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TRANSACTIONS 

THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS, j 



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TRANSACTIONS 

THE GAELIG SOGIETY OF INVERNESS. 



VOLUAE XXV. 

1901-1903. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



GAELIC SOCIETY 

OF INVERNESS. 



VOLUAE XXV. 

1901-1903. 



dlatm nan (Baiilual an (Buaillean a (Sheilt. 



ftUurne**: 

THE GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 
I9O7. 



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Snfctrtte**: 

PRINTED BY THE NORTHERN COUNTIES NEWSPAPER AND PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 
COMPANY, LIMITED. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The 25th volume of the Society's Transactions appears later than 
the Council could wish. The last volume appeared in 1904, over 
two years ago. The delay has been unavoidable. The contents 
of the volume will be some consolation for its lateness. Our 
Gaelic members will especially be delighted with Dr Henderson's 
edition of Coise O'Cein. This volume brings the Society's 
Transactions from November, 1901, to the end of 1903. 

Contributions to the publication fund have been kindly given 
by Mr Dewar, M.P., of £20, and by Sir Kobert Finlay of £5. 
The late Mr Mackay, Hereford, has left by his will seventy 
volumes to the Society of books not already included in the 
Library. 

Since the last volume has appeared, the Society has lost several 
excellent members. Two of them have been Chiefs of the Society. 
Lochiel, the bearer of an honoured name and an honour to his 
line, died in November, 1905. Born in 1835, educated at Harrow, 
and trained to the diplomatic service, he was for the most of his 
life a leading figure in Highland affairs. For seventeen years he 
was M.P. for his county ; he was the first Chairman of the Inver- 
ness County Council, an office which he filled till his death. He 
took a great interest in everything Highland, and he was Chief of 
our Society in 1884. The death in February last year of John 
Mackay of Hereford, in his 84th year, removed from amongst us 
" the noblest Roman of them all." He was born in Rogart in 
1832, received an excellent parish school education, and went to 
England at the time of the great railway movement, and as civil 
engineer was engaged in many great railway undertakings here 
and abroad, finally settling in Hereford. For forty years he has 
taken an enthusiastic interest in the Highlands, and poured forth 
unstinted money in the advancement of the Highlanders and in 



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VI. INTRODUCTION. 

the fostering of the Gaelic language. Our Society has benefited 
largely by his benefactions, the last of many book presents being 
recorded above. He was Chief in 1878, and contributed many 
valuable papers to our Transactions. A chuid do Pharras dha ! 
It is with extreme regret that we have to record the comparatively 
early death of Father Allan Macdonald of Eriskay. He was a 
storehouse of Highland folklore, which he ungrudgingly gave 
away to others to make literary use of ; as an ideal parish priest, 
which he was, he is the prototype of Neil Munro's finest character 
in the " Children of the Tempest." 

The literary output for the last two and a-half years has been 
unusually great, and it is with pleasure we hail so many Gaelic 
books. Rev. Mr Sinton has gathered into a sumptuous volume 
the "Poetry of Badenoch," with translations and historical facts. 
He is an ideal editor, and is himself not the least poet that 
Badenoch has produced. The Gaelic veteran, Mr Carmichael, has 
published the story of ". Deirdre," with ballads, notes, and transla- . 
tions ; it is a beautiful version of this well-known tale, gathered 
many years ago in the Isles. "Uirsgeulan Gaidhealach" is a 
series of Gaelic tales issued by the "Comunn Gaidhealach" 
(price 6d), intended mainly for educative purposes. In the same 
category is the little book of selection, also issued by them, 
entitled "Dain Thaghte" ; and to this may be added Dr Macbain's 
" Higher Gaelic Readings," with grammar outlines. Mr Henry 
Whyte has issued a first book of " True Stories," translated from 
the English, and this volume contains an excellent account of the 
'45 Rebellion and the Wanderings of Prince Charles. A reprint 
of Mackenzie's " Beauties" allows that work to be bought at a 
reasonable price. Mr Mackay, publisher, Stirling, deserves the 
thanks of all Gaels for his many publications, great and small, 
Gaelic and English. He publishes for the "Comunn" a new 
threepenny monthly with the title of " Deo-Gr&ne," a Mac- 
phereonic name which has caused some heart-burning ; but the 
magazine is good. The Celtic Beview has now been three 
years in existence, and is a most satisfactory publication, where 
learning and light literature both have their place. Prof. 



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INTRODUCTION. Vll. 

Mackinnon is publishing through it the famous Edinburgh MS., 
containing the Deirdre story and Tdin bo Flidais. Mrs W. J. 
Watson (nee Carmiohael) makes an excellent editor. 

There have been several English works published bearing on 
the Highlands. Two works on place-names have appeared. Dr 
Gillies has written on the " Place-names of Argyll," and Mr 
Matheson on the " Place-names of Morayshire." Neither work has 
quite approved itself to the experts in the subject. History is well 
represented. Mr William Mackay deserves well of the Highland 
historian and the lovers of history for his excellent edition of the 
" Wardlaw MS." (Scot. Hist. Soc). It is an invaluable revelation 
of the Highlands — especially about Inverness — in the middle of 
the 17th century. The third volume of Clan Donald finishes 
this great work, which, of course, is by far the first of clan 
histories, as the history of our greatest, and, practically, our 
oldest clan should be. The " Book of Mackay" replaces the old 
and good work of Robert Mackay (Hist, of the House and Clan 
Mackay). The work is by Rev. Angus Mackay, West erd ale, and 
is a creditable performance. Mr W. C. Mackenzie has given us 
another popular work : " A Short History of the Scottish High- 
lands." The work is of the right size and price, but the book on 
this subject has yet to be written, for Mr Mackenzie, as in the 
" Outer Hebrides," ignores modern scholarship. Messrs Johnston 
have issued two handsome volumes entitled the " Tartans of the 
Clans and Septs of Scotland." The tartan portion is exceedingly 
well done, and the clan histories have been practically re-written. 
Some of these, such as the sketches of the clans Macbeth, Mac- 
duff, and Chattan, are valuable contributions to our knowledge of 
early and middle clan history. Dr Henderson has edited the 
autobiography of Evander M'lvor of Scourie, a work of great 
interest. The Ossianic question has been again with us. Mr J. 
S. Smart published a work on " James Macpherson : an episode in 
Literature," in which he put the modern scholarly view in excel- 
lent language and form before his readers, the intention being 
no doubt to correct the aberrations of Mr Bailey Saunders and the 
Diet, of National Biography. But a stout opponent has appeared 



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Vlll. INTRODUCTION. 

in Dr Keith N. Macdonald, who has written first in the press and 
now in book form " In Defence of [Macpherson's] Ossian " The 
death of Mr William Sharp has revealed the identity of " Fiona 
Macleod." Under this name he wrote some highly poetic prose 
work, supposed to be Celtic and Gaelic. We warned our readers 
from the first against this new Macpherson (Vol. XX.). Two good 
works come from the Monastery of Fort- Augustus ; one is Dom. M. 
Barret's " Calendar of Scottish Saints" — a very handy little book ; 
and, second, Father Columba Edmond's " Celtic Church." 

We can mention only a few books by Celts outside Scotland — 
Dr Joyce has issued a cheap form of his two-volume work on the 
"Social History of Ancient Ireland" (1903), a work of great 
value to all Celts. Windisch has at last, despite illness and 
difficulties, brought out his great work the " Tain b6 Cualnge," 
with German translation, notes, and dictionary. Miss Hull is 
busy with her " Epochs of Irish History." Father Dinneen has 
produced a handy and excellent Irish-English Gaelic Dictionary, 
to which Mr Lane's work — " An English Irish Dictionary" — 
makes a fair complement. The Irish School of Learning issues a 
learned magazine Erin, and Prof. Strachan has published there, 
and apart, some useful work. Prof. Rhys has been writing on 
" Studies in Early Irish History," and on the " Celtae and Galli," 
where he has allowed himself to come under the spell of Mr 
Nicolson's " Keltic Researches," a daring piece of amateur work 
(1904). Prof. Anwyl has turned aside from the "Welsh 
Grammar," which he has published, to write on " Celtic Religion," 
an excellent little piece of pioneer work. Of Celtic work on the 
Continent, we have no space to write ; we might select Dr Grupp's 
Kelten und Germanen. 



The preceding pages possess a melancholy interest as 
being the last work of Dr Alexander Macbain. It is an open 
secret that for many years he wrote these Introductions to the 
volumes of the Society's Transactions : he lived to correct the 



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INTRODUCTION. IX- 

proof of the above, but not to finish the article. It was hia 
intention that it should conclude with a sketch of the recent 
gratifying progress of the Gaelic movement, which gave none 
greater pleasure than it did to him. 

Dr Macbain's untimely death is a blow that will be felt wher- 
ever Celtic scholarship is valued, but most nearly of all does it 
touch the Gaelic Society. Ever since he came to Inverness in 
1880, he was one of the chief contributors to our Transactions, 
which indeed became the medium through which much of his best 
work was given to the world Not the least valuable of these contri- 
butions is the paper on Inverness-shire Names of Places contained! 
in the present volume. His Introductions form in themselves a 
history of Celtic literature and activity for the period covered by 
.them such as is not elsewhere obtainable. But it is in the 
Council and at the meetings of the Society that the full extent of 
the gap caused by his death will perhaps be appreciated most. 
There DrMacbain was seen at his best. The Gaelic Society was 
dear to him ; he was proud of its record and jealous for its reputa- 
tion, and in counsel and kindly criticism he gave it of his best. 
Is lorn sinn as t'aonais was the wording on the wreath we laid on 
his grave — a true word. He was our strong pillar, our most 
brilliant ornament, and his loss is irreparable. 

Space forbids any attempt at appreciation of Dr Macbain's 
work as a Celtic scholar, nor is such really necessary. His fame 
is secure. Born in Glenfeshie, in Badenoch, on 22nd July, 1855, 
he was educated at Insch School, and afterwards at the Grammar 
School of Old Aberdeen. He entered Aberdeen University as 
second Bursar of his year in 1876, and graduated with honours in 
1880. In autumn of that year he became Rector of Raining's 
School, Inverness. He received the degree of LL.D. from his. 
University in 1901, and in 1905 was awarded a Civil List pension 
of £90 for his signal services to Celtic, and specially Gaelic, 
philology, history, and literature. He died at Stirling on 4th 
April, in his fifty-second year. 



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COMUNN GAILIG INBHIR-NIS. 



OO-SHUIDHBACHADH. 

1. 'Se ainm a' Chomuinn "Comunn Gailig Inbhir-Nis." 

2. *S e tha an run a' Chomuinn : — Na buill a dheanamh 
iomlan 's a' Ghailig ; cinneas Canaine, Bardachd agus Ciuil na . 
Gaidhealtachd ; Bardachd, Seanachas, Sgeulachd, Leabhraichean 
agus Sgriobhanna 's a* chanain sin a tbearnadh o dhearmad ; 
Leabhar-lann a chur suas ami am baile Inbhir-Nis de leabhraichibh 
agus sgriobhannaibh — ann an canain sam bith — a bhuineas do 
Chaileachd, Ionnsachadh, Eachdraidheachd agus Sheanachasaibh 
nan Gaidheal, no do thairbhe na Gaidhealtachd ; c6ir agus cliu nan 
Gaidheal a dhion ; agus na Gaidheil a shoirbheachadh a ghna ge 
b'e ait' am bi iad. 

3. 'S iad a bhitheas 'nam buill, cuideachd a tha gabhail suim 
do runtaibh a' Chomuinn ; a^us so mar gheibh iad a staigh : — 
Tairgidh aon bhall an t-iarradair, daingnichidh ball eile an tairgse, 
agus, aig an ath choinneamh, ma roghnaicheas a' mhor-chuid le 
crannchur, nithear ball dhith-se no dheth-san cho luath 's a 
phaidhear an comh-thoirt; cuirear crainn le ponair dhubh agus 
gheal, aoh, gu so bhi dligheach, feumaidh tri buill dheug an crainn 
a chur. Feudaidh an Comunn Urram Cheannardan a thoirt do 
urrad 'us seachd daoine cliuiteach. 

4. Paidhidh Ball Urramach, 's a' bhliadhna . £0 10 6 

Ball Cumanta 5 

Foghlainte 10 

Agus ni Ball-beatha aon chomh-thoirt de . 7 7 

5. *S a* cheud-mhios, gach bliadhna, roghnaichear, le crainn, 
Oo-chomhairle a riaghlas gnothuichean a' Chomuinn, J s e sin — aon 



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GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 



CONSTITUTION. 



1. The Society shall be called the "Gaelic Society of 
Inverness." 

2. The objects of the Society are the perfecting of the Mem- 
bers in the use of the Gaelic language ; the cultivation of the 
language, poetry, and music of the Scottish Highlands ; the res- 
cuing from oblivion of Celtic Poetry, traditions, legends, books, 
and manuscripts ; the establishing in Inverness of a library, to 
consist of books and manuscripts, in whatever language, bearing 
upon the genius, the literature, the history, the antiquities, and 
the material interests of the Highlands and Highland people ; the 
vindication of the rights and character of the Gaelic people ; and, 
generally, the furtherance of their interests whether at home or 
abroad. 

3. The Society shall consist of persons who take a lively in 
terest in its objects. Admission to be as follows : — The candidate 
shall be proposed by one member, seconded by another, balloted 
for at the next meeting, and, if he or she have a majority of votes 
and have paid the subscription, be declared a member. The ballot 
shall be taken with black beans and white ; and no election shall 
be valid unless thirteen members vote. The Society has power to 
elect distinguished men as Honorary Chieftains to the number of 
seven. 

4. The Annual Subscription shall be, for — 
Honorary Members .... 
Ordinary Members .... 

Apprentices 

A Life Member shall make one payment of 

5. The management of the affairs of the Society shall be en- 
trusted to a Council, chosen annually, by ballot, in the month of 



£0 10 


6 


5 





1 





7 7 






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Xll. C0-8HUIDHEACHADH. 

Cheann, tri Iar-chinn, Cleireach Urramach, Runaire, Ionmhasair, 
agus coig buill eile — feumaidh iad uile Gailig a thuigsinn 's a 
bhruidhmn ; agus ni coigear dhiubh coinneamh. 

6. Cumar coinueamhan a' Chomuinn gach seachduin o thois- 
each an Deicheamh mios gu deireadh Mhairt, agus gach ceithir- 
la-deug o thoiseach Ghiblein gu deireadh an Naothamh-mios. *S 
i a' Ghailig a labhrar gach oidhche mu'n seach aig a* chuid a's 
lugha. 

7. Cuiridh a' Cho-chomhairle laair leth anns an t-Seachdamh- 
mios air-son Coinneamh Bhliadhnail aig an cumar Co-dheuchainn 
agus air an toirear duaisean air-son Piobaireachd 'us ciuil Ghaidh- 
ealach eile ; anns an f heasgar bithidh co-dheuchainn air Leughadh 
agus aithris Bardachd agus Rosg nuadh agus taghta ; an deigh sin 
cumar Cuirm chuideachdail aig am faigh nithe Gaidhealach rogh- 
ainn 'san uirghioll, ach gun roinn a dhiultadh dhaibh-san nach tuig 
Gailig. Giuiainear cosdas na co-dheuchainne le trusadh sonraichte 
a dheanamh agus cuideachadh iarraidh o *n t-sluagh. 

8. Cha deanar atharrachadh sam bith air coimh-dhealbhadh 
a' Chomuinn gun aontachadh dha thrian de na'm bheil de luchd- 
bruidhinn Gailig air a* chlar-ainm. Ma 's miann atharrachadh a 
dheanamh is eiginn sin a chur an ceill do gach ball, mios, aig a' 
chuid a's lugha, roimh'n choinneamh a dh'fheudas an t-atharrachadh 
a dheanamh Feudaidh ball nach bi a lathair roghnachadh le 
lamh-aithne. 

9. Taghaidh an Comunn Bard, Piobaire, agus Fear-leabhar- 
lann. 



Ullaichear gach Paipear agus Leughadh, agus giuiainear gach 
Deasboireachd le run fosgailte, duineil, durachdach air-son na 
firinn, agus cuirear gach ni air aghaidh ann an spiorad caomh, glan> 
agus a reir riaghailtean dearbhta. 



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CONSTITUTION. Xlll. 

January, to consist of a Chief, three Chieftains, an Honorary 
Secretary, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and five other Members of the 
Society, all of whom shall understand and speak Gaelic ; five to 
form a quorum. 

6. The Society shall hold its meetings weekly from the 
beginning of October to the end of March, and fortnightly from 
the beginning of April to the end of September. The business 
shall be carried on in Gaelic on every alternate night at least. 

7. There shall be an Annual Meeting in the month of July, 
the day to be named by the Committee for the time being, when 
Competitions for Prizes shall take place in Pipe and other High- 
land Music. In the evening there shall be Competitions in Read- 
ing and Reciting Gaelic Poetry and Prose, both original and select. 
After which there will be a Social Meeting, at which Gaelic sub- 
jects shall have the preference, but not to such an extent as 
entirely to preclude participation by persons who do not undei 
stand Gaelic. The expenses of the competitions shall be defrayed 
out of a special fund, to which the general public shall be invited 
to subscribe. 

8. It is a fundamental rule of the Society that no part of the 
•Constitution shall be altered without the assent of two- thirds of 
the Gaelic-speaking Members on the roll ; but if any alterations 
be required, due notice of the same must be given to each member, 
at least one month before the meeting takes place at which the 
alteration is proposed to be made. Absent Members may vote by 
mandates. 

9. The Society shall elect a Bard, a Piper, and a Librarian. 



All Papers and Lectures shall be prepared, and all Discussions 
<3arried on, with an honest, earnest, and manful desire for truth ; 
and all proceedings shall be conducted in a pure and gentle spirit, 
and according to the usually recognised rules. 



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GAELIC SOCIETY OF INVERNESS. 



OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 1902 

CHIEF. 

A. Bignold, Esq. of Lochrosque, 
M.P. 

CHIEFTAINS. 

Mr William J. Watson, M.A. 
Mr Andrew Mackintosh. 
Mr Alexander Mitchell 

HON. SECRETARY. 

Mr William Mackay, Solicitor. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

Mr D. Mackintosh, Bank of Scot- 
land. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Mr Alexander Macdonald. 

COUNCIL. 

Dr Alex. Macbain. 

Mr William Macdonald. 

Mr William Fraser. 

Mr D. F. Mackenzie. 

Councillor John Mackenzie. 

LIBRARIAN. 

Mr Alex. Macdonald. 

PIPER. 

Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie 

BARD. 

Mr Neil Macleod, Edinburgh 



OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 190$ 

CHIEF. 

The Right Hon. Lord Lovat, 
C.B., D.S.O. 

CHIEFTAINS. 

Mr Andrew Mackintosh. 
Mr Alexander Mitchell. 
Councillor John Mackenzie. 

HON. SECRETARY. 

Mr William Mackay, Solicitor. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

Mr Dun. Mackintosh, Bank of 
Scotland. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

Mr Alex. Macdonald. 

COUNCIL. 

Dr Alex. Macbain. 

Mr William. J. Watson, M.A* 

Mr William Macdonald. 

Mr D. F. Mackenzie. 

Mr Rod. Macleod, 

LIBRARIAN. 

Mr Alex. Macdonald. 

PIPER. 

Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie. 

BARD. 

Mr A. Macdonald. 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction ........ v. 

Constitution ........ x. 

Office-bearers ........ xiv 

Notes on the Family of De Moravia, or Moray (Part I.) — 

D. Murray Rose ....... 1 

Annual Dinner ........ 18 

Turus Ruairidh do'n Exhibition — Rev. John Macrury, 

Snizort, Skye 35 

Place Names of Inverness-shire — Dr Alex. Macbain, 

Inverness 55 

Sutherland Gaelic — Rev. Charles M. Robertson, Inverness 84 
Fragments of Breadalbane Folk-lore — James MacDiarmid, 

Killin, Perthshire 126 

Parish of Kiltarlity and Convinth (No. II.) —Rev. 

Archibald Macdonald, Kiltarlity . . . . 149 
Sgeulachd Cois' o' Cein — Rev. Dr George Henderson, 

Eadar-Dha-Chaolais 179 

Annual Assembly . . . . . . . . 266 

Wardlaw Church and Clergy (I.) — Rev. C. D. Bentinck, 

B.D., Kirkhill 274 

Thirtieth Annual Dinner 296 

Notes on the Urquharts of Cromarty — D. Murray Rose . 308 

Annual Assembly 321 

Scraps of Unpublished Poetry and Folklore from Loch- 

ness-side — Alex. Macdonald, Highland Railway . 328 
Early Monuments and Archaic Art of Scotland — Professor 

W. M. Ramsay, D.C.L., Aberdeen .... 340' 



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XVI. 


CONTENTS 


PAGE. 


Members of the Society — 






Honorary Chieftains 


. 


345 


Life Members 




345 


Honorary Members 


. 


346 


Ordinary Members . 


. 


347 


Deceased Members . 


. 


354 


-Society's Library — List of Books 


355 



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TRANSACTIONS. 



5th DECEMBER, 1901. 

The contribution for this evening was by Mr D. Murray 
Jtose, and entitled " The de Moravia Family." 

NOTES ON THE FAMILY OF DE MORAVIA, 
OR MORAY. 

Part I. 

Family history has been a feature in the Transactions of 
the Gaelic Society, and it is proposed to-night to give the 
result of some gleanings in the genealogy of a race whose 
name looms largely in the early northern records. The 
pedigree of the Morays has had a strange fascination for 
•antiquaries; and although cultured scholars have made a 
special study of it, yet comparatively little is known of the 
origin of this wide-spread and potent house. This is due in a 
^reat measure to the paucity of authentic documents relating 
to the dim and distant past. The perplexing mystery is that 
at the very dawn of the historic period the ancestors of the 
Morays appear on record as nobles of vast possessions. One of 
them bore the strange name of Freskin, and all we know about 
him is that he held estates in Moray and Linlithgow. From 
him descend families famous in Scottish story — the great 
houses of Sutherland, Moray of Duffus, and Bothwell. There 
is also good ground for suspecting that the illustrious Douglases 
— an able, wild, and unscrupulous race, whose grandeur and 
tragic history is unmatched in European annals — were of the 
same origin as the Morays. Freskin on this account acquired 
;great importance in the eyes of students of family history. But 
all efforts to discover his parentage have hitherto been un- 

1 



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2 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

availing. One can only say, in the words of Tiberius, that 
he " seems to be a man sprung from himself." It is now- 
improbable that any one can tell us " who was the first mean, 
man of the race that did raise himself above the vulgar." In 
the case of other great families genealogists seemed never at a 
loss; indeed they could trace pedigrees back to an ante- 
diluvian period, and, moreover, could tell us, with super- 
natural precision, the doings, marriages, and offspring of men 
who lived in Scotland centuries before Christ's time i It is to 
the credit of the Morays that they despised ancestry of such a 
kind. Like Lady Clara Vere de Vere, they could afford to 
smile at other claims of long descent, and remained content 
with the mysterious Freskin, a man who lived seven and a-half 
centuries ago. But Scottish genealogists unsatisfied with such 
a splendid lineage, wished to know this remarkable family " in 
the fountain — not in the stream." Above all, they particu- 
larly desired to know something of the worthy who in bygone 
ages lived to build — not boast a generous race. Little wonder 
then that so many conflicting surmises have been made 
respecting Freskin, who has been erroneously regarded as 
ancestor of all Morays. His exact position in the pedigree 
remains unravelled, so that it may be interesting to consider 
the arguments adduced as to whether he was a Sutherland, or 
Moray chief, or a Flemish adventurer. 

The fact that Freskin held estates in Moray is discounted 
by his possession of Strathbroc, now Uphall, in Linlithgow, 
during the reign of David I. This is really the sum total of 
our knowledge regarding him, substantiated by charters. 
Some writers, Skene among the number, held a very decided 
opinion as to his being of native Moravian descent — thus con- 
firming the traditionary origin assigned to him by the historian 
of the Kilravock Family. On the other hand, writers, such 
as the late Cosmo Innes, questioned this theory on the ground 
that Freskin's descendants " never either for profit, or honour, 
asserted such a descent, nor pushed their patronymic pedigree 
higher than this marked ancestor." 1 Freskin's possession of 
Strathbroc had great influence with Innes, for, he asks, " If 
they were of native, or Morayshire, descent, how do we find 
them having their earliest descent in Linlithgow?" Another 
point inclined this erudite scholar to doubt the Moravian 
theory. He found Berowald the Fleming as the neighbour 
and friend of Freskin's son— a circumstance which led him to. 

1 Reg. " Episcopatus Moravienses," p. xxxii. 



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The de Moravia Family. 3 

suppose that both families were recent settlers. Yet he 
cautiously declined to commit himself to the Flemish descent 
as advocated by the author of " Caledonia/ ' Chalmers, he 
says, was " building it would seem on no other foundation than 
the peculiarity of the name, which he perhaps interpreted to 
mean a native of Frisia." Elsewhere he writes, regarding the 
theory of Chalmers, " I doubt whether he had any better proof 
than the sound of his name, which has a Frisican air about it. 
I think it is quite possible he might be a foreigner, or 3, 
Frieslander, but it is rather too much to state it as a 
certainty." 2 

Freskin's connection with Strathbroc is one of the problems 
awaiting solution; it is possibly a point which can never be 
elucidated. But having in view the troubled condition of 
Morayland at this period, it is not at all unlikely that the 
family temporarily lost their northern possessions, and had a 
compensating grant in the south. Indeed the tradition is that 
of the natives of Moray, the family of Freskin remained 
loyal, and were rewarded at " the dispersion of the Moravii." 
Historians tell us that a system of transplantation was vigor- 
ously pursued by the Scots Kings, and Fordun alleges that 
King Malcolm " removed all the inhabitants from the land of 
their birth .... and scattered them throughout other 
districts of Scotland, both beyond the hills and on this side 
thereof, so that not even a native of that land abode there." 
This is certainly too sweeping ; the recent British operations in 
South Africa, with the aid of a quarter of a million men, and all 
modern resources, prove how tremendous such a task would be 
in remote times. But apart from this, the Moray s were 
related by marriage to a Lothian family, and the point might 
be solved did we know the exact relationship between the 
Morays and the Lundons, as indicated in the " Register of 
Newbattle." 3 There John de Moravia appears as son of John 
of Lundon— proof that from this family there apparently 
sprung a race of Morays, though probably of illegitimate 
birth. "Why a son of Lundon should be distinguished as " of 
Moray " may be matter for speculation. It, however, mili- 
tates against the hitherto accepted theory that all Morays 
descend from Freskin. 

The Freskin mystery deepens when we consider that his 
son Hugh was owner of Sutherland. The late Sir William 
Fraser, in his " Sutherland Book," writes, in relation to this 

2 " Sutherland Book," Vol. I, p. xxxiv. s P. 83. 



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point, that " Freskin may have held the territory, insecurely 
perhaps, but fortified therein by his large possessions in 
Morayshire, which were more under control. And this may 
account for the Morayshire lands passing apparently to the 
younger son of Freskin, the more extensive property in 
Sutherland being held by the elder. That the Norwegian 
Sagas, or historians, do not take notice of Freskin and his 
family does not affect the question, as they preserve to us no 
names of native chiefs, or rulers, except two who seem to 
have favoured the invaders." 4 Lord Hailes, who was familiar 
with the Sutherland pedigree, suggested that Freskin's family 
had a grant of Sutherland on the forfeiture of Earl Harold 
Maddadson. It is not clear, however, that Harold was for- 
feited at all. 

In endeavouring to ascertain the origin of the family, it is 
impossible to overlook the evidence afforded by the surname 
of Freskin's descendants. This surely would give us the most 
reliable clue; in most instances it is held to indicate fairly 
accurately the original habitat, trade or profession of the 
founder of a family. But in the case of the Morays they 
are informed that their surname was assumed on account of 
extensive grants in the district. Hence the suggestion that 
their ancestors, being of a grasping nature, did not follow the 
invariable custom in Scotland and take the name of their 
particular estates. " De Duffus," or " de Strathbroc," had 
probably a less lordly ring than " de Moravia " ; so Freskin's 
descendants grabbed the name of a great province! Yet, 
when we consider the insignificance of their estates compared 
with the enormous stretch of territory over which the ancient 
Mormaers and Earls of Moray held sway, the theory seems 
unsatisfactory. It does not suffice to say, like Cosmo Innes, 
that the family never claimed descent 'from the ancient lords 
of Moray, because none of the old pedigrees, if any existed, 
have come down to us. Indeed, it may be suggested that if 
one of the ancient barons were asked about his pedigree, he 
would probably reply in the words of the Due d'Abrantes : 
" I know nothing about it ; I am my own ancestor." But does 
the absence of such claims surprise one when it is remembered 
that, time and again, the rulers of Moray matched themselves 
in battle array against the royal house, with disastrous 
results? There was, without doubt, a potent reason for the 
assumption of the name of de Moravia, and it is only natural 

4 *' Sutherland Book," Vol I., p. 9. 



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The de Moravia Family. 5 

to conclude that it commemorates the family connection with 
the ancient rulers of the province. The surname of the Rosses 
and others, who became known under their ancestral title, is 
a case in point. Had Freskin been of Flemish origin, or of 
other than the ruling stock of Moray, his descendants would 
become known as " de Duffus " or " de Strathbroc," just in the 
same way as the Innes, Brodie, Calder, or Dallas families 
derived their surnames from their lands. 

These controversial points indicate some of the difficulties 
encountered in attempting the elucidation of the Moravian 
pedigree. It has perplexed genealogists in the past, and will 
probably continue to do so. But a matter which merits con- 
sideration, at this stage, is the appearance on record of a de 
Moravia who belongs to a generation earlier than Freskin. 
This " ancient of the olden time " was Alexander de Moravia, 
father of Murdac, who was father of Bishop Gilbert of Caith- 
ness and his brother, Sir Richard of Culbin. The Morays of 
Culbin, with the aid of the Registers of Dunfermline (p. 195) 
and St Andrews (pp. 109, 260, 340), can be traced to a more 
remote antiquity than any other branch. Every link in their 
splendid lineage is capable of proof, in the direct male line, 
back to about 1120, and taking the female line — that of 
Lascelles — it can still be extended four more generations ! But 
the barons of Culbin were not descended from Freskin. 

Alexander de Moravia must now become the centre of 
attraction to genealogists, on account of the close relationship 
which existed between his descendants and those of Freskin. 
It is somewhat curious that Sir Robert Gordon, in the original 
MS. of his " Earldom of Sutherland," should place an Alex- 
ander as first Earl of Sutherland. In the MS. printed in 1813 
Alexander is discarded in favour of Walter as first, and 
Robert as second Earl. It is abundantly clear that Sir Robert, 
groping about amid so much uncertainty, found evidence of 
an Alexander as a remote ancestor, yet for some reason he 
substituted Walter, of whom there is no record. It may be a 
mere coincidence, but still a strange one, that Sir Robert 
should place Hugh Freskin as third of the family in possession 
of Sutherland, and it is impossible to resist the conclusion that 
in Alexander de Moravia 5 we have the real ancestor of the 

5 Alexander de Moravia may have been son of King Duncan II., who pro- 
bably was Earl of Moray before he became King in 1094. King Duncan is 
held to be father of William Fitz Duncan of Egremont. English records prove 
that this William's father was Earl of Moray, so that Alexander de Moravia 
was doubtless identical with Alexander, nephew of King Alexander I. 



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great houses of Sutherland, Ihijffus^ Bothwell, Culbin, Drum- 
sargard, Atholl, and others. 

Every genealogist who has written about the Morays agrees 
that Bishop Gilbert and his brothers were nephews of Hugh 
Freskin. The " Register of Dunfermline " makes it perfectly 
clear that they could only have been cousins. In a brochure 
on the " Ancestry of St Gilbert of Dornoch " the suggestion is 
made that Alexander de Moravia may have been father of 
Freskin as well as of Murdac. This seems the only feasible 
solution, yet it would be hazardous to adopt it on the evidence 
at present available. But we need not despair of obtaining 
satisfactory documentary proofs, seeing that a deed of the 
period, relating to Caithness, was recently sold in London. 
As an elaborate account of the Sutherland family has been 
lately printed, it would be out of -place to deal here, save 
very briefly, with the most northerly branch of Freskin's 
descendants. 

Line of Sutherland. 

Freskin, 6 so far as is known, had three sons, whose 
seniority has been matter of debate between Innes, Riddell, 
Stuart, and others, but the point may be regarded as settled. 
The sons were— Hugh, founder of the Sutherlands; William 
of Duff us; and Andrew, who is possibly identical with the 
Andrew de Moravia who appears in Border charters, and 
probably became ancestor of southern Morays whose origin is 
unknown. 

Hugh, son of Freskin, was undoubtedly owner of Suther- 
land, and first appears on record about 1152 as witness to a 
charter of a Midlothian church. On more than one occasion 
he is a witness with his brother William, who takes precedence 
of him in the charter of Strathisla to the Abbey of Kinloss. 
Yet William's charter of Garntuly, or Gartly, may be held to 
be decisive on the question of seniority, for therein William 
styles Hugh " domino meo et fratre meo." This charter, con- 
firmed more than two and a-half centuries after it was granted, 
has been overlooked by genealogists. It settles that William 
was the younger, and proves the value of heraldry in some- 
times clearing an obscure point in genealogy. For heralds, 

6 The fact should not be overlooked that in the " Cartulaire de St. Bertin," 
Pt 435, we find a witness, Tarold, son of Osbern de Freschenis, and that about 
1131 we find mention made of William de Freschenis in Henry I.'s charter to 
the Abbey of St. George de Bocherville. But Freskin could not be son of this 
William. 



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The de Moravia Family. 7 

with the seals of both branches before them, unhesitatingly 
declared that Moray of Duffus and Bothwell was junior to 
Sutherland, in spite of Riddell's assertion to the contrary. 
The deed is important for another reason, because it evidently 
dates from a period before Bishop Gilbert obtained Church 
preferment, there being no reference to his being an ecclesi- 
astic. Gilbert afterwards became famous as a saint and 
performer of miracles, and obtained from Hugh Freskin a 
grant of the lands of Skelbo, Invershin, and others. 7 Such a 
lordly gift has hitherto been unexplained, but viewed in the 
light that they were probably sons of brothers — Gilbert repre- 
senting the senior forfeited ( ?) line — the explanation is simple. 
•Gilbert conveyed the barony of Skelbo to his brother, Richard 
of Culbin, who received confirmation thereof from King 
Alexander II. about 1235. It is these early writs of Skelbo 
which prove that Hugh Freskin was succeeded by his son and 
heir, William. 

This William is accounted the first authentic Earl of 
Sutherland; but, strictly speaking, we have no direct con- 
firmatory evidence, save that he is styled Earl in the record of 
bis disagreement with the Bishops of Caithness. His son and 
heir, William, 2nd Earl of Sutherland, of the Freskin line, 
is referred to in the " Exchequer Rolls " 8 in connection with 
fines levied from his earldom. It may be that he inherited 
the old turbulence of the Moravians, although it is more 
probable that the Norwegians compelled him, in their south- 
ward expedition, to overt acts of treason against his sovereign. 
He came to an amicable agreement with the Bishop of Caith- 
ness regarding the lands in dispute between the Church and 
the Earl, and so satisfactory was the arrangement that he 
became a munificent benefactor of the bishopric. He lived 
through the stirring times of the struggle for Scottish inde- 
pendence, but did not act a patriotic part. Although he 
pledged himself to support the Brus claims to the Scots throne, 
he hesitated,- and even took the oath of fealty to Edward. 
He also rendered assistance to the English officials in the 
north, as is proved by a letter of thanks " for his good faith 
and good will so often shown/ ' 9 Edward was not one to 

' " Sutherland Book," Vol. III., pp. 2, 3. The lordship o c Skelbo included 
inost of Strathfleet, and the grant embraced all the lands to the West of 
Sutherland. Assynt and Eddrachilles formed part of the lordship of Skelbo. 
This is suggestive that Alexander de Moravia owned Sutherland, and that his 
tine was forfeited ; the grant to Gilbert may have been compensation. 
8 Vol. I., pp. 13, 19. 
9 Bain's " Calendar of Documents," II., p. 388. 



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shower compliments without adequate reason, so we may be 
sure that the Earl's services were of real advantage. He died 
in 1307, when a grant of the ward of William, his son and 
heir, was given to John, younger son of William Earl of Ross. 

William, third Earl of Sutherland, succeeded while still a. 
minor, and followed the unpatriotic conduct of his father- 
At all events, Robert Brus bitterly resented the attitude of 
the northern magnates, and came to the borders of Sutherland,, 
early in 1308, vowing vengeance, threatening to destroy the 
whole district. Earl William is said to have fought at 
Bannockburn ; but of this there is no evidence, and his most 
important act was probably in connection with the famous 
letter sent by the nobles of Scotland to the Pope in 1320. He 
died about 1330, and was succeeded by his brother — 

Kenneth, fourth Earl, who may be regarded as one of the 
few men of action produced by the Moray line of Sutherland. 
This Earl fell at Halidon Hill while gallantly leading his men 
against the English. In the time of Kenneth's son, William r 
fifth Earl, the line of Freskin attained its zenith. William's 
brilliant alliance with the daughter of King Robert Brus 
brought into the family a vast extent of territory, which, 
however, reverted to the Crown through the death of the 
Princess Margaret's only son, John, Master of Sutherland. 10 
According to Bower, this John died at Lincoln, on 8th 
September, 1361, while a hostage for his uncle, David II. As- 
he died without issue, the royal descent claimed for the 
Sutherland family becomes untenable. By this time the line 
of Hugh Freskin had dropped the surname of de Moravia, and 
its cadets became known as Suther lands. 

It was probably Robert, the sixth Earl, who figures in the 
pages of Froissart, for the Earls John and Nicolas, of Sir 
Robert Gordon, are as mythical as the black deeds ascribed to 
one of them. Three Johns in succession follow Robert; the 
seventh and the eighth earls did little to advance the family 
reputation; they left their kinsmen, the Morays of Culbin, 
Pulrossie, and Aberscross, to fight their battles. John, the 
ninth and last Earl of the line, became hopelessly insane, and 
his sister Elizabeth brought the Earldom and lands into the 

10 The Earl married the Princess about July, 1343, and she is said to have 
died in child-bed immediately after the birth of John, Master of Sutherland 
(" Fordun's History," Ed. 1871, Vol. I., p. 318). The lady was alive in 
March, 1346, when her husband had a grant of Dunnottar, but in November, 
1347, the Earl had a dispensation to marry Joan, Countess of Stratherne. 
This renders it impossible that the Princess could have had more than one son* 



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The de Moravia Family. 9 

Gordon family, by marriage with Adam Gordon, lord o£ 
Aboyne. 

Line of Duffus. 

Having thus followed the fortunes of the elder line, let us 
return to William, the younger son of Freskin. The cultured 
Sheriff Rampini asserts that Andrew, son of Freskin, was 
ancestor of Duffus. The grounds upon which he bases this con- 
clusion are not apparent, but it is in direct contradiction of the 
pedigree as hitherto understood. The statement may be a 
printer's error, because it is impossible to controvert the 
evidence afforded by King William the Lion's charter, which 
confirmed William, son of Freskin, in the lands of Strathbroc, 
Duffus, Rose Isle, etc., which lands his father, Freskin, held 
in the time of the King's grandfather, David. U The late 
Cosmo Innes placed Hugh of Sutherland as eldest of the 
brothers, but this was disputed by Riddell, who endeavoured 
to prove, in his " Stewartiana," that William was senior 
because he succeeded to Strathbroc and Duffus — the only 
lands with which Freskin, their father, appears connected in 
records. Riddell held that if Freskin acquired Sutherland, 
or inherited it, the eldest son naturally succeeded in the most 
extensive domain. But if Hugh Freskin himself acquired the 
northern estate by grant, as alleged, then the presumption is 
in favour of William being senior. Various writers have 
sided with either of these two, yet, as has been noted, th& 
acquisition of Sutherland is one of the mysteries. In the 
brochure on St Gilbert, already referred to, the suggestion is 
made that " Alexander de Moravia may have married a 
Sutherland heiress who outlived her sons (Freskin and 
Murdoch), and bestowed her lands on her grandson — the 
younger child of her first born." From the evidence afforded 
by William's charter of Gartly, which was overlooked, it is 
quite clear that Hugh, son of Freskin, was senior, although 
he did not always take precedence. 

William, son of Freskin, was witness to the charter of 
Innes, in favour of Berowald the Fleming, about 1160, and 
his name appears several times in deeds recorded in the 
"Register of Moray." In his charter of the "Forest of 
Garnetullach," or Gartly, to Simon (? afterwards of Gartly) 
and Waldein, his cousin (? after of Garviaugh), recorded so 
late as 5th August, 1452, William styles his brother Hugh 
" domino meo et fratre meo." A special interest attaches to 

11 Nisbet's "Heraldry," p. 183. 



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the witnesses of this important document: they are Pat de 
Polloc; William, son of Wiseman; Edward of Lamman- 
bridge;12 Robert, son of William, and grandson of the 
granter ; John de Moravia, Gilbert and Simon, his brothers.13 
William, son of Freskin, held the important office of sheriff 
of Nairn, as noted by Robertson in his " Index of Missing 
Charters," where he refers to a roll containing William's 
account as sheriff in 1204. He had three sons— Hugh of 
Duffus, William of Bocharm, Croy, and Petty, and Andrew, 
parson of Duffus. 

Hugh, who became known as Hugh de Moravia of Duffus, 
appears as witness with his father in several of King William's 
charters. He is also witness to the charter by which his 
brother William conveyed the Church of Arndilly to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity of Spynie. Hugh acquired a 
reputation for sanctity, probably, as Innes suggests, on account 
of his benefactions to the Church. Hugh was dead before 9th 
•October, 1226. So far as can be ascertained, he had only two 
sons, Walter and Andrew. 

Walter de Moravia, Knight, Lord of Duffus, succeeded 
before 1226, when he is mentioned in an agreement between 
his kinsman, William of Petty, and the Bishop of Moray. 
The surname of his wife is unknown, but from the fact that she 
bore the Christian name of Eup hernia, it is not improbable 
that she was, as Innes concluded, a daughter of Ferchar Earl 
of Ross. 14 Another thing that points in the same direction 
is the possession of Clyne, near Dingwall, as her dowry lands, 
lands which were granted by Earl Ferchar to Walter de 
Moravia before 1231. Walter had an only son — 

Sir Freskin de Moravia, who married the Lady Johanna 
of Strathnaver, a daughter — according to Skene — of John 
Earl of Caithness. This marriage brought into the Duffus 
line a vast accession of territory — half of Caithness, and the 
whole northern portion of the present county of Sutherland. 
But Sir Freskin having no sons,' his enormous estates were 
divided among his daughters, who carried them to the Chenes 
and Feddereths. Of the cadets of Duffus we have no know- 
ledge, but as there are references to Morays whose affiliation 
is yet unknown, it is not improbable that some of these may 
yet be traced to the barons of Duffus. Duffus itself passed to 

12 Edward de Moravia appears in 123.4—" Reg. de Dumfermlyne," p. 64. 
13 " Reg. Magni Sigilli," Vol. I., p. 130. 
14 " Reg. Epis. Moravieosis," p. xxxv. 



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The de Moravia Family. 11 

the Chenes, and through the marriage of Mary, one of their 
«o-heiresses, it went to Nicolas de Sutherland, from whom 
the Sutherlands of Duffus. 

The Line of Petty and Bothwell. 

In the house of Petty and Bothwell we have one of the 
most distinguished branches of the race. William, son of 
William Freskin, was lord of Petty, Brachlie, Arturlies, Croy, 
Bocharm, Arndilly, and other lands. He is frequently on 
record in the " Register of Moray," among his benefactions 
being the conveyance of the Church of Arndilly to the Church 
of the Holy Trinity of Spynie. We only know the names of 
two of his sons, Walter and Robert. Walter de Moravia 
inherited his father's extensive estates, and took a prominent 
part in the affairs of his district. In 1236 he was one of the 
retinue of King Alexander II., and was also one of the sureties 
of the treaty with England in 1244. In Rymer's " Foedera " 
the name of Walter de Moravia appears; yet in Paris's 
" Chronica Majora " the names of " Walter de Moravia de 
Dunfel " and " William de Murefe de Petin " are side by 
side. This last entry is confirmed by the Acts of Parliament 
of 1248, so that the hitherto accepted pedigree of this family 
is wrong, for Walter was succeeded by William, who in 1248 
is one of the great barons of the realm. 15 Unfortunately, like 
so many of our northern charters, the early writs of Petty 
were deposited in Edinburgh, and had been rifled in 1282, 
hence the obscurity at this point. 

Walter de Moravia, probably brother of William, next 
appears as lord of Petty. He supported the English marriage 
and alliance which rendered the Scots King so unpopular with 
his subjects. He was one of the guardians of the King and 
Queen appointed by the Treaty of Roxburgh. In 1258 he 
sought refuge in England, on account of disturbances between 
the Durward and Menteith faction, and King Henry ordered 
Robert de Ros to provide suitably for him in the Castle of 
Werk. Walter de Moray is said to have married the heiress 
of the Olifards, through whom he acquired the great barony 
of Bothwell and many manors in England. The point is by 
no means clear ; Walter was certainly in a position to give a 

15 " Acts of Pari., Scot.," Vol. I., p. 404 a. Tt was probably this Sir William 
of Petty who married a daughter of Malcolm Earl of Fife. According to the 
Abercairnie MSS. ("Douglas Peerage," I. p. 81). Walter Moray of Bothwell 
married a daughter of this Earl, but Walters wife is known to be an Olifard. 



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lease of the Manor of Lilleford to Devorgilla, widow of David 
Olifard, for her lifetime, but how he acquired the property 
cannot now be traced in English records. Devorgilla brought 
an action against William, the heir of Walter, challenging his 
right to the adowson of Lilleford Church.16 She was pro- 
bably mother-in-law of Walter, who had three sons — Sir 
William, Sir Andrew, and Sir Walter. 

Sir William de Moray, lord of Petty and Bothwell, was 
designated " Le Biche " on account of his immense wealth, as 
well as to distinguish him from the several knights bearing his 
surname. He did fealty to Edward in 1292, and held the 
honourable office of Chief Butler of Scotland. The " Register 
of Glasgow " records some of his benefactions to the Church. 
Although he had done homage to Edward, he was apparently 
hostile to the English, thereby incurring severe punishment. 
He was deprived of his Scottish estates, and his manors in 
England were seized in the King's name, so that the once 
wealthy knight was reduced, for a time, to a mere pittance. 
In the " Patent Rolls " of Edward I. we find that the King 
dealt with his property in a very arbitrary manner, and that 
in the matter of a presentation to the Church of Lilleford 
even Edward could not overrule his rights, for the royal pre- 
sentation had to be annulled. From the same source we learn 
that Sir William's English estates were forfeited because he 
granted the manor of Lilleford, the adowson of its church, 
together with homages, rents, services, etc., to Anthony Bek, 
Bishop of Durham, who evidently extorted the gift by threats. 
There is some mystery about Sir William's fate ; he is said to 
have died before November, 1300. 

Sir Andrew de Moravia, brother of Sir William, took an 
active part against the English, and, along with his son 
Andrew, was captured when the Castle of Dunbar surrendered 
in April, 1296. At this fell blow Edward got possession of 
the flower of Scotland's chivalry. The long roll of captive 
knights and esquires possesses a melancholy interest, for 
scarcely a family of note in Scotland but had a representative 
among the prisoners. Sir Andrew the Elder was committed 
to the Tower of London, whilst his son was sent to Chester. 
Sir Andrew, whom we must style the First because of the 
confusing succession of Andrews, was apparently married 

18 Bain's " Calendar of Documents," Vol. 2, p. 168. 



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The de Moravia Family. 13 

twice. The name of his first wife has not been recovered,*? 
but his second spouse was Eufemia, the widow of William 
Comyn of Kilbride. He married her before 1286, without 
obtaining King Edward's sanction, for in that year the 
Guardians of Scotland made intercession for her and her 
husband.18 On May 25th, 1289, the King, finding that she 
-only held her dower lands, ordered their restoration. Sir 
Andrew was still a prisoner in August, 1297, when his son 
Andrew had a safe conduct to come to see him; but the 
knight was dead before November, 1300. It has been sug- 
gested that after his son's death at Stirling he was released, 
and returned to Scotland, where he joined Wallace. That he 
should be released was in accordance with Edward's daring 
practice of trusting those who again and again opposed him. 
At any rate, as his son was not a knight, it certainly seems 
probable that it was Sir Andrew the First who issued pro- 
clamations with Wallace after Stirling fight, and, according 
to Hemingburgh, accompanied the patriot into England in 
the following November. He may have fallen at Falkirk, for 
he predeceased his brother, Sir William. Whether Sir 
Andrew had more sons than one is uncertain, but there may 
have been another John, for a person so named appears at a 
later date as connected with Bothwell. 

Andrew de Moray the Second did not relish confinement 
at Chester, and, by whatever means he got free, he turned up 
in Moray in the spring of 1297. He was one of the first to 
begin the fierce struggle to shake off the fetters of the Southron. 
The " freemen of Moray " were groaning under the oppression 
of the Guardians — at least so they alleged. In the spring of 
1297 they determined to resort to arms. They found a 
capable and daring leader in the person of the young heir of 
Tetty and Avoch, who inherited the fighting instincts of the 
race. Andrew was no doubt exasperated at the harsh treat- 
ment his father and uncle received. But ere his plans were 
matured they were evidently revealed by his kinsman, Sir 
Reginald Chene of Duffus. Probably Sir Keginald had been 

17 According to Wynton she was a daughter of John, the " Red Cumin "; — 
The fierd dochter, owre the lave, 
To wyff the Lord took of Murrave ; 
On hyr the Lord of Murraive gat 
Andrew of Murraive, that efftyr that 
Wes at the Bryg of Stryvelyne slayne. 

Wynton, Bk. VIII., ch. vi. 
18 Bain's " Calendar of Documents," Vol. 2, pp. 84, 95. 



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!f Gaelic Society of Inverness, 

invited to co-operate, or it may be that, noting the prepare 
tion and unrest among the Moravians, he went to Inverness, 
one Sunday to confer with the Constable of Urquhart Castle. 
Moray, suspecting his purpose, crossed from Avoch, and way- 
laying the Constable, took him prisoner. Next morning being 
Monday, Andrew besieged the Castle of Urquhart, but was 
obliged to retire on account of the assistance sent to its relief 
by the Countess of Boss, not, however, before attempting to 
carry the place by storm in a night attack. Although baffled 
at Urquhart, Moray was not dismayed ; he returned to Avoch 
and seized Balkeny or Balconie, 19 a fortress of the Earl of 
Boss. He afterwards directed his vengeance against Sir 
Reginald Chene, burnt the Castle of Duffus, and swept 
through the " Laigh of Moray," leaving devastation and ruin 
in his train. So far the Chenes were unable to cope with him, 
and to quell the rising an army was sent into the district, 
under Gratney, afterwards i^arl of Mar, with the result that 
Moray's followers had to seek refuge in the hills. Yet time 
and again they swooped down on Chene's lands, giving them 
over to fire and sword. King Edward, ignoring these doings, 
sought to get Andrew in his power, and, on 28th August,. 
1297, sent a passport to enable him to talk with his father in 
the Tower. But Andrew shrewdly divined that the King 
purposed to detain him, so, declining to avail himself of the 
safe conduct, he joined forces with Wallace, and fought 
bravely at the battle of Stirling Bridge, 11th September, 1297, 
and fell mortally wounded. 2° 

It was probably his father who acted in conjunction with 
Wallace after this fight, and accompanied the patriot to 
Hexham. Modern writers, such as Sheriff Bampini, Professor 
Murison, and Andrew Lang, are at variance as to the identity 
of the two Andrews, although Mr Bain, in his " Calendar of 
Documents," seems to confirm the various accounts of Fordun, 
which have " vulneratur occubuit," " cecedit vulneratus," and 
" gladio occubuit." But it stands to reason that Andrew de 
Moravia, if mortally wounded at Stirling Bridge on 11th 
September, could not have survived and been in a position to 
accompany an army into England months later, as alleged. 
Andrew was certainly dead before November, 1300, when the 
heir and representative of the house of Both well was his son, 
a child of two years — destined to become the most famous of 
the family. 

J9 Bain's " Calendar of Documents," 2, p. 239. 
20 Bain's " Calendar of Documents," 2, p. 300. 



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The de Moravia Family. 15 

Sir Andrew de Moray the Third first appears on record at 
an inquest on 28th November, 1300. The Jury Record 
that the " late William de Moravia held a vil called Kellawe 
in the county of Berwick of the Earl of March doing suit at 
his court thrice yearly, the vill contained 5 carucates of land 
and meadow, the vill lies waste and the land fallow being 
worth ten marks yearly if restored and the lands cultivated. 
He also held another called Wedreburne of said Earl by same 
service, containing six carucates of land and meadow, from 
which the Domus dei of Berwick has twenty marks yearly, 
but is worth 40/- beyond that sum. Andrew de Moray, slain 
at Stirling against the King, son of the late Sir Andrew de 
Moray, has a lawful son named Andrew who dwells at Moray 
among the king's enemies as they believe, who is the next heir, 
and was two years at Pentecost last." 21 

If we are to credit Mr Gregory Smith, this infant was an 
extraordinary prodigy. He asserts that Andrew, afterwards 
Regent, born in 1298, was " leader in the rising of Moray in 
1297," and was in command "with Wallace. in Northumber- 
land " during the same year ! 22 But, while still a child, 
Andrew de Moray fell into the hands of Edward, and, accord- 
ing to Lord Hailes, was exchanged in November, 1314, for Sir 
John de Segrave. After his return to Scotland he took his 
position as one of the great nobles of the land. He won the 
regard of King Robert, and in 1326 married the King's sister, 
Christian, who must have been considerably his senior, for 
she was the widow of Gratney Earl of Mar, and of the brave 
Sir Christopher Seton. It is almost certain that Lady 
Christian was Moray's second wife, so she was not mother of 
the subsequent Barons of Bothwell. This alliance, and the 
death of King Robert and of the famous Ranulph Earl of 
Moray, placed Sir Andrew in a more prominent position, and 
from this time began his stirring career as one of the most 
faithful guardians of the interests of his youthful sovereign, 
David II. After the death of Ranulph, the jealousies of the 
Scots nobles turned the kingdom into a state of turmoil, of 
which the Baliol adherents were not slow to take advantage. 
Edward Baliol, at the head of the " disinherited barons, 
invaded Scotland, and the battle of Dupplin seemed to seal 
the fortunes of the line of Brus. Baliol's coronation was 

2i Bain's " Calendar of Documents," 2, p. 300, The age of the child at the 
date of the Inquest proves that young Andrew was an only child. 
22 " Dictionary of National Biography, V ol. da, p. 6^. 



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16 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

quickly followed by the renegade's southward inarch to Rox- 
burgh to acknowledge the supremacy of Edward. It was while 
jn the act of removing his quarters from Kelso to this place that 
iie was suddenly attacked by Sir Andrew Moray, who attempted 
to cut off his retreat. Moray's design of seizing the bridge at 
Roxburgh was frustrated by a vigorous sortie of the garrison— 
the Regent being captured while attempting to rescue Ralph 
Ooldmg. r 

Moray was sent a prisoner to England, where he remained 
until ransomed. After his return to Scotland he held aloof 
from public affairs, for he was heartily disgusted at the conduct 
of the Scots nobles. It was the attempt of David de Strath- 
bolgi, Earl of Athol, to seize Kildrumy Castle, then held by 
the Lady Christian Brus, that roused Sir Andrew to action. 
Hastily collecting his friends and vassals, he marched against 
Athol, surprised the latter's forces in the Forest of Culbean, 
and totally routed them with the loss of many men, including 
the Earl himself. Following up this success, a Parliament was 
convened at Dunfermline, when Moray was constituted 
Warden of the Kingdom. Edward now appeared on the 
scene at the head of a great army; but Sir Andrew, following 
the tactics prescribed by Brus, cleverly evaded an action. 
Seeking shelter in the wilds of Brae Moray, where every pass 
was familiar to him, he led his men through the wood of 
Stronkaltere without loss. Wyntoun records an anecdote 
which proves his ' sang froid ' in face of danger. 23 When 
Edward retired, after wasting the " Laigh of Moray," the 
Regent and his army followed in his rear, harassing his troops, 
and began the vigorous campaign which recovered many 
strongholds held by the English. Returning to the north, 
Moray laid siege to Lochindorb— the island fortress held by 
the widowed Countess of Athol, in response to whose appeal 
for succour Edward made his chivalrous raid into the north 
at the head of a few hundred mounted men. 

The success which attended the National party was now so 
complete that they invaded England. Returning to Scotland, 
they next invested Edinburgh Castle, but for some reason 
raised the siege after the fight at Crichton. From this time 
Sir Andrew's movements are difficult to trace, but in the 
"Exchequer Rolls" 24 of 1337 there is reference to him as 
Keeper of Berwick Castle. In the following year he retired to 
his Castle at Avoch, and died, according to one account, of 

28 WyntoH, II„ p. 439-30. M I„ p. 450. 



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The de Moravia Family. 17 

dysentery. Another version is that in riding an unbroken 
iiorse he was thrown ; his foot caught in the stirrup, so that 
he sustained fatal injuries. Wyntoun sings his praises in 
these words: — 

Schir Andrew muref guid and wight, 

That was a stout and bald knight 

That nane better wes in his day, 

Frae guid King Robert wes away. 
Of his splendid services to his country, at a time of utmost 
peril, there can be no question. He was buried, it is said, in 
the Chapel of Bosemarkie, although documents in the 
" Register of Moray " 25 convey the impression that his body 
was interred in Elgin Cathedral. At all events his sons, John 
and Thomas, left, and confirmed, endowments for celebrating 
masses in the Cathedral, where four wax candles were to be 
lighted at his tomb. Fordun states that his body was 
«xhumed and buried at Dunfermline. Sir Andrew had two 
sons by his first wife, viz., John and Thomas. From the 
circumstance that a family of Morays bore on their shield of 
arms three mullets in chief, with the Brus saltire in base, it is 
very possible that Sir Andrew had children by Lady Christian 
Brus. 26 

John de Moray succeeded as Lord of Bothwell, Petty, 
Croy, etc. In 1348 he had a dispensation to marry Margaret 
(.•rrl'a^, the fourteen year old heiress of the Earldom of 
Menteith. .: -n'c dispensation was procured at the instance of 
Queen Joanna, because the parties were related in the fourth 
degree of kindred. 27 In 1351, John, who is sometimes styled 
Earl of Menteith and Panetarius of Scotland, was a hostage 
in England for the ransom of David Brus, who had been taken 
at Durham. He died in exile without issue. 

Thomas de Moray, the brother and heir of John, took his 
place as a hostage on 5th September, 1351, his safe conduct, 
as such, being recorded in the " Rotuli Scotia." Sir Thomas, 
on the 25th of September, 1357, was a plenipotentiary for 

25 Pp. 296-S, 301. Invernessiana, p. 54. 

36 The dispensation, dated 1326, is in favour of " Nobile viro Andree de 
"Moravia domino de Bathville " and " Nobili Mulieri Cristiana de Setono Nate 
quondam Roberti de Bruys."— " House of Stewart," p. 429. 

27 " Papal Letters," Vol. III., p. 303 ; " Petitions to the Pope," Vol. I., p. 
144. She after wards married Thomas, Earl of Mar, and in 1361 Robert the 
Steward of Scotland petitioned the Pope for a dispensation in order that his 
•son Robert might marry her— the parties being ready to found and endow a 
Ohapel with 12 marks a year.—" Petitions to the Pope," I., p. 376. 



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IB Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

King David's ransom. He married Joanna de Moray, who* 
became heiress of Drumsargard 28 after the death of her brother 
John, the only son of Maurice de Moray of Drumsargard, Earl 
of Stratherne. Sir Thomas had no issue by his wife Joanna, 
and after his death from the plague in 1361, his relict married, 
by dispensation 23rd July, 1361, Archibald, afterwards third 
Earl of Douglas,29 to whom she brought the vast estates of the 
House of Bothwell. This fact alone seems to prove that the 
next heirs of family were so remote that they were ousted 
from their inheritance by the grasping Douglases. At any 
rate, as will be seen, those Moray s who claim to represent the 
illustrious line of Bothwell, in our own day, cannot produce* 
the necessary proofs. 



28rd JANUARY, 1902. 
ANNUAL DINNER 

After an interval of a year, owing to the death of Queen 
Victoria, the annual dinner of the Society was held this 
evening. It took place in the Royal Hotel, where the Society 
inaugurated its existence in' a similar manner thirty years ago. 
Mr Christie made the occasion a special one, in the way of 
producing a repast of the most recherche character, with 
admirable service and everything that pertains to comfortable 
dining. Sir Hector Munro of Fowlis was chairman, and he 
had a numerous company around him, those present including 
Colonel H. G. Grant, C.B., commanding the Inverness regi- 
mental district; Dr Alex. Ross, architect; Mr William 
Mackay, solicitor; Lieut. -Colonel Duncan Shaw, W.S. ; 
Surgeon Lieut. -Colonel R. Macdonald, Mr Duncan Campbell, 
Mr Lee-Innes, Milnneld ; Councillor J. L. Guild, Mr J. Leslie 
Praser, surgeon dentist ; Mr T. G. Henderson, Highland dub 
Buildings; Mr H. M. Graham, solicitor; Mr J. F. Souter, 
Commercial Bank; Mr Alex. Machardy, chief constable; Mr 
John Macdonald, chief constable ; Mr D. Murray, commission 
agent; Mr K. J. Brand, Unionist agent; Mr W. Colvin, 
auctioneer; Father Chisholm, Eskadale; Father Macqueen; 

28 " Calendar of Laing Charters," p. 97. 
» See " Genealogist," Vol. XVI., p. 137, and " Scottish Antiquary,*' Oct. 1900. 



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Annual Dinner. 1£ 

Mr J. Sutherland, solicitor; Mr Maclachlan, commercial 
traveller; Councillor J. Mackenzie, Union Street; Mr J. F. 
Smith, writer ; Mr Alex. Watt, hotelkeeper ; Mr Alex. Fraser, 
grocer, Tomnahurich Street; Mr George Gallon, commission 
agent; Mr Alex. Mitchell, East Coast Railway; Mr George 
Batchen, draper ; Mr A. Medlock, jeweller ; Mr A. R. Forsyth, 
Royal Academy ; Mr F. W. Whitehead, School of Music ; Mr 
D. F. Mackenzie, solicitor; Mr Donald Davidson, Waverley 
Hotel ; Mr William Fraser, High Street ; Mr William Fraser, 
Kessock Street ; Mr Hugh Fraser, Mr Arthur Medlock, jun. ; 
Mr John Maclennan, Lovat Road ; Mr William Grant, Royal 
Academy; Mr D. Nairne, Pretoria Villa; Mr Charles Ken- 
nedy, Highland Railway ; Mr Duncan Mackintosh, secretary ; 
and Mr A. Macdonald, assistant secretary. The croupiers 
were Mr W. J. Watson, rector, Royal Academy, and Mr Alex. 
Macbain, LL.D. 

Apologies for absence were intimated from Sir Robert 
Finlay, K.C., Attorney-General; Donald Cameron of Lochiel, 
The Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Colonel Macpherson of Glen- 
truim, W. D. Mackenzie of Farr, J. D. Fletcher of Rosehaugh, 
Lachlan Macdonald of Skeabost, Lieut. -Col. A. Grant, Reay 
House; Sir Kenneth Matheson of Lochalsh; A. M. Mackin- 
tosh, Geddes ; Councillor James A. Gossip, Knowsley ; James 
Barron, " Inverness Courier " ; Sheriff Grant, Inverness ; 
Major Cavaye, Cameron Highlanders; Sheriff Davidson, Fort- 
William; Sheriff Campbell, Stornoway; T. A. Wilson, 
manager, Highland Railway Company; Captain Douglas 
Wimberley, Inverness; Rev. Father Bisset, Nairn; Rev. A. 
Macdonald, Kiltarlity ; John Macpherson-Grant, yr. of Ballin- 
dalloch; Rev. A. J. Macdonald, Killearnan; A. F. Steele, 
banker ; Rev. C. D. Bentinck, Rev. D. S. Maclennan, Laggan ; 
Alexander Burgess, Gairloch ; Provost Arthur D. Ross, Ken- 
neth Macdonald, town-clerk; Donald Cameron, Ardlarich, 
Inverness; Alex. Carmichael, Edinburgh; Robert Urquhart, 
jun., Forres; J. N. Anderson, Stornoway; Dr Lang, Inver- 
ness ; James Grant, president, Clan Grant Society ; Dr F. M. 
Mackenzie, Inverness ; L. Macbean, Kirkcaldy ; John Hender- 
son, Fortrose; John Macdonald, the Stores; J. Maclennan, 
Elgin ; John Macrae, solicitor, Dingwall ; D. Munro Fraser, 
H.M.I. S. ; John Mackay, Glasgow; D. Macritchie, C.A., 
Edinburgh ; John Mackintosh, solicitor ; D. Macpherson, Fal- 
kirk; A. J. Mackenzie, solicitor; Thomas Munro, architect; 
and many others. The secretary also read the following tele- 



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20 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

• 
gram from Mr T. A. Mackay, Edinburgh :— " Sonas do 'n 
chuideachd tha cruinn an nochd. Suas e!" 

The loyal toasts, as proposed from the chair, were very 
enthusiastically honoured, that of the Prince and Princess of 
Wales receiving special recognition when Sir Hector mentioned 
that their next exploitation of the Empire would be a tour 
through India. In calling upon the company to pledge the 
success of the navy, army, and auxiliary forces, he said this 
toast was in these times more appropriately termed on social 
occasions " The Imperial Forces " — (applause). During the 
war the army and reserve forces had been so mixed up that 
they formed really one army; Colonial Volunteers had vied 
in valour with those from the Mother Country, and, they would 
agree, the amalgamation had the effect of cementing the whole 
of the British Empire together — (applause). As long as the 
present patriotic spirit was in our midst we might be certain 
that conscription would never come into force as in foreign 
countries — (applause). The new regulations had spread con- 
sternation among the Volunteers, and he hoped the War 
Office authorities would see their way to make these regula- 
tions as elastic as possible. We must make up our minds for 
a certain amount of lack of training, but he was sure, when 
the time came, the Volunteers would be perfectly able to 
defend their hearths and homes, and so enable the regular 
army free to defend the country's interests abroad — (applause). 
No other country in the world, he ventured to say, could send 
250,000 men 7000 miles away from their base; and we had 
also sent out 150,000 horses. That was a magnificent achieve- 
ment — (applause). One result of the war could not be ques- 
tioned, and that was that it had made other nations respect 
the resources and power of Great Britain — (applause). 

Colonel Grant, C.B., with whose name the regular army 
was coupled, and who had an extremely cordial reception, 
said dining with the Gaelic Society that night, and venturing 
to speak to them, seemed to be rather a fraud on his part, for 
he was sorry to say he had not the Gaelic. He was the more 
ashamed of that knowing that his father, who was well known 
amongst them all — (applause) — was a Gaelic-speaking High- 
lander, and that he himself had been for forty years serving 
in a Highland regiment — (applause). But although he could 
not thank them in the tongue that he was told Adam brought 
with him from Eden — (laughter) — he happened to see that 
mentioned in the life of a divine which he had been reading, 



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Annual Dinner it 

but he did not know whether the statement was a fact or not 
— {laughter) — he thanked them sincerely in the Sassenach 
tongue for the cordial way in which the Chairman had pro- 
posed the toast, and he thanked them for receiving the toast 
so heartily. He must say his ignorance of the Gaelic was not 
entirely his own fault. He tried once very hard, indeed, to 
learn the language, but he did not know whether they would 
draw their dirks and skeandhus on him if he said that Gaelic 
was an extremely selfish language. It was one that would 
not allow anyone to enjoy its charms except those who were 
nursed on her bosom. He had tried very hard to master the 
language, but his attack was a singularly unsuccessful one. 
Really, he did not think anybody could learn the language 
perfectly who was not born, or at home, amidst the Gaelic — 
(applause). First of all, he must tell them that the great 
reason why he was present Was that he was called in the name 
of his father, who was for many years a member of the Society 
— (applause)-r-and took a great interest in it, as he did in 
everything in the North, for he was a true-hearted Highlander 
— (applause). As regards the toast, . it ought to be well 
received there, for all those members of the Imperial Forces 
were well represented in the district of which Inverness was, 
the capital. The Naval Reserve, which was so well repre- 
sented at Inverness and Stornoway, was a fine body of 
men. The regular regiments of the district — Seaforths and 
Camerons — had won great credit to themselves all over the 
world, and they well deserved the pride and affection that 
everybody in this district held them in — (applause). The 
Militia regiments had won great credit for themselves by their 
good conduct and good drill during their last embodiment. 
He had the pleasure of seeing the 3rd Seaforths come back from 
Egypt, and he must congratulate their gallant Chairman, the 
colonel of the regiment, for the very smart and very soldier- 
like appearance they had — (applause). The Chairman might 
well be proud of them— (applause). Being an outsider, He 
might say that the Volunteers, including the Highland Volun- 
teer Artillery, though they were not under his command, were 
fine, smart, eager bodies of men — (applause). But it was not 
only the forces of the Crown that were eager. The Volunteers 
had shown themselves not only eager for their own work, but 
for service abroad, and not only them, but the people all 
round Inverness had been wonderfulin that respect. He had 
been quite astonished. People talked of the siege of Lady- 



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22 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

smith; why, that only lasted three months. He had been 
besieged for two years by aspirants who wanted to face the 
enemy— (laughter and applause). It seemed to him that half 
of the young men in the North wished to go to fight the battles 
of their country — (applause). It was extraordinary the num- 
ber that had gone abroad. He again thanked the company 
for the way in which they had received the toast, and he was 
sure the regiments belonging to the district would appreciate 
the honour — (applause). 

Colonel Duncan Shaw, in responding for the Volunteers, 
referred to the part the force had taken in the South African 
war, and said that although opinion might differ as to the 
propriety of sending Volunteers on active service abroad, all 
must agree that those who did go to the front proved them- 
selves worthy to fight side by side with the trained battalions 
of the Empire — (applause). Sir Hector had referred to the 
recent regulations issued for Volunteers. While it was the 
duty of Volunteer officers and men loyally to try to carry out 
the regulations in their entirety, he (Colonel Shaw) confessed 
to have some misgivings, if they were strictly enforced, that 
they might lead to a diminution of the force. If a man found 
that by conforming to these regulations he prejudiced his 
means of livelihood, or even imperilled it, he naturally would 
retire from the force, and was quite justified in doing so, and 
recruits willing to join would be dissuaded from joining. It 
seemed to him that that would be a great misfortune to the 
country — (applause). When the Volunteer force was first 
instituted it was on the basis of being a purely voluntary body, 
got up entirely for the defence of the country from invasion, 
and he understood it was still constituted on that basis. One 
of the conclusions most people drew from one of the first phases 
of the South African war was that a large body of men, not 
specially courageous, not very well disciplined, not very well 
trained, but armed with the best weapon that money could 
Imy, and animated, as they thought, with the idea of fighting 
for their independence, and placed in the best position for 
defence, kept at bay for a long time a very large body of the 
finest soldiers in the world, and were only eventually dislodged 
by a larger number of the opposing forces, who were able to 
perform flanking or developing movements. It seemed to him 
that if that conclusion was correct, their policy was to increase 
as much as they could the Volunteer force, even though they 
be not highly trained, rather than to reduce the numbers to 



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Annual Dinner. 23 

form from it a highly trained aggressive body — (applause). 
He might be wrong in that conclusion, but he confessed it 
occurred to him after the experience in South Africa — (ap- 
plause). It might be of interest, in connection with the local 
battalion of the Cameron Volunteers, to state that though the 
Service Company had come home there were still 144 men 
belonging to the battalion at the front— (applause). They 
were partly in the Lovat Scouts, partly in the Scottish Horse, 
and partly in Fincastle's Horse. He thought it was very 
•creditable indeed to the local Volunteer battalion, and showed 
that the old fighting spirit of the Highlanders had not by any 
means died away — {applause). 

Mr Duncan Mackintosh, in submitting the twenty-ninth 
■annual report, said the Council " have pleasure in stating that 
the Society has had two very successful sessions since the 
former statement was given to the members, the dinner which 
fell to take place in January, 1901, having been abandoned 
in consequence of the death of our beloved Queen. Within 
the last year, 1 life member, 2 honorary members, and 16 
ordinary members joined the Society. On the other hand, the 
Council greatly regret to record the death of a number of its 
most active supporters, among whom are Sir Kenneth Mac- 
kenzie of Gairloch, Bart. ; Charles Fraser-Mackintosh of 
Drummond, LL.D., one of the founders of the Society; Alex- 
ander Macpherson, solicitor, Kingussie ; duny Macpherson of 
Cluny Macpherson; Major A. C. Mackenzie, Maryburgh — all 
old and enthusiastic members; also a sincere friend of the 
Society, ' Nether-Lochaber.' During the last year Volume 
XXII. of the Transactions was issued to the members, and 
that volume has been well received by the press. Volume 
XXm. is in the hands of the printers, and will, it is expected, 
be issued before the date of the Annual Assembly in July 
next. The syllabus for the present session is in the hands of 
the members present. The income and expenditure for the 
year shows a balance at the credit of the Society's bank account 
of £62 9s 6d. Mr Bignold of Lochrosque, M.P., present Chief 
of the Society, has generously sent during the year two sub- 
scriptions of £25 each towards the publishing fund. The 
Council have to acknowledge with gratitude the following con- 
tributions towards the Society's library : — ' The History of 
Clan Donald' (2 volumes), from the authors, Rev. A. Mac- 
donald, Kiltarlify, and Rev. A. J. Macdonald, Killearnan; 
1 Carmina Gadelica,' by Mr A. A Carmichael, and ' The Royal 



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24 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Winged Son of Stonehenge and Avebury,' by M. O. Morgan,, 
both from Mr John Mackay, Hereford; also a number of 
valuable books from Mr Macritchie, C.A., Edinburgh. Miss* 
Yule, Tarradale House, has presented the Society with a. 
beautifully framed engraving of ' Nether-Lochaber,' which is 
now hung up in the Society's room." 

Sir Hector Munro, who was received with hearty applause,, 
said — Gentlemen, after the satisfactory report which we have 
just had from our Secretary, I now ask you to fill a bumper to 
the toast of the evening — " Success to the Gaelic Society of 
Inverness " — (applause). In asking you to drink " success," I 
use a mere figure of speech, as after an existence of over a 
quarter of a century you will agree with me that the success of 
the Society is assured, as seen by the excellent work it has 
been doing all these years. The objects of the Society briefly 
are — (1) Preservation of the history, poetry, and literature 
generally of the Highlands ; (2) preservation of the interests 
of the Gaelic-speaking race ; and (3) preservation of the Gaelic 
language. Now, we must all admit that those schemes are 
wide and comprehensive, and well worthy the attention of a 
Society like ours — (applause). You will agree with me, 
gentlemen, that this Society has been doing its duty in 
working out these objects to the best of its ability. Taking 
the first, what better library than ours can be seen, than the 
library of our Society, bearing on all subjects relative to the 
literature of the Highlands? — (applause). The yearly pub- 
lished Transactions alone prove one of the best and most 
interesting and valuable collections of literature on Highland 
lore and traditions in existence, and the contents of these 
volumes show exhaustive research of which any Celtic Society 
may be proud — (applause). The Gaelic Society of London, of 
course a very wealthy association, has set an example to 
similar bodies like ours regarding Gaelic teaching in Highland 
counties. It lately communicated with Highland school- 
masters, and the returns from them show that Gaelic is taught* 
in 58 schools in the Highlands, and to some 1500 children. 
Gaelic books to the number of 570 have been sent in prizes 
to these schools, along with some 200 text-books — (applause). 
Besides the yearly published Transactions, the Gaelic Society 
of Inverness issues a large number of works on Highland 
subjects, and these works are read all over the civilised world, 
for, go where you may, there you will find the Highlander 
settled down, in all probability at the head of the community 



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Annual Dinner. 25> 

you find him in — (laughter and applause) — and, to keep him- 
self in touch with the old country, in all probability also a. 
Celtic or Gaelic Society flourishing alongside him — (applause)^ 
In this way Highlanders, whether in America, Canada, 
Australia, or India, have inducements not to forget their 
Highland homes, but to keep in touch with all the traditions, 
and all that pertains to their native country — (applause). 
Another object of ours is the preservation of the Gaelic lan- 
guage. This object perhaps offers more difficulties than at 
first sight appears to one. A good deal is said as to Gaelic 
being of no value nowadays, and it is, if not discouraged, at- 
best being allowed to die a natural death. I think that a 
Highlander who advocates its neglect altogether deserves some 
censure — (applause). Gaelic may not perhaps be of much use 
to a man in the daily avocations he has to follow, but once 
learned, or retained when known, it is an easy burden to carry, 
and I am glad to see a tendency of late years that more interest 
is taken in the Gaelic language, and it is not looked down 
upon now as unfashionable and vulgar — (applause). It is no 
uncommon thing, too, nowadays, to find men in all stations of 
life in the Highlands able to converse fluently in Gaelic with 
Gaelic-speaking Highlanders, and nothing to my mind tends- 
more to increase a man's influence among Highlanders than to 
be able to converse with them in their own language — (ap- 
plause). I am myself one of the unfortunates who never learnt 
Gaelic, but perhaps I feel the want of it more on an occasion 
like the present than in any other time of my life. I am con- 
vinced, too, that the Gaelic language has knit together the 
Highlanders, and is in a great way the — I may call it — 
invisible cause of the patriotism and clannish ness of the High- 
land people, forming, as it were, a common bond of union 
among all Highlanders, whether at home or abroad— (ap- 
plause). That the Highlander has made himself famous in all 
paths of life it is unnecessary for me to remind you. As a 
warlike race, where can you find anything more thrilling than 
the long record of valour displayed by our Highland regiments 
from the time of Waterloo and the Peninsula and the Mutiny 
down to the present day in South Africa? — (cheers). The 
countless deeds of valour by all ranks is a record of which 
Scotland may well *be proud — (cheers). Two of the territorial 
regiments — the Seaforths and Camerons— have immortalised 
themselves, for now and in future ages these tales of heroism 
will be handed down to those who come after us as stories of' 



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26 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

romance not less famous than those brave deeds we read of in 
the classic days of ancient Greece and Rome — (cheers). We 
hope that ere long those two famous regiments will return to 
their native counties, and, when they do, it will be the duty of 
all Highlanders to give them such a reception as will show 
them that the services they have rendered and sacrifices they 
have made for the Empire have not been overlooked by a 
grateful country — (cheers). Gentlemen, on an occasion like 
this it is usual to take notice of the improvement in the social 
condition of the Highlands that continues to go on. I was 
lately reading that most interesting book on the condition of 
the Highlands in the early part of the eighteenth century, 
called " Blurt's Letters." Major Burt, an officer of Engineers, 
evidently sent to Scotland to report on the condition of the 
country, does not give a flattering account of Clachnacuddin in 
those days, and I shall spare the feelings of you inhabitants of 
Inverness by refraining from repeating all he says about those 
who lived here in his time — (laughter). On reading his book 
one can hardly realise that some 150 years back the condition 
of the people was in such a deplorably backward state. Food 
was not to be got sometimes, and money was at times useless 
to the inhabitants, as there was little to buy with it if they 
had any. The people objected to the country being opened 
up by roads, as, having no boots, the stones and gravel in the 
roads hurt their feet, and their horses not being shod either, 
they complained that these new roads whetted down their 
horses' hoofs, so that the horses, such as they were, were made 
unserviceable — (laughter). Bridges they objected to as well, 
as they "caused the people to become effeminate, and less 
able to pass over waters in other places where bridges did not 
exist " — (laughter). Highland scenery, too, had little charm 
for Major Burt, as he speaks of our mountains as "disagree- 
able subjects, and nothing to be seen but gloomy spaces, rocks, 
heath, and the whole a dismal, gloomy brown drawing upon a 
dirty purple, and most of all disagreeable when the heath is 
in bloom " — (laughter). He thought, too, that " the most 
horrid is to look at these hills from east to west, for then the 
eye penetrates far among them, and one sees stupendous bulk, 
frightful irregularity, and horrid gloom" — (laughter). He 
then finishes up his description of our hills with the remark 
that " it is not unlikely you may ask of what use can be such 
monstrous excrescences?" — (laughter). Happily now such a 
feeling towards our Highland scenery is changed, and the then 



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Annual Dinner. 27 

.state of matters socially in the Highlands is a thing of the 
past — (applause). Nowadays, instead of roads being dis- 
couraged, authorities are often pestered to provide roads where 
they are not really required ; and the means of communication 
and travelling are such that the least affluent amongst us can 
travel with speed and luxury that were not dreamt of in our 
grandfathers' times. For a good deal of this state of matters 
in the Highlands we have to thank the Highland Railway 
Company — (applause). That excellent Company has received 
lately many hard knocks; still we have to thank it for what 
it has done for the Highlands. Long may it flourish and 
come on better days, and we all hope those days will not be 
long in coming — (applause). Where in all Great Britain can 
a finer and more picturesque country than our Highlands be 
seen, and, may I add, its " mountain dew ? " — (laughter and 
applause). All these should tempt the travelling public to 
come to give us a visit, and for the facilities of travel we must, 
as I have said before, thank our local railway company, which 
has really been the making of the Highlands of Scotland 
during the last forty years — (applause). Since our last 
annual dinner, now two years ago, we have had to mourn the 
loss of many valuable members of this Society', most prominent 
amongst them being the late Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Gair- 
loch, Cluny Macpherson, Dr Charles Fraser-Mackintosh, Sir 
Henry Macandrew, JEneas Mackintosh, the Doune ; and only 
the other day Provost Macpherson of Kingussie. In Provost 
Macpherson the Society has lost a most valuable member and 
-contributor to the literature of the Society. His contributions 
to the Transactions always showed much research, and his writ- 
ings proved he was an authority on all Highland subjects he took 
up. We have also to mourn the loss of another life member, 
who has just passed away from our midst. I refer to the late 
Major Jackson of Swordale, who for some eighteen years was 
my next-door neighbour. During Major Jackson's residence 
in the Highlands he identified himself with every object that 
was for the good of the people of the district in which he 
resided. He was a useful country gentleman, and his loss will 
long be felt in the county of Ross. The late lamented Sir 
Kenneth Mackenzie of Gairloch was an original member of 
the Society, and one of the best contributors to its Transac- 
tions. It is a sad fact to look back upon, but Sir Kenneth's 
last paper was read before this Society on the very day of his 
death, nearly two years ago. Knowing the late Sir Kenneth 



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28 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

intimately, as I did, the best tribute I can pay to his memory 
is that his loss is not merely a loss to the Highlands, but to 
Scotland — (applause). No man I could name had the same 
grasp of business matters as he had, and the time and trouble 
he devoted to business matters connected with the county of 
Ross and Cromarty is only known by those who had intimate 
business relations with him — (applause). Now, gentlemen, I 
am not going to detain you any longer, as I am afraid I have 
taken up more of your time than I had at first intended. I 
shall conclude by asking you all to do your best for a Society 
that is working hard to fulfil its mission, and the best way you 
can help us is to try one and all of you to get your friends to 
take an interest in and join this Society. When you think 
that we only charge for membership a subscription of 5s a year, 
and out of that publish our Transactions, which the members 
get free, you can plainly see that we require loyal and enthusi- 
astic support — (applause). For the continued success of the 
Society we have to thank our able secretary, Mr Mackintosh. 
His labour is indeed one of love for Highland literature, and 
long may he reign in his present position — (applause). The 
Society is fulfilling all its aims most loyally, and I am sure that 
all members are aiding in every way to carry out- the objects 
of the Society, so that it may fulfil its mission and deserve the 
success that I now ask you to drink to — (loud applause). 

Mr William Mackay proposed "Tir nam Beann, nan 
Gleann, 's nan Gaisgeach " — " The Land of the Mountains, 
Glens, and Heroes" — or, as he put it, the Highlands and the 
Highland people. He said that during the last thirty years 
the toast had been submitted year after year at the Society's 
dinner — frequently by men who did so eloquently and ade- 
quately — and, in these circumstances, it was difficult for him 
to say anything new on the sentiment embodied in it. The 
Land of the Mountain and the Glen was physically now very 
much the same as it was thirty years ago and for ages before — 
a beautiful land, notwithstanding what their old friend 
Edmund Burt had said; a gloriously beautiful land — (ap- 
plause) — an enchanting land, which was now beloved, not 
only by the native Highlander, but also by Lowland Scot and 
Englishman, and probably by descendants of Burt himself— 
(applause). The curious thing about those Englishmen and 
Lowlanders who ventured north of the Grampians in the 17th 
and 18th centuries was that almost every one of them stood in 
awe of the mountains which they saw ; not only in awe, but 



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Annual Dinner. 29 

actually in terror; and we have record of cases where South- 
rons absolutely refused to enter the Pass of Killiecrankie on 
their way north — (laughter). That the feeling had now 
entirely changed was evidenced by the rush of tourists and 
sportsmen from the South every year; and no man appreci- 
ated Highland scenery more than the Sassenach — (applause). 
There were exceptions possibly. Within the last ten years a 
relative of his went up Loch Ness with an English visitor, who 
let out that he was a farmer from Norfolk, and did not at all 
like the mountains. He went up to see Foyers, and on his 
return he said there was nothing there but mountains, and 
lie was not going further, but wanted to get back to Norfolk — 
{laughter). He evidently expected to find the Highlands as 
ffat as Norfolk, and the Falls of Foyers running on a plain — 
(laughter). In addition to the mountains and glens, the old 
words of the toast embraced the heroes — the heroes, that was, 
of course, the Highland people. Although the country had 
not changed, there was no doubt that, as the Chairman had 
pointed out, a great change had come over the people. They 
had changed in their callings; they were no longer entirely 
.given to cattle lifting, as they were accused of being in the 
olden times— (laughter). They had changed in their manner 
of living and in their habits and customs. Although he was 
very fond of the past, he must admit that the result of his 
study of the past and of the present was that he thoroughly 
believed that at no time in the history of the Scottish High- 
lander was he so well off as he was at the present day— 
(applause). At the same time, there were certain changes 
which he wished were not taking place. He was sorry to see 
their old language neglected in certain places. Possibly that 
was the working of a law of Nature, of which they could not 
get rid. He was sorry to see the old men who were store- 
houses, so to speak, of legend and tradition and song passing 
away without having successors to take up their places.* Those 
changes were unfortunate, and to be deplored; but, as he had 
said, the social condition of the people was, he believed, better 
than ever it was before— (applause). They had often heard 
during the past few years that the result of the changes was 
that as a race they were deteriorating— they were getting soft 
and effeminate, and had not among them men of the same 
valour and stamina as the men who fought at Killiecrankie 
and Culloden, in the Peninsula War and at Waterloo, the 
•Crimea, and the Indian Mutiny. Now, it was evident from 



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30 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

what had taken place within the past two years that those 
surmises and fears were not well founded — (applause). He did 
not think they ever had a more brilliant period in what he 
might call the martial history of the country than the past two 
years — (applause). Not only had the Highlanders shown that- 
they had the same old martial spirit, the same old patriotism, 
the same old valour, and the same old resolution not to give 
in, but the same thing could be said of the whole country — 
(applause). No matter what part of the country the call from 
South Africa reached, it was promptly responded to, and, as 
Colonel Grant had said, the part of the country of which 
Inverness is the centre had done especially well — (applause). 
Not only had it sent out detachment after detachment in con- 
nection with the Seaforth and Cameron Highlanders, but it 
had contributed largely to the Scottish Horse and to Lord 
Fincastle's Horse, and they had sent out three contingents of 
what they might claim as an Inverness regiment — the Lovat 
Scouts — (applause). The same old spirit was still in the 
Highlands, and he hoped it would continue for ages to- 
come — (applause). The Chairman had referred to the losses 
which the Society had sustained by the death of members 
during the past two years, and the loss was very grievous. Mr 
Mackay then read over the names in the printed list of toasts 
at the dinner five years ago, and said the story it told was an 
extremely sad one, the Chairman (Cluny) and almost all the 
proposers and responders having passed away in the interval. 
He concluded by asking them to drink to the prosperity of the 
Highlands and the Highland people — (loud applause). 

Mr Duncan Campbell, in replying, said that Mr Mackay's 
speech had left him without much to say. It was like the 
stroke of Fingal's sword, which cut clean through — " Mar 
bheum claidheamh Fhinn nach d' fhag riamh iomall na 
dheigh." But no response was necessary — the response was in 
their Highland blood — (applause). In any part of the world 
where two or three Highlanders were gathered together the 
toast would bring a throb from the heart and moisture to the 
eyes — (applause). It would be interesting to know when that 
toast was formulated as they had it now. The sentiment 
which it embodied was hereditary, and held its grip not only 
on Highlanders, but on people who were in one way or another 
their race relations. Take Byron, for instance, who was half 
a Highlander, and who, while loud in the praises of " Dark 
Loch-na-Gar," spoke rather disrespectfully of the charms of 
the predominant partner — 



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Annual Dinner. 31 

" England, thy beauties are tame and domestic, 
To one who has roamed on the mountains afar ! " 

In his description of a night storm in the Alps, Byron's Gordon 
blood spoke out still more loudly and unmistakably — 

" Oh, glorious night, 
Thou wert not made for slumber ; let me be 
A sharer in thy fierce and far delight, 
A portion of the tempest and of thee ! " 

Nature feeling pervades the oldest poetry of the Highlanders ; 
not, indeed, as effusively as in the songs of the later bards, 
but in lines and words which form complete pictures. It takes. 
a fuller form in the poems of the forest bard, Duncan Ban, 
who, referring to physical effect, said — 

" An t-uisge glan '3 am faileadh 

Th' air mullach nam beann arda 
Chuidich e gu fas mi; 

'S e rinn domh slaint a's fallaineachd." 

The scenery so stimulated the imagination that, passing from 
the physical to the metaphysical or supernatural, our 
ancestors peopled their lonely mounds, eerie corries, lochs and 
streams, and mountain tops with fairies, hags, and water 
sprites ; and in the thin grey mist which circled ben tops saw 
visibly the Fuathas or Spirit of the Storm. The Highlanders, 
have two rallying phrases — 

" Tir nam Beann nan Gleann 's nan Gaisgeach," 
and 

" Clann an Gaidheal an guaillnibh 'cheile " 
(Highlanders shoulder to shoulder). 

The first is not exclusively their own, for they must share it. 
with all mountaineers. The people of the Borders were filled 
with the same enthusiasm about their hills, and streams, and 
valleys, and Sir Walter Scott had expressed the sentiment for 
all Scotland — 

" O Caledonia ! stern and wild, 
Meet nurse for a poetic child ! 
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood, 
Land of the mountain and the flood, 
Land of my sires ! What mortal hand 
Can e'er untie the filial band 
That knits me to thy rugged strand P 



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32 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

But the Gaelic language was their own property, and he was 
sorry that the language, which was their strong bond of union, 
was rapidly decaying in their midst through several causes, 
and one of them was the unfortunate idea that all life should 
be consecrated to commerce and to urban pursuits, and there- 
fore the children of the country people were taught English in 
the schools instead of the native language. It was not right 
in the Highlands that the language which the rocks rever- 
berated for hundreds of years would only echo back the words 
of Cockneys and Lowlanders — (laughter and applause). Mr 
Campbell also spoke with regret of the decay of the Gaelic 
language in Inverness during the past twenty-one years, and 
lie concluded by referring to the many qualities and powers of 
endurance with which the peoples who lived in mountainous 
lands were endowed beyond those who lived on the plains, 
and to their passionate love of country. 

Mr W. J. Watson, in giving the toast of Kindred Societies 
and Non-Resident Members, said that the toast was a com- 
prehensive and important one — so important that, in his 
opinion, the two sections to which it referred deserved separate 
mention. With regard to kindred societies, the term was to 
be applied in its widest extent to all those associations, 
whether situated in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Brittany, or in 
foreign parts, which were united by the common bond of 
sympathy and admiration for that Celtic race to which they 
all belonged. These societies fell into various classes. Com- 
paratively few — he regretted to say none, so far as he knew, 
in Scotland except the Gaelic Society of Inverness — made it 
the chief part of their business to collect and publish whatever 
they found worthy of preservation as bearing upon the 
language, literature, history, manners and customs, traditions, 
and genius generally of the Celt. In Ireland, however, they 
had the Irish Text Society and others more or less engaged in 
similar work, while in Wales great attention was given to it. 
Another class of societies, more of a social nature, did good 
work in making their members more familiar with the Gaelic 
language, songs, and stories. Yet another class did much to 
encourage the study of Gaelic in the Highlands by giving 
prizes for Gaelic in Highland schools, and also by assisting 
young men from the Highlands to receive a higher education. 
Among these he might mention the Gaelic Societies of London 
and Glasgow and the London Inverness-shire Association — 
{applause). In Inverness they had a fourth class, worthily 



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Annual Dinner. 33 

xepresented by their Scientific Society and Field Club, which 
made it an important part of its work to investigate and 
record all matters of archaeological and antiquarian interest 
which lay within their reach. Its conclusions in this depart- 
ment had indeed sometimes been characterised as tending to 
the nebulous ; but that was probably an accident inseparable 
from the nature of the study, and, in any case, they would be 
.glad to hear that the Society was doing its best to remove that 
reproach, for they were going to take the'advice of an eminent 
statesman of the day. They had resolved not to deal with 
surface matters, but to take to spade-work, a step from which 
the best results might be expected. All these societies were 
doing good work in their own way, and deserved their best 
wishes for their prosperity— -(applause). With regard to the 
non-resident members, their importance to the Gaelic Society 
of Inverness could not be over-estimated. In the first place, 
they contributed largely to the syllabus; in fact, but for* their 
Assistance the Gaelic Society could not produce its Transac- 
tions— (applause). A glance at the syllabus in their hands, 
and it was not exceptional in this respect, would show that, 
out of the twelve papers there, nine were contributed by 
members furth of Inverness, and only three by gentlemen 
residing in the town. These contributors hailed from places 
so widely separated as Eddrachilles, Edinburgh, and Toronto 
— (applause). It was the peculiar good fortune of the Inver- 
ness Gaelic Society that they were able to interest Gelic 
scholars from all parts in their proceedings, But the non- 
resident members were equally important from a financial 
point of view. They formed a large part of the ordinary 
membership, and, besides, it was to them that the Society was 
indebted for those handsome donations from time to time, 
such as that from Mr Bignold of Lochrosque, which the secre- 
tary had just intimated, which really enabled the Society to 
go on from year to year publishing their Transactions. It 
was an open secret that without the aid of such donations their 
five-shilling membership fee would not suffice to meet the 
considerable expenses of publication. He had therefore much 
pleasure in proposing the toast — (applause). 

Dr Alexander Macbain, in acknowledging the toast on 
behalf of Kindred Societies, referred to the Pan-Celtic Con- 
gress in Ireland last September, which, he said, had turned 
out a great success. He regretted that the Gaelic Society of 
"Glasgow had given up publishing its Transactions ; and, with 



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34 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

regard to local societies, he said the Field Club had done good 
work in the past, and would do good work in the future — 
(applause). 

Rev. A. Chisholm, replying for the non-resident members, 
said all had the welfare of the Society very much at heart. 
The very fact that members belonged to distant countries 
showed that the object of the Society was one to commend their 
interest and sympathy everywhere, and not only the interest 
of Scotsmen and Highlanders, but of Celtic scholars all over 
the world — (applause). He was sure the non-resident members 
would be much gratified at the honour paid to them that 
night — (applause). 

Dr Alex. Ross, in proposing the health of the Chairman r 
said the manner in which Sir Hector Munro had discharged 
the duties of the chair was beyond praise, and must be grati- 
fying to every member of the Gaelic Society — (applause). He 
felt no little pride and pleasure in proposing the toast, because 
the Munroes and the Rosses had been associated in Easter 
Ross since time immemorial. He had recently been reading 
an amusing account written by a person who visited Easter 
Ross in the middle of last century, and who stated that the 
Munroes and the Rosses were decent, worthy clans, and well- 
deserving, but were often harassed by the raiding Macdonalds 
and Mackenzies — (laughter). Notwithstanding these raids 
and the raids from the West, the Munroes and Rosses managed 
to exist in Easter Ross — (laughter). He thought Sir Hector 
was a prominent specimen of the good old Highland laird that 
remained m this country, and who had not only shown him- 
self a worthy landlord, but two years ago, when a call was 
made for men, he, with his regiment, was the first to offer for 
service abroad — (applause). Sir Hector had served with his 
regiment in -tigypt, and they were able to relieve other troops. 
The community ought to thank him for his splendid work, and 
for what his regiment had done in the service of the country — 
(applause). They did not see Sir Hector as often as they 
would like in Inverness, but they hoped they would see him 
oftener in the future — (applause). Perhaps some of them 
were not aware of the benefits which the town had derived 
from Sir Hector's ancestors. At the end of last century, when 
one of Sir Hector's forefathers was Governor of Inverness, he 
contributed and was mainly responsible for the building of 
the town steeple, and they in Inverness had to thank him for 
the splendid timekeeper they had, for the clock they had now 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 35 

in the steeple was the gift of the then Sir Robert Munro — 
(applause). That showed them that the Chairman's connec- 
tion with the town was not of yesterday — (loud applause, and 
Highland honours). 

Sir Hector said it had given him the greatest pleasure to be 
of service to the Society that evening, and he was glad that 
what he had done had been appreciated. Dr Ross had men- 
tioned some connection his (Sir Hector's) family had with the 
town of Inverness. Sir Robert Munro was Governor of the 
Castle, and when he (Sir Hector) visited Inverness he confessed 
he always looked with affection on the Old Steeple — (applause). 
He was glad to know that his family had benefited the town 
in a small way. 

Mr Alex. Mitchell proposed the health of the Croupiers, and 
Dr Macbain and Mr Watson briefly responded. 

Sir Hector proposed the healths of those who had musically 
contributed to the entertainment, mentioning specially Mr 
Brand, who replied on behalf of Mr Alex. Watt (violin solos), 
Mr Leslie Fraser, Mr Morrison, and Mr Colvin (vocalists), and 
Mr Whitehead (pianist). The singing of " Auld Lang Syne " 
concluded the meeting. The arrangements for the dinner were 
admirably carried out by Mr Duncan Mackintosh and his 
assistant, Mr A. Macdonald, who were complimented on the 
success of the gathering. 



80th JANUARY, 1902. 

The contribution for this evening was by the Rev. John 
MacRury, Snizort, Skye, and was entitled — 

TURUS RUAIRIDH DO 'N EXHIBITION. 

(Facal air an fhacal mar a chualas uaithe fhein). 

Cha teid an turus a thug mise do Ghlasacho air a r 
bhliadhna so as mo chuimhne fhad 's a bhios mi air talamh 
nam beo. Agus o 'n a tha toil agadsa, 'dheadh charaid, fios 
fhaotainn air mar a thachair dhomh air mo thurus, agus air 
na chunnaic 's na chuala mi, bheir mi dhut gearr iomradh air ; 
ach cuimhnich gur e gearr iomradh a bhios ann, oir ged a 



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36 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

bhithinn-sa cho math gu beachd a ghabhail air na seallaidhean 
iongantach ud ri duine 'sheas riamh ann am broig lea t hair, 
agus cho math cuimhne ri duine 'bha riamh bed, cha rachadh 
agam air trian dhe na chunnaic 's a chuala mi a thoirt fa near 
agus a chumail air cuimhne. 

Ged a bha thusa gle eolach ormsa an uair a bha sinn le 
cheile 6g, gdrach, agus baoth, tha iomadh bliadhna o nach 
fhaca sinn a cheile. Is iomadh car a chuir an saoghal dheth 
o 'n am anns am bu ghnath leamsa, agus leatsa 'bhith 'g iomain 
air a' mhachaire lorn, reidh ri solus na gealaich, agus sinn gun 
churam gun smuain mu dheidhinn na bha romhainn dhe ar 
beatha. Mar is minic a thachair, chaill sinn sealladh air a 
cheile mu 'n gann a rainig sinn aois fearachais; agus o 'n a 
thachair gu 'n robh ar crannachur gle eadar-dhealaichte ann 
an iomadh ddigh, agus a thaobh gu 'n robh sinn o chionn 
dluth air da fhichead bliadhna far nach robh e 'n comas 
dhuinn a cheiF fhaicinn, cha bhiodh as an rathad dhomhsa 
beagan innseadh dhut mu dheidhinn a' chogaidh a bh' agam 
ris an t-saoghal, agus ri draghannan an t-saoghail o 'n a 
chunnaic mi thusa mu dheireadh. Tha fhios agamsa air gu 
leor mu d' dheidhinn-sa, ged nach 'eil fhios agadsa air a' 
bheag sam bith mu m' dheidhinn-sa. Agus faodaidh tu mo 
chreidsinn an uair a tha mi 'g innseadh dhut nach 'eil fear 
eile an diugh beo do 'n innsinn mo naigheachd cho saor 's a 
tha mi 'dol g' a h-innseadh dhutsa. 

Tha mi 'creidsinn gu 'm bheil cuimhne mhath agad fhathast 
air an am anns an robh sinn a' dol do 'n sgoil; agus tha 
fhios aig an fortan nach robh ann ach ainmeachas sgoile. Bha 
am maighstir-sgoile, mar a bha na sgoilearan — cearta coma 
ach an latha 'chur seachad. Cha 'n 'eil mi 'creidsinn gu 'n 
robh fear eile dhe na sgoilearan a leith cho coma dhe 'n sgoil 
's a bha mise. Cha robh mi deonach leabhar 'fhosgladh aon 
chuid anns an taigh-sgoile, no ann an taigh m' athar. B' f hearr 
learn gu mor a bhith 'falbh air mo thoil fhin timchioli a' 
chladaich, no air feadh -J mhonaidh ag iarraidh nead, na 
bhith anns an sgoil, ged a dh' fhaodas mi radh gu 'n robh mo 
thoil fhin agam anns an sgoil mar a bh' agam ann aite sam 
bith eile. Tha fhios agadsa gur ann mar so a bha, ach is 
docha gu 'n do leig thu air dichuimhn e. Ach cha do leig 
mise air dichuimhn e; oir tha mo ghbraiche agus mo mhi- 
churam anns an am ud a' cur dragh air an inntinn agam gus 
an latha 'n diugh, ged a tha fhios agam gle mhath nach toir 
dragh is dorran mu 'n am a dh' fhalbh atharrachadh sam bith 
air na chaidh seachad. 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 37 

O nach robh facal sgoile aig m' athair, no aig mo mhathair, 
cha robh iad a' faicinn gu 'n robh sgoil gus a bheag a 
dh' fheum a dheanamh dhomhsa. Cha robh duine sam bith 
ach fior dhuin' ainneamh a' smaointinn aig an am ud gu 'n 
robh sgoil a chum feuma sam bith do dh' fhearr aig nach robh 
obair a V fhearr na saoithreachadh fearainn. 

Cho luath 'sa V urrainn mi obair a dheanamh, V fheudar 
dhomh tbiseachadh ri obair. Ach an uair a thainig mi gu 
rudeiginn gliocais, agus a dh' fhas mi mbr, cha robh saoith- 
reachadh an fhearainn agus gach obair eile a bha ri dheanamh, 
a' cordadh rium idir. Thbisich mi ri cur romham gu 'm 
falbhainn gu cosnadh air choireiginn do 'n Ghalldachd, no 
thun an iasgaich mar a bha fear is fear eile dhe m' sheorsa 
'deanamh; ach gu mi-fhortanach dh' fhas m' athair tinn aig 
an am, agus leig mi as mo cheann falbh o 'n taigh an diiil 
gu 'n rachadh e na V fhearr. Agus ged a chaidh e na 
b' fhearr beagan, cha do chuir e riamh dheth an tinneas a 
bh' air. Mu 'n d' thainig ceann na bliadhna dh' eug e. Bha 
mo mhathair aig an am ud, mar a bha i aireamh bhliadhnachan 
roimhe sid, gle bhreoite. Agus o nach robh beo dhe 'n 
teaghlach ach mi fhin is aon phiuthar, smaoinich mi gu 'm V e 
mo dhleasdanas leantail ris an taigh 's ris an fhearann fhad 
's a bhiodh mo mhathair beb. 

Mu ; n d' thainig ceann bliadhna an deigh bas m' athar, 
phbs mo phiuthar. Cha bu luaithe 'pbs mo phiuthar na 
thbisich mo mhathair ri mo chur gu pbsadh. An toiseach, 
cha robh mi debnach a comhairle ghabhail ; ach mu dheireadh, 
cha robh doi as agam. Chunnaic mi nach robh rathad agam 
air gnothaichean a chumail ann an brdugh mar bu mhath 
learn am freasdal searbhanta. Agus o 'n a bha 'ntea bha mo 
mhathair ag iarraidh orm a phbsadh a' tighinn a reir m' inntinn 
fhin anns gach dbigh, phbs mi i. 

Fhuair sinn seachdnar chloinne. Ach chaill sinn triiiir 
dhiubh an uair a bha iad bg. Chaill sinn dithis ghillean anns 
a' ghriuraich anns an aon earrach — fear dhiubh cbig, agus am 
fear eile tri, bliadhna. Agus cha 'n ann a chionn gu 'm bu 
leamsa iad, cha V aithne dhomh dithis eile dhe 'n leithidean 
anns an duthaich. Chuir bas na cloinne so, agus cha V 
ioghnadh e, tilleadh mbr annam fhin agus anns a' mhnaoi. 
B' iad a V bige dhe 'n teaghlach, agus uime sin bha sinn uile 
'g an caoidh anabarrach mbr. 

Chuir mi romham aig toiseach mo thbisich gu 'n tugainn 
sgoil is ionnsachadh do m' theaglach. Thachair gu fortanach 



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38 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

gu 'n robh deadh mhaighstir-sgoile faisg' oirnn. Ged a b' e 
Domhull am mac bu shinne, agus a' cheud chuideachadh a bha 
gu tighinn orm, chuir mi romham gu 'n cumainn gu riagh- 
ailteach anns an sgoil e, a chum gu 'n rachadh aige, nam 
biodh e fhein glic, air faotainn troimh 'n t-saoghal gun a 
bhith sas ann an gibean bochd fearainn, no ri obair shalaich 
sam bith eile. Agus cha 'n 'eil aithreachas sam bith orm an 
diugh air son sid a dheanamh; oir bha e 'na sgolair math, 
agus bha e iomchuidh, glic, curamach, deanadach, gun chosgais 
gun strodhalachd sam bith. Tha aireamh bhliadhnachan o 'n 
a chaidh e do Ghlasacho, far an d' fhuair e aite-cosnaidh 
anabarrach math. Ach tha mi 'faicinn, a charaid, gu 'm bheil 
thu 'gabhail fadachd nach 'eil mi 'g innseadh dhut mu mo 
thurus. Mur b' e sin dh' innsinn dhut moran mu thimchioll 
mar a bha mi 'cothachadh an t-saoghail. M u'n teid mi air 
aghart le mo naigheachd mu dheidhinn mo thuruis, faodaidh 
mi innseadh dhut gu 'n robh gnothaichean gle chruaidh orm 
fhin 's air a' mhnaoi fad iomadh bliadhna. Chuir sinn 
romhainn nach biodh eis sam bith air a' chloinn, ciod sam 
bith mar a dh' eireadh dhuinn fhin. Fhuair iad uile deadh 
sgoil, agus cha robh eis beidh no aodaich orra; agus bha am 
mathair 'g an cumail gle ghlan, sgiobalta. Ach air a shaillibh 
so, bha sinn fhin le cheile iomadh uair gun an t-aodach uile 
slan mu ar druim. Fhuair sinn as a chionn sin, agus faodaidh 
sinn a nis a dhol am mach air Sabaid 's air seachdain cho 
sgiobalta 's cho glan ri h-aon sam bith dhe ar coimhearsnaich. 

B' abhaist do Dhomhull a bhith tighinn dhachaidh fad 
seachdain no deich latha a h-uile bliadhna. Ach am bliadhna, 
chuir e fios nach robh ; na bheachd tighinn dhachaidh idir, o 'n 
a bha toil aige gu'n rachainn-sa 'mach a dh' fhaicinn nan 
ioghnaidhean mora a bh* ann an Glasacho. Cha robh mi an 
toiseach debnach a dhol do Ghlasacho idir. * Bha mi 'g radh 
nach robh gnothach sam bith aig mo leithid-sa de sheann duine 
aig nach robh ach gann facal Beurla a dhol do 'n bhaile mhor 
idir. Ach laidh a h-uile duine 'bha staigh orm gus a dhol 
ann, agus thuirt iad rium nach b' eagal dhomh, ged nach robh 
Beurla gu leor agam gu 'n robh Gailig gu leor aig Domhull. 
Mu dheireadh, an uair a bha 'bhean 'g am chomairleachad gu 
falbh, dh' aontaich mi gu 'm falbhainn. 

Sgriobh Domhull g' am ionnsuidh, agus thuirt egu'n robh 
e 'dol a chur deise ugam o Ian gu mullach gus a bhith umam 
air mo thurus. Agus thuirt e gu 'm faodainn falbh leis an 
' train/ no air a' Chlaidheamh-mhor, nam b' e V fhearr leam. 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 39 

Chuir e airgiod ugam gus mo bhord is m' fharadh a phaigheadh. 
Agus thuirt egu'm feumainn, nam b' ann air a' Chlaidheamh- 
mhbr a dh' fhalbhainn, mo bhiadh 's mo leaba 'ghabhail anns 
a' chabin mar a dheanadh na h-uaislean eile a bhiodh air bbrd. 

Chuir mi romham am muigh 's am mach nach fhalbhainn 
leis an 'train/ Bha mi o chionn fada 'cluinntinn gu'n robh 
mbran air am marbhadh leis an ' train ' ; agus ged a chaidh 
mi troimh iomadh cruadal agus cruaidh-chas a' togail mo 
theaghlaich, cha robh iarraidh sam bith agam air falbh as an 
t-saoghal so gus am b' fhior fheudar dhomh; agus mar sin, 
chuir mi romham gu 'm falbhainn leis a' Chlaidheamh-mhbr. 

Bha 'n deise 'chuir Domhull g' a m' ionnsuidh a cheart 
cho freagarrach dhomh 's ged a dh' fhasadh i umam. B' e ada 
bhog dhe 'n t-sebrsa a bhios na ministearan a' caitheamh a 
chuir e g' am ionnsuidh, oir bha fhios aige gur i bu sholta ri 
mo cheann. Agus bha na bbtunnan a chuir e ugam cho 
freagarrach dhomh 's a dh' iarrainn. Agus o 'n is ann ri radh 
riutsa e, cha deachaidh deise cho math sid mu m' chroit 
riamh roimhe. 

Gu fortanach bha lath* anabarrach briagh ann an uair a 
ghluais mi o 'n taigh gu falbh. Dh' fhag mi beannachd aig a 
mhnaoi 's aig a chloinn mar gu 'm bithinn a' dol a dh' fhalbh 
as an rioghachd. 

An uair a rainig mi 'n cladach bha 'm bata a bha gus ar 
n-aiseag thun a' Chlaidheimh-mhbir a' faotainn deiseil, agus 
gun dail chaidh sinn a steach innte; oir bha 'n daidheamh- 
mbr air tighinn 'n ar sealladh. 

Cha robh i tiotadh a' tighinn do 'n acarsaid. Agus an 
uair a rainig sinn &' chliathach aice, bha ioghnadh gu lebr orm 
cia mar a chaidh aig daoine air a cur air bhog an uair a 
rinneadh i. 

Cha bu luaithe fhuair mi air bbrd na thainig duine air an 
robh colt as fior chaoimhneil far an robh mi, agus thuirt e, 
agus fiamh gaire air a ghnuis : " Cia mar a tha sibh an diugh, 
a Ruairidh? Nach briagh' a' mhadainn a th' ann?" 

Bha deise bhriagha ghorm air, agus da shreith de phutain 
bhuidhe anns an t-seacaid aige, agus bha stiom de dh' aodach 
bir mbr-thimchioll a churraic a bha m' a cheann. 

Thuirt mi ris an uair a chuir e failte orm : " Tha 'n 
cothrom agaibh orm, a dhuine choir; cha 'n 'eil mi 'g 'ur 
n-aithneachadh . ' ' 

Anns a fhacal, co 'fhreagair ach Seumas Mac-an-Tbisich, 
gille coir, gasda air an robh deadh aithne agus deadh eblas 



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I 



40 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

agam mu 'n d' fhalbh e thun na Galldachd. " So agad, a 
Ruairidh, sgiobair a' bhata," ars' esan ; " agus tha e gle 
eolach air Domhull." 

" Tha mi 'g iarraidh mathanais oirbh, a sgiobair," ars^u 
raise ; " cha robh fhios agam co sibh." 

Cha riug mi leas na bha de chomhradh agam ris an 
sgiobair choir innseadh dhuibh; ach faodaidh mi radh gu 'n 
do thog mo chridhe ris, cha V ann a mhain a chionn gu 'n 
robh deadh Ghailig aige, ach mar an ceudna a chionn gu n 
robh coltas cho aoidheil 's cho tlachdar air a ghnuis. 

Thug Seumas Mac-an-T6isich sios do 'n chabin mi, agus a ? 
mhic an t-saoghail ! b' e sin aon seomar cho briagha s a 
chunnaic mo shuil chinn riamh. Cha robh mi 'n duil riamh 
gus a sid gu 'n gabhadh seomar cho briagha sid deanamh ann 
am broinn luinge. 

"Is cinnteach, a Ruairidh," arsa Seumas, "gu 'm V 
fheairrde sibh deur beag de stuth na Toiseachd. Tha greis 
o'na dh' fhalbh sibh o 'n taigh." 

" Ma ta, a charaid choir," arsa mise, " cha chreid mi gu 'n 
deanadh deur beag dheth cron sam bith orm aig a' cheart am 
so fhein. Cha deachaidh norradh air mo shuil an raoir leis 
mar a bha mi cho trie a' smaointean air an turus a bha 
romham." 

Bhuail Seumas glag beag a bha 'n aiteiginn faisg' air, agus 
dh' iarr e air fear caol, glas a thainig far an robh e, dram a 
thoirt g' a ionnsuidh. Ann an tiotadh thainig e air ais agus 
botul briagha ochd-shlisneach, tha mi 'n duil, luma Ian uisge- 
bheatha aig 'na laimh, agus chuir e air a' bhbrd air ar 
beulaobh e. Chaidh e as an t-sealladh mar gu 'n deanadh an 
dealanach, agus ann an tiotadh bha e air ais a rithist agus 
glaineachan is tumailearan aige, agus chuir e air ar beaulaobh 
lad. 

An uair a thug Seumas lamh air a' bhotul gus na glain- 
eachan a lionadh, thuirt mi ris: "Cha 'n fhaod e bhith, a 
Sheumais gu 'm bheil e nad' bheachd an daorach a chur orm 
an uair a dh' brdaich thu do 'n fhear chaol ud am botul mar 
a tha e a thoirt dhut? Cuimhnich nach gabh mise ach an aon 
ghlaine air a' cheann so dhe 'n latha co dhiubh. Agus tha e 
gle ghorach dhutsa botul a cheannach. Car son nach d' iarr 
thu siolla? Dheanadh aon ghlaine an gnothach dhut fhein 
cho math riumsa. Tha mi 'n dbchas nach 'eil thu air fas cho 
trom air an 61 's gu 'n teid agad air luma Ian a' bhotuil 61 aig 
aon suidhe." 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 41 

Rinn Seumas lascan mor gaire, agus thuirt e : " Cuimh- 
nichibh a Sheumais, gur ann a tha sinn an drasta ami an 
seomar nan daoin' uaisle. Is ann mar urram ruinn a chuir- 
eadh am botul Ian air ar beulaobh. Tha de mheas ac' oirnn 
gu 'm bheil iad a' creidsinn nach 61 sinn ach na phaigheas 
sinn." 

An uair a thainig am na dinearach, shuidh mi aig a' bhord 
ri taobh Sheumais ; agus, a charaid, b' e sid am bord ! Cha 'n 
fhaca mise riamh roimhe a leithid. Cha robh de dh' eagail 
an t-saoghail orm ach gu 'm bristinn feadhainn dhe na soith- 
ichean a bh' air mo bheulaobh. Ach ged a bha pailteas dhe 
gach biadh a b' fhearr na cheile air a' bhord, cha mhor a 
ghabh mise dheth. Air a shon sin, phaigh mi gle dhaor air 
son a' bheagain a ghabh mi. Bheirinn mo mhionnan nach 
dh' ith mi luach sia sgillinn dhe 'n bhiadh, agus b' fheudar 
dhomh mo leth-chrun geal a phaigheadh air a shon ! 

Bha rud eil' ann a chum mi o bharrachd dhe 'n bhiadh a 
gabhail, agus b' esin, mar a bha m' aire air a togail cho mor 
le boirionnach a bha mu m' choinneamh air an taobh eile 
dhe 'n bhbrd. Tha mi 'faicinn fiamh gaire air do ghnuis, a 
charaid ; is docha gu 'm bheil thu 'smaointean gu 'n do ghabh 
mi tlachd dhi. Is fhada uam a ghabhadh e. Ged a 
bhithinnsa 'nam sheann fhleasgach, agus mi cho toileach 
posadh ri mac mathar a tha beo, cha ghabhainn i ged a 
gheibhinn deich mile punnd Sasunnach leatha. Cha robh 
innte ach te chutach, ghollach, reamhar. Cha robh maise 
sam bith oirre a b' urrainn domhs' fhaicinn; ach air a shon 
sin, cha teid i as mo chuimhn-sa ri mo bheo shaoghail. Gun 
fhacal breige, dh' ith i a' cheart urad ri ceathrar dhe na fir a 
bh' aig a' bhord. Saoil thusa nach robh eagal ormsa mu 
dheireadh gu 'n spraidheadh i. Ma 's e sid sebrsa 'bhios gu 
trie a' gabhail an turuis air na bataichean, cha 'n 'eil ioghnadh 
ormsa ged a dh' fheumas na stiubhardan leith-chrun iarraidh 
air son a h-uile beidh a dh' itheas iad. Is fhad o 'n a chuala 
mi am facal, " Diolaidh coireach no neo-choireach." Agus tha 
amhrus agam gur e sid a thug air an stiubhard an aon uiread 
iarraidh ormsa 's a dh' iarr e oirrese, ged a dh' ith i 'sheachd 
uiread rium. 

An uair a bha sinn a' gabhail na ti feasgar, thug mi an aire 
mhath nach suidhinn m' a coinneamh air son rud sam bith. 
Chaidh agam, air an aobhar sin, air mo dheadh thi a ghabhail,. 
agus bha mi gle fheumach oirre. 



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42 Gaelic Society ot Inverness. 

An uair a thainig an t-am dhuinn a dhol a laidhe, chuir- 
eadh a steach mi do sheomar beag cho grinn s cho glan s a 
chunnaic mi riamh. Bha da leabaidh ann — te os cionn te mar 
gu m faiceadh tu sgeilpeannan ann am preasa. Chaidh 
Seumas a steach do 'n t-seomar so comhladh rium gus rud no 
dha sonruichte a bh' anns an t-seomar a leigeadh fhaicinn 
domh, agus thuirt e rium gu 'm b' fhearr dhomh a dhol a 
laidhe do n te 'b' isle dhe na leapannan, air dhoigh s nan 
tachradh dhomh car a chur dhiom air an oidhche, agus tuiteam 
am mach as an leabaidh, nach fhaighinn leagadh mor. 

Bha 'n leaba direach mu 'n aon fhad 's mu n aon leud rium 
fhin, agus an uair a shuidhinn innte bhiodh mo cheann a' 
bualadh ann an iirlar na leapadh a bh' as mo chionn. 

Ged a chaidh mi laidhe, cha b' ann gu cadal. Bha 'n leaba 
<;ho cumang, agus bha 'n seomar cho annasach 's nach robh 
norradh a' tighinn air mo shuil. Mu dheireadh thainig 
rudeiginn de dhusal cadail orm ; ach an uair a bhi air thuar 
tuiteam ann an cadal trom, chuala mi 'bhith 'fosgladh dorus 
an t-seomair. Chuir fear a cheann a steach, agus thug e suil 
thall 's a bhos air feadh an t-seomair, agus an uair a thug e 
'cheann air ais, agus a dhuin e 'n dorus, chuala mi e 'bruidhinn, 
agus dh' aithnich mi gur e Sasunnach a bh' ann, oir cha robh 
mi ach gann a' tuigsinn aon fhacal dhe na bha e 'g radbi. 

" Tha mi 'n dochas," arsa mise rium fhein, " nach tig am 
fear ud a chadal do 'n t-seomar so." Ach mu 'n gann a leig 
mi am facal as mo bheul, thainig e steach do 'n t-seomar, 
agus thbisich e ri cur dheth 'aodaich. 

Cha do mhi-chord a choltas rium idir ; ach dh' aithnich mi 
gur e Sasunnach a bh' ann. Cha robh e fada 's an leabaidh 
an uair a thuit e 'na chadal. Ach ma chaidil esan, cha do 
chaidil mise. Bha . srann aige a chuireadh eagal air dearg 
mheirleach. An drasta 's a rithist shaoilinn gu 'n robh e gus 
a bhith air a thachdadh. Thoisicheadh an t-srann beag an 
toiseach, agus beag air bheag bhiodh i 'sior dhol na bu mho, 
gus mu dheireadh an robh an anail aige stad. Bha mi 'n diiil 
an toiseach nach fhaigheadh e 'anail tuilleadh ; agus bha fior 
eagal orm gu'm faigheadh e bas anns an leabaidh as mo chionn. 
Eadar a h-uile rud a bh' ann cha d' fhuair mi norradh cadail. 

An uair a shoilleirich an latha dh' eirich mi, agus chaidh mi 
suas an staidhre. Bha madainn anabarrach briagh' ann, agus 
bha sealladh math ri fhaicinn aig an am, oir bha sinn a' 
sebladh troimh na Caoil-Bodach. 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 43 

An uair a bha 'bhraiceist deiseil, thainig am fear caol air 
an d' thug mi iomradh mar tha, a nios an staidhre, agus glag 
aig 'na laimh g* ar cuireadh thun a' bheidh, agus a dh ; 
innseadh na firinn dhut, theab e mo bhodhradh leis a' 
ghleadhar a thug e air a' ghlag. 

Ghabh mi mo bhraiceist gle mhath, oir bha acras gu leor 
orm an deigh na caithris agus na rinn mi de spaisdearachd air 
bbrd ; agus ged a phaigh mi mo dha thasdan air no na dh' ith 
mi, cha robh mo shuil na dheigh. 

Bha mi gle shunndach an deigh mo bheidh, agus bha greis 
de chomhradh taitneach agam ris an sgiobair choir, ri mo 
charaid Seumas Mac-an-T6isich, agus ri tuathanach coir a bha 
'gabhail a thuruis mar a bha mi fhin. Agus bha mi 'n duil 
nach robh mi-fhortan sam bith gu tachairt dhomh gus an 
ruiginn. Ach cha b' ann mar sin a bha. 

An deigh dhuinn a dhol seachad air Boid agus air Arainn, 
bha mi 'nam sheasamh faisge air fear dhe na crainn, agus mi 
'g amharc air fear dhe na seoladairean a bha 'dol suas a chur 
bhearnais air a' chrann ard. Bha mi 'gabhail ioghnaidh leis 
cho subailte 's a bha e, agus mar a bha e 'laimhseachadh a' 
chrogain agus na brush a bha 'na laimh. Thuit a' bhrush as a 
laimh, agus chaidh mise, mar nach d' iarr am fortan orm, a 
thogail na brush gus a sineadh dha, agus direach an uair a 
thog mi mo cheann an deigh dhomh a' bhrush a thogail, a 
nuas a ghabh an crogan anns an robh a' bhearnais, agus dhoirt 
na hb' ann mu m' cheann 's mu m' ghuaillean, agus theabas 
mo bhathadh as mo sheasamh. Thachair gu 'n robh aireamh 
dhe 'n luchd-turuis faisge air an aite anns an robh mi, agus 
chluinneadh tu mile air astar an lasgan gaire a rinn iad an 
uair a chunnaic an t-6ineadh anns an robh mi. Chruinnich 
iad mu 'n cuairt orm, agus an aon drein ghaireachdaich air a 
h-uile aon dhiubh. Bha mi ann an sid agus faileas asam o 
mhullach mo chinn gu bonn mo choise mar gu 'm faiceadh tu 
ron a bhiodh an deigh tighinn am barr, Agus ged a bha mi 
gle dhiumbach dhe na daoine 'bha sior ghaireachdaich mu 'n 
cuairt orm, cha b' urrainn domh gun a bhith gaireachdaich 
cho math riutha fhein. 

Ach cha ghabh e innseadh cho dorannach 's a bha mi an 
uair a chunnaic mi gu 'n robh mo dheadh dheise air a milleadh. 
Cha robh guth ri radh o nach do spadadh mi far an robh mi 
'nam sheasamh. Na 'n do thachair gu 'n do bhuail earradh a' 
chrogain orm ann am mullach mo chinn, bha mi air tuiteam 
marbh gun sgrid air an dec. Ach direach mar gu 'n caireadh 



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44 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

lamb duine ann e, chaidh an crogan 's na bh' ann mu chrun 
na h-aide mu m' cheann. Bhruehd a' bhearnais sios mu m' 
ghuaillean, air mo chulaobh, agus air mo" bheulaobh, agus 
mu n do tharr mi sealltainn ugam no uam, bha struth asam 
gu m' shailean. 

Thainig an tuathanach coir air an d' thug mi iomradh mar 
tha far an robh mi, agus thuirt e rium gu 'm feumadh na 
daoine do 'm buineadh am bata mo dheadh dheise 'phaigheadh 
dhomh, o 'n a bha e air a shuidheachadh le lagh na rioghachd 
gu 'm feumadh a h-uile maighstir paigheadh air son call sam 
bith a dheanteadh le coireannan a luchd-muinntir. 

" Ach, cia mar air an t-saoghal," arsa mise, " a theid 
mise ann an lathair criosduidh anns an oineadh so ? Cha leig 
mo naire leamsa, ged nach 'eil annam ach duine bochd, mi 
fhin a nochdadh ann am fianuis mo chairdean agus struth is 
faileas asam mar a bhios as na caoirich agaibh fhein an uair 
a bhios sibh 'g an tumadh.'' 

Thoisich a h-uile duine riamh a bha 'nan seasamh mu 'n 
cuairt orm ri gaireachdaich an uair a chuaP iad so. Agus 
thug mi 'n aire aig an am, gu 'n robh an Sasunnach mbr a bha 
'na chadal anns an t-seomar comhladh rium an oidhche roimhe 
sid, a' falbh o dhuine gu duine mar gu 'm biodh e 'g iarraidh 
airgid orra. Cha robh duine thun an rachadh e nach robh 
'fosgladh a sporrain agus a' toirt bonn airgid dha. Cha do 
smaoinich mi idir gu 'm b' ann air mo shon fhin a bha e 
'cruinneachadh an airgid. Shaoil mi gur ann a bha e 'cruinn- 
eachadh an airgid air son cuideachadh a dheanamh leis na 
bantraichean 's na dilleachdain a dh' fhag na saighdearan 
treuna leig sios am beatha 'cogadh air son an righ agus an 
duthchadh ann an Africa, agus shuidhich mi 'nam inntinn 
fhin gu 'n tugainn dha tasdan no dha dhe 'n bheagan a bh r 
agam 'nam sporran. Agus an uair a chuir mi mo lamh ann 
am pocaid na briogais gus an sporran a thoirt aisde, bha mo 
phocaid Ian bhearnais. 

Anns a' cheart am bha 'm bata dluth air a' chidhe ann an 
Grianaig. Thainig mo charaid, Seumas Mac-an-Tbisich, agus 
an tuathanach coir a dh' ainmich mi mar tha, far an robh mi, 
agus thuirt iad rium gu 'm feumainn a dhol gu tir comhladh 
riutha gus an deise 'bha iad a' dol a cheannach dhomh a chur 
umam. 

" Ma ta, 'dhaoine cbire," arsa mise, " thigeadn e dhomhsa 
Hbhith anabarrach fada 'n 'ur comain, ag;us tha mi ann an sin ; 
ach cha deachaidh ball aodaich riamh fhathast mu m' dhruim 



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Tunis Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 45 

-ach aodach a rinneadh air clbimh mo chuid caorach fhin, no, 
.a cheannaich 's a choisinn mi fhin agus mo theaghlach, agus 
cha 'n 'eil mi 'smaointean gu 'n teid. Cha robh mi latha 
riamh o 'n a chaidh mi ann an ceann togail teaghlaich cho 
math air mo dhbigh 's a tha mi 'n diugh. Ach bha mi 
'smaointean, gun teagamh sam bith gu 'n iarrainn oirbhse le 
cheile a dhol comhladh rium do bhuth taillear agus a dhol an 
urras orm air son deise gus an ruig mi suas Glasacho, agus 
paigheadh Domhull an deise cho luath 's a ruigeas a' 
chunntais e." 

Thuirt na fir a beul a cheile gu 'n robh so ceart gu lebr. 
Cha robh 'n corr m' a dheidhinn. Cho luath 's a rainig am 
bata 'n cidhe, chaidh sinn gu tir, agus ma chaidhidh, cha robh 
sinn fichead slat suas o 'n chidhe an uair a bha cho math ri 
ceud pearsa 'n ar cuideachd, agus uiread a dh' ioghnadh aca 
dhiomsa 's ged bu mi Iompaire na Tuirce. 

Mu dheireadh rainig sinn buth mhbr, agus thugadh mise 
steach do shebmar-cuil far an do chuir mi dhiom na bha salach 
dhe m' aodach. Agus an uair a nigh 's a ghlan mi na bha 
salach dhiom, fhuaradh deise dhomh o lar gu mullach a bha 
freagarrach gu lebr dhomh, agus a bha pailt cho math ris an 
deise 'bh' orm roimhe. Thill mi air ais do 'n bhata ; oir chuir 
mi romham gu 'm faicinn sealladh de Chaisteal Dhunbreatunn, 
anns an dol seachad. Bha mbran de ghrid an t-saighdear 
annam gu nadarra ; agus tha mi 'g innseadh dhut le firinn, a 
charaid, gu 'm bithinn cho toileach air a dhol gu ruig 'Africa 
a chogadh ris na Bodharaich 's a bha mi air a dhol a chadal 
an oidhche bu sgithe 'bha mi riamh. 

An am a bhith 'seoladh suas amhainn Chluaidh, bha 
iomadh sealladh taitneach ri 'fhaicinn. Mu dheireadh rainig 
am bata cidhe Grhlasacho, agus bha Domhull, mar a gheall e, 
'g am fheitheamh. 

Dh' aithnich e anns a' mhionaid nach b' i an deise 'chuir 
e fhein g' am ionnsuidh a bh' umam; agus an uair a dh* 
fhebraich e dhiom ciod a thachair do 'n deise 'chuir e dhach- 
aidh gu m' ionnsuidh, thuirt mi ris gu 'n innsinn sid dha an 
uair a bhiodh am barrachd inn' agam. Agus rinn mi sid. 

An uair a rainig sinn an taigh anns an robh Domhull a' 
fuireach — agus b' e sid an taigh mor, briagha gu dearbh : 
cha 'n 'eil f hios ciod e am fad no 'n airde 'bh' ann — bha biadh 
gu lebr deas air ar coinneamh, agus gu cinnteach ghabh mi 
na thainig rium dheth cho sunndach 's a rinn mi riamh. 



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46 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Bha fhios aig Domhull gu 'n robh mi trom air a* phiob, 
agus an uair a chuala bean an taighe, am boirionnach coir, 
gu 'n robh so mar so, thug i cead dhomh mo dhiol smocaidh a 
dheanamh anns an t-seomar. 

An uair a thainig am a dhol a laidhe, chuireadh mi do 
sheomar cho grinn 's cho glan 's a chunnaic mi riamh. O'na 
bha mi air dhroch cadal an da oidhche roimhe sid, chaidil mi 
cho trom ris a' chloich gus an robh e ochd uairean 's a' 
mhadainn. 

An uair a ghabh sinn ar biadh, thog sinn oirnn, agus dh' 
fhalbh sinn do 'n ' Exhibition/ Ged a bha iomadh dorus air 
an aitreimh mhoir ud, thuirt Domhull gu 'm b' fhearr dhuinn 
a dhol a steach air an dorus mhbr. Agus bha mi fhin gle 
thoileach so a dheanamh, gu h-araidh o 'n a chuala mi gu 'n 
robh iomhaidh an righ anns an talla 'bha faisg* air an dorus. 

Cha robh fhios agam ciod a theirinn an uair a chaidh mi 
steach* Stad an da shuil shuas agam an uair a sheall mi 
mu 'n cuairt orm. Cha 'n 'eil mi 'creidsinn gu 'm V urrainn 
togalaichean bu bhriagha na sid a bhith air talamh nam beb. 
Cha 'n 'eil mi idir a' tuigsinn cia mar a V urrainn do mhac 
peacaich a leithid a dheanamh. 

" Sin agad iomhaidh an righ, 'athair," arsa Domhull, 's e 
comharrachadh am mach iomhaidh a bha 'cheart cho ard ri 
crann soithich. 

"Cha 'n urrainn gu 'm bheil an righ cho mor so," arsa 
mise ; " cha chreid mise gu 'n robh Samson no Goliath, ged a 
b' ainmeil na daoin' iad, cho mor so. Chunnaic mise dealbh 
an righ, agus cha robh mi 'smaointean gu 'n robh e na bu 
mhb na daoin' eile." 

"Cha 'n 'eil an righ cho mbr ris an iomhaidh so idir; ach 
chunnacas iomchuidh an iomhaidh dheanamh mor a chum 
gu 'n tairneadh i aire dhaoine na V fhearr," arsa Domhull. 

Ghabh sinn a steach air dorus eile, agus chaidh sinn sios 
ceumannan staidhreach, agus thuirt Domhull gu 'm V fhearr 
dhuinn sealladh fhaotainn air na togalaichean an toiseach 
mu 'n rachamaid a steach a dh' fhaicinn nan ioghnaidhean a 
bha 'nam broinn, Thuirt mi ris nach robh agamsa ach a 
bhith 'g a leantail fhein ge b' e taobh a rachadh e. 

Tha mise 'g radh riut gu 'm b' fhiach do dhuine a dhol air 
astar mor a dh' fhaicinn nan togalaichean fhein, gun ghuth a 
thoirt air na h-ioghnaidhean a bha ri 'm faicinn annta. Bha 
h-uile ceum dhe na rathaidean cho grinn 's cho glan 's ged 
nach seasadh duine riamh orra. Bha iad comhdaichte le 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 47 

moroghan briagha, min, geal. Bha na togalaichean gle neo- 
choltach ri 'cheile, araon ann am meudachd, agus ann an 
cumadh. Agus bha 'n aireamh bu mho dhiubh air an deanamh 
de dh' fhiodh, agus bha iad air am peantadh anabarrach 
briagha leis a h-uile dath a th' anns a' bhodha-fhrois, agus le 
iomadh dath nach 'eil idir ann. 

Chaidh sinn ceum math air ar n-aghart, gus mu dheireadh, 
an uair a chaidh sinn tarsuinn air drochaid no dha, an d' rainig 
sinn rud ris an canadh iad ' water-shute.' Chuir an obair a 
oh' aca ann an so oillt orm. Bha aite cas air a dheanamh — 
gun fhacal breige, bha e cheart cho cas ri cliathach taighe — 
agus bha iad a' tarruinn bhataichean beaga suas air dhoigh 
eiginn gu mullach an aite so. Bha na daoine 'direadh suas 
mar an ceudna, agus an uair a shuidheadh iad anns na bat- 
aichean, bha na bataichean air an leigeadh sios air an toil 
fhein do 'n amhainn, agus an uair a bha iad a' bualadh anns 
an uisge cha mhor nach robh iad a' dol as mo shealladh fo 'n 
uisge. Agus, rud iongantach, cha robh boinne dhe 'n uisge 
'bualadh air duine dhe na oh' anns na bataichean. Bha 
Domhull air son mise 'thoirt do 'n aite chunnartach ud; ach 
cha rachainn ann dha ged a bheireadh e dhomh baile* 
Ghlasacho as a ghrunnd. 

Bha aite cunnartach eile gle fhaisg' air an ait' ud, ris an 
canadh iad ' Switchback railway/ Cha do stad Domhull, agus 
an companach grinn, cbir a bha comhladh ris, dhe mo choiteach 
gus an d' thug iad orm a dhol ann. Cha robh e cho mi- 
nadarra ris an ait' uamhasach air an d' thug mi iomradh mar 
tha. A dh' aon chuid, bha fhios agam nach rachadh mo 
bhathadh. Agus a bharrachd air a sin, thug mi 'n aire gu 'n 
robh callaid air gach taobh dhe 'n rathad a chumadh daoine 
gun dol leis a' bhruthach ged a thuiteadh iad dheth. Coma 
co dhiubh, chaidh mi steach do 'n charabad chaol, chorrach 
ud, agus an uair a thug am fear a bha 'na sheasamh aig a* 
cheann iipag dha, thug e cruinn leum as, agus dh' fhalbh e. 
Tha mi 'g radh riut gu 'n robh mi 'n duil gu 'n robh mi 
leitheach rathaid a dh' ionnsuidh an t-saoghail thall. Bha e 
'cheart cho luath a' direadh bruthaich 's a bha e 'tearnadh 
bruthaich. Bha mi 'nam shuidhe eadar Domhull agus an 
gille coir eile a bha comhladh ruinn, agus rinn mi greim bais^ 
orra. Tha iad fhein ag radh, ma dh' fhaodar geill a thoirt do 
na their iad, gu 'n robh mi 'g iirnuigh aird mo chlaiginn. 
Cha 'n urrainn domhsa 'radh nach fhaodadh gu 'n d' iarr mi 
gleidheadh an Uile-chumhachdaich ; agus is mise dh' f heumadh 
e aig an am ud. 



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48 Gaelic Society of Inuetness. 

Gun dail sam bith choisich sinn air ar n-aghart gus an 
d' rainig sinn togail mhor, bhriagha a bha air an taobh eile 
dhe 'n amhainn. " Theid sinn a steach an so, a Ruairidh," 
arsa companach Dhomhuill, " agus gheibh sinn deur beag de 
mhac na braiche. Cha mhisde sinn taobh air thaobh beagan 
eblais a chur air an deigh na chunnaic, na chuala, agus na 
dh' fhairich sinn." 

" Tha mi gle dheonach," arsa mise. " Tha mi 'g am 
fhaireachadh thin gle lag an deigh an eagail a ghabh mi." 

Chaidh sinn a steach, agus bha aireamh mhath a staigh 
romhainn. Shuidh sinn ann an aite air leith leinn fhin, agus 
mu 'n do tharr sinn suidhe thainig fear caol, ard, dubh far 
an robh sinn agus dh' fhebraich e ciod a bha dhith oirnn. 
Dh' innis Domhull dhaL Bha deise bhriagha dhubh air, agus 
bha stoc beag, caol, geal mu amhaich, agus bha brollach geal 
air sios gu beul na duilleig. Is e cota biorach a bh' air cuid- 
eachd. 

" Is e coltas ministear a th' air an duin' ud," arsa mise. 
" Is e sin a th' ann cuideachd," arsa Domhull 's e 'caogadh. 
"Co ris a tha thu 'caogadh, a laochain," arsa mise, agus 
mi 'n deigh amhrus a ghabhail gur ann a' magadh orm a bha e. 
" Tha mi 'caogadh ris an nighinn bhbidhich, ghlain ud an 
taobh thall dhe 'n bhord," ars' esan. 

" Ma ta, ma ghabhas tu mo chomhairle-sa sguiridh tu dhe 
'n obair sin. Air do shon fhein, agus air son na h-ighinn — 
agus gu firinneach, ceart, bha i cho bbidheach 's cho sgiobalta 
ri te chunnaic mi riamh — ma bi ri magaireachd sam bith ; oir, 
mar a tha 'm facal ag radh : ' Is minio a thainig fior a 
faIlaid. , " Bha mi 'n diiil tuilleadh chomhairlean a thoirt air 
na gillean, ach thainig am fear caol, dubh ugainn le pailteas 
dhe gach biadh is deoch a b' fhearr na cheile, agus chaidh 
stad air a' chomhairleachadh aig an am. Cha robh cabhag 
sam bith oirnn gu eirigh o 'n bhord. Bha mise car sgith, 
agus bha na gillean coma ged chuireadh iad seachad greis 
dhe 'n uine far an robh iad. 

Chaidh sinn an sin a dh' amharc nan ioghnaidhean ; agus, 
a mhic chridhe, b' e na h-ioghnaidhean iad! Cha 'n 'eil mi 
'creidsinn gu 'n robh uiread de rudan iongantach ri 'm faicinn 
riamh roimhe cruinn, cothrom, comhladh air aon lathrach. 
Ged a bhithinnsa cho foghluimte agus cho geur-chuiseach ri 
mac mathar a sheas riamh ann am broig leathair, cha 
b'. urrainn domh trian dhe na chunnaic mi innseadh dhut, 
ged a bhithinn a' bruidhinn gu cionn mhios. Chaidh mo 



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Turus Huairidh do 'n Exhibition. 49 

cheann na bhoil leis na bha mi 'faicinn de rudan iongantach. 
Ach sheas mi greis mhath ag amharc air na bha de bheairtean- 
inhleachd [machinery] ann. Chuir an t-inneal clo-bhualaidh 
iongantas anabarrach mor orm. Tha mise 'g radh ruit gur e 
bh' ann gnothach ro mhiorbhuileach. Sheas mi greis mar an 
ceudna far an robh iad a' deanamh nan rudan-milis, agus far 
an robh iad ag obair air deanamh nan ' cigarettes/ seorsa 
tombaca cho beag tail agus brigh 's a chunnaic duine riamh. 
Bu cheart cho math learn a bhith 'smocadh a' mhuill ri bhith 
'g a smocadh. 

Ach feumaidh mi radh nach fhaca mi dad bu mho a thug 
de thoileachadh dhomh na na rudan iongantach agus feumail 
a thainig a Canada, a Australia, agus a New Zealand. Bha 'n 
t-or a tha iad a' faotainn ann an ' Clondyke ' 'na chnapan ann 
an sid mar a chladhaicheadh as an talamh e. 

Bha moran de bheairtean-fighe dhe gach seors' ann, agus 
thug mi' greis mhath air an amharc. 

Ged a bha mi 'fas sgith le bhith cho fad' air mo chasan, 
thuirt Domhull gu 'm b' fhearr dhuinn a dhol a dh' amharc 
nan dealbhannan, agus 'na dheigh sin, gu 'n rachamaid 
dhachaidh. 

Dhirich sinn suas staidhreachan gu leor gus mo dheireadh 
an d' rainig sinn na seomraichean a b' airde 'bh' anns an taigh. 
Bha aireamh mhor de dhealbhannan briagha 'n crochadh ris 
na ballachan; ach feumaidh mi radh nach do thog iad, 
"briagha 's mar a bha iad, a' bheag dhe m' aire-sa co dhiubh. 
Bha iad tuilleadh is lionmhor anri gus m' aire-sa thogail. 
Ach bha m' aire gle mhor air a togail leis na bh' anns an 
taigh de dhealbhan snaidhte. Bha iad, tha mi 'smaointean, 
air an deanamh de dh' umha, de dh' iarunn, agus de chloich. 
Agus, rud nach do chord rium idir, bha iad uile dearg-riiisgte. 

Ach co dhiubh, bha sinn a' coiseachd air ar socair fhin c 
sheomar gu seomar, agus ma 's math mo chuimhne, bha 
feadhainn dhe na h-iodhalan so anns a h-uile seomar. Agus 
thug mi 'n aire gu 'n robh aireamh mhath dhe 'n t-sluagh a 
l)h' anns na seomraichean — araon firionnaich agus boirionn- 
aich — a' seasamh mu choinneamh nan iodhalan, agus a' 
gabhail beachd orra gu dluth. A nis, cha do chord so idir 
rium. "Is ann a tha 'chuis coltach, 'illean," arsa mise, 
" gu 'm bheil mbran dhe 'n t-sluagh a' deanamh aoraidh do na 
h-iodhalan balbha so. B^omaid a' grad fhalbh as a' so. Cha 
"bu choir do dhuine a rainig an aois a rainig mise comunn sam 



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50 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

bith a chumail ri daoine bhiodh a' deanamh iodhol aoraidh. 
ann-dligheach." 

Rinn na gillean glag gaire ; agus thuirt Domhull : " Tha 
mi cinnteach, 'athair, gu 'm bheil sibh a' fas sgith. Ach tha 
aon ioghnadh eile ann a dh' fheumas sibh fhaicinn mu 'ni 
falbh sinn." 

" Ciod e 'n t-ioghnadh a tha 'n sin V arsa mise. 

" Tha," ars' esan, " bean Lot." 

" Bean Lot ! ' arsa mise. 

" Seadh," ars' esan. 

"Cia mar," arsa mise, " a b' urrainn daibh a toirt an sot 
Tha Sodom, a reir mar a chuala mise, gle ihad' air falbh as a 7 
so. Agus a bharrachd air a' sin, is e carragh salainn a bh' 
innte, agus a dh' aindeoin cho cruaidh gu 'm bi an salann,. 
cha 'n 'eil e furasda ghiulan air astar fada gun a bhristeadh." 

"Feumaidh sibh a thoirt fa near, 'athair," arsa Dumhull, 
gu 'm bheil iomadh doigh ro iongantach aca air rudan a^ 
dheanamh anns an am so." 

" Tha mi coma," arsa mise, " ged a chithinn sealladh dhith, 
ged is e fior dhroch bhoirionnach a oh' innte. Is fhad' o 'n a 
leugh mi m' a deidhinn." 

Chaidh sinn sios an staidhre, agus ann an oisinn leith 
dhorcha dhe ; n t-seomar, bha iomhaidh boirionnaich ; agus 
thug mi 'n aire gu 'n robh i mar gu 'm biodh i 'g amharc air na 
nithean a bha air a culaobh. Ach bha 'n iomhaidh car 6g 
agus maiseach learn air son boirionnaich aig an robh oghachan 
aig an am 's an d' rinneadh carragh salainn dhi. 

" Cha chreid mi gur e so bean Lot idir," arsa mise; " tha i 
ro bg agus ro bhriagha learn; ach gu cinnteach tha e gle 
choltach gur e salann a th' innte." 

" Feumaidh sibh a chuimhneachadh, 'athair," arsa 
Domhull, " gu 'n robh na boirionnaich a bh' ann o shean 'nam 
boirionnaich ro bhriagha, agus gu 'n robh iad a' cumail an 
dreach agus an coltais gus am biodh iad anabarrach sean." 

" Tha mi 'g aontachadh leat anns a' phuing-sin," arsa mise ; 
" ach bidh fhios agamsa gun dail an i bean Lot a th J ann." 

Gun tuilleadh a radh, ghabh mi null, agus thoisich mi rf 
mo theanga chur oirre an aite 's an aite feuch an e salann a 
bh' innte. Thoisich na gillean ri gaireachdaich an uair a 
chunnaic iad an obair a bh' agam. Chruinnich na daoine 
'bh' anns an t-seomar mu 'n cuairt oirnn an uair a chual' iad 
a' ghaireachdaich. Agus an sin thainig fear le cabhaig far an 
robh mi, agus rug e air ghualainn orm, agus thug e crathadh 
math orm. 



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Turus Ruairidh do 'n Exhibition. 51 

"Ciod e," ars' esan, agus e 'bruidhinn rium ann an Gailig, 
" an obair a th' ort mar sin. Theid do chur an laimh air son 
d' obrach. Bi falbh an so comhladh riumsa." 

" Gu 'n sealladh am fortan oirbh, a dhuine choir," arsa 
mise, "cha d' rinn mise cron sam bith, agus cha robh 'nam 
bheachd cron sam bith a dheanamh. Thuirt mo mhac fhin 
rium gur e so bean Lot, agus bha teagamh agam nach robh e 
'g innseadh na firinn dhomh. Bha mi air son a' chilis a 
dhearbhadh, agus chaidh mi, agus chuir mi mo theangadh 
oirre ann an aite no dha feuch an deanainn am mach an e 
salann a bh' innte. Sin agaibh na rinn mise de chron, agus 
shaoilinn nach deanadh an lagh greim orm air a shon." 

An uair a chual' e so, thoisich e ri gaireachdaich. Agus 
an sin thuirt e gu 'n robh e an aghaidh riaghailtean an aite 
do dhuine sam bith beantail ri dad a bh' anns na seomraichean. 
Rug e air laimh orm gu cridheil, agus dh' fhalbh e. 

Bha car de thamailt orm air son mar a thachair, agus 
thuirt mi ris na gillean, nach robh e ceart dhaibh a bhith 
'dheanamh culaidh-mhagaidh de sheann duine bochd, ain- 
eolach mar a bha mise. Cha duirt mi 'n corr riutha; ach 
chuir mi romham nach fhanainn na b' fhaide anns an ' Exhibi- 
tion ' an lath' ud. 

Cha leigeadh companach Dhomhuill am mach sinn gus an 
gabhamaid cupa ti comhladh ris. Chaidh sinn a steach do 
thaigh briagha, agus fhuair sinn ti mhath, agus bhiadh math 
leatha. Agus an sin dh' fhalbh mise agus Domhull dhachaidh 
ann am beul an anamoich. 

Eadar an sgios a bh' orm, agus an dragh a ghabh mi air son 
mar a rinneadh culaidh-mhagaidh dhiom, cha robh sunnd sam 
bith orm gus a bheag de chomhradh a dheanamh ri Domhull. 
Chaidh mi 'laidhe gu math trath, ach ma chaidh, cha 
V ann gu cadal. Bha gnothaichean bean Lot a' cur dragh gu 
leor orm gus an do chuimhnich mi gu 'n robh mi fhin 6g 
roimhe, agus gu 'n robh mi 'nam spriolag cho aimlisgeach 
agus cho math gu culaidh-mhagaidh a dheanamh de dhaoin' 
eile ri fear a bha beo. Thuirt mi rium fhin gur ann uam 
fhin a thus: Domhull an nadar magail a bh' ann, agus nach 
bu choir dhomh a bhith cho diiimbach dheth 's a bha mi. 
Mu dheireadh chaidil mi gu trom gus an robh e naodh uairean 
's a' mhadainn. 

Shuidhich mi fhin is Domhull gu 'n rachamaid a dh' 
amharc air seana charaid is fear-eolais a bha 'fuireach air 
taobh eile na h-aimhne. Rainig sinn aite a bha beagan 



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52 Gaelic Society of Inuerness. 

astair o 'n taigh anns an robh Domhull a' fuireach, agus 
chaidh sinn sios air staidhre gus an d' rainig sinn an ' train.' 
Shuidh sinn innte. Cha do thachair dhomhsa ceisd sam bith 
a chur air Domhull mu dheidhinn an rathaid a bha sinn gus 
a ghabhail, oir cha robh sunnd comhraidh orm an lath' ud. 

Tiotadh an deign do 'n ' train ' falbh thuirt Domhull : " So 
agaibh, 'athair, an rathad fo 'n talamh. Tha sinn an drasta 
fhein, tha mi 'deanamh dheth, direach fo 'n amhainn." 

Dh' fhairich mi m' fheoil a' dol air chrith, agus m' fhalt 
ag eirigh o m' cheann, agus thuirt mi ris : " Cha stad thu gu 
brath, a laochain, gus an cuir thu as mo chiall mi. Ciod e 
am fios a th' agad nach tig toll air grunnd na h-aimhne, agus 
nach tig a h-uile deur dhe 'n uisge shalach a th' innte a nuas 
m' ar cinn mu 'm faigh sinn gu aghaidh na talmhainn. Cha 'n 
'eil dad a dh' iarraidh agam a bhith air mo bhathadh; ach 
ma 's ann le bathadh a thig crioch air mo bheatha, b' fhearr 
learn gu mor a bhith air mo bhathadh air muir na 'bhith air 
mo bhathadh ann an uisge salach air tir." 

Gu fortanach rainig sinn ar ceann-uidhe gun bheud sam 
bith; agus bha mi gle thoilichte an uair a chunnaic mi aon 
sealladh eile de dh' aghaidh na talmhainn. 

An deigh dhuinn an latha 'chur seachad gu cridheil, 
sunndach ann an taigh mo charaid, thill sinn anamoch feasgar. 
Ach gabh sinn an ' tram.' Agus gu dearbh is e inneal-giulain 
cho fior iongantach 's a chunnaic mise riamh. Bha Domhull 
ag radh rium gu'n robh e air a chur air falbh leis an dealanach. 
Ach ma tha sin fior, is e gnothach iongantach a th' ann. Bha 
cho math ri da fhichead pearsa air bord ann, agus cha 
chuireadh tu uidhireachd gu 'n robh punnd de chudam aig ri 
ghiulan. Bha rud mar gu 'm biodh stiiiir giomaich 'na stob 
air a' mhullach aige, agus e 'n ceangal ris na sreanganan a tha 
air an sineadh gu teann air tarsuinn, agus air fad, nan 
sraidean air am bheil an ' tram ' a' ruith. Bha fear 'na 
sheasamh air a thoiseach, agus fear eile air a dheireadh gus a 
bhith 'g a stiiiireadh agus a' cur stad air. 

"A nis, 'athair," arsa Domhull, an uair a bha sinn aig ar 
biadh anns a' mhadainn an la-iar-na-mhaireach, cha teid sinn 
do 'n ' Exhibition ' gu feasgar. O 'n a tha mise 'falbh dhach- 
aidh comhladh ribh 's a' mhadainn am maireach, tha rud no 
dha agam ri cheannach gus an toirt dhachaidh learn thun mo 
mhathar, agus theid sibhse comhladh rium. Ged a dh' 
fhagainn an so sibh, cha bhi sibh ach a' gabhail fadachd. 
An uair a thig am feasgar tha sealladh briagh ri 'fhaicinn 



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Turus Ruairidh Ido 'n Exhibition. 53 

anns an ' Ehibition ' ; bidh rud ris an can iad ' fireworks ' ann 
an nochd, agus bu mhath learn gu 'm f aiceadh sibh e. 

Thuirt mi ris gu 'n robh mi toileach gu leor 
deanamh mar a bha e 'g iarraidh. Bha fior thoil agam 
sealladh fhaotainn dhe na buithean mora, briagha 'bha cho 
lionar ann an Glasacho. Agus ged a bha ioghnaidhean gu lebr 
ri 'm faicinn anns an ' Exhibition/ cha b' iad na bha ri 
fhaicinn de luach airgid anns a' bhaile dad bu lugha chuir a 
dh' ioghnadh orm. Ach cha ruig mi leas teannadh ri innseadh 
dhut, oir chunnaic tu 'leithid roimhe. 

Chaidh sinn feasgar do 'n ' Exhibition/ agus cha robh sinn 
fad' ann an uair a thoisich na ' fireworks.' Agus ma thbisich 
chaidh an cridhe air chrith agam. Chluinneadh tu fuaim mar 
gu 'm biodh urchair gunna, agus an sin chitheadh tu rud 
anns na speuran mar gu 'm biodh meall teine 'bristeadh as a 
cheile, agus shaoileadh tu gu 'n robh e 'dol a thuiteam a nuas 
air cinn nam miltean air mhiltean de shluagh a bha cruinn aig 
an am. Thig gaoir 'nam fheoil fhathast an uair a smaoinicheas 
mi air an t-sealladh uamhasach ud. Ach an aite 'bhith 
gabhail eagail, is ann a bha 'n sluagh gun mhothachadh a' 
bualadh bhas ris, agus a' deanamh iolach aoibhneis a chluinnt- 
eadh mile air astar ! 

Ged a dh' fhalbn tomhas dhe 'n eagal dhiom chuir an 
sealladh a bh' ann gu smaointean gle mhbr mi. Thuirt mi 
rium fhin, gu 'm b' fheudar gur ann rudeiginn coltach ris an 
t-sealladh ud a bha 'n sealladh a bh' ann an Sodom 's an 
Gomorrah an oidhch' a fhrasadh teine agus pronnusg a nuas o 
neamh orra. Ar learn gu 'n robh mi 'faireachadh faileadh a' 
phronnuisg far an robh mi 'nam shuidhe. 

Mu dheireadh thainig crioch air an obair eagalaich ud, 
agus dh' fhalbh sinn dhachaidh. Ach mu 'n d' fhuair sinn 
am mach troimh 'n dorus, theabas na h-aisnichean agam a 
chur air a cheile leis mar a bha 'n sluagh 'g am dhomhlachadh. 

Thill mi dhachaidh gu math moch 's a' mhadainn an la-iar- 
na-mhaireach leis an ' train ' ; oir chuir mi romham nach 
fhaigheadh fear a' chrogain bhearnais an ath chothrom air mo 
dheadh dheise mhilleadh orm. Agus o 'n a bha Domhull 
comhladh rium, cha robh eagal no eis sam bith orm. 

Rinn mi dichuimhn air aon rud innseadh dhut ; agus ged 
a tha f hios agam gu 'm bheil thu 'gabhail fadachd nach 'eil mi 
'cur crioch air mo naigheachd, feumaidh mi innseadh dhut, 
agus is e sin, cho mi-thoilichte 's a bha mi dhe 'n chebl a 
bh' aca anns an ' Exhibition.' Ged a bha Domhull, agus a 



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54 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

h-uile duin' eile a chuala mise 'bruidhinn m' a dheidhinn 'g a 
mholadh, cha do chord e Hums' idir. Neo-ar-thaing nach 
robh an luchd-ciuil a' deanamh fuaim gu leor; agus is docha 
gu 'n robh an cedl air cordadh math gu leor riumsa na 'n robh 
mi comasach air a thuigsinn. Tha sean-fhacal ann a tha 'g 
radh: "Ciod e am math a th' air piob mur a seinnear i." 
Agus tha mise 'g radh : Ciod e am math a th' air ceol mur a 
tuigear e. B' fhearr leamsa aon phort a chluinninn o dheadh 
phiobaire mar a bha Domhull ban mac Eoghainn, na na chuala 
mi fad na h-uine 'bha mi anns an ' Exhibition/ Ach cia mar 
a b' urrainn an luchd ciuil ceol ceart a sheinn an uair a bha 
h-uile mac mathar dhiubh a' sior leughadh leabhair fhad 's a 
bha iad a' seinn? Mar a tha 'm facal ag radh: "Cha 'n 
urrainn duine a' mhin itheadh agus an teine 'sheideadh aig an 
aon am." Na 'n cuireadh tu fichead rodan, agus fichead cat, 
agus fichead cu, agus fichead searrach comhladh ann an aon 
chrodhaidh as nach fhaigheadh a h-aon aca 'mach, dheanadh 
iad, an uair a thoisicheadh iad ri leum air a cheile, ceol a 
cheart cho taitneach ris a' cheol a chuala mise. Dh' fhairtlich 
air an fhear a bh' air ceann an luchd-ciuil an cumail aig rian. 
Bha e 'na sheasamh air am beulaobh, agus slatag bheag 
bhuidhe aige 'na dhorn, agus bha 'fhallus 'g a dhalladh leis na 
bha e 'deanamh de mhaoidheadh orra. Chunnaic mi fhin e 
'tiormachadh 'fhalluis uair no dha le 'neapaiginn pocaid. Ach 
thuirt mise rium fhin gu 'm b' fhearr dha gu mor deadh 
chuaille trom de bhata daraich a bhith aige 'na dhorn, agus 
buille mhath a thoirt do gach fear nach gabhadh a chomhairle. 
Na 'm b' ann agamsa bha riaghladh a' ghnothaich, bhiodh 
mala ghorm air iomadh fear dhe 'n baoghairean mora, bronn- 
ach a bha seideadh nan trumpaidean b'uidh' ud, agus mur 
seinneadh iad ceol ceart, chuirinn a h-uile mac mathar dhiubh 
gu ruige Taigh Iain Ghrot an Gallaobh. 



13th FEBRUARY, 1902. 

At this meeting the following were elected members of the 
Society, viz. : — Sheriff Grant, Inverness, life member ; and 
Miss M. A. Mackintosh of Mackintosh, 37 Melville Street, 
Edinburgh ; Mr Erskine Beveridge, Dunfermline ; Mr James 
F. Souter, Commercial Bank, Inverness ; Mr Donald Grant, 
M.A., Royal Academy, Inverness; Mr John Urquhart, Uig, 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 55 

Skye; and Mr A. Morrison, 16 Union Street, Inverness, 
ordinary members. Thereafter Dr Alex. Macbain, Inverness, 
read a contribution, which was entitled " Place-Names of 
Inverness-shire.' ' 

PLACE-NAMES OF INVERNESS-SHIRE. 

The county of Inverness can boast neither of symmetry nor 
of compactness. It sprawls westwards across the northern 
neck of Scotland through Skye, diving again under the sea to 
re-appear as the far-west sea-bank of the Outer Hebrides. 
One thing it can boast of, however, among the Scottish 
counties : it is the largest of them. Its area of 4232 square 
miles — a square land-piece of 65 miles per side — is unsurpassed 
by any other county in Scotland. And once the Sheriffdom 
of Inverness extended still further. In the twelfth centry it 
-comprehended all the country north of the Grampians, but the 
thirteenth century saw the rise of the shires of Elgin, Nairn, 
.and Cromarty. For four hundred years thereafter, however, 
the Sheriffdom of Inverness included Ross, Sutherland, Caith- 
ness, and part of Argyle. The present Sheriffdoms of Argyle, 
Sutherland, and Caithness were constituted in 1631-3 and Ross 
in 1661, the latter three being pure dismemberments, so to 
speak, of Inverness Sheriffdom. The county of Inverness was 
thus finally formed in 1661 curiously by a process of subtrac- 
tion, but it has kept its then acquired bounds ever since, with 
certain small adjustments. The irregularity of its northern 
borders from Harris to Beauly is due to the Mackenzie influ- 
ence in 1661 ; that family wanted the clan estates to be all in 
Ross-shire. A scientific frontier was, therefore, out of the 
question. 

The history of Inverness county is nearly as sporadic in its 
character as the county itself. There is a separate story for 
the Isles, a second one for the west coast mainland (G-armoran), 
and a third story to tell of the province of Moray portion of 
the county. It is really a great pity that the old province of 
Moray itself was not made a county — a pity historically, for it 
was an ecclesiastical and almost a political unit. It included 
all Inverness east of the Drumalban watershed or east of Loch- 
aber, and comprehended also the shires of Nairn, Elgin, and 
part of Banff. Macbeth' s family province of Moray further 
included Easter Ross, disputed with the Norsemen, and its 
sway at times (11th century) extended over Banff and Buchan, 
as we can see from the Book of Deer. In the twelfth century 



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56 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

the old Earls of Moray were suppressed, and native thanes, 
with incoming Normans, began to take their place (early 13th 
century) ; the coast began to be planted with burghs. The 
great family of Cumming rose to power in Buchan, and early 
in the 13th century they acquired Lochaber and Badenoch. 
The Earldom of Moray was again restored by Bruce and given 
to Randolph, his nephew, inclusive of Lochaber. The Church 
also occupied vast and valuable property in Moray, but the 
after history of the Moray portion of Inverness concerns the 
rise of the Gordons and their struggles with the Earls of Moray 
and the native clans, and scarcely bears on the place-names, 
which by this time were mostly fixed. The West Coast portion 
of Inverness-shire, north of Morvern, and extending to Glenelg 
— that is, Moydart, Morar, and Knoydart — was called 'Garbh- 
morbhairne/ in 1343 Garwmorarne, the 'Garmoran' of the 
historians. It and Lochaber formed part of North Argyle, 
which once extended to Lochbroom. Garmoran belonged to 
descendants of Somerled of the Isles, a side branch (junior) 
to the Clan Donald. The heiress of Garmoran married John 
of Isle in the 14th century, and the property came to the 
Clanranald branch of the Macdonalds^ The Outer Hebrides 
belonged to the Norse, and therefore to the King of Man and 
the Isles; but after 1263, the date of the overthrow of the 
Norsemen, Skye and the Long Island fell as his share of the 
booty to the Earl of Ross. Forfeiting them in the wars of 
David II. and Edward BalHol, he recovered only Skye, the 
outer isles going to his rival, the Lord of the Isles. The Island 
Lord next century succeeded also to the Earldom of Ross, 
sometime after Harlaw. This Prince therefore held (say) 
about 1450, through himself or his kin of Clanranald, all the 
Outer Hebrides, Skye and its adjacent islands, Garmoran and 
Lochaber (inclusive of Glengarry). Glenelg belonged to his 
vassal, Macleod of Harris. On the breaking up of the Lord- 
ship of the Isles (1475-1495), the local chiefs came to the front 
— Macleods of Harris and Glenelg, also of Dunvegan, Mac- 
neills of Barra, Camerons of Lochaber, and the numerous but 
powerful branches of Macdonald — Clanranald (Garmoran and 
Uist, with the Glengarry branch further east, soon to succeed 
in Knoydart another set of Macdonalds), the dan Hugh of 
Sleat, whence the present Lord Macdonald, and the disin- 
herited, because illegitimate, Macdonalds of Keppoch, in Brae 
Lochaber, whose lands were given to Mackintosh. The after 
history of these clans does not concern our subject ; the place- 
names with which we have to deal were already given by the 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 57 

clans, tribes, and races which had successively possessed the 
land prior to the 15th century. 

The earliest Celtic nation that established itself in Scotland 
was the Pictish. They found before them another race or two, 
one of which was fair and square-headed, and the other dark 
and long-headed, The Celts arrived in their iron age, possibly 
in 600 b.c. The language spoken by the previous inhabitants 
is unknown ; the Picts spoke a dialect of Celtic near akin to 
the Welsh. Some Inverness county names bear out this fact. 
The test letter between the Brittonic and Gadelic or Gaelic 
branches of old Celtic is the letter 'p' ; old Gaelic had no letter 
'p,' and modern Gaelic developed native *p' within the last 
five or six hundred years ; the many borrowed ' p's ' in Gaelic 
do not here count. Gaelic 'cuid' is in Welsh 'peth' (for older 
' pett'), a thing ; this is the Pictish ' pet' or ' pit/ a possession 
or farm — in short, the Gaelic ' baile' in meaning. Here Pictish 
and Welsh show 'p' as against Gaelic *c,' which so far, proves 
Welsh and Pictish closer allied than Gaelic and Pictish. The 
' pits' or ' pets ' in Inverness-shire are not now so numerous as 
once they were. We have still Pityoulish (Abernethy), Pit- 
chirn (Rowan-ton) and Pittowrie (Alvie), and Pitmean 
(Middleton, Kingussie), and Petty vaich (Byre-ton), in Kil- 
tarlity. Balmaglaster of Glengarry was formerly Pit-maglaster 
or Pittenglassie. Several are obsolete — Pitkerrald (St Cyril's 
Croft) in Glen-Urquhart, ana Pitchalman and Pitalmit in 
Glenelg. Then there is Petty, the parish name, which simply 
means the ' land of farms' or ' pets.' ' Pet' or ' Pit' has given 
w'ay to its equivalent in meaning, ' baile,' for two good reasons 
— the word, first, like 'aber,' was getting obscure, as not fully 
introduced into the ordinary vocabulary; and, second, it got 
mixed up with another word of nearly like sound but obscene 
meaning. This especially has driven it out. 

Another test word is 'aber/ a confluence; the Gaelic is 
'inbhir' or ' inver' (root 'ber' : 'in-fer') ; the Gaelic 'abar/ 
now obsolete, having meant a ' marsh' (root of ' tobar'). The 
Pictish ' aber' (' ad' or ' od' and root ' ber' : ' ad-bear,' ' out- 
bear') had two dialect forms — ' aber' and ' ober' ; the latter 
alone has survived in modern names as spoken in Gaelic — 
Obair-pheallaidh (Aberfeldy), Obair-readhain (Aberdeen), etc. 
Inverness-shire shows five or six of these ' abers' ; Abertarf , or 
Mac Vurich's old Gaelic Obair-thairbh, so named from the • 
Tarf or ' Bull' river ; Aberarder (Laggan and Daviot), Gaelic, 
Obair-ardair, seemingly ' high-water' ; Aberchalder (Glen- 
garry), where Calder appears, a name common in Pictland. It 



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•58 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

is first applied to water, the root is 'cal,' sound, and the rest 
seems pure termination ' -ent-' and '-or,' the former a parti- 
cipial suffix, the latter an agent one, the whole river name 
being *Calentora. The name is undoubtedly Pictish. With 
it may be compared the Gaulish river names Calarona, Callus, 
and Oalla. The fourth name is Abriachan : in 1239 this was 
Abirhacyn, and in 1334 Aberbreachy. Seemingly the stream- 
let entering Lochness here must once have been called the 
Briachan, the stream having now no real name; the curtailed 
phonetics reminds us of Arbroath from Aberbrothock. Aber- 
nethy, a name repeated in Fifeshire, is in Gaelic Obair-neithich, 
in 1^39 Abyrnithy; the river is the Neithich. This has been 
equated with the Nith of Southern Scotland, which Ptolemy 
records as the Novios or ' Fresh ' (nuadh) stream, Welsh, 
' newydd. ' This would make the Pictish phonetics exceedingly 
Welsh and somewhat modern; but it is the best derivation 
offered.* 

Two other words come to Gaelic from the Pictish, and are 
included in the ordinary vocabulary. These are ' dul' or 
' dail,' 'a plain of fallow land, especially by a river-side/ and 
' proas/ 'a bush,' but in place-names, 'a brake.' The word 
' dul' or ' dail* is exceedingly common as a prefix ; as a suffix 
it shows the genitive 'dalach,' both in ordinary speech and 
places called Ballindalloch. The word does not appear in 
Irish, ancient or modern ; but it is clearly allied to the similarly 
used word of similar meaning, W. ' dol,' pi. ' dolydd, Corn, and 
Bret, 'dol.' Many place-names in Wales and Cornwall bear 
this prefix. The Perthshire parish name Dull, G. Dul, bears it 
in its naked simplicity, and the form 'duP is the usual one 
along the Great Glen, especially in Glen-XJrquhart and Glen- 
Moriston. The modern spelling, however, is almost always 
' Dal-' in these last cases. The Wardlaw MS. (17th century) 
always writes 'Dul-\ however. The root seems to be 'dul,' 
and therefore not allied to Eng. ' dale' or Norse ' dalr' ; but it 
is likely allied to the root ' dul/ bloom, as in Gaelic ' duilleag.' 

* Dr Henderson (" Celtic Review " I., 200) records a local saying, which, if 
not a comparatively modern "fake/* is at least interesting — " Tha na 
Neithichean a' tighinn,'' which he translates — The nixies are coming, when the 
river comes in spate. He derives the modern word from a Pictish ' neit,' 
further ' nict ' or'nect/ pure, washed, root *nigr,' English ' nixie' a kelpie. 
. The phonetics of ' pet ' is against the aspirating of * t ' in ' neit ' and the allied 
word Nectan, Pictish Naiton, remains in place-names still as Neachdain 
(Dunachton), and as the personal name Neachdan. The Gaels, however, often 
assimilated Pictish phonetics to their own. 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 59 

The word ' preas' is not common in place-names ; in the county 
we have it in Preas-mucrach (Badenoch), 'Pig-brake place/ 
The Welsh word allied is ' prys,' brake, evidently allied to the 
W. 'perth,' brake, whence the names Perth, Logie-Pert, Lar- 
bert, Partick, etc. The root, which is 'qr,' is that of G. 
'crann,' W. 'pren.' 

Pictish influence may be seen in the common use of names 
rare or practically non-existent in Irish : ' monadh,' hill, as in 
Monadh-liath ; ' blar, ' a plot, free space of ground — Blairour, 
' Dun-plain ' ((Lochaber), Blar-16ine — so M'Vurich — (Battle 
of Leine, 1545), at the upper end of Loch Lochy; 'allt/ a 
burn, Aldourie, from the ' Dourag ' burn, while Dourag itself 
is from 'dobhar/ water; 'beinn/ a hill or ben, Irish 'beann/ 
not much used in Irish place-names as compared to Gaelic 
' beinn' or 'ben'; 'earn,' a hill, cairn, which Welsh also is 
fond of for names of hills, though not used in Ireland similarly 
— Cairn-gorm, Geal-charn, and others very numerous; 'coire/ 
a corry or kettle — Corry Mhadagain, the 'doggie's corry,' a 
use of ' coire' " scarcely known in Ireland " (Reeves) ; ' srath/ 
a strath, also a common Welsh and rare Irish word. The word 
which shows most departure from Gaelic use is ' both/ a house, 
but used in Pictland for ' baile.' It finds an especial develop- 
ment in Inverness county, particularly along the valley of the 
Oreat Glen — Bunachton, for Baile-Nectain or Nectan's ' baile' ; 
Bochrubin, from old 'criiibin,' a paw, a bent-back hill; 
Boleskine, in 1227 Buleske, from ' both-fhlescain, 'town of the 
withes/ from 'flesc,' a rod; Bolin (Glengarry), 'flax-town'; 
and Bohuntin (Lochaber), where ' hunndainn ' stands for 
'conntainn,' a confluence. 

The use of 'rat,' apparently for 'rath,' a 'fortified resi- 
dence' originally, in Strathspey and Badenoch, has also to be 
noted. The Welsh has the word 'rhath,' a clearing or open 
space, which seems to be the same word, and which Professor 
Rhys regards as borrowed from Gaelic. The exact extent of 
the use of ' rat ' in Pictland has not yet been considered, but 
on the analogy of Rothiemurchus, we might claim all the 
names in Rothie-, as Rothiemayi Raith in Fife, which cer- 
tainly looks like the form that Pictish ' rat ' would assume, is 
claimed for Scotch 'wreath,' a pen, as are the several other 
names of like form. The matter is considered further on 
under Rothiemurchus. 

The first writer who gives any name bearing on Inverness- 
shire is Tacitus, who mentions the Caledonians, and the geo- 



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60 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

graphers represent them as extending into our county. 
Despite some difficulties in the classical form of the name 
Caledonia on the score of its phonetics not according with the 
root— that given being 'cald,' the root of 'coille,' English 
'holt/ nevertheless the name Dunkeld and its Gaelic Dun- 
chailleann seem amply to prove that the classic Caledonia 
means really as the poet said, 'land of the woods ' — the Cale- 
donians being the ' Woodlanders.' * Tacitus also records 
another famous name, Graupius, which has been misused in 
MSS., and appears most often as Grampius, whence comes the 
popular form Grampian. Tacitus meant some hill or hillock 
near Blairgowrie, but mediaeval imagination could fancy that 
nothing less could do justice to this great battle than the 
Grampian hills as a background and place of retreat. The 
root of Graupius is 'grup' or, rather, 'gruq/ and means 
' hooked/ much as some hills are called ' sockach,' snouted. 
Ptolemy, the Geographer of 120 a.d., mentions the Vaco- 
magi as the tribe inhabiting the ' laigh' of Moray ; the 
name divides as Vaco-Magi, the latter part being 'magh,' a 
plain, the whole seemingly ' Dwellers on the plain/ The name 
is lost. His name for Spey is Tvesis, which seems to have 
been an attempt at pronouncing Pictish initial 'sp,' which in 
old Gadelic would be 'sqv/ and in Welsh 'chw' — a trouble- 
some sound. Dr Whitley Stokes explains Spey as Pictish, 
from the root 'sqe,' as in 'sgeith,' vomit, the Scotch 'spate/ 
Welsh 'chwyd/ vomit. The name appears to mean the 
'spatey, vomiting river/ and it has the reputation of being 
the swiftest of our large rivers. The Spean, on these terms, 
would stand for ' Spesona/ another stem of the same root. 
The Varar Estuary of Ptolemy answers to the Beauly Firth, 
and the River Farrar ideally suits the phonetics. The root 
may be 'var/ crooked. The Island Sketis, or better Skitis, 
which Ptolemy places about 70 miles north-east of Cape Orkas 
(Dunnet Head), is probably the Isle of Skye misplaced, a view 
which commends itself to Muller, Thomas, and Stokes. The 
latter says that it is " the wing- shaped Island of Skye ; Norse, 
'Skidh' ; Irish, ' Scii' (dat. case, date 700, in 'Annals of 
Ulster'), Adamnan, ' Scia' ; gen., ' Sceth' (date 667 in ' Annals 

* Br Stokes separates the old Gaelic Caillen or Oalden from the Classical 
Caledonius, with its long e between I and d ; and the Welsh forms old and new 
(Oelidon, Celyddon) are certainly derived from the classical form, while the 
English form Dun-keld shows the Welsh phonetics. The question is whether 
the Classical form represents the real original ; if so the roots of Caillen and 
of Caledonia are not tin. same. 



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Place Names of Inuerneaa-shire. 61 

of Ulster'), ' Scith' (Tigernach, 668); means wing, Ir., 
'sciath/ 'sciathan.' " I>r Stokes' derivation is the one 
usually accepted; the Norse ' Skidh/ which is possibly influ- 
enced by 'folk-etymology/ means a 'log/ 'firewood/ 'tablet/ 
and is allied to another Gaelic word, 'sgiath/ a shield. It is 
interesting to note that the Dean of Lismore refers to the 
island as 'Clar Skeith ' — the Board of Skith, thus showing 
that the Norse name of the island was remembered and trans- 
lated by 'Clar/ More modern bards have used the expression 
Clar Sgith in regard to Skye. Thus Rory MacVurich in his 
elegy on Macleod (published in 1776) says — 

" Dh' fhalbh mo lathaichean eibhinn 
O'n threig sibh Clar Sgithe." 

In another on John, Sir Rory's son — 

" 'S e 'n Clar Sgith an Clar raibh sgith." 

The earliest charter and record forms of the name Skye are 
Skey (1292), Sky (1336), and Ski in the 'Manx Chronicle/ 
Adamnan's ' Scia' shows no trace of ' th.' The root is Celtic 
'ski/ cut, slice, and the whole means the 'indented isle/ 
The root ' ski' is still the basis of Gaelic ' sgiath' and Norse 
'skidh/ 

Ptolemy's tribes in ancient 'North Argyle' were the 
Creones, Cerones, and Carnonacae. The roots 'cer/ 'ere/ 
* car, ' are here much to the front, and the roots generally 
mean ' broken/ rough/ Carnonacae especially recalls ' earn/ 
a cairn, a favourite name in the district as Cam, Carnan, and 
Carnach; to which may be added the Carron, the 'rough' 
river, *Carsoha. The title Hebrides, as applied to the 
Western Isles, appears first in Hector Boece's 'History of 
Scotland/ It is a copyist's blunder for the classical Hebudes 
or Haebudes, the name given by Pliny to a group of the 
Western Isles, 30 in number, he says. Ptolemy calls the 
Western Isles the Eboudai, or Ebudae, five in number, of 
which two are named Ebuda. This made some writers attempt 
to identify the two 'Uists' with the two Eboudae, but the 
phonetical difficulties here are too great; besides, the name 
Uist is, as Prof. Munch said, simply the Norse word 'i-vist/ a 
habitation. It has lately been conjectured that Ebouda stands 
for the Greek article (' e' or ' »'), plus Bouda or Boudda, or 
later Bodda, and is really the old Pictish name of Bute. This 
would give that island name the meaning of 'Victoria Isle.' 

Adamnan, Abbot of Iona, who died in 704, has left us in 



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62 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

his ' Life of St Columba' the most important document that 
we possess bearing on the ancient history of our country. He 
has recorded seven or eight names belonging to Inverness 
county. Passing over his Dorsum Britanniae or Drum-Alban, 
which means the watershed of Argyle and Perth, continued 
northwards also past the Great Glen, we have the names ' Nesa' 
or Ness, 'Scia' or Skye, 'Egea' or Eigg, 'Airchartdan' or 
Urquhart, ' Artdamuirchor or Ardnamurchan, 'Sale' or the 
river Shiel there, 'Aporicum Stagnum' or Lochaber, and, 
lastly, the river whose Latin name is 'Nigra Dea' (Black 
Goddess) in Lochaber. The river Ness is mentioned four 
times, three times as ' Nesa' and once (in the genitive case) as 
' Nisae.' We learn also a lesson in topography from Adamnan 
— ' a 'cute ould observer/ as an Irishman would call him — 
Lochness he calls the ' Lake of the Kiver Ness' ; and it is 
almost invariably true, however large the loch or small the 
river, that the loch is named after the river which drains it. 
In addition to this, the river also names the glen through 
which it flows ; and we shall instantly find that the proud Ben 
Nevis is named after the humble nymph who once in pagan 
Pictish days ruled over the destinies of the Nevis stream. The 
name 'Ness' is, of course, Pictish; and we need not look at 
modern Gaelic as exactly possessing the name in this form. 
We must have recourse to roots: 'Nesa/ of Adamnan, points 
to Celtic 'Nest a' and a root 'ned/ which we find means 
'water/ 'wet/ German 'netzen/ to wet, 'nass/ wet, root 
' nod, ' Sanskrit ' nadi, ' river. In old Greece there was the 
river Neda, and in Thracia the Nestos, which is practically the 
' Ness/ But we may go farther; in Ireland they had a heroic 
personage called Ness, mother of the famous demi-god king 
Conchobar Mac Nessa, who was, as can be seen, metronymically 
named. There are indications in the legends that Ness was 
really a river goddess of pagan Ulster — her son Conchobar 
was born on a ' leac' by the river-side ; and, if so, we may 
regard the Pictish ' Nessa' or ' Ness* as either the same goddess 
or her Pictish cousin. The Celts were great worshippers of 
rivers or wells. Gildas before 600 thus refers to the native 
worship of the early Britons : — " Nor will I invoke by name 
the mountains themselves and the hills, or the rivers, to which 
the blind people then paid divine honour.' ' One text repre- 
sents Gildas as including the fountains in the above enumera- 
tion, and we have in Ausonius (circum 380 a.d.\ the Gaulish 
poet, an invocation to "Divona, fons addite divis," that is, 
"Divona, fountain dedicated to the Gods"; for the name 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 6$ 

meant ' Goddess, ' and is the same as appears in the Ptolemaeic 
name for Aberdeen — Devana, which is still the Gaelic name of 
the river Don (Dian or Deathan), and which still abides in the 
' -deen ' of Aberdeen. The river name ' Dee ' also means 
' Goddess' ; and we see from Adamnan that a river in Lochaber 
was called 'Nigra Dea' or Black Goddess. Adamnan also 
mentions as in or on the Dorsum Britanniae the Lake of Loch- 
dae, and it has been well conjectured that Loch-dae is the 
Gaelic or Pictish of 'Nigra Dea/ for 'loch' means 'dark' and 
' dae' means ' Goddess/ In short, the river meant is the Lochy 
in Lochaber. There are at least four other rivers of this 
name : Lochay, entering the west end of Lochtay ; Lochy in 
Glenorchy, entering the Orchy above Dalmally; Lochy, 
or Burn of Brown, which acts for a short distance as the 
boundary of Abernethy parish and Inverness county, and 
which joins the Avon at Inverlochy near Kirkmichael; and 
Lochy with Glen-Lochy at the head of Glenshee. 

We may, however, suspect more river names to have been 
' Goddess' river names. This is undoubtedly the case with the 
'Earns/ of which we have at least three or four; the Perth- 
shire Earn, the Inverness-shire Findhorn, or White Earn, and 
the Banffshire Deveran or Doveran (oldest charter form, Duff- 
hern), or Black Earn ; and there is the Earn of Auldearn. The 
Earn of Strathdearn is called in Gaelic ' Eire/ and its genitive 
is 'Eireann/ the same in pronunciation as the name for Ire- 
land, and it is the same name as the name 'Erin' of Ireland. 
'Eire' was one of the last Tuatha-de-Danann queens of Ire- 
land, to which she left her name ; she was, in short, one of the 
last pagan female deities worshipped in Ireland. Ptolemy 
calls Ireland 'Ivernia/ and the Celtic form of the name is 
restored as ' Iverjo/ or, possibly, a pre-Celtic ' Piverio' (stem 
' Piverion), which has been equated with the Greek land-name 
of Pieria, famed as the haunt of the muses. The root, in that 
case, would mean 'rich, fat/ and would scarcely apply to a 
river name. Adamnan's Evernilis, for 'Irish/ makes the 
whole matter doubtful, and at present we must confess our- 
selves beaten to explain the name Eire or Eireann— " another 
injustice to Ould Ireland"?* I am inclined to include with 

* The root ' pi » means both " fat " and " drink," " water," " flow," and is no 
doubt the ultimate root of these ' erin ' names, a stem ' pi-vo * intervening, 
which is found in the Gaelic name of Iona, that is I, older Eo, Ii, Hn, from 
nom. ' Piva ,' loc. ' Pivi.' The rivers Esk, Ptolemey's Iska, are from *pid-ska, 
root pid, pi-d, spring, well, Grk. pid-ox, fountain. So likely lslay and Isla are 
from ** Ha. 



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G± Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

these Goddess names also the name Nevis, the local Gaelic of 
which is 'Nibheis.' This points to an early Pictish form— 
'Nebestis' or 'Nebesta,' the latter possibly. The root 'neb' 
or ' nebh' is also connected with clouds and water, and gives 
us the classical idea of Nymph, root ' nbh' — the fairies of 
Greece and Rome. The nymph Nebesta, then, gave her name 
to, or found her name in, the River Nevis, which gave its name 
to Glen-Nevis, and it again to the famous Ben, which again 
renders Inverness-shire unique, not merely among Scottish, 
but among British counties, in having as one of its glories the 
highest hill in Britain. Lochnevis also lends proof to the 
argument that Nevis really denotes water originally. There 
was a river in ancient Spain called the 'Nebis/ now 'Neyva,' 
which may also show the root. 

Before leaving the river Ness and the other 'Goddess' 
rivers of the district, I have to explain that there is another 
and more popular, possibly more poetic, derivation of the 
name Ness than the one I have offered. Once upon a time, 
the story goes, the Great Glen which now lies under the waters 
of Loch Ness was a beautiful valley, filled with people and 
plenty. In the bottom of the vale was a spring of magic 
virtue, but there was a 'geas' or taboo connected therewith. 
Whenever the stone on the well was removed and the water 
drawn, the stone had immediately to be replaced or else some- 
thing dreadful was to take place. One day a woman came to 
the well, leaving her child playing on her hut floor ; but while 
at the well she heard the child scream as if it had fallen into 
the fire. She rushed to the house to save her child, and forgot 
to replace the stone over the well. The well overflowed at 
once, and soon filled the long valley. The people escaped to 
the hills, and filled the air with lamentations, crying " Tha 
'loch nis' ann; tha 'loch nis' ann" — there is a 'lake now' 
there. The lake remained, and from that agonised cry is still 
known as ' Loch-Nis,' or ' Lake-Now.' 

Four other names in Adamnan still remain for us briefly 
to discuss — 'Egea,' 'Aporicum,' ' Artdamuirchol,' and 'Air- 
chartdan.' His 'Egea' Insula is the island of Eig, the 'g' of 
which we should expect to be aspirated now-a-days, but here, 
as in the Ptolemaic Ebouda for Bute and Adru for Ben Edair 
(Howth), the double sound of the consonant is not brought out 
in the old spelling. 'Egea' is for 'Eggea,' and now it is in 
Gaelic ' Eige,' old Gaelic genitive ' Ega' or ' Eca.' It is glossed 
or explained in a mediaeval MS. as ' ferns' or fountain ; but the 
name really seems to be the modern Gaelic *eag,' a notch. 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 65 

The island is notched, and so appears in approaching it. 
There is another ' Egg' island, off Glenelg, like in appearance. 
The Aporicum Stagnum or Stagnum Aporum— that is, the 
'Aporic lake' or 'lake of Apors' — it is twice mentioned — is, 
-of course, Lochaber. It is usual to regard the ' aber' here as 
the Pictish prefix denoting 'confluence/ and, no doubt, 'Loch 
of the Confluence' of the Lochy with the Linnhe Dhubh 
{' Black Pool or Sea-loch') — Loch Linnhe — is possible ; but the 
Gaelic 'aber/ a marsh, seems really to be the origin of the 
name, especially in view of Adamnan's plural 'Aporum' or 
' Abers.' 'Loch of the Marshes/ therefore, is the meaning of 
Lochaber. Fortunately tradition supports this view, for, 
according to it, the original Loch-aber was a lakelet in the 
Moine Mhor — the Large Moss — near the mouth of the river 
Lochy. Artdamuirchol or Artdaib Muirchol is described as a 
' rough and stoney district' ; it is known still as the Garbh- 
ohriochan, and in the old charters we saw it was called Gar- 
moran or Garbh-Morvern or ' Rough Morvern' — Morvern itself 
being in older Gaelic ' Na Morbhairne' (genitive). In 1475 the 
records spell the name as Morvarne ; it cannot be ' Mor 
JSarrainn' (Great Portion), as often explained, or ' Mor-Bheann- 
aibh' ; it is rather ' Mor-bhearna/ 'Great Gap or Hill-pass/ 
Coming back to Artdamuirchol, the predecessor of Ardna- 
mvrchane (1515), or now Ardnamurchan, we can easily divide 
the word into 'arda' or 'ardaibh' (accusative and locative 
plural of ' ard/ high, height), and 'muirchol.' This last 
Bishop Reeves explained as 'Sea-hazel.' 'Muir/ sea, un- 
doubtedly forms part of the word. There is no personal name 
of the form ' Mur-chol ' ; so that Dr Reeves is probably right 
in his ' hazel ' derivation. The river name Sale or Shiel comes 
from the root 'sal/ seen in 'seile/ saliva. Lastly, we have 
Adamnan's Airchartdan, which, of course, is Glen-Urquhart, 
the older ' Wrchoden/ and the modern 'Urchadainn.' There 
is an Urquhart in Cromarty and another in Moray. The name 
is a compound: ' Air-card-an/ the first element being the 
prefix ' air/ on, beside. The second part, ' card' or ' cardan,' 
appears in the oft-repeated Kincardine. It is clearly Pictish, 
and as Welsh 'cardd' (older 'card') means 'brake/ we may 
take it that the Pictish means 'wood, forest, or brake.' 
Urquhart, therefore, means ' Woodside/ as Kincardine means 
'Woodend.' Cf. Welsh name Argoed, for 'ar-coed/ 'At 
Wood.' The word ' cardden' is also found in Drumchardine, 
older Drumcharding (1514), the former name for Lentran. 



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66 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Let us now glance at the county from an ecclesiastical 
standpoint. There are thirty-five parishes in Inverness-shire, 
some of which it shares with its neighbours. Inverness town 
is in the territorial parish of Inverness and Bona ; Bona refers 
especially to the Dochfour end of the parish, and is supposed 
to mean the ferry there crossing the Ness, still called ' Ban- 
ath' or 'White-ford.' In 1233 the parochial name was spelt 
Baneth, and two hundred years later Bonacht (for Bonath)^ 
The prefix 'cill,' the locative of 'ceall,' a church, appears in 
only four of the parishes, though it is otherwise common. 
' Kir in Scotland almost invariably prefixes a saint's name ; it 
is the ' ceall' of some saint. There are two or three exceptions y 
and the first on our list is one of them : Kilmallie, Kilmalyn in 
1296, Kilmale 1532, means the church of Maillie, but there is 
no saint of that name, and it cannot be, as is often supposed, a 
pet corruption of Mairi or Mary. All ' cills' delicated to St 
Mary are Kilmoires or Kilmuirs, Moire being the real old 
Gaelic for St Mary, the name Mairi being of late Scoto-French 
origin. In Kilmaillie parish is the river Maillie and Inver- 
maillie; we have also Kilmaly (1536), or Culmaly (1512), and 
Culmalin (1471), as the old name of Golspie parish ; the stream 
at Golspie appears to have no name save Golspie Burn, so that 
it may have been called Maillie. There is a Dalmally in Glen- 
orchay, with an Allt-Maluidh running through it. There is 
Polmaly ('mailidh') in Glen-Urquhart, with Allt-Phuill run- 
ning into it, which must have been Allt-maly. Mailidh is a 
stream name; in Ireland Mailli is a personal name; but 
further than this I cannot go at present. Killin, in Strath - 
errick, on Lochtayside, and at the upper end of Loch Garve, 
means 'White-church' (' cill-fhinn'), and is not, therefore, 
named after any saint any more than Kilmallie. In regard to 
the northern Killin there is the proverb— 

" Cill-Fhinn, Cill-Duinn 
'S Cill-Donnain— 
Na tri Cilltean is sine 'n Alba." 

Kilvaxter, in Kilmuir of Skye, means the 'cill' of Baxtei\ 
which got its name from the trade of somebody connected with 
it and the monastery of Monkstadt. Kilmore in Sleat means 
the Cella Magna or Great Church ; there is a Kilmore in Glen- 
Urquhart. Kilmonivaig, Kilmanawik (1449), is the church of 
St Mo-naomhoc or 'my saint' Naomhan. Kilmorack, Kil- 
morok (1437), seems dedicated to a St Moroc; the name has 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 67 

long puzzled ecclesiastical students, but the form Maworrock, 
a saint's name connected with Lecropt parish, at once suggests 
Mo-Bharroc, and we get the well-known St Barr or Barre, 
more fully Barrfinn or 'White-head.' There were several 
saints of the name, as also the name Finnbarr, the same name 
reversed, which was also curtailed to Barr, Findan, and Munn 
(Mo-Fhindu). The St Barr of Barra Isle was Finnbarr, whose 
day was on the 25th September. Moroc's day was the 8th 
November. Kilmuir, in Skye, means St Mary's Church, but 
the original name was Kilmoluok (1538) — Moluoc's or Lugh- 
aidh's Church, a favourite saint. Kiltarlity was in 1234 
Kyltalargy, in 1280 Keltalaryn ; the saint is a Pictish one — 
Talorgan, 'Fair-browed one.' 

We have already discussed, in other connections, Aber- 
nethy, Ardnamurchan, feoleskine and Abertarff, Cawdor 
(under the name Aberchalder, Cawdor being Caldor in 1394), 
Petty, Uist, Barra (that is, Barr's 'ey' or isle, mixed Norse 
and Gaelic), and Urquhart. Ardersier is in its oldest form 
Ardrosser (1226); it seems to mean Ard-rois-ear, ' East-point- 
height, ' as against Ros-marky opposite it. The present pro- 
nunciation is Ard-na(n)-saor, ' Carpenters' Point' ; but 
' saothair,' a promontory or passage covered at high water, has 
been suggested. This word is common on the West Coast. 
Taking the Skye parishes together, we find Bracadale spelt 
much the same in 1498 — Bracadoll ; the Gaelic is Bracadale ; 
the name contains the common term 'breac' or 'brae,' slope, 
almost of the same force as Gaelic 'sliabh,' and it comes from 
the Norse 'brekka,' a slope, English 'brink.' Sleat, in 1389 
and 1401 Slate, comes from the Norse 'sletta,' a plain, 'slettr/ 
level. It is the only decently level part of Skye. Strath is a 
curtailment for Strathordail ; it is a hybrid of Gaelic ' Srath ' 
and 'Sword-dale' or 'Sward-dale,' both Norse elements, 
usually Suardell in pronunciation. It is a very common name, 
this Swordale. Duirinish, in 1498 Dyurenes, stands for Norse 
' Beer's ness or head.' It is the same as Durness in Sutherland. 
Snizort is Snesfurd in 1501 ; it possibly stands for Norse Snaes- 
fiord or 'snow-firth.' Portree doubtless gets its name of 
King's Port' from James V.'s punitive visit to the Isles in 
1540. 

Alvie parish, about 1350 Alveth and Alway, presents a 
well-known name, which appears elsewhere as Alva, Alvah, 
Alves, and Alyth, which, save Alves, show an old form Alveth. 
It seems a Pictish stem 'alvo,' an extension of the root 'al/ 



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<>8 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

rock. Daviot is another old word evidently Pictish, for its 
old form Deveth (1206-33) is clearly the same as the British 
tribal name Demetae of South Wales, now Dyfed. The root is 
'dem/ sure, strong, Gaelic 'deimhin.' Croy and Dalcross 
formed an old parish* The former is from the adjective 
'cruaidh/ hard. Dalcross is a corruption for what Shaw 
gives as Dealg-an-Ross or Dalginross, a name which appears 
in Athole and Strathearn. It means 'spit of the ridge or 
promontory, ' for ' ros' can be used inland, as in Abernethy — 
Ruigh-da-ros, ' Shiel of the two points. ' Dunlichity or Flichity 
is an alternate name for the parish ; this is Flechate in 1560, 
and comes from ' flichead/ moisture, a derivative from ' fliuch/ 
wet. Dores, about 1350 Durrys, is in Gaelic Durus; this word 
meant in the old language ' a gloomy wood* (dubhras), an 
epithet that would well suit the Inverness-shire I>ores, if only 
the phonetics were more satisfactory. The name is Pictish — 
its termination (' -as') favours this idea, and hence the root is 
'dur,' strong — 'a strong hold/ it seems to mean. It has also 
been taken to mean ' dorus, ' a door or opening ; the roots in 
any case are the same. There is a Durris in Banchory parish. 
Duthil, about 1230 Dothol, has been explained by Lachlan 
Shaw, the historian, as the ' tuaitheal' or north-side of Creag- 
an-fhithich, while the Deshar or ' deiseil' is on the south-side. 
This also is the local derivation, and it seems right enough. 
Glenelg, Glenhelk in 1282, means 'noble glen/ or, properly, 
the 'glen of the noble (elg) river/ The root 'elg' is also in 
Elgin. Kingussie, Kinguscy (1203-11), is in Gaelic Cinn- 
ghiiibhsaich, 'Head of the fir-forest'; ' cinn/ or 'kin/ as a 
prefix, is the locative of 'ceann.' Kirkhill, a modern name, 
comprises the old parishes of Wardlaw (Wardelaw in 1203-24, 
an English name, meaning ' Beacon-hill') and Farnua (Ferne- 
way in 1238). The latter name means the ' place of alders' in 
Gaelic, and Shaw, who so explains it, adds that alders " abound 
there," which they have done till lately. Laggan is for 
Lagan-Choinnich or 'St Cainneach's hollow/ and in the old 
records it appears as Logynkenny (1239). The church was 
then up at the end of Loch Laggan. Moy is the locative of 
' magh/ plain, and Dalarossie is in Gaelic Dail-Fhearghuis, the 
Dulergusy of 1224-42, the 'dale of St Fergus/ to whom the 
chapel there was dedicated. ' Rothiemurchus is in modern 
Gaelic Rat-a-mhurchais, which in 1226 is just the same, Rate- 
morchus, beside Rathmorcus. The prefix 'rat' is a common 
Gaelic one, confined, however, to Pictland ; it might be con- 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 69» 

sidered an extension of 'rath/ an enclosure or farm building, 
but whether the termination is due to Pictish influence or not 
can hardly be said ; for in several cases ' d' ends local suffixes, 
both in Ireland and Scotland (Irish 'kealid' from 'caol/ and 
' croaghat' from ' cruach' ; Scotch Bialid in Badenoch, from 
'Dial/ mouth). In fact, 'rat' takes the place of 'rath* in 
Pictland; and beside it we may no doubt place 'ra'ig' or 
'rathaig/ as in Kaigmore and Kaigbeg of Strathdearn, 
although the old forms show here an internal ' v' : Ravoch- 
more; also Kil-ravock, which is now pronounced Kill-ra'ag. 
The main part of the word Rothiemurchus seems a personal 
name, possibly Muirgus, 'Sea-choice/ allied to Fergus and 
Murchadh. The local derivation here is Rat-mhoir-ghiuthais, 
' Rath of the big fir(s), ' and is not to be despised on the score 
of phonetics, and certainly not as to the facts. 

The island parishes, besides Skye, comprise the Small Isles 
and the Outer Hebrides, Only Eigg now remains to Inverness- 
shire. Muck (Eilean-nam-muc or 'Pig Isle'), Canna (Porpoise 
Isle, old Gaelic 'cana/ porpoise), and Rum (origin unknown) 
belong now to Argyle. St Becan, from 'bee/ 'beag/ little, 
seems to have died in Rum (gen. Ruimm)* in 676, if we can 
judge what the Irish annals and martyrologies say correctly. 
Eigg has been already considered. So, too, have the Uists and 
Barra. Harris was in 1546 'Hary/ 1546 'Harige'; Dean 
Monro (1549) calls it 'the Harrey.' The Gaelic is 'Na- 
h-Earra/ which gave the English form 'the Herries' and 
Harris or 'the Harris/ There is Harris in Rum and Islay, 
Herries in Dumfries, and Harray in Orkney. It is usual to 
explain ' Na-h-Earra' as ' the heights/ and both in Harris and 
in Islay this admirably suits, but the Norse words, whence the 
name undoubtedly comes, cannot be easily fitted in. The 
Norse for 'high' is 'har/ plural 'havir/ especially the com- 
parative 'haerri/ higher ('The Higher Ground' as compared 
to low-lying Lewis). 

The Church has supplied many other than purely parish 
names. Saints' names, generally with the prefix 'cill/ are 
abundant, and saints' wells, as well as saints' isles, are com- 
mon. St Columba is first favourite, something like a score of 
places being connected with his name in such forms as Cill- 
cholumchille (Kilcolumkill) or Cill-choluim, Tobair-Cholum- 
chille, and Eilean-Cholumchille ; and Portree bay was named 
after him originally. The next in importance of dedication is 
the Virgin Mary ; Kilmuir or Kilmory are the usual forms in 



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70 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

English of the name. There are two in Ardnamurchan, Kil- 
mory and Kilvorie, Kilmuir in N. Uist, and Kilmuir in Skye 
as a parish, in Duirinish, with several other places. St 
Bridget, the 'Mary of the Gael/ has two or three Kilbrides in 
the county— as in Strath, South Uist, and Harris. St Maol- 
rubha, older Maelruba, appears in place-names as Molruy, 
Morruy, and Maree (as in Loch-Maree). His centre in Scot- 
land is Applecross; here he died in 721* He seems to have 
been a favourite in Skye; there is Kilmaree in Strath, and 
Cill-ashik was of old Askimolruy or 'Maelruba's Ferry' ; Kil- 
molruy in Bracadale ; and Ardmaree in Berneray. In Skye 
also Moluag or St Lughaidh has some dedications — Kilmaluock 
in Trottarness and in Raasay; there was a croft Mo-luag at 
Chapel-park, near Kingussie, whence the latter name. St 
Comgan is celebrated in Ardnamurchan and Glenelg — Kil- 
choan; and he was the special patron of the old Glengarry 
family. St Cuimine the Fair, the 7th century biographer of 
Columba, seems to have been celebrated at Glenelg, Kirkton 
(Kilchuimen, 1640). But we have his name certainly in Cill- 
chuimen of Fort- Augustus. St Donnan gave Kildonnan to 
Eigg and S. Uist. The Pictish saint Drostan, who is misrepre- 
sented as a pupil of St Columba's, was patron of Alvie ; his 
chapel is still seen in ruins at Dunachton, and there is, or 
was, in Glen-Urquhart a croft named after him — Croit-mo- 
chrostan ; and seemingly the patronymic M'Rostie (Perthshire) 
comes from Drostan under Lowland influence. Another 
Pictish saint was Kessoc, whose name at least is borne by the 
ferry of Kessock (Kessok, 1437). The name Kessoc or Kessan 
h from 'ces,' meaning 'spear' in Gaelic, but what it meant in 
Pictish it is impossible to say. Talargan, the Pict, had a 
' kir on the north of Portree bay, besides being the patron 
saint of Kiltarlity (Ceilltarraglan). Adamnan appears rarely ; 
Tom-eunan of Insh is named after him, and a croft of his 
existed in Glen-Urquhart. Such names as Kilpheder, Kil- 
martin, Kilaulay (Olave), Kilchalman, Kilcrist (now Cill- 
chro, or 'pen kirk' in Gaelic, in Strath^, Pitkerrald (Cyrill), 
and Kilmichael in Glen-Urquhart, Killianan (Finan) in 
Glengarry, Ardnamurchan, and Abriachan, and others can 
only be mentioned. 

A most interesting ecclesiastical name is ' Annaid' ; it 
occurs very often in Inverness county, from Killegray of 
Harris to Groam of Beauly. Achnahannet is common, and 
there are Teampull na h-Annaid, Clach na h-Annaid, and 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 71 

Tobair na h-Annaid. It means in old Gaelic a patron saint's 
-church ; it is rare, however, in Ireland, and seems in Scotland 
to denote the ' locale' of the pioneer anchorites' cells — that is, 
their ' clachans' and little oratories, often away in a ' diseart' 
(Lat. 'Desertum') or desert (island or remote place, as in 
Upper Lochaber). The name clachan is common on the West 
Coast and in the Isles; it means, firstly, the monk's or 
anchorite's bee-hive stone cell — built where wood and wattle 
were scarce, so that on the eastern mainland there are no 
'clachans.' The word developed into the meaning of oratory 
or kirk, and, from the cluster of ' clachans' making a monastic 
community, into 'village,' which is its only meaning in the 
Lowlands. There are three in Kilmuir (Skye), for example; 
one at least in N. TJist, which is counterbalanced by Kallin or 
Ceallan ('Kirkie') and Kirikibost ('Kirkton') there. 'Reilig* 
is now an old Gaelic word for church -yard, from Lat. 

* reliquiae' ; it appears in the Aird and near Beauly as Reelick 
and Ruillick (The Relict, 1584) respectively. ' Teampull' and 

* Seipeal' (Chapel) give many names : Tigh-an-tempuill or 
Temple-House in Glen-Urquhart, and Pairc-an-t-seipeil 
{Chapel-park) in Badenoch, for example. The common name 
' eaglais' is everywhere, but it rarely gives rise to a place-name 
in this county. The church officials, too have naturally left 
their mark : Balnespick is Bishop 's-ton ; Paible is from the 
Norse Papyli or Papa-byli, ' Pope or Priest's town,' a Gaelic 
Bail'-an-t-sagairt, and Pabay is 'Priest's Isle'; Mugstad or 
Monkstead of Skye is the half Norse representative of Bal- 
vanich in Benbecula, which is half Gaelic ('manach/ monk, 
from Lat. ' monachus'). In the same island is Nunton or 
Ballenagailleich (1549). There is no Appin in Inverness-shire 
— Abbacy or Abbey-land, but there is 'A' Mhanachainn,' the 
'Monk-acy' (so to speak), the Gaelic name for Beauly, itself 
from the Lat. 'Bellus Locus' or 'Beautiful Place,' a name no 
tloubt bestowed on it — and rightly — by the early 13th century 
monks. 

We shall notice the District names not already considered, 
^is we have considered Lochaber, Morvern, Strathdearn, etc. 
The Aird explains itself ; it is the high ground of Kirkhill and 
Kiltarlity. Glenmoriston is a difficult name; the river, of 
course, gives the name, and it is usually explained as for 
'Mor-easan,' 'river of great water-falls.' It is Pictish, no 
doubt, and points to a Celtic *M6r-est-ona. Stratherrick, the 
older Stratharkok and Stratharkeg, comes from the river 



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72 Gaelic Society of Inuerness. 

Farigag, which means 'lower-ravine' river (Gaelic < far/ below 

tod-Pvleitir (lower slope'), Farraline ('lower linn'), 
Farr ( lower place'), etc. Strathnairn derives its name from 
the Nairn River; this river name is Pictish, likely old 
Naverna the same root and partial stem as we have in the 
Nayer of Sutherland, Ptolemy's Nabaros. The root is 'nav' 

Z S wTV £ W ' SWim ' Gaelic ' sn a mh '; and we may compare 
the Welsh Nevern as a parallel form to Nairn. Badenoch is 
in Gaelic Baideanach; the root is 'baide,' submerged, from 
4 bath drown. In Ireland there is Bauttogh in Galway, 'a 
marshy place, and the river Bauteoge, running through 
swampy ground. Passing over Lochaber as already discussed 
we come to the ancient lordship of Garmoran, the Clanranald 
land, bounded on the south by Loch Shiel and on the north 

£ y wlr rn ' as the P oet sa y s in the Dean of Lismore's 
Book (1512) — 

Leggit derri di vurn 
eddir selli is sowyrrni 

—"An end of merriment between Shiel and Hourn." 
Adamnan's Sale is the above Shiel, but the Sorn is a later 
name given by the Gael, who had by the time they reached it 
adopted the Latin 'furnus,' whence 'sorn,' a furnace, un- 
doubtedly comes. Loch Hourn is 'Furnace Lake'— Loch- 
shuirn, which may be compared with the Lochalsh name 
Coire-na-Sorna, the one a masculine, the other a feminine 
genitive, both genders being shown in the early language, as- 
is not uncommon in the case of a borrowed word. The lord- 
ship of Garmoran, to which Skene devoted an extraordinary 
chapter in his "Highlanders of Scotland," under the fancy 
that it was an earldom, and about which he is silent in 
"Celtic Scotland," comprised Moydart, Morar, and Knoydart. 
The name, spelt in 1343 Garwmorwarne, means 'Rough 
Morvern,' and Morvern means 'Great Passes'— Mor-bhearna ; 
the modern Gaelic has adopted the name Garbh-chriochan, or 
'Rough-bounds,' instead. The Morvern further south may be 
regarded as adjacent, and perhaps part of the same name ; if 
not, then it also is bisected well enough by its own 'beam' or 
pass of Lochs Tacnis, Loch Arienas, and, we may add, Loch 
Aline, with their respective streams, to entitle it to a separate- 
but singular Mor-bhearn. M'Vurich calls it in the gen. sing, 
fern. ' Na Morbhairne' ; the oldest charter spelling is Morvern 
as now (1390), and Morvarne (1475). The name Moydart, 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 73 

G. Muideard, was spelt Mude worth in 1343, Modo worth in 
1372, and Mudewort in 1373. The name is difficult as to 
derivation; it is Norse by its ending '-ard,' '-ort,' which is 
for 'fjord.' Like Knoydart and Sunart, it likely comes from 
a personal name, here Mundi, and for the phonetics compare 
the island names Gometray and Hermitra, from Godmund and 
Hermund, and the personal name Tormoid from Thormund. 
Better still is the Thrond of Trotternish, for comparison. 
Sunart, in 1372 Swynwort, and in 1392 Swynawort, is Sveinn's 
fjord; while Knoydart (Cnudeworth in 1343) stands for Knut's 
or Canute's fjord. Arisaig, in 130t) Aryssayk, is the Norse 
'aros-vik,' the bay of the river mouth ('ar6s,' river-mouth, 
whence Aros, the place name). Morar was in 1343 Morware, 
Mordhowor, 1517 Moroyn, MacVurich's old Gaelic Moiroin 
and Martin's Moron, which last forms point to ' Mor-shron' or 
' Great nose' (promontory) as the meaning of the word ; but 
Morar or Morwar stands for M6r-bharr, 'Great-point.' Glen- 
garry takes its name from the river Gareth (about 1309). 
There is another Garry in Perth, and the Yarrow is the same 
name, while allied by root are the English rivers 'Yair' and 
'Yare' (Yarmouth), and also the French 'Garonne,' Classic 
Garumna. The root is 'garu,' whence Gaelic 'garbh,' rough 
(' *garvo-). In Skye we have Trotternish, Waternish, and 
Minginish districts. Trotternish is in 1549 both Trouteruesse 
and Tronternesse, either with ' u' or with ' n' in the main 
syllable. MacVurich (17th century) gives the then Gaelic as 
' Tront amis' ; it stands for Norse ' Throndarnes' or ' Thrond 's 
Headland.' Waternish is the Icelandic 'Vatnsness' or 
' Water-ness.' Minginish — Myngnes in 1498, Mygnes in 1511, 
and Myngynnes in 1 549 — contains the prefixed element ' ming, ' 
which appears in the island names Mingulay and Mingay, and 
Mingarry, where in every case the Gaelic has no 'ng' sound 
at all. Mingarry is Mioghairidh (Mewar, 1493, and Meary, 
1505, but Mengarie, 1496). The word here prefixed seems to 
be 'mikil,' 'great,' whose accusative is 'mikinn,' 'mikla/ 
1 mikit' in the three genders. Hence Minginish means Rudha- 
Mor of Gaelic, which it is. 

The Norsemen, who held the Isles for some 450 years, have 
left a deeper impress on the place-names there than the Gael. 
Of the names usually printed on maps, in directories, or in 
Valuation Rolls for the Outer Hebrides, four are Norse to the 
Gaelic one; that is, the proportion is four-fifths Norse and 
one-fifth Gaelic. In Skye the proportion is not so heavily 



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74 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

against Gaelic; practically the two languages are equal. Of 
the names on the Valuation Roll, 60 per cent, are Norse as 
against 40 per cent, that are Gaelic. The coast-line of Gar- 
moran is also considerably Norse, though nothing like the 
proportion in Skye ; and as we go inland the Norse names get 
fewer. There are no Norse names in Lochaber; so we may 
■conjecture that that district was free of the Norse yoke. Norse 
names abound in Easter as well as in Wester Ross, and they 
can be traced south to the Beauly valley, where we have Eski- 
■dale ('Ash-dale') and Tarradale in the Beauly district. 
Further south we do not find any trace of the Norse power in 
place names ; nor is it likely that they ever had any conquest 
or sway south of Beauly, despite their own assertions in their 
sagas, that they possessed also Moray. The Norse power in 
Scotland at its strongest extended over Caithness, Sutherland, 
Ross, Argyle, and Galloway, with, of course, the Western 
Isles. This was about 980 to 1050. Gaelic slowly regained 
its hold in the Isles after the rise of Somerled and the other 
patriarchs of the Clan Donald in the latter part of the 12th 
century ; but Gaelic in its re-conquest left the Norse nomen- 
clature of the country practically intact. 

The most prominent Norse words borrowed are those for 
island (' ey'), hill (' fjall'), ' vik' or ' -aig/ bay ; ' nes' or ' -nish/ 
headland; ' dail' or '-dale/ a vale, a dale; 'fjordhr/ sea-loch 
or firth (fjord), or ' -ord/ ' -ard,' and the various words for 
township, farm or settlement ('setr,' 'stadr/ ' bolstadr/ and 
'bol' or '-bo'). The termination '-ay' and '-a' of the island 
names is the Norse 'ey/ isle. Beginning with the isles about 
narris, we have Berneray or 'Bjorn's Isle' — Bjorn either 
meaning ' bear/ or being a personal name, which last it likely 
is. Fladda, so commonly repeated, means ' flat isle' ; Soay, 
also repeated often, is for Saudha-ey or ' Sheep-isle' ; Isay, 
'Ice-isle/ Taransay, St Taran's Isle; Ensay, 'meadow (engi) 
isle' ; Killegray, 'Kellach's Isle/ the Kellach being the Irish 
'Cellach' or 'Kelly' (warrior), borrowed early by the Norse, 
" and now known in the name MacKillaig; Lingay, 'Heath 
Isle' ; Scalpay, ' Shallop' or ' Ship Isle' ; Rossay, ' Horse Isle' ; 
Eriskay, 'Eric's Isle' ; Oransay and Orasay, of which there are 
a great number of isles, is from 'orfiri/ ebb or shallow, and 
means that the island is one at full tide only ; Pabbay, ' Pope 
or Priest's Isle' ; Sandray is ' Sand Isle' ; Benbecula is only 
partly Norse: the Gaelic is Beinn-a-bhaodhla, and really 
means 'Height of the Ford,' from Gaelic 'faodhail,' 'a ford/ 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 75 

itself borrowed from the Norse 'vadill/ a 'shallow or ford/ 
Basay or Rarsay (Rairsay, 1526, Rasay and Raarsay in 1549) 
seems to be ' Rar-ass-ey/ ' Roe-ridge-isle. ' 

The hills in the isles generally end in ' -val/ This is the 
Norse 'fjall/ fell or hill. The name Roine-val is common; 
this is Hraun-fell, a rocky-faced hill ; the island Rona is also 
from ' hraun/ 'rock-surfaced isle/ Horne-val is ' horn-f ell' ; 
Helaval is ' flagstone fell' ; and so on. Layaval in South Uist, 
and Laiaval in North Uist, may be equated with Ben Loyal in 
Sutherland; perhaps for 'Leidhfjall/ 'levy or slogan hill/ 
Mount Hecla in Mingulay has the same name as the famous 
burning mountain in Iceland, which means 'hooded shroud/ 
Blavein in Skye is for Bla-fell, 'Blue-fell/ 

The sea-lochs in ' -ord/ ' -ard/ ' -art' are too numerous even 
to make a selection from ; and the same may be said of the 
' nesses' or headlands (Norse ' nes'). I must pass over also the 
townships with their 'bols/ 'hosts/ and 'stas/ An odd 
change is undergone by ' holmr/ an islet (in a bay or river), a 
holm ; this may appear either as terminal ' -am/ or ' -mul/ or 
' -lum/ We have Heistamul and Hestam, both from 'hestr/ 
horse ; the famous Eilean Beagram is probably Bekra-holmr, 
'Ram-holm'; Lamalum is 'Lamb-holm/ and Sodhulum is 
from 'saudhr/ sheep. Airnemul is Erne-holm — 'Eagle-holm/ 
Lianimul no doubt means 'flax-holm/ ' Os' means 'river- 
mouth, oyce' ; we have it in the Skye Ose and Glen-ose, and in 
Aros. Hoe and Toe are not uncommon, and we have How- 
more in S. Uist; this is Norse 'haugr/ burial mound, howe. 
Torgabost shows 'horgr/ a heathen place of worship, and also 
Horogh (Castlebay). 

There is a marked difference between the island and west 
coast topography and the eastern mainland in the common 
names of hills, dales, lochs, and glens; in the west we have 
'cleit/ 'stac/ 'sgiirr/ 'sgeir/ and 'gil/ all Norse; in the 
east, 'earn/ ' meall/ ' creag/ 'monadh/ and 'gleann'': in the 
east, 'coire/ 'srath/ 'sliabh/ as against the terminal 'dal/ 
' breac/ and 'gil' of the Isles. Then the absence of terms for 
wood is most marked in the west, ' sco/ terminal, from ' skogr/ 
a shaw, appearing only in Skye, as Birkisco, G-rasgo, etc. In 
the east, wood is very common in the nomenclature. The bird 
names also differ much, even when not Norse, from the Gaelic 
Mainland. We, have 'orri/ N. moorfowl, also a nickname, in 
Oreval, hills in Harris and Uist; 'mar/ sea-mew, in Maraig, 
"* Sea-mew bay'; 'orn/ eagle, in Arnamul, 'Eagle-head* 



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76 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

(Mingulay), and Arnaval (Skye); 'kraka,' crow, Crakavick,. 
'Crow-wick'^ (Uist); 'hrafn' or 'hramn,' raven, Ramasaig,. 
'Raven-bay' (cf. Ramsay, Ramsey)); and Geirum, 'Auk- 
holm' (Barra). 

The mainland 'baile,' farm or township, is often repre- 
sented in the Inverness-shire isles by the Norse ' setr,' a stead, 
shieling. The latter name appears alone as Seadair (Gaelic) 
or Shader (English) in Bernera and Skye. Uigshader means 
' Ox-ton' (compare Uisgeval and Uisgneval, hills) ; Roishader, 
'Horse-ton'; Marishader, 'Mare-ton'; Herishader, 'Lord's- 
ton' ; Siilishader, 'Pillar-ton' or 'Solan-goose-ton' — it is not 
far inland — all in Skye; which, however, prefers 'bost'. (N. 
'bolstadhr), as Husabost, 'House-stead'; Eabost ('Eidh' or 
isthmus?); Colbost (pronounced Cyalabost), 'Keel-ton'; Heri- 
bost, ' Lord's-ton' ; Orbost, ' Orri's-ton' ; Breabost, ' Broad- 
ton' ; Skeabost, ' Skidhi's-ton,' as in Skibo (old Scythebol); 
Carbost, 'Kari's-ton.' The Norse 'gardr,' a garth or house 
and yard, which appears elsewhere on Norse ground, is repre- 
sented in the Western Isles and Mainland by its diminutive 
'gerdhi,' which has been adopted into Gaelic as 'gearraidh,' 
the land between machair and moor. It is common in place- 
names in its Gaelic use — Gearadu, 'Black -garth,' in N. Uist; 
Geary (Duirinish) ; . Garrymore (Bracadale), Garrafad CKil- 
muir), and Gairidh-Ghlumaig (Kilmuir). Terminally it is 
'garry,' and is very extensively used with Norse names — 
Osmigarry, from Osmund ; Calligarry, from Kali ; Grimagarry, 
from Grimm; Shageary, 'Sea-garth' (Sagerry, 1541); Flodi- 
garry, ' Float or Fleet garth' (though Gaelic has long V) ; Big- 
gary, 'Barley'; Mugeary, 'Monk's garth' (?); and Mos- 
garaidh, ' Moss' — all in Skye. In N. Uist there are Hougheary 
(howe), and Trumsgarry (Thrum's); in Benbecula, Creagarry 
may be Gaelic, as may be Crogarry there, though ' kro ' may 
be Norse borrowed from Gaelic (a pen) ; Minsfarry (Benbecula) 
is 'mickle-garth.' In S. Uist appears Stelligarry, the first 
portion of which is pronounced ' staol,' and is found in Stulay 
isle; it is Norse, pointing to 'steil,' 'steyl,' 'stadhil' or 
'stagil,' but these forms are either non-existent or cannot be 
used in place-names, save the last, as in Stagley, 'rock-isle.' 
Seemingly we have here a corruption of the proper name Stulli 
or Sturla. The Norse has borrowed besides ' kro' the im- 
portant word 'airigh,' shieling, originally as 'aerg' or 'erg,' 
as in Aserims-aer^in, iu the Orkney Saga, where it is ex- 
plained that 'erg' is Gaelic for 'setr.' Asgrims-erg now 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire. 7*1 

appears as Askarry, even Assary (Caithness), where we have 
also Halsary (Hall), Dorrery, bhurrery (Shureval. 'Pig-hill/ 
in S. Uist), etc. In Duirinish we find Soarary, ' Sheep shier ; 
in Ardnamurchan, Smirisary, 'Butter shiel,' and JBrunary 
(Brunnary, 1498), an ' Airigh-an-tobair' ; in Glenelg, Beolary 
and Skiary ; in N. Uist, Obisary, ' Bay or Hope' ; Aulasary, 
'Olaf's'; Risary, 'Copse-wood'; Dusary, Vanisary, and 
Horisary; in S. Uist, "Vaccasary and Trasary (Thrasi); and 
others. 

Some of the more interesting land and farm names may be 
glanced at. The Norse ounce and penny lands — especially the 
latter — have left their mark. The ' tirung' or ounce-land is 
equated with the Mainland 'davoch' or 'doch,' four plough- 
gates, whose fourth is the common name Kerrow (' ceathramh,' 
fourth). The Norse for this last phonetically was ' fjordhungr,' 
fourthing or farthing, which appears in the place-name 
Febirlig, the phonetics being the same as for 'birlinn,' a 
galley (N. ' byrdhingr). It meant ' farthing land.' The ' ung' 
was old Gaelic, and existed in Ung-an-ab, the abbot's ounce- 
land, in N. Uist in 1561. The pennyland gives many names : 
Pein-chorran (Portree), from 'corran,' point, the masculine 
form of 'corrag.' This 'corran' is a very common name in 
the Isles, and appears as Corran simply several times, as at 
Ballachulish. The usual explanation of 'bay' is absurdly 
wrong, therefore, from 'corran/ a sickle, supposed meta- 
phorically to mean 'bay/ which it does not. Of course these 
'corrans' often guard sickle-shaped bays, and hence the mis- 
take. Other penny-lands are — Penifiller, ' Fiddler's ' ; Pen- 
soraig, ' Primrose' (i or N. ' Saur-vik,' ' Mud-bay'); Pein-more 
(big) ; Peiness (waterfall) ; Peinaha ; Peinlich ; Leiphen (half- 
penny); and Pein-gown (smith) — all in Skye. Peinavaila is 
the romantic form which ' Peighinn-a'-bhaile' takes in Ben- 
becula. Peninerin in S. Uist stands for ' Peighinn an aorainn' 
— where mass was said. In Pictland ' davoch' or ' doch' is the 
commonest land-measure : 3>ochgarroch, ' D. of the rough- 
land' ; Doch-four, of which presently ; and Lettoch, near 
Beauly, is 'Half -davoch,' like the Aberdeenshire Haddo and. 
Haddoch. The terminal element ' -fur' enters largely into the 
names of Pictland — Balfour, Inchfur, 3>alfour, Dochfour, Pit- 
fur (very common), Tillifour and Tillifourie (Tough), and 
Trinafour (Perthshire). The form with 'f is clearly an 
aspirated 'p'; the word is really 'pur,' which seems to exist 
in diminutive form in Purin (Fife), older Pourane, Porin (G. 



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7$ Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Porainn) in Strathconan, and Powrie near Forfar. The Book 
of Deer has the aspirated Fiirene, represented now by Pitfour 
in Deer. The 'p' proves the word to be Pictish; and it is 
possible that the root is 'par/ as in Welsh 'pawr/ pasture, 
Breton 'peur.' The ultimate root is 'qer/ as in 'proas/ 
'crann/ and perhaps 'craobh/ In Inverness we have Doch- 
four, Dochgarroch, and Delfour. 

The words 'gart/ corn, 'goirtean/ cornfield, allied to 
English ' garden' and Norse ' gardhr/ appear in Boat of Garten 
and minor places. Cluny is a very common name ; the Gaelic 
is Cluanaigh, a locative of 'cluanach/ meadowy place, from 
' cluan, ' a mead. In Badenoch the nom. or ace. is found in 
A' Chluanach, west of Kincraig. Longart, a shieling, camp, 
is now obsolete, save in place-names ; it is met with in Dail- 
an-longairt, Coire-an-Longairt, and Badenlongart (1773, 
Gaick) — all in Badenoch. The old word was 'longphort/ 
'ship-port/ or harbour, encampment, which, with a dialect 
pronunciation of 'long' as 'low/ gives 'luchairt/ a palace. 
Tarbert means isthmus, from 'tar/ across, and root 'ber, r 
bring, bear. Drummond presents the full stem of 'druim/ 
back (dromann, dromand), and does not stand, as usually said, 
for Druim-fhinn, white ridge, still less for Fionn's ridge. 
Strathglass presents the old word 'glais/ stream, which we 
have in Inveruglas, the confluence of the Duglas or Dark- 
stream (now nameless) ; this is also found in Southern Scot- 
land, and has given the famous family name. The word 
' leacainn/ a cheek, hill face or side, gives Leachkin, at Inver- 
ness, and elsewhere, generally with an epithet. The diminu- 
tive 'sidhean/ a fairy knoll, gives Bailintian and many names 
else ; the simple ' sidb/ appears in Ben Tee, of Glengarry, and 
is found elsewhere for conical hills, as in Schiehallion, 'Hill 
of the Caledonians/ with which the name Dunkeld and 
Bohallion, near Dunkeld, are to be compared. The 'lairig' is 
given in the dictionaries as a "plain, hill, sloping hill/' some- 
what contradictory meanings ; but the real meaning is found 
in the place-names, and that meaning is 'pass." In old Irish 
we have ' laarc/ a fork or ' gobhal/ Finnlarig, both in Duthil 
and at Killin, means ' Fair Pass/ as Rev. J. Maclean, Grand- 
tully, etymologises the Perthshire name. In Rothiemurchus 
we have Larach-grue or Lairig-dhru, probably the pass of 
Druie river (root 'dru/ flow, as in Gaulish Druentia), which 
the Ordnance Map, with its wonted perversity, names Lairg 
Gruamach. The place-name Elrick is common in the county, 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 79* 

and there must be over a hundred such in Scotland ; it is from 
the obsolete 'eileirig,' locative of 'eileireag,' which meant the 
'cul-de-sac' bounded by fallen trees and other obstructions 
into which the deer were driven, and one side of which was 
formed of a hill, on the face of which the hunters took their 
place and shot the deer. These hills and places are called 
Elrick, Eldrick, Elrig, and Ulrig; 'eileir' is given in the 
dictionaries as a 'deer path,' no doubt from the root 'eln r in 
'eilid,' hind. It is sometimes explained as 'iolairig,' a knoll 
on which eagles rested, which is not likely. The ' bordlands' 
of the royal and other castles appear in Gaelic as 'borlum,' 
whence Borlum, near Fort-Augustus, also the old name for* 
Ness Castle, whence the famous and notorious Borlum family 
got its name. There is Borlum in Skye, and elsewhere. 

We will finally consider some interesting individual names, 
and begin with the furthest west, which is St Kilda. This 
name is one of those known as ' ghost names' — a geographer's 
blunder. In Gaelic the island is called 'Irt' or 'Iort,' which 
means in old Gaelic ' death' ; it is likely that the ancient 
Celts fancied this sunset isle to be the gate to their earthly 
paradise, the Land-under-the-waves, over the brink of the 
western sea. The Dutch map-makers of the 17th century are 
responsible for St Kilda or Kilder. There were some wells 
near the village famous for their virtues — Tobar-nam-buadh, 
and there was a Tobar-Kilda among them — one or all of 
them retaining the Norse name for well, which is 'kelda,' 
corrupted into St Kilder's Well in the 17th century. Kelda 
is known in the North of England on Norse ground as 'kild,' 
as in Kildwick, Kilham (Domesday Chillum), and Halikeld, 
' Holy-well.' The well-names got mixed with the true name 
of the island on the maps. The Dutch were active herring 
fishers in the western seas in the 17th century, and to them we 
owe more curiosities than St Kilda — doubtless the Minch is 
due to them, the Gaelic of which is A' Mhaoil, the Moyle, also 
the old Irish name for the sea between the ' Maoil' of Kintyre 
and Ireland. 

Rodel, ' o' long, stands for Norse Red-dale, from the colour 
of the soil. 

Lee, in N. Uist, Ben Lee, Skye, N. 'hlidh,' slope. 

Lochmaddy, from 'madadh,' a shellfish there. 

Heisker, Hellisker, 1644, N. 'Rocky skerry.' Munro in 
1549 calls it Helskyr na gaillon (nuns). 

Stoney-bridge, in ,S. Uist, G. Staoni-brig, is for N. Stein- 
brekka, 'stone-slope.' 



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J 



•SO Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Boisdale, N. Bugis-dalr, ' Slight bay dale/ 
Dorlin, Ardnamurchan, G. 'doirling,' isthmus. 
Glenfinnan, G. Gleann-Fionain, named after St Finan, 
Ellan-Finan having been the old name of Ardnamurchan 
parish* St Finan lived in St Columba's time, is called of 
1 Swords in Leinster,' and was latterly a leper, taking the 
infection for penance. His name appears in Abriachan and 
Glengarry in Killianan. He is not to be confused with St 
Finnan (short 'i,' from 'finn,' white); as the following triplet 
on the last Glengarry shows, the quantity of the ' i' is long : — 

'S ann 'na laighe 'n Cill-fhionain 
Dh' fhag sinn biatach an fhiona, 
Lamh a b' urrainn a dhioladh. 

Inveraros, in Haasay, is a good case of hybrid; for 'arcs' 
is the Norse for inver. 

Point of Ayre, in Raasay , is derived from ' eyrr, ' a gravelly 
beach, connected in Britain with headlands; we have it in 
Snizort as Eyre (Ire, 1630), and Ken-sal-eyre or Kinsale (sea- 
end) of Eyre. There is a Point of Ayre on the north-east 
coast of Man ; and we may perhaps conjoin the Heads of Ayr 
in the county of that name, and perhaps the county name. 

Idrigill, which appears twice as a promontory in Skye, 
with Udrigle in Gairloch, stands for Ytri-kollr, 'Further or 
Outer Hill/ It is not connected with 'gil,' a ravine. 

Bealach Colluscard (Kilmuir) is interesting again as show- 
ing tautology, for Collu-scard means Pass of the Hill (kollr), 
N. 'skardhr.' It is again repeated in Bealach na Sgairde in 
Portree, with somewhat ugly emphasis. 

Armadale is Norse, meaning 'Bay-dale.' 

Skulamus (Strath) seems to be for Skuli's moss, while 
Strolamus must be for Stiirli's moss (for ' ii' as '6,' compare 
Knoydart, which has a liquid also). 

Broadford is a modern name, not Norse. 

Talisker, G. Tallasgar, N. T-hallr ?sker, 'Sloping rock.' 

Eist (Duirinish), a Chersonese, is from 'hestr/ horse, that 
is, 'horse-shaped/ Otherwise, as in Eilean Heist, it really 
means ' Horse' -isle* 

Greshornish (Duirinish), pronounced Grisinnis now usually, 
is for Grice or Pig Ness. 

Rigg (Snizort) and Bigg (G. Dig) are respectively from 
Norse 'hryggr,' ridge, and 'dik,' a ditch. 

Duntulm is the ' dun' of the ' holmr,' islet 



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Place Names of Inuerness-shire 81 

Staffin, "The Staff/ from N. 'stafr/ a staff, applied to 
basaltic and other pillared rocks, as in Staffa (basalt isle) and 
Dunstafnage (Dunstaffynch, 1309), Dun-stafa-nes. 

Loch Arkaig (Lochaber), river Arkaig, from Celtic root 
'arc/ dark, W. ' erch/ dusky; Loch Arklet, Stirling. 

Corpach, 'place of bodies/ Here, it is said, the bodies 
-carried to Iona for burial rested to await sailing. 

Banavie, Banvy (1461); compare Banff, Bamff, also Banba, 
an old name for Ireland, from ' banbh/ a pig. For meaning, 
compare Mucrach and Muckerach (Kilmorack), Pres-Mucrach, 
mucrach meaning ' Place of Pigs/ 

Fersit, Farset (Bleau), from obsolete 'fearsaid/ sandbank 
at the mouth of a river, whence also Belfast. 

Fassfern, G. Fasaidh-fearn, 'Abode or stead of the alders/ 

Glen-quoich, Glen of the Cuaich river, the river of ' cuachs' 
or bends. It is a common river name. 

Loch Oich ; Oich points to a Celtic Utaka, root ' ut/ dread, 
1 awesome/ 

Vinegar Hill, Gaick, is in Gaelic 'A* Mhin Choiseachd/ 
the easy walking. The English is a fancy name. 

Ettridge is for Eadar-dha-eas, ' Between two falls/ Ness- 
Intullioh, Essintullich (1645), is for 'Water-fall of the hillock/ 
Phoines is for Fo 'n eas, 'Below the fall/ So with Phoineas 
in Kiltarlity. 

Coylum Bridge; Gaelic, Cuing* leum, 'Narrow leap/ 
which it is. 

Achnacoichen (Rothiemurchus), ' Field of the Owls' ; so in 
Lochaber — Achnacochine, in 1509 Auchancheithin. 

Rothiemoon (Abernethy), G. Rat a' mhoin, ' Rath or stead 
■of the peat-moss/ 

Pityoulish, in Abernethy, older Pitgaldish, is Pictish in 
prefix, root, and termination (' -ais '). The root word is 
'geall/ pronounced like the word for 'promise/ It is found 
in many river names : Geldie Burn, running into Upper Dee ; 
Abergeldie; Innergeldie near Comrie; Innergelly in Fife 
(river Gelly); perhaps Lochgelly there; Glen-geoullie near 
Cawdor; Allt Gheallaidh at Dalnacardoch and Knockando. 
The root is ' geld/ as in Norse 'kelda/ a well, Ger. 'quelle/ 
already mentioned in connection with St Kilda. A shorter 
form of the root is found in G. 'geal/ a leech, root 'gel/ 
water. Compare Welsh Abergele. 

Granish (Duthil), G. Greanais (Gren-), for older Granais, 
apparently from 'grain/ abhorrence; but likely Pictish, 

6 



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82 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

denoting 'rough place/ from the same root and stem. The 
place figures largely in Druid lore and writings on account of 
its stone circles, and is consequently called Grianais, 'Sun- 
place, ' which does not agree with the modern pronunciation. 

Aviemore, G. Agaidh-mhor ; there is also Avinlochan, the 
Avie of the loch. Gallovie, as in G. Gealagaidh and present 
Blairgie, was written in 1603 as Blairovey — both in Laggan. 
' Agaidh' may be Pictish; compare Welsh *ag/ cleft, opening, 
Gaelic 'eag.' 

Craigellachie, whence the war cry of the Grants, has its 
name from 'eileach/ place of rocks, rock, old Gaelic 'ail/ 
rock. It is a much be-bouldered and rock-ribbed bare hill. 

Morile (Strathdearn), G. Moir'l, seems to stand for a 
Pictish Mor-ialon, 'Large clearing/ Welsh 'ial/ open space. 
Hence, too, Balmoral. 

Kyllachy, G. Coileachaigh, 'Place of moor cocks/ 

The Cuigs of Strathdearn, or fifth parts, are famous : "Is 
fhearr aon choige' an Eireann na coig choige' an Strath- 
Eireann" — " Better is one fifth in Ireland than the five fifths 
in Strathdearn." The Irish fifth is a province, such as Ulster. 
The 'Crags' were — Cuig-na-fionndruinich ('Bronze Place/ 
perhaps a smith's place), Cuig-na(n)-scalan (tents or huts)> 
Cuig-na-sith (fairy hill, near is the Sidh-bheinn, the Schiphein 
of the charters), Cuig-na-fearn (alders), and, likely, Cuig-na- 
muille (mill). 

Scaniport, 'Cleft of the Ferry/ over the Ness. 

Foyers, older Foyer, for old Gaelic 'fothir/ good land, 
evidently 'low-lying land/ as the land of Foyers along Loch- 
ness is. 

Allt-saidh (Glen-Urquhart), 'Burn of the hound (female)/ 

Fort-Augustus, from William Augustus, Duke of Cumber- 
land, so named by General Wade, circ. 1730. 

Fort- William, the fort built at Auchintore (Bleaching- 
field) for William of Orange ; also Maryburgh for the village, 
from Mary, his consort ; then Gordonsburgh, from the dukes 
of Gordon, who disliked 'Orange* ; and Duncansburgh, on the 
' passing' of the Gordons, from Sir Duncan Cameron of Fass- 
fearn ; and now finally settled as Fort-William. 

Fort-George, built in 1748, takes its name from the King. 
The original Fort-George was the Castle of Inverness. 

Essich, Essy in 1456, a locative of 'easach/ water-fall 
stream, rapidly falling stream. The name exists in Strath- 
bogie, Forfar, and Moray. 



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Place Names of Inverness-shire. 83 

Castle Heather presents an interesting ' ghost name.' 
Further back it was Castle-leather, older Lathir> and we find 
the Lordship of Leffare (1456) applied to the district along the 
slope there. It comes from 'leatnair,' a side, found in' 
Leathair nam Manach, at Beauly, ' Monks' Side of the Valley/ 
'Monks' Hillside' — the Kilmorack district east of Bleakachy 
Burn. In the west, we have An Leathair Mhorairneach and 
An Leathair Mhuileach — the coastland of Morvern and of 
Mull. 

Culloden, Cullodyn in 1238, present Gaelic Ciiil-fhodair, 
'Fodder-nook,' by popular etymology. It really comes from 
'lodan,' a pool, and means 'Back of Pool,' or 'Nook of Pool.' 
As in many similar cases, there is quite a shower of 'culls' 
near Culloden, . going over to the Nairn valley, ending with- 
Cuil-chuinneig, 'Nook of the wooden pail,' apparently. It 
was here that Prince Charles' staff was stationed before the 
battle. 

Brochnain is for Bruach 'n-eidheinn, 'Ivy Bank.' 
Tomnahuirich, Gaelic of 1690 Toim-ni-hurich, ' Hillock of 
the Yew- wood.' The Wardlaw MS. gives both Tomnihurich 
and Tom ni Fyrich. This last may account for the derivation 
of the name from Tom-na-fiodhraich, ' fiodhrach' being alleged 
to mean ' wood ' (A. Mackenzie in Inverness Field Club. Trans. 
III., p. 11). 

Erchless, a quoad-sacra parish, (H)erchelys in 1258, Ercles, 
1403, Arcles, 1512, appears to stand for 'air-glais,' On the 
Glass — the river Glass passes through the Mains of Erchless. 
Compare the neighbouring Urray from 'Air-rath,' On-fort or 
Repaired Fort, and TJrquhart and TJrchany of Beauly and 
Nairn (air-canach). The Gaelic is Air-ghlais. 

Glen Auric takes its name, as does the loch, from the river 
Affric, which has the old female name Afric or Oirig 
(Euphemia), and which comes from 'ath-breac,' Somewhat- 
speckled, from ' breac, ' speckled, a. trout. Here it was no 
doubt a water-nymph's name. 

Glen-Con vinth and Convent, which was an old parish, 
appears in old records as Conveth and Conway, and in Gaelic 
the name is Confhadhaich, which, applied to the river, means 
'noisy, stormy,' from 'confhadh,' storm. 

Lovat, older Loveth, seems a Pictish word (root 'lu,' stem 
'lu-vo,' mud) translated into Gaelic as A' Mhor'oich, the sea- 
side plain or swamp. 

Two districts of Inverness-shire have had their names 
discussed in detail, and both can be relied upon as much 



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84 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

as any work done in this paper. The districts are Badenoch, 
which is considered in the Transactions of the Gaelic Society 
of Inverness, Vol. XVI., pp. 148-97, and Urquhart and Glen- 
moriston, the place-names of which are fully discussed in Mr 
Mackay's work, "Urquhart and Glenmoriston, ,, pp. 571-85. 



20th FEFRUARY, 1902. 

At the meeting held on this date Mr John Munro, North 
of Scotland Bank, Inverness ; Mr Alex. Kennedy, Great North 
of Scotland Railway, Inverness; Mr John E, Macdonald, 
clothier, Bridge Street, Inverness; and Mr D. J. Mackintosh, 
Huntly Street, Inverness, were elected ordinary members. 
The following contribution, from the pen of the Rev. Charles 
M. Robertson, Inverness, and entitled "Sutherland Gaelic/ ' 
was read : — 

SUTHERLAND GAELIC. 

Sutherland, which has been extended as a county name to 
embrace the parishes of Assynt and Eddrachilles on the west, 
and the Reay Country or Mackay Country, known by Gaels as 
Duthaich Mhic Aoidh, and by Norsemen as the Dales of 
Caithness, on the north, was originally restricted, as it is still 
in popular local usage, to the part of the county that borders 
the Moray Firth, and extends inland to the central watershed. 
The southern position of this region, in relation to Caithness 
and its Dales, procured it the Norse name of Sudhr-land or 
South-land. At the arrival of the Norse invaders the district 
seems to have formed a part of the territory of a tribe named 
the Catti. Caithness is a name given by the Norsemen, and 
means the ness of the Catti, and Cataibh, in old Gaelic Cataib, 
a dative or locative case of the plural noun Catti, and meaning 
among the Catti, is the Gaelic name of Sutherland, and is used 
locally, like Sutherland itself, with the same restricted appli- 
cation. Caithness was so largely occupied by Norsemen that it 
was, and is, called by Gaels Gallaibh, also a dative or locative 
plural, this time from Gall, a stranger or foreigner. The racial 
connection of the Catti was indicated when the sea on their 
most northern shore received from the Norsemen the name of 
Petlands Fjord, or Pictland, now corruptly Pentland, Firth. 



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...;,. Sutherland Gaelic. 8* 

The speech of Sutherland before, as after, the Norse occupation 
was Celtic. Was the continuity broken and Celtic speech 
extirpated during that occupation, and was there a period 
during which the language spoken in whole or part of Suther- 
land was Norse, and only Norse? The answer given by the 
authorities, in view of the strength of the Norse elements in the 
population and in the place-names, is that in Sutherland, or 
in great part of it, as in Skye and in Lewis, Norse was £Ee only 
language spoken during a certain period, and that Gaelic was 
introduced, or re-introduced, there after the downfall of the 
Norse. " Skene," according to Dr Macbain, " regards Suther- 
land proper — east of the Brae-chat and Dirie-chat range — as. 
Norse, the Gaelic speakers being mostly incomers; but the 
same must be said of the rest of Sutherland/' The soundness 
of this view cannot be discussed here, but some facts that bear 
upon the question may be allowed. The retention of the name 
Cataibh for Sutherland, along with Brae-chat and Dirie-chat, 
and the use of Gallaibh — land of strangers — and its restriction 
to Caithness, are to be taken into account. The preservation 
of the older native name where the Norse had super-imposed a 
name of their own, as in the cases of Cataibh and Sutherland, 
and of Srath Ilidh and Helmsdale, is not without significance. 
The number that has been preserved of the oldest Celtic names, 
all things considered, is not inconsiderable. Ptolemy has re- 
corded two names, Nabarus flumen (the Naver) and Ila flumen 
(the Ilidh), that are still in use, and proves a third Oykel, in 
the Sagas Ekkjalsbakki, by his translation of it, Ripa Atta- 
in Rogart, Dornoch, and Lairg there are names, to the number 
of five or six, beginning with the distinctively Pictish word 
Pit. Altas and Tressady are in the same quarter, and Fair 
on the north coast. Stream names in ' ie ' are fa ; rly well 
represented; Tealnaidh in Kildonan; Labhaidh, the Lothbeg 
river; Allt Eilgnidh, above Brora; Lundaidh and Mailidh 
(Culmaillie), in Golspie; and Gruididh, in Lairg and in 
Durness. There is a Tirry also in Lairg, and others probably 
could be added from the rest of the county. Not a few other 
names are of a kind that may well have come down from the 
Pictish period. All this must be contrasted with what is 
found, or rather not found, in Skye and Lewis before the full 
force of it is seen. 

Sutherland Gaelic has come in contact with Norse influence 
directly of old, and also indirectly to some extent, through 
the Norse element in Caithness speech. It has also come in 



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c. v . . ...... ^ ... . 

86 Gaelic Society of I /wetness. 

contact, it must be remembered, with English, through inter- 
course with Caithness, and through, military service; and in 
the case of Sutherland proper, through Dunrobin Castle, and, 
perhaps, migrations from the other side of the Moray Firth 
should be added, as well as through all the usual channels. 
As Sutherland Gaelic, like other dialects, lias its peculiarities, 
so any one desirous to account for them has a choice of influ- 
ences to which to attribute them. A knowledge of Lewis 
Gaelic and of Caithness English are amongst the desiderata 
for reliable explanation. 

The dialect spoken in Sutherland proper, that is, the south of 
the county, and mainly as spoken in- its most easterly parish of 
Kildonan on the borders of Caithness, is that dealt with in the 
following pages. This dialect agrees with the Southern Gaelic in 
regard to the change of eu, etc., into ia. It follows Northern 
Gaelic in the diphthongisation of a and o before long liquids, in the 
use of iu in place of ea or io in certain cases and of aspirated forms 
of the- prepositions de and do, and in the treatment of the verbal 
particle do after conjunctions ending with n — gu na sheinn or 
gu 'n sheinn for gu 'n do sheinn. It agrees with the west of 
Ross-shire in the treatment of u, ei and i before long liquids, in 
having a for ai before rd and do for a before infinitives, in a slight 
degree in a tendency — less here than in the Reay country — to 
metathesis and in the common possession of certain words Its 
change of medial dh and gh to bh, and its pronunciation of final 
adh as u prevail in Easter Ross, where also irinn (daughter), 
tig in place of thig, and mora as genitive of muir and other 
correspondences are to be found. Other features of the Sutherland 
dialect are the frequent change of a to o before /, the sound of I 
for aoi, cwi, as in Skye, for cui, the English sounds of b, d, and g, 
the frequent substitution of r for w, the enclitic use of so, the 
complete assumption of s by ann, and the use of the personal 
pronoun instead of the possessive as the object of an infinitive. 

Donald Matheson, to whose hymns frequent reference is made, 
liveH and died in the parish of Kildonan. The second edition of 
the hymns was published at Tain in 1825. Another edition 
substitutes its publisher's name and address, and the date of 
publication (Inverness, 1868), for those of the second edition, but 
otherwise follows the former edition so slavishly as to retain even 
the words " second edition" (in Gaelic) on the title page. There 
are fifteen hymns, numbered I. to XV., by Donald Matheson. 
His son Hugh is the subject of an elegy (xvi.) by Adam Gordon, 
Heights of Kildonan, and another son, Samuel, was the author of 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 87 

0. 

an elegy on Sheriff M'Culloch (xvii.) The next three pieces are 
anonymous unless it is meant to be understood that they also are 
by Samuel Matheson. The " Oran" to Mrs Gordon, Achnamoine, 
Kildonan (xviii.), is said by the bard's descendants to have been 
by Samuel, and also, but less Confidently, that bo Neil Macpherson, 
catechist, Halkirk (xix.) Number xx. is an elegy on George 
Mackay, Arichlinie, Kildonan. The last piece (xxi.) is an elegy 

,.on a brother by a grandson of Mackay, Arichlinie. 

Except when otherwise stated the letters in phonetic render- 
ings have their standard Gaelic values as to sound, and in the case 
of vowels are also unchanged as to length. By h, v, w, and y are 
meant the English sounds, and by H the French sound of the 
respective letters. Ao, which is a long vowel sound, is written 
do to represent the frequently occurring short sound. Nasalisation 
is shown thus a, and, though only marked on one, extends to 
both vowels of a diphthong except when one of them is sounded 
<lo or do. 

The references to Munro's Gaelic Grammar are to the second 

, edition. 

The notes on the dialect of the Reay Country, or of parts of it, 
as Strathy and Farr, excepting such as are given on the authority 
of the Rev. Adam Gunn, M.A., Durness, who has dealt ably with 
the subject on more than one occasion, have been taken from the 
speech of natives. The differences between the two dialects are 
rather in particular examples than of a general kind. The change 

> of long e (eu, etc.), into ia is rarer, and metathesis and dissimila- 
tion — change of r for n, etc. — more frequent in the Reay Country 

, than in Sutherland. 

Short Vowels Before Long Liquids. 

The changes to which short vowels standing before long liquids 
•are liable, may be discussed on this occasion with comparative 
brevity. For one thing they are regular in their operation ; they 
iire found either in all the words subject to them or in none. In 
this they are unlike the change of eu, etc., into ia. They have 
been discussed, besides, in full, with explanations, detailed 
■enumeration of examples, and Manx and Irish analogies in former 
papers, especially that on the " Gaelic of the West of Ross-shire'* 
in volume XXIV. of the Transactions. Briefly, short vowels 
before lung liquids are treated in three ways in Scottish Gaelic — 
they are left unchanged, they are made into Ion r vowels, or thy 
are made into diphthongs. One of the marked characteristics of 
the Gaelic of Sutherlandshire and of part of Ross-shire is the 



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88 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

absence of the first mode of treatment ; none of the bhort vowels* 
are left unchanged before long liquids in those districts. 
Accordingly we have to notice here only two ways of dealing 
with those vowels in such positions. 

Lengthening Before Long Liquids. 

The vowels a and o, whether standing singly or in the digraphs 
ea and eo, are lengthened before long r, — rr, m t and rd, as in barr, 
earn, ard, cearr, cearn, ceard. corr, dorn, ord, eorna; also in 
words like aird, cairdean, ceaird, coird, etc., which in this dialect 
ar«* uniformly of the forms ard, cardan, ceard, cord, etc. 

The vowels u, e, and i are lengthened whenever they come 
before any long liquid, as in mull (for moll, chaff), null, cum, lunn, 
turr, mill, im, cinn. In the case of e, written ei in the position in: 
question, the lengthening is concurrent with a change of the- 
vowel to lj thus beinn, leinn, seinn, teinn are respectively blnn, 
linn, slnn, tlnn 

The lengthening of the broad vowels a, o, and u before r 
prevails generally in Scottish Gaelic. What is distinctive, here 
and in part of Ross-shire, is the lengthening of the slender vowels- 
e and i, and of the broad u before /, m } and n. 

DIPHTHONGISATION OP a AND O BEFORE LONG LIQUIDS. 

Before Z, wt, and n, a, and a are diphthongised in Sutherland 
as in the whole of the Northern dialect of Gaelic, as in cam, bann, 
ceann, com, bonn, pronounced respectively caum, cyaunn, etc. 
One or two peculiarities fall to be noticed. Before l y a (ea} 
becomes o (eo) : call, dall, allt, Gallda are respectively coull, doull, 
oullt, Goullda and geall, seall, geoull, seoufi. Anndra, Andrew,, 
and the preposition ann in, which has taken * on unchangeably, 
show, in addition, assimilation of nn to the following consonant, 
Audra (au nasal), aus. Greann is pronounced with a diphthong 
e- ~u, greunn. Meall (deceive) and leann (beer) are respectively" 
miull, ' myuiy and liunn, 'lyunn.' Fann (weak) is feann r 
' fyaunn/ a change difficult to explain. 

Similar diphthongisation is not unknown in local English; 
such Irish sounding pronunciations as ' bowld/ € cowld/ c howld,T 
may be heard at times for bold, cold, hold, respectively. 

Long Narrow Vowels. 
i t eu } ia, ti. 

The diphthongisation of a long e, written variously as above,, 
takes place generally in cases in which the vowel shows compensa- 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 8» 

tory leogthening and in which it has its open sound e in Southern 
Gaelic. The number of words in which this diphthongisation 
takes pjace, jnrfu»ding borrowed words? is about one hundred and 
7i teii' r oiit in no single district is the whole number known to be 
diphthongised. The balance of undiphthongised words in any 
district may be made up in various ways. Some may not be 
known in a particular district ; feun (waggon) etc., for instance, 
has dropped out of use in some districts, and ce (cream) is not 
known in others. Words may be dealt with in some other way ; 
feusag (beard), in some parts of the north fiasag is in others 
feosag, so with geuban, leabag, etc. Some words are diphthongised 
only in some particular district so that their diphthongisation is 
properly to be regarded as exceptional ; thus m' fheudail is 
m' fhiadail in Lewis, eud is iad in Lewis, and, according to Dr 
Henderson, in Barra, and see reult sub. Curiously enough two words, 
though they are loan words, that are not known to be diphthongised 
in the North, are so diphthongised in Argyle and in Arran, viz., 
reusan (reason) 'Hasan/ and earlas (arles) ' iarlas.' Sometimes 
there may be other causes ; in north Inverness and in Skye the 
popular word seud (hero), is diphthongised, while seud (jewel), 
though in fact the same word, is not diphthongised, perhaps 
because known mainly or only as a literary word. The fact that 
geug (a branch) remains undiphthongised in Lewis seems to point 
to unfamiliarity with branches of trees, and suggests that the 
word has been taken from literature and that only recently. In 
other cases, as, for instance, beurla, it is as difficult to say why 
words should be diphthongised in some districts and not in others 
as to say why some twelve words and no more should be 
diphthongised in Arran, in East Perthshire, and in Strathspey, 
while seventy-six are diphthongised in North Inverness, and 
seventy-two in West Ross-shire. Like Strathspey, Sutherland- 
shire, or, at all events, the eastern half of the county, though 
belonging by position to Northern Gaelic, approximates on this 
sound to the Southern dialect. 

ia nasal or not according as it is or is not in contact with nasal 

liquids, is found in ceudna. ' ciand,' cia meud, sgreuch, 

breagh, se, deuchainn, feuch, bleun, and reul 'rialt/ or 
oftener l rialtag ' at Helmsdale. 

The first seven of those words and also beul have ia in Creich# 
and the first five in Farr. Meud has eu throughout the county 
except in the phrase cia meud (how much). 



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90 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

ido is found in ceud (hundred), ceud -(first), Diceudaoin, deug, and 
creadhach (clay) at Helmsdale. All those, except the last, 
and ceutach and feusgan have iao in Creich. 

ea (yet) is found throughout the county in beul, neul, and sgeul. 

Cial, brim of a vessel, also is ceal, as though its proper 

form were ceul. In Strathspey cial means jaw. Beal and 

bial are both used in Creich. 

Matheson has beal (x., xvii.) with the adjective bealach (iv.), 

and rialt (xvii., xxv) 

Feusag is feosag and leabag, ledbag. At Helmsdale there 

seems to be a preference for e, and in Farr for e in the un- 

diphthongised words. 

io. 

Long i which sometimes represents an original long e, is 
diphthongised in most of those words in which it is written io 
almost everywhere except in the extreme south. The resultant 
diphthong in this dialect is id in contact with nasal liquids, 
and ido elsewhere : 

ido in siol, fior, iobairt, cliobadh, crioch, tiodhlaiceadh, biogach 
(little), diosg, diosgan (gnashing), griosach, sgios, sios, diot ; 
also iodhal and iosal, here respectively iaowalt and iaostal. 
id in mios, sioman, iomhaigh, diomhain, gniomh, crion, fion, lion 
(net), lion (till), sion (anything), spion. These words, it may 
be remarked, have id also in East Inverness-shire and Fast 
Perthshire, but in the North-West Highlands and Islands 
have ido. Diochain for di-chuimhne (forgetfulness), which is 
diphthongised in some districts, is here dedchain. 

fein and tim. 

There are two exceptional instances of diphthongisation in the 
dialect. The loan word tim, English time, is here pronounced 
tiam. The word might be expected here to follow the analogy of 
words like im, and become t\m, but apparently it has been 
regarded as being tloni, and has followed the analogy of such 
words as sioman. As a borrowed word it is naturally apt to be 
erratic. The other instance is the native word fein (self.) With 
pronouns of the second and third person it is pronounced here as 
'* it is elsewhere, that \% with e (not nasalised.) With the first 
personal pronouns it is fhin in the North Highlands generally, 
"Thu fhein 's mi fhin,'' never mi fhein. In Sutherland there are 
two pronunciations. In the south-east of the county, and also in 
Strathy, it is fhian mi fhian, learn fhian, sinn fhian, ni mi mo 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 91 

.>* !}r> v: f '. . *•::/. ; *- ; i <;j ;v "■ , ■ • X* - ; '-' v ' 

^eunadh fhiau (I shall pharm myself.) In tfee remainder of thfe 

: ^ay Country— frpm -Strathy .water to Durness — it is fhein (e 

.nasalised) with the first person, mi fhein, etc. The change to 

..'fhian' might be supposed tp start from the general northern 

; fprm 'fhin^ following the analogy of words like fion, pronounced 

/fiaTi,' but the existence of/' f Win* suggests that it rather is the 

starting point with words, li^ eun 'ian' as the pattern. .It may 

: be a question if the form fhein is not due to a prejudice against, 

and a deliberate rejection of, the diphthongised form, though in 

, that, ca$e the further question would rise, why was f b&n not used 

for all persons % Certain it is that during the investigation of the 

subject the impression was received that the Reay Country people 

seemed to have a prejudice against the use of ia for eu, and to 

take a pride in avoiding it, and the conjecture followed that the 

paucity of instances of diphthongisation in the Reay Country 

as compared even with the rest of the county might be the result 

of deliberate action. 

Interchange op a and o. 

A characteristic of Scottish Gaelic is that it has a in many 
cases in which Irish has o for an Indo-European o. It has to be 
remembered, however, that in Irish as well as in Scottish Gaelic 
the spoken language often has a where the written language has 
x>. The difference may be explained in two ways. The pronuncia- 
tion may have changed since the spelling was fixed, or the spelling 
with o and the pronunciation with a may represent different 
dialects. The two explanations, change of pronunciation and 
v difference of dialect, are probably not alternatives, but comple- 
ments. In Gaelic a number of words that have a in one district 
may have o in another without rule or distinction, and it does not 
seem possible to base any broad, useful test of dialect on the use 
of the two vowels. A preference for the sound of a is often said 
?tb be a characteristic of Sutherland Gaelic and a mark of the 
impression made by the Norse occupation. A somewhat different 
view has been held at one time. The Rev. John Forbes, Sleat, 
who, in his grammcr, recognises a Northern, an Interior, and a 
Southern dialect of Gaelic, gives a preference for o over a as one 
of the features o{ the Northern dialect, and in a paper on " Oghams 
on the Golspie Stone," by the Earl of Southesk (Proc. Soc. Ant. 
Scot.), we read—" Where the Norse element is strong among the 
Gaelic-speaking people in the north is commonly used for A, e.g., 
Ord for Ard."* An occurrence of a instead of o does undoubtedly 
strike observers generally as a feature of the dialect of Sutherland, 



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92 



Oaello Society of Inverness. 



but it is not, wholly at least, owing to the greater frequency of tr. 
The impression is due partly to an unexpectedness in the occurrence 
of a in certain words, such as orni, dorus, lorg, solus, and loan words- 
like brad (alphabet), plod, prop, poit, stoirm. If the following* 
lists of words that show a seem to show a preponderance in favour 
of that yowel the balance is very nearly restored by the lists 
showing a retention of o or a substitution of it for a. Words in 
which the sound is neither a nor o but ao, as in foghar, close e as 
in baitheach (byre), or other sound are omitted here. All the 
words in the lists are known to have a and o in different districts 
though all such words are not included, e.g., abhainn, which is- 
obhainn in Strathspey, and ofaig, which is afaig in Arran. 

Words which have a : — 



6ran ' amhran ' 


falbh 


orm (on me) 


lorg (track) 


ostal (apostle) 


P*g 


bolg (to bulge) 


plod (clod) 


bolgum 


prop (prop) 


bonnach 


solus 


blonag 


samhach 


brod (best) 


smod 


brad (alphabet) 


tachras 


Calluinn 


braman 


casgadh 


comhla 


crosg 


" conghlas ort" (an im- 


d6cha 


precation) 


dorus 


conutrachd 


dath (singe) 


do (to) 


fod 


mag 




spag 


'hese, excepting the last 


seven, have a at Strathy, wher< 


Allowing have a : — 




asa (easier) 


dorbh, and dorbhach 


colainn 


farum 


colbh (rib of creel) 


lorg (stick) 


collaidheachd 


mul (bank of shingle) 


conas 


moladh (praise) 


closach 


prac, and pracadair 


dona, and donas 


» 



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Sutherland Gaelic 



9S 



Words which have o ; — 

alt 

altachadh 

altruim, and altrumas 

bait 

blabhd, 'blobhsd' 

dalladh (blinding) 

drabhc (awkward fellow) 

f alius 

fait 

gabhal 

gabhar 

Mathanach 



pronn 

radan 

sabhal 

trasg 

aoradh (for adhradh), ( owru ' 

brogail, 'sprogail' 

dona and donas 

farum 

mara (Gen. of muir) 

moladh 

sgath (lop) 

smog 



With the exception of the last eight, these have o at Strathy, 
where the following also have o : — 

ar-sa, 'ors* conntrachd 

ballan mag 

bare (thatch manure) spag 
comhla 

Several words noticed under diphthongisation come in here 
. also, as — 

allt dall 

call Gall and Gallda 

An apparent liking for o sounded close, before /, is seen also 
in — 

dealt, 'deolt' (dew) geall 

dreallag (swingle-tree) seall 

eallach (load) steall 

and is found in other districts in those words except dealt. 

At Helmsdale orm and arm (on me) are both used. For the 
Reay Country, Rev. Adam Gunn gives connlach, dona, los, monais, 
as having a, and dorbh as having o. 

Words which have ai — 



coileach 


loinid 


coire (fault) 


maille 


cloinn (children) 


poit 


goil (boil) 


raineach 


glome (glass) 


troigh 



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94 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

at Helmsdale and Strathy. 

oilean saitheacli ' ^ 

roimh * stoirm 

soilleir toinneamh 

at Strathy. 

Eil (of chan eil) also is ail, as it is in Old Gaelic. 
Words which have oi— - 

bainne pailt and pailteas 

baist ' plaide 

fail (stye) 
at Helmsdale and Strathy. 

In Matheson's Hymns fairich and faireachdan (plural) are 
written with oi as a rule ; but, now at all events, the pronunciation 
(of ai or oi) is close e. 

ai. 

The mutation of a by i or e of an original following syllable, 
which is variedly written at, ei, and oi, is even more variedly 
pronounced in Sutherland as elsewhere. The digraph ai has the 
sound of — 
a in ailean (a green, marshy place), chaidh (went), caith (wear), 

failte, raith. 
a in aithne, glaine (glass), graine (abhorrence), maide, maille, 

naire, rainsach. 
a* as in glaic, laigh, nasal and long in taing (thanks). 
do in airgiod, caill (lose), gairm, saill (salt). 
dot in claidhean (door-bar), saidhbhir (rich), saighdear. 
e close in aig, air, thairis, ainm, ' erm,' airm, baid (gen. of bad), 

baitheach (byre), caidil, fairich, pails (commoner than 

pailteas), tigh for taigh (house) in all its cases ; in mairbh, 

tairbh, and in gairbhe, mairbhe, and other such oblique cases 

and comparative forms. 
e open in ainmig, ' ermig,' faic, Gaidheal, gainmheach, paidh. 
e (nasal) in aineolach, ainrnhidh, bainis, banmhaighstir, cnaimh, 

snaim, and also in faigh (get). 
ei in braigli. 

ei (nasal) in aingeal (angel), bainnse. 
i in aimsir. 
o in words noticed under interchange of ai and oi. 

A failure of mutation or vowel infection to operate is observ- 
able in some cases in this dialect. Taic (support), Ir. taca, E. Ir. 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 95 

aicce, is here tac; craicionn (skin) is cracann, and claigeann 
(skull), clagann. . Chiefly it is found in all words of the following 
type:— 

aird (direction), * ard ' gairdean, gardan . . 

airde (height), 'ard ' gairdeachas, gardachas 

airde (higher), ' arda ' , ceaird (trade), ceard 

cairdean (friends), cardan feaird (better), feard 

Ard and arde for airde (higher) are found in Matheson (xxi.) 
Thubhairt or thuirt (said) is pronounced thurd here and in the 
Keay Country. 

The difference between these cases and the others given above ' 
in which ai has broad vowel sounds, ailean, etc., is that in these 
cases the following consonants are shown by their pronunciation 
to be in contact with a broad vowel, while in the other cases the 
consonants, where sounded,, show the influence of the slender 
vowel, though that vowel is itself silent. 



There seems to be a preference for the close sound of o. The 
vowel is close in a number of those words in which it takes the 
place of a, as alt, altachadh, altruim, fallus, fait, Gallaibh, gabh 
(but open in ' gobhail/ taking), gabhar, sabhal, and also those 
words in which there is diphthongisation, as allt, call, dall, Gall, 
Gallda, in dealt, geall, seall, steall. It is close also in such words 
as corr, torr, bord, cord (agree), ord, Gordan (surname), dorn, 
sgornan, eorna ; in b6idheach, crog, pos, sgrobin (fowl's crop), tos 
(beginning), in obair, olaidh for ulaidh (hoard), ollaich for ullaich, 
in deo, de6chan for di-chuimhne, deonach, breoite, etc. 



The mutation of o is pronounced as variedly as that of a. 
Sometimes owing to identity of pronunciation oi is written instead 
of ai. It has the sound of — 
o open, as in oilbheum. 
6i, as in b6idheach. 
oi, as in roimh. 

ao in broilleach, coille, foidhidinn, toill (deserve), toirmisg. 
aoi in oidhche, foighnich or faighnich (ask). 
e close in oibrich, oidheirp, oilean (training), droighean, goid 

(steal), goir, goirid, soidealas, soilleir, soitheach. 
e (nasal) in toinneamh (spinning). 
nai (nasal) in cloimh (wool) * cluaimh.' The word, however, is 

from Lat. pluma, Irish clumh. 



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96 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

a m words noticed under interchange of ai and oi. 

With the failure of mutation in the case of a may be torn- 
pared: — 

cgradh, pronounced ' 6gru/ for oigridh. 

chdrd for choird (agreed). 

gort for goirt (sour). 

INTERCHANGE OF O AND U. 

Of words in which o and u are found interchanging the 
fallowing may be noted : — 

Words which have o — 

Murchadh. ullaich (prepare), 

uchd (breast). tus (beginning), 

ulaidh (hoard). 
Pos, which is pus in the Reay Country, is here p6s. 

Words which have u — 

cno. molt. 

comhradh. mort. 

dol. mosach. 

conasg ' gunnars.' Nollaig. 

gnosd. pronnasg (brimstone) € grunastal.' 

lomnochd 'lurmachd,' rongais (ribs). 

lure. tobar. 

mo. tolg (dint). 

moch. trompaid. 

mocheirigh. dongaidh (dank) • ungaidh ' (mouldy). 

moll. ospag ' uspag ' (a start). 

Bulas (pot-hook), in the Reay Country folais, is here pulais. 
Cromba (Cromarty) is Crumba. 

Mugha (decay), musgan (dry-rot), and surd, which are found 
with o elsewhere, have u, as has also umhail (heed), here umhailt. 
Dul (six times) and dol (three times), ochd and uchd, and 
trumpaid, occur in Matheson. Luban (a puddle) for loban, and 
lubanaigeadh (puddling) occur at Strathy. 

a, o, and u. 

Of words in which a and u are met with — 
mulachag (a cheese) is here mulchag. 
luigh is here laigh. 
gal and guil are both used. 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 97 

And of those in which a, o, and u are met with — 



bolg to bulge 


is balg. 


connlach 


„ conlach 


gabh 


„ ' go ' and ' gu ' 


Gallach 


„ Gollach and Gullach (a Caithness- 




man) 


Gallaibh 


„ Gollaibh and Gullaibh 


mallachd 


„ mullachd 


mallaichte 


„ mullaite (wicked) 


Obair-eadhain 


„ Ubair-eadhain (Aberdeen) 


asa or usa 


„ eas' (open e) 


farasda, furasda, 




or furas 


„ fearas (open e) 



Ui appears as a mutation of all the broad vowels, and also 

particularly after liquids as a broadening of i. It has the sound 

of— 

u as in buille, buin, cuil, cuilbheart, cuileag, cuilean, cuin, cuir, 
cuirm, cuis, duilich, duine, guil, guin, guir, guirean, uile, 
uileann, uilear, uine, uir, Uisdean, etc. 

ui as in buidhe (yellow), buidhe (glad to), buidheach, cluich, 
cuilc, cuingean, puingeil (for pungail), etc. 

u as in cruineachd, cruinnich, uillt, etc. 

i as in bruidhinn, bruith, cluinn, cruimh (toothache), cruimheag 
(maggot), cruinn, cuibheas, cuimhne, cuith (snow-wreath), 
uidh (ford), uinneag, an uiridh, uiseag, etc. ; also in ruighe, 
ruith, etc. 

wi : this is found after c mostly, the combination cui being 
sounded like quee in English queen, as in cuibhrionn, cuigeal, 
cuingean. In other words, c is sometimes labialised here as 
it is in Skye, before ui. A similar pronunciation may be 
heard sometimes in guidh ('gwidh') and suim (^wim'). 

uai in ' duain ' for duin (shut.) It is regarded as a Caithness 
form. Both forms are used here. The infinitive ' duanadh ' 
occurs in Matheson (xvi.) Cf. cluaimh, supra, for cl6imh, 
Irish cliimh, from Latin pluma. 

-do in uiread. The pronunciation of the prefix air that enters 
into this form varies greatly in different words. 
Ruighe and uidh enter largely into the topography of the 

oounty. The former appears on maps as Ruigh, Ruidh, Reidh, 

Rhi, Rje, Ry, with diminutive Rian, Rien, etc., and plural Rhives, 

* Ruigheachan.' Uidh appears frequently in the names of narrow 



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98 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

necks of water or short streams connecting two sheets of water,, 
and has found its way into Dr Macbain's Gaelic Dictionary, in the 
disguise of "igh, \, a burn, a small stream with green banks 
(Suth.)" 

6. 

This vowel rarely stands alone ; it is usually followed by a or 
i. It is nasalised here in teine, ' ten,' and, as already noticed, in 
fhein with the first person, ' fhen ' in the greater part of the 
Reay Country. Eile (other) and eilean (island) have open e, and 
chan ail for chan eil has been noticed already. 

The digraph ea varies greatly. It has the sound of — 
e open as in ceaba (spade), feart, treabh, treabhair. 
e close as in beathach. 
e (nasal) as in teangaidh, neart. 
a as in eadar. 

ya as in cearr, ' cyarr,' fearr, beam, f earn, ceard, etc. 
a in reamhar. 

Instead of ea there is — 
eo (o open) in dreathan-donn (wren). 
eo (o close) in leabhar (book), seagal, and in dreallag (swingle-tree),. 

eallach, * yollach,' geall, * gyoll,' seall. 
ed in leabag (flounder), ' le6bag (ly6bag).' 

Interchange of e and i. 

The infection of e results in Gaelic in some districts in *, io r 
and in others in e, ei, ea. The divergence into e and i is met with 
in other cases also, and is not unknown in the old language. Lk» 
(garden) appears as both less and liss in Early Irish. Miosa 
(worse) is in Ir. measa, 0. Ir. messa. The vowel is — 
e open in lios, * leas/ 
e (e nasal) in eanchainn (brain), mil, ' mel ' milis, neas (weasel),. 

smear (marrow). 
ya in tionndadh, with diphthongisation ' tyaunnda.' 
i (nasal) in gionach (greedy), meadhon, meas (esteem), miosa (warse)^ 

miosg (among), miotan (glove), nis, smig, tionail (gather), and 

with lengthening of i, as noticed above, in beinn, leinn, 

seinn. 
i as in English 'bit,' 'fir,' in cionta, ciontach, gliong (clang), 

inbhir, sin. 
yu in ionndrain, ionnsaich, leann (beer), meall (deceive). 
yil nasal in iongar, meag (whey), * myung,' l snioghag (an ant) for 

seangan. 
tl nasal in sreang (string), Btru.' 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 99 

In all those words an interchange between e and i or ea and io 
may be found in Scottish Gaelic. Gionach, tionail, cionta, and 
ionnsaich, for example, are pronounced in some parts as though 
written respectively geanach, teanail, ceanta, and eannsaich. The 
change to in (yu, y4) before the long liquids l t n> and m, \& 
characteristic of the Northern Dialect of Gaelic. 



The broadening of % that takes place sometimes after r is 
exerr plified in rinn (did), ' raoinn,' but is usually absent here, as 
it is also in Arran, at the opposite extremity of Gaeldom — e.g., in 
righinn (tough), ' righe ' for ruighe, * rith ' for ruith, rinn (point), 
rinn (to us), etc. 

Io, some of whose pronunciations have been noticed already, 
has the sound of— 
* as in iomadh, iomall, iomair (ridge), iomchorc, fios ; and nasal 

as in iongantach, iongantas. 
% as in sloda (silk), here ' sld.' 
i bm in English ' fit,' in crios (belt). 
yu as in iolair. 
& nasal as in ionnstrumaid. 
do in diog (syllable). 



When ao represents the old diphthong ai or o*, it has the 
sound of French 4 as in aol, gaol, taom, caomhain, Aonghas, aon, 
daor, saor, glaodh (cry), saoghal, etc. 

In craobh, taobh, 4 for ao and u for bh have coalesced into a 
long Gaelic u ' cm/ * tu/ In naomh 4 and u (for mh) are both 
preserved as a diphthong nuu. 

The proper ao sound, usually in its short form, is heard for a 
or o before dh or gh as in aghaidh, fraghaidh (a warning), foghar, 
roghainn, dragh, lagh, tagh. The same sound long is heard in 
aobhar for old adhbhar, and foghlum sometimes written faolum> 
but here both have been attracted to the 4 sound ubhar, fulam. 
Aoradh, which is for adhradh and is a borrowed word, is here 
'owru,' on the analogy, with change of a to o, of words like 
bodhar, odhar. In adharc, fradhrac, the vowel is close e short, 
erae, frerac. 

Sometimes the sound represents an old long e, as in aodann, 
also written eudann, old Irish etan, here ^udan. 

The sound in certain cases takes the place of a in the 
diphthongs ia and «a, or forms the second constituent when e (eu, 
etc.) or i (io) are diphthongised. 



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VH> Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

aoi. 

The mutation of ao shows the u sound in some cases as caoin 
(kind) faoin, sgaoiL More frequently aoi is sounded \ as in 
MacAoidh, gaoith, naoidhean. A case in point is the parish name 
Clyne, in Gaelic Cttn, for Claoin, a locative of claon a declivity, 
not as is usually said from cluain, which would not give the local 
pronunciation. 

Caoin (weep) is here, as in the North generally, coin. 

Diphthongs. 

The use of the sound of ao in place of a as the second con- 
stituent of the diphthongs ia and na, and also of dipthongised e 
and I, is hardly, if at all, noticeable in the extreme south, but 
increases steadily in frequency northwards untilin some districts 
it nearly displaces a entirely. As in so many other cases Suther- 
land here follows rather East Perthshire and Strathspey. In 
those districts the tendency is to show a before the tenues 
(aspirated or unaspirated), before liquids, except // and m, and 
before s, and to show ao before the mediae. It is a for example 
in fiacaill, siach, fiata, cliath, ial, cian, ciar, sgiamh, iasg, cnuac, 
bruach, fuath, cual, buan, fuar, ruamhair, suas ; and ao in cliabh, 
biadh, liagh, ciall, sguab, uabhar, ruadh, gruag, sluagh, uallach, 
gruamach. Bruadar, however, is not 'bruaodar' but 'bruadar' 
here. Truas- (pity) is etymologically truaghas, and is so dealt 
with and pronounced truaos here. 

In the case of diphthongised I, ia is found only where nasalisa- 
tion caused by contact with a nasal liquid has prevented a from 
being changed into a sound that cannot be nasalised, as is the case 
with ao. 

rah. 

Aspirated m is sounded in three ways, or is lost altogether in 
different cases. It is — 
v as in d\omhain (idle), iomhaigh (image), namhaid, samhach, 

ainmhidh, banmhaighstir. 
w as in amhaich, amhaidh, amhairc, 'awraic,' diomhain (idle), 

gamhuinn, iomhaigh (with meaning of ' appearance '), ream- 

har Samhna gen. of Samhuinn, amhran (song), damhsa, 

geamhradh, samhradh. 
u as in cnaimh (bone), here * creu/ creamh (garlic), freumh, naomh, 

neamb, ramh, snamh, tamh, gainmheach, seanmhathair. 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 101 

This u from mh has displaced the proper vowel of the final 
syllable amh or eamh in such words as aireamh, aiteamh r 
caitheamh, here * cathu,' ccinneamh, creideamb, deanamh, seasamh, 
talamh, toinneamh, and ceithreamh, coigeamh, and other ordinal 
numbers. In some words as amh, cnamh (chew), damh, gniomh, 
sniomh, and the last half-dozen given under w, the sound may be 
either u or w. It is — 

nil as in caomhain, cumhang, domhain, cruimheag, umhaiL 
(obedient), cuimhne, Domhnach, Domhnall, cloimh (wool), 
* dual,' oruimh, lairah, caramh, claidheamh, falaimh. 
Words with more than one pronunciation appear oftener than 
once. 

I, n, r. 

The distinction that corresponds in the case of /, w, and r to 
the difference between unaspirated and aspirated forms in other 
consonants is wholly lost here in initial position, as only one 
sound of each is used. Before broad vowels it is the " aspirated n 
sound that has been kept, that is the sound that is represented 
between two vowels or at the end of a word by a single liquid. 
Before slender vowels it is the " unaspirated" sound that has been 
kept, that is the sound represented medially between two vowels 
or finally after a vowel by a double liquid. Thus naire is never 
nnaire as it ought to be in positions where initial aspiration does 
not take place, but is always naire. It is the same with r. In 
the case of I with broad vowels the difference between the two 
sounds is so small that the difficulty is to say which is kept. 
With slender vowels leanabh, for example, is always lleanabh, 
never leanabh, nearfc ' nneart/ and reachd ' rreachd.' 

In the case of slender n confusion is shown in intervocalic 
and final positions in some cases. 
nn instead of n is heard in aineolach, coinean, duine, glaine (glass), 

uine. This is a prounciation specially characteristic of 

Arran, Islay, and other islands of the Southern Hebrides. 

On the other hand, 
n fur nn is heard medially in cinnte, uilinnean (elbows), and 

finally in deuchainn, eanchainn, ionndrainn, rigbinn, taitinn, 

talmhainn, tighinn (coming) here ' tighean.' 
Instances of n for nn with broad vowels also occur, as connlach^ 
here ' conlach ' and uileann * uilean.' 

ng 

Ng has in many cases the same sound as slender nn> that is, 
the sound of ng in English ' sing,* * song.' In other cases that 



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102 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

pronunciation is reinforced by a g, as in English 'finger,' 'anger.' 

Itis— 

ng-g in cuingean, rongais, teangaidh, gliong, and meag or meang 

(whey), here 'myiing-g.' 
w in ceangail, 'cyawil,' long, 'low/ (not low !) 
nil in aingeal (angel), ionga (nail), here 4 yu-an,' iongantach, 

iongantas, iongar, luingeas, streang. 
c slender in pungail, here ' puiceil. , 
Seangan (an ant), in Arran, East Perth, and West Ross sneaghan, 

South Inverness snioghan, Manx sniengan, is here snioghag, 

sniu-ag. 

In final position in words written with nn, ng, or g, it is here — 

g as in bodhaig, cumhann, sgillinn, tairng or tarrang (a nail), 

here 'tarag ' ; also in taing (thanks), with lengthening of the 

preceding vowels ; in failling, fulaing, stuthaing (to starch), 

etc. 

Tbnues and Mediae. 

The distinction between the tenues p, t, c and the correspond* 
ing medial b, d, g has been found difficult to maintain except 
in initial position, not only in present pronunciation but in the 
history of the language, e.g., fada, 0. Ir. fota thig, Ir. tic. The 
pronunciation in some districts of the tenues in the middle and at 
the end of words as if with an aspirate h before them is obviously 
the result of an effort to distinguish them from the corresponding 
mediae. In an extreme form this effort is accountable for the 
pronunciation of non-initial c in so many districts as chc, e.g., 
in mac (son) 'macho.' In Rannoch and Strathspey a stranger 
would be apt to say that non-initial p and even t as well as c are 
sounded with ch in front — chp and cht, for instance in tapaidh, 
cat. Sutherland follows the districts in which those aspirate and 
guttural accretions are absent, and the tenues are sounded much 
as in English except, of course, that in contact with slender 
vowels, t is spirant (like ch in 'church,' ' rich ') and c sounded like 
the Scottish pronuncation of k in ' keek ' 4 like.' 

In Sutherland the endeavour to keep a distinction has, per- 
haps, taken another direction. That, at all events, is one possible 
explanation of the fact that b, d, g have here often their English 
instead of their Gaelic sounds. Instances in which those English 
sounds of the mediae were heard are — 
b in beag, leabag, Robaidh (Robert). 

d in ' cardan ' (friends), ' gardan ' (arm), G6rdan (Gordon). 6rdag, 
spardan, fada, airgiod, ard (high), b6rd, ch6rd (agreed), ord, 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 103 

and as a spirant (like English g in ' age,' * cage '), in aid, 
for iad (they), and maide. 
$ in gliong, balgum, beag, leabag, ordag, sgleog (slap), and slender 
like the Scottish pronunciation of g in such words as ' get/ 
* egg/ in airgiod, smig, and in * g eirigh ' (rising). 

If the explanation mentioned above for this pronunciation be 
accepted, the use of the pronunciation in initial positions where it 
is not needed to distinguish mediae from tenues, is to be accounted 
for as an extension from medial and final positions. Another 
possible explanation, however, of this pronunciation is that it has 
arisen from extraneous influence either Norse or quite possibly 
recent English. 

bh. 

The pronunciations of bh resemble those of nih. It is — 

v in abhaist, aobhar, cabhaig, eubhachd (calling), fabhar, faobhar, 
siobhalt, saoibhir ; aoibhneas, cuibhrionn, cuilbheart, arbhar. 
w in abhainn, ciabhag, cliabh, sliabh. 

u as in eubh, ' eu,' sgriobh, ' sgriu,' treabh, * treu ' ; in words like 

balbh, falbh, meanbh, dearbh, garbh, marbh, searbh, tarbh ; 

in inflectional forms like deilbh (warping), seilbh, gairbhe, 

mairbh, seirbhe, etc. Instead of u, i is heard in tairbh (bulls), 

probably an older and more correct pronunciation after 

slender vowels. 

Sibh is pronounced 'shi' (i.e., shu), and of course words like 

agaibh, 'agu,' annaibh, and plural imperatives follow suit as 

4eanaibh, 'deanu,' rachaibh, * rachu,' togaibh, 'trogu,' cuiribh, 

' cuiru,' ruithibh, * ruithu.' 

In some cases u takes the place of bh and a preceding vowel, 
as in beulaobh, J bealu,' and culaobh, * culu,' which are respectively 
properly dative plural forms beulaibh and culaibh. So also in 
Cataibh (Sutherland) and Gallaibh (Caithness), which also are like- 
wise mis-written Cataobh and Gallaobh. Leanabh also is * leanu,' 
and dithreabh ' dlru/ while craobh is ' cru,' and taobh ' tu.' 

nil as, in cuibheas, dubhan, easbhuidh, &bhleag, gobhainn, 
gobhar, inbhir, leabhar (book), sabhal, siubhal, . ubhal; dubh, 
gabh, gabhaidh and gabhail, dhaibh (to them), etc. 

Sometimes bh, though silent, has given a u colour to the 
following vowel as in treabhar, ' tre-ur.' 

c. 
C is broad in craicionn ' cracann.' 



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104 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Preceded by r at the end of words of more than one syllable 
c is (7 as in adharc * earag,' fradharc * frearag ' (close e in both) r 
iomchorc c iomchorag,' amhairc auraig. 

ch. 

Initially ch sounds as h in cha (chan 'eil, cha d'robh, etc.),. 
chugam or thugam, chugad, etc.; and in chunnaic 'thunnaic,' and 
' thunnV Medially it is silent in drochaid, fichead, beannaichte, 
mallaichte, and finally in cluich. Bruith not bruich (boil) is 
used here. Dealraichte (participle) appears as dealrait (Mathe- 
son xviii.) 

9- 

G is slender in goirid, here ' gerid/ and broad on the other- 
hand in claigeann (skull) 'clagainn' and oigridh (youths)* 
' ogradh ' (' 6gru.') 

It is elided in agam (at me) a'am. 

gh. 

Slender gh is silent medially and finally, as in ruighe, ruighinn^ 
faigh, uaigh * iiai.' Broad gh is — 

gh as in aghaidh, foghar, and in words like dragh, lagh, tagh. 
v in saoghal. 

w as in riaghailt, truaghan, liagh (ladle). 
nil as in Aonghas, braghad, fdghlum, mugha, breagh. 

Dentals. 

T has not its spirant sound in tilg (throw) though in contact 
with a narrow vowel, nor has the influence of the narrow vowels- 
been sufficient here, as it has been in other districts, to change 
the originally broad d into a spirant in the case of de* (what), or 
in the case of the verbal particle do before verbs with initial 
narrow vowel as cha d' eirich (not cha j' &rich). 

dh. 

Slender dh is not sounded medially or finally as in boidheach^ 
claidheamh, ainmhidh, faidh, etc. Broad dh is sounded like — 
gh as in badhun (enclosure), teadhair (tether). 
v as in diadhaidh, diadhair, fiadhaich, gradh. This change of dh 
to bh or v prevails more to the west towards the Oykel, and 
is found in Easter Boss. It is found in the subjunctive, as- 
dheanabh for dheanadh in mid Argyle. Compare saoghal,, 
here ^aGonal.' 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 105- 

w as in bodhar, fiadhaich, iodhal ; in biadh, fi adh, etc., and in 
aoradh (for adhradh), ' owru.' This is heard rather than the 
above v at Helmsdale. 

u : this universally takes the place of final adh in words of two- 
or more syllables in Sutherland, e.g., in achadh, 'achu,' 
altachadh, aoradh, cliobadh (a stumble), f&leadh, garradh, 
geamhradh, iomadh, Murchadh, padhadh, peacadh, sarohradh, 
tiodhlaiceadh (burial), umhladh (local for umhlachd) ; in 
subjunctives, bhitheadh, chrochadh, dheanadh, fasadh, faigh- 
eadh, gabhadh ; and infinitives, baisteadh, cathadh (drifting), 
caireachadh, cruinneachadh, cunntadh, meileachadh, reubadh, 
roghnachadh, seunadh, sgathadh, tearnadh, etc. 

nil as in adharc, bliadhna, cad ha (pass), fasgadh, fradharc. 

That u for adh is peculiar, in Scotland, to Sutherland and 
Easter Ross, but prevails in the same kind of words, excepting 
the verbs, throughout Ireland except Munster. How adh could 
come so extensively to have the sound of Gaelic w, English oo as 
in 'good,' 'wood,' is a question that naturally suggests itself. 
The indications are that the proper sound of dh gave way to, or 
was replaced by, that of gh in some cases, and that of bh or v, 
afterwards changed to w and u, in other cases. It has the sound 
of gh initially universally in Scottish Gaelic, in some cases 
medially, and in certain districts in the terminations of 
subjunctives and infinitives. It has even the sound of hard 
g at the end of words in particular districts, e.g., in fiodh in 
Arran, in achadh in west Ross-shire, etc. On the other hand bh 
or v is found, as stated above, in some cases, while in others w or 
u, a common reduction of bh, is found far and wide in place of dh, 
e.g., in bodhar, ' bowar/ and odhar, ' owar.' The change in words 
of two or more syllables of final dh iuto w, with absorption by that 
vowel of the preceding a is quite in line therefore with the 
pronunciation of dh as v in diadhaidh, etc., and as w in 
bodhar, etc. 



Toiseach (beginning) is here as in Irish tosach. 

An original sv may be represented in Gaelic by s or t } and even 
by /or p. One instance that demands notice here is the word for 
a bee, and comes from the root svelni from which come also fill,' 
pill, and till, and seal, Welsh chwyl, a turn, course, chwil, chwilen, 
a beetle. The word is — 



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106 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

seillean in general 

teillean „ Lewis and in East Perthshire 

seinnlean „ Creich and in Kincardine in Ross 

seinnlear „ Rogart 

tainnleag „ Kildonan 

tuinnleag „ Reay Country 
Ei in the first two forms sounds sometimes e and sometimes ei (e 
close in both), but in either is short and not nasalised. In the 
second two forms ei is a diphthong and is both long and nasal 
Ai in the fifth form is exactly the same, but is written so because 
t having not its spirant but its broad sound, requires the vowel 
next to it to be broad, and so with the sixth form where the 
vowel sound is %. In all the Sutherland, forms nn is not 
sounded, being assimilated to I and giving 11 in pronunciation, but 
it (or mh) is required in the spelling by the nasalisation of the 
vowel, and in the South Sutherland forms, by a lengthening 
in the pronunciation before I (like that before I in aimhleas, 
aimhleathan, etc.) 

Intercalation of Vowels. 

Consonant groups, of which at least one of the consonants is a 
liquid, are broken up in pronunciation more frequently in 
Northern Gaelic, especially on the west coast, than in Southern by 
the intercalation of a vocalic sound. Here 

aimsir is imisear 

eanchainn ,, eanachainn 

guilbneach ,, cuileabannach 

iomchaidh „ iomachaidh 

meanmainn „ mearamainn 

Murchadh „ Morachadh 

tachras „ tacharas 

iomchorc „ iomochorag 
and so ou. It is not specially prominent here, but there are two 
or three peculiar instances of it. 

aing (Voc.) is enig 

aingeach „ enigeach 

aingidh „ enigidh 

uaigneach „ uinigneach 
This last word is generally uairgneach in Northern Gaelic. 

The vocalic insertion akin to the above, between two words 
compounded or closely linked together, is not so prevalent here 
as in the west. A is inserted, for example, after ban in ban- 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 107 

mhaighstir and after sean in seanmhathair. Matheson has 
bonna creidimh (xiii.), seana chridh (i.). Compare also his dar a 
ni (iii. etc.,) oir a tha (Hi.). 

ELISION. 

A terminal unaccented a or e is often lost in Scottish Gaelic as 
compared with Irish, as Irish dana, Gaelic dan (bold), Ir. misge, 
Gael, misg (drunkenness). In Scottish Gaelic, however, two con- 
trary tendencies are found. On the one hand such vowels are not 
-only retained where the old language had them, but are even added 
where it wanted them. The stronghold of this tendency is in the 
north-west Highlands and Islands. In other districts those 
vowels are cut off almost without exception. This latter tendency, 
along with certain associated phenomena in the treatment of final 
syllables, is most conspicuous in east Perthshire and in Strathspey. 
In Sutherland the tendency is to drop those vowels. That is 
done, for example, in asa, beurla, bliadhna, cadha, ceudna, damhsa 
•docha, docha, eorna, granda, ionga, lugha, in genitives as abhna, 
Samhna ; in aite, aithne, baile, bainne, buille, ceile, coille, 
cuimhne, Di-h-aoine, duine, failte, leine, maide, maille, moine, 
naire, oidhche, teine, uile, uine, uisge ; in genitives as gr&ne ; 
in participles as briste, duinte, etc. 

The elision of the vowel of so (this) when enclitic as in daoine- 
s' and daoin'- s' for daoine so, and of the pronominal emphatic 
particle as in mis' for mise, pilleams' for pilleamsa, leans 7 for lean 
thusa, and of the vowel and consonant in e-s', etc., for es-an, 
*dha-s' for dha-san, is common in Matheson's book. There also we 
meet with cubhr (xix.) and chur (xvii.) for cubhraidh (Irish 
cumhra), a chrann-cheus' (vi. twice) and chomhfhurt (xiv.) for 
chomhfhurtachd. The form of the future indicative in certain 
cases, e.g., fag mi e, for fagaidh mi e, I will leave it, ought also, 
perhaps, to be mentioned here. 

The forms of the verb that end in as often elide the vowel of 
the termination ; as ma sheinns tu (for sheinneas), if you will 
sing ; am fear a theichs (theicheas), the man who flees ; tuita e 
(tuiteas), it will fall. The same kind of elision is found in words 
like Di-ceudaoin, here ' Di-ciadn,' iasachd or iasad 'iasd,' and 
sliasad, 'sliasd,' and, like the other kinds, prevails especially in 
East Perthshire and in Strathspey and is comparatively rare if 
not absent in the West Highlands. 

Aspiration. 

The imperatives thig (come) and thoir (give, take) which, 
unlike other imperatives, are aspirated in Scottish Gaelic, are un- 



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108 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

aspirated here ; tig nuas, come down ; tig as an rathad, come out 
of the way ; toir dha e, give it to him ; toir leat e, take it with 
you. In Easter Ross also they say tig for thig. 

Fhuair (got) is unaspirated ; fuair mi e, I got it ; is e sin na 
fuair e, that is all he got. ' Munro notes this from Alex. Mac- 
donald (Grammar, p. 119, u. 2). 

Cha dhean, cha dheanadh (Matheson, xix.), are found here as 
in many other places, not cha dean as in Perthshire, etc. 

Aspiration and non-aspiration are equally admissible in the 
case of / in certain positions. After bheil, fios or fhios may be 
used ; bheil fios aig and bheil fhios aig ; cha 7 n eil fios agam and 
cha 'n eil fhios agam. Matheson has mur fhaigh mi (unless I get), 
mus fhaillinneadh aran (ere bread should fail), nach faio, nach 
faigh and nach f haighinn, nach failinnich and nach fhail'nich ; ni 
7 s fearr, na 7 s fuaire ; cho fad and cho f had. 

In the case of c, which may be aspirated or not after cho, he 
has cho chraiteach and cho chumhang. 

The infinitive dol (or dul) to go, is usually aspirated after 
verbs in Matheson's book ; A dhuraigeadh dhul ann, who would 
desire to go there ; \S gu n deonaichinn dhul ann, and that I 
should wish to go there (both in ix.) ; 7 S nach fhar mi dhul as 
uaith, and 7 S nach fhar mi dul as uaith, and that I cannot escape 
it (both from i.) ; 7 S leis nach deoin dhol dachaidh, and that is 
not willing to go home (i.), dol dhachaidh being equally ad- 
missable. 

Daonnan, always, is written dhaontan (viii. twice) each time it 
occurs ; Is tha 7 nis 'nan cuideachd dhaontan, and he is now in 
their company always (xviii.) 

The aspiration of the prepositions de and do that is character- 
istic of Northern Gaelic is variable here. De and dhe, and do and 
dha, are all found repeatedly in the Hymns; indeed de and dhe 
both occur more than once in one stanza. 

Before the inffnitive do, which is worn down in other districts 
to a in this position, is found here regularly as do or rather as da; 
nach eil thu dol da shuidhe, are you not going to sit; tha e dol da 
shealltuinn ort, he is going to see you. In Matheson's book are 
dol do ghabhail (going to take) ; iad do cheangal (them to join) ; do 
dh 7 fheuchainn (for a dh'). 

" Ach c 7 ait an teid mis 7 do dh 7 iarruidh 

Fear do rian-sa anns an t-saoghal." (xix.) 

Do is also found in some phrases, as dh-easbhuidh ; Cha toir a 
bho am bainne d 7 easbhuidh fiach, the cow will not give her milk 
without something to eat. Matheson has 'do dh 7 easbhuidh. 7 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 109 

The occasional modification or elimination, when brought 
between two vowels by the addition of syllables, of certain final 
aspirates has been noticed in the "Gaelic of the West of Ross-shire." 
Here the converse is more frequent* Bh is sounded u in eubh, 
but v in eubhachd, and mh which is sounded u in cnaimh " creu " 
and is silent in laimh, is v in the plurals cnamhan and lamhan. 

Pbovbction. 
Matheson has cor for gar although — 

" 'S cor am faigh iad na's aill," 
And though they get not all they would, (v. 6.) 
■Guilbneach is cuilbeannach, and in the Reay Country buinne is 
puinne as in West Ross and boitidh, the call to a pig, is poiHdh. 

Prosthesis. 

Acain (moaning, lamenting), is here facain, aithne, faithn, imridh 
-(must), fimridh, and ob (refuse, cease, give over, faint), fob. 
Raghaidh (a warning, West Ross-shire) is here fraghaidh. 

Brogail (active, smart) is sprogail, and at Strathy geuban (fowl's 
<?rop) is sgeuban. 

Eigh (ice) is deigh, and achailleag (a wag-tail) is tachailleag at 
Lairg. 

On the other hand a mole is ath-mhugach for fath or famh, 
feadh (length) is eadh, and taidhe (attention) is aidh ; " thug e 
an aidh dha," he noticed it, "toir 'n aidh da," take heed to it, 
attend to it, Ogan, joy, delight, seems to be for sogan and 
occurs in Matheson (i.) 

Assimilation. 
Assimilation is found in the following cases — 

I to s in soillse, Goillspidh (Golspie). 

n to I in coinnlear, innleachd. In coinneal also nn is silent. 

n to r, auart (linen) is here ' arad,' which may be compared with 
East Perthshire and Strathspey * a-ard.' 

n to d in Anndra, grannda. 

n to t in cainnt, inntinn, muinntir. Deargant is deargad ; so 
ionnstrumaid from instrument, sacramaid from sacrament, 
etc. Buntata from potato is here too, it may be noted, 
butat. 

n to * in bainnse, innis (tell) and innis (island), both is (i nasal), 
dinnseach, and with diphthongisation in dannsa, ' daws/ and 
anns (in), 'aws.' In Matheson's book occur "As an earbainnse 



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110 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

' m' anam " (i.), to (lit. in) whom I would trust my soul ; and 
" as an Sgire " (xix.), in the parish. 

r to I in the Reay Country, as in Beurla, urlar, there ' hilar.' 
Annlan (condiment) has undergone several processes. A 

having been diphthongised before long nn, nn having been 

assimilated to I, and t having been inserted after I the resulting 

pronunciation is aultan (awltan). In the Reay Country a further 

change has made the word ultan (u uasal). 

Externally a final nasal liquid in article, relative, preposition, 

or interrogative, or verbal particle is assimilated or lost in this 

dialect before s and /, rarely before other consonants. Further, 

if the preceding word ends with a vowel the whole word, article, 

relative, etc., is gone. 

n before s is gone in an saor (the carpenter), an se61 (the sail) ; 'g an 
sealgadh (hunting them) ; far an seas e (where he will stand) : 
an sith (in peace), etc. Tha an seol aig (be has the sail) is 
Tha 'seol aig ; so Tha 'saor tighinn (the carpenter is coming). 
Cha' 'sas (he stuck fast) for chaidh e an sas. An so, an sin, 
an sud are similarly treated. Thoir a' so e (bring it here) ; 
Tha* 'so (it is here) for tha e an so. Cha' sin (he went there) 
for chaidh e an sin. But they appear here as elsewhere also 
as ann a' so, ann a' sin, ann a' sud, or rather here as an a'so, 
etc. He is here is Tha' 'so or Tha 'an a'so. In Matheson's 
book are found a' Satan (the Satan, xvii.), a' spioraid (of the 
spirit xv.), na' sluagh (of the peoples, xvii), 'sas for an sas (iv.), 
'sa Sg\re-sa (in this parish, xv.), ann a'stri (in strife, xvi.), ann 
a' sonas (in happiness, xxi.), " Na 's m6 na saoghal (greater 
than the world, i.) ' So' for an so (xviii.) and ' sud ' for an sud 
(xix.) also occur. 

m before f is gone in am f aidh (the prophet), am fras (the shower), 
am fianuis (in presence), ann am fasach (in a wilderness), na'm 
fasadh e (if it would grow). Ghearr e am feur (he cut the 
grass) is ghearr e' feur, so Tha 'fraoch a' fas (the heather is 
growing). Am fac sibh e is 'fac sibh e ; so 'faigh thu e, for 
am faigh ; 'fas e, for am fas, etc. 

n defore d goes sometimes ; gu deach for gu 'n deach. 

n before do the verbal particle ; in the spoken language d is often, 
if not usually, kept ; an do thuit e, did he fall ; an tigh anns 
an do choinnich iad, the house in which they met ; na 'n do 
chleachd sibh, if you had practised ; gu 'n do dhibir e, that 
he has forsaken. Do is usually da, however ; an t-ait an da 
rugadh e, the place where he was born ; an t-ait an da throg e, 
the place where he built. A distinctively northern feature 



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Sutherland Gaelic 111 

is to change an do, or 'n do into na, as " na sheas e " for an 
do sheas e, did he stand This is found in Skye and West 
Ross, and Matheson has far na thog thu (ii. for far an do thog 
thu) where you have built ; ris na chleaehd thu (iv. for 
an do) to whom you used ; gu 'n dhlbir (xix. for gu 'n do), 
that [it] has forsaken. 

Dissimilation. 

A substitution of r for I, or for n in words containing more 
than one liquid, is quite a feature of the dialect. It takes the 
place of I in — 

goireag for gdileag, or coileag, a haycock 

meireachadh „ meileachadh 

Sgeireaboll „ Skelbo, before 1245 Scelleboll 

and of n in — 

abharn for abhainn 

airm „ ainm 

airmig „ ainmig 

gairmheach „ gainmheach 

irinn „ inghean (daughter) 

lormachd „ lomnochd 

mearmainn „ meanmainn, meanma 

Euraboll ., Embo, in 1610 Eyndboll 

seinnlear „ seinnlean, seillean (a bee) 

The local word garnardaich, yawning, appears to be based upon 
some form, possibly Norse, of English yawn, Old English ganian, 
Scottish gaut. Whether gunnars, gorse, whins, here and in West 
Ross, is or is not based on conas, conasg, is not certain ; in the 
Black Isle it is gunnas. 

In the Reay Country Mr Gunn has noted — 

sparraban forbannaban (forehead bandage) 



earachainn 


„ eanchainn 


fasaireadh 


„ fasanadh (pasturing) 


mearbh 


„ meanbh 


githil 


„ githir 


grath-muing 


„ gath muing (mane) 


torrasgil 


„ toirsgean 


eilthir 


„ oirthir 


falair 


„ faraire (a wake) 


talcuis 


„ tarcuis 



The three last are used by Rob Donn. 



, 



112 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

<*uilbneach (curlew), here cuilbeannach is guilbearnach in Strathy 
-as in West Ross and in Perthshire. Rob Donn's ' niarachan ' in 
" 'S mear a ni Eori mire ri Deorsa," though it has been attempted 
to be explained otherwise, seems clearly to be for manachan, the 
groin. 

* C* ainm e', What do you call him, or it, said when a name is 
forgotten, is here * C'airm an e ' (C'airmean e ?). * Irinn ' is the 
pronunciation in Easter Ross also. ' Loch na h-Irinhe/ loch of 
the daughter, at Stoer, and ' Achnanirinin,' field of the daughters, 
in Strathbrora, appear in maps of Sutherlandshire. That the r 
of Euraboll is a local substitution for n is proved alike by the 
West Coast pronunciation which is Eunaboll, and by the old 
spellings. 

Airm for ainm and aram for acam occur in the Book of the 
Dean of Lismore and are met with also in Irish. 

Uaigneach (secret) which is found as uairgneach in Perth, 
West Ross, Skye and Lewis, is here uinigneach. Seangan (an ant) 
is snioghag (gh silent) and meag (whey) miong. Searmon (a 
sermon) following the analogy of sacramaid, ionnstrumaid, etc., 
is searmaid. There is more than dissimilation in the transforma- 
tion of mial-mhagain (a toad) into nial-mhagain (Niall-mhagain ?), 
in Skye neal-mhagag (a frog). 

S is inserted as usual in the group rt as d6rst for dort, gorst 
for gort, etc. 

Rob Donn has tastar for tartar, in West Ross-shire tatar. He 
also has graist for graisg ; in Arran Gaelic and in Manx a medial 
or final sg often becomes $t as in the Arran uiste for uisge. 

An insertion or addition of dentals is exemplified in iostal for 
iosal, iodhalt for iodhal and umhailt for umhail. Matheson has 
gamhaldas for gamhlas, and taghald for tadhal ; smuainich and 
abhaist appear in the hymns with t (smuaintich) but more fre- 
quently without (abhais). He has susdan (thousand) v. 1, but 
susana (thousands) x. 2. 

There is a strong tendency in Scottish Gaelic to avoid or do 
away with the juxtaposition of the sounds n s by assimilation 
or otherwise. One method in the case of slender s is to substitute 
t. In Perthshire and elsewhere, for example, an sin is an t-sin 
(or an tin), like an t-auil, an t-sealbhag; an sean duine is an 
t-seann duine, and 'g an sireadh is 'g an t-sir\ Here it may be 
heard occasionally ; as far an t-seilbhich, for far an seilbhich, 

Mbthathbsis. 

This is not prominent here as it is, e.g., in West Ross. Lom- 
radh a fleece, fleecing, is loramadh ; lomnochd shows dissimilation 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 113 

also loramachd and luramachd ; uilear is uireal and roghnachadh 
roghanchadh. The loan words cearcall and coimrig are respectively 
cealcar and cuimrig and cumraig. 

Adharc and fradharc are respectively earag, frearag (e close) ; 
-amhairc is amhn ig and iomchorc iomochorag. Agamsa is pro- 
nounced agamas, and is so written in Matheson (xix.) 

Suffixes. 

Here, as in West Ross, a syllable i is inserted before the 
abstract suffix achd is added to a word ; cumaidheachd for 
cumachd, form, figure ; fasaidheachd for fasachd, barrenness, 
state of lying waste ; rannaidheachd, versification, doggerel. 
Matheson, who has all those, uses " cumiachd bho," of Aaron's 
golden calf. 

Risdich, again (Matheson, ix.), for ris or rithisd, and fhathast- 
aich for fathast, show a common addition to those words, but 
nisean (id., xviii. 5, 18) for nis, now, is more of a novelty. 

The suffix idh noticed in West Ross is met with here also. A 
little burn at Marrell is called Alltaidh Skelpick, and opposite 
Marrell, on the left bank of the Helmsdale river, are Alltaidh 
Bheich and Alltaidh Sgrigill. Those three are within a mile of 
Helmsdale. A fourth at Kinbrace is Alltaidh Choinsgill. The 
four are amongst the smallest tributaries of the Helmsdale river. 
In the Reay Country there is Alltaidh Phuirt near Armadale. 
What difference of meaning, if any, is there between allt and 
alltaidh ? The answer given locally is that it is not known unless 
ii be that as a little burn would be called a burnie in English, so 
alltaidh means a little burn in Gaelic. The suffix has been 
recognised as a diminutive ending by Mr. W. J. Watson in his 
Place-names of Ross and Cromarty (p. xxxvi.) An Cam-alltaidh, 
the crooked burnie, is the name of a little burn in Resolis. The 
Gaelic Tom Thumb is in Sutherland, Ianaidh Ceann-ordaig, Johnny 
Thumb-head. I have heard a wife addressed as a bheanaidh, 
wifie. Leanabaidh, infant, occurs as a noun (Matheson xvii.) A 
peat cart in north Inverness is fianaidh (little waggon f) from feun, 
and in parts of Sutherlandshire one of the two kinds of carts in use, 
the other being a " coup, " is called in English a fainie, evidently 
the Gaelic feunaidh. 

Cearn is here as in the north widely cearnaidh, and ceann- 
teaghlaich paterfamilias, is ceannaidh-teaghlaich. The suffix in 
those two cases does not seem to have any diminutive force. 

The local forms biodaidh, breac-mheanaidh, ceifcidh-suibhreag, 
cubaidh, . fiannaidh, meildidh, purpaidh, and speubhaidh (all 

8 



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114 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

explained Voc.), taken with what goes before, seem to show a 
fondness for the ending idh. 

Phonetic Irregularities. 

Irregularities and variations of pronunciation are somewhat 
numerous in the dialect. Prominent among them are the 
variations of fein and seillean, and the peculiar development of 
dissimilation. Such forms as blobhsd for blabhd and craimscean 
for craimcean, feann for fann, loch-16inn for loch-bhlein or loch- 
leiu, miong for meag, breac-mheanaidh for breac-eunain, nial- 
mhagain for mial-mhagain (neal-mh. in Skye, however) are to be 
noted, as also the use of the personal pronoun instead of the 
possessive with the infinitive. Those and other peculiarities have 
been held to arise from an imperfect mastery of the language by 
a people whose mother tongue was sometime Norse, and whose 
Gaelic was acquired. Whatever the explanation, the irregularities 
are noticeable. 

Article. 

The t, originally d, of the article is often heard as d here ; an 
d-airgiod (the money), an d-each (the horse), can an d-altachadh 
(say the grace), chaidh e an d-Ord (he crossed or he passed the 
Ord [of Caithness]), tigh an d-saoir (the carpenter's house), Cadha 
an d-Samhraidh, Pass of the Summer (above Marrell, Helmsdale). 

Noun. 

Nouns ending in r have, as usual, a tendency to go over to the 
guttural declension, as the borrowed word fodar (straw), genitive 
fodrach. Mil (honey) also has joined this declension, genitive 
mealach (Matheson, xvii). 

Anam (soul) has gen. sing, anamain and an'main, and nom. 
plu. anamana in Matheson. Iongain (a nail) ng silent, and 
meanmainn (a tickling in the nostril, supposed to prognosticate a 
visitor) are old oblique cases of the n declension raised to the 
nominative, like gobhainn for gobha. 

Words ending in n in the singular drop that n in the plural, as 
eilean, island, plu. eileanan, pronounced here as in many districts 
eilea'an ; so cuilean (a pup), plu. cuilea'an, and so on. 

Cnaimh (bone) has plurals cnainean ' crenan ' (e nasal) and 
cnanan as well as cnamhan. 

Such plurals as ceudu (hundreds), ceusu (coarse parts of 
fleeces), deuru (tears), and speuru (skies, the firmament) recall 
the old accusatives plural. Matheson's raonta' (fields) and susana. 



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Sutherland Gaelic 115 

(thousands) may have represented similar pronunciations. 
Matheson also has geatacha' (gates), oighreachd'a (estates), and 
sealach' (seals), but daintean (poems), gaoitean (winds), and 
feartainn (virtues). 

The younger generation is able without feeling any incon- 
gruity to say na h-drdan (the hammers), na dall, pron. dowll (the 
blind, phi.), bogha an d-uisge (the rainbow), leabhar na-h- 
amhranan (the song book), tha an t-saoir tighinn (the carpenter 
is coming), cionnus tha an fheur a' sealltainn (how does the grass 
look), ghearr e an fheur (he cut the grass). However rare such 
mistakes may be, the mere fact that they occur at all is an indica- 
tion of the tendency that is in operation. 

Numerals. 

Aon, one, is pronounced unn, at Strathy unn, when used as 
an adjective — unn bhean (one woman), and an when used pro- 
nominally — bheil an agad (have you one). In enumeration at 
Creich unnan is used — Cia meud a th' aige? Unnan. (How 
many has he I One). Unnan deug (eleven). 

Personal Pronouns. 

A for e (he) and aid, ead for iad (they), are heard in the usual 
positions : An e sin a (is that he), C'ait bheil aid (where are they), 
An eid th'ann or an ead th' aim (is it they). 

Pronominal Emphatic Particle. 

The emphatic third personal pronoun esan is variously written 
in Matheson's Hymns e-sa, e-sa, e-sa, e-s', e-s\ Dha-s' (to him) 
and aits (his place) also occur, and an cuid leon-s 7 (their wounds). 

On the other hand, misean for mise occurs in xix., and thusan 
for thusa, dhuit-san (to you), and ad dheigh-san (after you), all in 
xviii., probably by the same author. It is in xviii. that nisean 
appears twice for nise (now). 

" Those parts of the verb which have personal ter mi nations, " 
say 8 Munro (Grammar, p. 205), " assume the pronominal increase 
sa, se, ne, or e, to express emphasis." His examples include also 
the second singular imperative where it is less general. Matheson 
has dean-sa (for dean thusa), pilKsa, seall-sa (all xviii.), seall-s' and 
lean-s (both xvii.). It is common in the metrical Psalms, e.g. y 
dean-sa (thrice), and saor-sa in the fifty-first. 



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116 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Possessive Pronouns. 

Instead of ar, ar n- (our), n-ar is often used, and instead of 
bhur, bhur n- (your), n-ur. 

" Gheibheadh sinn n-ar di-sairsc'," 

We should get our discharge. — Matheson, ii. 

" 'S e dh' iarradh n-ar cridhe dhuinn," 

What our heart would desire for us. — Matheson, xvi. 

" 'S ann bu mho n'-ur fabhar," 

The greater were your favour. — Matheson, x. 

The Demonstrative So. 

So (this) is treated often as an enclitic, e.g., anns a' ghleannsa 
(in this glen), aig an teamhars' de 'n bhliadhna (at this season of 
the year, or at this time of year). Matheson has an als* for an 
al so (v.), na daoine-s' and na daoin'-s' for na daoine so (both x.), 
'sa Sgire-sa for san Sg\re so (xv.), air an taobhs' for air an taobh 
so (iii. and xvii.), 'n tid reothts' for an tid reothta so. An drasda 
for an trath so appears as an trathsa (ix.), an troths' (v.), and an 
tras (xvii.). 

Verb. 

"In Sutherland, Rcss-shire, and other parts of the north 
Highlands," says Munro (Grammar, p. 97), " the future indicative 
terminates in as ; as bitheas mi, tu, e, etc." Matheson has bitheas 
(xiv.), but in pronunciation here as in East Perthshire, etc., the 
termination is not as but s ; miichs tu e (you will smother it), so 
fags (will leave), togs (will raise), &sds (will listen), tuits (will 
fall), caills (will lose), caoins (will weep), beirs (will catch), etc. 
The form is used only before the pronouns tu, e, i, and iad. 
Before the other pronouns mi, sinn, and sibh, it wants the *, but 
otherwise is the same ; seun mi mi f hem uaith (I will charm 
myself against it), not seuns, nor seunaidh, so tilg mi e (I will 
throw it), streap sinn e (we will climb it), iarr sibh (you will 
ask), etc. 

The infiinitive of ich verbs is formed by broadening ch and 
adding, not dainn as in West Ross, but dain, as beannaich, 
beannachdain. Matheson has aithmeachdan ; dealachiain, deal- 
achdan, and dealaichdean, faireachdain, and inndreachdan (for 
inntreachdan. 

The passive participle in the Isle of Man and in East Perth- 
shire has its final vowel in some cases retracted before the t, as 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 117 

beannaichte, in Manx, banniit, in East Perth, beannaichit. The 
passive subjunctive is dealt with similarly here. Matheson has 
several instances : — 

bhithite for bhithteadh (xviii.). 

dar chitbite „ dar chithteadh (xviii.). 
gu'm faicid „ gu'm faicteadh (v.). 

na'n gabhaid „ ua'n gabhteadh (x.). 
gu'n ruithead „ gu'n ruithteadh (v.). 
ged sgapaidhte „ ged sgapteadh (i.). 
The subjunctive used for rach, go, is theidhinn, an tigh gut an 
teidheadh tu (the house to which you would go). Matheson has 
it some ten times : Oir theidheadh iad cuideachd (for they would 
go together, i. 14), Cha d'theidhinn r\sd as an deigh (I would not 
go again after them, x. 2), etc. 

Tair (get, obtain, come), used by Matheson, is written thar, 
tharas, tharadh, but after the conjunction nach, f har, and f har. 
" Dar dheargas am bas orm 

'S nach f bar mi dul as uaith." (i.) 

Prbpositions. 

Ann, which, like some others of the prepositions, takes on * 
before the article and the relative, is here invariably amis, pro- 
nounced often aws and also as ; anns Maraill in Marrell ; anns 
Eaoghard in Rogart ; anns cabhaig in haste. Dr Macdonald, 
Ferintosh, being storm stayed on one occasion, on a journey to 
Caithness by the Ord, preached in Helmsdale each day until the 
road was open, and at his last service commended the people for 
coming out so well, " anns gaoth is anns uisge, anns sneachd is 
anns reotha" (in wind and in rain, in snow and in frost). Mathe- 
son has anns mo cbrann-chur (in my lot, viii.), anns do nadur (in 
thy nature, xvi.). As an earbainnse m' anam (to (lit. in) whom I 
mould trust my soul), occurs also (L). As (out of) is sounded e's (e 
open, s broad). 

Bhos, is heard in place of o chionn (since), Cha d* thainig e 
bhos mios (he has not come for (lit. since) a month). The same 
form is used also as a conjunction in place of o'n, bho'n ; Is fhada 
bhos nach fhac mi thu (it is long since I have seen you). " Bhos 
a thainig e" (since he came), was heard in Kiltarlity. 

Conjunctions. 

Ach an (until) is common ; feithidh sinn ach an tig e (we 
shall wait until he comes). Matheson uses it, and once has ach 
an, and the equivalent gus an, in the same stanza (x. 8). 



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118 £; Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

i. Mus, not mu'n, is used for before : — 

" Chuir e fitheach do ionnsuidh 
Le meildidh gu 'thearuadh 
Le meildidh gu 'thearnadh, 

Mus fhaillinneadh aran." (viii.) 

He sent him a raven with food to save him, with food to save him 
ere bread should fail. 

Air neo (or else, otherwise), is expressed by na dheadh ; rach 
ann am maireach na dheadh cha'n fhaic thu e (go to-morrow else 
you will not see him). Elsewhere air deadh, air dheadh (air 
deodh, air dheodh in Perthshire) are used. 

Cor for gar (though not), occurs in Matheson ; " 'S cor am 
faigh iad na's aill " (and though they get not all they would have). 

An for anns an is of course common, an t-aite an do rugadb e 
(the place in which, or where, he was born), an t-aite an do throg 
e e (the place where he built it), " Anns an dluithteachd an d' 
fhag e (in the unity in which he left [them]), xix. 

Far an (where) seems somehow to be unfamiliar in the north. 
In West Ross chon an, or thon an, takes its place. Here c' ait an, 
the interrogative where, is actually used instead — Bha mi c' ait an 
xT robh e (I was where he was). Yet Matheson often has far an. 

Air chor 's gu 'n (so that), which occurs in xvi., Air chor 's gu 
,'m V urra mi iomradh (so that I could tell) appears (negatively) 
in xix., as Cor nach fhar mi do 'n innseadh (so that I cannot 
•recount them) for air chor 's nach. In some districts 's for is, or 
.agiis (and), is omitted. 

Idiom. 

In place of ge b' oil le (in spite of) Matheson has na 
'm boil le or nam boil le (four times) ; Na'm boil le ceann 
an t-Satain (in spite of Satan's head — iii. twice). Ge olc 
(however bad) is da olc, Is da olc \s gu 'm bi an grand (and how- 
ever bad be the soil — ii). Bheag air mh6r (xviii.) for bheag no 
mhor (little or much, small or great) is common in the north. 

The use of the unaspirated do in place of the usual a before 
infinitives falls under Aspiration, as do cheangal (to tie), do 
ghabhail (to take), do ghlanadh (to cleanse), do dh' iarraidh (to 
seek), do dh' fheuchaimv (to show), all from Matheson. Some- 
times instead of do (Or a) it is gu- that is used : gu aithneachdan 
naomhaehd (to discern holiness — vi.), gu arach an anamain (to 
nourish the soul — viii.), gu dearbhadh nan naoimh (to test the 
saints — xi), gu milleadh siol.(to destroy seed — iv.), 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 119 

" Ach seall's gun dail 'nuas air na dh* fhag 
Gu toirt dhoibh pairt de 'n ionmhas ud " 
^But look Thou down quickly on those whom he left, to give them 
a part of that wealth — xvii.). 

When the object of the infinitive is a pronoun gu is the regular 
.preposition in Gaelic, and is sometimes used by Matheson, as gu 
m' dhion (to shield mc), but its place is often taken here, as in 
West Boss-shire, by do, so that where do is regular gu is used 
instead, and where gu is regular do is substituted : cha *n eil 
mise dol do 'thoirt dheth (I am not going to take it off), theid e 
<T am faicinn (he will go to see them). Matheson has do m* 
-dhion (to save me), d' a gleidheadh (to keep her), d' ar treigeadh 
"(to forsake us), d' ur milleadh (to destroy yourselves), d' an dion 
<(to save them), 

" Thig e-san mar Earraid 
Le eabhaig do m' iarraidh " 
(It [death] will come like king's messenger to summon me in 
baste — i.). 

Do, perhaps following the abos 7 e analogies, occurs in two cases 
r in which there should be no preposition. 

"Bha do bhuaidhean-s' do aireamh, 
Cor nach fhar mi do *n innseadh " 
•{Your virtues were countless, so that I cannot enumerate them 
[cor for air choir s'] — ii. 6), " Cha 'n urra ... do dh' 
..ainmeachadh (it is not possible to name it — xvii.). 

Compare also Is da olc 's gu 'm bi do chlann (and however bad 
thy children be— ii. 3) and Is da olc 's gu 'm bi an grand (and 
ihowever bad the soil be — ii* 6) for ge olc. 

The object of an infinitive in Gaelic is in the genitive case if a 
noun, and if a pronoun is the possessive form if there is such ; 
, bheil thu 'g an cluinntinn (do you hear them), not bheil thu ag 
•cluinntinn iad ; but bheil thu ag cluinntinn sin (do you hear that). 
The decay of declension tends naturally, of course, to show 
itself here also when the object is a noun. When the object 
ie a personal pronoun the right idiom is sometimes used, 
perhaps rather in stereotyped phrases than in extempore com- 
binations : Tha mi ag ionndrain bhi 'g ur cumraigeadh 
•(or cuirmigeadh) and Tha mi a' facain bhi 'g ur cumraigeadh, 
which both mean I am sorry to trouble you. Ordinarily 
the personal pronoun is used instead of the possessive : " Bi 
beannachadh sinn" for Bi'g ar beannachadh (be blessing us), "Cha 
bhi mi ag cumail sibh" for 'g ar cumail (I will not be detaining 



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120 Gaelic Society of Inuerne88. 

you), "Tha e a' deanamh e" (pronounced Tha' 'deanu a) for Tha e- 
'g a dheanamh (he is doing it), Bidh sinn a* faicinn sibh for Bidh 
sinn 'g ar faicinn (we shall be seeing you), "An d'robh thu ag ionnd- 
rain e" for 'g a ionndrain (were you missing him), " Bha mi a* 
togail an aird i " for 'g a togail an aird (I was lifting her up). 
Those examples and others were heard far and wide from young 
and old both in Sutherland and in the Reay Country. I have 
heard " ag iarraidh e " seeking him (or it) for 'g a iarraidh in 
Kiltarlity. x 

Vocabulary. 

aing, hatred, spite, ill-will ; in Lewis, anger, displeasure ; pro* 
nounced here amig (enig, e nasal) like aingidh, here ainigidh. 
Of. Ir. aingeis, a «arse or malediction. 

aingeach, malicious, spiteful. 

ainmhide, a heifer ; Creich, etc. The dictionaries give " ainmhide, 
a fool, an idiot." Maceachen (2nd edition) adds to these " a 
beast," which is the primary meaning, the others being meta- 
phorical uses of the word. Ainbhte, noticed in the West of 
Ross-shire, is the same word with intercalated vowel after n 
in both cases and bh in the one and mh in the other silent. 
Cf. Irish, ainmhinte and ainbhinte, beasts. 

aimafaodean, a one-year-old heifer, or heifer stirk ; Creich. 

ainmhidh, a heifer ; pronounced here, in Creich, and in Farr, ana'r 
and ena'i (n long), while in ainmhidh beast mh retains its- 
sound of v. In Arran the word commonly means a horse. 
In Farr, ainmhidean, the plural of ainmhide above, is used as 
plural also of ainmhidh. It is this word that appears in Rob- 
Donn's 'S Mear a ni Eori mire ri Deorsa, in the line 

" Casan an fhleasgaich mar shlachdan ri eanaidh." 
The slachdan is a piece of wood forming part of a cow's tether. 

alachd, glossed "a carcase" (Matheson, xi.). For falachd from fuil ?' 

an-lus, weed (Matheson, vii.). 

badhan, a burying-ground, churchyard, Matheson has it written 
bhabhuinn : — 

" Tha 'n Righ 's am Baigear 

'S an aon staid anns a bhabhuinn (xv.). 

baight, bait, enticement ; baoit (Lewis), E. Macdonald's Faclair- 

Gaidhlig. 
baighteag, an earth-worm (bait for trout) from above ; baoiteag 

(Macbain). 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 121 

barra-seisein, corn-yard, premises, belongings. Tha brad d* 1 ^ 

seisein aige, he has a well-filled stack-yard. Cha 'n eil leithid 

a ui air mo bharra-seisein, I have not such a thing in my 

possession. The English possession altered ? 
bath, foolish ; bath, a fool, etc., Macleod and Dewar. 
biodaidh, an imp, pest, one who annoys. Cf. biod to pick, gall, 

vex. E. Macdonald. 
biogach, little. 

blabhd, a loud bark ; here and in Fair blobhsd. 
breac-mheanaidh, freckles 
breathadh, disease or rottenness in potatoes. Thainig am b. amis 

a' bhuntata ; nach iad tha air b. For breothadh, from bieo, 

breoth, rot, etc. 
breodhuinn, breodhuinn-cheapaig, a wheel-barrow. Alness in 

Ross-shire also. K. Macdonald has bleodhan. 
buinte, relationship, kinship. In Arran bointe. 
buiteach, a scolding, rating. Thug e buiteach air, he gave him 

a scolding. . 

buitich, to scold, rate, threaten. Biiitich air falbh e, drive 

him away. Buitich air falbh am balgair sin, drive that dog 

away. "Ged a bhuitichte bas orra," though they be 

threatened with death. Matheson i. 
cadaisde, the catechism, 
cadal-inchean, the prickly feeling in a torpid limb ; cadal-hieach 

in Fair, 
ceaugaldair, a reel for winding yarn in hanks, 
ceitean, mood, humour. An d'robh ceitean math air, was he m 

good humour, 
ceitidh-suibhreag, a frame for holding filled reels of yarn ; called 

ceiteag in Farr. 
cliseach, side of body, etc. Matheson xix. 
cochaidh, soft, spongy, e.g., as a decaying turnip ; Reay Country 

also. C6thaidh Glenmoriston, cothoch, West Ross, 
coileach-teth, the quivering seen near the surface of ground on a 

clear day ; crith-theas, Macleod and Dewar. 
creuthachas, disgust. Chuir e c. orm, it disgusted me, or it made 

me shudder, 
craimcean, a little stout man ; craimscean, F*rr. 
crodhaich, glossed "something that adulterates the milk" (Mathe- 
son, i.). Said locally to mean a disease of the stems or shaws 

of potatoes; black spots or lumps form and the top falls down. 

For creothach from creoth ? 



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122 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

cubaidh, pulpit, for cubaid ; East Ross-shire, also 

dam, mud, mire. 

deathadh, would go ; used as subjuuctive of raeh : for teidheadh, 

after au. 
di-beathte, welcome. Tha sibh di-beathte, you are welcome, 
diosgaidh-dasgaidh, the 3ucking sound made in walking with 

water in boots, 
ditheachadh, destructiou. 
duain, close, shut, rare here but common in Caithness ; duanadh 

(infinitive), Matheson, xvi. 
duaineil, ugly, ill-looking. Cf. duainidh, west of Ross-shire, 
duch, rn'ghtfall ; only in phrase, bho mhuch gu duch, from morning 

to night, 
dur-f hoghar, the dog days. 

faine, lower ; aine for fhaine occurs in Matheson, xviii. 
fiannaidh, a thin or slender person, 
fliothasg, an earth-worm ; in Vt "est Ross-shire, frilisg, in Lochalsh, 

friosg. 
flo, stupor, stupefaction, amazement. Chuir e fl6 orm, it amazed 

me, it dazed me. Thainig fl6 chad ail air, he dozed or 

slumbered, 
foisgeil, free, frank, open han led. 
fradhaidh or fraghaidh, a warning ; raghaidh (radhaidh ?) West 

Ross-shir©, 
garradh-arbhair, stackyard, cornyard. 
garra-gartain, landrail, corncrake. 

geaumhuinneach, glossed "joyful or merry," Matheson, xvii. 
gearraiseach, a hare ; in Parr, giorraiseach. 
gleusan, Matheson, xiv., glossed " Leointean," wounds, 
glifeid, sleet ; Farr also, 
gradhan, Matheson vii., rhymes with Sacan, etc., and therefore 

gradhan, glossed " Feum no bleidh." 
gunnars, whins, gorse ; also in Farr and West Ross-shire ; in the 

Black Isle gunnas. 
iniiean, ankle, Chaidh e dhe 'innean, he went off his ankle, dis- 
located his ankle. In Farr the protuberance at the root 

joint of the little toe. 
labhalLin, pronounced la mheallan and la-mhallan, "a mythical 

animal, supposed to be larger than a rat, and very noxious, 

lives in deep pools," Rev. A. Gunn. Rob Donn has the word 

in " Briogais Mhic Ruairidh" : — 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 123 

" Na leigibh ri braigh' e 
'M feadh bhios e mar tha e 
Air eagal gu 'n saraich 

An luacbair e : 
Na leigibh o bhail' e ' 

Do mh6inteach nan caileach, 
Mus tig an labhallan 

'S gu 'm buail i e." 

Among the characteristics ascribed to the animal in various 
popular accounts are that it frequents water and damp 
places, that it strikes its victim with a discharge of venom, 
that no one in whose face it breathes will long survive, that 
it sucks blood like a vampire, that it has four feet, and that 
the length and breadth of its body are about equal, and 
measure from twelve to fifteen inches. What animal it is 
that has lost its identity and acquired such a fabulous 
character has been much disputed. Jamieson, in his Scottish 
Dictionary, has given "lavellan, a kind of weasel," as a 
Caithness word on the authority of Pennant. Macleod and 
Dewar say, "A shrew, water-shrew, or mouse." The popular 
conception of it as an aquatic and noxious animal supports 
the view that the animal designated by the name labhallan, 
before it set out upon its fabulous career, was the water- 
loving and harmless, though supposed noxious, water-shrew. 
Rob Donn, who' associates the labhallan, as will be noticed, 
with the damp m6inteach or moss, evidently considered it a 
harmless creature, for the man who, if not kept at home, ran 
the risk of being smitten by the labhallan at the moss, was 
in equal danger of being harassed by the rushes on the moor. 

lamhadh, an axe. This shows that the proper spelling of the 
word for the West of floss-shire is not lamhag, as given in 
connection with chat dialect, but lamhadh, which would be 
pronounced lam hug as it is there. 

mealbhan, sea-bent; Easter Ross also. Called elsewhere muran. In 
West Ross-shire the banks or dunes of sand on which this 
grass grows. 

meildidh, glossed "Ion biadh," food, provision, Matheson, viii. ; a 
form of meiltir, meildreach. See quotation under Conjunctions^ 

muircinn, ankle ; cblique case, proper nominative, muirceann. 

pireas, appearance ; West Ross-shire also. 

poitidh, the call to a pig ; boitidh in West Ross-shire and 

: Macbain's Dictionary. 

pollach, a cod ; Easter Ross also ; in Farr, a half-sized cod. 



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124 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

preisgeadh, preaching, from English, Matheson, xv. 

purpaidh, purple. 

rabhan, in West of Ross-shire rabhann, often met with in place- 
names. In the Reay country and in the heights of Kildonan 
it is pronounced rafan. A native of Farr (Sutherland-shire) 
gave the information that it is the name of a grass that grows 
in still water, and that sheep often wade in to eat and are 
lost. This confirms the explanation in West of Ross-shire- 
Gaelic. 

reap, an untidy person. 

reusbanadh, mal-treatment, ill-usage. Is tu a rinn an r, air, 
how badly you have beaten him, or have used him. 

sar, " a little black insect that infests sheep " ; sheep-louse, Mac- 
leod & Dewar. 

seacha-mhinntinn (seachamh-inntinn ? but m& = *), gratification* 
satisfaction, Thug sud s. gu leor dha, that satisfied him fully. 
" Siach-inntinn," Matheson, vi., 3 ; " Seach-mhinntinn > ,, MS. 
correction on margin of a copy I have seen. 

sgalbhail, continued barking of a dog. 

sgeolldair, the jelly-fish, Farr. 

sgleap, a scolding, rating. Thug e sgleap dha, he gave him a 
scolding. 

sgleog, a slap ; Farr also. 

sgrugaill, neck of a bottle, or of a hen. Cf. sgruigean. 

sguch, to move, stir ; na sguchaibh, don't move, sit still. Farf 
also. 

siaraidhean (plural) rheumatism ; lit. c contortions.' 

sineag, a wick made irom a rush by peeling off the green outer 
covering, Farr ; a rush, Dornoch, Creich. 

sUhte, glad, pleased, contented ; lit. " pacified/ Rob Donn has it 
in " Tha sinn fo mhulad 's a coimhead a cheile." 

smachd, a syllable. 

snathadag, the tit-lark ; also in West Ross-shire and Perthshire. 

solumas, glossed, ' abundance.' Matheson ix. 

spaoileadh, staring, gaping, looking in alarm. 

speubhaidh, spavin. 

spionnag, a bandage round the forehead as for headache. 

spuaic, a mole or spot on the face. 

stallag, a bandage over the cheeks as for toothache. 

starach, sagacious, wily. 

strailleach, sea- weed, sea-ware ; Easter Ross also. 

strianach, beam or ray as sometimes seen radiating from the sun 
amongst clouds near the horizon ; from srian which has the 
meaning of streak or stripe [whence strianach, a badger.] 



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Sutherland Gaelic. 125 

stuaic, a glum or sullen look. 

suilleach in Matheson i. ; said to mean clear, bright. 
" 'N tra dh' eireas a Ghrian orr' 
A nios gu suilleach 
Gheibhear iadsan an tra sin 
Mar aon al ann do bhroilleach." 
In the rhyming word broilleach oi sounds here do ; so probably 

soilleach ? 

susdan, a thousand, Matheson v., plural susana id. x. 

tac, prop, support, dependence ; for taic. 

tachailleag, the black and white wagtail', pied wagtail, Farr also. 
At Lairg achailleag. 

tairg (ai as 4 short ; in Reay as do) " Cionnus a tha thu ?" " Tha 
tairg again," How are you ? I am fairly well Tha tairg 
aige he is fairly well. Tha mi an tairg mhath and Tha tairg 
orm, which are heard in some parts, are considered bad idiom 
in others. Compare Tha mi tairgse I am fairly well, and 
Tha mi tairgse bhi ag gluasad I am able to move about, 
heard in West Ross-shire. 

talmag, " a long-nosed mouse-like animai frequenting old walls " ; 
the shrew-mouse, evidently. 

teamhair, time, season ; aig an teamhairsa de 'n bhliadhna, at this 
time o! the year, at this season of the year ; teamhair f huar, 
cold weather. Rob Donn has it in "Oran nan Casaga dubha." 
In North Inverness and West Ross, damhair. 

teidhinn, would go, used as subjunctive for rach, go ; Matheson, 
passim. See under Verb. 

toimhsean, sense, judgment. Cha 'n eil t. aige, he has no sense. 

treasgan, a uieless person, good-for-nothing : in West Ross, triasg. 

tuirsg, to lift, bundle up, prepare and begin, or set out. Thuirsg 
e air (he set out, he began) synonymous with thog e air and 
thrus e air. Thuirsg e air do shealltainn oirre (he bestired 
himaelf, and went to see her). Tuirsgeadh is glossed, 
" preparing for a journey," in Matheson, i. 

ultanaich, a slender wiry-looking grass, the earliest that grows on 
the moors, called from its appearance deer's hair grass. 

iimhladh, obedience, submission ; so Matheson, iv. 

ungaidh, mouldy, musty. Dongaidh is in West Ross tungaidh. 

uspag, a start aside, a shy. Thug an t-each uspag gu taobh (the 
horse shied, or started, to one side). 



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126 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



27 tk FEBRUARY, 1902. 

At this meeting the following were elected members of the 
Society, viz. :— Mr Robert M. Copeland, 38 High Street, 
John Trendall, Queensgate, Inverness; and Mr D. Butter, 
auditor, Highland Railway, Inverness. The following contri- 
bution, entitled "Fragments of Breadalbane Folk-Lore, ' ' by 
Mr James MacDiarmid, Killin, Perthshire, was read : — 

FRAGMENTS OF BREADALBBANE FCXLK-LORE. 

A belief in the existence of ghosts, witches, fairies, and 
urisks was at one time general in Breadalbane, but now, owing 
to various causes, few of the people believe in ghosts and 
witches, and fewer still believe in fairies and urisks. 

Without doubt the reading of books and newspapers has 
helped to destroy old superstitious beliefs, and we can fairly 
assume that many interesting tales and legends have been lost 
to us simply because the influence of the press has become so 
powerful in the land. In the olden days the natives of Bread- 
albane spent the long winter nights in listening to, or in 
relating, stories of the marvellous, but the present race prefer 
the items in the daily newspaper, or the serial story in the 
weekly, to the tales that delighted or frightened their fathers. 
So the folk-lore of the district is gradually vanishing. 

During the Breadalbane clearances in 1839 and in the 
forties of last century scores of families were expelled from 
their holdings, and with their expulsion doubtless many weird 
tales and traditions associated with certain parts of Bread- 
albane were irretrievably lost. Still, some of the old people 
in the district can recall a few of the ' sgeulachdan' which 
were common in their youth. To these old men and women L 
have to confess my indebtedness for the ghost, witch, and 
urisk stories which I intend to introduce later on, and which 
are illustrative of a part at least of the folk-lore of Bread- 
albane. Before doing so it may not be out of place to refer to 
several other superstitions which formerly had a firm hold of 
the minds of all. 

Even at the present day a few individuals of both sexes at 
Lochtayside firmly believe that they have occasionally seen the 
' gealbhan' or ' solus' — a moving light which is said to be the 
precursor of a death or funeral. I was lately told by an old 



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Fragments of Bread al bane Folk-Lore 12T 

man of my acquaintance that on a winter night nearly forty 
years ago a light was seen by his mother moving along a hill- 
side in this neighbourhood. Shortly after that a young man 
was lost in the snow, on the same hill, while attempting to 
gather his father's sheep. My informant also avers that he 
himself witnessed an equally strange sight one night. He saw 
a brilliant light going east the highway, then it turned down 
in front of a crofter's house, illuminating everything. An 
hour later the crofter's corpse was brought east to his house. 

The following tale may, not inappropriately, be introduced 
here : — In the days of auld langsyne a ferryman who lived on 
the north side of Loch Tay one evening heard a shrill whistle 
proceeding, as he thought, from the other side of the loch. As 
a whistle or a loud halloo was the usual signal given by persons 
who required his services, he immediately launched his boat 
and set out for the south side. On reaching his destination he 
saw no one, but waited a short time to see if any person wished 
to cross. At last a horrible thing like a big bag of wool rolled 
down the brae and entered his boat, sending it further into 
the water. The boatman was brave, and, though startled, he 
rowed his uncanny cargo to the north side. Just as the boat 
touched the shore the horrible thing was transformed into the 
likeness of a large white bird, which flew, flapping its wings 
and screeching loudly, towards Lawers burying-ground. 
Shortly afterwards a young woman died suddenly and un- 
expectedly on the south side of Loch Tay, and the man had to 
convey her corpse in his boat to Lawers burying-ground. So 
runs the tale, believe it who may. 

Strange as it may appear, there is still an odd person here 
and there who is convinced that animals, especially cattle and 
horses, are yet subject to f beum-sul,' or the malign influence 
of the ' evil eye.' A woman told me lately that the sovereign 
cure for an animal thus afflicted was to take water in God's 
name from a stream across which the living passed and the 
dead were carried, put it in a pail or dish along with a silver 
coin, then sprinkle some of the water into the ears and on the 
back of the afflicted animal. Finally, the rest of the water 
was given to the cow or horse to drink, and if the coin adhered 
to the bottom of the dish the cure would be complete. If the 
above conditions were fulfilled, water from a loch would be 
equally efficacious, and I have heard of one instance at least 
in which water from Lochtay was used for a similar purpose. 
It seems that the ' evil eye' could so affect cream that no 
amount of churning was sufficient to convert it into butter. 



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128 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

A strange thing in connection with the ' evil eye' was that 
occasionally its unenviable possessor might not be at all 
malevolent ; but if an animal took his fancy, it was in danger 
of becoming ill. 

A certain ' wise* man who lived near Fortingall, and who 
died some time in the sixties of last century, pretended that 
he could cure animals that had been ' overlooked/ From all 
accounts, he appears to have cured many animals which were 
really ill. His method of procedure was to retire to his closet, 
from which the listener heard mutterings and strange noises 
proceeding. After an interval the wizard came out trembling 
and perspiring, and gave the person consulting him a white 
powder for the sick horse or cow. The modern wizard followed 
the example of his ancient forerunners, who ' muttered and 
peeped/ but, judging him impartially, I fear we must come 
to the conclusion that he was a clever rogue, who, with a good 
knowledge of farriery, traded on the ignorance and super- 
stition of his fellowmen. It must be stated that he charged 
well for his powders. 

When a particular kind of disease was prevalent among the 
cattle of a district or locality, 'teine eigin/ or need fire, was 
resorted to as a remedy. All fires were extinguished, and then 
the strongest men tried to produce fire by friction. The fir or 
oaken beam of a house was selected, and then a hole was bored 
through it. A dry stick, with a handle like that of an auger, 
was inserted in the hole, and turned rapidly and continuously 
round so as to generate enough heat to set fire to some com- 
bustible material that was provided for the occasion. Every 
hearth in the neighbourhood got its share of the ' need fire, ' 
and the remedy was considered rather efficacious. 

An old man told me that he had assisted when a young 
man in producing the ' teine-eigin.' A farmer's cows were 
supposed to be dangerously ill, and the work was performed in 
the byre in which the animals were. It was very fatiguing 
work, and the men were almost beat before they could get 
anything to burn. Some straw was burned in the byre, but 
the packman, for such he was, did not say whether the cattle 
recovered or not. One of the Mornish crofters tells me that 
he remembers seeing the ' teine-eigin' holes in the oaken main 
couple of Crannich old schoolhouse, which stood on Crag- 
ganester farm, on the north side of Lochtay. 

Was the ' teine-eigin' a survival from the times of the 
Druids? It is to be feared, however, that the Breadalbane 
people were not always content with such harmless rites as 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Folh-Lote. 129 

the ' teine-eigin.' There is a tradition that, once upon a time, 
when a pestilence raged among the herds on the south side of 
Lochtay, a ghastly tragedy was enacted. Actuated by a 
heathenish desire to propitiate some evil spirit or other, the 
people seized a poor ' gangrel body/ bound him hand and foot, 
and placed him in the ford of Ardtalnaig burn. The ford was 
a little further up the stream than the present bridge. All 
the cattle in that district were then driven over his body, and 
the poor creature's life was crushed out. The idea of a human 
sacrifice must have come down from a very remote antiquity. 

But leaving such speculations, we may turn to a considera- 
tion of the ' tarbh-uisge/ or water bull, and his habits. Pos- 
sibly, and probably, there may have been many small lochs in 
Breadalbane which were reputed to have been the home of the 
' tarbh-uisge/ but instances of these will suffice for my 
purpose. Lochan-an-tairbh-uisge is situated on Mornish hill, 
and there a water bull is said to have had his abode in the 
days of yore. When Mornish hill was held in common by 
many small tenants, more than sixty years ago, their Highland 
cattle were sent up to graze in the summer and autumn 
months, and the son of one of these tenants, who is now 
upwards of seventy years of age, informed me lately that in his 
boyhood all calves which had short ears and black curly hair 
were attributed to the water bull. On questioning him as to 
whether his father or any of the other tenants kept a black 
Highland bull, he replied that as far back as he could remem- 
ber the bulls kept were brindled, yellow, or red in colour. 

There is also a story of a cow belonging to a crofter near 
Killin, which periodically left the croft and wandered up 
Glenlochay. In due course of time a calf appeared on the 
scene, and its glossy black coat and other peculiarities pro- 
claimed the paternity of the water bull. On one occasion the 
cow was watched and followed for three miles up the glen. 
When near a ' lochan' on the west side of Glenlochay the 
water bull came down to meet the cow, and so the men were 
convinced that their surmises regarding the calves had been 
correct. According to all accounts, the water bull was a 
harmless animal, and even in this year of grace the Bread- 
albane tenants would not object to the appearance among their 
cattle of so useful an animal. Perhaps the black colour of 
the calves could be accounted for by the law of reversion to 
ancestral types and forms. 

9 



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130 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

But a far more dangerous creature than the water bull was 
believed to have frequented some of the lochs, and there is a 
gruesome legend of a water horse, ' each-uisge,' which had his- 
abode in Lochan-larig-eala. The ' lochan' is midway between 
Killin and Lochearnhead, and lies beside the Oban and Killin 
Railway. The narrative runs thus : —Once upon a time, and 
on a fine summer day, a party of nine children were playing 
near the loch, when a white horse made his appearance, and 
lay down on the grass. The children could not resist the 
temptation to have a ride on such a quiet animal, so all 
mounted his back. Then the horse at once showed himself in 
his true colours, and was in the water in a twinkling. One of 
the children, who was seated behind the others, caught hold of 
the tail and swung himself off the animal's back. His eight 
companions met with a horrible fate. They disappeared under 
the water, and the terrified boy hurried* home to tell the awful 
news. Their bodies could not be found, having been devoured 
by the ferocious and voracious water horse ; but the following 
day their lungs were found floating on the water, and were 
reverently buried in a hillock, which is called Choc-nan- 
sgamhan to the present day. Another version of the story is^ 
to the effect that the children were Sabbath-breakers, and that, 
the boy who escaped happened to have a leaf or two of the 
Bible in his pocket. A wise old ' cailleach' had advised him 
always to carry a Bible in his pocket as a protective charm 
against all evil. Acting on her advise, he had carried the 
Bible in his pocket till it had all gone to pieces, and nothing 
remained of it save a few leaves, but these were sufficient to 
ensure his safety. This version has a too modern look about 
it, and we know that the old Highlanders were not very strict 
Sabbatarians. So much for the water horse. 

Some forms of superstition die hard, and a few of the good 
folks of ' Breadalbane are still inclined to believe that special 
noises and sounds are ominous of bad tidings. A peculiar 
sound in the ear, ' glaim/ the crowing of the cock at an un- 
timely hour, and the howling of dos^s at night fortell some 
calamity, such as the death of a relative or acquaintance. To 
my own personal knowledge there are several persons on the 
south side of Lochtay who are fully persuaded that there is 
such a phenomenon as a double presence. That is to say, a 
man may be at home, but his likeness or apparition may be 
seen in a totally different place, and that in broad day-light. 
A worthy farmer near Ardtalnaig was one day working in a 
field close to the public road. Lifting his head, he saw one 



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fragments of Breadalbane Folk-Lore. 131 

of his neighbours passing by. A few seconds after he looked 
again, and was amazed to find that his neighbour had dis- 
appeared from his view. Nothing will convince the farmer's 
daughters that their father did not actually see his neigh- 
bour's apparition. 

As is well known, Beltane, or the first day of May (old 
style), was one of the sacred days of the ancient Highlanders. 
In my grandfather's youth it was the custom for the young 
men and maidens of Lawers to climb to the summit of Ben 
Lawers on that day to see the sun rise, and it was a race 
between the young men which of them would first reach and 
drink out of a spring called ' Fuaran Bhain-tighearna Labhair' 
— the Lady of Lawers 's Well. There is a ' tobar' (spring) on 
the farm of Claggan * which in former times was supposed ta 
possess great curative virtues, especially for children, and its 
fame had spread far and wide. Sick children were brought 
from Rannoch and other distant places to be bathed in, or 
sprinkled with, its water j The sick child was placed between 
two stones on the brink of the ' tobar ' on Beltane eve, and his 
parents watched through the night by his side. When the 
sun was visible the child was dipped in the pool, or sprinkled 
with the water, according as his strength allowed. The 
parents, on leaving the ' tobar/ were mindful to put a coin or 
some offering in it. Many years ago a shepherd found an old 
Scots coin in or at the ' tobar/ and it was in his possession for 
a long time. 

Sometimes a superstitious ceremony was performed by 
' giseagach' (envious or greedy) women who were not content 
with their own milk supply. Early on Beltane morning one or 
two persons, as the case might be, would draw a hair rope 
along the dewy grass, saying : " Bainne an te so shios, bainne 
an te so shuas 'nam ghogan mor fnem." If their neighbours 
had only one cow each, 'bo' or ' bom* could be substituted for 
'teV At other times the incantation ran thus: " Toradh a' 
mhuidhe so shios, toradh a* mhuidhe so shuas 'nam mhuidhe 
mor fnem." That work was called gathering dew, or c trusadh 
an dealta.' 

It is probably seventy or eighty years since a Mornish 
crofter, who happened to be passing across the fields at an early 
hour on the 1st of May, came unexpectedly on two women 

* Claggan is on the south side of Loch Tay, right above Ardtalnaig. In 
former times when there were several holdings, the came was Gleann-aird- 
talnaig, the name Claggan being only applied to one of the holdings. 



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132 Oaefic Society of Inverness. 

who were plying their unhallowed vocation. Not being a 
believer in ' giseagan/ and being angry at them for what they 
were doing, he cut the rope with his knife. It was recently 
told me by one who has frequently seen such ropes that they 
were made of the long hair which grew on the tails of the 
Highland cattle, and were generally used as cart ropes. 

Other superstitious persons put a ' cnag, ' or pin of rowan, 
on their cow's tail to preserve the animal from all malign 
influences. One thrifty dame on the north side of Lochtay 
was observed by her neighbour carefully fixing a ' cnag' on 
crummie's tail on the first of May, evidently thinking that 
that was a more favourable time than any other. 

According to all accounts, witches had a strange partiality 
for certain animals, whose form they assumed when they 
wished to play pranks on other people. The hare seems to 
have been an especial favourite with them, and when one of 
the sisterhood desired to steal her neighbour's milk, she went 
to the cow in the shape of a hare, and left none for the owner. 
The following short story will perhaps serve to illustrate the 
commonly accepted belief on this point : — 

One of the tenants of Baile-an-t-sagairt was annoyed at 
finding that his two cows were giving little or no milk, and as 
it was summer time, and as every circumstance was conducive 
to the cows giving a liberal supply, he began to be suspicious 
that some evil influence was at work. One evening a game- 
keeper and he were talking together, when they saw a hare 
running direct for the byre door. The gamekeeper, who hap- 
pened to have his gun with him, fired at the hare, which 
disappeared through the open door. It is not said whether 
the gun was loaded with the never-failing piece of silver or 
not. For the next three weeks the wife of a neighbouring 
tenant was ill in bed, and when she again appeared in public 
one of her eyes was blind, a conclusive proof, according to the 
reasoning of her neighbours, that she was a witch, and had 
been shot in the form of a hare. The holdings of Baile-an- 
t-sagairt were south-west from Kenmore, but it is long since 
the nouses disappeared, and the name is known to few. 

In the ' sgeulachd' — ' Binn Chloinne Ghlaisrich' — which I 
will introduce later on, the witch takes the form of a hen. 

Fairies seem to have been very numerous in Breadalbane, 
and almost every green knoll was their habitation. The 
pranks they played on the natives were somewhat similar to 
those recorded of them in other parts of the Highlands. New- 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Folk-Lore. 133 

born babes and their mothers had to be carefully looked after, 
or else they would be spirited away by the mischievous fairies, 
and blocks of alder wood laid in their place. There are several* 
stories of men who, after dancing with the fairies for a twelve- 
month y were under the delusion that they had been only a few 
minutes so occupied; but as these tales vary so little from 
those current elsewhere, it is unnecessary to reproduce them 
here. 

In " Sithchean Chnuic-an-tiobairt' ' there seems to be some- 
thing different from the ordinary run of Highland fairy tales, 
and on that account I have chosen it to represent the fairy 
part of the folk-lore of the district. 

The urisks were about as numerous in Breadalbane as the 
"Lady of Lawers" prophesied the mills would be — " Bithidh 
muileann air gach sruthan." I am indebted to a friend for 
a list of the principal urisks, which runs thus ; — 

" Peallaidh an Spuit 
Is Bruinidh an Easain, 
Babaidh an Lochain 
Is Bruinidh an Eilein ; 
Padarlan a Fearnan, 
Peadragan, Patragan. 
Triubhas-dubh a Fartairchill, 
Fuath Coire Ghamhnain, 
Cas-luath Leitir, 
Amhlagan-dubh 
Is Catan Ceann-liath, 
Is Uruisg dubh mor Eas-amhlagan." 

I have as yet been unable to discover the haunts of Babaidh an 
Lochain, Peadragan, Patragan, Amhlagan-dubh, and Oatan 
Ceann-liath. Even as regards most of the urisks my enquiries 
are, I fear, a generation too late. On questioning old and 
middle-aged men about certain urisks, such as Peallaidh an 
Spuit, Bruinidh an Easain, and Triubhas-dubh a Fartairchill, 
their answer invariably has been that they had heard about 
these urisks when children, but that they can now remember 
little of what was then told them. 

' Peallaidh ' had his abode near the upper falls, and 
' Bruinidh an Easain' near the lower falls of the Moness, or 
Aberfeldy burn. Of course everyone knows that these falls 
have been made famous by Burns in his song, "The Birks of 
Aberfeldy." If report belies them not, these two urisks did 



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134 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

not respect the eighth commandment, but went down when it 
suited them and took away surreptitiously what belonged to 
\he villagers. Indeed, honesty does not seem to have been a 
prominent feature in the character of the Breadalbane urisks. 

' Triubhas-dubh' dwelt near Fortingall, and of him I can 
say little. ' Bruinidh an Eilein' frequented the island at the 
east end of Lochtay, and ' Padarlan' dwelt in a deep, rocky 
burn west from Fearnan, on the north side of Lochtay. The 
doings of 'Padarlan' have been fairly well remembered, and 
examples of them can be furnished later on. ' Cas-luath an 
Leitir' dwelt on the side of Drummond Hill which lies east- 
ward from Fearnan. After making many enquiries, I have 
come to the conclusion that Coire-Ghamhnain, where the urisk 
' Fuath' lived, is none other than Coire-Ghamhnain on the 
farm of Auch, where also Duncan Ban M'Intyre's beloved Ben 
Dorain is. Auch is, and has been for centuries, in the posses- 
sion of the Campbells of Breadalbane, and though it lies on 
the Argyleshire side of the county march, ' Fuath' could come 
in a short time to Tyndrum. It is extremely probable that 
he was the urisk that used to be seen sitting on the rocks in 
that locality 

The urisks, according to popular accounts, were usually 
bigger and stronger than ordinary mortals, and had a rougher 
aspect. They generally frequented deep, rocky streams, and 
many of the Breadalbane urisks at all events had a decided 
preference for being near fords, bridges, and places where the 
people had to pass when going to or from markets and fairs. 
'Padarlan/ 'Cas-luath an Leitir,' and ' Bruinidh an Eilein' 
could command the road leading from Lawers to Kenmore, 
where at a former period many fairs were held. It is un- 
necessary to dwell further on this point, as the urisk stories 
which will now be introduced will perhaps explain my 
meaning more fully. 

Uruisgean Bhraid-albainn agus Aobhar an Imrich. 

'S gann a bha eas no allt domhain am Braid-albann aims 
nach robh uruisg a gabhail comhnuidh. 'S gun teagamh idir 
b' aobhar eagail na h-uruisgean do shluagh na duthcha. 
Chuir sgread an eich iaruinn an teicheadh air na sithchean gu 
tur, ach dh' fhalbh na h-uruisgean a Braid-albann mu 'n 
d' thainig bata na smuid no 'n t-each iaruinn do 'n duthaich. 
Corr uair bha uruisgean ann a dheanadh obair airson daoine 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Folklore. 135 

's an oidhche, agus is olc, ro olc gu 'nd' fhag an seorsa sin 
-am fearann so. 'S iad a bkiodh feumail air an latha 'n diugh 
'n uair a tha luchd oibre tearc r'a fhaotainn. Tha deadh 
iomradh air uruisg a bha 'n iochdar Ghlinn-lochaidh. Fhad 
's a bha bualadh r'a dheanamh thigeadh e gu dichiollach, 
pungail 's an oidhche, agus bha am bualadh deas aige mu n- 
eireadh muinntir an tighe. Bha biadh air chuir 's an t-sabhal 
gach feasgar airson an uruisg, agus bu mhath a b' fhiach sin a 
dheanamh. Ach tha mor eagal orm nach robh na h-uil' uruisg 
•cho comhnachail, cuideachail. Coltach ris a chinneadh-daoine 
bha droch uruisgean aim mar an ceudna. 

Tha allt Aird-eonaig ro-dhomhain, chreagach, agus o shean 
l3ha na h-uruisgean a tuineachadh ann. -Faodaidh e bhi gu 'n 
robh Peadragan no Patragan, no eadhon Catan Ceann-liath a 
gabhail comhnuidh ann ged tha an ainmean air dol air di- 
•chuimhne nis. Air feasgar latha araid 'nuair a bha bean an 
tighe a' fuineadh bhonnach ann an aon de thighean Bhealaich 
Aird-eonaig, co thainig stigh air an dorus ach uruisg 6g. 
Shuidh e gu comhnard taobh an teine, agus a shiiil air na 
Txmnaich. Cha luaithe a bheireadh a' bhean bonnach bhar a 
bhranndair na bha an uruisg an sas ann 'ga itheadh. Chaidh 
sin air adhairt car tim, agus cha dubhairt a' bhean facal. Mu 
dheireadh bha i air furlachadh ris an uruisg oir cha robh e 
«oltach gu 'n gabhadh e sasachadh idir. Bha a fuineadh agus 
a saothair an diomhain. Cha deanadh leithid sin an gnoth- 
ach ; dh' fheumadh a stad air doigh eigin. Bha corruich na 
mna ag eiridh, agus sguab i bonnach teth bhar a bhranndair, 
agus grad chuir i air gliiinean lorn an uruisg e. Mo chreach ! 's 
ann an sin a bha an sgreuchail oillteil. Leum an t-uruisg le a 
ghliiinean doite mach air an dorus agus thug e an t-eas air. 
Bhuail e air a bha^-fhuineadair gu 'm biodh an seann uruisg 
aig an tigh ann an uine gle ghoirid, agus chrann i an dorus gu 
'teann agus chuir i nithean trom de airneis r'a chul. Bha na 
h-uinneagan cho cumhann 's nach b' urrainn an t-uruisg dol 
trompa. Bu mhithich do 'n dorus bhi air a chrannadh. 
Thainig an t-urnisg mor le stairn chruaidh air an dorus, agus 
dh' fheuch e le breabadh agus le spionnadh a ghualainn a 
bhriseadh. Mor thaing do'n fhiodh mhath, agus do thiuighead 
an dornis dh' fhairtlich air olcas a dheanamh. Mu 'n 
d' thainig na daoine dhachaidh aig beul na h-oidhche leig e 
tlheth a oidhirp aingidh. Fhad 's bu bhe6 i cha robh a bhean 
*in tuilleadh gun sgeul r'a innseadh mu na h-uruisgean. 

Tha naidheachd ann mu dheidhinn uruisgean Allt a' 
Bhlair-mhoir agus tha i nor choltach ri te Aird-eonaig. Tha 



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136 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

linne 's an allt da 'n ainm Linne-na-slige, agus fagiis do sim 
bha o chionn iomad bliadhna air ais da uruisg a gabhail 
comhnuidh. Theireadh iad Sligeachan ris an uruisg mhor, 
ach chaidh ainm an uruisge oig a dhi-chuimhneachadh. Ma 's 
fior an sgeul, agus gu cinnteach is nor, bha bean tighe a' 
Bhlair-mhoir air a sarachadh leis an uruisg og o latha gu 
latha, agus bha e sior fhoighneachd dhi, " C'ainm th' ort"? 
Gu ro ghlic, sheolta, fhreagaireadh i — " Mi-fhein, 's mi-fhein, 
'3 gun ghin tuilleadh ach mi-fhein/ ' Ge b' e cho trie 's a bha 
'cheist tighinn uaithsan bha ise deas le — " Mi-fhein, 's mi- 
fhein, 's gun ghin tuilleadh ach mi-fhein/ ' Coma co dhiubh 
thainig ceann air foidhidinn na mna. Cha b' urrainn dhi 
giiilan na b' fhaide le casan lorn agus le crogan cronail an 
uruisg. Thog i soitheach Ian de bhurn goileach agus spairt f 
m' a luirgnean e. 'N uair chuala Sligeachan an uruisg 6g a 
caoineadh gu muladach thainig i agus breid uaine air a ceann 
mach 'n a choinneamh, agus dh' fheoraich i — " Ciod a thachair 
dhuit?" Fhreagair an t-uruisg 6g — "Chaidh mo luirgnean a 
phlodadh." Sligeachan — "Co rinn sin?" An t-uruisg bg — 
" Tha mi-fhein, 's mi-fhein, 's gun ghin tuilleadh ach mi- 
fhein/ ' Thuirt Sligeachan — 'S math nach d' rinn gin 
tuilleadh e no bheirinn-sa orra/' 

Mar sin fhuair a bhean cuidhte de J n uruisg a bha ag cur 
dragh oirre, agus cha robh fios riamh aig Sligeachan gur i a 
thilg am burn goileach air a mac. 

A reir iomradh na dxithacha bha uruisg Eas-na-slige ro 
laidir agus barraichte math air sniomhadh. B' urrainn df 
uiread snath a shniomhadh ri seathnar bhoirionnaich sam 
bith eile. 

Ma 's breug uam, is breug dhomh. Ach a dh' fheuchainn 
nach robh gach uruisg ole, foadaidh sinn smuaineachadh car 
tiota air a chunntas mhath tha air a thoirt mu thimchioll Adai 
Ghlinn-lochain. Bha nadur an aon uruisge cho eadar-dheal- 
aichte o nadur an uruige eile 's a tha an ni ceudna measq; 
dhaoine. Gun teagamh ghabhadh leudachadh air a phuing 
sin, ach cha bhiodh e feumail duinn san am so. Tha Gleann- 
lochain 'n a laidh eadar Gleann-cuaich agus Ach-na-frithe am 
Braigh Ghlinn-amain. 

Bha Adai na uruiss: ro chomhnachail, agus caoirahneil 'n a 
dhoiffh. 'S iomad oidhche a chuir e seachad a' meileadh mine 
sa' mhuileann a bha air allt Ghlinn-lochain, agus bha na searn- 
daoine ag radh gur esan a thug caoraich an toiseach do* 
Ghleapn-cuaich agus do Ghleann-amain ; tuilleadh air sin 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Folk-Lore. 137 

gu 'n robh Adai na leigh math measg nan caorach 'n uair a 
bhiodh iad tinn. Thuig Adai aig am araidh gu 'n robh feum 
aig aon de mhnathan Ghlinn-amain air bean ghliiin. Thug f e 
leis each a stabull agus mharcaich e do Ghleann-cuaich airson 
a bhoirionnaich fheumail sin. Fhuair e a' bhean-ghluin, agus 
shuidh i air a chulaobh air an each* 'N uair a bha iad am 
meadhon Ghlinn-lochain thuirt i ris, agus an oidhche dubh r 
dorch — " Tha eagal orm roimh Adai Ghlinn-lochain.' ' 
Fhreagair esan — " Na gabh eagal sam bith ; cha ghabh e 
gnothach riut. ' ' Rithist agus a rithist thuirt i an rud ceudna. 
Mu dheireadh thuirt Adai rithe — " Cha bhi Adai ni 's fhaisge 
dhuit an nochd na tha e aig a' cheart am so." Tha uamh 
Adai aig bun craige fagus do Loch-mhuilinn. * 

Tha deadh iomradh air uruisg eile d' am b' ainm Cleitean, 
agus bha muileann air ainmeachadh air. A reir coltais b'ea 
ghnath a bhi deanamh min 's a mhuileann 's an oidhche, agus 
ghleidheadh e beagan de 'n mhine dha fhein airson a bheo- 
shlainte. Dh' fhaodadh am muillear bhi 'na dhuine toilichte 
leis mar bha gnothaichean dol air adhairt, agus 's e bha sona, 
agus bu mhor ghabhadh e dragh no campar a chuir air an 
uruisg ghasda bha deanamh uiread oibre dha. Ach mar bha 
am breamas ann ciod a thachair ach gu 'n d' imir biast lonach, 
leibideach de bhoirionnach a teanga fhada a' leigeil sgaoilte 
air Cleitean bochd a chionn gu 'n robh e ag uisinneachadh 
beagan de 'n mine aice mar a luach-saoithreach. An deidh 
sin dh' fhag Cleitean am muileann, agus tuilleadh cha deach- 
aidh fhaicinn 's an tir. 

Chaidh luinneag a dheanamh air a chuis sin, agus tha pairt 
dhith mar a leanas. 

" I horo an d' fhairich no *n cual' sibh 
Mu 'n mhuileann bh' aig Cleitean 
A chuir ann an teagamh, 
Gu 'n innsinn dhuibh beagan 
Mar chual' mi. 

Thainig te aig an robh meiltir 
A dh' iarraidh cuid fhein, 
Is och mo leir nach d' fhuair ie." 

Labhair ise. 

" An tomad a dh' fhag mi, 
Bha tuilleadh 'so 'ghrain ann. 
Chuir cuideigin lamh ann 
'S gur fuathasach e." 



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138 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Bha Cleitean a sealladh na cailliehe, ach chuala e i agus 
fhreagair e — 

" A bhradag gun naire 

Bha cath agus dus ri fhuadach as. 

'S mise chuir lamh ann 

'S bhleith 's an am e, 

'S cha d' thug mi as gran 

Airson tuarasdal." 
Fhuair mi an naidheachd mu Chaobarlan o charaid tha 
agam an Gleann-liobhann. Thug iad Caobarlan mar ainm air 
uruisg a bha gabhail comhnuidh aig Lag-an- tairbh-dhuibh 
fagus do mhonadh Dhrumainn. B' e a chleachd, agus gu 
dearbh cha robh an cleachd sin r'a mholadh, a bhi tilgeadh 
caoban eabair, agus clachan air an dream a bha gabhail an 
rathaid mhoir. Ach rinn Caobarlan da ghniomh chliuiteach 
mu 'n d' fhag e an duthaich, agus tha iad airidh air an 
innseadh. Anns na linntean chaidh seach bha bean thapaidh, 
dheanadach am Fearnan aig an robh trusdar bodaich a shar- 
aich ise le leisg agus le neo-shiobhaltachd. Bha bo na mnatha 
dol corr-uair 's an oidhche am mearachd stigh do choille 
Dhrumainn. Mu 'n am sin bha Caobarlan a lionadh na coille 
le fuaimean uamhasach agus neo-thalmhaidh. Aon de na 
h-oidhchean thachair gu 'n d' fhuirich a' bho gu ro anmoch 
sa' choille, agus cha rachadh am bodach mosach leasg ceum 
g'a h-iarraidh; 's ann dhiult e gu h-iomlan dol air toir a* 
mhairt. Le roinn de chrith-eagail dh' fheum am boirionnach 
coir i fhein dol a shealltainn airson an ainmhidh gun tiir, 
agus an trath thainig i gu ionad-cbmhnuidh Chaobarlain thuit 
falluinn a bhaird oirre, agus ged a bha crith 'na gu'jh' thoisich 
i air rannsachadh — 

" Beannachd air t' anam, 
Fhir tha san all tan. 
Moch no mu anmoch 
As'dcha gha'um all-sgath. ,, 

Air cluinntinn sin thainigr Caobarlan mach a J aros, agus thug 
e mor bhuidheachas do 'n mhnaoi airson am beannachd a 
ghuidh i air, agus thuirt e — " J S e beannachd o neach de sliochd 
Adhaimh an t-aon ni ris an robh mi a* feitheamh cho fada." 
Dh > fhoisfhneachd e dhi am V urrainn da comhnadh a thoirt 
dhi an doigh sam bith. Dh' innig i gu 'n robh i air toir a' 
mhairt, agus nach rachadh fear an tighe g'a sireadh. 



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Fragments of.Breadalbane Fotk-Lore. 139 

"" Mata," arsa esan, " tha do bho ann an lag thall an sud, agus 
tha laogh grinn dubh tairbh na coise." 'S ann mar sin, a 
chaidh an t-aite ainmeachadh, ' Lag-an-tairbh-dhuibh.' 
Chuidich Caobarlan dhachaidh i leis a bh6, agus an sin thug 
e deadh lunndrainn do 'n bhodach bheag-narach. An deidh 
na h-oidhche sin cha 'n fhacas Caobarlan tuilleadh an tir nam 
bed. 

Tha mi smuaineachadh nach robh cliu ro mhath aig 
Padarlan agus Cludarlan a measg sluagh na duthcha; 's ann 
tha h-eagal orm nach robh annta ach na dearg mheirleich. 
Bha 'n dithis dhiubh 'nan aobhar eagail do gach neach bhiodh 
aig faidhir 'sa' Cheann-mhor, agus a thigeadh seach Leitir- 
Eilein no Allt-phadarlaidh 'na onrachd; Rachadh a spuill- 
eadh mur biodh fios aig' air facail diomhair Chludarlain agus 
Phadarlain. Mar a bha a' bhochdainn ann cha deanadh facail 
diomhair Chludarlain an gnothach airson Phadarlain, ni mo 
bha facail Phadarlain freagarrach airson Chludarlain. Air an 
aobhar sin bha daoine truagh mar gu 'm b' ann eadar dha 
theine, agus bha e seachd uairean ni bu duiliche do dhuine 
snag seachad air an da bheist na'n tuiteadh dha bhi air an 
daoraich. Anns an staid sin cha ruigeadh e leas smuain- 
eachadh air dol as uapa. Is e nach ruigeadh ; bhiodh a theanga 
neo-luthmhor, agus a chuimhne diultadh a gnothach fein a 
dheanamh. Theireadh e facail Chludarlain ri Padarlan, no 
facail Phadarlain ri Cludarlan, no bhiodh breisleich eigin g'a 
labhairt riu. An sin cha robh ann ach an sporan a thoirt aon 
chuid do Chludarlan no do Phadarlan. Cha b' iongantach ged 
bha gach neach a gabhail an rathaid le h-easral agus ball- 
chrith 'n uair bha da chrbchaire coltach ri Padarlan agus 
Cludarlan feitheamh orra taobh na slighe. 'S i mo bharail 
gur e Cludarlan agus Bruinidh-an-Eilein an t-aon uruisg. 

Thachair gu 'n do thuit Padarlan an gaol ri nighean 
araidh de mhuinntir Labhair, agus an trath rachadh i 's an 
t-samhradh do 'n bhothan airidhe 's a choire bhoidheach uaiue 
bhiodh e 'ga leantuinn, agus thigeadh e an drasda 's a rithist 
thun doruis a bhothain. Cha 'n fhios domh cia mar chaidh 
leis an t-suiridhe aige-san. 'S dacha learn nach do shoirbhicb e. 

Tha naidheachd eile ann mu Phadarlan, agus tha mi 'sa 
bheachd gur airidh i air aite dhi fein anns a phaipeir so. 

Cha ruig sinn leas fhoighneachd cuin a thachair e? Cha 
ruig gu deimhin , oir bu f aoin an ni sin. 

Air latha a' mhail thug aon de thuathanaich Bhaile-na- 
suim each leis, agus mharcaich e air falbh gu sunndach, 



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140 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

surdail, le bhreacan glas mu ghuailnean, sios do Bhofrac a 
phaidheadh 'fhiachan. Theagamh gu 'n d ; 61 an duine ooir 
dileag 's an tigh-osda, ach co dhiubh thainig e air ais ann an 
deadh mhisneach, agus bha 'n t-each ban na throt aige tighinn 
seach Fearnan. Bha e an duil nach robh uruisg air da thaobli 
Loch-tatha b' urrainn greim a dheanamh airsan. Bha 'n 
t-anmoch aige mu 'n d' rainig e Allt-phadarlaidh, ach chuir e 
an t-each na chruaidh ruith thairis, a saoilsinn nach robh e 
an comas Phadarlain, no neach de a threubh lamh a chuir air. 
Luath 's mar a bha 'n t-each leum ni subailte, aotrom 'n airde 
air an t-sumag air culaobh an tuathanaich, agus ghlaodh e — 
"Bo! a b^da^h!^ Cha robh am bodach idir gealtach agus 
thuirt e — "Bd! thu-fhein!" Aig a cheart am thilg e a 
bhreacan timchioll air an ni bha air a chulaobh, agus cheangail 
gu teann tarsuinn air o bhroilleacn e. Faodaidh sinn a chreid- 
sinn nach robh an duine fada dol dhachaidh, agus nach 
deachaidh an t-each ban a chaomhnadh leis. 'Nuair rainig 
e Baile-na-suim thuirt e ri fear de na gillean — " Bheir air an 
rud so tha air mo chulaobh, agus thoir gu curamach do 'n 
chearn e." Ri aon eile thuirt e — " Thoir gu h-ealamh an 
coltar as a chrann, agus cuir ultach mor de mhoine air an 
terne." Chaidh am breacan, agus na bh' ann a ghiulan do 'n 
tigh, agus ciod an rud a bh ; ann ach uruisg 6g. Bha an 
tuathanach na dhuine seolta, gramail, agus bha Ian fhios 
aige gu 'm biodh Padarlan air toir an uruisge oig an uine gle 
ghoirid. Uime sin dh' iarr e an dorus a dhuineadh gu 
daingeann, agus ged bu duine ro laidir, agus ro-fhoghainteach 
e fein, chuir e an coltar gu grad san teine air eagal ciod a 
thachradh. Grathunn an deidh sin thainig Padarlan gu 
buaireasach thun an doruis, agus bhuail e gu garg air glaodh- 
aich — " Thoiribh mach dhomh mo mhac.' , Dh' eisd an 
^sluagh a bha stigh, ach cha do fhreagair neach sam bith e an 
toiseach. Mu dheireadh chaidh Padarlan dh' ionnsuidh na 
h-uinneig agus thuirt e — "Am bheil thu stigh a bhodaich? 
Ma tha thoir mach dhomh am paisde. ,; An duine — 
" Feumaidh tu gealltainn gu 'm fag thu an duthaich mu 'n 
faigh thu do mhac. ,; Padarlan — " Theid mi do 'n Charn- 
dearg. ,, An duine — " Cha dean sin an gnothach; feumaidh 
tu an duthaich fhagail gu buileach 's gu brath, no cha 'n 
fhaigh thu am paisde. ,, Padarlan — " Geillidh mi dhuit; 
fagaidh mi an dutha^ich agus cha till mi tuilleadh. Nis cUir 
am paisde mach air an uinneag dhomh." Air na oumhtianta 
sin thug an duine a' mhac do Phadarlan. Thuirt Padarlan 



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Fragments of Breadatbane Fo Ik-Lore. 141 

"' Thoir dhomh crathadh de do laimh san dealachadh, a 
bhodaich." An duine — " Ni mi sin le 'm uile chridhe, 
Phadarlain." Ciod rinn am bodach carach, cuilbheartach 
ach gu ; n d' thug e an ceann teth de 'n choltar do 'n uruisg, 
agus chum e fein greim air a cheann fhuar. Bheir Padarlan 
gu teann air an iarunn agus thoinneamh e mu 'n cuairt, agus 
mu 'n cuairt e gus an robh B coltach ri sgrobha. Aig deir- 
eadh na h-ealaidh thuirt Padarlan — " Beannachd leat, a 
bhodaich, is cruaidh agus is tioram do ghreim ! ' ' Tha 
soilleir o sin gu 'n do thog Padarlan imrich mu 'n deachaidh 
an da dheug mu dheireadh de na h-uruisgean a Braid-albann. 

Bha uruisgean Bhraid-albainn ag coinneachadh, no ag 
cumail mhod ann an aitean sonruichte a chum an gnoth- 
aichean fein a reiteachadh, agus is ann san oidhche bha iad a 
cruinneachadh. Cha robh iarrtas sam bith aca gu j m biodh 
daoine a' faicinn, no ag cluintinn ciod a bha 'ga radh, no 'ga 
dheanamh aig a mhod. A reir innseadh cuid de shluagh bha 
na h-uruisgean a coinneachadh fagus do Fhearnan, agus fagus 
do Fhartairchill, agus ann an tigh-chaorach aig Calellochan. 
Gun teagamh tha e gle choltach gu 'n robh aitean eile aca 
airson cruinneachadh thuilleadh air na dh' ainmich mi, ach 
cha 'n 'eil fios agam-sa orra aig an am so. 

Aig amanna suidhichte thigeadh gach uruisg a b' urrainn 
thun a mhoid, agus, corr uair co dhiubh, bha solus aca. 
Chunnaic cibeir air taobh tuathair Loch-tatha solus aig 
oidhche an drasda ; s a rithist san tigh-chaorach aig Calel- 
lochan, agus ghabh e umhail gu 'n robh daonnan uiread so 
de thime eadar gach oidhche san robh an solus ri fhaicinn. 
Thuig e uime sin ciod an oidhche air am bu choir do ; n t-solus 
a bhi dealrachadh sa' bhothan, agus cha do chuir e riamh an 
teagamh nach ann aig na h-uruisgean a bha 'n solus. B' e a 
run amharc air na h-uruisgean, oir bha deidh mhor aige air 
sealladh fhaotainn diubh a chum gu 'm biodh fhios aige ciod 
a ghne chreutairean bh ; annta. Gu samhach, ciuin streap e 
air oidhche araidh suas air sparran an tighe-chaorach agus 
chrubain e ann an aite dorch mar b* fhearr a dh' fhaodadh e. 
Thainig an uair, agus thoisich na h-uruisgean air tighinn a 
stigh aon an deidh aon. Sheas Peallaidh air taobh stigh an 
dorus, agus dh' fhailtich e gach uruisg air ainm 'n uair chaidh 
e steach. Chuala 'n cibeir da ainm dheug, agus 'n am measg 
bha Triubhas-dubh, Cas-luath, Cludarlan, Uisdean J us 
Mairtean. Dhi-chuimhnich an neach dh J innis dhomhsa an 
naidheachd an corr de na h-ainmean. Las na h-uruisgean 
«golBan de ghiubhas, agua thoisich iad gun dail air bruidhinn. 



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142 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Shnag an cibeir beagan a mach as an oisinn dhorcha san robh 
e, ach bha na sparran ag geisgeil, agus thuirt fear de na 
h-uruisgean, " De e siodf Fhreagair fear eile — "O tha 
logaistean an t-seann tighe." Dh' fheuch na facail sin nach 
b' e Gaidhlig Bhraid-albainn a bh' acasan. Mar a bha ; n 
tubaist air a ghnothach, thug an cibeir oidhirp air sealladh 
ni b' fhearr fhaighinn de na bha dol air adhairt, ach aig 
deanamh sin charaich e stol smiuraidh agus thuit an rud sin 
le glag air claignean nan uruisgean. Spleuchd aon diubh 
'naird agus chunnaic e an cibeir. An sin cOV eigh e mach — 
<: Tha mi 'g aithneach air a mhaoile gur daoine na log- 
aistean!" Thog sin troimh-cheile nach bu bheag 'nam 
measg agus ghrad chuir iad as an solus, agus mach air an 
dorus bhruchd iad gu cabhagach. Bha coltas gno, borb de 
na h-uruisgean, agus bha iad ni bu tomadaiche, agus ni 's 
romaiche na daoine. Ghabh iad leithid de bhoile a chionn 
daoine bhi cho leibideach, agus cho bheag-narach, 's gu 'n 
d' fhag iad Braid-albann air fad. 

O'n oidhche sin gus an latha 'n diugh cha 'n fhacas, air 
son math no olc, uruisg san duthaich. Faodaidh a bharail 
thoirt gu 'n deachaidh iad ni V fhaide gu tuath, oir cha 
bhuineadh an cainnt do Bhraid-albann. 

SlTHCHEAN CNUIC-AN-TIOBAIRT. 

O thoiseach an t-saoghail bha daoine amis gach cearn 
de 'n domhain deidheil air a bhi a' rannsachadh nithean 
diomhair, agus cha robh na Gaidheil air dheireadh air each. 
Bha na sithchean 'n an aobhar iongantais 's a Ghaidhealtachd, 
oir a reir cunntais is ann dhoibh-san da rireadh a bhuineadh 
aighear na hb-ige, agus barr-guc na slainte. Cha robh na 
beannachdan sin aig daoine an comhnuidh, ach bha iad aig 
na sithchean. 

O chionn fad air ais bha duine san duthaich aig an robh 
deidh mhor air na sithchean fhaicinn. Bha e na dhuine 
tuigseach, ceanalta, agus shuidhich e roimh laimh an t-am, is 
an doigh anns an rachadh e dh' ionnsuidh Chnuic-an-tiobairt 
far an robh na sithchean a tuineachadh. Tha na Cnuic air 
an suidheachadh ann an aite tha fuar agus peilte * ni 's lebir 
's a gheamhradh, oir tha iad fagus do Shith-chaillionn. 

Ach dh' fhalbh an duine a dh' ainmich sinn air oidhche 
bhlath shamhraidh. Bainig e an tiobairt mu mheadhon 

* Cold, chilly. 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Eolk-Lore. U& 

oidhche, agus sheas e dluth air an aite anns an robh iomradh 
na duthcha ag cur nan sithchean. An tiota chual e cebl 
binn, agus fuaim dannsaidh teachd o na Cnuic. Bha a 
chridke Ian aoibhneis, agus smuainich e gu 'in faodadh e fein 
iorraman, no oran a thoirt dhoibh. Sheinn e le guth ard 
agus le cail mhilis air fonn " Alasdair Mac Alasdair," na 
port coltach ri sin na facail a leanas — 

" Di-luain 's Di-mairt, 

Di-luain 's Di-mairt, 

Di-luain 's Di-mairt, 

'S Di-ciadain." 
Thainig na sithchean a mach nan sgaoth, agus le iolach ard a 
dh' fheuchainn an toil-inntinn tharruing iad leo an duine 
gu 'n aite comhnuidh, far an do thoisich iad air seinn — 

" Di-luain ; s Di-mairt, 
Di-luain 's Di-mairt, 
Di-luain 's Di-mairt, 
'S Di-ciadain." 

Bu luthmhor, sgiobalta dhannsadh iad ris a phort sin. 
Ghabh iad ris an duine le mor ghreadhnachas. Bha 'n t-aros 
aca air a shoillseachadh le ficheadan de lochrain bheaga de 
gach sebrsa dath, agus bha 'n sluagh beag iad fein air an 
comhdachadh le aodach uaine. Chaidh an tim seachad le 
cridhealas agus siigradh, agus bha 'n duine gu taingeil, 
toilichte. Thig gach aighear gu crich, agus mu dheireadh 

V eigin do *n duine companas sunndach nan sithchean fhagail, 
agus rinn e sin car neo-dheonach. 'Nuair a chuala fear de a 
choimhearsnaich mar thachair dha, agus gu 'n do ghabh na 
sithchean gu faoilidh ris, bha farmad air a bhurraidh, agus 
cha deanadh ni an gnothach, ach gu 'n rachadh e fein mar an 
ceudna thun Cnuic-an-tiobairt. Cha robh ann ach ceblan de 
dhuine, ach bha e cho ceann-laidir ri tarbh Gaidhealach. 

Ach ciod a bha esan dol a sheinn? Sin a oheist a bha ri 
fhreagairt. Thuirt Gleusdan ris — " Mata, feuch iad le ' Dir- 
daoin/ Dh' fhalbh an t-amadan mor Ian thoilichte dh' 
iarraidh conaltradh nan sithchean, agus faodaidh e bhi nach 
robh a chail ro bhinn. Coma co-dhiubh co am fear a 

V urrainn ' Dir-daoin' a sheinn gu milis, blasda?" Bha na 
sithchean a dannsadh gu cridheil, sunndach agus a seinn — 

" Di-luain ; s Di-mairt, 
Dilluain J s Di-mairt, 
Dilluain 's Di-mairt, 
'S Di-ciadain/ ' 



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144 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

le farum mor. Thoisich am fear air a raoiceadh — " Dir-daoin, 
Dir-daoin.' ' Mach a bha na sithchean nam ficheadan, agus 
spion iad leo e gu neo-bhaidheil, 'ga phiocadh agus ga 
phutadh rompa, agus ag radh ris — " O nach robh faitheam 
air do theanga ! ' ; Thug iad e am fianuis am ban-righ agus 
chuir iad e air a dha ghluin air an lar. Air dha eirigh bha 
crodt air a dhruim. An sin dh' fhuadaich iad e le mor mhi- 
run mach as an uaimh. Gu latha a bhais bha cuimhneachan 
aige-san air deanadas nan sithchean. 

Cha ghabhadh an treas coimhearsnach rabhadh o na 
thachair do Chroitein. Dh' fheumaidh esan, biodh an rud 
mar a thogradh e, ceilidh a thoirt do na sithchean. Bha e na 
dhuine dana, neo-ghealtach agus dur, agus cha b' e idir a 
dhoigh-san .bhi gabhail rabhadh o ni sam bith a thainig air 
daoine eile. Ciod air bith thigeadh 's an rathad bha esan 
deas airson a choinneachadh. Dh' fhoighneachd e — " Ach 
ciod a sheinneas mise chum gu 'n coisinn mi deadh ghean 
daoine beaga na h-uaimhe?" Fhreagair Gleusdan e — " Dh' 
fhaodadh tu am feuchainn le — 

" Di-haoin ; s Di-sathuirn, 
Di-haoin *s Di-sathuirn, 
Di-haoin 's Di-sathuirn, 
'S Di-d6mhnuich. ,, 

Dh' fhalbh e le mor thogradh, agus le fonn 's fead a 
dh' fhaicinn nan sithchean. Cho luath 's rainig e na Cnuic 
thog e a ghuth, agus sheinn e gu suilbhir gun sgath no eagal — 

" Di-haoin ? s Di-sathuirn, 
Di-haoin 's Di-sathuirn, 
Di-haoin 's Di-sathuirn, 
'S Di-d6mhnuich. ,, 

Mo chreach ! ' se thog am buaireas am measg nan sithchean. 
Stad an ceol, stad an dannsadh, agus mach leum iad air ga 
tharruing a stigh air a fhalt agus a chiabhan. An deidh 
droch laimhseachadh a thoirt dha, agus te de na suilean a 
spionadh as, bhreab iad air falbh e, agus thug iad air seasamh 
a chlaidhedmh a dheanamh * air taobh mach na h-uaimhe, 
agus gach aon diubh a sgreadail — " Gabh sin ablaich ! gabh 
sin ablaich gun naire ! ; ' Chuir e f arran air na sithchean leis 
an fhacal, " Di-d6mhnuich, ,, ainmeachadh, or bha am facal 
sin toirmisgte nam measg-san. 

* Car-a-mhuiltein a chur dheth (lucus a non lucendo). 



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Fragments of Breadalbane Folk-Lore. 145 

Cha 'n 'eil e ceaduichte do na h-uile duine diomhaireachd 
nan sithchean a rannsachadh, agus cha 'n urrainn gach uile 
fear companas a chumail gu tearuinte riu. Agus bha cuimhne 
aig Croitean agus aig Suileag fad an laithean mar thachair 
dhoibh 'n uair a dh' iarr iad conaltradh nan sithchean. 



Binn Chloinne Ghlaiserich. 

O chionn fada air ais thachair gu'n robh fear de Chloinne 
Ghlaiserich mach sa' mhonadh latha fuar, fliuch aig deireadh 
-an fhogharaidh. B'ea ghnothach dol a dh' fhaicinn an robh 
an crodh agus na caoraich a deanamh gu ceart. 'Nuair a bha 
a obair criochnaichte car latha chaidh e steach do bhothan, 
dh' fhadadh e teine de mhbine thioram, agus shuidh e sios air 
cathair de fhal chum e fein a gharadh agus 'aodach a thiorm- 
achadh ris an teine„ Cbmhla ris bha cu agus galla agus lean 
iadsan e stigh do 'n bhothan. Bha an cu garg 'na nadur, 
agus olc ri coimhich, ach bha a ghalla gealtach agus ciuin. 
Ann an tiota thainig cearc gu dana stigh air an dorus, agus 
sheas i mu choinneamh an teine 'ga tiormachadh fein. Chum 
Mac Ghlaiserich a shuil oirre agus bu neonach leis gu 'n robh 
i sior fhas ni 's mo, agus ni 's mo. Thubhairt e 'na iongantas 
— " Is mor learn tha thu fas a bhiastag." Fhreagair a chearc 
— " Tha m' iteagan agus m' oiteagan ag eiridh leis a bhlathas." 
Mar sin shin, agus shin, agus sgaoil a chearc a mach gus mu 
dheireadh an do thionndaidh i 'na boirionnach. An sin thug 
i ropan dearg do Mhac Ghlaiserich, agus thuirt i — " Cuir an 
ropan so mu amhaich do choin." Bha an cu 'na laidh an cuil 
dhorcha, agus chuir Mac Glaiserich an ropan air maide a bha 
sa' chuil, oir ghabh e droch amharus de 'n rud. Thbisich a 
bhean air naidheachdan innseadh dha, agus air moran 
bruidhinn a dheanamh, ach an drasda 's a rithist theireadh i — 
" Teannaich, a ropain." Lean i mar sin car tim gus an do 
shaoil i gu 'n robh an cu. air a thachdadh. An sin leum i air 
Mac Ghlaiserich le fearg uamhasach, agus bhiodh e air a 
mhilleadh leatha mur biodh an cu air deanamh cobhair air 
san am. Chum an cu a ghreim, agus bha Mac Ghlaiserich 'ga 
stuigeadh oirre. " Thoir dhiom do elm," ars' a' bhuidseach, 
" agus innsidh mi dhuit nithean a ni feum dhuit an deidh so, 
agus tachairidh gu math dhuit agus do d' chinneadh, ach mar 
toir, bithidh mo mhallachd ort-sa agus air do chinneadh, agus 
sgapar sibh feadh an t-saoghail air doigh 's nach bi smuid 

10 



y 



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146 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

tighe aoin de Chloinne Ghlaiserich an sealladh smuid tighe 
aoin eile." " Cha toir mi dhiot mo dm," fhreagair esan. 
Chaidh a bhuidseach a mach air an dorus agus an cu a gram- 
achadh rithe. Cha 'n 'eil e air innseadh cia mar a fhuair i as. 
o'n chu. Coma co-dhiubh chaidh i a sealladh a ghille, agus 
thill an cu gu a chois. Bha Mac Ghlaiserich an iomagain 
mu 'n ni iongantach a thachair sa' mhonadh, agus air an 
rathad dhachaidh bha e sior smuaineachadh air. 'Nuair a 
thainig e gu tigh a mhaighstir bha a' bhana-mhaighstir 'ga 
h-uidhmeachadh fein airson an tigh fhagail. " C'aite am 
bheil sibh a' dol?" thuirt Mac Ghlaiserich. " Tha mi dol a 
dh' fhaicinn te de 'm bhana-choimhearsnaich a tha ris a 
bhas," fhreagair ise. "Fhuair mi fios gu'm bheil an tinneas 
air bualadh oirre gu h-obann, agus nach 'eil duil sam bith 
gu'n teid i am feobhas. ,, " Thoiribh dhomh-sa biadh, agus 
theid mi maille ribh," thuirt esan. Cha robh i robh dheonach 
gu'n rachadh e cdmhla rithe a dh' fhaicinn a bhoirionnaich 
bha tinn, gidheadh dh- aontaich i mu dheireadh . 'Nuair a 
rainig iad tigh am bana-choimhearsnaich, agus chunnaic i 
aghaidh Mhic Ghlaiserich tighinn fagus dhi thionndadh i a 
gnuis ri culaobh na leapach. Ach bu leoir an sealladh sin do- 
Mhac Ghlaiserich, oir co bha tinn san leabaidh ach an fhior 
bhuidseach a chuir dragh air sa' bhothan. Uime sin ghlaodh 
e — " Cuiribh teine mor air, agus loisgidh sinn a bhuidseach 
so/' Dh' innis e ciod a thachair sa J mhonadh, agus bha e 
dian airson a losgadh, ach ghuidh na mnathan a bha lathair 
nach deanadh e sin, oir gu'n robh am boirionnach aig uchd a 
bhais. Leig e dheth an sin, agus chaochail a' bhuidseach an 
uine ghearr, agus thuig na mnathan a bha 'g ullachadh a 
cuirp airson 'adhlac ciod a b' aobhar d'a bas. Bha broilleach 
a chreutair thruaigh air a reubadh dhi leis a chu. 

Cha robh ni sam bith aig aon am a chuireadh tuilleadh 
mulaid no trioblaid air nor Ghaidheal na e bhi air a sgaradh 
o chinneadh. Thainig faidheadaireachd na buidsich gu crich r 
agus luidh a mallachd gu trom air Chloinne-Ghlaiserich. 
Chaidh an sgaradh, agus an sgapadh o cheile air chor J s nach 
robh smuid tighe aoin Mhic-Ghlaiserich an sealladh smuid 
tighe aoin eile dhiubh. Agus aig an latha 'n diugh cha 'n 'eil 
neach san diithaich de 'n chinneadh a tha giulan an seann 
ainm — Mac-Ghlaiserich. 

CUNNTAS MU MHORTADH LoCHAN-NAN-CAT. 

Air latha araid bha maighdean 6g cheanalta air an 
tuathair de Loch-tat ha 'ga deasachadh fein a chum turus a 



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Fragments of Breada/bane Folk-Lore. 147 

ghabhail. 'Nuair a bha i ag cur cearb agus cearb de a 
h-aodach uimpe is ann le mor dhragh a b' urrainn i sin a 
dheanamh leis an dol as a bha aig cu an tighe. Leumadh e 
suas rithe a beirsinn air a h-aodach mar gu'n duraigeadh e a 
thoirt uaipe. Rinn e mar an ceudna miodal rithe, agus 
dh' imlich e a lamh 'nuair a bha i a fagail an tighe. Thubh- 
airt bean bhochd a bha cireadh olainn '$ an tigh aig an am, 
agus a chunnaic gluasad a choin — " Cha 'n 'eil mi foighneachd 
dhiot c'aite am bheil thu dol, ach bheirinn-sa comhairle ort 
gu'n thu dhol an car a tha thu runachadh, na ma theid, thoir leat 
an cii." Cha ghabhadh i comhairle, ach dh' fhalbh i, agus 
smad i an cu air ais ged' a bha e ro-dhednach air a leantuinn. 
Thill e agus ear ball 'na ghobhal, agus thoisich e air donnal- 
aich aig ceann an tighe. Chaidh an nighean air a turus, ach 
cha d' thainig i dhachaidh tuilleadh. Shaoil a muinntir gur 
ann a chaidh i a thoirt ceilidh d'a cairdean ann an G-leann- 
liobhann, agus ged' nach do thill i an uine beagan de laithean 
cha robh iad fo iomagain mu a timchioll. Thachair an uine 
ghoirid an deidh sin gu 'n robh brocair a' faire saobhaidh air 
taobh Beinn-Labhair os ceann Lochan-nan-cat. Beagan roimh 
bhriseadh na faire thoisich na h-abhagan aige air dranndail, 
dh' eirich colg orra, agus chruinnich iad mu a chasan. B' 
iongantach leis ciod a oh' ann, ach air togail suas a shiiilean 
chunnaic e aogas boirionnaich 'na seasamh fa chomhair. 
G-hlac uamhas e, oir bha clar a h-aodainn dearg le fuil. Cha 
robh lid aige r'a radh car tamuill, ach mu dheireadh thuirt e 
— " O bhobh ! bhobh ! a bhoirionnaich, ciod e a chuir thusa an 
so aig an am so, agus ciod e do ghnothach rium-sa an drasda? ,J 
" O bhobh ! a dhuine, 's fhada a bha thu mu 'n do bhruidhinn 
thu/' fhreagair ise. " Ma chi thu a leithid so tuilleadh na bi 
cho fhada gun bhruidhinn. Chaidh mo mharbhadh, agus tha 
mo chorp san Lochan. Far am faic thu columan ag' itealaich, 
gheibh thu mo chorp san aite sin. ,, Aig briseadh na faire 
chunnaic e columan ag eirigh o aite sonruichte de 'n Lochan, 
agus chaidh e agus fhuair e corp a* bhoirionnaich ceart mar 
a dh' innis an tannasg dha. Thog e an corp a mach as an 
uisge, agus ghiulain e leis e gu truacanta a dol air aghaidh a 
chuid agus a chuid cuibhrinn mhath astair gus an d' thainig e 
gu cruach mhoine, far an do shuidh e a ghabhail anail, agus 
an corp paisgte 'na bhreacan . Chaidh latha an deidh latha 
seachad, agus 'nuair nach do thill an nighean dhachaidh lion 
amharus cridhe a dluth chairdean, agus chuir iad neach do 
Ghleann-liobhann a dh' fhebrachadh air a son. 'Nuair a thill 



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148 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

an neach so agus nach d' fhuair e cunntas mu a thimchioll an 
sin sgaoil an naidheachd feadh na duthcha gu'n robh i air a 
call, agus thionail aireamh de shluagh Taobh-loch-tatha gu 
sireadh-mairbh a dheanamh air a son. Chunnaic am brocair 
iad a tighinn an car a bha e, agus dh' eirich e nan coinneamh 
agus thuirt e riu — " Tha mi a smuaineachadh nach ruig sibh a 
leas dol moran na 's fhaide, oir tha mi a tuigsinn ciod a tha 
sibh ag iarraidh. Thigibh an so, agus feuchaidh mise ni eigin 
dhuibh." Lean iadsan e gu ruig bun na cruaiche mhoine, 
agus an sin chunnaic iad corp an neach air an robh iad an 
toir. Thog iad leo sa' bhreacan an eallach mhuladach, agus 
chaidh iad gu bronach dhachaidh leatha. 

Bhris e amach gu 'n robh saor de mhuinntir G-hlinn- 
liobhainn air fagail tigh 'athar, agus nach robh fios ciod an 
rathad a thriall e. Ged' a bha na maoir air an cuir na dheidh 
cha do ghlac iad e, oir anns an am sin cha robh doigh air fios 
ealamh a chuir do chein-thir. 

Bha gearradh domhain an clar aodainn na h-ighinn, agus 
cha robh teagamh sam bith aca nach ann chaidh a mharbhadh 
agus a tilgeadh 's an Lochan, agus bha fios aig sluagh gu'n 
robh an saor aon uair ag cumail conaltradh rithe. An latha 
air an d' fhag an nighean tuathair Loch-tatha chaidh an saor 
fhaicinn a direadh a mhonaidh agus giullan bg maille ris. 
Thill an dithis san fheasgar, ach an ath mhaduinn bha an saor 
air teicheadh, agus a airgiod agus a chuid a b' fhearr d'a 
aodach air a thogail a a chiste. Tuilleadh o'n latha dubh sin 
bha an giullan gun sunnd, gun mhisneach, agus mu dheireadh 
gheill a inntinn, agus cha robh ann ach nothaist thruagh re a 
laithean. Gu trie chluinnteadh e a g' radh — " Ghearr e a 
ceann le gilb, agus thilg e san Lochan i." Iomad bliadhna an 
deidh sin thainig litir gu neach an Gleann-liobhann o America, 
agus san litir bha iomradh air fear a fhuair bas ann an aite 
sonruichte de 'n tir sin, agus a dh* aidich air leabaidh a bhais 
gu'n do mharbh e boirionnach bg le gilb, agus gu'n do thilg e i 
ann an Lochan-nan-cat. A thuilleadh air a sin gu'n do 
bhagair e an giullan a mharbhadh cuideachd mu'r tugadh e 
a mhionnan nach innseadh e a chaoidh mu 'n ni a thachair. 

Mar sin chaidh mortadh diomhair Lochan-nan-cat a 
dheanamh soilleir do gach neach san duthaich. 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 149 



17th APRIL, 1902. 

At the meeting held on this date the following were elected 
members of the Society, viz. : — Dr Cattanach, 3 Alvanley 
Terrace, Edinburgh, and J. Harvey Shand, Esq., 38 North- 
umberland Street, Edinburgh. Thereafter the Rev. Archibald 
Macdonald, Kiltarlity, read his second article in continuation 
of his "History of Kiltarlity and Convinth." 

PARISH OF KILTARLITY AND CONVINTH. 
No. II.— TERRITORIAL FAMILIES FROM 1400 TO 1815. 

During the two centuries beginning about 1400 a number 
of baronial families appeared and disappeared in the Aird 
district, while one family — that of Fraser — gradually rose 
into territorial possession and influence which eclipsed all 
rivals. The authorities are much at variance as to the 
circumstances in which the Frasers took the place of the 
Grahams as barons and constables of Lovat. Patrick de 
Graham is mentioned in a mandate from King Edward III., 
of date 4th March, 1334, for the restoration of the third part 
of the Vills of Sempring, Dalton, and Merton, in Berwick- 
shire, to Thomas de Weston, which had been given to his 
father, John de Weston, by " Patricius de Graham de Lovet," 
and, as he is not styled quondam, it may reasonably be 
inferred that he was still alive at that date. This, however, 
is the latest notice of a Graham of Lovat, and the family may 
be said to have passed out of history about 1340. 

Most writers on the subject are agreed that the Frasers 
got into the position formerly occupied by the Grahams 
through marriage into that family; but once we leave this 
general statement and go into details, the subject bristles with 
difficulties. We do not propose in this connection to discuss 
the origin of the Frasers in the South of Scotland, or their 
supposed French extraction, as to both of which subjects much 
has been and could still be said. We are here concerned with 
their origin as a great Highland family, and their connection 
with the particular region of Inverness-shire at present 
occupying our attention. 



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15( > Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

It is generally agreed that the family of Lovat is lineally 
descended from Sir Simon Fraser, the famous warrior who 
figures in the War of Scottish Independence, first as a sup- 
porter of the English pretensions, but afterwards as a 
strenuous patriot and follower of Robert Bruce, and who 
finally lost his life at the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. 
The statement may further be advanced — and this has an 
important bearing upon our subject— that this Sir Simon was 
the individual from whom the chiefs of Lovat have derived 
the Celtic title or eponym of Mac Shimidh, or Mac Simon. 
The proof of this statement lies in the fact that in the letter 
of " John Elder Clerk, a Redshank/ ' written to Henry VIII. 
in 1542, a chief of Lovat stands on record under the designa- 
tion of "Mac Shimi." Going back from that date, we find 
no Simon whose son could bear that title until we come to 
this Sir Simon Fraser. The inference is that the first Mac 
Shimidh must have been a son of Simon who was killed at 
Halidon Hill — in the same way as the first MacDonald was 
the son of Donald, or the first Mackenzie the son of Kenneth. 
This appears to be a safe position, and it is in the light of it 
that the points of genealogy connected with the family and 
period have to be considered. This conclusion does not prove 
either that Sir Simon Fraser married — as it is supposed by 
some — one of the Grahams of Lovat, or that he was Constable 
of Lovat; but it proves his position as the progenitor of the 
Clan Fraser of the Aird district of Inverness-shire. 

How Sir Simon Fraser came, either in his own 
person or through his posterity, to be connected with 
the lordship of Lovat, is a question which seems to 
admit of but one feasible explanation. We gather 
from Robertson's Index of Missing Charters that Sir 
Simon married Margaret, daughter of John Earl of Caith- 
ness, who, according to the best authorities, was married to a 
daughter of Graham of Lovat, presumably David, son-in-law 
of the first John Bisset. David de Graham was succeeded by 
his son Patrick, who died without issue before 1340. In that 
case his eldest sister, the Countess of Caithness, became his 
heir, and, after her, her daughter Margaret became heritable 
proprietrix of Lovat. But as Patrick de Graham certainly 
survived Sir Simon Fraser, the latter, though married to the 
niece and heiress of the former, never occupied the position 
that would have belonged to him as the husband of the Lady 
of Lovat. Yet, his connection with the Aird was an imposing 



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History of the Parish of Ki/tar/ity. 151 

one, both on account of his own personal worth and valour as 
a Scottish patriot, and his marriage with the heir-presumptive 
of the de Grahams. So much was this the case that his name, 
as we have noticed, has been the patronymic of his descendants 
for something like 550 years. 

There is no doubt as to the identity of Hugh, the first 
baron of Lovat, but whether he was the son or grandson of 
Sir Simon Fraser is a question as to which authorities are at 
variance. According to the genealogists, Sir Simon Fraser 
had two sons, Simon and Hugh, the latter of whom succeeded 
him; but from careful consideration of the evidence, it will, 
I think, appear that his younger son was named, not Hugh, 
but Alexander. We have seen that Margaret, daughter of 
the Earl of Caithness, and widow of Sir Simon Fraser, was 
the niece and heiress of Patrick de Graham, and that she 
succeeded him in the possession of Lovat. It does not appear 
that her older son, Simon, ever assumed possession. Thus, 
in 1345, the name of Simon Fraser, without any territorial 
designation, appears as witness to a charter of lands in the 
barony of Urquhart, granted to Sir Robert de Chisholm, 
Constable of the Castle there, by John Earl of Moray. 
Anderson, the historian of the Frasers, tells us that Simon 
took part in some of the stirring events of his time, and, 
according to Froissart, he accompanied Sir William Douglas 
in the surprise and capture of Edinburgh Castle in 1341. He 
was, according to the same authority, one of those sent in that 
year to bring David II. back from France to Scotland. He 
fought and was wounded in the battle of Durham in 1346, 
after which he returned to Lovat, where he died unmarried 
and without issue at a comparatively early age. He never 
owned Lovat, his mother, the Lady of Lovat, being apparently 
still in life. 

Alexander, the younger son, succeeded his brother in the 
male representation of the family, but apparently not to the 
estates. Notices of Alexander appear in contemporary records. 
In the account of a naval victory gained in 1337 by the 
English Admiral, John de Ros, over two Scottish ships, in 
which were many of the wives and children of the nobility 
returning from Flanders, Alexander Frisel, at that time a 
boy, is named among the ' filii nob^um' who were on board 
and captured. This Alexander married a daughter of Sir 
Alexander Moray of Bothwell, and we find him on record as 
receiving a safe conduct to England on 13th July, 1361, 



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152 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

probably to visit his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Moray, one 
of the hostages for the ransom of David II., and who died of 
the plague in London about Michaelmas of that year. We 
have no evidence that he, any more than his brother, succeeded 
to Lovat, but each in turn would have borne the Gaelic 
designation of ' Mac Shimidh.' 

In 1367 Hugh Fraser appears on record as baron of Lovat 
and portioner of the Aird. We cannot definitely say that this 
was the year of his succession, nor can we state with certainty 
whether he succeeded his father or his grandmother as pro- 
prietor of the estates. As we have seen, he is represented by 
the historian of the family and by other genealogists as the 
son of Sir Simon Fraser; but we agree with the historian of 
the Frasers of Philorth, that Hugh was the grandson of Sir 
Simon, through Alexander, the younger son, whose career, as 
well as that of his older brother, Simon, has already been 
glanced at. The authority just referred to developes a 
heraldic argument as to Hugh's position in the line, which 
appears to be fairly conclusive. The device upon the seal of 
Hugh Fraser of Lovat attached to charters in 1377 and 1390 
is a triangular shield bearing three rosettes or cinquefoils 
within a border charged with nine stars or mullets. According 
to Nisbet, the best of our Scottish writers on heraldry, these 
borders charged with figures were used to distinguish younger 
sons, so that the seal points out that Hugh was the 
son of a Fraser father who was a younger son, and 
a mother whose family had stars or mullets for its 
cognizance. These latter devices are found in the arms, 
not of the family of Caithness, into which Hugh's grandfather 
married, but in that of Moray, the family to which his mother 
belonged. In this way Hugh, baron of Lovat, is found by 
parallel lines of evidence to have been the grandson of Sir 
Simon Fraser, and the son of his younger son, Alexander. 

That 1367 may have been, and probably was, the year of 
Hugh's succession to the lordship of Lovat and his share of the 
lands of Aird, seems authenticated by two records of his signa- 
ture for that year. First, he appears early in 1367 as witness 
to Walter de Leslie's charter as Hugh Fraser, without any 
territorial designation, while later on, on the 12th September 
of the same year, he comes to the Chapter-house of Moray as 
portioner of the Aird and Lord of Lovat, to do homage to the 
Bishop of Moray for his share of the half davoch land of 
Kiltarlity and Ess, and the fishing of the river Forn ' ex 
adverso' of the same, in obedience to the fourth citation. It 



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History of the Parish of Kiltariity. 153 

is thus obvious that in the interval between the two signatures 
the last heritable proprietor of these subjects had passed away. 

Four years after the date of his succession — 1371 — Hugh 
Fraser of Lovat is present at the Coronation of Robert II. 
In 1377 Hugh Fraser, ' dominus de Lowet/ resigned the lands 
of Fayrelehope, in the barony of Linton and sheriffdom of 
Peebles, into the hands of James de Douglas, Lord of Dal- 
keith and Linton, to whom he was vassal, to be held by Adam 
Foster for homage and service, as Hugh Fraser had held them 
before his resignatibn. These lands he had inherited from his 
father and grandfather. 

Hugh Fraser was not too punctual in the payment of his 
various rents to the bishopric of Moray for the Church lands 
and fishing that once belonged to John Bisset of Beaufort. 
For this reason, on 30th November, 1384, a new compact was 
formed between himself and Alexander, Bishop of Moray, in 
which he agreed to pay £20 sterling, in two equal parts, at 
the terms of Whitsunday and Martinmas, at which latter date 
he was also to pay a sum of 50 shillings. For these payments, 
for one year, the arrears of his annual rent for Kiltariity were 
to be remitted. He also promised to support the Bishop in 
the possession of his rights, and to help him in the recovery of 
that part of the rent of Kiltariity and the Ess which pertained 
to a " certain noble man," William de Fenton. Evidently 
the old difficulty of exacting the de Fenton bishopric rents 
had not quite passed away. 

This Fraser of Lovat was concerned in an agreement 
between the Earl of Moray and Alastair Carragh of the Isles, 
first of Keppoch, drawn up at Cawdor on 5th September, 1394. 
The Macdonald chief was to have under his protection all the 
lands and possessions of the regality of Moray, and all the 
Church lands thereof. From this agreement — by which the 
Lord of Lochaber was to be policeman in general for Moray — 
three barons were excepted, Hugh Fraser of Lovat, Thomas 
de Chisholm, and lord William of Fodryngham, there being 
already a bond between them for mutual friendship and pro- 
tection. The agreement was to last for seven years, and 
during its currency the Earl of Moray was to give Alexander 
of the Isles each year the revenue of 80 merklands, namely, 
for Bonacht £20, and the lands of Ess in Kiltariity £20 and 
2 merks, to be paid in two instalments, one at the Feast 
of Pentecost next to come, and the other at the following 
Martinmas — and so on for each year until it shall be declared 



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154 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

by the Council of the Earl of Fife that the 20 merklands 
which Malcolm of Grant possessed belonged to the Earl of 
Moray. Other perquisites which need not be detailed were 
likewise to accrue to the Chief of Keppoch for his service in 
restraining his own clansmen and other caterans from destroy- 
ing and consuming this favoured region. It appears from 
these details that the lands of Bonacht were in dispute between 
the Earl of Moray and the Chief of Grant. 

Hugh Fraser of Lovat was lord of Kinell — dominus de 
Kinell — in 1390, and is the first of the family found in that 
position. That year he gave a charter of lands in the barony 
of Kinell to Walter Tulloch, and he also granted another, 
without date, but probably about that period, to William de 
Camera, dominus de Auchnawys, in the same barony, which 
is situated in Forfarshire. In the charter he gave to William 
de Camera, he says that for stronger evidence and additional 
security, the seal " domini mei John Dunbar, Earl of Moray," 
is also affixed. That seal shows couche, a shield bearing three 
cushions within the royal tressure; crest, a stag's head; 
supporters, two lions sejant regardant. Hugh Fraser' s crest 
was the same, and he probably adopted it from his feudal 
superior. Hugh, first Fraser baron of Lovat, died between 
1407 and 1410, and was succeeded by his son Alexander. 
History has little to record of this chief of Lovat, and he died 
before 1416. By Elizabeth de Keith he had two sons, Hugh 
and Alexander, by the former of whom the line was carried 
on. During the time of this baron of Lovat the grasp of the 
Frasers upon the Aird was considerably strengthened by the 
acquisition of new territories, and the policy of ousting the 
smaller barons began to be successfully carried out. Hugh 
married Janet, sister to William de Fenton of Beaufort, a 
union which considerably advanced the territorial prestige of 
the Frasers. On 13th March, 1415, William de Fenton 
granted to his sister, her husband, and their heirs the lands 
of Guisachan, Comar-Kirkton, Mauld, and Wester Eskadale 
lying in Strathglass, within the barony of the Aird ; and until 
the lands of Uchterach in the parish of Kilmorack were 
recovered, the two Buntaits of 10 merks of old extent were 
given in pledge ; while for dowry Lord Hugh Fraser was to 
give £20 lands of the lordship of Golford, in the sheriffdom of 
Nairn, and, if there was any deficiency, this was to be made 
up by Hugh out of the lands of Dalcross. These lands of 
Dalcross formed part of the Bisset territories in the sheriffdom 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 155 

of Nairn which had not gone, like the rest, to the Roses of 
Kilravock. It may be remarked that Lovat obtained posses- 
sion of Uchterach at a later date, but, notwithstanding this, 
continued to retain his hold on both Buntaits. This Fraser 
of Lovat was a member of the Court of the Earldom of Moray 
in 1420, and was one of the party that went to England in 
1424 to meet and welcome James I. on his release from 
captivity in England. 

In 1424 the 3rd Baron Fraser of Lovat was Sheriff-Depute 
of Inverness. This was the year of the famous rebellion of 
Alexander, Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross, and the parish 
of Kiltarlity was the scene of strife between the Macdonalds 
and the inhabitants of the Aird. The Lord of the Isles, on 
setting out for Lochaber, left a strong party in the neighbour- 
hood of Inverness, and these laid siege — unsuccessfully, it is 
said — to the Castle of Lovat. The neighbourhood of this 
stronghold, Fanellan, and the moor of Caiplich, were suc- 
cessively the scenes of obstinate and sanguinary combats, in 
which the Lord of Lovat bore a prominent part. 

In 1430 Lord Lovat received extensive additions to his 
estates. We have seen that he had a younger brother, 
Alexander, and he had become seased in extensive lands in 
the Aird, Abertarff, and Glenelg; how, we have no present 
means of knowing. Alexander died without heirs male of 
his body, and his estates passed by inheritance to the 
baron of Lovat. On the 11th February, 1431, he 
presides as Sheriff of Inverness over a jury which met at the 
Church of Nairn, at the instance of Alexander Stewart, the 
famous Wolf of Badenoch, and the King's Lieutenant in the 
North, to decide whether John Ross and his predecessors had 
confirmation of the lands of the two Kilravocks and Geddes. 
On 11th April of the same year he presided over a jury at 
Nairn to decide as to the tenure of these same lands, which, 
through ward of the Earl of Ross, were in the King's hands. 
Alexander Earl of Ross was at this time a prisoner in 
Tantallon Castle. 

Despite the strife between the Lord of the Isles and Fraser 
of Lovat in 1429, we find them a few years after in friendly 
business relations. On 8th January, 1436-7, Hugh Fraser of 
Lovat and lord of the third part of Glenelg granted, " magni- 
fico et potenti domino Alexandro de He Comiti Rossie, ,, the 
lands " prefate tertie partis mee de Glenelg/ ' This charter 
for the third part of Glenelg was dated at Inverness, and 



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156 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

among ths witnesses were "John Vicar of Kilmorack " and 
'• Patrick peirson of Wardlaw." This Lord of Lovat died 
about 1438. 

The first notice we have of his successor is in 1440, when 
Thomas Fraser, Dominus de Lovat, is witness to a charter 
from Alexander, Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross, granted 
at Inverness to Hugh Rose of Kilravock. Thomas occupied 
the lordship of Lovat for about sixteen years, but, unlike his 
father, he has left no impression on contemporary records. 
He died in 1456, for the Chamberlain preceding William of 
Cawdor charges himself that year with £143 rents for the 
lands of the Aird, Strathglass, Abertarff, and Stratherrick, 
these being in the hands of the King by the death of the late 
Thomas Fraser of the Lovat, in the ward of the Earldom of 
Moray. Thomas was succeeded by his son Hugh. 

So far, there do not seem to have been any offshoots from 
the House of Lovat on whom the succession might devolve in 
the event of failure in the main line. This explains a Deed of 
mutual entail into which Hugh of Lovat entered on 19th 
July, 1464, with his cousin, Alexander Fraser of Philorth, by 
which it was provided that in the event of the former dying 
without heirs male of his body, he grants the latter all his 
lands of Kinnell, in the shire of Forfar, and the third part of 
the barony and lands of the Aird with the pertinents, also 
Stratherrick and the third part of the lands of Glenelg, also 
Guisachan, Kirkcomyr, Mauls, and Wester Eskadale, lying in 
Strathglass, the barony of Aird, and shire of Inverness, and 
all the lands of Lovat ; in fact, all his territorial possessions. 
Sasine followed upon this deed, and Thomas of Philorth 
executed a similar entail in favour of Lovat. Seeing that the 
two kinsmen were cousins five times removed, the transaction, 
as already suggested, betokens probably an entire absence of 
collateral branches of the Lovat Frasers. The Lord of Lovat 
secures on behalf of his wife, " Violette Lyonne/' a reasonable 
terce of his effects. His fears as to the succession proved 
groundless, for after his time a number of families sprang 
from the parent stock, so that the clan became one of the 
most powerful and numerous in the North of Scotland. This 
chief is said to have lived till 1501, and to have witnessed the 
government of two Regents and four Kings — that is to say, 
the regencies caused by the minorities of James II. and HI., 
and the first four Kings of that name. Having now brought 
the Frasers of Lovat down to the end of the 15th century, we 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 157 

shall return to the annals of the de Fentons of Beaufort during 
the 15th century, and show how the Frasers became estab- 
lished in the position which they held in the Castle of Beaufort 
and adjacent properties. 

Walter de Fenton of Beaufort, who died in 1438, left no 
male issue, and his possessions descended to four daughters. 
His estate consisted of the following lands in Kiltarlity, 
namely, Belladrum, Oldtown of Convinth, Easter Eskadale, 
Kenairies, Culburnie, and the two Moys, while they also 
included the lands of Moncref (Bunchrew?), Phopachy, and 
Englishtown. These lands were divided among Walter de 
Fenton' s four daughters, but the principle of division is not 
clearly disclosed, nor is it easy to find out in every case the 
various owners into whose hands the portions respectively fell 
after the de Fentons finally disappeared. All we know 
definitely is that the de Fenton fourths, like the Bisset thirds, 
appear in various instruments of tenure, long after the time 
of those among whom they were originally divided. Margaret, 
the oldest daughter, was married at the time of her father's 
death to Walter, son of Alexander Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, 
and brought to her husband, not only the fourth to which she 
was entitled, but also the castle and manor of Beaufort. In 
1439 she gave her husband a charter for all her lands, at the 
same time entailing them upon mutual heirs, failing which, 
upon her husband's nearest heirs, but reserving them to her- 
self during her lifetime. On 26th February of the same year 
this charter received the royal confirmation. 

Walter de Ogilvy, Margaret de Fenton's husband, was 
Stewart of the Abbey lands of Arbroath. In course of defend- 
ing the monastery in 1445 from an attack by his brother-in- 
law, the Earl of Crawford, he was wounded and taken prisoner. 
The Earl was also severely wounded, and it is said that the 
Countess, Walter de Ogilvy's sister, thinking her husband 
was on the point of death, smothered her own brother while 
lying sick of his wounds. 

Margaret de Fenton married, as her second husband, 
David Lindsay of Lethnot, by whom she had one son, David, 
and four daughters. She was a widow in 1458, for in that 
year she surrendered her lands, and the King granted tbem 
to Walter Lindsay of Kinblathmont and his heirs. This 
Walter was the second son of the Earl of Crawford, and the 
nephew and nearest heir of Margaret's first husband, Walter 
de Ogilvy ■ and the disposition in his favour was in accordance 



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158 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

with the marriage contract of 1439, on the failure of heirs 
between them. The connection of the Ogilvys with the Aird 
did not, however, terminate with the death of Walter de 
Ogilvy, though it is not easy to determine his genealogical 
connection with those whose names appear towards the end of 
the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries. 

In 1485 we find Patrick Ogilvy of Calybroch giving a 
charter to his son and heir, Andrew Ogilvy, of the fourth of 
the barony of the Aird. Between this date and January, 
1508, Andrew, Patrick's heir, has died, for at the latter date 
Patrick sold his lands of the fourth part of the Aird, including 
Belladrum, Oldtown of Convinth, Easter Eskadale, Kenairies, 
Culburnie, the two Moys, and certain lands in the parish of 
Wardlaw to John Ogilvy of Laverocklaw and his heirs male, 
who failing, to John Ogilvy, prebendary of Dingwall, his 
brother, and heirs. Whether these Ogilvies were descendants 
of Margaret de Fen ton, or by what right or title they came 
to acquire the fourth of the Aird barony, is not very clear. 

Walter Lindsay, second son of the Earl of Crawford, in 
whose favour Margaret de Fenton surrendered her lands in 
1458, continued proprietor of the Castle and estate of Beaufort 
for about 36 years. He died in 1494, and was succeeded by 
his son, Sir David Lindsay, on the 14th May of that year. 
On 13th May, 1495, he obtained sasine of his lands of the 
barony of the Aird and Beaufort by the delivery of earth and 
stone at the old Castle there, under the sheriffship of Duncan 
Macintosh, Captain of the Clan Chattan. He did not long 
retain possession, for in 1498 we find him conveying Beaufort 
Castle and his share of the lands of the Aird to the Earl of 
Argyll. This year James IV. attained to his majority, and 
there was a Parliamentary revocation of all charters granted 
in his name while he was a minor. This, however, only 
partially explains the deed of Disposition, for the granter 
explicitly states the lands were conveyed in lieu of a certain 
sum of money given him by the Earl in his urgent necessity. 
The Disposition to Argyll is of interest on account of some of 
the place names it contains. The lands are described as the 
fourth part of Quihilbrune with the castle and fortalice 
thereof, the two Moys, Balcrum (Belladrum?), Conwich Mor, 
Sanevalle in Conwich, Eskadale, Arderoyn, Kynerich, all in 
Kiltarlity, and Moncref, Appathy (Phopaehie ?), Nelston 
(Englishton?), in Wardlaw, and the superiority * of all and 
sundry the lands of Beaufort belonging hereditarily to Sir 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 15& 

David Lindsay of Beaufort, Kt., lying in the lordship of 
Beaufort. We find here, perhaps for the first time, the name 
Quhilbrune, or, in its modern form, Culburnie. It is not to 
be identified with Beaufort or Dunie in the limited sense of 
the site on which the old fortalice was built, though it 
included tha£ spot. It embraces part of the region north of 
the burn which is formed by the confluence of two streams, 
one taking its origin about two furlongs north of Loch Bruiach, 
and the other a similar distance from Loch an Fheoir. This 
burn, which in its higher reaches is called ' Allt an Loin,' 
runs generally south-east, takes a turn -nearly due east, and 
joins the Bruiach burn in its southern course. The two com- 
bined run into the Belladrum burn, the three, by the time 
they join the Beauly river, having a common estuary. The 
lands lying to the north-west of the lower reaches of this 
stream, including the crofter township called Culburnie and 
the modern home farm of Beaufort, seem to have been 
embraced in the name Quihilbrune. This part of the burn 
would have been called Braon, a name no longer surviving in 
its independent form as applied to this stream, and Culburnie 
or Quihilbrune meant the lands beyond it or at its back. Nine 
years after this — 1507 — Archibald Earl of Argyll set and 
alienated to Thomas Fenton of Ogill, his heirs and assignees, 
the lands of Beaufort with the pertinents, and these remained 
in possession of this branch of the Fenton family until 1524. 
As will afterwards appear, these lands embraced under the 
general title ' Bewfurd ' the half davoch of Easter Eskadale, 
the half davoch of Kenairies, and certain properties in 
Kirkhill. 

Another daughter of Walter de Fenton was Jonet, who 
married Sir James Douglas of Hailstone, and brought him 
another fourth of the family estates. It appears from later 
records that this Sir James Douglas was forfeited, for what 
disloyalty we cannot say, though it may have been under the 
general revocation of titles to which reference has already 
been made, and which took place in 1498. He was succeeded 
"by his son, who appears on record in 1509 as Henry Douglas 
of Culburnie, and who thus appears to have obtained restitu- 
tion of his estates. The name of another daughter of Walter 
de Fenton was Jonet Junior, who married William Hacket of 
Hacket in 1471. Hacket died in 1487, and his wife in 1491. 
The name of the fourth daughter is not known, but it is known 
that she became the wife of David Nam of Sandfurde. Both 



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160 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

these ladies brought their respective fourths to their husbands. 
It does not appear that they or their descendants had any 
prolonged connection with the Aird, and it is possible that the 
share of one or both was acquired by purchase or inheritance 
by Patrick Ogilvy, whose position in the Aird we have already 
found it difficult to account for. 

In the course of time, the lands whose history we have 
been detailing were destined to pass into the hands of the 
barons of Lovat. In 1509 Thomas Fraser of Lovat acquired 
from "Henry Douglas of Kilbernie " the fourth of the de 
Fenton property which belonged to Jonet Senior. This convey- 
ance included the hill of Culburnie on which the Castle of 
Beaufort stood, but not the Castle itself. The charter was 
granted and witnessed at the Parish Church of Wardlaw, on 
the 15th October, 1509. On the 12th January, 1511, this 
grant received the royal confirmation, and one of its provisions 
was to the effect that the charter was not to be rendered 
invalid by the forfeiture of Sir James Douglas, the granter's 
father. The same year, Thomas Fraser of Lovat acquired 
from John Ogilvy the fourth part of the de Fenton lands which 
had been disponed to him in 1508 by his father, Patrick 
Ogilvy. The charter was given at the Church of Wardlaw 
on June 14th, and it received the royal confirmation on 31st 
July following. Ine granter is designated John Ogilvy of 
Laverocklaw. In these charters the modern Bunchrew 
appears as Munchrew or Monchrew, signifying a wooded moor. 
The settlement of the family of Chisholm in the Aird 
district has already been noticed, and at this stage it is only 
necessary to refer to it in connection with the Haliburtons, 
whose connection with the Aird lasted for about one 
hundred years. Thomas of Chisholm, son of Margaret del 
Ard, was succeeded by his son Alexander in the lands of 
Strathglass; but he died in 1422 without male issue, and 
there appears to have been a division of the lands between the 
descendants of Catherine, daughter of Alexander, on the one 
hand, and the descendants of Wiland, the brother of Alex- 
ander, on the other. Catherine married Walter, second son 
of the first Lord Haliburton of Dirleton, to whom she brought 
a grant of the barony of Pitcur, in Forfarshire, in 1432. 
Judging from subsequent events, Catherine of Chisholm must 
also have brought her husband property in Strathglass and 
other parts of the Aird district. Walter Haliburton was suc- 
ceeded by his son John, who, in view of the grant of lands 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 161 

bestowed by him on his son and heir, William Haliburton, 
possessed extensive estates. In this charter there are included 
the lands of the three parts of Englishton, the lands of Knock- 
toun of Kingeile, with the yairs of the same; the lands of 
Crywe, Fanellan, brwlch (Bruiach ?), the half of Kiltarlity and 
its fishing, Ardblair, of a part of Fanblair, two parts of Cul- 
mullynemore, three parts of Belladrum with Culmullinbeg, 
the lands of Downegorre, the mill of Beaufort, with the 
crofts of Dumballoch; the salmon fishing of the Kylach of 
■Cloynbaky, the two Erchlesses, and the tenandries of Inch- 
berry in the barony of the Aird, county of Inverness. Ihis 
•charter was confirmed by the King on the 28th June, 1496. 
We do not know whether William Haliburton actually sur- 
vived and succeeded his father, or whether he left male issue ; 
but we find James Haliburton, in 1512, receiving from James 
IV. the same lands as those granted in the charter of 1496, and 
all created into the free barony of Erchless. The connection 
of the Haliburtons with the Aird terminated in 1528. Two 
years before then — 25th September, 1526 — Robert, Bishop of 
Moray, gave precept of sasine to Thomas Lord Lovat of the 
lands of " Kincallartie and fishing of Ess." In this case the 
lands and fishing went together and in equal shares. On 2nd 
March, 1528, the King gave Lovat a grant of all the lands and 
fishings that belonged to George Haliburton of Gask, the 
latter having resigned them into the King's hands. This grant 
included the complementary half of Kiltarlity and the fishing 
of Ess, the other half having been given two years before. All 
these lands— that belonged to the Haliburtons, and which 
have been detailed — were incorporated with the lands of 
Kirkton, Inglishton in the barony of Aird, Wester Struie, 
Easter Croychell, Wester Croychell, Wester Comire, Kilbaddy, 
and Daheny, with fishings and outsetts in Strathglass, which 
bad formerly been erected into the free barony of Erchless. The 
lands of Comar na Cille— the Gaelic form of Comar Kirkton— 
had, along with some others, been in the possession of the 
Lovat family for 120 years. They had been apprized by 
James IV. for certain sums, probably overdue Crown rents by 
Thomas of Lovat, but now they were restored to his son by 
the charter of 1528. 

In 1536 the same Hugh of Lovat received another addition 
to his already considerable estates. By his first wife, Anne, a 
daughter of Grant' of Freuchie, he had one son, Hugh. By 
bis second wife, Janet, daughter of Walter Ross of Balnagown, 

11 



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162 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

he had two sons, Alexander and William. On July 19th T 
1536, the King confirmed to Hugh Lord Lovat and his wife, 
Janet Ross, the lands of the two Moys called Ardrannich, the 
lands of Kilbrenie, with the hill of the Castle of these same 
called Bewfort in Ard, and the lands of Phoppachie in the- 
lordship of Bewfort, sheriffdom of Inverness, which Hugh, 
resigned. These were to be held by Lord Lovat and his wife, 
and the longer liver of them, in joint fee-farm, and after them 
by Lovat' s heirs whatsoever. As it turned out, Alexander 
became his father's successor, and William, the youngest son, 
became the founder of the Cadet family of Struy. In this 
charter of 1536 the name Kilbrenie — equivalent to Culburnie 
— is applied to the rising ground on which Beaufort Castle is 
situated. We also find the place name Ardrannich applied to 
the rising ground embracing the two Moys — that is, Bruthach 
Moy and Teanamoy — though, strictly speaking, it only applied 
to the latter. The same year Lord Hugh Fraser of Lovat 
acquired the lands of Easter and Wester Aigas, in the parish 
of Kilmorack, with the mill and multures of the same, from 
John Forbes of Pitsligo, and this charter was confirmed by the 
King on the 28th December. This was the final termination 
of the ancient Forbes connection with the region of Strath- 
glass. 

In 1539 the family of Lovat seems to have attained very 
nearly to the summit of its territorial ambition, for the King* 
that year confirmed to Lord Hugh Fraser a number of exten- 
sive baronies, namely, those of Lovat, Stratherrick, Aird, 
Abertarff, and Erchless, and the lands of Ardrennich, Kil- 
burnie, the fourth of Belladrum, etc., with the relative castles, 
and the fishings on the waters of Forne and Avech, with the 
lands of Comar na Cille in the barony of the Aird. Hugh 
personally resigned all these, and the King incorporated them 
in the free barony of Lovat, ordaining that the Castle of 
Lovat should be his principal messuage and residence. All 
this time the superiority of the lands of Beaufort, so called, 
which had been given over to the Earl of Argyll in 1498, lay 
in the hands of his successors. This was terminated in 1542 
— presumably through Argyll's resignation — for the King that 
vear gave over in fee-farm to Hugh, Lord Fraser of Lovat, the 
lands of Beaufort, namely, the davach of Glenconvinth and 
the half of Ardellane. 

We now come to a year which proved of tragic import to 
the Chief and race of Fraser. The battle of Kinloch-Lochy, 
or ' Blar Leine,' as it is known in Gaelic, was fought in 1544 



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History of the Parish ot Ki/tarlity. 163 

against the Clanranald, who were under the redoubtable John 
of Moydart, Chief of the Clanranald. That sanguinary 
engagement need not be detailed here; suffice it to say that 
the manhood of the Clan Fraser was almost annihilated on 
that stubbornly contested field; Lord Lovat; Hugh, his son 
and heir; William Fraser, first of Culbokie; John of Farra- 
line, and others being among the slain. This Lord Fraser of 
Lovat was a man of enlightened views, who had an eye to 
the. social welfare of his vassals. He established cattle 
markets for their convenience at various points on his 
estates, one being the Fair of Saint Mauritius near his own 
residence at Downie, another at Glenconvinth, and one at the 
cross of Beauly. 

After the battle of Kinloch-Lochy we do not find much to 
chronicle regarding the Aird district for quite a number of 
years. The clan had received a stunning blow, and though 
tradition loves to speak of the fecundity of the women whose 
husbands fell on that fatal day, it would take a generation 
before the sons thus providentially born would come to man's 
estate. Lord Hugh Fraser, who was killed at Blar Leine, was 
succeeded by Alexander, his older son by Janet Ross of Balna- 
gown. He was better educated than was usual with the 
barons and gentlemen of his day. The neighbourhood of the 
monastic establishment was an educational advantage, Robert 
Reid, Bishop of Ross, who resided at the Priory, taking charge 
of the young chief's training. Alexander of Lovat died at 
Aigas in 1557, and was buried in Beauly Priory. He was 
succeeded by his son Hugh, who was served heir to him in 
1560. At his succession he was a minor, and William of 
Struy was appointed tutor. His father had received a pro- 
curatory of resignation of the lands of Easter Kilmylies by 
Hugh Simson from the Bishop of Moray in 1550, but seisin 
was not obtained until 1566; This instrument included pos- 
session of the valued subject, " Kintallartie cum piscaria de 
Ess." 

During these years Lord Lovat acted a prominent part as 
a member of the Privy Council of Scotland, and in that 
capacity his name appears frequently in the records of the 
period. Reference may specially be made to his presence at 
a convention of noblemen in Edinburgh on 26th July, 1569, 
where he voted for the Queen's divorce of Both well. On the 
14th February, 1571, Walter, Abbot of Kinloss and Prior of 
Beauly, gave a charter to Hugh, Lord Fraser of Lovat, in 



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164 Gaelic Society of Inverness, 

terms of which his lordship was appointed constable and 
custodier of the palace, houses, and principal messuages in 
said Priory, built on the south side of the Church of Beauly 
by the late Robert (Reid), Bishop of Orkney and Prior of 
Beauly, with the power of applying to his own use the fruit 
of the gardens and orchards. This charter made hereditary 
the office of Bailie of the barony of Beauly, and it created a 
new office, that of constable and keeper of the Priory palace 
erected by Bishop Reid, which was also made hereditary. 
Among the lands contained in the barony of Beauly are the 
third of Meikle Kilmoling, the third of the Easter Glen of 
Convinth, and the fourth of Fanblair, all in the parish of 
Kiltarlity. These thirds and fourths of lands are survivals 
of the portions of the Bisset and de Fenton heiresses 
respectively. 

Hugh Fraser, 6th Lord Lovat, died in 1576, and Simon, 
his son and successor, was a child of five at the time. There 
was serious danger of a conflict between two prominent 
members of the clan as to who should exercise the much 
coveted duties of* tutor or guardian to the young lord. After 
the interment, Thomas of Knockie made his appearance with 
500 men at Glaschearn, near Beaufort Castle, where the 
principal gentlemen of the Clan Fraser had met to appoint a 
tutor to the new chief. William of Struy, his grand-uncle, 
was the other claimant, and insisted upon his right, on the 
ground that he had discharged the same trust on behalf of 
the late lord, and had done so with the approbation of the 
clan. Factions arose over the grave dispute, and Mr Donald 
Dow Fraser, who at the time served the cure of souls in 
Kiltarlity, Kilmorack, and Wardlaw, hastened secretly to 
Beaufort to ask the Dowager Lady Lovat, a daughter of the 
Marquis of Athole, to interpose and ask Struy to abandon his 
claims. The minister received an evasive reply. Much as she 
respected him, she said that propriety and a sense of her own 
dignity forbade her intervention or presence at their meeting, 
seeing they had not deemed her worthy of being consulted. 
She further said that, whatever befel, not a drop of Stewart 
blood would be shed. The minister was determined not to 
fail in his mission, but his anger got red hot at the haughty 
dame's answer. He used an argument inconsistent with his 
peaceful calling, but with the merit of effectiveness. He 
unsheathed his dirk, and told her that her own blood would 
be the first to flow if she did not comply with his request. 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 165 

The lady at once sat down, doubtless in fear and trembling, 
and wrote a letter to Stray in the terms desired. Thomas 
Praser of KnocHie, afterwards first of Strechin, was appointed 
Tutor, and proved in after years a pillar of the House of 
Lovat. That same year, in February, he compeared before 
the Lords of Secret Council, and gave in his band as apparent 
tutor to the son and heir of his brother, Lord Lovat, and also 
as donator to the ward and nonentries to the lordship and 
living of Lovat. 

The young Chief of the Prasers received every educational 
advantage. He was sent to King's College, Aberdeen; but 
Simon loved not the groves of Academus, and in July, 1586, 
we find him running off to Ireland, where, after the lapse of a 
few months,, his guardian heard that he was enjoying the 
hospitality of Sorley Buy Macdonald, Lord of the Route and 
Glens of Antrim. He seems to have remained there for the 
best part of two years, but at last Strechin repaired to the 
King, and obtained a letter commanding Sorley Buy to restore 
him to his friends. He is said to have returned in June, 1588. 

An interesting circumstance connected with the minority 
of Lord Simon is based upon a document which, so far as I 
am aware, has never been published. After the death of 
Hugh, 6th Lord Lovat, father of Lord Simon, a dispute 
appears to have arisen between the two Dowagers as to the 
fishings of the river Forn. One of these was the widow of 
Alexander, 5th Lord Lovat, and grandfather of the lord who 
was now in his minority. In the history of the Frasers she is 
called Janet, but in the record referred to she is Jane Camp- 
bell. She was a daughter of Sir John Campbell of Cawdor, 
second son of the Earl of Argyll, and at the period of which I 
write she possessed one third share of the salmon of the 
Forn as a part of her jointure. The young Dowager Lady 
Elizabeth Stewart, whose name has not come down with frag- 
rant memories, was presumably infringing upon this right, and 
on her own behalf and that of the young lord, then about 18, 
had to obtain cautioners that the older lady's rights would 
be respected. The document explains itself, and, not being 
long, may be quoted in full : — 

" At Innernes the tent day of Junij 1589 the qlk day 
Johnne Chesholme apperand of Comer and William Fraser of 
Foyer of thair awin motive fre willes are becum be thir 
presentis cautionaris and souerteis junctlie and severallie for 



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166 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

ane nobill elizabet Stewart Ladie of lovet. That the third of 
ye salmone fysches of ye watter of forne tane and to be tane 
fallis furth and comane to ane nobill Ladie Jane Campbell 
ladie of lovet as law will Be ye lowsing of ye arreistment put 
at ye said Dame Jane hir instaunce upoun ye salmone fysche 
thairof at ye corfhous of bewlie be Alexr. Nicolsoun Messenger 
conforme to our Souerane Lords Letters reasit yrupoun in 
that part And siclyk ye saids Symond Lord Fraser of Lovet 
and ye said Elizabeth Stewart are becum acted and obleist to 
releiff and skaithless keip ye said Johnne and William of thair 
souerteis & cautionaris aboue wreittin at ye hands of ye saids 
Dame Jein Campbell and of all riskes and skathes that they 
sail incur thairthrow. In witnes heirof the saids cautionaris 
hes subscriuet yr. presentis as f ollowis lyke as also ye said nobill 
Lord and Ladie hes subscriuet ye same wt. thair hands day 
yeir and place forsaids Befoir yir witnesses Allan Mc ranald of 
ye leyis Thomas Fraiser son to umqll. Hucheon Fraiser Mr 
Mc leane Loggy notar publick." 

The document is signed by Lord Lovat and his mother and 
the notar. Hucheon Fraser appears, from a word partly 
erased, to have been the son of Hugh Fraser, 2nd of Guisachan, 
who afterwards succeeded his brother Alexander. 

Simon of Lovat is frequently on record in contemporary 
chronicles. He seems to have paid due attention to all the 
public duties of his position, and his name appears with praise- 
worthy regularity at meetings of the Privy Council, the 
Convention of Estates, and the Commission of the Peace. In 
1610 he was commissioned under the Acts establishing Courts 
of ecclesiastical high commission for the provinces of St 
Andrew and Glasgow, and, like his successors, adhered to the 
tenets of the Reformed Church in Scotland. History and tradi- 
tion combine to hand down his name as a generous but somewhat 
too confiding chief, whose household was conducted on a scale 
of Celtic magnificence, but who, for these reasons, allowed his 
princely patrimony to be considerably dilapidated. He parted 
with the baronies of Drumchardney and others to his kinsmen 
of Belladrum and Guisachan, who are said to have over- 
reached him. In 1620 he sold his lands of Muirton for 2000 
morks, and mortgaged others. He built a castle at Dalcross 
that same year, which he gave to his third son, Sir James 
Fraser of Brea, while he himself resided as occasion seemed to 
demand alternately at Beaufort, Inverness, Beauly, and Lovat. 
He also built the house of Bunchrew, where he died in 1633. 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 167 

\His obsequies were observed with great pomp, and his funeral 
sermon was preached by Mr William Fraser, minister of Kil- 
tarlity, who also served the cure of Kilmorack. He was 
buried in the Priory of Beauly. 

His successor, Lord Hugh, took little or no part in the 
public life of his time. The deaths, first of his wife, and 
afterwards of his oldest son, are said to have so beclouded his 
mind that he fell into deep melancholy, and handed over the 
management of his estates and the leadership of his clan to 
his brother, Sir James Fraser of Brea. A strong hand was 
needed to guide the helm, and Sir James was able to lead the 
Frasers into the ways of the Covenant, of which he was a 
strenuous upholder. Other gentlemen of the Clan Fraser are 
found at this time on the same side, among them William 
Fraser of Guisachan and Culbokie, who erected the fort of 
Carse at Kingillie, and Alexander of Phoineas, who com- 
manded the garrison at Lovat. The Clan Fraser were at the 
battle of Auldearn, fighting for the Covenant, and are said 
to have suffered severely. Sir James of Brea died in 1649, 
and the Civil War in Scotland having changed from being a 
quarrel between the King and the Covenant to one between 
the King and Parliament, the Clan Fraser espoused the 
Royalist cause. In 1650 Charles II. came to Scotland, and a 
general Rising of the loyalists followed. Lord Lovat had died 
in 1646, and been succeeded by his grandson, Hugh, a child 
•of three, with his uncle, Alexander, as Tutor. This Alex- 
ander received a commission to raise the Frasers in the King's 
interests, and a large number obeyed the summons. Among 
the gentlemen who held officers ' commissions were Thomas of 
Beaufort, Alexander of Phoineas, and Alexander, younger of 
Clunevackie. The Frasers arrived at the Royalist camp at 
Stirling on 6th May, 1651, and afterwards took part in the 
disastrous battle of Worcester, where Alexander, Tutor of 
Lovat, was taken prisoner. In 1653 the representative of 
Lovat came in to Cromwell, the Tutor being bound for the 
whole name and clan of Fraser. 

In 1659 Hugh Lord Lovat, then aged 16, was induced by 
Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbat — afterwards 1st Earl of 
Cromartie — to perpetrate a marriage which historians allege 
to have been the bane of his life. The lady, Miss Ann Mac- 
kenzie, a sister of the 1st Earl of Cromartie, was double the 
bridegroom's age. A son of this marriage — his father's suc- 
cessor — was born in 1666, and the day after his birth was 



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168 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

baptised by Mr William Fraser, minister of Kiltarlity. 0» 
the 4th September, 1665, Lord Lovat came of age, and was 
infeft in his estate upon a precept from the Chancery pro- 
ceedings upon Retour of his special service as heir to the 
Master of Lovat, his father. Having at this time no male 
issue, he executed a Deed of settlement, recorded on 15tb 
February, 1698, conveying the estate to himself in liferent,, 
and Ann Fraser, afterwards Lady Kennaird, who was born in 
1660, in feu, but redeemable by male heirs to be procreated of 
Lord Lovat's body on payment of £10,000 Scots, and con- 
taining provisions in favour of his younger daughters. Upon 
the precepts of seasine therein contained, Ann Fraser was 
infeft in 1666. 

After 1670 Lord Lovat set about repairing and improving 
his house at Beauly, and for that purpose is said to have 
demolished the old residence at Lovat in order to get its oak 
roof and beams and hewn stones for the more modern, but less 
interesting and unhistoric, residence. He died at Beauly on 
27th April, 1672, and was succeeded by his son Hugh, who 
was only six years of age. The Earls of Seaforth and 
Cromartie and Hugh Fraser of Belladrum, his tutors, finding 
the estate encumbered, did not make up titles, but purchased 
apprisings standing out and affecting it, particularly one of 
23rd June, 1665, at the instance of Isabel, Annabel, and 
Agnes Mackenzie, for the accumulated sum of 7950 merks 12s 
4d Scots, and an adjudication at the instance of David Robert- 
son, upon which infeftment followed. 

This Lord Fraser of Lovat was by all accounts a man of 
inferior intelligence and little force of character. He espoused 
the Revolution, but his people refused to follow him, and 
joined Dundee in the short-lived triumph of the Stewart arms. 
Under Thomas of Beaufort, his grand-uncle, the Frasers 
fought for James at Killiecrankie, and Lord Lovat, finding 
that he was left alone, finally resolved to follow where his clan 
led, and joined Cannon during his short stand in the Jacobite 
interest. 

Reverting to the position of the Lovat titles, upon Lord 
Lovat attaining to his majority the tutors conveyed to their 
pupil the apprisings and adjudication referred to, and on 3rd 
February, 1694, he expede a charter under the Great Seal, 
sasine being recorded on 14th May of that year. He died in 
1698, leaving four daughters, of whom the eldest, designed 
Lady Fraser of Lovat, married in 1702 Alexander Mackenzie 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 169 

of Fraserdale, only son of Roderick Mackenzie of Prestonhall. 
The estate being still encumbered, it was not thought proper 
to serve her heir ; but Lord Prestonhall set about purchasing 
several of the outstanding debts and diligences, obtained four 
charters, and thereupon executed a settlement in tailzie in 
favour of Alexander Mackenzie of Fraserdale and Hugh, 
therein designed Master of Lovat, oldest lawful son of Fraser- 
dale, and Amelia, Lady Fraser of Lovat. 

Fraserdale continued in possession until 1715, when, owing 
to his being involved in the Jacobite Rising of that year, his 
estates were forfeited. The history of the Lovat family about 
this time has been so often told that a repetition of all the 
detail would serve no good purpose. So far as the male 
representation of the family is concerned, there is no doubt 
that on the death of Lord Hugh in 1698 the succession 
devolved upon his grand-uncle, Thomas of Beaufort, who was 
12th in succession of the Barons of Lovat. Had the entail 
been preserved as of old, he would have succeeded to the 
estates, and it was evidently the intention of Lord Hugh 
that he should do so. It, however, transpired that the latter 
had executed a marriage settlement (which I omitted at the 
proper place to note) that, in default of heirs male, his 
estates were to devolve upon the eldest daughter, the wife of 
Fraserdale. No subsequent deed could annul the marriage 
contract, and for a considerable time Lady Amelia Fraser was 
able successfully to dispute the pretensions of Thomas of 
Beaufort and his son, the notorious Simon. She had powerful 
friends in the family of Athol, her near relatives, and the 
Earl of Tullibardine is said to have aimed at marrying her 
daughter, the heiress of Lovat, to one of his own sons. This 
scheme, and another to the effect that the heiress should 
marry the oldest son and heir of Lord Saltoun, were bitterly 
opposed by the Frasers, and proved in the end impracticable. 
The Frasers, in fact, had ideas of their own as to the disposal 
of the hand of the young Amelia, then a mere child. Fraser 
of Tenakyle is said to have undertaken her abduction from 
Beaufort, that she might be under the control of the Frasers 
till she came of age ; but repenting of his action, he burst up 
the scheme by confiding it to Athol. The visits of Lords 
Saltoun and Mungo Murray to the Dowager Lady Lovat, their 
capture and imprisonment at Fanellan, the confinement — in 
the sense of imprisonment — of Lady Lovat within her own 
Castle of Beaufort, and her forced marriage with Simon, the 
prime author of all the mischief, followed each other in rapid 



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170 Gaelic* Sooiety of Inverness. 

succession. Unsuccessful attempts were made to capture the 
Beauforts, father and son, dead or alive, while legal pro- 
ceedings were taken against them, ending in their being 
sentenced to death and their estates forfeited. This sentence 
was passed on 6th May, 1698, which year Thomas of 
Beaufort retired to Skye, to the residence of his wife's 
nephew at Dunvegan, where he died in May of the following 
year. He was buried in the Churchyard of Duirinish, where 
a somewhat conspicuous pyramid to his memory was erected 
by his son and successor. Another monument to Thomas of 
Beaufort stands in the mortuary chapel of Kirkhill, with an 
eulogy inscribed in characteristic terms, less to the virtues of 
the departed than to the trials and triumphs of his son. 

The relations between the Lords of Lovat and their vassals 
during the 17th century do not disclose very special features 
differentiating them from others. The tenure of land by tack 
and wadsett was in evidence, while the indwellers had their 
rights of living on the land secured to them by the obligation 
under which the chief lay of furnishing fighting men in time 
of war, and men to follow the hunt in the halcyon days of 
peace. Tacks and wadsetts were usually indications of a 
hard-up condition on the part of the chief, who was glad to 
give his lands in security for a loan. The inferior gentry 
always seemed as ready to lend as the superior was in case 
to borrow* The casualties and dues imposed upon the vassal, 
in the name of rent or feu-duty, varied in kind. In some 
cases " four sufficient kids " afford evidence of goats being a 
kind of stock largely kept in that age. We naturally conclude 
from this fact that plantations of trees must have been few 
and far between. The longest set of lands that we have come 
across was that of the town-lands of Fanblair in Convinth, 
extending to one half davoch land of old extent. The lease 
was drawn up at Beauly, on 27th April, 1670, and was to 
endure for three terms of 20 times 19 years each. In terms of 
the tack there should still be 905 years to run, but Simon of 
Lovat seems to have succeeded in reducing it in a manner 
favourable to himself. Among the casualties for this tack was 
100 loads peats " out of the monath to the stackhill of Beauly 
ilk year." 

The Lords of Lovat, like other Highland chiefs, main- 
tained their staff of musicians. There was a piper in receipt 
of pay in 1673, when he received a sum of 150 merks for 
plaving at the funeral of Lord Hugh, who died the previous 
year. There was *also a niece of land which seems to have 



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History of the Pariah of Kiltarlity. 17 1 

been the fiddler's perquisite, being known as the " Violer's 
Croft/' Industrial pursuits were not neglected by the 
magnates of Beaufort, for on the threshold of the 18th 
century we find reference to the " waulk-mills of Castle 
Dounie." 

Soon after his father's death, Simon of Beaufort obtained 
pardon for the political offences of which he had been guilty, 
and for which he had been sentenced to death, and the 
pardon was signed by King William. It did not, however, 
cover his offences against private individuals, the trial for 
which was fixed for 17th February, 1701. For this trial he 
was duly summoned, and afterwards outlawed for non- 
appearance. He had a powerful friend in Argyll, and no 
immediate steps were taken against him, but Athol — still 
more powerful in the north— r- was always on his track, and 
though he continued to skulk in the Aird and Stratherrick 
districts, he found the country so hot for him that in July, 
1702, he made his way to the Court of the exiled James, and 
for some time thereafter played a prominent part in its 
intrigues. He became acquainted with Louis XIV. of France, 
and in deference probably to his views adopted the Romanist 
■creed, to which with more or less consistency he always 
adhered. 

In 1703 he paid a short visit to Scotland for the special 
purpose of organising a Jacobite Rebellion. In the course of 
this visit he passed through imminent dangers, from which 
nothing could have saved him except his own coolness and 
effrontery. It was at this time also that he commenced the 
acting of that double part in the political intrigues of his day 
to which he consistently adhered during the remainder of his 
life. While bearing a commission from King James, he 
opened confidential communications with the English Govern- 
ment. He returned to France the same year, and found that 
his double dealing had been exposed, encountering the dis- 
pleasure both of the French Government and the Court of St 
Germains. His adventures on the Continent need not here 
be detailed. While in France he was deeply distrusted, and 
was vritually a prisoner from 1703, when he returned thither, 
to 1714, when, "with the assistance of Major James Fraser of 
Castleheather, he was able to elude the vigilance of the spies 
and cross in an open boat to Dover on 14th November. In 
1715 a bail bond of £5000 for his future behaviour was 
signed by the Earl of Sutherland, Forbes of Culloden,- Munro 
of Fowlis, and others, but owing to adverse "influence at high 



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172 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

quarters his pardon was not then obtained. He left London 
in 1715, accompanied by Major James Fraser and other 
friends. This being the year of the Jacobite Rising, he showed 
great activity in stamping out the lingering embers in the 
North, and, Mackenzie of Fraserdale having been forfeited 
through his complicity in the Rebellion, Simon received a 
gift of his escheat, and a full pardon was signed on 10th 
March, 1716. 

Though Simon of Beaufort had attained to the foregoing 
measure of good fortune, he was still far from the goal of his 
ambition. Fraserdale' s escheat was not a heritable property 
so far as Simon was concerned, but must, on the death of the 
former, pass on to his son. Further, Lady Amelia Fraser of 
Lovat was adjudged by the Court of Session in 1702 to be the 
owner of the title, and through her jointure rights possessed 
considerable property in the district. Her factor was Mr 
Patrick Robertson, who lived at Teachnuick, near Beauly, 
and continued to hold that office certainly as late as 1730. 

That the estates which fell to Simon through Fraserdale* s 
forfeiture were pretty extensive seems clear from his commis- 
sion of factory to John Fraser, brother of Fraser of Culmiln, 
given in 1729. This commission was to embrace the lands 
and estate of Lovat within Kiltarlity and Convinth, as also 
the barony of Beauly, and the customs of the yearly markets 
of the lands, barony, and town of Beauly, and lands of Aigas, 
and feu-duty of Ardnagrask. He soon began to shew his 
teeth after his position began to become more secure. The 
Dowager Lady Lovat appears to have died shortly after 1730, 
as we find her son Hugh bearing the title in 1732. Simon, 
however, went to the Court of Session in 1730, with the result 
that the judgment of 1702 was reversed, and he was declared 
to be the legal bearer of the title. This conclusion had no 
weight, as the Union had taken place, and only the House of 
Lords was competent to adjudicate on such a question as who 
was the legal owner of a Peerage of the Realm. Hence, as we 
have seen, Hugh, younger of Fraserdale, did not yield the 
title, as we saw him bearing it in 1732. This year Simon 
commenced a number of actions in court for the purpose of 
reducing the tenure of a number of feuars upon his estate, 
among them being Fraser of Fanblair, to whose tack 
I have already referred. He also commenced litigation 
against Fraserdale and his heir with the view of 
securing the heritable right to the properties. These 
legal proceedings were brought to a close in 1737, when a 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 173 

compromise was arrived at. A decree arbitral was issued that 
year which resulted in the Fraserdales surrendering the 
estates to Simon on payment by him of a large sum of money, 
a result at which, though favourable so far, he uttered curses 
both "loud and deep." This was followed in 1738 by his 
taking out titles for himself and his heirs whatsoever. That 
the settlement of the question included the peerage as well as 
the estates is evidenced by the fact that in 1742 Fraserdale's 
son and heir, who was " Hugh Lord Lovett " in 1732, is now 
" Hugh Fraser, Esqr. of Lovat." 

The treacherous part played by Simon up to and during 
the '45 need not here be elaborated. He was arrested at 
Beaufort in December, 1745, but escaped, only to be again 
apprehended in an island on Loch Morar, where he had taken 
refuge in a hollow tree. There was a touch of grim humour in 
the farewell address to his peers after the capital sentence was 
passed upon him — " God bless you all, and I bid you an ever- 
lasting farewell. We shall not meet all in the same place 
again — I am sure of that." His remains were brought north, 
and buried in the mortuary chapel at Kirkhill. 

There is little that is favourable to be said of this extra- 
ordinary man. He had courage, energy, and resource, but 
always misdirected. He carried on a vast correspondence, to 
which many Highland charter chests bear ample testimony, 
and the more it comes to light, the more is the conviction 
brought home to every historical student, that few men have 
ever lived so sublime in egotism, so utterly deficient in prin- 
ciple, so destitute of all the higher and finer elements of 
moral consciousness. 

It can be said of him that he kept up with some fidelity 
the status of a Highland chief, and his provision for the 
musicians of his clan are deserving of recognition. His pipers 
occupied a good social position. There is an indenture drawn 
up at Beaufort on 9th March, 1743, in which William Fraser, 
tacksman, Beauly, is described as his lordship's musician. 
The brother of this William — David Fraser — had been 
educated by David Macgregor, his lordship's piper. His 
lordship was, however, now to send David to the Isle of Skye 
to have him perfected as a Highland piper by the famous 
Malcolm MacCrimmon, whom his lordship was to reward for 
educating the said David for a year. William and David 
bound themselves in this indenture to the intent that the 
latter should serve Lovat and his heirs for seven years. David 
was to have bed and board and washing, clothes, shoes, and 



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174 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

stockings, and to have yearly 50 merks, with a penalty of 
,£10 on either side. 

Simon was devoted to the pleasures of the table, a fact 
attested by the provision whicn he made for his cook as an 
official of importance in his establishment. At Whitsunday, 
1735, he gave Alexander Fraser alias Down, his cook, one boll 
pay of his lordship's lands of Teanamoy, lying at the south 
side of his lordship's park, for 19 years. Rent one boll suffi- 
cient farm bear or 8 m. yearly. 

His devotion to the Jacobite cause is a little inexplicable 
in view of all he suffered at the hands of the French Govern- 
ment and the Court of St Germains. His vanity was so great 
that possibly the expectation of being made Duke of Beaufort 
may have stimulated his zeal. It is difficult to say how much 
sincerity there was in his Roman Catholicism — it may have 
been, after all, a pawn in the political game. He certainly 
did not press his adopted faith either upon his vassals or on 
his family, all of which latter were reared as Protestants. His 
sons, Simon and Archibald, received their early education in 
the Parish School of Petty — a famous country seminary in its 
day — and while in attendance there they boarded with Mr 
^Eneas Shaw, minister of the parish. One item of expense 
incurred on behalf of the Hon. Archibald may be quoted — 
•' At the cock fight, £1 Is 0d." 

Simon's sons were also under the tutorship of Mr Donald 
Fraser, who became minister of Killearnan in 1744, and 
minister of Urquhart — Ferintosh — in 1756, where he died in 
1773. The education of the second son, Alexander, to whom 
his father applied the nickname " Brigadier," was a source of 
apparent anxiety to his lordship. In 1740 Mr Donald Fraser 
came to Beaufort to take this incorrigible in hand, but 
apparently with little success. His father professed to be 
greatly shocked at his youthful depravity, and the following 
highly laudable sentiment emanates from this censor of morals 
in the course of a correspondence with his tutor, namely, 
" that he is entirely lost and Debautched in his education. 
He hardly speaks a word now without swearing, cursing, 
blaspheming, and lying." In the course of another letter he 
threatens to send him to Glenstrathfarrar to be a cowherd 
with some notoriously undesirable employer. In due time 
the two older sons, Simon and Alexander, were sent to the 
University of St Andrews, and while receiving their education 
there, had their board and lodgings in the house of Mr Craigie, 
Professor of Hebrew. There is a record of <£80 sterling paid 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarliiy. 17k 

by William Fraser of Gortulegg on account of the Master of 
Lovat and his brother's education and entertainment at the 
Professor's house. Alexander, surnamed the "Brigadier/' is 
said to have been engaged for a time in the Dutch service, but 
his father's description of his inches does not suggest a martial 
aspect. In reply to Lord Stair, and while professing great 
anxiety that he should obtain a commission in the Earl of 
Loudon's Regiment, he speaks of Alexander's " extraordinary 
undergrowth, the next degree to what they call a dwarf, so 
that I would not wish for £5000 that my son would appear a 
Captain in any Regiment." If we are to guage the truthful- 
ness of this description by Lord Lovat 's zeal for the cause in 
which Lord Loudon was engaged, we are bound to feel 
sceptical. Whether the " Brigadier " would have been an 
acquisition is another question. He was a hopeless dipso- 
maniac from his boyhood, and there seems no evidence that 
he was aught else than a bad lot. He died on 7th August, 
1762, at Dunmaglass, and was buried at Kirkhill. 

A man of apparently much superior character and abilities 
was General Simon Fraser, who, after his father's forfeiture 
and death, succeeded him in the representation of the line. 
Of course he inherited neither the title nor estates. It soon 
became well known that he had been forced into the Rising 
of 1745 by his father, who all the time bemoaned his head- 
strong disobedience in so doing. He was, however, imprisoned 
in Edinburgh in November, 1747, but his confinement there 
was short, and he was transferred the following year to Glasgow, 
where he was to remain during his Majesty's pleasure. The 
captivity appears to have been of a mild sort. The influence 
of friends was strongly exerted in his favour. A number of 
northern parish ministers, among them Mr Patrick Nicolson 
of Kiltarlity, signed a testimony certifying that Simon of 
Lovat had been educated in Protestant and Revolution prin- 
ciples. The loyalty of the clergy was unimpeachable, and in 
1750 he received a free pardon. 

Simon Fraser studied for the Bar, whether during his term 
at St Andrews, or while he was prisoner on parole, we cannot 
say. He was engaged as one of the junior prosecuting counsel 
in the trial of James Stewart of Acharn in 1752, which ended 
in what proved to be a judicial murder. His conduct at this 
trial has been assailed from more than one quarter, the charge 
asrainst him beins: that he allowed his desire to ingratiate-, 
himself with the Government to lead him into unnecessary 



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176 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

virulence against the accused. What amount of truth there 
may be in this statement it is impossible now to say. 

In 1750 the Lovat estates had been annexed inalienably to 
the Crown, and pkced, like other forfeited estates, under 
commissioners. Captain John Forbes was the Commissioners ' 
factor for the estate of Lovat. The misfortune which the 
historic family had thus sustained through forfeiture was not 
without its compensations to the general community, for very 
salutary regulations as to improved methods of husbandry 
were introduced into the district, which no doubt had lasting 
effects. Such matters as crop rotation, the sowing of grass 
seeds, the fencing of fields, the consumption of straw, the 
keeping of sheep and goats, the planting of trees — these and 
many others were regulated by a code of rules drawn up by 
the Commissioners. These were registered in the Books of 
Council and Session on 3rd December, 1765, but they were 
probably in force for many years prior to that date. The 
eagle hunter was one of the recognised officials whose wages 
were paid by assessment partly laid upon the tenants, a 
circumstance which suggests a great change since those days in 
the numbers of that royal bird. The great importance that 
plantations of timber have acquired in this district within the 
last two hundred years is proved, among other things, by the 
total disappearance of the goat as part of the recognised 
stocking of a farm. 

The efforts of the Commissioners to encourage the arts of 
peace in the Aird took other directions which are worthy of 
note. In 1750 there was a scheme devised for the encourage- 
ment of manufactures in the district, in accordance with which 
spinning and weaving schools were established at Beauly and 
Easter Downy. These, however, do not seem to have been 
immediately successful, owing to the alleged conduct of Mr 
James Grant, factor-depute to the Commissioners, who was 
said to be opposed to the industry, and against whom charges 
of cruelty and bribery were freely laid. Mr Grant was sup- 
ported by the local clergy, Messrs Thomas Chisholm, Patrick 
Nicolson, and Patrick Grant, ministers of Kilmorack, Kil- 
tarlity, and TJrray respectively, who on the 12th December, 
1752, wrote a letter in his favour, exonerating him from the 
accusation. The letter was signed at Teawig, the residence of 
the minister of Kilmorack. On the same day an elaborate 
proof was led before the Sheriff, at which evidence pro and 
con was adduced. One witness who compeared was Grisel 
Fraser, wife of the parish minister, who deponed in favour of 



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History of the Parish of Kiltarlity. 17* 

Orant, the factor, and stated that the spinning school had 
.gone to ruin, not as alleged through his fault, but owing to 
the " forward cross temper of the school mistress.' ' 

In connection with this encouragement of manufacturing, 
the Commissioners offered premiums to the various tenants on 
the forfeited estates, of which the latter seem to have largely 
availed themselves. To promote the growth of flax they gave 
one shilling per peck of lintseed, and the total amount so 
disbursed in Kiltarlity for one year was £8 18s Od. Among 
the items were : — To the millers and tenants of Bruiach and 
Fanellan, 10s 4d ; to the miller of Eskadale and Midmain, 5s 
6d; to the miller and mealer of Castledunie, 9s 6d; to the 
tenants and mealers of Teanamoy and Tomnacrosh, 3s 6d. 

In 1757, during the war with France, action was taken by 
the British Government which proved to be of momentous 
import for the family of Lovat. The Master of Lovat received 
a commission to raise a regiment for service in Canada, and 
in a very short time he was at the head of 1400 men, of which 
800 were of his own clan. An extract from an unpublished 
letter written by one of the local gentry, Fraser of Boblainy, 
may be of interest in this connection. He had returned from 
seeing the Fraser Highlanders embark, and wrote on his 
return to a friend in the district : — 

" Dear Sir, — I came home Tuesday morning after a very 
fatiguing jaunt, and tho' few will believe it, much against my 
will. Some of your friends with whom I parted desired to 
be remembered to you and Peggy, such as Struy, my brother, 
Tenakyle, etc. They were all very well and in high spirits, 
only John had been confined to his bed for some days with a 
severe cold. The Regiment is now near Cork, where they are 
to remain but a few days and then sail to America under the 
convoy of ane single man of war. God grant they may have 
success.' ' 

The Fraser Highlanders were engaged with great distinc- 
tion at the siege of Louisberg, the taking of Quebec, and other 
sanguinary encounters, where the regiment suffered severely. 
After these engagements a letter was written by one of the 
Fraser officers to Robert Fraser, Esq. of Muilzie, referring to 
some of the casualties among the Highland gentlemen from 
the North. It is dated from New York, the 2nd November, 
1758, and seems to have been written by one of the Belladrum 
family, but as I have only a fragment I cannot be quite certain 
who the individual was : — 

" Dear Cousin, — Tho' I now write you 'tis not with a view 
of giving you a description of the country nor an account of 

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178 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

the campaign, which has been a very bloody one, but much ta 
the credit and advantage of the British nation. In the part 
of the army where I have been we lost a great many of our 
countrymen. Poor Willie Baillie of Torbreck fell killed, with 
many more too tedious to insert. On the whole we lost about 
two thousand killed, with a great many wounded who will 
never recover. My brother Willie was with me, and we both, 
I thank God, got off untouched. Nothing has affected me of 
a long time so much as the Death of my poor friends Struy and 
Simon Tynakyle, not altogether as relations but my particular 
regard for them for their own worth. I have not seen Col. 
Fraser as yet nor any of his officers except Simon Bellnain son 
and James Fraser son of Castleheather who got Struie's 
Company/ ' 

On the conclusion of the American war in 1762, Simon 
Fraser of Lovat went to Lisbon with the rank of lieutenant- 
general in a British force which was sent to help our allies the 
Portuguese to repel an invasion from Spain, which had recently 
declared war against this country. He had in 1761, during- 
his absence in America, been elected M.P. for his native 
county, a position which he continued to occupy till his death. 
It was now quite evident that General Fraser' s services 
deserved no less a reward than the restoration of his ancestral 
estates, and in 1774 he got a free gift of them from Parliament 
on the payment of a certain burden which properly rested on 
the lands. The following year he executed a Deed of Entail. 

When the American War of Independence broke out in 
1775, General Fraser of Lovat got a new commission to revive 
his old corps, an enterprise in which he was even more suc- 
cessful than he was eighteen years before, for on this occasion 
his levies amounted to 2400 men. Their experiences in the 
American War were chequered, but though many of them 
suffered the sorrows of prolonged captivity, their heroism was 
never questioned. 'At the conclusion of the war they returned 
to Scotland, and the regiment was disbanded at Perth in 1783. 

General Fraser died in February, 1782, but a few years 
before his death, owing to financial embarrassments, he con- 
veyed his estates to trustees — Simon Fraser of Farraline, 
Major James Fraser of Belladrum, Colonel Simon Fraser of the 
late 21st Regiment of Foot, and Mr James Fraser, W.S. This 
Trust Disposition was dated 19th October, 1776. It provided 
that an adequate income should be secured to his successor, 
but that the residue should be applied to the liquidation of 
the encumbranceSi Having no heirs of his own body, he was 
succeeded by his youngest brother — who was his half-brother 
— Archibald Fraser. 

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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 179 

The Hon. Archibald Fraser of Lovat not only succeeded his 
brother in the representation of tne family, but in the repre- 
sentation of the county as member of Parliament, and in the 
first year of his membership delivered a speech on the abolition 
of the unclothing Act, of which a Gaelic version was printed 
at the time. He was a man of some talent, with a consider- 
able dash of eccentricity, and in this respect, as well as in his 
landlord severities, he bore a greater resemblance to his father 
than did General Simon Fraser. In 1794, during his time, a 
Fraser Fencible Regiment was raised, and letters of service 
were issued to Colonel James Fraser of Belladrum. Colonel 
Fraser of Belladrum, however, resigned the command, which 
was handed over to John Simon Frederick Fraser, younger of 
Lovat, who was appointed colonel. The Fraser Regiment 
took an honourable part in putting down the Irish Rebellion, 
and remained in Ireland till the end of the campaign, after 
which they returned home to Scotland, and were disbanded in 
Glasgow in 1808. 

The Hon. Archibald Fraser died 8th December, 1815, aged 
79 — predeceased by all his children, and with him the main 
family of Lovat became extinct in the male line. 



6th MAY, 1902. 

At this meeting Chas. Mv Brown, Esq., manager, Cale- 
donian Banking Company, Inverness, was elected a member 
of the Society. The Rev. Dr George Henderson, Eadar-Dha- 
Chaolais, afterwards contributed an old Celtic folk- tale, 
entitled " Sgeulachd Coise O'Cein." 

SGEULACHD COIS' O' CEIN. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The Rev. Donald MacNicol, in his Remarks on Dr Samuel 
Johnson's Journey to the Hebrides (1779, p. 322), speaking 
of oral narratives " which are for the most part of considerable 
length, and bear a great resemblance to the Arabian Nights 
Entertainments," has a reference to this Gaelic story. " One 
of these," he says, "is long enough to furnish subject of 
amusement for several nights running. It is called ' Scialachd 
Choise Ce/ or ' Cian O'Cathan's Tale,' and though Scial- 
achies, or tellers of tales by profession, are not now retained 
by our great families as formerly, there are many still living 



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180 Gaelic Society of Inverness, 

who can repeat it from end to end, very accurately." It can 
be traced yet farther back. Kildare, in a letter to Campbell 
of Islay, dated 28th March, 1871, states that : " ' The Leeching 
of Khene (h)is legg ' is mentioned in the Catalogue of the 
Earl of Kildare' s Library, among the Irish books, in 1526 — 
Harleian MSS. 3756 in the British Museum. ... I have no 
doubt it is the same as that mentioned in the Catalogue of 
the Earl of Kildare' s Library in Maynooth Castle, and must 
therefore have been in writing three centuries and a half ago." 
The oldest version now accessible is printed in Standish 
O' Grady's u Silva Gadelica," from Eg. 1781. It embraces 
but a few incidents. From it I have noted that ' Macabh ' of 
Campbell's spelling is Macaomh, ' youth ' ; ' Mac an 
Athamain ' seems to be for ' mac an f haghain, ' ' The Vagrant, ' 
though it may have been influenced by the old name Cathmann. 
King Brian, who fell at Clontarf in 1014, his sons and 
courtiers, after their fame got obscured, served as pegs on 
which to hang some of the old fairy lore. I have taken down 
romances from the late Domhull Chailein, in Eriskay, of con- 
siderable length, and more archaic in diction and richer in 
expression than the present tale, wherein Brian and Murrough 
his son and others figure. The banshee of the Dal Cais 
figures in the life of Brian, good Christian though he was, and 
in the present story the love of the fairy sweetheart is not 
absent. We see how the mortal is punished for slighting the 
love of the immortal. Cian, in some versions Geur, mac an 
Luaimh, stands for Cian Mac Mhaolmhuaidh, of whom there 
is a brief story in the " Gaelic Journal " (Dublin, Sept., 1896, 
p. 67- 70 ). Versions of certain incidents are given in Bev. D. 
Maclnnes's "Folk and Hero Tales of Argyllshire" (1890), 
and Mr A. Nutt's notes on Koisha Kayn in that volume refer 
to what was published up to that date. In "Folk-Lore, " 
Sept., 1890, Mr Nutt prints a list of the characters in O'Cein's 
Leg. A portion of the tale was contributed by the late Rev. 
J. G. Campbell, Tiree, to the Gaelic Society's Transactions for 
1888, pp. 78-100. Cian, son of Maolmuaidh, fell in 1014. 
The incidents which appealed to the story tellers may have 
been transferred to him from some other and older Cian. In 
the Egerton version there is mentioned an island with no 
inhabitants save a beautiful woman. Cian comes to a fortress, 
and the story goes on thus : — "I grounded my spear, and 
where should it land but on my foot, piercing it through to 
the floor, so that in this fort for a year I lay sick of my foot. 
Leeches indeed and physicians were brought to me, yet for 
all they did to me my torment was but the greater. The year 
run out, there came to me a young damsel bringing her lap- 



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Sgeulachd Cois 7 O'Cein. 181 

full of certain herbs; a poultice of these she laid upon my 
foot, and on the instant I was whole. The King of Orkney's 
hold is this way, and she was his daughter. Such now, 
O Cian, is the actual cataplasm which here I bring thee too." 
It was applied to Cian's leg, and he was sound. 

In the Egerton version also we have the incident of the 
Beautiful Hare Maiden who was re-transformed into a grey 
brood-mare. Cian caught her by the hind leg, but she, 
raising the other, struck him in the shank and broke it, which 
done she made good her escape. Punishment for slighting the 
fairy sweetheart is a theme dear to the folk-imagination, and 
of iiiterest to students of historical thought. To Inis Chein, 
Clan's island, Cian's brother's son comes, and tells how he 
was punished for slighting a fairy sweetheart (in order that 
he might love the King of Deisi's daughter). In that version 
figure four and twenty monks that ride on horses, and four 
and twenty knights to keep guard. To show how widely the 
Hare Maiden incident was known in Gaeldom, I append two 
brief Gaelic narratives, the one from Tiree, the other from 
Gairloch. The whole subject deserves study in the light of 
ideas as to animal parentage and animal pedigrees, animal 
transformations, and of what is known of the loves of the 
immortals for the mortal, as, for instance, in the " Sick-Bed 
of Cuchulainn," and some not extinct ideas regarding witches 
— forming a transition chapter in folk-belief. The Campbell 
of Islay version is the fullest narrative now procurable. The 
diction well illustrates the present state of Gaelic prose narra- 
tive, not so difficult indeed as in many shorter pieces. Though 
it shows a few corruptions, easily noticeable and not above 
explanation, it is a transcript of living speech, and in all 
respects well worthy of study, from the point of view as well 
of language as of theme. 

Scourie, 5th Dec, 1905. George Henderson. 

J. F. CAMPBELL'S ABSTRACT OF THE STORY OF O'CEIN'S LEG. 
1st Story, from which branch a number of other Stories. 

1st. The Breaking of the Leg. — An Irish King has many 
sons who die in childhood. He sends one to foster with a 
poor man. When he is grown up, the King dies and the 
son succeeds. He brings his foster-father to court, where the 
courtiers despise him. Tired of it, he rides away, followed by 
a pack of little dogs. These chivy and move a hare. She 
jumps up behind the old man, and becomes a beautiful woman. 



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182 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

They agree to marry. He finds the moors changed to farms, 
and a palace where his hut stood. Proud of his wife's riches, 
he invites the King and his court, against the wife's advice. 
They come and feast. The treasurer, O'Cein, insults the wife ; 
the palace and corn-land and stock change back, and O'Cein's 
leg is broken into 24 bits. (Some of this is like the story of 
Diarmid and the hairy woman). 

2nd. The Captain's Story. — The King's high captain with 
a fleet comes home, and the King tells him this story. The 
Captain tells how he was wrecked and his crew hurt, and how 
he happened upon an island where the fruits and water cured 
the wounded. It is settled to send O'Cein to the island. 

Story 1 continued. — The Captain lands O'Cein upon a 
desert island, drags him round by the ankles, and leaves him 
there to starve (compare " Philoctetes ")< After nine days 
comes a man in a curroch, who offers to heal the broken leg. 
O'Cein will not be healed till he hears a story, and their con- 
versation becomes a kind of Chorus 1st. 

3rd Story. — Told in the first person by the man who came 
in the boat, Macan an Athamain mac Righ Lochlainn. Of 
a thing quickly done : the building of a church by three crafts- 
men; the rape of the King's daughter, and the start of her 
brother, the narrator, to recover her. Chorus 2nd. 

4th Story. — The pursuit after the sister. He finds an old 
man in an iron cradle and the sister and the craftsman and the 
Knight of the Red Shield, and they voyage homewards. 
Rescue of A' Ghil-Ghreine (Sunbright, lit. the whiteness of 
the sun), nighean Righ Feile Fionn, from a rock in the midst 
of the sea. The slaying of the Knight of the Red Shield by 
the narrator. Chorus 3rd. 

5th Story. — What happened about (say Sunbright) and 
the narrator, her husband and her two sons. Sunbright was 
carried off in a boat by a giant, Macabh Mor. The father 
was wounded, but after seven years set off with two sons to 
seek his wife. They part at three roads, to meet at the end 
of a year and a day. Here the story branches again. 

6th Story. — The father goes to a house, and a third son is 
born to him — Macan an Uaigneas, mac Mhacain an 
Athamain, mac Righ Lochlainn. 

5th Story continued. — The father and two sons dwelt for 
18 years at the three roads seeking news of Sunbright. A 
youth comes who beats and binds the sons and brings the 
father on his knees. He is the third son. They all go to 
rescue Sunbright (part of a well-known story) from Macabh 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 183 

Mor, the giant, who had carried her off at the beginning of 
the 5th story. The youngest son slays the giant. (In all this 
there is a great deal that is to be found in other stories which 
I have got, so that it would be fair and possible to make one 
.good version out of many and weave it in here). Chorus 4th. 

7th Story — How Macan an Uaigneas fared in the palace of 
Macabh Mor. — The youngest son was out walking when he 
saw a big black man on a black horse, with a black dog, and 
with a woman behind him. The black stranger (dark-haired 
is probably meant) challenged him to play. They played, and 
the winner named the stakes. The hero won the woman, the 
horse, and the dog on three successive days. (This is a version 
of a well-known story). 

8th Story. — Of a woman who is the daughter of the King 
of the Netherland (or low earth), and her advice. 

7th Story continued. — Branches to the task set by the big 
black man. 

9th Story (part of the 7th Story).— The story of the big 
giant of the one eye, and of a bone of his bones. He goes to 
the King of the Netherland, and following the advice of a 
daughter, after a year he makes him tell the story. It is 
divided into two sections, followed by a new chorus. Step- 
mother, by the help of a harper, changes the young King of 
the Netherland and his two brothers into three hounds. 
Chorus. Tftiey eat sheep, and are hunted to an island, where 
the narrator, the King, is driven by famine to eat his two 
brothers. He swam ashore at last, and hid under the sea- 
ware. His father came with hounds who hunted him. He 
fled to his father and licked his feet. He was rescued. His 
stepmother wished him slain. She was with child, and had a 
son. A watch was set. The child was taken away, and the 
dog was accused of eating it. This happened a second time. 
The third time the dog seized a great hand that came down 
the chimney, and tore it off, but the other hand came down 
and took the child. The dog fetched the arm from under the 
bed, and was proved innocent. (Cf. Pantchatantra, Gellart, 
etc. ; MacPhi of Colonsay and his tale ; the three green 
stringed (?) dogs of Dewar, etc.). The dog is made pilot, and 
they sail in search of the children. The dog finds them and 
the big "Athach" of the one eye asleep. He tears his 
weasand out. The stepmother and the witch are made to 
restore the King to his own shape, and they are burned. The 
Athach's body is put in a cave. (Versions of this which I 
Tiave are better, and the whole may be judiciously fused). 



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184 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Having got this story and a bone, the hero returns to his wife,, 
and takes her advice. He goes to the big black man, who was 
the brother of the one-eyed giant, sets him to sleep with the 
story, and cuts off his head with his own sword. And the 
third son and his father-in-law, King of the Netherland, were 
friends. Chorus 5th. 

10th Story.— The adventures of the other two sons of the 
narrator, the son of the King of Lochlann. Calpach, the 
youngest son was left behind, while the father and the other 
went to fight the Germans. (This is curious, for the French 
war had begun in August, and so the usual Turk changed into 
the Germans). This is a verson of Conall Gulban (p. 185, Vol. 
III., Popular Tales). I have many versions, and the whole 
may easily be fused. The characters and the chief incidents 
are the same, and the names are the same, too, though they 
vary. 

10th Story continued. — The narrator goes to the wars 
himself. 

11th Story. — The youngest son dreams, and goes to take 
Breast of Light from her castle. He slays the guards, takes 
her, and sleeps. 

12th Story. — The second rape of Athan Uchd-Sholuis by 
a big man who came in a ship. He is Mac na Foraise Fiadh- 
aich. The dancing herds tell him, and he follows in a ship. 
The game at shinny and slaying of a hero; the night in the 
house of savage guards. Their slaughter. Druanach is the 
first ally. The slaying of the provision bearers and of the 
warriors; the challenge to the wooer of the King's daughter. 
He is Macabh Mor mac High nan Sorachan. The victory over 
him ; his release ; his wedding. 

13th Story. — The coming of the warrior who had carried off 
Breast of Light. The victory over him. Mac na Foraise 
Fiadhaich. 

14th Story. — He tells his story; the third rape of Breast 
of Light, who was taken from him by the Emperor of the 
Universe. He was thrown into the sea, picked up by a 
griffin, and taken to her nest. He was nearly drowned by the 
young griffins; escaped, and came to tell his tale. (This is 
part of a well-known Western tale, usually called " An 
Tuairi-<* cul Mor). He promises to aid in pursuit of Breast of 
Light. " 

11th, 12th, 13th, 14th continued.— The three allies sail, 
and get to the King of Siginn, who agrees to join and send his 
24 sons. (Of this story there is very little, but from other 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 185 

scraps and verses and fragments which I have, there must be 
a great deal more. There are also three characters, called 
Cead, Cod, and Michead, who belong to the story, but who 
are not here). 

15th Story. — They challenge the King of the Universe^ 
who asks their names from Druarach. 1. Macabh Mor mac 
High nan Sorachan; 2. Macan na Foraise Fiadhaich; 3. Agus. 
Ceithir Mic Fhichead High Siginn. The King gave up the 
lady to the Calpach, and his 24 daughters and their dowers to 
the 24 sons of the King of Siginn, and they all sailed away. 

10th Story continued, and joined to the other five. — They 
land where the war was going on; meet a hideous hag, and 
brain her for rejoicing over the slaughter of their friends. 
They see a great hall with three doors j They enter, take gold 
chains, and cut off heads, and meet in the midst, each with 
two hands full of golden chains. They sailed home, and the 
Calpach married Breast of Light. Chorus 6th. 

16th Story. — The adventures of Gorm-shuil, Blue-eye, the 
other son of the narrator, Macan an Athamain. How he 
married the daughter of the man of the flapping grey cassock. 
(Of this I heard a long and very curious version under another 
name in Mull in 1870 — Murdoch Mac Brian). Gorm-shuil 
met a man who said that he was a good servant seeking a 
master; his wages, a head to be put on the shaft of his axe. 
A man came tossing his own head about, and challenged Blue- 
eye to a race. The man of the grey coat, after many delays, 
won the race and got the head. He set off with his master 
changed to servant, because no smith could head the axe. 
The first night they slept in a place under a bush, and the man 
killed two stags with stones slung from his garters. The next 
night, at his house, Blue-eye fell in love with the youngest of 
three daughters, crept to her bedside, and learned — 

17th — The Girl's Story. — Her brother had been carried off 
by a sea-monster and swallowed, and no one could rescue him 
but Blue-eye, the best walker, swimmer, and swordsman in 
Lochlanni The man of the grey coat went to rouse him, and 
found his bed cold, went to the shore, and met him returning 
with the rescued son. He gave him his daughter. They slept 
at the glen, and she said she must turn back, because a harper 
had died, and Blue-eye would love his widow and forget her. 
As she said, so it fell out. Another King's harper's wife died, 
and he sent for the widow of the first. Blue-eye slew the 
herald. The King sent a fleet; Blue-eye went to the shore, 
and slew the enemy as they landed. His squire hid behind a 



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186 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

rock, and when his master was wounded, made him write on 
the spear shaft that the servant had best fouglit. The man of 
the cassock and the daughter appeared, healed the wounds of 
Blue-eye, and he married the daughter. Chorus 7th. 

18th Story. — What happened after the battle. Blue-eye 
met a big hag who challenged him to cast stones. She wins, 
and orders him to fetch the head of Art nan Casan Connalach. 
He meets an ally. He leads him to the place. Lodged in the 
house of the Amhusg, he slays them all ; 900 full-heroes come ; 
the lad stripped a monstrous tree and slew them alL Said 
they must get the King's wife and daughter. The daughter 
bewitches Blue-eye. The comrade makes his bed of hides, soft 
as leather. He beheads the King. They part. He gives him 
a whistle. He goes to a shore, sees a boat, touches it, sticks 
to it, is carried to an island, sees a house, finds seven men who 
shout: The head of our brother Art, etc. They fall upon 
him; he blows, and his comrade beheads the 7, and puts him 
on the right road. He meets a man seeking a master; his 
wages, to be watched when he dies. 

Suas Mhaol. — He went thrice round the fire and died. He 
was buried anpl waked by Blue-eye. A carline came, sat and 
laughed, grew (see many Gaelic stories and Swedish versions), 
wrestled with him, called on her dead and buried son, who 
rose, overcame him ; whistled, comrade came, slew them. He 
recites all that he has done. He has slain his brother Art, his 
7 brethren, his brother Suas Mhaol, and his mother. He got 
the whistle, and sent Blue-eye home. Chorus 8th. 

19th Story (continuation of Nos. 1, 2). — A splinter had 
gone right for every story, and now the leg was whole. (There- 
fore, according to my reckoning, six stories are still wanted, 
or the stories must be otherwise divided, or the chorus must 
be repeated 24 times instead of 8, or the 9th story divided by 
its chorus may fit). The King of Lochlann took O'Cein to 
Ireland. There everything was changed. No one knew him. 
It was 300 years since O'Cein died, they said. He was a bad 
man, etc. He wept and repented, and all things changed 
back. The young King saluted him, and he lived a reformed 
man, and treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer ever after. 

On the whole, this is not like any story which I have. 
Some bits are new to me. Some incidents are familiar, but 
they are so arranged as to make new stories. Other large bits 
are versions of stories with which I am quite familiar. They 
are told with less peculiar language, as usually happens when 



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Sgeu/achd Co/V O'Cein. 187 

the narrator has been long absent from his native place, or 
has ceased to be a regular story teller. 

It seems to me that this is a sample of a mediaeval West 
-country romance imperfectly remembered. It is a Gaelic 
version of a kind of Saga, an Arthurian, knightly, marine, 
viking story compounded from floating popular tales of less 
size and smaller growth. 

I have already pieced together one compound story from a 
great many fragments carefully fitted together. Having the 
frame ready made, I can now very easily fit in a great many 
disjointed versions of the stories which are here joined. So 
far as I can see my way, these two systems will make two 
perfectly different compound stories, composed of different 
incidents, which need not clash. 

1. One is the dragon myth. That is translated, ready for 
printing, notes and all. 

2. This tale of sea chivalry and romance is abstracted. 

3. The Fenian legends and ballads, treated in the same 
way, make a third system, quite different from these two in 
every respect, and all three are genuine current tradition. 
The problem is : Are these stories now growing together ? or 
are they old structures falling into bits ? or how came they into 
their present shape ? I opine that they were bits at first, that 
they grew together long ago, and that most of the large 
growths have fallen to bits lately, and that this is the only 
sample of the larger growths which has been found in the 
mind of a single man in Scotland up to this time. Similar 
long rigmaroles are in old Irish manuscripts. 

Therefore, this story was worth hunting, and well worth 
all the trouble spent upon it, which is considerable. 

August, Monday, 29th,*1870. — On the 17th I saw the man 
who tells the tale at Paisley. He played the fiddle to my 
father and mother when first they went to Islay, and he is 
able to play the fiddle, and dance, too, now. 

The reciter says that he learned this when a boy from 
Aonghus Gruamach, or Angus the Grim, an old carter, who 
used to tell his story when driving in his cart. 
. . . . A man made a singed black sheep's head repeat 
the story to a man in a kiln at Grulinn. He could say every 
word. The lad would not.- He said: " Sheep's head, say it." 
The head said " Yes," and did it, and the man thought it was 
the devil. That is not a hundred years ago. The man's name 



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188 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

was Iain Mac Ghilleathain, the lad's name was Niall Mac 
Colla. 

[Part of a note written by J. F. C. while the old man was 
telling this in Gaelic. He meant that the Lome man, John 
Maclean, could say the whole story, and did say it in such a 
fashion in the kiln that the voice seemed to come from the 
singed sheep's head, to the dismay and terror of the lad, who 
could recite the story, but would not]. 

Note — March 22, 1871.- -The Gaelic is vernacular Gaelic 
as spoken by an Islay man resident in Paisley. His language 
now is mixed with some English corruptions, but, on the 
whole, it is still pure Islay Gaelic. The scribe is an Islay 
schoolmaster, whom I have drilled into writing what he hears 
without regard to theories, which make Gaelic scribes apt to 
write what things ought to be according to their view. 
Reciter and scribe spent some days together. First the old 
fellow was got to Glasgow, where he told his story to Maclean 
and John Taylor. Then he began to remember that he had 
forgotten parts of it. Then he and the scribe got together 
. . . i in Paisley, where I found them ... At the 
end of several days the scribe had made a shorthand version. 
He came to Inveraray, and had to go to Islay. There illness 
intervened, so the extended notes were long on their way to 
London. To get at this man's knowledge of books, I asked 
him about his reading. He knows, or did know almost the 
whole of the Arabian Nights from a book which was given to 
him in Islay; ditto -ZEsop. He knows that Persia is a great 
place for fables that he learned from the book with -ZEsop in 
it. He knows that Germany is a great place for legends about 
old castles. He had never seen or heard of Grimm. From 
this it appears that the man can distinguish between stories 
which he heard as a lad from oral recitation, and book stories. 
I set him to tell stories in Gaelic, and made notes as he went 
on, and extended my notes in English when I got back to the 
hotel in Glasgow, at night, and next morning. These I have 
separately. They are not book stories — that is, I am certain 
that they are genuine oral tales. 

From this I am satisfied that the man is a good sample of 
the story-telling class of Highlander. He is the sort of man 
which grows to be a Scott or a Macaulay, when cultivated. 
He is not an inventor, but he is a register full of everything 
that ever he heard, or read, and "he is able to fetch out his 
stock of knowledge from an orderly range of mental pigeon- 
holes. At the age of 83 he is still master of all his faculties. 



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Sgeulachd Cois' ffCein. 189 

I know many such, but, thus far, I have not found any one 
who had got this particular story. Of one of the stories which 
he told me, I have seventeen other versions orally collected, 
and I have read a great many more versions in several lan- 
guages, besides translations. As is usual in genuine oral 
popular tales, I find differences and resemblances in every 
version, compared singly or with the whole system — e.g., I find 
points of resemblance between Gaelic and Swedish tales which 
have never been published, and differences which distinguish 
Gaelic from Grimm's versions, Englished long ago, and 
brought within reach of men who tell stories in Gaelic and 
read English. I have long arrived at the conclusion that 
tradition can do a great deal more for history of a certain kind 
than historians of the average sort do in their day and 
generation. 

I have no standard by which to estimate this popular 
memory in this case, but if I can get hold of any old MS. 
version of O'Cein's Leg, here is something to set beside it. 

As to the other story, the resemblance to Swedish cannot 
be borrowed from the Swedish book, and the contrast between 
all the Gaelic versions and the English of Grimm is so marked 
that Grimm's versions cannot be the source of the Gaelic or 
of any of the seventeen. My seventeen added together make 
something more complete than either Swedish, German, or 
Italian. But something might be added from each language 
which the rest have not. Such a story I take to be a fragment 
of Aryan mythology in the true sense of that term. This 
story is another growth from the same store, but the leg is 
now much broken, and needs much mending. 

SGEULACHD COIS' 0' CEIN. 

O chionn uine mhoir bha righ ann an Eirinn a bha 'na 
dhuine coir agus 'na righ maith agus moran tlachd aig 
muinntir na rioghachd deth. Ach ged a bha e mar so cha 
robh moran toilinntinn aige ; gach duine cloinne a rachadh a 
bhreith dha cha robh gin diubh a cinntinn na tighinn air 
aghaidh, agus bha choltas air nach biodh duine cloinne aige 
aig am fagadh e 'chiiirt agus a chathair. Bha e 'gabhail 
comhairle uaislean na rioghachd feuch an d' thugadh iad 
fiosrachadh na soilleireachadh sam bith dha arson mar a bha 
'chuid cloinne 'falbh. Ach gach seoladh agus gach fiosrachadh 
a bha e 'faotainn cha robh e 'deanamh feum. Ach bha 
seann duine coir an sin a bha aig athair an righ so o a bige, 
agus thainig e 'n lathair an righ 's thuirt e ris : — 



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190 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

" O ! righ 's duilich learn an sprochd a tha luidhe ort, agus. 
gu h-araid aobhar do sprochd. Bheirinn mo chomhairle ort, 
nan gabhadh thu i, ma bhios mac agad na dheigh so, na 
duine cloinne, cuir air bhanaltrachd e fad air falbh uait agus 
na biodh do smaointinn air na amhu'l gu'm bi 'leithid ann 
idir. An deigh fhagail leig dha an sin gus am bi e naoi 
bliadhna deug a dh' aois agus an sin cuiridh tu fios ma 
'thuaiream. Ma bnios e beo, 's maith; 's mar am bi, cha 
bhi na h-urad dhuilichinn ort air a shon, o nach robh thu ga 
fhaicinn." 

Ach thainig cuisean m' an cuairt gus an do chinn a 
bhan-righ leatromach 's nuair a dh' asaideadh i de 'bha aic 
ach mac. Chuir an righ fios air an t-seann duine an so a 
thug a chomhairl' air agus thuirt e ris gu'n robh e 'smaoint- 
eachadh deanadh mar a dh' iarr e air. Rannsaich iad a 
mach arson bean-altruim do'n phaisde an arte fada mach o 
chuirt agus o chat hair an righ, agus a thaobh gu'n robh 
clann an righ a falbh, bha eagal air daoine am prionns' bg so 
'ghabhail m' an eireadh da fhein mar a dh' eirich do chach. 
Ach ma dheireadh fhuair iad a mach seann duine agus seana 
bhean aig nach robh teaghlach iad fhein d' am b' ainm 
O'Crbileagan. Thainig iad so ma thuaiream a phrionnsa a 
bhanaltrachd. Agus fhuair iad gu leoir de dh' or 's de 
dh' airgiod, 's gach sion a bhiodh a dhith orr' arson a 
ghnothaich. Agus fhuair iad brdugh gun innseadh co e, 's 
gun aideachadh nach bu leotha fhein e, gus am biodh e naoi 
bliadhna deug a dh' aois; agus nam biodh e beo iad a thoirt 
air ais gu cuirt agus cathair athar 's gu'n leigeadh iad 
fhaicinn gach teisteas 's gach ni bh' air, a dhearbhadh gu 'm 
V e mac ceart an righ e. 

Thug iad leo am paisde 's a chuid nach cinneadh san la 
dheth chinneadh san oidhche, 's bha choltas air gu 'm biodh 
e 'na ghille gasda 'nuair a thigeadh e gu meudachd. Bha 
urad gaoil aig oide 's aig a mhuime air 's ged a bu leo fhein 
fichead uair e. Cha robh O'Groileagan ach 'na dhuine bochd 
ann am bothan sgroth, 's bha na daoine m' an cuairt air 
fad ann an ioghnadh ciamar bha e 'togail a ghille co maith. 
Bha e toirt a h-uile ionnsachadh da 's bha iongantas orra 
c' arson a bha e 'toirt a leithid a dh' ionnsachadh da ; chionn 
chreid iad gu 'm b' e mhac fhein a bh' ann. 'Nuair a thainig 
e gu spionnadh thug e h-uile ionnsachadh da a bhiodh feumail 
da an latha blair is batailt. Bha e uile gu leir ceutach agus 
foghainteach, agus lean iad mar sin gus an robh e dluth air 
naoi bliadhna deug a dh' aois. Shiubhail a mhuime an sin 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 191 

's cha robh ann ach e fhem is 'oide comhla. 'Nuair a bha 
e 'n sin naoi bliadhna deug a dh' aois thuirt oide ris la de 
na laithibh : — 

" Tha 'n t-am agam-sa 'nis thusa a leigeil dachaidh gu 
t' aite fhein. Tha mo ckumhnanta-sa 's mo ghealladh air a 
chriochnachadh, agus cha leam-sa thusa n'as fhaide!" 

Dh' amhairc an gioll' air 's an aodann 's cha robh fhios 
aige de 'theireadh e ris ! Ann an ceann tiotamh beag thuirt 
e r'a oide: — " O ! athair, co mi na co dha bhuineas mi? 
Shaoil mise gum b' ann leat fhein mi 's cha robh iarraidh 
agam air t' fhagail." 

" Tha e n'as buanachdaiche dhuit falbh," ars' O'Crbil- 
eagan; " 's tu mac righ na h-Eireann." 

Chaidh an t-6ganach throimhe cheile cho mor 's nach robh 
fhios aige c'aite an robh e na sheasamh leis an sgeul so 
fhaotainn cho ath-ghoirid 's an duilichinn a bh' air oid' 
fhagail. Rinn iad reidh 's dh' fhalbh iad air an astar ma 
thuaiream ciiirt agus cathair an righ. 'Nuair a bha iad 
fagus do chiiirt agus do chathair an righ chual iad gun robh 
'n righ marbh. Bha fios aig daoine na rioghachd gu 'n robh 
prionns' ann 's gu 'n do chuireadh air bhanaltrachd e. Ach 
c'ait an do chuireadh e, na c'ait' an robh e, cha robh fios aca ; 
na c'ait' an rachadh iad a nis 'a 'iarraidh. Ach bha da na 
tri dhaoin' aig an righ a dh' fhaodadh e earbs' asda, leis an 
t-seann duine 'thug a chomhairl' air, a bha fhios aca c'ait an 
deachaidh an leanabh air bhanaltrachd, 's c'ait' am faight- 
eadh e nam biodh e 'lathair; chionn cha bu mhaith leis an 
righ fios a bhith gu 'n deachaidh a mhac a bhanaltrachd ann 
an aite cho bhochd, an t-eagal (recte : air eagal) nach biodh 
meas ac' air. 

'Nuair a chaidh an glaodh a mach arson a phrionnsa a 
dhol an ait athar, dh' amhairc na daoine so 's cha robh an 
t-am a mach f hathasd ; chionn bha iad f o mhionnan gus am 
biodh na naoi bliadhna deug a mach nach innseadh iad ni 
sam bith timchioll air, 's nach cuireadh iad fios air. Agus an 
so, 'nuair a thainig an t-am agus a bha iad a dol ma thuaiream 
na seann daoine so gun fhios do chach, la de na laithibh de a 
thainig a stigh do bhaile mor an righ ach giolla 6g, eireachdail. 
Bhuail e beum-sgeithe air an fhaiche agus ghearr e foid- 
comhraig. Chaidh teachdaire a mach far an robh e. Dh' 
fhoighnichd iad deth co as a thainig e na c'ait an robh e dol, 
na ciod a bha dhith air. Thionndaidh an seann duine m' an 
cuairt (O'Croileagan) agus thuirt e riu gu 'n robh iad ag 
iarraidh tri daoine a bhuineadh do chuirt agus do chathair an 



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*92 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

righ. Thainig da dhuine de na daoine a lathair agus thubh- 
airt iad gu 'n do shiubhail an seann duine a thug a chomhairl 
air an righ. 

'Nuair a chunnaic iad O'Croileagan dh' aithnich iad 's a 
mhionaid e agus dh' innis esan gu 'm b' e sid an leanabh a 
ihuair e a bhanaltrachd ; gu 'n robh e a nis naoi bliadhna 
deug a dh' aois 's gu 'n d' thug esan air ais e mar a gheall e. 
Thug e dhaibh na comharran a fhuair e leis an leanabh ; ach 
bha na seann daoine cho glic 's gu 'n do chuir iad comharr' 
air an leanabh air nach robh fios aig O'Crbileagan eagal 
agus gu malairteach e 'n leanabh, nan siubhladh e 
gii 'n cuirte fear eile 'na 'aite. Dh' amhairc iad 's fhuair iad 
a h-uile ni gu ceart. 'Nuair a chunnaic iad an sin gur h-e 
mac an righ a bha ann chaidh glaodh a chur a mach feadh na 
rioghachd gur h-e a bh' aca. Thug iad leo am prionns' bg 
an so, air mullach 's air barr 's air baideil a' bhaile, air alt 's 
gu 'm faiceadh na daoine e. Thruis iad as gach cearn. 
Thruis seann daoine a bhaile m' an cuairt 's nuair a chunnaic 
iad e dh' aithnich na seann daoine gu 'm b' e nor choltas an 
righ a bh' ann — mar a bha e 'na 'bige. 

Chaidh am prionnsa 'chrunadh 'na righ an so agus chaidh 
cuirm is fleadh a chur feadh gach aite 's bha ard thoil- 
inntinn ac' aig crunadh an righ. Thuirt an righ bg riu gu 'm 
feuchadh esan a bhi cho maith r'a athair, agus nach deanadh 
e 'bheag a dh' atharrachadh orra. 

Bha O'Crbileagan an so fo mheas mor aig na daoin' uaisle, 
o 'n a b' e oid' an righ. Chaidh beagan aimsir seachad mar 
sin ; ach daoine a bhios ro mhaith air an cumail, cha bhi iad 
toilichte leis an sin. Dh' fhas O'Crbileagan brbdail 's neo- 
thoilichte de 'n staid mhor anns an robh e 'nis. La de na 
laithibh thainig e stigh far an robh 'n righ agus thuirt e 
ris : — 

"Tha mise a dol dachaidh." 

"De tha thu dol a dheanamh dachaidh?" ars' an righ. 
" Cha 'n 'eil a bhean beo 's cha bhi tigh ach fuar air thoiseach 
ort, 's b' fhearr dhut fantuinn far a' bheil thu. Nach 'eil a 
h-uile rud agad a mhiannaicheas tu ri 'fhaotainn, 's ma tha 
ni sam bith a dhith ort gheibh thu e." 

"Cha 'n fhan mi," ars' O'Crbileagan. i 
" De ni mis' an so 1 Tha thu 'n deigh fas fuathach umam. 
Falbhaidh thu le daoine uaisle eile 's cha 'n amhairc thu 
orm-sa." 

"Nach 'eil fios agad," ars' an righ; " gu 'm bheil urad 
gaoil agam-sa ort 's a bh' agam riamh ort, 's am barrachd a 
nis. 

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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 193 

"Tha thu 'ga leigeil sin fhaicinn," ars' am bodach, 
"" 'nuair a dh' fhalbhas thu 'sa mhaidinn 's nach mothaide 
gu 'm faic mise gu h-oidhche thu.'' 

"Nach 'eil fhios agad," ars' an righ " gu bheil agam-sa 
moran ri dheanadh a nis. Tha luchd-comhairleachaidh agam 
ri freasdal daibh agus daoine tha mi 'cur a mach a dh' am hare 
as deigh staid na rioghachdi Ma tha gearan sam bith gu 
dheanadh 's eiginn domh dol a dh' eisdeachd ris agus an 
gnothach a leasachadh; agus leis an sin nach 'eil thu f aicinn 
nach 'eil uin agam-sa bhith leat mar a b' abhaist." 

" Thu fhein is t' uine," ars' O'Crbileagan. " Cha bhithinn 
a'm' rjgh arson rud sam bith 's cha 'n fhanainn da oidhche 
ann ad thigh arson storais do rioghachd." 

Thuirt an righ ris gum b' fhearr da fantuinn ach mar as 
mo a chomhairleachadh an righ e arson fantuinn 's ann as 
mo bha esan air a chuthach a dhol dachaidh. Thuirt an righ 
e dh' iarraidh rud sam bith mata 's gu 'nd' thugadh esan da 
e. Thuirt am bodach ris nach iarraidh e ach beagan de na 
cona beaga bh' aige 's gu 'm biodh e 'falbh. An ath la 
chunnaic an righ nach robh maith dha bhi dheth 's thuirt e 
ris gum f aigheadh e sin. Air an ath la rinn am bodach reidh 
gu falbh. 'Nuair a bha e 'falbh 's an righ a' fagail, bheann- 
aich iad d' a cheile. Thubhairt an righ ris nach b J fhada 
bhiodh e air falbh gus an tilleadh e a rithis le a thoil fhein. 

"Chi thu sin," ars' am bodach. 

Dh J fhalbh am bodach air a shlighe a dhol dachaidh gus 
a bhothan sgroth. Bha na madaidh bheaga a' ruith air an 
ais 's air an aghaidh, 's a null 's a nail 's am bodach ag 
gaireachdaich ag amharc orra. Bha O'Crbileagan air mharc- 
achd 's an uair a bha e 'n so a' tighinn fagusg do 'n ait aige 
fhein, bha na madaidh bheag' a' gabhail a chuthaich agus de 
'rinn iad ach gearraidh 1 a dhusgadh. Thoisich na madaidh 
bheaga air ruith a ghearraidh. 'Nuair a bheireadh e lamh 
air ruith, bha rud-eiginn de na madaidh bheaga air thoiseach 
air 's 'nuair a thilleadh e bha rud-eiginn de na madaidh 
bheaga air thoiseach air. Bha 'n gearraidh an so a brath a 
bhi 'na eiginn agus sheas am bodach le toilinntinn ag amharc 
air na madaidh bheaga a' ruith a ghearraidh. 'Nuair a 
chunnaic an gearraidh gu 'n robh e brath a bhi glacta aig na 
madaidh thug e dui-leum air cul-thaobh a bhodaich air 
muin an eich. Thug am bodach ionnsuidh m' an cuairt a 
bhreith air a ghearraidh agus gu de a bh' aige ach am 

1 Le , gearr-fhiadh, 'a hare.' 

13 



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194 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

boireannach bu bhoiche a thig na thainig na chunnaic duine 
riamh fo 'n ghrein. Thug e lamh air pdg a thoirt uaipe. 
Thuirt i ris nach fhaigheadh e siod ach air chumhnant. Dh' 
fhoighneachd e de 'n cumhnant a bhiodh i 'g iarraidh- 
"Tha," ars' ise, "nach tilg thu orm gu brath gur h-ann fa 
chasaibh do choua beaga 'fhuair thu mi." A thiotamh 
thoilich e siod a dheanamh gheall e dhi nach tigeadh an latha 
thilgeadh e urra gur h-ann fo chasaibh nan con a fhuair e L 
Bha iad sin ag gabhail air an aghaidh gus an d' thainig iad 
fagus do 'n aite 's an robh 'n tigh aige-san. Thug e suil 
m' an cuairt air 's de 'chunnaic e ach na sleibhtean air an. 
comhdach le caoirich. 

" Ha/' ars' am bodach, " tha mise a' faicinn a nis gu de 
th' ann 's gu de tha 'n righ an deigh a dheanadh. Tha e 'n. 
deigh mo chuid fearann-sa 'shuidheachadh air daoin' eile '& 
tha e Ian chaorach an diugh." 

" Cha 'n 'eil ann 'eudail," ars' a' bhean, "ach cuid de 'n. 
tochar agam-sa." 

" Hu," ars' esan, " na bi gam mhealladh, 's e siod mar 
a tha." 

"O," ars' ise, " cha 'n 'eil mise gad mhealladh, 's ann. 
tha 'n siod an tochar agam-sa." 

Ghabh iad air an aghaidh an sin gus an d' thainig iad gu. 

glinn Ian do chrodh seasg a suas ris na h- 2 is buach- 

aillean 'gan gleidheadh. Ghlaoidh am bodach : — 

" Rinn mo dhalta an righ orm-sa na thoilich e fhein. 
Thug e seachad mo chuid fearainn 's tha e aig daoin' eile 's 
tha mise nis gun ni sam bith." 

" Och a ghraidh/' ars' a bhean 6g; " na toir feairt air a 
sin. Sin an tochar agam-sa." 

"Cha 'n e," ars' esan. "De mar a dh' fhaodas sin a 
bhith?" "Chi thu sin air a cheann ma dheireadh," ars r 
ise, "gur h-e mo thochar-sa a th' ann." 

Ghabh iad an sin pios eile air an aghaidh 's bha iad an 
sin a* tighinn fagus do 'n tigh. Chunnaic iad an sin paircean 
nach tig 's nach d' thainig an leithid, le alach 's le crodb 
bainne 's laoigh a beadradh 's na prisnich. Air ard mhullach 
nan gieann chiteadh creagan arda corracha, bioracha le 
gobhraibh agus le minneanaibh a maigeartaich 'nan deigh a 
measg nan sgorran garbha sin. Thug am bodach aon ghlaodh 
as 'nuair a chunnaic e so. Theab e tuiteam far an eich leis 
an t-sealladh. 

2 Spelling unclear, but meaning must be * summits,' or ' slopes.' 

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Sgeulachd Cot's' O'Cein. 195 

"O ghraidh," ars' ise, " de th' ort?" 's i 'breith air, air- 
neo bhiodh e sios 'na shineadh air a bhlar. 

" Nach mor a th' orm," ars' esan, " gu 'n tug mo dhalta 
an righ uam gach ni bh' agam de 'n t-saoghal. 'S maith a 
dh' fhaodadh e 'radh 'san am an do dhealaich mi ris gun 
tillinn le m' thoil fhein a rithis far an robh esan." 

" A ghraidh mo chridhe," ars' ise, " 's ann a th' ann roinn 
de m' thochar-sa 's chi thu sin air a cheann ma dheireadh." 

Thuirt am bodach rithe gun robh i ga mhealladh agus 
thuirt ise ris-san gu 'm faiceadh e sin air a cheann ma 
dheireadh, e ghabhail air aghaidh 's gu 'm faiceadh e nach 
robh mealladh ann. Ghabh iad air an aghaidh air an t-slighe. 
'Nuair a thainig iad an sin gu sealladh a bhothain sgroth a 
bh' aige fhein 's a thog e 'shiiilean 's ann an sin a bha 'n 
sealladh ri amharc air — caisteal mor agus luchairt aluinn air 
a tuthadh le cloimh nan eun. Thug am bodach glaodh as 's 
ghlaoidh e ris a mhnaoi oig : — 

"An e so do ghealladh a nis? M' ait* aig duin' eile *s 
aitreabh air a togail an aite mo bhothain bhochd fhein, agus 
ni iad ball-spbrs is magaidh dhiom arson a bhi 'g agairt coir 
air an ait a bu learn fhein roimhe." 

" A ghraidh mo chridhe, ,, ars* ise, " biodh foighidinn agad 
gus an ruig thu." 

Ghabh iad air an aghaidh. 'Nuair a rainig iad &h' 
amhairc am bodach le ioghnadh m' an cuairt agus bha 'shiubhal 
an dorchadas leis an t-sealladh a fhuair e agus leis a 
ghreadhnachas a chual a chluas agus an gairdeachas a bha 
roimhe 'ga fhailteachadh dhachaidh — e fhein agus a bhean 6g 
phosda. Chaill e 'chlL A cheud mhothachadh a thainig 'ga 
ionnsuidh chunnaic e gillean ga thoirt a bharr an eich. Bha 
gillean coise agus searbhantan an sin a mach as an luchairt 'a 
'm failteachadh a stigh do 'n aitreabh mhoir sin. Fhuair 
O'Croileagan a mach an so gur h-e tochar a mhnatha bh J ann 
agus nach bu bhreug. Dh' itheadh e le pogaibh i 's bhathadh 
e le deoiribh i. Cha robh ni a mhiannaicheadh e na ni a 
smaointicheadh e nach robh aige anns an am a smaointicheadh 
na 'mhiannaicheadh e e. Lean an iiine mar sin car treis 's 
cha lughaide beagan bhliadhnachan 's bha O'Croileagan 'na 
dhuine sona deth. Ach cha 'n urrainn duine bhi fada sona 
air an doigh so gun rud eile thighinn de chrois 'na cheann. 
Bha O'Croileagan ga fhaicinn fhein os cionn an righ. Bha e 
'faicinn gu 'n robh enab' fhearr na 'n righ air a h-uile doigh 
agus a thaobh gu *n robh righ a' smaointeachadh gu 'm 
b' eiginn da tilleadh dhachaidh gun taing, bha e 'smaoint- 



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196 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

eachadh gu 'n leigeadh e nis fhaicinn do 'n righ gu 'n robh e 
na b' fhearr as na e fhein. An fheadhain a tha gam faiciun 
fhein gu maith 's minic a tha crois a tighinn na 'n rathad an 
tilgeil air an ais a rithist. Bha O'Croileagan a nis fad tri na 
ceithir de laithean a' smaointeachadh dol agus a leigeil 
fhaicinn do 'n righ ard inbh fhein 's nach ruigeadh esan naire 
ghabhail as an aite 's an d' fhuair e 'thogail. La de na 
laithibh thainig a bhean a stigh far an robh e agus dh' 
fhoighneachd i dheth de 'n sprochd a bha i 'faicinn air inntinn 
o chionn tri laithean, chionn nach robh e cho aoibheil 's a 
b' abhaist da. Dh' innis e dhi gun robh e smaointeachadh dol 
a dh' amharc an righ agus 'a chuireadh chun dinneir chun a 
thighe, agus a mhor-uaislean maille ris, a leigeil fhaicinn da 
gu 'n robh esan cho maith as ris fhein. Dh' amhairc a bhean 
gu maith gruamach a sios air a' chas-bhrat agus dh' fhan i 
treis mar sin a' smaointeachadh. Thog i 'n sin a suilean, 
blath, flathail a suas 's dh' amhairc i air 's b' fhurasd 
aithneachadh gu 'n robh duilichinn mhor 'na h-inntinn. 
Labhair i 's thuirt i ris : — " Ma ghabhas tu mo chomhairle-sa, 
leigidh tu do 'n righ far a bheil e le a chuirtearan agus fanaidh 
tu gu socair leam-sa aig an tigh. Gheibh thu gach ni shireas 
tu agus gach ni 'mhiannaicheas tu." Ach cha 'n eisdeadh 
esan rithe. 

" Ma dh' fhalbhas tu," ars' ise ris, " cho cinnteach 's a 
tha thu beo bidh aithreachas ort." Ach bha 'm bodach 
danarra dur agus an ni ghabhadh e na cheann cha b' urrainn 
neach a chur as. 'Nuair a chunnaic i nach b' urrainn i 
'chumail air ais, leig i da falbh. Chuir a bhean an ordugh e 
airson an astair cho maith 's ged a b' e 'n righ fhein a bhiodh 
dol air astar. 

Dh' fhalbh O'Oroileagan ma thuaiream an righ chuireadh 
gu dinneir. Bu cham gach rathad da gus an d' thainig e gu 
cuirt agus cathair righ Eireann, a dhalta. Bha righ Eireann 
a mach air barr agus baideil a' bhaile — e fhein agus uaisean 
maille ris, a' gabhail seallaidh an so comhla ri cheile f Suil 
gu 'n d' thug an righ agus faicear O'Crbileagan, 'oide, 
tighinn. Ghabh an righ de bhoch agus gun fiughair aige ris 
's gu 'n do leum e mach, air barr a shleagh agus air barraibh 
ordag, thar na ciiirte agus na cathrach ann an comhdhail 'oide, 
O'Croileagan. Dh' fhailtich iad a cheile le furan an sin. 
Labhair an righ agus thuirt e ri O'Croileagan, 'oide. " O!" 
ars' an righ, " nach d' thuirt mi ruit, oide, gu 'n d' thigeadh 
tu 'm' amharc a rithis le d' thoil fhein." 



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Sgeulaohd Cois' O'Cein. 197 

" O!" ars' O'Croileagan, " cha 'n ann air m' ais a thainig 
mi 7 dh' fhantuinn ach 'a t' iarraidh-sa agns ard-uaislean do 
chathrach, a dhol a ghabhail dinneir agus fleadh leam-sa ann 
a' m' thigh fein." 

'Nuair a chual an righ so thuirt e ri O'Croileagan : — 

" Na dean. Na d' thoir mo naire asam-sa, chionn nam 
faiceadh iad an t-ait anns an d' fhuair mise m' arach 's mo 
thogail, cha bhiodh meas na miadh ac' orm. Chlachadh iad 
a mach as a bhaile mi agus thaghadh iad righ eile ann a' m' 
aite." 

"Ho!" ars' O'Croileagan, "tha mo thigh-sa cho maith ri 
d' thigh-sa, 's n'as fhearr. Tha mo sheirbhisich 's mo 
ghillean-stabuill n'as fhearr, 's cha ruig thu leas naire a 
ghabhail asam-sa na as an ait an d' fhuair thu do thogail, 's 
cha robh ban-righ aig t' athair na aig do shean-athair, 's cha 
bhi agad-sa, cosmhuil ris a' mhnaoi a tha agam-sa." 

Thionndaidh an righ agus dh' amhairc e 'san lar agus 
smaointich e treis. 

" O !" ars' esan ris fhein, " tha m' oide an deigh a chiall a 
chall ; . ma theid so air aghaidh caillidh mise mo mheas. A 
h-uile seoltachd agus gliocas a ghabh m J athair 's na seann 
daoine bha maille ris arson a chleith, bidh e air fhoillseachadh 
a nis, ach gabhaidh mi foighidinn agus feuchaidh mi ris — an 
dean mi 'thilgeil as a' bheachd anns am bheil e." 

Thug e leis O'Croileagan, 'oide, stigh do 'n luchairt agus 
chum e fad laithean an sin e 'ga chomhairleachadh ach mar bu 
mhotha chomhairleachadh esan am bodach 's ann a bu mhotha 
bha 'm bodach arson a chur air aghaidh. Dh' fheuch an righ 
ris cho mhaith 's a b' urrainn e. Thuirt e ris gu 'm falbhadh 
e leis, 's nach biodh fios aig duine air, 's gu 'm faiceadh e 'n 
t-aite. "A nis," ars' an righ, 'a t' thoileachadh, falbhaidh 
mi leal" 

Air an ath latha rinn an righ agus O'Croileagan deas arson 
an astar agus dh' fhalbh iad. Ach a dh' aindeoin de a 
dh' iarr an righ air, thug O'Croileagan cuireadh do na m6r 
uaislean gus a chuirm. Latha de na laithibh, 's iad fagus do 
bhith leith an rathaid do thigh O'Croileagain, thug an righ 
suil as a dheigh agus chunnaic e m6ran marc-shluaigh a' 
tighinn. Dh' fhoighneac e dhe O'Croileagan, de na daoine 
bha 'tighinn an siud. Dh' innis O'Croileagan da, gu 'n robh 
m6r-uaislean a chxiirte fhein a' tighinn a ghabhail cuirme leis- 
san. "O," ars' an righ, "tha mise reidh. Thug thu mo 
mhothachadh a nis asam air fad. Cha b' urrainn thu tuillidh 



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198 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

a dheanadh. Chi iad a nis an tigh beag sgroth 's an robh mis 
air mo thogail." 

"Ho!" ars' O'Croileagan, "dean foighidinn gus am faic 
thu." 

Cha robh aig an righ ach bas na beatha ach b' eiginn da 
leantainn air aghaidh, chionn bha e uile agus cinnteach gu 'n 
clachadh na daoine e. Lean iad air an aghaidh 's bha na 
daoin' uaisle 'tighinn na bu chaise 's na b' fhaisge dhaibh, 's 
bha de dh' eagal air an righ gu 'm biodh an uine tuillidh a's 
goirid leis an fhaidead 's a bhiodh e gun tighinn dh' ionnsuidh 
a bhothain. Air a cheann ma dheireadh thainig na daoine 
suas riutha. Bha 'n sin a h-uile duine a b' fhiach duine a 
radh ris ann 'sa chuirt a' tighinn a dh' ionnsuidh na dinnear- 
ach ach 'na measg air fad bha aon duine da 'm b' ainm O'Cein 
a bha aig an righ 'na fhear-ionmhais 's a' togail a chuid mail. 
Bha e 'na dhroch dhuine 's bha gamhlas aig gach neach dha, 
gu h-araid na daoine bha bochd 'nan staid. 

Gnabh iad air an aghaidh. 'Nuair a bha iad 'tighinn 
fagus do 'n aite 's an robh 'm bothan-sgroth, bha 'n righ fo 
mhiothlachd mor 's fo ioghnadh ma 'n atharrachadh a thainig 
air an aite. Ma dh' eireadh thainig iad ann am fosgladh do 'n 
bhothan-sgroth. 

Feuch ! an sealladh a bha 'n sin. Aitreabh mhor agus 
liichairt aluinn air a tuthadh le claimh nan eun. Bha 'n righ 
fo imcheist ach thainig e gu rud-eiginn de mhisnich 'nuair a 
chunnaic e so. Agus 'nuair a rainig iad, ann am prioba na 
sula, bha gillean a mach an sin a' freasdal daibh. Bha gach 
each an sin air a ghlanadh 's air a bhiadhadh. Air an laimh 
eile bha gille-coise mach as an luchairt 'gam failteachadh le 
greadhnachas a stigh. Chaidh gach sion a chur air aghaidh 
ann an tiotamh. Ach ma bha eagal air an righ roimhe sin, 
bha de thoilinntinn air a nis, 's de sholas a' faicinn gu 'n 
robh h-uile rud mar a thubhairt am bodach aige, agus gu 
h-araid dh' amhairc a shuil le aon aire air a mhnaoi iiir 6ig so, 
a bha gu h-aoibheil cridheil, baidheil, tlathail, le namh gaire 
'g am failteachadh a stigh. 

Chaidh a chuirm air a h-aghaidh, 's ma chaidh b' e sin a 
chuirm a bha soghmhor. Bha gach ni dol air aghaidh le 
toilinntinn mhoir ann an tigh O'Croileagain. Lean so fad tri 
laithean, chionn b' e sin a chleachduinn ann 's na linntibh sin. 
Air an fheasgar air an treas latha bha iad a' fas gu maith 
cridheil le 61 dheochanna. Anns an fheasgar air an treas 
latha, dh' iarr am bodach seorsa dibhe air a mhnaoi, 's cha do 
rug am bodach gu ceart air a chorn, 's dhoirt e cuid de 'n 



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Sgeu/achd Cois' O'Cein. 199 

deoch air 'aodach, 's dh' amhairc e gu fiadhaich air a mhnaoi 
's thuirt e rithe gu 'n d' thug i tamailt mhor dha an lathair 
nan uaislean leis an deoch a dhortadh air aodach; ach nach 
b' ioghnadh siud chionn gu'mb' ann fo chasaibh chona beaga 
fhuair e i. Dh' amhairc i air gu geur ach cha d' thubhairt i 
smid. Mhothaich am bodach da fhein agus ghabh e aith- 
reachas. Chaidh a chuirm air a h-aghaidh gu h-am dol a 
luidhe. Bha 'bhean a' toirt leapaichean 's aiteachan taimh 
do na daoine uaisle. Cha robh lamh air an tionndadh neach 
robh dorus seombar-cadail ri fhaotainn. Bha h-uile gin de 
na daoine uaisle o 'n a thainig iad a stigh do 'n tigh, ag 
amharc air a mhnaoi uir big a bha aig a' bhodach, ach bha 
h-aon nam measg a bha 'g amharc le droch shuil air bean an 
tighe, mar a bha O'Cein, fear-gleidhidh an ionmhais aig an 
righ. Dh' amhairc esan uirre le droch shuil o 'n a thainig e 
chun an tighe agus chuir e roimhe gu 'm biodh a mhiannan 
air an sasachadh a dh' aindeoin de chosdadh e da. 'Nuair a 
bha bean an tighe 'gan cur a luidhe, cha bu chadal dasan e 
ach bha e 'g amharc as a dheigh 's e feuchainn c'ait am biodh 
ise 'na luidhe. Dh' eirich e 's rainig e 'n seombar-cadail 
aice-sa 's chaidh e stigh. Ghabh e suas gus an leabaidh ach 
mhosgail ise agus dh J fhoighneachd i deth de bha dhith air. 
'Nuair a dh' innis e sin thug i leum aisde mach as an leabaidh. 
Leum i 'na loth ghlais thapaidh 's bhuail i buille d'a cois 
deiridh air anns an lurga agus rinn i ceithir spealgan fichead 
d'a chois. 

'Nuair a thainig an latha 's a ghluais gach duine uasal a 
eadal na h-oidhche, 's ann an sin a bha 'n t-ioghnadh. An 
liichairt mhor agus na baideil arda, na stabuill agus na bath- 
aichean, na gillean stabuill 's na gillean-each, na searbhantan 
agus na gillean coise; cha robh mir ri fhaicinn diubh ach 
lompair a mhonaidh agus an fhraoich. Na tolmain agus na 
digean agus gach ni bha timchioll an t-seann bhothain sgroth. 
a bha 'na thigh aig O'Crbileagan o shean, agus an tigh fhein 
'na shean bhothan sgroth mar a bha e riamh roimhe. Bha 
daoine uaisle ann an torn an siud, ann an lag froinich an so, 
ann an toll fo fhraoch an ait eile, agus feadh dhigean, anns 
an aon charadh a bu chruadalaiche chunnaic duine riamh. 
Fhuaradh O'Crbileagan agus an righ ann san t-seana bhothan 
sgroth 'nan luidhe air na seann leapaichean a bh' ann o shean. 
'Nuair a dhuisg iad cha robh iad a' creidsinn an t-seallaidh a 
bha m'an cuairt orra. 

'Nuair a thruis iad comhla 's a dh' amhairc iad 'nam 
measg an robh a h-uile duine air faotainn — gach neach a 



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200 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

thainig o chuirt agus chathair an righ bha iad ann air fad 
ach O'Cein. Thoisich iad air amharc air a shon-san, chionn 
gu 'm b' e fear-ionmhais agus togail mail an righ e. Bha eagal 
agus uamhas aca roimhe, chionn e bhi 'na dhuine cho dona. 
An deigh rurach mor a dheanadh air a shon, fhuair iad e 'na 
luidhe ann an dig dhomhain fhliuch, a measg fraoich, m'an 
cuairt air da nihil' o 'n kite 's a chas brisde 'na ceithir spealgan 
fichead. Thog iad leo e 'n sin gu tigh O'Croileagain 's chuir 
iad air cro-leabaidh e, gus am faigheadh iad inneal giulain 
air a shon a thoirt ga thigh fhein ann am baile mor an righ. 
An dei^h a ghiulan dachaidh ga thigh fhein, bha e fo mhor 
chradh. Fhuair iad gach lighiche agus fear-sgil a bh'ann 'sa 
rioghachd, ach cha b* urrainn iad a leigheas na maith sam 
bith a dheanadh dha. 

II. 

Anns na laithean sin gu de a thainig stigh do 'n chala ach 
soithichean a bha aig an righ air falbh ann an rioghachdan 
iomallach arson gach uile ni agus goireas a bhiodh a dhith 
air rioghachd na h-Eireann. Thainig an t-ard chaibhtinn a 
bha orra 'thoirt umlilachd do 'n righ 's a dh' innseadh dha 
an sonas agus an t-agh a bha ga leantainn o 'n a dh' fhalbh e 
gus an d' thainig e, ann an saibhreas 's ann am beairteas. 
Dh' innis an righ dha gach sion a bha dol air aghaidh aig an 
tigh o dh' fhalbh e 's mar a fhuair O'Cein a chas a bhristeadh 
gu miothalach (mi-shealbhach ?). 

Thoisich an caibhtinn air innseadh do 'n righ mar a 
thachair da, aon uair a bha e air a shlighe a' tighinn dachaidh. 

' O righ, mair beo gu brach. Bha mis' an siud a' tighinn 
dachaidh ann am mor thoil-inntinn leis an t-soirbheachadh a 
bha ga m' leantainn ann 'sa h-uile h-ait an robh mi. Ach 
aon latha dhorchaich na speuran 's dh' fhas na neoil trom 
tiueh. Bha uamhas feadh nan speur air fad. Cha robh deo 
soirbheas nnn ach bha 'n fhairge uile mar gu 'm biodh i fo 
uamhainn 's i ag eiridh ard a suas. Ach air a cheann ma 
dheireadh bhrisd an stoirm a mach, sheid a ghaoth, dh' 
eirich onfhadh na fairge, 's bha 'n doirionn uile gu leir 
uamhasach. Bha na soithichean air an luasgadh 's ann an 
cunnart a bhi air an slugadh suas. Bha na seolaidairean air 
an tilgeadh a nuas as na crannagan le lamhan 's le casan 
brisde agus gach leon a bha mulaideach ri amharc air. Bha 
na soithichean air an sganradh o cheile ach le mor dhichioll 
fhuair mi *n trusadh a ris ; bha na daoine cho lag anmhunn 
'8 gur gann a bha iad comasach air an obair a dheanadh, cha 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein, 201 

robh ach dithis agam fhein air mo shoitheach a bha comasach 
air a bheag a dh' obair a dheanadh. Ach dh' fhalbh an stoirm 
's dh' fhas an fhairge lorn samhach, 's bha sinn tighinn air 
ar n-aghaidh mar a b' fhearr a dh' fhaodamaid. 

.Bha latha araid an sin a bha sinn ag amharc a mach m'ar 
timchioil agus chunnaic mi coslas eilein iseil bhoidhich a' 
teachd air thoiseach orm. Smaointich mi gu 'n seolainn 'a 
dh' ionnsuidh feuch de ? n seors' eilein a bha ann 's thug mi 
brdugh do na soithichean eile mo leantainn. 'Nuair a rainig 
sinn an t-eilean, bha e 'na eilean, bha e na eilean boidheach 
iseal, Ian de na h-uile seorsa chraobhan-meas a b' urrainn 
duine smaointeachadh, le sruthanaibh de dh 7 uisge cho geal 
ri gloine a' tighinn a nuas ann an glacan beaga chun na fairge. 
Thog mo chridhe le boch le smaointeachadh gu 'n deanadh 
faileadh cubhraidh an eilein phriseil so agus na measan a bha 
cinntinn air rudeiginn de dh' fheum do na leontaich bhochd 
a bha air na soithichean 's thug mi ordugh gu 'm biodh gach 
aon ac' air a chur air tir air. Thugadh air tir gach aon a 
V urrainnear a thoirt air tir de na daoine bochd so. Cha 
luaithe leig iad iad fhein 'nan sineadh air an fheur uaine ; s a 
thoisich iad air 61 an uisge phriseil a bha 'n sin na a bha iad 
a' fas na b' fhearr. Bha cuid a bu laidireacha na cheile a 
chaidh a suas anns na craobhan mheasan 's thoisich iad air 
itheadh nam measan. Cha luaithe a dh' ith iad na measan na 
bha iad a leigheas suas cho maith 's a bha iad riamh. Cha 
luaithe mhothaich iad eifeachd nam measan na thoisich iad 
air an tilgeil a nuas dh' ionnsuidh na feadhnach a bha leonta 
gu h-iseal. Chaidh na measan a ghiulan dh' ionnsuidh nan 
leontach a bha air bbrd 's 'nuair a dh' ith iad iad dh' fhas iad 
slan mar a bha each 's m' an d' thainig an oidhche cha robh 
aon nach robh slan fallain agus cho maith 's a bha e riamh. 
Agus a nis, a righ, sin agaibh mar a dh' eirich dhomh-sa. 

Labhair an righ ris a chaibhtinn agus dh' fhoighneachd e 
dheth an aimseadh e air an aite sin a rithis. Thuirt an 
caibhtinn gu 'n robh e 'smaointeachadh gu 'n aimseadh. 
Thuirt an righ ris a chaibhtinn e dheanadh deas a shoithich 
cho luath 'sab' urrainn e 's e dh' fheuchainn am faigheadh 
e crnbhriorm de na measan sin a leighiseadh O'Cein. Thuirt 
an caibhtinn ris an righ na 'm b' e thoil e gu 'm b' fhearra 
dhoibh O'Cein a thoirt leo air an t-soitheach 's an deigh an 
t-eilean a ruigheachd na measan a thoirt da, 's gu 'm biodh e 
slan-chreuchdach a' tighinn dachaidh. 

Chunnaic an righ gu 'n robh a chomhairle so maith agus 
gu'mb' fhearr do dh' O'Cein falbh leis a chaibhtinn 's nach 



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202 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

biodh fhulangas cho fada, chionn bha 'n doruinn anabarrach. 
Rinn an caibhtinn reidh cho luath 's a bha e na chomas. 

III. 

Chaidh O'Cein a chur air bord 's gach ni deireasach a bha 
dhith 'chur leis. 

'Nuair a bha gach uile ni deas thog iad na siuil bhreaca 
bhaidealacha ann am barraibh nan cranna fada feadanacha 
fiubhaidh. Bha beiceartaidh ron 's rocasdaMh fhaoileann, 
feadalaich bhall agus crathadh ulag ri 'n cluinntinn. Thainig 
soirbheas bheag laghach a bheireadh duilleach a coill, froin- 
each a beinn agus seileach 6g a a fhreumhaichean. Bha 
bheisde bu mhotha 'g itheadh na beisde bu lugha 's a bheisde 
a bu lugha 'deanadh mar a dh' fhaodadh i. Sgoilteadh i 
cuinnlean caol coirce o a dubh-toisich g' a dubh-deiridh agus 
an fhaochag chrom chiar a bha 'n grunnd an aigein bheireadh 
i haig air a beul-mor le fheabhas 'sa dh' fhalbhadh i. 

Bha iad mar sin a falbh fad laithean. Latha de na 
laithibh chunnaic iad fearann air thoiseach orra. Rinn iad 
air an fhearann, 's 'nuair a rainig iad e 's e eilean beag 
boidheach iseal mara bh' ann. Thug an caibhtinn brdugh 
O'Cein a thoirt air tir air an eilean so, breith air dha chaol 
coise air, a tharruinn tri uairean o cheann gu ceann de 'n 
eilean 's leigeil da luidhe an siud. Cha luaithe bha *n 
t-6rdugh air a thoirt seachad na bha e deanta. Cha robh aig 
O'Cein bochd ach a bhi 'g amharc an deign an t-soithich 's 
i 'n deigh an t-eilean fhagail gus ma dheireadh, an am an 
athaich 's an anmoich, an do chaill e sealladh urra. Bha e 'n 
sin leis fhein, gun chu, gun duine, gun chreutair, air an 
eilean. Latha an deigh latha bha 'shuil a mach feuch am 
i aiceadh e soitheach na bata dol seachad a bheireadh fuasgladh 
dha, ach sin cha robh tighinn. 'S e bu bhiadh dha feur gorm 
agus freumhaichean agus uisge nan sruthanan a bha dol 
seachad. Thug e 'n sin gus an naoitheamh latha bha e 'g 
amharc a mach J sa mhaduinn mhoich agus feuch chunnaic e 
diiradan beag" fada uaidh anns a chuan nach b' abhaist da 
fhaicinn. Bha e 'beachdachadh air a ghnath 's ar leis gu 'n 
robh an duradan a J fas na bu mhotha. Thug e tacan ag 
amharc air 's bha e 'faicinn an sin gu 'n robh e 'fas cosmhuil 
ri curach. Rinn e so a mach gur h-e curach a bh' ann 's gur 
h-e aon duine bha na shuidhe ann ga iomram. Bha 'n curach 
a* tighinn sa' tighinn 's a' deanadh air an eilean. Air a 
<jheann ma dheireadh thainig i gus an do bhuail i toiseach air 



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Sgeu/achd Cois' O'Cein. 203 

a chladach fo 'n cheart aite 's an robh O'Cein na luidhe. 
Leum fear mor a bha innte air tir. Thug e spionadh air a 
churach 's tharruing e seachd fad fhein air feur glas i agus 
choisich e suas gu stolda. 'Nuair a rainig e O'Cein bheann- 
aich e da agus bheannaich O'Cein dasan. 

" Thainig mise an diugh a cat hair na Beirbhe Lochlannaich, 
'O'Cein, 'a' d' leigheas-sa, agus sin a mach do chos, O'Cein, 
's gu 'n cuirinn-sa bior lus-leigh agus lionn-tath ris." 

" Mat a, na 'na cas domhs' i na cas eile na d&gh, ma 
shineas mise 'chas so fhein gus an cluinn mi co thu, na co as a 
thainig thu." 

" Mo chuid chuileag a's chontrachd ann a' d' aghaidh 
ghrannda mhi-sgiamhach tha 'n ceirean air fuarachadh ann 
a' m' achlais, agus sinn fada gun dol timchioll air. 'S mise 
Macan an Athamain, 3 mac righ Lochlainn, agus dh' fhag mi 
cat hair na Beirbhe Lochlannaich an diugh a thighinn a' d' 
leigheas-ca, agus sin thusa nach do chos, O'Cein, 's gu 'n 
cuirinn-sa, etc." 

" Mata, etc., etc. . . . gus an cluinn mi rud a bu 
chlise bha air a deanadh na thusa 'thighinn a cathair na 
Beirbhe Lochlannaich an diugh 's gun e naoi uairean a latha 
fhathasd." 

" Mo chuid chuileag," etc., etc. 

" Bha m' athair-sa fada sheachd bliadhna 'g amharc arson 
ait air an togadh e eaglais. Far a smaointeachadh e togail 
an diugh 'nuair a rachadh e ann an ath-latha bha e 'faicinn 
ait eile 'b' fhearr, 's air an treas latha bha e 'faicinn ait eile 
'b' fhearr na 'n t-aite sin. Bha e mar so o latha gu latha 's o 
am gu h-am. Bha e 'gabhail ceum spaisdearachd gach 
maduinn feuch am faigheadh e mach an t-ait ann san togadh 
e 'n eaglais ach so cha robh 'g amas air. Ach aon latha ann 
an ceann seachd bliadhna bha e na sheasamh ag amharc 
timchioll air agus e 'smaointeachadh gu 'm biodh am fior-ait 
air an robh e 'na sheasamh freagarrach airson na h-eaglaise 
thogail air. Chunnaic e tri oglaich a' togail a nios o 'n 
chladach. Bheannaich iad da 's bheannaich e daibh, 's thuirt 
fear aca ris : — 

" O, a righ, tha thu o chionn seachd bliadhna ag amharc a 
mach arson ait an togadh tu eaglais agus 's e 'n t-ait' air a' 
bheil thu 't' sheasamh far an tog thu i." 

8 Macam in fagain, * the vagrant/ literally the youth of vagrancy, as in the 
Egerton version. The word macaomh, ' youth,' also occurs in Mary Macleod's 
poems, where it is mis- written, 'nam macabh 's nam maighdeann.' 



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204 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Dh' amhairc an righ air le h-ioghnadh arson gu 'n robh 
fbios aigc air an uine bha e 'g ambarc a macb arson togail na 
b-eaglaise agus gu h-araid gu 'n robb fios aige gu 'm b' e so 
am ball a smaointich e air a mhaduinn so seacb aon mbaduinn 
eile. 

Tbuirt e riu gu 'm b' e siud a smaointinn fhein gu 'n 
togadb e 'n eaglais anns a cheart ait anns a robb e na 
sbeasamb. Thuirt an triuir a thainig ris an righ gu 'mbu tri 
luchd-ceird iad-san — clachair, saor, agus sgleutair — 's gu 'n 
robh iad g'an tairgsinn fhein arson an eaglais a thogail. 
Thuirt an righ riu o 'n bha iad na 'n gillean cho fiosrach, 's 
gu 'n robh fhios ac' air an ait a bha e fhein ag amharc a raach 
air a shon gu 'm faigheadh iad an eaglais ri thogail. Ghabh 
iad an obair. Thug an clachair a mach a shreang. Thomhais 
e agus ghabh e fad, leud agus airde balla na h-eaglaise, 's bha 
i na balla a thiotamh. Thug an sgleutair a mach a chulaidh- 
thomhais fhein. Thomhais e fad, leud agus mullach na 
h-eaglaise 's bha e deanta. Thug an saor a mach a chulaidh- 
thomhais *s thomhais e fad, is leud a dorsan 's a h-uinneagan 
's bha h-uile ni deanta gun dail. 

Ghabh an righ moran de bhoch chionn an eaglais bhi air a 
criochanachadh cho clis, 's air a deanamh cho maith. Leis an 
toil-inntinn ann san robh e chuir e glaodh a mach a chruinn- 
eachadh ard-uaislean a bhaile agus na cuirte 's na cathrach 
arson cuirm agus fleadh a dheanadh arson an luchd-ceirde a 
thaobh cho maith 's a thoilich iad e ann an togail na 
h-eaglaise. Chaidh an dinneir air a h-aghaidh 's gach bl 's 
gach mire 's gach miiirn a b' urrainn an righ leigeil fhaicinn 
do 'n luchd-ceird. 'Nuair a dh' fhas an righ cridheil le deoch 
dh' orduich e 'aon nighean a thoirt a nios a thoirt buidheachas 
do 'n luchd-ceird arson mar a rinn iad an gnothuch. Thainig 
ailleagan an fhuilt-reidh — boinne-fala cho boidheach 's a thig 
na thainig. Fhuair i copan oir na 'laimh 's dh' 61 i ann am 
fion a thoirt taing do 'n luchd-ceird arson a h-athar a thoil- 
eachadh cho maith; Thionndaidh i mach agus dh' fhalbh i. 

Thoisich iad air 61 an so agus an righ gu h-araid le ard 
thoilinntinn arson na h-ighinne maith a bh' aige 's gu 'n do 
fhreagair i e 'thighinn a lathair choigreach, rUd a bha air a 
thoirmeasg 'a leithid a dheanadh. 

'Nuair a bha iad sgith ghabh gach aon g'a leabaidh. 
Ghabh na h-uaislean gu tamh agus na coigrich. 'Nuair a 
thainig a mhaduinn agus a dhiiisg an righ, chuir e fios a 
dh' fheoraich ciamar a fhuair an luchd-ceird cadal. Ach thill 
na gillean a chaidh a dh' amharc air an son 's thuirt iad nach 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 205 

robh an luchd-ceird air faotainn. Dh' orduich e amharc anns 
gach ait eagal 's gu 'n d' eirich ni sam bith cearr na dona 
dhaibh. Dh' amhairc iad a suas 's dh' amhairc iad a nuas ; 
dh' amhairc iad a null 's dh' amhairc iad a nail, ach 's e 'n ni 
a b' uamhasaiche air fad, gu 'n robh mo phiuthar air falbh 
cuideachd air a goid aig an triuir. Dh' eirich fear mor air 
m' athair an so, arson na tamailt mhor a chaidh air le a 
nighean a bhith air a goid air. Dh' eirich mis' a' m' 
sheasamh 's thuirt mi ri m' athair gu 'm faighinn-sa i, ma bha 
i ri fhaotainn. Nis sin rud a's giorra bha ga dheanadh na 
mise 'thighinn as a Bheirbhe Lochlannaich an diugh. 

"Mata, na 'na cas," etc. . . . "gus am faigh mi fios 
an d' fhuair thu do phiuthar na sgeul m'a timchioll, na co 
thug air falbh i." 

IV. 

Dh' fhalbh mise an siud ma thuaiream mo pheathar. 
Chuir mi mi-fhein fo bhoidean gu 'n siubhlainn ceithir ranna 
ruadha an domhain 's nach stadainn d' a h-iarraidh gus an 
deanadh eoin an athar nead ann am cheann 's clacha-tuinne 
na talmhanta nead ann am bhonn. Bha mi an sin a' falbh o 
aite gu h-aite feuch am faighinn sgeul na dan mo pheathar. 
Oha robh sin ri fhaotainn agam an aon ait an do thachair 
dhomh dol. Thug mi latha agus bliadhna ga h-iarraidh, 's 
'nuair a bha mi sgith gun fios na dan fhaotainn bha mi arson 
tilleadh dhachaidh. Bha mi 'g amharc m' an cuairt orm 
agus suil gu 'n d' thug mi de 'chunnaic mi ach fearainn fada 
fada uam mar gu 'm biodh eilean mara ann. Rinn mi air 
an eilean 's 'nuair a rainig mi e cha robh coltas tighe na ait 
ann ach aon tigh a bha shuas gu h-ard am meadhon an eilein. 
Rainig mi 'n cladach, leum mi mach as a bhata agus tharruing 
mi a tri fad fhein air feur glas i. G-habh mi suas chun an 
tigh feuch am faighinn sgeul mo pheathar. 'Nuair a rainig 
mi dorus an tighe sin, chunnaic mi 'n sin bodach mor doich- 
iollach 's e ann an creathall iaruinn a bha crochta nuas o 
mhullach an tighe. Bha piosa fada iaruinn 'na laimh. 
'Nuair a ruigeadh e 'n taobh so de 'n tigh phutadh e air 
falbh a chreathall leis a phios iaruinn 's nuair a thigeadh e 
gus an taobh eile phutadh e air an doigh cheadna i 's bha e 
ga thulgadh fhein o thaobh gu taobh de 'n tigh air an doigh 
sin. 'Nuair a chunnaic e mi thuirt e rium de bha mi 'g 
iarraidh na de thug an siud mi, nach faighinn a stigh an siud 
's mi ghabhail romham, agus leis na briathran so leum e mach 
as a chreathall. Thug e 'm 'ionnsuidh 's mise gu 'ionnsuidh- 



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206 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

san. Thug sinn treis air gleachd an sin. Ma dheireadh chuir 
mi 'm bodacb air a dhaghluin. Thuge suil a' m' aodann agus 
thuirt e rium : — 

" Mar am meall thu mi ann am bharail 's tu Macan an 
At h amain, mac righ Lochlainn." 

Thuirt mi ris gu 'm bu mhi. 

" Tha thu air tdrachd do pheathar," ars' esan. 

Thuirt mi ris gu 'n robh. Thuirt e rium dol suas do 'n 
cheann eile de 'n tigh, gu 'n robh i shuas an sin le a thri 
mic-san, agus Ridire Na Sgeithe Deirge leotha. Ghabh mi 
suas. Dh' amhairc iad air a cheile 's cha d' thuirt iad smid. 
Bha mo phiuthar na suidhe os an cionn shuas. Thug i dui- 
leum 'nuair a chunnaic i mi 's bha i ri m' thaobh a thiotamh. 
'Nuair a thug sinn lamh air falbh, thuirt Ridire Na Sgeithe 
Deirge gu 'm falbhadh esan leinn. Dh' iarr mi air fantuinn 
's cha 'n fhanadh 'sb' eiginn da falbh leinn 's thoilich mi dha 
tighinn leinn an sin. 'Nuair a rainig sinn am bata chuir mi 
mach gu fairge i. Bha mo phiuthar na suidhe lamh rium-sa 
's an deireadh 's Ridire Na Sgeithe Deirge 's an toiseach. Bha 
mo phiuthar cho Ian toilinntinn gu 'n d' fhuair i ma sgaoil 's 
gu 'n d' fhuair i leam-sa aon uair eile. Bha sinn a* seoladh 
an sin, a' tighinn dachaidh le mdr ghreadhnachas. La de na 
laithibh bha sinn a tighinn seachad air creig mhoir a bha san 
fhairge leatha fhein, gu 'n aite sam bith 'a coir. Bha mi 'g 
amharc 's ar learn mar gu 'm biodh togail air a mullach. 
Dh' fhoighneachd mi de I&dire Na Sgeithe Deirge de 'h t-aite 
bha 'n siud 'nuair a bha togail ann. Thuirt e rium gu 'n robh 
fios aig air an sin. 

"Sin," ars J esan, "far a bheil a J Ghil-Ghreine, nighean 
righ Feile-fionn, aig a h-athair air a gleidheadh, air chul 
gaoithe ? s air aodann greine f ar am faic i a h-uile duine 's nach 
faic duine i, 's cha ? n fhaigh fear gu brach i ach fear a bheir 
as an sin i." 

Sheol mi m' an cuairt air a chreig '& cha robh ait ann air 
an seasadh eun athair leis cho corrach agus cho dileann ? s a bha 
i. Smaointich mi gu 'm faca mi aiteachan a bha cho doirbh an 
so 'nuair a bha mi anns a sgoil ann am bhalach agus gu 'm 
feuchainn streap a suas far an robh a' Ghil-ghreine. Thuirt 
mi ri Ridire Na Sgeithe Deirge am bata •chumail ris a chreig. 
Thoisich mi air streap 's m' an do stad mi rainig mi fior 
mhullach na creige. Thug mi learn a* Ghil-Ghreine, an sin, 
as an aite san robh i. Ghabh mi sios leatha gu socrach gus 
an do chuir mi sios anns an t-soitheach i. Cha luaithe chunnaic 
Ridire Na Sgeithe Deirge i na thug e lamh air coir a ghabhail 



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Sgeulachd Cois 7 O'Cein. 207 

urra dha fhein. Thionndaidh mi ris agus rug mi air dha 
chaol chois air; bhuail mi 'cheann ris a' chreig agus spread 
mi 'n t-ionnchain as. 

Sheol mi dhachaidh le m' phiuthair agus leis a' Ghil- 
Ghreine agus rainig mi cuirt agus cathair m' athar righ Loch- 
lainn. 'Nuair a rainig an sgeul m' athair 's a chual e gu 'n 
d* thainig mis' agus mo phiuthar dhachaidh, thug e mach 
a' m' chomhdhail, ach 's ro-mhor a mheudaich a thoilinntinn 
'nuair a chunnaic egu 'n d' thug a mhac a mach a Ghil- 
Ghreine 's a liuthad mac righ agus ridire bha feuchainn ris, 
'sa dh' fhairtlich e orra. Leagadh bron 's thogadh ceol 's 
dh' orduich m' athair seachd laithean fleadh a bhi air an 
cumail arson an treubhantais a rinn mi ann am phiuthar 
fhaotainn 'sa' Ghil-Ghreine 'thoirt as an aite san robh i aig a 
h-athair ga gleidheadh, agus sin agad-sa mar a fhuair mise 
mo phiuthar. 

" Agus sin thusa mach do chas," etc. 

" Na 'na cas," etc. ..." gus am bi fhios agam ciamar 
a chaidh duit fein J s do J n Ghil-Ghreine, na 'n d' thainig toir 
urra 'na dheigh sin." 

" Mo chuid chuileag," etc. 

V. 

" Bha Ghil-Ghreine 's mi fhein comhla gus an robh da 
mhac aice dhomh. Latha de na laithibh chaidh mi do 'n 
bheinn-sheilg 's 'nuair a thill mi dachaidh chunnaic mi da 
bhalachan a 5 coineadh 's a' glaodhaich. Dh' fhoighneachd 
mi dhiubh de bha orra 's thuirt iad rium gu 'n d' thugadh am 
mathair air falbh le famhair mor a thainig a nios o 'n chladach. 

" Ged a bha sinne," ars' iadsan, "a' glaodhaich, thug e 
leis gun taing duinn i." 

Thug mi suil m' an cuairt chun a chladaich 's chunnaic mi 
esan a' gabhail a mach le a churach o na creagan. Ghlaodh 
mi ris mo bhean fhagail agam. Thuirt e rium gu 'm b' olc an 
airidh gun cothrom a thoirt domh arson mo mhnatha. Thill 
e 's leum e air tir air a' chreig. Thug mi ga' ionnsuidh.^ Ach 
ma thug rug esan orm. Thog emi'n aird; bhuail e sios mi 
ann an creagan cruaidh a chladaich 's dh' fhag e 'n sin mi. 

'Nuair a dh' fhag e 'n siud mi, 's nach faighinn as, 
thoisich na paisdean 's mi fhein air brisdeadh nan creag 
timchioll orm; agus thug sinn fad sheachd bliadhn' air an 
obair sin, m' an d' fhuair mise ma sgaoiL An sin bha na 
balachain a' fas mpr. Dh' fheuch mi ri sgeul mo mhnatha 's 



Digitized by UOOQ IC 



208 Gaelic Society of Inverness* 

an fhir a thug leis i fhaotainn. 'Nuair a dh' fhairtlich sin 
orm chiuir mi mi-fhein fo bhoidean gu 'm falbhainn air a toir 
agus nach tillinn dhachaidh gu brach gus am faighinn a mach 
i, na 'm basaichinn anns an oidhirp. 

Ghabb mi fhein 's mo dha mhac air falbb. Shiubbail sinn 
a sios 's a suas, a nunn 's a nail, feuch am faigheamaid a sgeul 
na c'aite am faigheamaid i. Thainig sinn gu ceann rathaid 
far an robh tri rathaidean mora brisdeadh a mach as. Sheas 
mi agus smaointich mi 's mi 'g amharc san lar, agus J s i 
'chomhairr a thainig am cheann gu 'n gabhadh a h-uile h-aon 
againn rathad da fhein agus gu 'm bitheamaid air falbh fad 
latha 's bliadhna, 's gu 'n coinnicheamaid an ceann latha 's 
bliadhna ann sa cheart ait a rithis. Dh' fhag sinn beannachd 
aig a cheile agus dh' fhalbh sinn, gach aon air a rathad fhein. 

VI. 

Bha mise 'falbh air an rathad mhor an sin. Bha mi aon 
latha an sin 's cha robh mi 'faicinn tigh na aite anns an 
cuirinn seachad an oidhche ach suil g' an d' thug mi astar mor 
air thoiseach orm, chunnaic mi solus agus rinn mi air an 
t- solus, 's 'nuair a rainig mi e gu de a oh' ann ach bo than ann 
am meadhon monaidh 's an uair a chaidh mi stigh bha bodach 
mor a chomhnaidh ann agus nighean bg dhreachmhor na 
suidhe an taobh eile de 'n teine. Bheannaich mi dhaibh agus 
bheannaich iad dhomh 's dh' fheoraich mi am faighinn 
fantainn an siud '& an oidhche. Chuir am bodach gruaim 
choimheach air ach labhair an nighean as mo leith-sa 's fhuair 
i cead mi dh' fhantainn a chur seachad na h-oidhche. Thug i 
biadh is deoch domh, chairich i leaba domh 's chuir i 'luidlie 
mi agus 'nuair a chaidil am bodach smaointich mi gu 'n 
rachainn a bhruidhinn ris an nighean agus luidh mi r'a taobh 
gu beul an latha an la 'r na mhaireach. Thuirt mi rithe nam 
bu mhac a bhiodh aice gu'mb' e 'n t-ainm a bheireadh i dha 
Macan an Uaigneas * mac Macain an Ath amain mac righ Loch- 
lainn. Thug mi dhith fainne 's dh' iarr mi urra am mac a 
ghleidheadh gus am biodh a naoi bliadhna deug a dh' aois. 

Thuirt mi 'n sin rithe : — 

" Feuch an sin am fainne air a mheur ; 's ma lionas a 
mheur am fainne leigidh tu air falbh e." 'Nuair a bha 
bhliadhna air ruith a mach agam-sa an sin, chuimhnich mi 'n 
gealladh bha eadar mi fhein 's mo chuid cloinne. Thill mi 

4 Macdm in uaignesa, ' the Solitaire.' — Eg. MS. 



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Sgeu/achd Cois' O'Cein. 209 

'chumail na coinne gun sgeul na dan ma m' mhnaoi ach mar 
a bha mi roimhe. 'Nuair a rainig mi ceann nan tri rathaidean 
mora, cha robh duine romham. Dh' fhan mi treis agus 
chunnaic mi h-aon de m' chuid mac a' tighinn. Chuir sinn 
failt is furan air a cheile. Eadar sin agus oidhche thainig am 
fear eile oirnn. Shuidh sinn an so air bruaich taobh an 
ratbaid mhoir. Labhair sinn an sin m' an turas r'a cheile 
ach cha d' fhuair iadsan sgeul n' as motha na mi fhein m' am 
mhathair. Cha robh againn ach a bhi 'tuireadh 's a' brdn 
an sin fad seachduin. 'S i 'chomhairle 'chinn 'nar ceann gu 'n 
togamaid bothan shuas air mullach a bhruthaich a bha lamh 
ruinn agus gu 'm fanamaid an sin, agus nach leigeamaid duine 
seachad gun a sgeula ghabhail chionn nach robh e cosmhail 
gu 'm faigheamaid sgeul na naigheachd air aon doigh na air 
doigh eile. Thoilich mo mhic so a dheanadh agus thog sinn 
an tigh 's ghabh sinn comhnuidh ann. A thaobh gu 'n robh 
na tri rathaidean mora ann 's gu 'm biodh cuideigin gach 
latha tighinn air rathad air choireigin de 'n tri bha sinn am 
beachd gu'm biodh ar tuiteamas na b' f hearr air neach a choinn- 
eachadh a bheireadh sgeul duinn. Bhitheamaid a mach gach 
latha a' gabhail sgeoil gach duine thigeadh an rathad. 

Bliadhn' as deigh bliadhna bha dol seachad ach sgeul cha 
robh sinn a faotainn. Thug sinn naoi bliadhna deug air an 
doigh sin. Bha sinn an so a' smaointeachadh gu 'm bu cho 
maith dhuinn an oidhirp a thoirt suas chionn nach fhaigh- 
eamaid mo bhean gu brach. 'Nuair a bha sinn anns an 
t-suidheachadh inntinn so, bha sinn ag amharc m' an cuairt 
oirnn agus chunnaic sinn oganach bearraideach a' tighinn air 
an rathad mhor mheadhoin. Thuirt mi ri mo mhac 6g dol a 
sios agus sgeul a ghiir ud a ghabhail. Chaidh e sios agus 
choinnich e e. 'S e thainig as an sin gun do cheangal an 
t-6ganach mo mhac 's gu 'ndo thilg e ann an dig a rathaid 
mhoir e, 's sheas esan far an robh e. Thuirt mi 'n so ri m' 
mhac mor dol a sios agus sgeul an oganaich a ghabhail. 
Ghabh mo mhac mor a sios. 'S e bh' ann gu 'n d' thug na 
gillean an dail a cheile agus leag an t-6ganach mo mhac mor 's 
chuir e ceangal nan ceithir chaol air 's thilge e 'n dig an rathaid 
mhoir e le a bhrathair. Sheas e far an robh e. 'Nuair a 
chunnaic mi fhein mar a rinn e air mo chuid mac ghabh mi 
feirg mhor ? s ghabh mi sios far an robh an t-6ganach. Rug 
sinn air a cheile, ach ? s e thainig as an sin gu 'n do chuir e air 
mo dha ghluin mi. Dh' amhairc mi air an clar an aodainn 
? s thuirt mi ris : " Mar a meall thu 'm bharail mi ? s tu 

14 



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210 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Macan an Uaigneas mac Mhacain an Athamain mac rigli 
Lochlainn." Thuirt e riuni nach mealladh, chionn gu 'm b' e 
'cheart fhear. Dh' innis mi dha an sin gu 'm bu mhi 'athair 
's gu 'm b' iad siud a dha bhrathair. 

Dh' amhairc e roinn le suarachas agus thubhairt e : "Ma's 
tu-sa m' athair agus gur h-iad siud mo dha bhrathair faodaidh 
mi radh gu 'm bheil mi gun athair gun bhraithean." 

" Tha thusa dol a dh* iarraidh na mnatha a chaill thu, a' 
Ghil-ghreine, nighean righ Feile-fionn. Tha i aig Macabh 5 
Mor agus cha d' thoir an triiiir a mach i, ach theid mise leibh 
'so 'n is tu m' athair, feuchaidh mise ri d' mhnaoi a thoirt a 
mach dut." 

Dh' fhalbh iad leis agus stad na fois cha d' rinn iad gus 
an d' rainig iad far an robh Macabh Mor a chomhnuidh. 
'Nuair a rainig iad, thug iad suil suas air an daingnich a bha 
aige an sin 's chunnaic iad a' Ghil-ghreine aig fior-mhullach a 
cbaisteiL Dh' fheoraich iad dith, an robh rathad sam bith 
air dol a stigh do 'n chaisteal. Thuirt ise nach robh, gu 'n 
robh ise air a cumail na priosanach an siud, o 'n a thug e leis i, 
leis a chorruich a bh' air nach toilicheadh i 'phosadh, nach 
robh e fhein aig an tigh, 's gu 'n robh na h-iuchraichean 
daonnan na bhroilleach. 

" Dh' fhoighneachd iad dith, ciamar a gheibhadh iad 
dachaidh el" 

"Crathaibh an t-slabhraidh chomhraig," ars' ise, " 's cha 
bhi e fada gun tighinn an sin. Ach tha eagal orm gu 'm 
marbh e sibh, chionn cha bhi mise beo ma chi mi sibh a' call 
ur beat ha as mo leith." 

'Nuair a chual Macan an Uaigneas siud ghabh e gus an 
t-slabhraidh chomhraig. Rug e urra, 's chrath e i 's bhrist e 
tri teineachan innte. 

Chuala Macabh Mor siud 's e 'sa bheinn-sheilg. Thainig 
e dhachaidh 's an uair a thainig bha fraoch is fearg air 'nuair 
a thuig e de bha iad ag iarraidh. Thuirt Macan an Uaigneas 
ris a Ghil-Ghreine thoirt seachad ar neo gu 'm faigheadh e 
comhrag garbh agus an ceann a thoirt deth. 

"A bheadagain shuaraich," arsa Macabh Mor, "cha 'n 
fhaigh thu 'Ghil-Ghreine ach gheibh thu comhrag garbh air 
a son." 

Thug Macan an Uaigneas na dhail, 's thug Macabh Mor 
na dhail-san. Bha iad a' gabhail d'a cheile an sin— sleaghan 

3 So Hector Maclea* writes it. It is for maccwmh, 'youth'; Welsh, 
macwy, youngster.' 



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Sgeu/achd Cois' O'Gein. 211 

gan spealgadh air sgiathaibh a cheile. Thug iad gus na 
claidheamhan. Mar gu 'm faiceadh tu iarunn dearg a' 
tighinn a teine ann an ceardaich, 's ann mar sin a chiteadh 
na sradan a bha na claidheamhan a' cur as a cheile. Bha 
Macabh Mor air a dhalladh le a fhuil ma dheireadh; 'Nuair 
a chunnaic e mar a bha 'g eiridh dha, thug e aon tarruing air 
a chlaidheamh mhor a oh' aige an du.il Mac an Uaigneas a 
sgoltadh ach leum Macan an Uaigneas a leth-taobh o 'n 
bhuille, agus chaidh claidheamh Mhacaibh Mhoir fodha anns 
an talamh gus an dorn. M' an d' eirich e suas bhuail Macan 
an Uaigneas e le a uile neart ann an cul a mhuineil ann am 
fosgladh beag a bha eadar an clogad agus an luireach 's thilg 
e 'n ceann deth 's chuir e cas air a chlosaich aige. 

Ghlaodh a' Ghil-Ghreine gu 'n robh na h-iuchraichean na 
bhroilleach. Fhuair e na h-iuchraichean 's dh' fhosgail e 'n 
daingneach 's leig e a' Ghil-Ghreine ma sgaoil. Ghabh e 
fhein fad-seilbh ann an aite Mhacaibh Mh6ir. Fhuair mise 
an sin a' Ghil-Ghreine 's thainig sinn dachaidh an sin, a' 
Ghil-Ghreine, ar da mhac is mise. Agus sin agad a nis mar 
a fhuair mise mo bhean. 

" Agus sin thusa mach do lamh," etc. 

"Mata," etc "gus an cluinn mi ciamar a 

chaidh do Mhacan an Uaigneas anns an ait a bh' aig Macabh 
M6r." 

" Mo chuid, ,, etc. 

vn. 

Bha mo mhac-sa, Macan an Uaigneas, 'nuair a fhuair e 'n 
t-aite sin, gun duine a' cur dragh air as a leith. Bha e 'na 
chleachduinn aige gach latha gu 'n d' thugadh e treis air 
spaisdireachd astar o ? n tigh. La-de na laithibh de 'chunnaic 
e 'tighinn ach fear mor grannda dubh a' marcachd air each 
dubh, cii dubh 'ga leantainn agus boireannach air a chul- 
thaobh. 

'Nuair a thainig am fear mor dubh air aghaidh bneann- 
aich Macan an Uaigneas agus e fhein d'a cheile. Dh' fhoigh- 
neachd am fear mor dubh dheth an imreadh e cluiche ris. 
Thuirt Macan an Uaigneas ris : " Mar am biodh tu saoilsinn 
gu 'm biodh eagal agam romhad, cha 'n imrinn fhein cluiche 
le duine cho grannda nut." . 

Shuidh iad sios 's dh' imir iad an cluiche s chaidh an 
cluiche air an fhear mhor. f 

" Tog brigh do chluiche 's na biodh e trom, ars am 
fear mor. 



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212 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

" 'S e brigh mo chluiche fhein," arsa Macan an Uaigneas, 
" a bhean bg sin bha air do chul-thaobh." 

" Siud, siud, 's dona e," ars' am fear mor. " Mo chosnadh 
o cheann seachd bliadhna 's nach robh i oidhche fhathasd 
learn fhein." 

" Cha 'n ann mar sin a's measa leam-sa i," arsa Mao an an 
Uaigneas. 

Fhuair e 'bhean bg ach chuir am fear mor geasan air e 
'bhith an siud aige-san air maduinn a maireach a dh' imirt" 
cluiche eile ris. 

Thug Macan an Uaigneas dachaidh a bhean bg agus chaidil 
iad comhla an oidhche sin. Ma's moch a dh' eirich a' 
mhaduinn, bu mhoiche na sin a dh' eirich ise agus bha 
'bhiadh-san reidh aice air a bhord m' an d' eirich e. 'Nuair 
a ghabh e bhiadh thuirt ise ris : — 

" Tha thu 'n diugh a' dol a cho^nneachadh an fhir mhoir 
agus buidhnidh tu an cluiche air an diugh fhathast agus 
togaidh tu an t-each dubh mar gheall." 

Dh' fhalbh esan 's rainig e 'n t-aite, 's bha e ann treis 
m' an d' thainig am fear mor aig aghaidh. 'Nuair a thainig 
e thuirt e ris : — 

" De bheisd a chum thu agus mise cho fada ga d' fheith- 
eamht" 

"O!" ars' am fear mor, " 's ann bha agad-sa do bhean 
ur bg leis an do chaidil thu 'n raoir, a' deanadh do bhidh. 
Cha 'n 'eil fhios agad an d' fhuair mise biadh an diugh na 'n 
do chaidil mi idir an raoir." 

Shuidh iad sios 's dh' imir iad an cluiche 's chaidh an 
cluiche air an fhear mh6r. 

"Tog brigh do chluiche agus na bhiodh e mor," ars' am 
fear mor. 

" 'S e brigh mo chluiche an t-each dubh sin agad," arsa 
Macan an Uaigneas. 

"Sud! sud!" ars' am fear mor, "mo chosnadh o cheann 
seachd bliadhna 's nach robh e agam fhein ach aon oidhche 
fhathast. Ach," arsa am fear mor, "tha mise cur mar gheas- 
aibh ort-sa thu bhi agam an so air madainn a maireach a dh' 
imirt cluiche eile rium." 

Dhealaich iad ri cheile 's thainig Macan an Uaigneas 
dachaidh 's an t-each dubh leis. Chaidh an latha seachad 's 
ghabh e fhein 's a bhean m'a thamh 's an oidhche. Ma's 
moch a dh' eirich a mhaduinn, bu mhoiche na sin a dh' eirich 
a bhean bg 's a bha 'm biadh reidh aic' air a bhord 'nuair a 
dh' eirich esan. 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 213 

" Tha thu dol a choinneachadh an fhir mhoir an diugh a 
rithist," ars' ise, "a dh' imirt cluiche leis; theid an cluiche 
air agus togaidh tu-sa an cu." 

Rainig e 'n t-aite 's cha robh am fear mor air toiseach air. 
Shuidh e iiine m' an d' thainig am fear mor. 'Nuair a 
thainig e labhair Macan an Uaigneas ris gu maith dana 's 
thuirt e ris de thug dha a chumail an siud cho fada 'eitheamh 
air. Thuirt am fear mor ris: — " 'S ann a bha agad-sa do 
bhean ur dg na luidhe leat an raoir 's a' deanadh do bhidh 
dhuit an diugh, 's cha 'n 'eil fhios agad co aca a luidh mis' 
an raoir na fhuair mi mir bidh an diugh/' 

Shuidh iad sios 's dh' imir iad an cluiche 's chaidh an 
cluiche air an fhear mhor. 

" Tog brigh do chluiche 's na biodh e trom," ars' esan, " 's 
na biodh e trom." 

" 'S e brigh mo chluiche/' ars' Macan an Uaigneas, " an 
cu dubh sin agad." 

" Hud! Hud!" ars' am fear mor, "mo chosnadh o cheann 
seachd bliadhna, 's nach 'eil agam fhein ach na tri laithean 
deth. Ach tha mi 'cur mar gheasaibh geur ort-sa, thu bhith 
an so a maireach a dh' imirt cluiche eile learn." 

Chaidh Macan an Uaigneas dachaidh leis a chu. 

"Fhuair thu 'n cu," ars' a bhean, "ach tha thu fo 
bhoidean dol a dh' imirt cluiche eile leis an fhear mhor a 
maireach — nach 'eil?" 

Thuirt e gu 'n robh. Ghabh iad ma thamh an oidhche 
sin 's ma's moch a thainig a mhaduinn bu mhoiche na sin a 
dh' eirich a' bhean 6g agus bha 'm biadh reidh aice 'nuair a 
dh' eirich esan. 'Nuair a ghabh e 'bhiadh thuirt ise ris : — 

"Tha thu nise a falbh a choinneachadh an fhir mhoir 's 
bithidh e air thoiseach ort an diugh agus theid an cluiche 
ort-sai 'Nuair a thogas esan brigh a chluiche, ge b' e air bith 
na cumhnantan a chuireas e ort-sa cuir thu-sa air-san le 
boidibh 's le geasaibh teann nach d' theid stad air a chois na 
fois air a cheum 's nach ith e mir 's nach 61 e deur ach na 
thuiteas a sguab eorna as an athar, gus an till thusa." 

Dh' fhalbh e 'chumail na coinne 's bha 'm fear mor air 
thoiseach air. Thbisich am fear mor air trod ris arson a 
chumail cho fada feitheamh air, 's thuirt e ris gu 'n robh e 
mi-mhodail dalma 'nuair a rinn e leithid. Shuidh iad a sios 
's dh' imir iad an cluiche 's chaidh an cluiche air Macan an 
Uaigneas. 

"Fhir mhoir! tog brigh do chluiche 's na biodh e trom," 
arsa Macan an Uaigneas. 



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21 4 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

"An saoil thu nach aithne dhomh sin a dheanadh," ars' 
am fear mor. " 'S e brigh mo chluiche-sa fios bais Athaich 
Mhoir na h-Aoin-suil agus cnaimh d' a chnamhaibh; an 
ceann latha is bliadhna thu bhi agam-sa leis 's gun thu chadal 
da oidhche 's an aon tigh gus an till thu." 

" Sios is suas do gheasan," arsa Macan an Uaigneas. 
" Cha 'n ann ach 'g an teannachadh n' as motha agus n' as 
motha," ars' am fear mor. 

" Tha mise nis," arsa Macan an Uaigneas, "a' cur mar 
choir agus mar gheasaibh 's mar easbhuidh na bliadhna ort-sa, 
am fear as measa na thu fhein a thoirt do chinn 's do chasan 
diot ; ma theid stad air do chois na f ois air do cheum na ma 
dhuineas cadal do shuil na ma dh' itheas tu mir na dh' olas 
tu deur ach na thuiteas a sguab eorna as an athar ort, gus an 
till mise." 

"Sios is suas do gheasan," ars' am fear mor. "Cha 'n 
ann ach ga 'n teannachadh n' as motha agus n' as motha," 
arsa Macan an Uaigneas, agus thionndaidh e 'chul ris an 
fhear mhor. Thbisich am fear mor air ruith 's chaidh esan 
daqhaidh. 'Nuair a rainig e 'n tigh bha e gu dubhach 
bronach. 'Nuair a chaidh e stigh dh' aithnich a bhean gu 
maith de mar a bha 's thuirt i ris a mhisneach a chumail suas 
chionn nach biodh an gnothuch cho olc 's a bha esan a' 
smaointeachadh. Chaidh an latha seachad 's ghabh iad 
tamh is cadal 's an oidhche. 

VIII. 

Ma's moch a thainig an latha, bu mhoiche na sin a dh' 
eirich a' bhean bg an latha sin. Bha 'bhiadh deas 's a h-uile 
ni deas arson a thurais 'nuair a dh' eirich e. An deigh dha 
'bhiadh a ghabhail thuirt ise ris e fhein a chur an uidheam 
arson a thurais. 

" 'S mise," ars' ise, " nighean righ an talaimh iseal, agus 
is e ainm an fhir mhoir so an t-Athach Dubh Mor. Bha 
brathair aige ris an abradh iad Athach Mor na h-Aon-suil 's 
chaidh a mharbhadh. Bha amharus aig an Athach Dhubh 
Mhor gur h-ann an rioghachd m' athar-sa 'mharbhadh e. 
Thainig e arson dioghaltas a thoirt a mach as leith bas a 
bhrathar do rioghachd m' athar, 's chuir m' athair air doigh 
obair theine a chumail a mach as a bhaile 'sea sgrios. Thug 
e seachd bliadhna 'seisdeadh air a bhaile. Chaidh an obair 
theine an sin air aimhreit 's a thaobh sin b' eiginn do 
m* athair tighinn gu coimh-cheangal ris a bheisd. Chionn 



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Sgeulacha Coia' O'Cein. 215 

nach robh e cinnteach gur anns an aite a mharbhadh a 
bhrathair thoilich e cumha ghabhail, 's b' e 'n cumha bha an 
sin an oigh a bu bhoidhche bha 's an rioghachd, an t-each a 
h' fhearr a bha 's an rioghachd, 's an cu a' b' fhearr a bha 
's an rioghachd a bhi aige gu falbh. Cha robh oigh a bu 
sgiamhaiche ri fhaotainn anns an rioghachd na mise, nighean 
an righ, 's ged a bu chruaidh e V eiginn mo thoirt suas da- 
san. DW aontaich mise dol leis air ghaol muinntir a bhaile 
ghleidheadh o bhi air an sgrios air fad. 'Se 'n t-each dubh 
a bh' aig m' athair each a b' fhearr a bha 'n 's an rioghachd ; 
se 'n cu dubh a bh' aig m' athair cuab' fhearr a bha 's an 
rioghachd, 's ged a bu chruaidh e b' eiginn dealachadh riutha. 

" Bheir thu leat a' nis an t-each dubh agus an ceann 
laithean araid bheir an t-each dubh thu gu baile mor m' 
athar-sa, chionn 's coingeis leis muir no monadh, tir no 
* talamh. 'Nuair a ruigeas thu bidh latha margaidh each ann 
am baile mor m' athar. Iarraidh tu mach gus am faigh thu 
fios far am bi each an righ anns a mhargadh agus ceanglaidh 
tu an t-each dubh lamh ris. Cha bhi e fada an sin gus an 
<T thig h-aon a nail 's their e ris an fhear as fhaisge dha nach 
cosmhuil an t-each sin ri each dubh an righ? Abair thu-sa 
an sin gur h-iomadh cho cosmhuil feadh an t-saoghail. Thig 
an ath h-aon 's their e'nni ceadna. Thig an treas h-aon 's an 
ceathramh h-aon ach thoir thu-sa an aon fhreagairt orra gu 
leir gur h-iomadh cho cosmhuil feadh an t-saoghail. Air a 
■cheann ma dheireadh thig an righ fhein agus amhaircidh e air 
an each, 's their e nach cosmhuil feadh an t-saoghail. Their 
e riut an creic thu e 's abair thu-sa nach creic. Tairgidh e 
'chudthrom de dh' br dhuit agus thu a chreic. Abair thu-sa 
nach creic nach gabh thu ni sam bith air a shon. Foigh- 
neachdaidh tu de 'n righ am bheil e 'gabhail tlachd de 'n 
each ; ma tha gu 'n d' thoir thu dha mar thiodhlac e air 
choimh-cheangal araid. Fdighneachdaidh esan ciod e an 
coimh-cheangal a bhios ann. Their thusa gu 'm bi Ion latha 
is bliadhna 's gun thu 'chadal da oidhche 's an aon tigh as 
deigh a cheile agus do rogha sgeula an am fagail agus toil- 
eachaidh e sin a dheanadh. Ach thoir an aire gu 'm bi 
ceangal teann agad air gealladh an righ nach urrainn e 
tighinn uaidh. Rinn e reidh agus dh' fhag e beannachd aice- 
sa 's dh' fhalbh e fhein 's an t-each dubh. 'Nuair a rainig a 6 
baile mor Righ an Talaimh Isil, mar a thuirt a bhean ris bha 
margadh each ann. Fhuair e mach far an robh each an righ 

6 Dialectal for e, ' he.' 



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216 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

amis a mhargadh agus cheangail e 'n t-each dubh lamh ris. 
Cha robh e fada n sin 'na sheasamh lamh ris an each dhubh 
'nuair a thainig fear m' an cuairt, 's thuirt e nach cosmhuil 
an t-each sin ri each dubh an righ 's thuirt Macan an Uaigneas 
ris gu'mb' iomadh cho cosmhuil feadh an t-saoghail. Thainig 
an darna fear 's an treas fear J s an ceathramh fear 's thuirt 
iad a cheart ni 's thug esan a cheart fhreagairt orra. Ma 
dheireadh thainig an righ fhein 's thuirt e na ceart bhriathran 
a thuirt each agus fhreagair esan e mar a fhreagair e iadsan. 

" An creic thu 'n t-each ?" ars' an righ. 

" Cha chreic," ars' esan. 

" Nach dean/' ars' an righ. " Creic e 's bheir mi dhuit a 
chudthrom de dh' or." 

"Cha chreic mi e arson 6ir na airgid," arsa Macan an 
Uaigneas, " ach ma tha thu 'gabhail tlachd dheth bheir mi 
dhuit mar thiodhlac e air choimh-cheangal araid." 

" Ciod e 'n coimh-cheangal," ars' an righ, "a bhios thu 
'g iarraidh?" 

"Bidh," ars' esan, "Ion latha 's bliadhna agus gun mi 
chadal da oidhche 's an tigh as deigh a cheile 's mo rogha 
sgeoil an am fagail." 

" Gheibh thu sin," ars' an righ. 

" Feumaidh tu ceangal agus sgriobhadh a thoirt domh a 
dh' fhagas thu gun chomas tighinn air t' ais," arsa Macan 
an Uaigneas. 

" Ho !" ars' an righ, " bheil thu 'cur ag ann am fhacal?" 

" Cha 'n 'eil," ars' esan, " ach cha 'n 'eil ni sam bith ach 
ceangal agus sgriobhadh a bhith air a dheanamh." 

TJhug an righ siud dha, ceangal air a ghealladh ann an 
sgriobhadh. 

An oidhche sin thug an righ leis d'a thigh fhein e 's luidh 
e 'n tigh an righ an oidhche sin. An ath oidhche chaidh e do 
thigh an fhir-chomhairleachaidh a bha ma choinneamh tigh 
an righ. An treas oidhche luidh e 'n tigh an righ 's an 
ceathramh oidhche an tigh an fhir-chomhairleachaidh agus 
lean e mar sin oidhche 's an tigh ? s oidhche 's an tigh eile gu& 
an do ruith an latha 's a bhliadhna. 'Nuair a thainig ceann 
la is bliadhna thuirt Macan an Uaigneas ris an righ gu 'm bu 
mhithidh dha nis a bhi ga fhagail, gu 'n robh an la 's & r 
bhliadhna mach. Thuirt an righ ris: — 

"'Se slainte do bheatha fantainn bliadhna eile, gheibh 
thu do bhiadh 's do dheoch 's do leaba mar a bh' agad roimhe." 

"Cha 'n fhaod mi fantainn," ars' esan. 

" Feumaidh mi falbh." 



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Sgeu/achd Cois : O'Cein. 217 

" O!" ars' an righ, " ma tha thu arson falbh cho mor an 
sin, faodaidh tu falbh uair sam bith a tkoilicheas tu." 

" Coimh-lion do choimh-cheangal rium," ars' e ris an righ. 

44 De tuillidh coimh-lionaidh tha dhith ort nach 'eil agad?" 
ars' an righ. " Nach d' fhuair thu Ion la 's bliadhna 's gheibh 
bliadhna eile ma thogras tu fantuinn." 

" Cha 'n fhan mi, ach tha mo rogha sgebil agam ri fhaot- 
ainn uait a nis an am falbh," ars' e ris an righ. 

Labhair an righ gu frionasach 's thuirt e ris : — " De 'n 
sgeul a bhios thu 'g iarraidh orm-sa, chionn cha b' fhear 
sgeultachd na ursgeul na naigheachdan mise riamh?" Thuirt 
e ris an righ an sin : — " Tha sgeul Athach Mor na h-Aon-suil 
agus cnamh d'a chnamhan a dhith orm." 

Labhair an righ an so gu feargach ard 's thuirt e ris : — " 'S 
fhurasda aithneachadh gur fear draoidheachd 's iodramanachd 
thu 'nuair a tha thu 'g iarraidh sgeul air an rud nach 'eil 
fhios agam air 's nach aithne dhomh ma dheibhinn." 

Thug Macan an Uaigneas an so a mach sgriobhadh an righ 
anns an robh e air a cheangal gu 'm feumadh a rogha sgebil a 
thoirt da an am dealachaidh. 

"O! na'n eireadh dhuit-sa mar a dh' eirich dhomh -sa," 
ars' an righ, <( 'se sgeul Athach Mor na h-Aoin-suil a bu lugha 
bhiodh air t' aire." 

" Is coma learn ciamar a dh' eirich dhuitse," arsa Macan 
an Uaigneas ris an righ, " ach 's e sgeul Athaich Mhoir na 
h-Aon-suil a tha dhith orm-sa." 

IX. 

" 'Nuair a bha m' athair 6g," ars' an righ, " phbs e ban- 
righinn bg, 'sb' i a bhan-righinn a b' aille air am b' urrainn 
duine amharc 's le a feabhas cha robh a coimeas ri fhaotainn. 
Bha triuir mhac aice do m' athair, mise agus dithis a b' bige. 
Thainig am bas m' an cuairt air a bhan-righinn big so — 
shiubhail i agus ghabh m' athair gu brbn agus gu mulad mor 
air a son. Cha robh e 'faotainn reidh ? s am mulad sin idir. 
'Nuair a chunnaic uaislean agus luchd-comhairleachaidh m r 
athair mar a bha e, bha iad a' feuchainn ris a h-uile sebl feuch 
an togadh iad inntinn. Choinnich na h-uaislean comhla aon 
la agus 's i chomhairle a chinn 'nan ceann gu 'm feuchadh iad 
toirt air an righ pbsadh a rithist. Bha iad ann am beachd 
gu 'n togadh e 'inntinn suas 'nuair a gheibheadh e ban- 
righinn iir bg eile an aite na te a dh' fhalbh. Rainig iad an 
righ agus chuir iad an ceill da an sin a' chomhairle 'chinn 'nan 
ceann. 



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218 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Cha robh an righ toileach, ach le iompachadh nan daoine 
uaisle thainig e gu h-atharrachadh inntinn 's dh' earb e riutha 
fhein ban-righinn fhaotainn da a bhiodh freagarrach. Fhuair 
iad ban-righinn do 'n righ agus phbs e. Ach 'nuair a chunnaic 
a' bhan-righinn so gu robh triuir mhac aig an righ bha e 'cur 
doilgheas urra gu 'm biodh iad 'san rathad air a cloinn fhein 
nam biodh clann aice. Latha de na laithibh chuir i fios air a' 
Chlarsaich Urlair gus am foighneachdadh i dhi am biodh seol 
sam bith air a' chloinn a chur as an rathad nam b' e 's gu 'm 
biodh clann aice-sa. Thuirt a' Chlarsach Urlair rithe gu 'n 
robh 's na'n d' thugadh i duais mhaith dhi-se air a shon gu 'n 
cuireadh i 'chlann as an rathad urra air doigh nach cuireadh 
iad dragh urra r'a beo agus nach fhaigheadh an righ a mach e. 

Thuirt a' bhan-righinn rithe ciod e an duais a bhiodh i ag 
iarraidh air a shon sin. Thuirt a' Chlarsach Urlair rithe 
gu 'm bitheadh Ian a cluais de dh' olainn, Ian a cnogain duibh 
de dh' im agus leud a de staoic. 

" Ciod e chailleach a mheud 's a bhios an sin?" ars' a' 
bhan-righinn. 

"Bidh ann," ars' a Chlarsach Urlair, " lomairt sheachd 
mainnirean chaorach fad sheachd bliadhna de dh' olainn, im 
sheachd buailtean cruidh re seachd bliadhna agus tighinn-a- 
mach sheachd buailtean de dhaimh air am marbhadh a sios 
dith." Thoilich a bhan-righinn siud a thoirt dith. 

" Air maduinn a maireach," ars' a Chlarsach Urlair, " cuir 
thu-sa do thriuir dhaltachan air chiallagaidh mhaduinn a m' 
ionnsuidh-sa a dh' iarraidh na cir' mhin' 6ir 's na cir' ghairbh 
airgid. ,, 

Mas moch a thainig an latha bu mhoiche na sin a dh* eirich 
a' bhan-righinn. Chuir i air an cois a cuid dhaltachan, tri 
mic an righ, 's thuirt i riutha dol a suas do thigh na Clarsaich 
Urlair 's a radh rith gu 'n robh a' bhan-righinn, a muime, ag 
iarraidh na cir' mhin , oir 's na 0^' ghairbh airgid. Rainig 
iad tigh na Clarsaich Urlair 's bha i air a cois. 'Nuair a 
chaidh iad a stigh thuirt i riutha : — 

" Thigibh e nios, a ghraidheanan 's a ghaoileanan mo 
chridhe, agus deanaibh bhur garadh. Nam biodh bhur 
mathair fhein m' ur ceann cha bhiodh sibh air 'ur cois cho 
moch a's so." 

'Nuair a chualaidh na balachain bhochda i bruidhinn cho 
blath timchioll air am mathair, chaidh iad a suas le 
blathas agus carantachd a shuidhe lamh rithe agus 'seso uile 
a bha dhith air a* Chlarsaich Urlair, gu 'n d' thigreadh iad 
lamh rithe. Ach 'nuair a fhuair ise cothrom, thog i 'n 



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Sgeulachd Cois* O'Cein. 219 

slachdan draoidheachd a bha aice lamh rithe 's bhuail i buille 
air gach aon diubh, leis ma seach 's dh' fhalbh iad-san an sin 
'nan tri madaidh dhonn fhiadkaich a mach air an dorus. 

" A nis," ars' an righ, " nan eireadh a leithid sin duit-se, 
nach e sgeul Athach Mor na h-Aon-suil a bu lugha bhiodh air 
V aire/' 

" 'S coma learn, " arsa Macan an Uaigneas, " ciod e dh' 
eirich dhuit-se, ach 's e sgeul Athach Mor na h-Aon-suil a tha 
dhith orm-sa." 

Thoisich an righ an sin air labhairt. 'Nuair a dh' fhalbh 
sinn a mach 'nar tri madaidh dhonna fhiadhaich thug sinn 
oirnn am monadh 's na beanntan. Cha robh doigh tighinn 
beo againn an sin mar an toisicheamaid air itheadh nan 
cacrach a bha mach 's na monaidhean. Cha b' fhada bha 
sinn ag obair air a' cheaird sin, a' tighinn beo air na caoraich, 
'nuair a mhothaich na buachaillean duinn. Chuir iad fios a 
dh' ionnsuidh an righ, gu 'n robh tri madaidh dhonna fhiadh- 
aich 's a mhonadh a bha marbhadh a chuid chaorach-san agus 
chaorach mhuinntir eile agus nam faigheadh iad air an 
aghaidh nach fhada bhiodh caora beo ann. 

'Nuair a rainig an sgeul so an righ, chual a bhan-righinn 
agus a Chlarsach Urlair e; agus bhrosnaich iad an righ gu 
daoine a thrusadh a chur as do na madaidh, chionn thuig iad 
gu maith co na madaidh a bh' ann. Chruinnicheadh daoine 
's dh' fhalbh iad fhein 's an righ air toir nam madadh. 
'Nuair a thainig iad oirnn, bha sinn 'g an caradh 's 'g 
cleasadh, cho maith 's a dh' fhaodamaid. Ma dheireadh bha 
sinn air ar cur 'nar n-eiginn 's bha 'choltas orra gu 'm 
beireadh iad oirnn. Chuartaich iad sinn air gach taobh. 
Ohunnaic sinn an sin nach robh againn, roimhinn, 's 'nar 
deigh. Thug sinn aon ionnsuidh agus bhrisd sinn a mach 
'roimh am meadhon m' an do mhothaich iad duinn. Ghabh 
sinn leis an leathad ach thar sinn as agus rinn sinn arson a' 
chladaich. Bha iadsan dluth air an toir 's cha robh againn 
ach gabhail a mach ris an t-snamh. Rainig sinn eilean mara 
's chaidh sinn air tir an sin. . An saoil thu ars' an righ nan 
eireadh a leithid sin duit-se, nach b' e bas Athach Mor na 
h-Aon-suil a bu lugha a bhiodh air t' aire. 

" Eireadh a roghainn duit-se," tha 'n sgeul a dhith orm-sa," 
arsa Macan an Uaigneas. 

Thuit an sin gu 'n robh sinn air an eilean mhara 's nach 
robh mir againn ri fhaotainn ann, mar an itheamaid bairnich 
na duileasg na aon rud eile a b' urrainn duinn a sgrioban. 
'Nuair a dh' ith sinn gach sion a bha cinntinn air an eilean 



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220 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

bha 'm bas an so ag amharc oirnn 's an aodann, 's cha robh a 
chridhe againn dol air tir, 'chionn bha iad a' cumail faire 
theann air eagal gu'n rachamaid air ar n-ais. 'S i 'chomhairle 
chinn 'nar cinn, air dhuinn a bhi 'basachadh leis a ghort, 
gu 'n cuireamaid crainn agus ce b' e air bith air an d' thigeadh" 
an crann gu 'm marbhtadh e a chumail bed chaich. Chuir 
sinn na croinn 's thainig an crann air mo bhrathair meadhon- 
ach. Mharbh sinn esan 's bu shuarach an uine a mhair e 
dhuinn. Bha mi fhein 's mo bhrathair bg an so cho dona 's a 
bha sinn riamh; Bha 'ghort a' dol na bu mheasa. Dh' 
amhaircinn air mo bhrathair bg arson a mharbhaidh 's thig- 
eadh gairsinn orm. Bhiodh deisinn orm a' smaointeachadh 
gu 'm marbhainn mo bhrathair 's gu 'n ithinn e; ach bha 'n 
t-acras geur geur an so! Aon latha bha 'n sin smaointich mi 
nach robh ann ach bas duinn 'nar dithis agus gu 'm b' fhearr 
h-aon a bhi beo na dithis a bhith marbh. Thug mi dui-leum 
's rug mi air mo bhrathair ann am fhiaclan 's m' and' fhuair 
e 'bheag a dheanadh, bha 'n sgornan agam a mach as. Nan 
tachradh a leithid sin duit-se 'se sgeul Athach Mor na h-Aon- 
suil a bu lugha bhiodh air t' aire. 

" Tachradh a roghainn duit-se/' arsa Macan an Uaigneas, 
" ach 's maith leam-sa an sgeul fhaotainn." 

Bha mi 'n sin ag itheadh mo bhrathar air an eilean agus 
bu shuarach an uine gus an do theirig e. Bha 'n t-acras a so 
'gam bhualadh mar a bha e roimhe agus cha robh mir ri 
fhaotainn. Thug mi 'n aire 'n so gu 'n robh an fhaire a 
bh' air a chladach air stad. Smaointich mi nach robh agam 
ach bas romham 's am dheigh agus shnamh mi gu tir. Dh' 
fhalaich mi mi-fhein fo bhad mor feamnach, ann an duil 
'nuair a thigeadh an oidhche gu 'm faighinn am monadh a 
thoirt orm air m' ais a rithis. Ach co thainig m' an cuairt 
ach m' athair, an righ agus an sealgar leis. Bha 'n cuid chon 
leotha 's fhuair na madaidh mo bholadh-sa 's thug iad chun a 
bhaid fheamnach far an robh mi am falach agus thug iad 
oidhirp air mo lebbadh am chriomagan ach ruith mise cho 
luath 's a b' urrainn a nunn far an robh m' athair, an righ. 
Luidh mi sios air mo bhroinn aig a chasaibh 's thoisich mi air 
imleach 's air amharc gu truagh 'na aodann. 

'Nuair a chunnaic m' athair mi ghabh e truas diom 's air 
tighinn do na madaidh as mo dheigh ghabh e orra air falbh 
's cha 'n fhuilingeadh e dhaibh buintinn rium. Ghabh iad 
an sin air falbh gu sealg mar a bha iad roimhe 's cha robh cii 
ann a dheanadh m' aite-sa. Bhithinn-sa deanadh a h-uile rud 
m' an iarrtadh idir orm e, chionn lean mo thuigse 's mo 



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Sgeu/achd Cote O'Cein. 221 

ghliocas rium ged a bha mi air mo chur an riochd coin. Ged 
a chuireadh iad cu eile air falbh, bhithinn-sa air thoiseach 
air 's bhiodh mo ghnothach deanta agam m* an ruigeadh e. 
'S mi 'cheud h-aon a mhothaicheadh do 'n bheathach a bhiodh 
iad air a shon. 'S mi cheud h-aon a bhiodh aige 'nuair a 
mharbhtadh e agus dh' fhagainn aig casaibh m' athar e 's 
dh' amhaircinn na aodann le truaghas 's dh' imlichinn e. 
'Nuair a chunnaic m' athair so, thuirt e nach fac e cu riamh 
aig an robh mo ghliocas. Dh' aidich an sealgair gu 'n robh 
gliocas sonraichte agam-sa 's nach b' fhiach na madaidh eile 
bhi 'gam beathachadh ann an coimeas rium. Nuair a chuala 
mi na briathran so o m' athair agus o 'n t-sealgair, thog e 
moran de 'n eagal agus de 'n uamhas a bh' air m' inntinn 
dith agus ma bha mi deanadh gu mi roimhe bha mi nis a" 
deanadh na b' fhearr. Bha fios agam gu 'm b' iad so an da 
charaid a b' fhearr domh, an righ agus an sealgair agus nam 
faighinn iad so air mo thaobh gu 'm bithinn ann an suidh- 
eachadh na bu shabhailteacha chionn bha fhios gu 'm b' i 
Chlarsach Urlair chuir an tubaist so a' m' rathad fhein 's an 
rathad mo bhraithrean agus nan aithnicheadh i mi nis gu 'm 
biodh i 'na namhaid domh a ritbis. 

Chaidh an righ agus an sealgair dachaidh an am an 
athaidh Van anamoich agus mise led. Cha bu luaithe a 
rainig sinn na chunnaic a bhan-righinn agus a' Chlarsach 
Urlair mise 's iad ag amharc a mach throimh uinneig agus 
ghrad-aithnich a Chlarsach Urlair mi 's dh' innis i do 'n 
bhan-righinn gur mi bh' ann. Nuair a chaidh an righ a 
stigh far an robh a bhan-righinn, dh' fhoighneachd i dheth, 
de 'n cu a bha 'n siud a bha leis. Dh' innis an righ dhi gu 'n 
robh an siud cu a thachair air nuair a bha e 'falbh a sealgair- 
eachd a chois a' chladaich. Thuirt a bhan-righinn ris gu 'm 
bu choma leatha fhein an cu 's nach robh ann ach droch cu J s 
gu 'm bu choir a mharbhadh. Thuirt an righ rithe nach robh 
coire sam bith air a chii 's gu 'n robh an cu maith. Thuirt 
ise air a h-ais ris an righ nach robh ann ach droch cu 's mar 
bu luaithe a mharbhadh e e, gur h-ann a V fhearr e; m' an 
tionndadh e air fhein agus an sin gu 'm marbhadh eelea 
thoil fhein an deigh an cron a dheanadh. Thuirt an righ 
rithe nach marbhadh e 'n cii, gu 'm V fhearr e na h-uile cu a 
bh' aige 's nach robh 'leithid riamh aige 's nach robh maith 
dhith leantainn na V fhaide. Thionndaidh a' bhan-righinn 
air falbh le miothlachd mor chionn ^u 'n deachaidh an 
gnothuch na h-achaidh 's nach d' fhuair i 'n cu 'mharbhadh. 



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222 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Bha 'bhan-righinn trom leatromach anns an am so 's bha 
mise daonnan air falbh le m' at hair agus leis an t-sealgair ; s 
cha rachadh iad fad an coise as m' eugmhais agus cha 'n 
fhanainn-sa air deireadh uapa leis an eagal a bha orm. 
Ghabh an righ do thlachd dhiom an so 's nach dealaicheadh e 
rium arson mo chudthrom de dh' or. Ach thainig laithean 
na ban-righinn m' an cuairt gu bhith air a h-asaid agus ciod 
e bha aice ach mac. Nuair a fhuaradh am mac bg so bha 
greadhnachas air thoiseach air. Leagadh bron 's thogadh ceol 
's cha robh ach fios a chur air bean-altruim 's air luchd- 
frithealaidh a dh' fheitheamh air a phaisde. 'S e so ceud 
rud a thug togail air inntinn an righ riamh o 'n a chaill e a 
chuid cloinne 's nach robh [fhios] ciod e thainig orra 's nach 
d' fhuaras an dubh n'an dath n'an aogas riamh. B' eiginn 
an so faire a chur air a phaisde agus air a shon so thog 
m' athair tigh. Cha robh fosgladh air an tigh ach far an 
rachadh an toit a mach air a mhullach agus dorus beag air an 
rachadh iad a stigh 's a dhruidteadh 'nan deigh 's nach 
faicteadh gu 'm biodh mir dheth ann. Bha aon leaba ann a 
dh* fheitheamh air a bhean-altruim 's air a phaisde 's bha 
gach uireasbhuidh a bhiodh a dhith a stigh an sin aca. Nuair 
a thainig an oidhche chaidh am paisde 's a bhean-altruim 
agus luchd-frithealaidh a chur a stigh do 'n tigh so 's chaidh 
luchd-gleidhidh agus luchd-faire 'chur ann; chionn anns an 
am so bhiteadh a goid naoidhean righrean agus ridirean 's 
cha bhiodh fios co bheireadh leo iad na c'ait am bitheadh iad 
's cha 'n fhaicteadh an dubh n'an dath n'an aogas tuilleadh. 

Dh' orduich an righ an sealgair agus mise bhi aig an fhaire 
gu cinnteach. Bha sinn a' cur seachad na h -oidhche leis a 
h-uile cridhealas is feala-dha J s fearas-chuideachd J s gun ni 
sam bith a tighinn a chur dragh oirnn gus an d* thainig e 
gu cuid a mheadhon oidhche. Ma mheadhon oidhche thainig 
an aon cheol a bu luraiche 'sabu tiamhaidhe a chuala cluas 
riamh agus e cho milis agus gu T n cuireadh e fir-ghointe agus 
mnathan siubhla 'nan sioram shuain 's nuair a dhuisg iad J sa 
mhaduinn bha 'm paisde air falbh. 

Cha robh ach gu 'n deachaidh an glaodh a mach gu 'n do 
ghoideadh am paisde. Bha J n righ ann am miothlachd mor 
's a bhan-righinn as a beachd air a shon agus cha V e caradh 
an luchd-faire a V fhearr le a leithid de dh' amhladh a 
thuiteam timchioll orra a tharruing spid dhaoine orra, nach 
bu cheatharnaich iad 'nuair a leig iad am paisde 'ghoid. Ach 
thbisich a bhan-righinn 'sa Chlarsach Urlair air a radh gur 
h-e 'n cu ud a mharbh 's a dh' ith am paisde. Thuirt an righ 



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Sgeulachd Cois* (TCein. 223 

nach <T rinn an cu. riamh e 's thuirt ise gu 'n d' rinn. Thuirt 
an righ rithe an sin gu 'm biodh fios aige-san an ceart uair. 
Fhuair e mise 's dh' amhairc e mo bheul 's dh' amhairc e m' 
fhiaclan 's dh' amhairc e h-uile mir dhiom ann sam biodh 
comharran r' am faotainn nam bithinn ciontach ann sa chron. 
Ach cha d' fhuair e comharradh sam bith 's cha robh aig a 
bhan-righinn ach stad. 

Chaidh aimsir an sin seachad an deigh am paisde bhith 
air a ghoid agus chinn a bhan-righinn leatromach a rithis. 
Dh' asaideadh i 's bha leanabh mic eile aice. Chaidh an 
fhaire chur air doigh 's fhuair an righ ceatharnaich chun na 
faire ghabhail as laimh nach leigeadh iad le sith na le 
saoghalta am paisde ghoid. Chaidh iad a stigh do 'n tigh 
fhaire 's dhuin iad as an deigh an dorus 's cha robh seol aig 
gaoth na aig ni sam bith dol a stigh. Shuidh cuid de na 
ceatharnaich a b' fhearr 's an dromannan ris an dorus air alt 
agus nach b' urrainn ni na neach tighinn a stigh gun moth- 
achainn da. Bha iad ris gach f eala-dha is cluiche is abhachdas 
a chumail a chadail air falbh 'gan deanadh fhein Ian 
chinnteach nach b' urrainn sith na saoghalta am paisde a 
ghoid urra-san. Ach mar a thainig an uair eile thainig an 
ceol air an doigh cheudna agus thuit iad na'n cadal 's nuair 
a dhuisg iad bha 'm paisde air falbh. 

'Nuair a mhothaich iad gu 'n do ghoideadh am paisde cha 
V urrainn iad an cinn a thogail an la-r-na-mhaireach an 
lathair an righ chionn am paisde leigeil a ghoid mar a rinn an 
fheadhainn a bha ann roimhe. 

Thoisich a bhan-righinn 'sa Chlarsach Urlair air a chu 
'dhiteadh ag radh gur h-e dh' ith am paisde air an t-siubhal so 
cuideachd 's nach d' thainig atharrach air. Bha cuid de 'n 
luchd-f aire toileach fhagail air a chu chun iad a thogail suas 
ach cha 'n eisdeadh an righ riutha ach thuirt e ris a bhan- 
righinn nan tachradh a leithid a rithis gu 'm marbhadh esan 
an cu an sin. 

Air an treas uair chinn a bhan-righinn leatromach agus 
nuair thainig ceann na h-uine dh' asaideadh air leanabh mic 
eile i. 'S ann an sin a bha 'n gnothach ri fheuchainn. Bha 
mo bheatha-sa an crochadh ri goid na ri gleidheadh a phaisde. 
Rinneadh gach ciiis deas 's chaidh an fhaire^ air a h-aghaidh. 
Bha 'n sealgair air brdachadh ann leis an righ, m' athair, 's 
cha dealaicheadh an sealgair rium-sa. Bha iad ri cluiche 's 
ri abhachd mar a V abhaist daibh gus an d' thainig aird a 
mheadhon-oidhche 's an do thoisich an ceol air dol m' an 



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224 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

cuairt an tighe, 's an do thuit a h-uile duine na throma 
'chadal seachad. 

Ach chuimhnich mise orm fhein nach robh ach bas 
romham 's aW dheigh a nis nan caidlinn. Nuair a chaidil 
a h-uile h-aon a bha ann 's a bha 'n tigh samhach, thainig 
<;rog mhor a stigh air an luithear, a thug oidhirp air a' phaisde 
thoirt air falbh ; ach thug mise dui-leum agus rug mi air a 
<;hroig ann am fhiaclan agus 'nuair a thug am fear a bha 
muigh oidhirp air a chroig a thoirt suas chuir mi mo chasan 
am forca ri mullach an tighe 's cha 'n 'fhaigheadh e 'chrog 
thoirt leis gus an d' thainig i dheth o 'n ghualainn. Thuit a 
<jhrdg 's mi fhein a nuas air an urlar 's m' an do dhuisg mi 
as a phairileis chuir a bheisd a stigh a chrog eile 's thug e leis 
am paisde. Shlaod mise 'chrog a stigh fo 'n leabaidh 's 
<;hum mi 'm falach an sin i. 

Nuair a dhuisg an luchd-faire 'sa mhaduinn bha 'm paisde 
air falbh* Chaidh an naigheachd an so chun an righ gu 'n 
<Jo ghoideadh am paisde a rithis. Nuair a chualaidh a bhan- 
righinn e, ghlaodh i gur h-e J n cu a rinn e co dhiubh 's nam 
marbhadh an righ an cu mar a dh' iarr ise, nach d' thigeadh 
a leithid so de dh' amhghar 'nan carabh. 

Ghlaoidheadh an cu an so. Thainig an sealgair 's mise 
leis. Bha e 'n so a reir coltais, soilleir gu leoir gur mise bha 
'g itheadh nam paisdean. Bha 'n fhuil air mo bheul 's air 
mo cheann 's air mo chluasan. Nuair a chunnacas so thainig 
facal bais do 'n chu a beul gach duine 'dh' aon uair. Dh* fhas 
aoibh air a bhan-righinn 's air a' Chlarsaich Urlair nuair a 
chual iad so gu 'n robh mise ri m' chur gu bas. Ghabh an 
righ duilichinn mhor 's bha 'n sealgair fo sprochd 's dh' iarr 
an righ air an t-sealgair an sin mise mharbhadh. Nis nan 
tachradh a leithid so dhuit-se nach b' ann le duilichinn a 
dh' aithriseadh thu sgeul an Athaich Mhoir," ars' an righ. 

"Coma learn ciod e an duilichinn a tha ort-sa, M arsa 
Macan an Uaigneas, 'sega ghabhail ath-ghoirid nach robh e 
'fhaotainn an naigheachd, " ach tha mise 'n geall air sgeul 
an Athaich Mhoir a chluinntinn gu buileach. ,, "Nuair a 
chunnaic mi 'n so," ars' an righ, nach robh dol uaithe agam, 
ruith mi far an robh an righ agus bhog mi m' earball ris agus 
ruith mi gu dorus an tigh-fhaire agus bha mi 'feuchainn ri 
smeideadh ris mo leantainn ged nach b' urrainn mi labhairt. 
Thuirt an righ ma dheireadh gu 'n robh rud-eiginn aig a 
chii. Lean an righ agus cuid de na h-uaislean mi a dh' 
amhairc ciod e bu chiall dhomh. Nuair a chaidh sinn a stigh 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 225 

ruith mise fo 'n leabaidh. Thoisich mi air draghadh na croige 
'mach agus ma dheireadh shlaod mi mach air an urlar i. 
Huair a chunnaic an righ so, ghabh e de bhoch 's nach robh 
cuimhn' aige air na paisdean a chaidh a ghoid chionn gu 'n 
robh e faicinn gu 'n robh mise tearuinte. Thuirt e ma bha 
gliocas duine aig cu riamh gu 'n robh e agam-sa agus nam 
faighteadh a bheisd a bha goid nam paisdean, air sheol sam 
bith gur mise gheibheadh e. 

Dh' aithn m' athair soitheach a chur an uidheam arson 
falbh ma thuaiream ait an fhir a bha goid nam paisdean 's 
gu 'm faigheadh an cii a mach e. Air do 'n t-soitheach a bhi 
uidheamaichte chaidh sinn air bord 's dh' fhalbh sinn. Bha 
mise 's an toiseach 's mi 'comharrachadh a mach na slighe 
dhajbh a ghabhadh iad. Bhithinn le m* cheann o nach 
V urrainn mi bruidhinn riu, g'an seoladh. Ma dheireadh 
thog sinn fearann. Chomhairlich mise dhaibh gabhail a dh' 
ionnsuidh an fhearainn 's air dhuinn a ruigheachd, ciod e bha 
ann ach eilean mara. 

Nuair a bhuail an soitheach gu cala, leum mise air tir agus 
ghabh mi suas ciil creige moire a bh' ann. M' an cuairt an 
sin chunnaic mi uamh bhoidheach, reidhlean boidheach uaine 
aig a beulthaobh, 's da bhalach bheag bhoidheach ann le 
-caman oir agus le ball airgid. Ghabh mi seachad orra 's 
^chaidh mi stigh do 'n uamh. Chunnaic mi fear mor na 
luidhe 's na chadal, a' ghualainn a' sileadh fala, paisde 's an 
asgaill eile aige, plaibean saille aig a phaisde ga dheobhal 
agus sreang as 's e ceangailte ri ordaig. Nuair a bhiodh e 
dol tuillidh a's domhain, bheireadh am paisde spadadh as 's 
"bheireadh e air ais e. 

Ghabh mi gu reidh suas taobh na leapa far an robh am 
fear mor. Cha robh fios agam ciod a dheanainn. Nan 
duisgeadh e mharbhadh e mise, 's an sin, a h-uile h-aon a bha 
air an t-soitheach; ach chunnaic mi nach robh ach am bas 
romham 's am bas as mo dheigh. Cha robh dol uaithe agam. 
Thug mi dui-leum do 'n leabaidh 's rug mi air sgbrnan air. 
Chaignich mi ann le m' fhiaclan cho maith 's a V urrainn mi. 
Thug am fear mor ionnsuidh gu h-eiridh. Ma 'm V urrainn 
e sin a dheanadh, bha 'n sgbrnan agam srachdta 'mach as. 

Ruith mu J n sin sios far an robh an soitheach. Bhog mi 
m , earball riu arson tighinn air tir 's mo leantainn. Ruith 
iad as mo dheaghainn 's ruith mise suas gus an uamh. Air 
dhuinn a bheisd mharbh a ruigheachd, thug an sgioba leo am 
paisde 'bha na asgaill agus an da bhalachan a bha ris an 

15 



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226 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

iomain; ach thionndaidh sgiobair an t-soithich agus an. 
sealgair a rithis 'nan deaghainn 's thuirt iad gu 'm bu choir 
dhaibh closach an fhir mhoir a thoirt leo dhachaidh, arson 
gu 'm faiceadh an righ e T s gu 'm biodh treubhantas a' choin 
air a dheanadh follaiseach. Thug iad leo sios e 's chuir iad 
ropa ma mhuineal 's thug iad dachaidh as deign a' bhata e 
mar sin ; 's nuair a chunnaic m' athair e, thuirt egu 'n robh 
gliocas a' choin os cionn gliocas duine 's nach creideadh e nacli 
e h-aon de na mic a chaill e fhein a bha ann. 

G-hlac amharus an righ as leith na ban-righinn agus na 
Clarsaich Urlair ; s dh' iarr e 'n cur an sas gun dail sam bith. 
Dh' aidich a* Chlarsach Urlair gu'mb' e'ncii h-aon de mhie 
an righ, gu 'n d' rinn ise madaidh de 'n chloinn le draoidh- 
eachd, 's gu 'm b' e ionnrachdan na ban-righinn a thug urra. 
an deanadh 'nam madaidh. 

Thuirt an righ an sin ris a' Chlarsaich Urlair a mhac-san 
fhagail mar a bu choir dha, agus rinn i siud. 

'Nuair a chunnaic an sluagh an so cho olc agus a bha 
'bhan-righinn, dh' fhoighneachd iad de 'n righ, ciod e 
'dheantadh rithe; agus dh' iarr an righ a cur gu bas. 
Dhiteadh i 'n so gu bhith air a losgadh ann an gealbhan mor 
's a' Chlarsach Urlair a bhith air a ceangal rithe 's air a 
losgadh leatha. Chaidh so a dheanadh 's loisgeadh a' bhan- 
righinn 's a' Chlarsach Urlair ann an teine agus a nis sin 
agad sgeul Athaich Mhoir na h-Aoin-suil. 

Thig a nis 's gu 'm faigheadh tu criaimh d' a chnamhan. 
Chaidh an righ 's fhuair e iuchair bheag a bh' aige am falach 
ann an aite sonruichte 's thug e leis i 's dh' iarr e airsan a 
leantainn. Dh' fhalbh iad sios chun a' chladaich J s thug an 
righ leis m'an cuairt e air creagan ard, sleamhuinn 's thug e 
suil agus bha toll cruinn ann an aghaidh na creige, nach 
d' thugadh duine an aire dha mar am biodh e rurach arson a 
leithid. Chuir an righ an iuchair a stigh ann san toll so '& 
chuir e oar innte 's dh' fhosgail a' chreag. 'Nuair a chaidh 
iad a stigh do 'n uamh sin, chunnaic iad cnamhan an fhir 
mhoir 'nan sineadh air an urlar. 

"A nis," ars' an righ, "chunnaic m' athair iomchuidh 
closach an fhir mhoir a chur am falach ; chionn bha brathair 
bg aige ris an abradh iad an t-Athach Dtibh Mor agus nam 
faigheadh e fios gu 'n do mharbhadh a bhrathair an so, 
thigeadh e agus sgriosadh e 'm baile 's an rioghachd. Agus 
arson nach faigheadh e cinnte chuir m' athair na cnamhan an 
so 's cha robh fios aig duine air ach mise, 'mhac. A nis 
thainig a bhrathair, an t-Athach Dubh Mor 's bha e 'seisdeadh 

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Sgeulachd Cotf O'Cein. 227 

air a bhaile fad sheachd bliadhna, ach cha robh aig ach 
amharus gur h-ann an so a mharbhadh e. Bha sinn ga 
chumail a mach le obair theine 's chaidh an obair air aimhreit. 
'Sb' eiginn duinn an sin tighinn ann an ceann cordaidh ris, 
ach cha chordadh ni sam bith ris ach an oigh a bu sgiamhaiche 
'sab' fhearr a bha ann san rioghachd, an t-each a b' fhearr 
a bha ann san rioghachd, agus an cu a b' fhearr a bha ann san 
rioghachd, agus is maith a bha fios aig an Athach Dhubh 
Mhor co iad sin — gu 'm b' iad sin mo nighean, m' each agus 
mo chu fhein. 

Thoilich mo nighean falbh leis air ghaol am baile 's an 
sluagh a thearnadh ; agus a nis tha mise 'g aithneachadh gur 
h-ann agad-sa a tha mo nighean ; chionn cha robh f hios aig 
neach eile ach aice fhein agus agam-sa, air an naigheachd a 
bh' an so. Tha fios agam air na geasaibh a chuir thusa air an 
fhear mhor aig an tigh. 

Falbhaidh tu 'maireach. Caidlidh tu an oidhche a ruigeas 
tu ann a* d' thigh fhein, a leigeil do sgios. An la'r na mhair- 
each, a rithis, bheir thu ort far am theil a' fear mor. Nuair 
a chi e thu 'tighinn ruithidh e a' d' chomhdhail agus glaodh- 
aidh e riut : — " Innis, Innis, Innis." Bidh e air bainidh gus 
an naigheachd fhaotainn ach abair thusa ris e dheanadh air 
a shocair 's gu 'm faigh e sin agus abair ma bha esan sgith aig 
an tigh gu 'n robh thusa fo sgios agus fo allaban thu fhein 
m'an d' fhuair thu 'n naigheachd agus an cnaimh. Agus a 
nis o 'n a fhuair mise an naigheachd agus an cnaimh agus 
thusa ma sgaoil o na geasaibh, rachamaid gu h-aite fasgach, 
far am faigh mise socair air an naigheachd innseadh. Air 
dhuit so a radh ris, thoir leat e air chul gaoithe 's air aghaidh 
greine agus toisich 's innis da 'h-uile smid a dh' innis mise 
dhuit-se ; agus is maith dh' fhaoidteadh ma 'm V i 'n naigh- 
eachd criochnaichte gu 'n tuit a bheisd 'na chadal, a thaobh 
an allabain air an robh e o chionn treis a nis ; agus ma thuiteas 
e na chadal, tarruing a claidheamh eile air. Cluinnidh sinn 
ann an uine ghoirid uait, ma shoirbhicheas leat. Amhairc a 
nis arson cnaimh 's tog leat h-aon a thoilicheas tu as na 
bheil an sin." 

Dh' amhairc e m' an cuairt a measg nan cnamh, agus 'se 
h-aon cho freagarrach 's a chunnaic e ann h-aon de chnamh- 
aibh an droma aig a' chaol-druim 's thug e leis e 's thainig e 
air falbh 's dhruid an righ an dorus 'na dheigh. 

An la'r na mhaireach rinn e reidh a dhol dachaidh. 

"A nis," ars' an righ, "bheir thu leat an t-each dubh a 
rithis." 

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228 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Dh' fhag an righ 's e fhein beannachd aig a cheile. Leum 
e air mharcachd air an each dhubh. Bha na deoir a' ruith a 
nuas air gruaidhibh an righ an am dealachaidh agus e 
glaodhach : — " Buaidh leat, ma dh' eiricheas leat gu maith, 
cluinnidh sinn uait an uine ghoirid." Dh' fhalbh e agus gun 
tubaist gun tuiteamas, rainig e dhachaidh. Ghabh a' bhean 
boch mor ris. Dh' itheadh i e le pogaibh 's bhathadh i e le 
deoraibh. Ghabh e gu tamh an oidhche sin 's chaidil e gu 
suaimhneach 'na thigh fhein. 'Nuair a dh' eirich e 'sa 
mhaduinn 's ghabh e 'bhiadh, thuirt a' bhean ris : — 

" A nis, tha thu falbh far am bheil a' fear mor agus lean a 
h-uile facal mar a thubhairt m' athair riut. Tha fios agam-sa 
gu maith ciod e thubhairt e riut, 's dean thusa mar a dh' iarr 
e ort." 

Thug e leis an cnaimh, chuir e sugan roimhe 's thilg e thar 
a ghuailne e, 's ghabh e air falbh. Thainig e ann an sealladh 
do 'n fhear mhor. Nuair a chunnaic am fear mor e 'tighinn, 
ruith e 'na chomhdhail agus ghlaodh e ris — " Innis, Innis, 
Innis." 

"Dean f oighidinn, ' ' arsa Macan an Uaigneas, " oir tha 
mi sgith, 's tha mi cinnteach gu 'm bheil thusa sgith mar an 
ceudna. Rachamaid gu h-aite air chul gaoithe 's air aodann 
greine agus innsidh mise dhuit mo naigheachd. ,, 

Thoilich am fear mor so a dheanadh agus rainig iad aite 
fasgach. Shuidh iad sios agus thoisich Macan an Uaigneas air 
innseadh an sgeoil a dh' innis righ an talaimh isil da. Cha 
b' fhada lean e air innseadh 'nuair a thuit am fear mor 'na 
chadal. Lean esan air an naigheachd gus an do chriochnaich 
e e agus nuair a chriochnaich e e, thuirt e : — " Tha mo 
gheasan-sa ma sgaoil." Dh' eirich e 'n sin gu samhach 
socair 's tharruing e claidheamh an fhir mhoir as an truaill. 
Tharruing e 'n claidheamh 's thilg e 'n ceann de 'n 
fhear mhor. Cha luaithe thilg e dheth e na 'leum 
e air a cholainn a rithis. Thilg e deth an darna uair e 
agus leum an ceann air a chlosaich a rithis. Ghabh e eagal 
'nuair a chunnaic e so ach chuimhnich e gu 'n cualaidh e seann 
daoine ag iomradh nan cuirteadh an claidheamh eadar an 
ceann 's an corp, gus am fuairicheadh an smior-chailleach 
nach leumadk an ceann air chorp tuillidh, agus rinn esan so. 
Luidh an ceann socair air an darna taobh 's a' cholann air an 
taobh eile. 

Chaidh Macan an Uaigneas dhachaidh le gairdeachas a 
dh' innseadh d' a' mhnaoi mar a thachair dha. Bha ise ann 
an toil-inntinn da rireadh, air dhi a chluinntinn gu 'n robh 

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Sgeutaohd Coin 7 O'Cein. 229 

an t-Athach Dubh Mor marbh. Chuireadh teachdairean. air 
falbh gun dail, dh' ionnsuidh a h-athar, righ an talaimh isil, 
a thoirt fios da gu 'n do mharbh Macan an Uaigneas an 
t-Athach Dubh Mor. Nuair a rainig na teachdairean 's a 
dh' innis iad do 'n righ mar a bha 'chuis, co b' urrainn a chur 
an ceill an gairdeachas, an greadhnachas, 's an toil-inntinn a 
bha aige arson an namhaid mhoir sin a bhi marbh a bha 
arson a sgrios fhein, a chuirte, a chathrach, agus a rioghachd. 

Chuir an righ fios air Macan an Uaigneas 's air a mhnaoi 
tighinn 'a 'amharc. Chaidh iad 'a fhaicinn 's nuair a rainig 
iad e bha failt is furan a feitheamh orra. Leagadh bron 's 
thogadh ceol. Bha fleadh is cluiche 's cebl 'ga chumail suas 
fad sheachd laithean na seachdain le toil-inntinn gu 'n do 
mharbhadh an namhaid a chum fo sprochd cho fada iad, 

Bha cairdeas is daimh air a chumail eadar Macan an 
Uaigneas 's Righ an Talaimh Isil 'na dheigh sin 's bha iad air 
an ais 's air an aghaidh a J dol a dh' fhaicinn a cheile. 

"A nis sin thusa mach," etc. . . . "gus an cluinn 
mi mar a chaidh do d' dha mhac eile a bha leat a sireadh do 
mhnatha fhein agus am mathair-san, nighean Righ Peile- 
Fionn." 

" Mo chuid chuileag/ , etc. 



Bha mo mhac-sa, Gorm-shuil, am fear a bu shine, air fas 
na oganach aluinn 's bha e foghluimte anns a h-uile ni a 
dheanadh feum dha ann an cogadh 's ann an latha cath. Aig 
an am so fhuair mise fios o righ na Gearmailt a dhol a 
chumail latha blair agus comhraig ris, ar-neo gu 'n d' thigeadh 
e agus gu J n togadh e mo bhaile mor agus gach ni a bha agam 
ann an crannagaibh a loingeas. Dh' innis mi 'n sg^ul so do 
m' ard uaislibh agus do mhaithibh na cuirte. Thoilich iad 
fhein 's an daoine deanadh reidh agus feachd mor a thrusadh 
gus an d' thugamaid latha cath agus comhraig garbh dha 'na 
rioghachd fhein, 'chionn gu 'm b' fhusa a chumail a mach na 
'chur a mach, nan d' thigeadh e. 

Chuir mi fios air Grorm-shuil, mo mhac mor arson fantuinn 
a' gleidheadh mo chuirte agus mo chathrach gus an tillinn 
agus thuirt esan gu 'm b' fhearr leis aon latha blair na mo 
rioghachd gu leir. Chuir mi an sin fios air a chalpach mo 
mhac og 's dh' innis mi dha ciod e a thubhairt a bhrathair 
mor rium, 's thuirt mi ris-san nam fanadh e 'gleidheadh mo 



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230 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

chuirte 's mo chathrach gu 'm faigheadh e leith na rioghachd 
's na cathrach cho fad 's a bu bhe6 mise. 

Fhreagair mo mhac bg 's thuirt e riiun : — " 'S cosmhuil 
Dam fanadh mo bhrathair mor nach cuirteadh fios orm-sa ; 
ach tha mise coma ged a dh' fhanas mi." 

Db/ fhan an Calpach aig an tigh 's chaidh sinne ma 
thuaiream a bhlair. Bha e 'n sin sgith aig an tigh a' gleidh- 
eadh na cuirte agus na cathrach agus e gun chluiche na toil- 
inntinn sam bith a bheireadh togail air. Latha de na 
laithibh chuimhnich e, gu 'n cualaidh e iomradh aig seann 
daoine ge b' e neach a rachadh gu Cam a' Mhullaich agus 
cadal ann gu 'm faigheadh e caochladh comhairle m' an 
duisgeadh e. 

XI. 

Rainig e 'n earn agus chaidil e ann 's ciod e a chunnaic e 
na chadal ach aobhar a mhnatha 's a leannain, Athan Aluinn 
TJchd-Soluis, nighean righ Ulainn, 's nach robh i fada uaithe 
r'a faotainn. Dhuisg e as a chadal. Thug e leum as 's 
chrath e e fhein 's bhoidich e ma bha 'm boireannach a 
chunnaic e 'na chadal ann san iorrachd na ann san uarrachd 
na ann an ceithir ranna ruadha an domhain, gu 'm faigheadh 
e a mach i, ar-neo gu 'm basaicheadh e ann san oidhirp. 

Dh' amhairc em'an cuairt air gun fhios ciod e 'n taobh 
a bheireadh e 'aghaidh, ach ghabh e air falbh leis an leathad. 
Bu shuarach an uine a bha e a' gabhail air adhart, 'nuair a 
chunnaic e luchairt mhor air thoiseach air. Dh* fhoighneachd 
e do dh' fhear siubhail a thachair air ciod e an aitreabh a 
bha 'n siud. 

" Tha 'n sin, M arsa am fear siubhail, "luchairt a thog a 
h-athair do dh' Athan Aluinn Uchd-Soluis 's tha i a chomh- 
nuidh an sin air a gleidheadh le tri fichead mac righ agus 
ridire gus an till a h-athair o J n bhlar a bha ri bhi air a chur 
le Macan an Athamain mac righ Lochlaum." 

Nuair a chualaidh an Calpach so ghabh e air falbh. 
Rainig e J n luchairt. Rainig e 'n dorsair 's dh' iarr e 'stigfh. 
Cha leigeadh an dorsair a stigh e. Nuair a chunnaic esan sin, 
tharruing e bhas, J s bhuail e 'sa chluais an dorsair agus spread 
e 'n t-eanchainn as. Ghabh e air aghaidh a stigh do 'n luch- 
airt gus an do rainig e seombar m6r a bha 'na teis-meadhoin, 
le deich oighibh fichead Va coimhideachd J s iad a' cluiche air 
thaileasg, agus tri fichead mac righ agus ridire 'nan seasamh 
m' an cuairt urra. Cha d' thuirt an Calpach smid, ach thog e 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 231 

gu seimh i ar mullach a ghuailne 's air uallach a dhroma. 
Ghabh e mach air an dorus 's dh' fhag e 'n luchuirt. 

Dh' amhairc clann nan righrean 's nan ridirean air a 
^heile, 's thubhairt iad, gu 'm bu tamailteach an gnothuch a 
thainig orra, gu 'n robh iad ann tri fichead mac righ agus 
ridire 's gu 'n do leig iad air falbh an nighean le aon 
bheadagan beag, suarach. Labhair fear aca 's thubhairt e 
gu 'm b' e 'n doigh daibh da leith a dheanadh air a chuid- 
eachd, 's leith a dh' fhalbh a thoirt air ais na h-ighinn, agus 
leith a dh' fhantainn a ghleidheadh na luchairt. 

G-habh leith na cuideachd as a deigh 's nuair a thainig iad 
suas ris, thoisich iad air spionadh 's air slaodadh na h-ighinn J 
uaithe, ach bha esan daonnan a' gabhail air adhart. 

Ma dheireadh bha e fas goirid riu. Leig e sios ise gu min, 
reidh air an fheur ghlas 's tharruing e claidheamh 's thilg e 
na cinn diubh. Thog e leis an nighean air a ghualainn mar a 
bha i roimhe. 

Nuair a fhuair an leith a bha aig an tigh fios mar a dh* 
eirich do chach, thuirt iad, gu 'm bu tamailteach an ni 
thachair, gu 'm falbhadh iad air a thoir, gu 'n d' thugadh iad 
uaith an nighean, gu 'n d' thugadh iad .an ceann deth 's gu 'm 
Hodh a cheann aca 'na bhall iomanach timchioll na ciiirte 
arson a mhio-mhoidh. 

Dh' fhalbh iad as a dheigh. Air dhaibh tighinn suas ris, 
thoisich iad air slaodadh na h-ighinn' mar a bha each ; ach 
tha esan a' gabhail air adhart 's gun e ag radh smid. Air a 
cheann ma dheireadh thionndaidh e m'an cuairt agus dh' 
fhoighneachd e dhiubh, ciod e bha dhith orra. Thuirt iad ris, 
gu 'n robh iad a' dol a thoirt na h-ighinne air a h-ais, agus a 
chionn gu 'n d' thug e urad de thamailt daibh gu 'n 
d' thugadh iad deth an ceann 's gu 'm biodh e na bhall- 
iomain aca timchioll na ciiirte arson a mhio-mhoidh. 

Cha d' thuirt e smid : ach leag e 'n nighean air an fheur 
ghlas 's thug e na deich cinn fhichead a mach. Thog e leis an 
nighean air a ghualainn a rithis 's leis cho beusach 's a bha 
iad, cha do labhair e facal rithe fad na h-uine. Ghabh e air 
aghaidh gus an do rainig e 'n earn far an robh e 'na chadal agus 
leig e as i taobh a chuirn. Thubhairt is an sin ris : — " Ma 
tha aite taimh na clos agad a's fhearr na so, thoir mise ann." 

Thuirt e rithe gu 'n robh e sgith, gu 'n robh an cadal air 
*s i lei^eil da a cheann a chur 'na h-uchd tiotamh beasf. Cha 
V fhada bha e air a cheann a chur na h-uchd nuair a chaidil e 
gu trom. Bha i a' fasgadh a chinn 's i 'g amharc m'an cuairt 



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232 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

urra air gach taobh. Bha 'n fhairge fosgailte m'a coinneamh 
shios fo 'n aite ann sail robh i 'na suidhe. Suil gu 'n d' thug 
i, ciod e a chunnaic i ach long a tighinn a stigh as a chuan. 
Nuair a bha i 'tighinn fagns do chala, bha i 'comharrachadlr 
nach robh ach aon duine air bord urra; agus am fear sin 
gu 'n robh e cho mor 's gu 'm beartaicheadh e a h-uile ball 
de 'n luing 'sena sheasamh air a clar. 

XII. 

G-habh e air tir do 'n aite ann san robh ise na suidhe. 

Bug e air an luing 's thug e tri fad fhein a stigh air feur 
glas i. Thug e air suas far an robh an nighean 'na suidhe. 
Bheannaich e dhi 's bheannaich ise dha. Thubhairt e rithe 
gu 'n do shiubhail e ceithir ranna ruadh an domhain ag 
iarraidh aobhar a mhnatha 's a leannain, Athan Aluinn Uchd- 
Soluis, 's nach rachadh e na V fhaide na ise g'a h-iarraidh- 
Thubhairt ise ris, nach V ise i 's nach robh an te fada uaithe 
agus nam faiceadh e i nach deanadh ise searbhanta bhrbg 
dhith. Thuirt e rithe gu 'n robh a coltas aige-san 'na shoith- 
each 's gu 'm biodh fios aige ann an tune ghoirid. Ghabh e 
air falbh gu ruig an soitheach, thug e leis an coltas, agus thill 
e. An fhad 's a bha esan air falbh, cha robh ise 'na tamh. 
Bha i 'spionadh 's a slaodadh a leannain aig a charn 's a 
deanadh a h-uile ni arson a dhusgaidh.. Ach gu cearbach, 
m' an do chaidil e, cha d' fhoighneachd i deth, ciod e bu 
dusgadh dha. Thainig fear na luinge agus a coltas leis 's 
chuir e m'a coinneamh e 's cha b' urrainn i smid a radh. 
Thug e 'lamh air a togail leis 's thuirt i ris, nach falbhadh i 
gu brach 's a brathair fhagail 'na deaghainn. 

"An e do bhrathair a tha ann?" ars' esan. 

" 'S e," ars' ise, " 's cha 'n fhag mi e 's mi beo." Thoisich 
fear an luinge air a Chalpach a dhusgadh 's cha b' urrainn e. 
Ma dheireadh dh' fheuch e 'bhuill 's thubhairt e rithe, gu 'm 
bu cho maith am fear ud na chadal 's na fhaireachadh, gu 'n 
robh buill chruadh a churaidh aige, gu 'n robh e mar gu 'm 
biodh e 'n deigh a bhi ann am blar ar neo a dol do bhlar. 
Thog e 'cheann gu min reidh as a h-uchd 's leig e as air an 
lar e. Thug e leis d' a luing ise 's nuair a chuir e stigh air 
an toiseach i, b' aill leatha a bhi mach air a deireadh. Thuirt 
am fear mor rithe gun i dheanadh coire dhi fhein, chionn ge 
b' e achanaidh a dh' iarradh i gu 'm faigheadh i e. Thuirt i 
nach robh i 'g iarraidh ach gun i bha 'na mnaoi na na leannan 
aige gu ceann latha 's bliadhna. Thug e sin dith. 



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Sgeu/achd Cois 1 O'Cein. 233 

Chuir e ghualainn ris an luing, chuir e mach gu fairge i 's 
ghabh e air falbh. Bha 'm fear eile na chadal air a charn 
gun dusgadh 'nuair a thachair so. Nuair a bha 'n t-anmoch 
a' tighinn bha buachaillean a chruidh 's nan caorach a bha 
san kite so a' truiseadh nan treudan. 'S ann le tabhunn chon 
's le feadalaidh 's le glaodhach nam buachaillean a dhuisg 
esan. J^eum e air a chois 's thug e suil 's cha robh a leannan 
aige. Nuair a chunnaic e gu 'n robh a leannan air falbh, 
ruith e as deigh fear de na buachaillibh, feuch am faigheadh e 
sgeul. Air do 'n bhuachaille 'choltas fhaicinn a' tighinn 'na 
ruith, theich e. Thug e 'n so, as deaghaidh buachaille eile 's 
nuair a chunnaic na buachaillean gu leir e, theich iad 's 
dh' fhag iad an crodh 's na caoraich an siud. Ach thainig e 
ma dheireadh dluth do h-aon diubh, 's chunnaic am buachaille 
nach robh dol as aige; agus sheas e. G-hlaodh e ris a 
bhuachaille : — 

" Faile ! Faire ! A Bhuachaille ! Is sibhse a rinn a' 
chulaidh-bhuird" agus fhanoid diom-sa an diugh." 

Thubhairt am buachaille ris nach do rinn iadsan e ach 
gu 'n do rinn e fhein e. 

" Ciamar sin a bhuachaille ?" ars' esan. 

" Tha," ars' am buachaille, "a liuthad mac righ agus 
ridire mharbh thu, a toirt a mach aobhar do leannain, 's 
gu 'n do leig thu le aon duine ma dheireadh i." 

" Agus an do rinn mi sin?" ars' an Calpach. 

" Rinn," ars' am buachaille. 

" Agus co a thug leis i?" ars' an Calpach, " na ciod e 'n 
t-slighe a ghabh e." 

Dh' innis am buachaille dha, gu 'n d' thainig long mhor a 
stigh as a chuan 's nach robh duine air bord urra ach an t-aon, 
's gu J m beartaicheadh e soitheach le a dha laimh 's e na 
sheasamh air a clar. 

" Ghabh e nios," ars J am buachaille, " J s thug e leis aobhar 
do mhnatha *s do leannain, agus dh' fhalbh e mach air a chuan 
an rathad a thainig e." 

" Am bheil fhios agad ciod e ni thusa, 'bhuachaille?" ars' 
an Calpach. 

"Cha 'n 'eil," ars* am buachaille. 

"Falbh thusa," ars' an Calpach, "agus ruig luchairt m' 
athar ; cum agus gleidh i gus an d' thig mise na h-aon eile 
ga h-iarraidh ; 's mar an <T thig mise na m' athair na mo 
bhrathair dhachaidh, gheibh thu dhut fhein i ; 's ma thig, 
bidh dealbh bheathachaidh agad-sa ri d* bheo." 



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234 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Dh' fhoighneachd e de 'n bhuachaille, an robh aon long 
san aite 's thuirt am buachaille ris, gu 'n robh aon te shios 
foidhe; gu 'm b' i an aon te a dh' fhagadh, nuair a dh' fhalbh 
'athair chun a chogaidh. Ghabh e sios chun a chladaich 's 
dh' fhalbh am buachaille 'ghleidheadh na luchairt. 
(Beartachadh na luinge). 

Ghabh e gu cuan agus sheol e fad naoi laithean gun f earann 
fhaicinn. Air an deicheamh latha bha e 'g amharc a mach 
agus chunnaic e f earann 's thainig e air cladach farsuing an 
sin a bha air a lionadh le soithichibh briste. Sheol e air ais 
's air adhart an an sin gus am facaidh e bealach fosgailte eadar 
na soithichean briste. Euith e stigh a shoitheach throimh an 
bhealach so. Nuair a bhuail i air a ghrunn leum e mach air 
a toiseach : thug e spionadh urra 's tharruing e a seachd fad 
fhein suas air an fheur ghlas i. 

Dh' amhairc e m'an cuairt air, 's chunnaic e moran 
sluaigh air an traigh. Thuig e 'n so gu 'm b' e Latha Nollaig 
a bha ann 's gu 'u robh iad ag obair air camanachd. Fhuair 
e ablach camain 's chaidh e stigh 'nam measg agus 's e thachair 
air an taobh air an do sheas e, gu 'n deachaidh am ball a 
stigh. Thainig fear de na daoine nail far an robh e, 's 
thubhairt e ris : — 

" Fhir a thainig ! 's tusa iomanaiche 's fhearr na sinne 's a 
thaobh sin roinnidh sinn a' chuideachd. ' ' 

Thuirt an Calpach gu 'n robh esan toileach duine air an 
duine 'thoirt da 's gu 'n rachadh e riu. Thuirt am fear eile 
nach fhaigheadh e duine air an duine ach gu 'm faigheadh e 
h-aon 's gu 'm biodh e dha na aghaidh. Thuirt an Calapch 
nach V fhiach an doigh siud ach iad a chur a mach a bhuill, 
'sgu 'm feuchadh esan riu. 

Chaidh am ball a chur a mach am meadhon barach. 
Fhuair an Calpach greim urra J s cha do thill iad buille air 
gus an do chuir e stigh i. Thog e 'm ball na laimh 's choisich 
e air aghaidh 'nan comhdhail 's co choinnich e ach am fear 
mi-mhodhail a labhair ris roimhe, J s thuirt am fear mi- 
mhodhail so ris : — 

" Fhir a thainig 's tusa iomanaiche 's fhearr na sinne 's a 
thaobh sin roinnidh sinn a ris 's bidh geall againn a nis." 

Thuirt an Colpach ris iad a thoirt da duine air an duine 's 
gu 'm feuchadh esan e. Thuirt am fear mi-mhodhail ris, 
nach fhaierheadh e siud ; ach gu 'm biodh a h-uile duine 'na 
aghaidh 's esan leis fhein, agus gu 'm b' e 'n geall a bhitheadh 
ann, nam buidhneadh iadsan gu 'm buaileadh a h-uile fear aca 
airsan buille d* a chaman ann sa cheann ; agus nam buidh- 



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Sgeulachd Cois' VCein. 235 

neadh esau gu 'm buaileadh e buille d' a chaman ann sa 
cheann air a h-uile fear de 'n chuideachd-aca-san. Thuirt e 
riu nach V fhiach an geall siud ; ach iad a thoirt da duine air 
an duine 's geall ceart a chur, 'sgu 'n rachadh e riu. Thuirt 
am fear mi-mhodhail ris gu 'n robh an geall cuirte 's gu 'n robh 
iad a nis a dol 'a fheuchainn. 

Dh' iarr an Calpach orra am ball a chur ann an toll dubh 
ann am meadhon barach. Chaidh am ball a chur ann an toll 
dubh a reir iarrtais. Bha e 'feitheamh gus an d' thainig am 
ball a mach as an toll. Fhuair e greim urra 's cha do thilleadh 
buille air gus an do chuir e stigh i. Xhog e 'm ball 's an 
darna laimh 's bha 'n caman san laimh eile 's ghabh e 'na 
comhdhail 's thubhairt e riu gu 'm bu choir dha a nis a gheall 
fhaotainn. 

Thainig am fear mi-mhodhail air aghaidh a bha bruidhinn 
ris roimhe 's thuirt e ris : — 

" Nam bithinn a' saoilsinn gu 'n smaointicheadh thu air a 
leithid, bhitheadh do cheann na bhall iomanach againn air an 
traigh." 

'Nuair a chualaidh e so, tharruing an Colpach a chaman, 
bhuail e 'sa cheann e agus sgoilt e gus an da ghualainn e. 

Thainig am fear a b' fhearr ciall na 'cheile nail far an 
robh an Calpach 's thubhairt e ris : — 

" Na dean. Ma bhuaileas tu buille de d' chaman air 
ceann a h-uile fear againne, marbhai3h tu sinn 's cha mhor 
maith a ni sin duit." 

Labhair an Calpach 's thuirt e n's fios a chur gus an righ 
aite taimh agus cadail a thoirt da-san an oidhche sin agus 
gu 'n seasadh e aig cuirt air maduinn a maireach arson aon 
choire rinn e. Chuireadh fios a dh' ionnsuidh an righ gu 'n 
d J thainig a leithid de dhuine an rathad agus a choire rinn e. 
Chuir an righ fios nach robh aite-taimh aige-san da, ach far an 
robh coiqr ceud amhussr 's gu 'm V e a bheatha do 'n aite sin. 

Nuair a chualaidh an Colpach siud, dh* fhalbh e ma 
tbuaiream an aite. Leisr iad fhaicinn da tigh nan amhuse: *s 
chaidh e stiffh ann. Cha luaithe chunnaic na h-amhuissr e 
na rinn a h-uile h-aon diubh sr&ire. Thionndaidh esan 's rinn 
e da phaire. Dh' fhoisrhreachd na h-amhuissr deth, ciod e 
'thusr da da ghaire dheanadh. 

"Nuair a rinn sibh fhein," ars' esan, " coigf ceud sraire, 
nach fhaodainn-sa da srhaire dheanadh?" 

L^ura a h-uile h-aon aca an sin air am bonnaibh J s chnir 
^fach f^ar aca droll air an dorus. Thionndaidh esan 's chuir 



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236 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

e da dhroll air an dorus gu maith teann. air muin nan droll 
eile air fad. 

"A bheadagain bhig shuaraich," arsa na h-amhuisg; 
" ciod e a thug dhuit-se da dhroll a chur air an dorus V 

" Nuair a chuireadh sibh fhein coig ceud droll air, nach 
fhaodainn-sa da dhroll a chur air?" ars' esan. 

Thuirt na h-amhuisg ris gu 'm h' e 'n t-aobhar a tha 
aca-san, na druill a chuir air an dorus, gu 'm biodh a cheann- 
san aca 'na bhall iomanach feadh an urlair m' am faigheadh e 
na druill dheth. 

" 'S e 'n t-aobhar a bha agam-sa," ars' esan, "an da 
dhroll a chur air an dorus, ma 'm faigheadh sibh-se bhur 
druill fhein a thoirt deth agus mo dha dhroll-sa, nach 
fhagainn ceann air muineal agaibh." 

Air dha so a radh, thug aon fhear aca fosgladh nadhaich 
air a bheul arson a bhith aige — fear aig an robh ceann mor 
agus beul uamhasach. Thug an Calpach leum 's rug e air 
chaol da choise air agus dh' eirich e air each leis 's ghabh e 
dhaibh 's cha chluinneadh tu ach ' siod sod ' air claigionnaibh 
a cheile gus an do chuir e sios foidhe iad. Bha iad an sin 'nan 
luidhe — fear air leth-shuil 's fear air leth-chluais, 's fear air 
leth-laimh, 's fear air leth-chois; 's ged a bhiodh da theanga 
dheug 's an aon chlaigionn, 's ann ag innseadh uile fhein 's 
uile fhear eile bhitheadh e. Ach bha aon fhear ann, agus 
leum e suas cul cruib agus ghlaodh e : — 

" A Chalpaich, a mhic Mhacain an Athamain, 's mise 
I>ruainidh O'Draoch a bha ann an seirbhis do sheanair agus 
cumaidh mi sgeultachd agus naigheachdan riut gu maduinn 
a maireach." 

(Coma leibh, bha na naigheachdan so taitneach r' an 
eisdeachd roimhe so ann an oidhche gheamhraidh). 

" O dhuine cnochd," ars' an Calpach, " thig a nuas 's cha 
bhuin mise dhuit." 

" A nis," arsa Druanaidh, " bheir mise mo mhionnan duit 
air faobhar a' chlaidheamh, gu 'm bi mi ann am ghille dileas 
duit gu brach. ,, 

Thbisich an dithis air an tigh a reiteach o na h-amhuisg 
's thilg iad ann an aon torr iad ciil an doruis. 

Thainig an so tri cbcairean ann san anmoch o 'n rigfa a 
thoirt bidh do na h-amhuisg. A cheud fhear de na cbcairean 
a thainig a stigh air an dorus, thuit e air muin an closaichean. 
Bha 'p ath fhear dluth dha air a chul 's thuit e air a mhuin- 
san. Chaidh na cinn a thoirt de 'n da chbeaire so a dh' aon 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 237 

sguidseadh 's am biadh a ghlacail. Nuair a chunnaic an treas 
cocaire mar a dh' eirich d' a dha chompanach theich e air ais 
gu tigh an righ. Chuir e sgeul chun an righ gu 'n robh a 
chuid amhusg marbh agus dithis de na cocairean, Las feirg 
an righ suas nuair a chual e 'n sgeul agus dh' ordaich e naoi 
ceud lan-ghaisgeach a bha aige a ghleidheadh a chuirte 's a 
chathrach a dhol a thoirt a chinn de 'n bheadagan bheag 
shuarach a chaith a leithid de spid 's de thamailt air., Fhad 
sa a bha na gaisgich a dol an uidheam, bha Druanaidh agus a 
mhaighstir ann an tigh nan amhusg. Thoisich Druanaidh 
agus chuir e 'n t-suipeir ann an ordugh leis a bhiadh a thainig 
leis na cocairean chun nan amhusg. Nuair a ghabh iad an 
suipeir arsa Druanaidh : — 

" Theirig thusa a mhaighstir a nis a luidhe 's gabh tamh 
is clos agus cuiridh mise m' anam air sgath t' anam-sa gu 
maduinn a maireach." 

Chaidh an Calpach a luidhe 's dh' fhan Druanaidh air a 
chois a' faire. Cha b' fhada bha e na luidhe nuair a thainig 
na gaisgich a thoirt a chinn detE. Ghlaodh fear aca an ceann 
a thoirt de 'n bheadagan bheag, shuarach. Ghlaodh fear eile 
iad a dhusgadh ma 'n d' thugadh iad an ceann deth; 's 
thoisich cbnspaid eatorra fhein — an darna fear ag iarraidh an 
ceann a thoirt deth 'na chadal, 's fear eile ag iarraidh a 
dhiisgaidh. Thuirt Druanaidh O'Draoch riu nach b' fhiach 
an ceann a thoirt de dh J aon duine 's e 'na chadal 's nach bu 
treubhantas e 's nach rachadh an rioghachd gu brach as a 
chionn. Leis a choiteachadh 's leis a ghlaodhach a bha ann 
's le gleadhraidh nan arm, dhiiisg e. Leum e na sheasamh *s 
dh' fhoighneachd e ciod e a bha dhith orra. Thuirt iad ris 
gu 'n d' thug an righ mionnan nach itheadh e mir J s nach oladh 
e deur gus am biodh a cheann-san aige aig ceann eile a bhuird. 
Thug e leum eadar iad 's an dorus 's thug e na cinn de na 
bha stigh diubh uile gu leir 's ghabh e an sin a mach a dh' 
ionnsuidh an fheadhainn a bha muigh chionn bha 'n tigh air a 
chuartachadh leo 's m'an deachaidh iad 'nan greim cha d' fhag 
e ceann air muineal aca. Nuair a thill e stigh thuirt Druan- 
aidh ris e luidhe sios a rithis 'sgu'm faireadh esan e 's gu 'n 
cuireadh e 'bheatha air sgath "'bheatha-san gu maduinn a 
maireach. Luidh an Calpach a cios gu socair gu cadal 's 
chaidil e sios gu socair gun tuillidh dragh a thighinn orra. 

Ma's moch a thainig a mhaduinn bu mhoiche na sin a 
dh' eirich Druanaidh. Thuirt e ri a mhaighstir eiridh agus 
cuid d'a threubhas agus d'a threun-ghaisge 'leigeil fhaicinn 
da-san. Dh' eirich an Calpach 's tharruing e 'chlaidheamh 

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238 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

's tharruing Druanaidh a chlaidheamh. Thoisich an dithis 
air a cheile 's mar am b' e Druanaidh a b' fhearr cha b' e 
dad a bu mheasa; agus a chuid a bha dhith air a Chalpach 
thug Druanaidh dha e. Nuair a ghabh iad am biadh thuirt 
Druanaidh ris nach deanadh siud feum, gu 'm b' eiginn daibh 
mnathan fhaotainn. Tha nighean an righ 'ga suiridh le fear 
mor a tha 'n siud 's iad a dol a' phosadh ; ruig tigh an righ 's 
crath an t-slabhraidh-chomhraig 's cuir fios a stigh chun an 
righ a nighean a chur a mach a t' ionnsuidh ar neo gu 'm bi 
comhrag garbh m'a deibhinn. Ghabh an Calpach a mach, 
chrath e 'n t-slabhraidh chomhraig, 's bhris e coig teineachan 
innte. Chuir am fear mor a bha stigh fios a mach co a bha 'g 
iarraidh comhraig an siud. Thill an teachdaire 'a ionnsuidh 
le sgeul gu 'n rogh nighean an righ air a h-iarraidh an siud ar 
neo comhrag garbh m'a deibhinn. Chuir am fear mor fios a 
mach 'nuair a ghabhadh e 'bhiadh, gu 'm faigheadh e siud 
comhrag garbh ma fhuair e riamh e. 

Thainig am fear mor a mach nuair a ghabh e 'bhiadh 's 
ghabh e far an robh an Calpach. Thainig an righ 's a nighean 
a mach agus ard-uaislean na cuirte leo. Rainig iad barr agus 
baideil a bhaile a ghabhail seallaidh air a chomhrag. 

Thug na laoich an dail a cheile. Bha sradan teine 'g an 
cur a claidhmhean mar gu 'm faiceadh tu dealanach is tein > - 
athar na iarunn dearg aig gobhainn ga thoirt a mach a grios- 
aich ; iad air an dalladh le f alius agus ceo fala m'an suilean. 
B' e sin a bu dol dhaibh o mhaduinn gu Iuidhe greine, gus ma 
dhol foidhe na greine an do thuit iad bonn ri bonn. 

Thuirt an righ an sin r'a nighinn : — " Thoir leat am ballan 
iocshlaint agus suath do leannan leis o mhullach a chinn gu 
bonn na coise 's fag slan-chreuchdach e agus fag am beadagan 
beag suarach ud a' basachadh far am bheil e." 

Dh' fhalbh nighean an righ 's fhuair i 'm ballan ioc- 
shlaint ; agus lean Druanaidh i 's thuirt e rithe ann an guth 
beag : — 

" Nam bithinn fhein ann am nighinn oig, b* fhearr learn 
am fear beag na 'm fear mor." 

Thuirt ise gu 'm b' e 'm fear beag a b' fhearr leatha-sa 
cuideachd. 

Thuirt Druanaidh rithe : — " Nuair a bhitheas thusa reidh 
de d' leannan fhein a shuathadh, nach fhaod thu *m ballan 
iocshlaint a thoirt domhsaf ' Agus rinn i mar sin. Shuath 
ise am fear mor o mhullach a chinn gu bonn a choise 's dh' 
fhasf i slan-chreuchdach e. Dh' fhag i 'm ballan iocshlaint aig 
Druanaidh 's ma shuath ise am fear mor, shuath Druanaidh 



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gle 



Sgeulachd Cots' O'Cein. 23& 

a mhaighstir gu maith gus nach d' fhag e sliochd buille, 
creuchd na gearradh nach do leighis e, gus an robh e cho 
maith 7 s a bha e riamh, gun sgios, gun airtneal. Chaidh iad 
an sin dachaidh do thigh nan amhusg. Chuir Druanaidh an 
ordugh biadh agus deoch agus ghabh iad an leoir. Dh' iarr 
Druanaidh an sin air a mhaighstir dol a luidhe 's gu 7 m 
fanadh esan a' faire 's gu 'n cuireadh e 'bheatha air a sgath 
gu maduinn a maireach. Ghabh an Calpach ma thamh 's cha 
d' thainig dragh sam bith an oidhche sin orra. 

Cha bu luaithe a thainig an latha an la'r na mhaireach na 
bha Druanaidh deas. Binn e reidh am biadh 's ghlaodh e r'a 
mhaighstir eiridh. Shuidh iad an sin 's ghabh iad an leoir 
de bhiadh 's de dheoch. An deigh am bidh thuirt Druanaidh 
r'a mhaighstir gabhail a mach agus crathadh a thoirt air an 
t-slabhraidh-chomhraig agus nighean an righ iarraidh a mach 
no comhrag gu maith dian. Ghabh e mach, rainig e 'n 
t-slabhraidh, thug e aon chrathadh urra, 's bhris e naoi 
teineachan innte. Chualaidh am fear mor 's an righ a stigh 
e 's thuirt iad: "Co bha 'n siud?" Dh' innis an teachdaire 
dhaibh gu 'n robh fear a bha 'g iarraidh nighean an righ a 
chur a mach na comhrag garbh fhaotainn. Chuir am fear 
mor fios a mach gu 'm faigheadh e comhrag 's nach V e 
nighean an righ. 

Chaidh am fear mor an coinneamh a Chalpaich 's thainig 
an righ 's a nighean 's mor-uaislean a chuirte gu barr 's gu 
baideil a bhaile a ghabhail seallaidh air a chomhrag. Thuirt 
am fear mor ris a Chalpach : — 

" M'an toisich sinn an diugh, innis domh, an tu-sa bha 
'cumail comhraig rium an de?" 

" ? S mi," ars' an Calpach. 

" Cha do thachair duine riamh orm-sa a chum comhrag da 
latha rium," ars* am fear mor. 

"O!" ars' an Calpach, " thainig mise air astar fada 's bha 
mi s^th. Bha do bhuillean cho annamh a' tighinn orm air a' 
cheann ma dheireadh 's gu 'n do thuit mi 'm chadal. Cha do 
tharruing mi claidheamh a truaill riamh gus an de." 

" O !" ars' am fear mor, " ma tha sin mar sin, an laimh an 
fhreasdail aon fhear a dh' fheuchas thusa an diugh J s mise 
Macabh Mor Mac Righ Nan SorachanJ Leig domh thusa a 
leantainn 's bheir mi mo mhionnan duit air faobhar do 
chlaidheimh gu 'm bi mi am gfhille dileas duit gu brach, agus 
's leat nighean an righ." Dh' fhoighneachd an Calpach deth 

7 Mac rig na Sorclui.— Eg. MS. 



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240 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

an robh tlachd aige de nighean an righ 's dh' innis e dha gu 'n 
robh, gur h-i V fhearr leis fo 'n ghrein. Thuirt an Calpach an 
so ris nach cuireaan esan eatorra. 'Nuair chunnaic an righ 
's a mhor chuideachd nach robh am blar a' dol air aghaidh 
eadar na gaisgich, ruith iad a dh' fhaotainn sgeoil. Dh' innis 
am fear mor dhaibh mar a thachair, gu 'n d' fhuair an 
Calpach buaidh 's gu 'n do thoilich e nighean an righ a thoirt 
air a h-ais. Thog iad leo an sin an Calpach air bharraibh bas 
agus ghiulain iad e gu luchairt an righ. 

Chaidh a bhanais a chur air aird agus phos Macabh Mor 
Mac Righ Nan Sorachan agus nighean an righ. 

XIII. 

Bha cluich ur agus gach uile thoil-inntinn aca fad sheachd 
laithean. Air an t-seachdamh la 'nuair a bha iad a dol a 
shuidhe g'am biadh ann sa mhaduinn thainig Fear Mor 'a 
stigh. Thog e 'm bord mor air a mheur meadhoin 's chuir e 
m'an cuairt tri uairean e. Chuir e an sin sios air an urlar e 
mar a bha e roimhe gun soitheach na ni bhi air a charachadh 
agus shuidh e air cathair gun iarraidh; Ghlaodh an Calpach 
ri fear na bainnse : — 

" Cha d' iarr mi aon ni ort o 'n a thainig thu do m' 
sheirbhis 's ceangail am fear mor a thainig a stigh/ 7 

Rug na gaisgich air a cheile 's thug iad treis air gleachd. 
'S e thainig a mach as a sin gu 'n do leag am fear a thainig a 
stigh fear na bainnse, 's chuir e ceangal nan tri chaol air gu 
daor agus gu docair. Bhuail e breab air 's thilg e fo shileadh 
nan lochran e. Dh' eirich an Calpach 's labhair e 's thuirt e 
ris an f hear a thainig a stigh : — 

"Fhir mhoir a thainig a stigh, rinn thu tri miomhoidh 
o 'n a thainig thu stigh." 

"Ciod e na tri miomhoidh a bha ann?" ars' am fear a 
thainig a stigh. 

" Thog thu 'm bord mor air do mheur meadhoin 's chuir 
thu m'an cuairt tri uairean e; shuidh thu gun chuireadh 
Finis cbcangail thu fear na bainnse," ars' an Calpacb. 

Fhreagair am fear mor a thainig a stigh agus thubhairt 
e ris : — 

" Ma chuir mi m'an cuairt am bord, cha do ghluais mi 
rair a bha air, 's ma shuidh mi gun chuireadh cha robh duine 
na shuidhe far an do shuidh mi 's ma cheangail mi fear na 
bainnse, mar an ceanglainn-sa esan, cheangladh esan mise." 

"Cha d' theid an ceathramh miomhodh leat," ars' an 
Calpach. * 



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Sgeulachd Cots 1 O'Cein. 241 

Dh' eirich an dithis an dail a cheile. Thug iad treis 
gleachd agus comhraig. S e bha ann gu 'n ao chuir an 
Calpach ioidhe am fear mor 7 s chuir e ceangal nan ceithir 
chaol air gu daor agus gu docain Bhuail e breab air 's thilg 
e thar seacha sparran an tighe e 's chuir e fo shileadh nan 
lochran e 's leig ma sgaoil fear na bainnse. 

" Fhir mhoir ! a thainig a stigh an robh thu an aite riamh 
a bu chruaidhe na sin?" ars an Calpach. 

" Bha," ars 7 am fear mor a thainig a stigh. 

" Ciod e 'n t-aite a bu chruaidhe na sin ann san robh thu?" 
ars' an Calpach. 

"Cha d' innis mi mo naigheachd riamh 's mi 'm luidhe," 
ars' esan. 

*'A bheisd," ars' an Calpach, " cha robh de dh' eagal 
riamh agam romhad 's nach leiginn ma sgaoil thu; chionn an 
deigh cho beag dragh 's a bha agam gad chur fodha roimhe, 
bithidh mi na's clise ga d' chur fodha 'rithis." 

Leig 8 ma sgaoil e o a chuibhrichean 's dh' fhoighneachd e 
deth an sin, de 'n t-aite na bu chruaidhe na siud ann san robh 
e? 

XIV. 

Thuirt am fear mor : — 

Shiubhail mi ceithir ranna ruadha an domhain ag iarraidh 
aobhar mo mhnatha 's mo leannain, Athan Aluinn Uchd- 
Soluis 's latha bha mi 'sedladh an sin, thog mi fearann 's 
ghabh mi a dh' ionnsuidh, 's leig mi mo shoitheach ri tir. 
Leum mi mach o'n toiseach J s tharruing mi a tri fad fhein air 
feur glas i. Thog mi suas gu carragh a chunnaic mi air 
mullach beinne dhol a dh' fhaotainn seallaidh m'an cuairt 
orm ; s nuair a rainig mi sin co chunnaic mi ach an te a bha 
mi air a toir, i 'na suidhe 's ceann gille 6g aice ; na h-uchd 's e 
'na chadal. Bheannaich mi dhi 's bheannaich i dhomh 's dh' 
innis mi dhi gu 'n do shiubhail mi ceithir ranna ruadh an 
domhain ag iarraidh mo mhnatha 's mo leannain, 's gu 'n 
d' fhuair mi ma dheireadh i. 

Thuirt i rium [nach] b' ise i ach nach robh an te sin fada 
uam, 's na«faicinn i nach deanadh ise searbhanta bhrog dhi. 
Thuirt mi rithe gu 'n robh a coltas agam ann am shoitheach 
's nach V fhada gus am biodh fios agam-sa air an sin. Dh' 
fhalbh mi gus an t-soitheach 's thug mi learn a coltas 's chuir 
mi ma coinneamh e 's cha h' urrainn i smid a radh. Thug mi 

8 Pronoun elided in rapid speech of reciter. 

16 



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242 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

lamh air a togail learn air falbh ? s thubhairt i rium, nack 
fagadh i gu brach a brathair as a deign, Dh' fhoighneackd 
mi dith am V e brathair a bha arm 's thuirt i gu 'm b' e. 

" 'S ciod e 'rinn thu an sin?" ars' an Calpach. 

" Rinn, gu 'n do thoisich mi air a dhusgadh 's bha e 
'fairtleachadh orm. Dh' fheuch mi 'bhuill 's thuirt mi gu 'n 
robh buill cruaidh curaidh aige mar gu 'm biodh e an deigh a 
bhi ann am blar, ar-neo a dol do bhlar 's gu 'm bu mhaith na 
chadal e seach na f haireachadh. ' ' 

" Ciod e 'rinn thu an sin?" ars' an Calpach. 

" Thog mi 'cheann gu min reidh 's leig mi air an lar e." 

" 'S ciod e 'rinn thu an sin?" ars' an Calpach. 

Thog mi learn i 's chuir mi ann an toiseach mo luinge i 
's 'nuair a chuir mi stigh an toiseach mo luinge i b' aill leatha 
a bhi mach air an deireadh. Thuirt mi rithe gun dochann a 
dheanadh urra fhein, chionn achanaidh 'sam bith a dh' 
iarradh i gu 'm faigheadh i. 'S e dh' iarr i nach biodh i 'na 
mnaoi na na leannan agam-sa gu ceann latha 's bliadhna. 
Thug mi di siud. Chunnaic mi gur h-e a bu ghlice a bhi an 
toiseach bog. Chuir mi mach gu fairge. Bha sinn a 7 seoladh 
air falbh fad iiine fhada. Latha de na laithibh bha sinn 'nar 
suidhe air clar na luinge, latha cho boidheach 'sab' urrainn 
duinn fhaicinn, agus sinn ag imirt air thaileasg ; co a bha 'ga 
h-iarraidh-sa \s e air a torachd ach High an Domhain, feuch 
am faigheadh ed'a mhac fhein i. Chunnaic esan sinne, m-am 
faca sinne esan 's le draoidheachd 7 s le iodramachd cheangail 
e na soithichean r'a cheile. Thug e ise leis 's rug iad orm-sa 7 s 
cheangail iad mi ris a chrann. Theannaich iad mo lamhan 's 
rosgan mo shul ris a chrann cuideachd. Bha mi an sin 
laithean an crochadh ris a chrann 's gun fhios agam ciod e a 
bha 'ga dheanadh. Chunnaic iad fearann 's rinn iad air, agus 
spion iad mise nuas o 'n chrann 's thilg iad 's an fhairge mi. 
Bha mi an sin 'gam thilgeil leis na tonnaibh air m' ais J s air 
m' aghart gus ma dheireadh an do thilg iad air a chladach mi. 
Ma dheireadh thainig beathach mor seachad ris an abair iad 
a' ghre-bhinneach agus thog i leatha mi na spulan 's ghiulain 
i mi air falbh gu nead a bha aice far an robh feadhain oga. 
'Nuair a leig i sios mi thoisich an fheadhain 6ga air mo 
phiocadh 's air m' itheadh suas. Bha mi cumail mo lamhan 
's mo ghairdeannan uapa 's nuair a bha choslas orra an sin 
gu'n tolladh iad throimh m' chliathaichean, smaointich mi nach 
robh ach bas romham agus a' m' dheighinn. Bha mo shiiilean 
air druideadh 's thug mi sgrochladh orra le m' inean *s fhuair 



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Sgeulachd Cots' O'Gein. 243 

mi m' fosgladh. 'Nuair a dh' amhairc mi bha da cheud 
aitheamh as mo chionn 's da cheud aitheamh fodham de chreig 
ghlais 's an fhairge ghlas aig a' bhonn. B' e sin an sealladh 
uamhasach. Ach smaointich mi nach robh ach bas romham 
's am dheighinn 's gu 'm b' fhearr basachadh 's an fhairge na 
bhith air m' itheadh beo leis na creutairean so. Leig mi mi 
fhein sios leis a chreig 's chaidh mi fodha gus an do bhuail 
mi 'n grunnd. Nuair a thainig mi 'n uachdar chunnaic mi 
eilean mor air thoiseach orm a mach 's nuair a rainig mi e 
cha robh ann ach eilean lorn gan mir r'a fhaicinn air ach 
bairnich agus duileasg is feamainn. 

Ghabh mi air tir 's th&isich mi air itheadh an duilisg 's 
nam bairneach 's na feamnach. An ceann uine theirig so 's 
cha robh mir tuillidh r'a fhaotainn. Latha de na laithibh 
thug nii suil a mach chun a chuain 's chunnaic mi coslas 
soithich 's rinn mi gach ni a V urrainn mi arson rabhaidh a 
thoirt di. Ma dheireadh chunnaic iad mi 's thug iad leo mi 
air bord 's bha mi naoi laithean leo gus an do chuir iad air 
tir air a chladach so shios mi 'n diugh. Thainig mi an sin a 
nios gus an luchairt so, 's cha 'n 'eil h-aon agaibh fhein 
thachradh a leithid da nach biodh cho furasda a chur fodha 
rium-sa. ; -Pglj 

Ghlaodh an Calpach ri fear na bainnse eirigh 's am fear a 
thainig a cheangal. 

" Na dean," ars' am fear mor, " 's bheir mi mo mhionnan 
gu 'm bi mi ann am ghille treubhach direach duit. gu brach. ,, 

Mhionnaich e da air faobhar a chlaidheimh gu 'm biodh e 
dileas treubhach dha. Dh' fhoighneachd an Calpach deth co 
ainm a bheir 's thuirt egu 'm Macan na Foraise Fiadhaich a 
b ainm dha. Thuirt an Calpach gu 'm bu mhaith an t-ainm 
e 's gu 'm b' fhiach an duine e 's dh' fheoraich e deth am bu 
tagh leis dol a dh' iarraidh na mnatha ud a ris. Thuirt e ris 
gu 'm b' e obair a b' fhearr leis air an t-saoghal; chionn 
shaoil e gu 'm b* ann d'a fhein a bhiteadh 'ga h-iarraidh. 

Chuir iad an sin an ordugh arson dol a dh J iarraidh na 
mnatha, Athan Aluinn Uchd-Soluis. Fhuair Macabh Mor 
Mac Righ nan Sorachan agus a bhean soitheach o 'n righ, 
fhuair an Calpach soitheach eile agus fhuair Macan na Foraise 
Fiadhaich an treas soitheach 's bha iad uile air an uidheam- 
achadh arson cath agus comhraig. 

Thog iad na siuil, etc. 

Bha iad a' seoladh air falbh ma thuaiream na mnatha 's 
dh' innis Macan na Foraise Fiadhaich do 'n Chalpach gu J n do 



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244 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

chuir i 'cheart chumhnant air righ an domhain 's a chuir 
i airsan. Latha bha sin chunnaic iad fearann 's dh' fhoigh- 
neachd an Calpach de Dhruanaidh O'Draoch ciod e 'n t-ait a 
bha 'n siud. Dh' innis Druanaidh dha gu 'n robh far an robh 
righ Siginn a chomhnuidh le a cheithir mic fhichead. 

" Falbh a Dhruanaidh air tir, ars' an Calpach, " 's abair 
ris cuideachadh a thoirt domh-sa an diugh 's gu 'm faigh esan 
cuideachadh uam-sa a maireach." 

Chaidh Druanaidh air tir. Dh' fhoighneachd e arson righ 
Siginn 's dh' innis iad gu 'n robh e 'sa bheinn-sheilg. 

Dh' fhalbh Druanaidh as a dheigh do 'n bheinn-sheilg. 
'Nuair a rainig e 'bheinn-sheilg chunnaic an righ e. 

" Failte dhuit ! a Dhruanaidh O'Draoch," arsa righ Siginn. 

" Failte agus furan duibh-se, a righ," arsa Druanaidh. 

" 'S e na thainig mi leis, le beannachdan o m' mhaighstir," 
arsa Druanaidh, "sibhse a thoirt cuideachaidh dha-san an 
diugh, 's gu 'n d' thoir esan cuideachadh dhuibh-se a 
maireach." 

" Co 's maighstir dhuit?" ars' an righ. 

"Is maighstir domh," arsa Druanaidh, "an Calpach Mac 
Mhacain an Athamain mac righ Lochluinn." 

"Co 's cuideachadh dha?" ars' an righ. 

"Macabh Mor Mac Righ nan Sorachan 's Macan na 
Foraise Fiadhaich," arsa Druanaidh. 

" Ma tha iad sin leis cha bhi mise na aghaidh," ars' an righ. 

XV. 

Chuir righ Siginn le Druanaidh a cheithir mic fhichead le 
an ceithir soithichibh fichead. Sheol iad air an aghaidh ma 
thuaiream baile mor righ an Domhain 's nuair a thog iad am 
baile mor 's an t-sealladh thuirt an Calpach ri Druanaidh, 
'nuair a ruigeadh iad cala, e 'dhol air tir le fios uaithe-san a 
bhean a chur dha ionnsuidh, ar-neo nan rachadh e air tir, 
gu 'n togadh e 'm baile mor ann an crannagaibh a shoith- 
ichean. 'Nuair a rainig iad cala chaidh Druanaidh air tir 's 
dh' fhoighneachd e arson righ an Domhain, 's cha robh e 
aig an tigh ; bha e 's a bheinn-sheilg a' sealg. Dh fhalbh 
Druanaidh as a dheigh do 'n bheinn-sheilg. 'Nuan* a ramig 
e 'bheinn-sheilg chunnaic an righ e. 

" Failte dhuit, a Dhruanaidh O'Draoch, arsa righ an 

Domhain. , ... 

" Failte agus furan duibh-se, a righ, arsa Druanaidh. 

" Ciod e do sgeultachd an diugh, a Dhruanaidh?' ars an 
righ. 

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Sgeulachd Co/V O'Cein. 245 

"Gu 'n do chuir mo mhaighstir fios bhur n-ionnsuidh, ,, 
arsa Druanaidh, " sibh a chur Athan Aluinn Uchd-Soluis a 
mach a dh' ionnsuidh, ar-neo gu 'n d' thig e air tir 's gu 'n 
tog e leis am baile-mor ann an crannagan a shoithichean." 

" Co e do mhaighstir na co 's cuideachadh dha?" arsa righ 
an Domhain. 

" Macabh Mor Mac Righ nan Sorachan, Macan na Foraise 
Fiadhaich, agus Ceithir Mic Fhichead Righ Siginn." 

" O \" ars' an righ, " ma tha iad sin leis cha bhi mise na 
aghaidh. Abair ris tighinn air tir agus gu 'm faigh e 'bhean, 
ach nam fanadh e tri laithean 'se tha dhith orm. Thill 
Druanaidh air ais gus na soithichibh 's dh' innis e 'sgeul. 
Chaidh iad an sin air tir do bhaiie mor righ an Domhain. 
Chuireadh air doigh banais do 'n Chalpach 's phosadh e fhein 
agus Athan Aluinn Uchd-Soluis. Ciod a bha aig righ an 
Domhain ach ceithir nigheanan fichead a thug air falbh leis, 
a' saoilsinn gu 'm b' i gach te dhiubh Athan Aluinn Uchd- 
Soluis 'nuair a thug e leis i. 'Se'n lagh a bha 's an am sin, 
gach aon beireadh leis nighean air fuadach mar so, gu 'n 
dioladh e a tochar. 'Nuair a chuala an Calpach so, thug e 
air ceithir mic fhichead righ Siginn na ceithir nigheanan 
fichead a phosadh, 's thug e air Righ an Domhain na ceithir 
tochair fhichead a dhioladh dhaibh; f s chilir e air falbh 
dhachaidh ceithir mic fhichead Righ Siginn le an ceithir 
mnathan fichead, 's le an ceithir tochair fhichead. Dh' fhag 
e beannachd aig righ an Domhain agus sheol iad as a chala. 

Bha iad a' seoladh air an adhart 's bu cham 's bu direach 
gach slighe dhaibh, gus an robh iad dol seachad air an aite 
's an robh an cath air a chur le a athair 7 s a chaidh e a 
dh' ionnsuidh m'an d' fhag esan an tigh. Thubhairt e ri 
Macabh Mor Mac Righ nan Sorachan 's ri Mac na Foraise 
Fiadhaich, gu 'n robh toil aige dol air tir a dh' fhiosrachadh, 
ciod e mar a chaidh do 'n bhlar 's chaidh iad air tir 's cha do 
thog iad fada o 'n chladach 'nuair a thachair cailleach mhor 
orra. Bha car d'a h-inean m'an cuairt d'a h-uilnean 's bha 
car d'a fait liath a sios ma ladharan ; an fhiacaill a b' fhaide 
thall an cul a cinn, is i a bu dealg 'na broilleach, 's a bu lorg 
na h-uchd, a bu bhior teallaich 's an teine 's a bu mhaide 
suathaidh na cabhrach. 

"Failte dhuit a chailleach, ,, ars' an Calpach. "Ciod e, a 
chailleach, mar a chaidh do 'n bhlar a chaidh a chur an so?" 

"Chaidh a ghraidh mar a bu mhaith," ars' ise, " gu 'n 
deachaidh muinntir Lochluinn dachaidh 's gu 'n d' fhag iad 
a chuid a bu mhotha d'an daoine marbh as an deign.' ' 



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.246 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

u 'S am bu mhaith leat sin, a chailleach," ars' e rithe. 

"O! ghaoilean, V eadh," ars' ise. 

Tharruing e cul a laimhe 's bhuail e 'sa chluais i 's chuir 
e 'n eanchainn a mach air a chluais eile. 

Thog iad a mach mar dhaoine uallach gus an d' rainic iad 
mullach cnoic, 's dh' amhairc iad an sin m'an cuairt orra, 
agus chunnaic iad tigh mor air a thogail air reidhleach agus 
tri dorsan air, dorus air a cheann J s dorus air gach taobh. 
Sheas an Calpach 's bha e ag am hare sa ghrunnd, 's gun e 'g 
radh smid 's ghlaodh Macan na Foraise Fiadhaich ris, a bhith 
mine 's a bhith mine gu clis. 

" Ciod a tha mi 'smaointeachadh?" ars' an Calpach. 

" Tha thu a' smaointeachadh, ' ' arsa Macan na Foraise 
Fiadhaich ris, " gu 'm bhci! an tigh air a thogail arson 
dinneir mhor a thoirt do gach duine as fhiach duine a radh 
ris ann san rioghachd, arson na buadha a fhuair iad 's gu 'm 
bheil slabhraidh 6ir ma mhuineal a h-uile gin a bha ann, 's 
gu 'n d' theid gach h-aon a stigh air gach dorus 's a h-uile 
h-aon a dh' amaiseas oirnne, 's gu 'm beir sinn air an 
t-slabhraidh 6ir 's gu 'nd' thoir sinn crathadh urra 's gu n 
tilg sinn na cinn bharr nam muineal aca, 's nach leig sinn 
duine beo seachad oirnn diubh." " Is e sin a tha mi 'smaoint- 
eachadh/ ' ars' an Calpach. 

Ghabh iad sios chun an tighe 's chaidh Macan na Foraise 
Fiadhaich a stigh aig an darna ceann de 'n tigh agus an 
Calpach aig an cheann eile. Cha do leig iad neach seachad 
beb. 'Nuair a choinnich iad a cheile am meadhon an tighe, 
bha Ian an da dhuirn aig gach fear aca de shlabhraidhean. 

Dh' fhalbh iad chun nan soithichean, 's sheol iad dach- 
aidh. Cha do thachair niaradh na tubaist tuillidh dhaibh 
gus an d' rainig iad an tigh. 

Phos is chord is naisg an Calpach agus Athan Aluinn 
Uchd-Soluis. Chumadh a' bhanais latha 7 s bliadhna. Air an 
latha ma dheireadh ghabh fear na bainnse a mach a ghabhail 
ceum spaisdireachd, agus sin mar a fhuair ah Calpach mo 
mhac-sa a bhean. 

"Agus sin, ,, etc. . . . " gus an cluinn mi ciod e mar 
a chaidh do G-horm-shuil do mhac eile ' 

" Mo chuid chuileag, ' ' etc. 

XVI. 

Bha Gorm-shuil mo mhac-sa fuathasach deidheil air a 
bhith *sa bheinn-sheilg. Latha bha sin thachair e air fear le 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 247 

■casaig shliobasda liath-ghlais 's bha e 'ga leantainn fad thri 
laithean. Air an treas latha thionndaidh Gorm-shuil m'an 
cuairt 's dh' fhoighneachd e de 'n fhear a bha 'ga leantainn 
ciod e an duine e na ciod e a bha e 'g iarraidh. Thuirt e 
gu 'm bu ghille maith ag iarraidh maighstir e 's gu 'n 
d' thainig e feuch am fasdadh esan na ghille e. Thuirt Gorm- 
shuil ris nach robh feum aige-san air gille, gu 'n robh na leoir 
de ghillean aige cheana 's nach robh e comasach air fhasdadh. 
Thuirt fear na casaige ris nach biodh a thuarasdal-san trom. 
Bha maide aige 'na laimh agus thog e e. 

" So," ars' esan, " cas tuaighe ; s ma chuireas tu ceann air 

a chois so cha bhi mi ag iarraidh tuillidh agus seirbhiseach- 

aidh mi thu ann am ghille gu ceann latha 's bliadhna," agus 

mar an toilicheadh e sin a dheanadh, e 'sheirbhiseachadh air 

' ais da-san 'na aite. 

Dh' amhairc Gorm-shuil air cas na tuaighe. Smaointich 
e 'n rud a bha fear na casaige ag iarraidh, ceann a chur air 
an tuaigh, gu 'm b' fhurasda dha fhaotainn a dheanadh, 's 
rinn e cordadh ri fear na casaige. Latha de na laithibh 
chunnaic e fear a' tighinn 's thilg e 'cheann deth 's thilg e 
air a rithis e. 

"Failt ort a Ghorm-shuil, a mhic Mhacain an Athamain, 
mac righ Lochlainn," ars' esan. 

" Failte dhuitse," arsa Gorm-shuil gu gruamach. 
" Cuiridh mi mo cheann ri d' cheann an geall, gu 'm bi 
mi air mullach a chuirn ud shuas air thoiseach ort," ars' am 
fear a thainig ri Gormshuil. 

" Gu dearbh," arsa Gorm-shuil, "cha chuir mise mo 
cheann an geall riut ; ged a chuireas tusa dhiot-sa do cheann, 
cuiridh tu ort a rithis e, ach ma thig mo cheann diom-sa cha 
d' theid e orm tuillidh." 

" Tha 'n geall cuirte," ars' am fear a thainig 's air falbh 
a ghabh e. 

Thug Gorm-shuil lamh air a bhith as a dheaghainn. 
Ghlaodh fear na casaige shlibasda liatn-ghlais r'a mhaighstir: 
— " Cha do rinn mi car fhathast o 'n a thainig mi do d' 
sheirbhis 's cha tusa ruitheas an gille ach mise." 

Thug e lamh air ruith 's rug torn air earball na casaige 's 
thuit e air a thulachan. 

"Cha dean so," ars' esan, " a mhaighstir, feum.'" Gearr 
dhiom earball na casaige. Rinn Gorm-shuil siud 's thug e *n 
sin oidhirp air ruith 's bhuail e mullach a chinn foidhe. 

" A mhaighstir," arsa fear na casaige, " cha dean so feum, 



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248 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

's fhearr dhuit an t-earball fhuaghal rium a rithis. Cha 
dean mi feum as euginhais." 

" Droch comhdhail ort," arsa Gorm-shuil. " Na falbhainn 
fhein a ruith na reis, dheanainn rudeigin ach cha dean 
thusa bheag idir. ' ' 

Dh' fhuaigh Gorm-shuil an t-earball ris a chasaig. Thug 
fear na casaige suil m'an cuairt 's chunnaic e tri lachaidh air 
lochan lamh riutha. 

"Cha 'n fhalbh mi," arsa fear na casaige, " gus am bi 
dithis diubh sin agam air sgornan." 

"O! marbhphaisg ort!" ars' a mhaighstir; " tha mise 
dheth a nis co-dhiubh." 

Thug fear na casaige leis bogha, chuir e saighead ann 's 
mharbh e na tri lachaidh. Thug e leis iad 's thilg e air an 
teine iad 'a 'm bruich. Thug e h-aon d'a mhaighstir 's dh' ith 
e fhein dithis. 'Nuair a dh' ith e 'n dithis, ghabh e mach. 
Thug a mhaighstir as a dheaghainn f euch am faiceadh e e ach 
cha robh crioman deth r'a fhaicinn. Dh' fhalbh e 'nuair a 
dh' ith e na tunnagan agus stad na fois cha do rinn e gus an 
do rainig e mullach a' chiiirn. Dh' amhairc e m'a thimchioll 
's chunnaic e fear a chinn gu h-iseal aig iochdar na beinne. 
Bha e 'ruith a nunn 'sa' ruith a nail 'sa' tilgeil a chinn 's ga 
chur air. Chuir fear na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlas draoidh- 
eachd air nach b' urrainn e 'n rathad a dheanadh a mach ach, 
a nis, thog e 'n draoidheachd dheth. 'Nuair a chunnaic e 
fear na casaige as a chionn shaoil e gur h-e Gorm-shuil a bha 
air thoiseach air. Thilg e 'cheann air a mharbhadh, chionn 
's ceann nimhe bha aige. 'Nuair a chunnaic fear na casaige 
an ceann a' tighinn thug e mach snathad nimhe a bha #ige 
ann am muineal na casaige agus cheap e 'n ceann air barr na 
snathaid 's chuir e 'na asguill e, 's thuit a' cholann an sin 
marbh aig bonn na beinne. 

Dh' fhalbh e leis a cheann na asgaill, gus an do rainig e 
Gorm-shuil, a mhaighstir. 'Nuair a chunnaic a mhaighstir e 
a' tighinn, ghlaodh e mach : — " Shabhail thu mo bheatha aon 
uair eile, fhir na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais." 

Bha 'n iiine a' dol seachad gus an d' thainig ceann latha 
agus bliadhna. 'Nuair a ruith an iiine, thubhairt fear na 
casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais gu 'm bu mhaith leis a nis a 
thuarssdal fhaotainn 's thuirt Gorm-shuil, a mhaighstir, ris, 
gu'm faigheadh e sin. 

Dh' fhalbh Gorm-shuil Ie cas na tuaighe 'na laimh a dh* 
fhaotainn ceann a chur urra, 's rainig e gobha. Dh J fheuch 



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Sgeulachd Cois : O'Cein. 24& 

an gobha ri ceann a chur urra s cha b' urrainn e 'dheanadh. 
Dh fliairtlich e air. Rainig e 'n darna gobha 's an treas. 
gobha 's gach gobha bha ann san rioghachd 's cha b' urrainn 
gin diubh ceann a chur air a' chois. 

" Tha mi 'faicinn," arsa Gorm-shuil, " gu 'm feum mise 
dol latha 's bliadhna ann an seirbhis leat-sa, o 'n a sheirbh- 
isich thusa mise." 

" B' e sin an cumhnant," arsa fear na casaige. 

Moch 's a mhaduinn an la-'r-na-mhaireach, rinn iad reidh 
agus dh' fhalbh iad 's Gorm-shuil 'na ghille aig fear na 
casaige. Lean iad air an aghaidh iiin fhada gus an d' thainig 
iad gu gleann. Ghabh iad sios do 'n ghleann 's thainig iad gu 
torn mor 's thug fear na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais spionadh 
air an torn 's thainig an torn leis. Bha 'n sin toll 's 'nuair a 
ghabh iad a stigh ann bha ait ann cho ceutach 's gu 'm 
faodadh duine sam bith oidhche a chur seachad ann, leaba 
bhog fo 'n leasraidh, brat de 'n t-sioda bhuidhe fopa, brat 
de 'n t-sioda uaine tharta, srabh suain fo an cinn, 's rann 
suain fo an casaibh. Ghabh fear na casaige sliobasda liath- 
ghlais a mach air an dorus agus chuir e clach anns gach 
gartan aige. Leag e da lan-damh feidh. Thug e stigh iad 's 
chuir e biadh air doigh d'a fhein 's d'a Ghorm-shuil 's an 
deigh am bidh a ghabhail chaidh iad a luidhe. 'S a mhaduinn 
an la-'r-na-mhaireach 'nuair a ghabh iad am biadh dh' fhalbb 
iad air an turus. Bha 'n oidhche tighinn 's an latha a' falbh 
's na h-eoin bheag bhugalacha bhagalacha am bun nan dreas 
's am barr nan dos ag iarraidh taimh na h-oidhche. Dh' 
amhairc iad air thoiseach orra, chunnaic iad solus 's rinn iad 
air. 'Nuair a rainig iad, ciod a bha ann ach luchuirt aluinn 
agus co dha a bhuineadh so ach do dh' fhear na casaige sliob- 
asda liath-ghlais. 'Nuair a dh' amhairc Gorm-shuil air an 
luchuirt cha deanadh a the fhein gille dhith. Ghabh iad a 
steach 's bha failte 's furan rompa. Chaidh cuirm a chur air 
doigh agus ghabh iad toil-inntinn ri linn fir an tighe thighinn. 

xvn. 

Bha tri nigheanan aig fear na casaige sliobasda liath- 
ghlais. Bha aire Ghorm-shuil orra agus tuiteas ann an trom- 
ghaol air an te a V oige. 'Nuair a thainig am jsrabhail ma 
thamh bha Gorm-shuil ag amharc c'ait am biodh seombar 
cadail na te V oige 's ghabh e beachd air. Dh' eirich e feadh 
na h-oidhche gu dol far an robh i 's rainig e taobh na leapadh 
aice. Bha iad a' bruidhinn agus thuirt e gun robh e dol a dh' 



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^ 50 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

fhoighneachd ni sonraichte dhi 's thuirt ise ris e 'ghabhail air 
adhart. 

" Sheirbhisich t' athair dhomh-sa," ars' esan, " latha 's 
bliadhna air chumhnant gu 'n cuirinn ceann air cois na 
tuaighe a bha aige 'na laimh ar-neo mar an deanainn sin 
gu n seirbhisichinn-sa latha 's bliadhna da-san. 'Nuair a 
bha 'n t-am seachad thug mi learn cas na tuaighe gu gobha 's 
cha b' urrainn an gobha ceann a chur urra. Dh' fheuch mi 
a h-uile gobha a bha ann san rioghachd 's cha b' urrainn gin 
aca a dheanadh. A nis tha agam-sa latha 's bliadhna ra 
sheirbhiseachadh do t' athair-sa. Cha 'n aithne domh obair 
a dheanadh 's cha 'n eil fios agam ciod e a ni mi." 

Thubhairt an nighean ris : — " Ma cheileas tusa orm-sa e, 
agus nach innis thu e, innsidh mise dhuit-se, ciod e am feum 
a tha aig m' athair ort." 

Gheall e so a dheanadh, gu 'n cumadh e 'n diorras gu 
brach e. 

Ars' an nighean : — " Cha robh ach aon mhac aig m' athair, 
mo bhrathair-sa 's bha e 'n deigh air a bhith sealg a chois a 
chladaich. Bha beisd mhor a' tighinn as a' chuan J s a' 
taighich a chladaich 's thainig i 's dh' ith i mo bhrathair beb, 
slan. Thainig an glaodh a mach 's rug m' athair air an 
tuaigh a bha aige 's ruith e gus a chladach. Bha 'bheisd a' 
tarruing a mach o 'n chladach 's bhuail e 'n tuagh urra ann 
san druim. Dh' fhan an t-iarunn 'na druim 's ghleidh 
m' athair cas na tuaighe 'na laimh 's ghabh a' bheisd air 
falbh. Dh' innis duine fiosrach do m' athair gu 'm biodh a 
mhac beo fad latha 's bliadhna ann am broinn na beisde agus 
nach robh h-aon a chuireadh as do 'n bheisd mar an deanadh 
Gorm-shuil mac Mhacain an Athamain mac righ Lochlainn 
e ; 'chionn gu 'm b' e coisiche, snamhaiche agus fear claidh- 
eamh a V fhearr a bha ann an rioghachd Lochlainn. Agus 
bha fhios aig m' athair nach robh gobha ann an aite sam bith 
a chuireadh ceann air a' chois agus 'se so an t-seoltachd a 
ghabh m' athair air t' fhaotainn, feuch am marbhadh tu 
'bheisd 's an saoradh tu 'mhac 's cha 'n eil tuillidh feum 
ai^ ort." 

Dh' fhiosraich Gorm-shuil di ciod e an t-am a bhiodh a 
bheisd a' tighinn air tir am bicheantas. Dh' innis an nighean 
da gu 'm bitheadh ann san oidhche 's a' falbh 'nuair a 
thigeadh an latha. Dh' fhag e beannachd aig an nighean 's 
dh' fhalbh e. Ma's moch a thainig an latha bu mhoiche na 
sin a dh' eirich fear na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais 's thug 



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Sgeulachd Cotf O'Gein. 251 

e suil gu h-aite taimh Ghorm-shuil a dh' fhaicinn ciamar a 
chuir e seachad an oidhche 's an d' fhuair e cadal maith. 
Ach 'nuair a rainig cha robh Gorm-shuil 's an leabaidh. 
Chuir e 'lamh innte agus mhothaich e fuar i. 

" A nigheana!" arsa fear an tighe r'a nigheanaibh, " bha 
Gorm-shuil le te agaibh-sa an raoir; ach ma dh' eirich dad 
cha bhi agaibh ach na bheir sibh dha chiorin." 

Ghabh fear na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais a mach 's 
thug e air an cladach. Suil gu 'n d' thug e 's co a chunnaic e 
'tighinn ach Gorm-shuil 's a' mhac leis air laimh dheis 's 
iarunn na tuaighe 'san laimh chli. Ma bha gairdeachas 
roimh dhuine riamh bha sin roimh Ghorm-shuil nuair a thill 
agus mac fir na casaige leis an deign a bhi latha 's bliadhna 
ann am broinn na beisde. 'Nuair a chaidh gach toilinntinn 
seachad dh' fhoighneachd fear na casaige sliobasda liath- 
ghlais deth an robh tlachd aige do h-aon d'a nigheanaibh 's 
thuirt esan gu 'n robh e 'n trom ghaol air a nighinn oig. 
Thuirt a h-athair gu 'm b' e slainte 'bheatha ga h-ionnsuidh 
's gu 'm faodadh e nis dol dachaidh agus a toirt leis 's nach 
robh tuillidh feum aige-san air. 

Chuir iad an aird arson an astair 's thuirt fear na casaige 
ris gu 'n robh fios aige fhein air a ghleann ann san do chuir 
iad seachad an oidhche roimhe. Dh' fhag iad beannachd aig 
a cheile 's dh' fhalbh Gorm-shuil 's a bhean 6g leis. Bu 
cham gach rathad dhaibh gus an do rainig iad an gleann 's 
bha gach ni ann san aite sin mar a dh* fhag e fhein agus fear 
na casaige e. Chuir iad seachad an oidhche an sin. An 
deigh dhaibh eirigh anns a mhaduinn chaidh Gorm-shuil a 
mach a dh' amharc m'a thimshioll. 'Nuair a thill e stigh 
iliuair e 'bhean a' caoineadh. Dh' fheoraich e dhi ciod e 
b' aobhar d'a caoineadh. Thuirt i ris nach robh moran ach 
gu 'n robh i dol a thilleadh dhachaidh. Thuirt e rithe an 
d' thug esan aobhar sam bith dhith arson a bhi ag iarraidh 
tilleadh cho luath. Thuirt i nach d' thug ach nach rachadh i 
na b' fhaide air a h-aghaidh ; gu 'n robh e cho maith dhi 
tilleadh a nis agus uair a b' anmoiche. Chuir e 'cheisd urra, 
c' arson a bha i ag radh siud. Dh' innis i dha gu 'n do 
shiubhail an clarsair a bha aig 'athair, agus 'nuair a ruigeadh 
esan baile mor athar gu 'n coinnicheadh torradh a chlarsair e, 
agus gu 'm faiceadh e bean a chlarsair air chul mharcachd leis 
an tbrrachd agus 'nuair a chitheadh e i gu 'n tuiteadh e ann 
an trom ghaol urra 's nach bitheadh cuimhne aig urra-sa 's a 
thaobh sin gu *m b* fhearr dhi tilleadh an siud na uair a 



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252 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

b' anmoiche. Dh' fheuch e r'a chomhairleachadh dol leis, 
ach cha rachadh. 'Nuair a chunnaic e sin, dh' eirich a nadur, 
's bhuail e le cul a bhoise i'sa' bheul 's leig e 'n fhuil aisde 
's ghabh e mach. Ghabh e roimhe gus an d' rainig e baile 
mor athar. Mar a thubhairt ise choinnich torradh a chlarsair 
e. Chunnaic e banntrach a chlarsair 's i air chul-mharcachd 
's thuit e ann an trom ghaol urra 's cha robh cuimhne air 
nighinn fir na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais. Lean e an so 
air suiridh air bantrach a chlarsair 's bha e ga chumail 
uaigneach m'an cluinneadh athair e. Ciod e a shiubhail ach 
bean clarsair a bha aig righ mor eile 's bha 'n righ so ag 
amharc a mach arson bean d' a chlarsair agus cluinnear gu 'n 
robh bean a chlarsair a bha aig Macan an Athamain 'na 
bantraich 'sgu 'n robh i anabarrach bdidheach. Chuir e air 
doigh soitheach a dhol m' a tuaiream d'a chlarsair fhein. 
Thainig an soitheach do bhaile-mor Mhacain an Athamain. 
Chualaidh Gorm-shuil so gu 'n d' thainig iad ma thuaiream 
bantrach clarsair athar 's choinnich e na teachdairean a 
thainig ma tuaiream 's thilg e na cinn diubh. Sheol an 
soitheach air a h-ais a dh' ionnsuidh an righ mhoir a chuir 
uaithe i. 

'Nuair a chualaidh an righ a chuir uaithe an soitheach 
gu 'n do rinneadh a leithid de thamailt air a dhaoine thug e 
boid gu 'n d' thugadh e sgrios air gach neach a bha san riogh- 
achd a rinn a leithid de thamailt air. Chuir e air falbh 
soithichean a reir a mhionnan a dheanadh so. Bha fios aig 
Gorm-shuil gu 'm biodh rud ann arson mar a rinn e air 
teachdafirean an righ mhoir so *s chum e so an uaigneas air 
'athair 's bha e gach latha ag amharc a mach rathad a chuain 
feuch ciod e a chitheadh e a J teachd. 

Latha de na laithibh chunnaic e cabhlach mor a' tighinn 
a stigh do 'n chala. Thuig e mar a bha chuis. Cha robh leis 
ach a ghille. Dh' fhalbh e cho luath 'sab' urrainn e do 
thigh aireach a bha aig 'athair. Bha mac aig an aireach a 
bha na ghille foghainteach 's e fhein agus Gorm-shuil fior- 
mhor aig a cheile. Labhair e ris an aireach arson a mhic a 
leigeil leis. Thuirt an t-aireach ris e 'dh* fhalbh 's e 'thruis- 
eadh a chuid daoine 'sgu 'n leisfeadh esan leis a mhac an sin. 
Bha mac an airich air bainidh gu bhith mach ach ghlais 
'athair 'na sheombar e. 

Ghabh Gorm-shuil a mach a choinneachadh an namhaid. 
Nuair a bha iad a' teachd air tir, bha esan air thoiseach orra. 
Cha luaithe a chuireadh fear a chas air tir na bha an ceann 



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Sgeu/achd Cois' O'Gein. 253 

deth le Gorm-shuil; ach ma dheireadh bha iad a* tighinn cho 
tiugh 's gu 'n robh e 'faotainn a sharachaidh. Ghabh e daibh 
gus an do chuir e ruaig orra. Thug iad an sin na batan orra, 
a mheud 'sa bha beo dhiubh 's rainig iad na soithichean. 
Leis mar a bha Gorm-shuil air a leonadh 's le call fala, thuit e 
sios ann an riochd mairbh. Chaidh an naigheachd a mach gu 
clis gu 'n robh na naimhdean an deigh tighinn 'sgu 'n robh 
Gorm-shuil a' cumail cath riutha. 'Nuair a chuala mise gu 'n 
robh Gorm-shuil mo mhac na eiginn thog mi mach a dhol ma 
thuaiream an aite 'san robh an cath 'ga chur; 's nuair a bha 
mi 'dol gus an aite chunnaic mi gille Ghorm-shuil 's e 'tighinn 
a mach o chiil creige. Dh' fhoighneachd mi deth c'ait an 
robh Gorm-shuil 's thubhairt e rium gu 'n robh e marbh. 
Thubhairt mi ris a ghille : — 

" An do rinn thusa a bheag idir 's a bhlar?" 

"Rinn," ars' esan, 's leig e 'fhaicinn domh bun a shleagha 
's bha e sgriobhta le fuil air an t-sleagh : " 'Se mo ghille-sa 
fear a b' fhearr a bha 'sa bhlar." 'Nuair a chunnaic mi so, 
thubhairt mi ris gur h-e esan a mharbh Gorm-shuil. Thilg 
mi 'n ceann de 'n ghille. 

Suil gu 'n d' thug mi co a chunnaic mi 'tighinn ach fear 
na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais 's a nighean leis. Ruith ise 
far an robh mi agus rainig sinn Gorm-shuil. Rha Gorm-shuil 
na luidhe air an reidhlean marbh. Chrom fear na casaige 
sios os a chionn. Thug e mach cungaidh leighis a bha aige as 
a phoca. Dhoirt e rud anns na lotan diubh, agus cheangail e 
suas iad 's chuir e stad air an fhuil. Dh' fhosgail e an sin a 
bheul le barr na biodaige a bha aige. Chuir e 'lamh na phbca 
's thug e mach seorsa cungaidh leighis eile a bha aige. Thug 
e air a nighin a cheann a chumail suas 's chuir e beagan deth 
'na bheul. Sheas e ag amharc air 's ann an ceann tiotamh 
beag dh' fhosgail Gorm-shuil a shuilean. Ghiiilain sinn 
dachaidh e. Rhatar fad tri laithean agus tri oidhchean 'ga 
fhaire agus fear na casaige sliobasda liath-ghlais a' feitheamh 
air gu culaidh-leighis a thoirt da. Ann san fheasgar air an 
treas latha thoilich e eirigh. Fhuaradh ballan iocshlaint 
agus shnathadh leis o mhullach a chinn gu bonnaibh a chas 
agus rinn sin slan-chreuchdach e. 

Dh' innis e 'n sin daibh gu 'n do theich a ghille cul creige. 

"Nuair a theich mo naimhdean-sa," arsa Gorm-shuil, s 
ann an sin a thainig esan a mach o chiil na creige, 's fhuair e 
an claidheamh. Dh' asluich mi air e thoirt a m lonnsuidh 
deoch uisge 's thubhairt e rium gu 'n deanadh e sin nan 



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254 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

sgriobhainn air bun na sleagha aige gu 'm h' e fhein laoch a 
b fhearr a bha 'sa bhlar 's rinn mi sin da. 'Nuair a fhuair 
gu 'n do rinn mise sin, bhuail e bun a shleagha orm 's dh' 
fhag e an siud mi. 

Thubhairt mi ri m' mhac, gu 'm bu mhaith a dh' aithnick 
mise siud 'nuair a chunnaic mi an sgriobhadh 's gu 'n do thilg 
mi an ceann de 'n ghille. 

'Nuair a chunnaic Gorm-shuil aobhar a mhnatha 's a 
leannain, nighean fir na casaige, ghabh e gaol urra a rithis, 
's cha robh cuimhne air bantrach a chlarsair a phbsadh. 
Phbs agus naisg Gorm-shuil agus nighean fir na casaige. Sin 
agadsa nis mar a fhuair Gorm-shuil mo mhac-sa a bhean. 

"Agus sin thus a nis," etc. . . . " gus an cluinn mi 
an d' thainig rud sam bith as deigh a bhlair a thug e aig a 
chladach, far an d' fhuair e buaidh air a naimhdibh." 

XVIII. 

An ceann latha 's bliadhna an deigh a phosaidh, bha 
Gorm-suil ann sa bheinn-sheilg. Bha e falbh taobh loch uisge 
boidheach 's ciod e a chunnaic e ach cailleach mhor, mhor a 
tighinn far an robh e. 

" A Ghorm-shuil," ars' ise, " an cuir thu geall rium cb 's 
fhaide thilgeas clach 's an loch." 

"Cuiridh,'' arsa Gorm-shuil. 

Thog e clach bheag bhoidheach shleamhuin aig taobh an 
loch ; thilg e 's chuir e gu meadhon an loch i. Thug a 
chailleach truiseadh urra, 's shin i mach a cas 's an loch 's 
shin i an sin a lamh 's chuir i sios i far an deachaidh a chlach 
a thilg esan fodha 's thug i 'n uachdar i. Sheas i J n sin ri 
taobh an loch. Thilg i 'chlach '$ chuir i seachd far agus 
seachd leud an loch air an taobh eile i. 

"Chaill thu do gheall, ,, ars' a chailleach. 

" Ciod e an geall a tha thu 'g iarraidh?" ars' esan. 

" Tha mi 'g iarraidh ceann righ Art nan Casan Connal- 
ach," ars' a' chailleach, "a thoirt a m' ionnsuidh-sa an so 
m'an d' thig ceann latha agus bliadhna, 's gun thu a thoirt 
leat cii na duine ach thu fhein.' ' 

Dh' fhalbh a* chailleach. 

Rinn esan reidh an la-'r-na-mhaireach a dhol a dh' iarr- 
aidh ceann righ Art nan Casan Connalach. Dh* fhalbh e 
leis fhein gun chu gun duine. Cha chualaidh e iomradh air 
an rififh so riamh, 's cha mho a bha fios aige c'ait an robh c 
na c'ait an rachadh 'a 'iarraidh. An taobh a thionndaidh e 



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Sgeulachd Gois' O'Cein. 255 

'aghaidh dh' fhalbh e air a cheart slighe fad tri laithean. 
Ann san am sin bhiodh iad ag amharc a mach gu 'n d' thig- 
eadh atharrachadh orra ann an ceann tri laithean, 'nuair a 
bhiodh iad a' dol air thuras de 'n t-seorsa so. Bha e ag 
amharc m'an cuairt air 's ciod e a chunnaic e ach oganach a 
bha 'dol trasda air an rathad air an robh e fhein a' falbh 
agus choinnich iad a cheile. Dh' fhoighneachd an t-6ganach 
a thainig deth, c'ait an robh e 'dol, mar am bu mhiomhodhail 
da fheoraidh. Dh' innis e mar a thachair dha fhein 's do 'n 
chaillich mar a chuir iad an geall 's mar a chaill esan 's gu 'n 
do chuir i mar cheangal air nach d' thugadh e leis cu na gille. 

" 'S ann arson a bhith a' m' ghille agad a choinnich mise 
thu ' ' ars' an t-6ganach. " Cha 'n fhaod mi gille 'ghabhail 
learn," ars' esan. 

"Ma chuir i na geasan sin ort," ars' an t-bganach, "cha 
do chuir i geasan ort N nach fhaodadh thu fear a ghabhail a'd' 
chuideachd 's cha mhothaide gur misde thu e. ' 

A bharr air sin bheir mi thu gu cuirt agus gu cathair righ 
Art nan Oasan Connalach." Ghabh e ris an oganach mar 
fhear-cuideachd 's dh' fhalbh iad. Stad na fois cha do rinn 
iad gus an do rainig iad cuirt agus cathair righ Art nan Casan 
Connalach. Chuir iad teachdaire a dh' ionnsuidh a radh ris, 
gu 'n robh iad ag aslachadh arson cuid na h-oidhche fhaotainn 
uaithe. 

'Nuair a chual e a ghne dhaoine a bha ann 's an coltas 
chuir e fios a' 'm ionnsuidh nach robh aige-san ach tigh 
amhusg 's 'nan toilicheadh na h-'amhuisg aoidheachd a thoirt 
daibh, nach biodh esan 'nan aghaidh. Ghabh iad air an 
aghart gu tigh nan amhusg 's nuair a chaidh iad a stigh leum 
na h-amhuisg eadar iad 's an dorus. Thug an t-6ganach a 
bha 'n cuideachd Ghorm-shuil aon leum as, 's tharruing e 
'chlaidheamh 's m'an deachaidh iad air doigh thilg e na cinn 
dhiubh gu leir. Ruith cuideiginn chun an righ 's dh' innis e 
dha gu 'n robh a chuid amhusg marbh. Bha naoi ceud Ian- 
ghaisgeach aig an righ a' gleidheadh a chiiirte 's a' chathrach 
's a' deanadh a thoil agus iarrtais ; 's nuair a chualaidh e so, 
dh' aithn a dhaibh dol agus na cinn a thoirt de na beadagain 
shuarach a mharbh a chuid amhusg 's an cinn a chur air ceann 
eile 'bhuird 's gu 'm biodh . e ag amharc orra a' gabhail a 
dhinnearach. Dh' fhalbh na gaisgich 's rainig iad tigh nan 
amhuisg 's chuartaich iad e. Leum an gille bg a bha le 
Gorm-shuil gus an dorus 's dh' fhosgail e e 's dh' fheoraich e 
dhiubh, ciod e bha iad ag iarraidh. Thuirt iad gu'n do chuir 



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256 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

an righ iad a thoirt nan ceann de 'n da bheadagan shuarach 
a, mharbh a chuid amhusg. i'hug an gille leum a mach rompa 
's rainig e craobh mhor a bha na seasamh an sin a ghabh 
seachd saoir ri seachd laithibh a ghearradh a bharr aice 's 
oha chluinneadh an darna h-aon fuaim buille an fhir eile. 
Thug e aon spiodadh urra 's bha i leis as a ghrunnd. 
Tharruing e throimh a asgaill i 's cha robh meanglan na rusg 
nach do sgriob e dhi gus an robh i cho sleamhuinn 's ged a 
bhitheadh i air a locradh. Thionndaidh e m'an cuairt. Dh' 
eirich e air gaisgich an righ leis a chraoibh gus nach d' fhag 
e gin beo dhiubh 's chaidh e an sin a stigh far an robh Gorm- 
shuil 's thuirt e ris : — 

Cha dean sinn feum an so gun mnathan. Feumaidh sinn 
nighean an righ agus a bhan-righinn fhaotainn a luidhe leinn 
'san oidhche. Chaidh teachdaire a chur chun an righ arson 
a nighean agus a' bhan-righ a chur a mach 's cha robh aig an 
righ ach geilleadh dhaibh agus a bhan-righ agus a nighean a 
.chur air falbh a' m' ionnsuidh. 

Nuair a thainig na mnathan thubhairt a chompanach ri 
•Gorm-shuil : — 

" 'n is tusa as airde gabhaidh tu an nighean bg 's 
gabhaidh mise a bhan-righ/' 

Thug e suil m'an cuairt 's chunnaic e seicheachan glas air 
na sparrannan shuas 's thug e nuas iad. Rinn e leaba do 
Ghorm-shuil 's do nighean an righ 's chuir e luidhe iad le 
seachd seicheachaibh fopa agus seachd seicheachaibh os an 
•cionn. 

"A nis," ars' a chompanach ri Gorm-shuil, " mar am bi 
na seicheachan mar leathrach lamhainn 'nuair a dheireas mise 
anns a' mhaduinn, cha bhi agad ach na bheir g'a chionn." 

Rinn e an sin leaba d'a fhein 's do 'n bhan-righ 's chuir e 
seachd seicheachan fopa agus seachd seicheachan os an cionn. 

'Nuair a thionndaidh Gorm-shuil ri nighean an righ 'san 
leabaidh, thug i tri crathaidh air 's cha d' fhag i cli cuileige 
ann 's cha robh aige ach luidhe sios r'a taobh. Uaireigin 
f eadh na h-oidhche ghlaodh a chompanach ris : — 

"Ciamar a tha dol duit?" 

Thubhairt Gorm-shuil ris : — " Cha 'n 'eil ach gu 
meadhonach. ,> 

" Ciod e a tha tighinn ort?" ars' a chompanach ri Gorm- 
shuil. 

" 'Nuair a thionndaidh mi rithe," arsa Gorm-shuil, ({ thug 
i tri crathaidh orm, 's cha d' fhag i cli cuileige annam." 



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Sgeulachd Cots 1 O'Cein. 257 

Dh' eirich a chompanach 's chaidh e far an robti Gorm- 
shuil agus nighean an righ. Thug e tri crathaidh air nighean 
*n righ '& cha d' fhag e cli cuileige innte 's thug e tri crathaidh 
air Gorm-shuil 's dh fhag e e cho maith 's a bha e riamh. 

" A nis," ars' a chompanach ri Gorm-shuil, " feuch ciod e 
■a ni thu fo latha 's am bi thu cho maith ri d' ghealladh ma 
na seichachaibh. ,, 

'Nuair a dh' eirich iad 's a mhaduinn thug an companach 
.suil air na leapaichibh. 'Nuair a dh' amhairc e air leabaidh 
Ghorm-shuil bha na seicheachan cho cruaidh 's a bha iad 
riamh roimhe, ach bha na seicheachan na leabaidh fhein cho 
maoth ri leathrach lamhainn. 

" Falbh a nis," ars' a chompanach ri Gorm-shuil, " 's 
thoir an ceann de 'n righ." 

Chaidh fios a stigh air an righ a thighinn a mach. 'Nuair 
a thainig e mach tharruing companach Ghorm-shuil a 
-chlaidheamh 's chuir e an ceann deth, chuir e gad throimh an 
cheann 's thilg e thar a ghuailne e. 

" Thig a nis agus gu 'n tilleadh tu dhachaidh," ara' a 
chompanach ri Gorm-shuil. 

Ghabh iad a mach as a bhaile 's lean iad air an aghart 
£us an do rainig iad far an robh da rathad mor a J dol trasda 
air a cheile. Thubhairt a chompanach an sin ri Gorm-shuil : 
— " 'S ann an so a thachair sinn 's bithidh mise nis a' deal- 
achadh riut. ,; 

"O!" arsa Gorm-shuil, "cha dealaich mi riut gu brach 
agus falbhaidh tu learn fhein." 

"U!" ars' a chompanach ri Gorm-shuil, "cha dean sin 
feum. Tha agad-sa ri dol do rathad fhein J s tha agam-sa ri 
•dol mo rathad fhein, 's mo ghnothuichean fhein a dheanadh 
ach bheir mi dhuit fideag 's ma thig cuis na cas na eiginn ort 
gu brach seinn an fhideag agus bithidh mise agad." 

Dh' fhag iad beannachd aig a cheile 's dhealaich iad. Bha 
Gorm-shuil a gabhail dachaidh 's an ceann aig air a mhuin. 
Thachair dha a bhi gabhail seachad air cladach boidheach 
creagach. Air dha bhi ag amharc air ailleachd an aite J s air 
luraichead na fairge, ciod e a chunnaic e ach bata tighinn a 
stigh an comhair a dheiridh 's a choslas urra bhi air a 
bristeadh air na creagaibh. Ruith e sios 'a' putadh a mach 
gun i bhi air a brisdeadh. 'Nuair a chuir e 'lamh urra lean a 
lamh ris a bhata 's bha 'n lamh eile 'sa cheann. Ghabh am 
bata air falbh 's cha robh aige ach. crochadh rithe. Cha do 

17 



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258 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

stad am bata gus an do rainig i eilean mara. 'Nuair a bhuail 
i 'n grunnd fhuair a lamh ma sgaoil 's ghabh e air tir. 

Chunnaic e tigh shuas aig meadhon an eilean 's ghabh e 
air aghart 's chaidh e stigh ann. Bha seachdnar dhaoine stigh 
ann san tigh. Thug iad suil m'an cuairt 's chunnaic iad esan 
's chunnaic iad an ceann air a ghualainn. Ghlaodh gach fear 
diubh mach 'nuair a chunnaic iad an ceann. 

"Ceann ar brathar! Ceann Art ar brathar ! Righ Art 
nan Casan Connalach ! ' ' 

Thug fear glaodh as 's thuirt e gur h-e esan a bheireadh a 
mach dioladh arson a bhrathar. Thuirt fear eile nach b' e r 
ach gu 'mb' esan a bheireadh a mach e. Rug iad air Gorm- 
shuil 's leag iad fopa e air an urlar. A h-uile h-aon a stri 
feuch co 'mharbhadh e. Bha e 'n imirt a bhi moirte aca; ach 
cha robh gin idir ga bhualadh, a' thaobh gu 'n robh an darna 
fear a' cumail air ais an fhir eile. Fhuair e h-aon d'a lamh- 
aibh ma sgaoil, 's rug e air an fhideig 's sheid e i. Co 'leum a 
stigh ach a chompanach ris 's dh' fheoraich e deth, ciod a thug 
do 'n eilean ud" e. Dh' innis e dha m'an bhata 's ciod e mar 
a thainig e ann, '& nach b' uilear da esan a thighinn 'san am 
ar-neo gun robh e marbh. Thug iad orra an cladach 's dh r 
fhag iad an t-eilean. Lean a chompanach ris gus an do chuir 
e air an t-slighe cheart e 'dhol dachaidh. Dh' fhag e beann- 
achd aige 's thug e comhairle air an aire a thoirt da fhein as 
a dheigh siud, gus an ruigeadh e 'thigh fhein. 

Bha e 'n so ag gabhail air aghart gu sunndach an deagh- 
ainn a h-uile h-amhghur as an d' thainig e, gus an robh e 
dluth d'a thigh fhein. 'Nuair a bha e dluth d'a thigh fhein 
chunnaic e fear a' tighinn 'na chbmhdhail. Chuir am fear so 
failte air Gorm-shuil. Thuirt Gorm-shuil ris, ciod e an gille 
bha ann, na ciod e bha 'g iarraidh. Dh' innis am fear turais 
dha, gu'm bu ghille maith e 'g iarraidh maighstir, 's dh y 
fheoraich e de Ghorm-shuil, am fasdadh esan e. Thuirt 
Gorm-shuil ris gun robh e mar gheasaibh air gun ghille bhi 
leis 's leis an sin gun robh e 'smaointeachadh nach gabhadh 
e e. Thuirt an coigreach ris gu 'n robh an ceann leis 's a 
gheasan m' a sgaoil 's nach robh ni ga bhacail gun esan 
fhasdadh. Dh' fhoighneachd Gorm-shuil deth an sin ciod e 
an tuarasdal a bhitheadh e 'g iarraidh. Thuirt e nach biodh 
a thuarasdal mor, e 'dheanadh faire-chlaidh airsan an 
oidhche a shiubhladh e. Ach 's beag a thug Gorm-shuil 
fainear gu'n robh geasan air, gus an d' thugadh e 'n ceanrr 
an laimh na cailliche. 



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Sgeuiachd Cois 1 OGein. 259 

Ach co dhiubh, dh' fhalbh e dachaidh leis aghille ur agus 
dh' fhoighneachd e air an rathad d'a ghille, co b' ainm e, 's 
thuirt an gille gu'm b' e Suas-mhaol a b' ainm dha-san. 
'Nuair a rainig iad an tigh, bha subhachas is boch roimh 
Ghorm-shuil aig a mhnaoi chionn gu 'nd' thainig e dachaidh 
sabhailte. Ach ciod e 'thachair, ach gu'n deachaidh an gille 
ur tri uairean timchioll an teine agus thuit e, 's nuair a thug 
iad lamh air a thogail, mhothaich iad gu 'n robh e marbh. 
'Nuair a chunnaic Gorm-shuil so thubhairt e : — 

" O ! nach bochd an gnothuch a thachair an oidhche a 
thainig mi dhachaidh; an deigh mo thurais, m' allabain 's 
m' anraidh nach fhaigh mi socair na cead oidhche le m' 
mhnaoi mar a bu choir dhomh." 

Thiodhlaic iad Suas-mhaol ann an seann eaglais a bha 
fagus dhaibh, 's chaidh Gorm-shuil 'san oidhche 'dheanadh 
na faire-chlaidh air. Chuir e suas teine mhor a chumadh 
blath agus tlusmhor e re na h-oidhche. Bha e 'n sin na 
shuidhe a' deanadh na faire-chlaidh agus am marbh na 
h-oidhche chual e buille aig an dorus 's ghlaodh e co bha 'n 
siud. Chual e 'n guth a mach ag radh gu 'n robh bean 
bhochd a bha siubhal Ion agus lodan agus e a' leigeil a stigh. 
Thuirt e rithe nach leigeadh. 

" Leig a stigh mi air sgath t' athar 's do mhathar," ars' 
ise. 

" Cha leig," ars' esan. 

"Leig a stigh air ghaol do mhnatha *s do phaisdean/' 
ars J ise. 

Chuimhnich e an so air a mhnaoi 's air a phaisdean *s mar 
nach d' fhuair e caoimhneas a dheanadh riutha a thaobh gu'n 
d' thainig an dragh so m'an cuairt. 'Nuair a smaointich air 
an so, dh' fhosgail e 'n dorus, 's leig e stigh a chailleach. 
Thainig i 's shuidh i a chois an teine 's thoisich i air garadh. 
Dh' amhairc e air a chaillich siubhal na dha 's ar leis gu'n 
robh e 'ga faicinn a' gaireachdaidh. "A chailleach!" ars' 
esan, " cha chreid mi nach 'eil thu ag at." 

"Cha 'n 'eil, a ghraidh," ars' ise, "ach mo luideagan a' 
teodhadh rium 's a tiormachadh rium ; 'smia tha gu gasda." 

Bha esan ag amharc urra/s bha ise 'tionnadh m'an cuairt 
o thaobh gu taobh ris an teine. Bha e toirt an aire gu'n robh 
i fas moran na bu mhotha na 'nuair a thainig i stigh. 

" A chailleach, tha thu 'g at co dhiubh," ars' esan. 

"A ghaoil mo chridhe," ars' ise, "cha 'n 'eil ach mo 
luideagan a teodhadh 's a' tiormachadh orm ; 's tha mi cho 
priseil deth an ceart uair." 



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2$0 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Bha e an sin a' toirt suil air a chaillich a nis 's a rithis. 
Ma dbeireadb labhair e gu h-ard rithe 's thubhairt e : . . . 
"Tha," ars' a' cbailleacb, " 's bitbidh a bhuil duit-se." 

Rug i air 's m'an d' fhuair e eirigb bharr an aite air an 
robb e 'na shuidhe, bba e air a dbruim aice. Bug esan an 
ain a cbaillicb 's dh' eirich an dithis air a cheile. Chuir e 
fodb a' cbailleacb. 

Ghlaodh a chailleach an sin : — " Nam bu bheo Suas-mbaol 
mo mhac-sa, cha 'n fhaiceadb e a mhathair na h-eiginn. Thug 
an leac a bba Suas-mbaol foipe caracbadb aisde. Cbuir 
Oorm-shuil a cbas urra 'a chumail a sios. 'Nuair a bba esan 
a* cumail sios na lice bba 'cbailleacb ag eirigb. Lean iad 
mar sin air caracbd. Ma dheireadb fhuair Suas-mbaol air a 
chois. Thug e 'n sas ann an Gorm-shuil. Fhuair a' chaill- 
each an so air a cois, agus chuir i fhein agus Suas-mhaol fopa 
Gorm-shuil. Bha 'chailleach an sas 'na mhuineal 's am fear 
eile air a mhuin gus an robh e an imeas a bbi marbh aca ach 
fhuair e h-aon d'a lamhaibh ma sgaoil 's rainig e air an 
fhideig 's sheid e i. Co a leum a stigh ach a chompanach. 
Tharruing e 'chlaidheamh, chuir e na cinn de Shuas-mbaol 
agus de 'n chaillich 's leig e ma sgaoil Gorm-shuil. Chuir iad 
failte 's furan air a cheile 's dh' fhoighneachd a chompanach 
de Ghorm-shuil ciod e mar a fhuair e-fhein 'na leithid de 
dh' iorguill a rithis. 

"Cha b' uilear dbuit," ars' a chompanach ri Gorm-shuil, 
"mise bbi ann ar-neo bha thu marbh. Shabhail mi nis tri 
uairean thu, 's fhearr dhuit an fhideag a thoirt domh; cha 
leig mi agad na's fhaide i. Mbarbh mi Art nan Casan 
Connalach air do shon; marbh mi mo sheachd braithrean a 
bha 'san eilean air do shon ; a nis mharbh mi Suas-mhaol mo 
bhratbair agus mo mhathair air do shon." 

Thug Gorm-shuil an fhideag dha. 'Nuair a fhuair e 'a 
fhideag thuirt e ri Gorm-shuil e dhol dachaidh, gu'n robh 
gach draoidheachd agus iodramachd seachad. Dh' f hag Gorm- 
shuil beannachd aig a chompanach, 's chaidh e dhachaidh g'a 
thigh fheui. 

" A nis, sin tbusa mach do cbas," etc., etc. 

XIX. 

Thionndaidh O'Cein m'an cuairt a mhothachainn a choise ; 
ach thug e aon leum as, agus bha 'chas gu slan-chreuchdach. 
Bha spealg a dol 'na h-aite fhein leis gach sgeul a bha air 
innseadhi Bha O'Cein slan-chreuchdach 's thug Macan an 



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Sgeulachd Cois' O'Cein. 261 

Athamain leis e 'na churacb gus an do chuir e air tir an 
rioghachd na b-Eirionn e. Dh' fhag iad an sin beannachd aig 
a cheile 's ghabb O'Cein air agbart gus an do rainig e cuirt 
agus catbair ard rigb Eireann. 'Nuair a rainig e sin, cba robb 
e ag aithneachadb mir a bha ann. Gbabb e air agbaidb gu 
tigb an rigb. 'Nuair a bha e dol a stigb tbacbair seirbhiseach 
ur air nach facaidb e riamb roimbe agus chum iad a mach e 
's dh' fhoighneacbd iad deth, ciod e bha e 'g iarraidh. Tbuirt 
e riu gu'n robb e 'g iarraidh dol a stigh far an robh an righ. 

" 'Smise," ars' O'Cein, " fear-gleidhidh ionmhais an righ, 
agus 's e m' ainm O'Cein.' ' 

"Cha tu, cba tu," ars' iadsan. "Gabh romhad. Tha 
tri cbeud bliadhna o 'n a bha duine de 'n ainm sin an* so." 

" Chualaidh mi ann an laitbibb m' 6ige," arsa fear de na 
seirbhisich, "gu'm bu duine fiadbaich an duine sin." 

"O," ars' an treas seirbhiseach, "bha 'm fear sin na 
dhuine dona 's chaidh a chas a bhristeadh 's thug caibhtinn 
air falbh e ann a h-aon de shoithichibh an righ arson a choise 
a leigheas, 's cha do thill e riamh 's cha robh fios ciod e thainig 
air. Na bi tighinn anns na mearachdan sin oirnne, gur tu e ; 
acb bheirinn comhairle ort gun an t-ainm sin ainmeachadh ort 
fhein a ritbist ar-neo bheir sliochd nan daoine a bha cluinntinn 
iomradh air gnathachadh an duine sin ann ad cheathrannan 
beo as a cheile thu." 

Thill e air falbh o dhorsan an righ. Smaointich e gu'n 
rachadh e feuch am faiceadh e an tigh ann san robh e fhein a 
chomhnuidh. 'Nuair a rainig e sin, bha tigh mor eireachdail 
air a thogail far am b' abhaist d'a thigh fhein a bhi. Sheas 
e 's dh' amhairc e air 's thainig na deoir air a shuilibh. 
Chunnaic e seann duine a' tighinn le a chiabhaibh Hath sios 
air a ghuailnibh. Thuirt O'Cein ris : — " Co a tha chomhnuidh 
'san tigh so?" 

Thuirt an seann duine ris: — " Tha fear-ionmhais an righ, 
duine maith agus ceutach a ghabh truaghas de 'n bhochd agus 
a chuidich leis na daoine fann, 's cha 'n eil duine 's a' bhaile- 
mhor nach 'eil 'toirt am beannachd air." 

" Nach robh tigh roimhe so anns an aite so, aig fear 
O'Cein a bha 'na fhear-ionmhais aig an righ," ars' O'Cein ris 
an t-seann duine. 

"TJ! bha 'leithid sin ann," ars' am bodach. " Droch 
dhuine fiadhaich. Thug h-aon de loingeas an righ e leo 'a' 
leigheas 's cha luaithe dh' fhalbb e na thruis muinntir an 
aite 's rinn iad an tigh 'na laraich luim." 



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262 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

" 'S mise an duine bba 'n sin," ars' O'Cein 's e 'caoineadh. 

" Ciamar a dh' fhaodas sin a bhith?" ars' am bodach, " 's 
gu 'm bbeil tri cbeud bliadbna o na dh' fhag e so." 

" 'S mise an duine bha 'n sin/' ars' O'Cein a ritbis, " 's 
nam bithinn a rithis ann san aite mar a bha mi roimhe dh' 
atharraicbinn cho nior 's nacb bitbeadb duine san rioghachd 
nach d' thugadh am beannacbd orm." 

" Am bheil tbu ag innseadh na firinn?" ars am bodacb. 

" Tha mi,'' ars' O'Cein 's e gabbail a chaoineadh. 

" Amhairc m'an cuairt clis 's ambairc air an tigb aluinn 
sin a thogadh an aite do thighe," ars' am bodach. 

Thionndaidh O'Cein clis m'an cuairt 's ciod e bha aige ach 
'sheann tigh fhein ma choinneamh, a bhean a' tighinn a mach 
'a fhailteachadh, 's na seirbhisich a' cruinneachadh timchioll 
air a' fhreasdal da. Thug e suil m'an cuairt a dh' amharc air 
a' bhodach a rithis ; agus an aite a bhodaich ciod e a bha aige 
ach an righ bg eireachdail a dh' fhag e na dheigh 'nuair a 
chaidh e 'a 'leigheas. Dh' fhailtich iad a cheile gu cridheil. 
Fhuair O'Cein 'aite fhein a rithis, 's cha robh duine ann an 
Eirinn a b' fhearr na e fad a bheatha. 

Narrated to me by Lachlin Mac Neill, shoemaker, Paisley, 
who in his boyhood learned it from his father. His father, he 
says, learned it from a person of the name of Angus Brown, 
who lived in the neighbourhood of Islay House, and who is 
quoted as authority for many other stories told in Islay. 
Mac Neill was born at Creagan nam peighinnean, in the 
parish of Kilarrow, Islay, in the year 1788, on the 28th of 
May, and is now accordingly aged 82 years. The story was 
written down from his recitation in Paisley, and is now cor- 
rectly transcribed. (Signed) Hector Maclean. 

Ballygrant, January 7th, 1871. 

The above tale, from the Campbell of Islay MSS., Edin- 
burgh Advocates' Library, is one of the most considerable 
specimens of Gaelic prose. 

George Henderson. 

CIAN MAC AN LUAIMH 

No Sgeulachd Cas Chian, according to Duncan Cameron, 
constable, Tiree. 1871. 

Bha bodachan bochd ann an Eirinn d' am b' ainm 
O'CronaigiL Bha e ro bhochd agus smaointich e gu'n 
rachadh e dh' iarraidh deirc air an righ. Rainig e agus 



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Sgeulaohd Cois' O'Cein. 263 

dh' iarr e an deirc. Thubhairt an righ ris : " Bheir mise dhuit 
ceud bo thorrach agus ceud lair shearraich." "Bheir mise 
dha," arsa Murchadh mac an Righ, " ceud bo thorrach agus 
ceud lair shearraich." " Bheir mise dha," arsa Donnachadh 
mac eile an righ, " ceud bo thorrach agus ceud lair shearraich." 
Thubhairt an righ : "A bheadagain, an e urrad 's a bheirinn- 
sa bu mhiann leibhse thoirt seachad. Bheir mise dha faoighe 
bharr Eirinn uile." An deigh do 'n bhodach falbh, thill e 
rithist agus chaidh e air a ghlun an lathair an Righ. 
Thubhairt an Righ: " Ciod e so? Ciod a tha dhith ort?" 
" Tha mi an deigh gaol a ghabhail air a mheasan a tha 'n 
deigh na Ban-righinn. ' ' "Hud! a dhuine dhona. Is fearr 
dhuit a thoirt leat." Dh' fhalbh e leis a chuilein. Bha an 
t-each aig O'Cronaigil air thaod, agus an cuilein 'na uchd. 
Nuair a bha e greis air an rat had dhachaigh, leig e as a 
measan. Bha e ro dhuilich gun do chaill e measan, ach chual 
e comhartaich as a dheigh 's co bha 'n sid ach an cuilein agus 
e 'ruith maighiche agus a nuair a bha 'm measan ga dubhadh 
's ga teannadh, leum i air muin an eich air culthaobh 
O'Cronaigil. 

Sheall e air a chiil agus ciod a bha aige ach an aon 
bhoirionnach a b' aillidh a chunnaic e riamh. Thug e leis 
air a bhialthaobh i agus thuirt e rithe, nach dealaicheadh iad 
ach am bas. " Cha ghabh mi gnothuch sam bith riut mar 
geall thu gu'n dean thu na tri nithean a dh' iarras mi ort." 
" Ciod e sin?" thuirt esan. " Tha," thubhairt ise, " nach fan 
thu ag bl ann an tigh dibhe, gun mise bhi leat ; nach cuir thu 
fios air an righ air chuireadh a dh' ionnsuidh do thighe, gun 
fios a thoirt dhomhsa bliadhna mu 'n dean thu e; agus nach 
tilg thu orm gu'n robh mi an riochd creutair mi-nadurr' mar 
sud." Thuirt esan: " Ni mi sin." 

Dh' fhalbh iad dhachaigh agus chaidh iad a stigh 'sa 
bhothan bhochd. Chaidh iad a laidhe agus nuair a dh' 
eirich iad 'sa mhaduinn, ciod e bha *n sin ach meilich chaor- 
ach, etc., gus na shaoil e gu'n robh e air sgrios thighinn air. 
" Ubh, ubh !" ars' esan, " cha b' iongantach e ach am beath- 
ach mi-ghnathaichte thachair orm an de." " Seadh," ars* 
ise, " tha cheud aon briste dhiubh, ach gabh thusa ciiram de 
na tha agad," 7c, 7c. 

This woman became a black filly and broke Cian's leg. Did 
not hear whether it was in 24 pieces or not, but the King of 
Ireland had to tell 24 true tales before it was healed. The 
* sith ' woman said that this would need to be before the leg 
was cured. 



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264 Gaelic Society oj Inverness. 

" Sin do chas, a Chein, gus an cuir mise bile luis agus 
leighis rithe, ceirein agus tadh-lus, am plasd a' fuarachadh, a 
chnuimh a' borbadh, agus deifir orm a dhol a dh' eisdeachd 
aifrinn do 'n Eaglais mhoir 'san Itoimhe. , ' 

" Na na cas domhs' i 'sna na cas do Chian i, 's na na cas 
a rithist na dheigh i, 'sna na mac Maol-ua mise, ma shineas. 
mise mo chas no ma theid bile luis no leighis rithe, c' arson 
nach biodh Eaglais, 7c. 

" Sgleo uilc agus urfhaidh * ort, b' olc an comhdhalaiche 
riamh thu, 's bu mhiosa 'n comhdhalaiche dhomhs' thu." 

Instead of three wrights who came to build the church, I 
heard " tri manaich agus tri maileide craicinn air a mum/' 

It was the King of Ireland who told the tales, for what 
business had the King of Lochlann to go to hear mass in 
Rome? There was nothing in the tale as I heard it about 
Cian being taken to an island for the healing of his leg. It 
was at the place where it was broken [that] the King of Ire- 
land, who was bound not to see any man in distress whom he 
could relieve, had to tell the 24 tales. Each tale hung from 
the other like the links of a chain. In each there was some- 
thing that required a continuation of the narrative, which 
was a history of personal adventures of the King. 

Cian was the King's sister's son. Keating mentions him 
as having commanded a division of the King's troops at the 
battle of Clontarf . 

Ceirein — an luibh air a pronnadh agus im air a chur innte. 

[D.C.I 

SGEULACHD CHOISE CEIN. 

Bha righ air Eirinn ris an canadh iad Iarl Anndrum 's 
bha buachaille each aige, do b' ainm O'Croleagann, agus bha 
moran each aig Iarl Anndrum agus se 'n dbigh-chunntaidh 
bha aig* O'Croleagann, taod ma choinniah na h-uile each, 's 
cha robh cloinn aig O'Croleagann, ach aon mhac agus bhasaich 
an seann duine agus bho 'n a bha O'Croleagann cho measail 
aig Iarl Anndrum bha mac aige an aite an athar a buachail- 
teachd nan each, agus air latha araidh 's mac O'Croleagann a r 
buachailteachd nan each 's breacan ruadh air chunnaic e 
maighcach 's thoisich e air ruith 's chaidh e steach ann an 
torn luachrach. Dar a bha e 'g iarraidh na maighich 'san 
torn luachrach leum i fo 'n bhreacan air a dhruim ; theannaicb 

* ur-fhuadh— spectre of dire ill— G. H. 



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Sgeuiachd Cois' O'Cein. 26* 

e 'breacan gu maith air a dhruim 's thainig e dhachaidh 
leatha 's thubhairt e ri 'mhathair : " Duin na h-uile toll a tha 
air an tigh, tha naigheachd agam-sa 'sa bhreacan." Agus 
a nuair a dh' fhuasgail e 'm breacan thuit am boirionnach bu 
bhriagha chunnaic e riamh dheth a dhruim agus bha Iarl 
Ann drum airson gu'm pbsadh mac O'Crbleagainn i. Rinn 
Iarl Anndrum banais mhor dhaibh agus dar a chaidh am 
posadh mar tha daonntan a' tachairt chaidh ise laidhe 'n 
toiseach, agus dar a thainig esa dho dhol a laidhe leum ise as 
a leabaidh 'na lothain ghuirm agus thog i cas 's rinn e da 
chruinn leth air cnaimh na sleiste aige-san agus suil d' an 
dug e bha e ann sa ghleann luachrach ann sa d' fhuaradh an 
toiseach i. Bha Iarl Anndrum anabarrach bronach airson 
mar a dh' eirich do mhac O'Croleagann agus chuir e fios air 
a h-uile lighich bha 'n Eirinn ach cha robh iad a' deanamh 
feum 'sa bith dha. Thainig seann duine rathad 's thuirt e 
gu robh lus ann an Eilean Iarodha domhain mhoir (properly 
Eilean Iarthuath an domhain mhoir, the island of Lewis*) r 
ach cha b' aithnte do dhuine bha ? n Eirinn an lus agus chuii 
Iarl Anndrum sgioba 's biiirlinn leis an duine lebnta do dh y 
Eilean Iarthuath an Domhain Mhoir agus dar a rainig iad 
cha b' aithnte dhoibh an lus ach 'se rinn iad thoisich iad air 
[an duine] a shlaodadh as an deigh troimh fheur 's lusan an 
eilein. 

Thoisich an duine lebnta air sgriachill 's air ranich agus 
dar a chunnaic iad nach robh a choltas orra feum air bhith a 
dheanamh dha 'n duine lebnta 's nach robh choltas a bhi beo 
air, dh' fhag iad an sid e 's thug iad fhein an tigh orra. Agus 
an ceann tri laithean an deigh so chunnaic e curachan beag 
bata a tigbinn dho 'n eilean J s aon duine innte; thainig e far 
an robh an duine lebnta agus thuirt e ris : " Sin do chas, a 
Chein, ach a cuir mise barra-lithi 's barra-leighis, ciaran 
furtachd agus slainte rithe." "Mata/' ars* am fear lebnta, 
" nam bo chas dhomh fein i 's na bo chas do Chein i, ma theid 
barra-1. na barra-1. rithe ach an dian thu aon sgialachd bheag 
eile dhomh air sin " ; agus tha sgeuiachd a' dunadh 's ri ratha 
gun danie: e ceithir latha fichead agus sgialachd ur aige a 
h-uile latha dhiubh sin. 

From John Campbell, Strath, Gairloch, Ross-shire (who 
learned it from a very old man who knew the 24, and died only- 
two years ago). H. Urquhart. 

* In Norway so far as actually reminiscent of place-names ; cf. iruade 
iruath, of the older sagas — G. H. 



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266 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

10th JULY, 1902 
ANNUAL ASSEMBLY. 

This evening the annual Assembly was held in the Music 
Hall. There was a crowded attendance, including a pretty 
fair representation of Wool Fair habitues. As on former 
occasions, the platform and balcony were adorned with tartans 
and associated clan emblems, the whole arrangement being 
simply but effectively carried out. A picture, in black and 
white, of Flora Macdonald made a fitting background, seeing 
the programme gave the Jacobite element prominence. Mr A. 
Bignold of Lochrosque, M.P., who is president of the Society, 
occupied the chair, and he was supported by Rev. Father Mac- 
queen, Inverness; Councillor John Mackenzie, Lieut. -Colonel 
J. Macgregor, Ardgay; Lieut. -Colonel T. R. Macdonald; 
Messrs Charles M. Brown, manager, Caledonian Bank ; John 
Robertson, H.M.I. S. ; William Mackay, solicitor; Kenneth 
Macdonald, town-clerk; A. F. .Steele, Bank of Scotland; A. 
M. Ross, Dingwall; Father Chisholm, Invercannich ; Ian M. 
Grant of Glenmoriston ; C. M. Cameron, Balnakyle; W. C. 
Macleod, Orbost Lodge; A. Mitchell, East Coast Railways; 
Andrew Mackintosh, H.M. Customs; W. J. Watson, rector, 
Royal Academy ; A. Fiddes, Wick ; James Purves, Kingsburgh, 
Skye; C. A. Palmer, Chizzola; A. De Cologan, ex-Provost 
Macbean, and Messrs D. Mackintosh and A. Macdonald, secre- 
taries. At the outset of the proceedings, the four vocal artistes 
appeared on the platform and sang the National Anthem. 

On the call of the Chairman, Mr Duncan Mackintosh, 
secretary, read a list of apologies for absence, viz. : — Lochiel, 
Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, Mr W. D. Mackenzie of Farr, The 
Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Sir Reginald Macleod, Sir R. B. 
Finlay, Cluny Macpherson of Cliiny, Mr Whitelaw, Nairn ; 
Mr Ian Macpherson-Grant, Colonel H. G. Grant, Sheriff David- 
son, Lieut. -Colonel Grant, Mr William Mackenzie, secretary 
to Crofters Commission ; Dr F. M. Mackenzie, Sheriff Campbell, 
Portree; Mr James Anderson, Father Bisset, Nairn; and Mr 
T. A. Mackay, Edinburgh. 

Mr Bignold then delivered his introductory address, which 
was varied in subject, and hopeful in tone as regards the future 
of things Celtic. He said he had come straight from the 



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Annual Assembly. 267 

House of Commons, of which it had been said, probably by 
some -one who knew no better, that it was a place for the placid 
enjoyment of your declining years. It was nothing of the kind. 
What to him was an enjoyment, and a very real one was to 
-come to Inverness to meet the great flockmasters and sheep 
farmers of the North, who were the backbone of the prosperity 
of the country, and also to listen to the delightful music of the 
Gaelic Society's concert. He was almost an old hand at those 
gatherings, at least to the extent, from experience, of realising 
the iniquity of interposing a stupid speech between the audi- 
ence and the enjoyment of the finest ballad music of the North. 
Still, perhaps, by their courtesy and kindness, they would 
suffer him for a few minutes, upon a solemn pledge not to 
speak in the Gaelic. There had been a heavy pall hanging 
over the land since the 24th of June, now happily lifted, to 
the delight of the whole nation. He hoped they would soon 
see the King again, and that His Majesty would pay a visit to 
bis Royal home in the highlands of Aberdeenshire in the 
autumn. Death, which spared no more the turrets of the rich 
than the cottages of the poor, had been busy, as usual, among 
the roll of members of the Gaelic Society. Major Handle 
Jackson of Swordale had left behind him an honoured name in 
this the glorious country of his adoption ; whilst, too, they had 
to mourn the loss of a staunch supporter of the Society in the 
late Provost Macpherson, of Kingussie, who had sat beside 
him on that platform two years ago. Death struck the 
traveller and put an end to his journey, but they should 
indeed have "a heavy miss" of Provost Macpherson. Refer- 
ring to the present position of the Gaelic language in Scotland 
and elsewhere, Mr Bignold said he might quote a few figures 
in illustration of the advance made in Gaelic culture and 
instruction on the other side of the Irish Channel. The Gaelic 
Society of Dublin had been in existence only eight years, but 
the progress it has made can be deduced from the fact that in 
the procession in March last in Dublin city the attendance of 
members approximated to thirty thousand, and the procession 
was three miles in length passing Nelson's Column. The 
number of publications issued by the Society during the last 
year was three hundred thousand ; the number of children now 
t>eing educated in the Gaelic language in Irish schools was 
seventv-one thousand, and the new Gaelic Primer, which was 
published on 1st January this year, had gone through four 
•editions, and commanded a sale of nineteen thousand copies. 



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268 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

This was almost a record in the Irish publishing world ; but 
perhaps the most important fact of all that could be noted was 
that the Minister of Education (Mr Horace Plunkett) had at 
last ordered the printing in Gaelic of the Government leaflets 
for distribution in the provinces of Ireland. The Emerald Isle 
had set them a splendid example in prosecuting the study of the 
ancient language. Their schools in Scotland now enjoyed 
advantages for the study of the language, inadequate 
though they were, namely, the grant of a shilling a-head in 
all infant schools in which there was a Gaelic instructor, the 
payment of the salary of a Gaelic instructor even although the 
attendance did not warrant the payment, and the award of 
special marks for proficiency in Gaelic in the King's Prize 
examinations. Although they could not hold the candle in 
regard to advance in comparison with the Irish movement, yet 
during the last twelve months they had made some progress y 
instead of having to report a decline as in former years. The 
subject of South Africa, Mr Bignold went on to say, had been 
so prominent in every man's mind for the past three years 
that he felt he must refer to it if only for a moment. The 
quarrel had ended upon the lines of broad humane sympathy, to 
the satisfaction of every honest man. At the same time, there 
was a feeling of satisfaction that their own hero, Hector Mac- 
donald, had come safely through the fray. Some people said 
he had a banshee, bu^ he (Mr Bignold) hoped that was not the 
case, because they all knew that Macleod of Dlinvegan had a 
banshee who protected him through two battles, but on the 
third occasion whisked him off to Fairyland, and he returned 
to Dun vegan no more. He (Mr Bignold) had recently been in 
Caithness, and perhaps for that reason he might be a little 
superstitious. No Sinclair will leave the county on a Monday 
dressed in a green coat, and the reason for that was that some 
time ago, when the Sinclairs crossed the Ord on their wav to 
Flodden, they all started on a Monday morning dressed in 
green coats, and only one came back. It had been said that 
the Highlander had nothing left but his language and his love 
of home. That he denied. The Highlander had his love of 
country ; and their descendants in years to come, when they 
looked back across the waves of time, would mark with pride 
that in that long South African war no Highland brogue ever 
turned heel. It recalled to him a verse, written, he thought, 
by a member of the Gaelic Society — 



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Annual Assembly. 269 

" Yes, where'er cue wrongs of Briton or oppression's woes and 
pains 

Claim redress, 
The Highland broadsword still the mead of honour gains. 
Heaven then bless the land which gives us from its every 

strath and vale 
Free brave hearts to guard our honour — 
Clan nan Gaidheal ri guaillean a cheile." 

The musical part of the programme was sustained by Miss 
Jessie Maclachlan, Mrs Munro (Strathpeffer), Miss Kate 
Fraser, Mr D. Miller, and Mr It. Macleod, and in addition 
there was a string Strathspey party, pipe music by Pipe-Major 
Ronald Mackenzie, and dancing exhibitions by Pipe-Major 
Sutherland and others. Miss Maclachlan, who is on the eve of 
starting on a prolonged Colonial tour, was very heartily re- 
ceived, and she sung well up to her now more than national 
reputation. The other vocalists are locally too well known for 
detailed criticism; suffice it to say that their performances 
fully satisfied the large audience, and that encores were 
frequent. The Strathspey and reel party, led by Mr Alex. 
Watt, were greatly appreciated, and the other items mentioned 
proved popular variations in what, in all respects, proved a 
highly successful entertainment. 

Lieut. -Colonel Macgregor, an old and enthusiastic member 
of the Society, delivered the Gaelic address. His remarks 
were as follows : — 

Chuir Comunn Ghaidhlig Inbhirnis comain mhor ormsa, 
nuair a chuir iad cuireadh thugam tighinn air an oidhche 
chridheil, cheolmhor so, airson focal no dha a labhairt ann an 
cainnt mhaiseach ar sinnsear. Tha comunnan de 'n t-seorsa 
so iomchuidh agus feumail, airson cumail cuimhn' air an 
t-sluagh agus an tir de 'm buin sinn. Tha iad, mar an ceudna, 
cho feumail aig a' bhaile 's a tha iad bho na bhaile, cho feumail 
ann an Inbhirnis agus a tha iad ann an Lunnuin, cho feumail 
ann am Peairt agus a tha iad 'an Dlmeidin, cho feumail amis 
an Oban agus a tha iad ann an Canada, Australia no New 
Zealand. Do bhrigh ma chailleas sinn cainnt ar sinnsear aig 
an dachaidh, nach bi'dh i againn, airson a cumail no call, an 
uair a theid sinn a null do thirean ceine. Bi'dh sinn ri 
cluinntinn gu minig a' cheisd air a cuir : " Am faigh a' 
Ghaidhlig bas?" Ach na'm biodh sinn cho dichiollach airson 
a cumail beo *s a tha sinn deonach air a bhi seinn a tuireadh, 



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270 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

cha 'n fhaigheadh a' Ghaidhlig bas cho luath 's a tha cuid ri 
smaoineachadh. Tha cuid ri cuir as leith na Gaidhlig nach 'eil 
gnothaichean gnathaicht' ar caithe-beatha, o la gu la ; ged tha 
i gle mhath airson urnuigh no am lira n, no eadhon suiridh a 
dheanamh innte, gidheadh nach 'eil i freagarrach airson reic 
is ceannachd agus gnothuichean saoghalta de 'n t-seorsa sin. 
Tha so fior ann an tomhas, ach cha 'n e coire na Gaidhlig a 
th' ann, ach coire nan Gaidheal. Ni cleachdadh comhlionta. 
Agus na'm biodh sinne ri cleachdadh na oaidhlig ni 's mo na 
tha sinn, bhiodh a' chainnt ri fas farsuinn mar tha 'Bheurla, 
'an aite bhi searg as. Cha'n 'eil cainnt sam bith, an uair a 
bhios eolas ri meudachadh, anns nach faighear focail nach 
buineadh dhi o thus. 'S iomadh innleachd agus eolas a f huair- 
eadh a mach o bha Adhamh le feidhleadh beag do dhuilleach 
nan craobh ri deanamh gaol agus briodal binn Gaidhlig ri 
Eubha ann an Garadh Eden. Agus tha 'Ghaidhlig a cheart 
cho comasach air greim agus air feum a dheanamh air focail 
ura ri canan eile. Ach cha ruig sinn a leas airson sin a bha 
measgadh na Gaidhlig le cananan coigreach, mar bhios moran 
a' deanamh, an uair a bhios focail anns a' Ghaidhlig fein a 
cheart cho freagarrach, agus ni 's freagarraiche, airson a' 
chuis a chuir an ceill. An saoil sibh gu'n tuigeadh na seann 
Shasunnaich gach focail Beurla 'tha na Sasunnaich ri cleachd- 
adh aig an am so? Cha tuigeadh. Oir mar tha eolas ri 
craobh-sgaoileadh, tha Beurla ri fas ni 's farsuinne agus, ma 
dh' fhaodas mi 'radh, ni *s fasanta, o linn gu linn. Tha mi 
duillich a chreidsinn gu'n robh na Sasunnaich anns an doigh 
so ni bu dillse do chainnt an sinnsear na bha na Gaidheil do 'n 
Ghaidhlig. Oir na 'm biodh na Ghaideil cho toigheach 's cho 
deidheil air a* Ghaidhlig 's a bha na Goill air a' Bheurla, cha 
bhiodh a' Ghaidhlig cho diblidh 's a tha i aig an am so. 'Se 
gaoinealachd agus feinealachd nan Ghaidheal a mhill a* 
Ghaidhlig. Thoisich uaislean ri dol suas do Shasuinn, agus ri 
smaoineachadh nach biodh iad uasal gu leor ann an sealladh an 
t-sluaigh, an uair a thilleadh iad dachaidh, na 'm biodh iad ri 
bruidhinn Gaidhlig, ged nach robh na Goill a riamh cho uasal 
fuil ris na Gaidheil fhein. An uair a rinn na daoine mora mar 
so, thoisich muinntir eile ri leantuinn 'an lorg an ceuma. Cha 
bhi cail uair 'air diuc no air tighearna Sasunnach bruidhinn 
Beurla, ged chluinneadh iad an traill a's suaraiche ri bruidhinn 
anns a' chainnt sin. Ach tha moran de na Gaidheil, agrus ma 
tbachras doibh dol do Ghlaschu na Lunnuin, airson bliadhna 
no dha, 's ann a bhios iad ri cumail amach, an uair a thig iad 



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Annual Assembly. 271 

dachaidh, gur e daoine mora bhios annta fein, ma leigeas iad 
orra gu'n chaill iad a' Ghaidhlig, ged nach biodh a' Bheurl' 
ac' ach gle mhabach. Bi'dh na laightearan ud ri foighneachd 
de 's fhiach a' Ghaidhlig agus de 'n feum a th' innte, airson 
cosnadh ar n-aran laitheil. Ach de 'n fheum a tha 's an ite 
'th' ann a' stiur a' choillich % Gidheadh cha bhiodh an coill- 
each iomlan as eugmhas na h-ite, ni mo bhios Gaidheal comlan 
as eugmhas na Gaidhlig. Nach cuimhne leibh, mar an ceudna, 
nach ann le aran amhain a bheathaichear duine ach leis gach 
focal a thig a mach — a beul na Gaidhlig! Cha'n 'eil buill a' 
Chomuinn so, cha'n 'eil sinne leis am b' aill seasamh coir na 
Gaidhlig, ri cumail amach gu'n dean na Gaidheil a' chuis as 
eugmhas Beurla. Am fear a chumadh sin amach, cha bhiodh e 
dileas aon-chuid de 'n Ghaidhlig no do na Gaidheil. Ach an 
aghaidh sin faodaidh sinn freagradh nach e mhain gu 'm bu 
choir daimh a bhi againn ri cainnt mhaiseach ar sinnsear, ach 
mar an ceudna gu 'm bi'dh buadhan ar n-inntinn ri fas 
farsuinn, le eolas a bhi againn air cainnt no dha eile a bharr- 
achd air a' Bheurla. 'S e nor cheann circe nach urrainn 
giulan da no tri chananan, gun uallach sam bith a chuir air 
'eanchuinn. Is eutrom an t-eallach an t-eolas. Mar is mo ar 
foghlum 's anns is comasaiche bhios sinn airson ionnsachadh 
tuilleadh. Thubhairt Festus ri Pol gu'n robh mor fhoghlum 
'na chuir air bhoile. An do dh' aidich Pol bochd ri so? Cha 
d' aidich. Ged bha Pol 'na dhuine beag anmhuinn 'na 
phearsa, bha e anabarrach duineil agus dileas 'na nadur. 
Agus na 'ni b' e 'n fhirinn a bhiodh aig Festus, dh' aidicheadh 
Pol ris an fhirinn, ged nach aidicheadh e ris a' bhreug airson 
Festus no neach sam bith. Cha'n 'eil mi-fhein ag aicheadh 
nach 'eil foghlum an drasda 's a rithist ri cuir cinn air bhoile. 
Ach airson gach aon a tha ri call a chiall le mor fhoghlum, tha 
fichead ri call an ciall do bhrigh nach 'eil cinn ac' airson 
foghlum no ciall a chumail. 'S cuimhne leis a mhuinntir sin 
agaibh a tha eolach air na sgriobtuirean gu bheil tri nithean a 
bhuineas gu h-araid do 'n Chriosduidh — Creidimh, Dochas, 
agus Gradh — ach 's e 'n Gradh a's mo dhiubh so. Ma dh' 
fheudas mi, ma-tha, car tamull, coimeas nithean talmhaidh ri 
nithean neamhuidh, gun oilbheum sam bith a thoirt do 'n 
fhirinn, faodaidh mi 'radh gu bheil tri nithean, mar an 
ceudna, a bhuineas gu h-araid do 'r\ Ghaidheal — am feileadh 
beag, a' phiob mhor, agus a' Ghaidhlig — ach 's e 'Ghaidhlig 
a's mo dhiubh so ! Ceart mar is e Gradh a's mo na Creidimh 
no Dochas ann an aidmheil a' Chriosduidh, mar Chriosduidh, 



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272 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

's e 'Ghaidhlig a's mo na piob no feileadh, ann an aidmheil a' 
Ghaidheil, mar Ghaidheal.. Tha ghnath-fhocal am measg 
nan Gall: " Gur duillich a' bhriogais a thoirt deth 'n 
Ghaidheal." Ciarson? Airson nach b' abhaist briogais a bin 
air, 's nach b' urrainnear toirt deth an comhdach nach robh e 
'giulan. Ach, mo thruaighe, thriall an t-am sin 's tha eagal 
orm nach till e tuilleadh. Oir 's an linn 'sam bheil sinne bed, 
's ann a tha e duillich toirt an fheileadh deth 'n Ghaidheal, ? s 
cha 'n e bhriogais, agus airson an aon reuson ceudna — nach 
bi'dh feileadh air. Ach ged bhiodh na Gaidheil cho deidbeil 
a,ir an fheileadh 's a bha iad riamh, cha V urrainn e bhi orr' 
an comhnuidh. Cha bhi iad an comhnuidh ri codal anns an 
fheileadh, am bi? Agus an uair a bheir iad dhiobh am 
feileadh, bidh iad direach mar bha Samson 'nuair a ghearradh 
'fholt — cosmhuil ann an cruth ri daoin' eile. Mar sin, a 
dh' aindeoin 's cho deidheil 's a bhios cuid againn air sgal na 
pioba, cha 'n urrainn i bhi 'n comhnuidh fo ar n-achlais, no 
feadan aice bhi 'n comhnuidh 'nar pluic. Ach bu choir do n 
'Ghaidhlig a bhi aig an fhior Ghaidheal cho fad 's a bhios 
teanga 'na cheann. Bha 'Ghaidhlig aig a' Ghaidheal mas 
robh aon-chuid piob no feileadh aige, an uair a bha e ri ruith 
's ri leum, luath, lomnochd, air feadh beanntan agus gleanntan 
na Gaidhealtachd. Nach 'eil sibh a nis, a' chairdean, ri 
tuigsinn ciarson bu choir duinn cumail suas na Gaidhlig cho 
math 's is urrainn sinn. 'S an aite mu dheireadh, do bhrigh 
gur e eisimpleir a's fearr na comhairle, innsidh mi duibh mar 
a dh'eirich domh fhein, agus ciamar a chum mi 'Ghaidhlig 
'nam chuimhne. Bha mi aon turus corr agus ceithir bliadhna 
deug gun cluinntinn smid Gaidhlig o neach eile. Gidheadh an 
uair a thainig mi air m' ais do 'n Ghaidhealtach, bha 
'Ghaidhlig agam ni b' fhearr na 'n uair a dh' fhalbh mi. 
Leughainn ni b' fhearr agus sgriobhuinn ni b' fhearr i na 'n 
uair a dh* fhalbh mi. *S ann mar so a thachair : An uair a 
dh' fhairich mi mi-fhein ri call na Gaidhlig, thoisich mi ri 
leughadh agus ri sgriobhadh na Gaidhlig, ach gu h-araid — ri 
seinn na Gaidhlig. Eadhon gus an am so cha mhor gu'n teid 
la seachad gun mi leughadh beagan Gaidhlig. An drasda 's a 
rithist, mar an ceudna, thoisichinn ri sgriobhadh amhran iir 
Gaidhlig learn fhein, air seann fhonn a b' aithne domh roimhe, 
no air fonn ur a bhithinn fhein a feuchainn a chuir ri cheile. 
Mar bha 'n t-am ri ruith, bha na h-amhrain ri fas lionmhor, 
gus na sgriobh mi mu dheireadh timchioll tri fichead ac\ a 
chlo-bhuail mi ann an leabhar do 'n d* thug mi 'n t-ainm 



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Annua/ Assembly. 273 

jaeonach "Luinneagan Luaineach," oir bu luaineach mo chos 
.agus mo chridhe fhein, an sud 's an so, 'n drasda 's a* rithist, 
xi figheadh nan amhran. Cha mhor, mar an ceudna, gu bheil 
aon amhran anns an leabhar, nach b' urrainn mi-fhein a 
sheinn, agus nach do sheinn mi iomadh uair ann an iomadh 
ait' iomallach de 'n t-saoghal, nach cuala 'Ghaidhlig a riamh 
roimhe agus, is maithid, nach cluinn i gu brath tuilleadh. 'S 
iomadh uair, cuideachd, air feadh nam bliadhnachan ud, agus 
bliadhnachan 'nan deigh, a bha e gle choltach, air muir 's air 
tir, nach faicinn fraoch na Gaidhealtachd a chaoidh. Ach 
faiceadh no nach faiceadh, b' e mo dhurachd a bhi beo agus 
basachadh mar Ghaidheal nach treigeadh cainnt mhaiseacn 
Tir nam Beann, 'nan Gleann 's nan Gaisgeach. Cha V ann 
airson airgiod no airson or, cha b' ann airson urram no gloir, 
a rinn mi so. Cha 'n ann, ach— 

Air sgath na 'laithean fad o chian, 
Na 'laithean sin a thriall uainn. 

Tha mi toillichte bhi comasach air innseadh so dhuibh air an 
oidhche nochd, mar fhocal na firinn; cha 'n ann mar ghiir bg 
ri fagail a dhuthcha, gu dichuimhneachadh, ann am bliadhna 
no dha, gach run diomhair a rinn e, ach mar fhograch air 
tionndadh dachaidh leis m' bu mhiann a riamh a bhi dileas 
do 'n Ghaidhlig agus do 'n Ghaidhealtachd. Tha mi, mar a 
thubhairt mi, 'g a innseadh duibh airson eisimpleir, mar an 
ceudna ; agus ma ni sibhse mar a rinn mise, 's mar tha Comunn 
Ghaidhlig Inbhirnis a' dheanamh, cha 'n fhaigh a Ghaidhlig 
Tsas — 

Oh, togaibh, togaibh fonn, togaibh fonn air a* Ghaidhlig, 
A chanan ro uasal 'thug buaidh air gach canan, 
Biodh dileas d' ur sinnsear 's do 'n dileab a dh' fhag iad, 
'S 'an subhachas no 'n eigin na treigibh bu brath iad. 



4th DECEMBER, 1902. 

At this meeting Professor Arthur A. Macdonald, Oxford, was 
elected an honorary member, and Messrs K. J. Brand, solicitor, 
Inverness, and Alex. Cameron, Highland Railway, Inverness, 
ordinary members. The contribution for the evening was by the 
Rev. C. D. Bentinck, Kirkhill, and entitled : " The Old Church of 
IVardlaw — Some Notes on its History and Clergy." 

18 



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274 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



WARDLAW CHURCH AND CLERGY— I. 

For these notes upon "Wardlaw Church and Clergy" I 
have, in addition to the usual sources of information, such as 
"Scott's Fasti," "Shaw's History of Moray," and other 
works of a similar character, drawn mainly upon the records 
of the Presbytery of Inverness, and those of the Kirk-Session 
of the parish. Unfortunately the oldest Session records of 
Kirkhill have shared the fate of most others belonging to the 
same period : they have either been lost or destroyed, and are 
no longer available. Had they been extant, they would 
doubtless have shed a good deal of light upon those long by- 
gone days of which now we know so little. Of what intense 
interest and great value the old Episcopal records of Wardlaw 
must have been we can gather from the perusal of a few pages 
of them that have happily been preserved, and were recently 
handed over to the custody of the Kirk -Session by Mr Biscoe- 
of Newton, in possession of whose family they had been for 
many years. They cover but a short period of three years, 
from 1707-1709, and yet this mere fragment of parish history 
has yielded not a few notes of great interest and value. No 
record remains of the proceedings of Session for the next forty 
years : the oldest volume begins with the year 1748. There is 
indeed good reason to doubt whether the Kirk-Session met at 
all during the long vacancy that began in 1709 and continued 
until 1717; and when the meetings were resumed, there is 
evidence to show that until 1748 the minutes were kept in a 
careless, slovenly fashion, on loose sheets of paper, which were 
probably never bound. 

With such limited sources of information at my disposal, I 
can hope to illumine but faintly the dark pages of the past 
history of Wardlaw. The earliest reference to the parish is to 
be found in a deed dated at Elgin on the 15*th October, 1221, 
in which an arrangement is made in regard to the advowsons 
of the churches of Coneway and Dulbatelauch or Dunballoch. 
The charters dealing with this arrangement are recorded in 
the Register of Moray, and indicate that the lands granted to 
John Byset were formerly part of the parishes of Dunballoch 
and Conway. John Byset releases to Bricius, Bishop of 
Moray, the advowsons of the church of Dunballoch, and the 
Bishop releases to John Byset the advowson of the church of 
Conway. Byset also agrees to grant to the church of Dun- 
balloch, in a competent place and near to the church of 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 275 

Dunballoch, where it shall have been translated to " Fingasc 
or Fingassy" to the place which is called Wardelau (e) 
(Scotice .balabrach or Balcabrac). ' ' From this we gather 
that in early days the church stood at Dunballoch, by which 
name the parish was then known, and that it was to be trans- 
lated to Wardlaw, the Gaelic name of which appears to have 
been " Jtfalabrach, ' ' meaning possibly "The bere town." 
Shaw, in his History of the Province of Moray, states that he 
saw in the hands of Mr Fraser of Dunballoch a Papal Bull, 
dated 1210, translating the church of Mauritius to Wardlaw. 
Though the Papal sanction was given in 1210, the actual 
transference does not appear to have been effected until a few 
years later. What the considerations were that led to the 
removal of the church from Dunballoch to Wardlaw we can 
only conjecture. The latter site may have been preferred as 
being more central : it is certainly more picturesque and com- 
manding. The extensive view it affords of the surrounding 
country must have been less obstructed in former days, and 
led to its use for the purpose which gave it its Saxon name. 
In those far-off days, when might was right, and the different 
tribes or clans preyed upon each other when they could, this 
hill doubtless served as a place of vantage from which careful 
ward was kept to guard against possible incursions. Shaw 
declares that the garrison of Lovat, the castle of which stood 
on the plain below, kept ward or watch on the hill. From this 
circumstance it doubtless derived its name — Wardlaw, i.e., 
Watch-hill. Dr Alexander Fraser, in his article on Kirkhill 
in the old Statistical Account of Scotland, anxious apparently 
to find a Gaelic derivation for the name, suggests that it is a 
corruption of the Gaelic "Ban-tla, i.e., kindly summit"! 

It is rather curious that neither the old nor the modern 
name of the parish is of Celtic origin ; they are both, however, 
aptly descriptive of the situation of the church. 

Like its predecessor at Dunballoch, the church of Wardlaw 
may have been dedicated to St Maurice. The author of the 
Wardlaw MSS., however, gives the Virgin Mary that honour, 
as does his successor in office, Dr Fraser, who cites in support 
of his view the Gaelic name of the parish (by which it is still 
known), "Cnoc-Mhoire. ,, 

On July 14th, 1618, the parish of Fearnua (Gaelic Fearn, 
alder), comprising the eastern section of the present parish, 
was united by the Commission of Plat to that of Wardlaw, 
and the parish thus formed came in time to be known as 
Kirkhill. Of the church of Fearnua, Mr Chisholm-Batten 



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276 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

thus writes in his History of Beauly Priory : — " The church of 
Fearnua seems to have been dedicated to a saint named 
Corridon, according to the Wardlaw MSS., and the light of 
Christianity which had been burning there, dimly it may be, 
for four hundred years was suddenly extinguished by this 
Commission for the planting of kirks." We know very little 
about the church at Fearnua. It would appear (notwith- 
standing the opinion of the author of the Wardlaw MSS. 
quoted by Mr Chisholm-Batten) to have been dedicated to the 
"Virgin Mary, and to have been " ane common kirk of Moray." 
In 1239 Andrew Bishop of Moray grants the church of Fearn- 
way with all its pertinents to the common use of the Canons 
of Elgin, " except one half of a davoch pertaining to the table 
for the personal maintenance of the Bishop." No vicar 
appears to have been ordained at Fearnua, and the church 
was served by a parochial chaplain. Of those who ministered 
there we have the names of only three, and of these little is 
known. Among the witnesses to an ancient charter of the 
14th century appears the name of Sir Peter, chaplain of the 
parish of Fear na way. In Scott's "Fasti " the names of two 
others are given; but the similarity of names, and also of 
careers, suggests the suspicion that they were identical. 

In 1569 the church was served by Andrew Brabine or 
Brabone alias M'Phail, who was exhorter at Pettie in 1567, 
and was presented to the parsonage of Fearnua by James "VT. 
on 18th June, 1569. Urquhart, G-lenmoriston, and Bonoch 
were also included in the charge in 1574, forming rather an 
extensive sphere of labour. 

In 1575 Andrew M'Phail was minister. He also had been 
reader at Petty, and was presented to the parsonage by James 
"VI. in 1575, and also to the vicarage in 1581. His stipend 
amounted to the modest sum of £11 6s 8d; but he had a good 
glebe, known as Croit an Teampuill, as we learn from the 
Wardlaw MSS, which also bears that he lived at Kirkton till 
1606. That same year he was translated to Kingussie. Of 
the old church of Fearnua no trace now remains, but its 
probable site is marked by the tiny church -yard which adjoins 
the farm steading of Kirkton, and is still in use. 

As no reference is made either in the Presbytery or Kirk- 
Session records to the church at Fearnua, it is evident that 
the church at Wardlaw was made to serve the whole parish. 
Through what successive changes the old kirk of Wardlaw 
may have passed, and how much, if any, of the original 
building remained at the earliest date of which there is any 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 277 

record, it is difficult to say. The earliest mention of it occurs 
in the minute of a visitation by the Bishop and Presbytery on 
the 12th May, 1682, where it is stated that " the fabrick of 
the church was found compleit in thack, glass windowes, 
Lofts, desks, church bible, pulpit cloath, and an excellent 
Bell and bellhouse." From this reference it would appear 
that the church of Wardlaw was in better repair and better 
furnished than most country churches of that time, many of 
which were destitute of the most necessary furnishings. 

The thatch of the church seems to have been renewed in 
the summer of 1707, as the following minute of July 20th 
indicates: — "That day Alexander Clerk in Kirkhill called 
in and enjoined to enter to thack the church Roof and to clay 
it firmly, the materialls being now provided.' ' What the 
materials were, and how provided, the minutes of next meeting 
show : — " Alex. Clerk, thackster, gave an account to the 
Session that he get yet some heather and clay lead to the 

church. . . . The Session orders Lovat and D to lead 

more heather, and the Deacons spoken to for that effort." 
The work was executed with dispatch, as the minute of 
August 24th bears that " the Thatch of the church being now 
compleated, Alexander Clerk, Thackster, being called 
declared judicially that he had spent 8 dayes constantly 
uppon that work, and Donald M'Klean, Pioner, attending 
him to carry clay and stakes wt. other necessaries 
for that work. The Session orders 6s Scots per diem to the 
said Alexander Clerk, which amounts to 4s sterling, and 4sl. 
Scots to Donald M'Klean per diem, which amounts to 3s 
sterling, the Moderator to give a written order to the church 
officer for uplifting the particular proportion stented uppon 
every Davoch of that money, and to collect ye same with the 
assistance of the elders.' ' The aid of the civil power was also 
invoked to secure payment of this assessment, for we read in a 
later minute that " the constables are enjoined to concur with 
the church officer to uplift ye stented proportion of every town 
wt.in the parish for thacking of the church." Their efforts 
appear to have been eventually successful, for we learn from 
the minute of March 8th, 1708, that:— "That day the 
Deacons declare that Alexander Clerk hath receaved compleat 
payment through all the Parish for thacking the church in the 
victuall due to him in every town." 

The glass windows were a source of trouble and expense. 
On August 5th, 1707, £12 lis 8d was "given to the Glasier, 



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278 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Thomas Fraser, for mending and making up the Glass and 
weare of the windows of the church/ ' In February, 1746, the 
windows are reported to want glass and frames of wire to 
prevent them from breaking by doves and dogs, and the 
Moderator is recommended " to cause mend them sufficiently 
that the hearers of the kirk may not be exposed to be wet as 
they have been frequently." 

That the heritors and others provided and were responsible 
for their own pews appears from a complaint made against 
James Fraser of Achnagairn in April, 1707, whom the Session 
takes to task for " the top of his new desk, which wholly 
obstructs and obscures the prospect of seeing and hearing from 
the eastern end of the church.' ' Achnagairn's plea that " the 
laird of Culloden was concerned to remove that impediment, 
the desk being his," evoked from the Moderator the reply 
" that Culoden was not within our Parish nor of our Com- 
munion, nor was it he but Achnigarn that built the desk, and 
therefore it was his concern to regulate the same." 

The Session also provided a common loft, the seats in 
which they let for a yearly rent of about 2s per sitting. On 
27th June, 1708, " 6 shillings Scots were ordered to be given 
to Donald M'Krob, wright in Achnigarn, for fixing the breast 
of the common loft and the Stool of Repentance." 

The pulpit was " covered with green sairge, for which 20s 
Scots was paid to Alex. M'Kay" in September, 1707. Testi- 
mony is indirectly borne to the force and vigour of the 
minister's preaching by the fact that in August of the follow- 
ing year " 6s Scots was ordered to be given to John Dow 
Taylor for shewing and mending on the pulpit cloath and 
adding some new Green Freeze." 

The church apparently had a porch, and was enclosed with 
a stile in 1707, part of which probably still remains in the old 
arch that stands at the present entrance to the churchyard. 

In 1750 the church was represented to the Presbytery by 
the minister as being in a very bad condition, and "will 
quickly go to ruin if not repaired." The result of this repre- 
sentation, and a subsequent visitation by Presbytery, was that 
the church was practically rebuilt with the exception of the 
gables, the area of the church being widened to the north side. 
The new walls were to be 2 £ ft. thick, and " the tabling of these 
walls 2 feet lower than that of the chappie at the east gavel." 
They were to be built with lime without any clay, and the south 
wall was to have six windows, "the two windows already 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 279 

in the west gavel to be continued.' ' The roof was to be slated, 
•and in due proportion to the breadth of the church. The west 
end of the church was to have "a convenient and sufficient 
common loft, the stair thereto to be within the church/ ' The 
total cost of the work was £198 18s 8d. 

The church thus renovated stood until 1790, when it was 
probably taken down, and the materials employed in the 
erection of the plain and unattractive building that still serves 
as the parish church, which was completed in 1792, and 
renovated in 1892. 

The abandonment of so picturesque and commanding a 
site, hallowed by past associations, in favour of another vastly 
inferior in every respect, is difficult to understand. The con- 
sideration that weighed most with those responsible for the 
transference may possibly have been the lack of sufficient 
accommodation, and the difficulty of extension owing to the 
churchyard. Imagination loves to picture the scene that must 
oft have gladdened the eyes and rejoiced the hearts of the old 
ministers of Wardlaw, as on Sunday mornings they watched 
from the manse windows the long procession of worshippers 
passing on their way up to the House of God. "Tempora 
mutantur et nos mutamur in illis." 

The site of the old church of Wardlaw is now marked by 
the Lovat mausoleum with its belfry, so graceful and 
ecclesiastic in structure that no great effort is needed to beleive 
that it may have been originally part of the ancient church. 
Had we no information to the contrary, we might have 
concluded that it was the chancel of the old church, and that 
on its abandonment at the abolition of Episcopacy Lord Lovat 
exercised his undoubted right of taking possession of it, and 
using it for burial purposes. But Dr Carruthers quotes a 
passage from the Wardlaw MSS. which renders any such 
theory untenable. In the description the author gives of the 
funeral of Simon Lord Lovat in 1632, he states that " the 
Prasers of Lovat, resolving to desert their burial place in 
fieauly minster, interred Lord Simson's corpse in Kirkhill, at 
the east end of the church, with a pale of curious timber work 
above his grave, and erected that aisle and steeple there as 
their tomb, which now we see joined to the church.' ' From 
another passage in the Wardlaw MSS. we gather that it was 
originally intended to erect the chapel at the wester end of 
the church; but the height of the rock made the selection of 
the east end necessary. The contractor for the erection of the 



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280 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

building was Wm. Ross, master mason. The original contract 
between him and Lord Hugh has just been discovered among 
a collection of old Belladrum papers, and is a document of 
sufficient interest and value to entitle it to a place in this 
paper. It runs thus : — 

" At Kirkhill the tuentie nynt day of September Jaivici 
threttie thrie yeiris It is agreit upoune betuixt Hew lord 
fraser of Lowatt one the ane pt. and Wm. Ros masoune one 
the tother pt. In maner efter specifeit That is to say the said 
Wm. ros as princll. and Hew fraser of belladrum caur. for him 
bindis and obleist thame that the said Wm. Ros sail build ane 
yle upon the eist end of the Kirk of Wardlaw off lenthe threttie 
sex foutis wt. the wall off the lyke breidthe wt. the said kirk 
wt. ane archt in the gabell of the said yle and ane uthir licht 
upoun the syd wall yroff, ane doore upoune the yle it selff and 
ane uthir doore stoppit in the olde gavell wt. ane passage 
upoun the uther syde of the wall besyde the olde gavell wt. ane 
pend in the inner syde of the wall for any monument to the 
lords of Lovatt with foure bowells upoun the northe syde two 
upoune every syde and ane timber table every one yroff to be 
two foote of height for qlk the said hew lord fraser of lovatt as 
prinll. and cautyoner for him bindis and obleist 

yame to pay and deliver to the said Wm. Ros or his airis the 
soume of four hundrethe merkis thrie chalders victuall halff 
meill halff malt wt. ane suit of clothes at the termes eftir 
specifeit viz. ane hundrethe pundis heirof at the dait of thir 
pntis. wt. ane chalder of victuall ane hundrethe pundis and 
ane chalder of victuall to be payit in parts as the worke goes 
forward to the levelling of the walls and ane hundrethe merkis 
and ane chalder of victuall in compleit payt. to be payit in 
ptis at the working of the gavell as the worke goes fordward 
Lykeas the said noble lord and his caur. forsd obleis ym to 
furnishe all scaffaldin quairrell Loomes and carriage requisit 
for the said worke and to furnishe to the said Wm. a dwelling 
hous and fewall to mak his vindes ready duiring the said 
worke . ffinallie the said Wm. Ros obleis him to win the haiU 
hewen worke that sail serve to compleit the foirsaid yle doores 
windowes and belhous yrof in the best and most curious worke- 
manshipe the said Wm. can. And for ye mair security we ar 
content yir pretis be registrat in the buiks of counsell <fc 
sessioun & that Ires, neidfull be direct heirupon in forme as- 
effeirs and to yis effect constituts 

Our prors promitten de rato In witnes: 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 281 

qroff we have subt. yir pretis day and place foirsaid Before yir 
witness Mr George fraser and Alexr. Dunbar servitors to the 
said Lord Lovatt. 

"A. Dunbar witnes W. Ros. 

" G-. Fraser witnes. " 

The building was competed in 1634, and is a standing testi- 
mony to the excellence and durability of the builder's work. 

There can be no doubt that the old belfry (pronounced by 
a competent authority to be one of the most perfect of its kind 
in Scotland) belongs to the 17th century. It bears a close 
resemblance to the Tower of St Duthus in Tain, and may have 
been designed by the same architect, and erected by the same 
hands. On two of its tiny windows are cut in relief the figures 
17-22, which may be the date of the renovation of the structure 
by the notorious Simon Lord Lovat, and possibly, too, of the 
erection by him of the well-known mural tablet with its ornate 
surroundings, which, presumably intended as a memorial of 
his father, was really meant to perpetuate the memory of his 
own imaginary virtues, as the inscription shows : — 

" To the memory of Thomas Lord Fraser of Lovat, who 
chose rather to undergo the greatest hardships of fortune than 
to part with the ancient honours of his house, and bore these 
hardships with an undaunted fortitude of mind. 

" This monument was erected by Simon Lord Fraser of 
Lovat, his son, who likewise having undergone many and 
great vicissitudes of good and bad fortune through the malice 
of his enemies, he in the end at the head of his clan forced his 
way to his paternal inheritance with his sword in his hand and 
relieved his kindred and followers from oppression and slavery, 
and both at home and in foreign countries by his eminent 
actions in ye war and State he hath acquired great honour 
and reputation. 

Hie tegit ossa lapis Simonis fortis in armis 
Restituit pressum nam genus ille suum 
Hoc marmor posuit cari genitoris honori 
In genus afflictum par erat ejus amor." 

Among the relics of the past that are still preserved in the* 
building is a fragment of a church bell, the upper part of 
which has been broken off, and has disappeared. The loss of 
this upper section is to be regretted, not only because it makes 
it impossible to recast the bell, but also because it bore almost 



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282 Gaelic Society of Inverness 

the whole of an inscription, of which only a few letters remain. 
It may be that this fragment is all that remains of the bell 
which, according to the author of the Wardlaw MSS., was 
originally taken from Beauly Priory, and being too large for 
the steeple, was hung for a time upon wooden supports on the 
knoll to the south-east of the churchyard, to which it gave the 
name " Tom-Chluige." It was afterwards sent to Holland to 
be recast, and made less. In its diminished form it was set 
up in the belfry in 1635, and bore the inscription — " Michael 
Burgerhous me fecit Anno d. 1634/ ' 

In the minute already quoted of the visitation of Wardlaw 
by the Bishop in May, 1682, the church is said to possess " ane 
excellent Bell and bellhouse." At that time it would appear 
that the belfry contained only one bell. That another must have 
subsequently been added the following minute of Session, of 
24th July, 1748, indicates: — "The Moderator regrated the 
Loss the Parish was in by the want of the Benefits of the 
great Bells since they were broken to warn them to church as 
formerly. It was resolved the Session should think of some 
proper means to get them founded of new." Towards pay- 
ment of the cost of recasting the bells subscriptions were 
invited from the heritors and parishioners, as also from those 
resident in the neighbouring parishes, who had burial places at 
Kirkhill. It was resolved that " when the Bells are repaired 
and set up they shall not be rung at the Burial of any but 
such as dwell within the Parish under twenty pounds Scots 
money, if they do not contribute generously to the Repairing 
of them ; and if they do, they shall be rung for them at the 
same rate as for them that live in the Parish, and have their 
names and several contributions recorded in the Session 
Register.' ' With a few notable exceptions (including Culbokie 
and Culmiln), those appealed to gave contributions ranging 
from one guinea to 2s stg. Every tenant in the parish was 
asked to contribute at the rate of two shillings Scots for each 
boll of land they possessed, those having no land being invited 
to contribute according to their ability. Those who contri- 
buted were to enjoy the privilege of having " the Bells rung 
for them and their wives at the Burial of either of them, they 
paying a firlot of victual or a half-crown to the kirk-officer." 

The necessary funds having been raised, " the Moderator 
was desired to go to Inverness, and to see the Bells to be sent 
thither by a Boat, weighed and ship'd, and to receive a Bill 
of Loadening for them and to give the necessary directions for 
their being cast, and appointed to receive payment out of the 

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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 283 

Session Box." The Moderator received his commission in 
August, 1748, and the bells were ready by May of next year; 
the work of recasting them appears to have been undertaken 
by Mr Alex. Fraser, merchant, Inverness, and to have cost 
«£15 13s stg. The setting-up of the new bells was entrusted 
to two local tradesmen — Paul M'Lean, wright at Balgrinshell, 
and Wm. Bain, smith in Drumriach — who appear to have 
taken plenty of time to the work, as it was not completed in 
February, 1750, though undertaken by them in May, 1749! 
The custody of the steeple and bells was given to Hugh 
M'Hutcheon, servant in Grome, who was appointed to ring 
the bells when needful on week days and Sabbaths, and to 
uplift the fees charged for ringing at burials. For this he was 
to receive a yearly salary of £5 10s Scots money. 

The Session funds for behoof of the poor were considerably 
augmented by the income derived from the ringing of the 
bells at funerals, which continued until the beginning of the 
19th century, the fee latterly charged for the privilege being 
5s. The last payment recorded was made by Wm. Maclean, 
farmer, Groam, in 1817, "to entitle his family, as the entry 
bears, to have the chapel Bell rung at their funerals or 
deaths/ ' It is significant that, though as late as 1785 the 
"bells" are spoken of, as if there were more than one, in a 
minute of 1789, and ever afterwards, only the singular number 
is used, implying that there was only one left in the belfry. 
The other may have been removed to the new church, which 
was begun in 1790. In 1805 the Kirk-Session had to protest 
against the arbitrary procedure of the Hon. Archibald Fraser 
of Lovat, who about a year previous had " ordered and caused 
the door of the bell house to be shut and built up with stone 
and lime, so that all access to the Bell gifted by one of his 
predecessors is obstructed." An examination of the Session 
records revealed the fact that the bell was put up, not as the 
Session supposed by one of Lovat's predecessors, t but at the 
expense of the parish by subscription, and consequently that 
Lovat had no right to deprive the parish of the use of the 
bell. This having been represented to his Lordship, he ordered 
the door to be re-opened, and the bell continued to be avail- 
able for the purpose for which it was designed until, as I 
have been informed, it fell down during a great storm 
some fifty or sixty years ago, and was broken. The bell with 
which the new church was equipped was evidently an old one, 
and may, as already suggested, have been one of those two that 
had for so long done duty in the steeple, for we find that in 



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zed by GoOgle 



28 * Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

1808 (16 years after the church was opened) the Session con- 
tracted for the supply of a new bell, which cost £21 10s 6d 
stg., from which £5 6s 8d stg. fell to be deducted as the 
amount allowed for the old bell. The new bell, now nearly 
100 years old, still calls the parishioners to worship; but in 
rather harsh, unmusical tones that have not been sweetened 
and mellowed by age, and the sound of which makes one sigh 
for the great bell that sounded sweetly in the ears of so many 
generations of worshippers, and now lies shattered and silent. 

Another relic of the far past, of even greater antiquity and 
interest than the great bell, is an old sculptured stone, which 
in all likelihood had at one time been in the wall of the old 
church. Though it has been lying about the floor of the 
chapel for many years it has fortunately escaped serious injury, 
and is in a wonderfully good state of preservation. I am 
indebted to Dr Joass, of Golspie, for the following detailed 
description of this quaint old stone : — " In a niche surmounted 
by a canopy with trifoliate crockets is the kneeling figure of 
a priest in eucharistic vestments. The coronal tonsure is 
shewn, and the falling side-hair is tastefully treated. The 
face is three-quarter front, the widely opened eyes looking 
upward, and the mouth expressing reverent pity. The alb 
extends to the feet, and is foreshortened at the ground. The 
amice or collar is present, and the priestly chasuble reaching 
to the knee. Near the knee is the pyx — the case for'the con- 
secrated Host. On this is the paten, and near it the chalice 
with beaded stem and fluted bowl. The wafer is held between 
thumb and forefinger of both hands, and from the left wrist 
hangs the maniple with its embroidered decoration.' ' 

On the surrounding raised border, and in demi-relief, is 
an inscription in modified church-script, which, though sharp, 
is in some parts difficult to decipher. Several well-known 
antiquarians have tried to do so ; but while they all agree as 
to the greater part of the inscription, they differ as to the 
name of the individual commemorated. Without doubt he 
was a former vicar of Wardlaw ; but it is impossible to establish 
his identity. The inscription runs thus : — 

"t Hie jacet dns. Johannis Del Ard quond. vicarius de 
Wardlau q. obiit a.d. mccccxxxi. ,, 

There is another stone, a mere fragment however, which 
may when complete have also contained a kneeling figure in 
the centre, and bears traces of having had a projecting arched 
canopy above, decorated on the front and sides; Only a few 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 285 

words of the inscription remains :— " f hie jacet dns donald 
<* e . obiit anno dni mccccxxii or lxii." The 

spacing of the figures in the date is irregular; there is a long 
interval between the ' m' and the ' c/ which may have con- 
tained another ' c,' and also between the first ' x' and the 
second. Here again the identification of the individual com- 
memorated is impossible. 

Of the old vicars of Wardlaw the names of only a few have 
been preserved, and of these we know very little indeed.* The 
earliest of whom there is any mention is David Cuthbert, 
vicar of Wardlaw, whose name appears in an old charter 
among those present at an inquiry held in August, 1532, 
within the burgh of Inverness in regard to a grant made by 
the Church to Thomas Lord Fraser of Lovat of the church 
lands of Kilmorack (C.B.'s H. of B.P.). His name is not 
given either in Shaw's "History of Moray/ ' or "Scott's 
"Fasti." 

Sir William Dow Fraser (an ecclesiastic knight) is the next 
vicar of Wardlaw of whom there is any record. He died about 
1588. His name is also omitted in the list of Wardlaw clergy 
in the "Fasti." 

He was succeeded by Donald Dow Fraser, who was at 
Wardlaw in 1574. Of him the Wardlaw MSB. says that he 
"" lived in Finask, there being no settled mans at Kirkhill, and 
married Agnes Maid out of Lovat' s family." He was trans- 
lated to Kilchrist about 1580, and returned prior to 1590, 
when Kilchrist also was included in the charge. As Kil- 
morack and Kiltarlity were also included, and Abertarflt like- 
wise came to be attached in 1579, we do not wonder that at 
this date he disappears and is heard of no more ! His stipend 
at Wardlaw was xl lib. 

Bartholomew Robertson comes next. He was translated 
from Lhanbryde, and admitted to Wardlaw prior to 1608, 
where he appears to have continued till 1610. 

The next vicar of whom there is any record is John 
Houston, who was the first minister of the united 
parishes, to which he was presented by Bishop Douglas 
in 1614. His name occurs in the minute of a Presby- 

* According to an interesting old list of Wardlaw vicars, compiled in the 
early part of the 18th century, which came into my hands since my paper 
was written, " Sir William Sinclair served in Lord Humphrey's time, was his 
own chaplain, and entered in 1504. Sir David Daly served after him, and 
Sir David Cuthbert after him." Sir William Dow Fraser served from 1580 
till 1588 ; Donald Dow Fraser, 1588 and 1590 till 1600. 



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286 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

terial visitation at Boleskine in 1632. That same year 
— as the Wardlaw MSS. tells us — he flatly declined to 
preach the funeral sermon of Lord Simon of Lovat, a duty 
which his neighbour, the minister of Kilmorack, undertook, 
and discharged with such credit to himself that the Laird of 
Grant, to show his appreciation of the minister's discourse, 
embraced him at its close. We learn, too, from the Wardlaw 
MSS. that Mr Houston married Anna, eldest daughter of 
James Fraser of Phopachy. He was suspended by the Bishop 
of Moray in 1634 for " having marryed the Laird of Balni- 
gown and the Lord Lovat's daughter upon two proclamations." 
He was a member of the General Assembly of 1638, and died 
in 1659, a year so fatal to the members of the Presbytery of 
Inverness, that all the parishes except four were vacant. 

The next vicar was a most interesting individual, and we 
fortunately know a good deal more of him than of his pre- 
decessors in office. Though nearly 200 years have passed since 
he entered into rest, the name of James Fraser, the author of 
the Wardlaw MSS. is well known to-day, and traditions about 
him are still current in the parish where he laboured so long 
and so faithfully. He was of good family, his father being 
Dr William Fraser of Phopachy. Born on January 1st, 1634, 
he studied first at the Grammar School of Inverness, and then 
at the University of Aberdeen, where he graduated in 1655. 
He was ordained in 1661. For two years previous to his 
ordination he appears to have acted as domestic chaplain 
in the family of Lovat, to which he was much attached. 
Mr Fraser has been described as "a distinct and 
accurate person, as well as learned and ingenious.' ' He 
was certainly a man of wide and varied culture, and travelled 
extensively in his own country and in foreign parts, a some- 
what rare accomplishment in those days for a man of his 
position. Of his travels on the Continent he has left an 
interesting record in his work entitled " Triennial Travels." 
He was a great writer, at least in the sense that he wrote a 
great deal. That his mind was active and his pen busy is 
evident from a list of his compilations which he wrote on a 
blank leaf prefixed to the Wardlaw MSS. The list is entitled 
" A Catollogue of Manuscripts being Bookes bound, written, 
and filled be Master James Fraser, Pastor Montis Mariae in 
divers volumes ab anno 1660." It included no fewer than 
fifty works, mainly sermons and theological treatises. Amon£ 
other writings mentioned are " A Book of Jests and Ballads," 
"A Collection of Songs and Sonnets," " Authologia, his own 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 287 

Life," " Triennial Travels/' " Fraser's Familiars," volume of 
Letters, a Herbal, a volume of " Experiments of Physic and 
Surgery," a Catollogue of Books, Catechumeni, in 3 volumes, 
containing the names of houses and individuals in every town 
and family within Wardlaw parish since 1662 ; " Hiberni- 
logia, ' ' a volume of Irish verse ; an Irish Dictionary ; a Diary 
of Weather Contingencies; and a Bill of Mortality. I am 
indebted to Dr Carruthers's "Highland Note-Book " for this 
list, which is verily a tribute to the extraordinary industry 
and versatility of the writer, or rather compiler. Of all the 
many writings that came from his pen only three, unfor- 
tunately are extant, so far as we know. It is to be feared that 
several of them may have perished in the destruction by fire 
of Newton House, where many most valuable and interesting 
documents were stored. The three that remain are " Triennial 
Travels," the Wardlaw MSS., and the "Bill of Mortality." 
The first two are now, fortunately, in the hands of a well- 
known antiquarian — Mr William Mackay, Inverness — who is 
about to publish the Wardlaw MSS., under the auspices of 
the Scottish History Society. The appearance of this quaint 
old chronicle of the past will be awaited with the keenest 
interest. It deals in a homely, gossipy fashion with events of 
local and general interest, and contains a curious mixture of 
events of national and historical importance, and details of 
local occurrences. The writer's credulity and love of gossip 
and exaggeration detract in great measure from the historical 
value of the work, which, according to Mr Chisholm-Batten, 
" bristles with inaccuracies." But the extracts already pub- 
lished from it are so interesting and entertaining, that one 
anticipates with delight the publication of the whole MSS., or 
at least of whatever of interest and value it contains. The 
title of the MSS. is a high-sounding and ambitious one, such 
as the author evidently delighted to give his writings. Dr 
Carruthers gives it in his Note-Book, so that I need not quote 
it here. His chronicle, which he himself informs us was 
" entered and begun at the desire of the House of Fraser," 
consists of 400 pages of very closely-written foolscap paper. 
The MSS. was for many years in the possession of Sir William 
Fraser of Ledclune. 

The "Bill of Mortality" was for long in the keeping of 
the family of Newton, along with many other valuable and 
interesting papers, many of which are now destroyed. It was 
deposited some years ago in the Register House, Edinburgh, 
and forms one of the most interesting records of its kind in 



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288 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Scotland. This old MSS. is in a wonderfully good state of 
preservation, though some of the writing is difficult to 
decipher. It is entitled, " Bill of Mortality recording the 
names of all persons, men, women, and children, with all 
strangers, that died within the Parish of Wardlaw and Fara- 
way at anno 1663/ ' Appended to the lists of several of the 
years are short notes by the author, some of which are of 
interest. Of the year 1677, he observes " that there was a 
great mortality this yeare, for there died of countrymen, 
women and children and strangers, and now interred at our 
ohurch, in the summer quarter about 33, by a malignant fever 
that raged among us, of which twenty men died in 3 dayes 
time. Died in allyt. yeare, 58." 

Of 1682 he notes " a great mortality, especially among the 
children, of the smallpox; there died in all about 43 persons." 
In 1683 again the mortality was great, 52 persons dying 
in that year, but no disease is specified. 

Of the year 1692 he notes: — " This yeare blessed be God 
few died in our parish : the Bill amounts but to 28 persons." 

The year 1697 was, however, a disastrous one. Of it he 
says : — " This was the yeare of the greatest mortality that I 
can remember in this corner and all Scotland over a running 
contagion of a plague. Fluxes of all sorts of which many 
died. Our Bill that year extends to 112." 

He records that Margaret Symmer, his own wife, who 
was the daughter of the minister of Duff us, and whom he 
married in Oct., 1669, died at 4 a.m. on Friday, 12th June, 
1702. Of this year he says: — "This was a wonderful year; 
but 20 persons died in the parish during the whole year. 
From June 12th that my wife was interred not one parishioner 
died till Jany. 1703." 

In 1706 the Bill of Mortality did not amount to 20 persons ; 
but in the following year, which he characterizes as " this 
evil, rainy, noisome year 1707," 42 persons in all died. 

The author continues his record until the year of his own 
death, in 1709. 

Mr James Fraser was not only a voluminous writer: he 
was also a most faithful and devoted pastor, and was much 
respected and beloved by the people to whom he ministered. 
The minute recording the Presbyterial visitation of Wardlaw 
on July 23, 1672, bears testimony to the harmony and cordi- 
ality of the relations that subsisted between pastor and people. 
The gentlemen and elders, in answer to the Presbytery's 
inquiry as to their satisfaction with their minister, declared 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 289 

* l that they were well pleased with their minister in all the 
queries proposed and what could be proposed; they blessed 
■God for him, and said that he deserved to be encouraged." 
The minister declared himself well pleased with the gentlemen 
and elders, who were " verie willing to contribute wt. him in 
-anything that could doe good among them." That these 
satisfactory relations continued is shown by the minute of the 
Presbytery's visitation in August, 1677, which states that the 
elders, in reply to the usual query, " all one by one answered 
that they blessed God for him, that he observed all those 
ministerial duties, and was so paneful that they were affrayed 
that he should thereby shorten his own dayes in all likeli- 
hood/ ' Than this no more emphatic testimony could surely 
be borne to the unwearied zeal and devotion of the minister, 
and it seems to have made a deep impression on the Presby- 
tery, as their minute indicates : — " The minister being called 
in, the Moderator in name of all the Brethren blessed the Lord 
for the affectionate joynt commendatione and applaus he had 
in all the steps of his ministeriall functione and carriage, from 
the whole gentlemen, elders, and deacons pnt. : he was 
brotherely exhorted to continue in his zeale within the Lord's 
vineyard, who should give him his crown and reward at his 
second appearance." The same satisfactory testimony was 
borne at the Bishop's visit in 1682. 

With such a reputation for zeal and devotion to duty, 
as earned him the hearty commendation of his brethren, 
we are hardly prepared to find that in 1675 Mr Fruser was 
actually suspended from office. The minute bearing upon his 
suspension states that " Mr Hugh Fraser, minr. at Kiltarlity, 
conforme to the Bishope and Subsynod's order, and did 
intimat the minr., Mr James Fraser, his suspension." That 
this penalty was probably inflicted for frequent absence from 
the meetings of Presbytery is suggested by a paragraph in the 
minute of 26th June, 1676, to this effect:—" The Moderator 
declared that he hath searched the Presbyterie books, and 
•cannot find the Act anent suspending of ministers that wilfully 
thryce or oftener absents themselves from the Presbyterie 
without any excuse." It is possible then that the minister 
of Wardlaw was not so diligent in his attendance at Presbytery 
as he was in the discharge of his parochial duties. His suspen- 
sion was evidently of short duration, as we find him at a 
Presbytery meeting about five months after the sentence of 
r.usDension was intimated. He atoned to some extent for any 

19 



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290 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

remissness he may have shown in his attendance at Presbytery 
by his presence at the meeting of 5th September, 1688, at 
which only the Moderator and he were present. " All the 
rest absent, some by reason of the great stirrs that were in 
the country anent the late rebellion and bloodshed in Loch- 
aber, and others necessarily wt.drawn as their excuses did 
carry.' ' This was the second last meeting under Episcopacy. 

Mr Fraser seems to have had a grievance against his neigh- 
bour, the minister of Kiltarlity, of whom he complained to 
the Presbytery that "his hands were weakened in discipline, ' ' 
Mr Hugh Fraser having married delinquents belonging to 
Wardlaw parish " without any testificat, but rather contrare 
to the said Mr James his missives.' ' 

Thus much for Mr James as a Presbyter ; we shall now try, 
with the scanty materials at our disposal, to picture him at 
work in his parish. 

Though Gaelic was doubtless the predominating language 
in Kirkhill in those early days, we find nevertheless that as 
far back as July, 1672, a sermon in " Scots " was preached at 
Wardlaw. There were probably two diets of worship each 
Lord's Day, the minister preaching first in Gaelic and after- 
wards in English. In the minutes of session written by his 
own hand, Mr James Fraser invariably records the texts from 
which he preached. He, however, gives only one text for each 
Sunday, so that he must either have ignored the other, or 
preached upon the same subject in both languages. He seems 
to have taken a long time to exhaust his subject, as we find 
that he discoursed upon the same text (John xvii. 21) for four 
months (i.e., from April 20th till August 17th, 1707)! It is 
doubtful if, even at the end of that period, he would have taken 
another text, had circumstances not made it necessary for him 
to do so. He explains his change of subject in the minute of 
August 24th, where he states that " the Proclamation for fast 
and humiliation in reference to the weather being read pub- 
lickly here Sunday 17th that text (Amos iv. 12) was chosen 
uppon which we yet continued." On September 21st he 
reverts to his old " subject of thanksgiving," and that day, he 
informs us, " the long and tedious Proclamation and Commis- 
sion nameing the Justices of peace in particular within the 
Kingdom of Scotland was this day read publickly by our clerk 
after Divine Service." This irksome task must have 
added considerably to the clerk's duties for that dav 
What these duties were is suggested by a paragraph- 
in the record of the Presbytery's visitation of Wardlaw in 



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Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 291 

1682, which informs us that the schoolmaster, " besides his 
attendance of the schoole, was precentor and clerk and read 
the Scriptures publickly every Lord's Day in Irish betwixt the 
second and third bell." His salary was a chalder of victual 
with £20 Scots (£1 13s 4d stg.) out of the Session box. The 
school was evidently without a teacher in 1708, and the delay 
that occured in making an appointment seems to have irritated 
the minister considerably In the minute of August 6th, he 
writes : — -" That day a heavy regret is made by the Moderator 
and minister of the place for want of a schoolmaster, and 
declares yt. ' sine mora ' he will put the laws in execution 
thereanent." Again, in the minute of November 21st, 1708, 
we read : — " That day the Moderator urged the settlement of 
the school, there being so many Acts of Parliament enjoining 
schools elsewhere, and qt. an indignity it is for us in a civil 
country to be wanting in such a common Good when the High- 
lands are vigorously setting about so good and publick a work." 
The reference here is doubtless to a Proclamation he had read 
from the pulpit on October 17th, " encouraging the great and 
laudable design of erecting schools for propagating Learning 
and the knowledge of Christ in the Islands of Scotland and 
Highlands thereof with diligence." Notwithstanding all his 
protests and efforts, no appointment had been made by 
January 23rd, 1709, when he writes: — "So many overtures 
for setting our schools and no concurrence or indeavoures anent 
makes us give up hope of ever seeing it performed to our great 
shame." Whether or not his wish was realized before he died 
we are not told. 

But to return from this digression to the church services. 
On October 10th, 1708, " Sir James Strachan of Thorntown, 
Parson of Keith, officiated, the minister of the place preaching 
in Irish." As Sir James had also preached on the Sunday 
previous, the probability is that he was on a visit to his friend 
at Wardlaw, and not (as we might have supposed) assisting 
him at his Communion, of which there is no mention. 

A great deal of laxity in the administration of the Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper appears to have prevailed at this 
time throughout the Presbytery, more especially in the rural 
parishes, and the ministers were ordered by the Synod in 1679 
to administer it; but they failed to do so, and gave as their 
excuse " that the frequent charges that their people gott to be 
in armes against the Macdonalds obstructed their friedom to 
that great work." The Synod's order was repeatedly renewed ; 
but with little effect, for in April, 1681, the ministers of 



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292 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Inverness, Daviot, and Wardlaw alone are found to have cele- 
brated the same about and after Easter ; " but ye not giveing 
it at all or but verie seldome is verie much to be regrated." 

The minister of Wardlaw appears to have celebrated the 
ordinance regularly at Easter during the years covered by the 
old minutes of Session (1707-9), as the record shows. He seems 
to have made due preparation for the proper and profitable 
observance of the rite, his discourses for several Sundays 
previous being of a preparatory character. Good Friday was 
observed as a Fast-day, on which services were conducted by 
some neighbouring minister, and the tokens distributed after 
service. All the arrangements for serving the tables were 
that day made, and duly recorded. Some of the minutes bear- 
ing on this subject are so interesting and instructive, that I 
may be allowed to quote extracts from them. 

February 8th, 1708. — " That day intimation was made to 
the People by the minister of the place of his purpose God 
willing of celebrating the Sacrament of the Eucharist at Easter, 
and so began his sermon of Preparation uppon Text Is. liii. 5." 
He continued to preach on this subject each successive Sunday 
up to and including March 27th, the minute of which date bears 
that : " That day the minister of the place preached the Pre- 
paration Sermon before the Sacrament this being Palm Sunday, 
uppon his ordinary subject. That day intimation was made 
publickly out of Pulpit that God willing the Sacrament of the 
Eucharist was to be celebrated here next Lord's Day being 
Easter Sunday in order to which sermon was to be held in this 
• church next Friday, 2d April, commonly called Passion or 
Good Friday, and the same to be kept as a Fast day, and also 
the whole week in abstemiousness, mortification, and prepara- 
tion previous to so solemn a work." 

April 2nd, 1708.—" That day after solemn invocation of the 
Lord's holy name this being Good Friday Mr Hector M'Kenzy 
preacht the Passion Sermon having done us that charitable, 
brotherly office to leave his own charge at Inverness, and give 
us the preparation sermon. This day the tokens were distri- 
buted ' more solito,' and two of our deacons appointed to 
stand at our church doore next Sabbath being Easter-day to 
take up the offerings. That day six of our deacons are nominat 
and appointed to attend the tables next Sabbath at the cele- 
bration of the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, and serve 
devoutly .... all these to meet at the church be 7 o'clock in 
the morning to cover the communion Table, and carry the 
Flaggohs, cups, and Elements in desent form to the Quire.' ' 



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\7 



Wardlaw Church and Clergy. 293 

May 2nd, 1708. — Seeing we had no session since April 2d it 
is to be recorded that April 4th being Easter day the holy Sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper or Eucharist was celebrated in our 
church. The Action Sermon was preached by the minister of 
the place uppon yt. heavenly subject Isaiah 53, 5. The after- 
noon sermon preacht by the Reverend Mr Thomas Fraser, 
minister at Dorris. The offering at the Doores and Tables that 
day given in amounts to 18 lbs. Given to the officer for trans- 
porting the elements ' more solito ' 12 shillings Scots/ ' 

The elements had to be paid for out of the Session funds, 
owing to the heritors' failure to pay the allowance due for this 
purpose, as appears from the following minute of Aug. 6, 1708 : 
— " Given in for the communion elements at that time 7 libs. 
Seeing our Superioures are deficient in advancing the yearly 
moyety appointed by the Decreet of Plat, to the minister for 
that use amounting to £13 6s 8d. Wherefore he is necessitat 
to get it supplied out of the publick good, a shame to be re- 
corded here." A donation was also given from the Session 
funds towards defraying the travelling expenses of a minister 
who had come from a distance to assist at the Communion — a 
laudable practice unfortunately quite unknown in the Church 
of Scotland to-day, though still in operation, I believe, in most 
of the other Presbyterian Churches in Scotland. 

We are quite prepared to find that the services of so learned 
and popular a minister as Mr Fraser were in great request for 
communions in neighbouring parishes. These absences from 
his own pulpit he faithfully records, as they usually implied a. 
vacancy in his own church. He was at Urquhart in October, 
1707, and September, 1708; at Kiltarlity in May, 1708; at 
Dores in June of that year. This points to a distinct improve- 
ment in the regularity with which the Sacrament was 
administered within the bounds of the Presbytery since the 
Synod had to deal with it in 1679. At Wardlaw its importance 
was certainly not minimised, as the minutes quoted prove. 

The church of Wardlaw, like many others in the country, 
was but poorly equipped with the furnishings necessary for the 
seemly celebration of the Eucharist. At the Presbyterial visit 
in 1682 it was found to possess " a very good large table, two 
good towells, a Basin also/' but the minister had to borrow 
cups yearly. 

The care of the poor within the parish was one of the most 
important duties that fell to the Session in these as in later, 
days. At intervals throughout the year persons in distress got 
relief from the Session funds ; but a certain day every year was 



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294 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

fixed for the distribution of charity, and duly intimated. Mr 
Fraser appears to have been anxious to impress upon his 
heritors and elders the importance of this part of their duty, as 
the following minute of August 3, 1707, shows : — " The Session 
appoints Tuesday next, 5th inst., to meet at ye church for 
distribution of the poores mony, and the Moderator exhorts 
the Heritors, Elders and Deacons to convene frequently, it 
being a solemn and charitable work wherein every one is 
concerned/ ' Ten shillings Scots was the usual allowance made 
to the poor of the parish ; strangers received rather less. Meal 
was also given when the Session had any to distribute. The 
annual distribution of charity attracted such a crowd of needy 
strangers desirous of sharing in the spoil, that the Session was 
compelled to alter somewhat its mode of procedure. At 
the meeting of August 6th, 1708, "the Session taking to their 
consideration the crowd of strangers which convened yearlie to 
disturb our meeting when a publick day of distribution is 
appointed at the church to our great trouble and uneasiness 
have this day, to avert the same, appointed our poor to have 
recourse privately to the minister's house wt. the Treasurer, 
where every one is to receive his due proportion both of meal 
and money and the same to be recorded in our Register ' ad 
futuram Rei Memoriam/ " 

The care of the poor cost the Session less trouble than the 
care of the morals of the parish, over which they exercised the 
strictest supervision. They were called upon to deal with all 
kinds of offences, and were at once the prosecutors and judges 
in every case. Breaches of contract of marriage were a frequent 
cause of complaint, for which fines were exacted. On May 
12th, 1707 (to take one instance), " Donald Mac Thomas vie 
Andrew in Inchbary made application to the Session declaring 
that being contracted with Janet Ross, James Ross his daughter 
in Drumreach, about 7 weeks ago, and is content to adhere, 
but the said Janet and her parents resiling and going back 
from their promise the said Donald protests to be free from that 
contract (the set time of 40 dayes being elapsed), and penalty 
and liberty given him to match qr. Providence may cast his 
lot That day compeared also Alex. Roy in Finask con- 
tracted wt. Janet Fraser there 40 dayes ago and the said Janet 
resiling he pleads for exemption from that tye. The said Janet 
compearing passed point blank from her promise to the said 
Alex., and therefore the Session declares her and James Fraser 
her Brother cautioner liable to the fine specified in the contract, 
and poinding or payment of the same." 



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Warctlaw Church and Clergy. 295 

A case of slander is interesting because of the penalty 
inflicted on the guilty party. Isabel nin Davy in Finask, 
having confessed to the charge of slandering another woman 
publicly at the Market Cross of Inverness, is condemned to 
-stand in " Jougs and Pillory and to continue for 3 dayes but 
intermission." 

When delinquents were contumacious and refused to obey 
the Sessions' s citation, the aid of the civil power was invoked 
— with effect as a rule. On this subject Mr Fraser says in one 
minute : — " Two delinquents promise peremptorie to be here 
next diet. The terror of the Justice of Peace prompts them ; 
so usefull is the assistance of the 'brachium seculare.' " 

Another minute informs us that the master of an erring 
maid-servant fugitive from discipline is " enjoined to goe in 
-quest of her or be poinded, seeing the Justices of peace sit with 
-us in Session, and this their act must be put in execution." 

When the accuser persisted in a charge, and the accused 
•obstinately denied guilt, an oath of purgation was often 
tendered, and, if taken, was sufficient to exculpate the accused. 
The ceremony of tendering the oath was invested with such 
solemnity as to terrify the guilty from submitting to the ordeal, 
which Mr Fraser thus describes in a minute of June 29, 1707 : 
— " The Moderator holding forth to him what a sacred thing 
an oath was, how deliberat, knowing, cautious, and conscienti- 
ous a person ought to be uppon that point of worship, and how 
heinous a sin tb take the name of Almighty God in vain or to 
witness an untruth, at length finding him resolut and conscious 
to his own innocency, the Moderator tenders him the oath 
being uppon his knees his hand uppon the great church Bible, 
and in the ordinary solemn terms by the name of God Almighty, 
the judge of men and angels, declares, etc., etc." 

The Session also dealt with matters affecting the public 
-convenience and welfare, and took steps to have any grievance 
rectified. In illustration of this, I may quote part of the 
minute of October 26, 1707, relative to the want of a bridge 
over the Kingilly burn : — " That day the common grievance 
renewed that there was no bridge upon ye great burn which 
threatened hazard and danger. Therefore the tenants of 
Holme, Craggag, Drumchardony, and Kingily are enjoined to 
repare to Dunballach and transport the beams of firr lying on 
that shore, and carry them by water or land for the use of a 
"bridge under Kingily ' loco solito ' which is accordingly con- 
'descended." 

In the faithful discharge of these and the other duties of 
Iris sacred office, Mr Fraser won the esteem and affection of the 



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296 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

people among whom he lived so long, and for whose temporal 
and spiritual welfare he unremittingly toiled. Even to this 
day his memory is wonderfully fresh and fragrant in the parish, 
and several traditions regarding him are still current among' 
the older people. One of these — perhaps the most striking, 
and suggestive of his popularity— is to the effect that on the 
Sabbath morning of his return to his parish after several years' 
absence in Palestine, to which he had made a pilgrimage by- 
way of penance, the church bells of Wardlaw rang of their 
own accord, summoning the parishioners to worship. He is 
said to have visited the Holy Sepulchre, and to have ascended 
Mount Sinai, on the slope of which he slept, and in a dream 
heard a voice bidding him return to his parish and flock. This 
summons he obeyed, and on his arrival at Wardlaw was joy- 
fully welcomed by the parishioners. So strong was the hold he 
had obtained upon their hearts that, though at the Revolution 
Settlement he refused to conform to Presbyterianism, no 
attempt was made to disturb him, and he retained his charge 
until his death in 1709, at the advanced age of seventy-five 
years. He was buried in the old church-yard behind the 
manse, and though no stone marks his last resting-place, he has 
a better and more enduring monument in the works he has 
left behind him, and in the memory of a long life well spent, 
and of duty faithfully and diligently performed. 



5th FEBRUARY, 1908. 
THIRTIETH ANNUAL DINNER. 

This evening the annual dinner of the Society was held 
in the Caledonian Hotel. There was an attendance of between 
sixty and seventy, and the proceedings were, in all respects, 
successful. Lord Lovat, C.B., D.S.O., who the other day was 
elected Chief of the Society, presided, and was supported right 
and left by the Very Rev. Dr Norman Macleod and Dr Alex. 
Ross. The general company included Messrs A. Mitchell and 
A. Mackintosh, who were croupiers ; Dean Bisset, Nairn ; Mr 
Charles Marshall Brown, Father Macqueen, Mr Alex. Mac- 
hardy, chief-constable of Inverness-shire ; Bailie Lyon Guild, 
Messrs Alex. Fraser, solicitor; R. L. Mackintosh, J. A. Gossip, 
Dr Alex. Macbain, Mr Munro Fraser, H.M.I.S. ; ex-Provost . 



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Annual Dinner. 297 

Macbean, Messrs David Munro, solicitor ; Graham, solicitor ; 
Gibson, solicitor; Major A. K. Findlater; Messrs Steele, 
banker; John Sutherland, solicitor; Councillor John Mac- 
kenzie, Messrs Alex. Mactavish, Castle Street; Allan, Sea- 
field; John Maclennan, wine merchant; James Logan, 
Planefield Cottage; Alex. Cameron, D. Gray, gunmaker; 
George Gallon, commission agent; W. J. Maclean, grocer; 
James Howe, Castleheather ; George Batchen; Fraser, of 
Fraser & Davidson, drapers; K. A. Gillanders, Duncan 
Campbell, D. Maclachlan, commercial traveller; Evan Jack, 
grocer; John Mackenzie, grocer; A. Mackenzie, solicitor; J. 
E. Macdonald, A. W. Falconer, hatter; K. Brand, Arthur 
Medlock, jeweller ; Maclean, C.A. ; Alex. Watt, John Whyte, 
H. T. Salway, Charles Kennedy, Colvin, auctioneer ; D. David- 
son, Waverley Hotel; Mitchell, Station Hotel; Smith, writer; 
Maslin, collector of Inland Revenue ; J. Trendall, and Duncan 
Mackintosh, secretary. 

Letters of apology from about sixty members were inti- 
mated to the meeting, some of them containing complimentary 
references to Lord Lovat and his services to the country. 
Dinner of an unusually recherche style was excellently served 
by Mr Stevens and his staff. 

Lord Lovat gave the toast of the King, and the National 
Anthem was played by Pipe-Major Ronald Mackenzie, piper 
to the Society, who also supplied stirring music in the course 
of the night's programme. The toast was heartily pledged. 
In giving the Queen and the Prince and Princess of Wales and 
other members of the Royal Family, his Lordship alluded to 
the pleasure with which the appointment of the Prince of 
Wales to the Colonelcy-in-Chief of the county regiment had 
been hailed. The toast was drunk to the strains of " Highland 
Laddie/' 

In giving the toast of the Imperial Forces, Lord Lovat said 
he had the pleasure three years ago of presiding at this dinner, 
and this toast was then put in a cumbrous form, and required 
five or six people to respond to it. It was a marked improve- 
ment to cut it down to one head ; and the change was typical, . 
he thought, of what had happened within the last three years, 
for they had now welded the vast forces of the Empire into one 
great and, he hoped, more effective whole. This welding was, 
of course, the outcome of that regrettable but most necessary 
war the country had come through. Three years ago most 
people knew little about the army, and practically nothing 



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298 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

about the fighting capabilities of the Militia, the Volunteers, 
and their Colonial or oversea forces. And what did the War 
Office itself know ? Need he remind them that the War Office 
asked the Australian bushmen to go without their horses to 
South Africa, upon the backs of which they virtually spent 
their lives. What that telegram meant heaven and the War 
Office alone knew. If they did not know before, they knew 
now that mounted Boers cannot be caught by foot soldiers. 
His Lordship paid a compliment to the value and valour of 
Militia and Volunteers in the campaign, and called for a 
bumper to the gallant men to whom were entrusted the 
destinies of the Empire. 

Major Alexander Fraser, 1st V.B.C.H., in replying to the 
toast, reminded the company that this country is in the unusual 
position, among the countries of the 4 world, of having all its 
forces formed by voluntary enlistment. It was the proud 
boast of the county Volunteer regiment, he added, that it had 
-contributed more troops to the war than any other regiment 
of Volunteers in Great Britain. 

The Secretary here read the 30th annual report, which 
stated that the membership of the Society was now 418. 
During the year Vol. 23 of the Transactions was issued, and 
Vol. 24, it was expected, would be issued before the date of 
the assembly in July next. There was a balance of £31 8s at 
the credit of the Society. The publication of the Transactions 
was a great drain on the resources, and the Council wished to 
impress on the members the necessity of doing their best to 
increase the membership. 

Lord Lovat said it was now his pleasing duty to propose 
the toast of the evening — Success to the Society that had 
brought them together to rejoice over another year's good 
work. He thought the objects of the Society should appeal to 
every Highlander present. They knew the reasons for which 
the Society was formed, and he was certain there was nothing 
which went more into the life and feelings of Highlanders than 
the ideas embodied in the reasons for which the Society had 
been raised. The Society had now got well on in years, and 
he thought they might say that it had thoroughly justified its 
existence and the work their worthy secretary and other pro- 
minent members threw into its interests. Much folklore and 
many subjects which would have been completely out of the 
ken of the present generation had been recovered, and the 
Society had also kept up many of the traditions which were 
very nearly moribund at the time the Society was started. The 



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Annual Dinner. 299 

present generation would not realise as much as future genera- 
tions how much the Society had done for the preservation of 
the traditions of the Highlands. If their ancestors of a 
hundred years ago had taken anything like the trouble and the 
pains in collecting data and information as the Society had 
done, they could imagine how much richer they would be than 
they were at present. He need scarcely remind them that the 
chief reason, the 'raison d'etre/ of the Society's existence, as 
they were informed in each volume of the Transactions, was 
the perfecting of the members in the knowledge of the Gaelic 
language. He thought, however, that perhaps this first reason 
was sometimes rather left in abeyance. It was found much 
easier to gather information by consulting old references and 
other handy sources, and thus play at a sort of dilettante 
-antiquarianism than to study the language thoroughly and in 
earnest — of that the majority of members, he took the liberty 
of saying, fought shy. It was a difficult language to learn, no 
doubt, but this, the first object of the Society, was one which 
was not carried out as one would expect from the position it 
occupied in their agenda. They must not object to a little 
criticism. Looking at the matter from a common-sense point 
of view, he should say there was one or two things the Society 
might do to increase its status in the country. In the first 
place, they ought to do all they possibly could to bring about 
some combination among the different Celtic Societies with the 
view of doing genuine work together in the promotion of their 
old language. The present time was one of trusts and great 
combinations, and a better combine they could not have than 
the amalgamation of all those various other organisations 
which were working on the same lines, but frittered away their 
enthusiasm to little practical purpose — (applause). There 
was no real point of touch between the societies, no touch 
which tended to increase the study of the language, and con- 
sequently though there was much apparent activity, there was 
a minimum of practical results. Were such a movement to be 
started, this association, with its headquarters in the Capital 
of the Highlands, was naturally the one which should lead the 
way. Only the other day he came across an instance of how 
far divided the people were in their use of the Gaelic language, 
and how far back some parts of the Highlands were getting in 
the matter of good Gaelic. He happened to be in Lochaber, 
than where no better Gaelic is spoken in the Highlands, and 
one of the speakers made use of an expression which several 
people could not understand. IJe (Lord Lovat) went to a man 



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300 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

who hailed from another part of the county, and asked him 
what the word meant, and, after some cogitation on the part 
of the fellow, the reply was that he did not know, they spoke 
such curious Gaelic in Lochaber. What was wanted was com- 
bined and organised effort to create a standard Gaelic for 
common use among the people. He spoke of a thing about 
which he knew very little, but he hoped to know more by and 
bye, and a common standard of spelling Gaelic would be a 
great help to him and others in studying the language. In 
his estimation, it was perfectly hopeless for any person to learn 
the true meaning of words as they were spelt at the present 
day. There was an extraordinary redundancy of consonants — 
they were heaped up one on the top of the other until it took 
the qualifications of an expert to tell what they meant. The 
Irish were more sensible; they had introduced a system of 
aspirates which helped to obviate the extraordinary con- 
glomeration of consonants which obtained in Scottish Gaelic, 
apparently for no particular or indispensable reason. It must 
be remembered that they had reached a very important period 
in the history of the Highlands. In all matters there was 
growth and development, and there was also a migrating and 
mixing up of Lowlander and Highlander, and amid it all the 
Gaelic language was not gaining. After an absence of three 
years, he was astonished to find on the West Coast Railway 
not a word of Gaelic used at Mallaig, while at Fort- William 
itself English was spoken with a Glasgow accent. They must 
be up and doing if they were to preserve their language at all. 
In this matter the Irish had got very much ahead of them. In 
South Africa he had for a time the pleasure of serving next to 
an Irish regiment, the colonel of which was learning Irish 
Gaelic very assiduously, and he (Lord Lovat) was struck with 
the business-like manner in which the language was taught. 
Some people were fond of asking, What is the use of preserving 
the Gaelic language, seeing it was going to die? To such 
people he could only say that the Celtic fringe which exists in 
the British Isles had always been an important influence in 
art, literature, and war, and that beneficial influence could 
not be kept up without the cultivation of the language which 
formed its basis, and by which alone they could instil into that 
Celtic fringe those feelings of loyalty to Kin?, Empire, and 
country which had always been the strong characteristics of 
the Highland people. With regard to past and passing events, 
he thought a considerable factor in the future life of the 
people of these counties was tfre raising of a permanent force- 



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Annual Dinner. 301 

of 2000 Yeomanry. He said so advisedly, because they must 
remember that upon that force the Government would spend 
,£20 per man, which meant that £40,000 would be introduced 
jearly into the Highlands for all time, which must have a very 
beneficial effect in a country which was really starved in money 
matters. There was another aspect to this subject. He 
thought they might hope that the regiments to be raised might 
tend in a great way to do some good in helping to settle some 
of the social and other differences which unfortunately existed 
amongst them, by bringing the different classes of men to- 
gether, and, by association and interchange of thought, estab- 
lishing a greater community of purpose than had existed in the 
past. If any good was ever to be done, it must come from 
both sides looking at matters from a thoroughly common-sense 
and friendly point of view. He did not deny it; many evil 
things had been done in the past in the absorption of land from 
the people, and many stupid things had also been done in 
furthering the idea of getting the land back again. There 
were too sides to all questions, and both sides had their limita- 
tions — that view must be recognised by all parties to the issue. 
He had travelled considerably in the Highlands during the 
last four months, and it had astonished him to see the number 
of places in which crofters had been reinstated in suitable 
holdings, without harm to the proprietor and with much good 
to the crofters. That the distribution must be limited to a 
very great extent was quite certain. Proprietors were not a 
rich body of men, and it could only be done in circumstances 
where it was for the benefit of both parties. In the places he 
referred to it certainly seemed as if both sides had acted 
harmoniously together, and were advantaged by what was 
being done. The connection between the military movement 
and the settlement of the land question was perhaps closer 
than they might think. In the first place, they had the sinews 
of war provided for them, and, in the second place, the two 
classes were brought together without, as in the past, the 
agitator coming in between them and stirring up strife. No 
doubt what was required in many cases had been funds. 
These were provided not only by the military scheme, but also 
by the Congested Districts Board and other similar schemes ; 
and, provided that the people approach matters with diffidence 
and quietly, they might hope for a more happy state of affairs 
some time in the future. The Gaelic Society must be from its 
principles wrapped up in everything that appertained to the 
Highlands, and, therefore, he thought no* apology was needed 



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302 Qaelio Society of Inverness. 

for his having entered into what might appear to be a slight 
digression. He hoped the Society would enter thoroughly 
into the work of preserving the literature of the Gael, and that 
those who were determined not to learn the language would 
bring in members who would endeavour to do so, as it was the 
stepping-stone from which they should set forth in the work 
of the Society. 

Rev. Dr Norman Macleod proposed "Tir nam beann nan 
gleann 's nan gaisgeach." He said he could hardly suppose 
there was any member of the Gaelic Society who needed to 
have those words translated ; but in case there should be some 
stranger present who was in the state of deplorable ignorance 
to which his Lordship had referred, he might remark that, 
freely translated, the words mean the Highlands and the 
Highlanders. It was a toast which embraced the changeless 
and the changing. Whatever opinion their southern neigh- 
bours might have of Highlanders, and often with a great deal 
of prejudice, he was not aware that there had ever been any 
difference of opinion as to Highland scenery. It was only 
yesterday, as they regarded the life of a country, since the 
Highlands might be said to have been discovered, so far at 
least as concerned their scenery. When Dr Samuel Johnson 
visited the Highlands it was an undertaking almost as formid- 
able as a visit to Central Africa would be at the present day. 
To Sir Walter Scott, more than to any other man, they owed 
the revelation which had been made to the world of the 
Highlands as a land of romance, of poetry, and of chivalry. 
From his day until now multitudes from all parts of the world 
had been attracted to the Highlands, and though the number 
had greatly increased in recent years, they hoped it would still 
go on increasing, and leave behind that stream of gold which 
was so much needed, and which, he believed, was not less 
appreciated by Highlanders than by other people. Nor was it 
a matter of surprise that those multitudes should flock to the 
Highlands, for where would they find finer scenery? He had 
sometimes heard comparisons made between the scenery of the 
Highlands and other countries, such as Switzerland and 
Norwav. It had alwavs seemed to him that such comparisons 
were utterly futile. In nature there were various types of 
natural beauty, each perfect in its own way, though they did 
not admit of any such comparison as this. Switzerland is 
glorious and Norway is glorious ; the fact was it was impossible 
to go to any part of this fair earth without seeing a great deal 
which it was impossible to behold without a rapture of joy. 



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Annual Dinner. 30& 

But, after all, there was a charm about Highland scenery 
which they would find nowhere else, and this he called the 
changeless* Men might come, and men might go, generations 
might pass away, but the mountains and the glens, the rivers 
and the sea, abide in their unequalled grandeur and loveliness. 
His toast included the Highlanders as well as the Highlands, 
and here no doubt they were confronted with the changing. 
Socially, politically, and religiously a great change had taken 
place among the people, even within the memory of some of 
them — changes which in some cases were for the better, and 
in other cases for the worse. Speaking of the Highlands 
generally, he thought he might say without fear of contradic- 
tion that the population was much more sparse than they 
would like to see it. That this depopulation had resulted in 
some instances from what were called evictions must, he 
thought, be acknowledged — often cruel evictions. He never 
was surprised for his part that they should have left a deep 
scar on the hearts of the people. The depopulation had also been 
the result of economic laws, which they could not control any 
more than they could control the management of the planets. 
Depopulation assuredly there had been ; but, apart from that, 
it was manifest, he thought, that a vast improvement in many 
respects had taken place in the condition of the people who 
were still resident on the soil. They were better educated 
than they were ever before. The gentleman who was to reply 
to the toast would confirm that statement ; but they did not 
need the authority of one of His Majesty's school inspectors. 
It was quite evident to any one who knew about the matter. 
One hundred or fifty years ago education in the Highlands was 
as bad as bad could be. He (Dr Macleod) began his ministry 
in Glasgow more than forty years ago, and at that time it 
was part of his duty to marry a great number of people from 
all parts of the Highlands. It was quite a common thing in 
those days for the bride or the bridegroom to sign by mark. 
Such a thing was hardly known at the present day. Where 
it did occur, it was the result of the natural shyness and 
nervousness of the bride or bridegroom. The people were also 
better clothed, although they did not all wear the kilt. They 
were better fed, though they did not eat as much porridge as used 
to be done. The land q uestion, to which his Lordship so suitably 
referred, seemed to him to be gradually solving itself, partly 
through legislation, but still more through a better under- 
standing on the part of landlords and tenants. He wished he 
could say that the ecclesiastical contentions and divisions were 



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304 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

passing away in the same degree. It humbly seemed to him 
that evils were rather on the increase than on the decrease. 
However, that was a smouldering fire at which he had better 
not burn his fingers. There was another burning question — 
if anything connected with the ocean could be a burning ques- 
tion — he meant the trawling question. Some weeks ago he 
received a grateful minute passed at a meeting held somewhere 
in. the Lews, thanking him for some observations which he was 
supposed to have made in Glasgow on this subject of trawling. 
He did not wish to be held responsible for all the sins of the 
family to which he belonged, neither did he wish to claim all 
their good deeds ; but it so happened that the speech was not 
made by him, but by another Macleod. He took the oppor- 
tunity, however, of most cordially expressing his sympathy 
with the sentiments expressed on that occasion. It did seem 
to him, as an outsider, having no special knowledge of the 
matter — rather a mysterious thing to most of them — to be very 
hard that those poor people should see the harvest of the seas 
gathered into the vessels of those foreign depredators, or. 
poachers, or whatever else they chose to call them. As 
regards the population, he thought there were signs here and 
there that it was likely to improve in the near future ; perhaps 
not on the old lines or under the same conditions, but still he 
thought there was reason to hope that the forlorn, desolate 
appearance of many parts of the Highlands would gradually 
be removed by being re-peopled by a contented and a happy 
peasantry. His toast referred especially to what were called 
the Celtic heroes of the olden time. He sometimes asked him- 
self if the heroes had disappeared like the fairies and the 
ghosts which used to be so troublesome to their forefathers. 
He did not believe it. No one knew better than his Lordship 
in the chair that there were still heroes to be found among the 
Highlanders. His Lordship had many of them in that noble 
band of Lovat Scouts, with which his Lordship's name would 
go down to posterity fragrant with the immortal memory of 
his courage, his patriotism, and his loyal service to his King 
and country. He sincerely hoped, for his part, that the pre- 
judice which had so unhappily existed so long in the Highlands 
with regard to the army would gradually disappear, and that 
the Highland people would begin to see more than they did 
at present that the army was not that moral cesspool that they 
thought it to be, but that it was a noble and great profession, 
to which the very best of their sons might very well devote 



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Annual Dinner. 305 

themselves. He gave them the time-honoured toast, "Tir 
nam beann nan gleann 's nan gaisgeach." 

At this stage Dr Alexander Ross, in a few sentences pro- 
posed the health of Lord Lovat, who, he explained, had to 
leave them at that juncture. The toast was pledged with 
Highland honours, all singing "He's a jolly good fellow.' ' 
Lord Lovat, in response, expressed his warmest thanks for the 
honour they had paid to him, and assured them that he greatly 
regretted that he had to hurry away on account of some diffi- 
culties in London in connection with military matters, which 
necessitated his departure that night. He proposed that Dr 
Macleod should take the chair in his absence* By the 
unanimous choice of the meeting Dr Norman Macleod took 
the vacated chair. 

Mr Munro Fraser, after some eloquent sentences on the 
glorious scenery and other advantages of the Highlands, said 
though the toast recalled the heroes and heroic deeds of the 
past, they must not entertain the view that the heroic age 
was for ever closed; the age of chivalry had not yet passed 
away, and the Empire could still rely upon the strong High- 
land heart and the stout arm to defend the country's interests 
and redress wrong. Lord Lovat had referred to the great 
changes for the better which had come over the Highlands of 
late years; but they must not conceal from themselves that 
there was another side to the picture, namely, the constant 
flow of people from the Highlands into the towns, with the 
result that they had a large increase in the numbers of the 
submerged tenth in our cities. Many Highlanders thus 
migrated had drifted into the slums, and their children could 
never hope to again breathe the scented air of their native 
hills. He did not think the character of the Highlander who 
stuck to his native strath or glen had degenerated, but it could 
not be denied that there was a good deal of what was unlovely, 
backward, and joyless in certain corners of the Highlands. 
They heard much from a certain class of writers about the 
'Celtic gloom which was supposed to haunt the Highland people, 
and there was something in the averment. Contributory 
thereto was the special system of theology which had swayed 
them for generations; in many cases it took the form of an 
exaggerated awe in presence of the elementary forces of 
nature ; it may be due to the loneliness and isolation of the 
people ; due also to their struggle with an unfriendly soil, and 
the harshness of the climate. However, with increased means 

20 



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306 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

of communication, and the spread of education, there were 
evidences that even in the remotest districts of the Highlands 
improvement was on the way. There was plenty of room for 
improvement, especially, as he illustrated by a story, in the 
direction of toleration and broad-minded charitableness. 
Education had come in, if not exactly like a flood, like a 
gentle tide, and there was at least some hope that those back- 
ward things to which he had alluded would soon pass away. 
Speaking as a private individual, he would say that what was 
most urgently wanted in the Highlands was money. He would 
like to see one large endowment of, say, £20,000 per annum 
set apart by the Government to increase the salaries of teachers 
in the Highlands, so as to attract men of capacity from all 
quarters of the kingdom to the lone and waste places in the 
north. Dr Carnegie, all honour to him, had given Scotland a 
system of free education at the Universities. He was a most 
generous man; were he present he would venture to ask him 
to do something in the light of what had been said to enable 
the Highland boy or girl to set their first foot upon the ladder, 
for, granted that first step, it could be left to those so assisted 
to do the rest of the climbing themselves. What was wanted 
was " siller." In connection with the supply of teachers, he 
also suggested that the Education Department should establish 
at Inverness a college for the training of teachers. He did 
not know, however, whether they would get the money, 
because they were not Irishmen, and they had uot got eighty 
members of Parliament at their back to plead their cause. 
The speaker glanced at various other phases of Highland life, 
and resumed his seat amid applause. 

Mr Duncan Campbell spoke strongly against the action of 
the French Government in issuing an order against the use of 
the Breton language, and said they who were interested in a 
branch of the old Celtic language should raise their voice 
against the tyrannical act of that Government. 

Mr Charles Marshall Brown, Caledonian Bank, in propos- 
ing the toast of the Town and County, alluded to the want of 
industries at Inverness, and expressed the hope that the 
introduction of the electric light would in a material degree 
add to the prosperity of the town. The time would also come, 
he hoped, when there would be electrically propelled tramways 
not onlv in the lower but to the Hill part of the town. 

Ex-Provost Macbean, with whose name the toast was- 
coupled, spoke highly of the residential attractions of Inver- 



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Annual Dinner 307 

ness, which was, he remarked, one of the most desirable places 
to live in the Ijnited Kingdom. Educationally it was also an 
important and well-equipped centre, with its ±toyal Academy, 
College, four large public schools, and a large number of 
private institutions. With regard to business, its shops were 
as commodious and up-to-date as in other cities, while the 
charges were as moderate. Much had lately been written 
about Highland hotels and their charges, but he asserted this, 
that all the circumstances considered, Inverness hotels were as 
moderate as other first-class hotels in the great commercial 
centres in the south, where there was a stream of visitors from 
one end of the year to the other. He trusted they were on 
the eve of a better state of things for the Highland Capital. 
As regards the electric light, he thought it was quite possible 
that the necessary power would be attained in another quarter 
than those which had hitherto been searched for it, and should 
present negotiations be successfully carried out, the light 
would be in operation two years hence. 

Mr A. Mitchell proposed the health of the Non-resident 
Members and Kindred Societies, for whom Dean Bisset, Nairn, 
and Mr J. A. Gossip replied. The Croupiers were given by Mr 
Alex. Mactavish, and briefly replied to by Messrs Mitchell and 
Mackintosh. Mr Mackintosh proposed the health of the 
Secretary, Mr Duncan Mackintosh, and the latter, in reply, 
stated that the Society was never in a more flourishing state 
than it was at present. Dr Macleod's health was proposed by 
Dr Alex. Macbain, and heartily pledged. Dr Macbain alluded 
to Dr Macleod 's eminent services in connection with the new 
Celtic Bible, a splendid piece of work, which, he added, would 
shortly be in the hands of the public. During the proceedings 
songs were sung by Mr Brand and Mr R. Macleod ; and Messrs 
A. Watt, Charles Kennedy, and A. Mackintosh played a selec- 
tion of reels and strathspeys, for which they received the 
thanks of the company. 



J 9th FEBRUARY, 1908. 

At this meeting the following were elected members of the 
Society, viz. : — Messrs Alex. Newlands, Highland Railway, Inver- 
ness : Angus Macleod, Union Hotel, do. ; Evan C. Jack, Exchange, 



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308 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

do. ; and Alex. Dewar, solicitor, Dingwall. The contribution for 
the evening was by Mr D. Murray Rose, and entitled: "The 
Urquharts of Cromarty." 

NOTES ON THE URQUHARTS OF CROMARTY. 

The published pedigree of the Urquharts is unique in 
Scottish genealogy, because Sir Thomas Urquhart traced his 
lineage back to Adam, so that no family can ever hope to 
surpass it in point of antiquity or splendour of descent. There 
are many who regard the work as a clever satire; they say 
that a man of Sir Thomas's culture could surely never credit 
the nonsense he had written. But this is by no means clear ; 
experience proves that in genealogical matters some men 
possess a faith that is astonishing. In our own unbelieving 
age we have an instance of this in a recent work upon a 
Highland clan, where the pedigree is carried back several 
centuries before the Christian era, local events being brought 
under notice with a precision that is appalling. 

It would be amusing to follow the adventures of the early 
fathers of the Urquharts, since the day " when wild armed 
men first raised Esormon aloft on the buckler throne, and, 
with clanging arms and hearts, hailed him as fortunate and 
well-beloved sovereign Prince of Achaia." He was the fifth 
in lineal descent from Japhet ! These men of the olden time 
were a nomadic race, bearing uncouth names, and although 
their historian records their illustrious alliances, and warlike 
exploits, I fear a recital of their deeds would make some of 
you exclaim with the famous Panthea — " O Hercules, what is 
this?" Sir Thomas's list of ancestors betrays a woeful lack of 
patriotic sentiment ; there was only one ' Mac ' in the long 
line, and it is to be feared Highlanders will not accept the 
name ' Machemos ' as another proof of the antiquity of Gaelic. 
But we must not further pursue these phantoms of Urquhart' s 
imagination. 

The origin of the name Urquhart has been disputed, and 
until experts are agreed it would be hazardous to advance any 
theory. The surname is certainly derived from the place- 
name, which appears on record, in various localities, long 
before any family adopted it, or ere surnames became common 
in Scotland. It seems purely Gaelic, and there is some ground 
for believing that the Urquharts were of native stock — 
perhaps an offshoot of the once potent Del Ards, reputed 



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Notes on the Urqu harts of Cromarty. 309 

ancestors of the Forbeses. The Urquharts and Forbeses claim 
common descent ; the evidence is of course weak, in fact there 
is none save a curious legend connected with Urquhart Castle. 
Heraldry, which very often throws light upon obscure points 
in pedigree, does seem to support the idea of kinship, but 
there is really nothing to shew that the Urquharts came from 
the district of Lochness, and the traditional connection 
between them and the Forbeses is easily explained by the 
inter-marriage of later date. 

Cromarty and its sheriffdom was originally held by the 
Scoto-Norman family of Monte Alto or Mowatj Sir Thomas 
Urquhart of course claimed these lairds as ancestors, just in 
the same way as he ' annexed ' that daughter of Pharaoh who 
found Moses among the bulrushes! One may well question 
whether the Urquharts were, in any way, descended from the 
Mowats, who, according to our author, valiantly resisted the 
English. But records prove that Sir William de Mowat, the 
last sheriff of his line, was everything but a patriot. He was 
an English partisan, and held office under Edward I. On this 
account Sir William probably lost his lands when Sir Robert 
Bruce was in these northern parts. It is significant that King 
Robert in 1315 conveyed the whole burgh of Cromarty, as well 
as the sheriffdom, to his brother-in-law, Sir Hugh de Ross 
(Family of Kilravock, p. 112). It is true that, at a later date, 
the son and heir of Sir William resigned certain rights in 
favour of the Urquharts, but his claims were merely formal, 
and of a very shadowy description. 

Sir Hugh, who became Earl of Ross, married the King's 
sister Maud about 1308, and received grants consolidating his 
rights in Cromarty. He had, with a son William, afterwards 
Earl of Ross, a daughter Lilias, who, it is said, married a 
William de Urchard or Urquhart — practically the first of the 
family on record. Considering this alliance, William must 
have been a local magnate of considerable importance, and 
although identified with Sir William de Mowat, there is 
nothing to support such a conclusion. William de Urquhart 
and Lilias, according to the pedigree, had a son Adam, who 
in 1338 received a charter of the lanjls of Inchrory from 
William, Earl of Ross. If so, Adam must have been a mere 
child at the date of this grant, because his grand-parents were 
only married after 1308, A curious point arises as to his real 
name: while Robertson's "Index" and "Register of Great 
Seal " give it as Adam, it appears as Alexander in the only 



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310 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

transcripts of the original charters which we possess. On 6th 
January, 1349, Adam de Urquhart had another charter from 
William, Earl of Ross, of the whole davoch lands of Brae, to 
be held in blench ferm for yearly payment of a pair of white 
gloves. In an undated charter, William, Earl of Ross, Lord 
of Skye, conveyed to Alexander de Urquhart, his beloved 
gentleman and kinsman, the whole burgh of Cromarty, etc., 
to be held as freely as possessed by the granger's father (Mac- 
farlane's Collections, 11, p. 372-3). On the other hand, at 
intermediate dates, we have, in 1351, Adam de Urquhart as 
witness to a charter by Hugh, Earl of Ross, in favour of Peter 
de Graeme, while on 18th November, 1357, there is a charter 
under the Great Seal of David II. to Ade de Urquhart of the 
sheriffdom of Cromarty with the court and office of the sheriff- 
dom, proceeding upon a resignation of William, Earl of Ross, 
and Richard de Mowat, chaplain, the son and heir of Sir 
William de Mowat (Antiq. and Coll., Aberdeen, 111, p. 
526-30). This document indicates when the Urquharts became 
possessed of the sheriffdom, but there is still difficulty about 
the order of the succession, for in 1365 Hugh de Ross, Lord of 
Philorth, granted the lands of Fisherie to Ade de Urquhart, 
while in 1369 Adam de Urquhart, sheriff of Cromarty, appears 
with his son John, and is still styled sheriff in 1381-2. These 
references clearly prove that, unless there is an error in tran- 
scription by Macfarlane, the pedigree is faulty, the true suc- 
cession being William succeeded by Adam, who is followed by 
Alexander, to whom succeeded Adam, the grantee of 1365. 
The exact relationship between these persons is not clear, and 
the point is worthy of attention. 

Passing over Sheriffs Adam, John, and Sir William, of 
whom very little is known, we have a very curious deed 
concerning a member of the family whose place in the genealogy 
cannot be fixed. It may be given here as illustrating how the 
Earl of Ross dealt with an heiress of the olden time. The 
document, being in the vernacular, has a peculiar interest 
apart from the subjects conveyed : — 

"Be it maid kend till all men be thir present lettres Us 
Alexander the Earl of Ross, and Justiciar to our Sovereign 

Lord the Kinge f ra the north part of the water of Forth, 

Till haf giffvn to Walter of "Orchard our cousin, parson of 
Kiltearn, all the right of the land of Finlay and Rosan within 
the burgh of Cromarty, and his ousgang of Newaty: Not- 



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Notes on the Urquharts of Cromarty. 311 

^igainstandan that the foresaid Walter his sister's docter was 
-ayr to the foresaid lands, we gif that as af free gift to the said 
Walter, as throw virtue of our office and throw powar that 
langs (belongs) til our lege Lord the King: the fee as giffin 
throw our gift, the frank tenement remanand with the fore- 
said Walter quhilk be part of the same (th)at lyes upon the 
foresaid land, as his indenter party proports maid their upon. 
And We, the foresaid Alexander Earl of Boss, warrands to the 
foresaid Walter, and his ayres and assignais, the foresaid 
lands, and (th)at no man be so hardy to make grife, molestian 
to the said Walter in the said lands onder pains of lyves, 
lands, and guds al that may tyne agains the King and us. 
Giffyn onder our greit seal at Balkyny the XXIII. dav of 
Marche the yeir of our Lord Mo. IIIIo. XXXIXo. '— (Mac- 
farlane's Collections, II. , p. 274). 

William de Urquhart, the next laird, was served heir to 
liis father, Sir William, in 1436. He married Isabel Forbes, 
a business-like lady, who purchased two oxgangs of Navity 
irom John St Clair for sixteen marks. This deed, if in exist- 
ence, is one of uncommon interest, for attached to it, in token 
of sasine, is the seal of the bailies of Cromarty. In 1457 the 
King appointed Urquhart to assist in reforming hospitals 
within the diocese of Boss, but he took part in proceedings of 
a more lively character, and acted as a ' reiver bold ' in the 
most approved fashion of the time. He extended his preda- 
tory excursions as far as Sutherland, and for his misdeeds had 
a, comprehensive remission at Inverness on 4th October, 1457, 
when the King remitted all action against him, provided he 
made reparation to those whom he injured. 

Documents of his time throw fresh light on the cause of 
the Great Hership of Cromarty, which some years later created 
such a sensation. It seems that the lairds of Cromarty and 
Kilravock arranged a double marriage — William Urquhart was 
to marry Mariot Rose, while Hugh Rose was to marry Agnes 
Urquhart. The ladies were probably never consulted, and it 
so happened that Mariot declined to be forced into the alliance 
until the Urquharts brought legal proceedings against her 
father. The marriage was then celebrated, but turned out 
unhappily ; the lady forsook her husband, and on 23rd June, 
1471, David, Bishop of Moray, divorced the parties on account 
of consanguinity. The whole affair left a bitter feeling 
"between the families, and later on resulted in disastrous 
consequences. 



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312 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Sir William Urquhart built the Castle of Cromarty, having" 
received license to do so on 6th April, 1470. Although not a 
vestige of the old pile remains, it has been beautifully 
described by Hugh Miller, the most famous of Cromarty's 
sons: — 

'* Directly behind the site of the old town the ground rises 
abruptly from the level to the height of nearly a hundred feet, 
after which it forms a table-land of considerable extent, and 
then sweeps gently to the top of the hill. A deep ravine, with 
a little stream running through it, intersects the rising ground 
at nearly right angles with the front which it presents to the 
houses ; and on the eastern angle, towering over the ravine on 
the one side, and the edge of the bank on the other, stood the 
old castle of Cromarty. It was a massy, time-worn building, 
rising in some places to the height of six stories, .battlemented 
at the top, and roofed with gray stone. One immense turret 
jutted out from the corner which occupied the extreme point 
of the angle, and looking down from an altitude of at least 
one hundred and sixty feet on the little stream and the 
straggling row of trees which sprung up at its edge, commanded 
both sides of the declivity, and the town below. Other 
turrets of smaller size, but pierced like the larger one with 
rows of little circular apertures, which in the earlier ages had 
given egress to the formidable bolt, and in the more recent, 
when the crossbow was thrown aside for the petronel, to the 
still more formidable bullet, were placed by pairs on the 
several projections that stood out from the main body of the 
building, and were connected by hanging bartisans. 

" There is a tradition that, sometime in the seventeenth 
century, a party of Highlanders engaged in some predatory 
enterprise approached so near the castle on this side that their 
leader, when in the act of raising his arm to direct their march, 
was shot from one of the turrets and killed, and the party, 
wrapping up the body in their plaids, carried it away. 

" The front of the castle opened to the lawn, from which 
it was divided by a dry moat, nearly filled with rubbish, and 
a high wall indented with embrasures and pierced by an arched 
gateway. Within was a small court, flagged with stone, and 
bounded on one of the sides by a projection from the main 
building, bartisanded and turreted like all the others, but only- 
three stories in height, and so completely fallen into decays 
that the roof and all the floors had disappeared. From the* 



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Notes on the Urquharts of Cromarty. 3ia 

level of the court a flight of stone steps led to the vaults below ; 
another flight of greater breadth, and bordered on both sides 
by an antique balustrade, ascended to the entrance; and the 
architect, aware of the importance of this part of the building, 
had so contrived it that a full score of loopholes in the several 
turrets and outjets which commanded the court opened 
directly on the landing-place. Round the entrance itself there 
jutted a broad, grotesquely-proportioned moulding, somewhat 
resembling an old-fashioned picture frame, and directly over 
it there was a square tablet of dark blue stone, bearing in 
high relief the arms of the old proprietors ; but the storms of 
centuries had defaced all the nicer strokes of the chisel, and 
the lady with her palm and dagger, the boars' heads (sic), and 
the greyhounds were transformed into so many attenuated 
spectres of their former selves — no unappropriate emblem of 
the altered fortunes of the house. The windows, small and 
narrow, and barred with iron, were thinly sprinkled over the 
front ; and from the lintel of each there rose a triangular cap 
of stone, fretted at the edges, and terminating at the top in 
two nobs fashioned into the resemblance of thistles. Initials 
and dates were inscribed in raised characters on these tri- 
angular tablets. The aspect of the whole pile was one of 
extreme antiquity. Flocks of crows and jays, that had built 
their nests in the recesses of the huge tusked cornices which 
ran along the bartisans, wheeled ceaselessly around the gables 
and the turrets, awakening with their clamorous cries the 
echoes of the roof. The walls, grey and weather-stained, were 
tapestried in some places with sheets of ivy; and an ash 
sapling, which had struck its roots into the crevices of the 
outer wall, rose like a banner over the half -dilapidated gate- 
way/ ' 

This graphic description applies to the place as it appeared 
after the decay of the Urquharts. Miller records that " two 
threshers could have plied their flails within the huge chimney- 
of the kitchen/' and in the great hall, an immense dark 
chamber lined with oak, " a party of a hundred men had 
exercised at the pike." This fine old castle was pulled 
down in 1772, after the place had been sold by Lord Elibank 
to George Ross, and the " plough and roller passed over its 
foundations.' ' 

Sir William was succeeded by his younger son, Mr 
Alexander, who was infeft in the barony of Cromarty, the* 
Motehill, and Sheriffship on 18th November, 1475 (Macfar- 



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314 Gaelic Society of Inverness 

lane's Collections, II., p. 360). The Motehill, where the 
sheriffs dispensed justice, was an artificial mound situated 
several hundred yards nearer the town. In Mr Alexander's 
time the King passed through Cromarty several times, on his 
way to the shrine of St Duthus at Tain, but on these occasions 
James was not the guest of Urquhart, as 18s was paid to the 
priest where the King lodged, and the same amount was given 
to the ferrymen. 

The chief incident in the life of this laird was the raid 
upon his lands by young Kilravock and a band of Highland 
allies, when they swept the countryside of everything portable. 
The spulzie was carried out in most thorough fashion, and the 
raiders must have presented an extraordinary spectacle as they 
trudged homewards with their booty. Nothing came amiss, 
for they took pots and kettles as well as cattle, sheep, and 
swine. But the foray ended as disastrously for the Roses as 
for the Urquharts, because the Highlanders got clean away 
with the spoil, defied the law, and left their friends in the 
lurchj As a result of the raid a great part of Urquhart' s lands 
lay waste for years, and he took legal proceedings against the 
laird of Kilravock, who had become surety for his son and his 
accomplices. Although the quarrel originated in matrimonial 
infelicity, it was put to rights by another marriage between 
the families, which on. this occasion proved extremely fortunate. 

Thomas Urquhart, who succeeded before November, 1506, 
was a patriarchal sort of person. He paid composition for his 
marriage to the tune of £133 6s 8d, and espoused Helen 
Abernethy, of Saltoun, by whom he had, according to the 
popular story, twenty-five sons and eleven daughters. It is 
said that he appeared at Inverness with all his sons mounted 
upon white horses, and presented them to Mary Queen of 
Scots when the Highlanders rallied to her side against the 
"Gordons, who refused her admission to the Castle. Franck, 
the Tourist, increases the number of Urquhart's children to 
thirty sons and ten daughters, who all surrounded the patri- 
arch, and there " was not one natural child among them." 
According to this writer, " the declining age of this venerable 
laird of Urquhart, for he had reached the utmost limit of life, 
invited him to contemplate mortality, and to cruciate himself 
by fancving his cradle his sepulchre, wherein he was lodged 
night after night and hauled up by pullies to the roof of his 
house, approaching as near as the roof would let him to the 
^beautiful battlements and suburbs of heaven " — (Franck's 



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/Votes on the Urqu harts of Cromarty. 315 

Northern Memoirs, p. 183). The story proves how popular 
tradition leads one astray, for Thomas Urquhart died on 6th 
August, 1557, while Queen Mary did not visit Inverness until 
1562. Its absurdity becomes evident when one is told that 
seven of the sons fell at Pinkie — a battle fought in 1547! 
Thomas certainly lived to be a great-grandfather, for he 
arranged a marriage in 1550 between his grandson Walter and 
Elizabeth ' JJiakcainzeoch ' of Findon. 

Alexander, the next laird, uad a special warrant to be 
served heir to his father Thomas, because, being Sheriff of 
Uromarty, he could not be served before himself as Judge 
Ordinary, nor before any other judge. The Sheriff of Inver- 
ness was therefore directed to serve him heir to his father, 
which was done on 5th October, 1557. He married Beatrice 
Innes, and had five sons — Walter, John of Craigfintray (Tutor 
•of Cromarty), James, Arthur, and Thomas. 

Walter was infeft in the family estates on 11th April and 
28th May, 1564 (Macfarlane's Collections, IT, p. 362). His 
wife was Elizabeth Mackenzie, the spelling of whose surname 
is proof of the prevalence of Gaelic in the district. He had, 
in 1568, a feu charter from John, Bishop of Ross, of the lands 
of Kinbeachie, afterwards a favourite residence of the 
Urquharts, where still may be seen a beautifully sculptured 
stone bearing the family arms. After the death of his wife, he 
married Elizabeth Rose of Kilravock, who was infeft in Nether 
Pitnellies and other lands. This laird had a yearly pension of 
~fche Dean's quarter teinds of the lands of Navity, Easter Far- 
ness, Davidston, Peddieston, Little Farness, and Udole, viz., 
three chalders and twelve bolls victual, thirty-five wedders, 
and forty shillings of money. He also held a considerable 
amount of other ecclesiastical property, as well as lands within 
the burgh of Cromarty. His eldest son, Thomas, married 
Elspet Abernethy of Saltoun, whose tocher, by the contract 
dates last of FeFruary, 1572, amounted to 2450 marks. She 
was to be infeft in the lands of Inchrory, but Thomas died 
during his father's lifetime. The old laird, becoming incap- 
able, resigned the sheriffship in favour of his son Henry, who 
died before 1599, leaving a son Thomas. 

During his minority, John Urquhart of Craigfintrav, owing 
to the mental infirmity of the old laird, became Tutor of 
{Jromarty, and managed affairs on behalf of the youngf heir, 
Thomas, who had sasine in the lands of Cromarty and Fisherie 
in 1599, and inherited one of the finest properties in the North. 



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316 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

He lived in troublous times, for the district was in an uproar 
on account of a deadly feud between the Mackenzies of Kintail, 
the Macdonells of Glengarry, and Macleod, " through a cruel 
murder committed by some of them upon the servants and 
tenants of the other/ ' Owing to the terrible disorder the 
laird of Cromarty could not go to Inverness without a great 
retinue, and he therefore petitioned the Lords of Council 
craving a commission for serving his brieves (Macfarlane's Col- 
lections, II., p. 365). This feud is best known as 'the "Raid 
of Kilchrist," which culminated in a terrible tragedy. 

Thomas Urquhart was served heir to his grandfather, 
Walter, in 1603, and a whole series of deeds proves how exten- 
sive were the estates he inherited. At the outset of his 
career he made extensive purchases, and was knighted at 
Edinburgh by King James VI., in 1617. At this time the 
Urquharts reached their zenith. Although Sir Thomas 
received the family estates " free of debt, or provision of 
brother, sister, or any other of his kindred, or alliance where- 
with to affect it," yet he dissipated his fortune with startling 
rapidity, and the efforts of the shrewd Elphinstones could not 
avert the disastrous consequences of the laird's imprudence. 
The knight was a warm-hearted, impulsive man, and was ever 
ready to engage in other men's quarrels, as appears by the 
prompt way he acted on behalf of his kinsman, Thomas 
Urquhart of Burdsyards. This family was long famous for 
the incomparable beauty of its maidens; generation after 
generation, the Burdsyard ladies were the toast of the country- 
side, and gallants came to woo them from far and near. It 
would take up too much time to tell how John Dunbar of 
Egernes, in 1617, forcibly abducted the beautiful Marjorv 
Urquhart, then a girl of fifteen. There is the usual story of 
hot pursuit, pistol drawing, and questionable marriage — in 
this instance at the Kirk of Kinloss, by " ane hieland minister 
called Alexander Macpherson." The parents invoked the aid 
of the law, and the Lords of Session, doubtful whether the 
knot tied by Macpherson would hold, restored the ladv to her 
relatives. A few years later the sister of Marjory had become 
equally beautiful, and an impetuous lover, Robert Tulloch, a 
son of the laird of Tannachy, sought her in marriage. The 
Urquharts were against the match, and on 14th September, 
1621, Robert made a desperate attempt to carry off the lady 
from her father's house in Forres. The laird appeared on the* 



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Notes on the Urqu harts of Cromarty. 317 

scene and rescued his daughter, but reluctant to prosecute a 
neighbour's son, he tried to arrange matters. The young man 
was determined to have the lady at all costs, and the mother's 
watchfulness baffling every attempt to kidnap the girl, Tulloch, 
mad with passion, fired at the old lady. For this outrageous 
conduct he was brought before the Lords of Council, and on 
24th April, 1622, in their presence, gave solemn oath never to 
molest the Urquhart household. Notwithstanding this he 
pressed his suit ardently and impudently. The Sheriff of 
Cromarty soon afterwards was a guest at Burdsyards, and very 
likely heard the story of Tulloch 's persistent wooing. The 
recital roused him to anger; in his own domain he dealt out 
shrewd and sharp justice, there being none to call him in 
question. So next Sunday he went into the Kirk of Forres, 
when the third bell was ringing to the sermon, accompanied 
by men armed to the teeth. The stricken lover evidently 
occupied a seat near the Burdsyards' pew in the hope of seeing 
his fair one. Although he never offended the Sheriff in word 
or deed, yet Urquhart and his companions, " with bandit 
pistols, drawn swords and whingers, immediately set upon him, 
and after giving him divers bluidy straikes and woundies, 
threw him out of his desk and seate, and cuttit and brak the 
same in pecis." The worshippers interfered and saved Tulloch 
from the Sheriff's fury, and the parson — a clansman — coming 
out of the pulpit, tried to reason with the rioters, and 
" threatened them with the heavy wraith of God for profaning 
His holy Sabbath and sanctuary." This led to further 
violence, for, seizing the cleric, they cut off his garments with 
swords and daggers, and so " birst and bruisit his haill bodie 
and bowalis " that the poor minister spat blood for ten days, 
and was unable to preach " sensyne." Sir Thomas soon found 
that there was a difference between the Highlands of Cromarty 
and the "Laich of Moray," for he was committed to ward in 
the Castle of Edinburgh, and had to pay £20 to every witness 
who was a horseman, and ten marks to every witness who was 
a footman— (Reg. of Privy Council, XIII., p. 174). Although 
the gallant Sheriff suffered severely in pocket, he put an 
effectual stop to Tulloch 's wooing. 

From this time forth his affairs became confused. Accord- 
ing to his son—" The unfaithfulness, on the one side, of some 
of his menial servants in filching from him much of his 
personal estate, and the falsehood of several chamberlains and 



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318 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

baylifs to whom he had intrusted the managing of his rents, 
in the unconscionable discharge of their receipts by giving up 
one account thrice, and of such accounts many, and on the 
other part by the frequency of disadvantageous bargains, 
which the slyness of the subtill merchant did involve him in, 
his loss came unawares upon him, and irresistibly like an 
armed man, too great trust to the one and facility on behalf 
of the other occasioning so grievous a misfortune, which never- 
theless did not proceed from want of knowledge or abilitie in 
natural parts, for in the business of other men he would have 
given a very sound advice, and was surpassing dextrous in 
arbitrements upon any reference submitted to him; but he 
thought it did derogate from the nobility of his house and 
reputation of his person to look to petty things in matter of 
his own affairs." 

He received a Royal protection from his creditors in 1637, 
but "troubles never come singly," and the laird's worry was 
accentuated by the unfilial conduct of his sons. They regarded 
him as incapable, and, making him prisoner, kept him con- 
fined for nearly a week in the Inner Dortour within the Castle 
of Cromarty. The matter came before the courts, but, after 
hearing evidence, the case was dismissed. Sir Thomas made 
extensive additions to the Castle, and in 1631 craved permis- 
sion from the Privy Council to export ten chalders of beir and 
meal in order to get timber for his house from Norway. This 
fact is interesting, and indicates that the woods of Ross and 
Lochness never recovered from the operations of Dougall 
Campbell, who carried away a great deal of timber, about 
1512, for the navy of James IV. Sir Thomas died in April, 
1642. He had married Christian, daughter of Alexander, 4th 
Lord Elphinstone, whose tocher was £500. By this lady he 
had a large family, but we are only concerned with the two 
eldest, Thomas and Alexander. 

Thomas was knighted at Whitehall on 7th April, 1641, 
and became one of the most famous of his race. His career 
is so well known that it is unnecessary to enter into much 
detail ; his life was one long struggle with his father's creditors. 
He inherited twelve or thirteen thousand pounds sterling of 
debt, besides having to make provision for five brothers and 
two marriageable sisters. Sir Thomas waxed eloquent over the 
"usurious cormorants" who held mortgages upon his estate. 
The "caitiff" Robert Leslie of Findrassie was the most 
unscrupulous of his tormentors, for when he needed money to 



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Notes on the Urquharts of Cromarty. 31& 

portion one of his ungainly daughters, he regarded Urquhart's 
estate as a sort of Ji.1 Dorado, and on one occasion tried to 
grab the farm of Ardoch, to which he had as much right as 
to distant Jericho ! Thomas Rigg of Athernie, a great money- 
lender in his day, drew £2000 a year from the barony of 
Cromarty. There were others with substantial claims, such as 
Sir Robert Farquhar of Mounie, James Cuthbert of Drakies, 
Patrick Smith of Braco, and Sir James Fraser, of whom Sir 
Thomas wrote in a fit of exasperation, " no good can truly be 
spoken but that he is dead." Sir Thomas desired to devote 
his whole revenue to paying ott the debts, and determined to 
reside abroad. But he dearly loved Cromarty, and, after a 
short absence, returned to find his affairs in greater confusion 
than ever. He was totally unfitted to retrieve the fallen 
fortunes of his house, and while he thought out wonderful 
schemes for the benefit of mankind, creditors clamoured at his 
gate, keeping him in perpetual turmoil. He petulantly com- 
plains " that above ten thousand several times I have, by these 
flagitators, been interrupted for money, which never came to 
my use directly or indirectly one way or other, at home or 
abroad, any one time whereof I was busied about speculations 
of greater consequence than all they were worth in the world ; 
from which had I not been violently plucked away by their 
importunity I would have emitted to public view about five 
hundred several treatises on inventions never hitherto thought 
upon by any." 

He was also at issue with the ministers of Cromarty, Kirk- 
michael, and Cullicudden, and opposed augmentation of their 
stipends in heroic manner. They in return preached at him 
from the pulpit, thundering forth denunciations before his 
tenantry with spiteful and unchristian vigour. Sir Thomas 
confessed that he was driven like a feather before a whirlwind, 
and declares that one of his denouncers " behaved more like 
a scolding tripe seller's wife than a good minister." Although 
his difficulties led him to write angrily about his neighbours, 
he bears ample testimony to the consideration of the Robert- 
sons of Kindeace, a gentle race whom he hoped would " flourish 
as long as there is a hill in Scotland, or the sea doth ebb and 
flow." 

As became an ardent Royalist, he took part in the early 
skirmishes, and in 1649 was among those who surprised 
Inverness, razed its walls, and unfurled the Royal standard. 
For this he was declared guilty of treason, but his well-known 



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320 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

eccentricity saved him, and the Rev. John Annand, of Inver- 
ness, was asked to deal with him. He joined Charles II. at 
Scone, but was not greatly impressed by the Royal following; 
the presence of so many Presbyterians he regarded as a source 
of weakness, for they were inclined to desert, he says, "lest 
they should seem to trust to the arm of flesh/ ' When in the 
field, Sir Thomas marched with an enormous quantity of 
baggage ; four large portmanteaus were filled with gay apparel 
and other precious commodity, for he was a great dandy. 
There were three trunks filled " with an hundred manuscripts 
of his own composition/' After the disastrous fight at 
Worcester, the precious MSS. fell into the hands of ruthless 
Puritans, and one can fancy the fun and frolic among 
Cromwell's soldiers when they discovered the marvellous 
pedigree proving that the Urquharts were descended from the 
Creator of all things. The papers were promptly converted 
into "spills" for lighting tobacco pipes, and only part of the 
Genealogy and Universal Language was recovered. 

Sir Thomas himself fell into the hands of the enemy, and 
was confined in the Tower, where his harmlessness was soon 
recognised, and he enjoyed a large measure of freedom, and 
busied himself with writing. But wonderful tales being 
bruited abroad about his MSS., the Government, early in 
May, 1652, seized his papers, which were not of a dangerous 
character. On 14th May he requested the authorities to 
secure all papers found in his Castle of Cromarty, and suffer 
none to be embezzled. He then had five months leave to go 
to Scotland, on condition that he did nothing to the prejudice 
of the Commonwealth. This release proved very fortunate, 
because at Cromarty they heard he had been killed, and the 
creditors calmly appropriated his estate. They found that he 
was very much alive when they demanded payment of bonds 
which had been discharged long before, and, to their utter 
confusion, he produced the receipts. Leslie of Findrassie, his 
old enemy, tried to get him made a prisoner of war in his own 
house, then garrisoned by troops; but he safely returned to 
London, and continuing his literary labours, withdrew himself 
more and more from the haunts of men. The infirmity which 
he inherited became more marked, and the remaining years of 
his life were passed in a state of imbecility. On the eve of 
the Restoration he went abroad, and when that event became 
an accomplished fact, he died, it is said, in a fit of laughter. 



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Annual Assembly. 321 



ANNUAL ASSEMBLY. 

The annual assembly took place in the Music Hall on 9th 
July, 1903. As on former occasions, there was a large and 
much interested audience, and the programme was sufficiently 
varied and popular in character to meet with all-round 
approval. The chair was occupied by Mr A. M. Mackintosh, 
Geddes, Nairn, one of the original members of the Society, 
who was very cordially received as he stepped on to the plat- 
form wearing the Highland dress. He was supported by Dr 
Alex.»Macbain, Dr F. M. Mackenzie, Mr R. L. Mackintosh, 
Mr Andrew Mackintosh, Mr A. F. Steele, Councillor Mac- 
kenzie, Lieut. -Colonel T. R. Macdonald, Canon Brook, Rev. 
Mr Dinwoody, Rev. Mr Bisset, Nairn; Rev. Mr Macqueen, 
Rev. Mr Lamont, Glen-Urquhart ; Rev. Mr Macneill, 
Cawdor ; Mr James Fraser, C.E. ; Mr W. Stevenson, collector 
of customs; Mr Alex. Macdonald, acting secretary, and 
others. Mr Macdonald intimated the letters of apology for 
unavoidable absence, among the writers being Lord Lovat, 
Chief of the Society; The Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Mr 
Baillie of Docbfour, Mr Ian Grant of Glenmoriston, Mr J. P. 
Grant of Rothiemurchus, Mr Macdonald of Skeabost, Mr 
Bignold, M.P. ; Mr Dewar, M.P. ; Captain Wimberley, and 
many others. The hall was appropriately, but not lavishly 
decorated. 

The Chairman, in his introductory speech, assured the 
meeting that he appreciated the honour of filling the chair 
that evening, and proceeded to comment upon the great work 
the Society had done, and was still accomplishing, not only 
in the cultivation of the Celtic language and its literature, 
but in folklore and other departments of research. This was, 
he said, the 31st annual assembly of the Society, which in a 
couple of months shall have completed its 32nd year. He 
noted a few of the changes which had happened during that 
period, and reminded the meeting that only a very few of 
those who had attended the first meeting of the Society now 
remained. One of the few was Mr William Mackay, who 
year by year had retained his place as an office-bearer of the 
Society. They hoped he would long continue to give those 
very valuable and interesting papers which he had written. 
It was his (the Chairman's) good fortune to be in Inverness 
on a visit when the inaugural meeting of the Society was 

21 



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322 Gaelic Society of Inverness, 

held, and he well remembered the delight with which he 
listened to the eloquent addresses of Rev. Mr Mackenzie, 
Kilmorack; Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Gairloch, and Mr J. 
F. Campbell of Islay. All three had gone from them. Im- 
mense gaps had been made in the membership of the Society 
since its formation. Of the 55 honorary members only two 
now remained — one was Mr Mackintosh of Holm and the 
other was himself. But the Society had not nagged in its 
work or dropped into senile decay, for there were now 
between sixty and seventy honorary members, and the list of 
ordinary members was three times as long as it was in 1871. 
Death had been busy among their members in past years, and 
in the present year it had struck a blow not less heavy and 
severe than any it had previously struck. That, he thought, 
was the prevailing feeling among those of them who, a few 
weeks ago, followed the mortal remains of their late secretary, 
Mr Duncan Mackintosh, on their way to their last resting- 
place in Glen-Urquhart. The large number of members who 
attended on that occasion, some having come considerable 
distances, and at necessarily short notice, testified their appre- 
ciation of Mr Mackintosh's devotion to the interests of the 
Society, and their sense of the great loss which it had 
sustained. The work of the secretaryship involved the ex- 
penditure of a considerable amount of time and labour, and 
the exercise of a great amount of patience and tact. It 
required a man with special qualifications, who was willing to 
give up his ease and leisure to the Society and its work. That 
those qualifications were happily combined in the late Mr 
Mackintosh few members would question, and he (the Chair- 
man) might even go so far as to express his opinion that it 
was in great measure owing to Mr Mackintosh's enthusiasm 
and his devoted exertions that the Society had for so long 
maintained its high position in both membership and work. 
They had good cause for congratulation that papers continued 
to come in freely, and they were of no less value and interest 
than those contributed 25 or 30 years ago. The printed 
volumes constituted a small library, and abounded in excellent 
reading in Gaelic and English, indicating an immense amount 
of study and research. But a great deal more remained to be 
done by the members, who were connected with all parts of 
the Highlands. He thought, for example, that there was a 
great want of some comprehensive account of their Highland 
surnames, and their Transactions would not be complete with- 



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Annua/ Assembly. 323 

out a series of papers on that subject. He knew that some 
valuable papers on names had been written and published 
some years ago, but something more of the kind would be 
highly appreciated by members of the Society, who, he was 
sure, would be glad to bring under the notice of any who 
were engaged in the study out-of-the-way names with which 
they might be acquainted. He himself could give a few such 
names, which he had come across in old documents. For 
instance, he found Duncan McOhanak and Sir Duncan 
Obrolchan among the witnesses to a deed in 1456 ; Hew Mak- 
ostennog, in 1575, witness to a bond by four persons of the 
name of McMaye, who signed McMaha; and Thomas McMow- 
lagan witnessed a document at Ardersier in 1579. Others 
were McClarvin, McCoren, McGailbea or McAlivia, McQuo- 
ban, McKilliyne. The other subject he should like to see 
more frequently treated in their Transactions was that of 
local history and legend. This subject, unlike the other, had 
received illustration, and in his opinion the volumes contain- 
ing papers on Glen-Urquhart, by Mr Mackay; on Badenoch, 
by Dr Macbain; and on the Legends of Strathardle, by Mr 
C. Fergusson, were as valuable as any among the two dozen 
volumes. But what a vast field remained open to the 
explorer in other districts of the Highlands! Argyllshire, 
Lochaber, and the West Coast generally were practically 
untouched by the Society, as were most of the islands; and 
the Lochness district, the Beauly and Strathglass district, and 
the country contiguous to Inverness itself all had history and 
legend teeming with interest — (applause). He was sure there 
must be in the Society many members who had never written 
a word for the Transactions, and were quite capable of telling 
them what they knew of the story and legend and place- 
names and other interesting particulars connected with nooks 
or glens of their parishes. He hoped that some of those 
members would tell them what they knew of their own dis- 
tricts, and he was sure the Council of the Society would 
welcome contributions, however short they might be, from 
the present members. The country was rapidly changing, 
and the old life, the old thought, and the old customs were all 
dying out, and they might look forward to the time when the 
native language would cease to be the language of daily life. 
That time was, however, still far away, he hoped ; at anyrate, 
such meetings as he now addressed shewed that the Gaelic 
language and the Celtic sentiment were still strong and active 
forces in their midst. 



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324 Gaelic Society of Inuerness. 

A strong feature in the programme was the singing of 
Mr R. Macleod's Gaelic Choir, a small, well-balanced, and 
evidently enthusiastic body of ladies and gentlemen, whose 
pronunciation and melody forbids anything but pleasant 
criticism. The Highland Reel and Strathspey Society also 
made several very acceptable appearances, their selections of 
popular airs being crisply and tunefully rendered. Of the 
soloists, Mrs Munro, Strathpeffer, was, it is scarcely necessary 
to mention, prime favourite. She was in characteristically 
excellent voice, and several of her old favourite ditties received 
quite an ovation. Miss Watt, Mr Miller, Mr R. Macleod, 
and Mr John Macleod also sung so well that encores had to 
be peremptorily stopped. Dances by Pipe-Major Sutherland 
and others, and some first-class pipe music by Pipe-Major 
Ronald Mackenzie, completed the programme, with the excep- 
tion of the Gaelic oration, which is appended. 

Rev. Mr Lamont, who was received with applause, said: — 
Fhir na Cathrach, uaislean a' Chomuinn, 's a luchd duthcha, — 
iy iarr an run-chleireach agaibh ormsa facal no dha a radh 
ann an cainnt nan Criosduidhean, 's thachair dhomh mar a 
thachair do dh' Fhionnladh Piobaire 's do 'n phortair — rinn e 
J bheic cho modhail 's nach robh e 'nam chomas a dhiultadh. 
Dh' fheoraich mi dheth gu de 'n cuspair a bu mhaith leis mi 
labhairt air — ach 's e na thuirt e rium — faodaidh tu bruidhinn 
air ni sam bith fo 'n ghrein. Dh' fhag sin mise mar a bha mi 
roimhe, ged is cinnteach mi nan gabhainn an run-chleireach aig 
'fhacal 's an t-each a leigeil far na teadhrach anns an doigh a 
thug esan cead dhomh — nach cluinneadh e fhein na mi f hein a 
dheireadh. Ach co dhiubh their mi so — gu bheil mi toilichte 
a bhi 's a chomunn so an noohd, 's gu bheil mi toilichte Comunn 
Gaidhlig Inbhirnis a bhi ? na dheagh shlainte. 'S fhada o 'n a 
chuala mi iomradh air a' chomunn so ach gus an nochd cha 'n 
fhaca mi riamh 's a choluinn e. Ach ged nach faca mi sibh 's 
iomadh uair a bha mi'nur n-eiseimeil. Tha sibh a' cur a mach 
cunntas bhliadhnail air obair a' Chomuinn, 's anns na leabh- 
raichean sin tha fiosrachadh ri fhaotainn mu chainnt 's mu 
eachdraidh ar diithcha, air nach bu chor do neach sam bith aig 
a' bheil suim do Ghaidhlig 's do nithean Gaidhealach dearmad 
a dheanadh. Am bonnach a bhruich sibhse 's trie a dh J ith 
mise. 'Nan rachadh duine gu dichiollach troimh na 
leabhraichean sin o 'n cheud fhear gus am fear mu dheireadh, 
gheibheadh e gu lebr gu bhi cnamh a chir uile laithean a 
bheatha. Bha mi 'sealltuinn thairis air na riaghailtean 



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Annual Assembly. 325 

agaibh, *s tha mi faiciiiii gur h-e a' cheud ni a th' ann an run 
a' chomunn na buill a dneanadh iomlan s a Ghaidhlig. Cha 
b' urrainn e 'bhi ni b' fhearr, mar thnirt am madadh-ruadh 
'n uair a dh' ith e 'n coileach. Ged a bhios muinntir Inbhirnis 
a' deanadh spagaluinn as a' Ghaidhlig tha amharus beag agam, 
nach bu mhisd iad greis a thoirb an drasd 's a rithist air a' 
chainnt sin a chur an cleaehdadh, cha bu mhaith dhaibh 
tuilleadh 's a choir de dh' earbsa a chur anns an t-sean-fhacal — 
Am fear a gheibh ainm na moch eiridh faodaidh e cadal cho 
fada ri choimhearsnaich. Their daoine ruinn gu bheil a' 
Ghaidhlig a' dol bos. Cha 'n 'eil teagamh nach 'eil, ged is 
docha nach faigh an t-ogha, no 'n t-iar ogha againne fios a 
tiodhlaiceadh. Ach ged a tha galair a gonaidh air a siubhail, 
cha 'n 'eil reusan sam bith againn a maslachadh fad 's a tha i 
'lathair. Cha 'n 'eil e na ni ro dhuilich do neach sam bith aig 
a bheil Gaidhlig, mar chainnt a mhathar, e fhein a theagasg 
gus an teid aige air a chainnt sin a labhairt le beagan snas is 
grinneas, ach nach trie a tha e tachairt gu bheil cuid againn 
aL* am biodh naire ar beul fhosgladh ann an cuideachd, mar 
b' e 's gun rachadh againn air Beurla 'bhruidhinn ann an 
doigh iomchuidh — gu bheil iad caoin shuarach gu de 'm peanas 
a ni iad air a' Ghaidhlig bhochd? Smuididh iad a mach i 
purraich air tharraich, moran de na facail air an leth-chois 's 
gu leor dhiu gun cheann gun chasan. Faodaidh duine 'bhi 
na Ghaidheal, 's na smior a' Ghaidheil ged nach teid aige air 
a chainnt a bhruidhinn, ach a chuid againn aig a bheil i o 'r 
n-oige 's a tha 'ga cleaohdadh gach latha d' ar beatha, saoilidh 
mi gu 'm bu choir dhuinn feuchainn ri bruidhinn le snas is bias 
— 's e sin ma tha meas againn oirnn fhein no air ar cainnt no 
air ar duthaich. Agus ged a their cuid ruinn nach 'eil ann, 
ach a bhi toirt fiodha do Lochabar, a bhi 'cur snas air Gaidhlig 
Inbhirnis, cha 'n 'eil mi creidsinn gu bheil buill a' chomuinn 
air an run so a th aca 's na riaghailtean a ghiulan am mach 
ni e obair is fhiaoh a dheanadh anns a' baile mhor so. Ach 
tha mi a' saoilsinn gur h-e ni is fhearr a tha 'n comunn so a 
deanadh uile gu leir — an t-suim a tha sibh a gabhail do 
leabhraichean, 's do litreachas 's do sgoileareachd Ghaidhlig. 
Chuir sibh air a' chois anns a' bhaile so leabhar lann far a 
bbeil cruinneachadh mor de leabhraichean a tha cur solus air 
cainnt 'us eachdraidh na Gaidhealtachd. Cha dean dubhan 
ruisgte iasgach, 's cha mho a ghabhas eolas fhaotainn gun 
leabhraichean. Gle bhitheanta tha na leabhraichean a dh' 
fheumas a bhi aig sgoileir Gaidhlig daor, agus 's iomadh uair 



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326 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

a tha deagh cheann far nach 'eil ach sporan aotrom. Ach tha 
an Comunn so a' toirt cothrom do na buill air cho aotrom 's 
'gam bi an sporan na leabhraichean sin a bha aca, 's ged nach 
deanadh e ach sin fhein, 's mor an t-sochair e. 'S a thaobh 
sgoilearachd na Gaidhlig tha agaibh daoine cho comharraichte 
's na nithean sin 's a th' anns an duthaich. Cha bhiodh ann 
ach gnothuch mi chiatach gu f eumadh Frangaich is Gearmailtich 
ar teagasg 'n ar cainnt fhein, ach ged a tha sinn cheana gu mor 
'an eiseimeil nan daoine ionnsaichte sin, 's a bhios e duilich 
dhuinn na fiachan a phaigheadh, tha fear an sid 's an so 'nar 
duthaich fhein a nis is urrainn cudthrom a ghnothuich a 
ghabhail air an guailean — Rhys ann an Sasunn, MacFhionghain 
'an Duneidean, 's MacBheathain 'an Inbhirnis. Feumaidh mi 
radh 'n uair a chluinneas mi iomradh air Comunn Gaidhlig 
Inbhirnis — gur h-e ainm an duin'-uasal ionnsaichte sin an 
Dotair MacBheathain a oheud fhear a thig gu 'm inntinn. 
Dh' fheuch e uair-eigin de 'n t-saoghal ri beagan sgoil a chur 
'nam cheann fhein, ged is docha nach do shoirbhich leis cho mor 
's a bu mhaith leis fhein no le m' athair, ach faodaidh mi a radh 
cuideachd gun do nochd e caoimhneas 'us gradh dhomhsa 'n uair 
a bha mi 's an sgoil aige a dh' fhag agam deagh chuimhneachan 
air mo cheud turus do dh' Inbhirnis, 'sgu'n annam ach sgonn- 
bhalach air aineoil 's a bhaile mhor. Ged a dh' fhag mise 'n 
sgoil theid aige-san air rud no dha a theagasg dhomhsa 's do 'm 
sheorsa fhathast, 's cha 'n urrainn mi ni 's fhearr a radh no 
gu'm a fada a bhios esan air a chaomhnadh gu bhi teagasg 
Gaidhlig 's sinne gu bhi 'g ionnsachadh. Far am bi 'm bbrd 
Ian tuitidh spruidhleach air chor-eigin gu lar. A thuilleadh 
air gach deagh sheirbhis eile a tha 'n comunn a' deanadh tha e 
'na mheadhon air a bhi tarraing ri cheile ann an cairdeas 's an 
gradh brathaireil Gaidheal a' bhaile so. Cha 'n 'eil iomradh 
air an t-seann naimhdeas 'us tuaiseadean a bha eadar na 
nneachan, 's a tha dorus a' chomuinn fosgailte do Ghaidheal 
sam bith, cha 'n 'eil deinr gu de 'shloinneadh na duthaich, no 
co dhiu a bha a sheanair a mach ann am bliadhna Thearlaich 
's nach robh. Anns na coinneamhan tha mi-run air chul an 
doruis 's deagh ghean am measg na cuideachd. Tha sibh a' 
cumail suas a' oheilidh le cebl 'us conaltradh 'us sgialach' 's 
ma 's fhior na chuala mise, 's e sin an ceilidh a b' fhiach do 
•dhuine a chasan a fhliuchadh gu dol thuige. Cha 'n urrainn mi 
radh gur mise bha thall 's a chunnaic e ach mar a robh bithidh. 
'S a nis a dhaoin'-uaisle a' Chomaiinn, cha 'n abair mi beag 
tuilleadh. Ged a tha toimbseagan no dha agam a dh' fhaod- 



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Annual Assembly. 327 

ainn a chur oirbh, agus ma dh' fhaoidte sgialachd no dha, nan 
robh uine air an innseadh, cha robh. math, orm riamh. 'n uair a 
chuirte ann an ceann seancha*s mi, 's math no dona 'n seanchas 
's fhearr beagan dheth na moran. Ach, cleas nan oocairean 
chum mi an greim is milse gu deireadn na ouirme. Tha bard a' 
Ohomuinn a' cur failte air a' cbuideachd. so, agus dh,' iarradh 
ormsa 'n fhailte sin a liubhairt. So agaibh. i : — 

Mile furan agus failte 
Air gach armunn anns a' chomhlan, 
A tha 'togal suas, mar b' abhaist 
Bratach aiir na Gaidhlig mhorail; 
'S e mo dhurachd agus m' abhachd 
A bhi nochd am measg nan Gaidheal; 
'S guidheamaid sonas dhaibh is ailleas 
H-uile la gu brath is beo iad. 

'S gu 'm a fada beo a' Ghaidhlig; 
Cainnt ar mathraichean 's ar n-eolais, 
Cainnt is binne 's cainnt is blaithe, 
Cainnt is cairdiche 's is ceblmhoir. 
'S gu 'm a lionmhor piob 'us clarsach, 
'S gu 'm a suibhlach fonn is dana, 
Feadh gach beann is gleann is cearna 
Be thir aill nan ard bheann mora ! 

Biodh ar n' inntinnean a' direadh 

Gus an t-sinnsearachd o 'n d' thriall sinn, 

'S biodh 'an spiorad ann ar cuideachd 

Ann ar n-iomachd 's ann ar briathraibh. 

Bha iad duineil agus dileas, 

Bha iad uasal agus rioghail; 

'S cha teid cliu nan laoch air di-chuimhn' 

Fhad 's a mhaireas tir an liath-cheo. 



19th NOVEMBER, 1908. 

The paper for this evening's meeting was a further 
instalment by Mr Alex. Macdonald, Highland Railway, of 
his interesting series of contributions, entitled " Scraps of 
Unpublished Poetry and Folklore from Lochness-side, " and 
was as follows: — 



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328 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

SCRAPS OF UNPUBLISHED POETRY AND FOLKLORE 
FROM LOCNESS-SIDE 

The first piece I am to submit this evening is a love song, 
and a great favourite along Lochness-side. It is sung to an 
air very much the same as that of "Ae fond kiss and then 
we sever." What I have been able to ascertain as to the 
story of it is to the effect that an affection sprang up between 
a gentleman of the poorer class and a lady occupying a higher 
station in life. Circumstances in this case did not, one way 
or another, favour the possibility of a union, and the little 
romance ended with a quiet but affectionate parting, which, 
it would appear, inspired the following beautiful verses : — 

Matri-Anna. 

Fonn — Huirionn-i- 's na-horo-u-eile, 
Huirionn-i-'s na-horo-ii-eile ; 
Hoirionn-an-o-'s na-horo-u-eile, 
'S cianail mi 's mo ghaol o cheile. 

Ghabh mi m' chead an diugh dhe m' leannan, 

Ise 'falbh is mise 'fantuinn; 

'S dh' fhag thu mi mar uan air 'aineor, 

A' caoidh a mhathair — a Mhairi-Anna. 

'S binn a' chuthag 'seinn le caithream ; 
'S binn an 3meorach 'an bg an daraioh ; 
'S binn gach teud fo mheur an taruinn; 
Ach 's binne guth beuil mo Mhairi-Anna. 

Ged a rinn an cuan ar sgaradh, 

'S ged theid bliadhna chianail thairiom; 

Gus a' sgar mo chorp o m' anam, 

'S leat-sa mo ghradh, a Mhairi-Anna. 

'S boidheach gach geug fo sheid an t-samhraidh, 

'S eoin na speur a' seinn na 'meangaibh; 

A h-uile creutair eibhinn, seamhsail, 

Ach mise learn fhein, a' caoidh na chaill mi. 

'S truagh nach robh mi an rioohd na h-eala ; 
An long 's an do ghluais thu bu luath a leanainn; 
Ghabhainn tamh ann am barr a crannaibh, 
Ag amharc a mhan ort, a Mhairi-Anna. 



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Poetry and Folklore from Lochness-side. 329 

'S boidheach a com', a beusan banail; 
'S sgathan a cridh' ? s a miog-shuil meallach ; 
Cha 'n 'eil Gaidheal an gleann a' bharraich, 
Nach d' thoir gradh do Mhairi-Anna. 

Shiubhlainn leat a' choill 's na crannaibh, 
Far am b' abhaist duinn 'bhi 'tional 
Sobhraich a' bhlais is blath na' meangan, 
'Tha 'n diugh a' fas gun Mhairi-Anna. 

Chi mi 'n calltainn, chi mi 'n cuilionn, 

Chi mi 'm beatha 'fas fo dhuilleach ; 

Chi mi 'n tigh mor 's an robh thu 'fuireach, 

Ged nach fhaic mi thu 'ghraidh— a dh' fhag mi duilich. 

The following composition shows the spirit in which the 
men of the olden time took the little accidents of life, from 
day to day. It was the work of a local bard of the name of 
John Macdonald, but better known as "Iain Glaiseach. ,, 
John composed a number of fairly pleasing verses, and his 
muse was always ready to deal with any subject or event that 
appealed to him — more particularly so if there was any 
possibility of creating a little harmless fun at the expense of 
somebody else. One of John's compositions is to be found in 
Eev. Allan Sinclair's "Grants of Glenmoriston." The one I 
am about to submit was inspired by hearing that another 
local worthy, known by the name of " An Taillear Iain," had 
gone out by boat on Loch Ness for the purpose of landing 
some bread from a passing steamer, for Mr Fall, of the 
Invermoriston Hotel. While on board the steamer the tailor 
was taken down to the cabin and treated to some refreshments. 
It appears that he had left his jacket on shore. Whether 
intentionally or otherwise is not said, but while the tailor was 
in the cabin of the steamboat, steam was put up, and away 
they went with the tailor, taking him in due course to Fort- 
Augustus. The song tells the rest. It is sung to the air of — 

" Air faillirinn, illirinn, 

Oichirinn 6; 
Air faillirinn, illirinn, 

Uillirinn, o-hu; 
Air faillirinn, illirinn, 

Oichirinn 6." 



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330 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

'S iomadh deuchainn a fhuair thu, 
'S tu ri taobh bord an fhuaridh, 
Seachad Rudha na Ruadhaidh, 
'S chuir thu cuairt air Cinntir. 

Gall eile, call o-hu, 

'S ann tha 'n odhail 's an tir; 

Call eile, call o-hu, 

Call iriribh o-hu; 

Call eile, call o-hu, 

'S ann tha 'n odhail 's an tir. 

'S an long 'thug a mach thu, 
'S daor a phaigheas i 'pasaid; 
Theid a sgiursadh gu cladach, 
'S a cuid acfhuinn thbirt d' i. 
Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

Theid a' meata 's an stiubhard, 
'S an caiptean a sgiursadh; 
'S gabhaidh Seumas * dhiu cunntas, 
Nach do chum iad thu dh' i. 
Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

Cha bu lugha e na tamailt, 
Na 'n rachadh do bhathadh, 
'S gu 'm b' e 'n t-aran aig Fall 
A bhiodh aig each os do chionn. 
Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

'S iomadh maighdeann bha craiteach 
Ann an ' Square ' MhicPhadruig, 
'N uair a chual iad an Taillear 
A bhi an sas air an steam. 
Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

'Nuair a chaill thu do chbta, 
'S do leabhar bhi d' phoca, 
Cha 'n fhaigheadh tu 'n t-61 
Bho nighean bg Thigh-an-ftigh. 
Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

* Macph&druig. 



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Poetry and Folklore from Lochness-side. 331 

Ach o n' thainig tu sabhailt, 
'S nach deachaidh do bhathadh, 
Ni sinn tern' air an Spardan, 
Daoin' araid 's mi fhin. 

Call eile, call o-hu, etc. 

Valentines furnished another occasion for the exercise of 
bardic wit from time to time, as the following poem will show. 
The story of it is to the effect that having got hold of the 
picture of a rather comic-looking old man, with a small 
bundle of wands beside him, the wits made it represent a 
thresher looking for work — Brownie-like somewhat — and the 
picture was sent about from one party to another, with a 
new story given it on each occasion to tell. It was at last 
sent up the glen with the following verses, and never again 
turned up at Invermoriston : — 

Thill mi rithisd 

Dha na h-ionnsuidh, 
'S tha mi 'n duil 

Gu 'm faigh mi tamh 'uaith ; 
Cha robh feum ac' 

Air fear bualaidh, 
Bha na saibhlean 

Fuara, fas ac'. 
Ni mi Coinneachan 

A chnapadh 
Leis na slatan 

A tha lamh rium, 
Mar seas e ris 

A h-uile focal 
Tha e 'cleachdadh 

A bhi 'g radha ; 
'S mbr a' naire 

Dha 'bhi breugach 
Ris gach te 

A th' anns an aite, 
'S a bhi ga 'n 

Cur as an reusan 
'S iad uile gu leir 

'An gradh 's e. 
Bi'dh 'cheud stad 

Aig Mr Camshroin, 



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332 Gaelic Society of Inverness 

Bho 'n fhuair e ainm 

A bhi cho pairteach, 
'S fanaidh mi 

'S am buail an t-aog mi, 
Mar dean sibh 

M' aoireadh as le bardachd. 

This sort of rhyming by the bards — which was, on a 
small scale, a species of the " flyting ' ' at one time (as we 
learn from the tussles between Douglas and Kennedy, the 
Scotch poets, and Ian Lorn, of Lochaber, and his neighbour, 
Donald Donn MacdonaH, in the Highlands) common among 
all classes of poets — was indulged in freely a few years ago all 
over the Highlands. The following is a rather interesting 
example of how one rhymster deliberately contradicted all 
that another felt inspired to express as absolute truth. The 
subject is the comparatively unimportant one of two young 
girls having made some new shirts for Archibald Grant, the 
Glenmoriston bard. Grant, in a spirit of proud thankfulness, 
said : — 

Fonn : — Sid an comunn 's suairce leinn, 

Luchd a' chuailean chuachaich dhuinn; 
Sid an comunn 's suairce leinn. 

An dithis a rinn domh na leintean, 
Gum a maith a dh' eireas dhoibh. 

An uchd 's an ciochan mar eala, 
Slios mar chanach anns na glinn. 

Guintean breacanach Bob Ruaidhe 
Air na gruagaichean 'tha grinn. 

Deud mar chailce, beul is daithte, 
Suil mar dhearoag anns a' ohoiir. 

Troigh shocrach a shiubhlas eutrom 

'S nach dochainneadh am feur fo bhuinn. 

Tha 'm fait dualach 'sniomh mu 'n guailleabh, 
'Dol gu buailtean a' chrodh laoigh. 

Ach na'm faicinn fhin am posadh 
Bheirinn an comhlan an tigh-sheinns\ 

Bheirinn lach dhoibh air an laraich, 
'S chuirinn ginidh slan na 'n laimh. 



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Poetry and Folklore from Lochness-side. 333 

Trian de 'n loinn cha dean mi aireamh, 
Ged' bu bhard mi 'latha 's a dh' oidhch'. 

(See Songs and Poems of Archibald Grant, Glenmoriston, 
page 105, from which I select the foregoing verses for the 
necessary comparison). 

The other poet, an intelligent man known as " Griogair," 
a splendid seanachie, and an authority on the traditional 
history of Glenmoriston, says, against Grant's praises of the 
maidens, as follows: — 

Fonn: — Sid an comunn 's fuathach leinn, 
Luchd a' chuailean luaghte, luim; 
Sid an comunn 's fuathach leinn. 

Mhill iad an da lein' air Archie, 
Ged is nar a bhi ga sheinn. 

An uchd 's an ciochan mar thanidh, 
Na air dhath an t-siucair dhuinn. 

Guintean sgaileach gun bhi laidir; 
'S cha 'n 'eil clar annt' ach a tri. 

Beul gun dath air, deud 's i cabach; 
Suilean prabach a J measg muill. 

Troighean fada, 's casan cuagach, 
A tha maith gu sluaisneadh puill. 

Cha 'n 'eil fait gu ruig an cluais orr' ; 
Cha 'n 'eil buailtean ac' 's cha bi. 

A chaoidh cha chluinnear iad a' posadh, 
Cha 'n fhaic oig-fhear orra loinn. 

'S ged a mhol thu iad le cheile 

Gu bheil te dhiubh nach 'eil cruinn. 

Archie very often paid for any work done to him in a 
manner which would scarcely pass for remuneration nowadays 
— by a few verses of song, as the following shows : — 

Mo ghaol na fir dhonna sin, 
Mo ghradh na fir ghreannar; 
Mo ghaol na fir dhonna sin, 
Bu ghrinne throma 'dhannsadh. 



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334 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Gilleasbuig is da Iain ann, 
'S bu chridheil aims an am iad; 
'S oiha bhiodh ait' am biodh iad 
Nach biodh cloinn Iain teann doibh. 

'N uair bhiodh iad ris an smioradh dhuinn, 
'S ga 'n iarruidh feadh nam beanntan; 
Sid na fir a dheanadh e, 
'S bu mhiannach learn 'bhi 'cainnt riu. 

The following are local words to the air of "Fear Chul- 
charn," or " The Maid of Islay " : — 

Tha mi 'n duil 

Gu 'n tig an clachair, 
Tha mi 'n duil 

Gu 'n tig e trath; 
Tha mi 'n duil 

Gu 'n tig an clachair, 
Dh' iarraidh nighean 

Fhir Phort-chlair. 

Bi'dh ac' piob agus fidhioll, 

'Chumas cridheil iad gu brath; 
Theid iad sios aig Sroin-a'-Chaisteil, 

'S bheir iad caismeachd dha 'n a' Bhlar. 

Here are verses, commonly sung to a beautiful old air, 
conveying a melancholy sentiment of loneliness and despond- 
ency. I cannot get at the history of the lines, and the 
composition seems to be incomplete : — 
Chuir iad mise 

Dh' eilean learn fhin, 
Chuir iad mise 

Dh' eilean learn fhin; 
Chuir iad mise 

Dh' eilean learn fhin, 
Eilean mara 
Fada bho thir. 

Chuir iad mise 

'Dh' eilean mu Thuath, 
Chuir iad mise 

'Dh' eilean mu Thuath; 
Chuir iad mise 

'Dh' eilean mu Thuath, 
Eilean mara 

Fada bho shluagh. 



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^ 



Poetry and Folklore from Loch n ess-side. 335 

Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn fhin, 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn fhin; 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn fhin, 
Eilean mara 

Fada bho thir. 

Eh ho ri 

Gur fada bhuam tha, 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada bhuam tha; 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada bhuam tha, 
Fear a' chinn duibh 

Da 'n d' thug mi mo ghradh. 

Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn bhuam, 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn bhuam; 
Eh ho ri 

Gur fada learn bhuam, 
Fear a' chinn duibh 

Da'nd' thug mi mo luaidh. 

Somewhat similar are these, which is sung to a very 
plaintive air: — 

Theid mi dhachaidh 

'Dhiithaich m' athair; 
Theid mi dhachaidh 

'Chro Chinntsaile. 
Theid mi dhachaidh 

'Dhuthaich m' athair; 
Theid mi dhachaidh 

'Chro Chinntsaile. 
Theid mi fhin 

Learn fhin, learn fhin; 
O ! theid mi fhin 

Learn fhin a Ghearrloch; 
Theid mi fhin 

Learn fhin, learn fhin; 
O ! theid mi dhachaidh 

'Chro Chinntsaile. 



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336 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

The following lines are worthy of a place in our collec- 
tion : — 

Ho-ro tha mi muladach, 

Air m' uilinn 's mi gun eirigh. 

'S mi 'g amharc suas air tulaichean, 
'S air mnllaichean Shrath-Eirinn. 

Ho-ro tha mi muladach, 

'S mi 'cumha na bheil bhuam-sa. 

J S e fear na gruaige duibhe 
'Chuireadh mulad dhiom 'is gruaimean. 

Another simple, pretty lyric, somewhat after the samu 
.style, is as follows: — 

Air faill-ill-oro-bha, 
Huro-bha, huro-bho; 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha. 

'S sealgair feidh air fireach thu, 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha, etc. 

'S a' bhric air an linne leat, 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha, etc. 

'S ann a chunna mi fhein, 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha, etc. 

Thu-sa 'dh' fhalbh bhuam an de, 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha, etc. 

'S trie a chunna mi fhein, 
Air faill-ill-oro-bha, etc. 

Thu-sa 'sealg air na feidh, 
Air faill-ill-bro-bha, etc. 

The following was given to me as part of a lament com- 
posed for one of the chiefs of Grant : — 

Cha till, cha till, 
Cha till thu tuilleadh; 
Cha till gu brath 
Gu la na cruinne. 



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Poetry and Folklore from Lochnessside. 337 

Bu tu 'n curaidh bha treun 
'N am eirigh 's an iomairt, 
'N uair thigeadh Lochiall 
Thoirt dhinn nan creachan. 

Bu tu ceann-uidhe nan tuath, 

'N uair thigeadh fuathchas na 'n curaidh; 

'N am tarruing nan lann, 

'S i do laimh nach biodh tairis. 

I used in my younger days to hear the following sung to a 
quaint, old-time air: 

O! theid mi 'nochd 

Dha t-ionnsuidh, 
O! theid mi 'nochd 

.una t-ionnsuidh; 
O! theid mi 'nochd 

'S ann far am bi thu, 
Ged bhiodh mile cuis ann. 

Ged bhiodh na dorsan duinte, 
Ged bhiodh na dorsan d\iinte; 
Ged bhiodh na dorsan air an glasadh 
Le 'n cuid bannan dubailt. 

It is a thousand pities that nearly all those beautiful old 
songs are so fragmentary. But this is largely owing to no 
proper effort having been made to preserve them when cir- 
cumstances were incomparably more favourable for that being 
done than now; and I feel that if but even a few lines of 
those sweet, old-time lyrics are rescued, important service to 
the cause of Highland song and sentiment is being performed, 
more particularly if — as it is hoped will some time be the case 
— such lines were to be accompanied by the charming melodies 
to which they were sung by the people, whose moods and 
manners they so vividly and so pleasingly bring before us. 

On this occasion the folklore of the district under contri- 
bution must be represented by a short tale which I have a 
recollection of hearing many years ago, and which I have 
since made numerous efforts to identify, but without success. 
I fear my version is rather fragmentary, but it is the best 
that I can make of the story, and I put it forward tentatively,, 
in the hope that it may arrest the attention of some one in a 
position to complete it. The tale is about " a bonnetlea? 

22 



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338 Gaelio Sooiety of Inverness. 

black-haired lad " — " Gille Maol Dubh " — a character that 
figures rather prominently in Celtic story. One such appears 
in the remarkable tragedy of "Clan Uisneachan and 
Deirdre " ; while " a bonnetless dark-haired lad " gets mixed 
up in some of the more modern legends. I have also heard 
some interesting traditions regarding " a bonnetless dark- 
haired lad/' from Kintail, who, on one occasion at least, 
overturned not less than nine Lowlanders in a squabble : — 

Sgeulachd air Gille Maol Dubh. 

Bha ann air aon uair gille bg ris an canadh an sluagh 
da 'm V aithn' e " An Gille Maol Dubh," bho 'n a bha e 
daonnan gun bhoineid, agus mar bu trie e gun chasbheairt. 
Chaochail a mhathair mu 'n robh e ach 6g, agus phos athair 
bean eile. Tha e coltach nach robh a mhuime gle mhath dha 
'n a' ghille dhubh. Bha i ga 'chumail a mach a' buachaill- 
eachd gu siorruidh, agus cha robh i ro-chaoimhneil dha leis 
a' bhiadh. Latha dhe na laithean, an deigh moran chruaidh- 
chais agus fhulangais, ghabh an gille maol dubh na 'cheann 
gu 'm fagadh e a dhachaidh, agus gu 'n d' thoireadh e an 
saoghal mor foidhe. Agus a' cheud chothrom a fhuair e thug 
e na buinn as. Chuir e seachad an oidhche sin comhla ri 
ceannaiche paca, air airigh, ann an comunn dhithis chaileagan 
dga, agus tha an sgeulachd ag innseadh gu 'n robh an oigribh 
gle thoilichte, agus gle chridheil 'an cuideachd a' cheile. 

Thainig a' mhaduinn 's ghabh an gille dubh 's an 
ceannuiche cead de na h-6ighean. Ach tha e coltach nach 
robh an gille dubh leth sgith dhe combanans na 'm 
boirionnach, oir tha e air innseadh gu 'n do ghabh e, goirid 
an deigh an airigh fhagail, am air dealachadh ris a' 
cheannuiche, a chum pilltinn a dh' ionnsuidh na 'n caileagan. 
Coma co-dhiu, cha deach' e fada air a thurus gus an do 
thachair e ri aireamh dhaoine fiadhaich — robairean a bha 
daonnan ri mort is meirle feadh na duthcha. Dh' iarr na 
robairean air a' ghille mhaol dhubh an leantuinn, ach bho 
nach bu taitneach idir leis an dol a mach a bh' aca, ghabh e a' 
cheud chothrom a thainig an rathad air cul a chinn a chur riu. 

An uair a dh' ionndrainn na robairean bhuatha fear a' 
chinn duibh ghabh iad eagal gu 'n innseadh e orra, agus thug 
iad as air a thoir. Thuig an gille dubh mar a bha ; agus 
bho 'n a chinn aige gu 'm marbhadh iad ena'm faigheadh 
iad greim air, faodar a bhi cinnteach gu 'n d' rinn e 'uile 
dhichioll air an seachnadh. Chaidh e an toiseach am folach 



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Poetry and Folklore from Lochness-side. 339 

ann an uaigh creige, ach air dha smaoineachadh nach robh e 
ro shabhailt ann an sin, thug e 'chasan as a rithisd. Tha e 
coltach gur e 'n oidhche a oh' aige, agus na 'chabhaig a' 
xuith 's a' leum a' teicheadh, tnuit e ann an cruibh-eisg, far 
'n do theab e a bhi air a bhathadh. Cha robh e ach eigneach 
air faighinn as a' chruibh-eisg an uair a bha a luchd-tbireachd 
<aig laimh. Theich e as a rithisd, agus an deigh dha a dhol 
troimh mhbran dhbrainnean agus dhoilgheasan, thainig e gu 
seann sabhall, ann a' monadh ard, fada, fada, bho thighean 
agus bho shluagh. Chaidh e a stigh, agus dh' fholaich e e 
fein air lobht a bha anns an t-sabhall. 

Cha b' fhada a bha e 'an sin an uair a thainig na 
robairean a stigh, agus beathach mairt aca a ghlac iad air an 
cuairt. Dh' fhionn iad am beathach mairt, agus theann iad 
ri a rbsdadh air teine m^^a bheothaich iad ann an ceann an 
t-sabhaill. Mar bha cuici dhiu ris a' Ghocaireachd bha cuid 
*>ile dhiu a' cunntadh airgid agus 6ir, air an t-seorsa buird a 
bh' aca. Bhuail eagal mor an gille dubh. Thuig e le beag 
is beag, gu 'm b' e 'm bothan sabhaill fear de dh' aiteachan 
cbmhnuidh nan robairean, agus gu 'm biodh iad a' tighinn a 
chodal far an robh e, 's gu 'm faigheadh iad e. Bha e ro- 
choltach nach robh ann da ach bas aithghearra, sgreatail ; 
ach thug e bbid gu 'n deanadh e a h-uile dichioll a b' urra 
dha air a bheatha fhein a shabhaladh. 

Leis na smuainteanan sin air a bheachd, gu de da 'n 
d' thug e an aire mu 'n cuairt da ach mbran bhoicionnan is 
chraicionnan dhe gach seorsa, 's ag eirigh air a chosan 
charaich e mu 'cheann 's mu 'chorp de 'bhoicionnan 's de 
'chraicionnan na V urra dha a ghiulan^ agus a' dol gu 
braighe na staidhre bha eadar an lobht' agus iirlar an 
t-sabhaill, ghlaodh e le guth ard, garg: " Mo chlann, mo 
chlann ghaolaich fein, is maith a tha sibh a' deanamh mo 
thoil, agus bithidh sibh n' ur clann domh gu siorruidh. 'S 
ann a tha mi gu dearbh an dbchas gu 'm bi sibh a nochd fein 
maille rium-sa far am faigh sibh Ian dhuais airson 'ur 
seirbhis." 

Shaoil le na robairean gu 'm h' e am Fear-millidh fhein 
gun teagamh a bha a' bruidhinn riu, agus b' i 'chois bu luaithe 
cois bu dilse leis gach fear 's a' chomhlan, a' teicheadh le a 
bheatha. Anns an upraid a thachair cha robh cuirnhn' air 
an airgiod na air an or a bha na robairean a' cunntadh, agus 
dh' fhag iad a h-uile bonn diu air a' bhord. Thainig an gille 
maol dubh a mhan air a sheachd socair, agus cha do chiurr e 



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340 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

a chogais an t-airgiod agus an t-6r a chur na 'phoca. An 
deigh sin chaidh e dhachaidh gu duthaich athair 's a mhuime. 
Phos e — cha 'n 'eil e air innseadh co-dhiu nighean righ na 
nighean duine bochd. Chuir e an corr de a laithean seachad 
ann an toil-inntinn agus an greadhnachas ; 's mar tha 'n 
sean-fhocal ag raite, mar do chaocKail e bho sin tha e beo 
fhathasd. 



4th DECEMBER, 1903. 

EARLY MONUMENTS AND ARCHAIC ART OF 
SCOTLAND. 

The members of the Society assembled on this date in the 
Waverley Hotel to hear a lecture from Professor W. M. Ramsay, 
D.C.L., Aberdeen, on the "Early. Monuments and Archaic 
Art of Scotland/' Among those who have given attention to 
such subjects the lecture excited great interest. It was known 
that last summer Professor Ramsay had been in the district 
examining ancient sculptured stones, and there was consider- 
able curiosity to ascertain what opinions had been formed 
regarding them by a scholar and investigator of his wide 
experience. During his present visit he was the guest of Mr 
William J. Watson, M.A., rector of the Royal Academy. 
At the meeting Mr William Mackay, solicitor, was called to 
the chair. 

Professor Ramsay held the attention of his audience by a 
masterly lecture which extended over an . hour. He was 
assisted in his exposition by lantern views, skilfully shown 
by Mr Ogston. There are three classes of ancient monumental 
art found in the north-east district. The first are incised 
figures of animals, like the boar-stone at Essich, near Inver- 
ness, and the bulls at Burghead; the second are representa- 
tions of objects, such as the spectacle ornament (so-called) and 
the floreated rod ; the third the beautiful Celtic stones bearing 
the cross, interlaced work, and scriptural or religious subjects. 
What is the history of these forms of art, and what relation, 
if any, do they bear to one another? Professor Ramsay dealt 
chiefly with the first named as the most ancient and original. 
He described the boar-stone at Essich as the most important 



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Early Monuments and Archaic Art of Scotland. 341 

monument of its kind in Scotland. A view of it having been 
thrown on the screen, he pointed out the simplicity of the 
-design, and the economy of the means to the end. There was 
not a single line wasted; there was no line which you could 
eliminate without losing something of the effect, and yet all 
the essentials of the boar were indicated with firmness, clear- 
ness, and sureness. The work has all the character of an early 
primitive time, showing neither helpless barbarism nor rude 
imitation of better work. There lay a long period of training 
behind it. The draughtsman had learned what he could do, 
he knew exactly how much he could accomplish, and did not 
aim beyond that. There was not in his mind any lofty 
intention which he was struggling only half effectually to 
bring out. He was content to do what he knew he could do. 
All this implied cultivation for generations, and a thorough 
knowledge of what the hand could accomplish in expressing 
the thoughts of the mind. The most characteristic feature 
was the lines on the surface of the body, marking off the upper 
part of the fore and hind legs. The artist had a horror of a line 
coming to an end abruptly on the surface of the body. This he 
avoided by the device of turning his line at the end into a 
curve. A convention like that was in itself the product of a 
long process of art training. I>r Ramsay had next thrown on 
the screen specimens of the Burghead bulls, the illustrations 
!>eing taken from Mr Romilly Allen's recent book. He had 
to point out that these illustrations, not being photographs, 
exaggerated the breadth of the lines, and otherwise failed to 
do justice to the primitive artist's handiwork. They would 
see, however, that the bulls were of the same type of art as 
that which was seen in the boar at Inverness. There was the 
same conventional outline of a leg against the body, the same 
love for transforming the end of a line into a little curve, the 
same economy of means and distinctness of intention. In 
every case the curves above mentioned had a distinct function, 
a distinct use, from the point of view of the draughtsman. 
They were intended to bring out the distinction between the 
upper part of the leg and the body against which the leg was 
seen. Generally when an art became conventional it ceased 
to be also natural. But this was not the case with these 
specimens of early Scottish art. Every animal from the 
Burghead series had a distinct attitude : each one was studied 
from the life separately from the rest. The artist drew the 
actual animal as he saw it in nature ; he represented what he 



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342 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

saw, making use no doubt of certain conventions, but in such 
a way as to bring out the meaning and to give a life-like 
picture. Among further illustrations were a long-horned ox 
or cow from Inverness, and the figure of a wolf from the 
Inverness Museum. There were several other monuments of 
similar artistic character — a stag, fish, eagle, a horse, two or 
three kinds of birds — all common animals of the country. 
These animals were frequently accompanied by figures of a 
different class — circles, combinations of circles, or combina- 
tions of straight lines (spectacle ornaments, etc). He wished 
to avoid the word "symbols," which was ordinarily used in 
describing these figures. He did not think they were symbols. 
He felt no doubt that they represented articles from the 
artist's ordinary surroundings, many of them personal orna- 
ments, as the hand-mirror and comb. Some might be religious 
utensils used in sacrifice, but which were put upon the 
monument not with the view of symbolising religious facts 
and ideas, but simply because they were a common part of 
the ordinary life of the time. The artist tried to represent 
particular objects as well as he could, but he did not express 
a meaning or tell a story. The dramatic side was entirely 
wanting. As to the origin of this early art they could do 
little more than conjecture. It had nothing of that European 
character of which the highest development was found in the 
Gaelic art of Ireland; none of its fundamental forms, the 
elaborate spirals and interlaced work. This primitive Scottish 
art was something quite unique in Europe. It had a spirit 
and tone more akin to Eastern than to European art. But 
while there was a slight suggestion of Oriental character, yet 
as regards details, method, and execution, he found it 
extremely difficult to get any analogy. There was one slight 
resemblance in a silver vase, probably of the second century, 
which was found in a tumulus in the southern part of Russia. 
The figure of a lion there showed a similar device for indicating 
the boundary between the upper part of the leg and the body. 
But this analogy was slight and imperfect at best. Besides, 
the Scythian art was an imitation and degeneration of Greek 
art, whereas the old Scottish work was a true art, working 
direct from nature, though employing devices that were tradi- 
tional and of long growth. His conclusion was that the 
Scottish art was a native growth from the beginning, and of a 
people of non-Celtic stock. There was nothing in it of a 
Celtic character. We come to that in the time of the 



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Early Monuments and Archaic Art in Scot/and. 343 

Columban Church, when Celtic art was introduced from 
Ireland. There we have art not for itself, but entirely for 
the sake of the meaning which lay in it. These Gaelic artists 
lived in a world of imagination, of ideals, of religious con- 
templation and intellectual interests. Their art was the 
creation of the Celtic mind elevated by the first experience of 
Christianity to the loftiest place on which it has ever stood. 
The fullest results were to be attained by the amalgamation of 
the two racial characteristics. The one would give a fine 
sense of form and grace in shape and outline, and truth to 
nature; the other would contribute the emotion and intel- 
lectuality that looks behind nature for the divine and super- 
natural, that selects, idealises, and becomes dramatic; that 
seeks meaning in form and through form; that puts the 
beautiful soul in the beautiful outline. 

Mr James Barron, in proposing a vote of thanks- to 
Professor Ramsay, said they had all listened with the greatest 
pleasure and profit to the lecture which had just been 
delivered. They felt deeply indebted to Professor Ramsay, a 
man of so much distinction and world-wide reputation, for 
coming to Inverness to address the Gaelic Society. They felt 
also that in his lecture he had shown them a fine example of 
the scientific spirit and the application of scientific methods. 
Not only so, but he had given them a great deal of fresh 
information, and had placed the whole subject in a new light. 
The lecture was one which they would not readily forget. 

Dr Alexander Ross, in seconding the motion, likewise 
expressed his cordial appreciation of the lecture. 

In answer to a question as to the origin of the primitive 
Scottish art, Professor Ramsay said that he could see no other 
possible origin except that it was a development from the art 
of the cave-dwellers. 



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MEMBERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



HONORARY CHIEFTAINS. 

Alexander Macbain, M.A., LL.D., rector, High (Secondary) School, 

Inverness 
William Mackay, solicitor, Inverness 
Duncan Campbell, editor, " Northern Chronicle," Inverness 
Alex. Carmichael, F.S.A., 32 Polwarth Gardens, Edinburgh 
William Mackenzie, secretary, Crofters' Commission, Edinburgh 
William J. Watson, M.A., (Aber.), B.A. (Oxon.), Rector, Royal 

Academy, Inverness 

LIFE MEMBERS. 

Baillie, James E. B., of Dochfour. 

Bignold, Sir Arthur, M.P., of Lochrosque, Ross-shire 

Brodie, W. A. G., 15 Rutland Square, Edinburgh 

Burgess, Peter, Craven Estates Office, Coventry 

Cromartie, The Countess of, Tarbet House, Ross-shire 

Dewar, John A., M.P., Abercairney, Crieff, Perthshire 

Falconer, J. J. Maclennan, St Anns, Lasswade 

Ferguson, R. C. Munro, of Novar, M.P. 

Fletcher, J. Douglas, of Rosehaugh 

Finlay, Sir Robert, K.C., Phillemore Gardens, London 

Grant, Ian Murray, of Glenmoriston 

Grant, J. P., of Rothiemurchus 

Little John, Alexander, of Invercharron, Bonar- Bridge . 

Lord Lovat, Right Hon., Beaufort Castle, Beauly 

Macdonald, Lachlan, of Skaebost, Skye 

Mackay, Donald, Reay House, Hereford 

Mackay, George F., Roxburgh, Otago, New Zealand 

Mackenzie, Sir Allan R., of Kintail, Bart. 

Mackenzie, Sir Kenneth J., Bart, of Gairloch, Ross-shire 

Mackenzie, Thomas, Dailuaine House, Carron, Strathspey 

Mackenzie, W. D., of Glen Kyllachy and Fair, Inverness 

Maclean, Lachlan, Cape Town, Africa 

Macleod of Macleod, Sir Reginald, 50 Draycott Place, London. 

Matheson, Sir Kenneth, of Lochalsh, Bart. 

Munro, Sir Hector, of Fowlis, Bart. 

Ross, John M., 2 Devonshire Gardens, Glasgow 

Scobie, Captain N., late of Fearn, Ross-shire 

Sive wright, Sir James, K.C.M.G., Cape Colony, Africa 

AVatts, Mrs Mary Seton, Lunnerlease, Guildford, Surrey 

Yule, Miss Amy Frances, Tarradale House, Ross-shire 



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346 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Anderson, Simon, Penang Sugar Estates Coy., Penang 

Baillie, Lieut-Col. Augustus C, Kirklands, Melrose 

Bartholomew, John, Advocate, 60 Castle Street, Edinburgh 

Brown, Chas. Marshall, Manager, Caledonian Bank, Inverness 

Burgess, Alexander, Caledonian Bank, Gairloch 

Cameron, Capt. D. W., of Lochiel, Achnacarry, Spean- Bridge 

Cameron, Ludovic C. R., Erracht, Banavie 

Cameron, Major Ewen, D.C., late R.A., London 

Cameron, Sir Ewen, Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Coy., London 

Campbell, Duncan, editor, " Northern Chronicle," Inverness 

Campbell, J. A., Trinity College, Cambridge 

Chisholm, Roderick Gooden, Whincroft, Wimborne, London 

Davidson, Major, of Can tray 

Davidson, Sheriff, Fort- William 

Falconer, Dr J., St Ann's, Lasswade, Midlothian 

Grant, Alex., Maryhill, Inverness 

Grant, Hugh, Victoria Terrace, Inverness 

Grant, Ian Macpherson, yr. of Ballindalloch, Kingussie 

Jackson, Mrs E. M., of Swordale, Ross-shire 

Lord Kyllachy, The Hon , Edinburgh 

MacCaskill, John, Factor, Gairloch 

Macdonald, Lieut. -Col. T. R., The Haven, Inverness 

Macdonald, John, The Hotel, Altnancealgach, Lairg 

Macdonald, John, Topeka, Kansas, U.S.A. 

Macdougall, Miss C. E., Canaan Lodge, Canaan Lane, Edinburgh 

Maceachern, Rev. Dugald, M.A., Coll 

Mackay, Eric, 7 Royal Exchange, London, E.C. 

Mackay, William, solicitor, Union Street, Inverness 

Mackenzie, Mackay D., Clifton, Bristol 

Mackenzie, Simon, The Hotel, Lochboisdale, S. Uist 

Mackintosh, Angus, of Holme 

Mackinnon, Dr J., Somerset East, Cape Colony 

Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Moyhall 

Mackintosh, M. A. Geddes, Nairn 

Mackintosh, Andrew, Canada Verde, Argentine 

Mackintosh, Duncan, Franklin, Pennsylvania 

Mackintosh, Neil R., of Raigmore 

Macleod, Rev. Dr Norman, Ravenswood, Inverness 



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Members. 347 

Macniven, Duncan, Procurator-Fiscal, Fort-William 

Macpherson, Charles J. B., of Bellville, Kingussie 

Macpherson, Duncan J., of Glentruim, Kingussie 

Macpherson of Cluny, Albert Cameron, Cluny Castle, Kingussie 

Macritchie, D., C.A., 4 Archibald Place, Edinburgh 

Matheson, Major Duncan, of the Lewis 

Menzies. A. J. P., S.S.C., Queen Street, Edinburgh 

Morrison, G., 4 Hastings Street, Calcutta 

Morrison, Hew, LL.D., Edinburgh 

Pollock, Captain J. B., " The Black Watch," Fort-George 

Robertson, John L., H.M. Inspector of Schools, Inverness 

Wimberley, Captain D., Ardross Terrace, Inverness 

ORDINARY MEMBERS. 

Anderson, John, solicitor, Stornoway 

Atkin, Captain Percy H., 3 Plowden Buildings, Temple, London 

Barrett, Mrs, 3 Duncairn Terrace, Bray, Co. Wicklow 

Barron, R. A., The High School, Oban 

Barron, James, editor, " Inverness Courier," Inverness 

Batchen, Geo., Castle Street, Inverness. 

Batchen, Thomas M., C.E., Clooney Villa, Londonderry 

Beaton, M., H.M.I.S., Inverness 

Bentinck, Rev. Chas. D., E.C. Manse, Kirkhill, Inverness 

Beveridge, Erskine, LL.D,, St. Leonard's Hill, Dunfermline 

Birkbeck, Robert, 20 Berkeley Square, London 

Bisset, Rev. Alexander, Chapel House, Nairn 

Black, F. A., solicitor, Inverness 

Brand, Kenneth J., solicitor, Inverness 

Brook-Eyre, Rev. Canon, Inverness 

Buchanan, F. C, Clarinnish, Row, Helensburgh 

Burness, Charles, Kilcoy, North Kessock 

Burnett, J. R., Academy Buildings, Inverness 

Butter, D., assistant accountant, Highland Railway, Inverness 

Cameron, Alex., Highland Railway, Inverness 

Cameron, Colin, ironmonger, High Street, Inverness 

Cameron, D., Ardlarach, Culduthel Road, Inverness 

Cameron, D., merchant, Muir of Ord 

Cameron, Dr, Firhall, Nairn 

Cameron, John, bookseller, Union Street, Inverness 

Cameron, Kenneth, factor, Ullapool 

Cameron, Miss M. E., of Innseagan, Fort- William 

Cameron, Paul, Blair-Atholl 



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348 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Campbell, Dr, Oban 

Campbell, Donald, merchant, Kingussie 

Campbell, Provost Ewen, Kingussie 

Campbell, Fraser, County Temperance Hotel, Stockton-on-Tees 

Campbell, Mrs G. H., Plainfield, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

Campbell, Sheriff, Portree 

Campbell, James, builder, Ardross Place, Inverness 

Carmichael, Alexander, 32 Pol worth Gardens, Edinburgh 

Chisholm, Rev. Father, Eskdale, by Beauly 

Chisholm, chief constable, Dornoch 

Clarke, J. S., Heathcote, Lenzie 

Clarke, Miss, Achareidh, Nairn 

Connell, Rev D., U.F. West Church, Inverness 

Cook, John, commission agent, 21 Southside Road, Inverness 

Cook, Robert, Shore Street, Inverness 

Cowan, Robert, manager, Erchless 

Cran, John, Kirkton, Bunchrew 

dimming, John, Knockie Villa, Beaufort Road, Inverness 

Cumming, William, Allanfearn, Inverness 

Darwin, the Rev. Arthur, Empton, Bury St. Edmunds 

Davidson, D., Waverley Hotel, Inverness 

Dewar, Alexander, solicitor, Dingwall 

Dewar, John, M.B., CM., Portree 

Dey, Robert, M.A., Berryhill Public School, Wishaw 

Farquharson, Major J., Caledonian U.S. Club, Edinburgh 

Findlater, A. K. (of Messrs Macdonald <fc Mackintosh), Inverness 

Finlayson, Captain, chief constable, Dingwall 

Finlayson, R., Ardjachie, Tain 

Forsyth, John H., Southside Road, Inverness 

Fraser, Alex., Millburn Distillery, Inverness 

Fraser, Alex., draper, High Street, Inverness 

Fraser, Alexander, solicitor, Inverness 

Fraser, Alexander, grocer, Tomnahurich Street, Inverness 

Fraser, Alexander, Kineras Lodge, Woodlawn Avenue, Toronto 

Fraser, D. Munro, H.M.I.S., Glasgow 

Fraser, D. P., commission agent, Murray Place, Haugh 

Fraser, Hugh, Armadale Cottage, Greig Street, Inverness 

Fraser, Dr Hugh E., Royal Infirmary, Dundee 

Fraser, James, C.E., Inverness 

Fraser, John, draper, 44 High Street, Nairn 

Fraser, Rev. Alex., U.F. Manse, Broadford, Skye. 

FrMor, Rev. J., Erchless, by Beauly 

Fraser, Roderick, contractor, Argyle Street, Inverness 



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Members. 349 

Fraser, Simon H., Southside Road, Inverness 

Fraser, Thos., 82 George Street, Edinburgh 

Fraser, William (of Messrs Keith & Co.), Inverness 

Gibson, Thomas (of Messrs Mactavish & Gibson), Inverness 

Gillanders, Andrew, M.A., The Schoolhouse, Portree 

Gillanders, K. A., grocer, Queensgate, Inverness 

Gossip, James A., Knowsley, Inverness 

Graham, Hugh M., solicitor, Church Street, Inverness 

Grant, C. A., Merchant, Drumnadrochit 

Grant, Macpherson, A., The Castle, Ballindalloch 

Grant, Macpherson, G. B., The Castle, Ballindalloch 

Grant, James, commercial traveller, Arthur & Co., Glasgow 

Grant, Rev. Donald, D.D., Dornoch 

Grant, Colonel Robert, Beanachan, Carr-Bridge 

Grant, R. M., manager, " Chronicle " Office, Inverness 

Grant, William, Gresham Insurance Office, London 

Harvey, William, The Schoolhouse, Munlochy 

Henderson, Rev. Dr George, The Manse, Eddrachilles 

Henderson, John, factor for Rosehaugh, Fortrose 

Hutton, A. W., coachbuilder, 34 Chichester Street, Belfast 

Innes, A. Lee, Kingsmills, Inverness 

Johnson, Lieut., H.M.S. Briton, Inverness 

Kemp, Wm. (Messrs Strothers & Coy.), Inverness 

Kennedy, A., G.N. of Scotland Railway Company, Inverness 

Kennedy, Chas., Stores Superintendent, Highland Railway, Inverness 

Kennedy, Rev. John, Caticol Manse, Lochranza, Arran 

Kerr, Dr, Inverness 

Kirkaldy, Geo. W., Honolulu, Hawaii 

Lamont, Rev. D., M.A., The Manse, Glen-Urquhart. 

Lang, Dr Gordon, Inverness 

Lindsay, Professor W. M., The University, St Andrews 

Livingston, Colin, Fort-William 

Macarthur, Alex., Texa Villa, Inverness 

Macbain, A., LL,D., rector, High (Secondary) School, Inverness 

Macbean, William, ex-Provost, 35 Union Street, Inverness 

Macbeth, R. J., architect, Queensgate, Inverness 

Macallum, Henry V., solicitor, Queensgate, Inverness 

Maccallum, John, Volunteer Arms Hotel, Inverness 

Macdiarmid, Rev. A., M.A., 26 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh 

Macdiarmid, James, Morenish, Killen 

Macdiarmid, J., M.A., The Academy, Grantown-on-Spey 

Macdonald, Alex., Accountant, Highland Railway, Inverness 

Macdonald, Alex., Glenlochy Distillery, Fort- William 



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"350 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Macdonald, A. R. D., Hubert Place, Lancaster 

Macdonald, Dr Alex., Olive Lodge, Pol worth, Edinburgh 

Macdonald, Alexander, H.M.I.S., Inverness 

Macdonald, Rev. A. J., M.A , Killearnan, North Kessock 

Macdonald, Rev. A., E.C. Manse, Kiltarlity 

Macdonald, Rev. D. J., Killean Manse, Muasdale, Kintyre 

Macdonald, Dr D., Glen-Urquhart 

Macdonald, Ewen, Lyminge, Kent 

Macdonald, H, Accountant's Office, Highland Railway, Inverness 

Macdonald, James, builder contractor, Kingussie 

Macdonald, Donald, flesher, Union Street, Inverness 

Macdonald, John, chief constable, Inverness 

Macdonald, J. E., clothier, Bridge Street, Inverness 

Macdonald, Kenneth, town-clerk, Inverness 

Macdonald, Murdo, C.E., Nile Water Works, Assuan, Egypt 

Macdonald, Prof. A. A., Lochgarry Lodge, Bunbury Road, Oxford 

Maodonald, Ronald, solicitor, Portree 

Macdonald, William, contractor, George Street, Inverness 

Macdonell, Rev. Father, St. Benedict's Abbey, Fort-Augustus 

Maedougall, Rev. R., Resolis Invergordon 

Mace wan, A. M., solicitor, Inverness 

Macewan, John, Trafford Bank, Fairfield Road, Inverness 

Maefarlane, And., sporranmaker, Kingussie 

Maefarlane, Malcolm, 1 Maefarlane Place, Elderslie 

Macgillivray, Rev. Mr, The Manse, Petty 

Macgregor, John, Kingussie 

Machardy, Alex., chief constable, The Castle, Inverness 

Macintyre, P. B., Findon, Ross-shire 

Macintyre, Peter, 6 Parliament Square, Edinburgh 

Mackay, ^Eneas, bookseller, Stirling 

Mackay, Charles, contractor, Dempster Gardens, Inverness 

Mackay, Donald, Braemore, Dunbeath 

Mackay, Donald, The Schoolhouse, Maryburgh 

Mackay, Dr, Lochcarron 

Mackay, John, editor, " Celtic Monthly," Glasgow 

Mackay, Thomas A., British Linen Coy.'s Bank, Edinburgh 

Mackay, William, bookseller, High Street, Inverness 

Mackay, Walter, National Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh 

Mackenzie, Alex., Dochfour Estates Office, Inverness 

Mackenzie, Rev. C, U.F.C. Manse, Badcaul, Ullapool 

Mackenzie, D. F., solicitor, Inverness 

Mackenzie, Dr, Castle Street, Inverness 



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Members. 351 

Mackenzie, Evan N. B., yr. of Kilcoy, Belmaduthy House, Munlochy 

Mackenzie, Dr F. M., Inverness 

Mackenzie, Mrs Isabel, Silverwells, Inverness 

Mackenzie, Bailie John, Union Street, Inverness 

Mackenzie, John, merchant, Castle Street, Inverness 

Mackenzie, Sir A. G. K., Bart, of Coul, Ross-shire 

Mackenzie, William, secretary, Crofters' Commission, Edinburgh 

Mackenzie, William, clothier, Bridge Street, Inverness 

Mackenzie, William, Procurator-Fiscal, Dingwall 

Mackinnon, Alexander D., solicitor, Portree 

Mackinnon, Finlay, Artist, Poolewe 

Mackintosh, Andrew, H.M. Customs, Inverness 

Mackintosh, D, J., Huntly Street, Inverness 

Mackintosh, John, solicitor, Queensgate, Inverness 

Mackintosh, Rev. John, Free Church Manse, Fort-William. 

Mackintosh, Rev. A., Chapel House, Fort-William 

Mackintosh, Lachlan, merchant, Kingussie 

Mackintosh, Miss M. A., of Mackintosh, Edinburgh 

Mackintosh, P. T., Milton, Drumnadrochit 

Mackintosh, R. L., wine merchant, Bridge Street, Inverness 

Mackintosh, William, Fife Estate Office, Banff 

Maclagan, R. C , M.D., 5 Coates Crescent, Edinburgh 

Maclean, Alex., The Schoolhouse, Culloden 

Maclean, Rev. Donald, St Columba Free Manse, Edinburgh 

Mac iean, Ewen, Lyon's Court, Academy Street, Inverness 

Maclean, Rev. Norman, The Manse, Colinton 

Maclean, Roderick, C.A., Union Street, Inverness 

Macleish, D., banker, Fort- William 

Maclennan, Alex., flesher, New Market, Inverness 

Maclennan, Dr, Lochinver, Sutherland 

Maclennan, John, M.A., rector, Dundee Academy 

Maclennan, Rev. D. S., The Manse, Laggan, Kingussie 

Macleod, Angus, Union Hotel, Inverness 

Macleod, Angus D., Bellsfield Hotel, Windermere 

Macleod, G. G., teacher, Gledfield Public School, Ardgay 

Macleod, John, 20 Hamilton Street, Inverness 

Macleod, John, Public School, Drumsmittal, North Kessock 

Macleod, John, M.A., The Schoolhouse, Lairg 

Macleod, M. D., M.B., of Beverley, Yorkshire 

Macleod, Neil, 22 Viewforth Gardens, Edinburgh 

Macleod, R., clothier, East Gate, Inverness 

Macleod, William C, 55 West Regent Street, Glasgow 

Macnab, John, teacher, Kilmuir, Portree 



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352 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

Macnaughton, Dr, Stonehaven 

Macneill, Rev. J. G., Free Church Manse, Cawdor 

Macphail, I. R. N„ advocate, 87 Great King Street, Edinburgh 

Macphail, Rev. J. S., Queen Street, Nairn 

Macphail, S. R., M.D., Derby Borough Asylum, Derby 

Macpherson, Duncan, Inverguseran, Knoydart 

Macpherson, D., postmaster, Falkirk 

Macpherson, Miss E. Phoineas, Braid Road, Edinburgh 

Macpherson, Lachlan, 41 Restalrigg Terrace, Leith 

Macqueen, Rev. John, Chapel House, Inverness 

Macqueen, William, Baron Taylor's Lane, Inverness 

Macrae, Kenneth, Sheriff-Clerk, Portree 

Macrae, Miss C. F., 2 Circus Gardens, Edinburgh 

Macrae, Rev. Farquhar, M.A., E.C. Manse, Glenorchy, Dalmally 

Macrae, Rev. A., Free Church Manse, Clachan, Kintyre 

Macrae, R., posting master, Beauly 

Macrae, John, solicitor, Dingwall 

Macrury, Rev. John, Snizort, Skye 

Mactavish, Alexander, Ironmonger, Castle Street, Inverness 

Mactavish, Duncan, Academy Street, Inverness 

Mactavish, P. D., solicitor, Inverness 

Macvean, C. S., Kilfinichen House, Penny ghael, Mull 

Masson, Rev. Dr Donald, 36 Comiston Drive, Edinburgh 

Matheson, J., Ordnance Survey, Edinburgh 

Maxwell, Thomas Edward Hall, of Dargavel, Dunolly, Inverness 

Medlock, Arthur, Bridge Street, Inverness 

Menzies, Duncan, farmer, Blairich, Rogart 

Middleton, J. M., solicitor, Inverness 

Mitchell, Alex., 28 Market Street, Aberdeen 

Morgan, Arthur, 6. Parliament Square, Edinburgh. 

Morrison, Angus, 16 Union Street, Inverness 

Morrison, Rev. Angus J., M.A., The Manse, Moy 

Morrison, Dr, Larkhall 

Munro, Rev. George M., The Manse, Insh, Kingussie 

Munro, Neil, Carnus, Gourock 

Munro, Rev. George, F.C. Manse, Ferintosh 

Munro, Thos., architect, Inverness 

Murray, D., commercial traveller, Inverness 

Murray, S. R. (of Messrs Murray & Watson), Inverness 

Nairne, David, sub-editor, " Northern Chronicle," Inverness 

Newlands, Alex., Highland Railway, Inverness 

Oberbeck, C, Alexandra Hotel, Inverness 

Paterson, Rod., town chamberlain, Inverness 



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Members^ 353 

Ritchie, Rev. R. L., Creich, Sutherlandsbire 

Robertson, Allan S., Commercial Hotel, Dingwall 

Robertson, John, Parish Council Offices, Fort- William 

Robertson, Rev. Charles M., Inverness 

Robson, A. Mackay, 36 London Street, Edinburgh. 

Rose, D., Ardross Place, Inverness 

Ross, A. M., editor, " Northern Herald," Wick 

Ross, ex-Provost Alex., LL.D., Inverness 

Ross, David, solicitor, Church Street, Inverness 

Ross, G. A., Rhynie, Ross-shire 

Ross, Robert, Gellion's Hotel, Inverness 

Ross, William A., solicitor, Stornoway 

Rusterholtz, J., manager, Palace Hotel, Inverness 

Scott, Thomas, Rhifail, Kinbrace 

Sellar, Geo., merchant, Kingussie 

Shand, J. Harvey, 38 Northumberland Street, Edinburgh 

Shaw, James T., Gordonbush, Brora 

Shaw, William, Royal Hotel, Dingwall 

Shirres, George Buchan, Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambriige 

Sinclair, Rev. A. Maclean, Belfast, Prince Edward Island 

Sinton, Rev. Thomas, Dores, Inverness 

Smith, J., writer, Queensgate, Inverness 

Souter, J. F., agent, Commercial Bank, Inverness 

Steele, A. F., agent, Bank of Scotland, Inverness 

Steven, Frank, Caledonian Hotel, Inverness 

Stevenson, W., Collector of Customs, Inverness 

Stewart, Ex-Provost, Dingwall 

Strachan, Professor, Hilton Park, near Manchester 

Stuart, Rev. Alex., E.C. Manse, Daviot 

Swan, D. Cameron, F.S.A. (Scot.), Sanderstead, Surrey 

Thomson, Hugh, stockbroker, Inverness 

Urquhart, And., M.A., Rosehall, Invershin 

Urquhart, J., The Hotel, Uig, Skye 

Walker, A., H.M.I.S., Aberdeen 

Watson, William J., M.A., rector, Royal Academy, Inverness 

Whitehead, F. W., Drummuir House, Inverness 

Woolfenden, Wm., Star Hotel, Kingussie 

Young, David, secretary, Caledonian Bank, Inverness 

Young, John (of Young & Chapman, drapers), Inverness 

23 



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354 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 

Cameron, Donald, of Lochiel 

Cameron, Neil R., Church Street, Inverness 

Crerar, Alexander, ex-Provost, Kingussie 

Fraser, John, Haugh, Inverness 

Grant, Rev. J., The Manse, Kilmuir, Skye 

Grant, Dr Ogilvie, Inverness 

Macaulay, chief constable, Dingwall 

Macdonald, Rev. Father Allan, Eriskay 

Macdonald, John, The Stores, Castle Street, Inverness 

Mackay, John, C.E., Hereford 

Macleod, Donald, Tarradale Hotel, Muir of Ord 

Macleod, Norman, 7 North Bank Street, Edinburgh 

Scott, Roderick, solicitor, Inverness 

Sutherland, John, Andersonian Institution, Forres 



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LIST OF BOOKS 



IN 



THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY 



A 

NAMES OF BOOKS. DONORS. 

Adhamh agus Eubh, by Lachlan Macbean Mr L. Macbean 
Agriculture, First Report of the Secretary 

of (1889) Mr J. P. Maclean 

Agriculture, Chemistry of. C. A. Cameron, 

M.D. (1857) ..... Mr John Murdoch 
Agricultural Class- Book. Rev. Mr Hickey 

(1862) ditto 

Annals, Ritson's, volumes I. and II. (1828) Sir Kenneth J. Mac- 
kenzie of Gairloch 
Antiquities, Ancient Caledonian. Rev. J. 

Macpherson, D.D.. Skye (1768) . Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

Apocrypha in Gaelic (tr.). Rev. A. Mac- 

gregor(1860) The Translator 

Avesbury, The Winged Sons of. Owen 

Morgan (Morien) (1901) (two copies) Mr J. Mackay, Hereford 

B 

Banking, The Elements of. H. D. Macleod, 

M.A. (1891) The Author 

Bardic Stories, The, of Ireland. Patrick 

Kennedy (1871) .... Mr John Murdoch 

Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica. John Reid) Ml L J ° hn , M f>kay, 
(1833) (two copU.). . . .^^SSSXj,, 



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356 



Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



NAMES OP BOOKS. 

Bible, English and Irish, from Genesis to 
Joshua. Rev. John MacHale (1868) 
Biobla Noamtha (Irish), partly MS. . 

Biobul, Old (1823) 

Biobla Noamhtba (Bedel) (1817) . 
Biobull Noamhtha (1855) 
Biobla Naomhtha (Bedel) (1685) . 
Biobla Noamhtha (Bedel) (Irish) (1830) . 
Bible (Welsh) (1859) .... 
Bishop MacDonell. J. A. MacDonell of 

Greenfield ..... 
BliadhnaThearlaich. JohnMackenzie(1844) 
Bride of Lammermoor, Illustrations from 

(1875) . . 
Brigade, The Highland. Jas. Cromb (1886) 
Britannia, The Light of. Owen Morgan 

(Morien) 

Bull " Ineffabilis," The, in Latin, English, 

Gaelic, and French. Rev. U. J. 

Burke (1868) 

Boston agus na Mairtirich. Aonghas 

Macdhomhnuill (1863) . . 
Burke, Edmund, The Works of (8 vols.) ) 

(1808) J 

Burt's Letters from the North of Scotland) 

(Jamieson edition) (1876). . J 
Bute Docks, The. John M'Connachie, 

C.E. (1876) 



Canon Bourke 

J. Mackenzie, M!D., of 

Eileanach 
Mr L. Macbean. 

Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

Mr A. R. MacRaild 
Mr L. Mackintosh 



Mr Alex. Mackenzie 

Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 
ditto 

Canon Bourke 

Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 
Mr Colin Chisholm, 

Inverness 
L. Macdonald of 

Skaebost 

The Author. 



Caledonian Medical Journal (incomplete) 

(April 1896 to date). 
Carmina Gadelica. Alex.Carmichael (1 900) 
Celtic Gleanings. Rev. Thos. Maclauch- 

lan(l857) 

Celtic Language, Affinity between the 

Hebrew and the. Thos. Stratton, 

M.D. (third edition) (1872) 
Celtic Language, The History of. L. 

Maclean. F.O.S. (1840) . 



Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 
Dr Maclauchlan 



The Author 



Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 



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Library. 



357 



NAMES OF BOOKS. 

Celtic Magazine, vol. iii., iv., v., vi., vii., 

viii., ix., x., xi., xii., and xiii. . 
Celtic Origin of Greek and Latin. Thos. 

Stratton (1870) .... 
Celtic Eace and Language, The Aryan 

Origin of. Rev. U. J. Bourke, 

M.R.I.A. (1875) .... 
Celts, The Literature of. M. Maclean, 

M.A., D.S.C 

Chronicles of Eri, Fragments from (Ger- 
man). O'Connor (1838) . 
Church of Scotland, The Ancient. Mac- 

kenzieE.C.Walcott,B.D.,F.S.A.(1874) 
Church, The Early Scottish. Rev. Thos. 

Maclachlan, D.D. (1865) . 
Clan Battle at Perth. A. Mackintosh 

Shaw (1874) 

Clan Donald. Vols. i. and ii. Revs. A. 

J. and A. Macdonald (1899-1900) . 
Celtic Tradition, Waifs and Strays of. 

Rev. J. G. Campbell (1895) . 
Clan Maclean, History of. J. P. Maclean, 

Cincinnatti (1889) . 
Clarsach an Doire. Neil Macleod (editions 

1883 and 1893) .... 
Clarsach nan Beann. Eobhann Maccolla 

(second edition, 1838) 
Club of True Highlanders, The Book of. 

C. N. Macintyre North (1881) . 
Coinneach 'us Coille, Songs and Poems in 

Gaelic. A.Macdonald, Inverness (1895) 
Comhraidhean 'an Gaidhlig 's 'am Beurla. 

Rev. D. Macinnes (1892) . 
Common Order, The Book of (Carsewell). 

(Maclachlan's edition, 1873) (Gaelic). 
Corso di Lingua Italiana. (1819) . 
Cuchullinn Saga, The, in Irish Literature. 

E. Hull, 1898 

Culdees, The History of. Rev. Duncan 

M'Callum (1855) . 



DONORS. 

The Publishers and 
Purchased 

Rev. Alex. Macgregor 



Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 

Messrs Blackie <fe Son 
\ Mr John Mackay, 
/ Ben Reay 
) Mr A. Burgess, Gair- 
j loch 

Rev. Dr Maclauchlan 

The Author 

The Authors 

Miss Yule, Tarradale 

Purchased 

The Author 

Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

Purchased 

The Author 

The Author 

Purchased 

Mr Chas. Fergusson 

Miss Yule, Tarradale 

Rev. A. Macgregor 



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358 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

D 

NAMES OP BOOKS. DONORS. 

Dam agus Orain, Gilleasbuig Grannda 

Gleannamoraisdain (two copies) Mr Charles Mackay 

Dain Spioradail. Rev. Jas. Macgregor . 
Dan an Deirg, etc. C. S. Jerram, M.A. 

(1874) (two copies) .... The Author. 
Dan Uile-Lathaireachd Dhe* (tr.) Rev. 

John Lees, A.M. (1837) (two copies) . J. Craigie, Dundee 
Dean of Lismore, The Book of. Rev. T. 

Maclachlan (1862) . . . Rev. Dr Maclauchlan* 

Dictionary, Gaelic and Euglish. Alex. 

Macdonald (1741) . . . . Rev. Alex. Macgregor 
Dictionary, Gaelic. A. Macbain, M.A., 

LL.D. (1896) The Author 

Dictionary, Gaelic, Highland Society's . Sir Ken. S. Mackenzie 

of Gairloch, Bart. 
Dictionary, Gaelic. Macdonald's (vols. i. 

to x.) . . . . . . The Publisher 

Dictionary, Gaelic. M'Alpine . . Maclachlan & Stewart 
Dictionary, Gaelic. Macleod and Dewar's 

(1830) Rev. Dr Maclachlan 

Dictionary, Gaelic. Shaw (1780) . . Rev. A. Macgregor. 
Disruption, The, Dialogues in Gaelic (tr.) 

Rev. Alex. Clark (1843) , . . Mr J. Craigie, Dundee- 
Doctrine, The Christian. Archbishop of 

Tuam ...... Mr C.Grant, Baltimore 

Druids, Toland's History of the. R. 

Huddleston (1814) .... Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 
Duain Ghaelig. Macdhun-Leibhe (1858) . Mr John Murdoch 

E 

Eachdraidh Beatha Chriosd. Iain Mac- 

ruairidh (1893) .... The Author 

Eachdraidh na h-Alba. Rev. A. Mac- 
kenzie (1867) (3 copies) . . . The Author. 

Earail Dhurachdach. J. Alliene (R. 
Baxter) 

Eisemplier Shoilleir. Ceasnuighe air 
Leabhar aithghearr nan Ceist (tr.) 
Leis an UrramachEoinWillison(1799) Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

Eminent Scotsmen, Chambers's Biography 

of. Vols. 1 to 9 (1859) . . . Mr A. R. Macraild 



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Library. 359 

NAMES OF BOOKS. DONORS. 

English Language, Gaelic Etymology of. 

Charles Mackay, LL.D. (1877) . . Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 

Epistles and Gospels, The Catholic, in 

various Celtic Languages . . . ditto 

p 

FairMaid of Perth, Illustrations from. ( 1 878) Miss Fraser, N.Berwick 
Fians, Fairies, and Picts. D. Macritchie 

(1893) ...... The Author. 

Fingal, The, of Ossian. Ewen Cameron \ A. H. F. Cameron, 

(1777) J Esq. of Lakefield 

Fingal, an Epic Poem. Archibald Mac- 

donald (1808) ditto 

L. Macbean and 
Fingal, Macpherson's (1762) (2 copies) .<l C. Fraser-Mackintosh, 



| L. Macbe 

, < C. Fraser 

( LL.D. 



Fingal's Cave. J. P. Maclean, Cincinnatti 

(1890) . . . . . Purchased 

Fulangais Chriosd. Duncan Macfarlane . Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

G 

Gael, Thoughts on the Origin and Descent 

of the. Jas. Grant (1614) . . ditto 

Gaelic Antiquities. Rev. John Smith, ) Col. Mackenzie of 
Kilbrandon (1780) . . . . j Parkmouut 

Gaelic Astronomy. D. M. Connell . . Mr Chas. Mackay 

Gaelic Charter, Photograph of. 1408 . Rev. Wm. Ross, Glas- 
gow 

Gaelic Journal (Irish), 1891 to date . . The Publishers 

Gaelic Language, Antiquity of. Rev. D. 

Macintyre (1865) . . . .Mr John Murdoch 

Gaelic Poetry,. The Beauties of. J. Mac- 
kenzie (1872) Rev. W.Ross, Glasgow 

Gaelic Primer (new). James Munro, 

H.M.E.I., I.C. and O.S.G., etc. (1873) Maclachlan & Stewart 

Gaelic Society of Glasgow, Transactions. 

Vol L, 1887-1891 .... The Society 

Gaelic Society of Inverness, Transactions 
of. Vols. i. to xxv 

Gaelic Songs, Collection of. Pat Turner 

(1813) (2 copies) .... MrA.MackintoshShaw 



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60 



Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



NAMES OF BOOKS. 

Gaelic Songs, Collection of (old) 

Gaelic Songs and Poems (" An Duanaire"). 

Donald Macpherson (1868) 
Gaidheal— "An Gaidheal" (1873) . 
Grammar, Gaelic, Elements of. Rev. Alex. 

Stewart (1801) . 
Grammar, Gaelic. James Munro (1843) . 
Grammar, Gaelic (Irish). (1808) (2 copies) 
Gypsies, Scottish, under the Stewarts. D. 

Macritchie (1894) . . . . 



Maclachlan & Stewart 
The Publishers 

Mr Duncan Mackintosh 
Purchased 
Canon Bourke 

The Author 



Harp Music, Collection of (French) . . Mr C. Fergusson 
Heart of Midlothian, Illustrations from ( Miss Fraser, North 

(1873) \ Berwick 

Hebrides, History of. J. Walker, D.D. i Sir Kenneth S. Mac- 

(1812) (2 vols.) . . . ( kenzie of Gairloch 

Dr Cameron, Liverpool 



Hermit, The, in Edinburgh (1824) . 
Highland Clans, Language, Poetry, and 
Music of. Lieut. D. Campbell (1862) 
Highlander, The. May 1873 to May 1874 
Highlander, The. May 1874 to June 1877 
Do. June 1877 to Nov. 1878 

Do. Nov. 1878 to May 1881 

Highlanders, Sketches of. Stuart of r Col. Mackenzie 
Garth (1822) (2 vols.) . . . \ Parkmount 

Highlanders, The, of Scotland. W. F ./ Tke Mitor 
Skene, D.C.L., LL.D. (1902) . . j 

Highlands, Letters from the. Robert 

Somers (1848) .... 

Historia Scotiae. Buchanan (1762). 
Historie de Gil Bias, De Santillane (French) 

(1831) .Mr Chas. Fergusson 

Hymns, Spiritual (Gaelic). D.Dewar(1806) 



Mr J. Murdoch 

Dr Cameron, Liverpool 



of 



Alex. Macbain, M.A., 
LL.D. 

Mr John Murdoch 
Mr William Mackay 



Inscriptions The Vernacular, of the 

Ancient Kingdom of Alban. W. B. 

Nicolson, M.A. (1896) . . . The Author 
Iona, The Family of, and other Poems 

(1850) 



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Library. 361 

NAMES OF BOOKS. DONOBS. 

Ireland, Ecclesiastical History of. Right 

Rev. P. J. Carew (1838) ... Mr Wm. Mackay 
Ireland, The History of, G. Keating, 

D.D. (1902) 

Irish Texts Society. Volumes I., II., III. 

and IV. (1899-1902) . . .The Society 
Iron Smelting in Sutherland, Notes on. 

D. W. Kemp (1887). . . .The Author 
Islay, Sketches of. William Macdonald, 

A.M., M.D., and John Murdoch (1850) Mr John Murdoch 

L 

Leabhar an Dara nan Sgoilean Gaidhealach 
(1826) 

Leabhar an Treas nan Sgoilean Gaidhea- 
lach (1837) . . . 

Leabhar nan Sonn. Alex. Fraser, Toronto 

(1897) The Author 

Legend of Montrose, Illustrations from 

^1877) Miss Fraser,N. Berwick 

Lexicon, Greek and English (1831) . . Mr Chas. Fergusson 

Lighting, Artificial, Address on. D. 

Bruce, Peebles, F.R.S.C. (1888) . D. W. Kemp, Esq. 

Literature of the Celts (Dr Magnus f JJ^SSf & Son , 
Maclean / I Edinburgh 

Luinneanan Luaineach. Sur.-Col. Mac- 

gregor ...... The Author 

M 

Mackay, The Book of. Rev. A. Mackay . Mr Wm. Mackay 

Mackay's Regiment, History of. J. Mac- 
kay, late of Herrisdale . . .J. Mackay, Hereford 

Mackenzies, History and Genealogies of. 

A. Mackenzie (2nd edition) (1894) . The Author 

Man, Manual of the Antiquity of. J. P. 
Maclean, Cincinnatti (1887) 

Mastodon, Mammoth and Man. J. P. 
Maclean, Cincinnatti (1880) . 

Melodies and Original Poems, etc. Donald 

Macpherson (1824) . . . . Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 



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362 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

NAMES OF BOOKS. DONORS. 

Moore's Melodies, Irish (Tr.) Rev. John 

MacHale (1871) . . . . Canon Bourke 

Mound Builders, The. J. P. Maclean, 
Cincinnatti (1887) : . . : 

Mountain Heath, The. Poems and Songs, f A. H. F. Cameron,, 
David Macdonald, Inverness (1838) . ( Esq. of Lakefield 

Music, Collection of. J. Anderson, Inver- 
ness (1808) (MS.) .... DrCameron, Worcester 

Music, Highland, Collection of. Capt. S. ( Mr Mackenzie, Bank 
Fraser of Knockie's (new edition, 1874) ( Lane, Inverness 



Obscure Words in Shakespeare, Glossary of. 

Dr C. Mackay (1887) . . . Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 
Oireachtas, The Proceedings of (1897) 
OrainGhaidhealach. Donnachadh Mac-an- 

t-Saoir (1804) Maclachlan & Stewart 

OrainGhaidhealach. Kaonall MacDhomh- \ F. C. Buchanan, 

nuill (Turner's Edition) (1809) [ Helensburgh, and 

(2 copies) . . . . . ) A. M. Mackintosh 

Oranaiche, " An t-Oranaiche." (Collection) 

(1879). A.Sinclair. . . . The Compiler 
Oranaiche Nuadh Ghaidhealach. Alasdair 

MacDhomhnuill (1799) - 
Oratio Dominica, invariouslanguages(1715) Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 
Ossian, Dain Osiein Mhic Fhinn (1818) / Col. Mackenzie of 

(2 copies) \ Parkmount 

Ossian, Dain Oisein Mhic Fhinn (1807) 

(Maclachlan's Edition) (3 vols.) . ditto 

n • > t> t o vl t^ t^ ^ ) Colonel Mackenzie of 

Ossian s Poems. J Smith D.D., Camp- Parkmount and 

belton(2copies)(1787) j Mr L Macbean 

Do. (Macpherson's). Mr L. Macbean 
Do. 1 Volume, with Dissertations by 

Dr Blair (1809). 
Do. Report on, Highland Society) Col. Mackenzie of 

Committee (1805) . . j Parkmount 
Do. Illustrations from, Paolo Priolo, 

(1873) .... Purchased 



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Library. 



36£ 



NAMES OP BOOKS. 

Pedigrees, Irish. John O'Hart (1876) . 
Pentateuch, The first two books of (Irish). 

(1820) 

Piobaireachd, MacCrimmon's (Collection). 

Macleod of Gesto (1828) . 

Picts and Scots, Chronicles of. Skene 

Pococke's Tour in Scotland. Scottish 
History Society .... 

Poems, Collection of. Vols. ii. & iii. (1763) 

Poems, Death of Cuchullin, etc. (Wod- 
row)(1769) . 

Poems, Gaelic (Collection). P. Macfarlane 
(1813) 

Poems, Gaelic and English. Mary Mac- 
kellar (1880) (3 copies) . 

Poems, Struan's 

Poetical Works. Alex. Macdonald (1839) 

Prayer Book, English Church, Gaelic (181 9) 

Presbytery Records, Inverness and Ding- 
wall (1643-1688). Edited by Mr 
Wm. Mackay, Inverness . 

Printed Broadsides. Catalogue of a Col- 
Collection of 

Psalm Book, The, and Shorter Catechism, 
Gaelic (old) (1783) .... 

Psalms, The, and Shorter Catechism, 
Gaelic (old) 

Psalms of David, Gaelic (edition 1659) 

Psalms of David in Irish (1836) (2 copies) 



DONORS. 

The Author 

Rev. A. Macgregor 

Rev. Alex. Macgregor 
j Sir K. S. Mackenzie 
\ of Gairloch 

D. W. Kemp, Esq. 
Mr D. Mackintosh 

Mr A. Kennedy 

Miss Hood 

The Authoress. 
Mr A. Kennedy 
Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 
Rev. A. Macgregor 



The Editor 



Psalms, Scottish Metrical, 
meeken (1872). 



J. W. Mac- 



Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 

Rev. A. Macgregor 
(1 copy) 

Mr J. Fraser, Glasgow 



R 

Rathad Dhe* gu Slth (tr.). H. Bonar, 

D.D. (1865) 

Reay Fencibles, The. John Mackay (1890) 
Red-Gauntletj'IUustrationsfrom. (1875-6) 



Mr J. Mackay, Hereford 
Miss Fraser, N.Ber wick 



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-364 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



NAMES OF BOOKS. DONORS, 

Reliquiae Celticse. Dr Cameron. Edited ) 

by Dr A. Macbain, M. A., and Rev. J. > The Editors 
Kennedy (1894) . . . . ) 

Royal Dublin Society, Economic Proceed- 
ings of. November 1899 to February 
1906 (incomplete) . . . . The Society 

Royal Dublin Society, The Proceedings of. 

Jan. 1886 to March 1906 (incomplete) The Society 

Royal Dublin Society, The Transactions of. 
April 1888 to February 1906 (incom- 
plete) The Society 

Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings of. 

Volumes i. to No. 4 of Volume v. . The Publishers 

Royal Irish Academy (Todd Lecture 
Series). Vols. i. to vii., 1870 to 1891 
(incomplete) The Publishers 

Royal Society of Antiquaries and Historical 
and Archaeological Association of Ire- 
land The Publishers 



S 

Scotland, History of. Vols. i. to viii. (with) L. Macdonald of 

Index). John Hill Burton (1876) .) Skeabost 
Scotland, Place Names of. J. B. Johnston 

(1892) MrW.A.G.Brodie 

Scots Magazine, The. Vol. xix. (1767) . Mr A. Macbean 
Scottish Geographical Magazine. From ) The Royal Scottish 

Jan. 1889 to date . . . .J Geographical Society 
Scottish Story, The Book of. (1884) . MrA.Burgess,Gairloch 
Seafield, In Memoriam of Ian Charles, ) The Dowager-Count- 

VIII. Earl of. (1884). . .] ess of Seafield 

Searmona Eobhann. MacDiarmid (1804) I Mr J \^ ai ^? u * dee 
(2 copies) . . . . (J ^ u ^ 

Sermons, Gaelic (M.S.) H. MacDiarmid. 

Volume i. (1772-1773) . . . Rev. A. Macgregor 

Sermons in Gaelic (tr.) Dr Blair (1812) . Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 
Sermons, , Gallagher , s, (Irish Gaelic), etc. 

Rev. Canon U. J. Bourke (tr.) (1877) Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 
Session Records, Inverness. A. Mitchell 

(1902) The Editor 



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^r 



Library. 



36£ 



NAMES OP BOOKS. DONORS. 

Shaw, Highland Families of. A. Mackin- 
tosh Shaw (1877) .... The Author 

Skye Crofters, The Past and Present f L. Macdonald of Skea 
Condition of. L. Macdonald (1886). I bost 

Skye, History and Traditions of. Cameron 

(1871) Mr John Murdoch 

Songs of the Highlands, Gaelic, with f Messrs Loffan & C ov 

English translation Set to music, With-j fjhnrnh St Tnvfirnps 

piano accompaniment . . . ^ 

Songs and Poems, Gaelic. William Ross. 

(Second Edition) (1834) . 
Songs and Poems. Robert Mackay (Rob 

Donn) (1829). (Dr Mackintosh's 

Edition) (two copies) 
Songs, Spiritual. Gaelic and English. 

D. Grant (1862) .... 
St Columba, Life of. Dr Smith (1798) . 
St James's Magazine. (April to July, 1861) 



Church St., Inverness 



Maclachlan <fe Stewart 



Mr J. Craigie, Dundee 



St John, The Gospel of (Latin). Hamil- 

tonian System (1824) 
Statistics, Lands of Inverness, Ross, and 

Cromarty. H. C. Fraser (1871) 
Stuart Papers, Correspondence. Vol. i. 

(1847) 

Stuart, Relics of the Royal House of. 

Gibb & Skelton (1890) . . 
Sutherland Papers, The. Edited by 

Donald Macleod, M.A. (1888) . 



• ditto 
ditto 
MrWm. Mackay, book- 
seller, Inverness 



Mr Chas. Fergusson 
The Author 
Mr A. Burgess, Gairloch 
Mr J. Mackay, Hereford 
D. W. Kemp 



Teachdaire, "AnTeachdaire Gaidhealach" 
(2 coDies). Dr Norman Macleod 
(1830)' 

Testament, Greek ..... 

Testament Gaelic (1800) 

Testament Old Irish (1685) (Bedel). 



Testament, Irish (1828) . 

Tradition, The Testimony of. 
Macritchie (1890) . * . 



David 



i Col. Mackenzie of 
>• Parkmount and Mr 
I J. Murdoch 
Mr Chas. Fergusson 
Mr L. Macbean 
Mr Paul Came ron, 

Blair-Atholl 
Dr Cameron, Wor- 
cester 

The Author 



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366 



Gaelic Society of Inverness. 



NAMES OF BOOK8. DONORS. 

Tour through Great Britain, Diary of. 

Wm. Macritchie (1897) ... 
Tour in the Highlands (Dr Johnson's 

Remarks on). Rev.D.Macnicol (1852) Mr John Murdoch 

U 

Uist, " The Uist Collection." Poems and 
Songs (Gaelic). Rev. Arch. Mac- 
donald (1894) The Editor 

Unconverted, Call to the, (Gaelic). Buuyar 

Urquhart and Glenmoriston. Mr Williar 

Mackay(1893) .... 1 he Author 



TaluationRoll of Counties of Inverness and 

Ross (2 volumes) (1869-70, 1871-72) Mr Chas. Fergusson 
Vocabulary, English and Welsh. Thos. 

Evans (1804) 



W 

Wales, The Proverbs of. T. R. Roberts 
(1885) (2 volumes) ... 

Wardlaw MSS., Fraser Chronicles. Edited 
by William Mackay, Inverness . 

Waverley, Illustrations from (1865) 

West Highlands, Popular Tales of. J. F. 
Campbell (3 volumes) (1860-1862) . 



Mr J.Mackay, Hereford 



The Editor 
Miss Fraser, 
Berwick 



North 



Mr Alex. Mackenzie 



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Library. 367 

List of Books bequeathed to the Society by the late 
John Mackay, Esq., C.E., Hereford. 

Abercrombie's Achievements. (2 vols.) 

Ohalmer's Caledonia. (2 vols.) 

Molls's Atlas of Scotland. (1 vol.) 

•Great Historical Families of Scotland. Taylor (2 vols.) 

History of the Macdonalds. Mackenzie (1 vol.) 

Do. Macleods. „ (1 vol.) 

Do. Chisholms. „ (1 vol.) 

Do. Camerons. „ (1 vol.) 

Do. Mackenzies. ,, (1 vol.) 

Do. Munros. „ (1 vol.) 

Do. Frasers. „ (1 vol.) 

Do. Mathesons. „ (1 vol.) 

Antiquarian Notes. Fraser-Mackintosh (1 vol.) 
Letters of Two Centuries. „ (1 vol.) 

Minor Septs of Clan Chattan. „ (1 vol.) 

Macdonalds of Isla. „ (1 vol.) 

History of the Macleans. Maclean (1 vol.) 
Clan Macdonald. Macdonald (3 vols.) 
€lan Gillean, Maclean Sinclair (1 vol.) 
Garnet's Tour in Scotland (1 vol.) 
Origines Parochiales Scotise (1 vol.) 
History of Ross. Bain (1 vol.) 
Red Book of Menzies. Menzies (1 vol.) 
Brave Sons of Skye. Macinnes (1 vol.) 
Loyal Lochaber. Drummond Norie (1 vol.) 
Literature of the Cymru. Stephens (1 vol.) 
National Eisteddfodd, 1883. (1 vol.) 
In the Shadow of Cairngorm. Forsyth (1 vol.) 
Language, Poetry, and Music of the Highland Clans. Campbell 

(1 vol.) 
Authenticity of Ossian. Graham (1 vol.) 
Topography of Galloway. Maxwell (1 vol.) 
Names of Places. Edmund (1 vol.) 
Do. Johnston (1 vol.) 

Celtic Researches. Da vies (1 vol.) 
Celtic Nations. Pritchard (1 vol.) 
Poems of Ossian. Clark (2 vols.) 
Gaelic Antiquities. Smith (1 vol.) 



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3GH Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

(Gaelic Proverbs. Nicolson (1 vol.) 
Sean Dana. Smith (1 vol.) 
Place Names of Strathbogie. Macdonald (I vol.) 
Irish Names of Places. Joyce (1 vol.) 
Thoughts on the Gael. Grant (1 vol.) 
Orkneyinga Saga. Anderson (1 vol.) 
Cornish-English Dictionary. Williams (1 vol.) 
English-Cornish Dictionary. Jago (1 vol.) 
Manx Dictionary. Cregeen (1 vol.) 
Highlands of Scotland, 1750. Lang (I vol.) 
Rebellion of 1745. Chambers (2 vols.) 
Letters from the Mountains. Mrs Grant (2 vols.) 
Celtic Gleanings. Maclauchlan (1 vol.) 
Moray Floods. Dick Lauder (1 vol.) 
Tour in Scotland. Pennant (2 vols.) 

Do. Knox (1 vol.) 

Journey in Scotland. Heron (2 vols.) 
Tales and Legends of the Highlands. Mackenzie (1 vol. 
Clarsach nam Beann. Maccoll (1 vol.) 
Proverbs of Wales. Roberts (1 vol.) 
Last Monarch of Tara. Bourke (1 vol.) 
Antiquities of Greece. Potter (1 vol.) 
Antiquities of Constantinople. Ball (1 vol.) 
Xenophon De Cyri Institutione 



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369 



LIST OF PAMPHLETS, &C, &C, 

IN THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 



NAMES OF BOOKS. DONORS. 

Abstinence Defended. Dr F. R. Lees, 

F.S.A.,and John Fordyce, M.A. (1879) 
Abstract of Accounts, Parochial Board of 

Boleskine and Abertarff (1880). 
Amadain agus Oinsichean. Mr D. Macleod, 

M.D. (1901) . . . . .The Author 
Answer, Form of Libel before Presbytery 

of Aberdeen. Professor Robertson 

Smith (1878) (several copies) . 
Apocalypse, The, Unveiled. Mr Wm. Gow 

(1888) 



Bodleian Library, Donations to the, year 
ending Nov., 1873 .... 



Mr John Murdoch 
Canon Bourke 



Caledona Anthologie. The Eight Cale- 
donian Dialects (1862) . 

Caraid a* Ghaidheil — Discourse. Rev. N. 
Macleod, D.D. (1865) 

Celtic Language and Dialects. An English- 
man, B D. (1867) .... 

Celtic Race, Historical Characteristics of. 
Prof. Geddes (1885) (several copies) . 

Celtic Tongue, Philological uses of. Prof. ) Mr D. Maciver 
W. D. Geddes (1872-1874) . . J the Author 

Celtic Trews. D. Macritchie ... 

Church of Scotland Assembly Papers — * 

(The Poolewe Case) (1880) . . Mr W. Mackenzie 

Clan Chattan, Notes on the Names of. 

John Macpherson, Esq., M.D. (1874). The Author 

Climate of Oregon and Washington Terri- 
tory, Letter of the Chief Signal 
Officer on the (1889) 

24 



and 



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370 Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

NAMES #F BOOKS. DONOUS. 

Co-Operative Farming in New Zealand. 

James Hayes, Esq., C.E. (1872) . Mr John Murdoch 

D 

Dotair Ban, An. Mr D. Macieod, M.B., of 

Beverley (1899) . . . .The Author 

Duan Gaidhilg le " Ughdair Tagraidh nan 
Gaidheal" (1859) . ♦ . . 

E 

Earail do dh' Oigridh na Gaidhealtachd 
(Gaidhlig) . 

a 

Gaelic Songs (Old). Mr Colin Chisholm, 

Inverness The Collector 

Game Laws, The. R.G.Tolmie, Esq. (1871) Mr W. Mackay 

H 

Hebrew Language, Gaelic Elements of. 

J. P. Maclean, Cincinnatti 
Highland Echo, The. March 10th, 1877, 

to Feb. 2nd, 1878 (2 Sets) . . Purchased 
Highland Garb, The. J. G. Mackay (1878) 
Highlander, The. August, 1881, to 

January, 1882 (incomplete) . . Purchased 
Historical Characteristics of . the Celtic C 

race (Sir William Geddes, Aberdeen-! Lady Geddes, Aberdeen 

University) t 

I 

Inscriptiones Latines de L'Irelande. M. H. 

Gaidoz (1878) . .... 
Islay, Review of Eight Days in. The 

Islay Association . . . .Mr John Murdoch 

Kelto-Saxon. J. P. Maclean, Cincinnatti 

(1887) Mr John Murdoch 

Kentucky Revival and its Influence on 

the Maimi Valley. J. P. Maclean The Author 



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371 



NAMES OF BOOKS. 

Kilchonan People Vindicated. Islay 
Association (1867) .... 

L 

Language of Ireland, Review of. M. E. 
Murtagh (1870) . 

Lecture, Highland History. Mr W. 
Livingston (1860) .... 

Literary and Scientific Societies, Trans- 
actions of the Northern Association 
of (vol. ii., parts i., iii., iv., and v.) . 
M 

Mac Talla, 1896 to 1899 



DONORS. 



ditto 



Mr John Murdoch 
ditto 



Mr W. Mackay, Inver- 
ness 



Philological Society, Action and Time in 

the Irish Verb. Professor Strachan . The Author 
Do. Deponent Verb in Irish. Professor 

Strachan .... ditto 

Do. History of Middle Irish Declen- 
sions. Prof. Strachan . . ditto 
Do. Sigmatic Future and Subjunctive 

in Irish. Professor Strachan ditto 

Do. Substantive Verb in Old Irish 

Glosses. Prof. Strachan . ditto 

Pioneer, May 1875 to May 1876 (in- 
complete) ..... 
Primitive Christianity in Scotland. Mr 

W. Livingston (1859) 
Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland (3 issues) 



Regalia, The Scottish, Essay . . .Mr John Murdoch 
Religion des Gaulios. H. Gaidoz (1879) . 

S 
Scoto-Celtic Philology, Some Helps in. 

Lord Neaves, LL.D., F.R.S.E. (1872) The Author 
Scots Charitable Society of Boston (1878) Mr John Mackay (Ben 

Reay) 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC