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Full text of "Venango County, Pennsylvania, her pioneers and people, embracing a general history of the county"

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TRANSACTIONS 



OP THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



or 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



VOL, XXV. 



XLVIIIth Meeting, New York, N. Y., 1903. 
XLIXth Meeting, Chicago, III., 1904. 




NEW YORK CITY: 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, 

From the Library Building, 

No. 12 West 31ST Street. 

1904. 



Copyriirht, 1904, 
By thb AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



Press of J. J. Little A Co. 
Astor Place, New York. 



BiiQinsttfin0 Libnvy 
HISTORICAL COLLECTION 

OFFICERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERS. 

1903-1904, 

FORMING THE STATUTORY COUNCIL. 



PRESIDENT. 
Ambross Swasbt Cleveland, O. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS, 

F. H. Daniei^ , Worcester, Mass. 

James Chbtbtib Philadelphia, Pa. 

JoHif R. Freeman Providence, R. I. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1904. 

D. 8. Jaoobus Hoboken, N. J. 

M. L. HoLMAN St. Louis, Mo. 

William J. Keep Detroit, Mich. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1905. 

MANAGERS, 

R. S. MooBB San Francisco, Cal. 

H. A. Goxis Richmond, Va. 

Chas. H. Corbett Brookijn, N. T. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1904. 

R. C. McKmNEY New York, N. Y. 

8. S. Webber Trenton, N. J. 

Nbwell Sanders Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1905. 

aBOROB I. RocKWOOD Worcester, Mass. 

John W. Libb. Jr New York, N. Y. 

Aba M, Mattice Pittsburg, Pa. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1906. 

TREASURER, 
Wm. H. Wiley Nos. 43-45 East 19th St., New York, N. T. 

SECRETARY, 
Pbof. F. R.HuTTOir No. 12 West 81st St., New York, N. Y.. 



Z^\<^\ 



HONORARY COUNCILLORS. 

PAST PRESIDENTS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Thubston, R.H 1880—1882 Died Oct 26. 1908 

Lbayitt. £. D 1882—1888 Cambridge, Maas. 

SwBBT, JoHH E... 188?— 1884 Syracuse, N. Y. 

HOLLOWAY, J. P. 1884—1885 Died Sept. 1. 1896 

Sellers, Coleman 1886—1886 Philadelphia, Pa. 

Babcock. Gboboe H 1886—1887 Died Dec 16, 1898 

Sbk. Hobace 1887—1888 

TOWNE, Henbt R 1888—1889 Stamford, Coon. 

Smith, Oberlik 1889—1890 Bridgeton, N. J. 

HtJOT, Bobebt W 1890—1891 Chicago, DL 

Lobino, Chables H 1891—1892.. BrooklyD, N. Y. 

CoxB, ECKLET B 1892—1894 .Died May 18, 1896 

Davis. E. F. C 1894 Died Aug. 6, 1896 

Bnxrnos, Chables E.* 1895 Hartford, Conn. 

Fbitz, John 1895—1896 Bethlehem, Pa. 

Wabbeb, Wobcesteb R 1896—1897 Cleveland, O. 

Hunt, Chables Wallace 1897—1898 New York, N. Y. 

Melvillb. Qeobob W 1898—1899 Philadelphia, Pa. 

MoBOiN, Chables H 1899—1900 Worcester, Mass. 

Wellmah.S.T 1900—1901 '. Cleveland, O. 

Reynolds, Edwin 1901—1902 Milwaukee, Wis. 

DoDOE, James M 1902—1903 Philadelphia, Pa. 

[Note.— According to the Constltation, Article C 27, the five rarviring Past PrMidents who last 
held the oflSce shall be members of the Coancil, with all the rights, privileget and daties of the 
other members of the coancil.] 

* Unexpired term of E. F. C. Davis. 



NOTE. 

The considerable bnlk of the Yolame of Transactions has induced the Pnbli- 
cation Committee to direct the insertion of a sammary of the Society member- 
ship in place of the complete list of members which was published in the earlier 
Tol nines. The summarj attaching to this issue is that which appears in the 
catalogue of the Society issued with corrections to July 1st, 1904. Reference for 
the complete list should be made to the ** Oeographical List" for July, 1904. 



Africa 

Australia 

Belgium < 

Canada 

Central America 

China 8 

Cuba 2 

France 9 

Germany 7 

Great Britain (England) 44 

Great Britain (Scotland) 4 

Total foreign membership 



FoRBiON Countries. 

Membenhip. 
.. 20 

4 

3 
.. 31 

1 



Holland 

India 

Jamaica, W. I 

Japan 

Mexico 

Norway 

Russia 

South America. . . 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Trinidad, B. W. I. 



Kembenhip. 
1 



.161 



Unitbd States. 



Membenhip. 

Alabama 6 

Aliska 1 

Arizona. • 1 

Arkansas 2 

Galifomia 30 

Colorado 23 

Connecticut Ill 

Delaware 14 

District of Columbia 28 

Georgia 18 

Hawaiian Islands 1 

niinoia 164 

Indiana 33 

Iowa , 3 



8 

4 

11 

18 

35 



Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 249 

Michlinn 67 

Minnesota 13 

Mississippi 1 

Missouri 41 

Total membership in the 



Membenhip. 
9 



Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire 15 

New Jersey 130 



New Mexico 
New York . . . . , 
North Carolina 
North Dakota. 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 



1 
802 
4 
1 
188 
1 
4 

Penlosylvania 377 

~ ~" 2 

48 
3 
1 
4 
5 
2 
11 



Porto Rico 
Rhode Island . 
South Carolina 
South Dakota. 
TeuDessee ... 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 25 

Washington 5 

West \^ginia 8 

Wisconsin 62 

United States 2,577 



VI TERBITORIAL LIST. 



GEOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY. 

Total foreign memberahip 101 

Total memberehip in United States 2,577 

* Present address unknown 2 

Total membership 2,740 

SUMMARY OF MEMBERSHIP BY GRADES. 

Honorary members 18 

Members 1,856 

Associates 221 

Junior members 645 

Total membership 2,740 

f Life members. 108 

* These are Lawrence V. Melville and Frank Pettit, both Junior Members, and if any 
member knows their present addresses he will confer i favor by so advising the Secretary. 

t These Life Members are included in the total membership above, in the class to wliich they 
belong. 



rPTDEX 

TO THE 

COIfrSTlTUTIOK", BY-LAWS AND EULES, 

AMERICAN SOCIETY MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



Amendment to the Constitution C 57-58 

" •• By-Laws C59 

" «« " Rules C60 

Annual Meeting, when to be held C 41, B 87, R2, 8 

" Report of the Council C 31 

Application of candidate C 14, B 1, 8 

Applications, disposition and scrutiny of C 14, B 2^ 

Appropriations by a general meeting C 43, B 21 

" Council B21, 23 

Associate, qualifications of CIO 

" advanced to grade of member C 15 

Audit of bUls B21,23 

" " books B23 

Badges of members .... B 42 

" for meetings R 2 

Ballot for membership C 16, B 6, 7 

" " " second baUot C 16, B 9 

" " Officers ....C 35, B 12-17 

Bequests aiid gifts C 28 

Bond of Treasurer B 39 

Book-keeping and account books B 23 

Budget, annual : B 21, 23 

By-Laws, how amended * C 59 

Candidate, qualifications C 5-11 

" application C 14, B 1,3 

" application (non-resident) B 2 

" references B 1-5 

" for offices B 30, 31 

Certificate of membersliip B 40 

Committees, appK)intment ' C 45-51, B 22-31 

" duties of B 22-31 

" removal of members C 51 

" Secretary of Standing .• C 50 

Conduct, unprofessional C 25 

Constitution, goes into effect C 61 



vm INDEX, CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

Constitution, how amended C 57, 58 

" subscription to C J8, B 11 

Cop)rright, not exclusive C 54 

Council, annual report of C 31 

" composed of C 26 

" may order letter-ballot C 23, 44, 57, B 36 

Delegate, representative B 32 

Directors of the Corporation C 26 

Discussions, professional R 4-11 

Dues, annual, arrears of C 24, B 19, 20 

" when payable C 21, B 18 

Election, announcement of the results B 15, 34, 35 

" sealed ballot C 16, 35, B 6, 10, 12 

" tie in the vote B 16 

Emblems of the Society B 42 

Endorsers of applicant B 1-5, 9 

Entertainments at meetings R 14 

Executive Committee of the Council C 30, B 29 

" " duties of C30, B29 

" " vacancy in C.51 

Expenses of Committees C 49 

Expulsion of members C 25 

Fee, initiation to the several grades C 19, 20, B 18 

Finance Committee, appointment C 45, B 23 

" " duties B 23 

Financial administration B 21 

Gifts and bequests C 28 

Government, by Constitution, By-Laws and Rules C 3 

Grades of membership , C 6 

Honorary Vice-Presidents B 32 

House Committee, appointment C 45, B 28 

" " duties of B 28 

Initiatiou fee for (the) several grades C 19, 20, B 18 

" " when to be paid C 18. B 18 

investments, gifts and bequests- C 27 

John Fritz Medal Committee C 46, B 32 

Junior dues Rl7 

'* member, qualifications of C 11 

" " procedure to change grade. . . •. C 15, 20 

Letter-ballot on subjects ordered by the Council C 44, B 36 

Library Committee, appointment, duties of .C 45, B 27 

" Maintenance C 2 

" when open R16 

Life membership fee C 22 

^Managers, members of the Council — C 26 

" term of office C 26, 34 

Meetings, Annual C 41, B 37, R 2, 3 

" Committee, appointment, duties of C 45, B 24 

" General C 41, B 37, R 2, 3 

•f Special C 42 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS IX 

Members most sign the Constitution C 18 

" qualifications of C 9 

Membership Committee, appointment, duties of C 45, B 26 

" grades of C 6 

Nominating Committee, appointment C 47, 48, B 13, 30, 31 

" " duties of B 13, 30, 31 . 

Objects of the Society C 2 

Officers of the Society C 26, 34, 38 

Offices of the Society, location C 4 

Papers, professional B 24, R 4-11 

Past Presidents, members of Council . . .C 26, 29 

President, a member of the Council C 26, 39 

" term of office C 34, 36 

Press, technical C 54, R 13 

Professional Committee .C 49 

" papers B 24, R 4-11 

Programme of meetings B 24, 37 

Proxies C 7. B 41 

Publication Conunittee, appointment, duties of C 45, B 25 

Quorum for business C 41 

Rejection of candidate C 16, B 9 

Removal of member of Committee C 51 

Report of Professional Conmiittees C 49 

" " the Council, annual C 31 

Representative delegate B 33 

Rights in the Society C 12 

Rules, how amended C 60 

Secretary, appointment, duties of C 38, B 38 

" in the Coimcil C 26 

" of Standing Committees C 50 

Sections of the Society C 52 

Standards shall not be indorsed C 56 

Suspension of members C 24 

Technical press C 54, R 13 

Tellers of Election C 47, B 6-8, 15, 17, 34 

Term of office C 34, 3B 

Title of the Society CI 

Topical subjects B 24 

Transactions of the Society. C 53, 54, 55 

Treasurer, duties of .C 39, B 39 

" term of office.. . . C 34 

Vaeancies in office C 28, 33, 40 

" " Committees B 22 

Vice-Prewdent, member of the Council C 26, 34 

" term of office C 34 

" Honorary B 33 

VotCTB, who are C 6, 18, B 6, 12 

." in arrears B 19 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL 

ENGINEERS. 



COKSTITUTIOK. 



NAME, OBJECT AND GOVEKNMBNT. 

C 1. The title of this Society is " The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers.'' 

C 2. The object of the Society is to promote the Arts and 
Sdences connected with Engineering and Mechanical Construc- 
tion. The principal means for this purpose shall be the holding 
of meetings for the reading and discussion of professional papers, 
and for social intercourse; the publication and distribution of its 
papers and discussions; and the maintenance of an Engineering 
Library. 

C 3. The Society shall be governed by this Constitution, and 
by By-Laws and Rules in harmony therewith. 

C 4. The Society was organized as a Corporation under the 
laws of the State of New York, April 7, 1880. Its offices shall 
be located in the City of New York. 

MEMBEBSHIP. 

C 5. Persons connected with the Arts and Sciences relating 
to Engineering or Mechanical Construction may be eUgible for 
admi^on into the Society. 

C 6. The membership of the Society shall consist of Hon- 
orary Members, Members, Associates and Juniors. Honorary 
Members, Members and Associates are entitled to vote and to 
hold office- Juniors shall not be entitled to vote nor to be 
oflBcers of the Society, but shall be entitled to the other privileges 
of membership. 

7. Honorary' Members, Members and Associates are en- 



XU CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

titled to vote on all questions before any meeting of the Society, 
in person or by proxy, given to a voting member. A proxy 
shall not be valid for a greater time than six months. 

C 8. Honorary Members shall be persons of acknowledged 
professional eminence, and their number shall not exceed twenty- 
five at any time. 

C 9. A Member must have been so connected with Engi- 
neering as to be competent, as a designer or as a constructor, 
to take responsible charge of work in his branch of Engineering, 
or he must have served as a teacher of Engineering for more 
than five years. A Member shall be thirty years of age or over. 

C 10. An Associate must either have the other qualifications 
of a Member or be so connected with Engineering as to be com- 
petent to take charge of engineering work, or to co-operate with 
Engineers. An Associate shall be twenty-six years of age or 
over. 

C 11. A Junior must have had such engineering experience 
as will enable him to fill a responsible subordinate position in 
engineering work, or he must be a graduate of an engineering 
school. A Junior shall be twenty-one years of age or over. 

C 12. The rights and privileges of every Honorary Member, 
Member, Associate and Junior shall be personal to himself, and 
shall not be transferable or transmissible by his own act or by 
operation of law. 

ADMISSION. 

C 13. Honorary Members shall be nominated by at least ten 
members of the Society. The grounds upon which the nomina- 
tion is made, shall be presented to the Council in writing. 

C 14. All applications for membership to the grades of 
Member, Associate or Junior shall be presented to the Council, 
which shall consider and act upon each appUcation, assigning 
each approved applicant to the grade of membership to which, 
in the judgment of the Council, his qualifications entitle him. 
The name of each candidate thus approved by the Council, shall, 
unless objection is made by the applicant, be submitted to the 
voting membership for election, by means of a letter-ballot. 

C 15. Associates or Juniors desiring to change their grade of 
membership shall make application to the Council in the sam^ 
planner as is required in the case of a new applicant. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS xill 

C 16. Election to membership shall be by a sealed letter- 
ballot as the By-Laws shall provide. Adverse votes to the num- 
ber of two per cent, of the votes cast shall be required to defeat 
the election of an applicant for any grade of membership. The 
Council, may in its discretion, order a second ballot upon a de- 
feated applicant, in which case adverse votes to the number of 
four per cent, of the votes cast, shall be required to defeat the 
election. 

C 17. The election of Honorary Members shall be by a vote 
of the Council taken by letter-ballot, as provided in the By-Laws. 
One dissenting vote shall defeat such election. 

C 18. Each person elected, excepting Honorary Members, 
shall subscribe to this Constitution, and shall pay the initiation 
fee before he can be entitled to the rights and privileges of 
membership. If such person does not comply with this require- 
ment within six months after notice of his election, he will be 
deemed to have declined election. The Council may, thereupon, 
declare his election void. 

INITIATION FEES AND DUES. 

C 19. The initiation fee for membership in each grade shall 
be as follows: 

For Member Twenty-five Dollars, 

For Associate Twenty-five Dollars, 

For Junior Fifteen Dollars. 

C 20. A Junior, on promotion to any other grade of member- 
ship, shall pay an additional fee of Ten Dollars. 

C 21. The annual dues for membership in each grade shall 
be as follows: 

For Member Fifteen Dollars, 

For Associate Fifteen Dollars, 

For Junior Ten Dollars for the first 

six years of his membership and thereafter the 

same as for an Associate. 

C 22. The Council may in its discretion, permit any Member 
or Associate to become a Life Member in the same grade, by the 
payment at one time of an amount sufficient to purchase from 
the Equitable life Assurance Society of New York, an annuity 
on the life of a person of the age of the applicant equal to the 



xiv CONSTITUTION, BY-tA\^S AND RULES OP TfiE 

annual dues in his grade. Such Life Member shall not be liable 
thereafter for annual dues. 

C 23. The Council shall have the power, by letter-ballot, to 
admit to Life Membership, without the pajinent of a life mem- 
bership fee, any person who, for a long term of years, has been 
a Member or an Associate when, for special reasons, such pro- 
cedure would, in its judgment, promote the best interests of the 
Society, provided that notice of such proposed action shall have 
been given at a previous meeting of the Council. One dissent- 
ing vote shall defeat such admission. 

SUSPENSIONS AND EXPULSIONS. 

C 24. Any Member, Associate or Junior who shall leave his 
annual dues unpaid for one year, shall not receive the volume of 
Transactions until such arrears are paid. Any Member, Asso- 
ciate or Junior who shall leave his dues unpaid for two years, 
shall, in the discretion of the Council, have his name stricken 
from the roll of membership, and shall cease to have any further 
rights as such. 

C 25. The Council may refuse to receive the dues of any 
member of any grade, who shall have been adjudged by the 
Council to have violated the Constitution or By-Laws of the 
Society, or who, in the opinion of the Council by a two-thirds 
vote, shall have been guilty of conduct rendering him unfit to 
continue in its membership; and the Council may expel such 
person and remove his name from the list of members. 

THE COUNCIL. 

C 26. The afifairs of the Society shall be matiaged by a Board 
of Directors chosen from among its Members and Associates, 
which shall be styled " The Council." The Council shall consist 
of the President of the Society, who shall be the presiding officer, 
six Vice-Presidents, nine Managers, the Treasurer and five Past 
Presidents. Five members of the Council shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business. The Secretary may 
take part in the deliberations of the Council, but shall not have 
a vote therein. The Chairman of the Finance Committee shall" 
attend the meetings of the Council and take part in the discus- 
sion of financial questions but shall not have a vote. 



AMERICAN SOCiKTY OP MECfiAKlCAL ENGINEERS 5cV 

C 27. The five surviving Past Presidents who last held the 
office shall be members of the Council with all the rights, priv- 
il^es and duties of the other members of the Council. 

C 28. The Council thus constituted shall be the legal Trustee 
of the Society. All gifts or bequests not designated for a specific 
purpose shall be invested by the Council, and only the income 
therefrom may be used for current expenses. 

C 29. Should a vacancy occur in the Council, or in any elec- 
tive office except the presidency, through death, resignation or 
other cause, the Council may elect a Member or Associate to fill 
the vacancy until the next annual election. 

C 30. The Council shall regulate its own proceedings, and 
may by resolution delegate specific powers to an Executive 
Committee or to any one or more members of the Council. No 
act of the Executive Committee or of a delegate shall be binding 
until it has been approved by a resolution of the Council. 

C 31. The Council shall present at the Annual Meeting of 
the Society a report verified by the President or Treasurer or 
by a majority of the members of the Council, showing the whole 
amount of real and personal property owned by the Society, 
where located, and where and how invested, and the amount 
and nature of the property acquired during the year immediately 
preceding the date of the report, and the manner of the acquisi- 
tion; the amount applied, appropriated or expended during the 
year immediately preceding such date, and the purposes, objects 
or persons to or for which such applications, appropriations or 
expenditures have been made; also the names and places of resi- 
dence of the persons who have been admitted to membership in 
the Society during the last year, which report shall be filed 
with the records of the Society, and an abstract thereof shall be 
entered in the minutes of the proceedings of the Annual Meeting. 

C 32. An act of the Council, which shall have received the 
expressed or the implied sanction of the membership at the next 
subsequent meeting of the Society, shall be deemed to be the act 
of the Society, and shall not afterwards be impeached by any 
member. 

C 33. The Council may, by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present, declare any elective office vacant, on the failure of its 
incumbent for one year, from inability or otherwise, to attend 
the Council meetings, or to perform the duties of his oflBce, and 
shall thereupon appoint a Member or Associate to fill the vacancy 



Xvi CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

until the next Annual Meeting. The said appointment shall not 
render the appointee ineligible to election to any office. 

OFFICERS. 

C 34. At each Annual Meeting there shall be elected from 
among the Members and Associates: 

A President to hold office for one year. 
Three Vice-Presidents, each to hold office for two years. 
Three Managers, each to hold office for three years. 
A Treasurer to hold office for one year. 

C 35. The election of officers shall be by sealed letter-ballot, 
as the By-Laws shall provide. 

36. The term of all elective officers shall begin on the ad- 
journment of the Annual Meeting of the Society. Officers shall 
continue in their respective offices until their successors have been 
elected and have accepted their offices. 

C 37. A President, Vice-President or Manager shall not be 
eligible for immediate re-election to the same office at the expira- 
tion of the term for which he was elected. 

C 38. The Council, at its first meeting after the Annual 
Meeting of the Society, shall appoint a person of the grade of 
Member to serve as Secretary of the Society for one year, sub- 
ject to removal for cause by an affirmative vote of fifteen mem- 
bers of the Council, at any time after one month's written notice 
has been given him to show cause why he should not be re- 
moved, and he has been heard in his own defense, if he so de- 
sires. The Secretary shall receive a salary which shall be fixed 
by the Council at the time of his appointment. 

C 39. The President, Secretary and Treasurer shall perform 
the duties legally or customarily attaching to their respective 
offices under the Laws of the State of New York, and such other 
duties as may be required of them by the. Council. 

C 40. A vacancy in the office of President shall be filled by 
the Vice-President, who is senior by age. 

MEETINGS. 

C 41. The Society shall hold two meetings in each year. The 
Annual Meeting shall begin in New York City on the first Tues- 
day in December, and a Semi- Annual Meeting shall be held at 



AMERICAK SOCIETY OF* MECfiANICAL ENGINEERS Xvii 

such time and place a» the Council may appomt. Fifty Memhert 
and Associates shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business. 

C 42. Special meetings of the Society may be called at any 
time at the discretion of the Council, or shall be called by the 
President upon the written request of fifty members entitled to 
vote, the notices for such meetings to state the business for 
which such meeting is called, and no other business shall be 
entertained or transacted at that meeting. 

C 43. Any appropriation recommended by the Society- at a 
meeting shall not take effect until it has been approved by the 
CounciL 

C 44. Every question which shall come before a meeting of 
the Society or of the Council or a Committee, shall be decided 
by a majority of the votes cast, unless otherwise provided in this 
Constitution or the By-Laws, or the Laws of the State of New 
York. The Council may order the submission of any question 
to the membership for discussion by letter-ballot. Any meeting 
of the Society at which a quorum is present, may order the sub- 
mission of any question to the membership for discussion by 
letter-ballot. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

C 45. The Standing Committees of the Society to be ap- 
pointed by the President shall be: 

Finance Committee, 
Committee on Meetings, 
Publication Committee, 
Membership Committee, 
Library Committee, 
House Committee. 
C 46. There shall be a John Fritz Medal Committee of three 
members appointed as provided in the By-Laws. 
C 47. The Annual Committees shall be: 

An Executive Committee, appointed by the Council. 
A Nominating Committee, appointed by the President. 
Tellers as required by the By-Laws, appointed by the 
President. 
C 48. Special Nominating Committee: 

Twenty or more members entitled to vote may constitute 



XVm CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OP tott 

themselves a Special Nominating Committee, with the same 
powers as the Annual Nominating Committee. 

C 49. Pix>fessional Committees: 
The Council shall have power to appoint, upon a recom- 
mendation of the Society at a general meeting, or upon its own 
initiative, such Professional Committees as it may deem desira- 
ble, to investigate, consider and report upon subjects of engineer- 
ing interest. Eeports of such committees may be accepted by 
the Society and printed in the Transactions^ but shall not be 
approved or adopted as the action of the Society. Any proposed 
expenses of such committees must be authorized by the Council 
before they are incurred. 

C 50. Each Committee shall perform the duties required of it 
in the By-Laws, or assigned to it by the Council. The Secretary 
of the Society shall be the Secretary of each of the Standing 
Committees. 

C 51. The Council may at any time, in its own discretion, 
remove any or all members of any Committee, except a Nom- 
inating Committee; and the va9ancy, arising from this or from 
any other cause, shall be filled by appointment by the President, 
except a vacancy in the Executive Committee, which shall be 
filled by the Council. 

SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

C 52. The Council may, in its discretion, authorize the or- 
ganization of sections or groups of any or all grades of member- 
ship, for professional or scientific purposes which are in harmony 
wi^ the Constitution and By-Laws of this Society. Such sec- 
tions or groups may, in the discretion of the Council, be geo- 
graphical or professional, and shall have such powers, and act 
under such rules and regulations as the Council may from time 
to time prescribe. 

TBAN8A0TI0N8. 

C 53* The official record of technical papers and discussion, 
shall be known as the Transactions of the Society, and shall be 
published under the direction of the Council. There may be 
included therein, the annual report of the Council, reports of 
Committees, and business records of the Society. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEfcR^ XIX 

C 54. The Society shall claim no exclusive copyright to any 
papers read at its meetings, or any reports or discussions thereon, 
except in the matter of their official publication under the So- 
ciety's imprint as its Transactions. The policy of the Society 
shall be to give the professional and scientific papers read before 
it the widest circulation possible, with the view of making the 
work of the Society known, encouraging Engineering progress 
and extending the professional reputation of its members. 

C 55. The Society shall not be responsible for statements or 
opinions advanced in papers or in discussions at its meetings. 
Matters relating to politics or purely to trade shall not be dis- 
cussed at a meeting of the Society, nor be included in the 
Transactions. 

C 56- The Society shall not approve or adopt any standard 
or formula, or approve any engineering or commercial enterprise. 
It shall not allow its imprint or name to be used in any commer- 
cial work or business. 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

C 57. At any semi-annual meeting of the Society any mem- 
ber may propose in writing an amendment to this Constitution. 
Such proposed amendment shall not be voted on at that meeting, 
but shall be open to discussion and to such modification as may 
be accepted by the proposer. The proposed amendment shall 
be mailed in printed form by the Secretary to each member of 
the Society entitled to vote, at least sixty days previous to the 
next annual meeting, accompanied by comment by the Council, 
if it so elects. At that annual meeting such proposed amend- 
ment shall be presented for discussion and final amendment, and 
shall subsequently be submitted to all members entitled to vote, 
provided that twenty votes are cast in favor of such submission. 
The final vote on adoption shall be by sealed letter-ballot, clos- 
ing at twelve o'clock noon on the first Monday of March 
following. 

C 58. The letter-ballot, accompanied by the text of the pro- 
posed amendment, shall be mailed by the Secretary to each 
member of the Society entitled to vote at least thirty days pre- 
vious to the closure of the voting. The ballots shall be voted, 
canvassed and announced as provided in the By-Laws. The 
adoption of the amendment shall be decided by a majority of the 



XX CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

Votes cast. An amendment shall take effect on the announce- 
ment of its adoption by the Presiding Officer of the semi-annnal 
meeting next following the closure of the vote. 

AMENDMENTS TO BY-LAWS AND BCJLES. 

C 59. For the further ordering of the affairs of the Society, 
the Council may, by a two-third vote of its members present, 
amend the By-Laws in harmony with this Constitution, pro- 
vided that a written notice of such proposed amendment shall 
have been given at the previous regular meeting of the Council; 
and provided further that the Secretary shall have mailed to 
each member of the Council a copy of such proposed amend- 
ment, at least thirty days in advance of the meeting of the 
Council at which action is to be taken. The amendment shall 
take effect immediately on its passage by the Council. The 
Secretary shall at once mail a copy of such amendment to the 
members of all grades. 

C 60. The Council may, by a majority vote of the members 
present at any meeting, establish, amend or annul Eules for the 
conduct of the business affairs of the Society; for the ordering 
and conduct of its professional or business meetings; and for 
guidance of its committees in their work and reports; provided 
that such Eules are in harmony with the Constitution and By- 
Laws of the Society. 

CONSTITtJTION GOES INTO EFFECT. 

C 61, This Constitution shall supersede all previous Rules of 
the Society, and shall go into effect on the announcement by the 
Presiding Officer of its adoption. 



BY-LAWS. 

CANDIDATES FOB MEMBERSHIP. 

B 1. A candidate for admission to the Society as a Member 
or as an Associate must make application on a form approved by 
the Council, upon which he shall write a statement giving a 
complete account of his qualifications and engineering experience, 
and an agreement that he will, if elected, conform to the Con- 



AMEBICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL ENGINEERS XXI 

stitution, By-Laws and Eules of the Society. He must refer to 
at least five Members or Associates to whom he is personally 
known. 

B 2. Applications for membership from Engineers who are 
Dot resident in the United States or Canada, and who may be 
so situated as not to be personally known to five Members of the 
Society, as required in the foregoing paragraph, may be recom- 
mended for ballot by five members of the Council, after sufficient 
evidence has been secured to show that in their opinion the appli- 
cant is worthy of admission to the grade which he seeks. 

B 3. A candidate for admission to the Society as a Junior 
must make application in the same manner as provided for Mem- 
bers, except that he must refer to not less than three Members 
or Associates to whom he is personally known. 

B 4. Keferences shall not be required of candidates for Hon- 
orary Membership. 

B 5. The references for each candidate for admission to the 
Society shall be requested to make a confidential communication 
to the Membership Committee, setting forth in detail such in- 
formation, personally known to referee, as shall enable the 
Council to arrive at a proper estimate of the eligibility of the 
candidate for admission to the Society. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

B 6. The Secretary shall mail to each member entitled to 
vote, at least thirty days in advance of each annual or semi- 
annual meeting, a ballot stating the names and the respective 
grades of the candidates for membership in the Society which 
have been approved by the Council, and the time of the closure 
of voting. The voter shall prepare his ballot by crossing out 
the names of candidates rejected by him, and shall enclose said bal- 
lot in a sealed blank baUot envelope which he shall then enclose in 
a second sealed outer envelope on which he shall, for identifica- 
tion, write his name in ink. The ballot thus prepared and en- 
closed shall be mailed or delivered unopened to the Tellers of 
Election. The Secretary shall certify to the competency, and 
the signature of all voters. On the closure of voting, the Tellers 
of Election shall first open and destroy the outer envelopes, and 
shall then canvass the ballots, and certify the result to the meet- 
ing of the Society. 



Xxii CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

B 7. The Tellers shall not receive any ballot after the stated 
time of the closure of voting. A ballot without the endorsement 
of the voter, written in ink on the outer envelope, is defective, 
and shall be rejected by the Tellers of Election. 

B 8. The names of those persons elected to membership, with 
their respective grades, shall be embodied in a written report, 
signed by the Tellers, and presented to the next meeting of the 
Society. The President shall then declare them duly elected to 
membership in the Society. The Tellers may, through the 
Secretary, in advance of any meeting advise each candidate of 
the result of the canvass of the votes in his case. The names of 
applicants who are not elected shall neither be announced nor 
recorded in the Transactions. 

B 9. The endorsers of an applicant who has not been elected, 
may, with his consent, present to the Council a written request 
for a re-submission of his name to ballot. The Council may, in 
its discretion, by a three-fourths vote of the members present, 
order the name of the applicant placed on the next ballot for 
members. 

B 10. Election to Honorary Membership shall be by letter- 
ballot of the Council. A notice of such proposed election shall 
be mailed by the Secretary to each member of the Council at 
least sixty days in advance of the date set for the closure of 
such election. 

B 11. Each person elected to membership, except an Hon- 
orary Member, must subscribe to the Constitution, By-Laws and 
Kules of the Society, and pay the initiation fee before he can 
receive a certificate of membership in the Society, 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

B 12. The Secretary shall mail to each member entitled to 
vote, at least thirty days before the Annual Meeting, the names 
of the candidates for office proposed for election by the Nom- 
inating Committee. 

B 13. The names of the candidates proposed by the Nom- 
inating Committee or Committees, and the respective offices for 
which they are candidates, shall be printed in separate lists on 
the same ballot sheet, each list of candidates to be printed under 
the names of the members of the particular committee which 
proposed it. 
59 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS XXlll 

B 14. The name of any candidate on the ballot may be 
erased, and the name of any person qualified to hold the ofBce 
written in its stead. The voter shall make a cross with a pen 
or pencil before the name of each candidate for office for whom 
he wishes to vote. The ballot thus prepared must be voted and 
canvassed in the same manner as for the election of members. 

B 15. At the first session of the Annual Meeting, the 
Tellers of Election of Officers shall canvass the votes cast for 
the officers of the Society in the manner prescribed for the elec- 
tion of members, and immediately report the result of the can- 
vas to the meeting. The President shall then announce the 
candidates having the greatest number of votes for their respec- 
tive offices, and declare them elected for the ensuing year. 

B 16. In case of a tie in the vote for any officer, the Presi- 
dent or, in his absence, the Presiding Officer shall cast the decid- 
ing vote. 

B 17. A ballot which contains more names marked by a cross 
on it than there are officers to be elected, is thereby defective, 
and shall be rejected by the Tellers. 

FEES AND DUES. 

B 18. The initiation fee and annual dues of the first year 
shall be due and payable on notice of election to membership, 
and upon that payment the member will be entitled to the Trcma- 
acti/ms for the year. Thereafter the annual dues shall be due 
and payable on the first day of October in each year. 

B 19. A member in arrears for one year shall not be entitled 
to vote until such arrears have been paid. Should the right to 
vote be qu^tioned, the books of the Society shall be conclusive 
evidence. 

B 20. The Secretary shall present to the Council the name of 
any Member, Associate or Junior in arrears for more than one 
year, and such member shall not receive the Transaeiions until 
such arrears are fully paid. A person dropped from the rolls 
for non- payment of dues may, in the discretion of the Council, 
be restored to the privileges of membership, upon payment of 
all arrears. 

FINAKOIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

B 91. The Council at its first meeting in each fiscal year, 
shall consider the recommendations of the Finance Committee 



XXIV CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

concerning the expenditure necessary for the work of the Society 
during that year. The apportioning of the work of the Society 
among the various Standing and other Committees shall be on 
a basis approved by the Council and in harmony with the Con- 
stitution and By-Laws. The appropriations approved by the 
Council, or so much thereof as may be required for the work of 
the Society, shall be expended by the various Committees of the 
Society, and all bills against the Society for such expenditure 
shall be certified by the Committee making the expenditure and 
shall then be sent to the Finance Committee for audit. Money 
shall not be paid out by any officer or employee of the Society 
except upon bills duly audited by the Finance Committee, or by 
resolution of the Council. 



COMMITTEES. 

B 22. The President within one month after the Annual 
Meeting shall fill all vacancies in the Standing Committees by 
appointment from the membership of the Society. 

Each of the Standing and the Annual Committees, shall, at 
their first meeting after the Annual Meeting, elect a Chairman 
to serve for one year. The President shall appoint the Chair- 
man of each Professional Committee. A member of a Standing 
Committee whose term of office has expired, shall continue to 
serve until his successor shall have been appointed. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

B 23. The Finance Committee shall consist of five Members 
or Associates. The term of office of one member of the Com- 
mittee shall expire at the end of each Annual Meeting. This 
Committee shall, in the discretion of the Council, have a super- 
vision of the financial affairs of the Society, including the 
books of account. The Committee may cause the accounts of 
the Society to be audited and approved annually by a chartered 
or other competent public accountant. The Committee shall 
hold monthly meetings for the audit of bills and such other busi- 
ness as shall come before it and shall deliver to the Secretary for 
presentation to the Council at the end of each fiscal year, a re- 
port of the financial condition of the Society for the past year, 
find also shall present therewith a detailed estimate of the prob- 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS XXV 

able income and expenditure of the Society for the following 
twelve months. It shall make recommendations to the Council 
as to investments, and, when called upon by the Council, advise 
upon financial questions. 

OOMMITTEB ON MEETINGS. 

B 34. The Committee on Meetings shall consist of five per- 
sons who may be members of any grade. The term of office of 
one member of the Committee shall expire at the end of each 
Annual Meeting. It shall be the duty of the Committee to pro- 
cure professional papers, to pass upon their suitability for pres- , 
entation, and to suggest topical subjects for discussion at the 
meetings. The Committee may refer any paper presented to 
the Society to a person or persons, especially qualified by the- 
oretical knowledge or practical experience, for their suggestions 
or opinions as to the suitability of the paper for presentation. 
Papers from non-members shall not be accepted except by unan- 
imous vote of the Conmiittee. 

The Committee shall arrange the programme of each meeting 
of the Society, and shall have general charge of the entertain- 
ments to be provided for the members and guests at each meet- 
ing. It shall prohibit the distribution or exhibition at the head- 
quarters or at the meeting places of the Society of all advertising 
circulars, pamphlets or samples of commercial apparatus or 
machinery. At the end of each fiscal year, the Committee shall 
deliver to the Secretary for presentation to the Council, a de- 
tailed report of its work. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

B 25. The Publication Committee shall consist of five Mem- 
bers or Associates. The term of office of one member shall ex- 
pire at the end of each Annual Meeting. The Committee shall 
review aU papers and discussions which have been presented at 
the meetings, and shall decide what papers or discussions, or 
parts of the same, shall be printed in the Transactions of the 
Society. The Committee will be expected to publish all such 
data as will be of assistance to engineers or investigators in their 
work. At the end of each fiscal year, the Committee shall 
deliver to the Secretary for presentation to the Council, a de- 
tailed report of its work. 



XXVI CONSTITUTION, 'BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE. 

B 26. The Membership Committee shall consist of five Mem- 
bers OP Associates. The term of oflSce of one member of the 
Committee shall expire at the end of each Annual Meeting. It 
shall be the duty of this Committee: 

To meet monthly to receive and scrutinize aU appli- 
cations for membership to the Society. 
To send to each voting member the name, qualifica- 
tions, engineering experience and references of 
each applicant, together with extracts from the 
Constitution and By-Laws relating to member- 
ship. 
To seek further information as to the qualifications 
of an applicant, whose evidence of eligibility is 
not clear to the Committee. 
To report to each session of the Council the names 
of all applicants under consideration together 
with the action of the Committee on each. 
The Committee shall at once destroy all correspondence in 
relation to each applicant when his name has been placed on the 
ballot by order of the Council, or upon the withdrawal of the 
application. 

LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 

B 27. The Library Committee shall consist of five Members, 
Associates or Juniors. The term of oflSce of one member of the 
Committee shall expire at the end of each Annual Meeting. It 
shall be the duty of the Library Committee to take charge of 
the library of the Society, the historical relics, the paintings 
and objects of art, and to recommend to the Council suitable 
regulations for their care and use. At the end of each fiscal 
year, the Committee shall deliver to the Secretary, a detailed 
report of its work. 

HOUSE COMMITTEE. 

B 28. The House Committee shall consist of five Members, 
Associates or Juniors. The term of oflSce of one member of the 
Committee shall expire at the end of each Annual Meeting. It 
shall be the duty of the House Committee to have the care, 
management and maintenance of the house of the Society and 
its furnishings. They may make rules for the care and the use 



AMEKICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS XXVll 

of the Society House, subject to the approval of the Council. 
At the end of each fiscal year, the Committee shall deliver to 
the Secretary a detailed report of its work. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

B 29. The- Council shall appoint from its members an Execu- 
tive Committee to act for the Council during the interval between 
its sessions. The Committee shall make a report of its acts to 
each session of the Council for approval. The Secretary may 
take part in the deliberations of the Executive Committee, but 
shall not have a vote therein. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEES. 

B 30. A Nominating Committee of five Members, not mem- 
bers of the Council, shall be appointed by the President within 
three months after he assumes office. It shall be the duty of 
this Committee to send to the Secretary on or before October 
first the names of consenting nominees for the elective offices 
next falling vacant under the Constitution. Upon the request 
of any Member or Associate, the Secretary shall furnish to the 
applicant the names of such nominees. 

B 31. A special Nominating Committee if organized, shall, 
on or before October twentieth, present to the Secretary the 
names of the candidates nominated by it for the elective offices 
next falling vacant under the Constitution, together with the 
written consent of each. 

JOHN FRITZ MEDAL COMMITTEE. 

B 32. The John Fritz Medal Committee shall consist of three 
persons of the grade of Member, to be appointed by the Council. 
The term of office of one member of this Committee shall expire 
at the end of each annual meeting. The duty of this Conmiittee 
shall be to represent the Society in the Board of Trustees of the 
John Fritz Medal Fund Corporation. 

REPRESENTATIVE DELEGATES. 

B 33. The Council may in its discretion appoint a member 
or members of the Society or other person or persons to repre- 



XXViii CONSTITUTION, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 

sent it at meetings of Societies of kindred aim or at public 
functions. Such delegates shall be designated as "Honorary 
Vice-Presidents," and their duties shall terminate with the occa- 
sion for which they were appointed. 

TELLERS. 

B 34. The Presiding Officer shall, at the first session of the 
Annual Meeting, appoint three Tellers of Election of officers, 
whose duties shall be to canvass the votes cast, and report the 
result to the meeting. Their term of office shall terminate 
when their report of the canvass is presented to the meeting. 

B 35. The President within one month after assuming office 
shall appoint three Tellers of Election of members to serve for 
one year, whose duties shall be to canvass the votes cast for 
members during the year, and to certify the same to the Presi- 
dent. They shall notify candidates through the Secretary of 
the result of such election. 

B 36. The President shall appoint three Tellers to canvass 
any letter-baEots which shall be ordered by the Council or by 
the Society. 

MEETINGS. 

B 37. The meetings of the Society shall continue from day 
to day as the meeting may decide. The business session of the 
Annual Meeting shall be held on Wednesday following the first 
Tuesday of December. The professional sessions for the reading 
of papers shall be held at such times and places as the meeting 
may appoint. Notices of all meetings of the Society shall be 
mailed by the Secretary to members of all grades not less than 
thirty days before the date of such meeting. 

SECRETARY. 

B 38. The Secretary of the Society shall be the Secretary to 
the Council and also to each of the Standing Committees. 

The Secretary shall, under the supervision of the Finance 
Committee, have charge of the Books of Account of the Society. 

He shall make and collect all bills against members or others. 

He shall have charge of all bills against the Society, shall 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS Xxlx 

keep an account of the same, and shall present •em m proper 
form to the Finance Committee for audit. 

AIL funds received by any person for the Society, shall be de- 
Uvered to the Secretary. He shall immediately enter them in 
the Books of Account, and shall immediately deposit such funds 
as he receives, to the credit of the Society, in a Bank to be des- 
ignated by the Council. 

TREASURER. 

B 39. The Treasurer shall make payments only on the audit 
of the Finance Committee, or upon the direction of the Council, 
by resolution of that body. He shall furnish a bond for the 
faithful performance of his duties to such amount as the Council 
may require, such bond to be procured from an incorporated 
Guarantee Company, at the expense of the Society. 

TITLES, EMBLEMS, CERTIFOATB. 

B 40. Each Member and Associate shall, subject to such rules 
as the Council may establish, be entitled on request, to a certifi- 
cate of membership, signed by the President and Secretary of 
the Society. Every such certificate shall remain the property 
of the Society, and shall be returned to it on demand of the 
Council- 

B 41. Each proxy authorizing a person to vote for an absent 
member, shall be signed by such absent member, with an attest- 
ing witness, and be submitted to the Secretary for verification 
of the member's right to vote at the meeting at which the right 
is to be exercised. 

B 42. The emblem of each grade of membership approved 
by the Council shall be worn by those only who belong to that 
grade. The official stationary shall be used only by Officers 
and Committees of the Society. 

B 43. The abbreviation of the titles of the various grades of 
membership approved by the Society are as follows: 

For Honorary Members, . . Hon. Mem. Am. Soc. M. E. 

For Members, Mem. Am. Soc. M. E. 

For Associates, Assoc. Am. Soc. M. E, 

For Juniors, Jun. Am. Soc. M. E. 



XXX OOitSTITUTiON, BY-LAWS AND RULES OF THE 



RULES. 

R 1. The Secretary's oflBce shall be open on business days 
from 9 A.M. to 5.30 p.m. During the Annual Meeting, the office 
shall be open from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. A register shall be kept 
for each regular meeting, to record the attendance of members 
and guests. 

E 2. The Secretary shall provide a numbered badge or pin 
for each member or guest attending the regular meetings, the 
number on the badges to correspond with the member's of 
guest's number on the register. 

E 3. The Secretary shall at each regular meeting of the So- 
ciety distribute at the headquarters a printed list of the names 
registered at the meeting. 

E 4. Copies of papers to be read and discussed at any meet- 
ing shall be sent to each member thirty days in ^vance of that 
meeting. A paper received too late for such distribution shall 
only be accepted for presentation at that meeting by unanimous 
consent of the Committee on Meetings. A blank shall accom- 
pany the papers by which a member may signify his intention 
to discuss any of the papers, and priority in debate shall be given 
in the order of the receipt by the Secretary of such notification. 

E 5. At professional sessions, each paper shall be read by 
abstract only, ten minutes being allowed to the author for the 
presentation, unless otherwise ordered by the meeting. 

E 6. A member who has given notice of his intention to dis- 
cuss a paper, and shall have reduced his discussion to writing, 
shall be entitled to ten minutes for its presentation. 

E 7. Each speaker shall be limited to five minutes in the oral 
discussion of a paper, unless the time should be extended by 
unanimous consent. A member who has once had the floor 
cannot claim it again until all the others have been heard who 
desire to speak on that paper. Authors may have five minutes 
to close the discussion on the paper. 

E 8. Members unable to attend the meeting may send a dis- 
cussion of any paper ill writing, to be presented by the Sec- 
retary. 

E 9. The Committee on Meetings shall deliver to the Secre- 
tary such papers as they reconmiend for presentation to the 
professional meetings of the Society. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS XXXi 

R 10. The Secretary shall have sole possession of papers and 
iUostrations between the time of their approval by the Commit- 
tee on Meetings, and their presentation to the professional session 
of the Society. 

R 11. After the presentation and discussion of a paper, a 
copy of both shall be sent to the author, and, so far as possible, 
a copy of the reported discussion shall be sent to each member 
who presented it, with the request that he correct errors or 
omissions, and return the same promptly to the Secretary. 

R 12. Members may order reprints of papers at a price suffi- 
cient to cover the cost to the Society, provided that said copies 
are not for sale. 

R 13. The Secretary may furnish to the author twenty copies 
of his paper without charge. He may also furnish to the tech- 
nical press such papers in advance of the meeting as they may 
wish to publish after presentation to the meeting of Society. 

R. 14. The entertainments to be provided for the members 
and guests at any meeting of this Society in any city shall be in 
charge of a Local Committee, subject, however, to the general 
approval of the Committee on Meetings. 

R 15. A member may invite a non-member to the profes- 
sional sessions of the meeting, but the guest shall not take part 
in the proceedings without an invitation from the Presiding 
Officer. Invitations to guests of members for the entertain- 
ments provided for the Society shall be in the discretion of the 
Local Committee. 

R 16. The Society House shall be open at all hours for access 
to members. The Library shall be open on all week days be- 
tween the hours of 10 o'clock a.m. and 10 o'clock p.m. It shall 
be conducted as a Free Public Reference Library of Engineering 
and the Allied Arts and Sciences. 

R 17- Juniors who were elected to membership in the Society 
six years or more previous to the adoption of this Constitution, 
shall pay the same dues as an Associate, beginning with the 
fiscal year which opens after such adoption. Juniors, who have 
been elected less than six years before that date, shall pay the 
dues of an Associate on the expiration of six years after their 
election. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV. 

New York (48th) Meeting. 

TJLQM 

No. 1007 Proceedings of the New York 

(48th) Meeting 3 

No. 1008 Carnegie Gijt to En- 
gineering (Second circular, Appendix to Pro- 
ceedings) 34 

No. 1009 Dodge, James M President's Address, "The Money 

Value of Technical Trammg " . . 40 ly^ 

No. 1010 Barth, Carl G Slide Rules for the Machine Shop as 

a part of the Taylor System of 
Management 49 

No. 1011 Gantt, H. L Modifying Systems of Management. 63 *--^^ 

No. 1012 Richards, Frank Is Anything the Matter with Piece- 
work? 68 

No. 1013 ScHEPFLER, F. A Suggestions for Shop Construction... 93 

No. 1014 Sweet, John E What are the New Machine Too|s to 

Be? 100 

Na 1015 WiCKHORflT, Max H. .Air Motors and Air Hanuners — 

Apparatus and Methods for Test- 
ing 107 

No. 1016 Perry, Frank B... . .A Method for Determining Rates 

and Prices for Electric Power 120 

No. 1017 Bunnell, S. H Improvement in Valve-Motion of 

Duplex Air-Compressors 138 

No. 1018 Farwell, E. S Tests of a Direct-Connected Eight- 
foot Fan and Engine 145 

No. 1019 Cioss, W. F. M A Series Dbtilling Apparatus of 

High Efficiency 160 

No. 1020 Miller, E. F The Pressure-Temperature Curve of 

• Sulphurous Anhydride (S Ot) 176 

No, 1021 Gregory, W. B The Pitot Tube 184 

No. 1022 Allen, Benj. T Construction and Efficiency of a 

Fleming Four-valve Engine, Di- 
rectly Connected to a 400 K. W. 
Generator 212 

No. 1023 Morgan, C. H A Compact Gas-Engine : Beam Type 245 

No. 1024 Jacjobus, D. S Tests of a Compound Engine Using 

Superheated Steam 264 

No. 1025 Behtsch, J. C Standard Unit of Refrigeration 292 

No. 1026 Report of Conmiittee on Specifica- 
tions for Boiler Plate, Rivet Steel, 
Steel Castings and Steel Forgings 
—Monthly Reunion, Feb., 1904. 321 



XZXiy OONTENTS. 



Chicago, III. (49th) Mbetino. 

PAOI 

No. 1027. .* BiRNiE, R Ordnance for the Land Service 355 

No. 1028 Proceedings of the Chicago (49th) 

Meetmg 421 

No. 1029 Carnegie Gijt to En- 
gineering (Third circular, Appendix to Pro- 
ceedings) 437 

Np. 1030 Marks, L. S Use of Superheated Steam and of 

Reheaters in Compound Engines 

of large size 443 

No. 1031 Flint, Wm. P Commercial Gas-Engine Testing and 

Proposed Standard of Comparison 509 

No. 1032 HrrcHOOCK, E. A Road Tests of Consolidation Freight 

Locomotives 550 

No. 1033 Testing Locomotives in England — 

(Presented by the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers) 589 

No. 1034 Campbell, Wm Appendix IV. to Vlth Report of the 

Alloys Research Committee, 
Effects of Strain and of Anneal- 
ing — (Presented by the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers) 599 

No. 1035 Nioolson, J. T Experiments with a Lathe-Tool 

Dynamometer — (Presented by 
the Institution of Mechanical En- 
gineers) e37 

No. 1036 Wells, J. H Power Plantrof the Tall Office Build- 
ing ..... 685 

No. 1037 HoDGKiNSON, F Some Theoretical and Practical Con- 
siderations in Steam Turbine 
Work 716 

No. 1038 Rateau, A Different Applications of Steam 

Turbines — (Presented by the In- 
stitution of Mechanical Engineers) 782 

No. 1039 Goss, W. F. M Locomotive Testing Plants 827 

No. 1040 Emerson, H A Rational Basis for Wages *868 ' 

No. 1041 Keep, W. J Cast Iron, Strength, Composition, 

Specifications 884 

No. 1042 Kerr,C. V Potential Efficiency of Prime Movers 920 

No. 1043 Raven, Vincent L Middlesborough Dock Electric and 

Hydraulic Power Plant — (Pre- 
sented by the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers) 943 

No. 1044 Russell, C. N Refuse Destruction by Burning, and 

the Utilization of Heat Generated 
— (Presented by the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers) 982 

No. 1046 Bolton, R. P Power Plant of Tall Office Buildings 1011 



DONTSNT& tXX7 

PAOI 

Ho. 1046 &MMfe^, W. L. R Steam turbine in Modem Egineer^ 

ing 1041 

No. 1047 Lka, E. S., and 

Meden E DeLaval Steam Turbine 1066 

No. 1048 Watson, Geo Burning of Town Refuse— (Pre- 
sented by the Institution of Me- 
chanical Engineers) 1074 

No. 1049 HiTTTON, F.R Robert Henry Thurston, a Me- 
morial 1113 

No, 105O Memorial Notices of Members De- 
ceased during the Year 1121 



; 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



riQ. PAGE 

1. Location New Engineering Building 38 

2. Curves iUustrating money value of technical training 42 

3. Slide rules for the machine shop 62 

4. " rule 54 

5. " " Faces 54 

6. Qreular time slide rule 69 

7. " speed " " 60 

8. " spur gear slide rule 61 

9. Piece and day work diagram 70 

10. Day work diagram 76 

11. Piece " " 77 

12- Halsey premiimi plan diagram 77 

13. Taylor differential piece-work diagram 78 

14. Gantt, bonus system diagram 79 

15. Emerson parabolic diagram 80 

16. Parkhurst combination diagram 80 

17. Shop construction diagram 94 

18. Buriington route laboratory 108 

19. Testing i^paratus 109 

20. Arrangement for testing motors Ill 

21. Motor record diagram 112 

22. Arrangement for testing air-hammers 113 

23. Hammer record diagram 116 

24. Diagram of No. 6 riveting hammers 118 

25. Diagrams of rates and prices for electric power 122 



26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



127 
127 
128 
129 
130 
132 



32. " " " " " " 132 

33. Arrangement of steam valves — Meyer cut-off and regulating bracket . 139 

34. Valve diagram, duplex gas compressor 140 

35. Duplex air-compressor 142 

36. Baght-footfan 148 

37. Pressure, volume, indicated horse-power and efficiency curves 150 



38. 



151 



39. Efficiency curves 153 

40. Curves showing relation between vacuum and inlet and cubic feet of 

Mr discharged per minute 158 

41. Series distilling apparatus 161 



XXXVlll LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

wo. FAOl 

42. Section of a single elemoit — of series distilling apparatus 162 

43. Diagram of a distilling apparatus 163 

44. " " " " 165 

45. Sevoi chamber series distilling apparatus 172 

46. Pressure temperature curve of sulphur dioxide 180 

47. Firstformof Pitot tube 185 

48. Drawing of tube as described by Pitot 186 

49. Form of Pitot tube used by Darcy and Basin 187 

50. Pitot tube nozzles 190 

51. Curves of velocity and pressure 199 

52. Location of piezometers 200 

53. Curves of velocity and pressure 201 

54. Arrangement of tubes 203 

55. A form of Pitot tube — and gauges 205 

56. Section through Pitot tube 206 

57. Pitot tube gauge 210 

58. " " " 210 

59. Specimen indicator cards, test at about one-sixth load 213 

60. " " " " " five-eighths load 214 

61. " " " " " seven-tenths load 215 

62. " " " "atfullload 217 

63. " " " " at about li^load 218 

64. Curve of steam consumption 219 

65. Diagram at seven tenths load 220 

66. " atfullload 221 

67. Friction cards 223 

68. Overload " 224 

69. Direct connected engine and generator 226 

70. Curve showing relation between total steam per hour and total power 

developed 229 

71. Cross section of valves and cylinders v 236 

72. Plan and side elevation of engine 237 

73. Inertia governor 238 

74. Foundation plan 241 

75. Compact gas-engine 246 

76. Gas-engines 247 

77. " showing partial section through cylinder 248 

78. Diagram showing comparison between beam and ordinary type gaa- 

engine 249 

79. Inlet valve 250 

80. Valve gear 252 

81 . Connections for beam and direct-connected types of gaa-engines 254 

82. Diagram of forces 256 

83. Defective forces on crank pin 258 

84. Diagrams of test of compound engine using superheated steam 263 

Qc u tt it *f tt tt u 2^7 

Qrt a tt tt tt tt tt tt 270 

QJ tt tt tt tt tt tt tt 271 

fifi ** ** ** " " " " . 272 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XXXix 

no. VABM 

89. Diagrazns of test of compound engine using superheated steam 273 

gQ it tt a it tt it tt 274 

91. " " " " " " " 275 

92. Standard test specimen >. 323 

93. " " " 324 

94. Diagram showing test of soft steel 350 

95. " " " " " 351 

96. " " " " Bessemer machinery stock 352 

97. " " " open-hearth, common spring stock 353 

98. EHastic resistance of guns 384 

99. Diagram of 8-mch B. L. steel rifle 386 

100. Diagrams of shrinkage, pressures and strains 387 

101. " stresses... '. 388 

102. Diagram of initial tension and hollow cylinder. 389 

103. Modem field gun 392 

104. Limber for field gun 392 

105. Breech mechanism 6-inch R. F. gun — model of 1900 398 

106. The Before 6-inch R. F. gun 399 

107. Sixteen-inch B. L. rifle in proof carriage 401 

108. Twelve-inch B. L. motor and carriage 403 

109. Fragamentation 12-inch A. P. shell charged with Maxrinate 406 

110. " " " " " " explosive D 406 

111. Accuracy targets 10 and 12-inch B. L. rifles 409 

112. Barbette mount, Taku forts, China, after a battle 411 

113. Forty-five-inch shield. Barbette mount, 6-inch gun after proof firing. 413 

114. Twelve-inch Buffington-Crozier disappearing carriage, model of 1901. 415 

115. Warner and Swasey depression range finder 417 

1 16. Engine A 444 

117. Sectional elevation of upper half of 60-inch x 56-inch L. P. Cylinder. 446 
117a. " plan of 60-inch x 56-inch L. P. Cylinder, showing admission 

and exhaust valve 447 

117b. Side elevation of 60-inch x 56-inch L. P. Cylinder showing valve gear. 448 

118. Engine room of the L. Street Station of the Boston Electric Light 

Company showing Engine A 450 

119. Test 1 on Engine A, full load with jackets and reheaters 453 

120. "2, " u a a u a u u 454 

121. " 3, " B, quarter load, with jackets and reheaters 4^7 

122. " 4, " " half load, with jackets and reheaters 458 

123. " 5, " " " " without jackets and reheaters 459 

124. " 6, " " three-quarters load, with jackets and reheaters . . 460 

125. " 7. " " " " without jackets and reheaters 461 

126. "8, " " full load with jackets and reheaters 462 

127. " 9, " " " " without jackets and reheaters 463 

128. " 10, " " one and one-quarter load, with jackets and re- 

heaters 464 

129. Test 11, Engine B, one and one-quarter load, without jackets and re- 

heaters 465 

130. Test 12, Engine B, full load, with jackets and reheaters 466 

131. Results of Tests of Engine B 467 



Xl LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONa 

FIG. PAOK 

132. Engine room at the Atlantic Avenue Station of the Edison Electric 

Illuminating Company — showing engines C. D. E. and F 468 

133. EngineC 469 

134. Test 13, Engine C, full load with jackets and reheatere 472 

135. " 14, " " " " without jackets and reheatere 473 

136. " 15, " " three-quartere load, with jackets and reheatere 474 

137. " 16, " " half load with jackets and reheatere 475 

138. "17, " D, full " " " " " 477 

139. " 18, " " " " without jackets and reheatere 478 

140. " 19, " E, " " with jackets and reheatere 479 

141. "20, " "half " " " " " 480 

142. " 21, " F, full " " " " " 481 

143. " 22, " G, " " without reheatere 482 

144. " 23, " " " " with " 483 

145. " 24, " H,over " without reheatere 484 

146. " 25, " K, full " with " 485 

147. " 26, " " half " " reheatere 486 

148. " 27, " " quarter load with reheatere 487 

149. " 28, " " half load without reheatere 489 

150. " 22, " G,full " with " 490 

151. "23, " " " " " ' " 492 

152. " 24, " H, over " without reheatere 493 

153. " 25, " K, full " with " 494 

154. "26, " "half " " " 495 

155. " 28, " " " " without " 496 

156. Temperatvu-e-Entropy Diagram, full load test with reheater. Engine K 497 

157. Indicator diagram, high-pressure head end 506 

158. " " Engine A, high-pressure crank end 506 

159. " " " " low-pressure head end 507 

160. Engine A, low-pressure crank end 507 

161. 300 B. H. P. double acting tandem gas-engine 510 

162. 25 B. H. P. single acting vertical gas-engine 512 

163. Gas-engines ready for shop tests 514 

164. Diagram, 8 x 10 and 16i x 24 gas-engine, shop tests 516 

165. " " " " throttling gas-engine, shop tests 518 

166. " 6x7 " 7x10 hit-and-miss gas-engmetests 521 

167. Otto suction producer gas-engine 530 

168. " " " " 531 

169. 60 Horse-power Otto suction 'producer 532 

170. Explosion diagram 538 

171. " " 538 

172. " " 539 

173. " " 539 

174. Gas-engine cards — ^no load 541 

175. " cards— half load 541 

176. " caids— full load 542 

177. " " 544 

178. " " 545 

179. Broolcs Lpcomotive No. 230, Run No. 1, cards from left cylinder $51 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



xli 



FIA. 






• 






TAQM 


180. Brooks Locomotive No. 230, Run No. 1, cards from right cylind 


er 


552 


181. 


tt ( 


1 H It tt 


" left 


tt 




555 


Iffi. 


it t 


t It tt 11^ 


" right 


It 




556 


183. 


Bddwin ' 


No. 240, Run No. 3, " 


" left 


It 




559 


184. 


II t 


t ft ft tt 


" right 


It 




560 


185. 


tt 1 


t ft tt tt 


" left 


It 




563 


186. 


tt t 


t ft II ti 


" right 


ft 




564 


187. 


Brooks 


No. 257, Run No. 4, " 


'' left 


ti 




567 


188. 


tt t 


t It It ft 


" right 


ti 




568 


189. 


tt t 


t ft It It 


" left 


It 




571 


190. 


ft I 


t II It It 


" right 


It 




572 


191. 


tt t 


" Run No. 5, " 


" left 


It 




575 


192. 


tt t 


t ft ft It 


" right 


ft 




576 


193. 


tt t 


t ti II ft 


" left 


ft 




579 


194. 


ft t 


t ft It It 


" right 


ti 




580 


195. 


Diagram showing profile, horse-powers, time, 


steam pressures, etc.. 






etc., for Brooks Locomotive No. 230, Rtm No. 1, 


and Baldwin 






240, Rmi 
Diagram sho 


L No. 3 






FnoM 


580 


196. 


wing profile, horse-powers, time 


steam pressures, etc., 






etc., for Brooks No. 257, Run No. 4, and No. 6 




.Faces 


580 


197. 


Diagram showing profile, horse-powers, time. 


steam pressures, etc.. 






etc., for Brooks 257 Run No. 5, and 7. . . 






• Faces 


580 


198. 


Diagram sho 


wing speeds, horse-powers, etc.. 


etc., m 


road test on 






London and Northwestern Railway 






.Faces 


587 


199. 


Diagram sho 


wing speeds, horse-powers, etc.. 


etc., in 


road test on 






London and Northwestern Railway 






.Faces 


587 


200. 


Indicator diagrams from road tests on London and Northwestern 






Railway 

Aluminium cj 
ft / 








.Faces 


587 


201. 


Etst. X 30 diameters 








603 


202. 


II tt tt 








603 


203. 


tt 


It tt tt 








603 


204. 


ft 


ft ti tt 








603 


2C^. 


If 


tt tt tt 








603 


205. 


ft 


ti tt tt 








603 


207. 


« inirot- X 12 " 








603 


908 


a 

Bismeth 

It 


T3 ' 

Eist and strained x 5 diameters. . . . 








603 


209 


" X 30 diameters 








607 


210. 


" and strained x 30 diameters . . 








607 


211. 


" ingot fractured by 30 diameters.. . . 








607 


212. 


Cadmium cast x 30 diameters 








607 


213. 


It 


" and strained x 30 diameters . . 








607 


214. 


II 


It It It tt 11 








607 


215. 


If 


tt It It II It 








607 


216. 


** rnlloH tLTiA annAJilAH y ^0 diAiTiAtprs 








610 


217. 


If 


" X 30 diameters 








610 


218. 


It 


" and annealed x 30 diameters 








610 


219. 


11 


ti It ft It ti 








6M) 


220. 


(1 


It It It tt It 








610 


221. 


*t 


II $1 It II II 








610 



Xlii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fia. TAam 

222. Cadmium amiealed and strained x 30 diameters 610 

223. " " " " " " 610 

224. Copper slowly cooled x 30 diameters 611 

225. " electrolytic X 50 diameters 611 

226. " impure cast x 30 diameters 611 

227. " rolled X 30 diameters 611 

228. " foil, unannealed x 50diameters 611 

229. " " annealed x 50 diameters 611 

230. " slowly cooled x li diameters 611 

231. Gold, " " x30 " 611 

232. Lead ciystals (reduced) 614 

233. Gold slowly cooled x 10 diameters 614 

234. Lead Ingots 614 

235. " cast, surface x 20 diameters 614 

236. " rolled and annealed 614 

237. " cast X 35 diameters 615 

238. " " x30 " 615 

239. " " etched 30diameters 615 

240. " " " " 615 

241. " " " " 615 

242. " " " " 615 

243. " " and strained x 30diameterB 615 

244. " etched" " " " 615 

245. Sheetlead 618 

246. Rolled " 618 

247. Sheet " (Fig. 245 annealed) 618 

248. RoUed " " " 618 

249. Platinimi slowly cooled x 30 diameters 619 

250. Silver, ingot surface x 30 diameters 619 

251. " slowly cooled x 15 diameters 619 

252. " cast under salt x 30 diameters 619 

253. " " " cover of salt X 30 diameters 619 

254. " electrolytic x 8 diameters 619 

255. " cast imder cover of salt X 30 diameters 619 

256. " electrolytic x 8 diameters 619 

257. " cupeUed x30 " 622 

258. " " " " * 622 

259. Continuation of Fig. 257 622 

260. Silver cupelled x 15 diameters 622 

261. Continuation of Fig. 259 622 

262. Silver cupelled x 30 diameters 622 

263. *' " containing copper x 15 diameters 623 

264. " " " " " " 623 

265. " " " u ' u u 523 

266. " " " " " " 623 

267. Ingots of tin 623 

268. Tin cast on stone x 30 diameters , 623 

269. " " " " " 623 

;J70. " cast, surface x 30 diameters 624 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIO^& xliii 

no. PAoi 

271. Tin cast, surface x 75 diameters 624 

272. " Dendrites X 30 diameters 624 

273. " " deeply etched X 30 diameters 624 

274. " cast deeply etched x 30 diameters 624 

275. " " etched x 30 diameters 624 

276. " " slo^y etched X 30 diameters 624 

277. " " " " " " 624 

278. " roUed and annealed 625 

279. " " 625 

280. " cast 625 

281. " annealed (Fig. 279) 625 

282. " rolled 0.5 mm. thick x 30 diameters 626 

283. " " 0.1mm. " " " 626 

284. '' annealed 0.9 mm. thick x 15 diameters 626 

285. " " " " " " 626 

286. " " 0.5 mm. " " " 626 

287. " " 0.25 mm. " " " 626 

288. " hanmiered 30 diameters 626 

289. " " and annealed 35 diameters .626 

290. " annealed 35 diameters 630 

291. " " 33 " .'. . 630 

292. " annealed 10 days x 30 diameters 630 

293. " horizontal section of Fig. 292, x 30 diameters 630 

294. " heated to melting point, 35 diameters 630 

295. " fracture of Fig. 294, 35 diameters 630 

296. " strained and etched, 30 diameters 632 

297. " " " " " 632 

298. " annealed and one end quickly raised to melting point 632 

299. " " " " " " " " 632 

300. Zinc rolledand annealed 633 

301. " " 633 

302. " ingotetched 633 

303. " " surface 633 

304. " cast " x30diameters 635 

305. " " base X 30 diameters 635 

306. " " strain X 30 diameters 635 

307. " " " " " 635 

308. " strained etched X 30 diameters 635 

309. " " " " " 635 

310. Side elevation, lathe-tool dynamometer measuring vertical forces only 641 

311. Front view Fig. 310 '. 641 

312. Back " " " 641 

313. Sectional elevation universal dynamometer 642 

314. Plan of Fig. 313 642 

315. Front view of Fig. 313 644 

316. Side " " 644 

317. " " dynamometer in position 646 

318. Front " " " 646 

319. Plan " '' " 646 



Xliv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONa 

ne. WAQt 

320. Diagram of test on medium cast iron with dynamometer measuring 

vertical force only 654 

321. Sameas Fig. 320 654 

322. " " 654 

323. " " 654 

324. Diagram of test on fluid pressed soft steel with dynamometer measur- 

ing vertical force only 655 

325. Sameas Fig. 324 655 

326. " " 655 

327. " " 655 

328. Diagram showing variation of cutting stress with angle of tool medium 

cast iron 659 

329. Diagram showing variation of cutting stress with angle of tool, fluid 

pressed soft steel 659 

330. Failure trials of tools with various cutting angles, medium cast iron. . 659 

331. Failure trials of tools with various cutting angles, medium cast iron, 

fluid pressed soft steel 659 

332. Failure trials of various cutting angles, fluid pressed mediimi steel. . . G31 

333. Vertical section through tool and work 6" " 

334. Plan view of tool and cut G J ' 

335. Diagram showing variation of surfacing and traversing forces with 

different plan angles 671 

336. Diagram showing variation of surfacing and traversing forces with 

different cutting angles, fluid pressed soft steel 671 

337. Diagram showing variation of percentage of surfacing and traversing 

forces with different cuts 671 

338. Diagram showing variation of the angle of inclination 671 

339. Diagrams showing variation in the angle of inclination 672 

340. Diagram showing variation of cutting forces as cut progresses 673 

341. " of cutting force on soft steel 674 

342. ** showing variation of cutting stress with cutting speed on 
fluid pressed soft steel 675 

343. Side of Broad Exchange Building (New York City) before commence- 

ment of steel work 686 

344. Broad Exchange Building (New York City), nearly completed 687 

345. Method of supporting columns in side walls (cantilever for two columns) 689 

346. Cantilever support for one colunm and side wall 691 

347. Same as Fig. 346 showing columns above 693 

348. Foundations of New Mutual Life Building (New York City) Faces 694 

349. Plan of boiler and pump room, Mutual Life Building, New York 

City Faces 694 

350. Plan of engine room. Mutual Life Building Faces 694 

351. Coal bunker in basement of Mutual Life Building 698 

352. Ash hoist from cellar to side-walk, Mutual Life Building 699 

353. Safe lifting pumps and bottom of elevator cylinders. Mutual Life 

Building 701 

354. Plan of boUer room, 60 Wall Street, New York City) Faces 702 

355. " basement, 60 Wall Street, showing lay-out of machinexy, 
piping, etc Faces 702 



LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONa xlv 

1«. TAQM 

356. Plan of engine and boiler room, Hotel Astor, New York City Faces 702 

357. Diagram showing theoretical design of steam turbine diverging 

noszle .718 

358. Entropy-temperature diagram, showing adabatic expansion of steam 720 

359. Entropy-temperature diagram, showing adabatic expansion of steam 720 

etc. 721 

360. Photographs of jet turbineblaze showing erosion 724 

361. CrosB-flection of Zoelly turbine 726 

362. SecttODB and connections of buckets of the Zoelly turbine 727 

363. " of a 25 stage Rateau turbine 728 

364. Typical Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine 729 

365. Stationary and moving blades, Westinghouse-Parsons turbine. 731 

366. Indicator cards showing initial pressures Westinghouse-Parsons 

steam turbine 733 

367. Economy and overload test, 400 K. W., Westinghouse-Parsons Tur- 

bine 734 

368. 400 K. W. Westinghouse-Parsons Turbine open for inspection 737 

369. Plan of Westinghouse-Blachine Company's steam turbine testing 

foundations and condensers 743 

370. Brake tests of 1250 K. W., Westinghouse-Parsons turbine 745 

371. Tests of 1250 K. W., Westinghouse Steam Turbine and generator 747 

372. Brake tests of a 400 K. W., Westinghouse-Parsons turbine 748 

373. Economy test Westinghouse steam turbine 749 

374- Engmeroom plan for four 400 K. W. steam turbines 751 

375. " " " " 1000K.W. " " 753 

376. " " " " 5500K.W. " " 764 

377. 5500K.W. Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine 757 

378. " " " " " 768 

379. Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine at Elyria, Ohio 759 

380. Engine room plan at Elyria, Ohio 760 

381. Plans showing condenser arrangement at Elyria, Ohio 761 

382. Turbine installation of three 1000 K. W. steam turbines at Connells- 

ville,Pa. 762 

383. Plan of power station at Coimellsville, Pa Faces 762 

384. 400K.W. steam turbine installation, Stamford, Conn 763 

385. " Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine at Batavia, N. Y 764 

386. Guide vanes and moving vanes of an impulse turbine with speed dia- 

gram 784 

387. Guide vanes and moving vanes of a reaction turbine with speed dia- 

gram 784 

388. Reaction drum turbine (Parsons) '. 786 

389. Multi-celular turbine (Rateau) 786 

390. Rateau turbinedisc with riveted vanes 789 

391. " " discs 790 

392. Diagram of steam consumption 793 

393. Longitudinal section 600 electric horse-power turbo-dynamo (Penar- 

roya) 797 

394. Plan 500 electric horse-power turbo-dynamo Penarroya. 798 

395. Curves of electrical horse-power, steam pressures, etc 799 

396. 400 dectncal horse-power turbo-alternator with revolving fidd magnet 802 



xlvi List 01^ ILLUSTRATlOKfl. 

397. Longitudinal section of horse-power portion of a turbine for Messrs. 

Yarrow &Co 805 

398. Turbine driven pump at Falkenau (Bohemia) 809. 

399. Pump chambers at Bruay; a. Reciprocating steam pump; b. Steam 

turbine (Rateau) 810 

400. Turbo fan for blast furnace 811 

401. Regenerative accumulator (Rateau) 815 

402. Water, heat-accumulator (Rateau) 816 

403. Low-pressure turbine driving two dynamos 818 

404. Comparison of efficiencies 819 

405. Method of, locomotive testing employed in experiments of Alexander 

Borodin 828 

406. Elevation of locomotive and moimtain mechanism first Purdue Loco- 

motive Testing Plant Faces 831 

407. First Purdue locomotive testing plant, general view 832 

408. Elevation of the second Purdue Locomotive Testing Plant 835 

409. Plan of the second Purdue Locomotive Testing Plant , 836 

410. Elevation showing accessory apparatus, second Purdue Testing Plant 837 

411. Floor plan showing accessory apparatus of second Purdue I-iOcomotive 

Testing plant 838 

412. Exterior of second Purdue Locomotive Testing Plant 840 

413. Locomotive Laboratory, Purdue University 842 

414. " " " " general view 844 

415. Lidicator rigging, second Purdue Testing Plant 848 

416. First locomotive testing plant of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway 850 

417. General arrangement of engine testing plant, C. & N. W. Ry 851 

418. Brakes, Engine Testing Plant, C.&N.W.Ry 853 

418a. " " " " " 854 

418b. " " " " " 854 

419. Removeable track, engine testing plant, C. & N. W. Ry 855 

420. Elevation, Cblimibia University Locomotive Laboratory Faces 856 

421. Plan, Columbia University Laboratory " 856 

422. Arrangement of brakes, Columbia University Locomotive Laboratory 857 
422a. " " " " " " 858 

423. Alden Absorption Dynamometer, Colimibia University Laboratory.. . . 861 
423a. " " " " " " .... 862 
424* Side elevation, locomotive testing plant of Penna. R. R. at Louisiana 

Purchase Exposition Faces 863 

425. 'End elevation, locomotive testing plant, Penna. R.R. at Louisiana 

Purchase Exposition Faces 863 

426. Plan, locomotive testing plant, Penna. R. R. at Louisiana Purchase 

Exposition Faces 863 

427. Diagrams for comparison of records of test on test bars 884 

428. Strength and chemical composition of test bars 885 

429. " " " " " " 885 

430. " " " " " " 886 

431. " " " " " " 886 

432. " " " " " " 887 

433. " " " " " " 887 

^4^ " " " it tt it OQO 



U8T OP ILLUSTRATIONa xlvii 

FW. PAOB 

435. Strength and chemical composition of test bars. 888 

436. " " " " " " 889 

437. " " '* " " " 889 

438. " " " " " " 889 

439. " " " " " " 890 

440. " " " " " " 890 

441. " " " " " • " 890 

442. " " " " " " 891 

443. Diagram of average tensile strength per square inch 893 

444- " " crushing strength of a half-inch cube 893 

445. " of the average transverse strength of section one inch square 

by twelve inches 893 

446. Diagram showing average tensile strength of various size test bars . . 894 

447. Keep's tensile strength chart , 895 

448. Diagram showing average transverse strengths, various size test bars 896 

448. Continued 897 

449. Keep's transverse strength chart 898 

450. " shrinkage chart 899 

451. Diagram for finding strength of castings 902 

452. Sections of various forms of test bars of one square inch area , 907 

453. Graphical chart of specifications 908 

454. Diagram showing areas of roimd bars 909 

455. " " method of taking test bars from a block 9 inches 
square x 18 inches long 914 

456. Diagram showing tensile strength of bars taken from Fig. 455 914 

457. Potential efliciency of water wheels 922 

458. Specific heat of superheated steam 925 

450. Potential efficiency of Westinghouse Standard engines 928 

460. " " the Westinghouse compound engine 929 

461. " " Westinghouse three-cylinder compound 930 

462. " " Corliss Cross-Compound Condensing and Van- 

der Kerchove Tandem Compound Condensing Engines 931 

463. Diagram for Van de Kerchove engines , . 932 

464. Potential efficiency Westinghouse Steam turbine 200 K. W 934 

465. Hiddlesborough Dock, showing electric and hydraulic cranes, ci^>stan8, 

etc 944 

466. Three-ton electric traveling crane, Middlesborough Docks 948 

467. Ten-ton electric traveling crane, Middlesborough Docks 949 

468. One-ton electric capstan, Middlesborough and Hartlepool Docks 950 

469. Five-ton portable hydraulic crane, Middlesborough Docks 956 

470. Ten-ton portable crane, Middlesborough Docks 957 

471. Diagram showing work of hydraulic engines 958 

472. Electric engine current diagram 958 

473. Ground plan of the Shoreditch refuse destructor 985 

474. Perspective view of one boiler and two refuse furnaces, Shoreditch . . 986 

475. Transverse half-section Shoreditch 987 

476. " " " 988 

477. Longitudinal section, " 991 

478. Section plans, Shoreditch 992 

479. Flans showing pipes 996 



Xlviii LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 

no. pAox 

480. Diagram of electrical output of the destructor of the metropolitan 

borough of Woolwich 1008 

481. Sectional elevation of a typical commercial skyscraper 1012 

482. " " of R. G. Dunn's Company's Buildmg (New York) 1015 

483. Sample indicator diagrams 1016 

484. Typicalfloor plan, 42 Broadway, New YorkCity 1019 

485. " " " Park Row Building (New York City) 1020 

486. " " " Queen Insurance Building (New Yoricaty) 1022 

487. " " " Broadway Chambers (New York City) 1023 

488. " " " Bowling Green Offices (New York City) 1026 

489. " " " German American Building (New Yoric City) 1027 

490. " " " The Hudson BuUding (New York aty) 1030 

491. " " " Central Bank BuUding (New York aty) 1031 

492. " " " Lords Court (New York CXty) 1034 

493. " " " Dunn BuUding (New York aty) 1035 

494. Arrangement of buckets and nozzles, Oirtis Steam Turbine 1043 

495. Cross-section of first vertical Curtis Turbine 1045 

496. Step bearing for Ou^is Vertical Turbme 1047 

497. CJonnection of valve mechanism to governor in new 5000 K. W. Curtb 

Turbine Faces 1048 

498. Controlling valve used with Curtis vertical turbine 1049 

499. CJross section showing controlling valve 1050 

500. Base for supporting 5000 K.W.Curtis turbine Faces 1051 

501. Cross section assembly, 500 K. W. Ou^is vertical turbine 1052 

502. " " of detaUs 1053 

503. DeLaval wheel and nozzle 1057 

504. Sectional plan DeLaval Turbine Dynamo, 30 horse-power 1059 

505. " " " " 300 horse-power 1060 

506. Section DeLaval tuibme wheel 1061 

507. 55 horse-power turbine pump 1066 

508. High-pressure centrifugal pimip 1067 

509. Diagram of a test of 10 K. W. non-condensing turbine dynamo 1068 

510. Tests on a 30 horse-power steam turbine motor 1069 

511. " " " " " " " 1070 

512. " ona300 " " " " 1070 

513. " of a 2-stage high-pressure steam turbine pump 1071 

514. " " DeLaval Steam Turbine Pump 1072 

515. Single row back-fed destructor furnace 1081 

516. Twenty-four ceU destructor 1083 

517. Twelve " " 1084 

518. Six " " 1085 

519. Furnaces for six ceU plant 1086 

520. Six ceU destructor 1087 

521. Exterior Westminster destructor 1088 

522. Cart tipping, Westminster 1089 

523. Dust catcher, five ceU destructor. 1098 

524. Overhead clinker raUway and bucket 1101 

525. Portable destructor 1103 

526. Chartof test results, West Hartlepool 1105 

527. Portraitof Robert Henry Thurston 1112 



PAPERS 



OF THE 



NEW YORK MEETING 

(XLVIIIth) 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 



DECEMBER Ist to 4th, 1903. 

BEINO ALSO THE TWKNTY-POURTH ANNUAL MBETINO OF THE SOCIETY. 



No. loor. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



NEW YORK MEETING 

(XLVIIIth) 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

December let to 4tli, 1908. 



Opentko Session. Tuesday, December Ist, 1903. 

The twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Society, which was 
also its forty -eighth convention, was held in New York City, at 
the house of the Society and its Library, No. 12 West Thirty- 
first Street, during the days December 1st to 4th, 1903. 

The opening session was called to order by the President of 
the Society, Mr. James M. Dodge of Philadelphia, at nine o'clock 
on Tuesday evening. 

It became apparent at this first session that the meeting was 
to be one of phenomenal size in the matter of members in attend- 
ance, and the audience crowded the auditorium to listen to the 
address of the President. 

After a few words of salutation from the Chair, Messrs. Lane, 
Tompkins and Kern Dodge were appointed tellers under the 
provisions of the Rules, to count the Officers' Ballot, to be pre- 
sented at the next succeeding session, and Messrs. La Forge and 
Louer livere appointed tellers to count the letter ballots on the 



4 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE 

Amendments to the new Rules, which were to constitute the new 
Constitution, By-Laws and Rules of the Society. 

The President then delivered his address, entitled " The Money 
Value of Technical Training," which appears as one of the papers 
of this meeting. 

After announcements by the Secretary concerning the meet- 
ing, a recess was taken to partake of light refreshments served 
in the collation room and for an informal reunion of members. 

Second Session. Wednesday Morning, December 2nd. 

The second or business session of the annual meeting was 
called to order at ten o'clock in the Hall of the Mendelssohn 
Union, 113 West Fortieth Street. This step was made neces- 
sary by the limited accommodation in the auditorium of the So- 
ciety, which compelled a choice of a larger meeting room. 

The headquarters for registration and other executive business 
was retained at the house of the Society, 12 West Thirty-first 
Street. 

The registration of this session was made noteworthy by the 
first eflfort to combine the system in use at previous meetings, 
with the wearing of an inconspicuous tag under the lapel button 
and number, which carried the name of the member so that it 
could be read at short distances. It was believed that by this 
procedure the comparative awkwardness of hunting- up a man's 
name on the printed register lists would be removed, and the 
social approach of members to each other would be stimulated. 
The smooth working of the plan in its tenative form justified the 
experiment, and until further notice it will be carried out. Up 
to the adjournment of the meeting on Friday morning there were 
823 names registered, of which 538 were members. This is the 
largest enrollment of members in the history of the Society. 

The first matter of business of the session was the presentation 
to the meeting of the Annual Report of the Council and Standing 
Committees of the Society. 

These reports had been printed and distributed to all members, 
in advance of the meeting, for their information ; they were read 
by the Secretary, by title, and are presented herewith for record. 

Some minor changes in distribution of accounts, in the Report 
of the accountant, were presented verbally, but which did not 
alter the totals, merely detail of allotment of expenses to certain 
accounts. 



NEW YORK MEETING. O 

The Reports were as follows: 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 
Fiacdl year, 19(»-1908. 

The Council presents herewith, as required by the Rules of the 
Society, a report of business which has passed under its hand 
during the year which closes with the annual meeting in Decem- 
ber, 1903. 

The most important business of the year has been the an- 
nouncement of the munificent purpose of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, a 
member of the Society, to give the sum necessary to make adequate 
provision for the accommodation of the four national societies 
of engineers, in an appropriate building, and for the Engineers^ 
Club in another. Mr. Carnegie expressed his willingness to make 
the amount of his gift exceed a minimum of one million dollars, 
if that sum should be found inadequate to give the accommoda- 
tion required for the present and the future needs of the organiza- 
tions which he named. The Council was convened in special 
session on the afternoon of Thursday, May 7th, to consider the 
simple proposition of Mr. Carnegie's letter, at which eleven mem- 
bers of the Statutory Council, and seven past presidents of the 
Society were present The Council has made full report to the 
membership by circular of the resolutions which were passed at 
that and a subsequent meeting, concerning the Carnegie gift, 
which have been made matters of official record in the Trans- 
tctions of the Forty-seventh Meeting at Saratoga. The Council 
has also issued full bulletins to the members, which were also 
made part of that record. 

The four constituent societies named by Mr. Carnegie have 
appointed representatives, and from these representatives an Ex- 
ecutive Committee has been formed, which since the adjournment 
of the Saratoga Meeting has been formulating the details of the 
arrangement of the building, and another sub-committee has been 
considering the proper method for the management and control 
of such a joint imdertaking. 

The Report of these committees will be made public in the. near 
future. 

The Coimcil has convened for routine business at the necessary 
intervals during the year. 

It took favorable action at its first meeting concerning the 



6 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE 

issue of a letter ballot whereby the individual members of the 
Society might express their opinion as to the effect of the adoption 
of legislation making the metric system compulsory on citizens of 
the United States. The result of such ballot, with the expres- 
sion of such opinion, was reported at the Saratoga Meeting. 

The Council accepted on the first of February, the resignation 
of Mr. Arthur L. Kice, who had been acting as Assistant to the 
Secretary, and confirmed the engagement of Mr. Louis A. Gillet, 
under a different financial arrangement. 

The Council has received communications during the winter 
from members in different cities, concerning the probable attitude 
which it would take with respect to the formation of local chapters 
of the Society. The Council has in every case directed that until 
the Society had taken official action upon that provision in its pro- 
posed Constitution, looking towards the formation of sections of 
the Society, that it was premature to open discussion on these 
details. 

Mr. C. J. H. Woodbury of Boston had been asked to represent 
the Society at a conference for the revision of the National Stan- 
dard Electrical Bules, and as such representative has furnished a 
report of the action of the conference. 

An arrangement has been made with the Engineers' Club of 
Philadelphia whereby the privileges of the house of that Club, 
in Philadelphia, may be enjoyed by members of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and similarly that members of 
the Club may have the privilege of use of the house of the 
A. S. M. E. in New York City, on the presentation of the re- 
spective cards of introduction issued by the two organizations to 
their respective members. 

The Council has expressed the interest of the Society in cooper- 
ating with the American Reception Committee of the Iron and 
Steel Institute of Great Britain in their undertaking to provide 
for a meeting in 1904, of that organization, in the United States. 

The Council has acted favorably upon a request that a pro- 
visional committee should be created to consider and report upon 
a tonnage basis for expressing the effectiveness of refrigerating 
machinery, which could be made generally acceptable as a 
standard. This Committee consists of Professor D. S. Jacobus, 
Chairman, Messrs. E. F. Miller, A. P. Trautwein, G. T. Voor- 
hees, P. De Catesby Ball. 

The Council has bad under consideration the invitations which 



NEW YORK MEETING. 7 

have been received from those interested in the success of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, which has urged 
that the Society shall select the City of St. Louis as a convention 
city, daring the summer of 1904, while the exposition was in 
progress. 

It was the sense of the Council that it would be more service- 
able if the convention of that date should be held in a city within 
convenient access by rail to the exposition city rather than in St. 
Louis itself. 

On communicating this opinion to the representative members 
in the City of Chicago, HI., the outcome has been a most em- 
phatic urging that Chicago should be fixed upon as the point for 
the spring convention in the exposition year. The Council has 
acted favorably on this invitation and the City of Chicago has 
been selected. 

It has been further decided by the Council to avail of this op- 
portunity to invite the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of 
Great Britain to hold an American convention, and that such 
convention be a joint session with the Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, at Chicago, with a view to having such guests of the 
Society as might come from Great Britain, within convenient 
access of the exposition city, upon the same journey which 
brought them to the meeting. 

The invitation of the Council has been ftordially accepted by 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of Great Britain, and 
the details of such joint meeting are in progress. The Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers of Great Britain was also invited at the 
same time, but an invitation to a similar joint meeting in Septem- 
ber, and its acceptance by the Institution, made it impossible that 
our invitation to that society should be accepted in any official 
way for the month of May. 

The Council directed that the practice should prevail for the 
present of having the Report of the Society's accountant audited 
each year by a firm of public accountants, such as the Audit Com- 
pany of New York, or similar competent authority. 

The Council has considered a request to undertake the respons- 
ibility of organizing the Section of Mechanical Engineering in 
the suggested International Congress of Engineering, in connec- 
tion with the St. Louis Exposition. 

It was the sense of the Council after discussion, that in the ab- 
sence of a strong demand from the profession itself, for the hold- 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF TUE 

ing of such a Congress, that it would not be advisable that this 
responsibility should be undertaken. The Council has decided 
to maintain a headquarters in the gallery of Machinery Hall of 
the exposition buildings for the convenience and use of members 
of the Society and its guests and the necessary appropriation has 
been made for the employment of a suitable person to maintain 
such headquarters and attend to the necessary clerical detail in- 
volved. It is proposed that such headquarters should be a centre 
for registration of members in attendance, and for the dissemina- 
tion of information concerning the exposition to visiting mem- 
bers, but that it should not be maintained as an exhibit of the 
achievements of the profession. 

The Council, on being advised of the sudden death of Professor 
Robert H. Thurston, the first President of the Society and serv- 
ing for two terms, from 1880-1882, has directed the entry on its 
minutes of a Memorial Tribute, and that such tribute be made a 
matter of record and presentation at the general meeting of the 
Society. 

The Council has passed votes of thanks to Miss Louisa Lee 
Schuyler and Mr. W. A. Gabriel, and others for gifts to the 
Society received during the current fiscal year. 

The Council would present for record the list of members who 
have died during the current year as follows: 

James Spiers, August 13, 1902; W. W. Lindsay, November 
12th; Thos. J. Borden, November 22d; George Leach, November 
27th; Geo. R. Fulton, December 4th; J. F. Pajeken, December 
16th; P. F. Greenwood, December 22d; J. O. Nixon, January 3, 
1903; A. Christensen, January 16th; David P. Jones, January 1, 
1903; John Hulett, January 31st; Wm. Harkness, February 28th; 
Chas. M. Day, February; Victor Mackiewicz, February;. Edward 
A. Darling, March 16th; John P. McGuire, April 17th; Irving 
M. Scott, April 28th; Elihu Dodds, June 10th; George Shaw, 
May 28th; Edward Graftstrom, June; George S. Morison, July 
1st; Wm. Garrett, July 15th; E. H. Messer, August 12th; Wm. 
H. Stratton, August 13th ; John Humphrey, August 24th ; S. J. 
Geoghegan, September 7th; Pulaski Leeds, September 8, 1903; 
L. C. Crowell, September 16th; Wm. P. Canning, September 17, 
1903; J. Q. Wright, October 16th; Robert H. Thurston, October 
25, 1903; Y. Aisawa, October, 1903; Sir Fred'k Bramwell, 
December 1, 1903. 

Pursuant to a desirable i>olicy inaugurated a year ago, the 



NEW YORK MEETING. 9 

CouncU would call attention to the report of its Standing Com- 
mittees covering the Society's work during the year. 

The Beports of the Library and House Conmiittee, and the Re- 
port of the Executive Committee, and of the Publication Com- 
mittee, will be self-explanatory. With respect to the Eei)ort of 
the Finance Committee the Council would call attention to the 
following facts and deductions from that Report: 

Item* deduced from the accounts of fiscal year 1902-3 showing the expense incurred 
per member : 

(1) Total members as per July, 1903, catalogue 2,573 

Deduct for members who have paid no dues: 

Life members 107 

Deaths and resignations 6 

Lapsed memberships 35 

Members who have not paid current year 
at September 30, 1903 101— • 249 

Paying membership, 1902-3 2,324 

(2) Total income exclusive of 1 per cent, from dues 

carried to Library Development Fund, 90 per 
cent, from initiation fees, entire life member- 
ship receipts, carried to Reserve Fund, and en- 
tire Sinking and Fellowship Fund, subscriptions 
of Mechanical Engineers' Library Association . . $38,662 03 

Income earned per paying member (computed) 16 63 

Income earned per paying member, dues only 

(computed) 14 20 

(3) Total expense incurred year October 1, 1902, to 

September 30, 1903, less cost operating house 
($3,347.54), mortgage interest ($1,402.50), 
repairs and renewals ($644.32), depreciations 
house and furniture ($481 .45)— $31,773 55: 

(4) Total expense incurred for publications, October 1, 

1902, to September 30, 1903 14,956 74 

(5) Total expense incurred for salaries in Society's 

office same period 9,308 55 

(6) Total expense incurred for all other accounts except 

house 7,508 26—31,773 55 

(7) Total expense incurred for house, including interest 

on mortgage, repairs and renewals and depre- 
dations 5,875 81 

Deduct income earned from rent of sleeping rooms 

and hall 2,002 25— 3,873 56 

Net expense incurred for year $35,647 1 1 

(Gross expense, $37,649.36 less rental income 
$2,002.25, equals $35,647.11). 



10 PK0CEEDING8 OF THE 

Expense ineurred per paying member, October 1, 1902, to September 30, 1903 : 

(8) For all purposes including house $15 33 

(9) For house operation including interest and repairs... 1 66 

(10) For all purposes exdusive of house 13 67 

(11) For publications, printers' work, engraving, 

binding and distribution $6 43 

(12) For salaries in Society's office 4 04 

(13) For all other expenses except house 3 20-;- 13 67 

(14) For house operation exclusive of mortgage interest, 

repairs and renewals and depreciations 57 

(15) For house operation exclusive of mortgage interest, 

but including repairs, renewals and deprecia- 
tions 1 06 

(16) For operating library 31 

(17) For postage, circulars, catalogues, and stationary 

and printing in Society's office 1 83 

(18) For meetings, and all other expense not otherwise 

allotted above 1 26 

ComparcUive income earned toUh expense incurred per paying member: 
Income earned from dues only, per paying 

member, per (2) above 14 20 

Expense, incurred all purposes, per paying 

member as per (8) above 15 33 

(19) Excess income earned from dues only over expense 

incurred all purposes per paying member 113 



NEW YORK MEETINQ. 11 



APPENDIX L 
REPORT OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

To the CouncU of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Gentlemen: The Publication Committee would present the following report 
as work under its direction. 

At the doee of the fiscal year, September 30, 1902, the Society was under 
obfigation to its printer for work ordered but not completed nor paid for, to an 
amount of $597.00. This amount has been paid and in addition the expenses 
for binding and distribution of Volume XXIII for 1901-2 have amounted to 
$2,757.08. 

The net cost of Volume XXIII, was $10,677.54, completed, which makes 
Uie cost per copy $4.10. The volume had 878 pages. 

The voliune of Traneactione for the current year (Volume XXIV), contains 
the Proceedings of the New York and Saratoga Meetings. The selection of the 
moiith of June for the meeting has made it imposable to bring in as much of 
the expense of this volume into the current fiscal year as can be done when the 
meeting falls earlier in the year. 

The expense incurred for Volume XXIV to date amounts to $8,656.74 and 
it b estimated on prices furnished for completed work that a further sum amount- 
ing to $6,300 will be needed to complete this volume, making its estimated total 
cost $14,956.74 as reported in sheet B herewith. 

Volume XXIV will contain 1,560 pages, which is about a hundred pages more 
Uian the largest previous volume in the Society's history. Its cost has been 
unusual by reason of the very voluminous contributions to the discussion of 
the metric system problem, and the distributions of pamphlet copies to all 
voters in the membership. The volume will contain, in addition to the 
papers and discussions, the addresses which were given at the ceremonies 
connected with tjie unvdling of the Fulton Memorial in December, 1901. 
These were omitted from their proper place in the last volume by reason 
of the necessity imposed for reducing expense at that time. The items which 
make up Uie expenditure of the Publication Committee and the totals under each 
item, axe as follows: 

Expended for work to dale on volume xxiv : 

Advance papers $1,301 07 

Revised papers 1,269 25 

Stenographer's fees 276 75 

Engraving 672 49 

Compoation and electrotjrping 4,342 48 

Hnding extra copies 259 20 

Postage and express 255 50 

Storage 280 00 

Total $8,656 74— $8,656 74 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Amount brought forward 86,656 74 

Estimated amount required to complete volume xxiv : 

Revised papers, Saratoga 900 00 

Composition and electrotyping 2,400 00 

Binding. 2,300 00 

Distribution expenses. 700 00 

Total reserved to complete Volume 

XXIV $6,300 00— $6,300 00 



$14,956 74 
Respectfully submitted. 

Publication Coiimittxb. 

APPENDIX n. 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARY AND HOUSE COMMITTEE. 

To the Council of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Gentlemen: The Library and House Committee presents the following report 
of action during the current year. This Conunittee is intrusted with the func- 
tions of control both of the House as the headquarters of the Sodety and of the 
Library, which is housed within it. 

I. llie Library has been open every day between the hours of 10 a.m. and 
10 P.M. — excluding Sundays and legal holidays, except during the months of 
July and August. By reason of sickness in the Library staff the evening open- 
ings were suspended during these months. The additions to the Library in the 
form of exchanges which have been received as the equivalent of the annual vol- 
ume of the Society's Transactions have amounted this year to $533.00. 

The Committee has expended for the purchase of books, $130 .00, and for bind- 
ing of periodicals and pamphlets in exchange from other societies the sum of 
$113.58. There remains a credit to the Society's Library with Uie house of D. 
Van Nostrand & Co., for Transactions furnished, for which books are to be pur- 
chased from that firm, amoimting to $328.75. There is a similar credit with 
Spon & Chamberlain of $16.50. Since the last report a year ago, visitors to the 
Library have numbered 1,800, averaging six persons a day. 

The Library has received from Miss Louisa Lee Schuyler a gift of interesting 
antiquities from the library of her father, the late George L. Schuyler. 

For the conduct of the work in the Library, the Committee has had the ser- 
\nces of so much of Mr. Louis A. Gillet's time as could be spared from his duties 
as Assistant to the Secretary in other lines, and two-thirds of Uie time, including 
evenings, of Miss Thornton, as librarian and cataloguer The manuscript of 
Uie card catalogue has been supplemented and extended as far as the book titles 
are concerned, and the Committee hope in the near future to issue a Library 
catalogue in printed form for distribution. 

On account of the expense involved this has not been done up to the presoit 
time. The number of volumes in the Library at the date of this report is as 
follows: 

Books 8.500 

Pamphlets 3.000 



NEW YORK MEETING. 13 

The appraisal reports published on page 19 and 20, of Volume XXIV, made the 
▼ahie of the Library, 110,000*; the present book valuation is, $10,979.52. This 
is based on the additions of new books, and without making allowance for any 
depredation. 

n. During the fiscal year the Council appropriated for the needs of the house 
the sum of $5322.50. The net expense incurred imder this appropriation has 
been as follows: 

For operating expenses $3,347 54 

For interest on mortgage 1,402 50 

For repairs and additions ' 644 32 

Total $5,394 36 

This Lb about $200.00 in excess of last year, which is mainly to be attributed to 
the falling due of long term insurance premiums, and to increased expenditure 
for necessary furniture. The cost of fuel also this year is in excess of a year ago. 
The figures in the financial report include credits on House Account, which are 
not inchided in the above totals. 

The receipts on accoimt of room and hall rentals for the year have aggregated 
$2,002.25. The total expense of operating the house, exclusive of interest 
charges on mortgage^ repairs and renewals and depreciations has been $3,347.54. 
Sabtiitcting the recdpts makes the net expense of operating the house, 
$1,345.29, and the total expense, including interest on mortgage, repairs and 
renewals, and depreciations but excluding an interest on the value of the 
equity, $5,875.81. The expense incurred in detail for the house has been as 
foDows: 

Interest on mortgage $1,402 50 

Gas and electric light 428 40 

Fuel 302 50 

Janitor's supplies 195 60 

Laundry. 407 32 

Insurance 155 63 

Repairs and Renewals, house 298 76 

Repairs and Renewals, furniture 345 56 

Wages 1 ,740 00 

Incidentals 118 09 

Total exclusive of depreciation $5,394 36 

Depreciations 481 45 



$5,875 81 



The House Committee emplojrs, for the conduct of the house and hbrary ad- 
ministititlon, a janitor and his wife (at $60 per month), and has the services for 
part of his time each day, of a man whose other duties attach to the work of the 
Secretary's office. 

The auditorium has been used during the year for some of the meetings of the 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, but that organization has outgrown the limited 
capacity of the hall, and expects to make other arrangements tor the future. 
Tlie same difficulty has arisen as to the accommodation of the New York Rail- 



14 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE 

road Club. The societies meeting regularly in our auditorium now are the 
Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engin^rs, the American Society of 
Heating and Ventilating Engineei^, the Society of Municipal Engineers, and 
a few smaller bodies. A session of the Institute of Mining Engineers was held 
here in the autumn. 

The Committee has considered offers for the House and Lot at No. 12 West 
Thirty-first Street, ranging between ninety thousand and ninety-five thousand 
dollars, in view of the inconvenience which would be entailed by present removal 
from the Society House, and in view of the expected rise in value of the property 
during the period which must elapse before the Carnegie building is completed, 
the Committee has reported against the acceptance of these propositions. It 
has not been thought advisable to raise the appraisal value on the books of 
the Society. 

The Conunittee believes that, from the location of the house and from the chang- 
ing character of the street (which is becoming more and more a business centre), 
the value of its holding will increase as the date of the completion of the Penn- 
sylvania Terminal at Seventh Avenue draws nearer. 

Pursuant to the direction of th^ Council that one per cent, of the total income 
from dues should be laid aside and reserved for the extension of the Library, the 
Committee calls attention to the fact reported in the Financial Statement, that 
the one per cent, for the current year amounts to $319.39. This sum has been 
deposited in the Institution for the Savings of Merchants* Clerks in New York 
City, to be drawn upon by the Society, and will be drawing interest until such 
demand is made. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LrBBARY AND HOUSK COMMrTTER. 



APPENDIX m. 

REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

To the Council of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Gentlemen: The Executive Committee of the Coimcil has special oversight 
of those expenditures through the Secretary's office, and other channels which 
do not attach themselves directly to the work of any of the stated coounittees. 
The items which fall under the headings of such expenditure for the current 
year exclusive of salaries, are grouped in the following statement with the amounts 
attaching to each. 

Expense incurred for : 

Certificates and introduction cards $179 11 

Badges, distribution and repairs 32 17 

Circulars 1,863 02 

Meetings 924 92 

Catalogues 1,696 86 

Office accounts, exclusive of salaries 1,687 00 

The account "certificates and introduction cards" covers the expenditure 
for printing, engrossing and distribution of the diplomas of membership, and the 



NEW YORK MEETING. 16 

introduction cards which are given by this Society to roemben when their initia- 
tion fees are paid. Tlie badge account is the expenditure connected with dia- 
tributioQ only, sinoe the badge itself is billed to the member at the jewelers' 
price. 

Under the head of circulars the expenditure b grouped into three heads. 
What are known as "admission circulars" cover application blanks, the con- 
fidential inquiries, announcements of election and the Hke, and have amounted 
to $580.73. The circulars in connection with meetings are the notices, pro- 
grams, registers of members in attendance and the like, but does not cover any 
expense connected wiUi the professional papers. The total this year is $595.23. 

Under general circulars are all others which do not fall into either of the other 
groups. The total this year is $687.06, and is much larger than usual by reason, 
first of the expenses of printing the draft of the Constitution, By-laws and Rules 
for the use of the Committee, and for distribution to the members, together with 
some extra and unusual printing in connection with the expression of opinion 
which was ordered concerning compulsory legislation on the Metric System. 

The Employers' Bulletins issued this year have been four in niunber, and are 
included under this heading. 

Under the heading of "Meetings" fall the es^penses in connection with the 
two semi-annual meetings, outside of the printing and circulars. Such expenses 
this year have amounted to $613.20. In addition under the Conunittee's care 
have been the monthly reunions of members in New York City, directed by the 
Council, for which the expenditure has been $311.72. There were four of these 
meetings held during the months of January, February, March, and ApriL 
The to{NC3 were: 

"The Steam Truck for Heavy Duty," "The Pich Process for Brazing Cast- 
iron," "Varnishes," and the "Turbine as a Recorder of the Flow of Streams." 

The paper by Mr. Allen on the Turbine has been published in the TranMocHon^. 
The meeting at which the paper on Steam Trucks was presented was the most 
fully attended. 

Under catalogues is included the expenses for composition, press work, paper, 
and postage, of the two issues of the catalogue. By direction of the Council, 
these issues were both made this year in the standard size, and the "vest pocket 
editioQ" was discontinued. In the July edition a "geographical finding list" 
was incorporated, and will be continued as a feature of the catalogues as issued 
in the future. Under the heading of "Office Accounts" are included stationary, 
postage, telegraph and telephone, office supplies and incidentals. It will be 
apparent that this group of accounts under the Executive Committee will vary 
with the size of the Society, and the amounts will increase with the Society's 
growth. 

The Committee would report certain changes under its direction in the matter 
of salaries paid in the Secretary's office. It has made arrangements whereby the 
salary paid to the Assistant to the Secretary shall be at the rate of $1,500 for the 
first year, with an increase of $100 a year to a limit of $2,000. In recognition of 
the services to the Society rendered by the accountant, and their increasing re- 
sponsibiCty as the Society increases, and tiie amount of income which must pass 
through his hands, the Conunittee have recommended that the salary of his 
position be placed at $2,400 a year. 

The great increase in the aze of the Society, and the volume of business to be 
transacted in its offices, has made it necessary to add to the force of stenographere, 
90 that a capable stenographer and typewriter should be available for clerical 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

work, in addition to the requirements of the correspondence. These changes 
have been made at different times during the year, so that the total of salaries 
is different this ytar from what it will be here^ter when the full yearly rate 
is to be reported. The expenditures for this year are as follows: 

Secretary $3,600 00 

Assistant to Treasurer and accountant 2,900 02 

Assistant to Secretar3r— 4} months $950 00 

Asastant to Secretary— 7i months. 028 53— 1^78 53 

Stenographer. 780 00 

Assistant Stenographer— 1 month 30 00— 810 00 

MaU clerk r 720 00 



$9,306 55 
Respectfully submitted, 

ElxxcuTivi CoiiifrmB. 



NEW YORK MEETING. 



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NEW YORK MEETING. 25 

At the conclusion of the presentation of these reports, and some 
questions and explanations concerning them, the Chair called on 
Mr. Charles Wallace Hunt, representative of the Society on 
the Joint Committee intrusted with the consideration of the 
proposition from Mr. Andrew Carnegie to present a buflding to 
the profession of Engineering, for the joint uses of the societies. 

The statements made by Mr. Hunt have been embodied in a 
separate report, which is made an appendix to these minutes, and 
to which members are referred. 

The President then called for the reports of the Tellers, next in 
order. There were three groups of these reports. 

The Tellers of members presented the following report: 

REPORT OF TELLERS. 

The undersigned were appointed a Committee of the Council to 
to act as tellers, under Artile 11 of the Rules, to scrutinize and 
count the ballots cast for and against candidates proposed for 
membership in their several grades in the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and seeking election before the XLVIIIth 
Meeting, New York, 1903. 

They have met on the designated day in the office of the Society 
and have proceeded to the discharge of their duty. They would 
certify for formal insertion in the records of the Society to the 
election of the following persons, whose names appear to the ap- 
pended list in their several grades. 

There are 58 members elected, 15 associates, and 46 juniors, 
making a total increase of 119 names. 

There were 567 blue ballots cast of which 12 were thrown out 
because of informalities. The tellers have considered a ballot as 
informal which was not endorsed. 

8. S. Webber, } ^'"^''' of Flection. 

For Members. 

Aiken, Cliis. W. ColweU, J. Van V. Foucard, M. L. 

Albert, Otto Conrad, E. B. Gardner, Thos. M. 

Albright, H. F. ^ Cooke, Fred W. Gilbreth, Frank B. 

Allen, Benj. T. Donnelly, Wm. T. Goddard, A. L. 

Black, Edward 8. Duncan, J. D. E. Gray, Niel, Jr. 

Bloomberg, J. H. Edgar, Ellis F. Greene, F. 8. 

Brown, HngkT. Ellicott, Edw. B. Grossman Albert 

Carse, Jno. B. Fleming, H. 8. Harper, Lewis E 

Child, E. T. Folger-Osbome, G. P. Harrington, Jno. L. 



26 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



Harrington, Nonnan T. 
Hayward, S. F. 
Helander, A. H. 
Hess, Howard D. 
Howe. Albert W. 
Hulelt, Geo. H. 
Ingersoll, Geo. T. 
Johnson, Werner 
Knox, Lather L. 
Lincoln. Robt. B. 



Lindstrom» N. 0. 
MacDonald, D. H. 
Merry weather, Geo. E. 
Mix, Edgar W. 
Moore, A. B. 
Moore. Wm. E. 
Pattison, F. A. 
Peirce, Arthur W. K. 
Pritchard, W. 8. 
Quirk, Wm. M. 
Reid, Marcellus 



Rickey, Walter J. 
Robinson, Frank H. 
Shepard, Geo. 
Shepard, Ijouis A . 
Sprado, Carl G. 
Stebbins. Theo. 
Street, Edgar L. 
Tandy, Harry 
Warg, Robert 
Waterman, Charles 



For Promotion to Full 



Allan, Percy 
Astrom, J. I. 
Berg. Hart O. 
Blood, J no. Balch 
Bunnell, S. H. 
Dollar, Wm. M. 
Ducommun, Edward 



Ekstrand, Charles 
Femald, Robt. H. 
Hoffman, James D. 
Jaquays, H. M. 
Kellemen, H. F. 
Kirk, Robt. H. 
Malvern, L. K. 
Morrow, Percy C. 



Memdbrship. 

Parker, Charles H. 
Powell, Emery H. 
Rush more, David B. 
Smith, Harry E. 
Stanley, A. W. 
Stevens, Alfred H. 
Trowbridge, Amasa 



Aldcorn, Tliomas 
Bell, Jno. E. 
Caldwell, J. R. 
Dornin, Geo. A. 
Holz, Fred. H. Jr, 



For Associates. 
Lauer, C. N. 
Loscher, A. P. 
Nichols, William W. 
Peck, Chas. B. 
Pell, David W. 



Hansom, Allan 
Saldana, E. E. 
Saunders. E. W. 
Umstead, C. H. 
Waddell. Chas E. 



Bateman, Edw. L. 



For Promotion to Associate. 

Finley. A. D. Streeter, L. P. 



Anderson, H. B. 
At wood, Geo. D. 
Bailey, Ervin G. 
Barlow, E. S. 
Bennett, Geo. G. 
Berliner, R. W. 
Bough ton, J. H. 
Brown, E. H. 
Case, Albert H. 
Chatard, Wm. M. 
Col well, Chas. A. 
(^oomba, H. A. 
Dreyfus. Theo. F. 
Ehrmann, Jno. P. 
Harvey, Rich. P. 



For Juniors. 
Hawley, Wm. P. 
Helmes, M. J. 
Henes. L. G. 
Howlett, Lewis G. 
Jones, Jarrard E. 
Jordan, Wm. A. 
Jump, E. P. 
Kasson, R. S. 
Katzenstein, M. L. 
Klein. A. W. 
Kleinhans, Frank B. 
I^we, Henry L. 
Moran, H. P. 
Morison. (^eo. A. 
Morrison, Hunter 
Pettit, Frank 



Pitkin, Jos. L. 
Heis, Leslie H. 
Richards, W. A. 
Rossberg, Chas. A 
Schuetz. Fredk. F. - 
Springer, Jno. J. 
Staples, H. A. 
Stevens. Robt. H. 
Stone, Thos. W. 
Thatcher, R. P. 
Westerfield, Geo, 8. 
Wettengel, C. Albert 
Whitteniore, H. L. 
Wilson, Henry D. 
Woldenberg, I. 



NEW YORK MEETING. 27 

The report required no action and was ordered on file. 

The tellers to count the letter-ballot concerning the adoption 
of the proposed Constitution, By-Laws and Rules in the fonn 
. favorably acted on by the Saratoga Meeting, presented their re- 
port as follows: 

REPORT OF TELLERS APPOINTED TO COUNT THE BALLOTT8 CAST ON 
THE PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE RULES. 

The Committee of Tellers appointed to count the ballots cast by 
members for and against the adoption of the Constitution, By- 
Laws and Rules, as reported by the Committee on Revision of the 
Rules and Methods, begs to submit the following report; 

Total ballots cast , 448 

Ballots thrown ont ansigned 4 

•* *' signed by rubber stamps 2 

Other informal ballots 

Total informal ballots ezcladed 6 

Total ballots counted by tellers 442 

Of the regular ballots so counted by the tellers, they would re- 
port the following results: 

In fayor of adoption of said Constitution, By-Laws and Rules 487 ballots 

Against the adoption of said Constitution, By-Laws and Rules 6 *' 

Total '. 442 " 

Our count, therefore, shows that the Constitution, By-Laws and 
Rules, as submitted at the Saratoga Meeting, 1903, is adopted by 
the vote of the membership. 

RespectfuUy submitted, 

C." LoceC'"'^''' I ^'^^^''' of Election. 

On presentation of this report, under the provisions of the 
new Constitution, the new Constitution, By-Laws and Rules 
went into effect on the announcement of the president of the 
formal vote. 

The tellers of election of officers presented their report as fol- 
lows: 

REPORT OF TELLERS. 

The Committee of Tellers appointed to count the ballots cast by 
the members for officers of the American Society of Mechanical 



28 PROCEEDINGS OP THE 

Engineers, for the year 1903-1904/ begs to submit the following 
report: 

Total ballots cast 702 

Ballots thrown out ansigned 23 

" *' ** signed with rubber stamps 

Other informal ballots (scratched) 21 

Total informal ballots 28 

Total ballots counted by tellers 702 

Of the regular ballots counted by the tellers, they would report 
the following result: 

For President. 

Ambrose Swasey, Cleveland 676 

Scattering — 

For Vice-Presidents. 

D. 8. Jacobus, Hoboken, N. J 674 

M. L. Holman, St. Louis, Mo 669 

Wm. J. Keep, Detroit, Mich 669 

For Managers. 

George I. Rockwood, Worcester. Mass 672 

John W. Lieb, Jr., New York City 678 

AsaM. Mattice, Pittsburg, Pa 674 

Scattering .... 1 

For Treasurer. 
Wm . H. Wiley, New York City 677 

Our count shows, therefore, election of Mr. Swasey for Presi- 
dent; Messrs. Jacobus, Holman and Keep for Vice-Presidents; 
Messrs. Rockwood, Lieb, and Mattice for Managers. Mr. Wiley 
for Treasurer. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Kern Dodge, \ 

H. M. Lane, > Tellers of Election. 
S. D. Tompkins, ) 

At the conclusion of its reading by the Secretary, the President 
requested Professor Sweet, appointed a special committee for this 
purpose, to escort the President-elect to the platform. 

Mr. Ambrose Swasey was then greeted by the President and 
in a few words of recognition and greeting spoke of his pleasure 
at the honor conferred. He took his seat on the platform at the 
side of the presiding oflBcer. 



NEW YORK MEETINO. 29 

The President then called for the regular order of busuiess of 
the session. 

Professor H. W. Spangler presented the report of the com- 
mittee of which he was chairman, covering the proposed Stand- 
ard Specifications for Steel Forgings, Steel Casting and Boiler 
Plate. 

This report was discussed by Messrs. Henning, Lanza, Carpen- 
ter, Sandolph, Kent, Dingee, Flint and Beraent. 

At the close of the debate on professional questions, Mr. James 
Christie moved that the Keport of the Committee be referred to 
Committee No. 1 of the American Association for Testing Ma- 
terials. 

This motion being duly seconded was passed. The report and 
discussion appears as one of the papers of this meeting. 

Mr. H. H. Suplee referred to the increasing collection of ma- 
terial of value in the Library of the Society, and that in his in- 
vestigations as to the very early historj^ of some of the trans- 
atlantic societies of engineers it had come to his notice that their 
early records were very meagre. By the death of those familiar 
with this early history, these early records had become unattain- 
able, and that while there was a vary excellent account of the 
formation of this Society in the second edition of Volume I of 
the TransaciionSy there is also a considerable amount of material 
now extant in the form of recollections of interested members 
which would in time become unavailable. 

Mr. Suplee suggested that the Chair appoint a committee to 
examine the records of the Society and prepare such formal mem- 
orial covering its property and curiosities, as well as recollections 
of its early history, which should appear either in routine form 
of the Transactions^ or separately, as may be thought best, with 
the particular view of having this material available for the 
twenty -fifth anniversary of the Society, which would occur within 
two years. 

Mr. Charles Wallace Hunt in seconding this motion spoke of 
the portrait of John Ericsson, with a very interesting history, 
and the table of Robert Fulton's, and that in his opinion such a 
memorial record would be a most interesting and useful record, 
especially to the younger members of the Society. 

The question was put by the President and carried. 

The Chair subsequently appointed Messrs. John E. Sweet, 
Chas. Wallace Hunt and H. H. Suplee. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Professional papers were then taken >4ip for the remainder of 
the morning: 

'' Is Anything the Matter with Piece Work " ? by Mr. Frank 
Richards; paper by 11. L. Gantt on ^' Modifying Systems of Man- 
agement ", and by Prof. John E. Sweet on '^ What are the New 
Machine Tools to be " ? The participants in debate were Messrs. 
H. L. Gantt, Oberlin Smith, Bates, Fred W. Taylor, Balkwill, 
DuBrul, Emerson, Parker, Riggs, Fairfield, Henshaw, and 
Schneble. 

The Secretary made some announcements and a recess was 
taken until the morning of Thursday, December 3rd, at the Stev- 
en's Institute of Technology, Hoboken, at 10:30. 

Wednesday Afternoon. 

For this afternoon the stations of the Interurban Street Rail- 
way Company at Ninety-third Street, the Manhattan Elevated 
Railway Company at Seventy -fourth Street, and the Waterside 
Station of the New York Edison Company at Thirty -eighth 
Street, on the east side of the city, were open to members. 

The members were assembled at luncheon in the auditorium of 
the Society House, and parties were made up for the visit to these 
various points. 

No assignment was made for the evening of Wednesday with 
a view to leaving the visitors free to avail themselves of the op- 
portunities of the city in musical and dramatic lines. 

Third Session. Thursday Morning, December 3rd. 

By invitation of the President, Trustees and Faculty of the 
Stevens Institute of Technology, the session this morning was 
held in the auditorium of the Institute in its main building. 

The session was called to order at half- past ten, with President 
Dodge in the chair. The following professional papers were 
taken up: 

W. B. Gregory, '' The Pitot Tube " ; F. B. Perry, " Method of 
Determining Rates and Prices for Electric Power"; D. S. Jaco- 
bus, " Tests of a Coinpound Engine Using Superheated Steam " ; 
E. F. Miller, ''The Pressure Temperature Curve of Sulphurous 
Anhydride (SOj)"; Benj. T. Allen, ''Construction and Effici- 
ency of a Fleming Four- valve Engine"; C. G. Barth, "Slide 
Rules for the Machine Shop as a Part of the Taylor System of 



NEW YORK MEETING. , 81 

Management '' ; and the paper by Mr. F. A. Scheffler on '' Sugges- 
tions for Shop Construction." The participants in debate on 
these papers were Messrs. Ennis^ Ileisler, Suplee, Carpenter, 
Kockwood, Kent, Kerr, Seymour, Wheeler, Moss, Ilice, Child, 
Goss, Cluett, and R. S. Hale. 

At the close of the meeting the members were divided into two 
groups, one of which took luncheon in the Carnegie Laboratory, 
and the other was escorted by guides, from the Institute students, 
through the laboratories and equipment of the Institute. 

On completion of their tour, this group was entertained at 
luncheon, and at half-past two the members re-assembled in the 
auditorium to listen to a most interesting and striking presenta- 
tion of the properties of oxides of aluminum in producing intense 
local heat sufficient to melt masses of considerable size, such as 
rails, flanges and the like. The most striking example was the 
melting of a piece of pipe. 

Dr. Goldschmidt gave to his lecture the title of Alumino Ther- 
mics. 

In the evening the usual reception to the visiting members was 
tendered by the New York members of the Society, at Sherry's, 
Fourty-fourth Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

The reception line included President Dodge and Mrs. Dodge, 
President-elect Swasey and Mrs. Swasey. Over 600 persons were 
in attendance and dancing was kept up until a late hour. 

Fifth Session. Friday Morning, December 4th. 

The closing session of the convention was called to order in 
the auditorium of the iSociety, 12 West Thirty-first Street, at ten 
o'clock. The following professional papers were taken up and 
discussed: By C. H. Morgan, entitled '*A Compact Gas Engine — 
Beam Type"; ''Standard Unit of Refrigeration", by J. C. 
Bertsch: "A Series Distilling Apparatus of High Efficiency", 
by Prof. W. F. M. Goss; ''Air Motors and Air Hammers, Ap- 
paratus and Methods for Testing", by Max H. Wickhorst; 
** Valve Motion of Duplex Air Compressor", by S. H. Bunnell. 
The participants in debate on these papers were Messrs. Ilobart, 
Saplee, Jacobus, "Voorhees, Bunnell, Shipley, Eeeve, Magruder, 
Kent, Thwait, Morse, Uehling and Jones. 

At the close of the professional papers the President announced 
that new or executive business was in order. 

The Secretary by direction of the Council presented the follow- 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

ing tribute, prepared by Messrs. John E. Sweet, Robert W. 
Hunt, and John Fritz, a special committee of the Council and 
which that body had directed should be read in the general 
meeting. 

A TRIBUTE TO DOCTOR THURSTON. 

Sudden death has called from us our first President, 

Doctor Kobert H. Thurston, 
the one of all best known to us through his work for the Society ; 
the one of all best known in technical education, and the one of 
all best known to engineers of the world. 

His name will last as long as this Society lasts, and we who 
knew knew him best will hold his name in loving remembrance 
as long as we live. We mourn him, and to his wife and children, 
to whom his' loss is so much greater, we extend our sincere sym- 
pathy. 

God has called to Himself one of his noblemen ; the peer of his 
associates and a model for the young men of America. 

It is such as he who makes life worth living. Remembering 
his greatness, let us try to emulate his virtues. 

(Signed) John E. Sweet, 

EoBERT W. Hunt, 
John Fritz. 

The Secretary also reported that during the meeting he had 
been advised of the death of Sir Frederick Joseph Bramwell, 
D.C.L., L.LD., F.R.S., Honorary Member of this Society and 
past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great 
Britain. 

Sir Frederick was apprenticed to a mechanical engineer in 
1834, and rose to the position of Chief Draftsman and later to 
that of Manager. He entered the practice of engineering on his 
own account in 1853; became an associate of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers in 1856, a full member in 1862, and President 
in 1884. 

He l^ad also been president, of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers in 1874 and 1875, and of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1888. He will be remembered 
by those of the Society who were the guests of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers in 1899 as one of its most genial and noticeable 
representatives in the entertainment of the visiting American 



KEW tOBK MEETING. 33 

eBglneers. He was as a practitioner especially emphatic as 
to the dignity and responsibility of the engineer, particularly 
as owing it to the public that no unworthy schemes reached ma- 
turity through lack of exposure of their quality by competent 
engineers. 

The Secretary was on motion directed to transmit a suitable 
minute and tribute^ to the Institution of Civil Engineers of Great 
Britain. 

Messrs. Rockwood, Miller, Hunt, Suplee, Goss, Halsey and 
Engel took part in a somewhat informal discussion as to having 
the out-of-town membership of the Society represented as bear- 
ing a share in the expenses of the annual meeting, recurring each 
year in the City of New York, and the matter was referred, on 
motion, to the consideration of the Standing Committee on Meet- 
ings created under the new Constitution. 

There being no further new or general business to be presented, 
the President asked Mr. Ambrose Swasey, President-elect, to 
come to the platform that he might turn over the responsibilities 
of his office to his successor. Mr. Dodge thanked the Society 
for the courteous way in which he had been treated during his 
incumbency, and on motion the meeting adjourned. 

On the afternoon of Friday a large number of members ac- 
cepted an invitation from the De Laval Steam Turbine Company 
of Trenton, N. J., to be their guests by special train to the works 
of the Company. 

Luncheon was served on the train and the excursion was much 
enjoyed. 



34 CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGIKEEiUNG. 



No. 1008.* 

OARNEQIE GIFT TO ENOINEERINQ. 
SECOND CIRCULAR. 

At the annual meeting of the Society held in New York City, 
December 1st — ith, a report was called for from the representa- 
tive of the Society on the Joint Committee intrusted with the 
details of Mr. Andrew Carnegie's proposed gift of a building 
for the needs of the engineering societies. 

Mr. Charles Wallace Hunt, as such representative, presented 
a verbal report, from which the following information is derived. 

It will be recalled that in advance of the Saratoga Meeting an 
announcement was made to the Society, which will be found at 
page 870, Volume XXIV, of the Transactions. It mentioned 
the purpose of Mr. Carnegie's donation of one million dollars, 
which should bring the libraries, assembly-hails, offices and 
meeting rooms of the societies of engineers into one great build- 
ing, which, while ample in size for their individual needs, should 
arrange for their convenience as respects business and profes- 
sional uses. It was proposed, in addition, that the building 
should give adequate accommodation for such other technical, 
scientific and engineering bodies as might require the use of a 
properly equipped auditorium. 

During the intervals between that report and the present 
meeting, the Joint Committee of fifteen has been in conference 
on the details referred to it, and has appointed an Executive 
Committee of five to facilitate the work of the general com- 
mittee. 

A sub-committee of the Executive 'Committee has been en- 
gaged in the preparation of the material which might be neces- 
sary to submit the ieeds of these societies to a competition of 
architects, as to the structural details of the building. A Com- 
mittee on Organization has been appointed, consisting of Messrs. 
A. R. Ledoux, Chas. Wallace Hunt and S. S. Wheeler, and their 

* Appeodix to Proceedings. 



CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGINEERING. 35 

recommendations to the Joint Committee have been adopted and 
the Organization Committee instructed to take the necessary pre- 
liminary steps to secure the legislative action for which their 
report called. 
The full report of the Committee on Organization is as follows: 
The undersigned were appointed a -special Committee at a 
meeting of the Executive Committee of the Union Engineers' 
Building Association, on July 9, 1903, and were instructed ' to 
propose a plan of organization for the bodies exclusive of the 
Engineers' Club, which are to participate in the gift.' In trans- 
mitting instructions to this Committee, the Chairman of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee summarized our duties, as he understood them, 
as follows: 

1. To suggest an organization to hold title to the land and 
building. 

2. A method of superintending and administering the build- 
ing after completion. 

3. Provision for granting the use of parts of the building to 
other organizations whose objects and work may be of suitable 
character and which may contribute to the maintenance of the 
building. 

4. Provision for continffencies, such as the withdrawal of one 
of the societies, or the failure on the part of any one properly to 
carry out its obligations. 

The Committee was authorized to consult legal counsel. It has 
held several meetings and has informally consulted members of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, and others interested. 

After having informally and tentatively approved suggestions 
formulated by one of its members, Mr. Hunt, the same were sub- 
mitted to the law firm of Butler, Notman, Joline & Mynderse, 
from whom a written opinion was obtained. 

Having considered this legal advice and taken note of all sug- 
gestions received, the Committee unanimously advise as follows: 

1. The total amount oflfered by Mr. Carnegie shall be admin- 
istered as two gifts; one to the Engineering Societies and the 
other to the Engineers' Club, each U> be held and administered 
independent of the other. The allocation of the fund to be made 
at once, but the buildings to be designed and erected as one oper- 
ation ; thereafter the respective titles and administrations to be 
entirely independent. 

2. The property represented by land, buildings and equipment 
of the engineering societies, shall be held and administered by an 



36 CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGINEERINQ. 

executive corporate body, preferably under a special charter, to 
be obtained from the State of New York, each of the constituent 
societies being entitled to name from its membership three per- 
sons to act as incorporators and thereafter as directors. 

3. Each society annually to elect or appoint, as their By-Laws 
may prescribe, one of their voting members to serve on the Board 
of I)irectors of the Executive Corporation for a term of three 
years; a vacancy in said Board to be filled by an appointment 
made by the society, the retirement of whose representative causes 
the vacancy. 

4. The land and property being held for the societies by an 
executive corporation, tne said corporation may, to pay for the 
land acquired, issue certificates of indebtedness or bonds bearing 
interest at four per cent., and redeemable on six months' notice, 
the buildings bemg a gift from Mr. Carnegie. 

5. Each of the constituent societies may purchase and hold an 
equal amount in value of the said bonds or certificates, but the 
Board of Directors of the executive corporation may authorize 
any of the constituent societies to hold an additional amount: 
that is in excess of its portion, but such excess shall be sulriect to 
recall at its par value at any time that the directors of the Execu- 
tive Corporation may so order, to the end that each society shall 
have an equal interest in the property of the corporation if it so 
desires. 

The certificates held bv each society shall be inalienable unless 
thev are offered to the Executive Corporation at their par value, 
and such tender shall not be acceptea by the Board of Directors 
within one year thereafter. 

6. The property of the Executive Corporation shall be used 
perpetually as a meeting-place and headquarters for the constitu- 
ent societies, and for such other scientinc associations as may be 
temporarily admitted by the consent of the Board of Directors 
of the Executive Corporation. Such associations may pay a pro 
rata share in the expenses of the headquarters, but no pront shall 
be made from such use. 

7. Each of the participating societies shall be entitled to rooms 
and space in the property adequate to its need, paying its share 
of the running expenses in accordance with the amount of space 
occupied; said space to be assigned and a proper assessment 
therefor determined by the Board of Directors of the Executive 
Corporation. 

8. The excess of receipts over expenditures, if any, shall be 
used for reducing the subsequent contribution of the several 
societies for maintaining the building, and for the advancing of 
engineering arts and science, by and through the participating 
constituent associations. No dividends shall be declared or prof- 
its divided, but a reasonable repair and rebuilding fund may be 
established. 

9. If the income of the Executive Corporation shall be less than 



CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGINEERING. 37 

the expenditnre, the deficiency shall be made ffood bv an assess- 
ment on each of the constituent societies, so allocated as to be in 
proportion to the number of voting members of each society. 

An excess of receipts over expenditures may be allocated to 
the societies in like manner to reduce their annual assessment. 

10. Shoald any of the constituent societies fail or refuse to 
appoint directors, the remaining members of the Board of the 
Executive Corporation shall aominister the property with all 
the force and effect as though the Board contained its full quota 
of members. 

11. Finally, your committee, in offering the above suggestions, 
has had in mind the setting aside of the money used for a build- 
ing for the Engineers' Club, so that on the completion of the said 
bmlding, the relations of the Club and of the engineering societies 
will terftiinate. Thenceforward, the constituent societies are to 
carry through the Executive Corporation the administration of 
the building and its accessories, leaving the scientific, profes- 
sional, inteUectual and financial activity in each organization 
entirely independent of the others, and free to develop to any 
extent and along any line that may be determined each for 
itself. 

The details of the superintendence and administration of the 
buildings can best be considered after the organization of the 
proposed Executive Corporation through the procuring of a 
special charter. 

(Signed) Albert R. Ledoux, ) 

Chas. Wallace Hdnt, 1 (^omrmttee on 
Schuyler S. Whebleb, ) Orffamzatum. 

It may be mentioned that when the sub-committee on building 
plans took up the consideration of the necessary areas it devel- 
oped at once that the cost of the building which would be required 
for the accommodation of the Engineering societies, on 125 feet 
front on Thirty-ninth Street, and the Engineers' Club on a fifty 
foot front on Fortieth Street, would exceed the preliminary or 
tentative figure mentioned by Mr. Carnegie in his official letter 
of gift. 

When this conclusion was reached, a special committee was ap- 
pointed to visit Mr. Carnegie and talk the matter over with him. 
He made it evident that it was his desire and intention to erect 
a building which should be a monument to the Engineering pro- 
fession, and that it was his purpose to make this building adequate 
and the qnestion of cost was in his mind secondary to the attain- 
ing of the object dear to his heart, which was the bringing to- 



38 



CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGINEERING. 



gether of all classes of engineers into a building in which they 
could co-operate for the common purpose of the profes- 
sion. 

It may be desirable to repeat some of the statements of the pre- 
vious announcement, that the location of the proposed building, 
as given in the sketch plan herewith, is one of the most desirable 
ones in the city of New York. 



V. 






--^ 



<3« 



rOWTY'rOUWTH 



ygiw"T 



rOWTY-THIWD 



-^ 






FORTY-riRfT 



rOWTV'SCCOND 






GHAND ' 
o\CENrRAL\ 
ISTATIONj, 



BRYANT 
PARK 




K 



I Building 



Englntera 
Club 



■.MNK MTt GO..N.T.\ 



\\I] 



THIRTY-NINTH 



THIWTY-CIGHTH 



Pig. 1. 



»TRErr 



STWrCCT 






The New York Public Library building occupies the entire 
eastern frontage of the block between 40th and 42nd Streets on 
Fifth Avenue, while to the westward is the open square known 
as Byrant Park. 

It will be conveniently accessible from the terminals of the 
New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, and the New 
York Central and Hudson Eiver Railroad at 42nd Street, at Park 
and Madison Avenues, and from the Pennsylvania terminals com- 
ing in from the West, at 33rd Street and Seventh Avenue. The 
Elevated railway at Sixth Avenue has a station at 42nd Street, 
and the Third Avenue Elevated, 42nd Street and Park Avenue. 
The junction of the Rapid Transit underground lines at 43rd 
Street and Broadway* will make this station an important ex- 
press point for trains both from down town and from the North. 

Convenient surface lines, both up and down town, intersect at 
42nd Street. The hotel and theatre district of the city are cen- 
tering more and more around this particular region. 

The Committee will bavery glad to receiv^e from members of 



CARNEOIE GIFT TO ENGINEERING. 89 

the Society suggestions Avhich may be helpful in the matter of 
interior arrangement or detailed requirement of the proposed 
building, to the end that it may be in every respect thoroughly 
adapted for the needs of the societies which are to occupy it. 

The committee would report that for the three societies which 
have so far signified their purpose to make use of the proposed 
building, the requirement of floor space in square feet, outside of 
the general rooms for auditoriums and library needs, is as follows : 

Purpose. Electrical. Mechanical. Hiaing. 

Reception room 600 800 620 

Editorial room 400 300 860 

SecreUrj or AssistaDt 400 800 860 

Counting room 600 600 320 

Accountant— Stenographers 400 900 700 

Botrd and Committee 1,000 600 760 

Stationery and Transactions 1,200 1.200 1.000 

Cloeete 400 400 400 

Sundries 200 400 600 

6.200 5,600 5,120 

The Society of Civil Engineers has issued a circular to its memr 
bers reporting the condition of affairs at the present time and 
their probable need for 9,000 square feet of floor space, but defi- 
nite action cannot be taken by that society until a letter-ballot is 
had and until after the annual meeting of the society in January. 

In the letter-ballot taken on the question of the necessary 
changes in their By-Laws by the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, the vote showed over 1,600 in favor of the change, 
and only eleven in opposition to it, which is regarded as showing 
an overwhelming sentiment in favor of the Engineering Building. 

It may be further of advantage to report that the action in the 
Joint Committee on all questions which have been submitted to 
it has been unanimous, and that throughout, in all decisions, the 
Joint Committee has had the benefit of the counsel, advice and 
co-operation of the representatives appointed by the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, who have sat with the Committee in 
all its deliberations. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James M. Dodge, ) 

C. W. Hunt, > Committee. 

F. R. HUTTON, ) 



40 THE MONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 



mo. lOM.* 

THE MONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 

BT JAMBS M. DODOB, PHILADBLPHIA, PA. 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS, 1903. 

1. Technical Training may be self -acquired or obtained through 
instruction. The ability to drive a nail properly, or to design and 
construct the most complex and wonderful of structures or de- 
vices, is the result of Technical Training in but different degree. 
Up to a very recent date, and within the memory of most of us, 
the Apprentice System and that of Independent Delving repre- 
sented the sole methods of acquiring training. Research and in- 
vestigation carried on in individual lines, with varying degrees 
of success, dependent upon the mental makeup of the individual, 
were the means of attaining theoretical technical knowledge. 
The blending of these two methods developed the earlier 
Mechanical Engineers and will, even in the future, enable those 
suiSciently gifted by nature and habit to attain eminence. The 
progress of the world, however, calls for a better and more s^pgedy 
means of producing trained men than could ever be developed 
by the methods of self-instruction. The individual, striving for 
manual skill, attains his desire under the old apprentice system. 
Individuals sufBciently gifted arise above their fellows, and be- 
come the leaders in their calling. The gratification of a mechan- 
ical appetite and the desire to earn more money than his fellows 
are two moving causes which impel a man towards technical 
education. A generation or so ago, the universal belief was that 
the sooner a young man entered upon his apprenticeship, or 
began practical manual work, the better and more rapid would be 
his progress in the Mechanic Arts, and Book Learning was de- 
rided as being purely theoretical, and of little practical value. 

* Presented at the New York meeting (December, 11)03) of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, aud forming part of Volume XXV. of the Traru- 
actions. 



THE MONEY VALUE OP TECHNICAL TRAINING. 41 

This belief is, even at this date, all too prevalent, largely due to 
inherited error, and to lack of knowledge and reliable data. 

2. Obtaining data from which incontrovertible conclusions can 
be drawn is now comparatively easy, but a few years ago was 
practically impossible. We are all prone to take extreme cases 
of success or failure as the basis of our opinions, and lose sight 
ol the fact that it is the average man whose career shows the 
true force and direction of the current. For convenience of 
comparison, I will outline the actual progress made by four 
groups of men working in the Mechanic Arts, — the unskilled 
labor group, the shop-trained or apprentice group, the trade 
school group, the technical school group, and give the results 
attained. Each group I will refer to as an individual : 

3. The first is the Laborer, with but primitive and rudimentary 
training, working under the immediate and constant supervision 
of a boss, and earning, as the line on the chart indicates, $10.20 
per week at the age of 22, his line remaining horizontal through 
the period of his usefulness. Data are lacking as to his progress 
before he reaches the age of 22. 

4. The second is the Apprentice or Representative of the Shop- 
trained group, of good health and habits, entering a machine 
shop at the age of 16, and earning an average wage of $3 per 
week for fifty weeks per year. This is about the number actu- 
ally worked, making $150, or 5 per cent, on $3,000, which is his 
Potential or Invested Value, upon which he draws his interest on 
pay days. 

5. On the chart accompanying this paper (Fig. 2) you will find, 
ruled horizontally, lines representing amounts increasing from the 
lower line upward by $1,000 each; starting at $1,000, and 
terminating at the top at $50,000, these representing IJpten- 
tial Values, upon which 5 per cent, is earned for fifty weeks a 
year. The vertical Knes each represent one year in time, begin- 
ning at the lower left hand corner at 16, and progressing in 
regular order until, at the lower right hand corner, we have 32, 
representing in all a lapse of 16 years. 

6. To illustrate the progress of the four groups graphically, we 
indicate on the line representing 16 years of age, and opposite 
the figure $3,000, the young man just entering his apprentice- 
ship. We will consider him typical of the Shop-trained Group. 
Following the line to the right we see his average progress in 
earning capacity through the ensuing years, noting that at the 



42 



THE MONET VALUE OP TECHmCAL TBAININO. 



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17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 29 30 31 
EACH VERTICAL LINE REPRESENTS ONE YEAR. 



THE MONEY VALUE OF 
TECHNICAL TRAINING 

Fig. 2. 



THE MONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 43 

age of 20 he is earning $9 per week, which is 5 per cent, on 
$9,000, he having increased his Potential or Invested Value in 
four years by $6,000. 

7. We now note that his accumulated experience enables him 
to make more rapid progress for the next year and a half, and 
from the age of 20 to 21^ years we find that his pay has in- 
creased to $13.20 per week, and his Potential Value to $13,200. 
He is now approaching his goal, and his line of progress does not 
continue at the same angle that it followed for the past few years, 
but deflects toward the horizontal; and at the age of 24 we find 
him' earning $15.80 per week, and his Potential Value $15,800. 
In other words, in eight years he has increased his Potential 
Value $12,800. Observation shows that 5 per cent, of the 
apprentices acquiring the machinist trade rise above the line 
made by our average man; 35 per cent, follow the line closely, 
and that during the period of training 20 per cent. leaVe of their 
own accord, and as near as can be ascertained, go to other shops 
and continue in the line originally selected; 40 per cent., how- 
ever, are found unworthy or incompetent, and are dismissed, 
probably never rising to the $15.80 line. 

8. Apprenticeship of to-day in many establishments does not 
make the man, broadly speaking, a mechanic — in a majority of 
cases he is a specialist or tool hand, and not comparable with the 
old mechanic, who was a worker in metals, had some practical 
knowledge of steam and prime movers, could chip, file, work on 
lathe, planer, drill press, or as an assembler, and was competent 
to meet the varied and unusual conditions found in general con- 
struction and repair work. 

9. The third group of young men are those fortunate enough to 
have had the opportunity of entering a trade school, which.they 
do at 16 years of age, devoting the next three years of their 
Hves, or until they are 19 years of age, acquiring a trade under 
competent instruction, and at the same time adding to their store 
of rudimentary theoretical education. At the age of 19 a Trades' 
School man enters the machine shop and can command $12 per 
week, equal to the apprentice at 21 years of age, and very quickly 
makes his employment profitable to his employer. The three 
years in school have increased his Potential Value from $3,000 
to $12,000, a gain of $9,000. Thus he has caught up with the 
apprentice entering the shop at 16, and who has been working 
for five years. Progress of the Trades' School group now follows 



44 THE MONEY VALUE OP TECHNICAL TRAINING. 

a line which diverges from that of the regular apprentice, and 
by the time $15.80 is earned by the regular apprentice, the 
Trades' School graduate is earning $20, with a Potential Value 
of $20,000, or $4,200 greater than that of the Shop-Trained man. 
The Trades' School line continues at substantially the saipe angle 
up to an earning capacity of $22 per week, and a Potential Value 
of $22,000. Data are lacking as to the further progress, but the 
presumption is that this line will bear oflF more toward the hori- 
zontal, eventually paralleling the line of the Shop-trained man, 
but much higher on the chart 

10. The fourth group we will represent again by a boy of 16 
studying at school until his 18th year, and preparing himself for 
admission to one of our higher Institutions of Technical learning, 
such as the Stevens Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Columbia, Cornell and the like, where, after a four 
years' course, or at the age of 22, he is ready to begin practical 
work. The statistics upon which this chart is based show the 
average starting wage at $13 per week, or the same amount 
earned by the regular apprentice at the age of 21^, and by tho 
Trades' School graduate at the age of 19^. In other words, 
apparently a graduate of our technical schools has lost by his 
six years of preparatory study, having been beaten by the regular 
apprentice by six months and by the Trades' School graduate by 
2^ years. From this time, however, there develops a most inter- 
esting and instructive line of progress. The regular apprentice, 
who is earning $13.50 a week at the time the technical graduate 
is earning $13, is overtaken in six months, and we find both 
earning $14 per week, and the technical graduate reaches the 
$15.80 line nearly one year before the regular apprentice. In 
other words, while it has taken the regular apprentice from his 
2]st to his 24th year, or three years, to increase his wages from 
$11.60 to $15.80 a week, the technical graduate has done the 
same in fifteen months. 

11. Progress now continues on substantially the same line, and 
we find the technical graduate earning $22 per week, and crossing 
the line of the Trades' School group in three^ years' time, a 
worthy tribute to the higher education and attainment. 

12. The line of the technical graduate now continues divergent 
from that of the trades' school graduate, with earning capacity 
regularly increasing, and a corresponding augmentation of Po- 
tential or Invested Value until, at the age of 32, or ten years 



THE MONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 45 

after entering upon the practical work, we find our technical 
graduate earning $43 per week, and his Potential Value at 
$43,000. In other words, six years of preparation have enabled 
him to distance the Shop-trained man and the Trades' School 
graduate overwhelmingly. Bearing in mind that this is an aver- 
age line, it is of interest to say that most technical graduates 
with a better record than the one in the chart have devoted even 
more time to their preparation, either by study or by shop work, 
after graduation. Those, on the other hand, who have not come 
up to this average line represent, in the main, men more or less 
incapable of* original work. The reason that higher education, 
other things being equal, carries with it the ability to earn high 
wages is that consciously or unconsciously, these men are direct- 
ing and making it possible for large numbers of Laborers, Shop- 
trained men and Trades' School graduates to perform useful 
worL A draftsman at his board may never realize that as a 
result of his drawing a hundred men or more may be given em- 
ployment His design calling for structural steel, for instance, 
could not be built were it not for the labor of many men em- 
ployed making and rolling the steel before it reaches the shop. 
Then come the shop men, who cut, punch and shear, and then 
the erectors, who assemble the structure in accordance with the 
original plan. For this ability and knowledge our technical man 
is paid. 

13. It is quite obvious that aU workers in the Mechanic Arts 
cannot be technical graduates. Some must, through natural limita- 
tions, or lack of opportunity, #q11ow the apprentice line, and 
others the Trade School. 

14. If is from graduates of the latter that leading shop men and 
foremen are largely selected. These two classes, supplemented 
by the technical graduate, constitute the vast army of workers 
in the Mechanic Arts. 

15. Thus we see clearly that preparation pays, and that it pays 
in dollars and cents, and that even a long term of years spent in 
proper study and technical training is a good investment from 
every point of view. 

16. Of course, apprentices have made and will make, in rare in- 
stances, a better showing than the average technical man of the 
charts and many of our greatest men have, by sheer force of 
character, excellence of brain fibre, persistence and self-educa- 
tion, risen to preeminent positions, independent of all regular 



46 THE HONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 

systems. To the end of time great examples of this kind will be 
found. Among those whose names readily come to mind are 
the elder Krupp, Joseph Whitworth, George M. Pullman, 
Andrew Carnegie, John Fritz, Prof. John E. Sweet, Edwin 
Reynolds, George H. Babcock and Coleman Sellers. 

17. The same is true of the Trades' School graduate, but as said 
before, we are dealing with the average of each class, taken from 
actual statistics, with an eanjest desire to ascertain the facts, and 
without any preconceived notion of the outcome. 

18. It may be stated as a truism that every man pays for the 
amount or percentage of bossing he requires, and conversely, 
every man's wages increase in proportion to his ability to act as 
the boss or foreman of himself and others. The lower the wage 
rate the greater the amount of watching and directing constantly 
required. The slaves of ancient Egypt received no wages, but 
were treated as horses are to-day. They were fed and sheltered 
according to the ideas of their owners. No slave worked volun- 
tarily, and the foreman's or leader's excellence was gauged entirely 
by his physical strength and efficiency as a driver. This was 
certainly the zero of labor conditions. 

19. The highest wages are paid to the man through whose abil- 
ity the largest number of other men may be most profitably em- 
ployed. He does his work with his brain. Thus, on the one 
hand, we see manual labor receiving no wages, and on the other 
mental labor reaping the highest reward. Between these two 
extremes is found every condition of human life. 

20. A practical man perform* his work within the radius of his 
arm, a technical man within the radius of his brain. This fact is, 
even to-day, realized by the few, but it is gratifying to kliow that 
the number is increasing. 

21. The technical training of an individual makes him valuable 
just in proportion as his ability is manifested by good judgment 
and perception. Trained common sense receives the highest 
compensation and reaps the greatest reward. 

22. Mental ability to receive ideas and impart them properly and 
wisely, rearranged and grouped, is typical of the most brilliant 
mentality ; a dull intellect may be compared to blotting paper, fit 
only to absorb and inter a heterogeneous mass of impressions. 

23. The most interesting of all graphical charts would be that 
properly exploiting the value of technical training to manufac- 
turing plants and enterprises. To illustrate this more dearly^ 



THE MONEY VALUE OF TECHNICAL TRAINING. 47 

we may fairly assume that the apprentice of our chart corre- 
sponds to the old-fashioned primitive shop, having practically no 
overhead expense, the proprietor carrying the business " in his 
hat,'' priding himself on his non-receptive sturdiness, contempt 
for improvements and personal attention to all details. For his 
costs he adds together the value of raw materials and labor, and 
then adds a few dollars for profit. The line of this establishment 
would parallel the $15.80 line of our Shop-trained group. 

24. The Trades' School line on the chart truthfully represents 
establishmrnts in which some attention has been paid to the im- 
provement of system, with an increased so-called non-productive 
force, operating possibly in some particulars with brilliancy, but 
with defective features in others; acknowledging the value of 
improvement if internally originated; moderately but uncon- 
sciously absorbent of ideas from without, but tenacious of dogma 
and lacking departmental symmetry. Growth, increased earn- 
ings and relative immunity from disastrous failure result. 

25. The technical graduate line of our chart represents the man- 
ufacturing establishment technically trained and " abreast of the 
times " in all particulars, and I predict a time not very far dis- 
tant when it will be almost universally recognized %hat establish- 
ments should be trained as weU as individuals, and that the mar- 
vellous development in scientific shop practice and management 
will do for the manufacturer fully as much as technical training 
is doing for the individual. 

26. A change of mental attitude towards the subject of ad- 
vanced Shop Practice and Management is noticeable to a marked 
degree. Within a very few years, indifference and antagonism 
have changed to a growing interest and appreciation. 

27. The greatest musical composition contains no new notes; 
each note of the scale can be sounded on a penny whistle. Our 
greatest composers have only arranged the notes in harmonious se- 
quence. The artists that can render their music truly, well 
deserve unstinted praise, even though they lay no claim to the 
composition of the masterpiece. Truly a listener at the grand 
opera could say, " There is nothing novel in this ; I have heard 
every one of these notes before. I have even made similar 
sounds myself, and the result was far from satisfactory." So 
with Shop Management : it must be as fundamentally harmonious 
as a musical composition, and need not of necessity embody wittin 
it any one element of extreme originahty. Of it the individual 



48 THE MONEY VALUE OP TECHNICAL TRAINING. 

may truly say, " Nothing novel has been presented; I tried this 
feature or that-feature with no beneficial result," but if he can 
play the music of the Art of Management thoroughly well he 
need not grieve because he is not its composer. 

28. Henry R. Towne, F. A. Halsey, H. L. Gantt and Charles 
Day have all ably contributed through our Proceedings to the liter- 
ature of this most important subject. Fred. W. Taylor, in his 
paper of the current year, while claiming no originality of detail, 
has presented to the world the most complete and thoroughly 
scientific system of shop management ever promulgated. As an 
investigator ^nd student he is sowing seeds in the field of the 
Mechanics Arts which will bear a bounteous harvest. 

29. It may be truly said that this Society, and others allied in 
promoting the Mechanic Arts, complete the system of technical 
training by going beyond the province of the technical schools, 
their students being the men who constitute the management of 
our manufacturing enterprises. It should be gratifying to all of 
us that the pioneer literature of advanced shop management and 
practice for this post-graduate course of technical training was 
presented to the world by the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. • 



SLIDB RULES FOB MACHINE SHOP AND TAYLOR SYSTEM. 49 



No. 1010.* 

SLIDE RULES FOR THE MACHINE SHOP AS A. PART 
OF THE TAYLOR SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT 

BY CABL O. BARTH, SWABTHMOIKB, PA. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. In his paper on " Shop Management," read at the Saratoga 
meeting of the Society in June last, Mr. Fred W. Taylor referred 
to certain slide rules that had been invented and developed under 
his supervision and general guidance, by means of which it be- 
OHnes a comparatively simple matter to determine that feed and 
speed at which a lathe or kindred machine tool must be run in 
order to do a certain piece of work in a minimum of time. 

2. These slide rules were also mentioned by Mr. H. L. Gantt in 
his paper " A Bonus System of Kewarding Labor " (New York 
Meeting, December, 1901), as being at that time in successful use 
in the large machine shop of the Bethlehem Steel Company, and 
reproductions of a number of instruction cards were therein pre- 
sented, the dictated feeds and speeds of which had been deter- 
mined by means of these slide rules. 

3. Mr. Taylor early set about making experiments with a view 
to obtaining information in regard to resistances in cutting steel 
with edged tools, and also the relations that exist between the 
depth of cut and feed taken to the cutting speed and time that a 
tool will endure; and he advanced far enough along these lines 
in his early position as engineer for the Midvale Steel Company 
to make systematic and successful use of the information obtained; 
but as this, of course, was confined to tempered carbon tools only, 
it was not applicable to the modem high-speed steel, so that the 
invention and introduction of this steel called for new experiments 
to be made. 

4. These were first undertaken under Mr. Taylor's directions at 

♦ Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1908) of the American So- 
oetj of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volome XXV. of the Trani' 



50 SLIDE RULES FOB MACHINE SHOP AND TAYLOB STSTSIC. 

Bethlehem, so far as the cutting of steel alone was concerned; 
and later on at the works of William Sellers & Co., Inc., of 
Philadelphia, at which place the writer spent fifteen months in 
going over these experiments again, on both steel and cast iron, 
and with tools of a variety of shapes and sizes, and for which 
nearly 25 tons of material were required. 

5. However, it is not the writer's intention at this time, to give 
an account of these experiments, or of the results obtained and 
conclusions drawn from them, but merely to give some idea of 
the slide rules on which these have been incorporated, and by 
means of which a most complex mathematical problem may be 
solved in less than a minute. 

6. He will also confine his attention to the most generally inter- 
esting of these slide rules; that is, the slide rules for lathes, and 
he will take for an example an old style belt-driven lathe, with 
cone pulley and back gearing. 

7. Considering the number of variables that enter into the prob- 
lem of determining the most economical way in which to remove 
a required amount of stock from a piece of lathe work, they may 
be enimaerated as follows : 

I. The size and shape of the tools to be used. 
* II. The use or not of a cooling agent on the tool. 
- HI. The number of tools to be used at the same time. 
'IV. The length of time the tools are required to stand up to 
the work (Life of Tool). 
V. The hardness of the material to be turned (Class Num- 
ber). 
VI. The diameter of this material or worL 
VII. The depth of the cut to be taken. 
iTU. The feed to be used. 
'IX. The cutting speed. 
X. The cutting pressure on the tooL 

XI. The speed combination to be used to give at the same 
, time the proper cutting speed and the pressure re- 
quired to take the cut. 
Xn. The stiffness of the work. 

8. All of these variables, except the last one, are incorporated 
in the slide rule, which, when the work is stiff enough to permit of 
any cut being taken that is within both the pulling power of the 
lathe and strength of the Jtool, may be manipulated by a person 
who has not the slightest practical judgment to bear on the matter; 



BLIDB RULES FOB HACHINB SHOP AND TAYLOB SYSTEM. 51 

but which as yet, whenever the work is not stiff enough to permit 
of this, does require to be handled by a person of a good deal of 
practical experience and judgment. 

9. However, we expect some day to accumulate enough data in 
regard to the relations between the stiffness of the work and the 
cuts and speeds that will not produce detrimental chatter, to do 
without personal judgment in this matter also, and we will at 
present take no notice of the twelfth one of the above variables 
but confine ourselves to a consideration of the first eleven only. 

10. Of these eleven, all except the third and tenth enter into re- 
lations with each other that depend only on the cutting properties 
of the tools, while all except the second, fourth and ninth also 
enter into another set of relations that depends on the pulling 
power of the lathe, andjthe problem primarily solved by the slide 
rule is the determination of that speed-combination which will at 
the same time most nearly utilize all the pulling power of the 
lathe on the one hand, and the full cutting eflSciency of the tools 
used on the other hand, when in any particular case under consid- 
eration values have been assigned to all the other nine variables. 

11. If our lathe were capable of making any number of revolu- 
tions per minute between certain limits, and the possible torque 
corresponding to this number of revolutions could be algebraically 
expressed in terms of such revolutions, then the problem might 
possibly be reduced to a solution, by ordinary algebraic methods, 
of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities; 
but as yet no such driving mechanism has been invented, or is ever 
likely to be invented, so that, while the problem is always essen- 
tially the solution of two simultaneous equations, or sets of rela- 
tions between a number of variables, its solution becomes necessa- 
rily a tentative one; or, in other words, one of trial and error, and 
involving an endless amount of labor, if attempted by ordinary 
mathematical methods; while it is a perfectly direct and remark- 
ably simple one when performed on the slide rule. 

12. The slide jule method of solution may, however, also be 
employed for the solution of niunerous similar problems that are 
capable of a direct and perfect algebraic solution ; and it will, in 
fact, be best first to exhibit the same in connection with the sim- 
plest imaginable problem of this kind. 

13. In the first place, the solution of two simultaneous equations 
may be graphically effected by representing each of them by 
a curve whose coordinates represent possible values of the two 



52 



SLIDE BULES FOB HAOHINE SHOP AND TAYLOB SYSTEM. 



unknown quantities or variables, for then the coordinates of the 
point of intersection of these curves will represent values of the 
unknown quantities that satisfy both equations at the same time. 
14. Example 1. Thus, if we have y + a? = 12 and y — a? = 3, 
these equations are respectively represented by the two straight 
lines AB and CD in Fig. 3; and as these intersect at a point (1) 



15 

14 

13 

12 

11 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 











f 


r 


































(1) (2) 










/ 








X 


\ 




f 








y 


y—x= 8 
2y =15 


-§=3 


y^64 




H 




7 












y=7H y«=y54-7J5 




\ 


\ 


/ 




^^. 


J^ 








(?) 






\ / 


\ 




/ 












(*+3)a?=18 






p 




A 


1 














ar-8 






A 


m- 




\ 




















/ 


y 






^ 




















/ 




\ 


\ 




















c/ 


/ 






\ 


V, 






N 














/ 












^ 


-Ji*. 


^ 


\, 












/ 




















N 


^ 




. 




A 



























1 

BmrUt,C.a. 



2 8 



7 8 
Fia. 8. 



10 11 12 U 14 15 



whose coordinates are a? = 4^ and y = 7i, these values will 
satisfy both equations at the same time. 

15. Example 2. Suppose again that we have x.y = 18 and - = 3, 



X 



and these equations are respectively represented by the equilateral 
hyperbola EF and the straight line OH; and the coordinates to 
the point of intersection of these (2) being respectively » = 2.45 
and y = 7.35, these values will satisfy both equations at the same 
time. 



SLIDE RULES FOR MACHINE SHOP AND TAYLOR SYSTEM. 53 

16. Example 3. Similarly, if we have y — » = 3 and y,x = 18, 
these equations are respectively represented by the straight lines 
CD and the equilateral hyperbola EF; and the coordinates to the 
point of intersection of these (3) being x = 3 and y = 6, these 
values will satisfy both equations at the same time. 

17. The slide rule method of effecting these solutions — to the 
consideration of which we will now pass-— will readily be seen to be 
very similar in its essential nature to this graphical method, 
though quite different in form. 

18. In Fig. 4 is shown a slide rule by means of which may be 
solved any problem vnthin the range of the rule of the general 
form : " The 8um and difference of two numbers being given, what 
are the numbers f '' 

19. The rule is set for the solution of the case in which the sum 
of the numbers is 12 and their difference 3, so that we may write 

y + a? = 12 and y — a? = 3, 

which are the same as the equations in Ex. 1 above. 

20. In the rule, the upper fixed scale lepresents possible values 
of the-sum of the two numbers to be found, for which the example 
under consideration gives y + « = 12, opposite which number is 
therefore placed the arrow on the upper slide. 

21. The scale on this slide represents possible values of the 
lesser of the two numbers (designated by x) and the double scale 
on the middle fixed portion of the rule represents possible values 
of the greater of the two numbers (designated by y); and these 
various scales are so laid out relatively to each other, and to the 
irrow referred to, that any two coincident numbers on these latter 
scales have for their sum the number to which this arrow is set; 
in this case accordingly 12. 

22. The bottom fixed pcale on the rule represents possible val- 
ues of the difference of the two nimibers, in this case 3, opposite 
which number is therefore placed the arrow on the bottom slide 
of the rule, the scale on which also represents possible values of 
the lesser of the two numbers, x; and the double fixed scale in 
the middle of the rule representing, as already pointed out, pos- 
sible values of y, the whole is so laid out that any two coincident 
numbers on these latter scales have for their difference the num- 
ber to which ihis arrow is set; in this case accordingly 3. 

23. Fixing now our attention on any number on the double y 
scale in the middle of the rule, we first note the values coincident 



51 



SLIDE BDLE8 FOB IIACHINE SHOP AND TATLOB SYSTEM. 







H 














w_ 








Y 








t^ _ 
















o _ 
















J2- 








3 - 
















eo _ 








wf 








et - 








t 


















- 










© _ 






8 








o» - 
1 






_ oc 






flO - 

1 




_ »• 




c 


t^ - 


;»> 


-s 




o 










S. eo_ 


o - 
1 


OD 


-s 


_oo 


i -- 


•o - 
1 


_t;_ 


_ ^ 


-55 


< S- 


"* - 


- S- 


«eo 


_ o 


Ul '^ 


CO — 


-12- 


-55 


_ « 


2 s- 


a — 


-3- 


-^ 


-?: 


s- 


1 
1 


_ eo_ 


-S 


-s 


n- 


•-0 — 


-a- 


- o» 


-S5 


»H 


^- 


-;2- 


L-00 


_ *-• 


o_ 


et - 


_ o_ 


r- 


_o 


o — 


eo — 


-o»- 


— «o 


- o 


I*— 


•* — 


-00- 


- m 


- 00 


t-- 


to - 


-t,J 


- -^ 


- r- 


«0 — 


w - 


-«o- 


- 00 


- «o 


>o — 


1- - 


-«- 


- 0* 


- lO 


"* — 


OD - 


_^- 


-y^ 


- -* 


«- 


cs — 


-eo- 


-o-« 


- eo 


« — 


o _ 


-01- 


~ 1 


- « 


+ o- 

1 


;:: - 


- r^ — 


"7 


-^ H 


2- 


- o- 


-00 

— ■^ 


1 


7- 


•^ _ 


-o»- 

1 


- Hi 


- o« 


ee — 
1 


s- 


-00- 


- to 

1 


- 00 
1 


1 


s — 


-^ — 


-T 


- -* 


M5 — 
1 


I- _ 


- lO— 


- oo 
1 


- lO 


1 


S- 


— w— 


-a» 


- o 
1 


1 


B 


~ i 


_ o 


-*r 


7- 




-00- 

1 


— J5 


"T 




o»- 




-os- 


_ o» 


- c» 


O _ 




_ o_ 


_ eo 


_ o 












^ _ 




J^ 


_x 


J, 






— V" 




" "f 


t-* _ 




_ o*.. 


t- •« 


_ e* 








T 




00 _ 




_«_ 


- o 


- eo 












*«• _ 




_ •»»"-. 


_ »- 


^ 


▼^ 








i^ 


»o _ 




_ 11-- 


_ X 


_ »o 


7 






' 




» _ 




_ O -. 




, o 








H 




t- _ 




_J_ 




_ 1- 




00 _ 






_ QD 


T 








T 






TRAH8ACTION8 AMEBICAK SOCIETY OF MBCHAKICAL EnGINBBBB. VoL. XXV. 



f l' FOR Power. 

I . I 




:. Tools. 



Diameter for Power. 



Speed Combination s^sFsm'^m'^f^- 

iiiiT II " • 



i" 1- I- i- i-l- 1- 1- Vl-i- J 

ftlf4 S SS8 10MifsO128a 

onmlkjihgfec 

0.4" I 0.25" I 0.1S6"! 0.1" | aojas'i aosD"! 



n 



l-A-S 2-A-S 3-A-S 4-A-S 5-A-S 
IJSO l.Oa 2.47 3.0S 8^ 



TUT 



f 



3-A-P 3-A-F 
4.77 5.93 7.40 



Diameter for 
\\ Cutting Speed. 



60" 60" 40" 80" ao- 

I'lllllli I li.illillllllllli I II I I 



... . . I I i I I I i I I I I I 

Class Number oi28456789ioiii2 18iii 



Depth of Cut i" re i" f i" f i" for Cuhino Speed. 



Fig 



L^. 



CABii Q. Babth. 



Patent Applied for 



Cuss Number 9 ^p » » ^ for Power. 



I M<,;:ii ii I i t iMMiii M |i|i|i |i I i I 
ma. r »• 40' »• »• w wo" 8" 7" c 5' 



Power. 



lilll II II I 




^ I ' 
f i « 6 a 

r •UBTf &4R95'| 



LATHE 
No. 43. 



- - is 8-B-S 4-lL8 5-B-8 1-B-F S-B-F 8-A-F /' CbUBINATION. 



'^A-r 4-A-F S-A-F 1-B-S 3-1 

•:,g m 11^ 14^ 17 JS a.2 27.St 84.4 42.9 S8.4 <W.fl 

J9* 10" 9' 8* 7" «• 6 

^ i \ I I t I \ \ t \ i I 



>ER NiN. 



^ 



LATHE No. 43. 



: i M I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I ; 
13Il = lli718 19 20S122S8^25262723»a0818Sf8884858087ed3340 | FOR SPEED. 



Dry. With Water. 

_J L 



Life of Tool. 2om.ih. 2houm. 



^».ama 4m« ckK^. r. 



SLIDE BULBS FOB HACHIKB 8U0P AND TAYLOB SYSTEM. 55 

to it in the two x scales on the slides; and this done, we readily 
discover in which direction we must move along the first scale in 
order to pick out that value of y which has the same value of x 
coincident with it in both x scales. For the case under consid- 
eration this value of y is 7i,and the coincident value in both scales 
is 4^. Evidentiy, therefore, y = 7^ and » = 4^ are the num- 
bers sought. 

24. In the same manner we may make a slide rule for the solu- 
tion of the general problem : " The prodtict and qtcotient of two 
numbers being given, what a?*e the number's f *' 

Such a rule would differ from the above described rule merely 
in having logarithmic scales instead of plain arithmetic scales. 

25. By the combined use of both arithmetical and logarithmetic 
scales we may even construct rules for a similar solution of the 
general problems : '* The sum and product, or the s^im and quo- 
tienty or the difference and product, or the difference and quotientf 
of itoo numbers being given, what are the numbers f^^ and a 
multiplicity of others; and the writer ventures to suggest that 
slide rules of this kind, and some even simpler ones, might be 
made excellent use of in teaching the first elements of algebra, 
as they would offer splendid opportunities for illustrating the rules 
for the operations with negative numbers, T^hich are such a 
stumbling block to the average young student. 

26. We now have sufiicient idea of the mathematical principles 
involved, for a complete understanding of the working of the slide 
rule whose representation forms the main purpose of this paper. 

27. This slide rule, in a somewhat ideal form in so far as it is 
made out for neither steel nor cast iron, but for ah ideal metal of 
properties between these two, is illustrated in Fig. 5. It will be 
seen to have two slides in its upper section and three in its lower 
section, and it is in so far identical with the rules made for the 

( Bethlehem Steel Company, while in the rules more recently made 

it has been found possible and convenient to construct it with only 

, two slides in the lower section also. 

I 28. It is shown arranged for a beR-driven lathe (No. 43*) with 

five cone steps, which are designated respectively by the numbers 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, from the largest to the smallest on the machine. 
This lathe has a back gear only, and the back gear in use is desig- 

♦ The main frame of the rule is used for a number of lathes, and is arranged 
to receive interchangeable specific scales for any lathe wanted, as may be seen in 
the illastration. 



56 SLIDE BULES FOB MACHINE SHOP AND TATLOB SYSTEM. 

nated by the letter il, the back gear out by the letter B. It also 
has two counter shaft speeds, designated respectively by 8 and jP, 
such that 8 stands for the slower, F for the faster of these speeds. 

29. The Speed Combination 3— A — S thus designates — ^to 
choose an example — the belt on the middle cone step, the back 
gear in, and the slow speed of the countershaft; and similarly, the 
combination 1 — B — F designates the belt on the largest cone step 
on the machine, the back gear out, and the fast speed of the coun- 
tershaft; and so on. 

30. The double, fixed scale in the middle of the rule (marked 
Feed) is equivalent to the y scale of the rule in Fig. 4, and the 
scales nearest to this on the slides on each side of it (marked 
Speed Combination fob Poweb, and fob Speed, respectively) 
are equivalent to the x scales on the rule in Fig. 4. The rest 
of the scales represent the various other variables that enter into 
the problem of determining the proper feed and speed combina- 
tion to be used, fixed values being either directly given or as- 
signed to these other variables, in any particular case under 
consideration. 

31. The upper section of the rule embodies all the variables that 
enter into the question of available cutting pressure at the tool, 
while the lower section embodies all the variables that enter into 
the question of cutting speed / or, in other words, the upper section 
deals with the pulling pov)er of the lathe, the lower section with 
the cutting properties of the tool; and our aim is primarily to 
utilize, in every case, both of these to the fullest extent possible. 

32. The example for which the rule has been set in the illustra- 
tion is : 

A i inch depth of cut to be taken with each of two tools on a 
material of class 14 for hardness, and of 20 inches diameter, and 
the tools to last 1 hour and 45 minutes under a good stream of 
water. 

33. The steps taken in setting the rule were: 

1. The first scale in the upper or Poweb section of the rule, 
from above, was first set so that 2 in the .scale marked Number 
of Tools became coincident with ^ inch in the fixed scale marked 
Depth of Cut fob Poweb. 

2. The second slide in this section of the rule was so set that 
20 inches in the scale marked Diametee of Wobk foe Poweb 
became coincident with 14 in the scale marked Class Nuhbeb 
FOB Poweb. 



8LIDB BULES FOB HAOHIHB SHOP AND TATLOB SYSTEM. 57 

3. The first slide from below, in the lower or Speed section 
of the rule, was so set that the arrow marked Wrrn Water be- 
came coincident with 1 hour 45 minutes in the fixed scale marked 
LiFB OF Tool. 

4. The arrow on the lower side of the second slide in this 
section of the rule was set to coincide with ^ inch in the scale 
marked Depth of Cut fob Cuttino Speed. 

5. The third and last slide in this section was so set that 20 
inches in the scale marked Diameteb of Work fob Cutting Speed 
became coincident with 14 in the scale marked Class Number 
fob Cuttino Speed. 

Let us now separately direct our attention to each of the two 
sections of the rule. 

34. In the Poweb section we find that all the speed combina- 
tions marked B (back gear out) lie entirely beyond the scale of 
feeds, which means that the estimated effective puD of the cone 
Iteh reduced down to the diameter of the work, does not represent 
enough available cutting pressure at each of the tools to enable a 
depth of cut of ^ inch to be taken wiUi even the finest feed of the 
lathe. Turning, however, to the speed combinations marked A 
(back gear in), we find that with the least powerful of them 
(5 — A — F) the e feed, which amounts to yfff ^^^^ = 0.039 
inch, may be taken; while the / feed, which amounts to {^ 
inch = 0.05 inch, is a little too much for it, though it is within 
the power of the next combination (5 — A — 8), and so on until 
we finally find that the most powerful combination (1 — A — 8) 
is nearly capable of pulling the t feed, which amounts to -^ inch 
= 0.1 inch. 

35. In the Speed section of the rule we likewise find that all the 
B combinations lie beyond the scale of feeds, while we find that 
the combination 5 — A — F (which corresponds to a spindle speed 
of 11.47 revolutions per minute), can be used in connection with 
the finest feed (a) only, if we are to live up to the require- 
ments set for the life of the tool; while the next combination 
(4 — A — F) will allow of the e feed being taken, the combination 
3 — A — F of the / feed, and so on until we finally find that the 
combinations 3 — A — S is but a little too fast for the coarsest (o) 
feed, and that both of the slowest combinations (1 — A — 8 and 
2 — A — 8) would permit of even coarser feeds being taken, so far 
as only the lasting qualities of the tools are concerned. 

36. We thus see that there is a vast difference between what the 



58 SUDS BULES FOB HAOHINB SHOP AND TAYLOB 8T8TE1C 

PowEB section of the rule gives as possible combinations of feeds 
and speeds for the utilization of the full pulling power of the 
lathe, and what the Spbkd sections of the rule gives for such com- 
binations for the utilization of the tools up to the full limit set 
However, by again running down the scale of feeds we find that, 
in both sections of the rule, the % feed (iV i^^oh = 0.1 inch), is 
but a trifle too coarse for the combination 1 — A — F, while the h 
feed {^ inch = 0.078 inch) is somewhat too fine in connection 
with this speed combination 1 — A — F^ both for the full utilization 
of the pulling power of the belt on the one hand, and for the full 
utilization of the cutting efficiency of the tools on the other hand. 

37. In this case, accordingly, the rule does not leave a shadow 
of doubt as to which speed combination should be used, while it 
leaves us to choose between two feeds, the finer of which does not 
allow us to work up to the full limit of either the belt or the took,^ 
and the coarser of which will both overload the belt a trifle and 
ruin tlie tools a trifle sooner than we first intended to have them 
give out. 

38. The final choice becomes a question of judgment on the part 
of the Slide Rule and Instruction Card Man, and will depend upon 
how sure he is of having assigned the correct Class Numbeb to 
the material or not ; and this latter consideration opens up a num- 
ber of questions in regard to the practical utilization of the rule, 
which for the lack of time cannot be taken up in the body of 
this paper, but which will be fully answered by the writer in any 
discussion on the subject that may arise. 

39. Having decided upon the speed and feed to use, the Instruc- 
tion Card Man now turns to the Time slide rule illustrated in Fig. 
(), and by means of this determines the time it Avill take the tools 
to traverse the work to the extent wanted, and making a fair 
allowance for the additional time consumed in setting the tools 
and calipering the work, he puts this down on the instruction 
card as the time the operation sheuld take. 

40. For finishing work the pulling power cuts no figure, so that 
this resolves itself into a question of feed and speed only; and for 
the selection of the speed combination that on any particular 
lathe will give the nearest to a desired cutting speed, the Speed 
slide rule * illustrated in Fig. 7 is used. 

41. It will readily be realized that a great deal of preliminary 

* Described in the AtMrxcan Machimd of November 20, 1902. 



SUDB BULBS FOB HAOHINB 8U0P AND TAYLOB 8TSTFH. 



59 



work has to be done before a lathe or other machine tool can be 
successfullj put on a slide rule of the kind described above. The 
feeds and speeds and pulling power must be studied and tabulated 
for handj reference, and the driving belts must not be allowed 




Pio. 6. 

to fall below a certain tension, and must, in every way, be kept 
in firstK^lass condition. 

4:2. In some cases it also becomes necessary to limit the work to 
be done, not by the pull that the belt can be counted on to exert, 
but by the strength of the gears, and in order to quickly figure 
this matter over the writer also designed the Gear slide rule * 
illustrated in Fig. 8, which is an incorporation of the formulae 
established several years ago by Mr. Wilfred Lewis. 



* Described in tlie American Machinist of Jaly 81, 1902. 



60 



SLIDE RULES FOR MACHINE SHOP AND TAYLOR SYSTEM. 



43. For the pulling power of a belt at different speeds, the 
writer has established new f ormnlfie, which take account of the in- 
creasing sum of the tensions in the two sides of a belt with increas- 
ing effective pull, and which at the same time are based on the 
tensions recommended by Mr. Taylor in his paper entitled " Notes 




Fig. 7. 



on Belting,^' which was presented at the Meeting of the Society 
in December, 1893. 

44. These formulae have also been incorporated on a slide rule, 
but as the writer hopes at some future time to prepare a separate 
paper on this subject, he will not go into this matter any further 
at the present time. 

45. Having thus given an outline of the use of the slide rule sys- 
tem of predetermining the feeds and speeds, etc., at which a 
machine tool ought to be run to do a piece of work in the shortest 



SLIDE RULES FOR MAOUtNE SHOP AND TAYLOR SYSTEM. 



61 



possible time, the writer, who has made this matter an ahnost ex- 
clusive study during the last four years, and who is at present en- 
gaged in introducing the Instruction Card and Functional Fore- 
manship System into two well-known Philadelphia machine shops, 
which do a great variety of work in both steel and cast iron, will 




Fie. 8. 



merely add that, in view of the results he has already obtained, 
in connection with the results obtained at Bethlehem, the usual 
way of running a machine shop appears little less/than absurd. 

46. Thus already during the first three weeks of the application 
of the slide rules to two lathes, the one a 27 inch, the other a 24 
inchy in the larger of these shops, the output of these was increased 
to such an extent that they quite unexpectedly ran out of work 
on two different occasions, the consequence being that the super- 
intendent, who had previously worried a good deal about how to 



62 SLIDE BULKS FOB KACHINB SHOP AND TAYLOB ST8TEH. 

I 

get the great amount of work on hand for these lathes out of the 
way, suddenly found himself confronted with a real diflSeulty in 
keeping them supplied with work. But while the truth of this 
statement may appear quite incredible to a great many persons, to 
the writer himself, familiar and impressed as he has become 
with the great intricacy involved in the problem of determining 
the most economical way of running a machine tool, the applica- 
tion of a rigid mathematical solution to this problem as against 
the leaving it to the so-called practical judgment and experience 
of the operator, can not otherwise result than in the exposure of 
the perfect folly of the latter method. 



MODIFYING SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT. 63 



Mo. 1011.* 

MODIFYING SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT. 

BT H. L. OAMTT, BCHBMKOTADT, N. T. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. At the Saratoga meeting the papers on shop management 
and the allied subjects covered such a broad field that a thorough 
discussion of them in the time available was practically impossible, 
and consequently, as the writer has since found in going over the 
subject with members, many of the most important points in those 
papers were not brought out. 

2. Most of the people the writer has talked with regarded the 
various things advocated as individual propositions, and approved 
or condemned according as they Baw, or did not see how they could, 
or could not be adapted to their works and their existing system 
of management. Many people apparently would like to adopt 
some of the ideas, but do not see how they can do so without 
making radical changes. This is due to the fact that few plants 
have in practical operation the basis on which the whole system 
depends for its ultimate success, namely a complete and accurate 
system of getting a record of all work done each day, and the 
amount of time spent in doing it. In other words a means of 
knowing in the office whether every order has been properly car- 
ried out or not, without actually going out into the shops and inves- 
tigating. Whether the whole system as advocated is adopted or 
not this part is of great value to any manager, superintendent or 
foreman, and can usually be gradually introduced without stirring 
up any serious opposition. As a matter of fact it has been the 
writer's experience that all good men welcome such a system and 
do all they can to get it in operation ; and, if a little time is taken, 
a radical change may be made by methods that are not at all revo- 
lutionary. 

♦ Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1903) of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the Trans- 
aeUons. 



64 HODIFYINQ SYSTEMS OP KANAQSICSKT. 

3. A Complete System : Referring again^ however, to the views 
of the members regarding the methods advocated at the Saratoga 
meeting, it seems that few have grasped the idea that what was 
advocated was not a series of isolated propositions, but a system 
of management having a number of parts working in harmony 
with each other, designed first to find out in detail what the maxi- 
mum output of a plant should be, and then to make it to the in- 
terest of all concerned to obtain day after day that maximum 
output. 

4. Different Views: As an example of how diverse the criticisms 
of the papers were, I may quote some of the extreme ones. 

5. One man, the manager of a large plant, thought that if the 
methods advocated by Mr. Taylor were attempted in his plant 
there would be a strike at once. 

6. A second man did not see why we did not compel a workman 
to give the maximum output without extra compensation if we 
knew how it should be done. 

7. A third man said to the writer, " Now for the first time I see 
how you can get the maximum output from your shop without 
having trouble with your men, and if you carry out the methods 
described I don't see how you can have trouble." 

These opinions, being those of well-known and prominent men, 
are worthy of careful consideration. 

8. Analysis of Opinions: Regarding the first opinion, that the 
introduction of the methods advocated by Mr. Taylor, and it was 
the study of unit times that was especially referred to, would 
produce a strike in his works, the reply is that s^uch study has 
never yet caused a strike. That it is possible to cause a strike in 
almost any plant by doing this work in an obnoxious way is un- 
doubtedly true ; but it is equally true that the work may be done 
without serious opposition in almost any plant if sufficient time 
and patience a/re devoted to it. It is realized, however, only by 
those who have actually done the work how much time and 
patience may be needed, and a man who undertakes this work 
without the experience of others to guide him is apt to be dis- 
couraged, for he will find that his progress is extremely slow. 

9. On the other hand if the workmen are so united in their 
determination that no one man can be found who will follow the 
wishes of the management and do exactly what is wanted without 
objecting to having the details observed and recorded, it would 
seem desirable to get such a man as soon as possible. This, how- 



ttODIFYlKO SYSTEMS OF MAKAGEHEKT. 65 

ever, is a condition the writer has never come across; and, while 
it may exist^ is certainly very rare, and probably does not exist at 
all in any large plant, although it may take some time and patience 
to find the right man. When a start has been made and the good 
men begin to realize that what is being done is for their advan- 
tage as well as for that of the company, there need be no trouble 
provided men are allowed to see the results of one step before 
another is taken. 

10. The Second Opinion: That if we knew how to get the 
mayimnm output of a machine we should compel the workmen to 
get it without extrp, compensation is not in keeping with the 
spirit of the age. We cannot to-day in this country compel any- 
body to do anything. The employer must concede to the work- 
man what he demands for himself — that he be allowed to do what 
he belifeves it to be lus interest to do. In other words, when the 
employer has decided upon what he believes to be his interest, his 
only successful method of procedure is to make it to the interest 
of the workman to do what is wanted. It may take time and 
patience to make the workman realize what his true interest is and 
see it in the same light as the employer does, and unions may 
oppose it; but if the inducement is a fair one and the employe 
is subjected to no real hardship it is only a question of time when 
somebody will be found of sufficient independence to work for 
his own interest, 

11. The Third Opinion: That these methods properly carried 
out should give the maximimi output and be practically an insur- 
ance against labor trouble the writer leaves for the comment of 
others. Suffice it to say that the Avriter is finding an increasing 
number of men that are looking at the matter in that light, and 
asking for information as to the best method of beginning this 
work under the conditions that exist in their shops. 

12. Introducing New Methods : It must always be borne in mind 
that everybody is suspicious of new methods, and that the only 
way to remove this suspicion is to show them that the new 
methods are going to help them in their work. If the first thing 
that is started is helpful to somebody, it will not 'l)e long before 
there is a sentiment in favor of the new system. The time-keeping 
department and the foremen usually find the system of daily re- 
turns from the men of such assistance to them that it soon has 
their support, and when the Graphical Daily Balance begins to 
show up weak spots the best foremen realize they have at their 



66 MODIFYING SYSTEMS OP MANAGEMENT. 

command an instrument which will help them to increase the 
eflSciency of their work by enabling them to put their efforts where 
they are most needed. 

Having thus stimulated an interest in making improvement, 
the value of the detail methods as advocated by Mr. Taylor will 
soon be realized, after which their adoption is only a question of 
time. 

13. The Office: The remarks so far have been with reference 
to the shop, but tiiey are equally applicable to the office, for to 
have a schedule of what should be done in the office each day and 
a graphical representation on that schedule of what was done is 
of great advantage to the management, and is essential to proper 
hannonious relations betwipen the office and the shop. Indeed to 
be able to make quickly each day such comparisons as the follow- 
ing for the day before is quite as important as to make similar 
coinparisons of the shop work : 

What drawings should have been completed, 

What drawings were completed. 

What purchase orders should have been placed, 

What purchase orders were placed. 

What material should have been received, 

What material was received. 

14. It also costs but little to make readily available each day a 
knowledge of what has been spent in labor and material on any 
piece of work up to the close of the day previous. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Chas, D, Parker, — The discussion has been almost 
wholly confined to the management and the workmen. I would 
like to make an inquiry of Mr.^Gantt and others who have put 
the matter in practice: How about the intermediary agent, the 
foreman? What does he get out of it, and how much in- 
terested is he in putting it through? Does he get his pay 
raised when the men under him increase their earnings? Does 
he like it when some of the men under him make much more 
than he does, and is there any difficulty arising in putting this 
method in practice from that source? 

Mr. Ganii,* — I will say that the method adopted at the Beth- 

* Aatbor*s Closure under the Rules. 



MODIPYIXO SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT. 67 

lehein Steel Company's Works, when a number of men working 
under a foreman each had instructions for doing his work and a 
l>oniis for the accomplishment of that work in the time stated was 
as follows: the foreman was given a bonus in proportion to the 
number of men who earned their bonuses and an extra bonus lJ all 
of them earned it. It was thus made to the interest of the fore- 
man to give his attention to the poorer workmen, and not to the 
best workmen, who needed attention least ; that worked very satis- 
factorily at Bethlehem. I also know of another concern that is 
putting the same plan into operation now — an entirely different 
kind of plant. 



6d IS AinrrniNG the matter wtth piece work? 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORKf\ 

BT FRAHK IUCHABIM« MSW YORK CTTT. 

(Member of tbe Society.) 

1. The title of this paper, if perhaps slangy in form is not so in 
fact, and is, I think, fairly characteristic of what follows. It 
may be frankly stated that the purpose is not so much to convey 
information as it is to provoke discussion and to accumulate 
knowledge upon one of the unsettled questions and one of the 
most important which can engage the attention of this Society. 
It is also one which can most affect the interests of its members 
and of those most interested with them in the safe and successful 
conduct of business. A perfunctory "sitting down" upon the 
paper is not all that any one could properly desire and cannot 
possibly close the case. ^ 

2. Attention is invited to the accompanying diagram (Fig. 9), 
which is easily understood. The purpose of it is to show the actual 
earnings of the workman, and of course also the labor-cost to the 
employer, for any given amount of work done under either day 
work or piece work at different rates, the Rowan premium system 
and Mr. Halsey's premium plan. The amount of work done is 

* Presented at the New York meetiug (December, 1908) of the American So- 
cieij of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the Trans- 
actions, 

t For farther dlscossion on this topic consult Transactions as follows : 
No. 84t. vol. X., p. 600 : "Gains Sharing " H. R. Towne. 
No. 449. vol. xil., p. 765 : " Premium Plan." F. A. Halsej. 
No. 647, vol. xvi., p. 860 : ** Piece Rate System." F. W. Taylor. 
No. 909, vol. xvii., p. 1040 : ** Drawing Room and Shop System." F. O. Ball. 
No. 928. vol. xxiil.. p. 841 : ** Bonus System for Rewarding Labor." H. L. Gantt. 
No. 966, vol. xxiv., p. 260 : "Gift Proposition for Paying Workmen." Frank 

Richards. 
No. 1001, vol. xxlv., p. 1302: ** The Machine Shop Problem.'* Charles Day. 
No. 1002. vol. xxiv., p. 1822 : '< Graphical Daily Balance in Manufacture." H. 

L. Gantt. 
No. 1008", vol. xxiv., p. 1887 : " Shop Management." F. W. Taylor. 



18 ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 69 

represented by the lengths of the horizontal lines and the wages 
paid are represented by the vertical lines. 

3. As the Rowan system is not in use in this country all may 
not understand its basis of computation. It starts with a fair day's 
work, although that may not be the term used to designate it 
The unit assumed is the amount or quantity of work which' the 
man should ordinarily be expected to do in a day for the ordinary 
day*8 wage without any special inducement The premium is 
earned only by the work which is done in excess of the regular 
day's work, and the premium earned is according to the time 
saved in doing the work. If double the work is done in the 
given time then one-half the time is saved and the man is paid 
one-half in addition to his regular wages. If the man does one 
and a half times his day's work then one-third of the time is saved 
and he is paid one-third more than his day's wages, and so on. 
The basis of computation is thus fixed and cannot be juggled with, 
but the inducement constantly decreases with the amount of work 
done, so that whatever a man may do he can never by any pos- 
sibility double his earnings. Mr. Halse^s premium plan, of 
course, requires no explanation here, and it will be designated 
hereafter as tlis premium plan. 

4. Beferring to the diagram it will be seen that both day work 
and piece work, whatever the rate of the latter, are represented 
tiuroughout by straight lines. A discouragement curve represents 
the Rowan premium system and Mr. Halsey's premium plan has 
a bend sinister. It was impossible to include Mr. Oantt's bonus 
system in the diagram because a part of it, the part where you do 
not quite earn the bonus, must be represented by an invisibh 
line. 

6. It cannot fail to strike the observer at once that in the pre- 
mium plan the work which is done in the earning of the premium 
is straight, absolute piece work. The name cannot disguise it. The 
line in the diagram for the premium plan at one-half rate is ex- 
actly parallel to the half rate piece work line, the wages earned 
rise equally in each with equal increments of work done. So the 
three-eighth premium rate is parallel to the three-eighth piece 
work rate, and so on. If in making the premiutn plan bargain, 
the proposition were made to the man to first do his allotted quota 
and be credited with his day's wages and that then he should go 
to work by the piece for the remainder of the day at one-half 
the day rate, that would be the premium plan in every particular. 



70 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 



6. The partial piece-work character of the premium plan being 
imdeniable, a paper whose topic is piece work must claim the right 
to handle it freely and without apology. The premium plan was 
invented by its originator nineteen years ago ; it was put in opera- 
tion in the shop at Sherbrooke, Canada, thirteen years ago, and 
was first brought to the notice, of this Society in a paper twelve 

4 




Unit of Work 1 

MiehmniM, F. 



Awk.B«mk Sm* Ca.^. I*. 



years ago. The plan, I know, has been proposed and advocated 
in all honesty of purpose; it has been pushed with earnestness 
and persistency. As a result the premium plan is in operation in 
a few machine shops and nowhere else. I venture the personal 
opinion, based on the fullest available information, that perhaps 
two per cent, of the machine work in the United States is done 
under the premium plan, while ten times as much is done by im- 
disguised piece work and much more than half is still done by the 
day. 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 7 1 

7. It is not at all apparent that there are any peculiar ccmdi- 
tions in the machine shop which demand any different plans of 
wage adjustment than are prevalent in the other traded. While a 
knowledge of the premium plan is now widespread, the plan has 
not made itself appear so good a thing that any of the other trades 
have taken it up. It would not work with the shoemakers of 
Lynn, the hatters of Danbury, the gloveraakers of Gloversville, 
or the stitchers and starchers in the collar shops of Troy, for 
they all work by the piece, as do most of the manufacturing 
trades, and the ultimate possibilities of economical production 
are thereby secured as completely as they can ever be claimed 
to be under the premium plan. 

8. We might by an effort imagine the effect of proposing the 
premium plan to one of the trades outside the machine shop. Let 
it be tried on a lot of bricklayers. Say that it is first agreed that 
the day's wages are earned when five hundred bricks are laid, and 
that the premium plan begins right there. The bald proposition is, 
first, that if five hundred bricks are laid five hundred bricks will bo 
paid for. This is so far meant to be an honest bargain on both 
sides. If you don't lay another brick above the five hundred we 
will have no cause of complaint. Well, now, having agreed to pay 
for the laying of the five hundred bricks, when the five hundred 
bricks are laid go on and lay as many more as you can. If you 
lay seven hundred and fifty bricks we will pay you for laying six 
hundred and twenty-five bricks; if you lay one thousand bricks 
we will pay you for laying seven hundred and fifty bricks, and so 
on. It will be very plain that under this arrangement the workmen 
are clearly the gainers, for if you lay more bricks you ge*t some 
more money, and every additional cent you get is, of course, 
clear gain to you. The absurdity of this thing, when dealing 
with bricklayers, is sufficiently evident; are machinists so vastly 
different from bricklayers ? 

9. They must be different or else there are some things about 
the premium plan upon which I need information, and I take this 
way to get it. One of the inherent and inseparable conditions of 
the scheme would seem to be the voluntary acceptance of it by 
the individual workman. It depends entirely upon himself how 
much the man shall do after the allotted amount for the day's 
work is done. He may do much or he may do little, and therefore 
if he so chooses he may do none at all, but just be content to work 
along at his usual rate and just earn his day's wages. The 



•ri ^---JUi ^ -*■; 




' ^ ,^ ^ dA ^ ^ '^* ..^ , ^:. -*..' -.^ • J 

^/ . . ; ", ^ 4- t-'^*' *;irti ;.*^> V5: it luBT lic^ r j» ~&ar 

^'.^.. //y,,^ < ^' ♦^ « . /'. O^ t// "^^'/^mr *. X ' r 9BDLT " '^"-^ 

/ .* // -^ . ^ y ; *^. ^.<^.^ v^f . 1 w ' * .amfiitet IML * -^LSL -xiasm 

M *// ^'* '4 , *// '^'- >4 * '^^^.^'vAJf ^-f »:>!» lail MmtfOTTiff SL «ir 
^*/./.>^ //^ ,r* /^ *Vr /^/ ** .* M ;/«Vrrf,^>, V> £j: iiSfflCK TOMS. Bill 51 

^tft^^h fitU^ h hnh4^*4 th^h nf*i HuffUr/ed and where piece wwk 
ffH ^ftfid )tt nil fihfmfUtu hiM, ^9 th^t fM; p^ cent of the prodiie- 
I/'/ ^'//^ h\ l^r M»M^ ^/lwMi«l»r^»^ot h 'Jorur hy pi^^ee work, «i«I 
)l «/f^«)^ Ki* «n)/1 //f \Smi t^%\M\M%\mm\i that there is no catting of 
mHmi IIm-mi, \\\%\,^% IrMly ma I ^Mffp/mr; it in ever said of works where 
Mm* I^m HiliMff I'liMi U jn iiM^n All pri(7<)i» when made run for a year. 
'lll^V MM* \\\\\i \\\\i\\\\\\\\y Imprmi'd liy the employer or his repre- 
*immIm1Iv* rt, hMl' «M» l.l»#» 0Ml,<M»Mu? of fMir ami free and friendly con- 
CmmmMi mm(I wImmi nliMMK^'M ^^^ priro are imperative they are 
ii(l|iiM|(.i| \\\\\\\\\ Ik llrn fniiiMt wuy. Thn works are prosperous con- 
lliiiMilh, mimI IIim O'liHltih of omployors and employes are less 
ithMtiMMJ iJiMM llM\y UMio iMidor ollu^r arrangements. 

II ll \\\\\A lio <'Ni(lonl (lutt nuiio of tlioHo premium or bonus^ 
\\\ mIIom oMnoil or l»ohl, or Jofootivo lino schemes, whatever they 
oo»v \A\\\\\\ \\\ \\\\\ wwsi K\{ i|ulokouinjc tho pnoo of the worker and 
(«h>hut>iM^\ tlio oMlp\ili OMU bo tho uu)!tt ofFootive, for the reason 
\\\\\\ lliov ortoi \^ hnhu^ovl iiuvutiv^ at tho priKuse time when the 
wvK^A of 0uHnUh\* it lUv^^t ur^vut. It is^ the last piece done whidi 
Ns^^u^ t llu^ luulv tt, MUv( U U Ml^iml to offor the man half-price or 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 73 

less for doing it. With either of the premium plans doing its 
best in the way of increased output and reduced labor cost per 
unit, and with piece-work prices adjusted to precisely the same 
price per piece, the inducement to the worker to increase his out- 
put still further must be greater under the piece work than under 
the premium plan. The guarantee that prices shall not be cut 
is precisely as applicable to piece work as to the premium 
plan. The latter has absolutely no monopoly of honesty, no 
assurance '^of price maintenance any more than the other. 
With equal temptation to cut, and with the same human 
nature in the boss, the chances of cutting will average precisely 
equal 

12. With no one having the slightest interest in pushing or ad- 
vertising piece work, it is advancing on its merits as the most 
honest way of paying for repetitive work in the machine trade as 
in all others. It is worth while to note its popularity and progress 
especially in the extensive line of railroad work. The testimony 
at the meetings of the various railroad organizations i& very pro- 
nounced in this direction. At the meeting this summer of the 
Railroad Master Blacksmiths one man stated that absolutely every 
job in his shop was done by the piece. When the price could not 
be placed on the work to be done it was placed on the '^ heat'' 
Perhaps it may not always be possible to do this in the machine 
shop, but whenever the opportunity arises to consider the mode of 
payment it should always be in order to ask: Is Anything the Mat- 
ter with Piece Work? 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Harrington Emerson. — Just two years ago I was fortunate 
enough to have Mr. F. W. Taylor explain to me his principles 
of shop directions, and the results that he had obtained. It is 
Mr. Taylor's great merit that he first applied these principles 
to machine shops, but they are as old as humanity, and consist 
in setting a definite task, in directing its execution and in appor- 
tioning the reward according to the deed. Thirty years ago I 
made my first acquaintance with these methods in the strictest 
of strict German schools, where we were put under functional 
teachers, ten or twelve different men each day, where we were 
allotted to the particular classes for which our uneven attain- 
ments fitted us : one boy in the highest English and lowest mathe- 



74 IS ANITIIIXG THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

matics, his twin brother perhajvs in highest mathematics and 
liiedium English, where our methods, books, appliances, hours 
were strictly planned for us, our tasks set up to the full limit of 
our capacity, and where we were rewarded as individuals, not as 
members of a class. In the middle of the term a boy might be 
either promoted or debased, yet it was open to each to secure the 
same highest marks, and with the marks much-prized rewards 
and special privileges. 

The results in that school were astonishing. The great 
majority of the boys learned more in eighteen months than other 
schools could teach in four years, because there was no w^aste 
time, no waste process, no waste effort; it was time unit study, 
functional foremanship and differential piece work. 

At our meeting in Saratoga this year, Mr. Taylor presented 
in printed form a full statement of his fundamental principles, 
and, in my estimation, it will be many years before anything of 
more than detail value can be added to his work. My copy of 
his book is worn out \\4th thumbing of the leaves, and marking 
of important passages. I discovered that it would have been 
easier to mark the few sentences here and there that were not 
of prime importance; yet, for our fellow-member, Mr. Frank 
Richards, it is as if Mr. Taylor's work had never been made 
jmblic. 

What is the matter with piece work? Everything is the 
matter with it. It is a lazy, haphazard method of shifting 
responsibility and direction from employer to employee. It 
works for deception in the latter, and gives us a long string of 
broken promises from the former; it is hated and opposed by 
the unions, and with reason; it brought on the great Union 
Pacific strike last year, which is not yet finally settled. Piece 
work makes no provision for justice, and any system is wrong 
that is not based on justice. In some of the great Burlington 
^hops " Xovo " and other modern steels have been introduced, 
doubling the output of the workman without extra effort on his 
part, yet the superintendent of motive power told me that piece 
v.'ork rates would not l>c changed, and in the Union Pacific shops 
men came and asked the privilege of j)aying for their own modern 
tools if piece rates would be li'ft unaltered. 

The fundamental trouble with piece work, in addition to its 
lack of justice, is that it makes the workuian sell what is not his 
to sell, namely, OUTPUT. When Mr. J. J. Hill formulated 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 75 

his famous principle that railroad expenses were by the train mile 
and receipts by the ton mile, neither his train crews nor himself 
ever dreamed of putting the pay of the men on a tonnage basis. 
The engineer who hauls sixty 80,000-pound cars with a hundred- 
ton engine gets no more than the engineer who obeys orders, 
standing for hours on a side track. The engineer sells his time, 
his skill, his intelligence, his obedience, but never output, because 
that depends on conditions over which he has no control; and it 
lias always been a wonder to me that railroads which manage 
their train problems should be so backward in their machine- 
shop practices and methods. 

What the employe sells, whether in office or shop, is not his 
^* output," but primarily his time and his' skill, incidentally his 
intelligence and his obedience. 

That many shops pay by piece work is no argument in favor 
of the plan, since more shops pay by day work; and, as Mr. 
Earth in his slide rule paper, presented at this meeting, only too 
moderately remarks, the usual way of running a machine shop 
appears little less than absurd. 

The experiences of Mr. Taylor, Mr. Gantt, Messrs. Dodge and 
Day, Mr. Barth, myself and Mr. Parkhurst, who have carefully 
studied the output and results in innumerable machine shops, 
prove that the wastes going on are more than absurd. As an 
example of old practice against new, I hold in my hands the 
original figures of the skilled and competent engineer of a large 
shop, who estimated the cost of a certain job at $4,575, of which 
$3,300 for materials and $1,275 for labor. The work came 
under my direction after it was one-third completed, and was 
pulled oflF with four men in three months for a total cost of 
$3,375.09, of which $622.79 for labor, netting a profit of 
$1,824.91, instead of $629, as estimated — nearly three for one, 
yet some of the men on that job were paid a bonus of nearly 
100 per cent, above their regular wages. I also hold a routing 
card of one of my assistants, Mr. Parkhurst, in which a car shop 
job, marking and moving 200 pieces of oak, was estimated by 
the foreman to require two days, but waS actually completed in 
2 hours, 25 minutes on a 50 per cent, bonus basis. This is what 
Mr. Taylor's methods will do when applied to an old time shop. 

In planning jobs of this kind we pay no attention to what 
has or is being done. Former practices have absolutely no inter- 
est for us. We figure out the time the job ought to take under 



76 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 



existing conditions, and we pay the man a generous bonus, which 
must be enough to call out the best that is in him. If the con- 
ditions appertaining to the job are changed, either for better or 
worse, we again determine the minimum times and pay the man 
a bonus for his cooperation. These illustrations show that 
astounding results follow the plans Mr. Bichards condemns 
without .understanding them, and that there is no argument what- 
ever in appealing to present practices. 

Mr. Richards's diagrams and his reasoning and conclusions are 
erroneous, because he bases them on output, which does not 
properly enter into the matter at all, as diagrams based on time 
instantly show. 

I assume in all cases wages of 25 cents an hour, a usual time 
8 hours for a given job, a slow time of 10 hours, a fair time of 
6 hours, a piece work time of 5 hours, a Taylor bonus time of 
3 hours. Time, days, hours, minutes — ^in this case hours — are 
measured on horizontal lines, wages by the week, day, hour or 
minute — in this case hour by the hour — are measured vertically. 



Diagram 1. Day Work. 

(a) Blow day, (b) average, (c) fast day ander good foreman. 



-2.00 




-1.00 



10 Ilours 



Normal cost, 8 boars to employer, $2.00 ; wa^es per boar, 25 cents. 
Slow •• 10 •* ** •* 2.50; " * *' 25 " 

Low •• 6 ** •* " 1.60; *' " ** 25 " 

The employer makes all the gain or loss. He is stimulated to 
good foremanship and better equipment, but the constant tend- 
ency is to deterioration. 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

Diagram 2.— Piece Work. 



-2.00 



77 




Piece work cost at 6 boura, $1.50 ; wages per hour, .25 cents. 

•' ** *' 8 •' 1.50; •• " " .1875 cents. . 
•' •* " " 4 •* 1.50; ** ** ** .875 ** 

This is exactly the reverse of day work The employe makes 
all the gain or loss, and is afraid to cut time for fear wages will 
be cut. 

DiAORAM 8.— Halsbt Prehium. 



-2.00 




1.00, 



Pio. 12. 

Cost to emplojer at 10 hours, $2.50 
•• •« ** '* 8 •• 2.00 
•• •• •• '• 6 " 1.75 

" «• •* ** 4 •* 1.50 



10 Hours 



wages per hour, .25 cents. 

It «< (c 25 << 

«< « •« 20 ** 

** •* ** .87.5 *• 



78 



18 ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 



The chief merit of this plan is that it obviates the necessity 
for change in piece rates. It has worked admirably in certain 
shops, steering a half-way course between the injustice of day 
work and of piece work, but it is not fitted to cope with the un- 
expected. If there are no improvements by the employer there 
is no reason why the employe should not get in full the increased 
result dvle to his greater diligence and skill, but if improvement 
is due to the employer's better equipment there is no justice in 
giving the employe any part of it. 

Diagram 4.— Tatlor Differential Piece. 




2.00 



-1.00. 



8 10 Hours 



Cost to employer at 8 boars, $1.50 ; wages per hour, .50 cents. 
.» 4. 4« M2 M 1.60; '• •' *• .75 ** 



If employe habitually falls below three hours he is not wanted. 

Here, for the first time, attention is concentrated on the 
reasonable maximum of production and the reward made pro- 
portionately great. Xot only is there no attempt made to cut 
piece work prices, but the reward is withheld unless the maximum 
is done. The great difference between this and ordinary piece 
work is that Mr. Taylor demands the payment of a high premium, 
often 100 per cent., a figure that would frighten most employers, 
in order to effect maximum reduction in cost. If the employer 
introduces improvements, times are with justice shortened but 
not the premium per hour; if equipment deteriorates times must 
be lengthened but the same premium be paid per hour. 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 
Diagram 5.— Gantt Bonus. 




10 Hours 



Fig. 14. 



Co6t to employer at 6 boars, $1 .50 ; wages per hour, .25 cents. 
.. .* 4. 4. 3 .. J 5Q. .4 .. .. 50 M 

" .. M w 2 •• 1.25; " .. •« .625 •* 



The <liffereni.e between the Taylor and Gantt plans is that 
the fonuer pays by the piece finished in a definite time, while 
the latter pays by the definite time for a eompleted job, and pays 
the bonus, not for the piece, but for following instructions. 

Mr. Gantt does not admit that under his system the work- 
man could l>etter the time set and therefore objects to the sup- 
jtosition of two hours on a three-hour job; but t extend the 
diagram theoretically in order to show the diflFerence between 
Taylor and Gantt. Taylor is more severe and more generous. 

After careful study of the Taylor and (Jantt diagrams, Mr. 
Parkhurst and myself, adhering absolutely to the Taylor and 
(iantt theory of time unit study and specific directions of all 
operations, have used other diagrams, less severe than Taylor 
and (lantt, and permitting us in an old sho]), where tool, machine 
and labor conditions are not modern, to keep the ideal always 
in view, yet we reward any gain shown by the workman. We 
determine with all the skill at our command the time a job 
should take, and adopt the Taylor line, based however on time 
and not on piece, and then run back to the day line. 



80 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 
Diagram 6 — Emerson Parabolic. 



-2.00 




1.00 2 



Cost to emp] 



A 6 


8 10 Hours 


Fig. 15 


, 


boars, $2.50 


wages per hour, .25 cents. 


8 •* 2.00 


" •' - .26 " 


6 " 1.75 


" " .29 " 


4 *' 1.50 


: " " - .375 •• 


3 *• 1.50 


M .. 5Q .. 


2 •* 1.50 


- " " .75 - 



Diagram 7--Parkhub8T Combinatiok. 



2.00 




Fig. 16. 
Cost to employer, 8 hoars, $3.00 

M M M ^ O ^ 0g 

'* ** ** 4 »' 1.56 
'* " ** 8 '* 1.50 
*' •« .' 2 " 1.50 



- 1.00 , 



10 Hours 



wages per hour, .25 cents. 



.50 
.75 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTEB WITH PIECE WOEK? 81 

The essential difference between these diagrams and the Hal- 
sey premium Kne is not that they are curved and it is straight, 
but that it begins with an accurate and probably justly deter- 
mined rate and drifts mathematically, but not scientifically, into 
space. 

Mr. Parkhurst and myself begin with the scientific maximum - 
of output and reward for endeavor, and, as a mere matter of shop 
convenience curve backwards to the day rate line. There is no 
special merit in the parabola or in the straight line; other lines 
might answer practically as well. The main point is that a 
little improvement gets a little taste of reward, and a big im- 
provement gets a great big reward. 

When all conditions are properly under control, I much prefer 
the Taylor diagram based on time. There is something inspirit- 
ing in working out a minimum time, in knowing that it can be 
made with the regularity that a train makes its fast schedule, 
in proving it, in stimulating the workman to it ; but it is equally 
discouraging to workman, to expert and to employer to be wrecked 
in full flight by hard iron from the foundry, by variable speed 
in the engine, by broken belt on main shaft, by any unforeseen 
and unforeseeable delay, and in such cases the curve back to 
day rate prevents much trouble. 

In all these diagrams, except day rate, the employe is bene- 
fitted by reduction in time; in all these diagrams, except piece 
work, the employer is benefitted by reduction in time, and reward 
for reduction in time is apportioned exactly as it should be, only 
by the Taylor method and its modifications. 

The employer must pay big bonuses or he cannot get results. 
He can afford to pay big bonuses, for even if he gives all the 
gain in time to the employe he makes on increased efiiciency of 
plant and diminished overcharges. 

Where, in all these lines and curves, when based on time, is 
there any support for Mr. Eichards^s contention that they cannot 
be effective because, as he claims, they offer a reduced incentive 
at the precise time when the need of incentive is most urgent. 
Exactly the contrary is true. They all of them offer, just as 
piece work does, ever increasing pay, which, if pushed to the 
theoretical limit, would reduce costs to almost nothing, and ^ve 
the employe an infinitely large sum per day. 

Mr. R. 0, Schnebh, — In answer to the author's question I may 
add my experience, and say emphatically: " Nothing." 



82 IS ANYTHING THE MATTEK WITH PIECE WORK? 

The troubles heretofore attributed to piece work are really 
not inherent to the system, but to those who used the system, 
they are the results of ignorance, carelessness and cupidity. 

Improper rates are the result of ignorance or carelessness. 
When an operation or a series of operations are carefully an- 
alyzed by a person whose knowledge qualifies him, there is rarely 
any trouble after the employees are impressed with the fact that 
fair wages may be earned at the rate fijced. The difficulty here- 
tofore has been that rates were carelessly made, and such a rate 
is nearly always high, and soon leads to restriction of output or 
excites the cupidity of his employers, the inevitable in either 
case being rate cutting and strikes. 

It is much the same qualifications that keeps it out of at least 
one-half of the shops of this country. The cupidity of employ- 
ers who have risen from small beginnings, who in their begin- 
ning were able to hold all the details in their own heads, add' 
one foreman after another from the ranks, or from (which is 
worse) the family. It is impossible to recruit the necessary abil- 
ity from sucli material. They absolutely refuse to pay for this 
ability, and all system cr work done that cannot be written down 
on a customer's bill is wasted. 

I see nothing in the Premium plan nor the Bonus plan, for if 
proper care is exercised in setting the time limits, a price might 
as well be set at once. 'Tis a sugar coating to fool the work- 
man, or at best a stepping-stone toward piece work. In the 
Itowan system there is a corrective applied for excessive time 
limits (equals piece price). However, in the Rowan works the 
time limits are never changed (if I understand rightly), no matter 
if methods or machinery are improved. 

I most heartily endorse the paper of Mr. Richards. I might 
add that in handling odd work in a piece-work shop I found it 
convenient to adopt what we termed an " excursion rate " good 
for this day and date only, until such time when the work became 
regular and it was possible to set a stable price. 

Mr. Ganit, — With regard to Mr. Emerson's statement that I 
was not serious when 1 suggested that when a workman did 
better than his instructions called for he should be made in- 
structor, I have to say that I was quite serious, and as a matter 
of fact one of the best instructors I know was discovered just 
that way. 

Mr. Fichards' suggestion with regard to the West Albany 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 8B 

shops is quite in order, and the superintendent of those shops 
is quite in accord with him; so much so indeed that he has 
strongly recommended that this work be begun there as soon as 
possible. The knowledge of what has been done in Schenectady 
is the reason for his action, which is seconded by some of his 
foremen who know the foremen at Schenectady. 

Mr. Oberlin Smith. — There is one feature in all this discus- 
sion which needs to be gone into further. Everything that has 
been said seems to apply to manufacturing shops. Now we 
must differentiate between these and the most primitive kind of 
a shop, the jobbing shop, which is simply used for making odd 
things for people and for doing repairs. Therein we cannot well 
have anything much better than " day work." For this we must 
have the right kind of a foreman and the right kind of work- 
men, specialists in their line. Now, at the other end of the 
series, is a manufacturing shop where hundreds and thousands of 
things are all made exactly alike; or, at least, there are various 
component parts of them made alike. Therein systems of 
'* piece " work or " premium " work or " bonus " pay are, of 
course, applicable, and they seem to have been thought out and 
developed especially with reference to such shops. But there 
is an intermediate kind of shop, and probably the great majority 
of our machine shops are of this class, whether you call it mongrel 
or hermaphrodite, or what not; semi-manufacturing would per- 
haps be a good name for it. It has chanced that my experience 
has been mostly in a shop of this kind. Our product is presses 
and dies for working bar and sheet metals. The dies are almost 
all different; they have to be worked on the jobbing shop plan 
in a department by themselves, and it would be very difficult to 
apply any " piece " or " premium " system to the work upon 
them. In our other department we make about five hundred 
different kinds and sizes of presses. In consequence of making 
so many kinds in a comparatively small shop, employing from 
150 to 200 workmen, it has seemed very difficult to put in prac- 
tice any of plans of payment in question. 

Doubtless some of the gentlemen here have had experience in 
shops of this kind and have tested these improved methods of 
payment. The larger parts of our machines, such as the frames, 
and the component parts of such frames as are of built-up con- 
struction must, on the larger sizes, be made only one at a time, 
as some certain kind of machine may perhaps be ordered only 



84 IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

once in a year or two. Of course, very few of the pieces are 
made alike and cannot be made up in stock to much extent. 
Other more standard kinds are made up in batches of ten. We 
must, therefore, consider things which are made in batches of 
from one to ten on the larger pieces, and, we wnll say, from one 
to fifty on the small pieces. I have tried the premium plan 
and the piece work plan a little, but generally we had to fall 
back on the old day-work system on account of the great amount 
of bookkeeping involved. 

When we try to manufacture strictly, we are handicapped by 
the small batches. Furthermore, we are much bothered when 
customers require modifications and insist that a casting must 
be altered; sometimes they merely want changes in the way of 
equipping with attachments often \*arying in design. Now, witt 
all these complications how far can we apply any of the new 
systems ? 

In regard to the relative merits of the " piece work " and the 
" premium " plan, I do not feel competent to speak. Of course, 
we are all liable to meet the diiBculties involved in the labor 
problem. The " walking delegate " has fixed upon the term 
" piece work " a big black mark. After he found something 
was being done to get around him on that, he put another black 
mark over the word " premium,'' and then " bonus " came under 
the ban. Labor, however, is gradually being educated in eco- 
nomics and will, I believe, become more sensible. We must 
help it to learn, and must sometimes meet it part way-^remem- 
bering that there are two sides to every question. 

Mr. E. P. Bates, — I think Mr. Emerson has left an iidpres- 
sion that he would not care to have remain with us. As I 
understood him, where a price was made for piece work and the 
mechanic did the work quicker than was expected, the profit all 
went to the mechanic, and where he did it slower the loss went 
to the mechanic. My experience is that it may cost from fifty 
cents to two dollars a day to furnish this mechanic with tools 
and superintendence, including all the items which go to making 
the cost of operating a plant, and I think that the operator of 
the plant is quite as much interested as is the mechanic in regard 
to time, and that the loss or the gain comes to the owner of the 
plant fully as much as to the working man. 

Mr, Emerson. — Of course, the gentleman imderstands that I 
did not read my paper in full; I abridged it very much, but if 



18 ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 85 

you read it when published in the Transactions of the Society, 
you will find this statement in it : 

" The employer must pay big bonuses, or he cannot get results. 
lie can afford to pay big bonuses, for even if he gives all the gain 
m time to the employe he makes on increased efiiciency of plant 
and diminished overcharges." 

Mr. Taylor, — At the risk of being prosy, and always coming 
up with some old remark every time this subject is before the 
Society, I want to say again that I think there is no real quarrel 
between any of the systems of payment in common use. It is a 
curious phenomenon that there are certain men who seem to 
wish to attach their names to some one comparatively small and 
unimportant element in management. They appear to be unable 
to see anything else in the whole line of management except their 
one chosen element and attempt to convince themselves and 
every one else that this is the whole art of management. Appar- 
ently Mr. Richards looks upon piece work as the whole of this 
art. I have not heard that he has been able to see any good in 
any other element. 

Now, I wish again to say what most of you have heard a num- 
ber of times, but perhaps some have not yet heard it, that to my 
inind there is no quarrel between the various systems of paying 
men which are in common use. I think each of these systems 
has its proper place; at least four of them can properly be used 
in the same shop and at the same time, providing the shop is 
large enough. Every large machine shop in the country should 
have, I should say, not less than four systems of payment going 
on at once in order to do the work in the most economical man- 
ner. There cannot be any quarrel, then, between *^ day work " 
and " piece work " and Mr. Gantt's ^' bonus plan " and the 
*' differential rate system " of piece work since, as I pointed out 
in my paper on shop management last spring, each plan has its 
own individual field of usefulness ; and I feel convinced that each 
one has a field that it is impossible for either the other systems 
to entirely fill. And again, outside of these plans I feel that the 
Towne-Halsey plan has a large field of usefulness, Mr. Richards 
to the contrary notwithstanding. 

But back of all systems of paying men and imdemeath them 
all, and of vastly more importance than any system of paying 
men, lies the true remedy for the fundamental difficulty between 
the managers and their workmen. The great difficulty that 



86 IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

presents itself is that in most cases neither the one nor the other 
know accurately how much of any given work a good man can 
and ought to do in a day. It is only in rare cases that either the 
managers or the men know what really constitutes a day's work. 
And what I feel absolutely sure of and wish again to emphasize 
is that the only proper solution of the wages question, both as to 
the system for paying men to be employed and the compensation 
to be paid, lies in a scientific study of how much each man can 
do and ought to do; what a really first-class man properly suited 
io his work can do if he wishes to and if he has the proper 
appliances. It is this study that is so much more important than 
Ihe adoption of any one system of paying men, that by com- 
parison the differences between the latter sink into insignificance. 

After the owner or manager is in possession of the exact 
knowledge of how long it ought to take to do the work, even the 
day work plan, which in many cases is perhaps the least satis- 
factory method, will produce much better results than any of 
the other systems without this knowledge. Of course, with the 
knowledge there is a choice, and each one of the four systems 
lias its proper place in every shop. 

Mr. Stephen W. Balkwill. — With regard to Mr. Smith's 
remarks about cost, it seems to me that he brought out 
some ideas that are worthy of consideration which come more 
into actual shop practice, except where the factory manufactures 
a specialty and makes nothing but repetition work which does 
not require any change of machines. Take,, for instance, an 
article of which ten pieces would be required at one time and 
a thousand at another time. It is quite obvious that the machine 
lo be used takes a definite amount of time to alter, for it is sup- 
posed that each of the ten pieces must be as accurately made as 
any of the thousand, and the machine must therefore be as 
accurately adjusted in either case and therefore makes the cost 
of production per piece of the fewer number of pieces a great 
deal higher than that of the greater number on account of hav- 
ing the same common fixed expenses. 

Kegarding Mr. Kichards's remarks about the young man whom 
he referred to as boring tires, would say that this is a remarkable 
performance presuming it is on a single machine and paid for 
by the day which does not seem to leave much room for improve- 
ment on the piece work basis. Referring to the statement about 
the scarcity of good foremen and the best manner of getting 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTEB WITH PIECE WORK? 87 

good results in that direction, I agree with the gentleman that 
as a general proposition they are not well enough paid for what 
is required of them, and if suflicient inducement is held out a 
good foreman can be had. I know of a particular case where a 
foreman has a sub-foreman under him who has charge of a piece 
work department, and although not as intelligent, yet he is able 
to earn more money than his foreman, which does not seem 
equitable nor liable to contribute to the good feeling of the 
foreman. 

Mr. E. F. DuBrvl, — I wish to dwell a little on a thought 
brought forward by Mr. Oberlin Smith, In this discussion he 
has brought up the question of the opposition of the labor unions 
to " piece work " and other methods of *^ Shop Management." 
Papers on " Shop Management " very frequently state that no 
serious diflSculty is encountered from the workmen when such 
systems are installed. I should like to know whether this is a 
general rule in foundries. I have heard of considerable opposi- 
tion on the part of moulders to the introduction of any other 
system but straight " day work." I have not heard of many 
foundries running anything but straight " day work " or straight 
'^ piece work," and under both conditions of " day work " or 
" piece work/' I am informed that there is a very widespread 
disposition on the part of moulders to limit production and hold 
down output. 

Coming to the machine shops we find that the last Convention 
of the Machinists' Union adopted a resolution declaring for the 
abolition of anything excepting straight " go-as-you-please day 
work," with no tasks set, no premiums, bonuses, " piece work," 
or anything of the sort. How many here are familiar with that 
promulgation ? If this fiat is to go into effect, we must certainly 
reckon with the Union as an element in the problem. The 
Anthracite Coal Strike Comnussion well says that: Trades 
unionism is becoming a matter of business and tha;t employer 
who fails to reckon with it as an element of his business makes a 
serious mistake and one which he will have to correct sooner or 
later. 

Perhaps business conditions next year will make inadvisable the 
proposed movement to abolish " piece work." Coming events 
casting their shadows before appear in the two strikes in New 
York City this year, mentioned by Mr. Kichards, against premium 
work. I happen to be familiar with the cause of those two 



88 18 ANYTHING THE MATTEB WITH PIECE WORK? 

strikes and I can assure Mr. Eichards that " piece work," premium 
work and all other similar methods look alike to the unions in 
question, and that the strikes would have occurred against " piece 
work " just as much as premium work. Furthermore, it seems to 
me that the employers in question would have had more difficulty 
in filling their shops with non-union piece workers than they had 
to fill them with non-union premium workers, because even a non- 
union man does not like " piece work " over much. 

I do not believe that there is so much the matter with " piece 
work " as there is with the men who are trying to establish it in 
their shops. The greatest difficulty is with the managers who 
" know not Jacob." I had occasion to deal with such a case not 
over two weeks ago. As you may all know, premium work is very 
largely and very firmly established in the shops in Cincinnati 
and by general consent of the Associated Manufacturers in that 
city the rule is that once a time limit is established it shall not 
be cut unless a change has been made in the methods of produc- 
tion. A certain shop had a new superintendent, one of the kind 
who " knew not Jacob," who had never operated a premium 
system before and who thought to make a showing for himself 
with his employers by cutting down a time limit on a very efficient 
workman, who did a sixty-hour job in eighteen hours. Those of 
you who are familiar with the premium or other similar system 
will not question the statement that such reductions of time are 
common on the part of workmen, and the great difference is very 
largely because the men setting the time limits, while they may 
have a guide as to how long a job used to take, have absolutely 
no way of knowing how long a job ought to take. 

The matter coming to my attention, it became my duty to inter- 
view that superintendent and show him the error of his way. His 
cut of a time limit was in violation of the guarantee that had been 
made to all the machinists of Cincinnati by the Associated Manu- 
facturers, and his cut would have wrecked the system, not only in 
his own shop, but in all the others. If his ideas had been carried 
out, the result would have been a rejuvenation of the Walking 
Delegate, with wjiom we have not been bothered for some years, 
and I am sorry to say that it took quite a while and much vigorous 
language, some of which was unfit for publication, to demonstrate 
to that superintendent the inadvisability and injustice of his pro- 
posed action. 

" The matter with piece work " is in my judgment principally 



18 ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 89 

the matter with the employers or their representatives, who, gen- 
erally through ignorance as to how long a job usually takes and 
occasionally through downright " hoggishness," have brought 
'' piece work '' into a disfavor it does not deserve. Were we all 
better informed, and did we all put piece prices, time limits, task 
work and other such systems on a scientific and accurate basis, and 
once 80 based did we guarantee the men against cuts in prices 
unless general reductions in day rates were made, I believe that 
all hostile criticism would be forever disarmed. 

In the meantime, I believe that we should all keep our eyes 
on the union end of the proposition of " Shop Management," 
and not stumble along blindly in that regard any more than we 
should in regard to setting rates. 

Mr. Smith. — ^I wanted to ask Mr. Taylor, when he spoke of 
its always being practicable to find out the cost of a certain job, 
whether he thinks it possible to get at such cost where only one 
machine is fitted up in a year and, if so, how he does it? Of 
course, if it is turning a steel shaft, it can be measured and the 
number of pounds to be taken off in chips can be estimated ; but 
suppose it is an irregular casting of a new pattern, does it pay to 
find out, or can it be found out from the experience of only 
having one to make, what the cast will be on the next one ? 

Mr. Taylor. — ^I think the best answer to Mr. Smith's question 
will be found in Mr. Earth's paper, which will be presented to 
the Society at this meeting. Mr. Barth will show how an 
ordinary mechanic (with the aid of our slide rules) can deter- 
mine accurately and quickly just what combination of cutting 
speed and feed should be used in any particular case in order 
to do the work in the quickest time on any given lathe planer 
or other machine tool, and in finding out the proper cutting 
speed and feed to use in cutting forgings or castings, each of the 
following elements which affect the answer is given its proper 
weight through its own slide on the slide rule. The variable 
elements, each of which affects the answer, are : 

1. The pulling or driving power of the machine. 

2. The strength of the feed mechanism of the machine. 

3. The exact coarseness of the feed which can best be used. 

4. The diameter of the piece to be turned. 

5. The thickness of the layer of metal to be removed or the 
proper depth of cut to be taken. 

6. The hardness of the metal which is being cut ; i. e., whether 



90 IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

cast iron, steel or brass, and the exact degree of hardness of the 
particular casting or forging. 

7. The shape of the cutting tool and its size. 

8. The quality of the tool steel from which the tool is made, 
and the heat treatment which the tool has received. 

9. Whether water, oil, air blast or other cooling medium is 
used on the tool. 

It is evident that this is a problem which is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to solve. And the fact that these difficult problems are now 
being daily and most practically and rapidly solved by the ordi- 
nary mechanics who are using slide rules makes it evident that 
it is a comparatively simple matter to determine the time re- 
quired to do the remainder of the work of running a machine, 
namely, putting the work into the machine, taking it out and 
adjusting the machine, etc. And the study of the time required 
to do this hand work is greatly simplified by dividing each job 
into its simple elements and then timing each element separately 
and systematically mth a stop watch. Such, for instance, as : 

Lifting work from floor to machine. 

Putting on carrier. 

Adjusting work in chuck or on centres. 

Calipering. 

Setting tool, etc. 

If the " hand work '' is studied by single simple operations, 
in this way it will be found that the entire hand work of a shop 
can be resolved into comparatively few elements which can bo 
classified, tabulated and readily used in determining the proper 
time for doing even new and complicated work. 

Mr. Smith. — ^Does that include the rigging and the unrigging 
of the tools? 

Mr. Taylor. — Yes; it takes up the work from the time it 
leaves the floor to go into the machine until it comes out finished, 
and it includes the time required to make all of the changes 
and adjustments in the machines. The observations are stop- 
watch observations, carefully taken by a man who is trained to 
this business. U]) to this time these observations have been 
recorded and tabulated on loose sheets or in manuscript books. 
But I predict that there will in the future be many books printed 
covering in each trade the time required to do each of the 
elementary operations which together in various combinations 
make up the entire work of the trade. 



IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 91 

Mr. John Colder.* — ^In Mr. Richards' paper too much is 
made of the identification of modem management advances with 
particular men and methods^ and he appears thereby to miss the 
point. 

I concur most heartily with Mr. Emerson in his praise of Mr. 
F. W. Taylor's paper of June last, which I believe will bear its 
full fruit until the appearance of the next volume of the Society's 
Proceedings. 

To illustrate the point on which issue has been joined with 
Mr. Richards' I wish to present a practical problem in which 
straight piece work is maintained producing all that Mr. Rich- 
ards claims for it, and a great deal more, through expense in- 
curred by the management in scientific time study and its neces- 
sary accompaniments of betterment. 

Where the Taylor system of management and labor reward 
has replaced straight piece jobs in manufacturing concerns doing 
nothing else at machine and bench but large quantities of light 
repetition work, we have an instance in which the issues between 
Mr. Richards and his critics can be reconciled. I believe that, 
in such circmnstances, if the true time is scientifically deter- 
mined after management and equipment conditions of the high- 
est eflSciency have been established, it does not matter in the 
least, whether (1) a large reward is offered for the daily task, 

(2) a piece rate is fixed to give the same maximum daily pay, 

(3) or a non-graduated premium or bonus appropriation which 
added to a fixed daily time rate will give the same reward. 

Under such circumstances Mr. Richards' output and Mr. 
Emerson's time abcissse would coincide, in fact, their diagrams 
would be identical. 

In actual practice, workmen employed under above maximum 
output conditions can see no difference between shortening the 
time or increasing the task and lowering piece rates; and, as a 
matter of fact, there is none. 

The one, but very important, improvement upon straight 
piece working being that accurate scientific time study has pre- 
scribed the maximum and fixed the rate for existing and im- 
proved conditions brought about on the initiative of the man- 
agement, while ordinary piece rates are more liable to change, 
not because they are " piece " rates, but because they are more 

* Contribated after adjouniment. 



92 IS ANYTHING THE MATTER WITH PIECE WORK? 

or less guesses and depend for rectification purely upon what 
measure of their true skill the men choose to reveal. 

For the class of work assumed, straight piece work based 
upon scientifically conducted time study and modernized facil- 
ities, will be as easy as any to establish in place of guess piece 
rates; and any other name given to the process is a distinction 
without a difference. It eliminates the inefficient, and provides 
an easy and automatic method of paying and encouraging the 
efficient but new men who take a little time to attain the maxi- 
mum task — say coming at first within fifteen per cent, of it — 
while all others who aspire are tried out on daily time rates 
before graduating as "fit." 



8U0QB8TI0NS FOB SHOP CONSTRUOTIOK. 93 



No. 1013.* 

SUGGESTIONS FOR SHOP CONSTRUCTION. 

BT F. A. BCBXnxaB. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. Some time ago, the writer had occasion to lay out various 
buildings for one of the well-known electrical manufacturing firms 
in this country, with the view of constructing new shops, covering 
a complete equipment for manufacturing on a large scale. 

2. At the time various schemes were suggested for the ar- 
rangement of the buildings in relation to each other, so that the 
resultant buildings could be combined into a scheme of inter- 
change between the administration offices, sub-offices, and mate- 
rials from one building to another. 

3. After discussing the various ideas, above referred to, the 
form shown on the accompanying diagram, Fig. 17, suggested itself 
to the writer, and as it is entirely novel in its construction, so far 
as applied to machine shops and other manufacturing purposes, 
he deemed it advisable to place it on record, as there are many 
features connected with the layout, which although subject to 
modification, would make an ideal manufacturing shop in every 
way. 

4. This plan was not carried out owing to the fact that the 
proposed new buildings were abandoned for several years, and 
when the works were eventually built other parties had the 
matter in charge, and the proposed plan was not even known to 
them. 

5. Of course, it would have to be agreed upon in advance that 
there would be required for manufacturing purposes a number 
of buildings suitable for the various kinds of work to be manu- 
factured. The plan herein proposed was primarily designed for 
manufacturing electrical apparatus, such as generators, motors, 

• Presented at the New Tork meeting (December, 1908) of the American 
Sodetj of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volame XXV. of the 



94 



SUGOESTIOKS FOB SHOP 00N8TRUCTI0K. 



switches, electrical instruments, etc.; but of course, the same 
scheme would be applicable to any other kind of manufacturing 
where it is desired to have a number of shops, all of which are 
easily accessible, both for business purposes and for delivery and 
shipping of material. 

A brief description of the layout is as follows: — 

In the center of the space available for the buildings is located 




Mmo».,ir.r. 



FlO. 17. 



an administration building, constituting the business, accounting, 
and sales offices; and on the second story, the draughting room. 
This building is octagonal, or hexagonal, which ever may be found 
to be most suitable for the purpose. In this case, it has been de- 
signed with a view of accommodating seven buildings, which 
radiate from each side of the octagon, and has one side reserved 
for the main entrance through the building. 

6. The end of each shop which is nearest to the administration 
building has its individual office for the foremen and shop clerks. 
This, it will be seen, is a very harmonious arrangement, as every 
shop is then but a short distance from the administration building. 



SUOOKSnONS FOR SHOP CONSTRUOTION. 96 

SO that intercourse can easily be had between the drawing room, 
offices and the offices of each shop. 

7. The general arrangement gives each shop plenty of yard 
room, which is also very essential; and travelling cranes, either 
worked by hand or power, could be located in the yard room be- 
tween any two of the shops, for handling raw or finished materiaL 

8. A circular track around the administration building con- 
nected in front of each shop building by means of suitable turn 
tables, worked by hand or power, makes the distribution of mate- 
rial between the buildings very easy, and it will be noticed that 
the distance the material will have to travel from any one bliilding 
to another is comparatively short. 

9. At the extreme outer end of each building is another cir- 
cular track, primarily to be used for shipping purposes, and the 
distributing of such material as may come in or go out over the 
connecting railroad lines. This track runs through the end of 
each building; and in such buildings where the machinery, cast- 
ings, or other goods are to be handled, the heavier travelling 
crane in that particular building which should run the length of 
the shop, can easily unload or load the cars. This arrangement 
makes it possible to go into every shop without having a multi- 
plicity of tracks and switches, thus cutting up the available yard 
room, as is usually the case in ordinary plants. It is also possible, 
if there is sufficient ground available, to extend any one or all of 
the buildings, and still retain the best features of the design. 

10. A study of the design, which as above stated, is subject 
to modification, will be all that is necessary without any further 
comment, to make it clear to any one interested in this important 
question of the best arrangement of buildings for shop purposes. 

11. In connection with this matter, I would add that while 
there is as far as the writer's knowledge goes, no manufacturing 
plant built on these lines, at the same time there is a plant of 
an entirely different character in Pennsylvania, where practically 
the same idea is carried out, so far as the location of the buildings, 
in relation to the office building is concerned. This is the Eastern 
Penitentiary, located in Pennsylvania, a cut of which was pub- 
lished in the North American recently, which the writer ran across 
by the merest accident, and it really makes a very good perspective 
picture of what a manufacturing plant would look like when laid 
out as above suggested, eliminating, of course, the walls surround- 
ing the grounds. 



96 SUGOESTIONS FOR SHOP OONSTfiUCTION. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. TT. D. Ennis. — The arrangement of buildings illustrated 
by Mr. Scheffler possesses few advantages over that which is 
customary. Those which it does possess are incidental and acci- 
dental rather than dependent upon the eccentric distribution of 
departments proposed. 

For example, the advantages of loading cars by cranes and of 
possible extension at low cost are possessed to an equal degree by 
this or almost any conceivable grouping of buildings. 

The 'scheme is wasteful of land, requiring for the same yard! 
and building area very much more ground space than is usual. 

The diagram shows a centrally located oflSce. It is ques- 
tionable, however, whether it pays to sacrifice other considerations 
to those which in plants of any size private telephone systems and 
adequate messenger service seem generally able to satisfy. 

It also shows one of the worst possible systems of track- 
age. There is but one communication with each department, 
which must be used both for ingoing and outgoing traflSc. The 
trackage provision is not adapted to the requirements of the vari- 
ous departments. The same facilities are provided, for example, 
for the detail department as for the storage and shipping building. 
Should a carload of pig iron come in while a car of coal stood at 
the power house, extra switching would be necessary. All the 
trackage is in curves, which hampers the movements of cars and 
increases the probability of derailment and consequent delay. Ac- 
cess from the ofiicc to any of the buildings is impossible without 
crossing the industrial railway tracks, a condition which may 
counterbalance all the saving in time due to having the ofiice cen- 
trally located. The presence of railroad tracks within the build- 
ings has been found extremely dangerous to life and limb in grain 
elevators, and it would not seem advisable to introduce such an 
arrangement in manufacturing plants. Fire ha^zard would be 
increased by running locomotives through the departments, espe- 
cially such as those housed in the armature, carpenter and storage 
buildings. 

The power house is not centrally located, is of a wasteful and 
awkward shape and cannot be extended in any direction without 
heavy expense. 

The yard space is accessible only from the rear ; it is distributed 
without regard to departmental requirements, the detail depart- 



STTGGESTIONS FOR SHOP CONSTRUCTION. 97 

ment, for instance, being given somewhat more room than tho 
foundry. It is so shaped that it could not be properly covered 
by cranes, nor could any compact and systematic grouping of yard 
material be practised. As illustrated in the diagram, the space 
on the outside of the tracks is too far away from the buildings to 
make economical yardage, but unless it is utilized the full benefit 
of the track facilities will not be obtained. 

It is difficult to see what advantage, excepting in the single 
point of accessibility from the office, the suggested arrangement 
of buildings has over that in which the departments are housed 
under separate roofs, side by side, with the office building on one 
side of the group and the railroad on the other side, one or more 
switches being run into the buildings where needed. The latter 
arrangement would certainly give better results as to amoimt 
and distribution of yard room, despatch and economy in shipping 
and receiving goods, and convenient access between office and 
shops and between the shops themselves. This arrangement 
might have to be modified to a moderate extent, but only in order 
to obtain direct access between successive departments, as, for 
example, the machine and finishing rooms of a paper milL The 
feature of Mr. Scheffler's plan, requiring a journey around several 
comers to get from one building to another, should be absolutely 
prohibited in laying out any plant. 

Mr, Chns. L. Heisler* — I offer the following criticism on the 
radial plan of arranging shop buildings : 

1. There should be a material switch independent of the ship- 
ping switch. The plan shows that any car set for loading in the 
machine shop, must be reset and shifted each time a load of coke, 
coal or sand is delivered to the foundry, and the locomotive must 
each time pass through the machine shop. If another switch is 
made to parallel the one shown, then when the machine shop is 
extended there will be two switches passing through this deparlr 
ment. 

2. A curved switch is dangerous and seriously inconvenient to 
the switching crew, who cannot see two car lengths, so it is very 
difiScult to set cars and avoid injuring shop men. 

3. It is seriously objectionable to take a train of cars and loco- 
motive through several shops for the purpose of reaching another. 

4. The circular switch does not come within 150 feet of the 

* Sabmitted after adjournment. 



98 8U0GESTI0NS FOR SHOP CONSTRUCTION. 

foundry cupola, and gives no opportunity for using hopper-bot- 
tom cars for cheaply handling foundry sand, coke, etc. The 
present arrangement will cause an expenditure of many hundred 
dollars^ per year in the extra handling of the raw foundry mate- 
rial. 

5. The coal for the boilers should be dumped directly in front 
of the boilers. In the radial plan shown, each car must be un- 
loaded by hand and reset every time any car is^taken from either 
the foundry, pattern shop or machine shop. 

6. The pattern storerooms should be adjacent to the pattern 
department, but sufficiently isolated for fire protection. The 
cupola should be farther from the pattern department, and should 
be located with respect to prevailing winds, if possible. 

7. The arrangement does not comply with the present practice 
of arranging buildings as much as possible parallel to each other 
to economize in land and in order to utilize their crane columns 
and steel framing for supporting traversing yard cranes, which 
should cover all the available space adjacent to the several build- 
ings, and which can be covered, when necessary, to meet future 
growth. The triangular yards evidently will never permit this 
without excessive expense and waste. 

8. Assume that 30 per cent., more or less, covered floor space 
than shown on the plan is required for any one of the depart- 
ments. First attempt to lengthen such a department 30 per cent., 
and note that the circular switch then divides the enlarged de- 
partment, or, suppose the 30 per cent, enlargement consists of 
an unsymmetrical side addition, this cannot then be well fitted 
into the very undesirable form of triangular yards. On the other 
hand, assume that any department required 30 per cent, less floor 
space than shown, in this case the building would not come within 
100 feet of the switch, or the central " administration " building. 

9. The several receiving and shipping offices must be adjacent 
to the switch, and will, therefore, be 350 feet away from the main 
office, as shown. 

10. The reduction in distances at other points between parallel 
buildings, when arranged as usual with an intervening crane yard, 
would certainly effect a greater saving than would be lost by the 
slightly greater distance between the main and other offices, as 
compared with the radial plan. 

11. A moment's thought will make it clear that the alleged 
saving in time due to the radial plan is lost several times over in 



SUGGESTIONS FOB SHOP CONSTRUCTION. 99 

the time required in manipulating the many heavy 12 x 14 foot 
switch doors. Assume that a switching engine and crew are 
making a trip aroimd the circular track, the crew will be required 
to make at least 24 distinct and strenuous efforts in opening and 
closing the 12 heavy doors, and it will take 48 such operations in 
cold weather, if they are all lifting doors, and 96 if they are 
double doors. However cold the weather, one round trip, not 
considering the resetting of cars, I think would finish even the 
most robust switching crew. If they did survive one round, I 
fear the shop men would never permit them to make a second. 

Mr. Suplee. — In reference to the statement made by the author 
of the paper just now about the arrangement of the buildings 
being the same in the Eastern Penitentiary at Philadelphia, I may 
add that in the centre of the circle formed by those buildings 
there is a system of mirrors so arranged that a single watchman 
seated in the centre can look down all of the corridors at once. 
This ingenious system of mirrors was designed by one of the 
prisoners. 



100 WHAT ABE THE NEW MAOHINB TOOLS TO BE? 



No. 1014.* 

WHAT ARE THE NEW MACHINE TOOLS TO BEf 

BY JOHN B. eWBBT, 8TBACUBX, N. T. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. It is a fact quite apparent to users of machine tools that the 
new high-speed tool steel calls for a re-designing of our machines 
if we are to get even a fair share of the ultimate possibilities which 
the new steel offers. 

2. I expect the machine tool builders have already the reply 
formulated as follows: " You just keep on building engines and 
leave the machine tool business to us.'' But that will not quite do. 
If no one but the engine builders had mixed in the engine business, 
we would have had no turbine engines, and many of the standard 
machine tools were originally devised by those who had use for 
them rather than by the man who devised things to selL 

3. I think the machine tool builders will admit that the ma- 
chines must be re-designed; butto the most of them vnH this mean 
anything but just to make the driving elements more powerful and 
the machines stronger, which is as much as to say everything has 
been all right, and all we need to do is to change the strength and 
power. But have they been all right or half right ? 

4. It can be shown by figures, I suppose (I know it to be a fact 
by a trial with models), that a complete box is thirteen times more 
rigid against torsion and four times more rigid against bending 
than the same amount of material is in the form of side plates and 
thin cross girts. It is probably from four to eight times more 
rigid than the cross girt plan in any form, and yet in the case of 
lathes, the whole business of whose beds is to resist torsion, only 
one or two builders have had the courage to adopt the box form. 

6. All planer beds can just as well be box beds with half the 
cost in patterns and foundry work, and so too the tablea which are 

* Presented at the* New York meeting, December 1908, of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volmne XXV. of the 



WHAT ABS THE NSW MAOHINB TOOLS TO BE? 101 

spniBg by boltmg down work can just as well be box tables four 
times as strong with the same material^ and with a saving of half 
the cost in patterns and something in the foundry. 

6. The whole tendency of the cut is to slide the work endwise of 
the planer bed; but who haA ever tried putting the slots crosswise 
in a way to offer the greater resistance and prevent the bending 
of the bed by the peening of the upper surface, as now occurs, 
which with the springing by bolting down the work are the 
primary causes of cut ways. 

7. Some planer and boring mill cross rails are of box section in 
the centre, but are thinned down at the ends when fastened to 
the housings. The most of them are three sides of a box only, 
or one-t^itii the strength of a box, where a plain square box 
straight through is infinitely better and cheaper. Of course the 
boxes are not to be proportioned from what is in use now, but 
from what is to be made to meet the new conditions. To select 
enough material to meet the new demands and then put the mate- 
rial 80 that it will be four times more rigid will be something like 
it Housings of box section will be just as rigid fore and aft and 
much more rigid against side strain. 

8. Milling machines of the planer style are constructed like plan- 
ing machines, seemingly without a thought but that the conditions 
are identical, while they are not If the bed of a planing machine 
and the table were of tJie same length, the weight of the table and 
the load over-running the end of the bed would soon wear the top 
of the bed crowning and the under side of the table concave to fit, 
and it is to counterkct this tendency of gravity to wear them out 
of true that the beds are made longer than the tables. With 
the milling machine the load is less, more of it in the middle of 
the table, because there is less gained by putting on small pieces 
end to end, and the down pressure of the big cutter always in the 
middle partially, if not wholly, neutralizes the tendency to wear 
out of true by gravity. When such a machine has side cutters 
or a vertical spindle, ^e pressure is always in the middle, first in 
one direction and then the other, exactly the reverse from the 
gravity action, and instead of the side guide of the bed being 
longer than the table it should be shorter, by just about the same 
amount as the bed of a planer needs to be longer. 

9. Many times the sliding piece and its guides can be the same 
length and keep straight. The things which do not tend to wear 
out of true do not wear much, and the things which do wear out 



102 WHAT ABB THB NEW MAOHINB TOOIfl TO BE? 

of true and have to be refitted are never just right but when new 
and when bo refitted. Where a short block slides on a long guide, 
if the scraper marks wear out sooner along the middle than at the 
ends, the ends of the guide need cutting off, however much over- 
run it gives to the sliding block. 

10. The draughtsman dare not make a drawing of an engine 
cross-head over-running the guide one-third of its length at each 
end; the builder would hardly dare to build it if he did, and no 
user has the courage to take out the guides and cut them off or cut 
away the surface even when he knows it would be money in his 
pocket, but it is the thing to do. We find that in the case of a 
slipper guide, owing to the effect of inertia and momentum giving 
a twisting action to the crosshead, it is necessary to cut away the 
guide so that the crosshead will over-run very nearly one-hdf its 
length before the scraper marks will show uniform wear. This, 
of course, is subject to modification according as the centre of 
gravity is higher or lower, or the speed of the engine is greater 
or less. We are building engines with the crossheads over-ron- 
m'ng that way and people buy them. 

11. To get the best out of machines, they not only want to 
be rigid and true, but the drive needs to be powerful In this 
respect a worm gear is about as perfect as can be, or cutting spur 
gear teeth spiral accomplishes about the same result. What 
appears as an objection to spiral teeth is end thrust against the 
shoulders, which does not amoimt to much, and when the shaft 
runs in reverse directions and end play in the journals is permis- 
sible, the journals keep in much better condition. The mention 
of a worm gear is like the flaunting of a red rag to some people, 
but it has its place and a good many more places than it has been 
used in. The claimed objection is excessive friction and loss of 
power, but the results do not seem to justify the claim. 

12. The most perfect worm gear we have (theoretically) is a 
screw and nut, and they do waste enormously in friction, and in 
proportion to what they do they wear out the most of any piece of 
mechanism. The most imperfect worm gear we have (theoret- 
ically) is the Seller's planing machine drive, and yet they never 
wear out, and hence cannot lose much in friction. 

13. In the writer's opinion two of the things which never need 
to have been invented are the Hindley worm gear and a machine 
for bobbing worm g^. Experience convinces the writer that a 
liberal pitch worm skewed round so as to properly mesh with a 



WHAT ARE THE NEW MACHINE TOOLS TO BE? 103 

plain spur gear, or one with the teeth at such an angle as to skew 
the worm a little more will run more easily and last longer than 
the other sort. A machine driven with the worm is positive^ and if 
there is any chatter it comes from elasticity in the spindle or the 
work itself. The value of lathes, particularly those used for face 
plate work, is considerably improved by having large and short 
main bearings. They should be large to resist torsion and short to 
r^ist bending, and the ordinary face plates are ridiculously fraiL 
To get the best of a face plate it should be box section and as 
large as will swing in the lathe. 

14. Owing to the rapid wear of screws the writer is convinced 
that a precision screw in any lathe used in manufacturing is of no 
special value over a fairly, good one. Wearing the screw in one 
place while threading a few himdred pieces destroys the precision 
in a way which no future use will ever correct 

If the designer will analyze every detail he will find that many 
of the old features were not right to meet the old conditions and 
not half right for the new. 

15. While manufacturing is going to call f oi many more simple 
machines — that is, machines to do one thing rapidly and well — ^the 
nmchines which will do a variety of work will be still in demand, 
for the sparsely settled sections of the country and the colonies 
will call for the country machine shop as of old. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr, John D, Riggs. — There is no question but that there is 
now a demand for a general re-designing of machine tools, but 
is this entirely due to the new high-speed steels? Is it not rather 
due to the fact that the designs were only half right, and now 
with the new steels this half right is being reduced to one- 
qiiarter right? If higher speed is all that is required this can 
lie had at once in most cases by putting a larger pulley on the 
line shaft or at most by adding a high-speed belt between the 
line and counter shafts. It may be noted that doubling the 
speed in this way doubles the available power as well. 

Cone pulleys have gotten into bad repute, largely, I think, 
on account of having too many steps and too small diameters. 

Established practice may be given credit for some of the weak 
IKjints in present machine design. It does not follow that be- 
cause our grandfathers sawed off the ends of their wooden lathe 



104 WHAT AEE THE NEW MACHINE TOOLS TO BE? 

beds square that present lathe builders should do the same with 
cast iron ones. Again those builders who borrow designs and 
devote their best efforts to getting money do their part in estab- 
lishing practice. 

In applying the individual electric drive the practice of in- 
corporating the motor into the design of the machine seems to 
be most commendable. One casting may serve as the frame 
for both machine and motor and yet the machine may be fur- 
nished with or without the motor drive. 

In applying motors to radial drills why not place the motor 
on the radial arm very close to the drill spindle and thus dis- 
pense with a considerable portion of the mechanism now used 
to transmit power from a stationary ^shaft ? 

The experience of Professor Sweet with worm gears is cer- 
tainly quite different from my own. While the Sellers planer 
drive has proved all right, the ordinary worm gear as used in 
freight elevators in buildings is not. And the worst feature of 
these machines is that you seldom know how near right they 
are or when they will go wrong. The lubrication of the two is 
essentially different. 

Those people who have labored to improve the worm gear for 
elevators have my sympathy but none of my orders so long as 
the direct hydraulic elevators are in the market. 

Mr. H. P, Fairfield, — Any one that has had much to do with 
the so-called high-speed steels must have been impressed with 
the fact that the ordinary 14" or 16" engine lathe was lacking 
in material. About one year ago I put in the hands of some 
of our students tools forged from one of the prominent high- 
speed steels, my object being to study the uses of the steel. The 
students' instructions were to break down the tool if possible, 
then to reduce speed and feed until a desirable balance was 
reached. On diameters of about two inches the lathes used 
were not able to make good, and it was necessary to reduce both 
the feed and speed to prevent seriously injuring the machine. 
The trouble seemed to be entirely confined to the head stock and 
carriage, and after some study of the subject and continued ob- 
servation, I came to a conclusion that the most of the trouble 
was a lack of material in the he^d stock itself. As the diameters 
turned, a high speed of revolution was needed to bring up the 
surface speed to the desired point, and to prevent tearing the 
head stock to pieces a heavy face plate of a size as large as the 



WHAT ARE THB NEW MACHINE TOOLS TO BE? 105 

kthe could swing, was put upon the nose of the spindle. This 
seemed to correct much of the trouble and I believe is a desir- 
able thing to do, although it is not usual to use a fly wheel on an 
engine lathe. So far as observed the bed was not affected in any 
case. 

I would suggest that my conclusions are that the engine lathe 
needs more material in its head stock, broad surfaces in its car- 
riage, nicely gibbed, a positive drive to its feed works, a less 
number of steps on the cone and broader belts^ and a massive 
face plate. 

Mr. Oberlin Smith. — ^I think the time has now come when 
that " anvil principle " that Mr. Porter and I used to talk about 
some years ago must come to the fore. It is true that high- 
speed steels simply require more horse-power for the higher 
speed and not necessarily more torque on the lathe spindle; but 
as a matter of fact these new steels are probably stronger and 
will take heavier cuts than other steels, without breaking off the 
cutting edges. Am I right about that, Mr. Taylor? 

Mr. Fred W. Taylor.— No, I think not. 

Mr. Smith. — ^Mr. Taylor says I am not right. I thought he 
was going to back me up. 

Mr. Taylor. — ^I should like to back you up if I could. But 
directly the opposite is true. The only advantage which the tool 
steels containing tungsten or molybdenum in combination with 
chromium and heated to a high heat according to the Taylor- 
White process have over ordinary tools is that they will cut from 
two to four times as fast and therefore do much more work in 
a given time. The presence of tungsten or molybdenum renders 
the tools weaker and more brittle in the body of the tool. The 
cutting edge of the tool is also more brittle than the edge of the 
old carbon steel tool at usual shop temperatures. The Taylor- 
White tools, while more brittle at the usual temperatures of the 
air from 50^ to 100^ Fahr., have the peculiar property of re- 
maining about as hard as they ever were when heated by the 
friction of the chip which they are cutting up to the extraor- 
dinary temperature of 1000^ to 1200^ ; while tools not so treated 
soften and crumble away when heated to 400^ upwards. 

iff. Smith. — When I get through I want Mr. Taylor to tell 
you what I was trying to tell you, namely, that we need more 
strength to our machines as well as more speed. One reason is 
l)erhaps that the higher speeds cause more vibration in the thin. 



106 WHAT ARE THE NEW 3IACHINB TOOLS TO BE? 

fiddle-Kke castings generally used which are attuned only too 
well to the new rapidity of motion. At any rate, we all know 
that we want very much stronger tools. It may be remembered 
that some years ago I told this Society that the proper way to 
design a lathe bed was to build it all up in a solid chunk and 
then modify it a little by putting a slit through the middle to 
let the chips fall through. .1 believe I said also that if lathes 
were from three to four times heavier than they are now there 
would be a great deal more work turned out in them. If we 
would make our lathe heads, too, in great masses of solid ma- 
terial it would be all the better. Nobody has yet been brave 
enough to make a really heavy lathe, but in my opinion there is 
going to be a tremendous revolution in this respect in the next 
ten years, in all of our machine-tools. None have had the cour- 
age to go at it yet, but it is going to come — ^but gradually, like 
all great developments. Another thing we are going to do is to 
use milling machines very much more than we do now in the 
place of planers. This is because of the great defect in all 
planers of moving the heavy weight of the table plus the work. 
Thus we must fight inertia in both stopping and starting. An- 
other defect of planers as now built is cutting in one direction 
only. All this is going to bring us to contrive new forms of 
milling machines. Planers will remain, of course, but they will 
bo modified, in many cases by making the tool move rather than 
the work, thus following the general principle used in shapers 
more than we do at present. How all this will develop we cannot 
see just now, but it is bound to come. We cannot use a high-speed 
tool at high speed on an ordinary planer, and for that reason, 
and for other reasons that I might mention, the present machine 
is likely to become somewhat obsolete in the near future. 

Prof. John E. Sweet,* — ^I am sorry that more time was not 
available for discussion. As to the worm gear's not proving 
satisfactory for elevators I was not conscious of the fact. If 
I were in the business I would not abandon them until I had 
skewed around a worm in a spur gear and tried that. 

* Author's closoie under tlie rules. 



Am ^OlOttS AND AI& HAMllE^. 107 



AIR MOTORS AND AIR HAMMERS. 
APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR TESTING. 

BT MAX H. WICKH0B8T, AUROIIA, IIX. 

(Janlor Member of the Society.) 

1. The apparatus and methods described below are those used 
in some extensive tests of air-drill motors and air hammers made 
by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincj Eailroad Co. in ita labora- 
tory at Aurora, HL The tests were made for the purpose of deter- 
mining the air consumption, horse-power, stalling load of motors, 
number and force of hammer blows, etc. 

Oeneral Arrangement. 

2. The general arrangement of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 
18 and in photograph, Fig. 19. 

The air used for making the tests was obtained from the shop 
supply, which was generally about 60 or 70 pounds. As we de- 
sired pressures varying from 60 to 120 pounds, we stepped up 
the pressures by pumping the air through a 9-inch Westinghouse 
pump which had the air cylinder bushed to a diameter of 7 inches. 
This bushing was necessary as the steam pressure at the Labora- 
tory is only about 60 pounds. The air was then pumped into 
reservoir No. 1, with ordinarily a pressure of 140 or 150^ pounds. 
From here the air was allowed to flow into reservoir No. 2, where 
it was maintained at any pressure desired by means of a reducing 
valve, which was a regular 1-inch Westinghouse air-pump gover- 
nor. An oil eup containing a thermometer was screwed into 
reservoir No. 2, and was used to determine the temperature of 
the air supplied to the tool. Another thermometer was also used 
to note room temperature. 

♦ Pieeented at tlie New York meeting, December, 1903, of the Americmi 
Soeietj of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
TrafMaetUm$. 



108 



Am KOtORd AND AIB fiAMMStUS. 



UH^M, 



©a= 



ft 



^inn w»|l»iqUK) 






2 i 
I I 



— 11_^ 4«aiai«q jo 



I 



I 



M^OTBOOUailX 



•AMA 



H ""y'^ 



^ 



SI 







AIB MOTORS AKD AIB HAMMERS. 



109 



3. From the reservoir No. 2 the air passed through a meter. 
This is a high-pressure meter made by the Equitable Meter Co., 
Pittsburg, Pa., and in construction is similar to an ordinary gas 
meter, the air alternately filling out and exhausting from leather 
bellows. From here the air was delivered to the tool to be tested, 
through a 2-inch pipe and 1-J-inch hose. At the point where the 
air was delivered to the tool we had an expansion consisting of a 




Fro. 19. 



2-inch Tee, with an internal diameter of about 2^ inches, in which 
we determined the pressure by means of a gauge. Care was taken 
that between the point where the pressure readings were taken 
and the tool to be tested, there was no contraction in the supply 
pipe smaller than the openinsr into the tool under test. 

4. For the purpose of calibrating the air meter we used the 
tank as shown in Fig. 18. This tank had a gauge glass its full 
length, and its cubic capacity was determined for each 5 inches on 
the glass by weighing the water. 

51 The records of time, revolutions of motor, air consumed and 
strokes of hammer were obtained autographically, using the record 



110 AIR MOTORS AND AIR HAMMERS. 

table shown in fig. IS. The records were obtained on glazed 
nianilla paper 14 inches wide, moving across the table under 
electro-magnetic pens. The driving mechanism of the paper con- 
sisted of an air motor and suitable gearing. The electro-magnets 
actuated stylographic pens feeding red ink. One of the pens 
was actuated by a clock, making a contact every five seconds. 
Another was actuated by the air meter, a wiper making contact 
with the teeth of one of the gear wheels in the recording mechan- 
ism and each contact representing about ^ cubic foot of air. 
The third pen was used to record the revolutions of the motors 
by arranging a wiper and a simple gearing, so as to make a contact 
every 5 revolutions of the socket for holding the drill. 

6. In calibrating the meter the method was to have the calibra- 
tion tank about full of water, the valve from the meter opened up, 
thus allowing full pressure; the outlet valve was opened, the 
record paper started going and as the water in the gauge glass 
passed the marks 5 inches apart record was made by the observer 
pressing a push button. The meter at the same time made its 
own record, and thus we were able to figure out the number of 
cubic feet per contact or per notch. We also obtained record of 
5-second intervals. As the readings of the meter varied some- 
what with different rates of flow, calibrations were made at dif- 
ferent rates by varying the opening at the outlet valve. A cali- 
bration curve was then made by plotting notches per minute as 
abscissa? and cubic feet per notch as ordinates. A number of cal- 
bration tests were niade during the course of the tests of the tools. 

The various gauges used from which pressure readings were 
taken were previously checked up and adjusted by means of a 
Crosby Dead Weight Tester. 

Motor Tests and Calculations. 

7. The arrangement used for testing motors is also shown in 
Fig. 18 and in the photograph, Fig. 20. The arrangement was to 
apply the load by means of a Prony Friction brake, the revolu- 
tions being recorded by means of a wiper making contact every 
five revolutions. The air consumption and time were recorded as 
described above. 

8. The procedure was to first regulate the pressure in reservoir 
No. 2 at 60 pounds, then put on a light brake load, keeping this 
constant during the test with full open throttle. Another test 



AIB MOTORS AND AIR HAMMERS. 



Ill 



was then made with heavier brake load with the same air pressure, 
and the increments of load continued in successive tests till the 
tool was stalled. Then air pressures of 80, 100 and 120 pounds 
Mere used in the same manner. A sample of a motor record 
reduced is shown in Fig. 21. 

9. Table No. 1 shows a sample data sheet, and the various items 
and calculations were obtained as follows: 




Fig 20. 



No. 1 and No. 2 are pressures as read by an observer on gauges 
and are pressures above atmospheric pressure. 

No. 3 is temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of the compressed 
air in reservoir No. 2. 

No. 4 is the meter contacts or notches obtained from the auto- 
graphic record included in a strip of record covering one minute 
as recorded by the clock. 

No. 6 is the cubic feet of compressed air per meter notch as 
obtained from the calibration chart. 



112 AIB K0T0B6 AND AIB HAMKEBS. 

No. 6 ia the cubic feet of compressed air per minute obtained 
by iniiltiplyuig Nos. 4 and 5. 





EMh tp^ctm S rerolvtioiii of motor 




~l 


LaO.Mo.»1.84ll46 

Burttngton R<mU Laboratory 

Aurora, lit. 

TEST OF AIR MOTORS 

1003. 

Fac'9lmtle Motor Rocord 

{about i 9ixe) 
1 minute. 

No. 187 Test No. 72 B 

N.P.M. 19.4 R.P.M. US 

Aug.l7tta. 1908. 




'^"^^Eiirfrnoti-MiTcBbtefc^ ^ ^ 




^ -H Each 1^-6 Seconds ' 





Wlckh^t.M.U. *-.•*«. Hvu CO.., 

Fio. 21. 



No. 7 is the number of cubic feet of free air per minute ob- 
tained from No. 6 by the following formula : 

where J^ A = free air in cubic feet per minute. 

C A = compressed air in cubic feet per minute. 
P = pounds gauge pressure at tool. 

No. 8 is the revolutions per minute of socket for holding the 
drill and is obtained from the autographic record. 

No. 9 is the brake load as shown by the weight on the scale at 
the end of the lever arm, usually three feet, except with the 
smaller motors, where the lever arm was two feet. This brake 
load was pre-determined and kept constant by an observer during 
each test. 

No. 10 is the brake horse-power, and was calculated as per fol- 
lowing formula: 



AIB MOTORS AND AIB HAKMERS. 

BP M x2t X 3.1416 xw 



113 



BHP^ 



33000 



-where B H P = brake horse-power. 

B P M^ revolutions per minute of brake-wheel. 
r = radius in feet of brake-lever. 
w = weight in pounds on scale. 

No. 11 is the load on scale which was just sufficient to stall the 
tool 

Xo. 12 is the stalling load at one foot radius calculated from 
No. 11. 

No. 13 is the cubic feet of free air consumed per minute per 
horse-power, obtained by dividing No. 7 by No. 10. 

10. After obtaining these various data we plotted three curve 




Fig. 22. 



114 



AIR MOTORS AND AIR HAMMERS. 



TABLE I. 



BURLINGTON ROUTB LABORATORY, 
AUBOBA, III. 

TEST OP AIR MOTORS, 

1908. 

Dau Sheet 



Lab. No. 681.54 M 47. 



Air Motor Test. Testei. 

Makbb : Air Tool Co. Name of Tool : Mendota. 8u» : 8. Ttpb : 8 Cyl. 

Wkioht : 47 Lbs. Serial Number : 88. Cost : 

Remarks: 

Brake Lever Arm : 8 ft. 



Date : 8/4-03. Temperature Atmosphere : 87 deg. 



i ^ 


B 


C 1 D 

1 


E 


- 


G 


H 


I 


1. Press, reservoir 


101 
100 
101 


101 
100 
102 


101 
100 
102 


101 
100 
108 


121 121 


121 


121 
120 
112 


121 


2 " at tool 


120 
106 


120 
108 


120 
110 


120 


3. Tempr. coDip. air 


114 


4. Notches per min 


24. 


21.2 


19.5 


17.6 


28.4 24. 


20. 


20.8 


17.5 


6. Cu. ft. per notch 


.202 


.264 


.265 


.266 


.268 


.262 


.264 


.264 


.266 


6. Cu. ft. C. A. mIn 


6.8 


5.6 


5.2 


4.7 


6.2 


6.8 


5.8 


6.4 


4.6 


7. Preeair 


52. 


42.8 


40. 


86. 


56. 61.8 


48. 


47.7 


41.5 


8 Rev. oer mln 


138 
20 


119 
25 


89 
80 


72 
85 


135 
25 


115 
80 


91 
85 


88 
40 


78 


9. Wt. on scale 


45 


10. Brake U.-P 


1.67 


1.7 


1.52 


1.45 


1.92 


l.r 


1.82 


2.02 


2. 






11 Stalliiisr weiffht 








87 










48 


12 *' 11 "at one ft. radius 








111 

24.8 










144 


18. •* Seven " per H.-P 


38 


25 26 


29 1 81 26.5 

1 1 


28.5 


20.7 



(Signed) .. 



ObMTver. 



AIB MOTOBS AND AIB HAKHEBS. 115 

sheets to shoW up the results by the graphic method, representing 
in each case the air pressure as abscissse. On one we plotted as 
ordinates the stalling load at one foot radius, on another the air 
consumption in cubic feet of free air per minute per horse-power 
at Tpfl Trimiim horsc-power, and on the other the maximum horse- 
power. 

Air Hammer Teats and Calculations. 

11. The arrangements for testing air hammers is also shown in 
Fig. 18 and photograph, Fig. 22. The method in general was to let 



— 1 notch" .388 cnbSe feet comp<-aIr— 



Lab.No.e21.64 H 11 
RIVETINO HAMUEB Burlington Route Laboratory 

No. 225 Test No.-525 B. Aurora, III. 

V.FJL 28 S.P.1L 906 TEST OF AIR HAMMERS 

Aug.l9th. 1908. 1003, 

Fac-afmlle Hammer Record 
6 aeconde, 

lt0ponS*pt6th.19O3, 
Paper movM io this direction *- 

I o Each "ware" ii one itroke 
fj o Vertical height of each wave is the dlstanoe 
I -S weiffht U lifted multiplied by 8. 



4 



Fig. 28. 

the hammer strike upward against a known weight adjusted to the 
size of the hammer and to autographically record the distance the 
weight was lifted. The weights varied from about 40 to 15C 
pounds, and the vertical lift was multiplied 8 times on the record. 
The time and air consumption were recorded as above described, 
and a sample of one of the records obtained is shown in Fig. 23. 

12. The results of test were recorded on a blank, copy of which 
is shown in Table 11. 

No. 1 and No. 2 are gauge-pressure readings as noted by an 
observer. 



116 



AIB MOTOBS AND AIB HAMMEBS. 



Makbb : Air Tool Co. 
Wbight : 23 Ibi. 
Wt. Pldmgbb : 1 lb. 

Bbmabkb : 



TABLE II. 

Air Hammkb Test. 
NambopTool: Valcan. 

SXBIAL NUMBBB : 8171. 

DiAM. Ctlimdbr : 1^'^ 



Lab. No. 631.54 Hli 
Test 501. 



SiZB : 8. 
Co§t: 
Stroke Inches : & 



Datb : 7/22-08. 



Temperatcue Atmosphere : 87 deg. 



1. PresB. reaervolr , . . 

2. " attool 

8. Temp. comp. air... 
4. Notches per min. . . 
6. Cu. ft. per notch . . 

6. Cu. ft. C. A. min.. 

7. Free air 

8. Strokes per min. . . 

9. Weight 

10. Distance raised. ... 

1 1. Ft. lbs. per blow . . , 

12. Horse-power 

18. ** Seven" per H.-P 



A 


B 


60 


80 


60 


80 


88 


90 


29 


24 


.271 


.269 


7.85 


6.45 


39.2 


40.8 


834 


892 


120 


120 


.004' 


.0052' 


.48 


.624 


.0123 


.01C8 


3,200 


2,400 



100 

100 
90 
25 
.27 

6.75 
51.6 
964 
120 

.006' 

.72 

.021 

2,400 



D 


E 


F 


G 


n I 


120 
120 








1 1 


1 


91 


i 




21 




' 1 i 


.268 




1 ' 


5.63 
60.6 
1,000 




, 




1 i 




1 ■ 1 


m 






1 1 


.0065' 






! 


.7818 
.0236 
2,100 




1 1 




' , 1 




1 1 1 




i 1 1 


1) 



(Signed) 



Obset-ver. 



BUBLIN6T0N BOUTE LABOBATOBY 
Aurora, 111. 

TEST OF AIR HAMMERS, 

1903. 

DaU Sheet. 



AlB K0T0B6 AND AllSL HA^M^ilS. 117 

Ko, 3 is tlie temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of the com- 
pressed air in reservoir No. 2 as noted by an obsenrer. 

No. 4 is the meter contacts or notches per minute as obtained 
from the autographic record. 

No. 5 is the cubic feet of compressed air per notch as obtained 
from the calibration chart 

No. 6 is the cubic feet of compressed air per minute obtaiaed 
by multiplying Nos. 4 and 6. 

No. 7 is the cubic feet of free air per minute obtained by the 
same formula as given under air motors. 

No. 8 is the number of strokes per minute obtained from the 
record by counting the strokes made in one minute. 

No. 9 is the pounds of the weight placed over the hammer. 
No. 10 is the average distance in feet the weight was raised as 
obtained from the record. 

No. 11 is the foot pounds of effective work 'per blow, obtained 
by multiplying the weight in pounds by the distance in feet it was 
raised 

No. 12 is the horse-power of the hammeri obtained as per fol- 
lowing formula: 

TT p _ ft lbs. X blows per min. 
^ ^ "■ 33000 

No. 18 is the cubic feet of free air per minute per horse-power. 

13. After obtaining the results of test, three curves were 
plotted from them as f oUows, in each case the pounds gauge pres- 
sure being plotted as abscissas and the following as ordinates: foot 
pounds per blow, cubic feet of free air per minute per horse-power 
and horse-power. 

14. In conclusion, the author desires to express his special 
thanks and acknowledgments to Mr. H. F. Wardwell, who did the 
greater part of the work in making the designs and tests. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Frank 0. Hohart, — The method here described of arrange 
ing the hammer to strike against a weight and basing calculations 
upon the displacement of this weight would seem useful only for 
obtaining comparisons between different hammers. 

The facsimile diagram shows a movement of the pencil of about 



118 



Atft ICOtOHS AND A1& HAMM£!fid. 



\ 




AIR KOTOBS AND AIR TTAicMiei^fl 119 

i inch, corresponding to a movement of the weight of not more 
than /f inch. With this small movement, together with the long 
lever reductions between the weight and the pencil, the high 
si)ee<l and the various questions about impact, weight, friction, 
etc., I should not expect the figures based on the diagram could 
be accurate. 

Fig. 24 shows two diagrams made on one sheet of paper by 
1^x6 inch riveting hammers on a machine which we are using 
for air-hammer testing. It sho\^s the number of blows per min- 
ute, length of stroke of the pistons, velocity of pistons at every 
portion of the stroke and the position of the pistons at every in- 
stant. Knowing the weight of the piston, its velocity at impact 
and the number of blows per minute, the ability of the hanmier 
to do work can be calculated. The effect of changes of port areas 
or other details of the hammers is very clearly shown by such 
diagrams. 

The machine consists of a drum driven by a small air motor at 
a periphery speed of about 2,000 feet per minute. A centrif- 
ugal governor holds this speed very nearly uniform, and a paper 
wound on this drum receives the diagram. The hammer is 
mounted with its length parallel to the axis of the drimi, and in 
such position that a slender steel rod connects the piston to a 
pencil slide which marks the position of the piston on the diagram. 
All of the moving parts are very delicate and do not interfere, so 
far as can be detected, with the action of the piston. The ma- 
chine was built for experimental work and for testing hammers 
by Fairbanks, Morse & Co. for use at their works at Beloit, Wis. 

Mr. M. H. Wickhorst* — Commenting on Mr. Hobart's re- 
marks, I would say the tests were made for the purpose of com- 
paring the various hanuners on the market, and I wish to correct 
his impression concerning the distance the weight was lifted in 
the tests. The sample record as printed is only a little over one- 
fifth size. The method of studying a hammer which he describes, 
I should think, would be decidedly valuable to a designer, and 
am very glad that he has presented to the Society an outline of 
the apparatus and the sample record. 

* Aathor's Closure under the Boles. 



120 BATES AND PRICES FOB ELECTRIC FOWEB. 



No. 1016.* 

A METHOD FOR DETERMINING RATES AND PRICES FOR 
ELECTRIC POWER. 

BT FRANK B. PERRT, BOBTON, MASS. 

(Janior Member of the Society.) 

1. That the future will show a rapid growth in the application 
of electricity to industrial pursuits, operated from a centrally 
located steam-driven electric power station, has led me to present 
the following data to our members, many of whom will doubtless 
find the methods suggested applicable to their own interests. 
The advent of driving textile and other mills from a plant of 
this character has opened a question for discussion as to the 
establishment of a proper basis for rates to be charged for electric 
current supplied in large quantities. 

2. The contracts drawn up by electric companies with their cus- 
tomers sometimes contain a clause similar to the following, which 
is given for the purpose of illustration, and is not intended to 
cover any specific case: For a period of years from date the 
lessor agrees to furnish, and the lessee to receive and to pay for, 
within the times and on the terms set forth, all the power that 
may be required to properly operate and light his plant. The 
amoimt of power to be determined by meter readings, and to be 
billed monthly at the rates recited below, viz. : 

1,800 to not more than 2,160 kilowatts at rate of $31.50 per 
kilowatt per annum; 

More than 2,160 kilowatts and not exceeding 2,520 kilowatts 
at rate of $30.00 per kilowatt per annum; 

More than 2,520 kilowatts and not exceeding 2,700 kilowatts 
at rate of $28.50 per kilowatt per annum; 

* Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1908) of tbe American 
Society of Meclianical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of tbe 
Tmniaetion$, 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 121 

All in excess of 2,700 kilowatts at rate of $27.60 per kilowatt 
per annum. 

3. The above rates are based on an annum of 3,000 hours. 
From this schedule the following tables are derived :— 

TABLE I. 

Rate per Kw. SqniT. Ra*e per H. P. Rate per Kw. Rate per H. P. 

perAnnooi. per Annum. per Hoar. per Hour. 

$81.50 $38,499 $ .0106 $ .007688 

80.00 22.88 .0100 C007460 

28.50 21.26 .0005 .007087 

27.60 20.5896 .0092 .006882 



TABLE n. 

Kilowatts Utad. Coat per Annom. Coet per Month. 

1,800 $56,700.00 $4,725.00 

2.160 68,040.00 5.670.00 

2.161 64,830.00 5.402.50 
2,268 68.040.00 5.670.00 

2.520 75.600.00 6.800.00 

2.521 71.848.50 5,987.87 
2.652.7 75.601.96 6,800.16 

2.700 76.950.00 6.412.50 

2.701 74,547.60 6.212.80 

Table I. is self-explanatory. An examination of Table n. 
shows plainly the faults that exist in a schedule such as that 
usually followed. 

4. By using 2,161 kilowatts, or one additionalkilo\i'attmorethan 
2,160 kilowatts, a yearly saving of $3,210 may be made; similarly 
an increase of one kilowatt above 2,520 kilowatts effects a reduc- 
tion of $3,751.50 per annum, and one extra kilowatt over 2,700 
kilowatts lessens the yearly expense by $2,402.40. 

5. While these figures show the points in the schedule at which 
the greatest saving may be made, many other quantities which 
are given in a later table illustrate equally well the irregularity 
of prices based on such a list of rates. The inconsistency of this 
method is further shown by the fact that 2,268 kilowatts cost the 
same as 2,160 kilowatts, or 108 kilowatts may be utilized without 
anv increase in expense to the consumer. The price is also prac- 
tically the same for 2,652.7 kilowatts as for 2,520 kilowatts, 
which indicates that any number of kilowatts between these limits 
may be used without additional cost to the person buying power. 

6. It would appear from these figures that the electric company 
makes more profit at some places in the schedule than at others, 



122 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 



and on that account could furnish certain amounts of power 
gratis. Of course, this is not true, but tends to convince one of 
the absurdity of the system that is customarily used by central 
electric stations. It is also evident that the customer, if he 
were so disposed, might watch his meter and so adjust his con- 
sumption of current as to bring about a substantial decrease in 
his bill for the month. I'or example, he might install a few extra 
machines that would serve not only to increase his product but 







^Horlfonial Unea^ 


"Ra 


lepi 


rKn 


. pe 


' Anffum 


s 


bse 


eeai 


^Ki 


,J 


ttt. 




/ 


rtee 


Rat 


r 












Dta 


... 


tUi 


e«- 


Pride pe 


Ho 


1th 










y 


1 


asqs 


pn.t 















RA\ 


£8 


ind 


PRH 


£8 


for 


>ow 


£R. 






y 




/ 


































/ 




/ 


/ 


/ 






6300 




























/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 












aoj 


) 






















/ 


r 




/ 












9000 
























/ 


/ 




































/ 




A 


X 




















flOV> 


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/ 


/ 


/ 




































/ 


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r 
























saon 


27J 


) 








/ 


/ 








































/ 


/ 








a 


\AR 


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. / 


















sooo 






• 


/ 


/ 




































K!io 


vat 


4 18^ 


/ 










21 


» 










ss 


» 




% 


DO 






4700 



























































































f*rrp,F.3. 



FiQ, 25. 



Awu3mikX^0».^.r. 



would also be the means of diminishing his bill. As an extreme 
case, the use of one additional kilowatt would bring about this 
result. It also might prove economical to bum electric lights 
during the day in order to increase the current consumption. 

7. Both of these examples mentioned serve as illustrations of 
the fact that it is within the consumers jurisdiction, by the terms 
of his agreement, to use power advantageously with a resultant 
financial loss to the electric company. While such a procedure 
may be perfectly legitimate, it would be fairer to all concerned 
to prevent contingencies of this kind from arising, and at the 
same time to provide a system of rates which would be to the 
mutual interests of both parties. 

8. The horizontal lines on Chart No. 1, Fig. 25, indicate the rates 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELEOTRIO POWER. 123 

for power, and the diagonal lines represent the price per month for 
electric current covering the entire range of the above mentioned 
schedule. The latter lines show at a glance the unfairness of the 
system, and prove conclusively that rates cannot be adjusted 
properly on the customary basis. 

9. The subsequent discussion is intended to give a method for 
rearranging a schedule of rates based on the " step-system,'' and 
for convenience the aforesaid figures will be used. The principles, 
however, may be applied to any other rates made up in a similar 
manner. 

10. Keferring to Table 11. and applying the well-known formula 

(a + /) ^, giving the sum of the terms of an arithmetical pro- 

^ression we obtain for each step, assuming a conunon difference 
of one kilowatt, the following figures: 



(1) 2,161 - 8,520 kw. 

(2) 2.521-2.700 " . 



Vftlaeof "0." 


Value of'/." 


Value of "n. 


|64,S30.00 
71,84S.60 


$76,600 
76.950 


860 
180 



11. The value of " a,'' or the first term of the series represents 
the product of 2,161 kilowatts by its rate per kilowatt per annum. 
In a similar way the other terms of the series are obtained, " 1,^' 
indicating in each case the last term and " n " the nimiber of 
terms. 

12. Since the rate is constant from 1,800 to 2,160 kilowatts, we 
will compute simply the sum of the series beginning at 2,160 
kilowatts. 

Sam of (1) = (64,880 + 75.600) 180 = $25,277,400 

'• *' (2) =(71,848.5 + 76.950) 90= 18.391.865 

2,160 kw. at $81.50 = 68,040 

(8) Total sum of two series = $88,737,305 

13. With a varying rate of power, diminishing in a fixed ratio 
between any two amounts, it is possible, by the substitution of 
proper quantities in an equation herein, deduced by the writer, 
to compute the value of the sums of the product of each suc- 
eeeding kilawratt by its corresponding rate. 

14. The horizontal spaces of the charts, or abscissse, represent in 
tenns of kilowatts, a progressive increase in each successive 
number by the addition of any desired equal amount 



124 RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 

Let (a) = 1st term. (Z) = last term, {d) = common difference 
(n) = number of terms, (s) = sum of terms. 
Then 1st term = «, 



2d 


(( 


= a + ^, 




3d 


U 


= a + 2rf, 




4th 


U 


-a^-Zd, 






I 


= a -\- {n — 


IK 




8 


= (a + 0|. 





15. The vertical spaces of charts, or ordinates, represent in terms 
of rates per kilowatt annum, or per kilowatt hour, a progressive 
decrease in each successive number by the subtraction of any 
chosen equal quantity. 

Let (J) = 1st term, {k) = last term, {r) = common difference. 
(/) = sum of terms, (m) = number of terms. 
Then 1st term = ft, 

2d " = ft - r, 
3d '* = ft - 2r, 
4th '' = ft - 3r, 

k = b — {m — l)r, 

< = (j + i)|. 

16. Multiplying the corresponding terms of these two series, we 
obtain the following: — 

(4) Product of Ist term = aft, 

(5) " "2d " ={a + d){h- r), 

(6) " " 3d " = (a + 2d) (ft - 2r), 

(7) " " 4th " = (a + Sd) (ft - 3r), 

(8) " " last " = ja + (n - l)rfj jft - (m - l)r{. 

17. Adding these products, and developing the quantities en- 
closed in parenthesis, we obtain for the sum of 1st and 2d terms 
designated (4) and (5). 

{A) Sum of products 1st and 2d terms = 2eift ■{■ hd — or — dr. 

„ ,^. , . a u 2 4<ift 4- 2ft</ - 2ar - 2<7r 
Multiply mg equation by ^ = -. 

Substituting values n = 2 and m = 2 in the abwe, we find 
, .. 2aftn + hdn — arm — dnn 

U) = o 



= *^{2a + (n-l>7}-^^(a+^. 



BATES AND PRICES FOB ELECTBIC POWER. 126 

18. In a similar manner (S) = sum of (4), (5) and (6), 
and {C) = " « (4), (5), (6) and (7), 

(5) =1^ j 2« + {n-l)d]-^{2a+8id), 
(C) = ^{2a + (n-l>f}-^(3a + 7rf). 

19. Comparing equations (4), (B) and (C), we find that they are 
alike in all respects excepting the coefficients of " a *' and " d " 
of the negative terms. 

ao. Substituting these values, viz., for coefficient of " a " (m — 1), 

and for coefficient of "rf" | 5 (m — 2) + 1 [ j m — 1 [ , we have 

for the sum of any number of products containing "n" and "m" 
terms 

Total sum = ~ j 2a + (n - l)rf } 

21. In order to apply this formula to the case in question, let us 
consider the rate as beginning at $31.50 per kilowatt per annum 
for 2,160 kilowatts and varying in amount to $27.60 per kilowatt 
per annimi for 2,700 kilowatts. By so doing, we preserve the 
limiting features of the schedule both for rates and for the quan- 
tities at which they are applicable. Since the successive steps 
in the first mentioned schedule show an even decrease in rate 
for equal increments of power up to 2,520 kilowatts, it is safe to 
assume that a list of rates may be made up to vary imiformly 
from 2,160 to 2,520 kilowatts and regularly, but at a different 
rate, from 2,520 to 2,700 kilowatts. 

22. I-et X ~ rate per kilowatt per annum for 2,520 kilowatts. 

02 = 2,521 
Jj = a? 
d2 = l 
^2 = 2,700 
^ _ (a^-27.6) 
^^"" 180 
W2 = 180 
^=180 



«I = 


= 2,160 




J,= 


= 31.50 




rf,= 


= 1 




h-- 


= 2,.520 




T. = 


(31.5 - 


X) 


'I 


- 360 




«i = 


= 361 




TOj: 


= 361 





\ 



126 RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 

23. Substituting these respective values in equation (D) gives 

D, = «^-^ ^ 3^^ (2,160 + 2,520) - (3t-5 - a') x 361 x 360) 
2 . 2 X 360 

|2,160 + i (722 - 1)1 . 

A = ^^ (2,521 + 2,700) -<^- ^^f ^if >- 1^^ 

12,521 + i (360 - 1)} 
From the above, 

^ _ 159,655,860 - 81,886,171.5 + 2,599,561a; 
^1-^ 6 • 

^ _ 2,819,340aj - l,418,038aj + 39,137,848.8 
^a- ^ . 

24. Then in order to fulfill the conditions of the first named 
schedule, J9j + D2 must equal (3) or 

Di + 1)2 = 38,737,305. 
Substituting values of />i and Dz and solving, 

4,000,863a! = 115,516,292.7 

X = 28.872. 

25. This value of " x " substituted in expressions for rates gives 
Ti = $.0073 and ra = $.00706§ as the variations in charges for 
each kilowatt per annum from 2,160 to 2,520 kilowatts, and from 
2,520 to 2,700 kilowatts respectively. 

26. The rates per kilowatt hour become n = $.0000024^, r, = 
$.00000235; for 30 kilowatts hours, n = $.000073 and rj = 
$.0000706§. 

27. Using this system as a basis for rates, the wording of the 
agreement for power would be changed to read as follows : 

" The charge for electric current furnished under this contract 
shall be made as per the chart attached hereto, and made a part 
hereof.'' 

28. The line plotted on Chart No. 2, Fig. 26, indicates the rates 
per kilowatt per annum which would, in this instance, replace the 
original schedule as given by Chart No. 1, Fig. 25. 



RATES Ain> PEIOES FOB ELEOTRIO POWER. 



127 









Ord 


nat^ 


,^. 


fate 


per 


Kw. 


— 1 


nifu 


n. 




Abaci 88a 


^=/f 


lowatta 








Rat 


t 








RA 


reo 


r-Mn 


P0\ 


1 
fER 




~ f i 


flfl i 


., 


00 Ktlow 


itt« 




















•«J 































































\ 














































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\ 


\ 












































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S 


\ 
















mJ 


33 


























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\ 














































\ 












TTJl 


\> 
































\ 




























C 


/>l^ 


'Mo 


2 
































































Kile 


vat\ 


a Ifl 


» 










21 


H> 










« 


» 




2TO0 
























































• 








































Afti 


f,r^ 
































^•i.Aa«*M«to>.,/r.r. 



Fio. 26. 





s 








Una 


.0.^ 








1 1 

Line No.2 














A 




OUM 




N 


\ 




Ordin 


amu^Kllomatt 


Mm,M 





A 




PWOf 


oura 


^700 








/ 


am 


mn 






S 


s, 








1ATE 


\am 


P«( 


d 


»r P<[Mr« 
















6190 


mm 










\ 






640a 


tOto 


9760 


V nil 

00 n 


M»dtt* 




^y 


X^ 










6100 


0101 












S 


s 












rf^ 


^ 














6060 


O100 














s 


N. 






_j^ 


^ 


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6000 




















N 


<^ 


y 




















soso 


ow 
















^ 


^ 


N 


s. 




















sooo 


am 














L^ 


^ 






s 


\ 


















SR80 


oom 










^/^ 


Z' 














N 


V 














5R00 


(vm 








^ 


/ 


















s 


N^ 












57S0 


OOM 






y 












c/ 


M^: 


Ho 


3 






— *s 


N 










5i00 


0Q9i 


J 


r' 






























X 


N..^ 






fiOBO 


0099 


/ 
































V 


N 




S600 


Mm. 


21 


» 


WD 


23 


)0 


2S 


iO 


» 


m 


24 


» 


2r 


» 


2e 


« 


26 


40 


r 


DO 


ri». 


KmM 


m. L. 


-L- 1 


n 


W 


90 


1 






6& 


» 


64 


lo 


1 


tr, 


Kw.Hn. 


ia 


t» w 


no 


s 


S9U 


L-S 


60 


DO 


61 


« 


66 


00 


to m 



J^rrw,r.3, 



Fig. 27. 



wi«.#«^^iMfC%^»^.r. 



128 



RATES AND PBICES FOB ELECTRIC POWER. 



29. The results obtained by following these lines of rates neces- 
sarily gives, on account of the above reasoning, the same average 
price per month as that computed by the " step " system. Chart 
No. 3, Fig. 27, is an example of the form of chart which would be 
embodied in a contract for electric power in order to meet the 
rates outlined in the original agreement. It also gives an idea 
of the simplicity of interpreting rates and prices for power by 
making use of the scheme proposed. 

30. Line No. 1 is drawn through points plotted in accordance 











































i 


em 










Urn 


Ho. 


J 


























y 




5180 










Onil 
Ab9e 


r 


'Urn 




#01 




00 




*a(i -#.( 


m 


writ 


>^r. 




y 


K 




!lt40 


















Pi 


fCfS 


for 


poJ 


R 








y 


y 








!qop 
















46 


oooo 


pto 
te4i 


990 
^600a 


Kihmatta 
KihmaHt 


'r». 




y 












9080 




























y 


y 










% 




9090 
























y 


y 


















40B0 






















y 


y 




















4M0 


















_> 


y 
























4900 
















y 


y 


























4800 












y 


y 






























4890 










y 


y 








ct 


ARl 


Mo 


4 


















4TBp 






> 


/ 




































4740 






/^ 






































4W0 


Km 


li 


00 


n 


» 


M 


40 


18 


» 


\t 


n 


19 


» 


1\ 


» 


M 


•0 


11 


BO 


U 


» 


Km, 


"^ 


N 


DO 


41 


50 


4fl 


»-. 


4< 


n 


47 


m 


47 


SO 


4f 


30 


^ 


10 


41 


DO 


« 


Km 


^ 



Hrr9,F,3, 



jlauBamhJhttO».^r' 



Fig. 28. 



with the rates specified on Chart No. 2, Fig. 26 ; the ordinates being 
equal to rates per kilowatt hour and the abscissse representing kilo- 
watts. From 1,800 kilowatts to 2,160 kilowatts and above 2,700 
kilowatts the rate is constant at $.0105 and $.0092 per kilowatt 
hour as respectively indicated by the horizontal portions of the 
line. From 2,1C0 to 2,520 kilowatts the rate diminishes in a 
fixed ratio for each additional kilowatt used, namely, from 
$.0105 to $.010062 per kilowatt hour; also from 2,520 to 2,700 
kilowatts the rate diminishes imiformly, but not so rapidly as 
between the points previously stated, from $.010062 to $.0092 
per kilowatt hour. It will be noted that the ordinates may be 



RATES AND FRIGES FOR ELEOTRIC POWER. 



129 



read easily tojTf'inrof a cent per kilowatt hour and the abscisssB to 
3 kilowatts without estimating fractional division of the spaces. 

31. line No. 2 is deduced from the foregoing^ and by its means 
one may determine at a glance, knowing the wattmeter reading, 
the amount of each month's bill for power consumed. 

32. The lower line of figures on the chart represent meter read- 
ings in kilowatt hours divided by one hundred. These quantities 
are computed by multiplying the kilowatt readings by 250, the 
average hours per month, or ^ the total for the year as limited by 











Um 


Ho. 


X 














- 














$ 


aroo 










Of4\ 


2mm 




Mpt 


I If J 

Km.H 




100 




fate 


=#.0 


;m, 


wH 


^,Hf, 






_> 




5000 




















PUK 


E8fi 


rPO 


fTfff 












y 


y 




5090 


















1 

wot 


iOto 


[2ii 


pKU 

ioKii 


matt 


Hrt. 






^ 


y 








SflBO 
































y 


y 










5540 




























y 


y 














aaoo 


























y 


y 
















5400 






















/* 


y 




















5I9D 




















y 


y 






















ano 
















^y 


y 


























5840 














^ 


y 




























580O 










,/^ 


y 











1AR 


T Mi 


.8 


















5900 








y 


^ 


































iQ90 






y 






































5tW 


Km. 


11 


» 


% 


DO 


so 


» 


% 


10 


90 


n 


% 


» 


91 


M) 


91 


» 


91 


10 


91 


» 


^m. 


KmM 


**-- 


fO 


so 


» 


so 


» 


n 


» 


51 





69 


N) 


aa 


» 


N 


» 


58 


n 


54 


ir« 


Hn, 


W 


} ^ 


n 


66 



Fig. 29. 



Am B mt k iht$Ck.Ji:r. 



the contract. Two ciphers are omitted from these results to avoid 
rei)etition of figures. To obtain the bill per month, find the 
number on chart corresponding to that recorded by the watt- 
meter, and note the point vertically over same on line No. 2. 
In the column at the right-hand side of the chart, horizontally 
opposite this intersection, will be found the price of bill for 
the amount of power in question. The abscissae may be read 
accurately to 750 kilowatt hours and the ordinates to $5 for the 
corresponding spaces, and by estimation of tenths these differences 
may be proportionately reduced. 

33. Charts No. 4 to No. 8 (Figs. 28 to 32) inclusive are similar 
to, and may be considered as supplementary to chart No. 3. Each 



130 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 



chart includes a section of 180 kilowatts or ^ of the entire range 
from 1,800 to 2,700 kilowatts. 

34. lines No. 3 and No. 4 indicate prices for power up to and 
including 2,160 kilowatts at a constant rate of $31.50 per kilo- 



Rati 








Un« 


No. 


r 












I/J^o. 


? 














::d 


^a 








OrdI 
AUo 


tat- 

t$9a* 


-Itai 




Km.tr. 

1 






Ortf/iUtw 




W|M IfoA 








9B0O 






V 


X. 








r 


^AUiam Pm 


?fsj 


>rPlfWEt 












y 




5880 










\ 


Sfc^ 






i400t 


160io23i 


OO/f/ 


omatl 


• 
















ssm 


jm 










s 


\ 






















y 








5840 
















v 


\ 












^ 


X 












9820 




















N 


\ 




^y 


> 
















980O 


MO 






















^ 


^^ 


















5780 




















y 


X' 






^ 


^ 














S7S0 
















,y 


y 












V 














5740 


.010 












/ 


^ 


















\ 


X 








srao 










,^ 


y 











iAR 


rNo 


.9 












\ 


^^ 




970O 








^ 




































5080 


.010 




^' 






































5000 


Km. 


^ 


» 


21 


» 


22 


» 


22 


» 


Zl 


10 


2S 


W 


22 


» 


2a 


N) 


2S 


» 


^ 


Km. 


^^ 


54 


M) 


5» 


n 


56 


so 


M 


» 


Sfl 


iO 


57 


» 


w 


s« 


SH 


» 


4oH 


.Hn. 
100 






JUm.SmdtlhUOk^.r. 



Fig. 80. 



watt per annum, or $.0105 per kilowatt hour. lines No. 5, No. 7 
and No. 9 represent rates 



varying respectively from $31.50 to $30,186 per kw. per annum. 
" " 30.186 " 28.872 " " " " 

a u 28.872 " 27.60 " " " " 






or 



from 



$.0105 to $.010062 per " " hour. 
.010062 " .009624 " " " " 

.009624 " .0092 " " " " 



35. lines No. 6, No. 8 and No. 10 show prices per month for 
power, varying in the order given from 2,160 to 2,340 kilowatts, 
from 2,340 to 2,520 kilowatts and from 2,520 to 2,700 kilowatts. 
Each of the spaces on the charts No. 4 to No. 8 inclusive occupied 
by the abscissae represent 1 kilowatt or 250 kilowatt hours as the 
case may be, consequently are well within the limit that it is pos- 
sible to read a recording wattmeter of 3,000 kilowatts capacity. 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 



131 



36. Greater accuracy is also attainable in determination of rates 
per kilowatt hour or the total bill for the month. This may be 
carried to a still further degree of refinement by an increased sub- 
division of the amounts of power and their accompanying rates. 
The principles enumerated may be applied equally well to a 
pven list of powers with any predetermined rates. The Table 
nL i& presented to show the comparison of prices per month that 
would be paid for various amounts of power by the original agree- 
ment, and also by the lines illustrated on charts No. 3 to No. 8 
inclusive (Fig. 27 to 32). 

TABLE III. 



^- 




Kw. Hre. 




MoHTHLT Bill- 






KWB. 


per month 
of 


Katepor 
Kw. Hr. 






Dil 


• 


H.P. 












250 Era. 




By CUrt. 


By Schedule. 






2.894.1 


2,160 


540.000 


$.0105 


$5,670.00 


$5,670.00 


__ 




2.W5.7 


2.190 


547,500 


.010437 


5.708.78 


5.475.00 


— 


$288.78 


2.J77.2 


2.230 


555,000 


.010854 


5,746.47 


5.550.00 


— 


196.47 


3,016.1 


2,250 


562,500 


.010281 


5,788.06 


5,625.00 


— 


158.06 


8.0M.8 


2,280 


570.000 


.010208 


5,818.56 


5,700.00 


— 


118.56 


8,096.5 


2.810 


577.500 


.010185 


5.852.96 


5.775.00 


^ 


77.96 


8,186.7 


2,840 


585,000 


.010062 


8.886.27 


5.850.00 


— 


86.27 


8,176.9 


2.870 


592.500 


.009989 


5,918.48 


5,925.00 


+ 


6.52 


8,217.2 


2,400 


600.000 


.009916 


5,949.60 


6,000.00 


+ 


50.40 


8.257.4 


2.480 


607,500 


.009843 


5,979.62 


6.075.00 


-h 


95.38 


8.897.6 


2,460 


615.000 


.00977 


6.008.56 


6,150.00 


+ 


141.45 


8.837 8 


2.490 


622.500 


.009697 


6,086.88 


6,225.00 


+ 


188.62 


8.878.0 


2,520 


680.000 


.009624 


6.068.12 


6.800.00 


+ 


286.88 


8,418.2 


2,550 


687.500 


.00955831 


6.090.25 


6.056.25 


— 


84.00 


8.458.4 


2,580 


645.000 


.00948261 


6.116.82 


6.127.50 


+ 


11.18 


8.498.6 


2.610 


652.500 


.009412 


6.141.88 


6,198.75 


+ 


57.42 


3,538.8 


2.640 


660.000 


.0098413) 


6.165.28 


6.270 00 


+ 


104.72 


8,579.1 


2,670 


667.500 


.00927061 


6.188.17 


6.841.25 


+ 


158.08 


8.619.8 


2,700 


675,000 
Total.... 


.0092 


6,210.00 
1118.888.20 


6,412.50 


-h 


202.50 




$113,726.25 


— 


$893.05 









37. Referring to the tabulation, one may observe that between 
2,190 and 2,370 kilowatts, the chart gives figures higher than 
the schedule, while from 2,370 to 2,520 kilowatts the monthly 
bills are lower. As previously stated above,' the average is prac- 
tically the same. The last line of the table shows that for the 
points taken the discrepancy between the chart and the schedule 
amounts to about ^^ of 1 per cent. This difference would be 
le^ened by choosing smaller sub-divisions and would finally 
amount to zero when the points are taken at 1 kilowatt intervals. 



182 



BATES AND PBIOES FOB ElfCTBIC POWER. 



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RATES AND PBIOES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 133 

Of course, if the meter should indicate a use — say of 2,520 kilo- 
watts per month considerably more would be paid to the central 
station by the chart system than fey the schedule. It is equally 
true that there are points on the chart lines where, if the meter 
should read the proper amount, the bill would be less than by 
the schedule. 

38. The convenience of this method in determining the value of 
bills rendered each month should be appreciated both by the 
electric company and by the user of current. There is no con- 
flicting of rates or prices with such a system, and bills increase 
gradually and consistently, as they ought, in proportion to the 
amount of power used. This method, which is equally fair to 
producer and to consumer has, to the best of my knowledge, 
not heen used up to the present time by any Central Electric 
Station for finding costs of current where varying rates per kilo- 
watt annum or per kilowatt hour are involved. 

39. These ideas are submitted with the belief that their adoption 
will bring about more satisfactory results than can ever be realized 
by a continuance of the soK^alled " Step '* system of rates. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr, R, S. Hale. — Mr. Perry's illustration is nothing more or 
less than the usual scheme of discount based upon quantity, al- 
though it is stated in figures per kilowatts. That is, he might 
set a price of $31 per kilowatt up to $60,000 per year and there 
would be no discoimt; above that there would be 5 per cent, dis- 
count, and so on. The bad feature of this plan is that it permits 
the use of a little more current, in some cases, actually to reduce 
the bill, which is taken care of in most electric companies by pro- 
viding that the customer need in no case pay more than if he had 
actually used the amount necessary to obtain the higher discount. 
This, of course, is equivalent to making no charge for some of 
the current used. In other cases — ^as, for instance, the Chicago 
Edison Company — ^the contract provides, " Intermediate discounts 
to be determined by interpolation '' ; and this gives, I understand, 
no trouble in practice. It is of course practically just the method 
that Mr. Perry suggests. The best way, however, is what is 
known as the block system : By selling the first 2,000 kilowatts at 
say $41 each; the next 700 kilowatts at $29 each, making, how- 



134 RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 

ever, no reduction on the first 2,000; the next 200 might be sold 
at $28 each, and so on. The proper average rate can be obtained 
in this way. 

The most important feature, however, in determining rates is 
entirely omitted by Mr. Perry, and depends on the difference be- 
tween kilowatts and kilowatts hours. Thus 2,000 kilowatts used 
for 3,000 hours is six million kilowatts hours, and a price of $30 
per kilowatt is one cent per kilowatt hour. If now the amount 
should be determined by a kilowatt hour meter, the customer 
might use the six million kilowatt hours during only 1,500 hours 
of the year, using 4,000 kilowatts during that time; the kilowatt 
hour meter would still show six million kilowatt hours as before, 
but the central station would have to have twice the investment in 
engines, dynamos, boilers and so forth, that it would have to have 
if the current was used during 3,000 hours, and the central sta- 
tion would lose money. If, on the other hand, the customer used 
the six million kilowatt hours during 20 hours per day, or 6,000 
hours per year, using day and night service, the central station 
would require only 1,000 kilowatts of machinery, only half the 
investment and outlay, and would make a much greater profit. 

There are a great many systems in use by central stations for 
taking care not only of the feature that makes the argument for 
Mr. Perry's paper, but other important features that must be con- 
sidered when a central station makes its rates. At Niagara Falls 
the published rates were $1 per kilowatt, based on the maximum 
taken, or the minimum power, that the customer used at any one 
time, corresponding to the amount of machinery the company 
had to keep ready for that customer, and, in addition, 2 cents per 
kilowatt hour for the current used up to 1,000 kilowatt hours, 1^ 
cent per hour for the next 1,000 kilowatts hours, 1^ of a cent 
for the next 1,000 kilowatts hours, and so on. These illustrate 
only one of the many methods that have been used in determining 
the charges for electric light and power. 

Prof. W. W. Crosby* — At Wobum, Mass., a system was de- 
vised by Mr. L. R. Wallis, at that time General Manager of the 
electric light plant, called by him " The Foresee (4-C) System of 
Charging," which is interesting. In this system each customer 
paid certain union charges based, first, on capacity demanded and, 
second, current used. The name was suggested from the f oUow- 

* Sabmitted after adjournrooDt. 



RATES AND PBICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 135 

ing sentence : " A Capacity Charge and a Current Charge." The 
capacity charge was figured as follows : 

F = Fixed charges per annum on unit cost of plant. 
i\r= Number of sixteen-candle-power lamps per unit. 
C = Average " capacity charge " per annum per sixteen-can- 
dle-power lamp. 
F 

The following quotation from the paper delivered by Mr. 
Wallis before the National Electric Light Association in 1901 
explains the system further: 

** After obtaining the average capacity charge per sixteen-candle- 
power lamp, the minimum and maximiun charge per lamp is easily 
determined, and a sliding scale between the minimum and maxi- 
mum is readily made that will result in an equitable distribution of 
the fixed charges among the various customers. While it is per- 
fectly consistent to expect the customer to reimburse the station 
for all the fixed charges that it has to meet to furnish him with 
the service he requires, the proposition is only to insure the sta- 
tion against loss in carrying capacity for him, and to secure this 
protection it is not necessary to charge the full amount shown as 
being the total fixed charges, as the object is accomplished when 
a large proportion of the fixed charges are guaranteed. 

" The probable fact that all of the consumers will not demand 
their maximum contracted capacity at the same time should be 
taken into consideration in establishing the capacity tariff, but 
should not be made the basis for individual concessions." 

The capacity schedule is made up on the basis of the niunber 
of lamps demanded on a yearly rate and a monthly rate. There 
is also a schedule of rates fi»om October to June, and then for 
June to October, this latter charge being less than the charge for 
winter months. I may add that in the practical w^orking of the, 
system I found that as a customer there was much to commend it. 

Mr. Perry* — Replying to Mr. Hale's remarks, I wish to say 
that the contract, which contained rates similar to those chosen 
for the illustration in the paper, included no clause of any kind 
which would produce a discount or reduction in bills other than 
that covered by the schedule itself. The omission from the con- 
tract of the usual proviso, which stipulates that " the customer 

* Author's Closure under the Hules. 



136 RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 

shall not be billed a less amount for the use of a larger quantity 
of current, alluded to by Mr. Hale, has in this case served to bring 
out even more strongly the existing fault in the present " dis- 
count system." With the latter it is a fact, as pointed out by Mr. 
Hale, that no charge is made for some of the current used. There 
is, therefore, something radically wrong with the system on ac- 
count of this inconsistency, which could not possibly occur with 
the " chart system." 

To make the defect more apparent, the following figures are 
interesting, because they indicate what ordinarily happens in 
applying the " discount system." This data was given me by 
a gentleman who formerly operated a 5 horse-power, 500 volt, 
direct current motor from a central station circuit • The mini- 
mum charge per month in this instance was $3, and the base rate 
was 10 cents per horse-power hour. Here are some of the bills : 

(1) ApHl Ist to April 24tli, 211 horee-power hours, dincoant 80 p. c $14.77 

(2) " 24th " May 27th. 810 " •' " 40 •* 18.60 

(8) May 27th " Jane 25th. 102 " ** " 20 *• 15.36 

(4) June 25th •* July 28th. 247 •* *• " 80 " 17.29 

6) July 28th " Aug. 27th, 194 '* " " 20 " 15.52 

Comparing bill No. 1 with bill No. 5, it is noticeable that a 
current consumption equivalent to 17 horse-power hours less was 
used in the latter case, although the total cost for so doing was 
75 cents more than in the first instance. Item No. 2 indicates 
that during this period about 25 per cent, more current was con- 
sumed than in the time covered by bill No. 4, although the in- 
crease in cost was approximately only 8 per cent. The quantities 
of current considered in the paper are much larger, consequently 
the inconsistencies are more marked; the principle, however, is 
the same in both cases. 

The title of the paper may be misinterpreted, since it is mis- 
leading; the text indicates, however, that it is not intended to 
suggest a method for establishing the original basis for the rates. 
On the assumption that these have been fixed, the paper illus- 
trates, by means of charts, a method for determining rates per 
kilowatt hour and prices per month for electric current. No at- 
tempt has been made to define what elements should be consid- 
ered in finding the cost of central station operation for the pur- 
pose of properly adjusting the rates. These vary with local 
conditions and must be carefully worked out in every individual 
case. Assuming the cost to have been found in any specific case 



RATES AND PRICES FOR ELECTRIC POWER. 137 

for producing electric current in small quantities, as well as for 
successively larger amounts up to the total normal capacity of the 
plant, I maintain that rates may be arranged consistently in pro- 
portion to the current output without the use of the discount 
sheet This result may be brought about by the " chart system," 
which, when once applied to meet the conditions of any plant, is 
free from the objectionable features now existing. In most in- 
stances the rates would be expressed by curved lines instead of 
by straight lines as shown in Figs. 25 to 32 inclusive. In order 
to avoid confusion, it would possibly be better to omit the rate 
curve from the chart issued to the customer, since that of greater 
unportance is the one from which monthly bills may be deter- 
mined at a glance. 

It is customary in nearly all contracts to insert a clause which 
specifically states the minimum monthly charge which the cus- 
tomer is obliged to pay to the central station. In view of 
this fact, and since all recording wattmeters indicate kilowatt 
hours, it is evident that a central station would have to make 
a special contract covering the unusual conditions of operation 
discussed by Mr. Hale. The subject considered is not due to 
any misapprehension of facts or to a lack of knowledge of the 
usual forms of contracts made by central stations. The case 
discussed was not assumed, but was met with in actual practice, 
although, as stated above, the rates and quantities were slightly 
altered for obvious reasons. It may be that I have been pre- 
sumptuous in calling attention to inconsistencies of a system which 
is ahnofit universally followed and with which every one is more 
or less familiar. Th€ fact that this system is acknowledged to 
be faulty in practical operation is sufficient reason for its displace- 
ment if some better and more coherent method may be devised. 
The discussion which the paper has merited has borne out my 
contention that the " discount system " is an unfair one, conse- 
quently is open to improvement Graphical or diagrammatic 
representation has long since been recognized as giving solutions 
quickly and nearly, if not quite, as accurately as methods involv- 
ing mathematical computation, and I am yet to be convinced that 
this system is unworthy of consideration as a satisfactory substi- 
tute for the " discount '^ or " step system." 

Note. — The original charts were made on laboratory cross section paper con- 
taining ten more spaces horizontally and yertically than the squares reproduced 
in Figs. 25 to 82 inclnslTe. Paragraphs 80, 82 and 85 should be interpreted with 
thii understanding in mind ; otherwise it will appear that the text is incorrect. 



138 niFBOTEHENT IK TALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX AIB COHPBE880BS. 



No. 1017.» 

AN IMPROVEMENT IN VALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX 
AIR COMPRESSORS.^ 

BT SmtLmO H. BXTHHBLL, LOBAIN, ORIO. 

(Janior Member of the Society.) 

1. The use of poppet valves held down by springs operates in 
pumps handling incompressible fluids merely to increase the work 
done by the piston, generally only by a trifling amount. The same 
system of valves applied to a compressor working with an elastic 
fluid not only involves a similar loss by the friction of the fluid 
in passing the spring-loaded valves, but also decreases the density 
of the fluid flUing the cylinder at each stroke, so that the total 
weight of gas handled falls considerably below that corresponding 
to the swept capacity of the cylinder. Such valves by reason of 
their inertia tend also to delay closing till after the reversal of the 
motion of the piston at the end of its stroke and thus to cause 
a further loss by slippage. For these reasons mechanically- 
actuated inlet valves arc generally applied to compressors of 
medium and large size. The adaptability of the duplex or two- 
crank type of direct-connected air-compressor to varying capa- 
city requirements and occasional unusually low speed, together 
with the superior economy of its steam cylinders working under 
short cut-offs, has brought about its general use except for supply- 
ing such small quantities of air as can be delivered by the single 
cylinder of the ** straight-line " or single crank tandem compressor 
of small size. It is to the common type of duplex compressor with 

* Presented at the New York meeting, December, 1903, c»f the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
Tran»aetion9, 

t For further discussion on this topic, consult Tran9action» as folloVs : 
No. 884, Vol. XX., p. 967 : ** New System of Valves for Steam Engines, Air En- 
gines, and Compressors." E. W. Gordon. 
No. 920, Vol. xxiii., p. 151 : " New Valve Gear for Gas, Steam, and Air Engines." 
E. W. Naylor. 



IMPBOVBMENT IN VALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX AIR COMPRESSORS. 139 



;r"-Kl 



' I i ": i 





I 




140 IMPBOVEMENT IN VALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX AIB COMPRESSORS. 




I . ? 1. „ y^ .y^ ^J vK T 







IMPROVEMENT IN VALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX AIR COMPRESSORS. 141 

Meyer steam cut-off valve gear and mechanically-actuated air-inlet 
valves that the construction to be described applies. 

2. The main steam valve of a Meyer or riding cut-off gear is set 
exactly like any plain slide-valve, being laid out to give proper 
steam lead, exhaust opening and exhaust closure or compression, 
without regard to the point of cut-off, which will therefore come 
somewhere around J or J full stroke. The riding cut-off valve 
is operated by an eccentric set either just opposite the crank, or 
better, a little back of this position. The air-inlet valves are 
usually of rotary type, driven like Corliss steam valves by a rocker 
or wrist-plate connected to the valve-arms by short links, or they 
may be plain slide valves. In any case the inlet valve must close 
as the piston reaches the end of its stroke, and open shortly after 
it commences the suction stroke, the lateness of opening being for 
the purpose of allovring the air contained in the clearance space to 
expand to the pressure of the air in the intake. The required 
position of the eccentric operating air-inlet valves is therefore 
approximately at right angles to the crank operating the piston, or 
more or less back of this position. 

3. Air-compressors of the type just described have been regu- 
larly provided with six eccentrics to operate the double steam 
valves and air-inlet valves of the two sides of the duplex machine. 
A moment's consideration of the preceding paragraph will show 
that the cut-off valve eccentric of one steam cylinder and the air- 
inlet valve eccentric of the opposite cylinder are a little back of the 
position opposite the crank on the steam cylinder side, while the 
alternate steam and air cylinders have valves to be actuated by 
eccentrics, one set back of the position opposite the crank and the 
oAer 180 degrees from the first It is only necessary to modify 
the arrangement of valve-arms and links of the inlet valves of the 
latter compressing cylinder, using precisely similar valves, valve- 
arms and other gear except the rockers or wrist-plates, to allow 
of driving the air-valve gear of each side of the machine by direct 
connection to the cut-off valve rod of the other side. 

4. The details of the gear are clearly shown by the illustrations. 
Steel tube is common enough to-day to allow of using it for the 
right-and-left threaded sleeves of the cut-off valves. Through 
each sleeve is passed a smaller solid rod connected at one end by 
means of suitable rockers and pins to the eccentric rod, and at 
the other end to an arm carried on a cross-shaft. This rod drives 
the encircling sleeve, and, therefore, the cut-off valves carried 
on it, through the medium of tyro simple split clamps touching 



1^ IliPROVEMENT IN VALVE-KOTIOK 07 DUPLEX AIB 0OHPBES8OR8. 




"i 



\ 






IMPROVEMENT IN VALVE-MOTION OF DUPLEX AIR COMPRESSORS. 143 

the ends of the sleeve. The cross-shaft passes through bosses on 
tlie ccmipressing cylinder casting and terminates in a boss on the 
opposite conapressing cylinder, and carries adjacent to the latter 
boss the wrist-plate or rocker driving the inlet valves of this side. 
This description applies also to the details of the corresponding 
gear of the other two cylinders. It happens that there is abso- 
lutely no difference between the two. sets of parts except in the 
two wrist-plate rockers, and in the fact that one of the long rods 
is a little longer than the other because the centre of its rocker is 
farther back on the air cylinders. 

5. It looks at first sight as if this combination would be trouble- 
some to lay out and to adjust in erecting the compressor. There 
is really no additional complication, for it is only necessary to 
slack off the clamps on the long rods, set up the air-valve motion 
in the usual way, locate the eccentrics as required and then set 
the sleeve along the rod to give even cut-offs and tighten the col- 
lars. The cut-off valves can be changed to equalize the cut-offs 
at any time without disturbing the long rod, merely shifting the 
clamps as desired, and the air valves may be shifted or reset with- 
out disturbing the equality of the cut-offs. The net result of the 
arrangement is the saving of two eccentrics, straps, rods and rock- 
ers and of the space between or outside the cylinders that would 
otherwise be occupied by these parts, at the cost of substituting 
a piece of steel tube for* a solid rod, and of enlarging the diameters 
of steam chest glands to correspond. The feature of operating 
one side of the machine alone in case of necessity is not lost, be- 
cause as long as the crank-shaft is not broken and the cylinder 
castings remain in position, the eccentric driving the air-inlet 
valves of the cylinder which is to be operated may as well be on 
one end of the shaft as on the other. 

6. The compressor shown embodies a modification of the usual 
framing, which has some advantages. The two separate bed 
plates are bolted together along their centre lines, and are further 
bolted to a single cross member lying under the cylinders. The 
strains which tend to work the ordinary duplex machine on its 
foundations are thus resisted directly by the cross frame, making 
the machine nearly independent of a masonry foundation except 
as a mere support. Tie rods between the upper parts of cylinders 
and over the guides add greatly to the rigidity of the whole. 

7. A number of these machines have been constructed ranging 
from 12 to 24 inches stroke, all of which have been shipped with- 
out taking apart and leveled upon foundations in a few minutes' 



144 IMPBOVEMENT IN VALYE-HOTIOK OF DUPLEX AIB COMPRESSORS. 

time. Some of these compressors have been continuously operated 
at speeds up to 200 revolutions per minute for months together, 
and none of them have developed any objection to the combination 
of valve mechanism described, or have shown the tendency of the 
usual duplex compressor with independent frames to shift on its 
foundations and thus work out of alignment. 



TESTS 0# A DQtECrr OONNBOTED BIOHT-FOOT FAH AND ENQINB. 116 



No. lOlS.* 

TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN 
AND ENGINE.^ 

BT B. 1. FABWBIX, XBW TORK, H. T. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. Thb promoters of the plenum system of heating and ven- 
tilatiDg have obtained a very substantial footing among the 
paper mills^ because of the moisture which it is necessary to 
lemove from the rooms. 

For instance, in a room containing two paper machines, each 
making 25 tons of paper in 24 hours, there is approximately 100 
tons of water which must be disposed of before it condenses on 
the roof and trusses, and drips on the machines. Also, in pulp- 
grinder rooms, there is a large amount of steam generated which 
most be disposed of, or the fog in the room will be so dense as 
to impede the work. In most of the other rooms, however, it 
is merely a question of heating. 

I found it rather difficult to obtain reliable data which would 
guide me to an intelligent selection of apparatus for any particu- 
lar job. The builders of such apparatus very generously offered 
to work out the problem for me, but it is safe to say that in no 
case were any two proposals for the same size of apparatus. 
"A" would submit a proposition for a small fan, running at 
bigh speed, with small air-pipes and a small heater; ^' B " would 
offer a large fan to run at a slow speed, with large air-pipes and 
a large heater; " C " would perhaps offer a large fan, with large 
air-pipes and a small heater. If '^ A " were asked to furnish a 

*Preieiited at the New York meeting (December, 1908) of the American 
Sodety of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
Tnn9aeti(m$. 

f For farther references on this subject, see Tranaaetioni as follows : 
No. 240, Tol. TiU., p. 818: " Power to Drive Fans." 
No. S$4» ToL ix., p. 51. 



146 TaSXS OF A DIBEOT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT PAN AND ENGINE 

large fan to run at a slower speed, he immediately proposed to 
enlarge the pipes proportional to the size of outlet of the fan, 
and to put in a much larger heater, notwithstanding the fact that 
the amount of heat to be delivered was the same. I wish to fur- 
ther acknowledge that under these perplexing diflBculties the 
representatives of the different fan builders never hesitated to 
give me all the assistance which they apparently could, and I 
believe that I have finally succeeded in getting some points clear 
in my own mind. 

2. The question seemed to me to embody three distinct prob- 
lems: the air-pipe, the fan, and the heater. The first two are 
interdependent, or perhaps we had better say both depend upon 
the same assumed data. The starting-point of the problem or 
problems is the volume and temperature of air required. In a 
factory building, if it is merely a question of heat, a compara- 
tively small volume of air at a high temperature is satisfactory. 
A change of air as low as 30 minutes is allowable where men do 
not stand at their work, and 20 or 25 minutes where they do. 
In the grinder-room the change must be as frequent as 15 or 
even 10 minutes, depending on the shape of the room, the loca- 
tion of the grinders, kind of roof, and other IocqI conditions. 
In paper machine rooms, also depending on local conditions, the 
required change may be as often as 4 minutes. 

It is very easy, with the published tables and data of tests, to 
determine the amount of heating surface required to heat the 
determined volume of air to the desired temperature. I never 
•could see how the size of the fan need affect the amount of heat- 
ing surface, provided the volume to be delivered and initial tem- 
perature of air were the same in both cases. 

3. About tV ounce pressure per square inch will be re- 
quired to give the necessary velocity at the outlets of the dis- 
tributing pipes. In addition to this there must be as much more 
pressure as is necessary to overcome the friction of the pipes, 
and herein I find is the principal difference in the practices of 
the different builders. Some always figure on 1 ounce pressure 
at the fan. Others figure f ounce. Fifteen-sixteenths of an 
ounce seemed to me to be an excessive loss, and I usually call 
for i ounce at the fan, enlarging the pipe sufficiently to bring 
the friction loss well within that figure. 

In reducing the pressure required of the fan, we have of course 
reduced the amount of work done by the fan; but against this. 



TESTS OF A DIBEGT OONNEOTBD EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 147 

saving in work, it is necessary to chai'ge the interest and depre- 
ciation on the increased cost of fan and pipe. 

4. In order to secure some data for my guidance, I made a 
series of experiments on the efficiency of a fan which I purpose 
to outline in this paper. The fan was a No. 160, according to 
the usual method of designating fan sizes, with a wheel 8 feet 
in diameter, and 37 inches wide at the periphery and with one 
side inlet. It is shown in Fig. 36. The fan is driven by a direct- 
connected steam engine, and discharges into a large chamber 
^applying air for combustion to the boilers. This chamber was 
left open to maintain atmospheric pressure except in a couple of 
tests. The opening of the fan into this chamber was tightly 
boarded up, and conical tubes or nozzles were fastened to cir- 
cular openings in this board partition. The tubes had a taper of 
^ d^rees and, with the exception of the largest two sizes, were 
approximately three times the diameter in length. Six different 
sizes of tubes were tested, each at 8 or 10 different speeds, ranging 
from 50 to 250 revolutions per minute. In addition, a set of ob- 
servations at each speed was made, with no outlet whatever. 

5. This I realize is not an ideal arrangement, but under the 
circumstances seemed to be all that the desired results, would 
warrant. The volume of air delivered was determined by means 
of a pitot tube located at the extremity of the conical outlet. 
We attempted to use an anemometer, but some of the velocities 
were beyond the capacity of the instrument and it very soon 
proved to be unreliable. With the tapering outlet, it was appar- 
ently safe to assume that the air at the extremity had no static 
pressure, but that the entire potential energy had been converted 
into kinetic energy. The pressure in the fan chamber, as also 
the vacuum or suction at the inlet, was measured by a water 
column. We found the vacuum at inlet varied at the different 
points of the inlet as the gauge was moved from the centre 
toward the rim. A number of observations were made, and a 
point determined which gave us the mean of all the readings. 
The temperature of the air was taken, also the revolutions of the 
fan and indicator cards from the engine. This completed the 
list of observations taken during each test. Each test was run 
for half an hour under uniform conditions, and readings taken 
every five minutes. The average results of each test are given 
in the table. The volume of air discharged was computed from 
the velocity of air as given by the pitot tube, and tabulated in 



148 TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 




TESTS OF A DIBEOT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 149 

column marked "B." The theoretical horse-power was com- 
pated from the volmne, determined as above noted, and the press- 
ure in chamber as tabulated. The pressure, volume, indicated 
horse-power, and efficiency have also been plotted on the two sets 
of curves. Figs. 37 and 38. In Fig. 37 the abscissae represent 
revolutions of fan, while each curve represents a certain size of 
outlet. In Fig. 38 these two items have been interchanged, and 
each pressure curve has a different zero line. It is the custom, 
I believe, to designate the size of fan outlet in terms of the diam- 
eter and peripheral width of fan- wheel, and this I have done in 
the present instance. 

6. A number of interesting facts stand forth very clearly upon 
an examination of these curves. Theoretically, the volume 
should vary directly as the speed of the fan with a given size of 
outlet, the pressure as the square of the speed, and the horse- 
power as the cube of the speed. The curves show that the ratios 
are not quite those stated. Up to a certain point the volume 
corves are very nearly straight, but at the higher speeds they 
seem to fall off. This falling off was more marked with the 
large openings, as was also a large increase of the vacuum at 
inlet. This loss in the volume delivered is unquestionably due 
to the throttling of the air at inlet. The maximum efficiency of 
the combined unit was secured at 142 revolutions per minute, 
when the pressure was i ounce (this, of course, only applies to 
the particular fan tested, and it is fair to presume that if the 
fan had had an inlet on each side, the throttling would have 
been less and the most efficient speed might have been higher). 

7. The curves show very clearly, however, that in the selec- 
tion of fan we should choose large sizes running at moderate 
speeds and developing a low pressure. We may apparently run 
the same fan at a lower speed and lower pressure so that it will 
deliver the same volume of air with a considerable saving in 
horse-power. This should be done, if in any case the conditions 
prevent the selection of a largei:^fan. As I will illustrate in a 
few moments, however, the larger fan will do the work* more 
efficiently. 

It has been frequently stated that up to a certain size of outlet, 
variously styled the "theoretical outlet," "square inches of 
blast," and "capacity of wheel," any change in size of outlet 
makes no change in the pressure, and a variation in volume and 
horse-iK)wer directly proportional to the size of the outlet, and 



150 TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIOIIT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 

that further enlarging results in a decided drop of pressure and 
falling oflf in the rate of increase of volume and horse-power. 
The curves show that up to about .29 D. W. the pressure drops 




Fig. 37. 



but slightly. The volume and indicated horse-power rise very 
nearly by straight lines, but beyond that point there is a sudden 
and rapid change, the efficiency also reaching a maximum at 
this same point. 



TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 151 

8. As being probably pertinent to this point, I wish to call 
attention to the fact that the area of the fan-blade is equal to 
.2885 D. "W. The efficiency curves show that but slight varia- 




Fio. C8. 



tions from this " theoretical outlet " should be permitted. Mr. 

Snow states that for general practice the square inches of blast 

D W 
is not far from ' . I understand that the usual width of pe- 



152 TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 

riphery of an 8-foot fan, as built by the makers of the fan tested, is 
41 inches instead of 37 inches. This would make the area of fan- 
blades approximately .32D. W., which might increase theeffective 
area, or '* theoretical outlet," to a like quantity and bear out the 
statement made by Mr. Snow. This '* theoretical outlet," as 
has been stated by Mr. Snow, is not to be understood to be the 
actual sizes of the outlet of the fan's casing, but to be the size of 
opening which will oflfer a resistance equivalent to the sum of all 
resistances of distributing pipes. If in any given case we are 
able to state what this equivalent outlet is to be, we can then 
select the size of fan which will give us the desired volume of 
air at the desired pressure. 

9. In Fig. 39 I have reproduced the eflSciency curves and have 
drawn another curve showing the relation existing between the 
size of outlet and the ratio of air velocity to peripheral velocity of 
wheel. It is not safe to reason too much from the concrete to the 
abstract, but comparing this curve with similar ones constructed 
from the tests of a small pressure blower, as given in Mr. Kent's 
handbook, and from the guaranteed results of 'one blower-maker 
on his standard fans (presumably computed from tests which are 
not available to the public), I think it safe to say that the curve 
of the tests may be applied to different sizes of fans with reason- 
ably satisfactory results. 

10. To illustrate the advantages that have already been men- 
tioned, we have only to notice, for instance, that the fan tested, 
when running at 200 revolutions per minute, will develop 1 ounce 
pressure when delivering a volume of 32,000 cubic feet per min- 
ute, at an eflSciency of 51 per cent, and requiring 17.2 indicated 
horse-power to run it. The same fan running at 161 revolutions 
per minute will deliver the same volume of 32,000 cubic feet at 
a pressure of J ounce and an efficiency of 41.7 per cent., but 
requiring only lOJ horse-power. While the efficiency in the 
first ^instance is considerably higher, it should be pointed out 
that the actual horse-power required is 0.7 more. This repre- 
sents the actual cost of delivering 32,000 cubic feet of air into 
the room under the two pressures noted. Again, this fan run- 
ning at 142 revolutions per minute wiU deliver 25,800 cubic 
feet of air at a pressure of i ounce, and at an efficiency of 
54 per cent. If, however, it is desired to deliver 32,000 cubic 
feet of air at J ounce pressure and at maximum efficiency, it 
will be necessary to use a larger size of fan, the determination 



TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 153 

of which will illustrate the use which I have made of these 
tests. 
I am not prepared to say that for fans with inlet on one side 




only, .29 D.W. is as large a *' theoretical outlet" as should be 
used. However, it seems to be evident that where inlet may be 
had on both sides, a wider fan may be used, and possibly further 
experiments may show that a wider fan may be used with a single 



154: TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 

inlet. Assuming that .29 D.W. is to be used, we have for the 
volume of air delivered, 

Q = ,29 D.W. Vy 

in which V is the air velocity corresponding to the assumed 
pressure. 

11. The velocity corresponding to the pressure of i ounce 
is 3653.8. From the foregoing equation we find that, 

32000 _ 
^•^^"3653.8 X. 29" ^^•^• 

If W= -, then 2)2 = 30.2 r. The proper value of " r *' was 

not determinable from these tests, but probably has been deter- 
mined by the builders' experiments. It is apparently between 
2.3 and 2.7. In the fan under test, . 

r = 2.595. 

It is desirable to use standard diameters and vary the width 
within certain limits. In the present case the size of fan selected 
should be 8^ feet diameter by 42.6 inches wide at periphery. 
For the speed of fan, we have from the lower curve in Fig. 39 for 
.29 D.W., 

V 

-^ = 1.025. 

From this equation the peripheral velocity, 

F 3653.8 ofc.-^ j;- 
p = YMK' ~ ^^^^ ^^' P^** ^^^' 

This is equivalent to 133.5 revolutions per minute of an 8i-foot 
fan. By the efficiency of 54 per cent, shown by the chart, this 
would require 8.125 horse-power, a still further saving over the 
8-foot fan running 161 revolutions per minute. 

12. There is another problem upon which I should be glad to 
have discussion and enlightenment. In designing an induced 
draught plant some time since, I proposed to install two fans, 
which, under normal conditions, would both run at slow speed. 



TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 155 

either of which in an emergency could be speeded up to do the work 
of both. One representative informed me that he did not think 
it could be done practically, and after I insisted that it be worked 
oat, two 10-foot fans, 24 inches wide at the periphery, were 
oflfei*ed. After some discussion and computations, two 10-foot 
fans 54 inches wide at periphery were purchased. I based my 
coatentions on the tests which I have described, although I am 
aware that the conditions when handling gases at a high tem- 
perature are somewhat different. I do not see, however, that 
these changed conditions prevent the use of a fan in the way 
I described. To illustrate, the following data may be taken 
from the curves of the 8-foot fan tested. With an outlet of .265 
D.W., and running at 150 revolutions per minute, the fan will 
deliver 25,000 cubic feet of air at a pressure of j\ ounce, requir- 
ing 7.8 horse-power, and give an efficiency of 53 per cent. This 
same fan with an outlet .53 D.W., running at 225 revolutions 
per minute, will deliver 50,000 cubic feet of air at the same 
pressure of ^ ounce. In the latter case the horse-power is 
40.8, and efficiency but 26.5 per cent. This efficiency is very 
low, but is not to be considered in an emergency. The only 
question which requires particular attention is an arrangement 
which will allow a change of the outlet, or its equivalent resist- 
ance, from .265 D.W. to .53 D.W., and this was very easily 
accomplished in the case mentioned. It is necessary in many 
industrial plants to provide against a shut down, due to any 
ordinary accident, but I fail to see the necessity of putting in 
two fans, each sufficiently Jarge to do the entire work under 
normal conditions, at maximum efficiency. 

I have not entered into this discussion with any feeling akin 
to the old Quaker's who is reported to have told his wife that 
^* all the world is queer except thee and me, and thee is a little 
queer." But I have hoped to provok(^ a discussion by those 
who have had better opportunities for studying the problem 
than I have, and can give us information not obtainable, at least 
convincingly, from these tests. 

In closing I wish to acknowledge the able assistance and pains- 
taking care of Mr. C. W. Wilder, who made most otthe obser- 
vations and computations for me. But for my confidence in his 
ability, I should have hesitated to present these results to the 
Society. 



156 TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGUT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 






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TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 157 



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158 TESTS OP A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FO.yT FAN AND ENGINE. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. E. S. Farwell* — Since the preparation of this pai>er, the 
question has been raised of the relation said to exist between the 



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4000 
8000 


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12000 


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Fig. 40. 



vacuum at inlet and the cubic feet of air discharged per minute. 
If the data were correctly taken^ there should be a fixed rela- 
tion between these two quantities. That relation is illustrated 

* Added after adjournment. 



TESTS OF A DIRECT CONNECTED EIGHT-FOOT FAN AND ENGINE. 159 

in Fig. 40. Aside from a few unquestionably erratic points 
which have been connected to the proper curves by dotted lines, 
1 thirtk the curves show a very satisfactory relation existing be- 
tween vacuum at inlet and cubic feet of air discharged. 

The curves for tests E and F are certainly very interesting, 
and it may be pointed out that in these tests the vacuums at inlet 
were larger and the probable errors in reading of water gauge 
were proportionately less. The point which I attempted to 
bring- out in paragraph 6, viz., the limitations imposed by having 
a single iulet, I do not think could have been presented so clearly, 
if vacuum at inlet had not been read. 



160 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATD8 OP HIGH EFFICIENCY. 



No. 1019.* 

A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OP HIGH 
EFFICIENCY. 

BT W. F. M. Q0B8, LAFATSTTB, INDIAlfA. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. This apparatus is designed to purify water or other liquids 
by distillation. It can be used, also, in the concentration of 
liquids carrying soKds in solution, the recovery of which is desired, 
It consists of an arangement whereby the supply of liquid to be 
evaporated passes through a succession of chambers, in each of 
which it is gradually raised in temperature, and in all but the first 
of which a portion of the supply is vaporized, the process continu- 
ing until all has been changed to vapor. Heat is supplied the 
system at the chamber having the highest temperature only, from 
which vapor starts in a return circulation, that generated in one 
element of the apparatus serving as the source of heat for the 
element next lower in temperature, the liquid steam increasing in 
volume as it passes the successive elements imtil, finally, all is 
discharged from the chamber of lowest temperature. The liquid 
thus discharged is entirely the result of condensation. An ap- 
paratus embodying this conception, designed to distil 500 gallons 
of water an hour with an efficiency of approximately 60 pounds 
of water per pound of coal, is shown by Fig. 41, and a section of 
a single element entering into its construction, by Fig. 42. 

2. The action of the apparatus may be best described in connec- 
tion with the diagrammatic sketch Fig. 43. Several chambers. 
Ay B, C and Z?, each containing a central tube, are connected by 
suitable piping. The first chamber, A, is entirely filled with 
liquid and constitutes a preliminary heater. The remaining cham- 
bers, from B to D inclusive, are partially filled with liquid, and 
from each of these, evaporation occurs. The heater and the cham- 

* Presented at the New Fork meeting, December 1903, of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
TransaciUms. 



A SERIES DiSTILLtKG APPAEATUS OF HIGH EFFIOIENOT. 161 




I 



162 A SERIES DISTILUNO APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFIOIEKCY. 






jiKim'iliiig Ef ii)|Mnm 



ll*'l>roiillji4}if,»nitbb«li -^ 



^ IdcKlBi OlArt 




Chamqef^ a. 



e IT AHUICAH lAMC KOn C«.,H-T. 



Fig. 42. 



A aERIES DISTI*ING APPARATUS OP HIGH EFFICIENCY. vl63 

ber B operate under one pressure, and each succeeding chamber, 
as C and D, under higher pressures. Heat is supplied to the 
liquid in each chamber by vapor or a mixture of vapor and liquid 
in the central tube, the external source of heat being Hy which 
inaj be considered a small boiler having a closed circulation, steam 
being delivered by a vertical pipe, (?, condensed in the central tube 
of the chamber D and returned to the boiler H. 

3. The -water to be evaporated is delivered into the bottom of 
the chamber A, and is gradually heated by contact with the central 
tube, as it arisee to the top, from which point it passes to the 




Fig. 43. 



bottom of the chamber B. Here its temperature is further in- 
creased and a portion of it is vaporized, the remainder being 
taken up by the pump jP*, and delivered to the chamber C, of 
higher pressure, where its temperature is further increased and 
where another portion is vaporized. That not vaporized in is 
taken up by pump F^ and delivered to chamber 2?, which is under 
a still higher pressure, where it is entirely vaporized. The return 
circulation begins with the vapor given off in the chamber Z?, 
which passes off by the pipe J and becomes a source of heat for 
the chamber (7, being condensed by the time it reaches the bot- 
tom of chamber C. From this point it is conveyed to the reducing 
pressure valve Ly where its pressure is reduced to the pressure of 
the vapor within the chamber C, From L the stream passes on 
to the mixing valve Jf , where it intermingles with the steam de- 
livered from the chamber C, the combined stream of liquid and 
vapor passing through the central tube of the chamber B, serving 



164 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HKH EFFIOIEKCT. 

as its source of heat^ being condensed to liquid form and^ finally, 
being delivered to the reducing valve L\ where its pressure is 
again reduced, and from which point it passes to M^, where it 
mingles with the vapor given off by the chamber B, after which 
the combined streams of vapor and Kquid pass through the central 
tube of chamber A, are cooled and finally discharged. 

4. In the process thus briefly 'outlined, the following facts are 
to be noted: 

a. That the ingoing stream of liquid is continually increasing 
in temperature, and that the return current of vapor is continu- 
ally diminishing in temperature, the arrangement being such that 
it is entirely possible to have a fixed difference between the heat- 
ing medium and the medium to which heat is imparted throughout 
all portions of the apparatus; also, each particular portion of each 
element retains a fixed temperature. 

6. The losses of heat which occur from the apparatus are those 
of radiation and those which are represented by the differences in 
the temperature or condition between the liquid supplied and the 
condensate delivered. Heat thus lost must be supplied from the 
source of heat and nothing more. 

c. It is conceivable that the temperature of the discharge may 
be so reduced as to approach very nearly the temperature of the 
supply; also, that as ideal conditions are approached, radiation 
losses may be diminished, and, at the limit, losses on both of these 
accounts cease; that is, the cycle of the apparatus is one of maxi- 
mum efficiency. 

5. For satisfactory operation, the total range of temperature to 
which the apparatus is subjected is divided equally between the 
several stages of the process, the temperature of each chamber 
being controlled by the pressure which is maintained upon it, 
which in turn is regulated by valves on outlets. For example, if 
the apparatus shown diagrammatically by Fig. 43 is assunxed to be 
operated from a temperature of 360 degrees in the boiler II, to 
a final temperature in chamber B of 212, then the temperature 
of the water in chamber C would be maintained at 262, and that 
of the water in chamber D at 312, the difference in temperature 
for each transmission being in this case 50 degrees. This value 
also measures the difference in temperature between the mixture 
within the central tube and the liquid around the same in each 
chamber. The pressures upon the several chambers, etc., assum- 
ing the liquid operated upon to be water, would be, for the boiler ff. 



A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 166 




sr t.N-i sip ^Ss s* 



166 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFIOIENCT. ^ 

145 pounds; the chamber D and pipe J, 65 pounds; the chamber 
C and pipe «/^, 25 pounds ; the chamber B and pipe J , atmosphere; 
the pressure in each case being controlled by valtes upon the dis- 
charge pipe. 

6. The action thus far described in general terms is susceptible 
of careful analysis, some of the results of which appear in Fig. 44. 
This figure is a diagram of a five-stage apparatus, upon which are 
noted the pressure, temperature and condition of mixture of the 
circulating streams in their course through the system; also, the 
weight of mixture transmitted from one chamber to another for 
each pound of vapor delivered by the chamber of highest tem- 
perature, F. Other assumptions underlying the values given are 
as follows : 

a. That the liquid distilled is water. 

6. That the difference of temperature between each step in the 
process is 33 degrees; that is, that the temperature of each suc- 
ceeding chamber is 33 degrees higher than that of the chamber 
next below, from which it follows that in any given element the 
temperature within the central tube is 33 degrees. higher than the 
temperature of the surrounding liquid. 

c. That the temperature of water supplied is 62 degrees. 

d. That the discharge from A is at atmospheric pressure; that 
is, at a pressure of 15 pounds, absolute, and a temperature of 213 
degrees. 

e. That 2 per cent, of the heat supplied each chamber is lost 
by radiation. 

7. A more detailed presentation of analytical results is reserved 
for later paragraphs, but it may here be noted that the efficiency 
of the apparatus depends upon the number of chambers employed, 
and that its characteristic feature is to be found in the fact that 
it so conserves the heat supplied it that the process may be suc- 
cessfully extended through a long series of steps. 

8. Considering now the details of the apparatus, it is to be ob- 
served that the process thus far described involves a separate 
pump for each of the several evaporator chambers. Thus, in 
Fig. 43, there are provided for the evaporator chambers iJ, C 
and D the pumps F^ F^ and F^. This necessity arises from the 
fact that at each stage the feed is passing from a lower to a 
higher- pressure, and the requirements of the cycle necessitate 
that the water supplied to each pump shall have the tempera- 
ture of the chamber next below before being forced to the 



A SEBIBS DISTILUKO APPABATUS OF HIGH EFFIOlEKOY. l67 

succeeding one. While this requirement is not serious when 
the niunber of evaporator chambers is small, it leads to objec- 
tionable complication when the series is extended. In the prac- 
tical working out of the design, therefore, a system of feeding 
is employed which allows the use of a single pump, without 
impairing the thermodynamic cycle, the modified arrangement 
being inferior to that already described only in the fact that 
it adds slightly to the mechanical work necessary to move the 
feed. Its single feed-pump delivers water at a pressure suf- 
ficiently high to supply all evaporator chambers, including that 
of highest pressure. Water delivered by the pump is passed 
through a succession of heaters connected with the evaporator 
chambers in such a manner that the feed emerging from each 
heater has the same temperature as it would have had if it mingled 
with the water of the chamber, while branch pipes are employed 
to convey the feed to each individual chamber. The course of 
the piping in its external appearance is shown by Fig. 41. It 
will be seen that the feed enters the base of the preliminary 
heater, is delivered therefrom at a point near the top, is conveyed 
to a small heater over the second evaporator chamber, thence to 
the heater over the third evaporator chamber, and thence on to 
the last heater over the sixth evaporator chamber. Branches are 
taken off after each heater to supply the evaporator chamber with 
which the heater is connected. The control of this supply is best 
indicated by Fig. 42, showing the float-valve regulating the admis- 
sion of water to the evaporator chamber. It will be remembered 
that the pressure above the float-valve is greater than the pressure 
in any of the evaporator chambers, so that the feed enters when- 
ever the valve is off its seat. Referring more particularly to the 
heater (Fig. 42), it will be seen that this is similar in construction 
with the main evaporator chamber. The mixture of vapor and 
liquid which is to supply heat to the main evaporator chamber 
first passes through the tubes of the heater, the feed water circu- 
lating around the tubes. 

9. Concerning the maintenance of the apparatus, it should be 
obser^'ed that the boiler from which the heat is supplied (Fig 43, 
H) is subject to a closed circulation. No renewal of water is re- 
quired, and hence there can be no trouble at this point from in- 
crustation. Concerning deposits of solid matter in other portions 
of the system, it is to be noted that only distilled water and vapor 
circulate within the tubes (Fig. 42). This is true of the heater 



168 A. SEltlES D18T1LL1KQ Al»^AEATU8 OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 

as well as of the evaporator chamber. The solid matter which 
may be deposited within the chamber around the tubes may be 
disposed of by use of a blow-off, by cleaning through manholes, 
or by the complete removal of the nests of tubes from the shell 
of the chamber. In the construction of the apparatus the central 
tube is threaded to the tube-plate at both ends. All other tubes 
are threaded at their lower ends only. The presence of the 
central tube maintains the relative position of the tube-plates 
and permits all the tubes of a chamber to be withdrawn together. 
10. Having defined the character of the apparatus, attention 
may be given to matters affecting its performance. In general, 
three different classes of the apparatus are to be dealt with, and for 
convenience Class A wiYL be designated as representing an appa- 
ratus all portions of which are operated at pressures above the 
atmosphere; Class B as representing an apparatus all portions of 
which are to operate below the pressure of the atmosphere, and 
Class C as representing an apparatus a portion of which is to 
operate at pressures above the atmosphere and a portion at pres- 
sures below the atmosphere. Class A may be regarded as a high- 
pressure apparatus, Class B a low-pressure apparatus such as 
might be operated by. the use of exhaust steam, and Class C a 
high and low pressure apparatus. Practical and convenient ranges 
of pressure and temperature applying to each of the three classes 
thus designated, when designed for the distillation of water, are 
as follows: 

TABLE I. 





DbSIO NATION. 


Absolute Prbssurs. 


Tbmpebatitrb F. 


Class. 


As to Pressure. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 

15 
10 
1.0 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


A 
B 
C 


High pressure. 
Low pressure. 
High and low pressure. 


115 

15 

115 


838 
212 
888 


212 
102 
102 



The relations shown are merely chosen for purposes of illustra- 
tion. So far as the working of the apparatus is concerned, any 
other practical limits might have been chosen. 

11. The weight of water which will be distilled for each pound 
of saturated steam supplied from the source of heat for an appar- 
atus of the high-pressure type, working under the conditions of 



A SERIES DISTILUNG APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFIGIENOT. 169 

pressure set forth in Table I., and assuming no loss to occur by 
radiation or in the form of vapor from the delivered stream, will 
be as follows: 





TABLE 


II. 






EIGHT OF Distilled 


Water per 


Pound 


OF Steam Used. 


Namber uf Evaporator 






Pounds of Water per Ponnd 


Chambers. 








of steam. 


8 








2.8 


4 








3.6 


5 








4.4 


6 








5.2 


7 








5.9 


8 








6.5 


9 








7.1* 


10 








7.6 



12. The weight of water distilled for each pound of steam sup- 
plied is nearly the same for all three classes as above defined. An 
approximate relation applying to all classes is represented by the 
formula, W = 0.85 N, in which W is the number of pounds of 
water distilled for each pound of steam supplied, and N is the 
Dumber of evaporator chambers. If the boiler which serves as 
the source of heat delivers ten pounds of steam per pound of coal 
burned, the output of distilled water per pound of coal will be ten 
times the values given in Table II. 

13. Results appearing in the preceding Table II. are in some 
cases subject to correcti6n to cover losses due to the presence of 
vapor in the discharged stream. In the action of the machine, all 
condensation is the result of the cooling action of the incoming 
stream of liquid feed. Under certain conditions, this will be insuf- 
ficient, in which case a portion of the issuing stream delivered 
from the apparatus will l)e vapor and will in part disappear as it 
emerges from the pipe. The extent of this loss, if any, decreases 
as the nmnl>er of chambers is increased. In apparatus of the Class 
A it entirely disappears when seven evaporator chambers are used; 
but in types B and C there will be a slight loss even when as many 
as ten evaporator chambers are used. The percentage of the total 
weight of the discharged stream which will be delivered in the 
form of vapor is as follows : 



170 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OP HIGH EPFIOIENCY. 

TABLE IIL 
Pbrcbntaob of Discharged Stream Lost bt Vaporization. 







Class of Apparatus. 




Nomber of Evaporator 








Chambers. 










a 


B 


c 


8 


21 


83 


32 


4 


11 


25 


22 


5 


6 


19 


16 


6 


2 


16 


12 


7 





13 


10 


8 





11 


8 


9 





9 


7 


10 





8 


6 



14. The extent of heating surface in each element (one evapor- 
ating chamber and its attached heater) needed for a given capacity 
is not materially affected by changes in the number of elements in 
the series. Assuming the pressure ranges set forth in Table I., 
and assuming each foot of tube surface to transmit 400 thermal 
units per degree difference of temperature per hour, there will 
be required in each element of an apparatus designed to distil 
1,000 gallons of water per hour an amount of heating surface as 
follows : 



TABLE IV. 

Si^UAHB Feet op Tubs Surface in each Eleitent per 1,000 Gallons of 
Water to be Distilled. 



Class of Apparatos. 
A (High Pressure). 
B (Low Pressure). 
C (High and Low). 



Tabe Surface. 
174 
188 
113 



15. The total amount of tube surface required for any appa- 
ratus of the capacity stated will be found by multiplying the num- 
ber of evaporator chambers it is to contain, plus one, by the value 
assigned its class in the preceding statement. The unit added 
covers the large heater (1st Heater, Fig. 41). For example, if it 
is required to design a seven-chamber apparatus of the A class to 
distil 1,000 gallons of water per hour, then the total number of 
square feet of heating surface for the whole system will be 8 
X 174 or 1,392 square feet. 

16. The size of the small feed-water heaters varies with the 



A SERIES DISTILUNQ APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 



171 



quantity of water which each must handle, and this diminishes 
with each step that the feed is advanced, the percentage of the 
total feed handled by each heater being as follows: 

TABLE V. 

PsaCBNTAGB OF THR TOTAL PeED PaBSINO EACH HeATER. 
(Xnmbera assigned beaten agree with those given in Fig. 1.) 







Designation of Heater. 




Nomberof 

Braporator 

Chambers 

la Series. 




(Nnmber of heaters one less than namber of evaporators.) 
























1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


1 


100 
















2 


100 


















8 


100 


71 










• 


. 




4 


100 


76 


63 














5 


100 


81 


63 


44 












6 


100 


84 


70 


54 


37 










7 


100 


85 


75 


62 
^64 


48 


33 








8 


100 


86 


75 


53 


40 


27 






9 


100 


88 


78 


68 


58 


48 


37 


25 




10 


100 


90 


81 


72 


63 


53 


43 


33 


23 



17. From values in the preceding table, and the kno^^Ti capa- 
city of a proposed apparatus, the weight of water in pounds which 
will pass each heater can be ascertained, after which the tube sur- 
face of each small heater may be found by use of the following 
formula, A = 0.00173 TF, in which A is the required area of tube- 
surface in the heater and W is the number of pounds of water 
passing the heater per hour. On the basis of this formula, it can 
be shown that the area of tube surface for the several small heat- 
ers of a seven-stage apparatus, designed to distil 1,000 gallons of 
water per hour, under the pressure range of Class A, Table I., 
should be as follows : 



TABLE VI. 
SquARB Feet of Tube Subface iv Small Heater. 



Designation of 


Square Feet of 


Heater. 


Heating Surface 


2(1 


4.8 


8d 


6.8 


4th 


8.8 


5th 


10.6 


6th 


12.4 



172 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EPFIOIENOY. 

This will serve to indicate the significance of the small heater as 
a part of the general design. Since all are relatively small, the 
action of the apparatus as a whole can not be greatly affected if 
all are made the same size. If in the preceding example all were 
made equal to the mean value obtained by calculation, the surface 
of each would be 8.6 square feet, and the area assigned the several 




Pig. 45. 



evaporator chambers (Table IV.) may be reduced by a like 
amount. 

18. Having now determined the proportions wliich must be 
given the several members of the apparatus, it should be stated 
that the arrangement can not always be that set forth in Figs. 41 
and 4:2. In a low-pressure system, or in a high-and-low pressure 
system (classes B and C), some modification in the mechanical ar- 
rangement shown by the diagrams is necessary. Thus, the cham- 
bers which are low in the scale of pressures must be so arranged 
that the water of condensation from one chamber will flow freely 



A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 173 

to the chamber next lower in pressure. That is to say, it will be 
necessary to place one element above the other. The reason for 
such an arrangement is that the pressure difference between each 
chamber is not sufficient to overcome the head of water equivalent 
to the distance from the bottom of one chamber to the top of the 
next Just how many chambers will need to be so arranged can 
only be stated when. the conditions of the individual case shall 
have been defined. Obviously, the cycle will not be interfered 
with or the working of the apparatus changed if all the elements 
are arranged in a vertical series instead of a horizontal series. 

19. To the foregoing should be added the fact that the practi- 
cability of the cycle described has been well established by the per- 
fonnance of a small seven-chamber apparatus, which is shown by 
Fig. 4S. The view makes the machine appear more complicated 
than it really is, since the heaters are made up of pipe fittings. It 
shows also the apparatus with most of the covering removed, 
whereas in service all portions of the machine were covered with 
non-conducting material. By the aid of this apparatus it has been 
shown that vaporization takes place and the whole action proceeds 
as has been described, even when the temperature difference be- 
tween adjacent chambers is less than ten degrees, and by its use 
facts already presented, with reference to capacity and efficiency, 
have been substantially checked. 

In conclusion, the writer finds pleasure in acknowledging the 
important assistance rendered both in the analytical study and in 
the experimentation which followed it, by Prof. R. S. Miller and 
Mr. Charles Ducas, Junior Members of the Society. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr, IJ. n, Suplee, — I should like to ask wherein this arrange- 
ment of evaporators differs from the multiple-effect evaporating 
pan system of Rillieux, as used in the manufacture of sugar. I 
believe that some of the vessels of the United States navy are 
equipped with multiple-effect evaporators which are practically 
the same as those used in sugar works, and, so far as I can recall, 
the arrangement is practically the same as that described in the 
paper. 

Prof, D. S. Jacobus, — It is stated that the losses of heat which 
occur are those of radiation and those represented by the differ- 
ences in the temperature or condition between the liquid supplied 



174 A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 

and the condensate delivered. In testing a large Yaryan triple- 
effect evaporator, I found that, in order to get rid of air which 
would otherwise accumulate, we had to lead some steam from 
each effect directly into the one below it by partly opening by- 
pass valves provided for the purpose. If the air were allowed 
to accumulate, it would reduce the capacity of the evaporator. 
This naturally lowered the eflSciency. JV^ill Professor Goss 
kindly tell us whether he has noticed any similar action in the 
operation of his apparatus? 

Prof. W, F. M. Goss. — ^Responding to the question of Mr. 
Suplee, I would say that in all other multiple-effect evaporating 
systems with which I am familiar the condensation from each pan 
or chamber ie drawn out separately, cooled and delivered. The 
presence of the cooler leads to large losses of heat, and the series 
can not be made to include very many effects. In the apparatus 
under consideration^ the entire discharge, not of vapor only, but 
of condensate as well, of one chamber is carried on to heat the 
chamber of the next lower temperature, and at the end of the 
series the distillate of all chambers is delivered and cooled in the 
form of a single stream. 

Our experiments have not developed any difficulty of the kind 
referred to by Professor Jacobus. The apparatus illustrated in 
Fig. 45 has been kept in continuous operation for periods of twelve 
or fourteen hours, with no diminution in capacity or efficiency. 

Professor Jacobus. — ^If the apparatus were operated with a 
vacuum at the last effect, the difficulty with the air might have 
been experienced. In the tests of the Yaryan* evaporator there 
was a high vacuum at the last effect, and the capacity was con- 
siderably reduced if it was operated an hour or so without open- 
ing the by-pass valves. 

Professor Goss.* — It is true, as has been suggested, that all of 
our experiments have been with a high-pressure system. We have 
not used a vacuum. A study of the course of the feed and of the 
distillate through this apparatus is, however, reassuring, since the 
distillate from all sources is constantly leading on in a single 
direction, and will, I think, carry with it a reasonable amount of 
entrained air. For this reason, I do not anticipate trouble of the 
sort described, at whatever pressure the apparatus may be used. 

It has been suggested that the value of the paper would be in- 

* Author's Closure under the Rules. 



A SERIES DISTILLING APPARATUS OF HIGH EFFICIENCY. 175 

creased if there were added a statement concerning the cost of dis- 
tilling water by means of the apparatus described. The cost 
necessarily depends somewhat upon local conditions. For each 
dollar cost per ton of coal, a seven-chambered apparatus of the 
high-pressure type requires 7.1 cents' worth of fuel per thousand 
gallons of watef distilled. Assuming such an apparatus to work 
300 days in the year^. and to cost $3 per foot of tube surface, the 
interest and depreciation charges at 10 per cent., the first cost 
amounts to something less than 6 cents per thousand gallons, mak- 
ing the total cost of distilled water, excluding attendance, which 
may be little or much, 13 cents per thousand gallons. A general 
statement of these facts is as follows : 

Cost in cents per thousand gallons = 7.1 x cost of coal per 
ton in dollars + 6. 

Since the apparatus requires no cooling water, no costs can 
arise on this account, a fact which, under some conditions of ser« 
vice gives the series apparatus an important advantage over 
others of more simple form. 

The following tabulated statement constitutes a more elaborate 
presentation of the facts affecting cost as based upon an apparatus 
of a thousand gallons per hour capacity : 

1. Namber of evaporating chambers 4 7 10 

2. Gallons of water distilled per year, assnming 

800 working days of 24 Lours each 7,200,000 7,200.000 7,200,000 

3. Pounds of coal per year 1,670,000 1,019,000 790,000 

4. Cost of coal at one dollar per ton, dollars. . 855 510 895 

5. Area of tube surface in plant, feet 770 1 ,892 1,914 

6. Cost of complete plant on the basis of three 

dollars per foot of tube surface, dollars. . 2,210 4,176 5,743 

7. Annual interest and depreciation, 10 p. o. . 221 417 57 » 

8. Annual total coat, excluding attendance. . . 1,076 927 070 

9. Fuel cost per thousand gallons for each 

(dollar cost per ton of coal, cents 11.8 7.1 5.0 

10. Interest and depreciation charges per thou- 
I sand gallons, cents 3.1 5.7 7.9 

11. Fuel, Interest and depreciation per thou- 
I sand gallons, coal at one dollar per ton, 
' cents 14.9 12.8 13.4 

12. Fuel, interest and depreciation i>er thou- 
sand gallons, coal at two dollars per ton,, 
cents 26.7 19.9 18.9 

13. Fuel, interest and depreciation per thou- 
sand gallons, coal at three dollars per 
ton, cents 88.5 27.0 24.4 



I 



176 SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO,) PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE. 



No. 1090.* 

THE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE OF SUL- 
PHUROUS ANHYDRIDE {SO,). 

BT EDWARD F. MILLER,. BOSTON, XAB8. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. The use of sulphurous anhydride as one of the working 
vapors in the " Binary Heat Engine " or " Waste Heat Engine '' 
has made evident the need of more complete tables of the proper- 
ties of this vapor, especially at the high pressures. 

2. A series of articles by Prof. R. H. Thurston printed in the 
Journal of the Franklin Institute, 1902, explains fully the prin- 
ciple of this engine. 

3. A paper by the writer, read before the New England Water 
Works Association, printed in the 1902 proceedings and reprinted 
in Engineering News of November 27, 1902, gives an account 
of the engine at the Technische Hochschule at Charlottenberg 
with results of tests made on the engine. 

4. Volume XII. of Transaclions of A. S. M. E. contains the re- 
sults of an experimental determination of the latent heat of SO, 
by Professor Jacobus. 

5. Messrs. Flowers and Walton, of Cornell, tabulated the work 
of the various experimenters on SO and from this tabulation 
constructed tables of the properties of this vapor. These tables 
are the most complete of any the writer knows of. 

6. The work presented in this paper was carried on under the 
direction of the writer by Mr. D. D. Mohler, a senior in the course 
in Chemical Engineering at Mass. Inst. Technology. 

7. The apparatus in which the SO, was vaporized consisted of 
an aluminimi bronze cylinder with hemispherical end and cover, 7^ 
inches inside diameter and 10 inches in length inside of jcover. 



♦ Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1903) of the Ameriran 
Society of Mechftnical Eogineers, and formiug part of Volame XXV. of tbe 
Transaction$, 



SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO,) PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE. 177 

This cylinder was placed on end inside of a copper kettle 15 
inches in diameter and 15 inches tall, which was open at the top. 
The kettle was covered on the outside with magnesia to a depth of 
2 inches, and the bottom rested on an electric stove. 

8. Cylinder oil filled the space between the kettle and the cylin- 
der to a depth of 5 inches. 

9. Immersed in the oil there was a heating coil of 25 feet of No. 
24 B. & S. gauge iron wire and a stirrer with vanes turned 90 as 
to drive the oil from the top downwards. This stirrer was driven 
'>y a ^ horse-power motor. 

10. The cover of the aluminum bronze cylinder was provided 
^th a gauge connection, a filling valve and a thermometer well 
reaching down into the liquid SO 

11. Temperatures of the SO, were determined by an Alvergnait 
millimeter thermometer graduated to iV of a degree Fahr. 

12. Pressures were measured by a gauge of large diameter pro- 
vided with a steel tube made specially for this purpose. 

13. This gauge could be read to tV of a pound. 

14. The SO, used was found by chemical analysis to be 99.3 per 
cent, pure with .3 per cent, of CO^ and .4 per cent. air. 

15. In filling the aluminum bronze cylinder with SO, the air 
was first exhausted to a vacuiun of 28 inches. Liquid SO^ was then 
run in till the pressure inside the cylinder was the same as that 
of the atmosphere. The cylinder was then exhausted again to 
28 inches vacuum and more SO, supplied. The operation was 
repeated a third time. 

16. After the air had been removed eight pounds of liquid SO, 
were run in. This amount brought the level of the liquid SO, a 
little above that of the cylinder oil in the outer kettle. 

17. The oil could be heated sufficiently in from 10 to 15 minutes 
ly the resistance coil to cause an increase of pressure of 5 pounds 
inside the cylinder. 

18. After heating to the desired temperature the current was 
turned from the coil and the electric stove under the kettle was 
used to supply sufficient heat to make up for that lost by radiation. 

19. By this means the pressure could be maintained nearly con- 
stant for a considerable space of time. 

20. A series of preliminary observations gave sufficient data to 
enable one to plot the curve with considerable accuracy. 

21. The final observations, covering a continuous period of 24 
hours were taken as follows: At low temperature 20 to 25 readings 



178 SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (sO,) PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE. 

were taken at each pressure at 15 second intervals. The ther- 
mometer readings for each set were practically constant: when the 
higher pressures were reached, where the temperature change is 
slight for a considerable change of pressure, it was found that the 
thermometer lagged; the gauge showing a change before any 
movement of the mercury could be detected. 

22. To allow for this lag of the thermometer readings were be- 
gun when the gauge had reached within iV of a pound of the max- 
imum pressure and were continued at 15 second intervals till the 
pressure had fallen to -^ff pound below the maximum pressure. 

23. It was assumed that the lag of the thermometer on a falling 
pressure and falling temperature would be the same as the lag on 
a rising pressure and rising temperature. 

24. In some cases as many as 40 observations were taken on one 
determination. 

25. The observations corrected for the lag of the thermometer 
and for errors in the .thermometer and in the gauge are given 
below : 

TABLE I. 
SuMif ABT OF Corrected Observations. 



g 




2 




£ 




£ 




o 


£ H 




£ 5 





£ S 




£ i 


g 


n 


0,0 
§ 


n 


1^ 

S 




pi 


t- 




H 




H 




& 




68.20 


49.41 


181.98 


138.70 


171.00 


248.61 


198.71 


852.12 


74.88 


55.35 


139.11 


154.40 


172.58 


249.65 


200.01 


858.01 


81.04 


61.77 


142.86 


160.92 


176.51 


262.71 


201.21 


868.80 


87.05 


6i.80 


144.06 


166.45 


178.97 


270.96 


202.88 


868.76 


92.22 


76.07 


146.81 


173 20 


180.88 


276.78 


208.05 


871.84 


98.87 


82.56 


148.65 


178.46 


188.32 


287.50 


204.97 


881.18 


103 12 


89.59 


151.18 


184.59 


185.01 


294.73 


206 49 


388.04 


106 20 


94.72 


154.87 


198.12 


187.51 


803.26 


207.24 


892.48 


109 62 


99.77 


ir,6.63 


200.01 


189.24 


811.26 


208.26 


898.08 


112.82 


104.57 


158.29 


204.80 


191.29 


317.21 


209.80 


405.89 


115.05 


109.01 


161.94 


215.58 


192 58 


323.64 


210.41 


409.72 


124.72 


125.75 


164.22 


222.78 


194.19 


880.54 


211.14 


416.74 


128 74 


133 29 


166.71 


229.21 


195.23 


387.25 






129.95 


137.17 


168.53 


236.08 


197.14 


844.70 







26. The writer has plotted both these observations and those 
representing Regnault's curve on plotting paper 11 feet by 4 feet 



SCLPHXJROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO,) PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE. 179 

6 inches and after drawing a smooth curve through the points has 
read from this curve the pressure corresponding to each degree. 

27. At high pressure the work may be in error possibly one 
j>ound, at lower pressure the error is much less. 

28. The following table will enable one to compare the results 
obtained by the various experimenters: 



TABLE II. 




ill 

III 



47.6 
66.4 
66.4 
77.6 
90.4 
104:5 



120.4 
137.9 
157.1 



as 

SI 

B « _ 

ill 
'I 



47.9 

56 6 

66.7 

78.0 

90.6 

104.7 

109.9 

120.5 

187.9 

157.6 



E 



149 

158 

167 

171.5 

17« 

194 

209.8 

212 

218 

302 



• eg 

•582 

o - C 

8 * t 



177.8 
200.8 
226.1 



258.5 



PI 
III 



210.4 



265.9 
.880 8 



408.9 

610.9 

1.050.3 



t i> o 

lae 

Sirs 



180. C 



251.7 
830 ! 8 



a 2 *i 
IP 



178.0 



£8. 



179.6 
203.8 
230.7 
245.2 
260.5 
831.1 
402.0 
418.0 



29. Uegnault experimented between the temperatures — iO de- 
grees Fahr. and 149 degrees Fahr.; Sajotschewski between 122 
degrees Fahr. and 302 degrees Fahr., determining 8 points. This 
curve is above the others up to about 200 degrees Fahr. where it 
apparently crosses; Blumckc between 95 degrees Fahr. and 209.3 
degrees Fahr., determining 5 points. 



180 SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO,) PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE 

^20 



400 



aoo 



340 



8S0 



aoo 



200 



: !>RESSURE-TEMPERATURE 
aJRVEloF 



sOlphur dioxide. 





240 



g220 



' 200 
180 
IfiO 
140 
120 
100 
80 
60 
40 



20 




20 40 

MUler,B.r. 



80 100 120 140 160 180 200 

Temperature Am.Bmnk am* o».,.v. r. 

Fig. 46. 



SULPHUBOUS ANHYDBIDB (SOj PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CURVE. 181 



TABLE UI. 

Saturated Sulphuboub Anhtdridb. 

Tbxfskatukxs ahb PiuuflURxs CoRBSspoNDiNo AS Rbad fbom thi Plot ; NO Attimft Haob 

TO CORBBCT YaLUSB BY MaKINO UbB OF A TaBLX OF SBCOMD DiFFIRKNCKS. 



£ 




£ 




£ 




£ 




1 

f 




£ 








f 




y 


£ S 




H 


1^1 




^ < 


H 




3 




H 




^ 




182 




^ 




-40 


3.1 


11.2 


46 


80 7 


89 


70.8 


189.9 


175 


267.0 


-89 


3.2 


4 


11.6 


47 


81.4 


90 


71.6 


188 


141.9 


176 


260.5 


-88 


3.3 


5 


11.8 


48 


82.1 


91 


72.8 


134 


148.9 


177 


264.0 


-87 


3.4 


6 


12.1 


49 


82.8 


92 


74.1 


185 


146.0 


178 


267.6 


-36 


3.6 


7 


12.4 


60 


83.5 


98 


75.4 


186 


148 2 


179 


271.2 


-35 


8.7, 


8 


12.7 


51 


84.2 


94 


76.7 


137 


150.5 


180 


274.9 


-84 


3.8 


9 


18.1 


52 


84.9 


95 


78.0 


138 


152.8 


181 


278.6 


-83 


4.0 


10 


18.4 


53 


85.6 


96 


79.8 


139 


155.2 


182 


282.4 


-83 


4.1 


11 


18.7 


54 


86.4 


97 


80.7 


140 


157.6 


183 


286.8 


-31 


4.3 


12 


14.0 


55 


87.1 


98 


82.1 


141 


159.9 


184 


290.2 


-SO 


4.8 


18 


14.4 


56 


87.9 


99 


88.5 


142 


162.8 


185 


294.2 


-29 


4.5 


14 


14.8 


67 


88.7 


100 


84.9 


148 


164.7 


186 


298.2 


-38 


4.7 


15 


15.2 


58 


89.4 


101 


86.3 


144 


167.1 


187 


802.2 


-27 


4.9 


16 


15.6 


59 


40.2 


102 


87.7 


145 


169.5 


188 


806.2 


--26 


5 


17 


16.0 


60 


41.0 


108 


89.1 


146 


171.9 


189 


810 2 


-25 


5.1 


18 


16.4 


61 


41.8 


104 


90.6 


147 


174.4 


190 


814.8 


-24 


5.2 


19 


16.8 


62 


42.6 


105 


92.1 


148 


176.9 


191 


318.4 


% -23 


5.4 


20 


17.2 


68 


48.4 


106 


98.6 


149 


179.5 


192 


822.6 


-22 


5.5 


21 


17.6 


64 


44.8 


107 


95.1 


150 


182.1 


193 


826.8 


-21 


5.7 


22 


18.0 


65 


45.2 


108 


96 7 


151 


184.8 


194 


331.1 


-20 


5-9 


23 


18.4 


66 


46.1 


109 


98.3 


152 


187.4 


195 


885.4 


-19 


6.0 


24 


18.8 


67 


47.0 


110 


99.9 


158 


190.0 


196 


889. H 


-18 


6.1 


25 


19.8 


68 


47.9 


111 


101.5 


164 


193.7 


197 


844.2 


-17 


6.3 


26 


19.7 


69 


.48.8 


112 


103.1 


155 


195.4 


198 


848.7 


-16 


6 5 


27 


20.1. 


70 


49.7 


118 


104.7 


156 


19d.2 


199 


a'i8.2 


-15 


6.7 


1 28 


20.6 


71 


50.6 


114 


106.8 


157 


201.0 


200 


857.7 


—14 


6 9 


1 29 


21.0 


72 


51.6 


115 


108.0 


158 


2a3.8 


201 


362.8 


-13 


7-1 


30 


21.5 


78 


52.6 


116 


109.7 


159 


206.6 


202 


367.0 


— 12 


7.8 


31 


22.0 


74 


58.6 


117 


111.4 


160 


209.6 


208 


871.8 


-11 


7.5 


32 


22.5 


75 


54.6 


118 


118.2 


161 


212.4 


204 


876.7 


—10 


7.8 


83 


28.1 


76 


65.6 


119 


115.0 


162 


215 3 


205 


881.6 


—9 


8.0 


34 


23.6 


77 


56.6 


120 


116.8 


163 


218.8 


206 


886.6 


—8 


8.3 


85 


24.2 


78 


67.7 


121 


118.6 


164 


221.4 


207 


891.7 


—7 


8.5 


36 


24.7 


79 


68.8 


122 


120.5 


165 


224.5 


208 


896.7 


— 6 1 


8.7 


87 


26.8 


80 


59.9 


128 


122.4 


166 


227.6 


209 


401.8 


-^ 1 


9.0 


88 


25.9 


81 


61.0 


124 


124.8 


167 


280.7 


210 


407.0 


-4 1 


9.3 


39 


26.6 


82 


62.1 


125 


126.2 


168 


283.9 


211 


412.5 


—3 


9.5 


40 


27.1 


as 


68.2 


126 


128.1 


169 


237.1 


212 


418.0 


-2 


9.7 


41 


27.7 


84 


64.8 


127 


180.0 


170 


240.8 






—1 


10-0 


42 


28.2 


85 


65.5 


128 


181.9 


171 


248.6 









10.8 


43 


28.8 


86 


66.7 


129 


:83.9 


171 


246.9 






1 


10.0 


44 


29.4 


87 


67.9 


180 


185.9 


178 


250.2 






2 


10.9 


45 


80.1 


88 


69.1 


131 


137.9 


174 


258.6 







182 SULPHUBOUS ANHYDBIDE (sO,) PRBS8UBK TEMPERATURE CURVE. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. S. A. Moss. — Investigation of Professor Miller's table of 
final results, Table III., seems to indicate that he has given more 
weight to Eegnault's values than to his own in the region where 
the experiments overlap. In this region Professor Miller's pres- 
sures, as shown by the unsmoothed values given in Table I., are 
higher than Eegnault's. Would it not be better to give a table 
of the smoothed values actually obtained by Professor Miller 
instead of Table III., which gives values from 68 degrees to 149 
degrees lower than he obtained? 

It has been interesting to compare Professor Miller's values 
vntii those which would have been predicted by Kamsay's and 
Young's general law for vapor pressures. This law, which is not 
as generally known as its importance deserves, gives a means of 
computing the vapor pressure corresponding to any temperature, 
if a few values of corresponding pressure and temperature aro 
known. 

In a modified form (see Physical RevieWy Vol. XVI., No. 6, 
June, 1903) the law is as follows: Let Tx be the absolute tem- 
perature corresponding to any vapor pressure for substance x, 
and Tw the absolute temperature corresponding to the same pres- 

sure for water vapor, as given by Steam Tables. Then •=- = 

a 7= b where a and b are constants, different for each sub- 

stance. The values given by Professor Miller in Table I. follow 
the law exactly up to about 157 degrees. The constants as com- 
puted for this region from Table I. give as the equation for SO^y 

^=1.6667 ^-.00036. 

Absolute zero is taken as — 459.5 degrees Fahr. If Ramsay's 
and Young's law holds true for all values, this equation gives the 
saturation temperature for any pressure whatever if we know 
the saturation temperature for water vapor (steam) at that pres- 
sure. 

As stated, the values given by Professor Miller in Table I. 
follow this law exactly up to 157 degrees. Beyond this point there 
is a slight departure, the pressures given by the law being lower 
than those given by Professor Miller. This departure is noth- 



SULPHUROUS ANHYDRIDE (SO,) PRESSUB£ 'WaiPBRATURE CURVE. 183 

ing at 157 degrees and gradually increases. For 407 pounds 
pressure, Professor Miller gives 210 degrees, while the tempera- 
ture predicted by the law is 215.2. This discrepancy indicates 
either that Eamsay's and Young's law does not hold for the higher 
pressures of SO, or else that Professor Miller's higher pressures 
are somewhat too great 

Professor Miller *— The values given by Eegnault between 68 
degrees and 149 degrees were given equal weight with points 
determined by these experiments. 

If these had been disregarded, the pressures at the lower end 
of the curve would have been from .1 to .2 pound higher. As 
Kegnault's values were used below 68 degrees, it seemed best to 

draw one smooth curve through all the points. 

I have read with much interest the article by Mr. Moss in 

Physical RevieWy Vol. XVI., No. 6, and had intended to make 

a qalculation to show the agreement. I can offer no explanation 

as to the cause of the variation cited. 

♦ Author's Closure under the Rules. 



184 THB prroT tubb. 



No. IMl.* 

THE PITOT TUBE. 

BT W. B. OREOOBT, KXW OBLKAMB, LA. 

(Member of the Sociecy.) 

1. The object of this paper is to call attention of the niHembers 
of the Society to a simple, efficient instrument for measuring the 
yelocitiefi of fluids. 

This instrument was invented by Pitot in 1730, the form first 
used by him is shown in Fig. 47. It consisted of a glass tube, 
bent at right angles, one end of which was placed in a stream of 
moving liquid, the end facing the direction of motion squarely 
with an orifice less in area than the tube. The impact due to 
velocity forced the liquid up the vertical portion of the tube 
to a height h and gave a measure of the velocity according to 
the law V = ^2gh. A second tube open at the bottom, was 
added later; the two tubes being placed in a groove in a tri- 
angular prism of wood. Fig. 48 is a copy of the drawings of the 
tube as described by Pitot. f E is the impact opening of this tube, 
placed at one angle of the triangle forming the cross-section 
of the prism. Suitable scales FO and LI were made on the 
metal slide which is provided with clamps so that it could be 
raised or lowered as the ends of the tubes were placed at the 
desired depth; from these scales were obtained the difference of 
level of the water in the two tubes and direct readings of veloc- 
ity respectively. 

2. The Pitot tub^was mentioned in a paper read before the 
French Academy of Sciences by M. Dubuat in 1753, and the sug- 
gestion offered that the tubes be made of tin, and that they contain 
floats carrying a rod moving in front of a scale from which the 

* Proflented at the New Tork meeting (December, 1908), of the American 
Soeiety of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
Drantiietioiu. 

t Butoire de VAeadimiie d$$ ScUneet, 1782, page 876. 



THB PITOT TUBB. 



186 



heights could be read. The instrument was improved and used by 
Darcy and Bazin ; Fig. 49 shows the form used by them. It con- 
sists of two tubes, one drawn to a fine point and pointing up 
stream, the other with small openings on top and bottom at the 
point a as shown in Fig. 49. The first of these is the impact tube 
and the second the pressure or static tube; the tops of the two tubes 
are connected so that a partial vacuum formed above the liquid 
in them will cause the liquid in both to rise by the same amount 




Pio. 47. 

to a height convenient for reading. The instrument being in 
place, the air is exhausted, having opened the stop cocks R and fi', 
until the liquid is raided to the desired height when R is closed. 
In using the instrument to detcnnine velocity, more or less vibra- 
tion occurs in the two columns depending somewhat on the uni- 
formity of the velocity being measured, the size of the tubes, their 
openings, etc. Maximum and minimum readings may be observed 
and a mean computed, or a mean reading may be determined 
directly from the instrument. If the openings are small, the 
vibrations will be small ; partially closing the cock R^ has the eCFect 
of causing the instrument to average the readings. Finally R^ 
may be quickly closed at the mean reading and the difference of 
level read with deliberation. The researches of Darcy and Bazin 



186 



THE PITOT TUBS. 



w 



F L 



G I 



D B 



ilm. Am* J«M« Ck.,jr. T. 



Fio. 48. 



THB PITOT TnBE. 



187 



W 



Am.MmmH^UO».,ir.r. 



Fid. 49. 



190 



THB PITOT TUBB. 



that the form of the impact tube did not influence the constant 
of a Pitot tube in case the opening be placed at the centre of a 
surface of revolution. 

10. These tubes having nozzles 4, By C and D of Fig. 50 were 
then placed in front of a catamaran and hauled through still water 
in an open canal, the velocity being obtained from the time re- 
quired to pass over a measured course, and the height from the 





1 


1 


i 


V: 


1 ! 

B 


C 

• 


w 

D 


SnhtailwkM. 



f M S A • 
Oeatlmeten 



Fio. 50. 



surface of the water, to which the liquid was forced, accurately 
measured from the surface of the canal. The constant ^ to be 
used in the formula v = ^ V^ff^ as obtained from these experi- 
ments was 1.0053 for nozzle JD. 

11. Experiments were next conducted which showed that with a 
properly designed static opening the constant of a tube is prac- 
tically unity. The form of static opening as used by Mr. White is 
similar in principle to that used by Darcy and Bazin. An ordinary 
^-inch gas pipe about five inches long was drawn to a point and a 
^inch hole drilled through its sides about four inches back from 
its pointed end, in a horizontal plane. Careful calibrations of tubes 
having this form of static attachment showed an average constant 
of unity well within the error of observation. Other tubes were 
experimented with, in which there was a suction action on the static 
side ; this being added to the head due to impact made the head, 

as read, greater than the head due to velocity or 5- and therefore 

gave a coefiicient tp less than unity in the formula v = ^ V^ffh, 



THE PITOT TUBE. 191 

12. Mr. White sums up the results of his researches as follows : 

(1) That an impact tube, whose impinging surface is one of 
revolution, converts velocity head into static head exactly accord- 
ing to the law v = ^2gh whatever the pressure of the surround- 
ing fluid. 

(2) That only pressure openings which give the true static head 
of water should be used in connection with the point of a Pitot 
tube. That is to say, that only tubes which have unity as their 
coefficient should be used. 

(3) That Pitot tubes whose constants are unity in open canal 
ratings will remain unity, whatever the pressure of the liquid. 

Mr. White had very few experimental data to support conclu- 
sion (8). 

13. A voluminous paper * of great merit by Messrs. Williams, 
Hubbell and Fenkell appeared in 1902, the title is " Experiments 
at Detroit, Mich., on the Effect of Curvature Upon the Flow of 
Water in Pipes." This paper, together with its discussion, is one 
of the most valuable contributions to the subject of the Pitot 
tube, as all measurements of velocity were made with various 
forms of that instrument. A large portion of the work con- 
sisted in the rating of these tubes under various conditions; sev- 
eral different forms of the instrument were used. Among the 
authors' summary of results accomplished are the following : 

A. '^ The invention of the oil differential gauge, by which it 
is possible to observe differences of head in closed conduits under 
pressure with as great a degree of precision as is attainable in 
open conduits with the hook-gauge." 

B. " The invention of a form of Pitot tube which can be in- 
serted in a water main without the aid of special devices, other 
than the tools possessed by every water department ; by the aid of 
which a competent observer may obtain gauging with as great ac- 
curacy as has yet been attained with any other measuring device, 
except the graduated tank and weighing scale." 

C. " The determination of a ratio .84 between the mean and 
maximum velocities of water flowing in closed circular conduits, 
under normal conditions, at ordinary velocities; whereby observa- 
tions taken at the centre under such conditions, with a properly 
rated Pitot tube, may be relied upon to give results within 3 per 
cent, of correctness." 

* " TransaeHom American Societj of avil Engineers," Vol. XLVII., April, 
1908. 



192 THB PITOT TUBE. 

D. " The presentation of a series of coefficients for application 
to the different fluids used in the fluid differential gauges, by 
which the observations so taken may be conveniently reduced to 
equivalents in water." 

E. " The demonstration of the fact that ratings of Pitot tubes 
made by dragging these instruments through still water in open 
troughs do not conform, within any reasonable limits to those 
obtained when the instrument is stationary in moving wat^r in 
a closed conduit." 

F. " The demonstration that Pitot tubes must have their co- 
efficients determined, whether they consist of point opening alone 
or both point and pressure openings." 

G. " The demonstration that under some conditions, in straight 
pipe there is a difference of pressure at different points around 
the circimiference of the same cross-section." 

//. " The derivation of the ellipse as the approximate form of 
the normal curve of velocities in straight circular pipes." 

14. As was to be expected the discussion of the paper brought 
forth many valuable contributions on both theoretical and experi- 
mental sides. Among those who discussed the Pitot tube are to 
be found the names of many of the highest authorities on hy- 
draulics. The paper with its complete discussion must be read to 
be appreciated; only a few points, which have a direct bearing 
on the subject in hand, will be mentioned. 

15. In the final discussion of this paper by its authors, after 
carefully weighing the contributions and criticisms of the various 
men who discussed it, we find the following : 

" The weir, the current meter, the water meter, and the nozzle 
are the only other devices to be compared with the Pitot tube, 
and the results obtained with the first three are rarely if ever 
better than those presented herein, and two of them are not 
directly applicable to the flow of water in pipes. The nozzle may 
perhaps give somewhat better results, but it is limited to compara- 
tively small streams. It seems therefore that the writer's conclu- 
sion, that the Pitot tube, properly rated in the hands of a skilled 
observer, is as accurate as any other device for measuring water in 
a closed conduit, except the scale and tank, is fairly sustained." 

16. " The writers, therefore, believe that conclusion E is sus- 
tained, and that an instrument should be rated under conditions as 
nearly as may be similar to those under which it is to be used, and 
that dragging an instrument through still water does not conform 



THB PITOT TUBB. 193 

with this condition when the apparatus is to be used to measure 
ranning water, either in closed or open channels. In the light of 
present knowledge, if instrument can only be rated by dragging, 
the writers would prefer the coefficients established by dragging in 
opposite directions in running water to those obtained by dragging 
instill water." 

17. "In view of the data presented by Mr. White and of the ex- 
periments of Messrs. Saph and Schroder, and Adams and Wilson, 
wherein instruments of certain forms were used with ring piez- 
ometers, as well as the experiments of the writers regarding 
obliquity it seems to be demonstrated satisfactorily that conclu- 
sion F was too sweeping, and the writers agree as pointed out 
by Mr. Ferris, a proper form of point opening will have a coeffi- 
cient of unity by the formula A =-^ when combined with a ring 

piezometer under normal or nearly normal flow." 

18. Again in discussing result G they say, under head of 
"Pressure variation," "Conclusion (?,that the pressure in a straight 
pipe is not always the same at all points around the circumference 
of the cross-section, is based first upon the experimental evidence 
in the 16-inch pipe investigation. No discussion has been sub- 
mitted containing direct additional evidence upon this particular 
point All the Pitot-tube work shows that the components of vel- 
ocity parallel to the axis of the pipe vary from point to point 
throughout the cross-section, and that changes of that component 
of velocity take place at each individual point under distorting in- 
fluences. If these components represent or are proportional to, 
the total velocity in each part of the fluid, it follows from the T^w 
of Conservation of Energj-, since all the water in the cross-section 
was originally started in its course under the influence of the same 
head, that if velocity head be increased, pressure must be de- 
creased, unless the elevation of the stream above datum be de- 
creased, whether a single particle or the whole stream be con- 
sidered, and therefore, that the pressure must vary throughout 
the cross-section, a conclusion which is confirmed by the moat 
obvious interpretations of a large number of experiments. The ex- 
periments of Messrs. Adams and Wilson, and Saph and Schroder, 
as well as some of those of the writers, prove pretty conclusively 
that a properly formed point combined with a ring piezometer 
gives readings the summation of the deducted velocities of which 
amount to the true discharge, on the theory used by the writers 



194 THB PITOT TUBS. 

that A = -5—, without introducing any coefficient, as has been 

demonstrated in the case of a jet and in open channels by Mr. 
White. This being true, the acceptance of varying pressure 
throughout the cross-section, which pressure varies inversely as 
the velocity leads to some complications, if one undertakes to 

maintain that the point effect is — -. Another interesting circum- 
stance is the reading given by two conical points, one receiving 
the impact of a current in a closed pipe and the other directed 
down stream. Theoretically it might be expected that the differ- 

ence between these readings would be 5— and this alleged fact 

is the basis of the claim for a patent granted for such device some 
years ago, but, experimentally, or practically, nothing of the kind 
happens with his apparatus." 

19. " Kegarding the question of the proper formula for the Pitot 
tube, the writers are not yet entirely satisfied, and while fully 
appreciating Mr. Frizzell's effort to clear the matter up, they yet 
prefer to leave the question where they left it before, that, prac- 
tically, it makes little difference in the reduction of results whether 

«* •«' 
a tube reading actually is ^ or -. The discussion presented by 

Mr. Seddon gives excellent reason to believe that there is a large 
account of internal forces to be balanced before the laws of flow 
will be fully understood, and until these forces have been more 
fully investigated, too rigid laws had best not be laid down.'' 

20. In the discussion of this paper there is a contribution by 
Edward 8. Cole in which he describes a series of independent ex- 
periments conducted by him. A device, which he has named a 
Photo-Pitometer, was invented by him and used to obtain a con- 
tinuous record of the readings of a Pitot tube, extending over a 
period of time. To accomplish this result clockwork, lamp and 
photographic paper were used. For descriptions see original 
paper.* 

21. It appeared that the oil differential gauge had been invented 
and used by independent investigators in at least five different 
localities and that in one case had it been patented. 

22. In quoting from an extensive work like the one just re- 

* Vol. XLVIL TroMaetianB American Society of Gvil EDgineers, AprU, 1903, 
page 275. 



THB PITOT TUBB. 196 

f erred to, there is somei^ danger of conveying a wrong impression 
by merely giving those parts to which it is desired to direct atten- 
tion. The writer wishes to disclaim any such intention and to state 
that the particular parts quoted have been selected because they 
Lave a direct bearing on the theory and use of the Pitot tube 
and are along the lines on which it is wished to discuss some fur- 
ther results which possibly throw additional light on the subject. 

23. During the fall and winter of 1902 the writer was consult- 
ing engineer in a series of tests of the Hydraulic Dredges of the 
Mississippi River Commission. 

24. By means of these dredges a navigable channel is main- 
tained in the river during low water. Large centrifugal pumps, 
driven by direct connected steam engines and capable of maintain- 
ing a mean velocity of from 15 to 22 feet per second in the dis- 
charge pipes, are used as dredge pumps. 

25. The series of tests, which extended over several months, in- 
cluded efficiency tests of boilers, engines and dredge pumps besides 
tests of accessory machinery such as " jet pimips " used to loosen 
the material to be removed in dredging. Some of these " jet 
pumps " were of the reciprocating steam pump type while others 
were centrifugal pumps driven by direct connected engines. 

26. A complete report in detail of these tests can be found in 
the Report of the Chief of Engineers of the U. S. Army for 1903. 
It is in the report of F. B. Maltby, U. S. Assistant Engineer, 
Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Superin- 
tendent of Dredging Operations for the Mississippi River Com- 
mission, and forms a part of the report of Captain W. B. Ladue, 
Corps of Engineers of the U. S. Army, Secretary of the Mississippi 
River Commission. 

27. The general method of these tests was outlined by the 
writer who was present while some of them were made. The de- 
tails were worked out and the tests conducted by Mr. Maltby, who 
deserves much credit for a work of great magnitude in which 
success was attained only by untiring labor and careful attention 
to details. 

28. The results are aU of great interest, however. In the dis- 
cussion which follows reference will only be made to those parts 
of the work which have a direct bearing on the subject in hand, 
viz. : the Pitot tube. 

29. The problem of measuring the mean velocity of the water 
in the discharge pipes was of prime importance as the amount of 



196 THB PITOT TUBB. 

water pumped and the eflSeiencies of pumps both depended on 
the accuracy of measuring this velocity. The quantity of water 
in some cases exceeded 120 cubic feet per second. The diameter 
of discharge pipes were approximately 32 inches in some cases 
and 34 inches in others. Seven dredges were tested; the method 
used must be applicable to all. Had a weir been used it would 
have been available for only a short time, owing to a rapidly 
rising river. A Venturi Meter would have introduced a resistance 
in the discharge pipe, and rendered the conditions quite dissimilar 
to those of ordinary running, which were desired for these tests. 
The velocity to be measured at the centre of the pipe was in some 
cases as great as 25 feet per second. The loss of head at the 
throat of a Venturi Meter, while small at low velocities, would 
be enormous at the velocities used even if a meter considerably 
larger than the size of pipe were used. 

30. A measuring barge into which the water could be deflected 
for a brief interval of time, and measured, had been used in test- 
ing these dredges in 1897. A complicated mechanism was re- 
quired to deflect the stream of water and the short interval in 
which the discharge was measured, together with the uncertainty 
of getting the time exactly were the objections to this scheme. 

31. All these methods, besides being expensive, are difficult to 
apply, partly because the discharge pipes of some dredges are 
half submerged in the river, the pontoons being so designed — 
while in other cases the pontoons support the pipes 30 inches 
above the water. 

32. The Pitot tube method was recommended and used and it 
is believed that the results obtained are as accurate as could be 
had by any of the other methods suggested; besides ease of ap- 
plication, cheapness, and the fact that the pumps could be tested 
under conditions exactly similar to ordinary running, are all in 
favor of this method. The tubes used were designed by Mr. 
Maltby, they were made in the machine shops aboard the dredges 
as were the gauges which were used in connection with them. 
Nine tubes were constructed, but all except Nos. 1, 3, 8 and 9 
were discarded because of apparent defects. 

Description of Pitot Tvhes. 

33. Tube No. 1 consists of two pieces of J-inch brass tubing, en- 
closed in a pipe lA inches outside diameter. One of the small 



THE PITOT TUBE. 197 

brass tubes is bent at the end below the end of the outside en- 

closmg pipe, through 90 degrees and the plane of the opening 

made truly parallel with the upright pipe to form the impact 

opening. The other brass tube is brazed to a solid brass piece, 

circular in section and placed at right angles to the tube, the 

upstream end has a sharp point which is even with the opening 

of the impact tube and below it; it has a iV-inch hole drilled on 

each side connecting with the interior of the upright tube, and 

fonns the static opening: ordinary :J-inch air cocks form the 

upper side of these tubes; ^-inch rubber tubing about 4 feet 

long is used to connect these air cocks to the gauges. 

34. Lead or cement is used to hold the small tubes in place in 
the outer tube. A stuffing box was used through which the outside 
tube slides ; it is screwed into a hole tapped in the top of the pipe 
with a 1^-inch standard pipe tap. A handle at the top of the tube 
carefully set at right angles to the plane of the impact opening 
was used to move the tube vertically from top to bottom of the 
pipe in traversing and enables the tube to be kept in alignment 
with the axis of the pipe. 

35. Tube No. 3 is similar to No. 1, with the exception that the 
impact point is below the static point. 

36. Tube No. 8, and in fact all the different tubes have the same 
size vertical outside pipe to permit the use of the same stuffing 
hoxes. At its lower end it is joined at right angles to a 1-inch 
pipe about 18 inches long, drawn down to a point of the proper 
size to admit a J-inch brass tube which is brazed fast into it f orm- 
iiig the impact opening. The small tube runs inside the larger 
pipe to the top, where it terminates in a J-inch air cock. The 
horizontal pipe has three i^-inch holes drilled in its side, form- 
ing the static openings; the interior of the pipe is connected 
through the upright and one handle to a :J-inch air cock. 

37. Tube No. 9 was made as nearly like No. 8 as could be done 
ky a skilled mechanic. 

It was very soon apparent that the tubes Nos. 1 and 3 did 
iiot have a constant ^of unity in the formula v=z g} ^/2gh. 

38. It was believed that tubes No. 8 and 9 would give a value 
of unity, but to prove this point was another matter. It has been 
shown conclusively by Mr. White that an impact point similar to 
Aat of tubes Nos. 8 and 9 would register the level correspond- 

uig to a given velocity according to the law ^ = 5- when the 

^9 



198 THE prroT tube. 

tube was dragged through still water in an open canal. Messrs. 
Williams, Hubbell and Fenkell, as we have seen, agree that a 
" point combined with a ring piezometer gives readings, the sum- 
mation of the deduced velocities of which amount to the true 

discharge " on the theory used by them " that ^ = s^ without 

introducing a coefficient. If then it can be shown that these 
tubes when calibrated in running water in an open channel ^ve a 
constant 9> of unity in the formula v = ^y2jrA and also shown 
that the static readings of the tubes correspond to the readings 
of the ring piezometer, it would seem that the question of the 
value of the constant may be settled in this way. Furthermore 
it has been claimed that the constant of a tube rated in an open 
channel is different from that obtained by rating in a closed con- 
duit under pressure. If this is true, tubes Nos. 8 and 9 being 
exactly alike and having the same constant when used simultane- 
ously to traverse two sections of a discharge pipe at different 
points where the mean velocity of the water is necessarily the 
same, but the static pressure very different will show decided 
differences in their traverse and in the consequent mean velocity. 
We shall see what was obtained by the experiments. 

39. Tube ^o. 9 was rated in running water having a velocity of 
about 3^ feet per second by comparing it with floats; about 80 
floats were run and 600 observations made. 

40. The tube was suspended in the Mississippi River with the 
point about 12 inches below the surface, facing the current. An 
inverted U-tube of glass was used, the air being partially ex- 
hausted from the top to bring the water surfaces to a convenient 
height for reading. 

41. The floats were 24 inches long; the time was observed in 
passing over a course 40 feet long, the tube being placed about 
one-third the distance from the upper end of the course. 

42. In the table which follows the velocity by floats is in each 
case the mean of ten observatons, and that given for the Pitot 
tube is the mean of about 75 observations : 

No. Velocity of Floats. Velocity by Tube. 

1 8.316 8.420 

2 3.284 3.279 

8 8.617 8.898 

4 8.419 8.868 

6 8.405 8.502 

6 8.212 8.228 

7 . 8.862 8.854 

8 8.882 8.218 

Means 8.866 8.344 



THB PTTOT TUBB. 



199 



The means show a coeflScient of unity within about one-third 
of 1 per cent. 

43. Tubes 8 and 9 were placed in the same discharge pipe 50 
feet apart, and three sets of observations made; the tubes were 
then changed about and three sets of observations taken again, 
with the following results. Each set is the mean of ten readings. 



Velocity b7 Tube No. 8. 
26.37 
24.16 
25.77 



Velocity by Tube No. 9. 
24.60 
26 60 
26.14 



Means. 



25.86 
26.37 
26.55 

26.268 



IteTeried Poaltioae. 



26.19 
24.84 
26.02 

26.048 



The means agree within about eight-tenths of 1 per cent. 
44. To test the accuracy of velocity measurements by these two 
tubes and determine whether or not they were affected by static 















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pressure, tube 8 was placed in the discharge pipe of the second 
pontoon of the U. S. Dredge Epsilon, where the average static 
pressure was 19.78 feet of water, and tube No. 9 was placed in 



200 



THB PITOT TUBE. 



the ninth pontoon, 350 feet from tube No. 8, and where the 
average pressure was 4.12 feet of water. Traverses were made 
by taking observations simultaneously at different points across 
the pipe. The mean velocity determined by tube No. 8 from 170 
observations, was 22.321 feet per second, wjiile that determined 
by tube No. 9 was 22.351 feet per second, a difference of one- 
tenth of 1 per cent. The mean velocity was obtained from the 
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Fio. 58. 



centric with the axis of the pipe; the average of the velocities 
found in these ten areas was used as the mean velocity for the 
whole cross-section. 

45. A plotting of the traverse referred to is shown in Fig. 51. 
A comparison was made of the static pressure indicated by tube 

No. 9 with that obtained by means of piezometers in the sides of 
a 32-inch pipe in the following manner : 

46. Four ^inch cocks were placed in the sides of the pipe as in- 
dicated in Fig. 52 at the points of a, 6, d and e. Great care was 
taken to have the axis of these cocks exactly normal to the axis 
of the pipe; their ends projected inside the pipe slightly, and after 
being screwed into place these ends were filed off carefully to 
present a perfectly smooth surface, flush with the inside of the 
pipe. When each of the piezometers was connected in turn with 



THB PrrOT TUBB. 



each other through a differential gauge no difference in pressure 
could be observed. Tube No. 9 was then inserted into the same 
vertical section as the piezometers, the point of the tube being 
at the centre of the pipe. The static side being connected suc- 
cessively with each piezometer, through a differential gauge, no 
differences of pressure could be observed. The pressure of the 
four piezometers and the static side of the tube was exactly the 



same. 



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Fie. 58. 



the TJ. S. Dredge Epsilon ; the velocity curves and the static press- 
ure are given. The static pressures are the actual pressures at 
the j)oints of observation; it will be seen that they are greater 
at the bottom than at the top of the pipe by the amount of the 
static pressure due to a head equal to the diameter of the pipe. 
Irregularities ai:e no doubt due, in part, to the practical impos- 
sibility of keeping steam pressure and consequently the revolu- 
tions of the engines and pumps absolutely constant. Each point 
plotted is in general the average of ten readings, considerable 
time being required to complete a traverse, as much as an hour in 
soiue cases. 



202 THB PITOT TUBB. 

48. These readings were obtained by using two ordinary U- 
gauges and observing impact and static pressures separately. The 
work required by this method is much greater than when a differ- 
ential gauge is used and the difference of level of the mercury col- 
umns only is taken. The latter gives readings from which velocity 
can be computed, but does not show the way in which the pressure 
is distributed across the pipe. In case separate static and impact 
readings are desired, two U-gauges must be used, and while one 
side of the mercury column in the U-tube is open to the atmos- 
phere, the side connected to the tube has a solid column of water 
resting on it. Great care has to be exercised to expel all air, and 
to be sure that the water column is solid before readings are taken. 
Knowing all the dimensions of gauges, and consequently the 
relative height of the mercury columns, with reference to the 
point being investigated, the absolute pressure of that point is 
easily computed. With the differential gauge, when velocity only 
is wanted, the two ends of a U-tube containing mercury are con- 
nected to the impact and static openings of the tube. Care must 
also be exercised in getting solid columns of water on both sides 
in this case before reading; the true difference of pressure in this 
case, is that due to the differences of level of the mercury, dimin- 
ished by a pressure due to an equal height of water. 

49. After the ratio of velocity at the centre of the pipe, to mean 
velocity, had been determined by repeated traverses, observations 
were taken at the center only, while testing the main pumps. The 
value of this contstant varied somewhat, due to local conditions 
at the points where traverses were made. 

50. Referring again to Fig. 53 a semi-ellipse has been drawn, 
using dotted lines; it will be seen that it represents a fairly good 
average of the observed velocities; this is more apparent when a 
larger number of traverses are plotted. 

51. It is seen from these results that the static pressure does not 
vary across the section of a straight pipe in which there are great 
differences of velocity parallel to the axis of the pipe, except as 
affected by gravity. This shows conclusively that the sum of 
static and velocity heads for various points in, the same cross- 
section of a straight pipe, is not a constant quantity if we under- 
stand by velocity head, that due to the velocity parallel to the 
axis of the pipe. This ought not to destroy our belief in the 
Law of the Conservation of Energy. All the energy possessed 
by a particle of water at any point of the cross-section of a straight 



THB PITOT TUBE. 




, ^tV- 



N^ %. 




No. 5. 



No. 2. 




No. 3, 








Fig. 54. 



204 THB prroT tubb. 

pipe IS either energy or position, pressure or motion. Since the 
pressure energy istjonstant across a given section and the energy 
of motion parallel to the axis of the pipe varies, it follows that 
there must be energy of motion other tiian this. Unfortunately 
we have no way of measuring the velocity of the whirl of the 
particles of water at various points in the cross-section. If this 
could be done, undoubtedly it would be found that the energy 
due to velocity of whirl is greatest at the walls and least at the 
centre of the pipe, and that the energy possessed by a particle of 
fluid at one point in the cross-section is equal to that possessed by 
any other particle in the same section. 

52. It is impossible to convert this energy due to velocity of 
whirl into useful work ; of course it is finally converted into heat. 

Tube Nos. 1 and 3 were used in important tests; they were 
rated by comparing with tube 'No, 8 by placing them in the same 
discharge pipe 50 feet apart ; three sets of observations of ten 
each were taken, then the positions of the tubes reversed and three 
more sets taken. The coefficients of tube No. 1 was found to be 
.930 and of tube No. 3 .8915. These values were used in reduc- 
ing observations taken by these tubes. 

53. The cut shows the discarded tubes. 

Tube No. 2 had an impact opening similar to tubes 1 and 3. 
The static opening was a vertical brass tube, with lower end cut 
off squarely, the axis of the tube being at right angles to the 
cttrrent measured. This tube gave the greatest amount of suction 
at the static opening, found in any of the tubes. The suction 
was so great that when the impact side was made to face down 
stream the reading of the impact side was still greater than that 
of the static side. 

Tube No. 4 was tube No. 2 with the lower end of the static 
tube plugged up and with openings on the side. 

Tube No. 5 had impact and pressure points similar, but point- 
ing in opposite directions. 

Tube No. 6 was very similar to tube No. 1, except that lai^e 
tubes were used, the impact being filled with a plug having a hole 
^-inch in diameter. 

54. No rating was made to determine the coefficient of these 
tubes, except No. 6, as a search was being made for a tube having 
a coefficient of unity, and it was soon evident that this was not the 
case with any tubes, except Nos. 8 and 9. 

55. The use of the Pitot tube is by no means confined to meas- 



THB PITOT TUBS. 



205 



uring the velocity of water and liquids, but has been used to meas- 
ure the velocity of air and gases. Professor Cai^nter in his work 
entitled " Heating and Ventilating Buildings," page 41, describes 
a tube to be used to measure the velocity of air. In the same 
volume, page 45, reference is made to the Prussian Mining Com- 
mission which, in ^884, by means of a large gasholder which con- 
tained 70,000 cubic feet, investigated several questions relating 




OpenOaire 



Fio. 55. 



to the measurements of the velocity of air. To the question: 
" Can the Pitot tube be applied practically for measuring the 
speeds of air, and, if so, what formula should be used for calcu- 
lating the speed and quantity of air ? " and affirmative answer is 
given and a formula to be used. 

56. The instrument has also been used to measure velocities of 
air in a series of tests of the greatest refinement conducted by 
Capt. D. W. Taylor, U. S. N., at the Experimental Model Basin, 
Washington Navy Yard. Captain Taylor used several tubes in 
the same cross-section so arranged that the mean velocity was the 
arithmetical mean of the several velocities given by the tubes. 

57- Pitot tubes were adopted for these tests after extensive ex- 



THB PITOT TUBB. 



I 
I 



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2 



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op e 



THE PITOT TUBE. 207 

periments with anometers. Static and impact pressures were ob- 
tained separately by means of instruments of great precision. 
The form of tube used is shown in Fig. 56 which gives a section 
through the centre of the tube. The static openings consist of 
two slots on opposite sides of the tube ; one of these is shown in 
the cut. It was assumed that the constant <py for this tube^ is unity 
in the formula v = tps^J^gh. 

58. An account of this work will be published in the near 
future by Captain Taylor. 

59. The three final conclusions of Mr. White, in the discussion 
of his paper were : 

(1) " That an impact tube, whose impinging surface is one of 
revolution, converts velocity head into static head exactly accord- 
ing to the law v = v^2grA, whatever the pressure of the surround- 
ing fluid." 

(2) "That only pressure openings which give the true static 
head of water should be used in connection with the point of a 
Pitot tube. That is to say, that only tubes which have unity as 
their coeflScient should be used." # 

(3) " That Pitot tubes whose constants are unity in open canal 
ratings will remain unity, whatever the pressure of the liquid." 

60. Experimental data confirming the first have been given. 
The second is obvious on the basis of economy and general 

desirahility. 

The third has been confirmed by the experiments with tubes 
^'^os. 8 and 9. 

61. Finally, the writer believes that the Pitot tube is an instru- 
ment hy means of which fluid measurements, whether of liquids or 
gases, may be made with as great accuracy as with any of the 
ordinary devices used. It is inexpensive and easy of application 
~-is capable of being used for both high and low velocities, and 
Diay be used to measure velocity of flow in pipes without mate- 
rially changing the normal condition of flow; furthermore, it is 
specially suited to many cases where other devices would be im- 
possible of application. If properly constructed it requires no 
rating. 

62. These facts should make the Pitot tube a popular instru- 
Qient with engineers who have tests to conduct of pumps, turbines 
and blowers. To those interested in the complicated problems of 
kydraulics this instrument offers advantages not possessed by any 
other device. 



THE PITOT TUBE. 



SUPPLEMENTAL BT PROF. 8. W. K0BIN80N, COLUMBUS, O. 

The Pitot Tube velocity instrument is one so exact, so simple, 
so inexpensive, and yet so easy of application, that too much can- 
not be said in its favor. Mr. Gregory's paper as well as several 
others, in which the Pitot Tube plays an important part, indicate 
that the excellent qualities of that instrument are at last beiug 
generally recognized. It is probably the most nearly perfect 
instrument yet discovered for the measurement of velocities of 
fluids and it is equally applicable to both gases and liquids. It 
applies to liquids in open channels, or to all fluids from orifices 
or through conduits, at low or high pressures, and gives results 
with remarkable precision. Thus there is no necessity for tedi- 
ous calibration or for the use of complicated coefficients. Its 
simple construction admits of its being made of glass tubing and 
rubber hose. 

Being thrown by these reflections into a reminiscent mood, the 
writer recalls that in 1873 he isonducted a series of experiments 
with the Pitot Tube instrument to measure the velocity of flow 
of air issuing from an orifice, and to determine the dimensions 
of the jet. These tests may be of some interest because they 
are believed to have been the first applications of the instrument 
in question to the flow of gases. (See Van Nostrand's " Engin- 
eering Magazine," 1886, page 91.) The instrument used at that 
time was made from glass drawn down to a fine tube end for the 
Pitot tip, and so arranged that it could be moved from side to 
side or lengthwise of the jet. Thus the precise form of the lon- 
gitudinal or cross section of the jet, and its velocity, at any 
point, were studied. (See Van Nostrand's Magazine, as above.) 
It was shown at that time that if the tip of the instrument was 
placed through the orifice to the inside of the tank and then 
withdrawn along the middle of the jet that the pressure shown 
by the instrument was always the same tiU the vena contracta 
was passed; thus illustrating the fact that, as the internal pres- 
sure of a particle of fluid at the tip diminishes, the stored energy 
increases, and that, as the potential energy due to pressure falls, 
the actual energy due to motion rises, the sum being constant. 
These experiments also showed that the Pitot Tube " will exactly 
indicate the pressure or head due to velocity when the statical 
pressure is eliminated as is done in the double tip." (See illus- 



THE PITOT TUBE. 209 

trated test and proof in Van Nostrand's " Engineering Mag- 
azine " for 1886, page 94, figure 5.) 

Although the writer made occasional use of the Pitot Tube 
instrument at other times both in the flow of gases from gas 
wells and water (as in 1877, the flow of the Sangamon River 
described in " Van Nostrand's Magazine," of 1878, page 258, 
and in 1893, the Flow of Water from the Castalia Springs in 
Ohio), yet his most important experiments were made in 1885, 
when he was called upon by the State Geologist of Ohio to 
devise a system for measuring the flow of gas wells, then being 
drilled in considerable numbers in that State. (See Van Nos- 
trand's " Engineering Magazine," Volume 35, page 89, and also 
" Geological Survey of Ohio," Vol. 6 for 1888, page 548.) In 
working on this matter a careful series of tests was made in the 
laboratories of the Ohio State University, with which institution 
he was then connected. In these tests both single and double 
tips were used in connection with a receiver from which air issued 
from different-sized openings. As in the air-tests of 1873, the 
pressures were studied with tips within the receiver and at a dis- 
tance of from ope to two diameters outside of the orifices, as 
well as at intermediate points. It was then concluded that the 
Pitot Tube Instnmient is a thoroughly reliable one for deter- 
mining the pressure or dynamic head to which the velocity is 
due, and that the original notions of Pitot were correct, including 
that of the value of the coefficient of correction being unity, a 
j>oint that all investigators have accepted as true, certainly after 
making a few experiments. Indeed it is wonderful how the 
simplest Pitot Tube Instrument will produce perfectly accurate 
results. This simplest of instruments is easily made with care, 
the essentials being all confined to the very tip ends. That is : a 
good Pitot tip is preferably of cylindric form for some distance 
back from the tip end, and preferably reamed out to a sharp 
edge all aroimd, the latter being square with the cylindric body 
of the tip end. It is best a body of revolution, six to ten times 
as long as its diameter. Applied to a long pipe with a running 
fluid within, a second tip is preferably introduced, which tip 
may be formed like the other except. to plug up the forward end 
hemispherically and cut a hole directly through square, and at 
about half the length. Otherwise, though the two tips as above 
are the most reliable, a double tip may be employed as shown 
in a cut in the report of the Geological Survey of Ohio for 1890, 
page 281. 



210 



THE PITOT TUBE. 



Another interesting point brought out in these experiments is 
that relating to the temperatures of gases. From theoretical 
grounds it might be expected that in the impact of gases against 
the open end of a tube the temperature and density would be 
restored to that of the receiver as well as the pressure. For 
bivestigating this matter an " encased thermometer " was used. 
(See cut in Van Nostrand's " Engineering Magazine/' Vol. 35, 
page 100.) This thermometer when properly exposed to the jet 
would retain a constant temperature equal for frictionless ori- 
fices to that of the receiver, while a naked thermometer similarly 
exposed would drop from twenty to twenty-five degrees, partly 
due to expansion and partly due to the impact against the ther- 
mometer. 

So finally it was concluded that "when a fluid flows from a 
higher to a lower pressure through a frictionless orifice, the por- 




FiQ. 57. Fig. 58. 

Patented Aagnst 83, 1808-^481,810. 



THE PITOT TUBE. 



211 



tion caught in a cnp mouth will be restored to its original con- 
dition as to pressure, temperature and density." This truth 
follows from the fact that in gases p.v.t. == a constant. 

Having decided to adopt the Pitot Tube Instrument for the 
measurement of gas wells, the writer designed and patented in 
1892 the two instruments shown in the accompanying cuts taken 
from the pamphlet sent out with the instrument (one for per- 
manent installation, and one for changing from place to place, 
as in expert work), and brought out formulas and tables for their 
use in open wells or in pipe lines under great ranges of pres- 
sures. These instruments and tables have since come into very 
general use and the results from them are very confidently 
acc^ted. That this confidence is not misplaced may be seen 
from the following table of Pitot Meter results, which when com- 
pared with other meter results show very close agreements. 



Tabls or Rebxtltb of Natubal Qas Pitot Tubb Mbtbb Mraburembkts 

COMPARKD WITH VaKIOUS SiMULTANBOUS OTBSR MbTBR MEASUREMENTS. 



Diameter of 
Pipe Line, 
in inchee. 



6 
8 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 



10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

lOf 

10 



Gage PreMore in Pipe Line. 



13.6oaDce8.. 

10.4 ** .. 
9.2 •* .. 
9.2 " .. 
7 poands . . . 
7 •* ... 
7 " ;. 

19.2 ounces . 
19.2 •* .. 

19.2 - .. 
8.8 '* .. 
7.0 " .. 

13.3 •• .. 

Means 

11.5 poands . 
12.2 •' 
18.8 " 

24.6 •• 
20.5 " 
28.0 " 
16.2 »• 
21.0 " 
87.0 " 



Cubic Fbit pib Uoub. 



By Pitot Tube. 



12,005 
4,025 
15.848 
15,836 
29,702 
84,590 
29,460 
20,611 
19,175 
17,738 
8,924 
13,825 
12,797 



.17,578 

159,100 
150,000 
163,700 
244,000 
200,700 
167,800 
188,000 
1,517,850 
1,128,000 



By Gas Meter. 



11,970 
4.480 
14.938 
14,938 
28.900 
88,000 
82.082 
20,980 
19.068 
17,990 
4.307 
12,720 
12.310 



17,500 

142,550 
140,200 
162,960 
247,000 
197,800 
169.900 
165.900 
1,516,320 
1,102,000 



10 meisared on 10" line 12,841 ,281 

8 branch from above 7,898,921 

62dbraDch 4,962,818 

Sum of two branches 12.861,784 



212 FLEMINO FODB-VALTE ENOINB. 



No. 1<»3.* 

CONSTRUCTION AND EFFICIENCY OF A FLEMING 
FOUR-VALVE ENGINE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO 
400 KW. GENERATOR. 

BT Bm/Aimr T. ALLBN, HABUnUBO, PA. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. The purpose of this paper is to describe the general conitruc- 
tion of a new type of four-valve stationary engine, and the results 
obtained from it. The efficiency of this type seems to exceed that 
obtained from much more elaborate constructions. 

The machine was designed to effect not only the highest effi- 
ciency, so far produced, but also to attain this result under wide 
variations of load, which latter condition is usual in the majority 
of cases. 

Before considering in detail the performance of the medium 
speed compound four-valve engine, which is the subject of this 
paper, it will not be out of place to give a brief explanation of 
the motives leading to its final development, and the methods used 
in its construction. 

2. The object in view in the production of this engine, was the 
combination of the advantages of the most economical slow speed 
Corliss engines, with the very desirable features of compactness, 
better rotative speed, closer regulation and the more efficient 
methods of lubrication, possessed by the high-speed automatic 
engine. 

3. In order to realise the economy of steam consimaption of the 
best Corliss engine practice, the sharp cut-off and more perfect 
steam distribution, attained by the use of vacuum dash pots and 
other accelerating devices common to Corliss engines, was at first 
considered absolutely essential and in the earlier stages of the 
development the best f orjns of these devices obtainable were used. 

4. It was found that with an improved form of detachable cut- 

♦ Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1908) of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the Tram- 
aettam. 



nmOKG TOtm-TALTB ENGIKB. 



213 



SPECIMEN CARDS. 

ITEST AT ABOUT -i- LOAD. 

FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 

Crank End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 15.6 




Head End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 10.6 




FROM LP. CYLINDER. 

Crank End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 1.6 



Head End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 1.75 



Am.hmnk Holt Cb.^.r. 



Pig. 59. 



214 



FLBKING FOmtpVALVB ENGINE. 



SPECIMEN CARDS. 
TEST AT ABOUT -f- LOAD. 

FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 
Crank End 
80 Spring. M.E.P. 5a8 




Head End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 43.2 




FROM LP. CYUNDER. 

Crank End 

20 SpRiNa M.E.P. 5.7 




AlUn,B.T, 



czz 



Head End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 5.9 




Ami.Mmnk Sm Ck^. T. 



Fig. 60. 



7IAMIN0 FOUR-VALYE ENGINB. 



215 



g^BOMEN CARDS> 
TEST AT ABOUT w LOAD. 

FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 

Head End 

80 Sprinq. M.E.P. 53.8 




Crank End - 

80 8PRiNa M.E.P. 43.8 




PROM LP. CYLINDER. 
Head End 
20 Spring. M.E.P. 6.5 




Crank End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 6.5 




jtm.r»mk .v«r« c».jf r. 



Fia. 61. 



216 FUSHIKG FOUR-VALVB EKGINB. 

off, such engines could be made to operate fairly satisfactory at 
speeds considerably in excess of that generally used on the Corliss 
engine; but yet the resultant speed was not as great as was desired 
for some purposes, especially electrical, and the design of the valve 
gearing still possessed many disadvantageous features. 

6. After exhaustive investigations it was finally found by sub- 
stituting for the detachable form of cut-off, a peculiar arrange- 
ment of bell cranks and levers, that a satisfactory amount of 
acceleration could be given to the valves at the points of admission 
and cut-off, and this by angular motion only, and unencumbered 
by elaborate cut-off devices. 

6. This accelerated motion, combined with the advantage ob- 
tained by making the steam valves triple ported, produced a more 
satisfactory operation at higher speeds than was possible with the 
other devices, besides being absolutely noiseless in operation and 
requiring less care and attention for maintenance. 

7. This form of valve gearing being positive in action and de- 
pendent upon a variation of the travel for the different grades of 
expansion, made the use of the shaft governor possible, with all 
its accruing advantages of speeds and regulation. 

8. To secure successful and continuous service for long periods 
of operation the use of hardened valve gear pins and phosphor 
bronze boxes of ample proportion was essential, as well as the best 
material and workmanship obtainable. 

9. It was also important, in order to insure thorough lubrication 
over the long periods of operation as mentioned above, that the 
oiling be accomplished by automatic means, which is the case 
in this engine, all the bearings being thoroughly and efficiently 
lubricated by a system of self-lubricatijn which requires no atten- 
tion on the part of the operator, other than replenishing the oil 
at long intervals. 

10. The result of combining the features above mentioned has 
been the production of an engine possessing many important ad- 
vantages as the following record of the performance of a medium 
speed four-valve engine of this type will show. 

This is, I consider of unusual interest on account of the many 
unique features of the design, the somewhat unusual proportion 
of the cylinders and the exceptional results obtained. 

11. The engine was built by the Harrisburg Foundry & Machine 
Works, and is of the tandem compoimd style, directly connected 
to an electric generator for the purpose of furnishing power for the 
operation of paper mill machinery combined with electric lighting. 



FLEMIKO FOUR-VALVB ENGINE. 



217 



SPECIMEN CARDS* 
TEST AT FULL LOAD. 



FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 
Crank End 
80 Spring. M.E.P. 70 




Head End 

80 SPRiNa M.E.P. 69.8 





FROM L.P. CYLINDER 



Crank End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 9.6 



Head End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 9.8 



^ 




AmBank IhU C*.,lt.r. 



Pio. 



2ia 



FLEMING FOUB-VALYE ENGINE. 



SraOMEN CARDS* 
TEST AT ABOUT 1^ LOAD. 

FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 



Crank End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 77.4 




Head End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 73.4 




FROM LP. CYLINDER. 




Alkn, B.T. 



Head End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 10.8 





Fig. 68. 



^M. Ami Jhtt Ok JV. r. 



MJSMING FOUE-VALVE ENGINE. 



219 



Its nominal capacity is 500 horse-power at a speed of 150 
revolutions per minute, 150 pounds pressure at the throttle and 26 
inches vacuunL The cylinders are so proportioned as to give 
the high ratio of 1 to 7.33 following the style advocated by Mr. 
Geo. I. Rockwood, the general dimensions being given in table 
number one. 

12. No steam jackets are used, but a vertical tubular reheating 
receiver is placed in the steam passage between the two cylinders, 
steam being admitted to the high pressure cylinder through triple 
ported valves of the Corliss type working in chilled iron bushings, 
the governing being accomplished by a centrally balanced inertia 
shaft or wheel governor. This governor is so constructed that it 
is practically balanced in all positions, being made with two inertia 
arms, the centers of gravity of which move in harmony with each 
other about the center of rotation, the balancing feature avoiding 
surging or violent action under all conditions of operation. This 




90 lOO15O9OO88OaOO85O4OO45O6OO6SO0OO 
Indicated Horse Power 

^M.T. CURVE OF STEAM CONSUMPTION ^^w*<.a.jr.r. 

Fio. 64. 

<>perate9, by means of bell cranks, the steam admission valves 
of the high pressure cylinder only, and is so arranged as to de- 
crease the lead at the earliest point of cut-oflF. The steam valvea 
o' the low pressure cylinder are controlled by a fixed eccentric, 
^ arranged that the cut-oflF in that cylinder can only be varied 
^^n the engine is not running, and remains constant, imder all 
^^nditions of load and pressure. 

13. The exhaust valves of both cylinders are of the Corliss type 
operated by a single eccentric through the medium of a peculiar 
arrangement of rocker arms and bell cranks. 

14. In making the tests the water of condensation from the ex- 
haust was weighed at the discharge of the condenser, which was of 
the surface type. The steam used by the reheater was discharged 
from a trap and condensed in a coil and weighed, the quantities 
being included in the results given in the tables. 



3^ 



9LEMINO FOUR-TALVE EKOINS. 




FLEMING FOUR-TALVE ENGINE. 



221 




222 



VLBICINO FOUB-YALYB KNGINE. 



15. The steam was taken from the horizontal water tube boilers 
and contained from A to 1^ per cent, of moisture. 

The tests were made with about 160 pounds pressure at the 
throttle, with the exceptions of two, one of about f load with 
a pressure of about 130 poimds, and the other at a time when but 
a small portion of the mill was in operation. The load under the 
latter conditions being only about i the rated capacity of the en- 
gine, a pressure of about 90 pounds was being carried at this time. 

16. The trials were of rather short duration, but every precau- 
tion was taken to insure accuracy. The indicators, which were 
four in number, were attached with short pipes, one to each end of 
each cylinder, and operated by a positive pantograph motion with 
a light rod and short cord connections, the diagrams being taken 
at very close intervals. 

17. The speeds given are the average revolutions per minute ob- 
tained from the total, registered by a recording speed counter. 

TABLE I. 
Gbkeral Dimensions of Enginb. 

Higb pressure cylinder, diameter 15 incbefl. 

Low " ** *' 40i " 

Stroke 27 *• 

Diameter piston rod, H.-P 2H " 

44 u it T pjCrankend « ** 

^••*^|Head " 3H •' 

Batio of areas of cylinders 1 to 7.88 

Clearance H. -P. cylinder : SM% 

L. P. " 4.67% 

Constant for 1 lb. M. E. P. and one revolution H..P. cylinder. .0237 

«i «« «4 tt t< <( "LP ** .174 

18. Table 11. is a condensed report of the general results ob- 
tained under the varying conditions of load and pressure, as fol- 
lows: — 

TABLE n. 





II 


P 


II 


m 


H 

a 9 

O M 
^1 


If 


iF^ 


& 


|2||i| 


Test at about | 
load 


2 
8 
2 
5 
2 


155.18 
151.25 
152.88 
150.00 
148.89 


89.72 
129.9 
149.4 
152.0 
158.0 


26.5 
26.0 
26.0 
25 9 
25.5 


44.84 
167.78 
176.19 
249.96 
267.24 


42.78 
153.81 
172.09 
251.59 
286.25 


87.07 
821.54 
348.28 
501.55 
558.49 


14.42 


Test at about t 
load 


18.59 


Test at about ^^ 
load 


12.83 


Test at about 
full.rated load 

Test at about lj\. 
load 


12.66 
12.73 







FLEMING FOUR-VALYB BKOINB. 




FRICTION CARDS. 
FROM H.P. CYLINDER. 



Crank End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 8.6 



Head End 

80 SPRiNa M.E.P. 6. 




FROM LP. CYLINDER. 

Crank End 

20 Spring. M.E.P. 0.5 



K 



Head End 
20 Spring. 



M.E.P. 1.1 




Frioxion cards taken with brushes on commutator and fields excited. 

Total horse-power 37.67 or about 7.6^ of rated load of 600 H.P. 

Combined efficiency of unit about 86.4 at full load. 



Aamm,M.T, 



jM.j0iaA(tCu^.r. 



Fxo. 67. 



224 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVB £KOIKE. 



OVERLOAD CARDS. 



FROM H.P. CYUNDER. 

Crank End 

80 Spring. M.E.P. 82.0 




Head End 

80 SPRiNa M.E.P. 87.4 




FROM LP. CYLINDER 




Average horse-power h.p. cylinder 295.09 

" " " L.P. " 330.42 

Total horse-power 625.61 
Fie. 68. 



• ck.,if.r. 



PLBMIKG FOmt-VALVB ENGINE. 225 

19. Figs. 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63 are the indicator diagrams taken 
throughout the tests, the cards in every case being those repre- 
senting the average load for the complete run. Fig. No. 64 is the 
diagram of efficiency or steam consumption curve. 

Fig. No. 65 is of the diagrams from -h load combined, the cards 
being from the crank end of the cylinders. 

Fig. No. 66 is the combination of the diagrams from the 
full load test, the cards being taken from, the head end of the 
cylinders. 

20. These combinations are made from the cards shown in Figs. 
61 and 62, and are accompanied by tables giving the measurements 
taken from the diagrams. The perfection with which the cards 
from the W load match the theoretical expansion curve, is worthy 
of note. This feature, however, is not so well carried out on the 
combined card of the full load. Fig 66. 

21. I considered it of interest to add Figs. No. 67 and 68 also. 
The former gives the diagrams obtained from the engine when 
rumiing the dynamo, without doing any work, excepting the fric- 
tion of the combined unit. The latter, Fig. 68, showing a set of 
diagrams obtained under an over-load of about 25 per cent. 

No steam consumption tests were made under these loads, the 
cards simply serving to show the steam distribution under these 
conditions. 

22. A comparison of the results obtained at the different loads 
re?eals some very interestng features; a very important one being 
the slight difference in the quantity of steam consumed per in- 
dicated horse-power per hour under the various conditions of load 
and steam pressure ; representing a curve of economy closely ap- 
proximating a straight line. This will be seen by reference to 
the diagram of efficiency. The difference between the highest 
and lowest steam consumption being only 2.09 pounds. 

23. It will also be noticed that the distribution of work between 
the two cylinders is nearly uniform under all loads, up to the rated 
capacity, after which the tendency is for the low pressure cylinder 
to do the greater proportion. 

24. As before stated, there is no variation of the point of cut-off 
in the low pressure cylinder, the setting of the valves remaining 
the same during the complete series of tests; and it may be that 
the throttling action of the governor by decreasing the lead and 
initial pressure in the high pressure cylinder under the light loads, 
contributed largely to the imif ormity of the results. 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 227 

25. It will also be noticed that the best economy was obtained at 
about three-quarters load; this I consider due to the fact that the 
reheater was sufficiently large to superheat the steam passing to 
the low pressure cylinder up to this point. On the load being 
increased some accumulation of water was noticeable in the gauge 
glass, which would after a time evaporate and pass through the 
low pressure cylinder. This failure of the reheater to perform 
its proper functions on the increased loads, is clearly indicated 
in Fig. 66, and in all probability had some tendency to impair 
the efficiency of the apparatus under heavy loads. 

26. In conclusion, therefore, it seems apparent that on account 
of this particular test and from others corroborating it, made at 
other times, the following more important and rather new prin- 
ciples are fairly established : 

First: That as a prime mover the elaborate dash pot or other 
accelerated cut-off devices used in present Corliss Engine practice 
are unnecessary complications and unwarranted when comparing 
results. 

Second: That the centrally balanced, direct-acting fly wheel 
device serves its purpose to better advantage than the indirect fly 
ball governor. 

Third: That there is better warrant for shorter strokes and 
moderately high speeds than for longer strokes and resultant 
lower speeds, notwithstanding the element of clearances. 

Fourth: That self -lubrication without additional apparatus re- 
quiring attention to secure it, enters as an improvement in net 
efficiency, to say nothing regarding maintenance. 

Fifth: That an engine of the described design, although of 
marked improvement in point of simplicity will rather exceed 
than equal the more elaborate practice heretofore established at 
normal load and excels comparable prime movers in a marked de- 
gree where the work is of a widely fluctuating character. 

Sixth: That considering a resulting decrease in the cost of 
foundations, building, floor space, and, in electric practice, gener- 
ators, due to better speeds, the design described determines its 
importance from the standpoint of investment. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. R. C, Carpenter. — The results of the tests of the Fleming 
4-valve engine described in Mr. Allen's paper show very creditable 



228 FLEMING FOUR-VALVE EKOtKB. 

results compared with an engine of similar dimensions operating at 
the relatively high speed of 150 revolutions per minute. I consider 
it doubtful, however, if the tests cited are sufficient to establish 
a water rate for ordinary cases as uniform as that shown under 
the peculiar conditions of the various tests cited. The tests show 
four results obtained when the engine carried a load more than 
five-eighths of its rating, and a single test when the engine was 
loaded to only one-sixth part of its rating; this single test, when 
plotted with the results obtained for higher loads, forms a nearly 
horizontal curve, as shown in Fig. 64 of the paper, and indicates a 
remarkable uniformity of steam consumption for wide variations 
in loading. By computing the total steam used per hour and con- 
structing a curve with total indicated horse power as abscisssB 
and total weight of steam as ordinates, some interesting relations 
are shown which are not developed in the paper. 

The total indicated horse power and total steAm per hour 
are shown in the following table: 





Total steam per hoar. 






Lb$. 


Lb: 


87.07 


1255.5 


89.72 


821.54 


4869.7 


129.9 


848.28 


4294.8 


149.4 


601.55 


6849.6 


152.0 


558.49 


7046.9 


158.0 



The curve showing the relation between total steam per hour 
and total power developed is, as shown by the diagram, Fig. 70, 
which is noted, practically a straight line, A By which can be rep- 
resented approximately by the equation 

Total steam per hour = 200 -h 12.3 (H. P.) 

from which we find 

Steam per I. H. P. per hour = tt-^o "^ l^-'* 

H. Jr. 

I have plotted a great many engine tests in this manner, and 
have found that an engine controlled by a throttling governor 
invariably gives a straight line curve, which fact I think was first 
pointed out by Mr. H. H. Willans of England, and has sometimes 
been characterized as Willans' Law. On the other hand, an en- 
gine controlled by an automatic governor has for its characteristic 
a curved line approximating that shown in dotted lines C D E in 
the figure submitted. 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 



229 



The governor used on the Fleming engine was of the automatic 
type, but the tests which were submitted were made with differ- 
ent steam pressures; consequently the general effect of the tests 
with light loads would approximate that obtained with a throttling 

































8000 


























I B 


























/, 


/ 




























,^ 




























/ 








gtooo 

n 




















) 


























/ 


V 










|gooo 
















> 


/ 


























/ 














o 






• 








//^ 


> 














•^4000 
snon 












A 


'/ 
























y 


^/ 


























> 


/ 




Bela 


lonb 

9 


tweei 
idLH 


ToU 
P.de 


Steal 
reIop« 


a per 


lour 




flOOO 








/ 


























/ 








Toto 


Steal 


iper 


lOUT" 


-aoo+ 


12J(L 


i.PO 




1000 

c 




/ 



























// 


/ 








Stei 


mpei 


LH.P 


perl 


our— 


^ 


4-12^ 




A 


/ 





























100 



900 



VJfcC 



800. 400 

Total LH.P. 

Fig. 70. 



600 



000 



governor applied to the high-pressure cylinder, i.e., a low .steam 
pressure would give a later cut-off than would have been experi- 
enced had the pressure been high. This, in my opinion, accounts 
for the fact that in the curve which I submit the result of the test 
with the low load falls in a right line with the other tests. While 
this is purely accidental, it has the effect of making the steam 



230 FLEMING FOUK-VALVE ENGINE. 

consumption less at a light load than would have been the case 
had the steam pressure been maintained at 150 pounds for the 
entire series of tests. 

It is my impression that with a constant steam pressure, this 
engine will show about the same variation in steam consumption 
per unit of power as the Corliss engines or other good engines of 
the automatic type. 

Mr. RocJcwood. — ^It appears that the purpose of this paper, as 
stated in paragraph 1, is not quite the same thing as the impres- 
sion gained by reading it. New principles of design are claimed, 
but none is described; and while a novel form of positively-driven 
Corliss valve gear is hinted at, its details are not given, and the 
feeling of the reader is that the author is claiming broadly, as 
a novelty, the use of the shaft governor as a means of controlling 
the cut-off valves. The same thing may be said of the references 
to the use of a system of automatic lubrication. Also, the 
" efficiency ^' — ^if by that is meant economy of steam — ia mis- 
takenly claimed to exceed that of other stationary 4-valve en- 
gines of the high ratio compound type, especially with variable 
loads, for the best performance of this engine is more than one 
pound of steam per indicated horse power per hour in excess of 
fhe best recorded performance of a high ratio compound engine 
of the odinary slow-speed Corliss type. I think, therefore, that 
the claims of paragraph 26 — ^with the possible exceptions of the 
second and the sixth— &hovld be omitted, and that the construc- 
tion which it was the stated object of the paper to describe should 
actually be described fully, instead of merely hinted at. These 
strictures have reference rather to the form and claims of the 
paper than to the engine itself, about which enough is made clear 
to excite one's interest and, possibly, one's approval of its pecul- 
iarities, _ 

The chief thing about the design of this engine which, broadly 
considered, is still unusual is tfie use of the high cylinder ratio. 
It is now about twelve^ years since the first slow speed compound 
stationary engine with an exaggerated cylinder ratio was built 
and tested. The results were published in Volume XHI. of the 
Transactions. The accuracy of these tests and their sufficiency 
to prove the superior value of the high ratio over the common 
ratio of three or four to one was not at once believed by many 
prominent engineers, for the reason that the general theory of 
the steam engine seemed to them to be against the possibility of 



FLEMING FOUH-VALVE ENGINE. 231 

the truth of any such results. At that time the best acknowledged 
performance of the compound engine was between 14 and 15 
pounds per indicated horse power per hour, and even those re- 
ports of triple-expansion pumping-engine tests, wherein was 
claimed a steam consumption of between 12 and 13 pounds, were 
at first considered to be little better than " fairy tales." \t at 
that time an engineer had reported to this Society a paper like the 
one we are now considering, he would have been received with 
entire incredulity if not with scorn. 

A distinguishing characteristic of these high ratio compounds 
is the phenomenon of drop. It was believed then, as it is now, 
that drop entails a loss of work by free expansion; and, without 
going further into the total effect of its use than that, there was a 
singular and unanimous determination on the part of all writers 
on the steam engine to discourage the toleration of any drop 
whatever in compound engines. The fact is now, however, ap- 
preciated that the high ratio compound is much more economical 
at light loads than is the engine with a low cylinder ratio, and 
the tests submitted in the paper are a further proof of this. The 
history of the progress of the high ratio idea is interesting, for it 
bears on the question of how much drop is desirable. Between 
1885 and 1890 several large steamers of the Ley land line had 
their old style compound engines, which used steam at 90 pounds 
boiler pressure, converted into high ratio compounds with steam 
at 150 pounds pressure. The new engines of the steamship ^^ Alge- 
rian," for instance, were found on trial to equal the economy 
of triple-expansion engines of the same power. Cut-off occurred, 
however, at the unusually early point of one-quarter of the stroke 
in regular operation, with the result that these engines worked 
with no more drop than is usual in marine engines of the triple- 
expansion type cutting off at three-quarters of the stroke, as such 
engines generally do or even at a later cut-off. 

But this system of so altering old ships received something of 
a setback in 1892, when a test was made on the steamship 
"Iveagh," both with and without the use of the intermediate 
cylinder. The actual figures obtained on these trials showed a 
saving of coal of 30 per cent. Although these tests seemed on the 
face of the matter to be fair comparative tests, the engines and 
boiler pressure being identical in both cases, yet in reality they 
ouly proved what might have been anticipated, that in the high 
ratio compound very excessive drop — such as where there is prac- 



233 FLEMING FOUR-VALVB ENGINE. 

tically no expansion in either cylinder before release — is very 
wasteful. It does not do, in other words, to have all the expan- 
sion take place in the receiver. In the case of the " Iveagh " the 
drop was more than three times what it was on the engines of 
the " Algerian,'' being as much as 100 pounds. 

On the other hand, a reasonable amount of drop is accom- 
panied by a distinct net gain of economy at all loads. This is 
because the waste of heat resulting in all engines from condensa- 
tion of steam and its subsequent reevaporation at the moment 
of release, without the performance of work, is undeniably re- 
duced. In the stationary 4-valve type of engine, the amount of 
drop in high ratio compounds is of small extent compared with 
what took place in the engines of the "Iveagh''; it never ex- 
ceeds 30 pounds, and usually is from 15 to 25 pounds, and hence 
these engines do remarkably economical work, and there are in 
operation this minute — as the result, I believe, of the publication 
of the tests referred to in Volume XIII. — several hundre4 thou- 
sand horse power of them. 

The theory upon which the engines of the " Algerian '' were 
designed was, evidently, a wrong one. It was thought that the 
increased waste due to cylinder condensation, which the greater 
range in pressure permitted in the first cylinder, would be ob- 
viated by preventing the increased temperature range naturally 
accompanying it by the introduction between the two cylinders 
of a cylinder containing a spiral sheet of copper, and called a 
" heat retainer." This device was actually fitted to several 
steamers before the absurdity of it became apparent by actual 
thermometer tests. Nevertheless, had the designers and owners 
of those engines not fully expected that the natural increase in 
the range in temperature, due to the enlarged range in pressure 
in the high-pressure cylinder, would have been nullified by its 
agency, they would have abandoned the high ratio idea without 
experiment. My idea, on the other hand, was and is, that there 
would be no increase in cylinder condensation due to the omis- 
sion of an intermediate cylinder, and that moreover there would 
be certain practical gains eflFected by fattening the combined dia- 
gram. 

It is of interest to compare the performance of the Leavitt 
pumping engine at the Chestnut Hill Reservoir, Boston, with 
that of the high ratio Cooper Corliss compound mill engine at 
Providence, R. I. With identical boiler pressures, ratios of ex- 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 

pansion and degrees of vacuums the steam consumptions per in- 
dicated horse power per hour were also identical, or 11.2 pounds. 

I can corroborate the straight line shown for steam consump- 
tion at variable loads out of my own experience. I should, I con- 
fess, Uke to see some proof that on this short stroke engine the 
low-pressure clearance does not exceed 4.6 per cent. I have never 
seen a Corliss engine that would give less than 6 per cent, to 7 per 
cent, clearance even with relatively much longer strokes. Also, 
while the design of this engine looks, in the illustration, prac- 
tical and satisfactory, I cannot see that it is any less complicated 
than if it had dash pots and a fly-ball governor. I believe that 
other things being equal except the speed of rotation — that is, 
with the same piston speed — the long-stroke engine will beat the 
short-stroke engine every time. Without doubt, however, the ad- 
vantage of the long stroke is small, and out of consideration of 
economy of first cost of all parts of the unit, the short stroke is 
to be preferred. 

Mr, C. V. Kerr. — ^I would also like to have the author give 
the data of that re-heater. If we had the square feet of heating 
surface in the re-heater, the pressure under which the steam is 
condensed, and the weight and temperature of the water con- 
densed, we could make some interesting calculations on the per- 
formance of this engine that we cannot make now with the data 
at hand. 

Mr, J. A. Seymour. — ^I wish to take exception to the conclu- 
sions reached in the paper concerning the advantage of a short 
stroke as regards economy. I have found from the results of a 
series of tests with engines, varying in stroke from 24 to 66 
inches, but otherwise similar in all respects, that a moderately 
long stroke means a very considerable gain in economy as com- 
pared with a short stroke, such as that of the engine described 
by Mr. Allen, and that with p, further increase in stroke beyond 
a certain point, the *gain becomes much less. That as good 
economy cannot be obtained with engines of short stroke as with 
those of moderately long stroke is recognized generally by en- 
gineers having experience with both types. The remarks just 
made by Mr. Rockwood show that he has found this to be so. 

I have mentioned this series of tests, which were made in vari- 
ous locations, with and without superheating receivers, some with 
saturated and some with superheated steam, and in each case 
conducted jointly by purchaser and builder to determine as to 



284 FLEMING FOUE-VALVE ENGINE. 

fulfilment of contract guarantees, merely because engines of 
identical style and make are seldom built with such widely vary- 
ing strokes and these tests, therefore, the results of which are all 
very consistent, aflFord an unusually good basis of comparing the 
effect which length of stroke has upon the economy of an engine. 

While I agree in regard to the advantage of higher rotative 
speeds, I think the paper is wrong in its conclusions concerning 
the economy to be secured with short strokes, and that the results 
given need confirmation. 

Mr, Allen.* — There are some of these questions which have been 
asked that are pretty hard for me to make reply to at once. But 
first I wish to make a few remarks in corroboration of the results 
given in this particular test. Some two or three years ago I was 
called upon to make a series of tests upon a pair of engines which 
"were of the same design exactly as this engine. This pair of en- 
gines was running at a speed of 225 revolutions per minute; the 
steam pressure was 125 at the throttle; the vacuum was about 
26 inches, and the rated capacity was 300 horse power. It did not 
have any reheating receiver or any steam jackets. I think I can 
recollect, at least approximately, the figures obtained, and I will 
cite them. On the test made at one-quarter load, the results were 
18.43 pounds. On the tesl made at one-half load, the results were 
17.45 pounds. On the test made at three-quarter load, the results 
were 14.97 pounds. On the test made at about the full rated load 
of 300 horse power, the result was 15.22 pounds, and on the 25 
per cent, over load 15.33 pounds. These figures represent the 
actual weight of feed water pumped into the boilers and without 
any corrections for moisture. If you will compare the figures 
given, the highest and lowest, you will notice that in this case also 
the difference is only about 3.46 pounds. The ratio of this engine 
was 1 to 5^. It had a high-pressure cylinder of 13 inches. Low 
pressure thirty and five thirty-secondths, and the stroke was 17^ 
inches, running at a speed of 225 revolutions per minute. I have 
made other tests of this particular type of engine which cor- 
roborate the tests made in this paper. 

With reference to the remarks of Professor Carpenter regard- 
ing the variation in steam pressure, I wish to say that the gov- 
ernor is so arranged on the shaft of this engine that by giving it a 
certain amount of angular advance, the lead, as the paper states, 

* Author's closure, under the Rules. 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 235 

is reduced at the earlier points of the cut-oflF. If you will measure 
the initial pressure given on the card of the sixth load in this paper, 
you will notice that it is far from being 90 pounds in the cylinder, 
and that the throttling action is very apparent. 

It has been my experience that this same engine running with a 
higher pressure does not give any higher initial pressure in the 
cylinder on the light loads than it would if the pressure at the 
throttle were low. So that, outside of the fact that there is a little 
more heat in the steam chest, I do not believe that the higher pres- 
sure would have made any difference in the result. 

Mr. Kent asked for further data regarding the design of the 
engine. I will add that to the paper before it is finally published. 

Regarding the clearance, the valves of this engine are of rather 
peculiar construction, and I really do not think that the engine 
can be compared with a Corliss engine — that is, not in the same 
sense that the discussion seems to imply. The clearance between 
the low-pressure piston and the head was only about one-eighth of 
an inch. The head was turned and polished, as also was the piston, 
on both sides, the crank end being cast in solid. The percentage 
of clearance given is that percentage which has been carefully 
calculated from the drawing and checked up by two or three dif- 
ferent persons. 

Regarding the condenser, this was of the surface type — I can- 
not remember the name of it. It was operated independently of 
the engine. There was no test made of the amount of steam con- 
sumed by the condenser. 

With reference to the reheater, steam direct from the boiler 
was passed through the reheater and carried off by means of a 
trap. I am sorry to say that through an error on the part of the 
man looking after the water coming from this reheater, he neg- 
lected to take the temperature of it. So I cannot give you that 
<J«ta, but the weights I am absolutely certain are correct; that is, 
the weghts of water consumed by the reheater. These I have in 
the original tests, but not in this paper. That data of course I 
could put in the final printed matter also. 

In response to numerous requests for more complete details of 
the construction and further information of the test of the 4-valve 
engine, which was the subject of my paper, I have considered it 
advisable to add the drawing Fig. 71, showing cross section of 
valves and cylinders, and Fig. 72 showing the plan and elevation 
of the engine in detail. 



286 



FLEMING FOCB-VALVE ENGINE. 




FLEMINO FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 



237 




238 



FLEMING FOUE-VALVE ENGINE. 



The drawing of the cylinders, Fig. 71, was made for a smaller 
engine, but the design and construction of the valves is the same 
as on the engine from which the test was made. 

It will be noticed on referring to this cross sectional drawing, 




Fig. 73. 



that the steam valves of the high-pressure cylinders operate in re- , 
movable cast-iron bushings, as described in the paper, and that the 
ports are arranged in such a manner that the three edges are 
opened at one time. This arrangement of triple ports combined 
with the rapid angular motion, obtained from the use of the 
peculiar arrangement of bell cranks, gives a very quick ad- 
mission and cut-off. The use of the bushings gives a ready means 
of renewal when repairs are necessary, as the cages can simply be 



FLEMING POUR-VALVE ENGINE. S39 

removed and new ones forced in, in a very short time, obviating 
the necessity of boring out the holes as must be done in the case 
of the Corliss engine. 

The steam valves of the low-pressure cylinder are also triple 
ported, but have a different arrangement of steam passage and 
do not operate in bushings. We do not consider this necessary in 
this cylinder, as the valves are constantly working at the same 
travel, insuring thorough lubrication, and as the surfaces are large, 
the amount of wear is very slight after years of operation. 

The exhaust valves in both cylinders are single ported, the 
valves being virtually plug cocks which close in such a manner as 
to eliminate entirely the space inside the valve from the clearance 
volume^ The valves of the high-pressure cylinders are operated 
by means of our centrally balanced inertia governor, which is 
clearly shown by Fig. 73. This governor is the same as is used 
on all engines of the Fleming system. 

The steam valves of the low-pressure cylinder are opei*ated by 
means of an independent eccentric, which is practically fixed to 
the shaft, but has a point of suspension similar to that used on the 
governor, and is arranged with a screw by means of which it can 
be moved across the shaft, and the point of cut-off varied in the 
low-pressure cylinder without changing the lead. This can be 
done only while the engine is not in motion. 

The eccentric next to the main bearing controls the exhaust 
valves in both high and low-pressure cylinder, by means of a 
peculiar combination of rocker arms. These rocker arms are all 
made of opeii hearth steel castings, and those which operate the 
steam valves are keyed to the shaft at each end next to the rocker 
shaft bearings. 

This shaft has a running fit in two bearings attached to a 
bracket which is bolted to the side of the bed. Between these 
two rocker arms at the extreme end of the shaft is located the 
rocker arm which connects to the steam valves of the low-pres- 
sure cylinder, also the rocker arm which operates the exhaust 
valves of both cylinders. These rocker arms run loose on the 
shaft and are babbitted inside the hole to avoid cutting. They 
are also provided with large bronze adjusting shoes to take up 
the wear at this point. 

All the pins used throughout the valve gearing, and in fact 
on the whole engine, are made of steel, case hardened and ground, 
and the connections in the valve gearing are of phosphor bronECj 



240 FLEMING FOtm-VAtVE ENGINE. 

provided with means of adjustment so that wear can be taken up 
without removing the rods from their pins. All the bell cranks 
and valve arms are made amply strong of malleable iron to guard 
against possible breakage. 

There is a disconnecting valve for each pair of valves where 
the reach rod connects to each set of bell cranks. This discon- 
necting device is arranged in such a manner that by simply 
throwing a lever, a cam is disengaged from the rod, which is then 
free to move through the pin connected to the bell crank, so that 
by means of a starting bar each pair of valves can be readily 
tried before the engine is turned over under steam. 

The valve gearing is most substantial throughout, all the parts 
being exceptionally large and heavy. The brackets of the steam 
valves are connected together with links and ream-fitted bolts 
in such a manner that the two steam brackets of each cylinder 
form a rigid truss and are made to distribute the strain in an 
admirable manner. 

The same system of self lubrication is used on these engines 
as is used on all the Fleming engines. The cylinders are neatly 
covered with cast iron lagging, ground and polished. The space 
between being filled with the best quality of non-conducting 
material. The connection between the high- and low-pressure 
cylinder is arranged in halves, and attached to the cylinders by 
means of cap bolts, so that in case it is necessary to examine the 
interior of the low-pressure cylinder the connection can be readily 
removed, thus allowing ample room to move back the head and 
examine the cylinder or make adjustments to the pi^on. 

The piston of the low-pressure cylinder has a bull ring of the 
phosphor bronze type, which is arranged in such a manner that 
in case of wear the piston rod can easily be raised. The use of 
phosphor bronze in the bull ring has proven very satisfactory 
and insures long wear without cutting. 

The drawing of the plan and elevation of the engine, Fig. 72, 
shows more clearly the style and construction of the valve gearing 
than does the cut. Fig. 69, in the paper read before the Society, 
which cut was made from a photograph of the engine. 

In order to show more clearly the arrangement of the re-heat- 
ing receiver and its connections on this particular engine, I have 
considered it of interest to add drawing. Fig. 74, which is a 
foundation plan of this particular engine. 

It will be noticed that the re-heating receiver is of the vertical 



FLEMING FOUR-VALVE ENGINE. 



241 



h- =^'8-- 




•-^8 Tii^"* — .T^T^sr** 



O 

M 



£48 PLEMIKG FOUB-VALVE ENOIKE. 

type. It was built by the Wheeler Surface Condenser Co., and 
contains a series of vertical tubes, one inside the other, arranged 
after the manner usual in the constniction of their surface con- 
densers. 

This re-heating receiver contains 250 square feet of heating 
surface, and the writer is of the opinion that the falling off of 
the economy on the full load is largely due to the fact that this 
surface was insufficient for this size engine. The amount repre- 
sents about i square foot to the horse power at the rated capacity 
of the engine. 

In reply to question asked by Mr. C. V. Kerr with reference 
to the re-heater. The steam entered the re-heater at 150 pounds 
pressure, and was taken therefrom by means of a Bundy trap 
and passed through a coil of pipe immersed in a tank which was 
constantly running full of cold water. This tank was placed 
above another tank on a pair of scales, so that when the trap dis- 
charged its contents, all the steam passing through the re-heater 
was allowed to flow into the tank on the scales where it was 
weighed. 

As mentioned by the writer, there was no temperature taken 
of this water, but it is fair to say that it was not above 100 degrees. 

The amount of water used by the re^heater under the different 
loads given in the table of the test Xo. 2 of my paper is as follows: 

Test at i lo id. steam used per I. H. P. per hour 1.26 lb8. 

(t «( i i. .« .< .• *t •« <» "f oi •« 

B J. *»» 

«f «i T. «. 4» <* •< it it .. 02 " 

** "full ** '• ** ** .54 " 

tt tt^^i^ it tt .« *i .. .1 *. 54 u 

Referring to remarks made during the discussion in which ex- 
ception was taken to the conclusions reached in the paper concern- 
ing the advantage of the short stroke engine as regards economy, 
the writer would say that he has been called upon to make tests 
of a great number of engines similar to the one described in the 
pajK^r, and it is fair to say that, in each and every case, he has 
found the economy to exceed that of the Corliss engine, either 
medium or long stroke, under similar conditions. 

The results cited by the writer on the engine of 300 horse- 
power, with a stroke of 17^ inches, speed 225 revolutions per 
minute, were at most economical points less than 15 pounds, with 
125 pounds of steam and 25 inches vacuum and without any 
re-heating receiver. 



FLEMING FOUH-VALVB KNOINB. 343 

The writer has also in mind another test which he was called 
upon to make on a simple four valve engine of this type, size 
15 X 15; speed, 180 revolutions; horse-power, 135; steam pressure, 
120 pounds at the throttle, non-condensing. The results obtained 
from this engine were 23.4 pounds per indicated horse power per 
hour, which is as good as the best obtained from either long or 
medium stroke Corliss machine or other engines of similar design. 
Referring to Professor Carpenter's part of the discussion: 
the writer's experience has been that, with the governor advanced 
as is done on the Fleming four valve engine (thus decreasing the 
lead to zero at the lighter loads), in controlling the speed of the 
engine, the initial pressure must be throttled as the steam enters 
the high-pressure cylinder, especially on the light loads; if this 
were not the case the engine would run away, therefore the 
lighter the load the less the initial pressure in the cylinder. This 
is true no matter what the pressure is at the throttle, so had all 
the tests been made with the same pressure at the throttle, in the 
writer's opinion the results could not have varied greatly. The 
engine carries a certain load at a certain speed, and as the regula- 
tion is very close for all changes of load, the initial pressure is cut 
• down in order to maintain a speed practically constant under 
varying loads. 

Referring to Mr. Rockwood's remarks during the discussion, 
the clearance in the low-pressure cylinder of this engine was 
determined, as mentioned by the writer, by carefully calculating 
the volumes from drawings. 

The pistons ran \vithin about ^ inch of the cylinder head. The 
work of calculating this clearance was very carefully done and 
was gone over by several different people, so that the writer is 
confident that the calculations are correct. 

A reference to the cross sectional drawing, Fig. 71, will show 
that the valves lay very close to the cylinder, and that there is no 
clearance in the exhaust valves at all, they being single ported, 
and the only portion of the steam valves which entered the clear- 
ance is the narrow part through the valve. 

It will be remembered in the ordinary form of Corliss exhaust 
valve there is quite an amount of space in the valve which must 
be taken into the clearance, this possibly has something to do 
with the comparatively small amount of clearance in the cylinder 
of this type and stroke as compared with what can usually be 
obtained with a Corliss form of valve. 



214 FLEMING FOUR-YALYE ENGINE. 

The claims made in the paper regarding the economy of the 
engine are intended to mean that the net efficiency of an engine 
of this type is higher than can be obtained from the long-stroke, 
slow-speed engine, because of the combination of low steam con- 
sumption per horse power; more perfect regulation on account 
of the use of the shaft governor; economy of oil on account of 
self lubrication^ reduced amount of floor space and foundation 
as compared with the slow speed engine, and if direct connected 
very much reduced cost of generator on account of the high 
rotative speed. 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 245 



No. 1093.* 

A COMPACT CAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 

BT O. B. MOBOAM, WOROSSTKR, MASS. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. Having had an experience of 35 years in the manufacture 
and u.se of gas-producers and producer-gas, it has been the pleasure 
of the writer to feel something of the possible future of the gas 
engine and to endeavor to add something to its development and 
perfection. 

2. This has been done collaterally to other and more pressing 
demands but always with unabated confidence and interest. 

3. In common with others the enormous gaseous wastes of the 
blast furnace and coke ovens has been a tempting field for re- 
search and exploitation. Our esteemed fellow member, Mr. H. 
H. Campbell, in his " Manufacture and Properties of Iron and 
Steel," strikingly calls attention to the fact that while the blast 
furnace is primarily a producer of iron, it is a gigantic gas pro- 
ducer as well.f 

4. Like the dependence of the steam engine upon its boiler for 
uniformity and quality of steam so is that of the gas engine upon 
the producer for suitable gas. Nor is such gas easily obtained. 
Blast furnace and producer gas, especially the former, contain 
large amounts of dust which comes from the ores, limestone and 
ash, and which is driven out with the blast. This dust has been the 
bete noir of the gas engineer in attempted utilization of the gas. 
Clogging the checker work and flues when used for reheating, 
impeding combustion when burned under boilers, and cutting and 

♦ Pres«»nted at the New York meeting; (December, 190S) of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
Tramaetiom, 

f Mr. CampbeU has made a valaable suggestion in his ** MetaUurgj of Iron 
and Steel." (See page 1*24.) He says : ** It is quite possible that the exhaust 
inifleB from the jras engine can 1>e profitably employed to heat the blast in the 
stoves of the blast furnace.'.* 



246 



A COMPACT GAS EXGINE: BEAM 1T?E. 




^ 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 



247 



grinding vital parts of the machine when used in gas engines. 
Various devices for " washing " or eliminating the dust have 
been devised, when, in the year 1900, German engineers discov- 




FiG. 76. 



ered the value of passing the gas through a simple centrifugal 
fan blower injected with a small spray of water. The result has 
been exceedingly promising and when perfected will don bf less 
solve the troublesome problem. 



248 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 




2 
£ 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE.* BEAM TYPE. 



249 



5. This en^ne, as illustrated in this paper, operates on the 
two-cycle principle with an explosion at every downward stroke 
of the piston. Two compressors, one for gas and one for air, 
furnish the engine with its charges of gas and air, and provide air 
for scavenging. The exhanst is through ports in the cylinder 
which are uncovered by the piston near the end of its downward 





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FiQ. 78. 



s>troke; thus avoiding the use of water-cooled exhaust valves and 
the mechanism which would be required to operate them. It can 
abo be operated on the four-cycle system by slight changes. 

6. The engine herein describeil has been designed with special 
reference to the use of such blast furnace and producer gases, 
the working beam type of engine and bent lever beam have been 
chosen for the following reasons: — 

7. It allows the cylinders to be placed upright, the balancing of 
the pistons and their connecting rods; it subjects the cylinder 



250 



A COMl'AOT GAS ENGINE: BEAU TYPE. 




A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 251 

walls to much less pressure from the pistons, reducing the fric- 
tion to a minimum. During the first half of the working stroke 
the average pressure of the piston on the walls of the cylinder 
is 100 pounds per square foot of surface. Figure 78 shows 
dia^ammatically a striking comparison between the beam 
type of engine and the ordinary horizontal type with trunk piston 
direct connected to crank shaft. Two cases of the latter type are 
illustrated, one with the connecting rod of a length of 5 and the 
other 6 cranks respectively. The abscissse represent points in 
the working stroke while the ordinates represent total pressures 
in pounds on the cylinder wall due to the angularity of the con- 
necting rods. The distance between each of the horizontal cross 
lines is equivalent to 1,000 pounds, and the distance between the 
vertical cross lines to two inches of piston stroke. 

8. The bent lever beam also gives us the least pressure against 
the walls of the cylinder during that part of the working stroke 
when there is the highest speed of the piston, and also facilitates 
the lubrication of the piston and the piston connecting rod pins. 

Compactness, 

9. The John Cockerill Co., of Seraing, Belgium, who were pio- 
neers in the construction of large gas engines using blast furnace 
gas, purpose exhibiting a 3,000 horse-power gas engine at the 
St. Louis Exposition in 1904. An official statement gives the 
floor space to be occupied by this engine as 85 feet x 45 feet 
(8,825 square feet). A pair of engines of the beam type arranged 
for blast furnace duty with a capacity of 3,000 brake horse-power, 
although of the same power as the Cockerill engine require a 
space of only 24 feet x 32 feet (768 square feet) one-fifth the 
space. 

10. Each of the inlet valves of the engine is a combination of the 
mushroom or poppet valve and cylindrical valves with ports for 
gas and air, all the valves being arranged on one stem. The 
cylindrical valves have radial partitions which facilitate the mix- 
ture of gas and air before entering the cylinder, thus securing 
prompt ignition at the first part of the working stroke and a cor- 
responding high efficiency. The air ports and poppet valves are 
o]>ened in advance of the gas ports so as to thoroughly scavenge 
the cylinder. Figure 79 shows the inlet valve in sec- 
tion in three characteristic positions. The left hand figure 
represents the valve closed, the central figure in a scavenging 



252 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 




Fio. 80. 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 253 

position and the right hand figure the position of the valve when 
fully open. The proportion of gas and air can be varied while 
the engine is running by rotating the valve slightly upon its axis 
by means of the handle shown in the illustration. 

11. The valve gear is of the releasing or Corliss type, with dash 
pots to secure quiet closing. The valve gear is operated directly 
from the working beam without eccentrics or cams, which reduces 
the lubrication and care usually required in steam and gas 
engines. Figure 80 shows the valve gear as adapted for use 
in a two-cylinder engine. The piston of the left hand cylinder 
has completed its downward stroke, the scavenge lever during the 
latter part of this stroke has raised the valve to the position 
shown in the illustration, which allows the trigger to engage with 
the valve slide and continue the raising of the valve, opening the 
gas ports, as the piston starts on its upward stroke. 

12. This trigger is under direct control of the governor which 
effects through its connections the tripping of this trigger at 
varying points in the stroke, as determined by the load on the 
engine. This tripping allows the valve to return to its seat, the 
dash pot preventing any shock due to closing. The right hand 
valve gear is shown in its highest position, the trigger having 
been tripped by the action of the governor. 

13. Each cylinder of the engine i-s provided with two ignition or 
spark plugs so that in case of failure the current can be s\vitched 
from one to the other without stopping the engine. The timing 
of the ignition, so that the spark may come before passing the 
center, at the center, or at any required part of the working 
stroke is accomplished by a movable disc which can be changed 
instantly to any required position when the engine is running at 
full speed. 

14. Fig. 75 sho^^s a two-cylinder engine of the beam type with 
two vertical single acting motor cylinders and one vertical double 
acting blowing cylinder of 1,600 brake horse-power. The con- 
necting rods work on the same crank pin and are at an angle of 
90 degrees, an arrangement of recognized merit. 

15. Fig. 76 represents the interior of a power station with over- 
head travelling crane. The group of engines shown is made up of 
units of 1,500 horse-power each, using blast furnace gas and 
arranged for furnishing blast for the furnaces. 

16. Fig. 77 shows an elevation partly in section of the engine 
without blowing tube. 



254 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAK TYPE. 



17. Fig. 81 is a connection diagram for a beam and a direct con- 
nected type of engine. It shows the amount of angularity of the 
connecting rods and the points in the stroke at which the angu- 
larity is a maximum. 

18. These then are the lines along which my efforts have been 




made. They are brought to the attention of the Society with the 
hope that they will give some measure of interest and enthusiasm 
in this highly important field. 

19. If the wastes of the old generation are the profits of the new 
then large dividends are waiting us in the squandering of the 
past. 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINB: BEAM TYPE. 255 

20. The fearful wastes of blast, and coke furnaces; the enormous 
power in them awaiting capture and control must impress any 
one at all sensitive to manufacturing economies. 

21. May this new motor assist in bringing quick subjection, har- 
ness a new and better power for the wants of man, and so obey 
the divine conmiand " to subdue and have dominion." 

22. In closing, the author desires to express his thanks to his 
assistant, Mr. A. J. Gifford. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof, S. A. Reeve, — I should like to refer to the statement made 
in the paper, quoting the remark of Mr. Campbell where he de- 
fines the gas-engine as " a cannon with its projectile fastened to 
the crank-shaft," * to say that that quotation voices a view of the 
inc?chanics of the gas-engine which I find to be quite common, 
and which I yet believe to be a totally mistaken view. The com- 
mon idea is that when a gas-engine piston starts upon its stroke 
a blow is struck against the crank-pin. Now we know, from 
our simplest forms of construction, such as the hammer, that 
there must be velocity of motion destroyed in order to develop 
a blow; but in the gas-engine there is no such thing. At the 
moment of explosion no motion is developed, to be destroyed 
in striking the blow, and hence there can be no impact. What 
lost-motion there may have been in the engine-connections has 
already been taken up by the compression of the charge, and 
when the explosion-pressure is formed in the cylinder it comes 
on the piston-head decidedly more gently than it does in the 
case of the steam-engine; because in the steam-engine, when the 
valve is opened, the steam rushes in at a very high velocity, there 
is motion, which is destroyed against the piston, and there is a 
blow struck. But in the gas-engine there is no such thing. The 
pressure is developed, without motion, directly upon the piston- 
head, and the only reason why we have trouble with main- 
bearings, etc., is the fact of the enormous pressure. I think that 
if we attempted to design steam-engines working, within a single 
cylinder, from 400 pounds per square inch of initial pressure 
down to atmospheric pressure we should meet with very much 
more trouble than is found in the gas-engine. 

* Bditob. — The Author omitted this from his paper in revising it. 



256 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE I BEAM TYPE. 



There is, thus, in gas-engines, a very great range of fluid- 
pressure during each stroke, and a corresponding need for allow- 
ance for it in designing them. This allowance, in Mr. Morgan's 
plan, has been accomplished by providing a very much increased 
weight of reciprocating parts, to take up, by its inertia, this 
excessive initial pressure. In addition to those parts present 
in the ordinary gas-engine: the piston and the primary, single- 
acting connecting-rod, there enters into this design the beam 
and the secondary, double-acting connecting-rod. In the first 
place, there are two pistons and primary rods, whereas the most 




Fig. 82. 

common design of gas-engine has only one of each. Secondly, 
the beam itself is quite a heavy piece of metal; but its moment 
of inertia is not so strikingly great as might appear at first sight 
to be the case; its radius of gyration is so small. Thirdly, the 
main connecting-rod does present a good deal of inertia, but no 
more so than any other connocting-rod for carrving the same 
amount of power. You ^v^ll note the parts on this diagram Fig. 77. 
The forces at work upon the different pins in the engine have 
been carefully worked out, and I can show you, from the results 
of this work, the uses of these inertia-forces for modifying the 
effective forces at work upon the crank-pin. They are displayed 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE! BEAM TYPE. 257 

in Fig. 82. At AB you see represented the center-lines of motion 
of the two pistons. AB h the axis of one cylinder; CD is the axis 
of the other. EF is the arc of motion for the first wrist-pin, and 
Gil is the other. Frpm an initial projected indicator card — which, 
I might say, was made the worst possible for the ends desired, 
with a perfectly vertical explosion-line rising to a peak some 
50 pounds per square inch higher than would usually or properly 
occur — was calculated the effect of the combined forces upon 
the different pins. You will notice that there is no reversal 
of the forces except at dead centers, and that the forces are 
very much more constant on the crank-pin than they are in the 
original fluid-action upon the pistons. 

The forces acting upon the main wrist-pin are shown by the 
curves KL. There is a very heavy initial force at the beginning 
of each stroke, but the peak shown there is more or less hypothet- 
ical in character and is much exaggerated over actual probability. 
During the rest of the stroke the pressure upon the pin, going in 
either direction, is fairly constant. 

The diagram at the right shows the final net resultant 
forces at work upon the crank-pin, at each ten-degree divi- 
sion of its revolution, including fluid-pressure, inertia of 
all parts and the weight of the main connecting-rod. 
Those forces coming to the pin along the conneeting-rod are 
shown by arrows in the direction of its axis. Compounded with 
them are the axial and vectoral inertia and the weight of the 
connecting-rod, to give the final resultant. In the diagram in 
the right hand upper corner are displayed the tangential effects 
of these same net resultants. In order to avoid confusion of 
lines their magnitude is displayed by radial arrows extending from 
the circumference outwardly; but their true direction is tangential, 
at the point whence the arrow rises. 

I think that it has been urged that engines of an explosive 
type having heavy reciprocating parts cannot be run at high 
piston-speeds. This engine has a piston-speed of 810 feet per 
minute; but to show what it would do at even higher piston- 
speeds I have had projected here by Mr. Gifford a diagram 
showing the effective forces upon the crank-pin under a piston- 
speed of 1,000 feet per minute (exhibiting Fig. 83). This peak 
at the beginning of the stroke is, as before, due to more or less 
hypothetical conditions of operation. At this point in the 
stroke the pressure upon the crank-pin becomes almost zero. 



258 



A COMPACT OAS engine: beam ttfe. 



This drop in pressure at this point might have been avoided by 
a modification in the design had it been one of the objects in 
view to attain a high piston-speed. Those o'rdinates, are marked 
off at 10,000-pound intervals. This diagram has been gotten up 
to show that an engine of this type, with a very heavy triangular 











































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beam and three connecting-rods, can be operated at a piston- 
speed at high as 1,000 feet per minute without any reversal of 
the forces acting upon the crank-pin, except at or near dead-center. 
Mr. B. H, Thwaite. — ^I had no idea that I should be called into 
a discussion on the subject of high power gas engines at this 
meeting. It has been impossible for me to read the paper that 
has been presented to you with the care it deserves; and, as I 
have promised your President that^ I would prepare a paper for 
your Society at your next meeting, I think you will perhaps 
appreciate what I have to say upon the subject of gas engines 
better if you wait until that time. Professor Reeve has already 
answered one of the main mistakes in this paper, namely, the 
impression that the gas engine is an explosive engine. It is 
nothing of the sort. In the early days of the free piston that 
statement might possibly have been correct. Xow we obtain with 
gas of 100 to 120 B. T. U. a card whicih is quite different, and one 
that produces a more satisfactory crank-turning effect. Instead of 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 259 

driving, direct on to the dead centre, I catch the maximum im- 
pulse about 20 degrees above the neutral line, giving remarkably 
good thermodynamic and uniform rotative results. The first 
card of the free piston engine using gas of 700 to 800 B. T. U., 
and no compression or dilution, does give the impression of an 
explosive engine, but now the modern gas engine is an essentially 
slow combustion one. 

I notice that Mr. Campbell makes a suggestion, in the foot- 
note of the first page of Mr. Morgan's paper, that '^ it is possible 
that exhaust gases from the gas engine can be profitably em- 
ployed to heat the blast in the stoves of the blast furnace." I 
think the thermal value of the exhaust gases is so low as not to 
be worth anything. In our engine it is not much above 450 
degrees Fahrenheit, and if you divide that temperature by half 
you will see that for all practical purposes it will be of no use 
for hot blast stoves of blast furnaces. 

ilr. Morgan drew attention to the fact that Mr. Campbell 
says that the blast furnace gas is a primary producer of iron 
and also a gigantic gas producer. That is true. But the ordi- 
nary producer gives a gas of a thermal value of 150 to 200 
degrees, whereas blast furnace gas has a thermal value of no 
more than 120 British thermal units, and sometimes as low as 
80 B. T. U., a vast difference; indeed you must highly compress 
it to find its thermodynamic value. All you have to do is to 
compress it enough and then you will fire it with absolute or 
mechanical certainty. 

I notice also that Mr. Morgan speaks about the difficulty of 
using blast furnace because of the dust it contains, which he 
truly says has been the bete noir of the gas engineer. Some 
nine years ago I killed this black beast and I have never had 
any trouble with it since. In every instance of the proper 
application of my system it has been a decided and continuous 
success. 

As to the centrifugal system referred to by Mr. Morgan, 
that is and has always been more or less associated with my 
plant. Other people are simply trying to do with the fan, and 
some modification of my system, but if you do it that way you 
^11 not only decrease the thermal results appreciably, but you 
^1 have it to seriously increase the depreciation per cent. 
The Cockerill engine, which is being constructed now by the 
West Yorkshire Iron Company, England, is being equipped with 



260 A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 

my system for treating and purifying the blast furnace gases. I 
would ask Professor Keeve if we are to understand that this 
design has ever been carried out practically, or is it merely an 
academic design? 

Mr. Reeve. — ^It'is already in construction. 

Mr. Thwaite. — I am not going to criticize this design severely, 
because I always look with sympathy upon a new mechanical 
development — and I hope this one will have a thorough trial; I 
notice that Professor Keeve has already answered one point 
which occurred to me as a difficulty, and that is the question of 
the piston speed. When I saw this design I certainly thought 
he would have some difficulty in getting the ideal piston speed 
to secure the best thenual results. There is a certain piston 
speed, i.e., 800 to 900 feet per minute, which enables you to get 
the best thermal results out of the gas engine; and if Professor 
Reeve tells me that you can get the speed, why, then you will 
get a good thermal effect. 

Then I notice that he has in the design a vertical blowing 
cylinder. I have had a vertical blowing cylinder for my quarter 
crank blowing engine all the time, and this gas engine of mine 
works admirably and has given the greatest possible satisfaction. 
I work it at a speed of 1:^ revolutions, and I get a remarkably 
steady air pressure all the time. There is no more variation 
than one-eighth of an inch of the mercury gauge, and the engine 
works constantly night and day and for thirty-six days without 
a stop. 

The final part of Mr. Morgan's paper, which commenced with 
a great deal of interesting philot^ophy — and that reminds me 
that you have in this meeting gentlemen who are really philos- 
ophers and who are really very witty, for yesterday you had 
scientific reasoning gilded wdth humor, especially in the paper 
presented by Mr. Barth. Finally, I find in Mr. Morgan's 
paper this statement: "If the wastes of the old genera- 
tion are the profits of the new then large dividends are w-aiting 
us in the squandering of the past." I quite agree with that 
statement. I believe, gentlemen, that it is your duty as en- 
gineers to give some attention to this question of the internal 
(combustion engine. I know you will be able to improve upon 
it, and you have here a subject that is deserving of your most 
serious attention; it is a tree of knowledge that deserves your 
care, and I believe you will eventually reap satisfactory fruit 



A COMPx\CT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 2f>l 

from it. Mr. Morgan also speaks of the fearful power wastes 
of blast and coke furnaees. You must bear in mind that at 
present you cannot continue operations when the demand falls 
for pig iron, but with the new source of profit from the sale or 
use of power the blast furnaces may be kept in operation, which 
under the present conditions would be blown out. Certainly 
blast furnace gas is absolutely ideal for generating power by 
direct combustion, and is the best potential powder next to water- 
falls in existence. 

(lentlemen, I thank you for your kind attention. 

J/r. //. //. Suplee. — ^I desire to call attention to what appears 
to be an error in the paper regarding the action of the old 
explosive gas engine. Mr. Campbell described the gas engine 
as a gun whose projectile was connected to a crank shaft, but 
that statement is not quite correct if he was referring, as I sup- 
pose, to the old Otto & Langen engine. In that engine, the 
immediate predecessor of the modem four-cycle engine, the 
piston was not positively connected to the crank-shaft, the design 
being what is termed a " free piston " engine, the piston rod 
heing a rack gearing into a pinion on the crank shaft and con- 
nected to it by a ratchet and pawl. The piston was undoubtedly 
a projectile, but when it was shot upwards it was not connected 
to the shaft, the power stroke being made by the downward 
stroke of the piston, this stroke being due to the atmospheric 
pressure on top of the piston, a vacuum being formed under- 
neath after the explosion. 

^^- Thwaiie, — I was only referring to the explosion on the 
piston. That is what I had reference to. 

^l^' W, II. Morse, — I am interested in this discussion because 
1^ seems to advocate the vertical as against the horizontal 
eyKnder. As a matter of history, I think the Westinghouse 
Company some two or three years ago developed a vertical 
^^^ne of comparatively high power. If any Westinghouse men 
^re present I should like to inquire why it is that of late in a 
number of papers we see illustrations of a 1,500 horse-power 
double acting tandem engine wdth horizontal rather than vertical 
<*ylinders. 

ilr. E. A. Uehling. — There is no question before The Mechan- 
ical Engineers and the iron manufacturers of this country of 
greater importance than that of the utilization of blast furnaces 
gas in internal combustion engines. Some time ago I took the 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 

pains to determine, as nearly as might be, the power that is 
now wasted in the manufacture of iron. The method of pro- 
cedure and results obtained were published in the Stevens In- 
stitute Indicator in a paper called *' The Blast Furnace as a Power 
Plant." Taking as near as possible the average practice of this 
country and the output of pig iron of 1902 as the basis of cal- 
culation, I found that there are in excess of one and three- 
quarters millions of horse power going to waste in the manu- 
facture of pig iron in the United States. Since then 1 have had 
the opportunity of investigating the gases of several plants, and 
I find that my figures are too low. In my calculations I found 
that there w^ere, over and above the power requirements of the 
blast furnaces themselves, and allowing suflScient gas for heating 
of the blast, 840 horse power per ton of iron produced per hour, 
available for outside purposes. In one plant, for instance, that 
I investigated where they operate four blast furnaces and a large 
steel works, if all the gas available, after deducting what is 
necessary to heat the blast, were utilized direct in efficient gas 
engines, there would remain over and above the 20,000 horse 
power about 18,000 horse power for sale. The available sur- 
plus power wall differ at different plants because it depends on 
the class of iron made, the kind of fuel used and the character 
of ore smelted; but it is in no case less than 800 horse power 
per ton pf iron manufactured per hour. 

There seems to have been, especially in this country, great 
hesitancy in recei\dng this idea of utilizing blast furnace gas 
direct in gas engines, and on the first casual glance it would seem 
as though there could not be much in it, because it is a very lean 
gas, having only less than ^ the calorific power of water gear; 
but, as Mr. Thw^aite has just stated, it is none the less an ideal 
gas for internal combustion engines, and when you come to 
figure it through to the explosive mixture it is not a lean gas, 
i.e., the heat effect does not differ so much in the explosive mix- 
ture in the engine as might be expected from the difference in 
calorific powder. For instance, take an illuminating gas of a 
heat value of 764 British thermal units per cubic foot, when 
mixed with the theoretical air required for complete combustion 
it has only 101.8 heat units per cubic foot. An average blast 
furnace gas with only 87.5 British thennal units per cubic foot 
makes a theoretical niLxture of 68.9 heat units per cubic foot. 
Thus we see that while the illuminating gas has nearly 9 times 



A COMPACT GAS ENGINE: BEAM TYPE. 263 

the calorific power of the blast furnace gas, when mixed with 
sufficient air for complete combustion it has less than 1.5 the 
heat value of a similar mixture of the latter. Adding the neces- 
sary excess of air brings them still closer together. Illuminat- 
ing ^as requires nearly 10 times the air necessary for blast fur- 
nace gas; besides, the elements in illuminating gas do not lend 
themselves to high compression, because you are liable to get 
premature explosions; whereas the elements in blast furnace gas 
not only lend themselves, but it is a necessity that they should 
be highly compressed in order to make the explosion a certainty; 
this is largely due to the high percentage of CO,, which is a 
great retarder of combustion. 

Jfr. F. R. Jones. — I wish a little more information; I wish 
we might know where this horse power is from — whether it is 
the heating power of the gas or the great power of the engine? 

Mr. Uehling, — This rating is done by taking the heat units of 
the gas, determined by calorimeter and checked by analysis, and 
assuming an efficiency of twenty-five per cent, in the engine. 
Much better has been done than that. I believe it has been 
done up to thirty-two, and I think some tests have been made 
where thirty-five has been realized, but I have taken twenty-five 
per cent, as a basis, which I think is in every way conservative. 



264 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



No. 1034.* 

TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPER- 
HEATED STEAM. 

BY PROF. B. 8. JACOBUS, HOBOKKX, H. J. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. The engine on which the tests were made was located at 
the Millboume Mills in Philadelphia. It is of the Rice and 
Sargent horizontal, cross-compound condensing type especially 
designed for using highly superheated steam. A Schmidt super- 
heater is used for superheating the steam. 

2. The tests were made to determine whether certain guar- 
antees were fulfilled which were made by the builders — ^the 
Providence Engineering Works. The work was done conjointly 
by Mr. A. C. Wood and the writer, Mr. Wood representing the 
purchasers of the engine, and the writer the manufacturers. Mr. 
A. S. Vogt, Mechanical Engineer of the Pennsylvania K. R. 

•Co., at Altoona, detailed two experienced men from his testing 
department to assist Mr. Wood, and with other observers and 
computers, furnished by Mr. Wood, and the staff of the writer, 
it was possible to check all important data by securing duplicate 
records. The writer wishes to state that he is greatly indebted 
to Mr. Wood for his valuable services and for his hearty co- 
operation in the work. 

3. The high pressure, cylinder of the engine was furnished 
with double beat poppet valves and the low pressure cylinder with 
Corliss valves. The inlet and exhaust valves of each cylinder 
were operated by separate eccentrics. The inlet valves were 
closed by vacuum dash pots and the exhaust by a positive motion. 
A portion of the highly superheated steam furnished to the en- 
gine passed through a coil in the receiver between the high and 



* Presented at the New York meeting (December, 1908) of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
Traruactions, 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 265 

the low pressure cylinders. There was a by-pass valve operated by 
the governor which regulated the amount of steam passing 
through the coil, a greater amount being made to pass through 
when the engine was heavily loaded thaa when it was lightly 
loaded. There were no steam jackets. The exhaust steam passed 
from the engine to a Worthington jet condenser ujonnected with 
a Worthington vacuum pump. 

4. The steam used by the engine was furnished by an Edge 
i Moor water tube boiler. From the boiler it passed to the top of 

the Schmidt superheater which was set up at the side of the 
boiler. The saturated steam entering the superheater came in 
contact with the coldest gases as they left the superheater. From 
the upper coils the steam passed downward through a pipe out- 
side of the superheater to the bottom of the lowermost set of coils 
of the superheater and thus, when only partly heated, was made 
to pass through the coils which were nearest the fire. This pre- 
vented the overheating of the lowermost coils of the superheater, 
which would have taken place had the steam been made to pas» 
downward all the way through the superheater so as to bring 
the hottest steam near the fire. From the lowermost set of coils 
the steam passed upward and back and forth through the coils 
until it was finally led off from a header directly below the top 
set of coils and conveyed to the engine. Steam to drive the 
vacniiin pump and for other purposes in the mill was furnished 
^7 a separate boiler. 

5. The principal dimensions of the engine, measured when 
hot, were : 

Bore of Cylinders 10.07 and 28.03 inches. 

Length of Stroke 42 inches. 

Diameter of Piston rods 8.00 and .3.60 inches. 

6. The average clearance volumes computed from measure- 
ments made on the engine and from the working drawings were 
4.1 per cent, for the high pressure cylinder, and 5.8 per cent, for 
the low pressure cylinder. 

7. After the tests with superheated steam were completed a 
test was made with saturated steam. The writer was not present 
at this test but was represented by his associate, Prof. F. L. Pryor. 

8. The principal results of the tests are given in detail in Table 
I. From this it may be seen that the water consumption per hour 
l>er indicated horse-power with superheated steam was 9.76 



266 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



Teak No. J. May 27, J903. 
Superheated Steam 



Horse Power 474.5 

Steam Pressure at ilirottle 141.2 

Superheating at Tlirottle Deg.F. 852.5 
Vacuum at Engine 25.11 



rl40 




140-1 



100- 





Jlfm.3mmk AM* Ck^r. 



Fig. 84. 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 267 



PresBore at ThroCfle 



Test No. U May 27, 1901 

Superheated Steam* 
Hone Power 474.5 

Water per Hour per Horse Power 0.70 lbs. 

Superheating at the Throttle 8B8.5*'Fahr. 

Superheating entering High Preesure Cylinder 879.srFahr. 




Condensation 



^iR.Aiia AMt G>.^.r. 



Fig. 85. 



pounds at 474.5 horse-power, 9.56 pounds at 420.4 horse-power, 
and 9.70 pounds at 276.8 horse-power. The pressure of the 
steam at the engine throttle was slightly over 140 pounds per 
square inch, and the superheating at the engine throttle from 
about 350 degrees to 400 degrees Fahr. The vacuum measured 
near the engine ranged from about 25 to 26 inches of mercury. 
The heat consumption per minute per indicated horse-power, 
according to the standard recommended by the Civil Engineers 
of London, where the engine is charged with the heat in the 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

steam at the throttle valve and is credited with returning the 
feed water to the boiler at the maximum possible temperature 
that could be obtained by a feed water heater, in the exhaust 
pipe, was 205.0 British Thermal Units at 474.5 horse-power, 
203.7 British Thermal Units at 420.4 horse-power, and 208.8 
British Thermal Units at 276.8 horse-power. 

9. With saturated steam the water consumption was 13.84 
pounds per hour per horse-power at 406.7 horse-power, and the 
heat consumption 248.2 British Thermal Units per minute per 
indicated horse-power. In obtaining this figure the steam con- 
densed through radiation of the steam pipe leading from the 
boilers to the engine has been deducted in order to make the 
figures for the heat and coal consumption strictly comparable 
wdth those given for the superheated steam, which are based on 
the temperature of the superheated steam at the engine throttle 
valve. In this test the vacuum was poorer than in any of the 
others, being 24.5 inches. It must also be borne in mind that 
the engine was built -for superheated steam, and the cylinder 
ratio was not what the makers would use for saturated steam. 
In computing the heat consumption for this test an allowance is 
made for the drip from the high pressure steam main at the coil 
in the receiver. This drip amounted to 280 pounds per hour over 
what could be accounted for by the radiation of the steam main 
from the boiler to the engine. This amount of the high pressure 
steam was, therefore, condensed in the receiver coil, and imparted 
heat to the receiver. 

10. Tests were made to determine the economy of the boiler 
and of the superheater. The coal used was run of mine, Georges 
Creek, Cimiberland. The equivalent evaporation from and at 
212 degrees Fahr. per pound of dry coal for the boiler alone 
was 10.30 pounds, for the- superheater it was 8.97 pounds, and 
for the boiler and superheater combined it was 10.07 pounds. 
The heat of combustion of the coal determined by means of a 
Mahler bomb calorimeter was 14,060 British Thermal Units per 
pound. The efficiency of the boiler based on the heat of the coal 
was 70.7 per cent., of the superheater 61.6 per cent, and of the 
combined boiler and superheater 69.2 per cent. In computing 
the efiiciency of the superheater the specific heat of the super- 
heated steam was taken at the vahie found by Regnault for 
atmospheric pressure or .48. At higher pressures this value is 
probably too low. On the other hand the amount of superheat- 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 269 

ing given by the mercury thermometers used in the tests is 
greater than that which would have been given by an air ther- 
mometer, and this introduces an error in the opposite direction 
from that which probably exists through taking the specific heat 
of the steam at .48 and the one error therefore, tends to counter- 
balance the other. 

11. The coal consumption may be obtained directly from the 
heat consumption of the engine already given by multiplying by 
60 and dividing by 9,725 for the superheated steam tests, and by 
0,947 for the test with saturated steam, 9,725 being the heat im- 
parted to the boiler and the superheater in British Thermal Unite 
per pound of coal burned in the tests with superheated steam and 
0,947 that imparted to the boiler in the test with saturated steam. 
When computed in this way any loss of heat by radiation in the 
pipe leading from the boiler to the engine is eliminated, which is 
a necessary condition in the present case as the pipe is exception- 
ally long. On this basis the coal consumption per hour per indi- 
cated horse-power for superheated steam was 1.265 pounds at 
474.5 horse-power, 1.257 pounds at 420.4 horse-power, and 1.288 
pounds at 276.8 horse-power. For the test with saturated steam 
the coal consumption was 1.497 pounds per hour at 406.7 horse- 
power. In the figures just given for the coal consumption the 
coal used to drive the independent vacuum pump is not included. 
The fipres, therefore, represent what would have been obtained 
per indicated horse-power if the vacuum pump had been driven 
from the main engine. 

12. The coal consumption forms a more accurate basis for 
comparing the efficiencies of engines using saturated and super- 
heated steam than the heat consimfiption, because when the coal 
consumption is obtained it allows for any difference in the econ- 
^^y of the combined boiler and superheater from that of an 
ordinary boiler. Furthermore, the results obtained for the coal 
consumption are practically independent of the value employed 
for the specific heat of the steam which is not the case with the 
heat consumption. For example, if the specific heat was taken 
at .6 instead of .48 in computing the results which have been 
given it would cause a difference in the coal consumption of less 
than one-half of one per cent., whereas it would cause a differ- 
ence in the heat consumption of about 3^ per cent. 

13. In the test with saturated steam the coal consumption was 
about 19 per cent, greater than that obtained at the same power 



270 TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



Tat No. 2. June t% J903. 
Sttperiieated Steam* 



Horse Power 430.4 

Steam Pressure at Engine 142.4 

Superheating at Throttle Deg.F. miJi 
Vacuum at Engine 




140-1 




AtmoBpherlc 





wlm.AraJbAM»C>.^.r. 



Fio. 86, 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 271 



Pre— qre at Throttto 



Superheating 
i 154° Fahrenheit 




TtttNo.2. June t% J903. 
Superheated Steam* 
Hone Power 430.4 

Water per Hour per Horse Power 9.66 lbs. 

Superheatliig at the Throttle 874.:f Fahr. 

Superheating entering High Pressure Cylinder 296.6fFahr. 



^4T- 



_0.7S» Condensation . 



Am.3mnk Uttt Ot.^. T. 



Fig. 87. 



with superheated steam. This does not form a proper basis of 
comparison, however, for the two reasons already stated, which 
are that the engine was not built for saturated steam and that 
the vacuum in the test was not as high as it should have been. 
An engine of the same general type built for saturated steam, 
but of about twice the power, was tested by the writer at the 
Brooklyn plant of the American Sugar Refining Company and 
the results were embodied in a paper presented by him at the Sara- 
toga meeting. The most economical heat consumption obtained 



272 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPEBHEATED STEAM. 



Tat No. 3. July J7, J903. 
Superiieated Steam* 

Horse Power 278.8 

Steam Pressure at Engine 145.8 

Superheating at Throttle Deg.F. 806.8 

Vacuum at Engine 86J» 




Atmospheric 



Atmospherio 





Atmospheric 
L. P. - C. E. 
19.971b. Spring 



HO 



Awufi«n» Stt 09.^.r. 



Fig. 88. 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPEEHEATED STEAM. 273 



PrMgore mt ThrotOe 



Twt No. 3- July J7, (Ml 

Superheated Steam. 
Uonne Power 

Water p«r llour per Bore« Power 
Sapcrbei^ln^ ttt the Throttle 



SnporUeatiiitf eiitcring lll^h ppessur© Cylinder 3Qa.:fFahr. 




275.8 
9, 70 lbs. 



:^hlt% Condensatton 



Am.BmHkNH»C».^.r. 



FlO. 89. 



was 222.7 British Thermal Units per minute per horse-power. 
The vacuum in this case was exceptionally high, being over 28 
inches. If the vacuum had been about 26 inches, as in the pres- 
ent tests, it is probable that the heat consumption would have 
been about 230 British Thermal Units per minute per indicated 
horse-power, and the coal consumption on the basis already given 
1.42 pounds per hour per horse-power. As the minimum coal 
consumption with the engine using superheated steam was 1.257 
pounds per hour per horse-power there is a gain in favor of using 



274 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERUEATED STEAM. 

Test No. 4. Jtsly H, )903. 
Saturated Steanu 



Bone Power 
Steam Pressure at Engine 
Saturated Steam 
Vacuum at Engine 



40Cr 
145.1 




rl40 



-100 



-60 



Atmospheric 



140-1 





Aw^MamkJtk»$Ck.^r. 



Fig. 90. 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USINQ SUPERHEATED STEAM. 275 



Pressare at Throttla 



Tcit No. 4. July 24> J903. 

Saturated Steam. 

Horse Power 40C.7 

Water per Hour per Horse Power 18.84 lbs. 




:=a 12.0^ 



Fig. 91. 

superheated steam of .163 pounds per hour per horse-power, or 
the larger steam engine using saturated steam is ahout 13 per 
cent, less economical than the smaller one using superheated steam. 

Methods of Condn<^ting the Tests. 

14. The water was weighed in an iron tank of about 1,000 
pounds capacity placed on a platform scale, and it was then 
emptied into a lower tank connected with the suction pipe of a 



276 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

geared boiler feed pump driven by the main engine. All steam 
and water connections, where there was a possibility of leakage 
occurring, were either broken or blanked off. 

15. Indicators of the Star Brass Manufacturing Co., having 
outside springs, 'were used on the high pressure cylinder. Tabor 
indicators of the ordinary pattern were used on the low pressure 
cylinder. 

16. Mercury columns were used to measure the vacuum both 
in the exhaust pipe near the engine and near the condenser. A 
spring vacuum gauge was also used near the condenser which was 
calibrated in order to determine its correction. 

17. Mercury thermometers placed in thermometer wells were 
used for determining the temperatures. Where the temperatures 
were not too high mercury^ was used in the wells, but if the mer- 
cury evaporated, melted solder was employed. In every case the 
error due to exposing a portion of the stem of the thermometer 
was determined by noting the graduation to which it was im- 
mersed and estimating the temperature of exposed part of the 
mercury in the stem by tying a second thermometer against the 
stem. 

18. Readings were taken at intervals of 15 minutes through- 
out the tests. The water record was balanced up at the end of 
each hour. The feed pump was kept running uniformly and 
was not stopped in balancing up the water. The engine was run 
for some time before starting each of the tests in order that the 
temperatures should become practically constant. The steam 
leakages were carefully estimated, and in one case a leakage test 
was made on the boiler and the results confirmed the amount 
which was estimated. The steam leaks amounted to 40 pounds 
per hour as a maximum. 

19. The engine test of June 19th was run at the same time as 
the tests of the boiler and superheater. Arrangements were 
made for a continuous engine test of twelve hours or more, but 
six hours after starting the engine test the water rate suddenly 
increased. It was found that a gasket at the receiver head which 
had been leaking slightly during the first part of the test, and 
the leakage of which had been estimated at three pounds per 
hour, was leaking much more than at first. It was impossible to 
estimate the amount of the increased leakage, and the engine 
test was therefore discontinued at the end of six hours. As the 
leak did not affect the tests of the boiler or superheater these 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 277 

tests were made of 14 hours duration. The readings of the 
amount of feed water indicated uniform conditions during the 
engine test, the average rate per hour for the first two hours 
being 4,026 pounds; for the second two hours, 4,012 pounds, and 
for the last tw^o hours of the test, 4,016 pounds. This shows that 
the duration of the test was ample for securing accurate results. 
20. The mean effective pressures and indicated horse-powers 
are given in Table II. Table III gives the averj^e data and 
results of the boiler test, Table IV those for the superheater 
test and Table V the data used in computing the superheating 
or the percentage of condensation existing in the cylinder at 
various points in the stroke. The average indicator cards and 
the combined diagrams for each of the tests are shown in Figs. 
1 to 8 inclusive. The amount of superheating or of priming 
existing at various points in the expansion lines is marked on the 
combined diagrams. Zeuner's formula for suj>erheated steam 
is used in computing the amount of superheating. 



278 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



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TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 279 







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280 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 







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TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPEBHEATED STEAM. 281 

• 

TABLE UI. 

Average Data and Results of Boiler Test. 

Made June 19 and 20. 1903. 

1. Size of grate; length, 7 feet; breadth, 9 feet, 6.5 inches; area, 

square feet 66.8 

2. Water heating surface in square feet 3,332. 

3. Superheating surface in souare feet 350. 

4. Ratio of total heating surtace to grate surface 55. 1 : 1 

5. Horse-power of boiler as rated by builders 370. 

Total Quantities. 

6. Length of test, hours 14 

T TP • U4 r • * ^ 1 r Total fired 7.205. 

^' K*^!l!^ r.^^l w J Correction due to thickness of fire at 

burned during test, ^ end of test 158. 

inpounds. [ Corrected weight 7,047. 

8. Weight of dry coal burned during test, in pounds 6,823 . 

9. Total weight of water evaporated during test, in pounds 58,585. 

10. Equivalent weight of water that would have been exaporated 

from and at 212 degrees Fahr., in pounds 70,302. 

1 1 . Weight of ashes, in pounds 717. 

Average Quantities. 

12. Steam pressure in pounds per square inch above atmosphere. . 147.4 

13. Temperature of feed water in degrees Fahr 66.6 

U.Ten>peratureoffluega«e«indeg„^Fahr.jAet^Xa^i„K:: m. 

15. Temperature of boiler room in degrees Falir. j ^y^ bulb 71 6 

• y, -r* u^ • • 1 r-^ *- ^ In back connection 0.1 

16. Draught mmches of water j overthefire 0.1 

17. Percentage of moisture in coal 3. 18 

18. Percentage of ash, based on dry coal 10.51 

19. Barometer, in inches of mereuiy 29.82 

Economic Results. 

20. Factor of evaporation 1 . 200 

21. Weight of wat^ evaporated per pound \ promind at 2i2del* ' ' ^'^^ 

of fuel, mcluding moisture, m pounds I ^^ p^^^. ^ ^^ 

22. Weight of water evaporated per j Actual 8.59 

pound of dry fuel, in pounds / From and at 21 2 degrees Fahr. 10 . 30 

23. Weight of water evaporated per j Actual 9 . 59 

pound of combustible, in pounds ) From and at 21 2 degrees Fahr. 11.51 

24. Weight of diy coal burned per hour per square foot of grate sur- 

face, in pounds 7.30 

25 Calorific value of the dry coal in British Thermal Units per 

pound 14,060. 

26. Calorific vahie of the combustible in British Thermal Units per 

pound 15,510. 

27. Efficiency of boiler (based on the combustible), in per cent 71 .7 

28. Efficiency of boiler including the grate (based on the dry coal), 

in percent ^. 70.7 

29. Water evaporated, in pounds per square foot of total heating 

surface per hour, from and at 212 degrees Fahr 1 . 36 

30. Average horse-power developed based on standard recom- 

mended by A. S. M. E., viz., 34.5 pounds of water evaporated 

from and at 212 degrees Fahr., per hour 145.7 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

TABLE IV. 
Average Data and Results op Superheater Test. 

1. Heating surface in square feet. 642. 

2. Grate surface in square feet 4 

3. Duration of test in nours 14 

4. Pressure of steam furnished to superheater in pounds per 

square inch above the atmosphere 147 .4 

Temperatures in Degrees Fahr, by Mercury Thermomeler. 

5. Steam entering the superheater 365.6 

6. Steam leaving the superheater 809. 1 

7. Amount steam was superheated 443.5 

Total Quantities. 

8. Steam passing through the superheater in pounds 58,025. 

9. Heat imparted to the steam in British Thermal Units 12,352,000. 

10. Total moist coal fired, in pounds 1,473. 

11. Total dry coal consumed m pounds 1,426. 

12. Coal burned per square foot of grate surface per hour in 

pounds ." 25.5 

13. Heat imparted to the steam in the superheater per pound 

of coal burned, in British Thermal Units 8,662. 

14. Equivalent evaporation from and at 212 degrees Fahr. in / 

pounds per pound of dry coal 8 .97 

15. Heat of combustion of the dry coal in British Thermal 

Units per pound 14,060. 

16. Efficiency of the superheater based on the heat of com- 

bustion of the coal in per cent 61 .6 

Combined Economy of the Boiler and Superheater, 

17. Actual evaporation of the boiler per pound of dry coal in 

pounds 8.586 

18. Coal burned in su]>erheater in pounds per pound of steam 

passing through it .02458 

19. Coal burned in superheater in pounds per pound of coal 

burned at boiler. Item 17 x Item 18 .211 

20. Actual evaporation of the combined boiler and super- 

heater, Iteml7 + (1 + Iteml9) 7.090 

21. Factor ojf evaporation of the combined boiler and super- 

heater 1 .421 

22. Equivalent evaporation in pounds per pound of dry coal, 

from and at 212 degrees Fahr., for the combined boiler 

and superheater 10.07 

23. Efficiency of the combined boiler and superheater based 

on the neat of combustion of the coal, in per cent 69 . 2 



TESTS OP A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 283 



TABLE V. 

Data us£d in Computing the Amounts op Superheating at Various 
Points in the Expansion Line of Indicator Diagrams. Average 
FOR SIX Diagrams. 



Weights of Steam per Stroke in Pounds, 



I 
May 27 June 19 



Date of Test ; 

Passing through cylinders of engine 

Retained in clearance space of high pressure 
cylinder 

Retained in clearance space of low pressure 

cylinder ! 0.0345 0.0319 

Total contained in high pressure cylinder dur-^ j 

ing exp^ansion 

Total contained in low pressure cylinder dur- 
ing expansion 



May 

0.3739 0.3272 

0.0619 0.0606 



0.4358, 0.3778 
0.4084 0.3591 



July 17 
0.2182 

0.0299 

0.0357 

0.2481 

0.2539 



July 24 
0.4362 

0.0693 

0.0489 

0.5055 

0.4851 



284 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERUEATED STEAM. 



TABLE W.^Continued. 



Datk of Test. 


111 


1 


verage lentttli of 

dicator cards in 

Inchea. 


II 
it 

II 


Length Including 

clearance, to the 

exptineion curve, 

in inchcD. 


III lip ml 




r" 




<a 


<a 


^^- '^^1^ 


<£t^^ 


1 


2 


s 

H.P. 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


May 27 


Superheated. 


4.97 


120 


2.09 


4.67 


528 


187 deg. 


•♦ 


" 


** 


'* 


110 


2.21 


4.94 


497 


163 " 


it 




«< 


«• 


90 


2.60 


5.81 


460 


140 *• 


(t 




«« 




70 


3.20' 7.16 


419 '116 " 


II 




*♦ 


«* 


50 


4.14 ! 9.28 


354 ' 73 •* 


41 


II 


LP. 


" 


29 


2.03 1 14.88 


292 


44 ** 


<i 




t« 


11 


23 


2.42, 17.74 


249 


14 *' 


ii 




II 


** 


18 


2.99 121.92 


225 


3 " 


1* 
l< 


' ** 


tl 


11 


14 
10 


3.61 126.46 
4.83 35.41 




4.1p.c. 
6.3 *• 


June 19 


,, 


HP. 


4.18 


120 


1.47 


4.50 


495 


154 deg. 




** 




" 


110 


1.59 


4.88 


487 152 ** 


n 


^, 


II 




90 


1.88 


5.76 


454 1134 " 


a 




«« 


II 


70 


2.30 


7.06 


408 |105 '* 


n 




II 


II 


50 


3.00 


9.20 


348 67 *' 


<i 




II 


II 


37.8 


3.71 


11.37 


294 


30 " 


«« 




L.P. 


4.16 


23 


1.87 


18.63 


282 


47 " 


li 


41 


** 


II 


18 


2.28 


22.71 


247 


25 " 


« 


** 


II 


II 


14 


2.75 


27.39 




0.7 p.c. 


it 


II 


II 


" 


10 


3.65 


36.36 




3.8 '• 


July 17 




HP. 


4.18 


120 


0.91 


4.25 


448 


107 deg. 


•< 


II 


*• 


110 


0.96 


4.48 


420 


85 " 


" 




»< 


II 


90 


1.14 


5.33 


393 


73 " 


n 




II 


II 


70 


1.38 


6.45 


344 


41 " 


tt 




II 


<* 


50 


1.83 


8.56 


298 


18 " 


a 




*«» 


II 


30 


2.71 


12.66 




6.1 p.c. 


II 




LP. 


II 


14 


2.08 


29.16 


242 


II 






*« 


10 


2.72 


38.14 


195 


2 " 


II 




14 


II 


7 


3.72 


52.16 





1.6 p.c. 


July 24 

II 


Saturated. 


HP 


4.17 


115 


1.33 


3.05 




20.0 " 






11 


100 


1.52 


3.49 


19.9 " 


II 




II 


II 


90 


1.67 


3.84 


.... 19.8 " 


II 




'* 


II 


70 


2.10 


4.82 


.... 20.8 " 


n 




<l 


II 


50 


2.88 


6.62 


.... ,20.6 " 


tt 


*' 


il 


II 


40 


3 60 


8.27 


.... 19.5 " 


*t 




LP. 


4.18 


26 


1.77 


12.99 


.... 115.8 " 


n 
tt 




II 


II 


23 

18 


2.00 14.68 
2.55 18.71 


.... 15.2 " 
14.1 " 


tt 


" 


II 




12 


3.80 27.89 


.... 12.6 " 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 286 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. George I. Rockwood. — I have not seen an advance copy 
of this paper by Professor Jacobus, so in what I have to say I 
cannot attempt to speak with any preparation at all. The fig- 
ures speak for themselves, however, and suggest some questions. 
For instance, in two tests — numbered 2 and 4 — one with and the 
other without superheat, the load being substantially alike in 
each case — being 420 horse-power with superheat, and 406 with 
saturated steam — the steam consumption per horse-power per 
hour is p:iven as 9.5 pounds and 13.8 pounds respectively. The 
difference represents an apparent saving of over 30 per cent, due 
to superheating, which is so much greater than usual as to need 
explanation. Now, as the pa})er deals with the economy of 
steam obtain(^l by the use of superheaters, it may be in order 
to (liscnas other sides of th(» general question of the actual econ- 
omy of coal effected by their use. 

A factor which greatly affects their value is the manner in 
which the regulation of the superheat is accomplished. To illus- 
trate, I lately visited a turbine station in Rhode Island and saw 
there one of these independently-fired superheaters at work, and 
in this ease the upper doors were just a little open and the ash- 
pit doors open too; this was to prevent too hot a fire, as with 
the fire doors closed th^ temperature of the steam would be too 
hot for safe use. 

Another case of the same sort of temperature regulation is 
found in the provision of a hollow bridge wall and a register 
on the outside face of the brick setting, for the purpose of cool- 
ing the gases as they come from the fire. It is obvious that such 
means of temperature regulation involve a loss of heat out of 
proportion to any saving effected in the engine or turbine. Its 
use is permissible only in cases where the steam exhausted from 
an engine is to be used in manufacturing processes after being 
.superheated. 

The most e<;onomical way, and, indeed, the only economical 
way, to preserve the temperature of the steam at a constant 
point is to keep the weight of steam flowing through the super- 
heater proportionally the same as the weight of coal burnt on the 
superheater grates. One way I have employed of getting around 
the difficulty is to provide a " bleeder " pipe at the engine throttle 



286 TESTS OF A COMPOUND KNGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

and to open it when the load is light or the engine shut down. 
In this case there are 3,000 horse-power of boilers and only ten 
per cent, of the steam is made at a high pressure — 200 pounds 
per square inch — for use in the engine. The rest is used at 100 
pounds pressure in heating water in a dye-house. The " bleeder" 
simply diverts some of the steam intended for use in the engine 
into the dye-house pipes after it has passed through the super- 
heater. In any bleachery or dye-house or steam-driven paper 
mill such a method of regulation would be effective. The thing 
to be avoided is too hot a fire under the superheater with partial 
load, as this results in burning out the superheater tubes and 
ruining the engine or turbine. 

Mr, R. H. Rice, — It may be interesting to give some further 
particulars of the construction of this engine which is utilizing 
very high temperatures of steam without difficulty — in fact, with 
no more trouble than any of the ordinary saturated steam en- 
gines of the same builders. 

The double beat poppet valves have seats surrounded by the 
inlet steam in such a way that the expansion of the seat is equal 
in extent and effect to that of the valve — thus overcoming com- 
pletely the characteristic defect of ordinary designs of their type 
of valve, namely, excessive leakage at any temperature other 
than the particular one at which they were originally ground. 
The inlet valves are driven by the ordinary trip gear of the 
builders, with vacuum dashpots, wath th^ addition of a simple 
linkage which controls the closure of the valve independent of 
the extent of closing motion imparted by the dashpot, and thus 
prevents slamming or partial closure of the valve. The exhaust 
valves are actuated by a system of links devoid of cams, always 
in connection with the eccentric except when hand-actuated at 
starting or stopping, and which keeps the valve stationary during 
the forward stroke, as is necessary when using the poppet type, 
and all joints are adjustable for wear. 

The stuffing-boxes are on long necks to take them well away 
from the superheat, and the piston-rod stuffing-boxes have 
metallic packing provided with water jackets which, however, 
have never been used. The piston packing consists of two simple 
cast-iron spring rings with joint plates. 

The horse power cylinder is so designed that the working 
portion of its band is a simple cylinder without ribs, all connec- 
tions to the cylinder, such as valve elects, lagging bosses, inlets 



TKTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 287 

and exhaust gauges, etc., being at the ends. The clearance of 
the poppet valve cylinder has been kept fully as small as the 
equivalent Corliss-valve cylinder, in contrast with foreign prac- 
tice, where it is usually much greater. 

The only trouble noticed with lubrication was a smoking due 
to the carbonization of the animal or vegetable constituents of 
the original oil used. On notifying the oil makers of this trouble 
they at once produced an oil which eliminated all complaint. 

The operation of the superheater has proved to be simple: in 
fact it is easier to run than a boiler, since the pyrometer dial is 
the only thing needing to be watched. Fire is never built in the 
superheater without a flow of steam through the coils, under 
which conditions there is no sign of deterioration. The tem- 
perature is readily regulated, even when the engine is shut down 
for changes in the mill, which happens once or twice in 24 hours 
in regular operation. If the shut-down is for more than a few 
minutes a small flow of steam is secured by cracking the throttle 
valve and allowing a little steam to blow through the engine, 
bat for short stoppages this is not necessary. The pipes, cyl- 
inders and receiver are covered with 3 inches of a standard 
magnesia covering over pipes and flanges. 

Lines 13, 14, 15, Table I, page 6, of the paper shows interest- 
ingly the control of the temperatures of steam entering the two 
cylinders by the governor-controlled valve of the reheater, test 
Xo. 3, with light load, showing an inlet temperature of 672 de- 
grees to high pressure cylinder and 353 degrees to low pressure 
cylinder, while test No. 1, with heavy load, shows 634 degrees 
to high, and 408 degrees to low. This variation of temperature 
inversely with load in high cylinder is believed to be necessary 
with high superheat to protect it from burning the oil. In this 
engine the regulation is effected by giving to the low pressure 
cylinder the superheat which has been taken out of the steam 
going to the high cylinder. 

Although the cylinder ratio is different from that usually 
adopted in this country for saturated steam, it nevertheless cor- 
responds with European practice, and considering the low 
vacuum and the absence of jacket, the steam consumption found 
— 13.84 pounds — is not an excessive figure. 

In comparing the coal consumption of this engine and that 
reported by Professor Jacobus at the Saratoga meeting, it should 
be noticed that the best heat consumption of the latter engine 



288 TKSTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

was obtained with so low a m. e. p. that the engine, if propor- 
tional for this m. e. p. at full load would be excessive in cost on 
account of its considerable cylinder dimensions; so much so as 
to make its cost comparable to that of a superheated steam 
engine and its superheater complete, whereas the superheated 
steam engine shows a saving of about 12 per cent, of coal, which 
is therefore obtained vnih only a small additional investment. 

Tests of engine constructed on this system in England with 
a vacuum of about 28 inches of mercury show a steam consump- 
tion of 9 pounds per indicated horse power, and it is probable 
with a load of about 875 horse power (which could not be ob- 
tained in this case owing to the arrangement of the mill), and 
ail equally good vacuum, that the same figure could have been 
obtained in this case. 

In regard to the superheater at Newport, I am somewhat 
familiar with that installation. The superheater was made of 
sufficient capacity to superheat the steam for 2,000 kilowatt 
capacity of turbines, and it is now superheating steam for less 
than 200 kilowatts capacity. It is, therefore^ operating under 
entirely abnormal conditions. 

Mr, E, T. Child, — I would like to ask Professor Jacobus what 
was the ratio of cylinders in the Brooklyn engine? And is this 
• ratio of 3 to 1 in the Millbourne Mills engine the blast for super- 
heated steam? It is often desirable to use superheated steam in 
engines already built and with cylinder-ratios adapted for satur- 
ated steam. Will these larger cylinder-ratios make the engine 
illy adapted for superheated steam? 

Professor Jacobus, — What is your last question? I did not 
quite catch it. 

Mr, Child, — Is this ratio of 3 to 1 distinctly based on the use 
of superheated steam, and, if you have an engine built for satur- 
ated steam, say, 4 or 5 or 6 to 1, is that illy adapted for use with 
superheated steam? 

Professor Jacobus, — The ratio in the Brooklyn engine was 
about 4 to 1. In regard to the last question, more experiments 
are needed before it can be answered. Perhaps Mr. Rice can 
give us some more information on this point as he is the one 
who decided to use the 3 to 1 ratio. 

Mr, Rice, — In adopting this ratio we adopted the foreign 
practice; and I presume that ratio was adopted abroad for two 
reasons: First, that it corresponds closely to their saturated steam 



TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 289 

practice; and, secondly, by having a large, high-pressure cyl- 
inder they are able to use more superheat in that cylinder. 

Mr, A. E. Cltiett. — I would like to inquire whether outside 
of the cylinder-ratios any data is available regarding the amount 
of superheat that could be applied to an ordinary compound 
engine of about the same size as the one under discussion, with- 
out endangering the engine in any way? 

Mr. Rice. — I cannot answer this, because it depends largely 
on the character of the load, the point of cut-off in the cylinder, 
and various other elements; but in general a temperature in 
existing engines of over 500 degrees Fahrenheit would give 
trouble. 

Prof. W. F. M. O088. — It has seemed to me that the use of 
superheated steam in connection with multi-cylinder engines is 
somewhat illogical, and I am interested to know whether Pro- 
fessor Jacobus regards the results of his tests as a clear justifica- 
tion for such a combination. The large amount of cylinder-con- 
densation, and the consequent low efficiency which attend the 
action of the single-cylinder engine may be reduced in several 
different ways. One way is to multiply the number of the en- 
gine cylinders, and another way is to preserve the engine in its 
simplest form and employ a superheater. Either plan tends to 
the same result. In either case, also, the improvement is at the 
cost of added complication in the design of the plant. In one 
case, this complication takes the form of added cylinders, in the 
other of an independent device in the form of a superheater. 
My point is that by following either one of these lines of develop- 
ment to the exclusion of the other, results can easily be obtained 
which approach closely those given by the compound super- 
heating plant described by Professor Jacobus. If this is true, 
where is the argument in favor of adding to* a plant complica- 
tions of two different sorts. If, for example, a compound engine 
will not give the desired degree of efficiency, would it not in 
most cases be better practice to endeavor to better the perform- 
ance by extending the series to a triple expansion typo, rather 
than by introducing a device requiring so much attention as a 
superheater? Or, if it has been decided to employ superheated 
steam and to meet the problems incident to such practice, then 
why not seek the full advantage of its use by reducing the engine 
to its simplest form, using a single cylinder only. 

I do not wish to be understood as criticising in the least the 



290 TESTS OF A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 

excellent paper vrhich Professor Jacobus has presented. I 
merely raise the question as to whether the combination which 
is presented in the engine he describes is one which is likely to 
find favor in future practice. In view of his very careful study 
of the subject, a statement from Professor Jacobus as to the 
arguments which go to sustain the peculiar combination of ele- 
ments which the engine he describes presents would be most 
valuable. 

Professor Jacohtis* — In reply to Professor Goss will say that I 
feel that the gain in economy secured by superheated steam may in 
many cases justify its use. It is true that with saturated steam 
we may step from the simple engine to the compound, and from 
the compound to the triple with a gain at each step, but it also 
appears that in any type of engine there may be a gain due to 
superheating. The main point to be determined is whether the 
additional gain in economy due to the superheating will more than 
offset the interest on the increased capital investment, and the 
item for depreciation and repairs of the superheater. Mr. Rice 
has pointed out that if a compound engine using saturated steam 
is proportioned to give the best economy the mean effective pressure 
would be so low as to lead to large dimensions, and that when^so 
constructed its cost is comparable to that of a superheated steam 
engine and its superheater complete. One thing is certain, and 
that is that the advisability of using superheated steam depends 
on the cost of the coal used. If coal is expensive it may pay to 
use superheated steam, whereas with a cheaper coal it may not. I 
hope to go into this matter of costs more carefully and presents the 
results at a later meeting. 

Mr. Geo. II. Barrus kindly pointed out after reading my paper 
that by basing the heat consumption on the temperature at which 
the superheated steam is furnished to the engine, I have neglected 
any difference that there may be with saturated and superheated 
steam in the radiation of the steam mains leading from the boiler 
to the engine. Any excess of radiation with the highly super- 
heated steam over that for saturated steam, should be charged 
against the superheated steam plant and the saving that is shown 
for the superheated steam should, therefore, be somewhat less 
than I have given. Taking the Millbourne Mills engine there 
would be a difference in the radiation of the steam mains with 

* Author's Closare under the Rules. 



TESTS X)F A COMPOUND ENGINE USING SUPERHEATED STEAM. 291 

saturated and superheated steam, which would affect the economy 
by about one per cent. The steam main of this engine is, however, 
excessively long, being over twice the length that might ordinarily 
be used. It is fair to say, therefore, that where the steam main 
is of the ordinary length and is covered in the same way for satu- 
rated and superheated steam, the results for the heat consumption 
with superheated steam, computed as has already been explained, 
should be discounted by about one-half of one per cent. ; a quantity 
which is well wathin the range of accuracy of the tests. As the 
eovering^ for superheated steam is usually heavier than for 
saturated steam, this small difference due to the radiation of the 
steam main wdll be still further diminished. The mains carr\ing 
superheated steam at the Millbourne Mills are 6 inches in diameter, 
and are covered with a double layer of asbestos and magnesia 
covering. The inner layer is asbestos fire felt 1| inches in thick- 
ness, and the outer magnesia strips of about the same thickness 
held in place by wire and plastered with asbestos cement. The 
average outside diameter of the covering is 12^ inches. 



292 STANDARD UNIT OF REPBIOERATION. 



No. 1095.* 

STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

BT 3. C. BSRTSCH, ATLANTA, GA. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. Since three-quarters of a century ago, mechanical refrigera- 
tion has been in practical use. For the first period of about fifty 
years it was applied most exclusively for making ice and cooling 
liquids in small quantities only. But during the past twenty-five 
yeat's its applications have increased so wonderfully and on such 
a large scale that it must now be taken care of as a special line of 
business by the refrigerating engineer, and it can no longer be 
handled in connection with any other branch of mechanical engi- 
neering. 

2. Kefrigeration is now successfully applied in numerous indus- 
tries, either as a valuable assistance or as a most necessary part 
for obtaining quicker and better results in the manufacture of 
many articles. 

3. As an exclusive process mechanical refrigeration is used for 
making ice, preserving perishable goods, controlling fermentation, 
fractional distillation, assistina: in mining and for many other 
purposes. It will sooner or later be applied to our dwellings and 
public halls, not only to replace the ice in the refrigerators, but to 
furnish also cooler ^nd better air during the hot season of the 
year. 

4. In spite of the many years of practical application, and in 
spite of the thousands of refrigerating machines in operation all 
over the civilized world, no standard unit of refrigeration has as 
yet been established. We have to-day no commonly adopted pro- 
portions or uniform rules to measure the actual work produced by 
the refrigerating machine save the adoption of 284,000 British 
thermal units as an equal to the work accomplished by melting one 

♦ Presented at the New York meeting, December, 1903, of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and fonning part of Volume XXV. of the 
TranBocHons, 



STANDARD UNIT OF RETBIOEEATION. 293 

ton of 2,000 pounds of ice of 32 degrees Fahr. to water of 32 de- 
grees Fahr. But even this value is not properly applied, inasmuch 
as it is correctly used for calculating the work equal to ice-melting 
only; as soon as ice-making is to be calculated, two tons of ice- 
melting are considered as equal to one ton of ice-making, regard- 
less of the fact that under ordinary condition the making of one 
ton of ice aniounts only to about 410,000 to 420,000 British ther- 
mal units instead of 568,000 British thermal units. 

5. The absence of a standard unit, proportions or rules is the 
cause of much confusion and many disputes. Everyone is at lib- 
erty to choose any rating he sees fit, and as each rating or guaran- 
tee can be substantiated under certain assumptions, the purchaser 
of a machine is at a loss to know what he is getting for his money. 

6. We find to-day the capacities of machines based on a con- 
densing water of from 60 up to 75 degrees; compressor displace- 
ments of from 6,500 up to 8,500 cubic inches per ton-minute, and 
guarantees for power required of from one up to two horse-power 
V^T ton refrigeration in 24 hours. 

7. Realizing that such conditions can not be tolerated much 
longer, and that uniform rules for this special branch of engineer- 
ing are badly needed, the Southern Ice Exchange, in convention 
at Atlanta, Ga., last February, took the lead in appointing a com- 
Diittee for standardizing the proportions of the machinery and 
apparatus needed for ice-making and refrigeration. 

8. Some other and similar associations did likewise, and the Ice 
Machine Builders' Association took up this matter also, in order 
to assist in the establishing of uniform regulations for the benefit 
^f all concerned. 

9. Guided by the high standing this Society holds throughout 
the engineering world, I desire to invite your hearty cooperation 
on this important subject, hence this paper. 

Ammonia Compression System. 

10. The overwhelming majority of refrigerating machines in 
actual operation are of the ammonia compression system, which 
should therefore be considered first. Afterwards the anmionia 
absorption system, the carbonic acid compression system, vacuum 
air system and others could be considered along the same lines. 

11. With the ammonia compression system pure anhydrous 
liquid ammonia is evaporated under a low pressure within a system 



294 STANDARD UNIT OP REFRIGERATION. 

of pipes. Such a vaporization is only possible if heat is supplied 
and such heat is furnished by the substance — air, water, brine, 
etc. — surrounding said pipes, whereby consequently the substance 
becomes refrigerated and the ammonia takes the form of vapor. 
The office of the refrigerating machine is to compress this vapor 
and to discharge the compressed gas into the condenser, where it 
is condensed — ^liquified — ^for further use in the refrigerating sys- 
tem. 

Properties of Ammonia. 

12. The properties of the ammonia in the state of liquid and 
vapor has been calculated by Professor De Volson Wood. They 
are well known and universally accepted as correct. 

13. We know exactly what the ammonia can do under certain 
conditions, and as the temperature, pressure, volume and weight 
of same are of fixed relations to each other, we can calculate two 
of these properties as soon as two of them are known. 



Standard Ton of Refrigeration, 

14. The quantity of refrigeration is now expressed in tons of 
ice-melting. 

As the latent heat of ice is 142 British thermal units, it takes 
for melting or making one ton of 2,000 pounds of ice of 32 de- 
grees the quantity of 2,000 X 142, or 284,000 British thermal 
units. 

The correct and better expression which would answer for all 
purposes would, therefore, be : 

" One ton of refrigeration is the latent heat absorbed or set 
free by melting or making one ton of ice of 32 degrees to or from 
water of 32 degrees Fahr." 

Quamiity of Ammonia Evaporated, 

15. To transfer the heat of 284,000 British thermal units by 
means of mechanical refrigeration a certain amount of liquid am- 
monia must be evaporated, and to arrive at the actual amount of 
ammonia needed we must consider the unavoidable losses of heat 
during the process of vaporization. 

16. First. The liquid ammonia coming from the condenser has 



STANDARD UNIT OP REFRIGERATION. 295 

a much higher temperature than the one at which it evaporates. 
The difference between these temperatures is a loss which must be 
deducted from the heat of vaporization due to the boiling point 
of the ammonia in the refrigerator. 

Second, The vapor leaving the refrigerator becomes heated on 
its way to the compressor, and especially by coming in contact with 
the walls and parts of the compressor, which are heated to a cer- 
tain extent during the compression period. This heating of the 
vapor causes expansion, and consequently a reduction of the 
weight due to its pressure. 

Third, It is impossible to build a compressor which discharges 
every particle of the compressed gas. Whatever is left in the 
cylinder at the moment the piston begins the suction period will 
reexpand and fill up a certain space, thus reducing the volume of 
the entering vapor, or, in other words, the displacement of the 
compressor. 

Fourth. More or less loss is caused by leaks through valves and 
piston, radiation of the different parts of the system, imperfec- 
tion of the insulation and pipe covering and impurities in the 
ammonia itself. 

17. The first loss is an exactly known quantity, and is, there- 
fore, accounted for separately in all calculations. But all the 
other losses can not be measured correctly and independently 
from each other, wherefore they are accounted for in form of a 
certain per cent, of efficiency of the compressor. 

Efficiency of Compressor, 

18. Prof. J. E. Denton stated in Transactions A. 8. M. E., voL 
xii. : " . . . An important deduction from the measurements 
by meter of the quantity of ammonia circulated, compared with 
the weight of ammonia accounted for by the displacements of 
the compressors, is that the latter falls 25 per cent, short. . . .'' 
Such a shortage of 25 per cent., or an efficiency of the compressor 
of 75 per cent., has not as yet been proven incorrect, and as 
actual practice agrees indeed closely with such an efficiency, it 
can safely be considered as correct. 

19. Having now the quantity of heat equal to one ton of re- 
frigeration, and also the loss of heat and the efficiency of the com- 
pressor as undisputed facts, it would seem a very simple matter to 
find the quantity of ammonia which must be actually evaporated 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

under certain conditions in order to produce one ton of refrig- 
eration. 

20. But just the choice of these certain conditions upon which 
the standard unit shall be based has so far prevented an agreement 
between the parties concerned. 

21. For the establishment of a standard unit of refrigeration it 
is necessary to agree on the speed of the machine and on the tem- 
peratures or pressures which shall form the bases for all calcula- 
tions. As soon as such bases are found and accepted, the entire 
question is settled. 

Speed of Machines. 

22. Up to the present time the most serious trouble is the great 
difference in the speed of the machines. 

Some of the builders use good practice and base their machines 
on a piston speed of from 125 feet for the smallest up to 300 feet 
for the largest machines. 

23. Others* are not so particular, and use a speed of from 150 to 
450 feet per minute. Still others don't care at all for any propor- 
tions, but simply increase the speed of one and the same machine 
if a larger capacity is needed, just to meet competition regardless 
of the efficiency or the life of the machine. 

24. Such conditions are not known in any other branch of me- 
chanical engineering. Standard regulations like those accepted in 
steam and electrical engineering should also be possible in re- 
frigerating engineering. 

25. Recently it has been proposed to adopt 50 revolutions per 
minute as the speed for all machines regardless of size. Such an 
effort is arbitrary and against the principles of modem engineer- 
ing. It would mean for the refrigerating machines as much as 
a proposition of 80 revolutions per minute for all steam engines 
or 500 revolutions per minute for all dynamos. 

26. The speed must necessarily be expressed in feet piston 
travel per minute, and the number of feet must be chosen with due 
regards to the fact that all compressors have poppet valves instead 
of positively mechanically governed valves like the steam engine. 

For this reason the speed of a compressor can never be as high 
as the speed adopted for the steam engine. 

27. I have been in favor of a speed of 250 feet as a standard. 
But after a careful comparison of the speed of well proportioned 



STANDARD UNIT OP REFRIGERATION. 297 

machines in actual practice, I think it will be necessary to divide 
the speed in several classes, in order to prevent too great a de- 
parture from the present common practice. 

28. All machines with a stroke of 8 inches and less are of little 
or no importance and could be excluded. The machines above 8- 
inch strokes could be divided into four classes, for which the stan- 
dard piston speed per minute should not exceed: 

180 feet for machines with a stroke up to and iDcluding 12 inches; 
240 " ** *• '* *• - •* over 12 and including 24 inches ; 

o/w\ I* (I «< <• «< «< *< 24 '* ** 86 *' 

aeO ** '* •• *' " '• *' 36 inches. 

29. A comparison of this proposition with the present rating of 
the manufacturers of two of the leading machines, shows the fol- 
lowing table of speed: 



298 



STANDARD UNIT OF OEFBIOEBATION. 





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STANDARD UNIT OP REFRIGERATION. 299 



TempercUnre vs, Prewwte. 

A glance at any ammonia table must convince us that the tem- 
perature and not the pressure is the basis for all calculations of 
the capacity of a refrigerating machine. This fact is not at all 
a matter of choice, but it is dictated by natural conditions. 

The change in the temperature of the atmosphere and of the 
water supply is the cause of changes of the ammonia pressure, but 
a change in the latter can never produce a change in the former. 

All the properties of ammonia are based on the absolute tem- 
perature from which the different pressures are derived. 

And yet, in spite of this fact, most all calculations of the capa- 
city of refrigerating machines are based on the suction and con- 
densing pressures, which are often expressed in fractions of one- 
hundredths of a pound, which of course can not be read on any 
gauge. 

The consequence of such a faulty method is that the exact 
knowledge of the relations between temperature and pressure are 
seldom fully understood by those who operate this class of ma- 
chines, and that it is possible that for a place having a condensing 
water with 85 degrees a machine is furnished of which the capa- 
city is based on a temperature of 60 degrees. 

The present method of allowing two and even more tons of re- 
frigeration for one ton of ice-making capacity is also caused by 
the disregard of temperatures, because the boiling point of the 
ammonia for ice-making nmst be much lower than the one taken 
at present as a basis for refrigeration. I know of a case where a 
machine of 150 tons refrigerating capacity had to be worked up 
to its full capacity to produce 05 tons of ice. 

The ammonia tables in practical use give for each degree from 
minus 40 up to plus 100 the absolute and gauge pressures, volumes 
and weights of the ammonia, but for only two even numbers of 
pounds gauge pressure (76 and 87 pounds) the corresponding tem- 
peratures, and all the others must be calculated or assumed. 

This evil can be easily corrected by basing all calculations of 
the capacity on the 

Temperature to be produced, and 

Actual temperature of the condensing water. 



300 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 



Temperature to be Produced. 

From zero required for sharp freezers up to 60 degrees for 
certain rooms, the range in temperatures is a very large one. 

The standard should be a fair average of the temperatures most 
needed, and this is no doubt the temperature required for ice- 
making, combinations of ice-making and cold storage, and re- 
frigerating plants with brine circulation. 

A temperature of 15 degrees Fahr. as a basis would therefore 
be most suitable for these purposes, and would give a boiling point 
of zero and a suction pressure of about 15 pounds. It could be 
applied for about 90 per cent, of all plants, and the balance of 10 
per cent, for which temperatures below or above 15 degrees are 
required could be based on especially prepared equations or tables. 



Actual Temperature of Condensing Water. 

Different parts of the country furnish water of a great dif- 
ference in temperature. Water as low as 50 is found at some 
places in the North; an average of 65 degrees in the East; and 
from 75 to 85 degrees in the West and South. But comparatively 
few plants can depend on an abundance of water, which is clearly 
demonstrated by the rapidly increasing demand of cooling towers. 

The temperature of water of the greatest part of this country 
is from 72 to 78 degrees, and wherever a cooling tower is used it 
will furnish a water of about the same temperature, whether the 
initial temperature was 60 or 85 degrees, some extreme conditions 
not counted. 

A condensing water of 75 degrees as a basis would certainly be 
in line with the great majority of actual conditions. A few de- 
grees more or less than 75 could not change conditions very mate- 
rially, as a difference of 5 degrees does not amount to more than 
about 1 per cent, more or less capacity, which is small compared 
with a factor of 75 per cent, as the basis for the eflSciency of the 
compressor. 

With a condensing water of 75 degrees and a modern condens- 
ing apparatus, or with a special liquid cooler in connection with 
an old style condenser, a liquid ammonia of 80 degrees can be 
easily obtained. 



8TANDABO UNIT OF REFRIGEBATION. 301 

Displacement of the Compressor. 

The displacement of the compressor is dependent upon the con- 
ditions already mentioned. Taking as a standard basis 284,000 
British thermal units as the heat value of one-ton refrigeration; 
15 degrees as the temperature to be produced ; zero as the boiling 
point of the ammonia to be evaporated; 555,500 British thermal 
units as the heat of vaporization of one pound at said boiling point, 
and 0.1107 pound as the weight of one cubic foot of vapor at said 
boiling point ; 80 degrees as the temperature of the liquid am- 
monia, and 75 per cent, as the efficiency of the compressor, the 
standard displacement per minute per ton of refrigeration in 24 
hours. 

284,000 



(555.50 - 80) X 0.1107 x 1440 x 0.75) 
or 5 cvhicfeet (8,640 cubic inches). 



= 4.992 



Standard Unit of Refrigeration. 

Kecapitulating my propositions, the requirements for a standard 
unit of refrigeration would be as follows : 

1. 284,000 British thermal units as the latent heat of 2,000 
pounds of ice constitute one ton of refrigeration. 

2. The efficiency of the anmionia compressor is 75 per cent of 
the theoretical capacity. 

3. The limit of piston travel in feet per minute shall be 

180 feet for strokes up to and including 12 inches ; 
240 *• •* " over 12 ** ** 24 " 

300 •• '* " •* 24 '* " S6 •• 

360 " " " •* 86 inches. 

4. The temperature to be produced 15 degrees Fahr., and the 
boiling point of the evaporating anmionia is zero. 

5. The temperature of the condensing water is taken at 75 
degrees Fahr., and the temperature of the liquid ammonia at 80 
degrees. 

6. The displacement of the compressor must be 5 cubic feet, 
or 8,640 cubic inches, per minute for each ton of refrigeration 
in 24 hours. 



300 STANDARD UNIT OF KEFRIGERATION. 



Temperature to he Produced. 

From zero required for sharp freezers up to 60 degrees for 
certain rooms, the range in temperatures is a very large one. 

The standard should be a fair average of the temperatures most 
needed, and this is no doubt the temperature required for ice- 
making, combinations of ice-making and cold storage, and re- 
frigerating plants with brine circulation. 

A temperature of 15 degrees Fahr. as a basis would therefore 
be most suitable for these purposes, and would give a boiling point 
of zero and a suction pressure of about 15 pounds. It could be 
applied for about 90 per cent, of all plants, and the balance of 10 
per cent, for which temperatures below or above 15 degrees are 
required could be based on especially prepared equations or tables. 



Actual Temperature of Condensing Water. 

Different parts of the country furnish water of a great dif- 
ference in temperature. Water as low as 50 is found at some 
places in the North; an average of 65 degrees in the East; and 
from 75 to 85 degrees in the West and South. But comparatively 
few plants can depend on an abundance of water, which is clearly 
demonstrated by the rapidly increasing demand of cooling towers. 

The temperature of water of the greatest part of this country 
is from 72 to 78 degrees, and wherever a cooling tower is used it 
will furnish a water of about the same temperature, whether the 
initial temperature was 60 or 85 degrees, some extreme conditions 
not counted. 

A condensing water of 75 degrees as a basis would certainly be 
in line with the great majority of actual conditions. A few de- 
grees more or less than 75 could not change conditions very mate- 
rially, as a difference of 5 degrees does not amount to more than 
about 1 per cent, more or less capacity, which is small compared 
with a factor of 75 per cent, as the basis for the eflSciency of the 
compressor. 

With a condensing water of 75 degrees and a modern condens- 
ing apparatus, or with a special liquid cooler in connection with 
an old style condenser, a liquid ammonia of 80 degrees can be 
easily obtained. 



STANDABO UNIT OF REFRIGEBATION. 301 

Displacement of the Compressor. 

The displacement of the compressor is dependent upon the con- 
ditions already mentioned. Taking as a standard basis 284,000 
British thermal units as the heat value of one-ton refrigeration; 
15 degrees as the temperature to be produced; zero as the boiling 
point of the ammonia to be evaporated; 555,500 British thermal 
units as the heat of vaporization of one pound at said boiling point, 
and 0.1107 pound as the weight of one cubic foot of vapor at said 
boiling point; 80 degrees as the temperature of the liquid am- 
monia, and 75 per cent, as the eflSciency of the compressor, the 
standard displacement per minute per ton of refrigeration in 24 
hours. 

284,000 . 

(555.50 - 80) X 0.1107 x 1440 x 0.75) " ' 

or 5 cubiefeet (8,640 cubic inches). 



Standard Unit of Hefrigeration. 

Recapitulating my propositions, the requirements for a standard 
^it of refrigeration would be as follows : 

1. 284,000 British thermal units as the latent heat of 2,000 
pounds of ice constitute one ton of refrigeration. 

2. The efficiency of the ammonia compressor is 75 per cent, of 
the theoretical capacity. 

3- The limit of piston travel in feet per minute shall be 

ISO feet for strokes up to and including 12 inches ; 

240 ' over 12 »* ** 24 ** 

300 '* " *' •* 24 •* *• 86 •• 

360 " •* " •* 86 inches. 

*• The temperature to be produced 15 degrees Fahr., and the 
boiling point of the evaporating ammonia is zero. 

5. The temperature of the condensing water is taken at 75 
degrees Fahr., and the temperature of the liquid ammonia at 80 
degrees. 

6. The displacement of the compressor must be 5 cubic feet, 
or 8,640 cubic inches, per minute for each ton of refrigeration 
in 24 hours. 



302 8TANDABD UNIT OF BEFBIOERATION. 

Hence we have 

0.75 X 1,440 X (655.50 - 80) x 0,1107 x 5 . .„_ . 
284;000 = 1.0008 ton, 

representing actually one practical ton of refrigercUion. 

Ice-Making Capacity. 

It may be interesting to find the relations between one ton of 
refrigeration and one ton of ice-making under the very same con- 
dition as taken for the standard unit of refrigeration. 

With a cooling water of 75 degrees, the water coming from the 
re-boiler with 212 degrees must be cooled before it can enter the 
ice-making apparatus, and it can therefore be taken again at a 
temperature of 80 degrees. By means of evaporating anmionia 
it must be cooled to 32 degrees, and after being frozen the ice 
must be cooled down to 15 degrees. To simplify matters, we 
will take the specific heat of the ice also at 1 instead of 0.5, and 
the work to be done would then be the transfer of the sensible 
heat of 2,000 x (80 - 15) = 130,000 British thermal units, in 
addition to the latent heat of 284,000 British thermal units. 

The total of 414,000 British thermal units would then consti- 
tute the heat value of one ton of ice-making, and one practical 
ton of refrigeration would be equal to * 

0.75 X 1,440 X (555.5 - 80) x 0.1107 x 5 _ ^^^^ 

4i4;;6oo ^-^^^ 

or 0.68 ton of actual ice-making capacity. 

The following Table of Capacities give a comparison of the 
builders' rating with the actual capacities according to my propo- 
sition for a standard unit. 

It proves conclusively that the machines mentioned are not 
based on uniform rules. While the capacity of most of the single- 
acting machines comes very near within the results from applying 
my proposition for a standard unit, the capacities of most of the 
double-acting machines show very great differences. 

The true proportions between refrigerating and ice-making 
capacity hold good for the single-acting machines, but not for the 
double-acting machines, which for several good reasons fall short 
in actual practice, which fact is plainly demonstrated by the 
builders' rating for ice-making capacity. 



STANDABD UNIX OF REFRIQEBATION. 



303 





1 


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304 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 



Conclusion. 

It has been my endeavor to show that the pressures as a basis 
for calculation are in place and necessary for computing the power 
required, but that for computing the capacities of refrigerating 
machines the temperatures are the only correct basis. 

As this subject is of great interest to a great number of indus- 
tries, I beg leave to suggest that a committee may be appointed 
consisting of members of this Society actually engaged in re- 
frigerating engineering, and that such committee may have the 
power to cooperate with all the committees already appointed 
by the associations of builders and owners of ice and refrigerating 
machinery for the sole purpose to establish a Standard Unit of 
Eefrigeration. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Gardner T. Voorhe^s, — In reply to Mr. Bertsch's paper 
on the Standard Unit of Refrigeration I ^nsh first to briefly re- 
view the efforts that have been made in this line. 

In my work as a Refrigerating Engineer, for a long time I 
have been greatly impressed by the great differences of opinion 
regarding the capacity of refrigerating machines. 

In a series of articles that I publislied in Ice and Refrigeration 
of May, June, July, August, September and October, 1902, en- 
titled '^ Analyzing the Compressor," I endeavored among other 
things to indicate a basis for accurately determining the capacity 
of such refrigerating machines. 

My correspondence with the prominent builders of such 
machines at that time so impressed me with the great diversity 
of ratings for capacity that I detennined to try and have a stan- 
dard unit ton for refrigerating machines adopted by those most 
interested. 

It was my intention to have personally presented this subject 
before the Society at its last winter meeting, but my duties in 
connection with the St. Louis World's Fair Refrigeration Ex- 
hibit at that time prevented my being at the meeting as these 
same duties have at present prevented my preparing a more 
elaborate paper. 

I brought the question to the attention of the Society in letters 
of December 3 and 22, 1002, and asked that a committee be ap- 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGEBATION. 



305 



pointed to consider the question. In my letter of December 2 2d, 
1 suggested the following as a basis on which to attempt to frame 
rules for the standard unit ton for all classes of refrigerating 
machines. 

First: As referred to compression machines, the use of the 
factor (cubic displacement of compressor per revolution per ton 
of refrigeration). 

Second: For absorption machines, cubic displacement of the 
liquor pump; per stroke, per ton of refrigeration, with accom- 
panying difFerence in percentages of ammonia contained in the 
strong and weak liquors. 

I personally brought up the question at the last February 
meeting of the Southern Ice Exchange at Atlanta, Ga., with the 
result that I had the honor to be appointed chairman of a com,- 
mittee of five from that association to consider the subject and 
report. 

Through the active efforts of Mr. J. F. Kickerson, the pub- 
lisher of Ice and Refrigeration, and Mr. J. 0. At wood, manager 
of the National Ammonia Co., similar committees were appointed 
at the last March meetings' of the Southwestern Ide ^lanufac- 
turers' Association at Dallas, Texas; The Indiana Ice Manufac- 
turers' Association at Indianapolis, Ind., and the Western Ice 
Manufacturers' Association at Kansas City, Kansas. 

Since the above committees were appointed the Ice Machine 
Builders of this country have organized an association and have 
devoted some little time to discussion and tests that may help to 
^tablish such a unit. 

Numerous articles bearing on the subject have been published 
from time to time in the columns of Ice and Refrigeration by 
Prof. J. E. Siebel, Eugene T. Skinkle, J. C. Bertsch, A. E. 
Siebert and myself. For the benefit of those who may be inter- 
ested to review those articles I give the following references to 
the pages of Ice and Refrigeration: 



Month. 
March . . 

May .. 

Jane . . 
July .. 



Page. 
88d-«8e. 

194 



16-18 



1908. 
Anthor. 
G. T. Voorhees 

loe Machine Baildere. . 



E. T. Skinkle 



Subject. 

Introduction of Rubject at South- 
ern Ice Exchange Meeting. 

Proposed rule for Standard Unit 
Ton. 

Criticism of Builders Unit by edi- 
torial. . 

Capacity of Compressor, with 
^bles. 



20 



306 



STANDABO UNIT OF R£FBia£RATION. 







1908.-<ContInued.) 


Month. 


Page. 


Author. 


Subject 


Aug. . . 


. 47-60 . . 


. G. T. Voorhees 


. . General review of sabject. Rales 
suggested and carves for capa- 
city. Criticism of Skinkle's 
tables. 


Aug. . . 


. 50-51 .. 


. A. Siebert 


. Criticism of Skinkle's tables and 
proposed new formula. 


Sept. .. 


.110 .. 


. G. T. Voorheea 


. Diagramatic representation of am- 
monia in a compression cycle. 
Criticism of Siebert's formula. 


i< 


. 101-102. . 


. E. T. Skinkle 


. Reply to criticisms of Voorbees 
and Siebert. 


«( 


. 10^108. . 


. Prof. J. E. Siebel 


. . Criticism of Siebert's formula. 


«( 


.103 


. A. Siebert 


. Criticism of Voorhees' articles. 


Oct. .. 


.129-181.. 


. G. T. Voorheefi 


. Reply to Skinkle's criticism with 
curves showing Voorhees*, Skin- 
kle's and Siebert's results and 
correction to apply to page 110 
of September article. 


(1 


. 125-128.. 


. J. C. Beptach 


. General discussion of subject, with 
tables, together with discussion 
of Voorhees', Skinkle's and Sie- 
bert's articles. 


«» 


. 181-182.. 


. A. Siebert 


. .* Reply to criticism of Siebel, Voor- 
hees and Skinkle. 


<< 


.140 


. Ice Machine Buildera. . 


. . Brief notice of tests for unit ton. 


Nov. .. 


. 195-196.. 


. G. T. Voorhees 


. Criticism of Bertsch's article. 



A brief summary of the points discussed are as follows: — 
Superheating effect, formulee for capacity, rules for capacity, 
general curves and tables. 

The rules proposed by me in these articles were as follows : — 



For Ammonia Compression Machines. 



First: A standard unit ton of refrigeration is 284,000 British 
thermal units. 

Second: A refrigerating machine must operate continuously 
for 24 hours to do refrigeration equal to its rated capacity. 

Third: A refrigerating machine shall operate at fifty revo- 
lutions per minute when rated at its standard capacity. 

Fourth: The standard displacement of an ammonia compressor 
of one ton capacity is five cubic feet per minute. 

Fifth: The approximate displacement per minute of a com- 
pressor per ton of refrigeration at a back pressure other than 15 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 307 

pounds per square inch gauge and a temperature of water to the 
condenser other than 75 degrees Fahr. is 5 cubic feet plus or 
minus .18 cubic feet for each pound that the back pressure is 
below or above 15 pounds and plus or minus .001 cubic feet for 
each degree that the temperature of water to the condenser is 
above or below 75 degrees Fahr. 

Referring now to Mr. Bertsch's valuable paper, I ofFer the 
following criticisms: 

The statement, article 14, " One ton of refrigeration is the 
latent heat absorbed or set free by melting or making one ton 
of ice of 32 degrees to or from water of 32 degrees Fahr." would 
seem to be more concise if stated as follows t 

One ton of refrigeration is the measure of the heat taken up 
or given out by melting or making 2,000 pounds of ice of 32 
degrees Fahr. to or from water of 32 degrees Fahr. This removes 
the objection of synonymously using (ton of refrigeration) and 
(latent heat). 

" Given out " seems to be more appropriate than " set free " 
and *^ 2,000 pounds " obviates the question as to whether a short 
or long ton is meant. 

For the latter part of articlq 15, the phrase: "and to arrive 
at the actual amount of ammonia needed, we must consider the 
unavoidable losses of heat during the process of vaporization," 
seems more correct if it reads : " and to arrive at the actual 
amount of ammonia needed we must consider the unavoidable 
gain or loss of heat to or from the system during the process of 
refrigeration.^^ 

In the second clause of article 16, only the eflfect of a dry 
compressor is noted; whereas a wet compressor would have addi 
tional weight of ammonia introduced through the expansion valve 
to counteract the superheating effect during compression. 

Article 19, after speaking of the 25 per cent, loss in capacity 
of compressor in article 18 the statement that the efficiency of 
the compressor is an undisputed fact seems erroneous in two 
respects. 

First: That the use of the word efficiency is not correct. It 
might be worded as follows, " and also the loss of heat and the 
effective capacity of the compressor as undisputed facts." 

Second: That the effective capacity of the compressor is a very 
much disputed fact. I admit that the work and tests of Professor 
Denton are the best data we seem to have at the present time, 



308 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

and that probably the 25 per cent, loss of capacity is correct 
for certain back and condenser pressures. But I firmly believe 
that future Experiments will show that the effective capacity of 
the compressor is a variable quantity depending on the back and 
condenser pressures, the nature of the compressor (wet or dry) 
and the area and nature of the surfaces that the refrigerant comes 
in contact with between the time that it leaves the cooler until 
it is trapped in the compressor. 

1 believe that the loss of capacity will be more than 25 per 
cent, for back pressures less than 15 pounds gauge and condens- 
ing water hotter than 75 degrees Fahr. and less than 25 per cent, 
for back pressures more than 15 pounds gauge and condensing 
water colder than 75 degrees Fahr. 

My theory closely follows the cylinder condensation phenomena 
of the steam engine and seems to be borne out by general experi- 
mental data. 

Articles 25, 26, 27 criticise my suggestion for the adoption of 
a standard number of revolutions for the compressor and suggest 
a sort of sliding scale of piston speeds. 

I believe the general niles to be adopted should be as simple 
as possible, and I suggest that if a standard number of revolutions 
can be agreed upon that it will much simplify the final rules. 
For instance, the variation in piston speed suggested by Mr, 
Bertsch is 100 per cent., while from an inspection of the tables 
published in his paper on page 7 it is evident that there is not such 
a large variation in the number of revolutions. 

It is not necessary to maintain the arbitrary proportion between 
the diameter of piston and length of stroke as in these tables. It 
is evident that where the length of the stroke is twice the diam- 
eter of the cylinder (as is the case \vith many up-to-date machines) 
that a fixed number of revolutions as 50 would give just the same 
displacement as a greater number of revolutions and a smaller 
stroke for the same diameter of piston. 

Why not, as new patterns are gotten out, make the smaller 
machines with extra long strokes and the larger machines with 
shorter strokes so that a standard number of revolutions may be 
adopted ? 

My argument as advanced in favor or revolutions in place of 
piston speed is as follows, from page 49, August, 1003, Ice and 
Refrigeration, 

" Why should not a compressor run at a high piston speed like 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIQEBATTON. 309 

a steam engine ? The reason is that the valves of a steam engine 
are positively mechanically governed and must act positively at 
each revolution of the engine. A compressor usually has poppet 
valves which are not positively mechanically governed, but depend 
for their action upon a difference of pressure of a gas on the op- 
posite faces of the valves. Such valves have an appreciable inertia 
and can only reciprocate a limited number of times per minute 
without requiring an excessive difference of pressure on the two 
faces of the valve. Such a difference of pressure is out of the 
question where low back pressure is to be maintained in the 
cylinder during the suction stroke. 

" A too rapid reciprocation of the piston will either cause the 
suction valve to so act that the pressure in the cylinder is much 
less than that in the suction pipe, or else the rapid motion of the 
piston will not give the valve time enough to overcome its inertia 
and change the direction of its motion, with the result that the 
valve will never be fully open or fully shut. The result of such 
action evidently greatly cuts down the capacity of the compressor 
so that it would not do as good work at quite high speeds as it 
would at slower speeds. 

" We all know from the steam engine that the limit of possible 
piston speed in the compressor is never reached so far as operat- 
ing the piston and stuffing box are concerned. It seems to me 
that the piston speed should not enter into the question. The 
vital question seems to me to be : How many times per minute 
can the valves be made to reciprocate to advantage ? If I owned 
and operated a compressor I would, from my experience, set the 
limit at fifty revolutions per minute. 

" Whatever the number of revolutions finally settled upon as 
being advisable it is e\'ident that it will apply equally well to a 
large or a small machine so long as the machine has equal valve 
area for equal weights of gas pumped at equal pressures. A con- 
sideration of this may show a marked difference not only in the 
different makes of machines but in different sizes of the same 
makes of machines; and may lead in the future to different pro- 
portions between diameter and stroke so as to give larger valve 
areas." 

In addition to the above I will repeat a remark that was made 
to me by a very successful refrigerating machine builder, " I 
find it cheaper to install ample compressor displacement rather 
than to install extra expansion coils, condensers, ice cans, etc." 



310 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

There is a whole volume of common sense in the above state- 
ment and a careful study of its results would, I think, lead to a 
conclusion that a slow running machine is a good investment both 
for the builder and the purchaser. 

Mr. Bertsch implies that we should adopt temperatures rather 
than pressures because temperatures are given in even numbers 
in the ammonia tables while pressures are usually expressed as 
fractions. This seems to be no argument, for, if desired, ammonia 
tables can easily be calculated with pressures in whole numbers 
and temperatures generally in fractions. 

Mr. Bertsch asssumes that there should be a difference of 15 
degrees Fahr. between the boiling point of the refrigerant and 
the temperature of the substance to be cooled. A difference as 
great as this is not found in modern practice where shell or double 
tube brine coolers are used, for with such coolers a minimum 
difference of temperatures of from 8 degrees Fahr. to 5 degrees 
Fahr. is usual while 10 degrees Fahr. difference is a maximum. 

Referring to the rules, the first one is not \\t11 worded, while for 
rule two, I suggest that the word efficiency should be changed to 
effective capacity. Rule three does not seem to be simple enough. 
Rule four is too arbitrary and not based on standard conditions to 
give the best economy: I advise back pressure as a basis to fig- 
ure on. 

In obtaining the factor 0.68 as the multiplier to be applied to 
the tons refrigerating capacity to obtain the tons ice making 
capacity, no account has been taken of the gain of heat by radia- 
tion to the ice making tanks or of the loss of ice in thawing from 
the cans or plates. 

I wish to call attention to the rule adopted by the Ice Machine 
Builders' Association as published on page 194 of the May, 1903, 
number of Ice and Refrigeration which reads: "It is acknowl- 
edged by the Ice Machine Builders' Association of the United 
States, here assembled: that, in the operation of refrigerating 
machinery it requires the evaporation of 27.7 pounds of anhydrous 
ammonia per hour at a pressure of 15.67 pounds above atmos- 
phere, condensing pressure to be taken at 185 pounds above atmos- 
phere, to produce an effect equal to the melting of one ton of ice 
per twenty-four hours, and that the capacity ratings of refrigerat- 
ing machines should be figured on this basis." 

This rule seems to be framed much as that for the standard 
boiler horse-power and it is good as far as it goes, and its form 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 311 

would be ideal if it were as convenient to measure ammonia as 
it is to measure water in a boiler test, or if the question of the 
speed of the machine were considered. Metering anhydrous 
anamonia is very uncertain and requires specially constructed 
meters. I have used the same meter on some tests that Professor 
JJenton used on his tests and I found that unless great care w^as 
taken in properly installing the meter, much gas would be gener- 
ated in the liquid pipe and in the meter which would make the 
meter buzz around like a top with results that were anything but 
reliable. 

Furthermore, it would seem to me to be very questionable as 
to whether anhydrous ammonia could be successfully measured 
without using special apparatus and the services of an expert whose 
services should not be required in so simple a matter. 

The Ice Machine Builders have shown great interest in this sub- 
ject and have started to make tests on one make of machine with 
the evident purpose of gathering data upon which to base the 
standard unit ton. 

I think it unwise to attempt to derive data that is supposed' 
to stand for all time from a single make of machine, especially 
if that machine is erected for the sole purpose of making 
tests. I think data should be obtained from all recognized 
standard makes of machines and that tests should be made at the 
places where the machines are in actual commercial operation. 

Each machine builder can single out one or more of his best 
machines and have a careful expert test made by his own experts 
under the supervision of some reliable and impartial expert. 

A general review of these results should give the necessary 
data for the final action, and then every builder will have had 
a chance to have his say and to submit the indisputable value 
of his machine as shown from verified tests. 

At first thought I feel sure that many of the machine builders 
will object to this method as they seem to have a mistaken idea 
that their competitors would get the better of them and that the 
public in general would learn too many things that they should 
not know. However, I believe that a careful consideration will 
convince most of the builders that such a course would have many 
advantages in bringing to light the best points of all machines 
so that all could profit thereby in discarding old and undesirable 
types and gradually adopting the better and more modern methods. 

Let the public know more about ice machines and remove the 



312 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

general impression that there is something very unusual in their 
construction and operation and the public will very shortly want 
more machines. » 

It is my intention to -offer every facility for such tests to be 
made upon the several different types of machines to be exhibited 
at the St. Louis World's Fair next year, and I will be glad if all 
the recognized experts in this or any country will get together and 
suggest methods for and help conduct such tests. 

In closing I wish to apologize for taking so much time and 
touching on points not covered in Mr. Bertsch's paper. 

My only excuse is the great interest I take in this subject. 

Mr. Thos. Shipley, — It is because I do not believe that some of 
the statements made in the paper under discussion should be al- 
lowed to go on record as facts, that I felt called upon to make 
these remarks. 

It is the fact that no unit of refrigeration has been adopted by 
the engineers engaged in the manufacture or operation of ice 
*'and refrigerating machinery, and it is also the fact that every 
engineer so engaged has felt the need of the adoption of some 
unit upon which the commercial rating of ice and refrigerating 
machinery could be based. 

The unit, if it may be called such, must be based upon an 
adopted back or suction pressure, as upon this back or suction 
pressure depends the conditions under which the ammonia is 
evaporated and the work done. 

I speak of ammonia as the refrigerant; it is the one that is 
almost universally used, and also because to attempt to adopt a 
separate unit for every refrigerant would be an endless job and* 
not advisable at tliis state of the art. 

When once a standard back pressure has been adopted, then the 
unit has been arrived at; the back pressure has been the bone of 
contention and must be agreed upon before anything else can be 
done. 

Mr. Bertsch makes the statement that the efficiency of a com- 
pressor is 75 per cent, and bases this statement on deductions 
made by Professor Denton years ago, and he further states that 
this efficiency has not been proven incorrect. 

In this I must correct Mr. Bertsch; 75 per cent efficiency is 
incorrect, and has been proven so conclusively, especially in the 
recent tests made at York by a committee selected from the 



STANDARD UNIT OP REFRIGERATION. 313 

manufacturers of ice and refrigerating machinery. The three 
members who directed the test were Geo. Richmond, representing 
the De La Vergne Refrigerating Machine Co.; N. H. Hiller, 
representing the Carbondale Machine Co., and myself, represent- 
ing the York Manufacturing Co. 

The fourth member, Mr. Theo. Vilter, of the Vilter Manufac- 
turing Co., was unable to be present at the tests. 

The three active members of this committee are all members 
of this Society. 

The compressor we used developed an eflBciency of 83 per cent, 
under 15.67 pounds back pressure. 

The plant used in making the tests was put up for that pur- 
pose, and every means possible was taken to guard against errors. 

A mercury column was used to determine the back pressure, 
as we found gauges were not reliable for the purpose. We also 
weighed the liquid ammonia,' as it was impossible for us to get 
a meter which would handle liquid ammonia accurately. 

The plant was of sufficient size to warrant accuracy, and the tests 
were run for 6 days consecutively, hence the compressor efficiency 
obtained can be relied upon. 

The compressor was operated at an average of about 70 rev- 
olutions per minute. 

As to the proper speed at which a compressor should be oper- 
ated, I will say that from tests which are now being carried on 
on the same test plant under my direction, it has been shown 
that the efficiency of a compressor increases as the revolutions 
increase. 

The speed tests were made for each 10 revolutions from 40 to 
100, the compressor being 18-inch stroke. 

There is no question whatever that the efficiency of the dif- 
ferent types of machines varies, hence the adoption of a standard 
compressor displacement per ton of refrigerating would not be 
possible any more than it is possible to adopt a standard amount 
of steam per horse-power for all types of engines. 

Prof, S, A, Reeve, — The writer wishes in the first place to 
commend the enterprise of Mr. Bertsch in bringing this subject 
before the Society. It is one which has long needed attention. 

In the second place, he would suggest the advisability of sub- 
mitting this matter to the consideration of a committee, for the 
formulation of the Society's views as to the adoption of some such 
standard unit. To that end he would suggest that a committee 



314 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

be appointed by the President, to report to the Society at its next 
annual meeting. 

Thirdly, he would suggest to such committee, if one be ap- 
pointed, the need for a standard method of expressing the 
efficiency of a refrigerating or ice-making machine as well as for 
a standard unit of refrigeration; for we have no recognized methpd 
now. To start the discussion, he would suggest, tentatively, the 
following method: 

Let Q be the standard unit of refrigeration, supposedly the 
284,000 British thermal units suggested by Mr. Bertsch. 

Let the lower limit of temperature be the zero-point (F) sug- 
gested by Mr. Bertsch or, in general, any absolute temperature 
Ti which might be adopted in its place, or which might be left 
undecided for variation to suit each case. 

Let Tj be the upper limit of temperature, that of the condensing 
water, either the 536 degrees absolute (75 Fahr.) suggested by 
Mr. Bertsch, or the particular temperature applying in any given 
case. 

Then the least amount of energy, measured in British thermal 
units which could possibly accomplish the unit of refrigeration 
would be, in general, 

^j;^^ 284,000 =(?,, 

or, supposing the adoption of Mr. Bertsch's standard tempera- 
tures, Qw = 46,204 British thermal units, or very close to J 
horse-power per ton capacity. 

In any given case let the aciual energy absorbed in producing 
the standard unit of refrigeration be qw, which will always be 
some quantity larger than Qw. Let the efficiency of any such 
a case be expressed as 

This method, it is true, takes no cognizance of the fact that 
not even a perfect ammonia-machine could ever hope to reach 
100 per cent, efficiency. For this reason the writer would per- 
sonally prefer to see the expression for the efficiency of the 
machine referred to that of a perfect ammonia-machine, which 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 315 

would always have an efficiency less than that expressed by (Tj — 
T,) -T- T|. Biit because he finds that the average engineer looks 
askance at and will not adopt a quantity so complex in its com- 
putation as the efficiency of the perfect ammonia-compression- 
uiachine, he suggests the use of the simpler expression just given. 

Mr. 8. H. Bunnell. — The adoption of an arbitrary capacity 
unit is much like certifying officially that all machines have the 
same efficiency. The condition imposed on the makers of re- 
frigerating machinery is that required of all constructors of 
machines — that they shall be able to perform what they promise. 
To do this satisfactorily generally means that the speed of ma- 
chines must not be too high, the consumption of power too great, 
or the liability of accident too imminent. If the manufacturer 
can construct an apparatus of superior efficiency with out sacri- 
ficing essentials such as these he should have the benefit of his 
efforts. 

The high acting slow speed American compressor with pistons 
running to practical contact with heads, must necessarily displace 
more ammonia per stroke than the double-acting machine of 
same cylinder volume, but the latter may make up for clearance 
and valve loss by saving in friction losses on account of avoiding 
the idle stroke. An arbitrary unit based on cylinder dimensions 
alone favor small and inefficient machines by giving them a 
rating higher than they deserve. 

The builder designs his com^iressor with regard to the uni- 
versal requirement of maximum efficiency at minimum expense, 
and selects speed, dimensions, style, materials and workmanship 
in accordance with his judgment. He must not build or run 
his refrigerating compressor on other than satisfactory com- 
pressor lines. But the ratio of useful eflFect to theoretical 
capacity depends on his ability as designer and constructor, not 
on mere cylinder volume. The purchaser of a refractory plant 
wants useful effect, and generally requires a practical demonstra- 
tion, with due regard to the power consumption and other ex- 
penses. If a constructor wants to furnish cylinders with a larger 
clearance in order to obtain certain advantages in design of 
valves, the provision of an arbitrary capacity unit gives him the 
right to claim more for his machine than it can do in com- 
parison with some single-acting machine without appreciable 
clearance. Neither 75 per cent, or any other figure can cover 
all cases correctly. 



316 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

We have already two useful units of refrigeration; one, that 
defined by Mr. Bertsch and universally used in America, and the 
other, the arbitrary ice-making unit, the ton of ice-making capa- 
city, equal to two tons of refrigerating or simple cooling capacity. 
The ice-making unit is based on practical results; for the ice 
made is weighed after melting from cans or cutting from plates, 
and some of the refrigeration is dissipated in leakage through 
tank walls and other losses besides direct water cooling. The 
proposed ice-making standard could only be approached in large 
plants. 

A practical and absolute standard has been adopted by the 
Ice Machine Builders' Association of America. It may be com- 
pared with the definition of paragraph 6 of the recapitulation. 
With a condensing pressure of 185 pounds gauge, the displace- 
ment of the compressor must be such that it will pass to the con- 
denser .462 pounds of saturated ammonia vapor evaporated at 
15.67 pounds gauge pressure per ton per minute. I do not see 
the force of the point made against pressure readings and in 
favor of temperatures. Pressure gauges must be used for 
safety's sake, and may well be supplemented by thermometers; 
but since pressures and corresponding temperatures of saturated 
ammonia are shown side by side on the gauge dials their relation 
is always apparent. Fractions of pounds or degrees are of no 
importance in practical design and operation. 

Mr, Wm. T. Magruder, — Will the author please inform us 
why he prefers to use (paragraph 14) " 142 British thermal 
units " as the latent heat of ice, when the more generally accepted 
figure is 144 British thermal unitB. 

Professor Jacobus. — This subject would be made much clearer 
if the paper were divided in two parts; first, that relating to 
standard units of refrigeration ; and second, that recommending 
some standard way of rating the capacity of refrigerating ma- 
chines. If this were done the first part would be very simple, and 
the standards now in common use, — the ice-melting capacity and 
the ice-making capacity, — ^would probably be all that would need 
to be considered. When we come to the second part, however, 
and attempt to specify what shall be the standard rating of a * 
refrigerating machine, we have a complicated problem to deal 
with. Some classes of machines will do better work relatively 
to others at high temperatures of refrigeration and others at low ; 
some are handicapped by warm condensing water to a greater 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 317 

extent than others, and it will be very hard to say what set of 
conditions will be fair for all machines or whether any set of 
conditions can be selected which will be fair for all. 

Finally, even if a standard set of conditions are selected on 
which to base the rating of machines, it will be necessary to know 
the actual conditions under which a machine is to be operated 
before we can estimate the work that the machine should be able 
to accomplish. 

Mr, J. C. Bertsch* — The discussions have furnished some val- 
uable statements, and I am much pleased that this subject has 
met with such great interest. 

Mr. G. T. Voorhees places liimself with many of his criticisms 
in the attitude of a corrector by using hair-splitting methods whicli 
.-hould have been omitted. At the present stage of the question 
it is immaterial whether we say "Absorbed" or "Taken up:" 
" set free " or " given out;" " efficiency " or " effective capacity," 
etc. 

While I endeavor to fit the Standard Unit as much as possible 
to the present conditions, Mr. Voorhees desires to change most of 
the existing conditions to make them fit his proposed rules. If 
he would study manufacturing methods and machine shop prac- 
tice, he would surely realize the impossibility to change the exist- 
ing proportions of the machines so radically; to make new am- 
monia tables, and so on. 

Mr. Voorhees proposed first to consider pressures only in cal- 
culating the refrigerating capacity. My article on that subject 
in Ice and Refrigeratioriy of October, 1903, induced him to 
" amend " his rules, and he adopted from my proposition the tem- 
perature of condensing water for his condensing pressure. Now, 
if temperatures are the proper thing for one side, why shall they 
not be proper for the other side of a system ? 

The fact that difFerences of from 3 to 5 degrees between the 
refrigerant and, the substance to be refrigerated are sufficient 
when modem apparatus are used does not justify the making 
of such a difference the standard. At least 90 per cent, of the 
existing and future plants are and will be of the " old-time brine 
tank style," for which the Standard Unit must also fit. Besides, 
if such small differences should be adopted, then a compressor 
displacement of 5 cubic feet per ton is much too large, or an 
efficiency of 75 per cent, is much too high. 

* Author's Closure, under the Rolee. 



318 STANDARD UNIT OF REFRIGERATION. 

A boiling point of zero would produce temperatures of from 
3 to 5 degrees, which are far below the practical average. But 
taking 15 degrees as the actual average temperature to be pro- 
duced, a boiling point of 10 degrees would have to be assumed^ 
and the displacement of the efficiency would be as follows : 

1. Duplacement 

284,000 

(549.35-80) X 0.1383 x 1440 x 0.75 "" ^'^^^ ^^^^"^ ^^^ 

2. Efficiency. 

284,000 - ft Ai QQ 

(549.35-80) X 0.1383 x 1440 x 5 "^ 0.6133. 

Such a displacement of efficiency does not at all agree with 
actual practice, and is at variance with all, even with Mr. Voor- 
hees's own proposition of a Standard Unit. 

Mr. Thos. Shipley has made a full confession in favor of my 
proposition, while he intended to oppose the same. His principal 
remarks were: 

The efficiency of a compressor is 83 per cent, instead of 75 
per cent. 

The back pressure has been the bone of contention 

Gauges are not reliable for measuring back pressures- 



All of this Mr. Shipley found out by conducting a test with 
a machine put up for that special purpose, and where " every 
means possible was taken to guard against errors." This test 
was made by three experts and for a period of six days. 

I beg to ask now every fair-minded engiiieer to answer the fol- 
lowing question : " If a machine, built and put up with all possible 
care, tested by three eminent experts, with all the assistance to 
their command regardless of cost, does not give a higher efficiency 
than 83 per cent., what can be expected of a machine built and 
put up in competition with ten or more other makes, operated 
by an ordinary engineer, and oftentimes by some one who knows 
just how to hold an oil can, run for twenty-four hours per day 
during a period of about six months, without any appliance to 
properly control the proper charge of ammonia, running short on 
condensing water and working against many other unfavorable 
conditions, — what efficiency can be expected of such a machine 
representing the average outfit? " 

At least 50 per cent, of all the machines in commercial opera- 
tion will not give an efficiency of 75 per cent., even if they were 
all of the single acting type. But when it comes to the double 



STANDARD UNIT OF REFEIGEEATION. 319 

acting machines, with the entire system full of oil, eflSciencies 
of from 50 to 60 per cent, will be a fair average. 

If actual tests shall be made for finding a Standard Unit, then 
let us test machines in commercial operation and under natural 
and normal conditions^ such as the public can afford to main- 
tain. But testing especially built machines at the manufacturer's 
place by experts and under the most favorable conditions can 
be called anything but Standard. 

Mr. Shipley is in favor of back pressure, but he admits that 
gauges are not reliable for measuring same. He thinks that upon 
the back pressure depends the work done. 

The logical order of question and answer is simply this : " What ■ 
work shall be done ? " " Producing a temperature of 15 degrees." 
Well, then we must carry a back pressure of about 15 pounds. 

We see on this simple example that the work to be done is 
the first consideration, and all other conditions, even the back 
pressure, must be arranged accordingly. The public knows ex- 
actly what temperatures are needed, but nobody cares for the 
pressures carried. Hardly 5 per cent, of all the ammonia gauges 
are correct for any length of time, which is confirmed by Mr. 
Shipley's own statement, but the cheapest thermometer does not 
differ more than one degree. To repair a gauge takes much time 
and is expensive, because it must be sent to the factory, but a 
thermometer can be bought in every little town. All the work 
of a refrigerating machine is controlled by the temperature, and 
the owner or manager of an ice plant, cold storage house or brew- 
ery will certainly not order his engineer to keep certain back 
pressures, but they simply ask for certain temperatures. These 
are some of the reasons why I propose to make the temperatures 
the foundation for a Standard Unit, and not the pressures of the 
ammonia. 

Let the public know what a machine can do and how the work 
can be controlled, instead of covering defects with rules and 
terms which can not be understood by many. 

The remarks of Mr. S. H. Bunnell are ansr^vered by the fore- 
going with the exgeption of the item with reference to gauges 
having the corresponding temperatures marked on the dial. We 
all know, and Mr. Shipley is the authority for the fact, that am- 
monia gauges are not reliable, as most of them are from 1 to 15 
pounds out. But if the readings of the pressures are incorrect 
and unreliable, then the corresponding temperatures are also 



320 STANDARD UNIT OF BEFRIGERATION. 

wrong, and without using a thermometer to ascertain the true 
state of affairs, nobody knows the conditions under which the work 
is done. 

The question of Professor Wm. T. Magruder I will answer 
thus : " Since the quantity of 284,000 British thermal units is 
generally adopted as the cooling effect of one ton, or 2,000 pounds, 
of ice, the latent heat of ice is accepted as being 142 British ther- 
mal units." 



BOILER PLiVTE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 321 



No. 1096.* 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, 
STEEL CASTINGS AND STEEL FOROINGS. 

Professor Spangler. — You may remember the conditions under 
which this Committee was appointed, but to make it entirely 
clear I would like to go into the history of it just a little. There 
is a society known as the American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials, which was the outgrowth of the International organization 
of which we have heard a great deal at meetings of this Society. 
Committee No. 1 of that Society prepared a series of specifica- 
tions, and Mr. Webster, at the request of Mr. Hutton, presented 
these specifications at a meeting of this Society, and asked that 
a committee be appointed on this particular subj/Bct. A, com- 
mittee of five was appointed, consisting of Mr. Cramp, Mr. 
Kent, Mr. Morison, Mr. Waitt and myself. In the usual way 
copies of these specifications were sent to various members of 
the Society, with the usual result — that is, in a few cases, after 
writing two or three letters, replies were received. The Com- 
mittee decided to submit, at this time, a report to the Society, 
subject to revision, asking that the report be sent to all members 
of the Society, that something like a full written discussion from 
members who are interested in the subject might be had, and 
that a revised report be formulated at some future time. 

It seems to me to be the proper procedure that, after this 
Society has finished whatever work it' may decide to do, the 
report, together with the report of all the committees of other 
societies that may be working on the subject, should go back to 
Committee No. 1 — that is, any report that we might make 
should be rather an advisory report than an attempt at a finality. 
This Committee No. 1 is the Committee which will finally, 
I believe, formulate specifications under which work of this sort 
is to be done. 

With this as an introduction, your Committee would resp^t- 
fully report as follows: 



♦ Presented at the New York meeting (Decern l>er, 1908) of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Vohime XXV. of the TransacUona. 



322 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL 
CASTINGS AND STEEL FORGINGS. 

This report is sent out subject to revision, and the Committee asks that 
written discussion be sent to its chairman that the results may be incorporated 
in the final report to be presented at the New York meeting of the Society. 

The Committee to which was referred the question of specifications for boiler 
plate, rivet steel, steel castings and steel forgings, reports that it has used the 
specifications prepared by the American Branch of Committee No. 1 of the 
International Association for Testing Materials, of which Mr. Wm. R. Webster 
is Chairman, as the basis of its work, and the changes hereafter noted are recom- 
mended in these specifications. 

1. That the maximum sulphur in flange or boiler steel be reduced from 
.05 to .04. 

2. That the tensile strength be specified as stated in the table with an allow- 
able variation of 5,000 pounds. That fire box steel be specified at 55,000 pounds 
instead of 57,000 p>ounds per square inch. That the determination of the yield 
point for ordinary grades be omitted. 

3. The tensile strength of castings has been modified, the specified 
value desired being stated, and the variation, 5,000 pounds, being allowed. 
The values, as re^mmended by Committee No. 1 , and by this Committee, are 
as follows: — 

Com. No. I's. RecommeDded by 

Minimam. Committee. 

Soft 60,000 60,000 ± 5,000 

Medium 70,000 70,000 ± 5,000 

Hard 85,000 80,000 ± 5,000 

4. The elongation in 8-in. is stated instead of in 2-in. and an increase in elonga- 
tion of 25% is called for on the 2-in. specimen. 

For a 2-in. specimen from castings the corresponding elongations are: 

Recommended by 
Com. No. 1. this Committee 

Soft 22% 20% 

Medium 18% 17.5% 

Hard 15% 15% 

5. That the 8-in. specimen be made the standard specimen and the 2-in. to 
be used only when it is inconvenient to use the 8-in. 

6. That nickel steel forgings and oil tempered forgings be not included in 
this specification, because the present state of the art does not warrant general 
specifications being drawn for these materials. 

7. That for soft or low carbon steel forgings the chemical requirements be 
not over .06 phosphorous, and .05 sulphur, instead of .10 phosphorous and 
.10 carbon. 

8. That for "carbon steel not annealed" the t^rm *' medium steel" be used, 
and that the sulphur be reduced from .06 to .05 per cent. 

9. That, wherever it is desirable that the elastic limit be determined, an 
extensometer be used, and that the elastic limit be taken as ''that point at 



BOILEB PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND POROINGS. 323 

which the elongaUon in 8-in. per 1,000 pounds of added stress per square inch 
first exceeds four ten-thousandths of an inch." ♦ 

10. The remainder of the specifications of Committee No. 1 are recommended 
for adoption, and are here re-arranged. 



Standard Specifications for Steel Boiler Plate, Rivets, Castings and 

foroinos. 

Process of Manufacture. 

Boiler Plate and Rivet Steel shall be made by the open hearth process. 
Castings and Forgings may be made by the open hearth, crucible, or Besse- 
mer process. 
Castings may be annealed or unannealed as specified. 

TennU Tests, 

Test piece — ^The standard test specimen shall be eight inches (8") gauged 
length. The standard shape is shown in Fio. 92. 




PARALLEL SEOTION 



NOT LESS THAN 9"~ 



Vi" ::l"':i'^ 



5 • 



-18^ 



Mg. 92. 

Width of specimen along the parallel section shall be li inches, whenever 
possible. 

Thickness of specimen shaU be one-half inch or over, whenever possible. 

Plates — Two opposite sides shall be the rolled surfaces if not over f-inch thick. 

Rivets — Rivet rounds and small rolled bars shall b.e ^ested full size as rolled. 

Castings and Forgings — Specimen may be planed parallel sided or turned 
parallel for not less than 9 inches in length, the smaUest dimension being }-inch, 
if possible. 

When it is inconvenient to use the standard test specimen the specimen 
may be made as shown in Fig. 93. In every such specimen the elongation 
in two inches will be 25% greater than that specified for the standard specimen. 

Number of Test Specimens. 

If a 'tensile specimen develops flaws or breaks outside the middle third of 
its gauged length, another may be substituted. 

* The "apparent elastic limit," suggested by Prof. J. B. Johnson in his "Ma- 
terials of Construction," and restated by William Kent in Transactions of Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers, 1903. 



324 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 

Plates — One from each plate as it is rolled. 
Rivet Rounds. — Two from each melt. 

Castings and Forgings — Depending upon the character and importance of 
the piece. 

Location of Test Specimens. 

Castings — ^A test piece shall be cut cold from a coupon to be molded and 
cast on some portion of one or more castings from each melt or blow, or from 
the sink-heads (in case heads of sufficient size are used.) The coupon or sink- 
head must receive the same treatment as the casting or castings, before the 
specimen is cut out, and before the coupon or sink-head is removed from the 
casting. 

Forgings — The test specimen shall be cut cold from the forging or full-sized 
prolongation of the same parallel to the axis of the forging and half way be- 
tween the center and outside, the specimens to be longitudinal, t.e., the length 




Fig. 93. 

of the specimen to correspond with the direction in which the metal is most 
drawn out or worked. When forgings have large ends or collars, the test 
specimens shall be taken from a prolongation of the same diameter or section 
as that of the forging back of the large end or collar. In the case of hollow 
shafting, either forged or bored, the specimen shall be taken within the finished 
section prolonged, half way between the inner and outer surface of the wall of 
the forging. 

Bending Tests, 

Bending tests may be made either by pressure or by blows. 

Cold bending tests are to be made on the material in the condition in which 
it is to be used. For a quenched bending test the specimen shall be heated 
to a light cherry-red as seen in the dark, and quenched in water, the tempera- 
ture of which is between 80° and 90° Fahrenheit. 



Test Specimen. 

Plates — One and one-half inches wide and if }-inch or less in thickness with 
opposite faces rolled. If over f-inch thick, specimen may be reduced to ^-inch. 
Edges are to be milled or planed. 



BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGa 325 

Rivet Rounds — Tested full size as rolled. 

Cattinga and Forgings — Specimen one inch by one-half inch. 

Number of Test Specimens. 

Plates — One cold bending and one quenched bending specimen from each 
plate as it is rolled. 

Rivet Rounds — ^Two cold bending and two quenched bending specimens for 
each melt. 

Location of Specimen. 

Castings and Forgings — As specified for tension specimen. 

Chemical Analysis. 

Turnings from tensile specimen, drillings from tensile or bending specimen 
or drillings from small test ingot may be used for chemical analysis. 

For locomotive fire box steel check analysis may be required from the tensile 
*P^imen of each plate as rolled. 

Drop Test. 

^ test to destruction may be substituted for the tensile test, in the case of 

^'^^ or unimportant castings, by selecting three castings from a lot. This 

, ^ «hall show the material to be ductile and free from injurious defects, and 

Citable for the purposes intended. A lot shall consist of all castings from 

the same melt or blow, annealed in the same furnace charge. 

Percussion Test. 

^rge castings are to be suspended and hammered all over. No cracks^ 
naws, defects, nor weakness shall appear after such treatment. 

Homogeneity Test for Fire Box Steel* 

^^rnple taken from a broken tensile test specimen, shall not show any 
sw^^ Beam or cavity more than one-fourth inch (J") long in either of the three 
lectures x>btained as described below. 

portion of the broken tensile specimen is either nicked with a chisel or 
grooved on a machine, transversely about a sixteenth of an inch dV") deep, 
in three places about two inches (2") apart. The first groove should be made 
on one side, two inches (2") from the square end of the specimen; the second, 
two inches (2") from it on the opposite side; and the third, two inches (2") 
'Tom the last, and on the opposite side from it. The test specimen is then 
pwt in a vice, with the first groove about a quarter of an inch (J") above the 
jaws, care being taken to hold it finnly. The projecting end of the test speci- 
men la thg,^ broken off by means of a hammer, a number of light blows being 
^^» and the bending being away from the groove. The specimen is broken 
by the other two grooves in the same way. The object of this treatment is 
to open and render visible to the eye any «eams due to failure to weld up, or 
to foreign interposed matter, or cavities due to gas bubbles in the ingot. After 



326 BOILER PLATE, BIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS, 

rupture, one side of each fracture is examined, a pocket lense being used if nec- 
essary, and the length of the seams and cavities is determined. 

Branding. 

Every finished piece of steel plate shall be stamped with the melt number, 
and each plate, casting or forging and the coupon or test specimen cut from 
it, shall be stamped with a separate identifying mark or number. Rivet steel 
may be shipped in bundles securely wired together with the melt number on 
a metal tag attached. 

Variaiion in Weight. 

The variation in cross section or weight of more than 2J per cent, from that 
specified will be sufficient cause for rejection, except in the case of sheared 
plates, which will be covered by the following permissible variations: 

Plates 12} p>ounds per square foot or heavier, up to 100 inches wide, when 
ordered to weight, shall not average more than 2} per cent, variation above 
or 2i per cent, below the theoretical weight. When 100 inches wide and over 
5 per cent, above or 5 per cent, below the theoretical weight. 

Plates under 12i pounds per square foot, when ordered to weight, shall not 
average a greater variation than the following: 

Up to 75 inches wide, 2} per cent, above or 2i per cent, below the theoretical 
weight. 75 inches wide up to 100 inches wide, 5 per cent, above or 3 per cent, 
below the theoretical weight. When 100 inches wide and over 10 per cent, 
above or 3 per cent, below the theoretical weight. 

For all plates ordered to gauge, there will be permitted an average excess 
of weight over that corresponding to the dimensions on the order equal in 
amount to that specified in the following table: 



Table op Allowances for Overweight for Rectangular Plates When 
Ordered to Gauge. 

Plates will be considered up to gauge if measuring not over yj^-inch less 
than the ordered gauge. 
The weight of 1 cubic inch of rolled steel is assumed to be 0.2833 pound. 

Plates \4nch and over in thickness. 







Width of Flat*. 




Thickness of plate. 


Up to 76 inches. 


75 to 100 inches. 


Over 100 Inches. 


Inch. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 


10 


14 


18 


h 


8 


12 


16 


1 


7 


10 


13 


ih 


6 


8 


10 


h 


5 


7 


9 


A 


44 


6i 


84 


f 


4 


6 


8 


Over t 


3J 


5 


6J 



BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 327 

Plates under \ inch in thickness. 

Width or Platb. 



ThickDMs of plate. 
Inch. 


Up to 50 inches 
Per cent. 


i up to A 

A " i 


10 
Si 

7 



50 inches and above. 
• Per cent. 

15 

12i 

10 

Finish. 

All material must have workmanlike finish. 

Plates must be free from injurious surface defects and laminations. 

Castings must be true to pattern, free from blemish, flaws or shrinkage cracks. 
Bearing surfaces shall be solid and no porosity shall be allowed in positions 
where the resistance and value of the castings for the purpose intended will 
be seriously affected thereby. 

Forgings must be free from cracks, flaws, seams or other injurious imper- 
fections, and must conform to dimensions. 



Inspection^ 
The inspector representing the piu*chaser shall have all reasonable facilities 
afforded to him by the manufacturer to satisfy him that the finished material 
is furnished in accordance with these specifications. All tests and inspections 
shall be made at the place of manufacture, prior to shipment. 
Respectfully submitted, 

H. W. Spanoler, Chairman. 





Chbxical Pbopbbtiss. 


Physical Propbbties. 


Bbmdino. 


Stbbl. 


Phos- 
phorus 
(not over), 
per cent. 


Sulphar 
(not 
OTcr), 

per cent. 


Manganese, 
per cent. 


Tensile 

strength, 

lbs. per sq. in. 

(Allowable 

TsrIation, 

±5,0C0lbs.) 


Is 

11 


OS 

gs 

It 


ii 


It 


Boiler Plate a 
Rivet: 
Extra soft. . . 

Fire box...] 

Flange or ( 
boiler ( 

Forcings: 

Soft 

Medium 

High 


.04 
Acid, .04 
Basic, .03 
Acid, .06 
Basic,. 04 

.06 
.06 
.04 


.04 

i .04 

.05 
.05 
.04 


.30to.5() 
.30 to. 50 

.30 to. 60 


60,000 
55,000 

60,000 

60,000 
70,000 
80,000* 


28t 
26t 

25t 

22 
16 
18 


35 
30 
35 


Flat. 
Flat. 

Flat. 
i" 


180 
180 

180 

180 
180 
180 



Castings. (When physical requirements are not specified carbon must be less 
than 40 per cent, and phosphorus less than .08 per cent.) : 



Soft 
Medium . 
Hard ... 



.05 
.05 
.05 



.05 
.05 
.05 



60,000 
70,000 
80,000 



16 
14 
12 



30 
25 
20 



1" 
1" 



120 
90 



* For carbon steel, to be annealed and having no diameter nor thickness greater than 
lO inehee. allow a reduction of 1.000 pounds for each additional inch in diameter or in 
thiclcness of section. 

t For material over ( inch thick deduct 1 per cent, for each i inch excess. For material 
onder A inch thick deduct 2\ per cent, for each x^ inch decrease. 

60 



328 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 

The Committee submits this as a tentative report, and asks 
for it the careful consideration of the members of the Society 
who are interested in the subject. 

Mr. Henning. — From what Professor Spangler has said I am 
simply amazed. There are statements made in the report which 
cannot be supported. The determination of a very important 
property indicated by the " yield point " has been dropped be- 
cause it has become the custom in our mills to run machines at 
such speed as to make it impossible to determine it. Now, I am 
going to stand and fight for this, the determination of this point, 
until I am dead. It is time to put a stop to such preposterous 
audacity. I tfell you, gentlemen, as engineers, that we should 
rather determine the permanence and the actual strength of all 
machines and structures, not by the ultimate resistance, the 
breaking point, but solely by the location of the yield point, 
that point at which the material begins to change its shape per- 
manently. A lathe, a machine, a bridge or boiler, once it begins 
to change its shape permanently, is ruined. It has become the 
custom in this country to run testing machines at such spee^J 
that no one can tell whether the beam is floating at zero and in 
dicating the load that is transmitted to the test piece, and I ar? 
ready to prove that in court or anywhere else. Under such con 
ditions it is absolutely impossible to determine the yield poiht ox 
any other facts. The elastic limit is something we need not tall' 
about, because it is difficult to determine, except by the mosf 
sensitive apparatus. The method here described is absolutely in 
accurate. I will tell you why. When you determine the one 
thousandth of an inch of elongation it can only be done by ap- 
plying a load to the test piece and taking a reading by very deli- 
cate apparatus ; it must read to the ten-thousandth of an inch in 
order to get accurately the thousandths of inches. When you take 
a reading and stop the load and then reload that material, it begins 
to stretch slightly, but the yield point will thereby be raised. 

I wish to prevent such a report going into print. What I am 
stating are well known facts. 

Therefore, I do not want such specifications proposed when 
there are methods for determining the yield point accurately — 
by simply running the testing machine at a proper speed. I re- 
peat, that by running a machine as rapidly as stated, no one can 
know whether the beam is kept floating by the loads applied or 
by inertia, and I object most strongly to such statements appear- 
ing at this late date in a report of this Society. 



BOILEE PLATK, RIVET STEKL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINOS. 329 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr, Chis. C. Henning. — Proposed specifications treating of the 
subject named in the report of this Special Committee, and prac- 
tically identical with it were proposed for discussion at the Boston 
meeting of this Society, and there and then received a rather 
thorough discussion which was not controverted. 

At the Saratoga meeting the chairman of this Special Com- 
mittee made a verbal report which again called forth criticism 
which has not been proven to be incorrect by the Committee in 
its present report. 

On the other hand the chairman makes complaint that he re- 
ceived but slight assistance and scant courtesy from the supposedly 
interested membership, by reporting as follows : " In the usual 
way copies of these specifications were sent to various members 
of the Society, with the usual result — that is, in a few cases, after 
writing two or three letters, replies were received." It may be 
necessary to point out at this time and place that the Committee 
was appointed to deveflop neither new specifications nor new 
methods of testing, but merely to evolve from existing knowledge 
and specifications a new set based on those in use, from which 
^ould be eliminated their incompatible differences or incon- 
g'Tiities, or clauses which had become unsuitable or useless, and 
^^ the other hand to bring all the requirements up to date. 

In order to do this a committee should be composed of engin- 
eers who are intimately familiar with the subject submitted to 
them; they should have all specifications before them; be famil- 
wr with the design and construction of the products covered by 
tbese specifications, and should also be in close contact with the 
steel works and shops in which the steel is made, the work done 
^nd the material tested. 

Only such engineers can properly prepare specifications which 
will be generally acceptable. 

In spite of this complaint about lack of co-operation, the com- 
mittee failed to avail themselves of previous criticism of the 
specifications which they used as a basis for their work.* The 
first criticism that I must make is about the laxity and indefinite- 
ness of the language, and the errors and misunderstandings 
which this necessarily introduces, because if there is anything an 

* See pages 642-667, Vol. XXIIL, Transaetiona, A, 8. M. £. 



330 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINOS. 

acceptable specification should do, it is to specifically specify 
detaily to avoid accidental or deliberate misinterpretation. 

On the second page of the report which refers to castings, it is 
stated that 2-inch test-pieces s>hould only be used "when it is incon- 
venient to use the 8-inch." Now it is a well-known fact that it is 
never inconvenient to cast one or more 8-inch test-pieces with 
the casting when only one or several of them are made. It can 
only be inconv^enient to the manufacturer when it does not suit 
him to do so and in no other case. 

These specifications are to be followed not after the work has 
been done, but are furnished with the call for bids and are sup- 
posed to be followed from beginning to the end of the work. 
Hence there caAnot possibly be any excuse for failure to provide 
8-inch test-pieces gated from the castings at the time the latter 
are poured. 

On the third page of the report which refers to boiler plate test- 
pieces, it is prescribed that the " width of specimen along the 
parallel section shall be 1^ inch whenever possible." This is 
simply an absurd concession! Every boiler plate is many inches 
wide, never under 24 inches, and as the specimens are cut out of 
the crop ends sheared off the full width of plates there never can 
be any difficulty of obtaining specimens of the prescribed width! 
It is always possible to obtain specimens 1 i inches wide in the 
parallel part^ except when the rolling mill does not want to do so ; 
nowadays tests are invariably made at the rolling mill. Again it is 
specified that : " When it is inconvenient to use the standard test 
specimen, it may be made as shown in Fig. 93," which means 
that a specimen of ^-inch diameter and 2-inch gauge length may 
be used. How obliging the committee intends to be to the larg- 
est mills who roll the largest plates f-inch thick and over! Xo 
such test-pieces as shown could be cut from thinner plates — 
just examine the dimensions! On the fifth page of the report a 
'* drop test " is suggested for " small and unimportant castings." 
Now what is the use of testing this class of castings at all? More- 
over there is not one drop-test apparatus in existence at any steel 
foundry in this country proper for this kind of test. At only a few 
can very large drops be found, ample to break up very large cast- 
ings before recharging them in the furnace. A hand hammer or 
sledge would seem to me to be more appropriate for the purpose. 
But what is the use of testing " unimportant castings " at all ? 
Do standard specifications ever refer to unimportant material? 



BOILEK PLATE, RIVET 8TEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINQS. 331 

On the other hand, the " percussion test " is prescribed for ** large 
castings " ; these " are to be suspended and hammered all over/' 

Martens * defines what a " percussion test " is supposed to be 
by those familiar with it — it is a very different test from that 
referred to in the specifications which is everywhere — the world 
over — known as the " hammer test." 

The hammer test again is only useful in case of small castings, 
and does not have any effect on large ones. How then can it 
be of any service whatever for the purpose proposed ? 

Again, how can crushing castings in the large drops prove 
them to be " suitable for the purposes intended." Such lan- 
guage in specifications is rather ingenuous ! 

On the fifth page, under " Homogeneity Test," it is stated that 
** a sample from a broken tensile test specimen shall not show 
any single seam or cavity more than ^ inch long in either of 
the three fractures obtained as described below." Now it is 
well known that every firebox sheet is sheared on all sides, hence 
if there are any defects in any sheet a competent examination of 
its edges will always reveal them and should cause its rejection. 
Even if the plates containing pitting or gas holes in the plates 
showed only under a magnifying glass this would be ample cause 
for rejections! What is the use of looking for defects ^ inch long 
with a magnifying glass, I should like to know. They can be 
seen by the naked eye at a distance of five feet! Let us exam- 
ine the method proposed for finding such J-inch defects and at 
the same time note carefully the language used which prescribes 
the use of a " pocket lens " for finding J-inch defects! 

" A portion of the broken tensile specimen is either nicked 
with a chisel or grooved on a machine, transversely about a six- 
teenth of an inch (tV'O deep, in three places about two inches 
(2^^ apart. The first groove should he made on one side^ two 
inches (2'^ from the square end of the specimen ; the second, 
two mches (2") from it on the opposite side ; and the third, two 
inches (2") from the last, and on the opposite side from it. The 
test specimen is then put in a vise, with the first groove about 
a quarter of an inch (^") above the jaws, care being taken to hold 
It firmly. The projecting end of the test specimen is then 
broken off by means of a hammer, a number of light blows being 
^^, and the bending being away from the groove. The speci- 
men is broken by the other two grooves in the same way. The 

* " Martens's Handbook of Testing Materials/' pp. 291-29a 



332 BOILEfi PLATE^ RlVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FOUGINQS. 

object of this treatment is to open and render visible to the eye 
any seams due to failure to weld up, or to foreign interposed 
matter, or cavities due to cas bubbles in the ingot. After rup- 
ture, one side of each fracture is examined, a pocket lens being 
used if necessary, and the length of the seams and cavities is 
determined." 

It will be noted that the material is to be either " nicked with 
a chisel or grooved on a machine, transversely about tV of an 
inch deep," and the effect of this nicking on the steel is not taken 
into account and is supposed to be inappreciable in either case, 
even when plates vary in thickness from ^ inch to over 1 inch thick- 
ness.* Everyone knows that very different results are produced. 
But let us look further. It is specified that the grooves are to be 
made in three places, two inches apart; ^' the first groove on one 
side two inches from the square end of the specimen ; the second 
two inches from it, on the opposite side ; and the third two inches 
from the last and on the opposite side from it." 

It is at once evident that two nicks will come, when following 
the instructions, two inches from the square end of test piece and 
opposite each other, and the third four inches from the end, 
while it may be clear that this was not at all intended to be the 
case. 

But let us proceed and examine the method further which 
prescribes that the specimen shall be *^ broken off by means of a 
hammer, a number of light blows being used, after it has been 
put in a vise, with the first groove about a quarter-inch above the 
jaws, with the additional wise caution, '* care must be taken to 
hold it firmly." 

Let us remember that the ends of these test pieces are from ^ 
to one inch thick and two inches wide, and only three inches long 
according to Fig. 92, or f-inch diameter and one inch long ac- 
cording to Fig. 93, when the former shape " is inconvenient." 

Now I will challenge anyone to break off a piece of fire-box 
plate one inch thick by two inches wide, scored iV inch deep, as * 
prescribed, when clamped firmly in a vise, by means of light 
blows of a hammer. This is a ridiculous and absurd direction 
which must be patent to all. This done, it is prescribed that 
" the specimen is broken hy the other two grooves in the same 
way." Has such English ever before been used in Standard 

* These specifications cover i-inch plates, as they are referred to on seventh 
page of ihe report. 



BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORQINGS. 333 

Specifications ? The next important point which I am bound to 
again criticise is the proposed omission of the determination of 
*• yield point/' and definition and method of determination of 
*' elastic limit." 

It is proposed * " that the determination of the yield point for 
ordinary grades be t)mitted.'' 

The use of the words " ordinary grades " has undoubtedly 
been resorted to to ward off criticism. 

Let us look at the meaning of the word " ordinary.^^ The 
small boy applies this word to a useless dog or to another boy for 
whom he has no respect because possessing bad habits and qual- 
ities. He has no use for such material. Just the same with 
boiler plate. What's the use of determining its yield-point, 
when it's just ordinary, no good, worthless! That's about the 
idea of the Committee. 

But the dictionary defines " ordinary " as follows : " of com- 
mon or ordinary occurrence, customary, usual." Hence, as 
these specifications are supposed to apply to all usual, customary 
or common steel of ordinary occurrence, this word does actually 
apply to all good boiler steel except that of extraordinary quali- 
ties. Hence the committee proposes to drop the determination 
of the yield point in all cases of testing standard qualities of 
boiler plate, instead of only of the inferior grades which are 
unworthy of consideration, as the Committee would have us 
believe. 

Xow let us see what yield point is and how it is determined 
easily and accurately by simplest means. Our honorary mem- 
ber, Professor Unwin, is one gentleman who tells us what the 
yield point is and how important it is to determine it.f Un- 

* Second page of the report, paragraph 2. 

t " 6. T%e Yield Point. — In iron and steel, and in some other roUed or ham- 
mered materials, at a sfress exceeding more or less the elastic limit, there occurs 
& Urge and almost sadden increase of deformation in the ordinary method of 
testing, and the deformation is permanent, or plastic deformation. For greater 
stress^ the plastic deformation increases, and it amounts, before fracture is 
reached, to many hundred times the whole elastic deformation. The point at 
which this almost sadden augmentation of plastic deformation occurs is termed 
the yield point or breaking down point. It is obvious that a general plastic 
jielding of a structure would ruin it for practical purposes, hence the yield 
point seems to fix a limit of stress independent of that determined from consid- 
erations of safety against fracture which the working stress should not exceed. 
The yield point is raised by loading which exceeds the primitive yield point, 
bat it is not usually practicable to raise the yield point of a material artificially 



334 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINQS. 

win says, p. 63, " Next to the yield point the most important 
point to observe is the point where the maximiim load is reached." 

Professor Martens * is another authority who emphasizes the 
importance of the determination of yield point and defines clearly 
the difference between it and elastic limit. Martens says, p. 28, 
"' The yield point as also the proportional limit are well-defined 
points." Again we may refer to our late member, Prof. J. B. 
Johnson, who adapted his ideas to those proposed by the French 
Commission on Methods of Testing Materials, but unfortunately 
did not interpret the statements published in their language cor- 
rectly. He translates the French term " la limite d'Elasticite 
Apparente " as the *^ apparent elastic limit," and then defines it 
as a point which is not at all apparent, but can only be deter- 
mined and recognized by most delicate apparatus and with great 
care and much labor. The very meaning of the word " appar- 
ent " is as follows : " clearly perceived, or perceivable ; easily 
understood, evident." The fact is that according to the defini- 
tions of Bauschniger, Martens, Tetmayer, Bach, Unwin, and 
many others it is readily observable by any careful inspector or 
engineer in a mill, and does not require a laboratory equipment 
with most highly trained assistants. 

Why this method proposed by Johnson for determining the 
'* elastic limit " (when his French models distinctly state that 
they coined the expression to indicate the " yield- point " for 
which they had no word) and re-stated by Kent in Trans. Amer. 
Inst. Mining Engrs., 1903, should now be adopted by this 
committee for determining a doubtful point very difficult to 
ascertain, is difficult to understand. Let us examine what this 
method proposed by Johnson and adopted by Kent really means 
and leads to. Martens says on p. 30 : 

" This is the proper place to call attention to a very important 
misconception which is produced by the uncertainty of accurate 
definition of the idea of elastic limit, and the existing careless dis- 
tinction between proportional and elastic limits and of yield 
point." 

If you will read the references to Unmn and Martens, given 
heretofore, relating to yield point, you will find that adding loads 

before using it in a structure, and consequently the primitive yield jwint, due to 
the mechanical operations of manufacture, fixes with respect to deformation the 
dangerous limit of stress." '* The Testing of Materials of Construction," W. C. 
Unwin, pages 7, 62, 98, 99, 250, 805. 

♦ '* Hand-book on Testing Material*," Martens, pages 28, 80, 44, 261, etc. 



BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 335 

successively and intermittently always raises it when testing 
materials like boiler plate. Another point is this, that the yield 
point shows itself very suddenly in many cases within an incre- 
ment of load of 250 pounds per square inch. 

The plates which these Specifications refer to vary from ^ inch 
to over one inch in thickness as the allowable variations in weight 
of all of these thicknesses are given in extensive tables. The 
proposed increments of load for consecutive measurements of 
extension are 1,000 pounds per square inch. Now the sections 
of the proposed test-pieces 1^ x i inch to 1^ x 1 inch will vary 
from 0.18 to 1.50 square inch. 

The necessary load on the testing machines to produce 1,000 
pounds per square inch on 0.18 square inch section will be 180 
pounds. It is a practical impossibility, therefore, to make such a 
t€8t on thin plates with any ordinary machine, and it is impossible 
to make it accurately on thicker test-pieces with any machine run- 
ning at the speeds customary at the present day in all mills. The 
mere starting and stopping of such a machine will add a thousand 
pounds more or less to an indefinite degree to my own knowledge, 
by the great inertia of machine at such speeds and the inertness 
of all operators under such conditions. 

Moreover, the time required for such determination of what 
is erroneously called " elastic lunit," but should have been called 
"yield point," is so great and troublesome that no mill, where 
the testing is to be done according to these specifications, would 
or could put up with it. It would simply paralyze all the mill- 
testing laboratories in the country. Moreover, the yield point 
makes itself as quickly apparent on a large as well as on a small 
test piece, because when this point is reached the material seems 
to break down instantaneously. 

The fundamental rule for' making all tests of materials is to 
^^n the machine so as to add equal increments of load continu- 
ously in equal intervals of time. The above method is abso- 
lutely opposed to this fundamental rule necessary to obtain uni- 
form and comparable results. 

There is one simple and accurate way of determining the 
yield point, which should be done in every case — as the yield 
point is the most important point to be fixed according to all 
authorities, for the proper design of all machines and structures 
subject to varying loads. 

This simple and accurate method is to use a pair of finely 



336 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 

pointed dividers, with a reading glass mounted on one leg to 
show accurately what is happening under one of the points. 

The dividers are set to any distance about eight inches. When 
the dividers have then been set on the test piece with the point 
of one leg in-a punch mark, a fine scribe-line is made on the test 
piece with the other. As the loading then proceeds, stretching 
at a uniform rate will become apparent as the scribed line moves 
away from the point of the dividers. Instantly the yield-point 
is reached the rate of extension increases with remarkable speed 
in a striking manner and the operator then takes a reading of 
load without any disturbance or interruption in the operation of 
the test 

This method is quite within the capacity of all those usually 
employed in making routine tests in shops and mills, and gives 
accurate results wherever desired. 

There is another suggestion I should like to make to the com- 
mittee as it has had such difficulty in obtaining assistance in pre- 
paring these proposed standard specifications. 

I refer to Figs. 92 and 93, in which account has been taken 
of metric dimensions* after this Society last spring decided to 
have nothing to do with the metric system, as it was no good at 
the present time, in fact being hardly in general use anywhere. 

These figures show metric dimension to the hundredths of a 
millimetre. A hundredth of a millimetre is not quite .0004 
inch, and our mechanics and those using the metric standards 
might become perplexed and get these dimensions incorrect to 
one of two hundredths of a millimetre. Had not these fractions 
better be left off? 

Moreover, if the approximate metric measures were substi- 
tuted, the principal dimensions of the proposed test-pieces would 
be almost identical with those used in continental Europe. But 
I have little hopes that our committee will drop a decimal of a 
millimetre in the radius of a fillet or in the total lengths and 
dimensions as shown. Moreover, there is one positive error in 
Fig. 92. There should not be eight divisions of the 8-inch 
gauge length, but twenty of 0.40 inch each, which is practically 
the same as the centimetre divisions which the Europeans have 
adopted. The one-inch divisions are much too large for measur- 
ing the proportional elongation of the test-piece, and those 0.40 
inch are just about right, and results measured thereon can be 

♦ Editor :— These metric dimensions have been omitted in revision. 



BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FOROINGS. 337 

readily compared with those obtained in Europe or published in 
the most valuable foreign reports, and without introducing any 
measurable errors. 

It is not possible to prepare one set of Standard Specifications 
to cover boiler plate, rivet steel, steel castings and f orgings. 

This is demonstrated by the fact that in the report before us 
. specifications for tank or sheet steel have become mixed up with 
those for boiler plate, as will be seen by comparing the tables of 
allowable variations in weight of plates. One table refers to 
boiler plate from J inch thickness and over, while the other 
refers to all sheets | inch in thickness and under. It is a well- 
known fact that such thin plates arc never used in boiler con- 
struction, hence any reference to them in this paper is quite out 
of place. Much more might l>o criticised in the report as to the 
indefiniteness as to how many tests shall be made, what facilities 
for making them shall be provided, and who shall provide them. 
In these Specifications everything referring to these matters 
i3 left entirely to the good will of the steel maker, and no author- 
ity is given to the purchaser of the material, who is the first party 
to be satisfied. 

It is to be hoped that this review of the report will give the 
Diembers of the committee cause for reflection, and enable them 
^ produce a report more nearly up to the present time in the 
field of testing materials and to prepare practical and useful 
Standard Specifications, which will serve the objects of the en- 
gineer as well as those of the steel maker. The apparent result 
of producing those before us has been a rather sad one. 
Jir.W. W.Dingee.— 

Racine, Wis., U. S. A., November 14, 1903. 
N. F. R. HtUtan: 

I^ Sir: In response to circular No. 979, I would say that for the past seven 
years the J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company of Racine, Wis., have furnished 
^ir Purchasing Agent with specifications for all the various material used in 
^ business. They have a well equipped Chemical and Physical laboratory 
^^ these specifications are prepared and where samples of all material re- 
wived are tested to see that they come up to requirements. These specifica- 
tions embody the result of our long experience in the requirements of material 
for our special purposes and as a result we now have control of many subtle 
"ifluences that formerly were not understood and the tendency of which was 
to make the life of a manufacturer a burden. 

Enclosed are samples of these papers touching the subject matter under con- 
sideration and which may be made a part of the discussion. 

Yours truly, 
(Enclosure.) W. W. Dinoee. 



338 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORCINGS. 

No. 307. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOILER RIVETS. 

The rivets purchased under this specification are to be made 
of the best grade of Open-Hearth steel, and should be formed in 
solid steel dies, i.e., closed dies. 

The rivets must be exact in size and fit the metallic gauges 
- furnished by the J. I. Case T. M. Co. 

In the event of no gauge being furnished it is understood that 
the shape and dimensions are to conform to the blue prints fur- 
nished by the company, or to a regular stock sample. 

The body of the rivet should be perfectly round, exact in size, 
and free from oxide or scale. 

The head should be in accordance with the metallic gauge, 
blue print, or sample. 

The rivets must be free from all injurious defects, be finished 
in a workmanlike manner, and fulfill the following requirements: 

Physical Test. 

Cold Bending Nick Test — Nicked with a cold chisel on one 
side of the shank or body, the rivet must bend double (away from 
the nick), flat upon itself (i.e., 180 degrees) without breaking. 

Note — A hand cold chisel must be used in nicking the test pieces, and a ham- 
mer of not over three poimds in weight used for striking the chisel. No rivet 
will stand the bending test if nicked deeper than one-fourth the diameter of the 
rivet. 

Quench Test. — Heated to a cherry-red, quenched in water at 
a temperature of 80 degrees Fahr., and then nicked on the side 
with a cold chisel, the rivet must bend double (away from the 
nick), flat upon itself without breaking. 

Dish Test (Cold). — A rivet held in an upright manner or ver- 
tical position, under the trip or drop hammer, and flattened by 
repeated blows to a circular disk must show no signs of '^ cold 
shortness," i.e., must not crack, split or crumble. 

Flat Test (Hot). — A rivet heated to a bright cherry-red and 
placed in a flat or horizontal position under the hammer, must 
show no signs of " red shortness " (i.e., must not crumble), when 
flattened to a thickness of one-fifth the original diameter of the 
body. 



BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FOROINGS. 339 

Chemical Comjpodtion. 

Kivets which will pass all of the required physical tests should 
be within the following limits in regard to composition: 

Phosphorus should not exceed . 03 per cent. 
StUphur " " " .025 " " 

SiHcon " " " .02 " " 

Manganese " " " .50 " " 

Carbon " " " .15 " ." 

Remarks. — ^Material will not be accepted which fails to meet 
the requirements in regard to size, uniformity and gauge dimen- 
sions. 

Failure of more than five per cent, of the rivets to pass the 
physical tests will be cause for rejectment. 

(A certain number of rivets will be taken from each keg or 
package for the physical test, and such test decides the acceptance 
or rejectment of that package in particular, but if more than half 
of the individual tests fail, the whole lot may be rejected.) 

Material will also be rejected which shows on analysis: 

Phosphorus over . 04 per cent. 
Sulphur " .035 " •* 

Any alteration in this specification, either in the physical re- 
quirements or the chemical composition, must be stated in writ- 
ing at the time of contract and signed by the party furnishing the 
material, also by the Purchasing Agent. 

No. 302. 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL CASTINGS. 

Steel for castings may be made by either the Open Hearth, 
Crucible, or Tropenas Bessemer Process; preference being given 
the open-hearth product. 

The castings must be true to pattern, free from external blem- 
ishes, blow holes, shrinkage cracks, cold shuts and other injurious 
defects. 

No porosity shall be allowed in portions where the resistance 
and value of the casting, for the purpose intended, will be seri- 
ously affected thereby. 



340 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINaS. 

The castings are to be annealed or un-annealed, as specified by 
the purchasing agent under the head of remarks. 

If annealed, the castings must receive a proper heat treatment 
and be given a sufficient time in which to cool, so that all internal 
strains are relieved and the metal assumes its proper degree of 
ductility. 

Large castings suspended and hammered all over, should not 
after this treatment show any defect or weakness. 

The castings must be properly cleaned and free from sand, 
scale, etc. 

Steel castings will be divided into three classes: Soft, Medium 
and Hard. 

The physical qualities and chemical composition of the differ- 
ent grades or classes must conform to the following require- 
ments. 

Soft GoAit Steel. 

Physical Test. 

Test pieces for the physical test may be cut cold from a 
coupon, molded and cast on some portion of one or more castings 
from each melt, or from a sink head, riser or sprue, on such 
castings. 

The test piece should be fashioned so as to give a gauged 
length of two inches and about one-half inch diameter. 

A bending test made on a specimen one inch wide and about 
one-half inch thick, must bend cold, around a diameter of one 
inch, through an angle of 120 degrees without fracture on the 
outside of the bent portion. 

Tensile Strength must not be less than 58,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Elastic Limit must not be less than 27,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

Elongation measured in 2 inches, must not be less than 22. per 
cent., and the reduction in area should not be less than 30. per 
cent. 

Chemical Composition, 

Carbon may range from 0.10 to 0.22 per cent. 

Manganefie " " " .20 " .75 " " 

Phosphorus must not exceed .08 " " 
Stdphur " " " .06 " " 

Silicon should not exceed .40 " " 



BOILEB PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORQINaS. 341 

Medium Cast Steel. 

Physical Test. 

Tensile Strength must not be less than 65,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Blastic Limit must not be less than 31,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

Elongation measured in 2 inches, must not be less than 18. per 
e^nt., and the reduction in area should not be less than 25. per 

cent 

Chemical Composition. 

Carbon may range from 0.22 to 0.35 per cent. 

Manganese " " " .25 *' .80 " " 

Pho»j)horu9 must not exceed .07 " " 

Sulphur *' " " .05 " " 

Silicon should not exceed .35 " " 

Hard Cast Steel. 

Physical Test. 

Tensile Strength must not be less than 80,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Blastic Limit must not be less than 39,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

Elongation measured in 2 inches, must not be less than 12. 

per cent., and the reduction in area should not be less than 20. 

per cent. 

Chemical Composition. 

Carbon may range from 0.35 to 0.50 per cent. 

Manganese " *' '* .30 *' .85 " " 

Phosphorus must- not exceed .06 " *' 

Sulphur " " " .04 " " 

Silicon should not exceed .30 " " 

When no special grade or class is specified by the purchasing 
agent, the material may be anywhere within the limits of a soft 
and hard steel. 

Note. — It will be noticed that the specified chemical composition is not at all 
ri^d except in the case of phosphorus and sulphur. 

Experience has shown that phosphorus in un worked steel, if very high, pro- 
duces extreme brittleness by making the material ''cold short.'* 

High sulphur produces ''red shortness/' increases shrinkage, makes the cast- 
ing hard, and indirectly causes blow holes. 

Manganese stiffens the steel, raises the elastic limit, piartially neutralizes the 
effect of sulphur, eliminates the occluded gases, and in a measure prevents blow 
holes. 

Silicon in the initial charge raises the heat and imparts fluidity; in the final 
product it has a tendency to impart rigidity and hardness. 



342 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND F0RQING8. 

Aluminium, either pure, or in the form of "Ferro-aluminium" is gener- 
ally added to the melted steel for the purpose of quieting the bath, raising the 
heat, purifying the metal, and imparting greater fluidity; an excessive amount 
of aluminium added to a steel low in manganese, will often produce a segregated 
porosity in the material. 

Blow holes in steel castings are the most common cause of trouble, and the 
defect is seldom discovered imtil the casting breaks. 

Porosity or spongy places in castings are also a source of trouble; this may 
in a measure be avoided by the use of fillets in sharp comers and angles, and 
by changing the form of the pattern so as to relieve the draw. 

Under the head of physical test we have allowed an elastic limit of less than 
half the ultimate tensile strength, usually however, it will be higher, and in the 
high carbons, somewhat closer to the breaking point. 

Carbon is not rigidly specified, as noticed in the adoption of the word 
''should," which implies that the maker be allowed a reasonable variation in 
order to get the desired strength. 

We reserve the right to use the drop test or any other reasonable test to de- 
termine the quaUty of the material and its freedom from blow holes or other 
flaws. 

Instruction in regard to annealing, and such changes as the purchasing 
agent may decide on in respect to physical requirements, chemical composition, 
etc., must be stated in writing and signed by the party in question. 

No. 324. 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL RIVET RODS. 

Two grades of steel are considered in this specification and 
are to be designated as " Extra Quality " (Class A), and " Or- 
dinary Quality '' (Class B). 

Class A is to be a mild steel of superior quality, made by the 
Open-Hearth process. 

Class B is to be a good grade of soft steel, made by the Open- 
Hearth or Bessemer process, as ordered and agreed upon at the 
time of contract. 

Both grades of material must be free from injurious defects, 
be free from excess of scale, finished in a workmanlike manner, 
and conform to the requirements of the physical test and the 
chemical composition. 

" Extra Quality (Class A)." 

Chemical Composition. 

Phosphorus must not exceed 0.03 per cent 

Sulphur " " '* .025 " " 

Afan^ane«e should not exceed .50 " ** 

Carhon " " " .15 " " 

Smwn " " " .02 " " 



BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL/ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINOS. 848 

Material will not be accepted which shows on analysis: 

Phosphorus above 0.04 per cent. 
StUphur " .035 " " 

Physical Tests. 

The Tensile Strength should not be less, than 55,000 pounds 
or more than 62,000 pounds per square inch. 

The Elastic Limit must not be less than one-half the ultimate 
strength. 

The Elongation, measured in 8 inches, should not be less than 
28.00 per cent. 

Material will not be accepted which shows a tensile strength 
of less than 45,000 pounds or more than 65,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

"Obdinaby Quality (Class B).^ 
Chemical Composition, 
Phosphorus must not exceed 0.09 per cent 
Sulphur " " " .05 " " 

ilfaiiyaf)«<e should not exceed .50 " ** 
Carbon " " " .16 " " 

SUicon " " " .05 " " 

Material will not be accepted which shows on analysis: 

Phosphorus above 0. 10 per cent. 
Sulphur " .06 " " 

Physical Tests. 

The Tensile Strength should not be less than 52,000 pounds or 
more than 62,000 pounds per square inch. 

The Elastic Limit must not be less than one-half the ultimate 
strength. 

The Elongation, measured in 8 inches, should not be less than 
26.00 per cent. 

Material will not be accepted which shows a tensile strength 
of less than 45,000 pounds or more than 70,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Cold Bending Test, — Class A and B material must bend flat 
upon itself (180 degrees) without showing signs of fracture on 
the outside portion of the bend. 

Quench Test. — Class A or B must show no signs of fracture 
when bent flat upon itself, after heating to a cherry red and 
quenching in water. 



344 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 

Hammer Test. — Class A, material heated to a bright cherry red 
and drawn out under the hammer to a thickness, at the point, 
to one-fifth its original diameter must not split, crack or crumble. 

Class B, treated in the same manner must not crack or 
crumble when hammered to a thickness equal to one-third the 
original diameter (rf the rod. 

Any alteration in this specification in regard to composition 
or physical requirements pertaining to either class of material 
must be stated in writing at the time of contract and signed by 
the Purchasing Agent and the party furnishing the material. 

No. 287. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOILER PLATE, FIRE BOX AND 
FLANGE STEEL. 

Boiler Shell Plates, Front Tube Plates and Butt Strips. 

The material purchased imder this specification is understood 
to be a superior grade of " Open-Hearth '' steel. 

It must be homogeneous in structure, free from blister, cracks 
and other injurious flaws or defects. 

It must also fulfil all the requirements of the following 
physical test: 

Physical Test. 

Tensile Strength, — The ultimate breaking strain must not be 
less than 52,000 pounds or more than 65,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

Elastic Limit. — The elastic limit must not be less than one- 
half of the ultimate tensile strength. 

Elongation. — ^The elongation measured an eight (8) inches, 
must not be less than the following per cent., according to thick- 
ness: 

20 per cent, for plate f in. and under. 
22 " " " " i to i in. thick. 
25 " " " " fin. and over. 

Cold Bending Test. — The specimen must bend flat upon itself 
(180 degrees), without showing signs of fracture at any part of 
the bend. 

Quench Test. — A piece of the steel plate heated to a bright 
cherry-red color, then quenched in water at a temperature of 



BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND F0RGIN08. 345 

82 degrees Fahr. must bend around a curve equal to one and one- 
half (1|) times the thickness of the plate without showing signs 
of fracture on the outside portion of the bend. 

Chemical ComposiUon. 

In order to meet all the requirements of the physical test and 
be within the limits of a superior grade of Open-Hearth steel, 
the chemical constituents must conform to the following speci- 
fied percentage: 

Carborit not under 0.12 or above 0.20 per cent. 
Phosphorus, not above .04 " " 

Sulphur, a u 04 u u 

Manganese, " " .50 " " 

Saicon, " " * .05 " " 

Rejedment. — Material will be rejected which shows: 

(1) A tensile strength of less than 50,000 pounds per square 
inch or more than 65,000 pounds unless the elongation is 28 
per cent, or more. 

(2) An elongation less than the quotient of 1,400,000, divided 
by the tensile strength per square inch. 

(3) Failure to pass the cold bending or the quench test. 

(4) Phosphorus above 0.05 per cent. Sulphur above .05 per 
cent. 

Fire Box and Back Tube Plate, 

The material desired under this heading is understofld to be 
the best grade of " Open-Hearth " steel that it is possible to 
make by modem methods. 

Metal of the following composition is desired. 

Carbon f 0.18 percent. 

Phosphorus, not dho\e .03 ** " 
Sulphur, " " .02 " " 

Manganese, " " .40 " " 
Silicon, " " .02 " " 

Material will be rejected which shows on analysis: 

Carbon, below . 14 or over . 25 per cent. 
Phosphorus, above .035 " " 

Sulphur, " .045 " " 

Manganese, " .50 " " 

SUican, " .06 " " 



346 BOILER PLATE^ EIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINGS. 

Physical Test 

This steel should pass all the specified tests, viz: 

Tensile Strength, — The ultimate breaking strain should not 
be less than 52,000 pounds per square inch, nor more than 
65,000 pounds. 

Plates with a tensile strength of more than 65,000 pounds will 
not be rejected providing the elongation is 30 per cent, or over. 

Elastic Limit. — ^Must not be less than one-half of the tensile 
strength. 

Usually the elastic limit is about 35,000 pounds where the ten- 
sile strength averages 60,000 pounds per square inch. 

Elongation. — ^Measured in 8 inches, should not be less than 28 
per cent; and in all cases it should not be less than the quotient 
obtained by dividing 1,450,000 by the tensile strength per square 
inch. 

This material must also stand the cold bending test and the 
quench test. 

It must also be free from seams, cracks, cavities due to gas 
bubbles in the ingot, pipe laminations or other defects. 

A micro-photograph of the material should show a homogene- 
ous structure. 

The plate should be of even thickness, straight, smooth rolled 
and finished in a workmanlike manner. 

Mr. Walter FUnt— 

New York City, November 18, 1903. 
American Society of Mechaniccd Engineers: 

Gentledl^n: I have the report of the committee which was appointed to 
make out specifications for boiler plate, rivet steel, etc., and I have looked the 
matter over quite thoroughly. It seems to me that Mr. Henning's point is well 
taken. Surely every one must admit that when a member of a bridge or boiler 
or any other structure is loaded beyond the "jrield point," it will never again 
perform its duty in that structure, and the other members are then called 
upon to perform a duty for which they were not designed. I will, therefore, 
say that the determination of the "yield point'* certainly ought to be retained, 
and every care taken to determine it with accuracy. 

Yours very truly, 

Walter Flint. 

L, S, Randolph. — This discussion seems to be open to criticism 
for the following reasons: 

First. The grouping of the specifications for steel castings 
and boiler plate is a very decided mistake. This material is not 
used by the same departments of the shop, or are they made in 
the same shop, and it is a useless complication to have one specifi- 



BOILER PLA%E^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FORGINOS. 847 

cation covering two classes of material so widely different as 
boiler plate and steel castings. It is doubtful whether there is 
any reason for the riveted steel going on the same sheet with 
boiler plate. 

Second. The minimum requirements should be lower with 
possibly a different nomenclatum carrying it very soft and giving 
55,000 pounds ultimate tensile strength plus or minus 5,000 
pounds. This allows material to come under this head which 
is needed for certain classes of fire-box work. Of course, the 
corresponding change in the elongation being made. 

Third. The specifications are a little ambiguous as to the size 
of test specimens, the indication being that 2^ inch test speci- 
mens can be used on boiler plate, although this may be intended 
to castings and forgings only. One of the most important con- 
siderations in testing materials is to have the specimens of uni- 
fonn size. If there is much work where the large specimens 
cannot be obtained, a small specimen should be adopted as 
standard and should be held to. 

Fourth. It should be stated that the facilities for making 
tests, etc., should be furnished by the manufacturer free of cost. 
This is what is being done at the present time. 

Fifth. I agree with Mr. Henning in the dropping of the yield 
point It would be much more sensible to drop the ultimate 
tensile strength and leave the yield point in even if we had to 
slow down our machines somewhat. There is little doubt in the 
mind of the writer that much of the inspection to-day is simply 
perfunctory. The specifications should be drawn up primarily 
so as to insure the furnishing of first-class material, and should 
then be eased off so as to get everything that is absolutely neces- 
sary in the qiifility of material desired at a minimum price and 
at the minimum expenditure of trouble by the manufacturer. 
The manufacturer, however, should be made to come to the 
specifications, and not the specifications to the manufacturer. 

Sixth. The drop test and percussion test are, in the opinion 
of the writer, hardly necessary for the boiler steel, and the* 
specifications are so ambiguously drawn in regard to the two 
tests that it is impossible to say whether they are meant for 
eastings only or boiler steel also. It should be said that it is 
very difficult to have specifications so widely different in uses 
wid characteristics under the same heading and not have such 
ambiguities "^ occur. 



348 BOILER PLATE, RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS A]ft> FOROINOS. 

A, Bement, — A most surprising feature of these specifications 
is that the determination of the most important characteristic 
is excluded, that of the yield point. I cannot believe that the 
members of this Society will allow the perpetuation of this grave 
error in the final report of the committee. It is specified that 
this omission be made for " ordinary grades," which means, in 
fact, all commercial grades, and is almost equivalent to recom- 
mending the abandonment of this determination altogether. 

I would suggest that requirements for material used for bolts 
and studs be included in these . specifications, especially those 
employed in engines and similar machinery. With rivets, if 
unsuitable material is employed, there is liability of their break- 
ing before delivery to the customer. But Avith bolts and studs, 
bad material can be used without liability of failure until deliv- 
ery of the machine is made to the customer; then failure is quite 
liable to be attributed to some other cause. 

Prof. 0. Lanza. — ^I should like to make a few remarks, simply 
to touch upon two points. Professor Spangler, in proposing to 
drop the yield point, claimed that in steel varying from 45,000 
to 65,000 pounds tensile strength the other requirements would 
secure, in every case, a yield point of at least half the tensile 
strength. In making that remark he admits its importance, and 
it seems to me that the \-ield point requirement ought not to be 
dropped, at any rate, imless that position is indisputably proved, 
and I do not believe that it is proved yet beyond the possibility of 
doubt. 

Another point is that, in considering axles and moving parts 
of machinery, which are subjected to alternate stresses, we need 
to look after our specifications with reference to the power of 
material to bear repeated stresses. Investigationamipon repeated 
stress show that the yield point plays some part which is not 
very well known yet, and it seems to me important that we should 
retain a requirement for it until these relations can be deter- 
mined. 

The only other remark I desire to make is, that when too 
high a speed is adopted in the testing machine, it -is not only the 
yield point which is concealed, but various other things which 
are of importance — ^matters which concern the tensile strength 
also. 

Prof. R. C. Carpenter. — I would like to make a remark on this. 
It seems to me that the yield point is of importance, and of suf- 



BOILEK PLATE, EIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FOROINOS. 349 

ficient importance to be retained in these specifications. One of 
the important things which I think may result from retaining 
the requirement for determining the yield point is that it will 
lead to more care in the testing of materials. At the present 
time the material tests made by manufacturers are made too 
rapidly to be accurate, as I have found out by experience. In- 
deed, they are in many cases very far from accurate. This ad- 
ditional requirement must require more care, and will give us 
much more reliable results, from commercial tests. 

n. W, SpangUr. — As the Chairman of the committee has 
received but one communication, that of Mr. Bement, relating 
to the matter of these specifications, which discussion is here- 
with presenter!, there has bet»n no meeting of the committee 
since the last meeting of the Society. The following comments 
are his own, and not those of the committee. 

It is to be remembered that these specifications cover steel 
between 45,000 and 85,000 pounds tensile strength having def- 
inite chemical and physical properties. 

There has been but one objection raised to these specifica- 
tions, and that as I understand it is to the dropping of the yield 
point (or elastic Jimit) for materials covered by these specifica- 
tions. With the other requirements of the specification ful- 
filled, a high elastic limit will be obtained. I would be glad to 
be referred to any data showing that if all the requirements of 
this specification are met, the yield point is not as high or higher 
than half the ultimate strength. A careful examination of the 
reports of the Watertown Arsenal for 1901 and 1902 shows that 
there are 133 tests of steel, mostly castings and forgings (the 
nltmiate strength of which would bring them within the limits 
of these specifications, and which materials might be tendered 
nnder these specifications) having the elastic limit less than one- 
balf the ultimate strength. Of the samples one hundred and 
mneteen would not fulfil the other physical requirements. As 
the chemical composition of these samples is not stated, it is 
unpossible to tell from the printed reports whether the re- 
mainder would fulfil the specifications or not, but 89.5 per cent, 
would be rejected on their physical tests alone exclusive of the 
elastic limit and the chemical composition. 

The objection made by Mr. Henning that the suggested 
method of determining the elastic limit (yield point) is inaccur- 
ate because " when you take a reading and stop the load and 



860 BOILER PLATE, EIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND FOHGINGS. 




.<E.L.= 46800 
^ Juit. =62400 
8''Elong.= 33.3jf 
2''Elong.= 47.5j^ 
jCEed -60.7 



TEST OF SOTT STKKL 

Machine running continuously after 5000."^ 
Scale weight moved by hand* 



128 



137 



.28 



168 



128 



125 



124 



124 



Fig. 94. 



118 



then reload the material, it begins to stretch slightly, but the 
yield point will thereby be raised '^ does not, I believe, apply to 
materials that are not loaded above the proportional limit, and 



BOILER PLATE, RIVET 8TEI;L, STEEL CASTINGS AND F0RGING8. 351 



/ 



-4800/perDinch 



17660 -400001)er a Inoh 



laseo-aooooperainoh 



8B«-S0OO0riMrnliidh 



44a0-100o/per ainoh 



yfCRL.— 46000 
<Ult -64000 



8"Blong.»=80.8jf 
2"Elong.= 47,5j^ 
Bed. =62.8jt 



TEST OF SOFT Si'KKL 

Machine stopped at each step. Scale weight advanced 
before machine is again started. 



124 



123 



124 



125 



125 



181 



1.00 



164 



126 



Fig. 95. 



practically I do not believe that the value of the quantity to be 
determined here is affected by the stopping and starting of the 
machine necessary for the reading of a micrometer extenso- 



352 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL, STEEL CASTINGS AND F0RGING8. 

meter. A series of tests were made by me on a bar of com- 
mercial soft steel to test this point. An extensometer having a 
magnification of about 150 times (exactly 147 times) was used, 



„(E.L.«4Qa00 
(Ult -66000 
Elong. 8''=»28,8j< 
Elong. 2-44.» 
Ked.Area-59.(* 



10620. 




SOFT BESSEMER MACHINERY STOCK. 



.20 



121 



122 



124 



124 



134 



155 



127 



Fig. 96. 



and two of the diagrams obtained, together with the results of 
the eight tests made, are here recorded. 

In Fig. 94r herewith the scales are horizQutally 147" = 1'' 



BOILEB PLATE^ RIVET STEEL^ STEEL CASTINGS AND FOEOINGS. 353 



80000^ 




'^^ OPEN HEARTH COMMON SPRING STOCX 

Fig. 97. 



l_ 



354 BOILER PLATE^ RIVET STEEL, STlIEL CASTINGS AND FORQINOS. 

stretch, and vertically 1"= 4,687 pounds. The irregularity is 
due to the fact that the weight on the scale beam was moved by 
hand. In Fig. 95 the scale beam was first set at 4,420 pounds, 
and the load applied as rapidly as in Fig. 94. When the scale 
beam rose the machine was stopped and the micrometers^ were 
read. The scale beam was then set at the next load and the 
machine started, each jog in the diagram showing one stoppage 
of the machine. 

While it is true that a few experiments may mean but little, 
I know of no other printed data covering the same ground and 
submit these results which show that in this case at least the 
stopping of the machine a number of times and allowing it to 
remain at rest long enough to read the micrometers did not 
perceptibly raise the yield point. 

I attach also two test sheets, one from soft Bessemer machinery 
stock, Fig. 96, and one from open hearth common spring stock, 
Fig. 97, showing that before and after the machine had been 
stopped there has been in these two cases no change in the gen- 
eral direction of the curve. In each of the two cases the 
machine was stopped twice to determine the scale of the 
diagrams. 



Commercial Soft Steel. 

^«^^^,S^PP'y*°K Ultimate. Yield point. 

No. 6— Step 64,000 46,000 

No. 5— Continuous . . 62,400 46,800 

No. 3— Step 61,300 47,000 

No. 2— Continuous . . 61,500 45,300 

X— Step 64,100 45,000 

Y— Continuous . . . ! . 63,300 47,500 

Z— Step 62,700 47,000 

A— Continuous 64,000 47,300 

Average step 63,025 46,250 

Average continuous. 62,800 46,725 



Elongation in 


Bedactlon 


t in., p. c. 8 In., p. c. 


p.c. 


30.3 47.5 


62.3 


30.3 47.5 


60.7 


29.1 49.0 


62.3 


31.5 50.0 


62.3 


Outside marks. 




28.9 42.0 


64.0 


30.1 46.5 


60.7 


28.4 47.0 


62.3 


29.8 47.6 


61.8 


29.8 46.6 


62.3 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 365 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 

MAJOR R. BIRMIB, OBDNANCX DXPABTMBNT, UNITBD ITATES ARMY. 

1. The development of the modem land and naval ordnance 
in the United States is of comparative recent date, and is a sub- 
ject for interesting study from a political as well as an industrial 
and mechanical standpoint. It is with the latter, however, that 
I have to deal, and particularly the mechanical features, although 
such is their diversity that an outline only can be attempted. 
My subject, generally, will be confined to a brief account of the 
growth of the present land armament, the uses to which the 
guns and their accessories are applied, and to some discussion of 
the more important mechanical principles involved in their con- 
struction in connection with experiments. 

2. There are two general divisions of artillery f^ land service; 
first, the mobile artillery designed for field and siege service, 
and used also in the land defense of sea-coast forts, or generally 
for oflFensive operations, in which the weight of the material 
combined with the specific service in view control the caliber and 
design; second, the artillery on fixed mounts as used generally 
in sea-coast fortifications, and also in permanent inland defenses 
for defensive purposes, in which the caliber and design are not 
restricted by weight and may be varied to subserve only the 
needs of defense. 

3. The different types of artillery are classified as gims, 
howitzers and mortars. Guns are used for direct fire with a 
superior angle of elevation, usually limited to about 15 degrees. 
They fire a single weight of powder charge wth the object of 
attaining a maximum of power. Howitzers are pieces of 
medium length and velocity, used for curved fire up to about 
45 degrees elevation. They apply generally to mobile arma- 
ment for field and siege service, and by reason of their relatively 

» Presented at a Special Monthly Meeting in New York (Febranry. 1904) of the 
Aoaerican Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of 
the TrauBaeHanB, 



3S6 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

light weight as compared with guns can be made of larger caliber 
and use a heavier projectile than a gun of equal manoeuvring 
capacity. This advantage and their supplemental use to guns 
is further obtained by ability to deliver the curved fire at rela- 
tively short range, for which reduced charges may be used. Mor- 
tars are short pieces fired with medium or low velocity and used 
for high angle fire with elevations up to about 70 degrees. They 
require a fixed platform, and their utility is limited to siege and 
sea-coast emplacements. Their firing angle enables complete pro- 
tection to be given them in their emplacements from a hostile 
gunfire. The projectile carries a large bursting charge, and the 
angle of fall enables it to reach the most vulnerable parts of 
targets generally. In the case of a battleship this target embraces 
not only the relatively thin-armored deck, reached by direct im- 
pact, but also the unprotected hull, reached by under-water ex- 
plosions. To cover the field within the range of a mortar 
different powder charges and elevations are employed, giving suc- 
cessive zones of fire. 

4. The following tables, which include the various calibers of 
standard types in our service, enable a more comprehensive view 
to be taken of the diversity of types included in a complete equip- 
ment and how they are employed. All of these are rifled, breech- 
loading pieces, made of steel and use smokeless powder, except 
the model 1886 12-inch mortar, which is composed of a cast-iron 
body reinforced with steel hoops. The tables omit the small arm 
rifle caliber Gatling or automatic machine guns that are mounted 
on tripod or wheel mounts and used both in the field and in fortifi- 
cations for combating men and horses. 

5. All of the carriages are fitted with hydraulic recoil cylinders 
and spring return, except the 3.6-inch mortar and the 3.6-inch 
gun field carriage which is of older pattern, dating from 1891. 
The 3-inch model 1902, with long recoil of gun on carriage, is of 
the most modern type. Modifications of the existing mobile artil- 
lery now in progress or proposed are ae follows: 

6. Introduce a light field gun to operate with cavalry, having 
a caliber 2.38 inches, weight of projectile 7.5 pounds, and muzzle 
velocity 1,700 f. s., and a 3.8-inch field howitzer of the same 
mobility as a 3-inch field gim, to fire a 30-pound projectile. 

7. Eliminate the 3.6-inch field gun, 5-inch field howitzer, 
5-inch siege gun, 7-inch siege howitzer, and substitute therefor 
3.8-inch rifles firing a projectile weighing 30 pounds, and 4.7-inch 



OUDNANCE FOU THE LAKD SERVICE. 



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358 ORDNANCE FOK THE LAND SERVICE. 

howitzers of the same mobility firing a projectile weighing 60 
pounds; also 4.7-inch rifle firing a projectile weighing 60 pounds, 
and 6-inch howitzers of the same mobility firing a projectile 
weighing 120 pounds. 

8. This plan has the merit of consistency in that the weights 
of projectiles are exactly doubled for each increase of caliber. 
It would appear that the 3.8-inch howitzer and the field gim of 
the same caliber are relatively the least essential and might be 
omitted, and the light field gun would be improved by increas- 
ing the caliber and the weight of projectile to about 10 pounds, 
making a more efficient projectile for both shell and shrapnel 
fire. 

6 and 15 pounder guns to give 3,000 f. s. initial velocity and 
a 6-inch wire-wound gun to give 3,500 or 3,600 f. s. velocity 
have been projected. 

9. The diversity of calibers of guns is remarkable, indicating 
how completely every phase of the problem of attack or defense 
is sought to be covered. When we examine further the designs 
of modem guns, of the carriages and mounts, sometimes oper- 
ated by electricity, the projectiles, fuses, powders and high ex- 
plosives, the instruments and methods employed for range find- 
ing and for fire control and direction, it is apparent how complex 
the science of ordnance has become. Simplicity of means and 
design is especially desirable in the military service, which 
requires the greatest perfection in training of personnel. More- 
over, the material is through necessity generally designed with 
high regard for economy in weight and dimensions and withal 
is subjected to most severe usage. The present period is marked 
by a strong tendency to increased complexity and expense, en- 
gendered by the rivalry of nations and made possible by the 
advance of knowledge in mechanical appliances. Experience 
has taught that this tendency is no more to be successfully com- 
bated in military than in civil progress, and we must employ the 
common medium of trial to seek out what is good and reject 
what is unsatisfactory. 

nistorical Sketch of the Devd^jmient of Designs and Trials of 
Experimental Material, 

10. It is to be remarked that the efficiency of the land arma- 
ment existing at the close of the Civil War has not since been 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



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360 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

equalled until the present period. In 1866 the artillery of the 
land service was deemed very efficient. It comprised, however, 
only muzzle-loading guns, and the introduction of rifling, with 
its accompanying change from the round to the elongated pro- 
jectile and consequent increase of weig'ht of projectile, range 
and power generally, had not then reached the larger calibers. 
The principal rifled guns were the 3-inch wrought-iron field rifle, 
the 4.5-inch cast-iron siege rifle and the Parrott 10-pounder, 30- 
pounder, 100-pounder, 200-pounder and 300-pounder rifles made 
of cast-iron reinforced with a coiled and welded wrought-iron 
band shrunk over the breech. Bronze smooth-bore guns were 
represented in the Coehorn mortar, mountain howitzers and the 
well-known 12-pounder Napoleon field gun. Cast-iron smooth- 
bores constituted the remainder, and comprised 8-inch howitzers 
and 8 and 10 inch mortars for siege equipment, with 13 and 15 
inch mortars and 8, 10, 15 and 20 inch Rodman smooth-bore 
guns for sea-coast armament. The carriages were of simple pat- 
tern. Those for field guns were made with the flasks and trails 
of wood, and those for the sea-coast guns, which were made of 
iron, comprised principally a chassis and top carriage. The 
chassis rested upon wheels upon traverse circles enabling the 
piece to be moved in azimuth by hand bars inserted in sockets in 
the traverse wheels. The top carriage was fitted with eccentric 
wheels at the front to provide rolling friction in part for run- 
ning into battery and sliding friction for recoil. Data pertain- 
ing to some representative pieces of this equipment are as 
follows: 

Powder Projec- Mnzzle Bleva- -o.^,^ 

Piece. charge. tfle. Telodty. tion. t?2ff 

IbB. Ibe. f.8. degrees. y»~•• 

5.82.incli8mootli bore mortar 6 17.75 45 1200 

Wnch rifle (Parrott) 1.0 10.5 1282 20 5000 

4.2-inch rifle (Parrott) 8.5 80. 1298 25 6700 

6.4-iiicli rifle (Parrott) 10. 100. 1300 85 8450 

18incli smooth bore mortar 20. 228 45 4650 

20-iDch smooth bore gan (Rodman) 200. 1080 25 8000 

11. The magnitude of the armament existing at that time may 
be inferred from the statement that the number of Rodman 
smooth-bore guns available was about 425 8-inch, 1,000 10-inch, 
305 15-inch and 2 20-inch guns. 

12. Great merit was attached to the heavy, smooth-bore guns 
for their " " racking " effect, even after the introduction of 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 361 

annor on ships. Nevertheless, the advantage of elongated pro- 
jectiles with their " punching " effect was recognized, and 8 and 
12 inch cast-iron rifles were made for trial as eariy as 1861. 

13. The period of 20 years from 1866 to 1886 was marked by 
the introduction of breech-loading in place of muzzle-loading 
guns and the gradual substitution, first, of wrought-iron, and 
afterwards, of steel for cast-iron in their construction. This 
period may well be styled experimental in this country, except 
that it resulted in the production of some 210 8-inch muzzle- 
loading rifles converted from 10-inch Rodman smooth-bore guns 
by Uning them with wrought-iron or steel tubes and a number 
of 3.2-inch steel breech-loading field guns. The 8-inch con- 
verted rifle served a temporary purpose, but the steel field-gun, 
with its metal carriage (Appendix 26, Report of 1887) using bow 
spring wheel brakes to restrain the recoil on firing, has with 
some modifications given good service even as late as the Chinese 
expedition of 1900. It is now to be replaced, however, by a 
quick-firing gun with long recoil carriage, model 1902. During 
this period the total amount expended by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment to include the first cost of experimental guns and of those 
supplied for service, amounted to somewhat less than $1,500,000. 
14. Satisfied apparently by the existing armament of 1866, 
in connection with the reaction from the expense of the Civil 
War, it was not until 1872 that Congress made provision to 
attempt a revision of the armament, when the so-called Heavy 
Gun Board was appointed. The continued agitation of the sub- 
ject may be inferred in noting that the Getty Board was ap- 
pointed by act of Congress, approved March 3, 1881; the Gun 
Foundry Board by act of Congress March 3, 1883; the Arma- 
ment Board by act of July 5, 1884; and finally the Endicott 
Board by act of March 3, 1885. During the same time there 
^ere reports from the special Senate committee. Senator Logan 
chairman, appointed August 2, 1882; the Senate select com- 
luittee on ordnance and warships, Senator Hawley chairman, 
appointed July 3, 1884; and a similar House committee, with 
^r. Randall chairman, July 6, 1884. The Endicott Board com- 
pleted its labors in 1886, submitting a scheme of sea-coast arma- 
ment which was virtually adopted by Congress in the Fortifica- 
tion Act of September 22, 1888, and while modified from time 
to time as occasion required, is still being carried out. At this 
time, after a long contest before the committees of Congress 



862 ORDNANCE FOK THE LAND SERVICE. 

with the advocates of different systems, including the use of 
cast-iron, it had been demonstrated that the built-up forged-steel 
gun recommended by the Ordnance Department could be relied 
upon. 

15. A somewhat extended description of the experimental 
guns of this period and their trials is contained in a paper read 
before the military service institution at Governor's Island, 
November 26, 1887, and brief reference only will be made to 
them here. The Heavy Gun Board of 1872 selected nine sys- 
tems for trial, to \vit: 

16. Muzzle-loading guns: (1) Dr. W. E. Woodbridge; (2) 
Alonzo Hitchcock; (3) Cast-iron guns lined with wrought-iron 
or steel tubes. 

17. Breech-loading gxms: (1) Frederick Krupp; (2) E. A. Sut- 
eliffe; (3) Nathan Thompson; (4) French and Swedish systems. 

18. Miscellaneous: (1) H. F. Mann; (2) Lyman multicharg© 
gun. 

19. The Fortifications Bill of 1883, embodying the recom- 
mendations of the Senate ordnance conmaittee and the Getty 
Board, authorized the continuation of the conversion of 10-inch 
smooth-bores into 8-inch muzzle-loading rifles, and in addition 
the trial of five different systems of gun construction and two 
types of breech mechanism, as follows: 

20. Built-up forged steel breech-loading rifles with slotted 
screw breech closure. 

21. Cast-iron breech-loading rifles. 

22. Combined cast-iron and steel built-up breech-loading rifles 
and rifled mortars of the same system with slotted screw breech 
closure. 

23. Wire-wound breech-loading rifles. 

24. The multi-charge gun. 

25. The Mann breech mechanism. 

26. The Yates breech mechanism. 

27. During the period 1873 to 1882 trials were also made, at 
Sandy Hook Proving Ground, with breech-loading field guns and 
the Dean 3.5-inch mandreled bronze gun. The Dean gun was 
produced in 1877. It was subjected to a firing test which, so far 
as it went, proved the good quality of the material, but it was a 
muzzle-loading gun made after a design already out of date and 
gave inferior ballistic results. This system has been extensively 
used in Austria, as proposed by General Uchatius, for field and 



ORDNANCE FOB THB LAND 8EBVICE. -363 

"lighter siege guns, but was not successful in larger calibers. The 
breech-loading field guns that were tested included the Sutcliffe, 
Moffat and Krupp breech mechanism. Preference was found 
in these tests for the Krupp mechanism, but subsequent tests led 
to the final adoption in our service of the slotted screw breech 
mechanism. 

28. The gun proposed by Alonzo Hitchcock ^as a 9-inch 
muzzle-loading rifle designed to be made by butt welding disks 
or cheeses of wrought-iron and forming a solid piece to be bored 
out for the gun. After nearly three years of labor the project 
was abandoned as being too difficult and costly, if not imprac- 
ticable, to be fulfilled. 

29. The Sutcliffe and Thompson guns were cast-iron breech- 
loading rifles of 9 to 12 inches caliber. There is a general sim- 
ilarity in their breech mechanism in that the block is rolled to 
one side for inserting the charge. The Sutcliffe gun was fired 
in all 26 rounds and the Thompson 2 rounds, when the guns were 
sent to the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and not after- 
wards tested. 

30. The principal feature of the multicharge gim consists in 
utilizing the accelerating principle for the action of the powder 
upon the projectile. This is sought to be obtained by having a 
series of powder charges placed in pockets at intervals along the 
bore near the breech which are ignited by the inflamed gases 
of the breech charge following up the passage of the projectile 
over the opening of each powder pocket into the bore. The gun 
was patented by A. S. Lyman, who, in connection with J. R. 
Haskell, began experimenting to test the system about 1855. 
Guns of 2i-inch, 6-inch and 8-inch caliber have been tested. 
The last test was that of the 8-inch steel gun, with one breech 
and two auxiliary powder chambers, at Sandy Hook in 1897. 
At the second round the metal between the forward chamber 
and the bore was crushed in, due probably to premature ignition 
of the powder charge in that pocket by passage of the gas in 
advance of the projectile. 

31. The principle involved in the Mann breech mechanism is 
to completely separate the longitudinal from the tangential 
strains due to firing a gun. This is accomplished by making the 
breech of the gun separate from the gun body and connecting it 
by heavy side straps with the trunnion supports on the carriage. 
Several calibers of this gim were tested between 1862 and 1884. 



364 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

The last occasion was a 6.5-incli gun, fired at Sandy Hook in 
1884, which was burst at the 24th round. 

32. The Yates breech mechanism comprises a couple of con- 
cave clamps which open outwards from the breech, and when 
closed embrace the breech of the gun exteriorly and support a 
solid head gas check or cartridge case for sealing the escape of 
gas. The 8-inch rifle was tested at Sandy Hook, 1885-6. The 
gun was fired in all 312 rounds, when it was destroyed, by burst- 
ing through the body. 

CaM-Iron Rifles. 

33. In company with the manufacture of the Hodman smooth- 
bore gun the manufacture of cast-iron in this country was 
brought to a high state of perfection and exhaustive attempts 
were made to utilize this metal in the construction of heavy 
rifled guns. Seven muzzle-loading cast-iron Rodman rifles of 8, 
10 and 12 inch caliber were produced between 1861 and 1869. 
When, however, the 12-inch rifle of 1868 was burst at the 27th 
round, in 1871, the Ordnance Department reconmiended that no 
cast-iron rifles be made for service. Efforts were not, however, 
relinquished from other sources. Mr. Norman Wiard, in the 
Nut Island experiments, 1873 to 1875, attempted to show the 
utility of cast-iron rifles using mitten or subcaliber projectiles 
but without any reasonable success. Congress subsequently re- 
quired the manufacture of a 12-inch cast-iron breech-loading 
rifle in 1883. It was made with 28 calibers length of bore and 
gave a muzzle velocity of about 1,750 f. s. with 800-pound pro- 
jectile, corresponding to 17,000 foot tons muzzle energy. After 
firing 137 rounds the trials were suspended, due to the erosion 
of the bore which increased rapidly toward the end of the test 
and became so serious as to lead to the conclusion that it would 
be unsafe to continue the firing. Again, in 1889, pursuant to 
act of Congress, September 22, 1888, the South Boston Iron 
Works submitted a 12-inch cast-iron rifled mortar, which burst 
explosively on trial at the 20th round. 

Converted Guns. 

34. A quantity of serviceable muzzle-loading guns dating 
from 1874, although of low power, were produced by lining the 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 365 

Kodman smooth-bore guns first with coiled and welded wrought- 
iron and later with steel tubes. In addition to the muzzle-load- 
ing guns, several calibres of converted breech-loading guns were 
constructed and tested, but without ultimate success. In this 
design a jacket made of a heavy steel piece was screwed into the 
breech of a smooth-bore gun and adapted to receive the Krupp 
breech mechanism. The steel forgings for these alterations 
were procured in England^ and chiefly due to the poor quality 
of the steel the plans were abandoned. This occasioned an un- 
favorable opinion regarding the use of steel in gun construction. 
It was difficult for some years afterwards to convince the doubt- 
ers that there was taking place a great improvement in the qual- 
ity of steel for guns gained by knowledge and experience in its 
manufacture. It was equally unfortimate for the Krupp breex;h 
mechanism that its first application to large guns in this country 
was made in this connection. The slotted screw mechanism was 
applied to the subsequent experimental guns and became the 
established type in our service. 

Comhined VasUlron and Sled Otma wad Mortars. 

35. This method of construction, authorized in 1883, was 
practically forestalled by the advance in steel manufacture be- 
fore the experimental pieces were completed and tested. Four 
experimental types were made, including two 12-inch breech- 
loading rifles and one muzzle-loading and one breech-loading 
mortar. One of the rifles comprised a cast-iron body lined for 
about one-half the length of the bore with a steel tube inserted 
from the breech. The second rifle, in addition to the half-tube 
lining, was reinforced by a double row of steel hooping on the 
cast-iron body, extending from the breech to a distance forward 
of the trunnion band. The two 12-inch rifled mortars were made 
^th a cast-iron body reinforced by a double row of steel hooping. 
Of these types the breech-loading mortar only survived for 
service construction, but gave place to the all-steel mortar in the 
model of 1890. The hooped guns and mortars of this type 
exemplified the built-up construction by shrinkage and the 
pnnciples of this method were carefully applied in making them. 
The manufacture of the 12-inch hooped rifle was preceded by an 
experimental construction embodying a complete section of the 
gun through the powder chamber; that is, a compound cylinder 



366 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

forming a counterpart of the gun section. The section of cast- 
iron cylinder used in this trial was cut from the body of the gun 
casting and the steel parts were of similar material to the forg- 
ings made for the gun. The objects accomplished by this means 
were the verification of the shrinkages calculated for the gun 
and a practical test of the metals on the same scale as the gun 
itself. 

Cast-Steel Guns. 

36. Trials of cast-steel guns were authorized by the act of 
March 3, 1887, and two guns of 6-inch calibre were procured 
and tested by the Navy Department. One was made of Bes- 
semer steel by the Pittsburg Steel Casting Company, and the 
other of open-hearth steel by the Standard Steel Casting Com- 
pany. The processes of treatment of the castings were left in 
the hands of the manufacturers and have not been published- 
It is understood that both guns were cast solid and that the 
Bessemer casting, after having been bored out, was subjected to 
a process of heating combined with interior cooling to produce 
a certain degree of initial tension, but the eflFect of this treatment 
has riot been ascertained. The open-hearth casting is believed 
to have been simply annealed. In the firing tests, which were 
made first with reduced charge and then with the normal charge 
for guns of this caliber, the Bessemer gun burst explosively at 
the second round. The open-hearth gun was unduly enlarged 
after firing twelve rounds. The strength of these guns was in- 
sufficient for the powder pressure, which amounted to about 
fifteen tons per square inch. Specimen tests of the Bessemer 
steel gave an elastic limit varying from 43,000 to 55,000 poimds, 
and of the open-hearth steel from 30,000 to 40,000 pounds. On 
the usual basis of estimate for strength of gun cylinders the 
open-hearth gun might have supported with safety repeated 
powder pressure not exceeding about ten tons. 

37. Another cast-steel gun, of 8-inch calibre, proposed by the 
well known and esteemed inventor, Dr. Gatling, was procured 
pursuant to act of Congress, June 6, 1896, and tested in 1899. 
In the construction of this gun it was attempted to produce 
initial tension by mandreling the bore while hot. On trial the 
gim burst explosively at the fifteenth round, after being subjected 
to pressures not exceeding about 41,000 pounds. One of the 
broken fragments, comprising half of the powder chamber, 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 367 

showed along the ruptured surface three cavities extending from 
one to four inches into the body of the metal. 

38. The Bofors Company, in Sweden, makes guns of cast-steel 
of a first rate quality. It must be understood, however, that 
these guns are made with tube, jacket and hoops on built-up 
principle and the separate parts are nickel steel castings treated 
to improve their quality in essentially the same manner as the 
forgings used for other steel guns. 

Wire Wound Guns. 

39. The modem wire-wound gun is a worthy rival of the built- 
up forged steel gun. The same principles are employed in the 
construction of both. Dr. \^. E. Woodbridge presented the first 
plan for a wire-wound gun in 1850, when a 2.5-inch gun was 
made and tested. Three additional Woodbridge guns, of 10- 
inch caliber, have also been tested. The first, proposed in 1872, 
was a muzzle-loader comprising a thin steel tube wound with 
wire and subsequently dipped as a whole into molten solder to 
fill the interstices between the wires and consolidate the struc- 
ture. This gun on trial was ruptured longitudinally after a lim- 
ited number of rounds. The second 10-inch rifle was a breech- 
loader made of a cast-iron body wrapped with steel wire. The 
test was concluded in 1892 after firing 161 roimds. In common 
with other cast-iron bores it suffered great erosion and was laid 
aside. The third was a steel 10-inch breech-loading rifle with a 
steel tube, a steel jacket of cold rolled bars or staves made to 
form a cylinder fitting the tube over about one-half its length 
from the breech and steel wire wound over the jacket. The test 
of this gun, in 1894, produced four serious longitudinal cracks 
in the bore of the tube after firing 23 rounds. These cracks 
were generally developed in straight lines following the joints of 
the enveloping stave cylinder. 

40. The Brown segmental wire gun is still on trial. This con- 
sists essentially of a steel tube enveloped by a segmental jacket 
which is wrapped on the outside with steel wire. Two guns of 
5-inch caliber have been tested; one by firing 192 rounds, in 
1894, and the other 300 rounds, in 1899. In the first of these 
guns the segmental jacket was formed by twelve wedge-shaped 
staves forming a cylinder around the tube or liner but the latter 
extended from the breech to a distance in front of the powder 



368 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

chamber only, leaving the forward portion of the bore to be 
formed by the segmental cylinder. In the second gun the 
wedge-shaped segments are replaced by curved segments form- 
ing the segmental tube and the lining tube extends throughout 
the length of the bore. The latter construction is also used in 
the 10-inch breech-loading rifle now at the proving groimd. It 
is understood that the company has undertaken to submit for 
trial a 6-inch gun designed to give a muzzle velocity of 3,500 
f. s. with 100-pound projectile. 

41. The Crozier 10-inch wire-wound gun consists essentially 
of a cylindrical tube of the usual type wrapped throughout its 
length with steel wire and an outside jacket utilized to support 
the breech block and the gun in mounting. This gun was tested 
by firing 275 roimds, and recommended in 1896 — ^page 320, 
report of 1896 — ^by the testing board as a suitable gun for 
service. The construction of a 6-inch gun on the same general 
plan, which may be developed to' give a muzzle velocity of '3,600 
f. fl., has been recently undertaken. 

Types of Chin Cartridges, 

42. The development of types of gun carriages followed that 
of the guns. The first improved type of metal field carriage 
with bow spring brakes was planned by Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. 
Buffington, of the Ordnance Department, who installed a plant 
on an economical basis for its manufacture at Springfield Ar- 
mory, Massachusetts, in 1887. This type is now being replaced 
by the long recoil, model of 1902. 

43. The present model of 5-inch siege carriage dates from 
1896. It is a wheeled carriage with the gun mounted rigidly in 
the trunnion beds at a height suflicient to fire over a high para- 
pet. In firing, the carriage is anchored to a pintle on the siege 
platform by means of an hydraulic cylinder that absorbs the 
recoil. Wedges are also placed behind the wheels. A limber 
is used with the carriage for travelling and the gun is shifted to 
the travelling beds to distribute the weight on the four wheels. 
This type of gun and carriage, with 45-pound projectile, is to be 
replaced by one of 4.7-inch caliber, w4th 60-pound projectile, 
the carriage for which will provide for long recoil gun on car- 
riage to give the same steadiness in firing as the model 1902 field 
gun. 



ORDNA^fCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 369 

44. The present 7-ineh siege howitzer carriage, model 1899, 
supersedes the first model of 1890. The height of axis of piece 
in firing position is reduced in thp later model and the carriage 
made about 1,000 pounds lighter, with simpler construction, 
improved sights and brakes and improved means for shifting the 
piece for travelling. The general arrangement of the recoil 
system is the same as in the original carriage. This was de- 
signed by Captain William Crozier, Ordnance Department 
(Xotes on Construction of Ordnance No. 57, January 12, 1891), 
introducing the novel feature at that time of recoil of piece on 
carriage for mobile artillery. The piece is restrained on the 
carriage by a pair of hydraulic recoil cylinders and counter recoil 
springs in addition to the hydraulic cylinder anchored to the 
pintle of the platform. 

45. The 3.6-inch mortar carriage dating from 1890 is a simple 
rigid type fired from a small wooden platform. To avoid over- 
turning the carriage when fired with full charges at the lower 
elevations, it is necessary to anchor it with a rope attached to 
the front of the checks and fastened to some anchorage such as 
a strong stake driven into the ground. The first model of 7-inch 
mortar carriage dates from 1892 but has been since improved 
and modified. The piece is restrained in recoil by a pair of 
hydraulic cylinders and is returned to the firing position by 
counter recoil springs. Clip circles are attached to the wooden 
platform to permit of traversing about a fixed position by means 
of a hand bar engaging in the teeth of a rack cut in the rear clip 
circle. . • 

46. The carriages for rapid fire guns of the sea-coast arma- 
ment, which include the guns up to 6-inch caliber, are of bar- 
bette and pedestal type, excepting the 6-pounder and also the 
0-inch guns on disappearing carriages. A part of the 15- 
pounder and 5-inch rapid fire guns have the so-called balanced 
pillar mount which enables the gun to be lowered behind the 
parapet when not in action and concealing it from view of the 
enemy. When raised to the firing position, however, and during 
the whole period of action the protection is no greater than the 
ordinary barbette mounting. 

47. The 6-pounder carriage is a wheeled mount designed in 
1896 for the double purpose to use in a fixed position, with 
anchorage behind a parapet, and for moving into the open for 
firing upon landing parties. The piece has a short recoil of 



870 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

gun on carriage and is unsteady in firing even when firmly an- 
chored. In future construction the 6-pounder guns will be 
given a pedestal mount. The 15-pounder rapid fire gun car- 
riages have been materially modified since the eariy type of 
1897. The balanced pillar construction then adopted for this 
caliber as well as for 5-inch rapid fire guns is expensive and 
found not to be ae satisfactory in operation as desired. A fixed 
pedestal mount was -substituted later. The model of 1902 15- 
poimder carriage embodies the latest improvements including 
particularly gearing for controlling the traverse of the gun and 
improved arrangements of the telescopic sight mounting. 

48. The first 6-inch rapid fire guns were mounted on a Buffing- 
ton-Crozier disappearing carriage, model 1898, In 1900 an 
improved model of barbette carriage, with curved shield, was 
designed as a type for 5-inch and 6-inch rapid fire guns on bar- 
bette mounts. A number of these carriages are now under con- 
struction. Later a decision was reached to restore the disap- 
pearing mount to the 6-inch gun and it has been urged also to 
likewise mount the 5-inch guns in future to afford the best 
protection to the gun and mount and also to the firing party. 



Seorcocbst Barbette Carriages. 

49. A limited number of the heavier, sea-coast guns are 
mounted upon open barbette carriages, designed to be ultimately 
protected by front shields as in tfce case of the rapid fire guns 
on barbette mounts. The types of heavy barbette carriages 
include the 8-inch model 1892, 10-inch model 1893 and 12-inch 
model 1892, which are similar in their main features and act 
upon the " gravity return " principle. The rails of the chassis 
are inclined upward to the rear and the top carriage carrying the 
gun is mounted thereon with rollers. The recoil is absorbed by 
hydraulic recoil cylinders and the top carriage returns to the 
firing position by rolling down the inclined rails of the chassis 
under the action of gravity. The loading arrangements for 
these carriages, particularly the chain shot hoist, are slow and 
cumbersome. The carriages are geared for ready hand power 
control in traversing and elevation. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 371 

Sechcoast Casemate Ca/rria^e. 

50. A 12-inch minimum port casemate carriage was, ordered 
from Grusonwork, Germany, 1892, and tested at the Sandy 
Hook Proving Ground (Appendix 26, Report of 1895). The 
manoeuvring of this carriage is controlled in large part by 
hydraulic machinery, the pressure for which is taken from an 
accumulator fed by a hand pumping apparatus supplied by six 
pumps served by twelve men. A steam pimap may be sub- 
stituted for the hand power. The carriage fulfilled the con- 
ditions of the trial and was accepted as a type suitable for service. 
It can be adapted for guns of 8, 10 or 12 inch caliber. How- 
ever, no call has been made for this type of mounting for guns 
in our service since no armored casemate forts have been erected. 

Mortar Carriages, 

51. 12-ineh mortar carriages were amongst the first to be fur- 
nished in quantity with the new armament. Two type carriages 
were ordered in 1890, one from Easton & Anderson, of the 
Raska^off spring return pattern, and the other from Whitworth, 
of the Canet pattern. The Easton & Anderson carriage com- 
bined hydraulic recoil cylinders with two piles of Belville springs 
to return the piece to the firing position. The carriage was ac- 
cepted, with modifications, as a type in 1891 and eighty-five of 
them have been manufactured for service. Considerable difficulty 
was met in manufacturing the Belville springs, and although this 
was overcome by careful investigation and tests made with the 
Emory testing machine at Watertown Arsenal, it was finally 
determined to use coiled springs in place of the Belville. 

52. The Canet carriage comprised hydraulic cylinders with 
requisite throttling arrangement to check the recoil and a re- 
cuperator holding compressed air under an initial pressure of 
about 900 pounds per square inch to return the piece to the 
firing position. The leakage of air from the recuperator during 
the trial was comparatively slight. The manoeuvring, however,, 
was slow and the general results of the trial failed to recommend 
the type for service. 

53. The present type of 12-inch mortar carriage, model 1896, 
of which about 300 have been provided, was designed by Captain 
W. B. Gordon, Ordnance Department, U. S. A. The first car- 



372 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

riage was ^ade at the West Point foundry, Cold Spring, New 
York, in 1895, and after trial was adopted with the minor modi- 
fications shown to be necessary. In this carriage the recoil is 
checked by hydraulic cylinders and the piece returned to the 
firing position by springs compressed during recoil. A number 
of double coil spiral springs are placed under the saddle that sup- 
ports the piece at a point about one-third its length from the 
pivot connection of the saddle with the racer of the carriage. 
The recoil is checked by two hydraulic cylinders with return pas- 
sage. The cylinders are trunnioned and hung in brackets bolted 
to the upper surface of the racer, one on each side of the car- 
riage. The lower ends of the cylinders are connected by an 
equalizing pipe. The carriage is geared for traversing and eleva- 
tion by hand power. Recent modifications of this carriage have 
been found necessary to strengthen the racer and other parts to 
support the strain due to the use of full charges of smokeless 
powder. Improved quadrants for giving elevations are also 
imder trial. 

Gun Lift Carriages, 

54. The first form of disappearing carriage to be adopted in 
the service is the gun lift carriage, which is used in the emplace- 
ments of special construction. The gun and carriage complete 
are lowered in a shaft and completely concealed in the loading 
position, the loading being done through a gallery opposite 
which the breech of the gun stands when lowered. The power 
for raising and lowering is furnished by hydraulic apparatus con- 
nected with an accumulator. The carriage proper, differs but 
little from the gravity return barbette carriages, excepting an 
automatic arrangement of the recoil cylinders to retain the gun 
in the retracted position for lowering into the shaft and loading. 
The expense for installation and maintenance of the gun lift bat- 
tery, the slow rate of fire of the guns and the later adoption of 
the disappearing carriage has led to a very limited installation 
of the gun lift carriage proper. A few altered gun lift carriages 
have been moimted in ordinary barbette emplacements. 

V 

Disappearing Carriages. 

55. The following disappearing carriages were made and 
tested prior to or concurrent with the present adopted tyi)es of 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 873 

Buffington-Crozier carriage for 6, 8, 10 and 12 inch high power 
sea-coast guns, namely: 

Pneumatic lO-ioch carriage, Ist pattern, produced in 1891 

2nd " " " 1899. 

Gordon ** *' Ijst " •* " 1892. 

2nd •* " " 1894. 

Howell " " •* ** 1898. 

The first pneumatic carriage was furnished under specifica- 
tions calling for the piece to be raised to the firing position, its 
recoil controlled, the carriage traversed and the charge raised 
and loaded in the gun by compressed air power. Also to pro- 
vide a hand pump capable of charging the recoil cylinders so 
that steam power might be dispensed with, and to provide means 
for traversing, elevating and loading the piece by hand power. 
This carriage fulfilled the tests prescribed for acceptance, but 
its slowness in operating by hand power and general perform- 
ance, coupled with the extent of steam plant required, failed 
to commend it as a service type. The second carriage failed to 
fulfil the tests for acceptance. 

56. The first Gordon 10-inch carriage comprised essentially 
a heavy bed plate supporting two side frames with a pivot plate 
fastened under the bed plate; the whole resting upon a traverse 
circle, for the substructure. The top carriage carrying the gun 
IS attached to the inner ends of two double crank -arms on each 
side, journaled through the side frames and carrying heavy 
counterpoise plates outside of the frame. In recoil the crank 
arms revolve 180 degrees, the gun being lowered at the same 
tune that the weights are raised by revolution of the crank arms. 
Two hydraulic cylinders are connected with this motion, in which 
the piston rods are pushed to the front and force liquid into an 
air chamber to store therein sufficient energy to raise the piece 
to the firing position by air pressure on opening a valve. On 
trial the carriage was found to be slow in operation but showed 
enough merit to warrant the construction of an improved pat- 
tern. The trial of the second carriage was fairly satisfactory, 
and resulted in an opinion from the testing board that the car- 
nage might be used in emplacements where a center pintle 
carriage furnishing an all-around fire is desired. 

57. The Howell 10-inch is a counterpoise carriage embodying 
the plan in which the gun levers, upon the ends of which the 
&wn is supported, revolve about a fixed axis, and the counter- 



374 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

weight is supported at the other ends of the arms by interposition 
of an hydraulic cylinder to reduce the shock of suddenly starting 
the counterweight. On trial the carriage passed the firing tests 
prescribed for acceptance; it, however, weighed nearly twice as 
much as the BuflSngton-Crozier and did not equal the latter in 
general performance. 

BuffingtofirCrozier Disappearing Ca/rriagea. 

58. In 1890 Captain William Crozier (now Chief of Ord- 
nance, U.S.A.) redesigned a type of counterpoise carriage that 
had been proposed some years previously by General BuflSngton 
when a Captain of Ordnance. The principal features of the 
carriage relating to the disappearing principle comprise a pair 
of gun lever arms, with the gun supported in trunnions at the 
upper end and a counterweight attached at the lower end. The 
counterweight is raised when the gun recoils in firing and be- 
comes operative to return the gun in battery upon releasing the 
pawls. The gun lever arms are mounted on a horizontal axis, 
which is journaled in the top carriage. The top carriage moves 
on rollers to the rear in recoil and carries with it two hydraulic 
cylinders with throttling bars giving variable openings in the 
passage of the piston head so designed as to make the resistance 
uniform throughout the recoil. The counterweight aflorda 
some assistance in checking the recoil. During the recoil the 
trunnions of the gun describe ellipses in passing to the loading 
position. Sample 8 and 10 inch carriages of this type were 
tested in 1894 and at once adopted for service. The Ordnance 
Board, which conducted the tests, reported as to the 8-inch: 
" The test of this carriage has demonstrated that it possesses in 
a marked degree the properties which should pertain to a dis- 
appearing carriage for high power guns. It is simple in con- 
struction so that its parts and purposes are easily understood." 
Also as to the 10-inch: " The advantages of this system of disap- 
pearing carriage, as set forth in the report of the Board on the 
8-inch carriage, are confirmed and emphasized by trial of a car- 
riage adapted for a gun of much greater caliber and power, and 
it is the opinion of the Board that the exhatistive test to which 
this system has now been subjected demonstrates that on account 
of the simple features of construction involving no valves, pumps 
or other complicated appliances, and the fact that by methods 
easily understood by the average artillery soldier the operations 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 875 

of loading and manoeuvring are effected with remarkable ease, 
certainty and rapidity, it is worthy of adoption in the service on 
all sites except those where an all-round traverse is absolutely 
necessary." The all-aroifnd fire model of 10-inch carriage was 
produced in 1896. Improved models of the 8 and 10 inch car- 
riages for limited field of fire were also produced in 1896, com- 
prising a center turn-table instead of a forward turn-table and 
rear traverse circle, and live chassis rollers instead of axle rol- 
lers. The field of fire was increased from 150 to 170 degrees, and 
a considerable saving of counterweight effected a material reduc- 
tion in the effort required to haul a piece down by hand. 

59. When the model 1896 12-inch carriage was tested and 
the time required to fire ten rounds was 16 minutes 57.2 seconds, 
it was felt that a notable advance in gun carriage construction 
had been made, since it had previously been considered imprac- 
ticable to mount guns of this size and power upon disappearing 
carriages. An improved model of 12-inch carriage was brought 
out in 1897. 

60. The 6-inch disappearing carriage, model 1898, includes a 
righting platform with handwheels and gearing that enable. the 
gunner himself to control the direction and elevation of the gun 
from his position at the telescopic sight. 

61. Up to this date the carriages were arranged to be operated 
in traversing and elevation and for retraction by hand power. 
They are now being modified to use electric power for these oper- 
ations. The latest patterns of the Buffington-Crozier disappear* 
ing carriage, model of 1001, embody all of the desirable improve- 
ments indicated by experience and practice had with the car- 
riages up to the present time, including the application of a sys- 
tem of electric control in connection with an improved method 
of sighting. 

62. The manufacture of sea-coast carriages proceeded rapidly 
after the types were established. At the close of the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1898, 398 carriages had been delivered; in 1899 

the number was increased to 605, and in 1903 to 1,000. 

' « 

Industrial Development Accompanying the Denumd for Modem 

Ordnance. 

63. The built-up forged steel gun, as is generally known, is 
the type of construction used in existing land as well as navy 
ordnance. Before discussing the principles of construction of 



3Y6 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

the type, reference will be made to the industrial development in 
this country, which may be said to be a direct consequence of the 
demonstrated success of this type of gun in the early eighties. 
That is to say, progress in armament Twas waiting for a good gun 
and after its adoption the rest foUdwed as a matter of course. 
The immense operations of the Navy Department will not, of 
course, be forgotten by any one in this connection, but these 
remarks must be confined to the influence of the War Depart- 
ment, and more particularly the Ordnance Bureau of the War 
Department, which is charged with the procurement of the land 
ordnance. The first active steps for manufacture of high power 
steel guns were taken in 1883, when a field gun was ordered and 
the forgings procured for 8-inch and 10-inch sea-coast rifles. 
The 8-inch rifle was completed in 1886, at the West Point 
foundry, where I was at the time on duty as inspector of ord- 
nance. Two years later, by the act of September 22, 188S, a 
long period of inaction was terminated and Congress made lib- 
eral appropriations for the manufacture of these guns, and each 
year since has continued appropriations enabling rapid progress 
to be made towards the completion of the plans for sea-coast 
defense proposed by the Endicott Board in 1886, as well as for 
improving the field and siege armament. The progress shown 
in the procurement of sea-coast armament dates, therefore, from 
1888. 

64. In his annual report of 1903 the Chief of Ordnance, Gen- 
eral Crozier, gives the number of guns manufactured which have 
been issued or are available for issue to fortifications, together 
with nearly an equal number of carriages, as follows: 

6'pounder rapid-fire guns 70 

15-ponDder rapid-fire gims 119 

4-incli rapid-fire guns 4 

4.7-incb rapid-fire ArmstroDg guns 84 

5-inch rapid-fire (Ordnance Department) guns 82 

6-lncli rapid-fire Armstrong guns 8 

6incli rapid-fire (Ordnance Department) guns 42 

8-inch breech-loading rifles 85 

lO-ineh breech-loading rifles 134 

12-inch breech-loading rifles 127 

12-inch breech-loading mortars 371 

Total i^ 

65. The report of the Secretary of War for the same year 
states that the provision of heavy guns in sea-coast fortifications 



\^ 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 877 

is far advanced. The most pressing requirements in the way 
of material are a further provision of rapid fire guns and the 
installation of fire control apparatus. A table is given showing 
that about $51,342,800 have been expended for armament, in- 
cluding material in process of manufacture, and the amount 
remaining to be appropriated for armament to complete the 
project is $12,111,775. 

66. In the inception of this work the Chief of Ordnance, Gen- 
eral Benet, on April 3, 1883, addressed a circular letter (report 
of 1883, page 6) to more than twenty of the principal steel 
makers in the United States to ascertain existing facilities for 
making gun steel forgings and inviting an expression of their 
views on the subject. The letter stated the physical qualities 
required in forgings and summarized the methods of manu- 
facture in vogue in other countries so far as known at the time. 
The replies to this letter were, with one or two exceptions, 
adverse to taking up the work and introducing new plants, being 
no doubt largely influenced by the uncertainty at that time at- 
tending its future. The Midvale Steel Company was the first 
to respond and undertake the manufacture, first of plain hoop 
and then of trunnion hoop forgings, and by improving its 
facilities was able in 1885 to accept an order for a complete set 
of forgings, tube, jacket and heops for an 8-inch rifle. Mean- 
time, in the absence of facilities in this country for making the 
larger forgings, in all six gim tubes, three jackets and five 
trunnion hoop forgings for different types of experimental 
8-inch, 10-inch and 12-ineh guns were ordered from abroad from 
Sir Joseph Whitworth & Company ani the Creussot Steel 
Works. Meantime also, the Ordnance Department continued 
with limited means to procure forgings for field and siege guns 
and hoop forgings for sea-coast guns — the latter largely for. 
experimental purposes, which produced results of great benefit 
to the art of manufacture and knowledge of gun construction. 
The Cambria Iron Works undertook a part of these orders but 
did not materially enlarge its plant. The net result was that 
when in 1888 through act of Congress the Department was able 
to give larger orders for forgings, the Midvale Steel Company 
and the Bethlehem Iron Works were prepared to fill them for 
all the sizes of forgings demanded. Both companies received 
remunerative orders and that of the Bethlehem company in- 
cluded twenty-three 8-inch, twenty-three 10-inch and fifteen 



378 ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 

12-inch sets of complete forgings for guns. Up to June 30, 
1903, an approximate estimate of the amount of gun steel forg- 
ings procured by the War Department since 1888 from domestic 
manufacturers is 25,700 long tons, at an average cost of about 
$500 per ton, or an aggregate of about $14,000,000. 

67. I think it may be fairly claimed that the thorough and 
systematic course of investigation of quality and manufacture 
pursued by the Ordnance Department in the incipiency of gun 
steel manufacture in this country was most influential in bring- 
ing about a speedy and satisfactory state of manufacture and in 
making it profitable as well by establishing the excellence of the 
built-up forged steel gun. One of the first steps taken was to 
test the efficiency of oil tempering as compared with simple an- 
nealing. Two hoops of open-hearth steel, about 45 inches 
interior diameter and 4 inches thick, were procured from the 
Midvale company, one having been annealed, oil tempered and 
again annealed, and the other simply annealed. Test specimens 
were taken from the hoops and the hoops themselves were 
assembled with relatively heavy shrinkage upon cast-iron cyl- 
inders. The results (Xotes on the Construction of Ordnance, 
No. 25) were, first, to establish the superiority of the oil 
tempered and annealed metal on account of its high elastic limit 
and great extensibility within that limit, and, second — ^which was 
highly important — to establish a striking similarity between the 
behavior of the metal in the specimen tests and that of the hoops 
as a whole in the shrinkage tests. This, indeed, gave a basis for 
all future shrinkage work, since it is upon the tests of detached 
specimens that we must judge generally of the physical qualities 
of the metal. 

68. Next followed shrinkage and specimen tests of trunnion 
hoops to determine the quality of metal to be obtained in these 
irregular pieces. And then the actual construction of a type 
sea-coast gun was preceded by building up a compound cylinder 
made to be a complete counterpart of the gun in the section 
through the reinforce. The purposes of these experimental 
constructions were fully realized, namely: to obtain such data as 
could be made available in future construction of the guns; to 
determine the behavior of the elementary cylinders in combina- 
tion under the theoretical shrinkages previously deduced by a 
mathematical application of the formulae and thus test the 
theories upon which the formulae are based; to observe the in- 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 379 

dividual behavior of the elementary cylinders; and, finally, to 
determine whether the shrinkages so deduced should be applied 
in the future construction of the guns or to what extent they 
should be modified for that construction. 

69. An interesting discussion of the quality of steel most suit- 
able for guns is contained in the proceedings of the Naval In- 
stitute No. 40, 1887. The effort was made to show that the 
steel which the Army and Navy Ordnance Bureaus were then 
advocating was of a grade of so-called high steel with uncertain 
strength and properties and that guns should be made of mild 
steel with little or no carbon and having an ultimate strength 
of from 55,000 to 65,000 pounds. The commercial advantage 
claimed was that this grade of steel could then be readily manu- 
factured in our own country and a high price would necessarily 
be paid for the special steel which the government was demand- 
ing. The discussion was convincing in showing that what was 
plainly wanted was a metal possessing a high elastic limit with 
good ductility and ultimate strength to withstand the pressure to 
which a gun may be subjected without deformation. Events 
have since shown that the constant demands of the government 
for maintaining a high standard of quality and to improve it 
wherever practicable have been of great benefit to the domestic 
trade since the qualities of high grade steel manufactured for all 
purposes in this country are not surpassed elsewhere. 

70. The physical qualities prescribed for forgings for guns of 
8 and 12 inch caliber and upwards are: 

Elastic TcneUe EIongHtioxi i,«„,«.„M^« 

limit strength after ^ !S^ 

ponnds pounds rnptnre w^irlSt 

per sq. in. per sq. in. per cent. »^*^ *'*'"*• 

Tube 46,000 86,000 17 80 

Jacket 48,000 90.000 16 27 

Trannion hoope 50,000 90,000 14 20 

Cjllndrical hoops 68,000 93,000 14 20 

71. The steel is ordinarily made by the open-hearth process 
with a mediimi per cent., about 45, of carbon. Steel containing 
about 3^ per cent, of nickel is now required for breech blocks and 
spindles with an elastic limit of 70,000 pounds. It is also sup- 
plied for field guns and the tubes and jackets of 5 and 6 inch 
rapid fire guns, the prescribed limit being 65,000 pounds. The 
tube and jacket of the 16-inch type gun were made of nickel 
steel, since the manufacturers would not otherwise guarantee the 



380 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

required elastic limit of 60,000 pounds in the metal. The cost 
of nickel steel for the present acts as a bar to its more extended 
use. The gain in elastic limit is about 30 per cent, over previous 
standards. 

72. The establishment of the army gun factory at Watervliet 
Arsenal was authorized by the act of September 22, 1888. The 
tools and equipments were purchased and sufficient machinery 
installed in the new building to begin operations in September, 
1890, or TOthin twenty-one months from the time ground was 
first broken for building. Up to June 30, 1903, this factory, 
besides a number of field and siege guns and 12-inch mortars, 
had completed fifty-seven 8-inch, one hundred 10-inch, one 
hundred and twenty-five 12-inch and one 16-inch sea-coast guns 
with forgings furnished by private steel makers. The present 
capacity of the shops per annum on a basis of 8 hours' work per 
day is equivalent to: 

Field guns, 170 ; siege guns, 10 ; siege Howitzers, 10 ; siege mortars, 11; 5-incli 
rapid-fire guns, 10 ; 6-inch rapid-fire gnns, 18 ; 10-inch guns, 16 ; 13-inch 
guns, 16; 12-inch mortars, 20; 

or a total of about 276 pieces of the different calibers. While 
a large proportion of the guns have been made at Watervliet 
Arsenal a goodly number have also been made at private fac- 
tories. All of the 6 and 15 pounder gims have been so procured, 
as well as a number of sea-coast guns and a large part of the 
mortars. In 1891 the Bethlehem Steel Company, then under 
the management of Mr. Frick, made contract ^dth the Depart- 
ment to furnish twenty-five 8-inch, fifty 10-inch and twenty-five 
12-inch guns complete and at once proceeded to erect the fine 
gun finishing plant which to-day distinguishes that company as 
the most extensive, complete and best equipped private factory 
for the manufacture of ordnance in the country. 

73. The Watertown Arsenal is well equipped for the manu- 
facture of the modem sea-coast carriages by the government. 
Its capacity is, however, limited and most of the sea-coast car- 
riages are procured from private establishments. The Rock 
Island Arsenal is well equipped for making field and siege car- 
riages. 

74. The Department has no plant for the manufacture of 
powders or steel projectiles. These constitute a large item of 
expenditure hardly less in amount than for the guns or carriages. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 381 

All material procured from private factories is made after 
specifications prepared by the Ordnance Department, and under 
the inspection of its officers stationed at the place of manu- 
facture. It is besides subjected to proof firing, tests for acx;ept- 
ance. By this system, coupled with the work turned out from 
the government shops, the Ordnance Department is admittedly, 
and justly so I believe, credited with maintaining a high standard 
of excellence for its products. 

Experiments Made to Determine the Utility of Initial Tension 
and Shrinkage in Gun Construction^ Compared with Theory, 

75. When a simple, homogeneous cylinder is subjected to in- 
terior pressure the surface of the bore sustains the greatest strain 
tangentially, while the metal of the wall is strained to a less 
degree depending upon its distance from the axis. The elastic 
resistance of the cylinder is therefore measured by an interior 
pressure that will expand the bore to the point where the elastic 
extensibility of the metal is reached. In a cylinder having initial 
tension produced by interior cooling or by the shrinkage of 
cylinders one upon another, or by wire winding, in either case 
producing a compression of the metal at the surface of the bore, 
the same law of strains due to an applied interior pressure holds 
good as in a simple cylinder, but the outer layers of metal having 
been initially strained will be worked at greater tension than 
in the case of a simple cy4inder and the aggregate resistance to 
interior pressure will be increased. It is necessary, of course, 
to observe that none of the outer layers, or indeed any of the 
metal in the wall, be strained beyond the elastic limit, but the 
maximum resistance of the cylinder will evidently be attained 
if each of the indefinably thin concentric cylindrical lamina into 
which the wall of the cylinder may be conceived to be divided be 
strained simultaneously to the elastic limit. The object of 
initial tension or shrinkage is therefore to derive the use of that 
portion of the elastic extensibility and work in the outer parts 
of the wall in resisting interior pressure which are not utilized in 
the simple cylinder. On the other hand the surface of the bore 
should not be initially compressed beyond the elastic limit of 
the metal. This is the simple theory involved in the tangential 
strength of the built-up gun. The necessary longitudinal 
strength is readily secured. 



384 



ORDNAXCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



Cf9 

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ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 385 

to the state of rest of the system is the facility afforded for the 
adjustment of shrinkages in different sections throughout the 
length of the gun. In making the computations for all parts of 
a complete gun, the changes in the number of layers and in 
sectional dimensions from part to part render it necessary to 
divide the whole length into a number of sections and compute 
the resistance, shrinkages and strains for each. These sections 
cannot, however, be considered wholly independent, as that 
would give rise to a variety of values which would be incon- 
venient to apply in practice and would cause undesirable inequal- 
ities in strains in passing from one section of the gun to another. 
Whilst not overlooking the primary consideration to preserve 
wherever practicable the maximimi resistance and in all cases a 
sufficient elastic resistance to withstand anticipated pressures, 
two general rules are to be observed, namely: 1. To apply as far 
as practicable, uniform values for the shrinkages in contiguous 
sections where the shrinkage diameters are the same, or nearly 
so. 2. To so modulate the curves of compression or contraction 
of bore in the state of rest that the final curve will present a 
comparatively smooth contour, conforming in general to the 
curve of powder pressure and having no abrupt change of ordi- 
nates. As it will in general be most necessary to preserve the 
maximum resistance in the section of the powder chamber, that 
section should be considered first and the values belonging to it 
taken to govern others. Under these considerations it fre- 
quently becomes necessary for a given section of the gun to 
assume certain values, as, for instance, one or more of the 
shrinkages, the contraction of bore or other conditions and com- 
bine the various equations or transform them to obtain desired 
results. 

83. The method of division into sections is illustrated in the 
figure, Fig. 99, for the 8-inoh experimental rifle finished in 
1886.* The radial changes in dimensions of the cylinders due 
to assemblage under shrinkage and the magnitude of the stresses, 

♦ The namerouB and very short hoops used in this gun were soon changed in 
f Qtnre constructions when it was found that the eteel makers could readily pro- 
duce longer hoops. In the 12-inch rifle, model 1900, which is 42 feet in length, 
there are but two lioops in the " C " row extending from the front end of the 
Jacket to the muzzle of the gun, each of which is about 138 inches long. Similarly 
the ** D*' row is formed of a single hoop 108 inches long, and the *' A " row of 
two hoops only, 91, and 109 inches lonp: ; the single hoop over the breech in the 
** B" row is 108 inches long, and the trunnion hoop 28 inches. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 




..Hi S \ 



in a sectional view, are illustrated- in the two figures, Fig. 100, 
for 12-inch rifle. 

84. Practice has shown a remarkable conformity of results 
obtained in the actual manufacture of guns wdth those indicated 
by the formulas applied in their construction. One of the earlier 
experiments consisted in building a section of gun with 8-inch 
bore, composed of four cylinders, shrunk one upon the other. 
The displacements of diameters and lengths caused by each 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 



387 



shrinkage were carefully measured and showed in every in- 
stance close agreement Avith values deduced by the formulae. 
For example, the anticipated total compression of the 8-inch 
bore was 0.0129 inch, and its measured compression 0.0131 inch. 
The anticipated extension of the exterior of the fourth layer or 
outer hoop (diameter, 31.5 inches) was 0.0285 inch and its meas- 




ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



ured extension 0.0276 inch. These culminating measurements 
of the series thus showed a difference of less than 2 per cent, 
between the actual and anticipated results. 

85. In the 8-inch experimental rifle the anticipated compres- 
sion of the bore in the section of the powder chamber was .0154 
and the measured compression .0156 inch. This gun was first 
made without chase hooping. After firing 24 rounds the bore 
of the tube at some 15 inches from the muzzle was found to be 

MEAtUREO BTREME8 IN SECTION OF HOLLOW POitOINQ TREATED BY INTERIOR COOUNO 
AND COMPUTED ELASTIC RESISTANCE TO INTERIOR PRESSURE. 




Am. abd JA» Cb.^. t. 



Fig. 101. 



enlarged .006 of an inch. It was then decided to return the 
gim to the factory and extend the hooping to the muzzle. On 
turning off the chase metal for hooping the bore contracted when 
metal was turned off showing that there existed a zone of com- 
pressed metal at the exterior of the tube damaging to its strength 
and due to the imperfect treatment at that time in vogue at the 
Whitworth works where the tube was procured. The chase 
hooping fully re-established the strength of the gim, which has 
been fired in all 335 rounds and is still in serviceable condition 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 



PLATB S. INITIAL TENSION IN HOLLOW CYLINDER. 



Si 

m g 




0-21600 



Axts of radii 



jKr»i«,Jt. 



Fio. 102. 



excepting erosion of the bore, which detracts from its accuracy. 

86. Fig. 101, with figures showing the measured stresses in a 

forging representing sections of a field gun which was treated by 

interior cooling for experiment, is taken from a paper read to 



888 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



ured extension 0.0276 inch. These culminating measurements 
of the series thus showed a difference of less than 2 per cent, 
between the actual and anticipated results. 

85. In the 8-inch experimental rifle the anticipated compres- 
sion of the bore in the section of the powder chamber was .0154 
and the measured compression .0156 inch. This gun was first 
made without chase hooping. After firing 24 rounds the bore 
of the tube at some 15 inches from the muzzle was found to be 

MEASURED BTREME8 IN SECTION OF HOLLOW POitOINQ TREATED BY INTERIOR COOUNO 
AND COMPUTED ELASTIC RESISTANCE TO INTERIOR PRESSURE. 
SEFONE 4|»nEAUHa 




^4N.ila«.f .Vtrfa Gt.,:^.f^^ 



Fig. 101. 



enlarged .006 of an inch. It was then decided to return the 
gun to the factory and extend the hooping to the muzzle. On 
turning off the chase metal for hooping the bore contracted when 
metal was turned off showing that there existed a zone of com- 
pressed metal at the exterior of the tube damaging to its strength 
and due to the imperfect treatment at that time in vogue at the 
Whitworth works where the tube was procured. The chase 
hooping fully re-established the strength of the gun, which has 
been fired in all 335 rounds and is still in serviceable condition 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 



PLATE $. INITIAL TENSION IN HOLLOW CYLINDER. 



IS 

a t. 



M 




0-21600 



Axis of radii 



jnrM*^- 



Fig. 102. 



excepting erosion of the bore, which detracts from its accuracy. 

86. Fig. 101, with figures showing the measured stresses in a 

forging representing sections of a field gun which was treated by 

interior cooling for experiment, is taken from a paper read to 



890 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

the Philosophical Society of Washington, D. C, May 11, 1895, 
and printed in Bulletin Vol. XIII, pp. 27-102. The wall of the 
forging was cut into thin concentric rings on four several sec- 
tions, and the changes measured on the diameter of each ring 
due to its release from the forging, these changes giving a 
measure of the strains induced by the treatment. 

87. An analysis of the laws governing the resistance of a cyl- 
inder with a properiy regulated degree of initial tension pro- 
duced by interior cooling shows that a thickness of 0.65 of a 
caliber, neariy, will give the strongest tube that can be made 
from a given weight of metal of given quality. For this thick- 
ness in calibers only will all the fibres of the metal throughout 
the thickness of the wall reach the elastic limit from extension 
simultaneously under the action of interior pressure. This 
particular case is illustrated in Fig. 102. The interior cooling 
being supposed perfectly conducted, the metal at the surface of 
the bore is compressed to its elastic limit, p = 45,000 pounds 
assumed. The curve of initial tension is a continuous one ex- 
tending through the neutral point of stress " b " to a tension of 
21,600 at " c," on the outer surface of the cylinder. If now this 
cylinder be subjected to an interior pressure the stress upon the 
metal throughout the thickness of the wall will be developed in 
resisting the pressure until an interior pressure of P = 49,950 
pounds per square inch is reached. At this stage of the press- 
ure the stress curve, which was originally represented by the 
initial tension curve, a, b, c, is now formed in the straight line, 
d, e; that is to say, the stress upon the metal throughout the 
thickness of the wall is at every point equal to the elastic limit of 
the metal. The elastic tangential resistance of the cylinder to 
interior pressure is 1.11 times the elastic limit of the metal to be 
derived from tests of specimens although the wall of the cylinder 
is only 0.6473 of a caliber thick or actually 8X0.6473 = 5.18 
inches. The same relations would, of course, hold good for a 
tube with any given diameter of bore and metal of given elastic 
limit. 

88. The following conclusions may here be quoted from the 
bulletin of the Philosophical Society previously cited. 

For cylinders of greater thickness than 0.65 caliber, a state of uniform strain 
in the wall will be reached in action and passed before the elastic limit of the 
metal is attained, and with increasing pressure this limit will be fully reached 
only at the surface of the bore, thus determining the limit of pressure. For such 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 391 

cjlinders tbe best condition of resistance will be obtained by utilizing tbe fall 
limit of compression of tbe metal in tbe initial tension. 

Bat for cylinders of less tbickness tban 0.65 caliber, a state of aniform strain 
in action eqaal to tbe elastic limit of tbe metal can be attained witb a compression 
of bore less tban tbe limit p. Tbe tbinner tbe cylinder tbe less sbould be tbe 
initial compression imposed. It follows tbat tbe possible maximum resistance 
of sucb cylinders will be obtained by adjusting tbe initial compression witbin 
limits. If tbe full limit of initial compression were given, tbe elastic limit of tbe 
metal would be reacbed in action at tbe exterior of tbe cylinder sooner tban at 
tbe bore. 

As a consequence, also, of tbe preceding, tbe resistance of tbe cylinders of 
less tbickness tban 0.65 caliber, treated by interior cooling, should be directly 
proportional to tbe tbickness. Tbis treatment gives tbe means of imparting tbe 
greatest resistance so far known to sucb cylinders. 

89. A 3-inch and a 5-inch gun made of single forgings 
strengthened by interior cooling have been constructed and tested 
extensively with very satisfactory results. A number of the 
tubes for 5-inch rapid fire guns have also been made in this way. 
The outcome of the process in these tubes has not been en- 
couraging for the continuation of this method in view of the 
trouble experienced and the number of re-treatments necessary 
to obtain the degree of initial tension desired. Care and ex- 
perience in manufacture should be able to control this method 
and apply it advantageously at least to guns of small and medium 
caliber. The difficulty to bo anticipated with guns of large 
caliber is in procuring a forging for the gun body in one piece 
of uniform quality. This is, however, also a question of experi- 
ence and advancement in knowledge of the art, and quite within 
the limits of future possibility. 



The Modem Field Gun (Figs. 103 cmd lOlt, *). 

90. The chief object of improvement in the modern field gun 
is to obtain the greatest possible rapidity of aimed fire, and this 
has been rendered possible by the introduction of smokeless 
powder, since with the front of the battery covered by a heavy 
cloud of smoke, as formerly, such rapidity of fire as is now 
attained would not have been possible. Improvements for this 
purpose have been made in the breech mechanism of the gun, in 

* It is regretted tbat photograpbs of tbe model 1902 field gun and limber are 
not available at tbis time. Tbese plates sbow tbe material tested in 1001-2 wblch 
resembles the adopted type. 



392 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 




2: 

o 



55 

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O 



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X 

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§ 



o 

£ 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



393 



the ammunition^ and especially in the carriage. Improvements 
in the mechanism consist principally in a single motion in open- 
ing and closing the block, safety devices to prevent firing until 
the block is fully closed and locked, and eccentric position of the 
firing pin in the block to prevent premature discharge of the 
primer i^ the fixed ammunition when the block is closed. 

91. Improvements in the carriage constitute essentially a con- 



^ 


-u 


7^ 


MM ^L / 




L A^^J C^m r^K^KKli ' fll 




r 1 ■ ^^Hi 





Fig. 104. — Limber for Field Gun. 



struction which admits of the gim being fired without recoil of 
the carriage on the ground, without jump of the wheels, with 
practically no disturbance of the aim, together with such an 
attachment of sights that the sighting can be continuously main- 
tained while the gun is being loaded. Improvements in the am- 
munition are a change from separate loading of the projectile 
and powder charge to fixed ammunition. 

92. In the pattern of equipment now to be replaced the car- 



394 ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 

riage recoiled at each round and had to be run to the front, re- 
pointed by shifting the trail, and finally the cannoneers must get 
clear of the carriage to allow the gun to be fired. All of these 
were time-consuming elements. 

93. Three experimental carriages embodying recoil of the gun 
on the carriage have been tried precedent to the present adopted 
type, model 1902. First the model of 1898, with the short 
recoil of gun on carriage, and having an axle traverse to give 
motion to the gun in azimuth without shifting the trail; next, 
another short recoil carriage made in 1900. The distinctive 
features of this were hydraulic recoil cylinders with counter 
recoil springs in the cylinder, azimuth motion of the gun on the 
carriage without shifting the trail, provided by a turn-table, and 
a folding spade at the rear end of the trail. Next came the long 
recoil carriage allowing a recoil of 44 inches to the gim on the 
carriage, made wdth two hydraulic recoil check cylinders and 
return springs in the cylinder. The two last-named types were 
entered in the exhaustive tests of field material made in 1901 
and 1902, together with several types of foreign and domestic 
manufacture. The results of those tests led to a combination 
of good points found, which have been introduced in the model 
of 1902. 

94. The gun is made of nickel steel built up with clips that 
slide in and secure it to the guide rails of the cradle. A lug 
under the breech connects the gun with the recoil cylinder. 
The breech mechanism is of the interrupted screw type and 
opens with a single motion. The block is bored out to receive 
the firing mechanism which is placed eccentrically in the block 
so that in closing, the firing pin will not be brought opposite the 
primer in the cartridge case until the block is rotated and locked. 
A safety device prevents firing until the breech is closed. The 
gun may be fired by lanyard from the rear, but is habitually 
fired by the cannoneer seated on the right through a firing shaft 
attached to the carriage. This shaft is so arranged that it 
cannot be operated until the gun has returned to the safe position 
in the battery. The advantages of this breech mechanism are 
rapidity of fire, great power of extraction and ejection of cart- 
ridge case, ease of loading in that the cartridge is not required 
to be pushed into place by hand as in sliding block mechanisms, 
but the last part of the motion is given by the closing of the 
block. The mechanism is well arranged for protection of the 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 395 

parts from dust and injury, especially blowbacks, is simple and 
no tools are required for dismantling it. 

95. The projectiles used are shrapnel and high explosive shell 
weighing 15 pounds. The gun gives a muzzle velocity of 1,700 
foot-seconds, and a range of 6,250 yards with 15 degrees eleva- 
tion. A somewhat greater range can be obtained by sinking the 
trail. The maximum range is about 7,500 yards. The accuracy 
of the gun is excellent at 6,000 yards range, and compares favor- 
ably at this range with the 3.2-inch gun, which it replaces, at 
4,000 yards range. 

The carriage comprises the lower carriage, consisting of wheels 
axle and trail, together with a rocker and cradle which contains 
the recoil system and in which the gun slides. The cradle rests 
on the rocker and is controlled by the elevating gear. The 
rocker forms a table also in which the cradle can be moved in 
azimuth 4 degrees on either side of the centre to change the 
direction of the gun by that amount without moving the trail. 
The spade at the end of the trail is fixed in position and has 
wide flanges to prevent sinking* in the ground. The recoil equip- 
ment comprises the cylinder, piston rod, counter recoil buffer 
and springs. The cylinder lies in the cradle and is surrounded 
by the springs, and its rear end is attached to the breech of the 
gun. The recoil springs are made of thin steel riband rect- 
angular in shape coiled on edge. The column of springs com- 
prises three similar coils assembled with tension sufficient to 
return the piece when fired at 15 degrees elevation. The piston 
rod is bored out for the throttling bar and the interior of the 
cylinder has three ribs of variable profile to control the recoil by 
openings through which the liquid in the cylinder passes. The 
variable openings in the cylinder are calculated so as to make the 
resistance which the liquid offers plus the resistance of the 
springs such that the wheels will not jump from the ground 
when the piece is fired at zero elevation. This is accomplished 
by making the gravity moment of the system about an axis 
through the point of support of the trail greater than the sum 
of the moments of the piston pull and the spring resistance about 
the same axis. The recoil of the gun on the carriage is 48 
inches. The counter recoil rod with one end secured to the cyl- 
inder has its free end centred and supported at all times in the 
bore of the piston rod. It regulates the velocity of return of 
the piece throughout the whole length of counter recoil, thus 



396 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

obviating the sudden strain and shock in designs where the 
counter recoil is unrestrained until the piece is nearly in battery. 
As a result of this arrangement the gun can be fired without even 
as much motion as would dislodge a piece of money placed upon 
the wheel. 

96. The shield is made of hardened steel .2 of an inch thick, 
in three parts. A small portion of the top is made to fold down 
so that it will not project above the wheels while travelling. 
With this arrangement the carriage might be overturned without 
injury. The shields are tested for acceptance by firing thirty 
caliber steel-jacketed bullets with muzzle velocity of 2,300 f. s. 
at a range of 100 yards. The bullet must not penetrate. The 
shield thus offers protection against small arm fire and shrapnel 
bullets. 

97. The road brake has a double lever, one in front and on« 
in rear of the shield. The first is for the use of the cannoneer 
seated on the axle seat as a road brake, and the other is placed 
where it can be readily operated in firing the gun to prevent 
movement of the carriage especially when fired from a sloping 
platform. The brake blocks bear upon the front of the wheel 
in the firing position where they are out of the way of the firing 
party. When limbered up in travelling on the road this places 
the blocks behind the wheels and no mud is collected on the 
blocks. 

98. The sights comprise a panoramic telescopic sight on the 
left of the piece, and a range quadrant on the right. In using 
the range quadrant the gimner on the left may devote his entire 
attention to giving direction, while another cannoneer can give 
elevation at the range quadrant. The piece is, however, usually 
aimed by the gunner seated on the left, who has at hand the 
elevating and traversing wheels for training the gun. The 
sights are attached to the cradle, and since this does not move in 
firing the piece the sighting may be continuous. The panoramic 
sight enables the gun to be aimed by directing the sight upon 
any object off the line of fire, which is especially useful when 
any direct target made by the enemy is indistinct. 

99. It is found in order to secure steadiness of the carriage 
that the time consumed in recoil and counter recoil must be made 
about two seconds. The operations of opening, loading and 
closing the block, and firing, consume about one second only, so 
that practically therefore the maximum rapidity of unaimed fire 



ORDNANCE FOB THE LAND SERVICE. 397 

from a piece of this description is about three seconds per round, 
or twenty rounds per minute. After the trail is set a rapidity 
of 10 to 12 aimed rounds per minute can be maintained for 
some time. As compared with this, the 3.2-inch gun would fire 
not more than about two rounds per minute. 

100. The weight of the model 1902 carriage, exclusive of gun, 
is 1,308 pounds, as compared with 1,321 pounds for the carriage 
of the 3.2-inch rifle, which is remarkable in view of the additional 
parts in the new carriage, but shows how much the essential 
parts in the old carriage which are still retained in the new could 
be lightened and yet retain sufficient strength for service by 
introducing the plan of recoil of the gun upon the carriage. 

101. Four rounds of ammunition are carried in tubes under 
the axle seats to be ready for immediate use, and 36 rounds are 
carried in the limber. Fig. 104. The gun and limber complete 
with ammunition weighs 3,800 pounds, giving a load of 633 
pounds per horse for each of the six horses. 

102. The organization of batteries with these gims will com- 
prise four guns with carriages and limbers, and 12 caissons and 
limbers. The caissons carry 70 rounds each, and their limbers 
36 rounds, making a total of 1,432 rounds for the battery, or 
358 rounds for each gun. 

Types of Guns^ Mounts and Breech Mechanisms. 

103. In all the more recent type of guns a continuous move- 
ment of breech mechanism in opening and closing the block is 
substituted for the separate operations, one to unscrew the block 
and the other to withdraw it, formerly required. The principal 
parts of the breech mechanism are the spindle with mushroom 
shaped head, plastic obturator and steel split rings to seal the 
escape of gas; the block with its threaded and smooth sectors 
arranged to require a small turning movement for locking; the 
parts that operate to turn and withdraw the block; the carrier 
(either tray or ring) that supports the block when open; the 
safety attachments that prevent firing until the block is closed 
and locked, and the firing mechanism. 

104. Fig. 105 illustrates the more modern form of breech 
mechanism in the 6-inch rapid fire gun, model 1900. This gun 
gives 3,000 f. s. muzzle velocity with 100-pound projectile, is 
£tted with the Stockett breech mechanism and a firing mechanism 



398 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

for combination electric-friction primer; and also a loading tray 
with automatic movement which rises to support the insertion of 
the charge and projectile when the breech is opened, and falls 
to clear the way for the block as the latter is closed. The 
capacity of the powder chamber in this gun is 2,114 cubic inches, 
as compared with 1,278 cubic inches in the model 1897 gun, 
which was designed for 2,600 f. s. muzzle velocity. 

The 6-inch Bofors gun, Fig. 106, has a standard muzzle velocity 
of 2,624 f. s. with 100-poimd projectile. The most interesting 
feature of the gim is the breech mechanism, which is opened and 




Fig. 105. — Breech Mechanism, 6-inch R. F. Gun. Model of 1900. 

closed by a single movement and may be operated automatically 
or by hand. The projectile recess is conical in shape, with a 
large and convenient opening to the rear for loading, and is fitted 
with a loading tray that works automatically. The mounting is 
provided with two sets of sights, one on either side, so that one 
man can control the direction and another the sighting in eleva- 
tion for rapid firing. In trials for rapidity at wll 10 rounds 
were fired in 103 seconds with the breech operated by hand, and 
10 rounds in 94.6 seconds with the breech operated automatic- 
ally. The automatic arrangement is complete for both opening 
and closing the block. The opening is effected by the recoil of 
the gun in its cradle, which at the same time compresses a spring 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 




55 

o 
B 

2 



I 

8 

1-4 

2 



400 OUDXANCE FOR THE LAND SEBVICE. 

and a catch holds the block open. On releasing this catch the 
spring automatically closes the block. This mechanism has 
worked well throughout. The automatic feature gives only a 
little increase in rapidity of fire, but has the advantage of saving 
space for loading and dispenses with the services of one man. 
Among the many labor and time saving devices now attempted 
to be introduced for the service of guns, which are frequently* 
objectionable because of delicacy and increased complications, 
the Bofors automatic breech opening and closing device appears 
exceptional for distinctive merit and certainty of operation. To 
see it in operation one experiences the same sense of relief, to 
a degree, as in the use of fixed ammunition instead of separate 
loading in the rajud fire field gims. The cannoneers are saved 
by so much from violent and rapid exertion, the loading pro- 
gresses more smoothly and withal with increased rapidity. 

105. This gun has been fired 386 rounds with a number of 
pressures exceeding 50,000 pounds, and in one case reaching 
nearly 70^000 pounds, derived from charges purposely increased 
to test the mechanism or the behavior of various lots of smoke- 
less powder to* determine if there existed a critical point of 
pressure. 

106. Designs have been made, and work is in progress to apply 
plans of automatically opening and closing the breech block to 
oth?r rapid fire guns and to guns mounted on disappearing car- 
riages. 

107. The 16-inch gun, Fig. 107, is at present mounted upon 
the proof carriage. It has been recently decided to make for 
this gun a BuflSngton-Crozier disappearing carriage, and to mount 
it at some place on the coast not yet designated. The piece 
has been fired eight times, using the first sample lot of DuPont 
nitrocellulose smokeless powder made for it, with charges vary- 
ing in weight from 450 to 640 pounds and a standard weight of 
projectile of 2,400 pounds. Round Xo. 6 with 640-pound charge 
gave 2,345 f. s. muzzle velocity with 38,545 pounds pressure and 
muzzle energy 91,500 foot tons. Colonel Ingalls' estimate of 
the maximum range of this gim, provided it should be elevated 
for firing at an angle of nearly 42 degrees, is 20.9 miles, and the 
maximum ordinate of the trajectory 30,516 feet, or above 5J 
miles. The battle range of the gun with an elevation of 10 
degrees, which may be given on the disappearing carriage, should 
be about 16,000 yards, or over 9 miles. 



ORDXANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



401 




3 



O 

i 

s 

u 

5 



o 






402 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

108. The proof firing was attended with entire success. At 
the fourth round, with a full charge, a velocity of 2,317 f. s. was 
obtained with 36,700 pounds pressure. The gun was designed 
and the powder sample made to give a velocity of 2,300 f. s. with 
not exceeding 38,000 pounds pressure. The results are remark- 
able when it is considered that the charge of smokeless powder 
exceeded largely any that had been heretofore fired from a gun. 

109. The influence of caliber in producing power is shown in 
that the muzzle energy of the 16-inch gun is 2.4 times that of 
the 12-inch rifle, model 1895, designed for the same muzzle 
velocity. The 12-inch rifle, model 1900, with 2,560 f. s. muzzle 
velocity, gives a muzzle energy of 45,420 tons, or about one-half 
that of the 16-inch gun. In actual firings the 12-inch rifle, 
model 1900, has given a range of 13,360 yards, or 7^ miles with 
10 degrees elevation. 

110. Improvements in the appliances for giving elevation to 
12-inch mortars comprise several designs of quadrants perma- 
nently fixed to the piece within view of the cannoneer at the ele- 
vating wheel, and also a range scale on a wheel attached to the 
elevating axle. .The method formerly used, the quadrant placed 
on flats on the breech of piece, and requiring the gunner to give 
orders to the cannoneer at the elevating wheel to raise or lower 
the piece so as to adjust the level of the quadrant was slow and 
cumbersome. With the new arrangements the elevation is given 
by bringing the pointer to a fixed point on an arc, and does not 
depend upon the adjustment of the level bubble. Fig. 108 shows 
the 12-inch mortar carriage, model 1896, with improved quad- 
rant in place over the right rimbase. 



Powders, 

mi Smokeless powder only is now manufactured for the 
service of all guns, and the black or sphere-hexagonal and brown 
prismatic powders are discontinued except to use up material on 
hand for target practice. However, a quantity of fine grain 
black powder is used as a priming charge in the smokeless 
powder cartridge. The present practice makes this priming 
charge 2.6 of one per cent, of the smokeless powder charge, and 
is the cause of producing a considerable amount of smoke in the 
discharge, particularly with the large guns. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



403 




6 



O 

B 

7 



404 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

112. The form of grain now in use is a multi-perforated cyl- 
inder which when burned in the open air gives an increasing sur- 
face of combustion until the circles meet in burning away, 
leaving 12 to 16 per cent, of the grain in splinters to be con- 
sumed with a decreasing surface of combustion. Other forms 
in use elsewhere are the strip and the hollow cylinder or tubular 
gram. The latter burns away with a uniform surface of com- 
bustion, and this, combined with its facility for ease of loading 
when made up into cartridges, appears* to make it the most desir- 
able form to use. 

113. Nitrocellulose powder has generally displaced that con- 
taining nitroglycerine. The heat produced is less and larger 
charges are required, but this is offset by the decreased erosion 
found with the nitrocellulose composition. 

114. The advantage of smokeless over the brown powder, 
aside from the question of smoke, lies in the fact that it is all 
converted into gas, while the brown and black powders giv/j 
somewhat more than one-half the products of combustion in 
solid residue. All the properties of smokeless powder are not 
as yet known, and there is a large field for investigation. Kecent 
experiments have shown that certain lots of powder at least have 
a critical point of pressure. That is to say, the pressures will 
be found to increase regularly according to a certain law "with 
the charge up to a certain point, beyond which, if the charge is 
increased, very high and abnormal pressures may be encountered. 
These experiments have been purposely made with charges 
greater than the 8er\ace requirements in order to investigate the 
law of critical pressures. 

115. Smokeless powder requires a large air spacing, and the 
powder chambers of guns to give high velocities in order to hold 
the large charges required for this must be made correspondingly 
large. There is one size of powder grain best adapted to each 
caliber of gun, and nothing is gained by increasing the size or 
in effect using a slower burning powder for that gun. A larger 
charge of the slower burning powder would be required to give 
the same velocity, vdth loss of efficiency. For an equal weight 
of charge the gas vnW have a longer path to work over and will 
impart more velocity to the projectile the nearer to the breech 
the powder is consumed in the bore. The limit for minimum 
size of grain and quickness of burning is fixed by the pressure 
that the gun will support in the powder chamber, and the limit 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 405 

for maximum size of grain may roughly be evidenced by the 
absence of unconsumed powder on firing. 

Projectiles. 

116. The present approved form of shrapnel body comprises 
a steel case with bursting charge in the base, and the case made 
strong enough to eject the balls after the manner of a small gun 
without rupture when the bursting charge is ignited. The base 
charge gives an increase of about 200 f. s. velocity to the balls 
over that of the shrapnel at the point of burst. The cone of 
dispersion is about 9 or 10 degrees. In the shrapnel made with 
the bursting charge in the head the cone of dispersion is some- 
what greater. The velocity of the balls, however, is somewhat 
retarded by the burst and the effective range is materially less 
than that of the shrapnel with bursting charge in the base. 

117. The common form of armor-piercing shot and shell have 
capacity to perforate about one caliber of hard-faced steel armor 
for the shot, and one-half caliber for the shell. Both are to be 
used in our service charged with high explosive. The 12-inch 
shot, for example, holds 23 pounds and the 12-inch shell 68 
pounds of explosive. They are made of special quality of steel 
containing chromium or manganese, and carefully hardened and 
tempered. The processes of manufacture are held as trade 
secrets by the different makers.* 

118. Where armor penetration is not required, as in high ex- 
plosive shell for the field and siege guns, the walls of the shell 
are made as thin as consistent with necessary strength to with- 
stand the crushing effort accompanying discharge from the gun 
so that a maximum charge of explosive may be carried. 

119. Recently an armor-piercing projectile, with thickness of 
wall intermediate between those of the present shot and shell, 
has been produced by the Wheeler Sterling Company of Pitts- 
burg. This projectile, by virtue of the improvements in 
manufacture, has the same armor-piercing power as the thick- 

♦ Figs. 109 and 110 show the characteristic bursting eflfect of the two high 
explosive compounds that have been adopted in our service. The projectiles 
exploded were 12-inch armor piercing shell, which weigh, empty, about 950 
pounds, and contain about G7 pounds of Maximite, or 57 pounds of explosive 2>, 
with Frankford Arsenal detonating fuze. The shell were buried ten feet in sand 
for explosion, 'and the fragments afterwards recovered as shown. 



406 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 




Fig. 109. — Fr.\gmentation, 12-inch A. P. Shell Charged with Maximite. 

walled shot and costs about the same as the shot but nearly twice 
as much as the present shell. It is designed to replace the two 
present projectiles and give a single armor-piercing projectile of 
good bursting charge capacity for each gun. The base of the 
projectile is cut away to allow the band to be stripped at the rear 
in perforating armor and thus diminish the resistance to penetra- 
tion due ordinarily to the enlargement of the diameter of the pro- 
jectile at the band. The cap is assembled by means of a wire 
forced into a groove made partly in the projectile and partly in 
the cap after the latter is in place. The cap of the present pro- 
jectile is forced and hammered into a groove on the projectile. 

120. A striking example of the effect of low temperature on 
steel plates was seen in firings a few days since at the Proving 




Fig. 110. — Fragmentation of 12-inch A. P. Shell Charged wrm Explosive D. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 407 

Ground. 8-inch A. P. shell were fired at a tempered, nickel steel 
plate 9 feet x 7^ feet x 3 inches thick, backed by oak timbers. 
The weather had remained at a temperature approaching zero for 
several days. The projectiles were fired to strike the plate with 
angles varying from 20 to 40 degrees between the face of the plate 
and the line of fire, to observe the effect at these small angles on 
the plate and also to test the relative efficiency of capped and un- 
capped projectiles.. At each round the cold plate was badly 
cracked, and markedly more so than a similar plate previously 
tested in warmer weather. Thereupon two pieces from the same 
plate were heated to a temperature of 100 degrees or more and 
attacked by similar projectiles. In both cases, although the plates 
(pieces) were smaller than before, each piece was dished and bent 
by the impact of the shell but there was no cracking. These tests 
have so far negatived the report received from English sources 
that the uncapped projectile is equal in proficiency to the capped 
projectile at very oblique angles of impact. On the contrary it 
appears that the capped projectile is decidedly superior. 

Accuracy and Endurance of Guns, 

121. It is the practice of the Ordnance Department to subject 
each gun to an exhaustive test for endurance before adopting it 
as a type for construction and introduction into service. All the 
heavy sea-coast guns are hooped to the muzzle. 

122. The estimated tangential resistance of the 8, 10 and 12 
inch guns, that is, the pressure per square inch which can be sup- 
ported in the powder chamber without exceeding the elastic limit 
of the gun, is about 52,000 pounds, and that at the muzzle about 
22,000 pounds. 

123. If 'these pressures are exceeded a permanent set of the 
bore may be produced, but rupture is prevented by the ductility of 
the metal and the guns can support higher pressures. The stand- 
ard limit of powder pressure for the charge is 38,000 pounds per 
square inch, or about 73 per cent, of the elastic resistance of the 
gun. 

124. The actual limit of safe pressure for these gims is probably 
about 70,000 pounds per square inch. But one case of ex- 
plosive rupture of a gun of this type has occurred at the Sandy 
Hook Proving Ground aside from experiments with explosives. 
This was a 10-inch gun in March, 1899, using an experimental 



408 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



smokeless powder which proved to be of brittle nature. The 
breech of the gun was destroyed. The two pressure gauges regis- 
tered 78,000 and 79,000 pounds per square inch. 

125. On another occasion the breech block of a 5-inch gun was 
stripped under an estimated pressure of 70,000 pounds. 6-inch 
K. F. gjm No. 1, model 1897, sustained a pressure of 86,000 
pounds as registered by the gauge, which resulted in wedging the 
breech block. Various calibers of the guns, including the 12-inch, 
have been repeatedly subjected to pressures of 50,000 pounds, 
and in exceptional cases considerably higher pressures without 
serious effect. 

126. The type guns of heavy caliber have sustained the fol- 
lowing number of rounds for endurance, namely: 

Experimental 8-incb gun No. 1, West Point foundry 335 rounds 

'* 8-inch gun No. 1, Watervliet Arsenal type. . . .890 rounds 

** lO-inch gun No. 1, Watervliet Arsenal type. . .292 rounds 

** 12-incli gun No. 1, Watervliet Arsenal type. . .265 rounds 

and the types of 12-inch mortars, models 1886 and 1890, respec- 
tively, 398 and 399 rounds. Barring erosion, all the guns are 
intact except the second 8-inch, in which longitudinal cracks ap- 
peared in the tube near the muzzle after 388 rounds. 

127. Plans have been prepared for relining the 10-inch gim, 
No. 1, by a half tube inserted from the breech, which will remove 
the eroded part of the bore and should render the gun fit for a 
duplication probably of its first record. 

128. The following accuracy targets, see also Fig. Ill, form 
part of the record of the guns named: 





Rounds 
nambered. 


Range. 


DeviatfoD from 
centre of impact. 




, GON. 


si 

Ff. 
1.94 
1.44 
1.84 
1.64 


> 

Ft. 
0.88 
2.61 
0.64 
1.68 


1 


Rectangle 

Containing 

BhoU. 


1 

10 inch B. L. R., W. A., No. 1 (8) 97 to 104 

** *• *♦ •' (5) 283 to 287 

10.lncb B. L. R. Crozier wire wound (5) 271 to 275 
12.inch B. L. R., W. A., No. 1. . . . (5) 216 to 2>0 


Yd^. 

1,760 

8.000 

1.760 

3,000 


Ft. 
1.28 
2.98 
1.95 
2.85 


Ft. 
8.4 X 4 
8.2 x4.4 
3. X 7 2 
6 8 X 5.2 



129. It will be observed that three of the targets were made, 
beginning with round 216 in the 12-inch gun, round 271 in the 



ORDKAKCE FOB THE LAND SEBTICE. 



409 



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Wound. IUas«17t0 7<U. 


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Fig. 111.— Accuracy Targets, 10- and 12-inch B. L. Rifles. 

10-inch Crozier wire wound gun and round 283 in the 10-ineh 
forged steel gun. Before these firings the guns had become so 
eroded that the original bands on the projectiles were too small to 
seat the projectile or take the rifling properly. New and enlarged 
bands were used in each case with the result of restoring the 
accuracy of the guns practically to the original standard. 



The Disappearing Carriage. 

130. The utility of the disappearing carriage as a system was 
seriously attacked in 1899 by the Major General commanding the 
army, followed by the Board of Ordnance and Fortification over 
which he presided at that time. On October 8, 1900, the Board, 
by a majority vote of the members present at the time, recom- 
mended that no additional disappearing carriages be manufactured 
for use on high or medium sites, and that no more should be manu- 
factured for use on low sites until the proportion of those to be 
placed on such sites should have been reduced to one-third of the 



410 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

t6tal number to be so located. The objections were directed gen- 
erally: first to the use of disappearing guns, and second to criti- 
cisms of the then adopted type of disappearing carriage. The 
objections and criticisms on both points have been very fully and 
completely answered by papers published in the reports of the 
Chief of Ordnance, U. S. Army, for 1900, appendix 32, 1901, 
appendix 58 and 1902, appendix 1. These references can be con- 
sulted by any desiring to acquaint themselves with all the bear- 
ings of the subject. The question was finally settled (appendix 
1, Keport of 1902) by the report of a board of seven members 
appointed by the President pursuant to act of Congress. The 
membership of this board comprised Colonel Wallace F. Kan- 
dolph. Chief of Artillery; Captain Eugene H. C. Leutze, U. S. 
Xavy; Major John G. D. Knight, Engineers Corps; Major 
Charles Shaler, Ordnance Department; Major Albert S. Cum- 
mins, Artillery Corps; Captain William II. Coffin, Artillery 
Corps; Mr. John K. Freeman, of Providence, K. I., with Captain 
Richmond P. Davis, Artillery Corps, as recorder. The board 
was directed to test the system by firing not only the thirty 
rounds from a 10-inch disappearing gun prescribed by Congress, 
but also thirty rounds from a 10-inch barbette and ten rounds 
each from 6, 8 and 10 inch guns mounted on both disappearing 
and barbette carriages. The board visited five artillery posts 
and fired over 150 rounds with full service charges, and in con- 
clusion recorded its opinion that the general mechanical prin- 
ciples involved in" the chief elements and movements of the Buf- 
fington-Crozier disappearing carriage are admirably adapted to 
their purpose. In these trials 30 continuous rounds were fired 
from the 10-inch disappearing carriage in 27 minutes 10 seconds. 
The average interval between rounds being 54.3 seconds, the 
shortest interval 47 seconds. 

The more this question is studied in connection with the in- 
creased accuracy and power of gun fire from shipboard the more 
reason there appears for affording the best possible protection 
for the gun and its mount, and the gun crew as well. This re- 
quires guns to be mounted either on disappearing 'carriages or 
else to be thoroughly protected by shields. One gun that can 
be kept in action at a critical time is evidently better than a 
number that are so exposed as to be silenced or seriously dam- 
aged in action. The straight front shield usually employed on 
barbette carriages affords a very limited amount of cover, and a 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



411 








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412 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

shield thin enough to be penetrated by shell is a source of danger 
rather than protection. 

131. The illustration, Fig. 112, showing an Armstrong gun in 
the Takau forts, China, in 1900, is well in point. They were 
attacked by gunboats carrying rapid fire guns only at ranges 
between 2,000 and 3,000 yards. The inner sides of the shields 
were covered with blood when examined after the capture of the 
forts, and around one gun were found the bodies of 35 dead 
Chinamen. One gun was put out of action by a projectile that 
entered under the chase and injured the mechanism of the car- 
riage. This is the sarile pattern of shield regarding which the 
testing board of 1902 remarked, " With the non-disappearing 
Armstrong carriage with shield the gunner has better protection 
than he has on any other mount examined by the board." The 
4.7-iiich Armstrong gun shields have a thickness of 4 inches at 
the front and one or two inches on the flanks. The 6-inch Arm- 
strong carriage shield is 4^ inches thick at the front. The qual- 
ity of the steel is such, however, that even the fronts can be per- 
forated by 5 and 6 inch rapid fire guns at battle ranges. 

132. The thickness of shields prescribed for our barbette car- 
riages is l^-inch for 6-pounder, 2 inches for 15-poundcr and 
4^ inches for all larger calibers, including the 5 and 6 inch rapid 
fire and the sea-coast barbette carriages. This steel is required 
to be face-hardened of the best quality. The curved shield 
recently tested on a dummy 6-inch barbette pedestal mount, 
model 1900, is made of face-hardened, Harvey ized steel 4^ inches 
thick. It was able to keep out projectiles of 5-inch and smaller 
calibers, but was perforated by a 6-inch projectile fired with a 
reduced velocity to simulate a battle range of about 3,000 yards. 
The cost of this shield, about $10,000, scarcely compensates for 
the partial protection it affords.* 

133. In firing from a disappearing carriage the sighting of a 
gun in direction and elevation is given before the gun rises into 
the firing position, when it can be immediately fired and the gun. 
remains exposed to hostile fire for a few seconds only. 

* Fig. 118 sbows the 6-inch barbette carriage shield with the axis of the gun 
turned 60 degrees from the line of observation and after 9 rounds had been fired 
against it, namely, one 8.2-inch; five 5-inch; and three 6-inch projectiles. The 
perforation seen in the side exposed to view was made by a 6- inch capped A. P. 
shot fired with a striking velocity corresponding to about 8,100 yards range and at 
an angle of 50.5 degrees between the line of fire and a tangent plane to the plate 
at the point of impact. 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



413 




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4:14 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

134. A very important attribute of the disappearing carriage 
besides the protection of the gun mount and gun crew from 
hostile fire, is the concealment it affords on the approach of an 
enemy as compared with a barbette carriage and shield. When 
the vicinity of the disappearing battery is masked by trees or 
shrubbery, which should be planted if the natural features are 
bare, the disappearing battery becomes most difficult to identify 
at a distance, while a barbette gun is always in evidence and 
when furnished with a shield becomes very conspicuous. 

135. The model 1901 12-inch disappearing carriage. Fig. 114, 
is controlled by electric motors in manceuvring, and combines 
other improvements. The time for raising into battery is 
reduced to about six seconds, or less than one-half the time re- 
quired with the previous models of 12-inch carriage. The 
traversing and elevating are controlled by the gunner on the 
sighting platform through electric motors, and the telescopic 
sight is so supported in a bracket geared with the elevating ap- 
paratus of the gun that the gunner can himself give the neces- 
sary elevation for range with the same facility as with gims on 
pedestal mounts. The telescopic sight has a 3-inch triple objec- 
tive, 15-inch focal length, Brashear-IIastings erecting prisms 
and two eye pieces giving powers of 12 and 20 with a field of 4 
and 3 degrees respectively. The eye end of the telescope wdll be 
provided w-ith a rack and pinion for focusing and with adjustable 
cross wares. Small electric lights are provided for night use to 
illuminate the scale diaphragm in the telescope and the deflection 
and elevation scales of the instrument. The sight includes a 
range drum graduated in yards. These sights and the telescope 
are furnished by the firm of Warner & Swasey, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Methods of Range Finding and Fire Control. 

136. The methods of fire direction in the sea-coast service 
include three cases. One, where the gunner aims directly at the 
target without predicted range and direction, and continues to 
fire as rapidly as possible by observing as far as practicable the 
errors of previous shots. This method is used generally w'ith 
rapid fire guns. Two, where the gunner gives direction to the 
gun by observing the target through the telescopic sight, and the 
gun is elevated to give a predicted range obtained from the 
range-finding instrmnents. Three, when the range and direction 



ORDXAXCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



415 




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416 ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 

are both obtained by the range-finding appliances and transmitted 
to the gun, which is aimed accordingly. In this case it is not 
necessary for the gunner to see the target. The case applies to 
all mortar fire and to the special case of salvo points, the range 
and direction of which are known beforehand, and the guns can 
be pointed to be discharged when the moving target reaches a 
salvo point. Cases two and three are of most general applica- 
tion, especially for distant fire. 

137. The ranges are first obtained by either the depression 
or horizontal base range-finding instruments, and by means of 
a plotting board and accessories in the battery commander's 
station are reduced to the position of the gun that is to be fired 
and then transmitted by telephone and telautograph to the bat- 
tery officer at the gun. When the gun is reported ready for 
firing the battery commander discharges it by pressing an electric 
button at his station connected by wire with the firing mechanism 
and electric primer in the gun. Should the electric firing fail 
a cannoneer stands ready to pull a lanyard and fire the primer by 
friction. In case of a moving target the predicted range and 
direction sent to the gim are calculated to set the gun sufficiently 
ahead of the target so that the projectile will reach the target 
when it arrives at the predicted point. The time of flight of the 
projectile is necessarily involved in this prediction. 

138. This is a very brief outline of the methods employed 
which involve in practice a number of instruments and acces- 
sories, and a very complete system of governing rules for fire 
direction and for fire control by the commander of a group of 
batteries. 

139. Two methods of measuring ranges are employed. One, 
by the depression range finder and one by a horizontal base with 
azimuth instruments at each end. The depression' range finder 
being complete in itself affords much greater convenience than 
the horizontal base in operation. The difficulties with the hori- 
zontal base are especially great in recognizing the target; that is, 
to insure that both observers are looking at the same vessel. The 
limitations in the accuracy of the depression instrument, how- 
ever, which must be mounted at a height of at least 60 or bettor 
100 feet above sea level, coupled with the difficulty of securing 
this elevation at many sea-coast forts — imless by building expen- 
sive and very conspicuous towers — necessarily lead to the use of 
the horizontal system in many cases. The system now being 



ORDNANCE FOR THE LAND SERVICE. 



417 



worked out is based upon a judicious combination of the two 
classes of instruments. 

140. The Warner & Swasey depression range finder, Fig. 115, 
has been constructed with full knowledge of the requirements of 
an instrument of this kind and fulfills these requirements better 
than any other known instrument for the purpose. It has been 
tested at the Proving Ground as well as by artillery officers at 
various posts in target practice and is now being supplied in 
quantity for the service. In effect, when the instrument in any 
given station has been adjusted for height of tide and for refrac- 
tion it enables the distance to a target to be read directly from 
the yard scale by bringing the horizontal cross-wire on the water- 
line of the object. The same firm has also designed a self-con- 
tained horizontal base measuring instrument. A model of one- 
fourth size with a base six feet three inches long has been tested 
with satisfactory results. 




Fig. 115. — Warner & Swasey Depression Range Finder 



PAPERS 



OV THE 



CHICAGO MEETING 

(XLIXth) 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 
MAT 3l8t TO JUNE 3rd, 1904. 



No. lOM. 

PROCEEDINGS 

OP THB 

CHICAGO MEETING 

(XLIXth) 

OF THB 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

Maj 8l8t to June 8rd, 1901 



LOCAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

RoBBRT W. Hunt, Chairman. 

Louis Mohr, Chairman Finance Committee. 

George M. Brill, Chairman Entertainment and Excursion Committee. 

Wm. L. Abbott, Chairman Hotel and Reception Committee. 

Francis W. Lane, Chairman Printing Committee. 

W. H. V. RosiNO, Chairman Transportation Committee. 

Paul M. Chamberlain, Chairman Meetings Committee. 

J. H. Warder, Secretary Local Committee. * 

The forty-ninth meeting of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers was made noteworthy by the fact that it was a joint 
meeting of the American Society with the Institution of Mecfhan- 
ical Engineers of Great Britain. The Council of the American 
Society had invited the British Institution, by a formal vote, 
suggesting that the latter body make their spring meeting of 1904 
an American Meeting, with a view of visiting the great exposition 
in St. Louis which would be in progress in commemoration of 
the centennial of the purchase of Louisiana from the French in 
1803. 

This invitation was cordially accepted by the Council of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers and arrangements were at 
once begun by the executive officers of the two institutions to 
carry out the common purpose of such a joint meeting. 



422 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

It was recognized that a very significant feature of the visit of 
the British Engineers to the United States would be the oppor- 
tunity and -privilege of visiting the American installations and 
study American practice in the line of their particular interests. ' 

To this end the American Society had organized headquarters 
in the various cities to which the visiting engineers were directed 
by accrediting letters, and through which channels the arrange- 
ments for the local visits were provided. The visiting engineers 
had come to America sufficiently far in advance of the date of the 
meeting to accomplish their purposes in part before the meeting, 
and were arranging to visit other cities after the meeting. 

The date for the joint meeting was set for May 31st to June 
3rd, and in the city of Chicago, rather than in St. Louis, in order 
that the advantages might be reaped from the ample and con- 
venient hotel accommodations in Chicago, and so that the real 
business of the meeting might be completed before the distrac- 
tions and interests of the exposition should compete for available 
time of the visitors. 

The headquarters of the Society were opened on the morning 
of May 31st,*in a room in the Auditorium Hotel, and it became 
at once obvious that the numbers in attendance from American 
and British sources would be unusually large. The total registra- 
tion during the four days exceeded the highest figures reached 
in any previous gathering, and were approximately as follows: 

American Society 350 

British " ^ 75 

Ladies and guests 518 

Total 943 

The registration system was carried out by a card principle in 
multiple, and this meeting was the first at which a satisfactory 
method was used for the carriage by each member of his name as 
a feature of the lapel badge of distinction of member and guest. 

The name was used only by members of the two societies and a 
different color for the card was used for the American and Brit- 
is^h members. The plan worked smoothly and acceptably. 

The opening day was given over to incidental excursions to 
the underground subways of the city and to miscellaneous and 
individual interests. 

The first session was arranged to be held in the Music Hall of 
the Auditorium for Tuesday evening. 



OHIGAOO MEETING. 493 



Opening Session. Mat SIst, 8.30 p. m. 

The first session was held in the Music Hall of what is desig- 
nated as the Fine Arts Building, and was called to order by Mr. 
Robert W. Hunt, of Chicago, Chairman of the Local Committee. 
On the platform with Mr. Himt were Mr. Ambrose Swasey, 
president of the Society; Mr. J. Hartley Wicksteed, president 
of the English Institution; Mr. Edgar Worthington, secretary 
of the English Institution, and Prof. F. R. Hutton, secretary of 
the American Society. 

Mr. Hunt introduced the Comptroller of Chicago, the Hon. 
Lawrence E. McGann, who had been delegated by the corporation 
to represent it in welcoming the engineers as guests of the city. 

Mr. McGann spoke in detail of the obligation which the city 
recognized to the work of the engineer, and referred to the finan- 
cial obstacle which had prevented progress in these directions at 
the rate which the city would have been glad to follow. 

President Swasey of the American Society spoke of the Society 
meeting once again in Chicago, referring to the meetings in 1886 
and in 1893, and commenting on the growth of the Society during 
these intervals He spoke of Chicago being the only city where 
the Society has ever held three of its mid-year meetings so far. 
He made his welcome at this point include particularly the pleas- 
ure of the American Society in welcoming the British Institution 
to a joint session under such favorable circumstances. 

President J. Hartley Wicksteed of the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers of Great Britain expressed his pleasure in taking 
part in the welcome of the engineers, and gave reference to the 
pleasure of the visitors in coming to the various cities of the 
United States, and noting the differences which were characteris- 
tic of them. 

At the close of the responses of the respective presidents, a 
letter was read from Mr. James Forrest, past-secretary of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers of Great Britain, in which he ex- 
pressed the wish that the joint meeting might strengthen the bonds 
of international fellowship and social union between the two great 
branches of the English-speaking race. 

At the close of the formal exercises the meeting adjourned to 
an informal reception, tendered by the local residents, in the par- 
lors of the hotel, at which a light collation was served, and which 
gave opportimity for the members to renew old acquaintances 



424 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE 

and form new ones, and for the members of the two societies to 
come into social contact. 

Second Session. Wednesday, June 1st, 10 o'clock a. m. 

The second session was called to order in the large ball-room 
of the Auditorium Hotel on the ninth floor, overlooking the lake. 
The meeting was called to order by President Swasey of the 
American Society, who took occasion to report to the meeting 
the action of the Council under the provisions of the Constitution, 
on the previous afternoon, whereby, after nomination in due 
form, Past-President John E Sweet, one of the founders of the 
Society, had been elected to honorary membership. 

He spoke in fitting words of Professor Sweet as a capable man, 
an able engineer, and that if any living member of the Society was 
entitled to the name of " Father of the Society of Mechanical 
Engineers" it was the member whom the Society. had honored, 
and in honoring whom it honored itself. The announcement of 
this election was received with applause. 

The Secretary reported for record the Report of the Tellers 
of Election as follows: 

REPORT OF TELLERS OF ELECTION. 

The undersigned were appointed a committee of the Council 
to act as tellers under By-Laws 6, 7, and 8, to scrutinize and count 
the ballots cast for and against the candidates proposed for mem- 
bership in their several grades in the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, and seeking election before the Forty-ninth 
Meeting, Chicago, 1904. 

They have met upon the designated days in the office of the 
Society, and have proceeded to the discharge of their duty. They 
would certify for formal insertion in the records of the Society, 
to the election of the following persons, whose names appear on 
the appended list in their several grades. 

There were 661 votes cast on the ballot ending May 14th, 1904, 
of which 50 were thrown out on account of informalities. There 
were 596 votes cast on the ballot ending May 21, 1904, of which 
32 were thrown out because of informalities. The tellers have 
considered a ballot as informal which was not endorsed, or 
where the endorsement was made by a facsimile or other stamp. 



^T:raltri\r-u^''/^ 



Henri G. Chatain, ) 



ton. 



CHICAGO MEETING. 
May 14, 1904. 



425 



To BE Voted for as Members. 



ADen, W. M. 
Andrew, J. D. 
Angus, J. J. 
Arnold, George 
Baker, J. C. W. 
Ba\i8ch, F. E. 
Bidle, W. S. 
Coster, M. 
Darlington, P. J. 
Davol, G. K. 
Diemer, H. 
Dunbar, W. O. 
Gerhard, W. P. 
Goddard,D. 



Harris, W. A. 
Hood, O. P. 
Howells, C. 
Jenness, C. H. 
Kelman, J. H. 
Kenyon, A. L. 
Lafore, J. A. 
Larkin, W. H., Jr. 
Lenfest, B. A. 
Ix)rd, J. E. 
MacMurray, J. T. 
Meier, K. 
Met<'alf, L. 
Muckle, J. S. 
Powell, J. E. 



Randall, D. T. 
Saflford, A. T. 
Sage, H. M. 
Sanborn, F. E. 
Smith, A. L. 
Smith, P. F., Jr. 
Stillman, G. F. 
Teele, F. W. 
Toltz, M. E. R. 
Trampe, J. A. C. L. de 
Walker, G. S. 
Wells, E. C. 
Wells, J. H. 
Wolf, F. W. 



For Promotion to Full Membership. 

Bump, B. N. Hannah, F. A. Logan, J. W. 

Marks, L. S. W^allace, D. A. 

To be Voted for as Associates. 



Gillette, J. W. 
Johnson, W. 
Judd, Horace 
Logan, J. 



Ludeman, E. H. 
Merrill, J. L. 
Norton, F. L. 
Noyes, H.T., Jr. 
O'Neil, J. G. 



Parkhurst, F. A. 
Hippey, S. H. 
WiUiams, G. W. 
Woods, F. F. 



Libbey, J. H. 



Buckingham, H. H. 
Canby, H. B. 
Diederichs, H. 
Dudley, S. W. 
Gamon, E. 
Gillett,W.L. 
Glasgow, C. L. 
Jaok.son, P. 
Kelley.G.C. 
Kenney, L. H. 
King, R. S. 



For Promotion to Associates. 

Robbins, C. C. 
To be Voted for as Juniors. 



Knowlton, F. K. 
Locket t, K. 
Massie, J. H. 
Matthews, F. E. 
Morgan, L. 
Murphy, J. K. 
Nate, E. H. 
Newbury, G. K. 
Norris, H. L. 
Powell, E. R. 
Rantenstrauch, W, 
Richards, C. D 



Schaeffer, S. 
Schlemmer, E. 
Scott, E. F. 
Slawson, H. H. 
Snodgrass, J. McB. 
Sponsler, C. F. 
Stacy, H. W. 
Townscnd, H. P. 
Waclialofsky, C. J. 
Woodward, R S., Ji. 
young, C. H. 



426 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



BiAY 2l8T, 1904. 
To BE Voted for as BIembbrs. 



Bennett, C. W. 
Clemens, A. B. 
Corbett, R. H. 
Elmes, C. W. 
Haven, H. M. 
Holdsworth, F. ] 



Belsley, Clay. 
Bouton, G. I. 
Collier, W. H. 



Beebe, M. C. 
Garred, U. A. 
Hill, H. H. 



Jones, B. N. 
Loomis, B., Jr. 
Lucas, H. M. 
Massa, R. F. 
Monteagle, R. C. 
Nicholson, S. T. 
Reid, Joseph. 



Rivett, Edward. 
Schulte,G.H. 
Slade, A. J. 
Smith, E. J. 
Stivers, W. D. 
Taylor, C. L. 



FoR^ Promotion to Full BIembersuip. 



Doty, Paul. 
Hutchison, R. 
Jacobs, Ward S. 
King, J. H. 



Price, A. M. 
Watts, Geo. W. 
Whitaker, H. E 



To BE Voted for as Associates. 



Nelson, J. W. 
Obert,C.W. 



Pond, H. O. 
Stevens, H. L. 
Van Winkle, E. 



For Promotion to Associate Membership. 



Langoltz, Robt. 



Barnard, E. E. 
Chasteney, C. D. 
Cobleigh, H. R. 
Gardner, Henry 



Morrison, H. S. 



To BE Voted for as Juniors. 



Heaton, H. C. 
Hodge, Geo. O. 
Horton, W. H. 



Knoop, T. M. 
Midgley, F. W. 
Sibley, M. M. 
Sibson, H. E. 



Under the provisions of the Constitution and By-Laws, the 
Chairman announced these gentlemen in the foregoing list to be 
duly elected to membership in their respective grades. 

Mr. Wilfred Lewis, Chairman of the Commitee on Standard 
Forms of Machine Screws, reported in a letter that very satisfac- 
tory progress had been made, and the committee confidently ex- 
pected to complete its work in ample time for the presentation of 
a report at the annual meeting of the Society in December. 

The Chair then called upon the Committee representing the 
Society in the planning and labor concerning the proposed en- 
gineering building which Mr. Andrevf Carnegie had projected for 
the use of the societies who should take part in its advantages. 
This report, in the absence of other representatives of the Society, 



CHICAGO MEETING. 427 

was presented by the Secretary, and is made a special appendix to 
the Proceedings of this meeting. 

At this point the President called for new business, motions 
and resolutions. 

Mr. Fred J. Miller, of New York, presented at this point a pro- 
posed amendment to the method of amending the Constitution of 
the Society. Th^ debate on this amendment was as follows: 

Mr, Fred J. Miller. — ^In accordance with paragraph 59 of 
the Constitution, I wish to offer an amendment to that para- 
graph. Perhaps I had better read the paragraph as it is in the 
Year Book, so that if any discussion takes place we may discuss 
it intelligently. May I do that? 

President Swasey, — As you please. 

Mr. Fred J. Miller (reading). — " At any semi-annual meeting 
of the Society any member may propose in writing an amendment 
to this Constitution. Such proposed amendment shall not be 
voted on at that meeting, but shall be open to discussion and to 
such modification as may be accepted by the proposer. The pro- 
posed amendment shall be mailed in printed form by the Secretary 
to each member of the Society entitled to vote^ at least sixty 
days previous to the next annual meeting, accompanied by com- 
ment by the Council, if it so elects. At that annual meeting such 
proposed amendment shall be presented for discussion and final 
amendment, and shall subsequently be submitted to all members 
entitled to vote, provided that twenty votes are cast in favor of 
such submission." That means twenty votes at that meeting. 
" The final vote on adoption shall be by sealed letter-ballot, clos- 
ing at twelve o'clock noon on the first Monday of March fol- 
lowing." 

Paragraph 58 reads: 

" The letter-ballot, accompanied by the text of the proposed 
amendment, shall be mailed by the Secretary to each member 
of the Society entitled to vote at least thirty days previous to the 
closure of the voting. The ballots shall be voted, canvassed and 
announced as provided in the By-Laws. The adoption of the 
amendment shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast. An 
amendment shall take effect on the announcement of its adop- 
tion by the presiding officer of the semi-annual meeting next fol- 
lowing the closure of the vote." 

I call attention to the fact that according to this paragraph of 
the Constitution if a member propose any amendment to the Con- 
stitution he need not secure the approval of any other member 



428 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

of the Society. It does not even require that the proposed amend- 
ment shall be seconded. If it is merely proposed at a semi-annual 
meeting, in writing, though it may then be discussed, a vote upon 
it is prohibited at that time; it may only be discussed and the 
proposer may accept amendments if he choose, but no matter if 
he is unable to secure the approval of a single other member of 
the Society for the proposed amendment, the Secretary is, never- 
theless, compelled to print it, at the expense of the Society, and 
to send it to every member of the Society to be voted upon. Then 
it must come back to the Secretary, must be again discussed, and 
if it then receive twenty votes in the meeting it must be again 
sent out to every member to be voted upon a second time, and, 
if it then receives their approval, it is adopted. Now, in case 
no amendment is made at the second presentation of the amend- 
ment, that is, if no modification of it is made, the Society is 
placed in the position of sending out to the full membership 
identically the same thing to be voted upon a second time. That 
is to say, though it has been sent out once and approved, it must 
be again sent out for a second vote, even though no alteration 
whatever may have been made. 

In place of those two paragraphs I propose the following: 

Amsndmbnt to the Constitution. 

"At any semi-annual meeting of the Society any member may propose in 
writing an amendment to this Constitution. Such proposed amendment shall 
then be open to discussion and to such modification as may be accepted by the 
proposer, and if it then receives in its favor 20 votes from among the members 
present it shall, at least 60 days previous to the next annual meeting, be mailed 
in printed form by the Secretary to each member of the Society entitled to vote, 
accompanied by commments by the council if it so elects. The vote upon the 
amendment shall be by sealed letter ballot closing at 10 a.m. on the first day of 
the annual meeting first succeeding the semi-annual meeting at which the amend- 
ment wa3 proposed. The ballots shall be voted, canvassed and announced as 
provided in the by-laws, and if a majority of the votes cast are in favor of the 
amendment it shall, after declaration of that fact by the presiding officer there- 
upon take effect and be in force." 

It seems to me that this amendment obviates the difficulty into 
which this clause of the Constitution as it now stands may lead us. 
I have, I may say, some other amendments which I think should 
be made, but I do not present them now, because I do not wish to 
propose them under this law as it now stands, as I would be 
compelled to propose them without their having received the ap- 
proval of any other member, and I wish simply to get this under 



CHICAGO MESTINO. 429 

way in order that neither myself nor any other member who 
wishes to propose an amendment may be compelled to propose 
it in the manner in which the Constitution now requires it to be 
done. 

President Swasey. — Gentlemen, you have heard the amendment 
proposed by Mr. Miller, which is now open for discussion. What 
have you to say in regard to it? 

Mr. R. H. Soide. — ^Having been a member of the Committee on 
the Revision of the Constitution I am familiar with the circum- 
stances and considerations which led up to the adoption of the 
particular clause which it is now sought to amend; there was not 
one article of the entire Constitution and By-laws for which so 
many alternative arrangements were offered as this one; the com- 
mittee spent a great deal of time in discussing the best method of 
amending the Constitution, and finally decided on the form which 
has since been adopted; and the imderlying principles in reaching 
that conclusion were these: 

First of all it was considered wise to give every member of 
this Society a right to stand up on this floor and to suggest an 
amendment to the Constitution, and it was purposely made to read 
so that it was not necessary for him even to secure a second; it 
was considered that it ought to be the fundamental right of every 
man to submit an amendment to the Constitution, and at least 
claim a hearing for it; the other idea was that it would be a 
sound principle that the main debate on that proposed amendment 
should be precipitated into the arena of discussion at the annual 
meeting of the Society; the fact is recognized that the annual 
meeting is always the largest, and therefore it is the one at which 
it may be assumed that an amendment would receive the most 
careful consideration and at the hands of the largest proportion 
of the membership. 

That is the logic which pervaded the minds of the members 
of the Conmiittee on Revision of the Constitution, and which led 
up to their suggestion of that particular clause which it is now 
proposed to amend. 

Mr. Fred J. Miller. — ^In regard to what Mr. Soule says as to the 
right of every member to propose an amendment, I would be 
the last one to deny that right, for I most thoroughly believe in it; 
but I call attention to the fact that my amendment toes not really 
abridge the right of a member to propose an amendment; he still 
has the right to propose, but there is no use in putting the Society 
to the expense of printing his amendment and sending it out to 



430 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

the membership if he cannot get twenty members to agree with 
him that the amendment is a desirable one; because it is then 
morally certain that his amendment cannot be adopted, and the 
bother and expense of the general vote will be to no purpose. 

I have studied the Swiss Initiative and Referendum to some 
extent. Any citizen of the Swiss Republic has a right to pro- 
pose a law, but it is there clearly seen that it would be folly to 
arrange so that any Swiss citizen could simply write out a proposed 
law, and that it should then be immediately submitted to every 
member of the Oovernment to be voted upon. The Swiss Consti- 
tution requires that the proposer of the law shall have back of it 
the support of a certain nimiber of citizens first secured by the 
proposer. That is what we want here. Another point which occurs 
to me is tfiis: That an amendment may be sent out to the member- 
ship to be voted upon, and it may be approved by them; the mem- 
bers expressing their desire to have the Constitution so amended, 
and yet that amendment comes up in the next annual meeting of 
the Society, and is discussed if at that time it fails to receive 
twenty votes, the will of the Society is set aside, i.e., although 
the membership at large has voted in favor of the amendment 
it cannot be adopted, simply because it cannot be sent out for a 
second vote by the membership at large. I do not think that is 
right. 

President Swasey. — ^Is there any further discussion? If not, 
the amendment will take the regular course laid down by the 
Constitution. 

No other new business being presented the meeting took up 
the professional papers as follows: 

The paper by Mr. Harrington Emerson on " A Rational Basis 
for Wages " was discussed by Messrs. Emerson Bainbridge, E. J. 
Chambers, and J. Hartley Wicksteed of the British Institution, 
and Mr. H. H. Suplee of the American Society. 

Two papers presented by British authors were then read by 
the Secretary of the British Institution. 

The paper by Mr. George Watson was entitled "The Burning 
of Town Refuse," and the paper by Mr. C. Newton Russell was 
entitled "Refuse Destruction by Burning, and the Utilization 
of Heat Generated." President Wicksteed opened the discus- 
sion, which was participated in by Mr. Alfred Saxon, Mr. Charles 
Wicksteed, and Mr. G. R. Dunell of the British Institution. 

At the close of these papers the meeting took a recess until the 
evening of the same day. 



OHIOAOO MEETINO. 431 

Third Session. Wednesday Evening, June Ist, 8.30 p. m. 

The third session was called to order in the Music Hall of the 
Fine Arts Building by President Ambrose Swasey. The papers, 
of this evening were specifically devoted to the Power Plant 
Problem and Practice, especially on the development of the steam- 
turbine. In the discussion of the three papers, Messrs. Storm 
Bull, Greorge I. Eockwood, D. S. Jacobus, H. H. Suplee, George 
W. Colles, H. L. Doherty, and Alex. Dow took part. Messrs. 
Hodgkinson, Rearick, Rice, and Kerr spoke in the closures. The 
fidl titles of the papers were as follows: " Some Theoretical and 
Practical Considerations in Steam-Turbine Work," by F. Hodg- 
kinson; " The De Laval Steam-Turbine,'' by E. S. Lea and E. 
Meden; "The Curtis Steam-Turbine," by W. L. R. Emmet; 
" Different Application of Steam-Turbines," by A. Rateau; " The 
Potential Efficiency of Prime Movers," by C. V. Kerr. 

FoiTRTH Session. Thursday Morning, June 2nd. 

The session was opened by* the presentation of two papers on 
the Tall Office Building Problem, by Messrs. Bolton and J. H. 
"Wells. These papers were respectively entitled " The Power 
Plant of the Tall Office Building," and were discussed by Messrs. 
Bryan, Colles, Rockwood, Suplee, Bunnell, Gifford and Mr. Nistle 
of the American Society. 

The next paper was from the English Society, and was en- 
titled " The Middlesbrough Dock Electric and Hydraulic 
Power Plant," discussed by Messrs. Barr, Alfred Saxon, and 
John Etherington ; the paper entitled ^' Use of Superheated Steam 
and of Reheaters in Compound Engines of Large Size," by Mr. 
Lionel S. Marks, was discussed by Messrs. Barrus, Kerr, and Rock- 
wood. The paper by Mr. William P. Flint, entitled " Commercial 
Gas Engine Testing and Proposed Standard of Comparison," was 
discussed by Messrs. Mathot and Chambers of the English Society, 
and Professor Jacobus of the American. 

At the close of the discussion the meeting took a recess until the 
final session on Friday morning. 

Final Session. Friday Morning, June 8rd. 

The Joint Meeting was the guest for this session of the Lewis 
Institute of Chicago, West Madison and Robey Streets. The ses- 
sion was introduced by the presentation by Secretary Worthing- 
ton, on behalf of Mr. William Campbell, of the report of the 



482 PROOEEDINOS OF THB 

Institution's committee on "Effects of Strain and Annealing," 
prepared by Dr. William Campbell. This report was presented 
in ab&tract by the use of lantern slides projected upon a screen. 

Following the presentation of this report, which was com- 
mented on by President Wicksteed, the paper by Mr. William 
J. Keep was read on " Cast-Iron, Composition, Strength and 
Specifications," which was discussed by Messrs. West and Emer- 
son of the American Society and Mr. Chambers and Mr. Crosta 
of the British Institution. 

At this point. President Wicksteed took the chair for the pres- 
entation of the paper by Prof. J. T. Nicholson on " Experi- 
ments with a Lathe-Tool Dynamometer," which was presented by 
Mr. Daniel Adamson of Manchester, England, with whom he had 
been associated. In the discussion, Messrs. Wicksteed, Emerson, 
McQeorge, Benjamin, and Pilton took part. 

President Swasey of the American Society resumed the chair 
for the presentation of the 4)apers on locomotive testing, by 
Messrs. Hitchcock and Qoss, respectively, entitled: "Locomotive 
Testing Plants," by Prof. W. F. M. Goss; " Road Tests of Con- 
solidation Freight Locomotives," by Prof. E. A. Hitchcock. 

Messrs. Bement and Worthington took part in the discussion. 

With this group of papers the presentation of technical mat- 
ter was completed. 

Director Carmen of the Lewis Institute introduced at this 
point the Hon. C. C. Kohlsaat, Judge of the United States Court 
in Chicago and president of the Board of Trustees of the Lewis 
Institute. Judge Kohlsaat expressed the pleasure of the Trustees 
of the Institute in having the body its guests for the morning, 
and referred in brief to the desire of the Institute to make itself 
useful in the spread of engineering education and in fitting young 
men to carry on the work of the world in industrial lines. 

Mr. Robert W. Hunt spoke in feeling words of the death 
during the progress of the convention of Mr. David R. Eraser, 
a veteran member of the Society resident in Chicago, who had 
been a member of the Local Committee of Arrangement, and 
who was a foremost representative of the industrial interests of 
the city. Due memorial action was to be taken by the Society 
in its published volume of Transactions. 

President Swasey flt this point read from the chair the fol- 
lowing minute: 

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, speaking for its own members, 
desires at the outset to record its pleasure in the fortunate outcome of its plans 



CHICAGO MEETING. 438 

which have brought the Institution of Mechanical Engineers from England to 
be its guests and co-workers in the pleasures and labors of its Chicago Convention. 
It was a happy thought of Mr. James Rowan of Glasgow to present to the Ameri- 
cans the possibility of holding a meeting of the Institution in the United States. 
It is with great pleasure that the Americans have been permitted to receive so 
many members of the Institution and to take them into all the elements, both pro- 
fessional and social, of such a successful convention. The Americans hope that 
their guests will carry home with them a still more earnest recognition of the fact 
that the two branches spring from a common stock by race and language, and 
that the laws and practice of engineering must necessarily be one on both sides 
of the Atlantic. 

At the close, President Wicksteed of the British Institution 
pose and took the chair, and presented the following minute on 
behalf of the British Society: 

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, as represented by its President, 
Council, visiting members and Secretary, desires to take occasion on this last 
session of the joint meeting to pass a resolution which shall convey to the Ameri- 
can Society the warm thanks and recognition which they desire to express for all 
that has been done for their pleasure and profit during the American visit of 
the Institution. They desire to thank the Council of the American Society and 
the executive officers who represent it for coiu*tesies, official and personal, and 
for the arrangements which have been made for them, the visiting engineers, to 
have opportunities of studying American industry in its home field. 

The Institution desires further to record the pleasure its members have de- 
rived from the attentions and opportunities which have been extended to them 
during their stay in Chicago, and in their joint participation in the Chicago 
Meeting. The visitors ask that, in the resolutions of thanks for specific things 
which are about to be presented to the joint meeting, they may be particularly 
iDchided, and that they as well as the society may be identified with these resolu- 
tions. 

At the close of this action, the Secretary of the American So- 
ciety presented on behalf of both organization the following reso- 
lutions of thanks and recognition, which were unanimously 
adopted: 

1. Resolved, That the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers desire to express to the City of Chicago and 
its city Government the sincere thanks of the joint meeting for their courtesy, 
extended by a representative of the City in the person of its Comptroller, in 
addressing a welcome to the visitors at their opening session on Tuesday evening. 
They would express their pleasure in having brought to their notice the recogni- 
tion which the Corporations was kind enough to express of the debt which 
C^cago owes to the engineering talent which has helped to make the City what 
it is. 

2. The American Society and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers have 
■ received from the Illinois Steel Company at South Chicago a notable courtesy 

in the permission and arrangements for the joint visit through the Illinois Steel 



434 PR00EEDINQ8 OF THE 

Works on Wednesday afternoon. The Mechanical En^eers recognize what 
is meant by a permission of this sort an4 the difficulties in handling so large a 
number through the complicated and dangerous departments of a productive 
establishment of this magnitude. They ask that the Illinois Steel Company and 
Mr. W. A. Field, the General Superintendent, and other officers of the Company 
will accept the sincere thanks of the party for the success attending the visit, 
and for the admirable way in which the visit and entertainment were planned. 

3. The joint session of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers have receievd from the Illinois Central 
Railway most notable courtesies, entertainment and provision during their 
Chicago visit. They would ask that that Company and in particular Mr . W . H . V. 
Rosing, Assistant Superintendent of machinery, will accept the sincere thanks 
of the Engineers for their tender of free transportation over their lines during 
the Chicago Convention, and for the special and admirable arrangements wherdOy 
the Company and its agents have served the convenience of the visitors on their 
excursions and visits about the City. 

4. The joint meeting of the Mechanical Ekigineers of {England and America 
ask that Marshall Field and Company will accept the sincere thanks of the societies 
for the opportunity given to the ladies and members to visit the wonderful 
establishment which b known by their name, and for the courteous arrangement 
for the luncheon of the visitors on the afternoon of Thursday at that great mer- 
cantile establishment. The character of the hosts on this occasion is a factor in 
economic and commercial development which all engineers are watching with 
the keenest interest in its bearing upon the problem of economic handling be- 
tween producer and consumer. 

5. The joint meeting in Chicago has been made memorable for the Mechanical 
Engineers by the particular importance which has been given at this meeting to 
the subject of the Steam Turbine. The Engineers, therefore, ask that the 
Commonwealth Electric Company and the Chicago Edison Company will accept 
the sincere thanks of the visitors for the privilege of the visit to the Fisk Street 
Station and the chance to see the woriung of a power station of this magnitude. 
They would couple this vote of thanks in particular with the name of Mr. Loub 
A. Ferguson, Second Vice-President of the Company, and with those of Mr. 
Abbott and members of the local committee who have been instrumental in 
bringing about this pleasant result. 

6. Those members of the joint meeting who have taken occasion to visit the 
Stock Yards and the Packing House of Swift and Company, ask that that Com- 
pany and Mr. EJdward S. Swift in particular and other officers of their corporation 
will accept sincere thanks for the invitation to visit their great undertaking, and 
to study their admirable, humane and careful methods which have been followed 
in the prosecution of their business and in the attainment of their wonderful 
results. 

7. To the Trustees of the Art Institute and to Mr. H. N. Carpenter, Secretary, 
the Engineers beg to extend their most sincere appreciation for the distinguished 
courtesy accorded by these gentlemen, in permitting the reception of Thursday 
evening to be held in the midst of the attractive collections of that Institute. 
The relation between engineering and art is a close one, even if by many its exist- 
ence b not detected . Art b a child of economic progress and wealth . Engineering 
is the foundation of real productive wealth. It has given the Engineers great 
pleasure that their reception should be accorded to them in the midst of such 
congenial and appropriate surroundings. * 



CHICAGO MEETING. 435 

8. The Engineers ask that the Trustees and Faculty of the Lewis Institute 
of Chicago will accept the sincere thanks of the joint meeting for the invitation 
to hold its closing session in the Hall of the Lewis Institute. The Engineers 
recognize what the profe^ion owes to the work of the technical educators and 
are glad to record by this resolution their hearty sympathy in the work of the 
Institute and their recognition of the far-reaching efifect of such education, both 
in industry, in civilization and in culture. They would express in particular 
their thanks to Professor P. M. Chamberlain for his instrumentality in bringing 
about this pleasant result, and heartily appreciate the courtesy for the enter- 
tainment and luncheon which the Trustees have provided. 

9. It is to the Trustees of the Sanitary District that the Mechanical Engi- 
neers owe the courtesy of an invitation to inspect the Drainage Canal, a great 
work in the interests of Chicago, which has been prosecuted under their direction. 
The thanks of the Societies and the Institution are also due to the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company for the courtesy of the special tcain 
provided by that Company through Mr. Kendrick, third Vice-President of the 
Railway system. The visiting Engineers ask also that the Western Society of 
Engineers, by whose active co-operation this excursion has been originated, will 
accept the sincere appreciation of the visitors for their share in the successful 
visit. 

10. Beginning with the very first day of the attendance of visitors and 
continuing beyond the official end of the meeting have been the courtesies of the 
Illinois Tunnel Company. The Engineers desire to return thanks to the Com- 
pany and to Mr. George W. Jackson in particular for the courteous invitation to 
^'isit the tunnels and to study under such favorable circumstances their possi- 
bilities and their working. The Mechanical Engineer is entirely wonted to the 
experience that some of his most successful achievements are where the eye of 
the superficial observer knows nothing of their real excellence. That we should 
have had the opportunity to go under ground and under competent guidance 
study the hidden detail is an experience for which we desire to record our thanks* 

11. It must be known to any Mechanical Engineer that the success which 
comes to an acceptable product of a machine depends upon the skill, the fore- 
thought and the careful administrative attention of the brain of the Engineer 
that has originated the machine. In the successful meeting of a Convention, 
such as our Chicago meeting has proved itself to be, the Engineer behind the 
product is the local committee of resident members in whose hands we have been 
but raw material, and which have succeeded in turning out so successful a finished 
product as the Chicago meeting. The visiting Engineers ask that Mr. Robert 
W. Hunt, with a membership common to both societies, who has acted as chair- 
man of the local committee, will accept for himself and for his associates a sincere 
recognition for his and their share in bringing this delightful result to pass. 
They ask also that Mr. George M. Brill, efficient and capable Chairman of the 
EIntertainment and Excursion Committee, who has abandoned his liome tlmt he 
might be near his responsibilities, will allow himself to he included in our wann 
expression of tlmnks and recognition. The meeting would not have ]>een the 
success which we have enjoyed, had less gifted, interested or assiduous hands 
been at the throttle. 

12. While the ladies are important and appreciated factors as captains of 
industry in the control of the individuals who paas resolutions, it is unfortimate 
that they do not have a speaking voice in the proceedings of the official part of 
this meeting, and that from "seconds in command" and not from the captains 



486 PROCEEDINGS OP THE CHICAGO MEETING. 

themselves must come the voicing of the thanks which the ladies of our party 
must tender to the efficient and delightful group of ladies organized imder the 
local committee for the pleasure of the visitors. This resolution is to give voice 
to the official thanks of the visiting ladies for the drive and the luncheon on 
Wednesday, for the organization and direction of the charming visit on Thursday 
and for the crowning delight of the drive on Friday. The ladies ask also that 
Mrs. Robert W. Hunt will accept this unsatisfactory effort of mere men to ex- 
press for them the thanks of the ladies for the delightful reception on Thursday 
afternoon. 

The men and the women leave for home with delightful memories of new 
friendships formed, of old friendships strengthened and a memory of a week 
full of pleasure, satisfaction and profit. 

These resolutions being put by the chair they were unani- 
mously adopted. 

At the close of the sessions the Society and its guests were 
entertained by the ladies of Lewis Institute at a most satisfactory 
luncheon on the top floor in the department of the Institute 
devoted to domestic science, and afterwards took a train on the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad for the controlling 
works of the drainage canal. 

On the way the party visited the distributing yards of the rail- 
way companies. The party were escorted by float a short dis- 
tance on the canal itself, .and after visiting the work of the con- 
trolling outflow, re-embarked on the train and returned to Chi- 
cago. 

In the evening, the Society and its guests were again enter- 
tained by the Local Committee, the entertainment taking the most 
attractive form of an orchestral concert in the Auditorium Thea- 
tre by the Thomas Orchestra of Chicago. 

This concert was made noteworthy by its ending. A precentor 
came forward on the stage, and led the audience in two verses 
each of the American national hymn, " My Country 'Tis of Thee,*' 
and the English form of the same air, " God Save the King." 

With this incident the meeting officially closed. 

The next meeting of the Society will be its regular annual 
meeting, to be expected in the city of New York the first week 
in December. 



No. lOM. 

APPENDIX. 
CARNEGIE GIFT TO ENGINEERING. 

THIRD CIRCULAR. 

In former circulars the members of the Society have been ad- 
vised that at the Saratoga Meeting in June, 190t3, there was re- 
ported in official form the proposed gift to engineering by Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie, a member of the Society, and that at the New 
York Meeting in December, 1903, a supplementary report was 
made of the work of the Society's Committee up to the beginning 
of that year. The first report will be found on page 870 of 
Volume XXIV., as paper No. 976, and the second on page 34 of 
Volume XXV., as No. 1008. 

At the Chicago Meeting in May, 1904, a further report of 
progress was presented for the information of the members as 
a feature of the business session of that meeting. The report was 
presented by the Secretary of the Society, who is one of the 
representatives of the Society on the Committee, and was as 
follows: 

It will be recalled by those who have followed the history of 
the undertaking that in February, 1903, Mr. Andrew Carnegie 
made his first offer of a million dollars in order that the four 
national engineering societies might be housed in a proper build- 
ing, which should give necessary accommodation for the executive 
offices of the engineering societies, and should contain auditoriums 
for meetings and give adequate space for the libraries of the 
societies, the plan also to include accommodations under a separate 
roof, but as a part of the general scheme, for the Engineers' 
Club, which is the social organization having no necessarily pro- 
fessional outlook. 

The action which was taken on the receipt of Mr. Carnegie's 
proposition was to appoint a Conference Committee, consisting 
of three members from each of the four national societies and 
from the Engineers' Club. This Conference Conmiittee held 



438 APPENDIX. 

frequent meetings for the consideration of its problem, and dis- 
charged its duties under a provisional organization until March, 
1 904, when by the letter-ballot of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers — for reasons satisfactory to themselves — it was de- 
cided by that body that they would not partake in the benefit of 
Mr. Carnegie's gift. 

The Conference Committee was then at once faced with the 
problem: Would the donor give his proposed gift to the three 
engineering societies and the Engineers' Club, and would the 
three societies be able to make themselves responsible for the 
maintenance and conduct of the building, or would the problem 
become greater than these three bodies could cope with? 

The matter was immediately laid before the Councils of the 
three societies and on careful consideration of the resources of 
each body, the three organizations, the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers, and the American Institute of Mining Engineers, decided 
that it would be within their power to resume this responsibility. 

Careful estimates of the cost of operating the building were 
prepared, and by special meetings the decision was reached that 
each society was prepared to go forward in co-operation with the 
other two. When this action was communicated to Mr. Carnegie, 
with characteristic promptness of decision, he* at once wrote an- 
other deed of gift, stating his willingness to present to the three 
societies and the Engineers' Club a building which should cost 
a million and a half dollars, in recognition of the larger scope of 
the proposition as submitted to him by the three societies. 

It is the purpose of the Trustees that this building should 
provide for all organizations which have engineering as their 
basis in the matter of suitable auditoriums, executive offices, and 
most of all, for their libraries. 

Mr. Carnegie's letter of gift has, therefore, constituted the rep- 
resentatives of the three engineering societies and the Engineers' 
Club, an organized committee of twelve, who for the moment are 
to administer what has been called the " Carnegie Trust for En- 
gineering." This committee of twelve has the responsibility for 
the expenditure required for adequate buildings. While the gift 
is as one, there are in reality two buildings. The three societies 
are to occupy a frontage of 125 square feet on the north side of 
Thirty-ninth Street in New York City, with a depth of 100 feet. 
The Engineers' Club is to occupy a site 50 feet wide by 100 feet 
on the south side of the Fortieth Street frontal of the same eity 



APPENDIX. 430 

block. The buildings do not quite oome to each other in the rela- 
tion of the upright and the arm of a capital letter " T/' because the 
Engineers' Club stands nearer one end than the other of the long 
frontage of the Engineering Building. 

The Conference Committee, in its capacity as Trustees, at once 
made arrangements to have the design of the building competed 
for and the architects selected by the competitive method. 

A programme of competition was prepared with some elaborate 
ness, deciding a number of questions in advance in order that 
the competition might be on the conmion basis. Among these 
questions were, first, that the auditorium which is a central feature 
of such a proposed engineering building should have such a capa- 
city that the best voice of an author or speaker could be distinctly 
heard in every part of it. This brought to the front at once an 
interesting question as to the floor space and height within which 
an untrained speaker taking part in the meetings could be heard 
and understood. It was plainly absurd to make the auditorium 
80 lai^ that discussions were a mere dumb show of moving lip 
and gesture. It seemed on conference with theatrical people, 
ministers, architects, and public speakers, that such ordinary 
speaker could be heard if the audience did not exceed one thou- 
sand persons on the floor, with a possible additional five hundred 
seated in a commodious gallery. 

The committee would be very glad to receive additional light 
on this question from any members who may have experience to 
oflFer. 

There are also to be smaller auditoriums having a capacity of 
two hundred and fifty persons and downward, so that smaller 
meetings shall not be lost in a large auditorium, and so that meet- 
ings of different societies of different sizes can be held at the same 
time. Such smaller auditoriums will also be cosy for monthly 
reunions. 

The auditorium must, necessarily, by ordinance of the Building 
Department of New York City and as a matter of common sense, 
be located near the level of the street. 

Above the auditoriums will be the office floors, one for each of 
the societies, giving accommodation for its reception rooms, offices 
for secretary, accountants, stenographers, and similar adminis- 
trative departments, and the meeting room for coimcils and- com- 
mittees. 

At the most liberal calculations for the present needs of the 
societies, a floor area of 5,000 square feet would seem to be ample. 



440 AP^NDIX. 

Each floor will furnish over one-and-a-half times this space, so as 
to leave room for growth and future needs. It has been quite 
interesting to note that the three societies, calculating indepen-. 
dently, ask the committee for practically the same amount of 
floor space. 

Above the three floors allotted to the founders^ societies can be 
certain additional floors, if the funds available shall make this 
possible, which shall be assigned to the use of the other engineer- 
ing organizations which will naturally be the beneficiaries of Mr. 
Carnegie's gift. Such bodies are the Electro-Chemical Society, 
American Gas Light Association, Electric Light Association, and 
others. These accommodations will not be rented, but will be 
furnished to the users, on a basis of a pro rata of operating ex- 
penses. It is plainly unfitting that there should be any profit- 
making in the conduct of the enterprise from a commercial point 
of view. 

On the top floor or floors, which will probably be about tho 
twelfth floor from the street, will be located the consolidated 
libraries and the reference and reading rooms. 

It is an interesting fact that when the three societies met to- 
gether by appointed meetings to consider the library problem in 
an engineering building of this character, it was at once the sense 
of these representatives of the three societies in their conferences, 
that there was before them the opportunity of a lifetime to create 
a great engineering library, with the strength and interest and the 
knowledge and personnel of the three societies behind it. The 
representatives of the New York Public Library, which will be 
located in a building just across the street, were called in at this 
conference, and their advice asked on the possibilities of a scheme 
of federation, whereby the New York Public Library and the 
Engineering Library could be mutually serviceable. 

By locating the reading-room on the top floor it will not only be 
more quiet, but it will be in the better air, above the fly-line, and 
it will obtain light from the roof. 

The Committee feel emphatically that this should be a work- 
ing library, in which workers and students should be able to have 
access to the shelves and the books themselves. 

To secure this greater development of the library idea will make 
a demand upon the societies themselves, but it is the belief of the 
Committee that the societies will be glad to enlist increasing 
energy and effort in return for what the library development will 
bring. 



APPENDIX, 441 

If the plans of the Committee are realized the library of this 
building will be The Engineering Library of the* Atlantic Sea- 
board. 

In carrying out the plans of the competition, the Committee 
have secured Professor William R. Ware as Professional Adviser 
on architectural questions. He is perhaps of all American archi- 
tects one who has had the widest experience in judging competi- 
tions of the character which the Committee has had in mind. 

With the advice of Professor Ware, and what could be gotten 
from other sources, the printed Programme of Competition in 
pamphlet form was issued on the 5 th of May. 

In view of advice given us from many sources it seemed plain 
that six weeks was a long enough time to allow architects for the 
consideration of their preliminary plans. In this view, counting 
forward from the 5th of May, the competition was announced 
closed on June 20th. 

The competition is of the character which is known techni- 
cally among architects as " a mixed competition," in that sLk 
firms have been invited to compete, and will be compensated, 
whether successful or not by a fee of $1,000. Besides this the 
competition is open to any architect in good professional standing, 
who has been in practice under his own name for over two years, 
to send in competitive drawings, and he will receive consideration 
exactly the same as the salaried or invited firms. All are com- 
pelled to compete under an absolute incognito. Four prizes of 
$400 each will be the award to the four most successful plans 
in the " open class." 

Of course, the competition means nothing for the present but 
the selection of the architect, who will prepare the plans finally 
approved by the Committee. It does not mean in any sense that 
the plan of the successful architect is to be the plan approved by 
the Committee in final form. The Committee reserves the right 
to change and modify and remake the drawings of the successful 
competitor until its own ideals shall be realized. 

It may be of interest to state that seventy-five applications have 
been received, and while we know that some of these writers do 
not intend to compete, but simply ask to recieve the competition 
because it was a cleverly prepared document, yet the Committee 
feels sure that there will be a sufficient number of competitors to 
make an interesting variety when the Committee comes to decide. 
Nothing can be done in the way of actual construction until after 
the first of July of the current year, since the site of both build- 



442 APPENDIX. 

ings is now occupied by residences, the leases on which will only 
expire on t^hat day. 

The buildings must be removed and the work of final settling 
on details of plans must follow before the actual construction 
can be begun. 

Th^ Committee has also had under consideration the problem of 
conducting the building after it should be completed and the 
construction problems have been solved. The present Conmiittee 
are the Building Committee, and their functions will end with 
the completion of the building. 

This has been met by appointing a Committee on Organization, 
through whom a charter has been secured from the State of New 
York, and signed by the Governor, May 11th, 1904. 

The general scheme of organization provides for the election of 
trustees by the three societies, who enter the undertaking as 
founders, under the deed of gift. 

The Engineers' Club will manage its building independently 
as soon as construction is completed. 

These trustees are to be elected by the Councils of the individ- 
ual societies, and will be three in number from each body, the term 
of one expiring each year. These trustees will have the respon- 
sibility of financing and managing the administrative detail of 
the building as a whole for the benefit of the founders' societies 
themselves, and the other engineering societies who will be par- 
ticipants in the privileges of the building. 

The by-laws of the body provided by the charter will have to 
be very carefully prepared with advice of counsel, to provide for 
many questions in advance which are incident to the creation of 
a trust of this character. 

The Committee proposes to proceed slowly with the considera- 
tion of these questions of organization, but hope that before the 
annual meeting they will be provided with a full and carefully 
thought-out scheme which will be reported to the Society at that 
time. 

F. K. HuTTON, Secretary, 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 443 



^o. 1030.* 

THE USE OF SUPERHEATED STEAM AND OF RE- 
HEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES OF LARGE 
SIZE, 

BY LIONEL 9. MARKS, rAMBKIDOK, MASS. 

(Associate Member of the Society.) 

1. The object of this paper is to collect and present to the 
Society the results of a number of unpublished tests made during 
the past five years on several high-speed, two-cylinder compound 
engines, all built by the same makers, and all of 'the same type. 
The engines tested differ from one another only in size, in cylinder 
proportions, and in their working conditions. The investiga- 
tions were made to determine the performance of the engines 
under different loads, both with and without jacketing and reheat- 
ing. A comparison of the results for the different tests throws 
some light upon the influence on the thermal efficiency of large 
sized four-valve compound engines of the following factors : 

(a) The use of a reheater. 

(6) The use of moderately superheated admission steam. 

(c) The load. 

(d) The size of the engine, 
(c) The .cylinder proportions. 

2. The results recorded here are for tests made on nine separate 
engines and for twenty-eight different tests. The engines are 
parts of three electric lighting plants situated in or near Boston. 

Engine A is at the L Street station. South Boston, of the 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company — a plant which at the 
time of the test was the property of the Boston Electric Light 
Company. The tests at this station were conducted by the \ATiter. 

Engines B, C, D, E & F are at the Atlantic Avenue station 
of the Edison Electric Illuminafting Co., and they v:ere tested 

* Presented at the Chicago meeting, May and June, 1904, of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, and forming part of Volume XXV. of the 
TranMrtions. 



444 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 




< 

s 



2 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHSATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 445 

under the joint supervision of an employe of the company and 
a representative of the engine builders. Messrs. C. H. Parker 
and H. Cook, both members of this Society, were in charge of 
most of the tests, but in some tests their places were taken by 
Messrs. C. R. Brown and S. G. Colt respectively. 

Engines Oy H & K are at the new plant of the Cambridge 
Electric light Company, and were tested by the writer. 

Description of the Enginea. 

3. The engines tested vary from 750 to 2,500 rated horse 
power, and were all built by Mcintosh, Seymour & Co., of 
Auburn, N. Y. They are all vertical, high-speed, two-cylinder, 
cross-compound, direct-connected units with overhanging cranks. 
Each cylinder is supported on a heavy, hollow, cast-iron frame 
at the back and on two inclined steel standards in front. Each 
II. P. cylinders is jacketed on the barrel, and both heads and the 
jackets are piped in series ; the steam enters the jacket on the top 
head, passes into the barrel jacket, goes to the jacket on the lower 
head and then to the reheater coils. In this way a very active 
circulation in the jackets is ensured. As there is no separate 
steam supply to the reheater coils, nor any separate drain from 
the H. P. jackets, it is not possible to use either jackets or 
reheater alone. The receiver is a large cylindrical drum at the 
back of the engine and close to the cylinders. The reheater 
consists of one or more coils of pipe in the receiver. The L. P. 
cylinder is unjacketed. 

4. The valves are of the flat, gridiron type, unbalanced and 
of short stroke. The steam valves on both H. P. and L. P. 
cylinders consist of a main valve cutting off at about .8 stroke, 
and a Kider cut-off valve, the movement of which can be varied 
so as to give any desired cut-off. The main steam valves and the 
exhaust valves on each cylinder are driven from an eccentric on 
the main shaft through a system of links and levers. The cut-off 
valves are driven by auxiliary eccentrics which are controlled by 
a fly-wheel governor. The action of the valves is rapid; the 
openings for admission and exhaust of steam are large. 

The fly-wheel governors are designed to control the speed 
within two per cent, variation between zero load and full load. 
At the Cambridge electric light station the position of the gov- 
ernor weights can be regulated when the engine is running by 



446 SnPEBHEATED BIEAH AND BEHEAIEB8 IK COUfOUND ENQINES. 







e-W 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND EEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 447 

means of a small electric motor fastened to the fly wheel and 
controlled from the switch-board. This device is valuable fot 
synchronising in parallel running. 

The Arrcmgementa for Testhig. 

6. All the engines, with one exception to be noted later, are 
fitted with jet condensei:s so that their steam consimiptions had 




Pig. 117a.— Sectional Plan of 60" x 56" L. P. CYLmDBB Showing Adhisbion 
AND Exhaust Valves. 



to be determined by measuring the boiler feed. This neces- 
sitated the adoption of adequate precautions to prevent leakage 
from the feed mains, from the boilers and from the steam pipes. 



448 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

The steam was obtained in every case from Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers, fed from a pump which handled only the water going 
to the test boilers. These boilers supplied steam only to the 
engine under test; they were examined for general tightness; 



t 



!<■ 



{<■ 



Fig. 117b.— SroB Elevation op 60" x 56" U P. 
Cylinder Showing Valve Gear. 




were shut off from the Holly return systems and had their 
blow-offs blanked. The steam on its way to the engine 
under test went first to a section of the main steam header, 
which was isolated by gate valves from the rest of the header. 
These gate valves were tested for tightness with full steam press- 
ure on one side and atmospheric pressure on the other, and were 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 449 

found practically tight in all cases. In order, however, to pre- 
vent even slight leakage the steam pressures were kept the same 
on both sides of the valves during the tests. In most of the 
tests the steam supply to the engines was superheated so that the 
steam pipe drips could be closed; in the cases where wet steam 
was supplied the condensation in the pipes was returned by 
gravity to the test boilers. 

6. The total leakage from the boilers and steam pipes was 
determined by leakage tests after nearly every run. To make 
the leakage test, the fires were allowed to bum down at the end 
of the run and were kept in such condition as just to be able to 
maintain the steam at the test pressure when the supply to the 
engine was shut off completely. The observation of the rate of 
lowering of the water level in the boilers under these conditions 
gave the necessary information for determining the rate of leak- 
age loss from the boilers and steam pipe. 

7. The feed heaters were all tested and found to be tight. 
The reheater coils were also found to be tight except in one 
engine and in that case the only run made was without the 
reheater in use. 

8. The weight of steam condensed in the jackets and reheater, 
when these were in use, was determined by collecting the con- 
densed steam in a vessel of known capacity provided with a 
gauge glass. The drainage from the receiver was determined in 
a similar way. The arrangement of jackets and reheater pre- 
vented the separate determination of the amounts of condensa- 
tion occurring in each. 

9. The diameters of all the cylinders were gauged when hot. 
The clearances were not measured directly; the values used for 
the calculations were given by the engine builders and were 
determined by them from the working drawings. 

10. The weighing scales were examined by the local sealer of 
weights, and their accuracy in the writer's tests was ensured by 
further proving with special test weights. All gauges, ther- 
mometers and indicators were calibrated. The indicators used 
in the tests of engine A were calibrated under steam pressure by 
comparison with a mercury column at the Crosby Steam Gage 
Company's works, and later were tested at the Engineering Lab- 
oratory of Harvard University under steam pressure by compar- 
ison with known rotating weights. The results of these two cal- 
ibrations are given below. 



450 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IX COMPOUND ENGINES. 




O 

i 






o 





£ 



O 



o 






SUPERHEATED BTEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 451 





Number of 
Instrument. 


Nominal 
Scale of Spring. 


t . 

Actual Scale of SrniNo. 


Makxr'8 Naxb. 


By Mercnry 
Column. 


ByRotatlng 
WelghU. 


Tabor 


788 
1926 
4908 
4909 


100 

100 

20 

20 


98.9 
99.7 
19.48 
19.6 


98.8 


Tabor 


99.4 


Crosby 


19.4 


Crosby 


19.57 







11. The load on the engine was entirely electrical, and con- 
sisted of part of the station load supplemented when necessary 
by an adjustable water rheostat load. There was no difficulty 
in any of the tests in keeping the total load constant. 



Tests of Engine A. 

12. In June, 1899, the writer, assisted by students in engi- 
neering of Harvard University, made the acceptance test of the 
engines then installed at the L Street station of the Boston 
Electric Light Company. A description of the plant may be 
found in the " Electrical Worid and Engineer," for May 27, 1899. 
Of the three similar units then installed, engine A (number 1 of 
the plant) was selected for test because it had been running 
Icmger than the others. 

13. This engine is rated to develop 2,400 indicated horse- 
power at .23 cut-off, 4,128 indicated horse-power at .6 cut-off 
and has a maximum cut-off at .8 stroke. Its piston speed is 960 
feet per minute; its cylinder dimensions 28 inches and 58 inches 
by 48 inches. It is direct connected to a 1,500 kilowatt, three- 
phase General Eleetric generator delivering current at 2,250 volts. 
The fly wheel is 16 feet diameter and weighs 100,000 pounds. 
The main shaft is 26 inches diameter; the bearings 21 inches 
by 42 inches. The steam pipe is 10 inches, the exhaust 24 inches 
diameter. The ratio of low pressure to high pressure piston dis- 
placements is 4.3 to 1. The reheater coil has 777 square feet of 
heating surface, but the steam supply to it was too small. 

14. The engine was apparently in fii*st class condition; the 
valves and pistons were tight when at rest. The steam was ob- 
tained from two 650 H. P. boilers, which supplied saturated steam 
to the engine. The amount of feed water was determined by 
direct weighing. 

15. Two full load tests were made: one with the jackets and 



452 SUPERHEATED STEAK AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

reheater in use, the other with both out of use. The principal 
results of the test are given in Table I. The combined indi- 

TABLE I. 
Qenrral Results of Tests on Engine A. 



1 

2 

8 

4 
6 
8 
•7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
IS 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
28 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
81 
St 
33 
34 
85 
36 
37 
38 
89 
40 



Namber of teit 

Nominal load 

Wilborwitboot jackets and reheateni 

Darationof test, nonra 

H. P. cylinder diameter, Inches 

L.P. " ** " 

Pinton rod diameter, inches 

Clearance H. P. cylinder, per cent 

L.P. ** " 

Ratio L. P. to H. P. displacement 

Revolutions per minote 

Gauge pressure at throttle 

steam qaulity at throttle, per cent 

Initial steam pressure in H. P. cylinder^ by cards 

Steam pressure in receiver, ganee 

Snperlieat of steam entering I^. P. cylinder, Fahr 

Effective vacuum in L. P. cylinder, by cards, inches 

Vacuum in exhaust pipe, Inchei* 

Temperatore of exhaust steam, Fahr 

Commercial cut-off H. P. cylinder, hexd end 

** ** '* •* crank end 

" " L.P. " headend 

** ** ** " crank end 

I. H. P., H. P. cylinder 

" L.P. " 

TotalLH.P 

Percentage power developed by H. F. cylinder 

Total dry steam per I. H. P. per hour, pounds 

Wet steam in jackets and reheater per l. H. P. per hour 

Percentage of total steam used in j ickets and reheater 

Percentage of cylinder steam drained from receiver 

Quality at cut-off, H. P. cylinder 

Quality at release, H. P. cylinder 

Quality at cut off, L. P. cylinder 

QualitV at release, L. P. cylinder 

B. T. U. per I.H.P j)er minute, mensnred above ideal feed temperature. 

Thermodynamic efficiency, per cent 

B. T. U. per I. H. P. per minute, for Rankine ideal cycle 

Thermodynamic efflcienoy compared with ideal cycle, per cent 

Percentage saving by jacketing and reheating 



1 

Full 

With 

10 

28.14 
58.12 
5.5 
8.6 
6.85 
4.8 
118.46 
159 
99.46 
156 
21 

85.5 
24.06 
25.0 
127 
.20 
.80 
.29 
.81 
859 
1,136 
1,994 
48 

18.59 
.92 
6.8 
1.6 
82 
86 
92.5 
95.5 
24^ 
17.8 
160 
65.4 
1.8 



2 

Pull 

Without 

6 

28.14 
68.12 
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20 


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80 
87 
98 
248 
17.1 
161 



cator cards for the two tests are given in Figs. 119 and 120. A com- 
parison of the two tests shows the conditions to have been very 
similar during the two runs with some advantage in the matter 
of vacuum for the first test. The reheater was not very effective 
owing to the deficient steam supply — it superheated the receiver 
steam 35 degrees Fahr. 

16. The economic results as indicated by the steam consump- 
tions in line 28 show practically no saving at all by the use of 
the high pressure jackets and the reheater. The steam con- 
sumption, however, is not a fair quantity by which to judge the 
performance of the engine, since in Test 1 about 7 per cent, of 
the total steam is rejected as condensation at about the boiler 
temperature, whereas in Test 2 all is rejected at the condenser 



8UFERHXATSD STEAM AND REH£ATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 453 

temperatiire. Since, in these tests, engine performances alone 
are being studied, and the efficiencies of the feed heaters are not 
considered at all, the performance of the engine is best measured 
by the amount of heat that must be given to the feed water per 
I. H. P. per minute, the feed being supplied at what may be 
known as the ideal feed temperature. The ideal feed temper- 







(\ 


























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Engine A. - Test U 
Full Load, with Jackets and 
Reheater. 
1994-I.U.P. 










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Am.3mnk JUI4 Co.,.\. T. 

Fig. 119. 



ature is obtained by mixing the condensations in the reheater 
and receiver, each at its own proper temperature, with the con- 
densation water in the condenser supposed to be at the exhaust 
pipe temperature. The heat units per I. H. P., measured above 
the ideal feed temperature, necessary to form steam such as 
exists at the throttle, is an accurate measure of the performance 
of the engine, and it is this quantity which is given in line 36, 
and from which the calculation in line 40 of the saving by jacket- 



454: SUPERHEATED STEAM AND EEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

ing and reheating has been made. An examination of the com- 
bined cards in Figs. 119 and 120, or lines 32 and 33 of Table 1, 
show that the H. P. jackets have been moderately effective, raising 
the quality of the steam in the H. P. cylinder 6 per cent, 
throughout the expansion. The small total gain by both jackets 
and reheater indicate then that the reheater is of small value. 



150 



Engine A* - Test 2* 

Full Load, without Jackets and 

Reheater. 

1983.7-I.II.P. 




120 140 IGO 



Fig. 120. 



or may even be a source of loss when it superheats only 35 
degrees. 

Teats of Engine B. 

17. The engines B, C, 2), E and F are all part of the Atlantic 
Avenue plant of the Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the 
station numbers of these engines being 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 respec- 
tively. This plant has been described in the " Electrical World 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND EEHEATEBS IN OOICPOUND ENGINES. 455 

and Engineer," of May 18, 1901, and also in the paper by Messrs. 
Moultrop & Curtis, published in Volume XXIII. of the Trans- 
actions of this Society. The engines 0, D, E and F are aU of 
the same size and are rated at about 2,400 indicated horse power. 
Engine B develops only about one-half the power of the other 
engines; it is also the only one of these engines fitted with a 
surface condenser. 

18. Owing to the comparatively short duration of test neces- 
sary when the steam consumption of an engine is measured by 
weighing the discharge from a surface condenser, it was practic- 
able to carry out a much more complete series of tests with 
this engine than with any of the others. The engine B is much 
more distant from the boilers than the other engines tested, and 
in consequence the superheat at the throttle is very low, and drop 
of pressure in the steam pipe is considerable. 

19. The engine is intended to run at 100 revolutions per 
minute and to develop 1,200 indicated horse-power at .22 cut-off 
with 160 pounds steam pressure and 26 inches vacuum. At .6 
cut-off it develops 2,200 indicated horse-power. The cylinder 
dimensions are 23 inches and 48 inches by 48 inches, and the en- 
gine drives an 800 kilowatt General Electric direct-current gener- 
ator. The reheater consiats of coils of brass pipe aggregating 440 
square feet total heating surface. The high pressure clearance 
is 2 per cent.; the low pressure is given as 3 per cent. The 
diameter of the fly wheel is 15 feet and its weight 65,000 pounds. 
The main bearings are 17 inches diameter, 35 inches long; the 
diameter of the shaft between the bearings 20 inches. The 
diameters of the steam and exhaust pipes are 9 inches and 20 
inches respectively. 

20. Ten separate tests were made on this engine in order to 
determine its economy at different loads, both with and without 
the jackets ajid reheater in use. Of these tests, five (viz.: tests 
3, 4, 6, 8 and 10) were with the jackets in use, and were with 
loads increasing from one-quarter load to an overload of one- 
quarter. Four tests (viz.: tests 5, 7, 9 and 11) were without the 
use of jackets and reheater and were with loads varying from 
one-half to an overload of one-quarter. Another test (number 
12) was made at full load with jackets and reheater in use and 
with a greater boiler pressure than in the previous runs so as to 
test the engine more nearly under its rated conditions. 

21. The principal results of these ten tests are given in Table 



456 SUPEBHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEB8 IN OOMPOUND ENGINES. 



M 
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78.0 
860 
89.0 

267 

265 

257 

61.6 





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0.906 
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250 


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SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES, 457 



II. The combined indicator cards are shown in Figs. 6 to 15. 
On examining the conditions under which these tests were made 
it will be seen that the superheat was slight in all cases, but was 

§ S 8 B 8 S 



8l 



























































































































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Engine K - Test 3. 

One-quarter Load with Jackets 

and Reheater 

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greater during the series of tests without jackets and reheater. 
The vacuum was not constant, but fell at the higher loads; it 
averaged higher than in the tests of any of the other engines. 
In order to eliminate the eflFect of variation in the vacuum on 



458 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IK COMPOUND ENGINES. 

the economy of the engine a correction has been applied reduc- 
ing all the results to an eflFective vacuum of 26 inches. This 
correction is obtained by adding to the mean effective pressure 



§ 8 S ^ 8 S 





















































































































Engine B. - Test 4. 
Half-Load with Jackets and 
Relieater. 
552-I.H.P. 




























































































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of the low pressure cylinder the difference between the absolute 
pressure corresponding to 26 inches vacuum and that correspond- 
ing to the actual effective vacuum shown by the cards and 
recorded in line 11. The corrected results are given in line 29, 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATER8 IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 459 

and for the purpose of comparison of results the figures in this * 
line are the most satisfactory to use, since they not only eliminate 
the efficiency of the feed water heaters but also reduce all results 
to a common vacuum. 

















































































Engine B. - Test 5. 
Half-Load without Jackets 
and Reheater. 
548-I.H.P. 














































































































































































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22. The corrected heat consumptions per indicated horde- 
power per minute, and the method of variation with the engine 
load, are shoA\Ti graphically in Fig. 131; the same figure shows also 
the i>ercentage of the total steam used in the jackets and re- 



460 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND BBHBATEKS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



'heater. The most strikiDg feature of the curves is the small 
variation of the efficiency of the engine when jackets and reheater 
are used throughout the range of load from one-half load to one- 
quarter overload. Within this range the total variation of econ- 



§ 



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Ensinc B. - Test 6. 
Three-quarters Load with Jackets 
and Reheater. 
845-I.H.P. 








































































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omy did not exceed 2 per cent., and the economy was greatest at 
about the rated load. It should also be noted that the percentage 
of the total steam used in the jacket and reheaters is lowest when 
the efficiency is greatest. 



SUPERHSATED 8TEAH AND REHEATEBS IN COHPOUND ENGINES. 461 



- 23. Without the jackets and reheater in use the economy in- 
creases with increase of load, and in such way as to indicate that 
there would be but little advantage in the use of jackets and 
reheater when the engine is much overloaded. With light loads 



8 ! 


S S 1 


S 8 














































































































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Engine B. - Test 7. 

Three-quarters Load- without 

Jackets and Reheater. 

831-I.H.P. 
















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up to full load the saving by jackets and reheater ranges from 9 
to 4 per cent, and is obtained by using from 10 to 7 per cent, of 
the total steam in the jackets and reheater. The increase in econ- 
omy with the load and the reheater in use would have been 



462 SUPERHEATED STEAM AKD REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

greater had the reheater been of greater capacity. As is seen in 
line 10, the superheat of the steam entering the low pressure cyl- 
inder decreased from 100 degrees to 46 degrees as the amount of 



8 8 





















































































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Engine B. • Test 8. 

Full Load with Jackets and 

Reheater. 

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steam used increased. This is probably the reason for the close 
approach of the two heat consumption curves in Fig. 130. An 
examination of the indicator cards, Figs. 120 to 129, and of the 
steam qualities tabulated in lines 23 to 26 of Table 11., shows 
that the qualities during expansion in the high pressure cylinder 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 463 

are but slightly affected by the steam jackets. On the other 
hand, the qualities during expansion in the low pressure cylinder 
show very clearly the beneficial results of reheating, especially 




S 3 § S S § 



^ 8 s 






I 



in the low load tests where the superheat in the receiver was 
greatest. The rise of the end of the expansion line of the high pres- 
sure cards at light loads, Figs. 121, 122 and 123 results from the 
return of steam from the receiver to the high pressure cylinder 



464 SUPERHEATED 8TEAH AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

due to the lifting of the exhaust valve from its seat when the 
pressure in the cylinder becomes less than that in the receiver. 

Tests of Engines C, D, Band F. 

24. The engines C, 2?, E and F are all located in the new 
engine room of the Atlantic Avenue station of the Edison 





























































V 












































Engine B. • Ted tO. 

Ono and one-qnarter Load "with 

Jackets and Reheater. 

1498-I.H.P. 


































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Electric Illuminating Company, and are almost identicaDy sim- 
ilar units, each rated at about 2,400 indicated horse-power and 



SU7EBHEATED STEAK AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 465 

direct connected to a 1,600 kilowatt direct current General 
Electric generator. The cylinders are all 29 inches and 60 inches 
by 56 inches; the fly wheels 18 feet diameter and 130,000 pounds 



2 8 8 g 























































































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1 














One and one-qaarter Load without 

Jackets and Beheater. 

1516-I.H.P. 








































































































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in weight; the main bearings 24 inches diameter and 48 inches 
long; the shafts between the bearings 27 inches diameter; the 
steam and exhaust pipes 10 inches and 24 inches diameter respec- 
tively. The high pressure clearances are 2.75 per cent.; the 
low pressure clearances 4 per cent 



466 8UP£RH£AT£D STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

25. Engines C and D have each 740 square feet of reheating 
surface in the receiver; the other two engines have each 800 
square feet. The only other diflFerences between these four 

100 
90 > 

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Engine B. - Test 12. 

Fall-Load with Jackets and 

Iteheater. 

U04-I.H.P. 






IIU 














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60 

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Volumes- 



40 



60 



80 



100 



190 140 



Fig. 130. 



engines are minor diflFerences in the valve gearing. Engines 
C and D were tested in 1901; engines E and F in the following 
year. All these four engines exhaust into a central condensing 
plant consisting of jet condensers and Blake twin vertical air 
pumps. 



St7PERHEAT£D STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 467 

The measurement of the feed-water was accomplished by 
the use of 2-inch Worthington hot water meters, one at each 
boiler employed during the list. These meters were calibrated 
by sending known weights of water through them at each of 



'^ So OD »• O 





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three different speeds. The middle speed in each case was ap- 
proximately the average speed of working of the meters during 
the test. The meters showed errors which were practically con- 
stant throughout the range of speeds employed, so that their 
readings could be used with complete confidence. Boiler leak- 
age tests were made as usual after each run. 
31 



468 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND UEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 




5 

'A 

S5 



•J 



s 

go 
2 o 

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2 
o 

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SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 46^ 

26. The following tests were made on these engines : 

Engine C was tested at full, three-quarters and half loads \vith 

jackets and reheater in use, and at full load without steam in the 

jackets and reheater. 

Engine D was tested at half load and at full load, both w^th 

and without steam in the jacket and receiver, but as a drip 




Fig. 133.— Engine C. 



connection, which should have been closed^ was found to be 
partly opened after the two half-load tests, the results of these 
tests are not given here, and the table of results contains only 
those obtained at full load. 

Engine E was tested at full and at half load with jackets 
and reheater in use. 

Engine F was tested only at full load, with steam in the 
jackets and reheater. 



470 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

27. The principal results of these nine tests are collected in 
Table III. The combined indicator cards for the same tests are 
shown in Figs. 134 to 142. 

28. The tests on engine C show the efficiency of the engine to 
change very slightly with change of load, — ^the better economy 
at half load being principally due to the better vacuum, though 
this is offset in part by the lower superheat of the admission 
steam. 

The saving by jacketing and reheating at full load is only 
3 per cent. The jacketing is shown by the steam qualities in 
the high pressure cylinder to be of no value with 80 degrees 
admission superheat, and the reheater is of but small value when 
it superheats only 60 degrees. 

29. The economic results of engine D are better than on 
engine as a result of higher superheat of the admission steam 
and a better vacuum. The effect of the higher superheat is most 
plainly shown by the very high steam qualities during expansion 
in the high pressure cylinder. The saving in this engine by the 
use of jackets and reheater is 4.5 per cent. — a little greater than 
in engine C. The full load tests on engines E and F gives 
results agreeing very closely with those obtained on engine D — 
the running conditions were very similar in all three cas^s. 
The half load test on engine E gives the same economic result as 
the full load test on the same engine. 

Tests of Engines O^ S and K. 

30. These engines are part of the new plant of the Cambridge 
Electric Light Company, and correspond to station numbers 1, 2 
and 3 respectively. A description of the plant is to be found in 
the " Engineering Record " for November 1, 1902. 

31. Engines G and H are exactly similar units, 18 inches and 
38 inches by 42 inches, developing 760 indicated horse-power at 
.24 cut-off with 135 pounds initial steam pressure and 26 inches 
effective vacuum, and direct connected to 600 kilowatt, 60-cycle 
alternating generators built by the General Electric Company. 
Engine K has cylinder dimensions 31 inches and 64 inches by 48 
inches, develops 2,320 indicated horse-power at .24 cut-off with 
135 pounds initial steam pressure and 26 inches effective 
vacuum and is direct connected to a 1,500 kilowatt General Elec- 
tric generator. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 471 



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472 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

32. A slight leak was found in the reheater coils of engine JJ, 
so that this engine was run only without steam in the reheater. 
Engine K had been used but very little, and had not worn down 

















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190 










































Engine C - Test \Z. 

Pull Load with Jackets and 

Reheater 

2267-I.H.P. 








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to such good condition as the other two engines. Its governor wae 
found to stick at very light loads, and the consequent hunting 
made it impracticable to obtain satisfactory friction cards from 
the engine when running without load. In all other respects 



SUPEBHEATED 8TEAH AKD REHEATEB8 IN COKPOUKD ENGINES. 473 

the conditions were favorable for satisfactory tests of all three 
engines. 

33. During the tests the whole of the steam generated in the 

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Engine C - Test 14. 

Full Load without Jackets 

and Reheater. 

2239.8-I.H.P. 






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Fio. 185. 



100 



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plant was used for the engine under test and its auxiliaries. 
The main engine was supplied from one or more main boilers; 
the auxiliaries from an auxiliary boiler. The feed to the main 
boilers was determined by direct weighing. The engine under 



I 



474 SUPEEHEAT^ STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

test carried the total station load, and to this was added the 
power absorbed by a water rheostat, continuously adjusted so as 
to keep the sum of the loads constant. The tests were made in 































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Engine C - Test 15. 

Three-quarters Load with Jackets 

and Eeheater. 

1831-I.H.P. 






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Pig. 136. 



100 



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140 



April and May, 1903, and were conducted by the writer, assisted 
by students in engineering of Harvard University. On engine 
G two full load tests were made, one with, the other without 
steam admission to the jackets and reheater. Only one test 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AKD REHEATEBS IN GOMPOUKD ENGINES. 475 

was made on engine H; a test mth about 20 per cent, overload 
and without steam in the jackets and reheater. Engine K was 
tested at full, half and quarter loads with the jackets and re- 
heater in use, and at half load without them. 















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"0 20 40 60 80 100 120 146 




ATol 11 TTl Af 




Fro. 137. 


MvU^XJI, 







34. The principal results of the tests on engines G, B. and K 
are collected in Table IV. The combined indicator cards for 
the seven tests are given in Figs. 143 to 149. 



476 SUPERHEATED 8TEAH AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 






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SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 477 

35. The engines O and H are the smallest of the whole series 
tested. The results of the two full load tests of agree very 
closely with the results of the tests 9 and 8 of engine B under 

lu) 
90 
80 










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Engine D* - Test M. 

Full Load with Jackets and 

Reheater. 

2201.6-I.H.P. 


















ISO - 












110 ■ - 






























100 - - 






























00 -- 






























80 - - 






























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Fie. 188. 



full load, although this latter engine is 50 per cent, larger than 
6. The reheaters gave practically the .same superheat in both 
cases; the steam pressures in the high pressure cylinders were 
practically the same, so that the disadvantage of smaller size and 
poorer vacuum in engine Q is just about offset by the greater 



478 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATER8 IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



superheat of its admission steam. The gain by the use of jackets 
and reheater was about 7 per cent, in both cases. It will be 
seen by an examination of the steam qualities in the high pres&- 







s. 




























IW 




f\ 


V. 




Stea 


m ^ 


uali 


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Ensine D«-Test )8. 

Full Xx)ad without Jackets and 

Eeheater. 

2215.1-I.H.P. 








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ure cylinder that the jacket is effective in this comparatively 
small cylinder even with moderate superheat at the throttle. 
The performance of engine H at 20 per cent, overload is con- 
siderably better than that of engine B under approximately sim- 
ilar conditions. That the superheat of the admission steam is 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 479 



probably responsible for this is suggested by the higher quality 
of steam in the high pressure cylinder. This particular 
engine, JET, was known to be in better condition than G, its 



CO 
100 
150 



Steam (Qualities 



100 
00 
80 



Engine E. - Test 19. 
Full Load with Jackets and 
Reheater. 
}.1-I.H.P. 




120 140 



Fig. 140. 



pistons were tighter and it had run with unusual smoothness 
from the beginning. The distinctly better performance of this 
engine, as compared with the similar engine 0, is to be accounted 
for only by the superior condition of the engine. 

36. The tests on K again emphasize the fact brought out on 



480 SUFEBHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



tests of C and E that the efficiency throughout the ordinary 
range of loads is practically constant in these engines, though it 
naturally falls off when the load is reduced to one-quarter. The 



170 

leo 

150 
140 
180 
ISO 

no 

100 
00 
80 
70 
GO 



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80 
<7n 


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Engine E.. Test 2a 

Half-Load with Jackets and 

Beheater. 

1258.9-I.n.P. 




















1 










































1 






























] 






























I 






























\\ 






























\ 






























\ I.H.P. 


\ 




























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626 


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' 




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20 

Volumes- 



40 



80 



Fig. 141. 



100 



120 140 



advantage of jacketing and reheating is again found to be about 
7 per cent 

Temperature-Entropy Diagraans. 

37. Temperature-entropy diagrams for the tests on engines 
0^ H and K are given in Figs. 150 to 155. There is one omission, 



SUFEBSEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 481 

that of test 27. The combined indicator card, Fig. 148, for this 
test shows that considerable steam returns from the receiver to 
the high pressure cylinder after release^ and the assumption of 

100 











SI 


earn 


Qu 


iliti. 


iS 
















































170 

lao 

tRA 
































"X 






























\ 






























140 

lao 

190 

no 

100 
90 
































































\ 






Engine F« - Test 2\. 

FuU Load with Jackets and 

Eeheater. 

2171.1-I.H.P. 
































\ 






























\ 




























80 




V 


1 


























00 




\ 


\ 


























1 




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2 

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SS. 


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20 

Vohinics- 



40 



00 



KO 



100 



ISO 140^ 



Fig. 142. 



constant weight of acting substance, necessary for the construc- 
tion of the temperature-entropy diagram, would give superheated 
steam in the exhaust from the high pressure cylinder. It is 
then impossible to draw a temperature-entropy diagram without 
^ossly distorting the facts. 



482 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



38. In each of the Figs. 150 to 155 the high pressure and low 
pressure cards have a common pair of reference curves. As 
drawn they are valuable mainly in indicating when the heat 
losses occur. They assume that the total steam acting in each 

150 
140 
180 
190 
110 
100 

90 

80 

1" 

m « 
2 
g SO 

£40 

-2 80 



so 



JO 

























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r\ 






























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i 






Engine G* - Test 22. 

Full Load Test, without 

Beheater. 

714.7-I.H.P. 
































\ 






























V 






























\ 


\ 




























^ 


l\ 






























V 


^ 




























\ 


\ 
























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Markt, LA 



8 16 

Volumes, Cu.Ft.- 



24 



82 



40 



48 60 



Fro. 143. 



cylinder (the sum of the steam admitted and of the clearance 
steam) weighs just one pound. The relative amounts of work done 
in the two cylinders will consequently be shown correctly in such 
a temperature-entropy diagram only in the case when the actual 
total weights of steam acting during expansion are the same in 
both cylinders. 

39. In the engines under consideration the weights of steam 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IK COMPOUND ENGINES. 483 

acting in the two cylinders were different in every case; (a) 
because the weights of clearance steam remaining over in the 
two cylinders is different in every case, and (6) because in many 
of the tests part of the steam admitted to the high pressure 



150 
140 

lao 

leo 

110 
100 
90 
80 
70 
00 
50 



® 80 
< 10 





























^ 








y 


Ste 


am 


Qua 


litic 


s 


















\/ 


/ 


















— 








\ 






























































































Engine G. - Test 23. 

Full Load Test, with Keheater. 

715.5-l.H.R 








1 












\ 












\\ 






























\i 






























\ 


\ 






























\\ 






























\ 


\ 
























s 


7.11. 
48.6 


H.P. 

% 


y 
























v_ 




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_^ 




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51 


I.H.I 

4)r 










^ 









































r 


:> 



























oof 
sojT 



"0 8 10 

Volumes, Cu.Ft. 



24 



32 



40 



48 56 



Fia. 144. 



cylinder does not go to the low pressure cylinder, but is drained 
from the receiver. In order, then, to get a correct relation of 
the temperature-entropy diagrams of the two cylinders, each 
diagram should be drawn with respect to its own pair of refer- 
ence curves, and each pair of reference curves should preferably 
be drawn for the actual weight of steam present during expan- 
sion per revolution. 

40, Fig. 156 shows the temperature-entropy diagram for the 



484 SUPEBHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



full load test (No. 25) on engine Ky drawn to give correct quan- 
titative results for one revolution. The curves oi, cdy are the 
reference curves (i.e., the entropy curves for water and for dry 
and saturated steam) for the high pressure card; the low press- 
ure card has ef and gh for its reference curves. The position 

90^ 



160 

150 

140 

180 

120 

110 

100 

90 

80 

70 

60 



0) 

g 50 



^ 80 
^ 10 



































\ 


^ 


St 


^am 


Qui 


ilitii 


?8 










- 






^ 
































\ 




























































\ 




































Engine H. - Test 24. 

Overload without Relieater. 

857.6-I.H.P. 








\ 














\ 












W 






























V 


v 




























\ 


,\ 
























462 


.8 I.I 


.p. 


> 


\ 
























bl% 




























V — 














^ 
















\ 




391 


8I.B 


.p. 










:::::; 


irz 




— . 








V 




46^ 






















> 



96% 
80^ 



16 



24 



32 



40 



Jtfarfta,£jK 



Volumes, Cu.Ft. 



48 56 



Fig. 145. 



of any point on these cards with respect to the proper pair of 
reference curves gives the quality of the steam at that point on 
the assiimption that all the admission and clearance steam are 
present in the cylinder. The areas of the cards, when multiplied 
by the product of the scales of ordinates and abscissae, give the 
heat equivalent of the actual work done per revolution. 

41. To find the thermodynamic efiiciency of each of the cyl- 
inders and of the whole engine some additional construction is 
necessary. The diagram must show the heat added; that is, 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND EEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 485 

the heat of formation of the admission steam measured ahove 
its proper starting temperature. It is necessary, then, to ehm- 
inate the clearance steam from the diagram. To accomplish 
this, take the points k and I on the two cards corresponding to 
the beginnings of compression. At this point of the cycle experi- 



100 
iSO 
1-10 

lao 

120 
110 

aoo 

00 
J^ 80 

S 00 

u 

S. 50 

o 



10 



























^__ 


^ 








\ 


/ 






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^ 


■^ 












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V 


4 


;am 


Q. 


alit 


'eV 


^ 


















A 
































\ 


































































1 






Engine K* - Test 25. 

Full Load with Reheater 

2184-I.H.P. 






































w 
































\\ 
































\ 






























































|im 


L8T. 


lA 


v 


























r 


4S.8J 


' 




























\— 


^ 




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:^ 
































1190 


2I.B 
61.85 


.p. 




^^ 


=^ 




~-_ 
















V 




























> 



96% 
90% 

e&% 



85 50 75 

Volumes, Cu.Ft. > 



100 



1« 150 175 300 



Fia. 146. 



ment has indicated, and it is customary to assume, that the clear- 
ance steam, which alone remains in the cylinder, is dry and satu- 
rated. The point Je may be taken as a point on a new reference 
line giving the entropy of the admission substance as water at that 
temperature and the new reference curve Jco may be drawn for 
the weight of substance admitted to the high pressure cylinder per 
revolution. The dry and saturated steam reference curve np 
for the same weight of substance is constructed as usual by tak- 
ing horizontal ordinates such as op, fcn, of length equal to the 



486 SUPERHEATED STEAK AND REHEATEBS IK GOMPOUKD ENGINES. 



increase in entropy in converting the weight of water substance 
admitted per revolution from water at a certain temperature into 
dry and saturated steam at the same temperature. The point n 
of the new reference curve np will fall on the curve cd for the 
total steam acting, because the point h has its entropy equal to 

100^ 



100 
150 
140 
180 



190 
110 
100 
00 
80 
TO 
S 00 



50 



2 



40 



^90 



20 



< 



10 



^^ 



St^am 



Qualities 



Engine K. - Test 26. 
Half Load with Reheater. 
1195.9-LH.P. 




9)% 
70% 



'0 25 80 75 

Volumes, Cu.Ft. — 

Mmrk^LJB. 



Fig. 147. 



the sum of the entropy of the dry and saturated clearance steam 
plus the entropy of the admission steam as water at the same 
temperature. 

42. In a similar way a new pair of reference curves, Zj, rs, 
can be drawn for the low pressure cylinder, eliminating the clear- 
ance steam. 

The area under Bop (measured down to absolute zero of tem- 
perature) gives the heat supplied to the high pressure cylinder 
if the steam admitted is dry and saturated; as it is actuaUy 



SUFEBHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 487 

superheated, the area imder Bopt is the correct measure of the 
total heat going to the cyUnder per revolution. In finding the 
efficiency of the engine there must be added to this the h^at given 
up in the high pressure jackets and the reheater. The heat given 
up in these two places cannot be separated in these tests, so it 



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Quarter Load Test with 
Beheater. y 
71&-T.H.P. 








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Fio. 148. 



will all be assumed to be given to the high pressure cylinder. 
The steam going to the jackets and reheater gives up only its 
latent heat and superheat ; consequently, if pu is the increase of 
entropy during vaporization of the steam used in the jackets and 
reheater per revolution, and if uv is the entropy line for the super- 
heating of all the steam going to the engine per revolution, the 
area under Bouv gives the total heat going to the engine per revo- 



488 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

lution. The heat in that part of the steam going through the 
cylinders is measured above the low pressure exhaust temper- 
ature, sfid that of the steam used in the jackets is measured above 
the saturation temperature of steam at the admission pressure. 
The area under Bauv gives then the total heat supply per revolu- 
tion measured above the ideal feed temperature. The work done 
by the ideal (Rankine) engine working under the same conditions 
is represented by the area BouvD. The efficiency of the actual 
engine compared with the ideal 

__ H. P. area 4- L. P. area 
"" B ouv JJ 

The efficiency of the high pressure cylinder, considered as a 
separate engine, compared with the ideal • 

_ H. P. area 
~" X uvw' 

The efficiency of the low pressure cylinder compared with the 
ideal 

— ^' ^' ^^"^^ 
"" Aqsy C* 

43. It is to be noted that Rankine's unjacketed cycle has been 
used as the ideal although the high pressure cylinder is jacketed. 
It is also to be observed that the efficiency of the high pressure 
cylinder as defined above is less than its actual efficiency because 
of the assumption that the heat of the reheater steam goes to 
the high pressure cylinder. 

The Value of Sigh-pressure Jackets amd of IieheaiM%g. 

44. There are certain facts which the writer believes may be 
postulated with reference to the effectiveness of jacketing and 
reheating, and which are supported by the results of these tests. 

45. The saving by jacketing varies with the following factors : 
(a) It increases as the cutroff becomes earlier. 

(h) It decreases as the superheat of the entering steam in- 
creases. 

(c) It decreases with increase in size of the engine. 

46. There is no saving by reheating when the reheater does 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REIIEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 489 



no more than to dry the steam. If there is any advantage in 
using dry and saturated steam in the low pressure cylinder over 
the use of wet steam, it can be obtained by the use of a separator 
between the cylinders. In tests 2, 7, 9 and 24, when the re- 
heater was not in use^ the receiver acted as an almost perfect 




25 50 75 

Volumes, Cu.Ft. 

Mmrk»,L.iL 



150 175 aoo 



Fig, 149. 



separator, taking away all the condensatiou which calculations 
showed to have occurred in the high pressure cylinder. If the 
reheater merely vaporizes the condensed steam at the expense of 
a practically equal quantity of high pressure steam it is not only 
non-effective but is also, probably, a source of actual loss, since 
more work could have been obtained from the total steam used 
if it had all gone into the high pressure cylinder. The reheater 



490 SnP£BHEA.TED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN 0OMPOT7ND ENGINES. 

then should be regarded merely as a superheating device for the 
steam entering the low pressure cylinder, and it may be expected 
to be more effective the greater the amount of superheat it gives 
the receiver steam. It is probable that the reheater would be 
more effective if the only work were superheating, as it might be 
if the wet steam exhausting from the high pressure cylinder 
passed through a good separator before reaching the reheater. 

























































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Engine G« - Test 22* 
Full Load without Reheater. 
























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Am.Btaik JM> <W^ T. 



As the reheater wiU have less to do when the engine is running 
at low loads it may be expected to give a higher superheat at low 
loads, and consequently to be more effective. With the above 
in mind, an examination of the tests already described (the prin- 
cipal results of which are collected in Table V. for more easy 
inspection) throws some light on the conditions under which the 
jacketing of the high pressure cylinder and the practice of i*e- 
heating are desirable, and shows the saving to be expected from 
them in large size engines. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 491 






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4:92 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

47. In engine A, where saturated steam is used, the jackets, 
at full load, keep the steam about 6 per cent, dryer in the high 
pressure cylinder and the reheater superheats 35 degrees. As 
the greater part of the 6.8 per cent, of the total steam which is 
condensed in the jackets and reheater must have been condensed 
in the latter place, it is obvious that the reheater cannot have 
contributed anything to the small total saving of 1.3 per cent. 

















































820 












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Engine G* - Test 23. 
Full Load with Reheater. 








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S MO 


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A 
\ 


500 


L 










































Al 



.2 .4 

Entropy 



1.0 1.2 1.4 1.C 1.8 2.0 2.2 

Fig. 161. 



48. The conditions in engine B are much more satisfactory for 
effective action of jackets and reheater, especially at the lower 
loads. The engine is smaller, and its reheater is more effective. 
At half load, with 75 degrees superheat of the receiver steam, 
the saving was 9 per cent. ; at three-fourths load with 60 degrees 
superheat there was 7 per cent, saving; at full load with 46 degrees 
superheat there was still 7 per cent, saving, and even at one- 



SUPERHEATED STEAH AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 493 















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Engine H* - Test 24. 
Overload without Reheater. 








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Entropy ^ 



1.0 1.8 

Fig. 152. 



1.4 



1.0 



1.8 8.0 2.2 



quarter overload with 26 degrees superheat there was 4 per cent, 
saving. 

49. The larger engines C and D with 80 degrees and 98 
degrees initial superheat and 60 degrees superheat by the re- 
heater show but 3 per cent, and 4.5 per cent, saving respectively. 

60. The engine is only one-third the power of engines C and 
P, consequently the jackets are much more effective (raising 
the steam quality 10 per cent, in the high pressure cylinder), so 
that with 49 degrees superheat going to the low pressure cyl- 
inder the saving is 7.5 per cent. 

51. The tests on engine K at half load, with 59 degrees super- 
heat by the reheater, show 7.2 per cent, saving. The engines 
C, D and K have sufficient initial superheat and are of such 
size as to make the high pressure jackets of but little value, so 
that the savings shown are due principally to the action of the 
reheater. 



494 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

52. A study of the above results appears to indicate that the 
reheater will not justify its use (except as a separator) unless it 
superheats the low pressure admission steam at least 30 degrees. 
An examination of the qualities at release in the low pressure 
cylinders indicates that 100 degrees superheat of the receiver 
steam will probably be enough to make the steam dry and satur- 



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Engine K. - Test 25. 
Full Load with Keheater. 








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2.2 

!r.r. 



ated at release. As it is not desirable to have superheated 
steam at release this suggests the probable desirable limit to 
the amount of superheat to be given by the reheater. 

The Value of Moderate Superheating, 

53. The engines (7, 2?, jF, Fy 0, 11 and K were all supplied 
with steam from Babcock and Wilcox boilers, fitted with super- 
heaters giving from 100 degrees to 125 degrees superheat at the 
boiler when running at the rated power. The amount of super- 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AKD REHEATEBS IK COMPOUND ENGINES. 495 

heat at the engine depends on the load at which the engine is 
nmning; (a) because the superheat at the boiler decreases as its 
load is decreased, and (b) because the fall of temperature in the 
steam pipe increases as the weight of steam passing through it 
diminishes. For these two reasons the superheat was less at low 
loads than at higher loads except in some cases where the number 



V 












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Engine K. - Test 26. 
Half Load with Reheater. 










\^ 




< 

soo 


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V 


1/ 










































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Entropy 



.8 1.0 1.2 

Fig. 154. 



1.4 l.G 1.8 2.0 2.2 



of boilers used could be decreased as the load decreased. As the 
superheat going to the low pressure cylinder when the reheaters 
M'ere in use varied in the opposite way; that is, increased with 
decrease of load, these two variations tended to offset one 
another in their influence on the engine efficiency. The tests 
without the reheaters in use will then be the most valuable for 
showing the influence of the superheat of the high pressure 
steam. The tests at full load show that engine A uses 248 
British thermal units per indicated horse-power per minute with 



496 SUPBEHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



no superheat; engine C of about the same size with 78 degrees 
superheat uses 239 British thermal imits, and engine D with 
98 degrees superheat uses 226 British thermal units, a saving of 
about 9 per cent. ; some of which, however, is also due to a better 
vacuum and better cylinder proportions. Engine B, a smaller 
engine, uses 267 British thermal units with 15 degrees super- 

















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Engine K. - .Test 28. . 
Half Load without Reheater. 










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Fio. 155. 



heat — which is practically the same result as that obtained from 
G, a still smaller engine, with a poorer vacuxmi but with 72 
degrees superheat. In the test of D with 98 degrees superheat 
the quality of the steam at release is 87 per cent., so that it is 
evident that when the jackets are not used a much' greater super- 
heat is desirable in order to prevent condensation in the high 
pressure cylinder — ^probably at least 150 degrees mil be neces- 
sary. An even greater superheat will be necessary to keep the 
steam dry in both cylinders. With the jackets in use and with 



SUFEBHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 497 

98 degrees superheat the quality in the high pressure cylinder at 
cut-oflF is 99 per cent., and at release is 94 per cent. The ad- 
vantage gained by superheating is, of course, greater in the 
smaller engines. 

The Variaiion of Economy with Engvns Load. 

54. The engines 5, C, E and K were all tested at several loads 
so as to determine the effect of variation of engine load on the 




.8 1.6 

^ Entropy— 



6.4 7.2 8.0 

Um. Ana iVbte OW...V. T. 



Fig. l.r). 



efficiency of the engine. In all the cases (engines C, E and K) 
where moderately superheated steam was admitted to both cyl- 
inders the important fact was brought out that the heat con- 
sumption per indicated horse-power is practically constant 
through a range of load varying from one-half load to full load, 
and probably even to a considerable overload. The apparent 
exception in the better performance of engine C at half load is 



496 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 



no superheat; engine C of about the same size with 78 degrees 
superheat uses 239 British thermal units, and engine D with 
98 degrees superheat uses 226 British thermal units, a saving of 
about 9 per cent. ; some of which, however, is also due to a better 
vacuum and better cylinder proportions. Engine B, a smaller 
engine, uses 267 British thermal units with 15 degrees super- 















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Engine K. - .Test 28. . 
Half Load without Reheater. 










\ 


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m 

-3 


/ 




















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9 .i 


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Fig. 155. 



heat — ^which is practically the same result as that obtained from 
G, a still smaller engine, with a poorer vacuum but with 72 
degrees superheat. In the test of D with 98 degrees superheat 
the quality of the steam at release is 87 per cent., so that it is 
evident that when the jackets are not used a much* greater super- 
heat is desirable in order to prevent condensation in the high 
pressure cylinder — probably at least 150 degrees will be neces- 
sary. An even greater superheat will be necessary to keep the 
steam dry in both cylinders. With the jackets in use and with 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AKD REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 497 



98 degrees superheat the quality in the high pressure cylinder at 
cut-off is 99 per cent., and at release is 94 per cent The ad- 
vantage gained by superheating is, of course, greater in the 
smaller engines. 

The Variation of Economy with Engine Load. 

54. The engines B, C, E and K were all tested at several loads 
so as to determine the effect of variation of engine load on the 




,^^ Entropy 



Fm. 



eflBciency of the engine. In all tLe cas^s ■''frniriii^^ C, E and K) 
where moderately superheat^ iteam was zAiuwjA to both cyl- 
inders the important fact was broight out that the b^at con- 
sumption per indicated hor^i^-power is prar:»;<ra^y ojfTxrX^zX 
through a range of load Tarrine frorij on^-half l^/ad t/> f *'! loa-i, 
and probaMy even to a c>>n-;ier2ih*e over>/ad Ir.e ap;/arer* 
exception in the better fi^rf'rrr.ir.':^ of 'rE^Ine C at bi^f >/a/i U 



498 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

probably due to a better vacuum at that load. The general 
result was to be expected because the effect of superheat is to 
reduce the amount of heat disappearing during admission^ and, 
consequently, to permit the increased expansion at low loads to 
occur without excessive cylinder condensation. In engine B, 
with very small superheat of the admission steam, there is a 
slight decrease in economy as the load decreases from full load, 
and in the tests without reheater, and consequently with no 
superheat going to the low pressure cylinder this decrease in 
economy is very marked. 

55. It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to emphasize the fact that 
the constancy of heat consumption referred to above is in terms 
of the indicated horse-power. In all these engines the friction 
horse-power is low, and the mechanical efficiencies at the rated 
loads are high, varying (see Table V., line 25) from 91.4 per 
cent, to 94 per cent, and averaging 93.2 per cent. The friction 
horse-powers were determined by taking cards with no load on 
the engine, but they really represent more than the friction of 
the engine proper, since they include some losses properly charge- 
able to the generator — such as the brush friction, the armature 
windage, the bearing friction of the armature and, in some cases, 
a low excitation of the field. Consequently, the real mechanical 
efficiencies of the engines are somewhat higher than the quan- 
tities given in the table. 

56. The low friction of the engine causes the heat consump- 
tion per electrical horse-power to change a comparatively small 
amount as the load decreases; the heat consumption per kilowatt 
per hour will be some 6 or 7 per cent, greater at half load than at 
full load. 

The Radiation amd Conduction Heat Losses, 

57. In those tests where the reheater was in use, the knowl- 
edge of the exact condition of the steam entering the low press- 
ure cylinder permitted the determination of the heat lost by 
radiation and conduction from the high pressure cylinder and 
the receiver. The total heat of the steam coming to the engine 
is the sum of the four following quantities : 

(1) The heat going to the low pressure cylinder. 

(2) The heat equivalent of the work done in the high press- 
ure cylinder. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 499 

(3) The heat escaping with the reheater and receiver drainage. 

(4) The heat lost by radiation and conduction from the high 
pressure cylinder and the receiver. 

The first three quantities can be calculated from the observa- 
tions made on the test, and consequently, the last quantity 
can be determined by the heat balance stated above. The radia- 
tion and conduction loss was calculated for most of the tests, 
and was found to vary from ^ to 1 per cent, of the total heat 
supply to the engine at full load. As the low pressure cylinder 
is as carefully lagged as the high pressure cylinder it appears that 
from 1 to li per cent, of the total heat supply to the engine at 
full load will be lost by external radiation and conduction. The 
larger percentage appliea to the smaller engines. 

Piston Leakage. 

58. The steam qualities at cut-off and release, given in lines 16 
to 19 of Table V., show considerable variation in different en- 
gines running under practically the same conditions. The 
reason for this variation is apparently not far to seek, and de- 
pends on a phenomenon to which but small consideration is gen- 
erally given in the discussion of steam engine performances. 
This phenomenon is piston leakage. 

59. Most of the engines were tested when at rest for piston 
leakage, before the runs were made, and in no case was there 
any but slight leakage. It is probable, however, that a piston 
which is quite tight when at rest will leak when running. The 
static leakage tests were made for a small number of piston posi- 
tions and did not insure static steam tightness in every position. 
There is evidence moreover to show that even if the piston is 
tight in every position when at rest, it may leak when in motion 
owing to the breaking up of the oil film on the cylinder walk. If 
to the results of the leakage test of the piston is added the knowl- 
edge that an intelligent engineer has of the condition of the cyl- 
inders* of which he has had charge, it is probable that a more 
accurate statement can be made as to the tightness of the pistons. 
From such data the following statements may be made as to the 
condition of the engines tested. 

Engine B, neither piston perfectly tight, but both in good 
condition. 

Engine C, no appreciable leakage. 



500 SUPEBHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATEBS IK COMPOUND ENGINES. 

Engine 2?, both cylinders in very good condition. 

Engine Ey high pressure cylinder very good; low pressure 
piston had not worn down to maximum tightness. 

Engine F^ high pressure cylinder had been scored a few weeks 
before test and had not worn quite tight; low pressure cylinder 
unusually good. 

Engine Hy high pressure cylinder very good; both cylinders 
better than engine 0. 

60. The above conditions, as known before the tests, will be 
found to explain most of the variations in steam quality to which 
reference has been made. For example, of the two similar en- 
gines E and F^ the latter shows lower quality at cut-off in the 
high pressure cylinder, notwithstanding a greater initial super- 
heat — ^and this quality is seen to decrease throughout expansion. 
Leakage past the high pressure piston readily accounts for this. 
In the low pressure cylinders of these two engines, the phenom- 
enon is reversed, and the remarkably high quality of the steam 
in engine F is presumably due to the unusually good condition 
of the cylinder. 

61. Similarly comparing tests 22 and 24 on the exactly sim- 
ilar engines and H under practically similar conditions, a 
marked advantage is seen in the quality of the steam during expan- 
sion in the high pressure cylinder during the latter test — a result 
to be expected from the known better conditions of that cylinder. 

62. These examples could be multiplied were it desirable. 
The effect of the piston leakages, when moderate, on the engine 
economy is not very great since steam leaking by the high press- 
are piston will be available for doing work in the low pressure 
cylinder. 

ConclvMona. 

63. In summing up the general results of the tests the follow- 
ing conclusions appear to the writer to be justified when applied 
to large size, high-speed, compound, four-valve engines of com- 
mon proportions. 

The jacketing of the high pressure cylinder is of but little 
value when moderately superheated steam (100 degrees Fahr.) 
is used. 

Reheating is probably a source of loss unless it superheats the 
receiver steam at least 30 degrees Fahr., and is not fully effective 
unless it superheats about 100 degrees Fahr. In the latter case 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATEBS IK OOKPOUND ENGINES. 501 

it may be expected to effect a saving of 6 to 8 per cent, of the^ 
total heat used per indicated horse-power. 

Jacketing the low pressure cylinder is shown by the steam 
qualities during expansion in the low pressure cylinder to be un- 
necessary and therefore undesirable when the reheating is effec- 
tive. The effect of admitting moderately superheated steam to 
both the high pressure and low pressure cylinders is to keep 
the heat consumption per indicated horse-power practically con- 
stant throughout a considerable range of loads— from half load 
to about one-quarter overload. 

The variation within the ordinary limits of the ratio of stroke 
to diameter in large size engines of the same power when using 
moderately superheated steam^ does not have any marked effect 
upon the economy of the engine. The size of the engine is an 
important factor in determining its efficiency. The engine 
has about 10 per cent, greater heat consumption per indicated 
horse-power than K, which is three times larger. 

DISCUSSIOlf. 

Mr. W. R. A. Harris. — As the discussion on above was closed 
rather early, I should like to pass a few remarks on the subject. 

First. I think the tests to have been satisfactory should have 
been all of one duration, and should have gone ^arther than steam 
economy, which, for superheating, is not sufficient, coal con- 
sumption being the essential point; for if the steam economy 
gains 10 per cent, at a cost of 15 per cent, more fuel owing to 
superheating there is a loss. 

Second. It would be well to know the type of superheater and 
distance from engine, i. e., length of pipe, etc. — as it is a small 
amount of superheat. 

There are many places on the Continent and in England where 
superheat is used as high as 650 degrees Fahr. to 700 degrees 
Fahr., with an economy in coal consumption of 7^ per cent. 

Another point to bear in mind in favor of superheating, for 
new plants, is the increjised velocity of superheated steam over 
saturated, enabling smaller pipes to be used and a greater piston 
speed maintained. 

Mr, George Barrus. — T have not had an opportunity to 
study this paper very carefully, but I have noticed one 
or two omissions in it. For example, the author states 



502 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND BEHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

that the tests on engine A were conducted by himself. Also the 
tests on engines G, // and K; but tests B, C, Z>, E and F were 
conducted by Mr. Parker and Mr. Cook, members of the Society, 
and by two other parties. It would be interesting if he stated why 
the results of the tests made by these gentlemen are incorporated 
in his paper. 

I notice in all the tables what is termed " quality of steam at cut- 
off and release." I do not think that expresses what the author 
really means. I suppose he means what i« usually called the 
" percentage of steam accounted for by the indicator." This per- 
centage shows how much steam appears on the indicator card, but 
it does not show the exact condition of the steam as to the amount 
of moisture it contains, as would be understood from the use 
of the term " quality." I think the tables ought to be revised 
to meet this objection. 

Then it seems to me the tables ought to be arranged in accord- 
ance with the forms established by our conmiittee on engine testing, 
and if they are not arranged in that way there should be some ex- 
planation about it. If those forms are of no use let us know it. 
If they are all right the author, as a member of the Society, ought 
to follow them. 

There are no copies of the original indicator diagrams in this 
paper. The author should supply them for each of the tests. The 
reason I make this staJtement- is, that I saw the report of the test 
on engine A, as well as some of the original diagrams which were 
taken. I was struck with the fact that the diagrams were 
poor. I do not mean that they showed poor engine performance, 
but they showed poor indicator work. You all know that if a 
vertical engine is not solid on ite foundation and the indicator 
outfit is not properly connected, the indicator is very unsteady, 
and the diagrams obtained will likewise be shaky and un- 
reliable. These diagrams were very poor in that respect, and if 
it had been my test I should have placed no reliance on their in- 
dications. 

Mr, C. F. Kerr, — An investigation that I had the privilege 
of making about a year and a half ago on the theory and practice 
of superheated steam, convinced me that the reheater would come 
again into solid favor with the general use of superheated steam. 
When the reheater receiver is used vnth saturated steam the 
trouble is that we cannot get a sufficient amount of reheating 
surface; you cannot put enough reheating surface into the 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATER8 IN COMi»OUND ENGINES. 503 

reheater to secure as much superheat as you will need, and tests 
have shown this quite conclusively. In the 5,000 horse-power 
engine at the Waterside station, in New York, which was re- 
cently tested, it was shown that both jackets and reheater, either 
together or alone, were practically useless throughout the work- 
ing range of load. How much heat can you expect to get into 
a cylinder full of steam in a fraction of a second through cylinder 
walls that may be five or six feet in diameter? That difficulty, 
coupled with the fact that in the reheater with saturated steam 
you cannot get much superheat, is the reason that tests show both 
jacket and reheater to be nearly useless. I think that with 200 
degrees superheat and a receiver with an adequate amount of 
superheating surface, it is possible to get enough superheat to 
keep down condensation to the point, at least, of cut-off, and 
that will solve the problem of initial condensation. 

If you will note the table on page 49, in which the principal 
results of all the tests are given, and look over the various tests, 
you will find this to be true, I believe, that with the highest super- 
heat at the throttle and with 60 degrees superheat at the low 
pressure admission, and perhaps less than the average vacuum, 
we find the lowest steam consumption in the 28 tests, which is 
11.57 pounds per indicated horse-power hour. We find 100 per 
cent, as the quality of the steam at cut-off in the low pressure 
cylinder, the lowest heat consumption in British thermal units 
per minute, and the highest dynamic efficiency compared with the 
ideal cycle. This seems to me to ffhow that the superheating 
receiver is bound to come into favor with the general use of 
superheated steam. 

Mr. Oeorge I, Rockwood, — ^The author gives the conclusions he 
derives from these tests at the end of his paper, which is com- 
mendable; but after all they hardly seem to justify so much labor 
or to be especially valuable or new. On the contrary, the paper 
seems to be merely a threshing over of old straw. 

The performances of all of these engines have been beaten 
many times by other engines of the same make and type; they 
were also beaten many years ago by an engine of only 200 horse- 
power having a higher cylinder ratio. I maintained twelve years 
ago that compounds having a higher cylinder ratio would beat 
those with the ordinary ratio by 10 or 15 per cent. To see how 
that view would apply in the present case, these tests speak of 13.5 
pounds of steam per indicated horse-power per hour on an engine 



504 SUPEBHEATED STEAM AND REHEATEBS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

of 2,400 horse-power (which is really a very poor performance). 
Mr. Barms tested an engine a year ago of 500 horse-power, in 
which test the performance was 11.2 pounds. This engine was a 
high-ratio compound, and beat the 2,400 horse-power engine by 17 
per cent., both engines operating " under similar external working 
conditions." This would seem to call in question the conclusion 
that the smaller engine is about 10 per cent, less economical 
than the larger. This conclusion of the author appears to be 
general and not confined to these engines alone. 

I am inclined to agree that the supposition that the larger the 
engine of a given type, the greater its economy will be is true; 
but hardly think these tests prove it. Even if the test of the 500 
horse-power high-ratio compound be compared with that of the 
2,500 horse-power high-ratio compound engines at the Waterside 
station, to whidh Mr. Kerr has just referred, it wdll be seen that the 
smaller engine is still the most economical of all. This, however, 
comes from the fact that the Waterside engines, being designed 
for use with superheated steam, had poppet valves, which involved 
15 per cent, clearance in the first cylinder, with a resulting total 
loss of economy of 6 per cent. 

With regard to the value of reheaters, the author does not note 
two or three important considerations. The principml one is that 
a reheater increases the economical power of a given engine to an 
extent out of all proportion to its cost. Even, therefore, if it does 
not increase the economy of the engine — and I feci very sure 
that if properly designed it cannot decrease the economy — its use 
is more than justified. Nothing is said, I believe, about draining 
the water of condensation from the high pressure exhaust pipe 
before the steam meets the reheating surf-aoe. This is necessary if 
economy is aimed at. 

Some people still like to test steam-engines. To me the subject 
is of only passing interest, as I believe the steam-turbine has 
routed the reciprocating machine completely for all work which 
can be done by electrical transmission of the power; and there is 
now hardly to be found any place where the motor is not of greater 
advantage than shafting and belting. 

Prof. L, S. Marks* — The writer regrets that Mr. Barrus did 
not have an opportunity to study tliis paper very carefully 
before he criticised it. He vciU. find his criticism in part answered 

* Author's closure, uuder the Rules. 



SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 505 

in the paper itself, but as the criticism includes also other points, 
the writer will endeavor to reply fully. 

In paragraph one is given the reason why the writer included 
with his own tests all the available unpublished tests on engines of 
the same make. It may also be pointed out that these other tests 
were not published by those employees of the company who 
had conducted the tests, because of a special regulation of the com- 
pany forbidding such action on their part; and that their inclusion 
in this paper was with the express permission of the president of 
the company. 

The terra " quality of steam at cut-off " was used because of its 
greater brevity^ and in the belief that the members of this Society 
understand what is meant hereby; and further, the meaning of the 
term is made abundantly clear by the discussion under the heading 
of " piston leakage." The tests were presented with a special ob- 
ject in view, and the writer, while appreciating fully the excellent 
work done by the Committee on Engine Testing, in arranging 
forms for the presentation of results, preferred to use such forms 
for his own tests as should exhibit most clearly the results which 
he wished to emphasize. With respect to the publication of 
copies of the original indicator cards, the writer believes he had 
done' as much as is desirable in publishing the combined cards. 
The publication of copies of the original indicator diagrams for 
each of the tests would have increased largely the bulk of the 
paper without at all increasing its value. 

The author cannot but express his extreme surprise at the state- 
ment of Mr. Barrus, that he had seen some of the original 
diagrams for the test on engine A. These diagrams have not been 
out of the possession of the writer from the time they were taken, 
and cannot have been seen by Mr. Barrus. His statement that 
these diagrams were poor must also be denied. They were seen 
at the time of the tests, and were found satisfactory both by the 
Consulting Engineer of the Boston Electric Light Co. and by the 
engineer representing the engine builders. The engine founda- 
tions were very solid, the engine itself very stiff, the indicating 
gear was a simple photograph device, designed by the engine 
builders, with but few joints, strong, new, and wdth no discernable 
back-lash. The indicators were gone over and oiled every hour. 
There was no suggestion of shakiness in the cards. The writer 
considers the indicator cards for this test to be as reliable as can be 
obtained from engines of this size and epeed, and cannot but con- 



606 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

sider that Mr. Barrus' remarks on these cards, which he has never 
seen, are either the product of a faulty memory or of a vivid 
imagination. Copies of the actual cards for the tests on engine A^ 
on July 20, 1899, are added to this paper, Figs. 157-160. 

The writer finds himself in complete agreement with the re- 



Enginc A. H.P. Head End. 

July 90, 1800. 12.80 P.M. 
Engine pressure by gauge- 155 

Area- 1.60 Lengths 3.72 




Jlwi.Bk.lM0 Ck.Jl.r. 



Fio. 157. 



marks of Mr. C. V. Kerr. The results of the test of the 5,000 
horse-power engine, at the Waterside station in New York, are 
such as the present tests would show to be probable, unless the 
reheater were of unusual size and efficiency. The larger the 
engine the less is the gain to be anticipated by the adoption of the 
usual devices for securing economy. 



Engine A. H.P. Crank End. 
July 20, 1809. 12.30 P.M. 
Area->2.10 Length- 3.80 




Awi.1u.S9f c^jf.r. 



Fig. 158. 



Mr. Rockwood's numerous criticisms, although they do not 
touch the substance of the paper, had perhaps better be answered 
individually. So complete a series of tests on large size engines of 
one type has not, the writer believes, been recorded before. They 
give certain information for which the owners of the engines were 
willing to undertake the not inconsiderable cost and inconvenience 



SUPEEHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 507 

involved in the making of these tests. The results so obtained 
have value to all those who have charge of such engines — to 
all who want to know whether engines of 1,000 to 3,000 indicated 
horse-power should preferably be run with or without jackets, 
vnth or without reheaters, and at what range of loads they may 



Engine A. L.P. Head End. 

July 20, 1899. 12.80 P.M. 

Vacuum pressure by gauge « 12.2 

Area«.2.84 Length»8.89 




Am.Bk.y9t0a>..s.r. 



Fig. 159. 



be economically run. Such information the writer does not con- 
sider to be the threshing of old straw. The information on these 
points, obtained on small laboratory engines up to 100 indicated 
horse-power, is of no value for general industrial practice; and 
it is principally on such small engines that information of the 
nature indicated has been obtained hitherto. 



Engine A. L.P. Crank End. 
July 20, 1890. 12.30 P.M. 
Area«8.19 Length .8.92 




Am.Bi.SuU Cu.,Xy. 



Fig. 160. 



Moreover, this paper does not protend to give " record " results, 
but only the results of good modern practice. The writer has a 
high opinion of the possibilities of the high-ratio compound asso- 
ciated TOth Mr. Rockwood's name, but he would point out that his 
conclusion with reference to the effect of the size of an engine on 



508 SUPERHEATED STEAM AND REHEATERS IN COMPOUND ENGINES. 

its economy is expressly restricted to engines of ordinary propor- 
tions, and intentionally omits a comparison between different types. 
The writer has no doubt, however, that his general conclusion will 
be found to apply satisfactorily to a comparison of two of Mr. 
Rockwood's engines. The comparison instituted by Mr. Rockwood 
between his own 500 horse-power high-ratio compound and the 
very different Waterside station engine referred to by Mr. Kerr, 
can hardly be expected to prove anything. 

The writer cannot agree with Mr. Rockwood as to the desirability 
of having a reheater in the case, where it does not increase the 
economy of the engine. A separator in the high-pressure exhaust 
and a readjustment of the cut-off valves will produce a similar 
result with less trouble and first cost. 

With reference to Mr. Rockwood's suggestion that these tests 
were carried out to gratify the writer's passion for testing steam 
engines, it may again be noted that these tests were all either 
acceptance tests, or tests designed by those in charge of the plants 
to yield certain information as to their performance, without any 
special reference to the partialities of the writer. The pleasure of 
working up such tests is perhaps hardly so great as Mr. Rockwood 
seems to imagine. 



GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OF COMPARISON. 509 



No. 1081.* 

COMMERCIAL GAS ENGINE TESTING AND PROPOSED 
STANDARD OF COMPARISON.^ 

BY WILLIAM P. FUKT, BA8T PITTSBURG, PA. 

(Member of the Society.) 

1. The value of accurate and comprehensive testing of all prime 
movers, and the determination of a basis of comparison upon which 
to judge the relative economy of those of any particular class can- 
not be overestimated. 

2. To the manufacturer of heat motors, especially, it is un- 
questionably necessary, and at the same time most expedient, to 
incorporate into the scheme of engineering organization an effi- 
cient testing department, which shall at once be capable of secur- 
ing accurate data of the operation of the finished machines with- 
out being burdened with any unnecessary refinements. The sim- 
plest reliable methods and apparatus are therefore obviously best 
suited to accomplish the desired results, and it is then left only to 
determine the most feasible basis upon which to make compari- 
sons of the characteristic data obtained. 

3. The friction brake is by long odds the most satisfactory 

* Presented at the Cliicago meeting (May and June, 1904) of the American 
aociety of Mechanical Engineers, and fonning part of Volume XXV. of the 
Transactions. 

f For further discussion on the same topic consult Transaciiona as follows : 
No. 843, vol. xxi., p. 396 : '* An Efficiency Test of a 125 Horse-Power Gas Engine." 

C. H. Robertson. 
No. 875, vol. xxii., p. 152 : "Efficiency of a Gas Engine as Modified by Point of 

Ignition." C. V. Kerr. 
No. 895, vol. xxii., p. 612 : *' Efficiency Tests of a 125 Horse-Power Gas Engine." 

C. H. Robertson. 
No. 949, vol. xxiii., p. 686 : ** Temperature of Exhaust Gases.*' R. H. Fernald. 
No. 950, vol. xxiii., p. 705: "Working Details of a Gas Engine Test." R. H. 

Fernald. 
No. 989, vol. xxiv., p. 1048 : "Method of Testing Gas Engines." E. C. Oliver. 
No. 990, vol. xxiv., p. 1063; "Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine 

Using Kerosene and Gasolene as Fuel." Halladay and Hodge. 
No. 991, vol. xxiv., p. 1095: "Test of a 12 Horse-Power Gas Engine." C. H. 

Robertson. 



510 GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OF COMPARISON. 




o 



GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OP COMPARISON. 511 

means of measuring the power developed. Its accuracy depends 
on the following factors : 

First, The accuracy of standard platform scales. This is easily 
verified by standard weights. 

Second. Allowance for the weight of the blocking on the scales 
and the unbalanced weight of the brake band and arm. These are 
both easily determined by actual weighing. 

Third, The brake radius, or distance from center of the shaft 
to the Jcnif e edge supporting the brake arm. 

Fourth, The revolutions per minute. 

Fifth. The steadiness with which the scales are kept balanced. 

4. If we compare the above simply verified facts with those re- 
quired by an indicator test, it will be at once apparent how muc6 
superior the brake is to the indicator as a means of quickly and 
reliably measuring power. Then also the available or brake horse- 
power, and not the indicated horse-power, is the thing for which 
engines are run. 

77ie Friction Brake: 

5. The brake is applicable to large as well as small engines, as 
may be seen by reference to Figs. 161 and 162, showing respec- 
tively a 300 brake horse-power double-acting tandem and a 25 
brake horse-power single-acting vertical gas engine undergoing test. 
Fig. 163 shows several engines set up in readiness for shop test. 

6. In practice it is necessary to lubricate the brake wheel for the 
purpose of making the friction uniform, and to prevent the wooden 
cleats becoming locally heated and taking fire. It is found that 
strips of fat salt pork make the best lubricant, for they slowly fry 
and thus keep the wheel uniformly and continuously greased. The 
wheel must, of course, be cooled, and this is usually provided for 
by casting re-entrant lips on it, which will retain a layer of water 
by virtue of centrifugal force when the brake wheel is in motion. 

7. A stream of water is fed into the brake wheel at one point 
and scooped out by a stationary pipe at another point. By this 
means the temperature of the brake wheel is controlled. 

8. When the temperature and lubrication of the brake wheel 
are kept constant, it is not difficult for a man ^vith a wrench to 
keep the brake-band tension screw so adjusted that the scale beam 
of the platform scales is always substantially balanced. If the load 
becomes too great, he slackens the tension, and if too small, he 
increases it 



512 GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OP COMPARISON. 







GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OF OOMPARISON. 513 

9. Occasionally considerable annoyance may be experienced by 
sudden changes of friction occurring which are due to a little 
water getting on to the outside of the brake wheel. This seems 
to chill the lubricant and have a disturbing effect out of all pro- 
portion to the cause. It is a small practical point well worth at- 
tention, for with irregular variations in the friction, the man at 
the brake cannot keep the load constant. The remedy is very 
simple — ^keep water off the outside of the brake wheel. 

The Indicator Card: 

10. The indicator, while not as useful for power determina- 
tions, is of great value for showing what is going on in the cyl- 
inder, and cards should always be taken in connection with the 
brake test. It will often be superfluous to calculate the indicated 
horse-power from thenu If engineers in charge of gas engines 
made more frequent use of the indicator, they would frequently 
be able to obtain increased satisfaction by detecting faulty adjust- 
ments, particularly of the point of ignition. 

Eng^ine Speed: 

11. Where an engine is being tested on a constant load and 
quality of gas, the governor should hold the speed constant enough 
to warrant the use of a good make of hand-speed counter. 

Where the above condition is not met a continuous counter must 
be employed. 

Caa Measurements: 

12. A good meter, whose accuracy is checked occasionally, by 
means of prover tests, over the range for which it is used, is the 
best instrument for this purpose. The temperature and pressure 
of the gas at the meter and the barometer reading (uncorrected 
for sea level) are needed for correcting the meter readings to 
standard conditions. 

Calorimeter determinations or chemical analyses will give the 
heat value of the gas. 

Ca7nparison of Tests: 

13. After tests are made we still desire to know what they mean. 
We must have a standard with which to compare the results ob- 
tained on a given engine and as a basis for predicting what that 
engine ought to do. 



514 GAS ENGINE TESTING AND STANDARD OF COMPARISON. 







0A8 BKOINB TS8TINO AND 8TANDABD OP 00HPABI80N. 515 

TABLE I. 

Data and Calculatiokb for Fioubb (5). 

1^ X 24 Gas Engine— Test No. 904. 

Type— Horiiontal, doable-acting, tandem, single crank, foor cycle throttling 
engine. 

Diameter of cylinders 16^ inches. 

Stroke 24 

Diameter of piston rod (in three explosion chambers) 5f " 

Diameter of tail rod (in one explosion chamber). 2f " 

Full load test speed 181 B.P.M. 

Number of charges per two revolutions 4 

Suction displacement per minute 981 cuUc feet. 

« J ^i * ^ 8^ cubic feet . ^^^ 

Reduction factor = -— ; — . . , ^ = 0.862 

981 cubic feet 



Actaal Readings. 




822 B. H. P. 

8,430,000 B. T. U. 


118-8 B. H. P. 
1,207,000 B. T. U. 


281 B. H. P. 
8,080.000 B. T. U. 


99.0 B. H. P. 
1,066,000 B. T. D. 


148 B. H. P. 
1,840,000 B. T. U. 


50.8 B. H. P. 
646,000 B. T. U. 


17.1 B. H. P. 
905,000 B. T. U. 


6.0 B. H. P. 
818.000 B. T. U. 



NoTK.— The eecond column of flgnres are obtained by moltlplying those in the flnt colomn by 
the redaction factor 0.86S. 

14. The most natural standard is the cubic feet of gas used 
per brake horse-power hour. When, however, we attempt to use 
this, we find that for each engine it is a function of the load car- 
ried. Its value varies considerably at full load, and very rapidly 
at light loads, until at no load it reaches infinity. We must make 
several tests at different loads in order to get the law of this varia- 
tion. When we calculate the gas consumption per brake horse- 
power hour at light loads, we find that a very small variation in 
the total amount of the gas used, or of the load at which the test 
is made, makes a very large and unmeaning variation in the cubic 
feet per brake horse-power hour. 

15. This unmeaning characteristic of the gas per brake horse- 
power curve at li^t loads leads one to prefer the use of a curve 
plotted with the brake horse-power as abscissae, and the cubic 
feet of gas, or better yet the British thermal units of gas, per hour 
as ordinates. Fig. 164 shows two such curves, one for an 8 by 10, 

84 



516 



GAS ENQINB TB8TINO AND STANDARD OF COMPARISON. 



and the other for a 16^ by 24 gas engine. These two curves, how- 
ever, are so different in size that they are incomparable with each 
other, even though the engines require about the same number of 
British thermal imits per brake horse-power hour at corresponding 



— 






— 




— 






~~ 


■"" 


j 










^~ 




p 




















_J 














-n 














































n 
















1 
























































~" 










~^ 




























































































































I6K X 24 GAS CNQINC TEST 
SHOI>TCST*004 














J 


leHxa^ 


SI 


y*! 






















— / 


/ 




CNG 

— ^— 1 


N^ 


E 


_ 












B.M.F. 


OAS 


B.T.O. 


R.F.M. 












z 




























C.F. 
per hoar 


Effective 
per hour 












/ 








_J 












3,0 


00, 


NX) 










u 


f 








_^ 


~l 


















823 


8940 


WWtt 


178 






_> 


f 










1 




















14S 


2110 


1.840.000 


184 






/ 












_^ 




















n.i 


IMO 


906,000 


186 




7 




























































/ 


























h 


































/ 


















' 








- 


1 
































/ 




























-fe 






"^ 
























/ 
































t, 




























/ 


































1 


























/ 




































1 


2j( 


00, 


)00 


















/ 


























































/ 








































a 




















^ 


/ 








































& 




















/ 










































H 


















/ 








8X10 GAS CNQINC 
SHOP TCST^ee 










t 














J 


Y 




























/ 


/ 












B.H.P. 


OA8 


V.T.U. 


R.F.M. 










1 










y_ 


















C.F. 

per hour 


EffecUT* 
per hoar 


















^ 


r- 




























_yl 


y 




















28.8 


846 


801.000 


323 










24.0 


292 


254.000 


827 




^ 


<I 


k 


)oa 


















12.3 


182 


158.000 


S80 




































1.8 


107 


93,100 


383 


























■ 
































































































































Tests made on Natural Gas of about 870 effective and 960 
total RT.O. per Cu. Ft. measured at 62° F. and 30" HO. 




























_ 






nJ 


1 X 


10 


Gi 


vi 


EN 


Q 


Nl 














































> 


f^ 


























































^ 


^ 






















































































1 


J. 1 


\. 


>^ 




































"5 


o"" 






JS 









180 






a 









A 


fij 






ad 









is 











n 


ilK.I 


W.P. 












































., 


<i«i» 


Ba« 


kih 


4«C 


W.J« 


.7. 



Fig. 164. 

loads. They need to be plotted to such scales that they may be 
readily compared. Without replotting, however, they give at a 
glance the British thermal units required on each engine at any 
load, and from them the British thermal units per brake horse- 
power hour curves may be readily derived. 



OAS BNOIKB TE8TINO AND 8TANDABD OF OOMPABISON. 517 

TABLE II. 

Data akd Calculationb vor Figubb (5). 

8 X 10 Gas Engine— Test No. 768. 

Type — Single acting, two cylinder, four cycle, vertical throttling engine. 

Diameter of cylinders. 8 inches. 

Stroke 10 inchfes. 

Fall load test speed 827 R.P.M. 

Namber of charges per two revolutions 2 

Suction displacement per minute 95.2 cubic feet. 

T»-^ ^Ai ^ A 845 cubic feet ^ ^ 

Reduct.onf«:tor=^5^33^^j^^-= 8.62 



Actual Readings. 


Readings Calcolated to 100 Hone-Power Basis. 


28.8 B. H. P. 
801,000 B. T. U. 


104.0 B. H. P. 
1,090,000 B. T. U. 


24.0 B. H. P. 
254,000 a T. U. 


87 B. H. P. 
920.000 B. T. U. 


12.8 B. H. P. 
158,000 B. T. U. 


44.5 B. H. P. 
578.000 B. T. U. 


1.8 B. H. P. 
98,100 B. T. U. 


6.5 B. H. P. 
887.000 B. T. U. 



NoTa.~The second colamn of fignres are obtained by mnltipljring those in the first column by 
the redaction factor 8.68. 

Proposed Basis of Comparison: 

16. The maximum power of a given gas engine depends on the 
number of British thermal units it can take in per minute, and on 
the percentage of this heat which it can turn into brake horse- 
power. 

17. With engines of about 10 brake horse-power per cylinder 
and laiger, there is but little variation in the efficiency of similar 
engines, which may be attributed to the size. The consequence 
of this is that the power of gas engines of the four-stroke cycle 
type varies almost in proportion to their suction displacement, and 
some one size of engine may be taken as a standard to which to 
reduce the figures obtained on other engines. The curves thus 
obtained from the results of tests on many sizes of engines are 
mutually comparable. They furnish a basis for predicting what 
still other sizes of engines, not yet tested, may be expected to do. 

18. The results of tests on a large number of similar engines 
using natural gas for fuel have shown that every 345 cubic feet 
mixture displacement per minute will give in the neighborhood of 
116 TnflyjTnnTn brake horse-power, or 100 rated brake horse-power. 



518 



0A8 BNOIKB TESTING AND 8TANDABD OF COMPARISON. 



19. The above displacement is figured from the area of the 
piston, length