifm tables of .... .... .... .... .... .... 311 

Cubits, the Rabbis describe three .... .... .... .... .... .... 118 

Curium, many Cypriote texts discovered at.... .... .... .... .... 20 

Cybistra, the ancient name of tlie city of Eiegli .... ... ... .... 336 

Cypriote antiquities, on some, discovered by General di Cesnohi at Golj.?oi, 

by S. Birch ." 20 

„ digrapliic inscription, on a, found at Larnaca by D. Pierides .... 38 

,, inscription from Sahunis, unfortunately imperfect .... .... 22 

„ inscriptions rarely contain incomplete words .... .... .... 24 

„ sarcophagus found at Golgoi, description of .... .... .... 20 

Cyprus, called Yatnan by the Assyrians .... .... .... .... .... 86 

Cyril Graham, his excavations at Medinet Habu .... .... .... .... 190 

Cyrus restores the temples of Bitsaggadhu and Bitzidu .... .... .... 137 



Darkness at the Crucifixion referred to by ancient authors .... .... 244 

„ ,, why not recorded by St. John's Gospel .... 246 

Dates of two Babylonian tablets presented to the Society.... .... .... 256 

David, Rabbi, his views upen Jewish measures .... .... .... .... 124 

Davis, Rev. E. J., on a new Hamathite Inscription at Ibreez .... ... 336 

Davkina, another name of the goddess Ninkigal .... .... .... .... 271 

Deluge tablet^ commentary on, by H. Fox Talbot .... .... .... .... 49 

„ the, great height of the water of .... .... .... .... .... 58 

,, „ its terrible duration .... .... .... .... .... .... 57 

„ „ on a panic terror which seized mankind before .... .... 129 

„ „ the cry which precedes .... .... .... .... .... 55 

Demeter analogous to the Assyrian Davkina .... .... .... .... 292 

Demotic in.scriptions of queen Candace referred to... .... .... .... 213 

Denarius, the golden, its value .... .... .... .... .... .••. 124 

Denderali, zodiac of, various references to.... .... .... .... 231, 235 

Descent of Ishtar referred to .... .... .... .... .... ■••■ 29C 

Diannisi, Judge of Men, a title of the sun.... .... .... .... .... 158 

Digit, the Hebrew, equal to two barley corns .... .... .... .... 121 

Dinars, their value in relation to the golden denarius .... .... .... 124 

Dingo of Australia, its likeness to certain Egyptian dogs 195 

Dion Cassius, his account of the number of tne Jews .... .... .... 323 

Dionysius Exiguus first fixes the Christian era .... .... .... .... 227 

Djuffet Kalea, a Karaite tombstone found at .... .... .... .... 32 

Dog of India or Ethiopia introduced into Egypt .... .... 179 

„ of the period of Cheops .... .... .... .... •— — • 176 

Dogs of Antefaa described .... .... .... .... .... .••• — • 1'2 

„ of the Assyrians, chiefly lion-hounds ... .... .... 179 

„ of the East liable to cutaneous diseases .... .... .... .... 18i 

Dongolah, stele of Nastosenen discovered there .... .... .... .... 217 

Dongool, the site of old Dongola .... 

Dourlaz, village of, its situation .... .... .... .... .... .... '^39 

Dragon, Bel and the, Chaldean origin of the legend of 319 

„ of the Chaldeans had seven heads like that in the Apocalypse .... 350 

Dream, Hasisadra's dream ot the deluge .... .... .... .... ■••. 6.} 

Dr. Grant, his estimate of the numljer of the Nestorian Christians .... 99 

Duffcrin, Lord, his successful excavations at Medinet Habu 190 

Duni/.i, the Assyrian origin of the Phoenician Tannnaz 



292 



INDEX. 379 



E. 

FA6E 

Earth, the, regarded as a mother goddess by the Assyrians ' .... .... 272 

Ebil ilaui. Prince of the Gods, a title of the god Sin .... .... .... 158 

Eclipse or darkness of the Crucifixion, referred to by ancient authors .... 244 

Edfu, catalogue of the feasts of Osiris at .... .... .... .... .... 238 

„ the wars of Horus and Set in the temple of.... .... .... .... 8 

Egypt always a land of plenty .... .... .... .... .... .... 316 

„ reduced to an icosarchy by Esarhaddon .... .... .... .... 86 

„ the Hyksos rule in, desci-ibed .... .... .... .... .... 263 

Egyptian and Grecian mythologies, their relationship .... .... .... 17 

„ bust, note on an Egyptian bust, formerly in the Harris collection 332 

„ dogs often mongrels .... .... .... .... .... .... 177 

„ „ still extant and indigenous.... .... .... .... .... 173 

„ „ two letters from Mr. Bartlett on .... .... .... .... 195 

„ esteem the pig a Typhouian animal .... .... .... .... 235 

„ gods, theii- address to the god Ra at the last judgment.... .... 46 

„ hounds hunted in packs .... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

„ „ of Antefaa described .... .... .... .... .... 172 

„ language, its changes in the Ethiopia period .... .... .... 213 

„ „ rules of compound words in.... .... .... .... 219 

„ magic, importance of the frog and serpent in .... .... .... 14 

„ much attached to dogs .... .... .... .... .... .... 183 

„ mummies, how they were preserved .... .... .... .... 253 

„ mummy, some observations on the skeleton of an .... .... 251 

„ mythology, its analogies with Christian belief .... .... .... 44 

„ „ should be viewed in two aspects ... .... .... 1 

„ skeleton, note by Professor W. H. Flower on the same .... .... 253 

,j skull, average dimensions of .... .... .... .... .... 254 

„ their abhorence of the boar .... .... .... .... .... 183 

„ the, said to have invented geometry .... .... .... .... 237 

Ekalmatnuga, the palace of Ninkigal in Hades .... .... .... .... 293 

Elamite Dynasty, its kings enumerated .... .... .... .... .... 133 

Elephant, Himyaritic inscription in form of .... .... .... .... 197 

El Hammamat, rock inscriptions of .... .... .... .... .... 189 

El sacrifices his son Yedud.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 26 

Elu's, or the elect, the fields of, described.... .... .... .... .... 46 

Endor, the Witch of, Chaldean analogies of her incantations .... .... 282 

Enna the scribe, his letter describing a pack of hounds .... .... .... 182 

Epha, difficulty as to estimating its capacity .... .... .... .... 119 

„ its capacity .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 123 

Ephesus, observations on an inscription in an unknown character, found at 334 

„ temple of Diana at, date of the cajlataj columnse of .... .... 335 

Epic cycle of the Chaldeans described .... .... .... .... .... 25 

Epiphany, nature of the star of .... .... .... .... .... .... 228 

Epiphanius, his date for the consulship of the two Gemini .... .... 244 

Erech, a monument recording the deluge, erected by Izdubar in .... .... 73 

„ city of, early besieged by a foreign nation .... .... .... .... 268 

,, Izdubar's safe return to .... .... .... .... .... .... 78 

„ surveyed by Urhamsi .... .... ... .... .... 80 

Eregli, situation of .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 336 

Esarhaddon, conquers Abdimilkut king of Sidon .... .... .... .... 86 

,, establishes the icosarchy in Egypt .... .... .... .... 86 

„ his dangerous march through Arabia .... .... .... .... 260 

,, his invasion of Miluha.... .... .... .... .... .... 92 

„ his war with the Gimirrai .... .... .... .... .... 292 

„ on an historical inscription of, by W. St. Chad Boscawen .... 84 

Vol. IV. 26 



380 INDEX. 



PAGE 



Esarlmddon resigns the throne of Assyria to Assurbanipal .... .... 88 

„ summary of his life .... .... .... .... .... .... 86 

„ wars with Bahal king of Tyre .... .... .... .... 81 

Eteandros, a king of Paphos so named .... .... .... .... .... 334 

Europe, table of the number of Jews in .... .... .... .... .... 327 

European and Egyptian skeletons, their differentiations .... .... .... 252 

Evergetes I (Ptolemy), rising of the dogstar in the reign of .... .... 230 

Ewald, his views upon Scriptural chronology .... .... .. .... 316 

Ezekiel, his mystical measurements examined .... .... .... .... 122 



Faunus, the analogies of Heabani .... .... .... .... .... .... 286 

Fergusson, Jas., his opinion ou Jewish measures of length .... .... 118 

Festival of Pachous, its nature .... .... .... .... .... .... 234 

Festivals of Osiris, their dates as recorded at Edfu .... .... .... 238 

Fetish worship, a part of the Assyrian faith .... .... .... .... 288 

First-born son (of the Jews), the price of the redemption of .... .... 32 

„ the, sacrificed to the sun-god by the Semitic nations .... .... 25 

Flower, Prof. W. H., note upon the skeleton of an ancient Egyptian .... 253 

Four races, the, of the last judgment, by E. Lefebure .... .... .... 44 

„ „ created from the tears of Horus and Sekhet .... .... 45 

Full moon, the, how represented in Egyptian texts .... .... .... 235 

Fung shui, a Chinese superstition so called.... .,.. .... .... .... 310 



G. 

Gad, an idol adored by the Hebrews .... .... .... .... .... 59 

Gash, the modern name of the town of Kasood .... .... .... .... 210 

Genesis Legends, the Chaldean origin of .... .... .... .... .... 361 

Geometrical figures, augury by, among the Chaldeans .... .... .... 303 

Geometry, said to have been discovered in Egypt .... .... .... .... 237 

Gerrans, B., his views on the travels of Benjamin of Tudela .... .... 324 

Gibbon, his statements concerning the Jews inaccurate .... .... .... 325 

Gimirrai, Esarhaddon's war with .... .... .... .... .... .... 292 

„ the, origin of .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 293 

Girtab, the Assyrian name for a scorpion .... .... .... .... .... 260 

Gladstone, W. E., his views on Assyrio-Phoenician mythology .... ... 292 

Gods, one thousand expelled from Heaven for insubordination .... .... 352 

Golgoi, Cypriote inscriptions discovered at, by Gen. di Cesnola .... .... 20 

" Gracious child," an Egyptian royal title.... .... .... .... 204, 215 

Grammamancy, its origin and uses ... .... .... .... .... 302 

Greek mythology, its similar origin to the Egyptian .... ... .... 1 

Greeks, the, their indebtedness to the Chaldeans .... .... .... .... 303 

Guti, the, conquered by king Agu .... .... .... .... .... .... 135 



H. 

Hades, had its entrance in the east .... .... .... .... .... 292 

„ its seven gates described .... .... .... .... .... .... 293 

„ its torments described .... .... .... .... .... .... 291 

„ its various significant titles.... .... .... .... .... .... 290 

„ various Assyrian texts relating to .... .... .... .... .... 288 

„ wanderings of the spirit of Heabani in .... .... .... .... 271 



INDEX. 381 



PAOE 



Hadrian, destruction of Jerusalem by .... .... .... .... .... 229 

„ places a marble pig over the ruins of the temple .... .... 236 

Halevy, M., bis readings of some Himyaritic inscriptions 202 

Hall of the Forty-two Accusers, its resemblance to the Assyrian Palace 

in Hades .... 290 

Hama'tht, sou of Shaf km, an Himyaritic devotee .... .... .... .... 197 

Hamatbite inscription, on a new Hamathite inscription at Ibreez, by Rev. 

E. J. Davis .... 33(5 

Harem-es-Shereef, the scale it was probably planned upon 121 

Harebounds used by the Arabs .... .... .... .... .... .... 181 

Harris, Mr., discovers a tablet of Mentuhetp III 189 

Haruabankh Antef, a king of the Xlth Dynasty 187 

Hasisadra consults with his wife as to Izdubar's malady ..-.. .... .... 65 

„ directed by Hea to build the ark .... .... .... .... 52 

„ gives Izdubar a dress of honour .... .... .... .... 67 

„ his indignation with the god Bel .... .... .... .... 61 

„ his interview with Izdubar .... .... .... .... .... 270 

„ offers sweet cane and incense to the gods .... .... .... 60 

„ ofEers victims by sevens.... ... .... .... .... .... 59 

„ restores Izdubar to health .... .... .... .... .... 64, 

„ the deluge revealed to him in a dream .... .... .... .... 63 

Hassan Dagh, the uiouutaiu, described .... .... .... .... .... 337 

Hathor and Osiris, the special gods of the district of Amu in Lower Egypt 11 

„ descends as Tefnut, the divine Cow, to destroy mankind .... .... 6 

„ the same as Sechet.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 7 

Hathorsa, an Egyptian officer of the Xllth Dynasty 190 

Hea called also Ninazu .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 292 

„ directs Hasisadra to build the ark .... .... .... .... .... 52 

„ expostulates with Bel .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 63 

„ his wife called Ninkigal and AUat .... .... .... .... .... 291 

„ the god analogous to Pluto and Poseidon .... .... .... .... 287 

„ the pedigree and affinities of .... .... .... .... .... .... 288 

Heabani, his peculiar form .... .... . .. .... ... .... .... 269 

,, his spirit raised by incantations .... .... .... .... .... 271 

„ his analogy to the god Pan .... .... .... .... .... 286 

„ the cause of his deatli .... .... .... .... .... ... 269 

Head-shawl, on an Egyjjtiau shawl for the head, as worn on the statues of 

the kings 248 

Heaven, of the American Indians, its Assyrian analogies .... .... .... 289 

„ the Assyrian idea of .... .... .... .... .... .... 272 

„ the revolt in, from a Chaldean tablet, by H. Fox Talbot .... 349 

Heavens, the, divided by the Chaldeans into mathematical figures .... 310 

Hebrew language, its Assyrian affinities .... .... .... .... .... 25 

Hebrews, the, human sacrifice among .... .... .... .... .... 25 

Helioiwlis, human beings sacrificed here by fire by the Egyptians.... .... 17 

„ the probable scene of the destruction of mankind by the god Ra 3 

Hen's egg, tlie Jewish standard of capacity .... .... .... .... 120 

Heracleiopolis, the blood of the murdered human race reaches up to Hera- 

cleiopoUs from Thebes ... .... .... .... .... .... .... 7 

Herakles in danger of being sacrificed by Busiris king of the Delta ,... 31 

Herod, why alarmed at the star of the Epiphany .... .... .... .... 230 

Herodotus refers to the temple of Bitsaggadhu .... .... .... .... 136 

Herusa subdued by Antefaa .... .... .... .... ... .... 193 

High Priest of the Jews, privileges and duties of his office .... .... 32 

Hin, the, its capacity .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Homer, Assyrian influence on his mythology .... .... .... .... 292 

Horace, his Babylouios numeros explained,... .... .... .... .... 311 



382 INDEX. 

PAOE 

Hoplitai represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus .... .... .... .... 2U 

Horus creates the Four races from his teai-s .... .... .... .... 45 

„ his address to the company of the gods .... .... .... .... 47 

„ his wars in Egypt to avenge his father .... .... .... .... 2 

„ his wars with Set represented in the temple of Edfu .... .... 8 

„ the peculiar deity of the Eg^-ptian kings .... .... .... .... 231 

Hounds brought as presents to Thothmes III .... .... .... .... 173 

House of Corruption, an Assyrian title of Hades .... ... .... .... 290 

Human sacrifices among the Babylonians .... .... .... .... .... 25 

„ „ known to the Egyptians .... .... .... .... .... 17 

„ „ unknown to the Rigveda .... .... .... .... 30 

Hymn, origin and corruption of the word .., .... .... .... .... 357 

„ to Marduk, text and translation by W. St. Chad Boscawen .... 297 

Hyksos invasion, the, subject of the first Sallier Papyrus .... .... .... 263 



Ibreez, full description of the bas-relief at.... .... .... .... .... 342 

„ incorrectly called Iwris .... .... .... .... ... .... 339 

„ meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... .... 346 

,, on a new Hamathite inscription at.... .... .... .... .... 336 

,, ruins of a Christian chapel at .... .... .... .... .... 341 

„ the river, its characteristics.... .... .... .... .... .... 340 

Id, a memorial pillar .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 75 

Ideler and Kepler, their views on the star of the Nativity .... .... 228 

Immortality of the soul, a strong Assyrian belief .... .... .... .... 267 

Imrani, the common name of the Jews of Kurdistan .... .... .... 98 

Incense of the Assyrian, the various substances which were so used described 82 

Inch, English, its agreement with the Hebrew unit .... .... .... 121 

Inscription from Ephesus, observation on an, by C. T. Newton, C.B 334 

Irkalla, an Assyrian deity inhabiting Hades .... .... .... .... 290 

Isaac, sacrifice of, parallels to the .... .... .... .... .... .... 26 

Ishtar, another text of the descent of Ishtar into Hades .... .... .... 294 

„ called " the archer " goddess .... .... .... .... .... 156 

„ sends a bull to slay Izdubar .... .... .... .... .... 269 

„ unable to succour the city of Erech .... .... .... .... 268 

Israel Najarah, a Hebrew poet .... .... .... ... .... .... 34 

Israelites, analogies of their service with the Assyrian .... .... .... 360 

„ how maintained in Sinai .... .... .... .... .... .... 317 

„ their losses by plagues during their wanderings.... .... .... 319 

Iwris, an erroneous reading of the name Ibreez ... .... .... .... 339 

Izdubar and Urhamsi prepare to return home .... .... .... .... 71 

„ erects a memorial of his voyage and cure.... .... .... .... 73 

„ his grief at the death of Heabani.... .... .... .... .... 270 

„ his illness cured in seven days .... .... .... .... .... 67 

„ his long journey home .... .... .... .... .... .... '6 

„ his purification after his recovery .... .... .... .... .... 70 

„ his singular dream .... .... .... .... .... .... 268 

„ incites Xisuthrus to tell him the Deluge legend .... .... .... 50 

„ legend, the twelfth, examined .... .... .... .... .... 267 

„ receives a dress of honour from Hasisadra .... .... .... 67 

„ restored to health by Hasisadra .... .... .... .... .... 6 1- 

„ slays the bull sent against him by Ishtar .... .... .... .... 269 

„ the nature of his malady .... .... ... .... .... .... 65 

,, throws away liis me licine .... .... .... .... .... .... 79 



INDEX. 383 



J. 



PAOE 

Jackal, probably used in the chase by the Egyj^tians .... .... .... 181 

Jacob, the patriarch, what was the real number of his descendants .... 315 

Japhet, the son of Jehu, the tombstone of, described .... .... .... 33 

Jason and the Cretan bull represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus .... 20 

Jeor, a Hebrew name of the Nile .... .... .... .... .... .... 233 

Jerusalem, a statue of a pig set up by Hadrian in.... .... .... .... 23G 

„ destroyed by Hadrian .... .... .... .... .... .... 228 

„ the great number of the people in, at the siege explained .... 323 

Jews, of Kurdistan, their language examined .... .... .... .... 98 

» >} their probable number .... .... .... .... 100 

„ of Salmas, explains the Lishana shel Imrani to Rev. A. Lowy ••■■ 101 

„ table of the present numbers of, in the world .... .... .... 327 

„ the numbers of the, in all ages, by Rev. Josiali Miller .... .... 315 

,, the, carried oft' by Nebuchadnezzar .... .... .... .... .... 321 

„ „ do not seem to suffer from acclimatisation .... .... .... 326 

„ ,, many continued to remain in Eabylon ... .... .... .... 322 

„ „ one million dispersed in Egypt by Titus .... .... .... 324 

,, „ their numbers in the East in the Middle Ages .... .... .... 324 

„ „ their present rapid increase in Germany .... .... .... 325 

,, their abhorrence of dogs .... .... .... .... .... .... 183 

Jewish and Nestorian idioms, not identical .... .... .... .... 100 

,, law, its exact metrology .... .... ... .... .... .... 118 

;, priests, their sacrificial dress referred to .... .... .... .... 54 

„ weights and measures, tables of .... .... .... .... .... 125 

John, St., why he does not record the darkness at the Crucifixion .... 246 

Joseph Hanoori, i.e., " the enlightened," mentioned on a Karaite tombstone 33 

„ Haroeh, a Karaite author .... .... .... .... .... .... 34 

Josephus, the reason of his silence as to the slaughter at Bethlehem .... 231 

Judas of Galilee, his protest against the second taxation .... .... .... 241 

Jupiter, the planet, an Accadian notice of its rising .... .... .... 37 



K. 

Kaeov, see Khasas and Kasoua .... .... .... .... .... .... 209 

Kalotep, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 209 

Kanoba vase, a Cypriote unguentarium, probably so called .... .... 22 

Kara Dagh, the mountain of, described .... .... .... .... .... 337 

Karaite tombstone, on a, brought from the Crimea, by Rev. Dr. Lowe .... 32 

Karaman, beauty of its ruins .... .... .... .... .... .... 338 

„ Oglou, the foundation of the dynasty of .... .... .... 338 

„ situation of the city of .... .... .... .... .... .... 336 

Karnak list, its arrangement of the kings of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... 187 

Karsak-Kurra, probably situated in Armenia .... .... .... .... 293 

Kartep, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 209 

Katem, an Egyptian dog so named.... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Katoldi, a town in Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... .... 210 

Katnu, a dog .... .... ... .... .... .... .... .... 178 

Kepler, see also Ideler .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 228 

Khanii, an unidentified country .... .... .... .... .... .... 135 

Khartammim, certain Chaldean sacred scribes who were so called by the 

Hebrew writers.... .... .... .... .... ■•■■ •.•• •••• /^ 

Khas, another modern name of the town of Kasouii .... .... .... 210 

Khasas, probably another name of the town of Kasood .... .... .... 209 

Khasisadra means possibly " the sage " .... .... .... ... .... 51 



;-'84 INDEX. 



PAGE 



Khatoxmleh, a ruin so called at Karaman .... .... .... .... .... 338 

Khem, worshipped hy Meutuhetp III .... .... .... .... .... 189 

Khufu, see Cheops .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Kimmerioi attacked by Esarhaddon .... .... .... .... .... 292 

Kitharistriai, or female musicians, represented on a Cjiiriote sarcophagus 20 

Konosse, rock inscription of .... .... .... .... .... .... 189 

Kor, the, a Jewish square measure.... .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Kullimir, annexed to Assyria by Esarhaddon .... .... .... .... 84 

,, its position .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 87 

Kurdistan, dialect of the Jews .... ... .... .... .... .... 98 

Kurds, the, their enmity to the Jews .... .... .... .... .... 101 

Kurion, on two Cypriote gold armlets found at, by D. Pierides .... .... 334 

Knrummat, a kind of leprosy or skin disease .... .... .... .... 66 

Kush, hounds brought from, as presents to Thothmes III .... .... .... 173 



Ijakima and Lakuma, mystical Chaldean deities .... .... .... .... 287 

Lamp, a curious, found at Golgoi .... .... .... .... .... .... 21 

Land of No Return, an Assyrian title of Hades .... .... .... .... 290 

Lang, R. H., the high value of his Cy|5riote discoveries .... .... .... 38 

Laranda, the ancient name of the city of Karaman .... .... .... 336 

Larnaca, a digraphic inscription found at .... .... .... .... .... 38 

„ the ancient Citium .... .... .... .... .... .... 38 

Last judgment, the Four races of the, by E. Lef^bure .... .... .... 44 

Lauth, Dr., on the date of the Nativity .... .... .... .... ... 226 

Layard, A. H., discovers the Jewish shepherds of Bash Kaleli .... .... 100 

Leantash " of Antosh," a Phoenician inscription on a terra cotta vase .... 23 

Lefebure, E., the Four races of the last judgment .... .... .... 44 

Lenormant, M. F., published a work on Babylonian square and cube roots 311 

Lepsius, Dr., discovers the stele of King Nastosenen .... .... .... 203 

,, his arrangement of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... 186 

Life, the Waters of, Assyrian account of .... ... .... .. . .... 291 

Lishana Shel Imrani, on a unique specimen of, by the Rev. Albert Lowj' 98 

„ „ ,, specimen of .... .... .... .... .... .... 104 

„ ,, „ its phonetic differences from pure Hebrew .... .... 101 

,, „ ,, analysis of the pronunciation.... .... .... 114,117 

Lobarden, a district near Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... 210 

Log, the, its cubic contents.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Lowe, Rfiv. Dr., on a Karaite tombstone brought from the Crimea .... 32 

Lowy, Rev. Albert, on a unique specimen of the Lishana Shel Imrani .... 98 

„ „ „ on travels in Kurdistan .... .... .... .... 99 

„ „ „ consults with a Persian Jew on the Lishana Shel 

Imrani .... ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 101 

Luke, St., probably early intimate with the Holy Family .... .... .... 240 

Lushington, Prof. E. L., fragment of the first Sallier Papyrus .... .... 263 

Luyncs, Due do, his work in Cypriote Palneography .... .... .... 38 

Lybian nome, its position described ... .... .... .... .... 10 

Lycaonian Plain, situation of .... .... .... .... .... .... 336 



M. 

Macrobius, his anecdote conceniing Augustus and Herod .... .... .... 231 

Madden, Sir F., his estimate of the weight of the shekel 119 



INDEX. 385 



PAGE 



Madi, a district conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... .... .... 211 

Magi, the three, the reason of their names.,.. .... .... .... .... 233 

Magians, the star of, its probable nature .... .... .... .... .... 228 

Mahut, an Egyptian dog so named.... .... .... .... .... .__. 172 

Makan, a city conquered by P]sarhaddon .... .... .... .... .... 85, 95 

Makhendnen, a town in Nubia conquered by king Nastosenen 210 

Makhisherkhert, a country conquered by king Nastosenen.... .... .... 211 

Manasseh king of Judah pays tribute to Shalmanezer .... 86 

Maneh, a Jewish measure, its equivalent .... .... .... .... .... 125 

Mankind, re-created from the blood of the slain by Ra and the deities .... 8 

„ slain by Sekhet till their blood reaches to Heracleopolis .... 7 

„ the destruction of, by the god Ra .... .... .... .... 1 

„ their wickedness before the god Ra .... ..„ .... .... 6 

„ the reason of their creation .... .... .... .... .... 351 

March, grand march of Esarhaddon from Aphek to Raphia .... .... 85 

Mardokentes, origin of his name .... .... .... .... .... .... 31 

Marduk, assists Esarhaddon in his march to Egypt .... ,... .... 85 

„ called the Vivificator .... .... ... .... .... .... 291 

„ his image carried off by the Elamites .... .... .... .... 135 

„ his office as a jihysician .... .... .... .... .... .... 69 

„ hymn to .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 297 

Marduk-haddon, an early Babylonian king, his invasion of Assyria .... 258 

Marea or Mariouth, a town in Egypt, well examined by General 

Andreossy .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 10 

Mareotis, the Lake, mentioned in the destruction of mankind .... .... 10 

Mariette-Bey endeavours to arrest the pillage of the tomb of Seti I .... 3 

„ „ his letter on the tomb of Antefaa II .... .... .... 193 

„ „ sends Dr. Birch a copy of the tablet of Antefaa .... .... 172 

Maspero, G., inscription of king Nastosenen .... .... .... .... 203 

" Mayflower," the, emigration of, compared with that of the Jews .... 316 

Medinet Habu, Lord Dufferin's excavations at .... .... .... .... 190 

Medusa and Perseus represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus .... .... 20 

Meges, a Roman, glass bottle made by him .... .... .... .... 21 

Melchior, probable meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... 233 

Memorial pillar of Absolom and Izdubar compared .... .... .... 75 

Memphis, called by the Assyrians Miimpi .... .... .... .... .... 87 

Menemmuf, an epithet applied to an Egyptian water dog.... .... .... 176 

Menophres, Theon's date for the era of .... .... .... .... .... 227 

Mentuhetp, a king of the Xlth Dynasty 187 

„ III, his inscriptions at el Hammamat .... .... .... 189 

Merodach Mubasa, a Babylonian astronomer .... .... ... .... 37 

Mesha, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 210 

Mesori, reason of the name of the Egyptian month .... .... .... 231 

Miam, see Mummu 287 

Mikhentka, a country conquered by king Nastosenen .... ... .... 211 

Mikie and Tambukku, certain creatures so named slay Heabani .... .... 269 

Mills, Prof., takes stampings of the whole of the chamber of the Cow in the 

tomb of Seti I 19 

Miller, Rev. Josiab, the numbers of the Jews in all ages .... .... .... 315 

Milikit, meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... .... 134 

Miluha, Esarhaddon's invasion of .... .... .... .... .... .... 92 

Moimis, see Mummu .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 287 

Moon, full, references to the Egyptian festival of .... .... .... .... 235 

Moses of Khorene, his account of the Jews in Armenia .... .... .... 325 

Mummu, an Assyrian mythological deity .... .... .... .... .... 287 

Murus, a Kassite deity, whose name was formerly read as Kharbat .... 31 



386 INDEX. 

N. 

PAGE 

Nahesn, one of the Four races of mankind .... .... .... .... 45 

Nahr Diglat, the Assyrian name of the river Tigris .... .... .... 91 

„ Purat, the Assyrian name of the river Euphrates .... .... .... 91 

Nahsi, an Egyptian dog so named .... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Names given to everything in Egypt .... .... .... .... .... 185 

Namtar, an Assyrian deity, referred to .... .... .... .... .... 277 

Nana, her image can-ied off by the Elamites, and regained by Assurbanipal 135 

Napata, rise of the kingdom of .... .... .... .... .... .... 213 

Nastosenen, bad style of the stele of .... .... .... .... .... 213 

„ called the " gracious child " .... .... ... .... .... 215 

„ his victories over the Ethiopians and Abyssinians .... 208—212 

„ king, inscription of, translated by G. Maspero .... .... 203 

Nativity, the, on the date of, by Dr. Lauth .... .... .... .... 226 

Natural origin of the Egyptian mythology.... .... .... .... .... 1 

Naville, Edouard, la Destruction des Hommes par Ics Dieux .... .... 1 

Nebo, called Abil-bit-saggil .... .... .... .... .... .... 166 

„ Zukupcinu, a Babyloiiian astronomer .... .... .... .... 37 

Nebthau, " Mistress of Hardness," one of the mystic gates of Hades .... 45 

Nebuchadnezzar I, a comet noticed in his reign .... .... .... .... 258 

„ his deportation of the Jews .... .... .... .... 321 

Necho, made the chief of the Egyptian Icosarchy .... .... .... 86 

Negab, the porter of Hades .... .... .... .... .... .... 293 

Neharsarsar, a town conquered by king Nastosenen .... .... .... 211 

Nenuti, a mystical serpent of the Egyptian Hades .... .... .... 45 

Neomeny, meaning of the phrase .... .... .... .... .... .... 239 

Neptune, his analogy to the god Hea .... .... .... .... .... 287 

Nergal, the god of war .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 272 

Nestorian Christians, Dr. Grant's estimate of the number of .... .... 99 

Newton, C. T., C.B., Observations on an inscription in an unknown 

character .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 334 

Nicholans Damascenus, the court historian of Herod .... .... .... 231 

Nicocreon, coins of, referred to .... .... .... .... .... .... 41 

Ninazu, the same as Ninkigal .... .... .... .... .... .... 271 

Ninip, his wrath with mankind .... .... .... .... .... .... 52 

Ninkigal, analogous to the Greek Persephone .... .... .... .... 292 

„ her character and offices .... .... .... ... .... 291 

„ her palace in Hades described .... .... .... .... .... 290 

„ the Assyrian goddess of the underworld.... .... .... .... 271 

Noah, his sacrifice and that of Xisuthrus compared .... .... .... 49 

Nobat-gah, a music gallery.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 80 

Nubia, hounds represented in the temple of Beitoually, at .... .... 173 

Nubsas, a queen of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Nun and the other deities offer to avenge Ra by destroying mankind .... 6 

,, the father of the god Shu .... .... .... .... .... .... 13 

„ the god, the address of the god Ra to .... ' .... .... .... 5 

Nut, the goddess, associated with the deities Ra and Tefnut in the destruc- 
tion of mankind .... .... .... .... •■■• .... .... 4 

„ „ has charge of the gate of Heaven .... .... .... 12 



Oimenepthah I, ser Seti I. 

Oloukishla, village of, near Lycaojiia .... .... .... .... .... 336 

On the ancient name of Heliopolis.... .... .... .... .... .... 3 



INDEX. 387 



PAGE 



Osiris Unnopliris, called " prince of the divine star" .... .... .... 238 

„ one of the local gods of the district of Amu in Lower Egypt .... 11 

„ the chief festivals and their dates .... .... .. . .... .... 238 

Otiartes, probahly the same as Uttuarda .... .... .... .... .... 82 



Pachons, why the Nativity took place in that month .... .... .... 234 

Padan, a country ruled by the early Chaldean king Agu .... .... .... 135 

Pakem, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 207 

Palace of Ninkigal in Hades described and compared with Egyptian myths 290 

Pan, the god, analogous to Heabani .... .... .... .... .... 286 

Pancratius, St., why called a " cold " saint.... .... .... .... .... 245 

Panic terror before the deluge .... .... .... .... .... .... 129 

Papakhat, the topmost story of a Babylonian temple .... .... .... 137 

Paqematen, a surname of the deity Amen .... .... .... .... .... 208 

Pasicrates, king of Soli, mentioned by Plutarch .... .... .... .... 41 

Pediment with bas-relief, found at Salamis by Gen. di Cesnola .... .... 22 

Pekak, a chief of Katoldi in Nubia .... .... .... .... ... 210 

Pelkha, a queen of Kush .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 203 

Perkin, Rev. Justin, his account of the Jews and Christians of Kurdistan 100 

Persephone, analogous to Ninkigal.... .... .... .... ... .... 292 

Perseus, see Medusa .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 20 

Peshenhor, a town sacred to the goddess Isis .... .... .... .... 237 

Phoenician Oenochoe found at Salamis in Cyprus .... .... .... .... 23 

„ origin of Homeric ideas of Hades .... .... .... .... 292 

Philistines held in authority by Solomon .... .... .... .... .... 321 

Philo-Jadseus, his views on the subject of the Exodus .... .... ... 318 

Philolaus, tlie philosophical principles .... .... .... .... .... 303 

Phlegon of Tralles refers to the eclipse of the Crucifi-xion .... .... .... 244 

Phoenicians, human sacrifice common among the .... .... .... .... 25 

77 ::= 3, this formula known to the Babylonians .... .... .... .... 314 

Piankhi-aler, an Ethiopian king .... .... .... .... .... .... 206 

Pichot, M., his account of Egyptian dogs referred to .... ... .... 176 

Pierides, D., on a digraphic inscription found at Larnaca .... .... .... 38 

Pierret, Paul, his studies on tlie sarcophagus of Seti I, cited .... .... 44 

Pig, unclean alike to the Egyptians and the Jews .... .... .... .... 235 

„ a statue of a, set up in Jerusalem .... .... .... .... .,, 236 

Pitch, or bitumen, used in the construction of the ark of Hasisadra .... 53 

Planetary origin of the Asteroids .... .... .... .... .... .... 245 

Plutarch, de Isis et Osirs, cap. 65b .... .... .... .... .... 236 

„ mentions Pasicrates or Stasicrates, king of Soli .... .... .... 41 

Pluto, his analogy to the Assyrian god Hea .... .... .... .... 287 

Puoubs, a town in Ethiopia .... .... ... .... .... .... 207 

Polack, Dr., his services to Rev. A. Lijwy .... .... .... .... .... 99 

PoUex, the, a Jewish measure .... .... ... .... .... .... 122 

Porphyry relates the custom of human sacrifices in Egypt.... .... .... 17 

Poseidon, his analogy to the Assyrian Hea.... .... .... .... .... 287 

Prideaux, Capt. W. F., on some Himyaritic inscriptions near Sana .... 196 

Priests' court of the temple, its area .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Proserpine, analogous to Davkina or Ninkigal .... .... .... .... 271 

Psalms sung by the angels in Heaven .... .... .... .... .... 351 

Ptolema, bust of a lady so named .... .... .... .... .... .... 333 

Purification, an Egyptian, of nine days .... .... .... .... .... 4 

Pythagoras, origin of his philosophy .... .... .... .... .. . 303 



388 INDEX. 



PAGE 

Quirinius, or Cyrenius, the date of his governorship .... .... .... 226 



R. 

Ea, adorations to, on the sarcophagus of Seti I .... .... .... .... 46 

„ ankh kheper, a prenomen of one of the Antef kings .... .... .... 187 

„ ascends to heaven .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 12 

„ his address to the god Nun .... .... .... .... .... .... 5 

„ his charge to tiie god Seb .... .... .... .... .... .... 14 

„ his grief at the destruction of mankind .... .... .... .... 11 

„ his indignation at the wickedness of mankind .... ... ... 6 

,, his speech to Thoth after the destruction of mankind .... .... 14 

„ ka ankh, the prenomen of King Nastosenen .... .... .... .... 204 

,, not only a god, but also one of the first divine kings of Egypt .... 3 

„ re-creates mankind anew .... .... .... .... .... .... 8 

„ the destruction of mankind by.... .... .... .... .... .... 1 

Rameses II, hounds presented to .... .... .... .... .... .... 173 

„ uses bloodhounds in war .... .... .... .... .... 180 

„ IX, the old roj'al tombs violated by robbers in the time of .... 184 

Ea neb bet, the prenomen of Mentuhetp III .... .... .... .... 187 

Ea neb khru, the prenomen of Mentuhetp II .... .... .... .... 187 

Ea nub kheper, the prenomen of Antef IV .... .... .... .... 187 

Ea neb nem, a king of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Eaphia, forced march of Esavhaddon to .... .... .... .... .... 85 

Ea saaf ankh, an officer of the IVth Dynasty .... .... .... .... 176 

Ea sankhka, a king of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Eekmara, his tomb at Thebes .... .... .... .... .... .... 173 

Eeligion of Assyria was really a nature worship .... .... .... .... 287 

Eepa ha, a heir apparent in the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... 187 

Eeteq, a country in or near Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... 209 

Eevolt in Heaven, the cause of, from a Chaldean tablet .... .... .... 349 

Eighteousness, sacrifice of, nature of the worship, so called, by the Chaldeans 25 

Eigveda, the, does not refer to human sacrifice .... ... .... .... 30 

Eiminu Marduk, a title of the god Marduk 359 

Eitual of the Dead, its connection with the myth of the destruction of man- 
kind by Ea .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 16 

Robal, a district in Nubia, conquered by King Nastosenen .... .... 210 

Eoemer-Zins-Zahl, the German name of the Eoman indictions .... .... 227 

Eoman indictions, when they really commenced .... .... .... .... 226 

Eoots, cube and square, Babylonian tables of .... .... .... .... 311 

Eosellini, Egyptian dogs figured by .... .... .... .... .... 177 

Eotu, the Egyptian name of the human beings slain by Tefnut .... .... 7 

Ruku, " the Remote," an epithet applied to Xisuthrus .... .... „,. 51 



S. 

Saanduari, a Syrian king beheaded by Esarhaddon .... .... .... 86 

Saba-aii dialect, observations on .... .... .... .... .... .... 2C7 

Sabaco, king of Egypt, defeated by Sargon at Eaphia .... .... .... 87 

Sacrifice of Eel, its nature described .... .... .... .... .... 25 

„ of Noah and Xisuthrus compared.... .... .... .... .... 49 

Saenathor, another name of the Egyptian officer Hathorsa .... .... 190 

Sakkara, tablet of, referred to .... .... .... .... .... .... 188 



INDEX. 389 



PAGE 



Salamis, many Cypriote texts discovered at .... .... .... .... 20 

Sallier Papyrus I, translated by Prof. E. L. Lushingtou .... .... .... 263 

Samsi, queen of the Arabians, mentioned in the annals of Tiglath- 

Pileserll „ 87 

Sana, Himyaritic inscriptions discovered near .... .... .... .... 196 

Sanaru, a priest so named .... .... ..., .... .... ... .... 190 

Saqsaqdimon, a town in Nubia .... .... ,... .... .... .... 209 

Sarabit el Khadim, the Egyptian mines there .... .... .... .... 188 

Sardanapalus, see Assurbanipal .... .... .... .... .... .... 86 

Sargon defeats Sabaco, king of Egypt, at Raphia.... .... .... .... 87 

Sarusamas recovers the images of the gods .... .... .... .... 135 

Sassanian or Assyrian bas-relief at Ibreez, described in detail .... .... 343 

Sata, a Jewish unit of square measure .... .... .... .... .... 122 

Satekai, an Egyptian dog so named .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Saul, king, his interview with the Witch of Endor .... .... .... 282 

Sayce, Rev. A. H., Babylonian augury by means of geometrical figures .... 302 

„ „ on human sacrifice among the Babylonians .... .... 25 

„ „ revised translation of a passage in the great astronomi- 
cal work of the Babylonians .... .... ,.,, 36 

Scandinavian mythology, its analogy with the Assyrian .... .... .... 272 

Schmidt, Moritz, his learned researches into the Cyx^riote language .... 38 

Scorpions, plentiful in the Arabian desert .... .... .... .... .... 260 

Seb, associated with the god Ra .... .... .... .... .... .... 4 

„ charged to take care of the reptiles of the land and water .... .... 14 

Sekenen Ra, refuses to worship Sutech .... .... .... ... .... 264 

„ the father of Ahmes, of the XVIIIth Dynasty 263 

Sechet, goddess, another form of the goddess Hathor or Tefnut .... .... 7 

Sekhmakh, a queen of Egypt .... .... .... .... .... ... 204 

Sela, the, a late Jewish standai'd of weight.... .... .... .... .... 124 

Seleucus relates the practice of human sacrifice by the Egyptians .... 17 

Selim II, sultan, cruelty of the soldiers of .... .... .... .... .... 339 

Senkereh, table of cube and square roots found at .... .... .... 311 

Sennacherib, his conquest of Babylon .... .... .... .... .... 258 

„ the Bavian inscription of, cited .... .... .... .... 258 

Serpent, the, the cause of the revolt in Heaven .... .... .... .... 351 

Serpents of Seb, their mystical nature .... .... .... .... .... 14 

Servatius, St., why called a " cold" saint ... .... .... .... .... 245 

Set, his wars with the god Horus .... .... .... .... .... .... 8 

Seti I, his splendid tomb described..., .... .... .... .... .... 2 

„ his sarcophagus described and published by Messrs. Sharpe, Bonomi, 

and Pien-et .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 44 

„ his tomb wantonly defaced by travellers and Arabs.... .... .... 3 

,, mythological inscription on the tomb of .... .... .... .... 2 

Seven, the sacrifices of animals by sevens of Hasisadra .... .... .... 59 

Sexagesimal system of the Chaldean arithmetic .... .... .... .... 314 

Shafkm, see Ham'atht 197 

Shalmaneser, his conquest of Tyre .... .... .... .... .... .... 86 

Shamas, called also Diannisi .... .... .... .... .... .... 158 

Sharpe and Bonomi, their work on the sarcophagus of Seti I, praised .... 44 

„ Samuel, on an Egyptian shawl for the head, as worn on the statues 

of the kings 248 

Sheba or Saba ruled by Samsi, a queen of Arabia .... .... .... .... 87 

Shekel, weight of 119 

Shenhoor, the modern name of the town of Peshenhor .... .... .... 237 

Shu, the god, the Egyptian Atlas .... .... .... .... .... .... 3 

„ the son of the deity Nun, not of R a .... .... .... .... .... 13 

Siclus, its aliquot parts .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 125 



390 



INDEX. 



Sidon conquered bj Esarhaddon .... 

Signs of the Zodiac, their great antiquity .... 

Sin, the god, called by various titles 

Sinai, condition of the Israelites at,... 

Sindor, a village in Kurdistan inhabited solely by Jews .... 

Sippara, a town in Babylon dedicated to the sun .... 

Sisiniardokas, origin of bis name 

Skeleton, the, of an Egyptian mummy 

Skulls, peculiarities of the Egyptian 

Smith, Edwin, procures impressions of the missing portion of an Egyptian 

text r "^ 

Smith, Geo., discovers a hymn to Ishtar .... 

„ „ discovers an early Chaldean historical inscription 

„ „ discovers a notice of a very ancient comet 

„ „ on some fragments of the Chaldean account of the Creation.... 

,, ,, the high value of his Cypriote investigations.... 

Snab, an Egyptian dog so named .... 
Snakes and scorpions, said by the Assyrians to abound in the Arabian 

desert 260 

Sobah, the capital of the kirgdom of Aloah .... .... .... .... 206 

Society of Biblical Archaeology. Condensed Report, Fourth Session .... 363 

Laws of 388 

„ „ List of Members of 395 

Soli, a town in Cyprus, founded by Solon .... .... .... .... .... 40 

,, the date of the inscription of .... .... .... .... .... .... 41 

,, the, its aliquot parts .... .... ,,. .... ... .... .... 125 

Solomon, king, the great extent of his empire .... .... .... .... 321 

Sons of God, meaning of the phrase .... .... .... .... .... 349 

Sothiac period, Theon's date for .... ... .... .... .... .... 227 

Soul, immortality of, Assyrian belief in .... .... .... .... .... 267 

Sparta, flogging before the altar of Artemis at .... .... .... .... 30 

Spirit, or fetish, called by the Assyrians " Zi " .... .... .... .... 288 

Spirits of evil assembled and create a panic .... .... .... .... 129 

Spitz dog, a kind of, represented on the Egyptian sculptures .... .... 176 

Square and cube roots, Babylonian tables of .... .... .... .... 311 

Standard measures preserved in the Jewish temple .... .... .... 118 

Stasias, a prince of Soli .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 40 

„ a king of Soli, mentioned on the inscription of Larnaca .... .... 40 

Stasanor, a prince of Soli .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 41 

Stasicrates, king of Soli, in the island of Cyprus .... .... .... .... 41 

Star, a, when iirst used to express "a god" .... .... .... .... 229 

„ of the Epiphany, probably destroyed at the Crucifixion .... .... 246 

,, of the Nativity, its probable origin .... .... .... .... .... 228 

Stoddart, Rev. J. T., his Syriac Grammar praised .... .... .... luO 

Substitutionary sacrifices known to the Accadians.... .... .... .... 27,28 

Suetonius refers to a Jewish belief in a star, &c .... .... .... 229 

Sumirina, the Assyrian name of Samaria .... .... .... .... .... 93 

Sun-god, the, antiquity of human sacrifice to .... .... .... .... 25 

Suqamuna, an early Chaldean king or deity .... .... .... .... 134 

Surgeons, Royal College of, the Egyptian skeleton of, described .... .... 251 

Surippak, its ancient foundation .... .... .... .... .... .... 52 

Surqinu, the Accadian word for an altar .... .... .... .... .... 58 

Sutcdi, the god, made sole deity of Egyjjt .... .... .... 264 

Sutherland, the Duke of, presents a mummy skeleton to the College of 

Surgeons .... .... .... .... .... ... .... 251 

Sweet cane offered to the gods by Hasisadra .... .... .... .... 60 

Symposium, a, represented on a Cypriote sarcophagus 20 



INDEX. 391 



PAGE 

Tahernacle, see court of the Tabernacle 122 

Table and altar originally synonymous .... .... .... .... .... 59 

Tables of Jewish and classic weights and measures .... .... .... 12tt 

„ of the number of the Jews in the world .... .... .... .... 327 

Tablets, Babylonian, presented to ;lie Society by Lady Tite 256 

Tacitus, his false charges against the Jews.... .... ... ... .... 324 

Taheh, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... „. .... 205 

Talbot, H. Pox, commentary on the Deluge tablet.... .... 49 

„ „ his proof of the Assyrian belief in a future state.... .... 267 

,j „ notice of a very ancient comet, from a Chaldean tablet .... 257 

»j „ on a tablet in the British Museum, relating apparently to 

the Deluge ' .... 129 

jj „ the revolt in Heaven, from a Chaldean tablet ... .... 349 

„ hound, resembled a kind of Egyptian dog.... .... .... .... 177 

Tale of the Doomed Prince, the kind of dog mentioned in ... .... 183 

Ta-Makhi, a town conquered by king Xastosenen ... .... .... .... 211 

Tambukku, certain unknown creatures which slay Heabani .... .... 269 

Tamehu, one of the Four races of mankind .... .... .... .... 45 

Tammaritu king of Elam, account of his shipwreck .... .... .... 63 

Tammuz, the Assyrian Dumzi .... .... .... .... .... .... 292 

Taqtat, a town in'^Nnbia 209 

Targum, the dialect of the, still spoken in Kurdistan .... .... .... 99 

Tasem, a species of Egyptian dog so named .... .... .... .... 176 

Tassigurumas, an early Chaldean king .... .... .... .... .... 132 

Tebhen, an Egyptian oificer so named .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Tefnut, goddess, associated with Shu for Sab and Ra .... .... .... 4 

„ the divine Cow, a form of the goddess Hatlior .... .... .... 6 

„ the same as Sechet .... .... .... .... .... .... „. 7 

Tekar, a kind of Egyptian dog resembling the Dalmatian .... .... 180 

Tekenru, an officer in the court of Antefaa.... .... .... .... .... 185 

Tekher, spark face, one of the serpents of Egyptian mythology .... .... 45 

Tel, a town in Nubia 2C8 

Tem, an Egyptian dog so named .... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Temaa, an Egyjjtian dog so named.... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Temple of Diana at Ephesus, an undecyphered inscription found at .... 334 

,, Jerusalem, area of the court of the priests .... .... .... 122 

„ ,, Jewish standard measures preserved in .... .... 118 

Ter, see also Tel 208 

Terouleq, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... , ,. .... .... 209 

T'eser, a sacred liqueur oflered to the god Ra .... .... ... .... 46 

Tethrippos, the Cypriote representation of a .... .... .... .... 20 

Thapsacus, the probable Tiphsah of the Bible .... .... .... .... 321 

The Hebrew Prophets, their use of the words altar and table .... .... 59 

" The Honoured," the meaning of this epithet among the Jews .... .... 33 

Therapeutse, the, why their feast took place on the fifteenth day .... .... 303 

Theon, the astronomer, his date for the epoch of Menophres .... .... 227 

Theophilus of Antiochia refers to the eclipse of the Crucifixion .... .... 244 

Thoth, hiii interview with the gcd Ra .... .... .... .... .,., 4 

„ the speech of Ra to, after the destruction of mankind .... .... 14 

Thothmes III, hounds brought from Cush as presents to .... .... .... 173 

Tiamat, the Assyrian word for the sea .... .... .... .... .... 287 

Tiberius Csesar, a late Greek inscription referring to, on the inscription of 

Soli 42 

Tiberius Csesar, date of his fifteenth year .... 242 

Tirtemar, a Jewish measure, its value .. . .... .... .... .... 125 



392 INDEX 

PAGE 

Tirhakali, kiug of Egypt, attacked by Esarhaddon Si 

„ induces liahal king of Tyre to revolt .... .... .... .... Si 

Tite, Lady, presents two Babylonian tablets to the Society .... ... 256 

Tombs of the kings violated by robbers in the reign of Raineses IX .... 18i 

Tont, village of, its situation .... .... .... .... 33'J 

Tormenniou, a town in Nubia .... .... .... .... .... .... 2o9 

Trigrams of Fobi, their use among the Chinese 302 

Turkish tax-gatherers, the devotion and extortion of .... .... .... 342 

Tutu, the god, the same as Bel .... .... . . .... .... .... 81 

Typhon, human beings burnt alive as Typhonian men ijy the Egyplians .... 17 

Tyre, conquered by Shalmaneser .... .... .... .... .... .... 86 

„ the blockade of, by Assurbauipal .... .... .... .... .... 89 

Tzira, an early Babylonian goddess.... .... .... .... .... .... 153 



U. 

Uahankh " Augmenter of life," an Antef so called .... .... .... 189 

Ubaratutu, meaning of the name .... .... .... .... .... .... 81 

„ the father of Hasisadra ... .... .... .... .... 52 

Ummah, an Elamite deity .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 13|. 

Ummiahziriti, an early Chaldean king .... .... .... .... .... 132 

Unsu, an Egyptian name of the wolf dog .... .... .... .... .... 182 

Ur, its meanings in Assyrian .... .... .... .... .... .... 78 

„ the primitive capital of Chaldea .... .... .... .... .... 25 

Uranus and Neptune, how those planets were discovered .... .... .... 245 

Urhamsi assists Izdubar to erect a memorial of his cure .... .... .... 73 

„ surveys Erech .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 80 

„ the boatman of Izdubar .... .... .... .... .... .... 69 

Urmiah, the Jews of, described .... .... ..., .... .... ... 99 

Usersen, a prince of the Xlth Dynasty .... .... .... .... .... 187 

Uttuarda, see Ardahttu. 

Uzziah, king of Judah, Lis large army .... .... .... .... .... 321 



V. 

Valhalla, the, its resemblance to the heaven of Nergal .... .... .... 272 

Vases, seven thousand vases of ilowers and blood presented to Ra.... .... 8 

„ the blood of the human race slain by Ra gathered into vases .... 8 

Venus, the planet, the same as the goddess Ishtar.... .... .... .... 37 

Vogue, Comte de, bis opinion of the digraphic inscription of Soli .... 41 

Vivificator, the, a title of the deity Marduk .... .... .... .... 291 

Vlth Dynasty, Egyptian dogs of the period of .... .... .... 174, 175 

W. 

Wadd, an Himyaritic deity.... .... .... .... .... .... .... 197 

Wady Magarah, P^gyptian mines there .... .... .... .... .... 188 

Water, height of the water of the deluge .... .... .... .... .... 58 

Waters of life, the, take their rise in Hades .... .... .... .... 291 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, Egyptian dogs figured by .... .... .... 177 

Wife Ix'ating jiractised in Assyria .... .... .... .... .... .... 271 

Witch of Eudor, Saul's interview with, compared with the Izdubar Legends 282 

Wolf, or wolf-dog, known to the Egyptians .... .... .... .... ]82 

Wood, Mr. J. T., his discoveries at the temple of Eplicsus .... .... 334 



INDEX. 'd'd'6 



X. 



Xafmes, Egyptian dogs so named .... .... .... .... .... .... 176 

Xanapa, village, of its size and situation .... .... .... .... .... 340 

Xisutlii-us and his fauiily enter the ark .... .... .... .... .... 55 

„ his indignation with the god Bel .... .... .... .... 61 

„ his sacrifice and that of Noah compared .... .... .... 49 

„ relates the story of the Deluge to Izduhar .... .... .... 50 

„ the book ot^ preserved at Sippara .... .... .... .... 233 



Y. 

Yatnan, the Assyrian name of the Island of Cyprus .... .... .... 86 

Year, Assyrian, began about March.... .... .... .... .... .... 261 

Yedud, sacrificed by his father El .... .... .... .... ... .... 26 

Youatt, on the dog, cited .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 177 



Z. 

Zaidu, the huntsman, sent by Izduhar to Heabani .... .... .... .... 268 

Zalmat Kakkad, the name of the evil serpent .... .... .... .... 360 

Zemeed, tlie, a Jewish square measure ... .... .... .... .... 122 

Zi, the Assyrian name of the spirit of anything .... .... .... .... 288 

Ziggurats, how erected .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 137 

Ziratpanit, her image, carried ofl^ by the Elaniites.... .... .... .... 135 

Zodiac, an Assyrian, in the British Museum, described .... .... .... 260 

„ of Dendereh, the month Pachons, how represented on it .... .... 235 

Zumpt, Dr., his date for the general taxation .... .... .... .... 240 



zu 



INDEX. 



LIST OF BIBLICAL TEXTS. 









PAGE 












PACK 


Genesis i. 


2, 


in extenso 


104 


1 Kings xviii, 


19, 


cited 




59 


>. iv. 


2, 


cited 


362 


2 Kings xii. 


16, 


., 




270 


» vi. 


4, 


J, 


81 


„ 


XV, 


29, 


„ 




321 


» vi. 


14, 


,, .••. 


53 


,, 


xvii, 


6, 


„ 




321 


J) vi. 


16, 


„ .... 


50 


,, 


xxiv. 


10- 


6. „ 




321 


» vii, 


2, 


quoted .... 


49 


1 Chron. xxi. 


5, 


quoted 




320 


„ viii, 


6, 


cited 


50 


Ezra 


ii. 


64, 


cited 




322 


„ viii, 


20, 


quoted .... 


49 


Job 


vii. 


5, 


re 1 erred to 


56 68 


,, xiv. 


14, 


cited 


316 


„ 


ix. 


26, 


cited 




63 


„ xvii. 


1-5, 


„ •••• 


315 


», 


ix. 


26, 


referred to 


63 


„ xxiv. 


22, 


referred to 


124 


„ 


xxvii. 


17, 


cited 




301 


„ xxxii. 


6-7, 


cited 


316 


„ xxxviii. 


7, 


„ 




349 


„ xlvi. 


27, 


quoted .,„, 


315 


„ xxxviii. 


37, 


,, 




56 


Exodus i. 


1, 


cited 


316 


Psalm 


Ixv, 


13, 


„ 




117 


„ i. 


12, 


quoted .... 


317 


„ Ixxviii, 


19, 


,, 




59 


„ xii. 


40, 


cited 


316 


„ 


Ixxx, 


16, 


referred to 


66 


„ xvi. 


3, 


„ 


317 


Eccles. 


X, 


1, 


cited 




260 


„ xxx, 


13, 


referred to 


32 


„ 


xii. 


9, 


J, 




51 


„ xxxii. 


4, 


„ 


76 


Isaiah 


X, 


18, 


referred to 


66 


„ xxxviii. 


25, 


,, 


123 


„ xxxviii, 


14, 


„ 




131 


„ xxxviii. 


26, 


cited 


316 


,, 


lix. 


11, 


,, 




131 


„ xxxviii. 


29, 


referred to 


119 


„ 


Ixv, 


11, 


cited 




59 


Levit. ii. 


7-8-9 


, cited 


345 


Jerera. 


V, 


28, 


,, 




72 


„ xxi. 


1, 


referred to 


32 


„ 


»i. 


1, 


,, 




79 


,, xxvii. 


6, 


», .... 


32 


„ 


xiii, 


17, 






360 


Numbers i. 


45-6, 


quoted .... 


316 


,, 


xliii, 


12, 


referred 


to 


135 


„ vi. 


22-27 


referred to 


32 


Ezek. xxviii. 


13, 


cited 




357 


„ xvi, 


32-35, 


49, quoted 


319 


„ 


xl, 


5, 


referred 


to 


121 


„ xxi, 


6, 




319 


,, 


xli, 


22 


„ 




59 


„ xxii, 


5, 


quoted .... 


320 


„ 


xlii, 


16,' 


„ 




119 


„ XXV, 


9, 


„ 


319 


„ 


xlii, 


20, 


,, 




122 


„ xxvi. 


51, 




319 


,, 


xliv, 


15, 


cited 




54 


„ xxxii. 


11, 


cited 


320 


„ 


xliv. 


16, 


referred to 


59 


Deut. xxii. 


12, 


„ 


345 


,, 


xlv, 


1-7, 


„ 




119 


Judges vi, 


12, 


„ 


317 


Daniel 


i, 


20, 


„ 




74 


,, viii. 


26, 


referred to 


123 


„ 


ii. 


2 


,, 




74 


„ XX, 


25-46 


, cited 


320 


Hosea 


i, 


2, 


cited 




356 


1 Sam. ix. 


9, 


referred to 


33 


,, 


X, 


6, 


referred 


to 


135 


„ xxviii. 


7-25, 


cited 


282 


Nahum 


ii. 


8, 


„ 




131 


2 Sam. ix. 


11, 


>, 


59 


Mai. 


i. 


7-12, 


J, 




59 


„ xviii, 


18, 


,» 


75 


Matt. 


ii. 


7-16 


quoted 




230 


„ xxiv, 


9, 


quoted .... 


.320 


,, 


xxvii, 


51, 


cited 




246 


„ xxiv. 


15, 


cited 


320 


Luke 


ii, 


19, 


([uoted 




240 


1 Kings iv. 


20-24, 


quoted .... 


321 


„ 


ii, 


51, 


,, 




240 


„ xi. 


41, 


cited 


362 


„ 


ii'. 


1, 


cited 




242 



INDEX. 



;i9r) 



Lukt 



Acts 







PAGE 








PAGE 


iii, 2, 


cited 


. 242 


Acts 


XXI, 


38, referred to 


241 


iii, 23, 


quoted .. 


. 243 


1 Cor. 


X, 


21, cited .... 


59 


ii, 5-11, 


cited 


, 323 


„ 


XV, 


52, 


358 


V, 37, 




. 211 


Rev. 


vi. 


12-17, „ 


24^? 


vii, 14, 


„ 


. 315 


,, 


xii, 


3, 


350 



CLASSICAL AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO. 





PAGE 1 


Diodorus Siculus, lib. v, 57, cited 


4 


Talmu 


Herodotus, Thali.<i, 67, cited 


232 




„ Euterpe, 47, quoted 


235 


„ 


Joseplms, xvii, 1—6, referred to ; 






and Bell. Jud., ii, 17-18 


241 


,, 


.Joseplms, Autiq., xviii, cited .... 


242 




,, Bell. Jud., XX, 4, cited 


243 


„ 


„ Bell. Jud., vi., 9, quoted 


322 




Philo, De Legat, caps, xxxi and 




,, 


xxxvi, quoted.... 


323 




Plato, Tiniffius, p. 325, cited .... 


232 


jj 


Plutarch, De Isis et OsiridL',p.l29, 




,, 


cited 


17 


,, 


„ p. 8, „ 


235 




Talmud, Bekhorot, p. 49 b, re- 






ferred to .... 


32 





Talmud, Yore Deah, § BOS, ^ 1 

referred to.... .... 32 

Eroobin, p. 13 b, re- 
ferred to .... .... 34 

Minchotb, ix, 1, referred 
to 118 

Baba Bathra, vii, 1, re- 
ferred to 122 

Middotb, ii, 1, referred 

to 122 

Ketuba, ii, 2, referred to 124 

Peali, iii, 6, referred to 124 

Bab., Succah, 7, verso, 

referred to .... .... 314 




Tor. IV 



26 



396 



Society of Biblical Archeology. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 



Objects of the Society. 

This Society is instituted for the investigation of the 
Archseology, History, Arts, and Chronology of Ancient and 
Modern Assyria, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, and other Biblical 
Lands, the promotion of the study of the Antiquities of those 
Countries, and the record of future discoveries which may be 
made in connexion therewith. 

For this purpose it is proposed to read, and, as far as 
practicable or desirable, to print, in whole or in part, original 
papers upon the above subjects, and also to lay before the 
Members a statement of work done, and discoveries made in 
relation thereto by other Societies at home or abroad. 

To form a fimd, if hereafter found expedient, for the 
exploration of Biblical Countries and their Antiquities. 

To collect sketches, photographs, drawings, manuscript 
notes, data and memoranda bearmg upon the above subjects ; 
to become the property of the Society, but reserving to the 
donor the right of publication, if not pul^lished by the 
Society withm twelve months. 

To purchase from time to time for the information of the 
Members such publications as may bear upon the objects of 
the Society. 

This Society shall ])e named : 

" The Society of Biblical AROHiEOLOGY." 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. 397 

It shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, Conncil, 
Treasurer, one or more Secretaries, two Auditors, and 
Ordinary Members. 

President. 

I. Except as provided by the next following clause, the 
President shall preside at all General, Ordinary, Special, or 
other Meetings of the Society, and of the Council. In the 
absence of the President, one of the Vice-Presidents in 
attendance shall take his place. If no Vice-President of the 
Society shall be present, then the Treasure]-, and in his 
absence a Member of the Council, or, if none present, then 
one of the Members of the Society, to be chosen by the 
Meeting, may preside. 

II. The President shall govern the Society by and Avith 
the advice of the Coimcil, shall regulate the proceedings, and 
execute, or provide for the due execution of the Statutes and 
Bye-laws of the Society ; and in all questions of equality in 
voting shall have an additional or casting vote. 

Council. 

III. The Council shall have the maqagement and tippli- 
cation of the funds and other property of the Society, the 
nomination of Honorary Members, &c., the selection of 
papers to be read at the Meetings, or to be published in 
the Transactions, and generally the management of all the 
affairs and concerns of the Society. 

IV. The President, Treasiu'er, and Secretaries shall have 
keys of all cases, boxes, &c., at the discretion of the Council. 

V. Receipts signed by the Treasurer shall be given to 
all Members for payments made by them. 

VI. The Treasurer shall receive on account of, and in 
trust for, the Society, all moneys accruing to the funds 
thereof, and shall make all payments ordered by the Council. 

VII. No money or moneys shall be di-awn out of the 
hands of the Treasurer, or dealt with, but in pursuance of 
an order of Council, and by cheque signed by at least three 
Members of Council, countersigned by one of the Secretaries. 

VIII. The two Auditors shall be Members of the Society, 



398 Jiuies and Reynlativiix. 

and not on the Council, and they shall audit the Annual 
Accounts, and shall, if necessary, present a Report upon 
the Society's affairs to the Council for presentation at the 
Anniversary Meetuig. 

IX. The Council shall meet at least an hour before each 
Meeting during the Session, and at such other times as may 
be deemed necessary for the business of the Society. The 
Council shall also meet to consider any special business 
upon a requisition directed to one of the Secretaries, and 
signed by not less than seven Ordinary Members. 

X. Three Members of the Council, of which not more 
than one may be an Officer, shall form a quorum. 

XL All the Members of the Council shall be summoned 
to the ]\Ieetings by a notice signed by a Secretar}^ 

XII. All the questions before the Council shall be deter- 
mined by a majority of votes. The Chairman for the time 
being to have a casting vote. 

XIII. At all Meetings of the Council the Chair shall be 
taken as soon after the time fixed for assembling as a quorum 
shall be present. 

XIV. All Officers of the Society shall be elected from the 
Ordinary Members. 

Admission of Members. 

XV. Every candidate, whether lady or gentleman, in 
order to be elected a Member, must be proposed and 
recommended by at least two ]\Iembers of the Society. 

XVI. The election shall take place in the manner fol- 
lowing : — 

The names of the proposed candidates shall be first sub 
mitted to the Council by the Secretary, after which, if 
approved by the Council, they shall be announced to the 
Members present at the next Ordinary Meeting, and put up 
for election by show of hands at the subsequent Meeting. 
Three Members may demand a ballot. 

XVII. When a candidate is elected, due notice of his 
election shall be sent to him immediately by the Secretary. 

XVIII. The Animal Subscription of each Member shall be 
(iTio cuinea; such Subscription to become payable and due 



Society of Biblical ArcJueoloyy. 399 

from the 1st January of each year. The Life composition fee 
to be ten guineas. 

XIX. When any Member of the Society, resident within 
the United Kingdom, shall be six months in arrear of his 
Annual Subscription, the Treasurer shall remind him by 
lettei- of the arrears being due, and in case of non-payment 
thereof within six months therefrom he shall cease to be a 
Member of the Society. The Council, however, may modify 
this rule in the event of any special case arising. 

XX. Whenever there may appear cause for the expulsion 
of a Member, a Special Meeting of the Council shall be 
held to consider the same ; and if at such Meeting at least 
two thirds of the Members present shall concur in such ex- 
pulsion, the President, or in his absence the Chairman, shall 
announce the same at the next Ordinary Meeting, and the 
Secretary shall forthwith communicate their decision to such 
Member. 

XXI. The number of Foreign Honorary Members shall 
be unHmited ; the number of British Honorary Members shall 
not exceed twenty. 

XXII. All Honorary Members shall have the privilege of 
attending the Ordinary Meetings of the Society without the 
right of voting, and copies of the Publications of the Society 
shall be forwarded to them. 

XXIII. x\ny Member of the Society may resign, upon 
sending in a formal notice of his intention to the Secretary, 
and paying up any arrears of subscriptions. 

Librarian and Secretary. 

XXIV. AU printed Books, MSS., Drawings, &c., are 
vested in the President and Council as representatives of 
the Society. 

XXV. At the close of each Session the Secretaries shall 
register and place among the Archives of the Society all 
papers and other documents. 

XXVI. The Librarian shall have the charge of and be 
answerable for aU books, papers, &c., which he shall catalogue 
and produce whenever required for the use of the Members. 



400 Rales and Begulatioiift. 

XXVII. No MSS. or Drawings, or Antiquities, except by 
permission of the Council, shall be lent out of the Society's 
Rooms. But every Member, or British Honorary Member 
may borrow for two months any printed book belonging to 
the Society, on the understanding that he is answerable for 
its safety and due return in good condition, and every Mem- 
ber borrowmg a book must sign a memorandum acknow- 
ledging its receipt. 

XXVIII. The Secretary shall, unless unavoidably pre- 
vented, attend all Meetings of the Council and Society, and 
take and read Minutes, acknowledge Donations, and attend 
to the general business of the Society. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

XXIX. The Anniversary Meeting of the Society shall be 
holden in the first week in January, when the Report of the 
Council shall be read, the Council and Officers for the ensuing 
year elected, the audited accounts presented, and any other 
business recommended by the Council discussed and deter- 
mined. 

XXX. At the Ordinary Meeting of the Society next 
preceding the day of the Anniversary the President shall 
give notice of the day and time when the Anniversary 
Meeting shall be held. 

The business of such Meeting shall be : 

To elect or supply any vacancy in the office of the 

President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Council, and 

Secretaries, and other Officers of the Society. 
To make Bye-laws, or repeal or alter any then existing 

Bye-laAvs, of which previous notice has been given. 
To pass any resolution, and to make any regulation 

having reference to the objects and proceedings of 

the Society. 

XXXI. All motions made at the Anniversary Meeting- 
shall be in writing, and shall be signed by the mover and 
seconder. 

XXXII. The Officers of the Society and Twelve Members 
of the Coini(;il shall be eligible for re-election in the ensuing 
vear. 



Society of Biblical Archceology. 401 

XXXIII. In these elections the persons, who may have 
the greatest number of votes, shall be declared duly elected, 
and if any doubt or difficiilty shall happen in relation thereto, 
or to the paxticular manner of voting, the same shall be deter- 
mined by the decision of the President and the majority of 
the Council for the preceding year, then present. 

XXXIV. In the case of an equality of votes, the President 
or Chairman for the time being shall have the casting vote. 

XXXV. Every Member of the Society shall be summoned 
to the Anniversary Meeting a week at least before the said 
Meeting. 

XXXVI. Upon any vacancy in the Presidency occurring 
between the Anniversary Elections, one of the Vice-Presidents 
shall be elected by the Council to officiate as President until 
the next Anniversary Meeting. 

XXXVII. All vacancies among the Officers of the Society 
during the same period shall be provisionally supplied by 
the Council. 

Special Meetings. 

XXXVIII. The President and Council shall have power 
to summon at any time a Special General Meeting, not less 
than ten days' notice thereof being given. 

Ordinary Meetings. 

XXXIX. The Ordinary Meetings of the Society shall be 
holden on the first Tuesday in each month from November 
to June in each Session, at 8.30 p.m. precisely, and the 
Council shall meet at 7.30 p.m. on the same day — Passion, 
Easter, Whitsun, and Christmas week excepted. It shall be 
in the power of the Council to vary the commencement and 
duration of the Session as may be necessary. 

XL. At these Meetmgs the Minutes of the previous one 
shaU be read, presents acknowledged, new Members nomi- 
nated, and those proposed at a previous Meeting be elected, 
communications shall be read, and any other busmess autho- 
rised by the Council be proceeded with. 

XLI. Every Member shall be allowed to introduce two 



402 Rules and Regulations. 

Visitors, at the Ordinary Meetings ; such Members and 
Visitors shall write their names in the Books of the Society 
on entering the Meeting Rooms. 

XLII. The President for the time being shall have liberty 
to introduce any number of Visitors. 

Papers. 

XLIII. No Paper shall be read at the Ordinary Meetings 
of the Society without the sanction of the Council. 
Polemical and political topics are to be avoided in papers 
read, or discussions taking place, before the Society. 

XLIV. All persons who shall communicate any Papers 
to the Society, which shall be approved as aforesaid, may 
read theu' own Papers, with the consent of the Chairman lor 
the time being. 

XLV. Any Member desirous of havdng separate copies 
of any Paper which he may have presented to the Society? 
and which is to be published by it, shall, upon apphcation 
to the Council, receive free of expense any number of copies 
not exceeding twelve, provided that the apphcation be made 
before the type is distributed by the printer. 

XLV I. The Copyright of all papers read or submitted 
remains with the Author. 

XL VII. A copy of the Society's Publications issued after 
his election shall be dehvered free to every Member not in 
arrears wath the Society, and if in stock. 

XL VIII. The Publications of the Society shall, with the 
sanction of the Council, be sent to, and exchanged with, 
those of other Literary and Archaeological Societies in 
England and on the Contment. 

XLIX. The name of every person who shall contribute 
a donation or legacy shall be announced as a Benefactor 
at an Ordinary Meeting of the Society, and shall be inserted 
in the ensuing Publications of the Society. 




10- 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, January, 1876. 

Marked thus * are Members of the Council. 

AiNSWOBTH, W. F., F.S.A., F.E.G.S., Eavenscourt Villa, Ham- 
mersmith, S.W. 
ALEXA.NDEE, Geo., 1, Ulster Terrace, Eegent's Park, N.W. 
Allen, W. C, 72, Albion Eoad, Stoke Newington, N. 
Amhubst, William A. Ttssen, E.S A., F.E.S.L., F.E.S., &c., 

Didlington Park, Brandon, Norfolk. 
Angus, Eev. Jos., D.D., Regent's Park, N.W. 
Anderson, J. Cokbet, Croydon, Surrey. 

Applefoed, William, 8, Park Street, Victoria Park Road, N.E. 
Appleton, Eev. E., M A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Arnold, Eev. Dr. Muehleisen, 27, Bristol Gardens, W. 
Attwood, Eev. Geo., Framiiagham Eectory, Wickham Market. 
Babington, Eev. Churchill, D.D., F.E.S.L., Cockfield Eectory, 
Sudbury, Suffolk. 
Backhouse, James, York. 

Bagster, H. Theodore, 15, Paternoster Eow, E.C. 
Bagstee, Robt., 14, King's Eoad, Gray's Inn, W.C, 
Baker, William, B.A., 6, King's Bench Walk, Temple, E.C. 
Baeclat, J. G., Knott's Green, Leyton, Essex. 
*Baeker, Rev. P., M.A., 2, Duke Street, Adelphi, W.C. 
Barton, Col. N. D., 64, Eegency Square, Brighton. 
Battersby, Eev. T. D. Haeford, St. John's Parsonage, Keswick. 
Beale, D. Chauncet, 12, Gray's Inn Square, W.C. 
Beardslet, Amos, F.L.S., F.G.S., Bay Villa, Grange-over-Sands, 

Lancashire. 
Beechet, Eev. Canon St. Vincent, M.A., Hilgay Eectory, 
Downham, Norfolk. 
*BiECH, Samuel, LL.D., &c., British Museum, W.C. {President). 
BiEDWooD, Dr., F.G.S., India Office, Whitehall, S.W. 



404: Li>if of Meuihcrs. 

Black, Majok 1^. S., 54, Albion Road, Stoke }se\viiigton, N. 

Blackek, Louis, Flowermead, Wimbledon Park, S.W. 

Blackett, Rev. W. R., M.A., 65, Bedford Street, Liverpool. 

Bland, Horatio, Hill-Fields, Rt-adiug, 

BoLDEN, Rev. C, Preston Bissett Rectory, Buckingham. 
*BoxoMi, Joseph, Curator, Sir John Soane's Museum, W,C. 
*BosANQUET. James W., F.R.A.S., M.R.A.S., &c., 73, Lombard 
Street, E.G. (Ti-easm-er.') 

BosANQUET, Samuel R., Dingeston Court, Monmoutli. 

BoscAWEN, Rev. W. H., B.A., March weil, Wrexham. 

BoscAWEN, William St. Chad, British Museum, Bloomsburv, 
W.C. 

BouGui, SiGNOB R., Camera Dei Deputati, Rome. 

BowDEN, Rev. Chaeles H., The Oratory, Brompton, S.AV. 

Boyd, Rev. William, F.S.xl., Scot., St. John's Manse, Forest 
Hill, S.E. 

Bramlet-Moore, Rev. W., M.A., 19, Woburu Square, W.C. 

Brewster, Rev. Waldegrave, Middleton Rectory, Manchester. 

Brock, Rev. Mourant, M.A., 4, Gloucester Row, Clifton. 

Brown, J., F.R.A.S., Branthoime, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

Brown, J. Roberts, 84, Caversham Road, N. W. 

Brown, Wm. Henry, 35, Charlewood Street, S.W. 

Brown, R., Juu., F.S.A., Barton-on-Humber, Lincolnshire. 

Brownen, Geo., F.C.S., Althorpe Road, AV^andsworth Common, 
S.AV. 

BuGBT, Wm., 3, Wilton Villas, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Bullock, Rev. W. T., M.A., Kensington Palace, S.W. 

BcJNSEN, Ernst De, Abbey Lodge, Hanover Gate, N.W. 

Burton, Sir William W., 54, Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, W. 

Burton, Rev. R. Cleeke, Taversham, Norwich. 

Butt, R. M., 44, Eleanor Street, Campbell Road, Bow, E. 

BuxTOK, WiLMOT, F.R.A.S., 77, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

Buxton, Charles, 22, Wood Street, E.C. 
Cameron, Alexandee Mackenzie, Borneo. 

Camps, R., M.D., 

Campbell, Professor John, M.A., Presbyterian College, Mon- 
treal, Canada. 

Capel, Veey Rev. Monsignoe T. C, D.D., Kensington College, 
W. 

Caee, Rev. Arthur, Wellington College, Wokingham. 

Caepenter, Rev. J. Edlin, 4, Oppidan Road, Primrose Hill, N.W. 
*Cate8, Aethue, F.R.I. B. a., 7, Whitehall Yard, S.W. 

Chalmers, John, Castle Bank, Merchistou, Edinburgh. 



List oj- Meiahe.rs. 405 

Chauteeis, Pkok. a. H., D.D., 1. Sali=;bury Road, Edinburgh. 
Chevalliee, Edgecumbe, F.R.A.S., Knysna, Cape Colony. 
Chetne, Eev. F. K., M.A., Balliol College, Oxford. 
*Cheisty, Thos., Jun., 155, Fenchurch Street, E.G. 
Cheisiy. Thos. Howaed, 64, Claverton Street. Grosvenor 
Eoad, S.W. 

Claek, John, 133, Upper Kennington Lane, S.E. 

Claeke. C. Harwood, B.A., F.S.A., "Westfield, Bromley, Kent. 

Claeke, Eev. Peoe. Thos., Kensington College, W. 

CocKHAN, Eev. Joseph, New Bank, Tyldesley, near Manchester. 

Coles, Eev. J. B., M.A., Woodham Walter, Maldon, Essex. 

Coles, Eev. V. S., M.A., Skepton Beauchamp, Ilminster. 

Collins, James, F.E.P.S., Singapore. 

*CooK, Eev. Francis C.,M.A., Canon of Exeter, Devon. {Vice- 
President.') 

CooKE, Gi-EO. Edw., F.E.M.S., The Museum, Wisbeach. 

Cooper, Eev. Basil H., B.A., F.E.S.L., 68, Horncastle Terrace, 
Fonthill Eoad, N. 
*CooPER, W. E., F.R.A.S., M.E.A.S., 5, Eichmond Grove, Barns- 
bury, N. {Secretary.) 

CoRNTHWAiTE, Eev. Tullie, M.A., The Forest, Walthanistow, 

N.E. 
CossoN, M. Le Baeon C. A. De, F.E.G.S., L'Hermitage, Ani- 

boise, Indre et Loire, France. 
Cox, David, 2, New Park Eoad, Brixton, S, 
Ceespin, Edgar, 1, Harrington Square, N.W. 
Crewdson, Eev. Geo., St. George's Vicarage, Kendal. 
Cull, Eichard, F.S.A., 13, Tavistock Street, Bedforc? Square, 

W.C. 
Cuming, H. Ster, F.S.A., Scot., 63, Kennington Park Eoad, S.E. 
CuRRET, Eev. George, D.D., Master, Charterhouse, Aldersgate 

Street, E.C. 
CusT, EoBERT, F.E.x\.S., 64. St. George's Square, S.W. 
Dale, Eev. Thomas Pelham, M.A., 6, Ladbroke Gardens, W. 
Dale, Eev. Bryan, M.A. Halifax. 

Dalton, Eev. J. N., M.A., Marlborough House, St. James's, W. 
Darbishiee, Eobt. D., B.A., F.E.S., F.S.A., Victoria Park, 

Manchester. 
David, Rev. Wm., M.A., Colleton Crescent, Exeter. 
Davis, Rev. E. J., Ash Villa, Link, Malvern. 
Day, St. John Vincent, C.E., F.R.C.S., S.E., Garthamlock, near 

Glasgow, N.B. 
De La Rue, Warren, F.R.S , D.C.L., F.R.A.S., 73, Portland 

Place, W. 



406 List of Membertt. 

Delitzsch, Fkiedeich, Pli.D., 54, Niiruberger Strasse, Leipzig. 
*Denton, Eev. Wir., M.A., 22, Westbourne Square, W. 
*DoNALDsoN, Professor T. L., K.L., Ph.D., &c., 21, Upper 
Bedford Place, W. {Foreign Secretary.) 

Douglas, Eev. Dr., Free Church College, Glasgow. 

Drach, S. M., F.E. A.S., F.E.G.S., 23, Upper Barusbury Street, N. 

Drtden, John, Curragh, Kildare, Ireland. 

Dykes, Eev. J. Oswald, D.D., 74, Oakley Square, ^.W. 
Eadie, Eev. John, D.D., LL.D., 6, Thornville Terrace, Glasgow. 

Edwards, K. B., Burbage Hall, Hinckley. 

Ely, Talfourd, 10, Eldon Eoad, Hampstead, N.W. 

EspiN, Eev. Canon Thomas, B.D., Wallasey Eectory, Birkenhead. 

Evans, J. L., Parkdale House, Tyndal Park, Bristol. 

Evans, Stephen, Br\ ntirion. Upper Hornsey Lane, N. 

Falkener, Edward, K. D., Glau-y-mor, Laugharne, Carmarthen- 
shire. 
Farrell, Isaac, 8, Leinster Square, Eathmines, Dublin. 
Fergusson, James, D.C.L., F.E.S.A., F.E.I.B.A., 9, Langham 

Place, W. 
Ferry, Benjamin, F.S.A., F.E.I.B.A., 42, Inverness Terrace, 

Bayswater, W. 
FiDLER, T. Claxton, 9, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, S.W. 
FiNLAYSON, Eev. John, M.A., 60, Lower Baggot Street, Dublin. 
Fletcher, William Yoonger, British Museum, W.C. 
FoRBiS, Alexander, M.A., 6, Mackie Place, Aberdeen, N.B. 
FoESMAN, A. St. Joh]s, The Lodge, Culmore, Londonderry. 
*FoETNTJM, C. Drury, F.S.A., Stanmore Hill, Middlesex. 
Fowler, Eev. J. F., M.A., F.S.A., Hatfield Hall, Durham. 
Fox, Charles, Trebah, Falmouth. 
Franks, Augustus W., M.A., F.S.A., F.E.S.L., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Eraser, A. L., 22, Ofterton Eoad, Claphara, S.E. 
Freer, William Jesse, Stouygate, Leicester. 
Fresufield, Edwin, New Bank Buildings, E.G. 
*Frt, H. William, Walthamstow, Essex. 
Fry, Theodore, Brinkburn, Darliugtou. 
Fuller, Eev. J. M., M.A., Bexley, Kent. 
Garbett, E. L., 7, Mornington Eoad, N.W. 

Geden, Eev. Prof. John Dury, Didsbury College, near Man- 
chester. 
Geikie, Eev. Cunningham, D.D., F.E.G.S., 3, Eosedale Villa, 

West Dulwich, S.E. 
Geldart, Eev. G. C, M.A., 14, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 



IJsl of Mevihcr:*. 4U7 

GiBB, Rev. John, M.A,, Presbyterian College, Queen's Square. 
W.C. 

Gibbon, J. A., Crescent Lodge, Peckhani Rye, S.W. 

GiFPAED, Sir Hardinge Stanley, Q.C, 12, (/hester Place, 
Hyde Park Square, W. 

Gill, Thos. R., 39, Amersham Road, New Cross, S.E. 
*GiNSBURQ, Rev. Christian D., LL.D., Binfield, Bracknell, Herts. 
*Gladstone, Right Hon. AV. E., M.P.,D.C.L., F.S.S., 11, Carlton 
House Terrace, W. (Vice-President.) 

Gladstone, J. Hall, Ph.D., P.R.S., 17, Pembridge Square, AV. 

GoLDSCHMiDT, M., 106, Gamle Kongever, Copenhaaen. 

Golenischeef, W., Quai Anglais 12. St. Petersbourg. 

Gorman, Rev. T. Murray, 13, Campdeu Grove, Kensington, W. 

GossE, Phillip H., P.R.S., V.P.S.S., Sandhurst, Torquay. 

Grant, Rev. W., Toronto, Canada. 
*Graves, R. Edmond, British Museum, W.C. 

Greig, Robt. R., 5, Verulam Buildings, Gray's Inn, W.C. 

Greenwood, Prof. G., Principal, Owens College, Manchester. 

Griffith, D. Clewin, F.R.G.S., 117, Gower Street, W.C. 

Grove, George, Sydenham, S.E. 

Gurney, J. H., Marklen, Totnes. 

GuRNEY, John, Sprowston Hall, near Norwich. 

Guest, E., LL.D., Master, Caius and Gonville College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Haigh, Rev. D. H., M.A., Erdington, near Birmingham. 
Hale, C. G., 26, Austin Eriars, E.C. 
Hall, Isaac H., Syrian Protestant College, Beirut. 
Hamilton, Right Hon. Lord Claud, M.P., 9, Eaton Square, W. 
Hamilton, A. C, M.A., Oldenburg House, Tunbridge Wells. 
Harman, John, 73, Lombard Street. 
Harris, Theodore, Church Bank, Leighton Buzzard. 
*Harrison, Charles, 10, Lancaster Gate, AV. 
Harrison, J. Park, M.A., Cintra Park Villa, Upper Norwood, 

S.E. 
Harrison, J. AV., 45, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 
*HARR0WBy, Right Hon. The Earl of, K.G., D.C.L., 39, Gros- 

venor Square, S.W. {Vice-President.) 
Hartland, Ernest, The Oaklands, Cheltenham. 
Hartland, E. Sidney, 5, Rutland Street, Swansea. 
Harvey, Right Rev. and Right Hon. Lord Arthur, Bishop 

OF Bath and Wells, D.D,, The Palace, Wells, Somerset. 
Harward, J., Wintert'old, Kidderminster. 
Haywood, W. J., 9, Foxberry Road, Brockley, S.E. 



408 TAst of Members. 

Heath, Eev. Du2fBAB I., F.E.S.L., Esber, Surrey. 

Hemaxs, Chas. I., 11, Eoland Gardens, South Kensington, W. 

HEjfDEEsox, John, M.A., F.S.A., 3, Montague Street, Eussell 

Square, W.C. 
Hetwood, Samuel, M.A., 171, Stanhope Street, K.W. 
Hill, F. Moelet, 22, Richmond Eoad, Barusburj, N. 
HiTCHCOCE, HiRAii, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 
HoBSON, Aethue S., 3, Upper Heathfield Terrace, Tuniliam 

Green, W. 
Hodges, E. R., Ph.D., 56, Maitland Park Road, N.W. 
Holmes^ John E., Holmsville, ]Methley, Leeds. 
Houghton, Rey. William, M.A., Preston Rectory, Wellington, 

Salop. 
Howaed, J. E., F.S.S., &C;., Lordship Lane, Tottenham, N. 
HowoETH, Henet a., F.S.S., F.R.M.S., Derby House, Eccles, 

Manchester. 
HuNTEE, Rev. Robt., M.A., F.G.S., 9, Mecklenburgh Street, W.C. 

Hutchinson, Suegeon-Majoe R. F., M.D., 15, St. Michael's 

Place, Brighton. 
HuxTABLE, Rey. Peebendaet, M.A., 5, Royal Terrace, AVeston- 

super-Mare. 
HuTSHE, Wentworth, 6, Pelham Place, S.W. 
Jenkins, B. G., 4, Buccleuch Road, West Dulwich, S.E. 
Jennee, Thomas, Clarendon House, ^Norwood Road, S.E. 
Jones, Rey. Aleeed, M.A., 50, Besborough Street, S.W. 
Jones, Winslow, F.R.G.S., Devon and Exeter Institution, 

Exeter, Devon. 
*JoNES, J. WiNTEE, F.S.A., British Museum, W.C. 
Keane. Maecus, M.R.I.A., Beech Park, Ennis, co. Clare, Ireland. 
Kessen, Rey. De., Jamaica. 
Kieme, Rey. Peof. Gustayus, St. John's Presbyterian Church, 

San Francisco. 
KiNGSBUET, Rey. T. L., M.A., Easton Royal Vicarage, Pewsey, 

Wilts. 
KiNGuoN, Rey. H. Tullt, M.A., 71, Wells Street, W. 
Kiekpateick, Rev. A. F., M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Lacet, Chaeles J., 1, St. John's Villas, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 
Laing, Alexandee, F.S. A., Scot., Newburgh-on-Tay, N.B. 
Lambeet, Geoege, F.S.A., 10, Coventry Street, Haymarket, W. 
Lane, Rey. Canon, M.A., Wrothara, Kent. 
Lang, R. Hamilton, Imperial Ottoman Bank, Throgmorton 

Street, E.C. 
La Touche, Rev. P. Digoe, Painstown Rectory, Beauparc, Slane, 

Meath. 



TAst of Jlfernher.i. 409 

Laughton, Alfred, Constantinople. 

Laueencb, F., Brook House, Clapham (>minon, S.E. 

Lea, John Walter, B.A., F.ft.S., 6, The Grove, Higligate, N. 

Leather, S, Petty, Corporation Offices, Burnley. 

Lee, Eev. Charles, M.A., St. Leonard's, Bilstou, Staftordahire. 

Lee, Geo. H., 8, York Street, St. James's Square, S.W. 

Leitch, J. MuiR, 22, Canonbury Place, N. 

Levander, H. C, M.A., University College School, Gower Street, 

Lewin, Thomas, F.S.A., 6, Queen's Gate Place, W. 

Lewis, Eev. Samuel S., M.A., Librarian, Corpus Christi College, 

Cambridge. 
Lewis, Prop. T. Hatter, F.R.I. B. A., 9, John Street, Adelphi, 

W.C. 
Lighteoot, Eet. J. B., D.D., Canon of St. Paul's, Amen Court, 

B.C. 
LoEWE, Eet. L., D.D., 1 and 2. Oscar Villas, Broadstairs. 
*L6wT, Eet. A., 160, Portsdown Eoad, N.W. 
LrsHiNGTON, E. L., LL.D., Park House, Maidstone. 
Ltdall, John H., 65, Ladbroke Grove, W. 

Maclagan, Eet. W. D., M.A., Eectory, S. Mary's, Newington, 

S.E. 
Maclaren, G., 71, Lansdown Eoad, Notting Hill, W. 
Mahapfet, Prof. J. P., Trinity College, Dublin. 
Malan, Ret. S. C, M.A., F.E.A.S., Prebendary of Worcester, 

Broadwindsor, Dorset. 

Mansfeld, Sigismund, 11, Lansdown Eoad, Notting Hill, W. 
Marshall, Eet. J., M.A., Pyrton Vicarage, Tetsworth, Oxon. 
Marshall, D., 39, Castle Street, Holborn, E.G. 
Mater, Joseph, F.S.A., F.E.A.S., F.E.jNT.S.A., Pennant House, 

Bebington, Liverpool. 
M'Clure, Eet. E., M.A., 67, Lincoln's Inn Field?, W.C. 
Meltille, Eet. Andrew, 6, Eton Gardens, Glasgow. 
Merrill, Eet. Selah, Andover, Mass., U.S.A. 
Merx, Adalbert, D.D., Giesseu. 
MiLAND, E., Clairville, Wimbledon, S.W. 
Miller, Eet. G., 10, Bessborough Gardens, S.W. 
Miller, Eet. Josiah, M.A., 142, Brecknock Eoad, N. 
Mills, Lltweltn, 40, Lonsdale Square, N. 
Mills, E. M., 10, Alexander Eoad, Upper Holloway, N. 
Mitchell, H. S., 5, Great Prescott Street, E. 
Mitchell, Dr. J. B., 14, Thistle Grove, S.W. 
MoAKSOM, Thos. John, All Saints Boys' School, Poplar, E. 
Mocatta, Datid, F.S.A., 32, Prince's Gate, W. 



410 Lint of Members. 

MoNTEiTH, Egbert, Carstairs, Lanarkshire, N.B. 

MoBA>'', Rev. F. J. Clay, Cambridge Park, Twickenham, S.W. 

MooBE, Septimus P., LL.B. B.Sc, 11, Carlton-road, Kilburn. 

Morris, "W". H., Clifton House, Ealing Road, Brentford. 
*M0RRIS0N, AV ALTER, 77, Cromwell r id, S.W. {Vice- 
President.) 

MoTT, A. J., Adsett Court, Westbury-on-Severn. 

Mtjie, J., LL.D., D.C.L., &c., 10, Merchiston Avenue, Edinburgh. 

MuiR, W. J. CoCKBURN, Eildou Lodge, Amershain Eoad» 
Putney, S.W. 
Napier, Rev. Eredk. P., B.A.., 8, Richmond Park Terrace, Rich- 
mond, S.W. 

Newman, Rev. Dr. (Chaplain to the Senate). Washington, U.S.A. 

Newton, Charles T., C.B., D.C.L., British Museum, W.C. 
*NicH0LS0N, Sir Charles, Bart., M.D., D.C.L., E.R.S.L., E.S.A ., 
F.E S., E.G.S.,2G, Devonshire Place, Portland Place, W. {Vice- 
President.) 

Nicholson, William, A.S.A., Whitecroft, near Lydney, Glou- 
cestershire. 
*NoRMAN, J. Manship, M.A., Dencombe, near Crawley, Sussex. 

NoRTHCoTE, Rev. Canon J. Spencer, St. Mary's, Oscott, Bir- 
mingham. 

Ommannet, Admiral Erasmus, C.B., E.R.S., G, Talbot Square, W. 

Paine, Rev. J. A., Beirut, Syria. 

Palmer, J. Linton, R.N., Lieut.-Col., E.R C.S.E., F.R.G.S., 

F.S.A., 21, Rock Park, Rock Ferry, Birkenhead. 
Palmer, William, M.A., 22, Portman Street, W. 
*Papworth, Wtatt, F.R.I.B.A., 33, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
Parish, Rev. W. D., Selmeston, Lewes, Sussex. 
Payne, William, F.R.G.S., The Keep, Forest Hill, S.E. 
Pease, H. F., J. P., Brinkburn, Darlington. 
Peckover, Alexander, F.R.G.S., F.L.S,, Harecroft House, 

Wisbeacli. 
Peckover, Jonathan, F.S.A., Wisbeach. 
Perigal, Henry, 9, North Crescent, Bedford Square, W.C. 
Perry, Rev. S. Gr. F., Ashtrn House, near Preston. 
Phene, J. W., F.R.T.B.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., 5, Carlton Terrace, 

Oakley Street, S.W. 

Phillips, Rev. G. E., M.A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

Filter, Wm. Turnbull, St. Martin's Vicarage, Coney Street, 
York. 

Pincott, James, Tellham House, Brixton Hill, S.E. 

Peetoeius. Dr. Franz, Lutzowufer 17, Berlin. 



List of Members. 411 

Peotheeo, Eev. Canok, Little Cloisters, Westminster, S.W. 
PuRDON, C. D., M.B., 14, "Wellington Place, Belfast. 
Eansom, Edwin, E.E.G.S., Kempstone, Bedford. 
Eanson, J. JossELTN, 43, Pembroke Eoad, Clifton. 
*EissAM, HoEMUZD, E.E.CS., Ailsa Park Lodge, Twickenham, 

S.W. 
*EAWLiifsoN, Eev. Canon GrEOBaE, M.A., D.C.L., Canterbury, 

Kent. {Vice-P)'emde7if.) 
*Eawlinson, Sib Henby C, K.C.B., D.C.L., E.S.A., F.E.S., 
E.E.G-.S., 21, Charles Street, Berkeley Sq., W. (Vice-President.) 
Eeadt, E. Coopee, British Museum, W.C. 
Eeed, Peect, 10, Upper Hornsey Else, N. 
Eendell, Eev. Aethue M., Coston Eectory, Melton Mowbray 
*Eenoije, p. Le Page, Council Office, Whitehall, S.W. 
EoBiNSON, Eev. Db., F.E.S. , The Observatory, Armagh, Ireland. 
EoBiNsoN, Eev. Dr. Stewabt, Kentiicky, U.S.A. 
EoBBiNS, Eev. De. John, S. Peter's Vicarage, Kensington Park 
Eoad, W. 
*EoDWELL, Eev. J, M., M.A., 28, Fellows Eoad, South Hamp- 
stead, N.W. 
Eoss, Eev. Alex., M.A., St. Phillip's Vicarage, Stepney, N.E, 
EoTHWELE, The Mabquis de, 27, Mornington Eoad, N.W. 
EowLET, Gr. Ftdeli, Chichester House, East Cliff, Brighton. 
EoT, Eugene Armand, British Museum, W.C. 
EoT, Eugene Lancelot, 1, Lady Margaret Eoad, Kentish Town, 

N.W. 
Eule, Eev, Dr., 10, Alexander Terrace, Clyde Eoad, Addiscombe, 
Croydon. 

*Satce, Eev. A. H., M.A., Queen's College, Oxford. 

Seagee, Pbof. Chaeles, M.A., 3, Girdler's Eoad, Brook Green, 

S.W. 
Seebohm, Fredeeic, Hitchin. 

Sewell, Edwabd, B.A., The College, Ickley, near Leeds. 
Seymoue, Henbt Danby, Athenseura Club, S.W. 
Sharpe, Eev. John, Gissing Eectory, Diss, Norfolk. 
*SiMPS0N, William, F.E.G.S., (^4, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
(Librarian.) 
Small, Eev. Geobge, M.A., 71, Albert Eoad, Croydon, S.E. 
Smith, Geobge, British Museum, W.C. 
*Smith, Veby Eev. Dean E. Payne, D.D., Deanery, Canter- 
bury, Kent. (Vice-President.) 
Smith, Eev. Peecival, M.A., 53, Arundel Square, Barnsbury, N. 
Smith, Joseph, 8, Cambridge Terrace, Lupus Street, W. 
Vol. IV. 27 



412 Lut of Members. 

Sole, Eev. S., St. Mary's, Oseott, Birininq;bain. 

St. Claiw, Geo., F.G-.S., 356, Coventry Road, Birmingham. 

Talbot, W. Henry Fox, D.C.L., F.E.S., F.S.A., F.E.S.L., 
Lacock Abbey, Chippenbam, Wilts. 

Tatloe, Eev. Alexandee, M.A., Chaplain, Gray's Inn, AV.C. 

Tatloe, Eev. Isaac, M.A., Eectory, Settriugton, York. 

Thompson, A. Dyott, 12, Pembridge Square, Westbourne 
Grove, W. 

Thompson, Eev. Aechee, M.A., Brympton, near Yeovil. 

Thompson, Silvantjs R, B.A., F.E.A.S., St. Mary's, York. 
*TiTCOMB, Eev. Canon, M.A., "Wingfield House, St. Stephen's 
Eoad, Sdutb Lambeth, S E. 

Tompkins, Eev. Henet Geoege, Park Lodge, Weston-super- 
Mare. 

Tooke, Eev. J. H., M.A., Monkton Farleigh, AVilts. 

Teemlett, J. C, M. A., West End Villas, Frome, Somerset. 

Teevoe, Eev. Geoege, 48, Queen's Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 
*Teisteam, Eev. Canon, D.D., F.E.S., The College, Durham. 

TuENEE, Eev. W., 17, Gayfield Street, Edinburgh. 

Twells, Phillip E., Enfield, Middlesex. 

Ttloe, E. Buenett, F.E.S., Linden^ Wellington, Somerset. 

Walkee, Eev. J., 67, St. George's Square, S,W. 

Wallis, Geoege, F.E.G.S., South Kensington Museum, S.W. 

Walters, Geegoey S., 12, Chester Terrace, Eegent's Park, N.W. 

Walter, James, 3, Allison Grove, Dulwich, S.E. 

Waed, Eev. Peecival, M.A., 55, Onslow Square, W. 

Weeks, Caleb, Union Street, Torquay. 
*Weie, Prof. D. H., University, Glasgow, N.B. 

Wells, Eev. John, M.A., 8, Lloyd Square, W.C. 

Wh alley, Buxton, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 

Whitbeead, S. Chaeles, F.E.S., F.E.A.S., Southill, Biggleswade, 

Williams, Eev. Watkin H., Boddelyddan, St. Asaph. 
*WiLS0N, Majoe C. W., E.E., F.E.G.S., Adair House, 
St. James's Square, S.AV. 

Winstone, Benjamin, 53, Eussell Square, W.C. 

Wise, T. A., M.D., F.E.C.P.E., Thornton, Beulah Hill, Nor- 
wood, S.E. 

Wise, Thomas, M.D., I.N.F., Bengal. 

Woodman, W., Stobhill, Morpeth. 

Wordsworth, Eev. J., M.A., 1, Keble Terrace, Oxford. 
* Wright, Prof. William, LL.D., St. Andrews, Station Eoad, 
Cambridge. 

Wright, Henry, Stallbrd Ht)us( , St. James'p, W. 



List of Members. 413 

Zachaby, Henry, Cirencester. 
ZiMMEEMANN, Dr. Carl, Basle, 

ZiMMERMANN, Eev. Prop. G. A., Female Seminary, Buffalo, 
New York. 



LADY MEMBERS. 

Bagsteb, Miss Eunice, Old Windsor, Berks. 

Bassett, Miss Mart, Boverton House, Cowbridge, Glamorgan- 
shire. 

Bentinck,Miss Ann CAVE]srDiSH,31, Norfolk Street,ParkLane,'W. 

Best, Miss E., Park House, Boxley, Kent. 

Blacker, Mrs. L., Elowermead, Wimbledon Park, S.W. 

BosANQiTET, Mbs. J. W., Claysmore, Enfield, Middlesex. 

Brocklehurst, Miss, Bagstones, Macclesfield. 

Brogden, Mrs. John, 6, Higbbury Park North, N. 

Brown, Miss Emma, 24<, Montpelier Place, Brigbton. 

Burton, Lady, 54, Chepstow Villas, Netting Hill, W. 

BusE, Miss E. H., 42, Grosvenor Square, W. 

Buxton, Miss E., Easneye, Ware. 
Cable, Mrs. Edwin, Carrefour House, St. John's, Jersey. 

Cattlet, Mrs., 34, Woburn Square, W.C. 

Clendintng, Miss, 20, Milton Street, Dorset Square, N.W. 

CoLViN, Mrs. Margaret Home, Earquhar, Stow, N.B. 

Crosbie, Mrs., Ardfert Abbey, Ardfert, Ireland. 
De Bergue, Mrs., 17, Palace Gardens, Kensington, W. 

Douglas, Lady, Bursledon House, Dawlisli, Devon. 
Edelmann, Mrs. A., 24, Moutpelier Place, Brighton. 

Edwards, Miss Amelia B., The Larches, Westbury-on-Trym. 
Eorster, Miss Saunders, 77, Coleshill Street, S.W. 

Freeman, Miss, Leamington. 
Gage, Hon. Mrs., Firle Place, near Lewes. 

Gawlee, Mrs. Colonel, Tower of London, E.C. 

Gray, Mrs. Hamilton, 2, South Eaton Place, Belgravia. 
Harris, Mjss Selima, Alexandria, Egypt. 

Harris, Miss Susannah, Norris's Hotel, Eussell Eoad, W. 

Henderson, Miss, 20, Gloucester Crescent, Hyde Park, W. 

HoLLOND, Mrs. Egbert, Cumberland Street, W. 



414 List of Members. 

HuiSH, Mrs., Combe AVood, Bonchurcli, Isle of Wight. 

HussET, Mes. S. M., Edenburn, Tralee, Ireland. 

HussET, Mrs., Hurst Green, Etcbingham, Sussex. 
IroLD, Miss Charlotte, South Lodge, Campden Hill, W. 
Jones, Mrs. Latinia, Bradford-on-Avou, "Wilts. 
KiXLOCH, Mrs., Gilmerton, Drem, N.B. 
LE>Tfox, Mrs., Little Sutton, near Chiswick, S.W. 

Lipscombe, Mrs. F. M., "Walton Lodge, Beulah Eoad, Tunbridge 
"W^ells. 

Lowe, Mrs., 68, Berners Sti'eet, "W. 
Maeston, Mes. C. Dallas, 25, Onslow Square, "W. 

Martin, Miss I. M., The Camels, "Wimbledon Park, S."W. 

Maxwell, Mrs., Carriechan, Dumfries, N.B. 

MoBEELET, Miss, 11, Elgin Crescent, Xotting Hill, W. 

MoERis, Mes. William:, Crofton House, Fareham, Hants. 
Peckotee, Miss, Wisbeach. 

Pilchee, Mrs. J. Dekdt, 15, Taviton Street, Gordon Square, W.C. 
Eadlet, Miss M., 6, Belmont Villas, Leicester. 

Eantard, Mrs. E., 13, Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, W. 

EoGEES, Miss, 7, Southampton-street, Fitzroy Square. 

KiCE, Mes. S. G., Grove Hill, Beutham, Lancaster. 
Seagee, Mrs., Elm Tree House, near Potter's Bar. 

Silvester, Mrs., The Grange, Tunbridge Wells. 
Tite, Lady, 42, Lowndes Square, W. 
Woobeoofe, Miss Selina M., The Close, Winchester. 



List of Members. 



415 



HONORARY FOREIGN MEMBERS. 



Bruqsch Bet, Heinrich 

CllABAS, FUA-NCOIS 

De Bellefonds, Linant 
DoLLiNQER, Prof. 

DiJMlClIEN, JOUANNES 

Ebers, Georg 
EiSENLOUR, August . . 
Ganneau, C. Clermont 
Goodwin, C. W. 
Hackett 

HOBRACK, P. J . De . . 
Lauth, F. Josepu 
Lefebure, M. E. 
Lenobmant, Feanoois 
Lepsius, R. K. Geheimrath 
J^ongperieb, a. De . . 
Maeiette, Augusts . . 
Maspero, G. 
M^ENANT, Joachim 
Oppert, Jules 
Peanoet, Gibault De 
Pride Aux, Captain F. W. 
Rogers, E. T. 
Safvhet Pasha 
Saulct, Le Chev. F. De. 
Schkadeb, E. 
Vogue, Le Comte De 
"Whitney, W. D. 
Wing, Tung 



Cairo. 

Chalou-sur-Saone. 

Cairo. 

Muaich. 

Strasburgh. 

Leipzig. 

Heidelberg. 

Paris. 

Yokohama. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

Paris. 

Muiiicli. 

Paris. 

Paris. 

Berlin. 

Paris. 

Cairo. 

Paris 

Koueu. 

Paris. 

Yosges. 

Bushire. 

Cairo. 

Constantinople. 

Paris. 

Berlin. 

Constantinople. 

Yale College, U.S.A. 

United States. 



UAKBISON ANP tiuNS, PRlNltatS IN ORDINABY TO UEB UAJE8TT, ST. VABTIN' LAHK. 



GETTY CENTER LINRARY 



Helmuth Halbach | 
Buchbindermeisler 
Konlgslein i. Ts. 




3 3125 00674 3914^ 



.i.iTrj^i'jV.'iliTT.