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Biological 
& Medical 
5erials 



PROCEEDINGS 



7 



OF THE 



Ijtttmcait J-felt (I altitrisfe'^fJHO'ciatiati 



AT ITS THIRD ANNUAL MEETING, 



FEBRUARY lO. 1874. 



BOCHESTEIt, N. Y. 

CVESINO EXPBE5S PKIXTINCi AND ENGBAYINO COMPAITX^. 
1874. 



1^.\l^.s.-i> 



Sf4 






OFFICERS 



R. B. ROOSEVELT, 



lt;o Hroailway. New York City. 



A. S. COLLINS, 



B. F. BOWLES, 



Ciiledouia. Liviugstou Co., N. Y. 



SpriugfuM, Mass. 



rrcsident. 



GEO. S. TAOE, - - . . Vuo-Prc'si,lent. 

in Warren Street, New York Citv. 



Scc-H'tarv 



Tioasiiror. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



H. J. REEUER, 
M. C. EDMUNDS, 
ALEX. KENT, 
W. F. WHITCIIER, 
SETH GREEN, 



Euston, Fa. 

Weston, Vt. 

Baltimore, AIiU 

(Jttawa, Ontario, Canatla. 

Rochester, N. Y. 



REPORT. 



TUESDAY. FEB. lU. \^7\. 

'Vhv thinl ainiiial iiK't'tini; <^f tin- Aiihir:iii Fi>li C'iiltiiri>ts' Asxu-iation 
u:i.s lu'M oil Tiu-sday, I-iliniarv Kidi. IsTI, at the ollicc of (icorgi- 
Slu-panl l':ui('. No. 1(» Wairtii ^ti»-tt. N»'U York ( it\ . 

The Association was calU-fl to onU-i' at 1 1 oVlock. a. m. 

Tiu' I'lrsiiU-iit ul" tin' Association iR-iiiLr ahsciit. on UKjtioii of A. S. 
Collins, Hon. Kolnit II. Ivoo-^cvilt ua> ialh'<| t(^ the cliair. Mr. 
lioosevclt jravc thanks fur the honor, ami uiaiU* suini- intcrotinj^ statu- 
nn'hts al»unt tiic ojn-rations of the .\. V. .Stat*- Fish (onnnissiuiuT.s, 
• ■>|K'ria!l\ with rcixanl to tlu' >liail and tm- w liitcli>h. 

Till' rcconl of the last in«-ctiii;_r \va> ri'ad aii'l approved. 

The report of the Treasurer was reail and accepted. (Tlie paper> lead 
at the nieetinii- are printed witli thi- rt-port.) 

The Secret.irv read a })a|)er hy Mr. ( iiarles (I. Atkins, on Salmon 
lIree(liiiL!.. at linckspoit, Maine. 

.VU those present interested in l-'i-^h Cnltiireweie invited U) participate 
freely in the <lisen>.sions. 

On motion of Mr. (ieoi<_fe .she[)ard I'aLie. tlie " I'ore^t ami >tri'am," of 
.\ew Yoik. was liiadi- the otlieial pa})er of the A»oeiation. 

lion. S])i'iici'r F. IJaird. l. S. C'oinmis-^ioner of Fi^lii rie>, <;ave a gen- 
eral di->ciiption of jiis work for the year. 

Mr. .1. W. -Milnor re.-id a paper t.y Nichola- I'ike. on the (iomami. 

Mr. laviiii;>ton Stone reatl a paper on his recent ixperinieiits in col- 
lectiiiLj >alnion ciiu^ in ( alifornia. and «jii the food fi>lie- ol" the I'acilic 
coast. 

On motion of Mr. F. .Mather, the constitution wa> >o amen<led that the 
list of ollicers ^.llollld inclndi- a N'iee-l'resident . 

Messrs. (ireeii. I'orti-r and Kent wein- a[)poiiited a committee to make 
nominations for tlu- eiisnini: year. 

Ijt.i.j.ss — One half hour. 

Mr. \i. F. IJovvU's ijave some de-criptioii of .Mr. Stone's Afjuarium 

Car. 



4 RepoH of the American 

Mr. James 1). Brewer laid before the meeting a description of a new 
fishway. 

Col. .Tames Worrall, of Pennsylvania, read a paper on Fishways, &c. 
The committee on nominations ivporteil tlie following: 
For I'resident— R. B. Roosevelt. 
•' Vice-Rresident — George Slupard Rage. 
'' Secretary — A. S. Collins. 
'• Treasnrer — B. F. Bowles. 

•^ Executive Conmiittee — 11. .1. Reeder. ^M. C. Kdnuiuds. Alexander 
Kent. 

The report was adopted. 

]^Ir. Scth (Ireen read a paper on Fish Cidture. 

3Ir. Samuel Wilmot, of Newcastle, Canada, made an address on the 
artiliciul hatcliing of tlie commercial lish of this continent. 
Mr. Seth (irecn madL- some remarks on carrying live lish. 
^Ir. Alexander Kent gave a narrative of his cxp*rii'nce in the trans- 
portation of fish. 

Hon. W. F. Whitcher. of Ottawa, Canada, spoke of fish progress in 

Canada. 

On motion of Mr. Stone, all those who had ])aid ?.'».00. and signed 
the Constitution, were made memhers of the Association without furthei- 
action. 

Adjourned till 1<) a. m., ^^■e•lnes<lay. 



WEDNESDAY. FEB. 11. lS/4. 

AssfXiiation called to order at 11 v. m. 

Mr. F. Matiier spoke of the sale trau'^portation of lish, and gave h\> 
personal exiu'rience. 

Mr. .V. B. I.andieitoii spoke of his oliservations of the inideveloped 

C'frrrs of lljrds. 

Jlr. n. .1. Reedi-r review^-il the operations of the Renn>ylvania Fish 
Commissioners, with some very interesting remarks on tiu' Ba.-s. 

Mr. Ciiarles Ilallock, editor of •' Fon-st an<l Stream," spoke of the 
necessitv for some unilbnu protection law for game and lish. 

An interesting disenssion followed ahout Bass, in wliich .Mi-ssrs. (Ireen. 
Reeder. Wilmol and Roosev»-lt took part. 

Mr. (ioldsmith. chairman of tin- Fisli Division of the Centennial 
Exhihition at Rliiladelphia. matle a rernust that this association shoidd 
co-operate with his connnittee. 



i^i'.sA Ciiltirrist.s Association. 5 

An article on Fiol; CiiltuiL'. l)y Soth (irci'n. was read hv the 
secretary. 

Recess — one half hour. 

Oil reassenibliniz. Mr. 15. F. lU^wles otrt-rcd the follow inir resolution : 

'• Kecoj^nisiiiLT the iinpoituncc of co-opvrat i<ui lu'twccu the tlillcitnt 
states to seeuie laws foi' the lu-ttci' pii-scrvatiou of Useful tuod li>lu-^ and 
birds, 

Ji'solri-d. That this association nx' its inthicnee to jtroeurf the pa^^aLTi- 
of laws in the several stati-s that shall hv identical in their ohji'Cts and 
purposes, to hettt-r preserve :ind promote the increase of all the iramo 
birds and usefid fooil fishe>." Adopted. 

I)r. Kdinunds, of X'crinont. ^[loke of tlie introduction of •Nalinon into 
Lake ('h:iniplain. iS:c. 

A discussion on food for fish follcjwed. in which I'rof. B:iird, A. S. 
Collins. Alexander Kent :ind others took part. 

Mr. E. IJIackford. of Fulton luaiket. New York. s[)ok»' of the demand 
for trout, and ^ave statistics of piice> and >up[)ly of tiout and otliei- fi->li. 
He said that the demand w;is trreatest f..r cultixated trout, and that they 
brouixht the hii^ht'st jtrice- in the market. 

Mr. S. Wilniot spoke of the inei-ea>e rif the salmon in ihf Miramichi. 

Hon. W. F. Whitcher e\[»lained the fact more fully, and irave some 
very interestinjr statistic^ of the Salmon Fisheries of Canada. 

Mr. II. .1. I'eedei- movecl that tin- ( onstitution lie amended liy -tiiking 
out the last i»arairraph of Article II. ( airieil. 

The I'ri'sident. \'ice-rresi(h'nt. and a tliinl to l>e ^eleeled l>y thenf. 
were appointed a eommittet' on proLrramme for next nieetimr. 

On motion of Mr. (i. S. Pam-. the exeeutive committee was niade to 
consist of five, and Messrs. Whitcher .and (ireen weic electetl to fill 
vacancies. Movi-il that the Seciel.ary and Treasurer be autlnjiizefl to 
have the report of the Convention piintid. Caiiied. 

*Mr. (leor<ri'S. I'ajje nioveil to amend Arti<le II ly •-trikinir out the 
wortls '-.Ml l'"i-li { iilturi^t--." and in-eriini: the woiiK ••any pi'isoii." 
Carrii-d. 

Moved anil carrit'<l that the St cretary be iu^tructeil tc) ask the I'i>h 
Connnis>ioners of the variou> -<tate-- to ^eud to the next annual meeting 
a number of tluMr n-ports for ili^tril>ulii>n. 

On motion, t!ie convention ailjourm-'i, to meet in New York on the 
secoml Tuesday in Februaiy. 1^7."). 

A. S. C..I.LINS, 

Sirrff'iri/. 



6 B''jH>rt of tlip American 

TREASURERS REPORT. 
Du. 

Balance on b:in<l Vvh. 1 1 th. l^To S-21> O-s 

Klevi'ii Mt.'rnbcr.shii)s 'i.'> ()o 

S^i4 O.s 
Cr. 

Paid Ar'jus C'oiiipntiy for priiitiiiLT Hcpoit for isT.i S.'m .">(> 

I'rintin«r proiiraiMiiK' and n-c-i-ipts 4 7.", 

FostaiTc ami Statioiicn ;> 00 

Balance on lianil Kel). Ituli, l.sTl Is .s;l 

e.S4 O.s 
B. F. BowLi>, 

Treasurer. 



CONSTITUTION. 

AUTKl-K I. N \MK \M> (.)i;.IKCT->. 

The name of this societx shall lu- •• The American Fish Cnlturists' 
Association." Its objects >hall lie lo inuuK.te the cause of Fish Culture : 
to gather ami ditfust' inlurnialit>n IxaiiML: upon its practical success; the 
interchaiiiie of friemlly feeling and intenours*' anions^ the niemhers of 
the Assoeiation: the uniting and encouraiiinii of the individual interests 
of Fi>li C'ulturi.-ts. 

ABTK LK II. Mr.Mi-.KKs. 

Any person shall, upon a two-thii<ls vote of the society, and a pay- 
ment of fivi* dt»llars. Ite con>idt'red a niemher of the Association, alter 
sij^rniiiir the C"on>titution. 

AirnCLF 11. <)iruK.i>. 

The cillicers of the A>s(»eintion -^linll ln' a President, a Vice-l*ivsideirt. 
a Si-eretary and a Trea>ui-er. and .-liall Ix i li'ctid anmially l»v a majority 
of votes ; vacamies oceiiiriuu duiiiiLT the yi-ar may he tilled by the 
Fre^ijiU'iit. 

Airri( Id". I\ . MiiTiN.;.-. 

'i'he reiTular meitinLTs of ihe A->«>(iati»>u ^hall bt> held once a yt-ar. tlu^ 
lime and plaee ln'iniT d»H-ided ui)on at tin- [ire\ioiis nieetiiiLT. 

AIJTK I.I". \'. ( iiv\".i\<. Mil. (■(•s>rm THIN. 

The Coii^tiliiliim of tju' ^ocictx may be amended, altered or repealeil. 
by a two-thinN vote of tlie !in'miter> prr-int as any iViTiilar meetini;. 



Fish Ciilturists' ^Isaociittion. 7 

REMARKS OF HON. ROBERT B. ROOSEVELT. 

In thaiikin*: yon for thr honor you li:ive doiu' nio in askniLT nio to {irc- 
sule over tlu* dolihcrations of the Fish Cultural Association, I cannot ilo 
better than ex|thun what has liccn done l>y thi- Fi>h('ry C'onMui>>ioii of 
the State of Nt'w York. I do this with no purpose of arroiratini; l)rai>i' 
to myself and with no exi)ertatiou ol Liivinir instruction to ircntlenien as 
experienced as yourselves in this special line of knouledue. hut with tlio 
intention of informiu':; the puhKu' of what has l)een t'lfccted. and en- 
couraging: the skeptical to go and do liki-wisi-. 

The New York Mshery C'oinnii>>ion uas eieatt'd l»y an act of the 
Legislature. pas>ed April '2'2. isr.s. Its tirst duty was to examine the 
condition of tlu' fisheries of tin- State ; tlu'se wen- l"onnd to hi- nmch inn 
down, auil in >.onie cases practically exhausted. Sahnoii no lonuvr 
entered the streams that How northward into Lakc<)ntario on the >t. 
Lawrenci'. and which oni-c al>oundi'<l with them : \»hile-!:<h. -;dmon-l ii'iit , 
pikt--j)erch and the otiier li>ii of Lake ()nta:io were ni.ieli Ir^- al'i;i.i'-iit 
than tlu'V had been, whih- even the shad lislierl»'> of the llmlson wi-n- ~o 
greatly (h-terioratt-d that the tislieiinin wen- in many in-tanees abMndoi.- 
ing them, and allowing their nit> to remain idle. 

1 think it may safidy be as>eited that luit foi- tin- eiloit- of the ( di'- 
missioners in restt)ring the >ui»plv and in rotocking the ri\er. tlie vli.id 
fisheries would havi- been wholly abantloneil ht-fore thi-. .\- it i-. the 
dearth of fish has been so gri-at that the C'oniinis-ione;- lia\i iievi-r b.-m 
able to obtain one ((uarter as many mature fi-Ii on the -[)auning Wed- a^ 
they desired, and hence have etlieted imuh le>s go.nl tliati tliey w<.iild 
have done if a sullicient number of egg-> cv>nlil have lieeii [inniired. 

In the spring of bS(;s preliminary operations weie eoiniuenced for 
shad-hatchiiiii on the Hudson. l»ui preparations were n.-ee--ari!y dei:i\ed 
till so lati' that litth> was a<'hiev»'d beyond making a i-oimiieiicemen!. It 
mav be said that about one million of young >li:id wi-re iiali-hed that \iar 
and safelv turned loose in the upper waters of the river. Not eiioiigli to 
produce any perceptible eilV'ct. In isC.'.i about fil'tceii million »liad v.eie 
hatched on the s:ime stream, and IV.. m .s.iiiHi.noi) to id.odo.tuid li;,\e 
been hatched vcarlv sinc-e ; very much lc>- than the ( ommis-ione! - wouM 
have raised if the proper number of spawneis were to lie iia<l. bn', ;is 
manv as can In- promised until the i.egi-laturc >ha!l >ee lit to pas^ m i;i\v 
a.s rciiuestctl bv the Commis-ioner. to c-«tal>li>h a weekly clo>e time and 
forbid all shad li.-<hing from Saturday night till Monday morning. In all 
some TiO. (»(>(). Odd of shad have been deposited in the IhuNon and t!ie 
yield of li-h has l)een greatly increased in consequence. The price has 
fallen in our markets to a marked, degree, ami this valuable specio of 



8 Report of the American 

food has Ix'cn broiiiilit within the rencli of a large chiss of our people 
whose poverty previously i)revente(l thcni fn>n» piircliasiug it. 

The New York Couiiuis>iuners claim the credit to have been the tirst 
to cultivate white-fish artificially. In l^fls Mr. Scth (Ireen, then one of 
the Conunission, obtained a luiinbcr of wliitc-fisli eggs and experimented 
upon them in various ways and subjected tliem to various conditions of 
water, nuinipulation. antl so forth. He then estalilisju-d tlie fact that 
they couhl be hatclu'd in sul»tantially the sanu- manner as trout. The 
eggs were smaller and more delicate, as were the fry also when brought 
into existenc*'. but ollu rwise there was no important dilference. As the 
white-fi>.h of t!ie great laki-< h.id bv'cn almost t-\terminated l»y indefatig- 
able pound lisliing. tlu' impoiUince of this discovery was appreciated and 
it was iletermini'd to utilize it as far as possible. 

The follo\*inu: year large (luantities ol" the ova were taken and dis- 
tributeil throughout the Mate to all piisons who woiihl hatch them, a.s 
tlu're was at thai time no State hatching hoiisi-. Soire iiowever remained 
and these were matun d under tlu' care of the Commissioners. In the 
following year about one million of »'ggs wcit- obtaiiu-d and distributed 
in the same way. but it was not till l>i71. wlu'ii the State Ilatcliing House 
was completecl. that any great strides were made in the increase of tliis 
fish. Then some two unllioii white-fish and aliout an eciual number of 
salmon-trout were hatched and distiibiited, and from that time to this 
from two to live millions of each of these varieties have bt-eu hatched 
regularly iverv year. 

The Commissioners also dislril>utt-d a large numl)er of black bass, 
pike-pirclu rock-bass and ollur valuable lish and restocked many of the 
lakes in this State. 'I'liey have sent one or more of these varieties 
wherever they were wanted and in suUieieiit numl'crs to meet all de- 
mands. I may safely say that the rivi-rs. lakes, ponds and streams in 
this State are in a fair way t>f lu-ing all thoroughly restocked, and I take 
pride in saving that tiiis has been d(Mie at a cost which is absolutely 
tritling. The Commissioiurs receiv*' no salaiy, and their expi'iulitures 
have scarceh . if at all. i'xcei>ded .<-'>. ouo :i year, wliiU> the amoiud of lish- 
food produced must have been worth millions of dollars. They have 
sought to perform these diitii-s in a thoroughly practical. l)usiness-like 
way and show a substantial balance to the credit side of their account. 

In conclusion, there is one matter which 1 wish to submit to you, gen- 
tlemen, as practical tish eiiltii'i>ts. that is. the advisibility of a rotation 
of crops in fish as in agiicultiire. We all of us know that when a pond 
is first built it is rema!kal)ly productive ;uid the lish grow rapidly. This 
Las been frequently n-marked on Long Island in the building of trout 
preserves. It has also been noticed in many instances where new varie- 



Finh Cuftun.sts' Ansodation. 9 

tics have liceu intrcKhiccd into waters only partially- lillcd liy c-ominon 
sorts and whore they have propagated snrprisinixly. If it is iiiiivcr>ally 
true, it is due, 1 think, to the faet that the en»'nii«-s of the new species <|o 
not exist, while their food, if the locality is ada))ted to thcni. is ahnndant. 
Sul>sc(|nently the enemies increase, ]>y which the f<K)d is consniiu-d. and 
so in time the general equipoise of nature is estaltli>licd. I make this 
suiTijestion, as, if it is well founded, it is of impoitanci' in iiicn:i^iiiLr the 
snpply of lish food, and may either be conhnned or disprovt'(l liy your 
experience. 



SALMON BREEDING. 

Till' /ii(rinlni-finn of Eastern Fish into the Wnters of the Pnrifr Sh,j^, 

titgether with on Ai'coimt if O^ierd/ions at the ('iiltal Slutes Siil- 

vion Breeiluifj Establishments on the MeClond Hiri r. O'liforni'i. 



BY LIVIN(JST()N STONE. 



Mr. I'ri'siilent, and members oj' the Amerinin Fish C'lltnrists' Asso'intion : 
(Jkntlemen: — With your perniis.sion 1 will maki- a sliirht dt-viation 
from the terms of the subject which has been assjgiu-d mi-, and will 
endeavor to give an account both of my operations in California in i>ro- 
curing salmon ova, and also of the attempt to introduce other varieties 
of (ish into the waters of the I'acilic slope. 

SEASON OF is7i'. 

As many of you arc aware, I arrived at tlie spawiiinii grounds of the 
Sacramento salmon too late year before last to olitaiu iinMt' than a few 
thou.-^and egirs, which were duly .slii|)pe«l eastward, and iiave sinct- Ix-on 
Iiatched and placed in the Susfpu-hanna Iviver. where I am infornu-d they 
thrive rcnuukably well. 

After the spawning season of 1872 was over I intended to go to Oregon 
and examine portions of the Columbia Kiver, with a view to learning 
what were the facilities there for procuring salmon eggs. 

INTKOnrCING WHITE FISH (r,„vy»/,//.« «/A/m, INTO C.VIJFOJlNl.\. 

I had previously suggest<'d the idea of intro<lucing white li-Ii into 
C:ilifornia by .^hipping the eggs across tiie Continent, and postpon»(l the 
trip to Oregon on receiving a reipjest froui .Air. S. 11. Throckmorton, of 
the California Fish Commission, to look ui) a suital)le place for the hatch- 
ing of a shipment of white fish eggs, which Professor IJaird had promised 



10 Repoi't of the Americmi 

to semi as a present to the Californians, and which were already on the 
way. 

In accordance with ^Ir. Throckmorton's reciuest, I went in January, 
1873. to Clear Lake, in Lake County. California, in company with ^Ir. 
John G. Woodbury, my assistant on the MeCloud Iliver, and afterwards 
superintendent of tlie California State Hatching "Works, ami we finally 
selected a place for the white tish eggs on Kelsey Creek, near CU*ar Lake, 
where Mr. Woodhun*' put up suitable hatching works, and wliere he 
hatched out 2'), <><)() white tish. which he aftt-rwards place<l in good condi- 
tion in various portions of Clear Lake. This is the fust introduction of 
white fish {^Oirifjomia tiJhus) into the wati-rs of the Pacific slope. 

CALIFOUNIA AC^r.VllIUM CAi:. 

During the latter part of ^larch I came «'ast with iiisi ructions from the 
California Commissioners to bring to California a car load of tlu- bc-it 
varieties of the fi>hes of tlu- Atlantic slope, tlie kinds and numbers being 
left to my discretion. This was tiie begimiiiig of the California a(|uariuiii 
car expi'dition. which came to so unfortunate an end. My plan wr.s to 
take twelve varieties of living fi>h in the ear. and as many of each 
varietv as the space at my command in the tai- would permit. This plan 
was aetiiallv carried into praetiee. and the hsli were gatl:»'it«l from the 
Earitan Kiver. lJuzzar«rs J>ay. ^L-is>aehu-.etts IJaV. tlu' Ilud>on Iviver. 
Lake Cham})lain. the Connectieut lli\t'r. ami other jxiiiits on the »':isti'rn 
coast, to the numlier of twelve varieties, and started on tiieir way across 
the Continent. It was a terril>le nmlertakiug. I eauiiot fmd words to 
expre>s the care, anxiety, the ri^ks. the labors, and the hardships that it 
involved. Only those who have travelled with living li^li can ever know 
what incess.'int vigilance, what untiring laltor. and what eonstant eare 
was rtMjuired to 'jet together this ear load of h-li and to keep them alive 
till the time for starting, and to cairy them ali\-e. a~- we diil with few ex- 
ceptions, for over five days :ind nights of eonsi-eiilive railroad travel. I 
will oiilv sav that i-verv one on tlu- car workeil actively tv.iiity-one hours 
out ot' the tweiitv-four «liiriiig the whole live days, ami had. of eouise, 
during that time only thn-e hours a day of >iieli rest as he eoiild get with 
the car in motion, and wlu-n we e::me into Omaha the night after the 
accident we all looked as if wi- had been through a week's >erion< illness. 
"We were sucees>ful. liowevtT. to a wholly unexpected degn-e. The large 
spawuinir bass and catti>-ili. almut "Jon in all. were living and in good 
order. The full grown yellow perch, gla-- eye<l pike, ami horn pouls 
did nearly as well. The young perch and glass eyed pike had hardly 
met with anv loss. Oulv s»ven <Mit of th.e thousand brook trout hail 
died, and what were left were in excellent >^>ndition. Not one of the 



Fish Cxlturists^ Association. 11 

tautogs hud died. We had .'}0,00() silver eels, and over a thousand salt 
water eels living and doing well, and a barrel of oysters in perfeet con- 
dition. There were Ibrty-one si)awning lobsters left, lialf of which at 
least were likely to snr\ive the rest of the journey, and of all tlie vari- 
eties taken into the car not one had entirely given ont. nor was there 
any serious loss with any except the lobsters, and of these forty-one. as 
just mentioned, wen' still living. I ought to add here that it was my in- 
tention to take out some shad, and 1 did actually send for some, but none 
reached the car alive ; so of course there were none lost on the car. 

We were on our sixth day out when the accident happened. The 
whole tri}) by passenger train time takes liut seven days, and we should 
have been in I'tali instead of Nel)raska, but the arrangements not having 
been p<'rfected for travelling all tin- way witli passenger trains we had in 
consequence uwt with delays wliieh had made this dilHrenee. Hut the 
circumstance that the fishes were doing so well on the sixtli day speaks 
well for their chaiu-es of surviving tlie balanee of the Journey. 

The acci(K'ut occurred at the l^lkhoru river, tliirty miles beyond 
Omaha. Tlie engine, tender and a(|iKirium ear went tlirougli the treach- 
erous tresth' work into al>out twenty feet of water, witii a swift current 
running. The engineer, brakeman. roadmaster. an<l the tluee <iccupants 
of the acjuarium ear w*'nt down with the wreck. The roadmaster. Mr. 
('arey, was killecl : the rest of us escaped with briii^-es. 'l'In> contents 
of the aipiaiium car were a total loss to California, every Msli eseaping 
into the Klkhoru river. 'Hu- acciiU-ut took place on Sun<l:iy afteiiioon 
about three o'clock. Tlie next morning Just after breakfast I received a 
dispatcii from I'l-of. r.ainl (a circumstance which sIhjws with wliat 
promptness our national comiiiis->ii>!ier is in the ha!)it ol'acting), to r«'turn 
east witii mv men and make a >ccond .•ittempt to cros«. the continent with 
shad. 

ClIOSSlN'f; THK CONriXF.N'l' WriH SHAD. 

I accordinglv relumed, and on the iiiglit of Wcdiie-day. the -.'.'ith of 
.luiie. 1M7;;. left till' Hu.Uon liver with |i».(Mt(l liv.- s|i;id, and reached the 
junction of the I tali railroad on tin- afternoon of Mondiiy. .Iiine ."Wdh, 
with the li-h in |ierfect order. Ibiv I left .').(»n(» sli;id fo|- (;n-at Salt 
Lake, ami proceeded to Calilornia with tlie remaining :'..').( lOO. We 
reacluMl Saciaiiieiito City af li;d!-pa-t one on the alteinoon of Wednes- 
dav. .Iiilv -M. with the shad in lir-l rate condilioii. At ten minutes past 
nine on the evt'uing of the -^allle day we deposited them safely in the 
tiie SacM-amento river at Tehama, the whole expedition, from beginning 
to end, ha\ ing been a perfect success. 



12 Report of the American 

SAL:vION HUEEDINCi on the McCLOUD— season of 1S73. 

We iK'uaii our work on the McCloiul river in lM7;i, on the 18th day of 

.Inly. The year before, our chvellinf; house, hatehiuji works, ami in fact 

evei\ thinix aitpertainiuix to our camp were located at a considerable dis- 

tauei' from the river, in orih>r that we miuht avail ourselves of the use of 

the water from a brook, which at that time, in our inexperience, we con- 

sidi-red tlu- only safe water we eouhl employ for hatchin<r purposes. The 

di>a(lvaut:iixes <>1" this location were very <xreat. The brook water had a 

very lluctuatimi temperature. l)esides beintr limited and insuHicient in its 

sup|ilv. and sonu-linies roily. The di>tance froni the river caused a ^reat 

wa-^te of tiiiif and lalior in LToinLT to and from the tishinij irrounds. which 

was an inconx 'iiii lu-e j^articul.-u ly irksome when we had salmon ejj^us to 

lirinir to the h.itchini!: works : and. to add to the discomforts of the i)lace, 

it was ofltn intoKrabjy hot where our house stood, the mercury frequently 

ri>inLr as liiiili as 110 deiirees in the shade, and standinii for da3.s 

toiietiicr tlirouiih the afternoon at 1(».'» di'«rrees. This last year (IMT.")) I 

ri'i^olved to u>»' the river watt-r if possible, so as to brinji the lishing 

«rrounds and hatchiiiir works toujether. and also to obtain a larger and 

jiiore trustworthy su|)[ily of hatching water. Accord inirly. on arrivini; at 

the river last >uiumer we moved our house an«l hatchini^ woiks from their 

ftuiiier l(Katit)n down to the bank of the McC'loud. ami immediately 

bi'LTan dii:uini: a ditch from :i hiixher i)oint of the river to a spot which we 

had pii'\ ioiislv >elected for the hatchin;! liouse. Although we had before 

this sur\e\»'d the i;ri)uiid. ami thoiiirht the attempt practicabh'. we found 

so manv ()b>tacU's to its successful |<ros«.'Cution that we chan;j;ed base 

onci' more, and ditiMinimtl to put a laiLTe \\heel into the river current at 

one of it^ mo>t rapid portion^, and to i)ump up from the river the water 

iutiudcd for the maturimr of the salmon »'i:".irs. Thi' wheel, which was 

fuini--hrd with a sei ie-< of luu-kets arouixl its eircumference for liftin;^ the 

\v:ii(i. wa^ a pnliH-t success in t-vi-ry respect, and worked tlu' whole 

sra-un l<> oiir cuiiie satisfaction. It raisi-d over (I.OOO ixallons ot river 

wMtrv an hour, and to >ucli a heiiiht that we could have our hatchin<r 

trom:h> a- tar iVom the ur"und as we pleased, which alone was a ixreat 

convi'ui* nc*'. While tlu- wliei'l wa< l>ian<i built, work wa> pu>lied with 

al! po--ilr!e di-patch in otlu-r department^. >o that on the lUth of Anirust 

iiurdwcllim: liou>i- wa> fun^hed. the wati'r was runniuii merrily throm^ii 

the troughs of the hatchin;^ hou<e. several corrals and pomls had been 

l>iiilt tliree or four hundred >aIiiion had lu-cn cauixht and corralled in 

them, and ue were ready for the fir>t in-^talnu-nt of salmon eiriX>. 

oil; cAMr. 
At tills point a few word< about our eamp .and work and surroundinirs 
mav piThiips be not inapiin>priat«-. 'I'he McC'loud river, on \\\\w\\ X\w 



Fi.'ih Cidtun'.sfs' Assoi'intion. 



\:\ 



Unit«'«l States salmon l)rt'tMlin<r cinnp Is sitnatctl. rist's in Mt.'Mia>ta ami 
tlows tliroiiiili (U'l'p and rocky canons for ni^arly seventy niilis to u liere it 
empties into the Pit river, a trittiitary of the S;u-iaiiifiito. At <nn- li-hiie^ 
<;roini(ls it avi'iaires iVoni forty to lifty yards in widtii. It i-^ a lapid. 
foaminii stream, and is con^itU-rcd one of the nio-t, ii' not the nio-t, 
beantiful of thi' rivi-rs in California. Wiicu'vi-r it is kuoun it i-- faiind 
for its brijiht sparkling waters, the lovi-liiie-s (jt' it- vtrdurc-coxci-,-.! 
banks, and its wihl anil iiiauniliccnt si-i'ni'ry. It i-^ loini<-d \>\ (Ik- nidt- 
in<x sii()\v> of .Mount Shasta, is ch'ar as eiyst;il. and cmii nndrr tin- 
soorehin<; atmo-[iliert' of a ('alifoniia >iiiiinii-r. at imoii, aluay-. --crins 
icily cold to the taste and toiidi. ()p[)0'-ite onr caitip. -Ii»p [liiinnilcd 
rocks of liiav liniestoni' ri>.e m-.ulv -.'."(lo teet ahim-t prrpeiidi<-iil.irly 
from tlie fnrther edire of the fiver. In all otlua- direct ion-, .-irr iiilU and 
hlntl's of vai'ions heights, covered with live oaks, manzinita liii>lic-. .uid 
other California veuctation. 

Alonii tlie hanks of thi> sparklinn' ri\ci- liic dillci'-nt point- of our 

salmon hreedin^eamp were st run'.:' at variou- intct val-. ( )nr lioii-<'. u In re 

wi' lived and ate and slept, and w liicli lorincd the cent i al point of the t-:iinp, 

was a plain wooden structnre of one -lory and twenty-eiuht feet in lenLfth. 

frontinu the ri\er. It consisted of a livinii room, v.ith several Iinnk- for 

beds, :i kitchen and an olliee. each looni o[)eninLi on the rivei- -ide out on 

a broad pia/./.a. which almost [irojt'cted over the water"- ed;ie. .M'oiit 

sixtv rods above the lionse was the month of the .■diandoiicij ditch. l-"ilty 

rods fnrthei- down or ten rods abov*- the lion-e. ua- an Indian rancherie. 

wlieri' .sonu- of the Indi.airs live«I who workd for n-. dii-t iu'low 

tlie rancherie were two small tents oc(ai|iieil l.y >oini' of onr 

partv or b\- Indians workinjj for ns. 'Ihcn came the lioir-c itself. 

.lust below tlu' honse was a laru'e tent. >i\ty liy tliiity feet, .nclo— 

\\\'S an<l eoverin'j; the hatchinif work-. Next canie (he nunie which 

broniiht the water from the uheil : then a pond foi confininLr the parent 

salmon: then the whei-l it-elf. always moviiej; niuht and day. with a 

lu'.avN (M-eiikinu- motion, and liftin;! its ei;j,ht I)nekets of water at each 

revolution. I'x-low the wheel, and abont twenty rod- fiiitlier down the 

river b;mk. was a bnish camp belon;.iini: to two of onr ti-heimen. two 

eorr.als for -almon. and the lower li-hiny: uronnds. which terminated oui- 

settlement in that din'i'tion. On the other -iilc of the ii\ei- wc had 

iiothiniT bnt a ti>hinir ixroniul and corral, which were jn-t oppo.-ite the 

hati-lunir hoti-e. lU-hind our <l\vi-Hinir \va- an Indian cemitery, and jn-t 

above the eenieterv was om" American llai: tloatinir at the pi'ak of a lifty 

feet stall'. Tlu' whoh' i-amp as it conld bi- seen in one \ iew from the hills 

on the oppositi' bank, formed a very j)retty and interesting piclinc. 



l-t Report of the American 

HATCHING APPAKATl'S AND }[ATCHING HOUSE. 

Dur hatchiiijr appnratns was simple Init very satisfaetory. The wheel, 
whieh was twelve feet in diameter, with an eleven feet shaft, took the 
water from the river into the tliime. The tlume earried the water about 
fiftv yards to the filtering tanks. The filtering tanks eonveyed the water 
in the distributing spont. The tlistributing spout diseharged it into the 
hatching troughs. 

The hatching troughs were placetl parallel with each other, at right 
angles with the distributing spout, as is the usual custom in hatching 
houses. There were ten rows of troughs placed in pairs with u passage 
way between each pair, and in each row were three troughs, each 
sixteen feet long, placeil end to end. one a little lower than the other, so 
as to i;ive a fall from the first to the second, and from the second to the 
third, of a few inches. The troughs wi-re on an average about breast 
hiixh, ami were furnished with covers made by stretching whiti> cotton 
cloth on a light frame of wood. The whole, excluding of course the 
tlume and wheel, was sunnounted by a large and substantial tent, sixty 
bv thirtv feet. Most of the eggs rested on the charcoal bottom of the 
trouizhs, but I used trays to a considerable extent, formed of iron wire 
nettiuLT coatinl with asphaltum. and found them perfectly satisfactory. 1 
also used bv wav of experiment and with Sctli (Jrcen's permission, half 
a dozen of his s.had hatching boxi's. anchoring tlu-m in the river current. 
Thev worked so well that 1 have no doubt that in a warm climate like 
that of California, salmon eggs lould be hatched in these boxes with 
perfectlv satisfactorv results, w hich adds another merit to this very si!n{)le 
but wonderfullv eth-ctive invention. The only ditliculty which we experi- 
enced in their use was the inconvenience of getting at them and of [tick- 
ing out tlu' dead v-Z'J.^. < >n aci-ount of thi^* inconvenience I wouhl prefer 
the stationarv hatching troughs, if I had my choice, but 1 shouKl feed 
perfectlv confident of hatt-hiug succi's>fiilly any number of salmon eggs 
with nothing but the shad boxes. 

The hatchiim house, or more pro})»'rly tlii' hatching tent, containeil our 
work bench and tt>ols. and was the [ilace where all the eari>enters' work 
was done. It was always in tlu' day time the most bright and cheerful, 
as it was the busiest spot about our p.leasant canq*. The hapi)y nnirimir 
of the rii)plini; water, the busy sounds of the workmen's tools, the bright, 
soft liixht dilfused through the canvas covering of the tent, the coobriver 
breeze Lrentlv pouring in through the raised walls of the tent, the active 
forms of till' workmen, the thought tliat millions of tiny creatures wi-rc 
comintr into being undt'r the white covers of the troughs, all these things 
lent a charm to this spot, which made it very attractive and an extremely 



Fish Cnlliiri'il.'i Association. 1«> 

pleasant place to be in ; unU the efleet was not lessened by tin- i-xhilar- 
ating relleetion that every shovel full of sand which Ibrnn-il th*- uliole 
tloor of the tent was mixed uitli irt^ld du>t. su that i-vt-ry stfp wo took, 
we were literally treading on p^lden sands. 

OIK HorsEHOLD AND WOllK. 

Our household consisted i)crinanently of Mr. dohn (1. Wooilbnry. fore- 
man ; Mr. Myron (ireen. head ti>lii'rinan : Mr. Oliver Anderson, nian-of- 
all-work. an<l mvsi-lf in charLTt'. Our tluctuatinLT force con-isteil of a 
carpenter, a cook, several li>hernu'n and nien-of-all-work. toixether with 
more or less Indians, makinir our total number avcraL^c durini: the lishing 
season, when 1 kei)t on a forci- every niLTJit haulini: the seine, about a 
dozen or lifteen hands. 

As it nuiy perhaps seem suipri>in!j: to >ome tliat we couhl tind w(jik for 
so many persons, I will say that on the b^th of duly not a >ho\cl full of 
earth had been moved, nor a stick cut on tlie >ite of our future camp, and 
by the fir>t of October, seventy-four day> al'tir. we had eri'cted our 
dwelling: hou->e. hatchiniz work>. and other structures Itelongini; to the 
camp, we had cauLrht and confnu-d a thousand salmon, had taken and laid 
down two million cl^its, and abeady packed ami .shipp«"d eastward nearly 
a million. This wi- had done in a wild and almost uninhabiti-d c(juntry, 
where we had to rely wholly upon /turselves, and either do ouix-lves what 
was to be done or leave it umlone. We could not send out Ibr a lilack- 
smith or phunber or engineer wiien we wanted one, a> if we were living 
in a town, but luul to rely on our own roources for what we wanted or 
go without. This, of course. conii)licated and extended our work very 
nuich. 

At all events there was sonu-thing for all to do evt'ry moment, and from 
beginning to end it was as busy a camj) as one could wish to st'c. Thera 
was not a game of cards or ehe>s or checker.^ played all the time I was 
there, and every one seemed to n-.tW/.r that tin- l)U>iness of the place was 
work, and every one worke<l accordingly. 

i'Kf:sr.NcK or Indians. 

The presence of the Indians formeil a pe-culiar feature of our came life 
on the ^IcCdoud. We were in an Indian country, on a river which had 
neviT been opened up or inhabited by whiti- men, ami which the Indians 
regarded as their own by rights which had deseended to them undisturbed 
through their ancestors for centuries back. Indians swarmed about our 
camp all the time. There was hardly a monu-nt in the day when there 
were not more or less of them lounging on or under the piazza or about 
the tent. 



16 Report of the American 

Occasionally a white horseman or a white straggler on foot, or a news- 
paper reporter from the Modoc country just above us, stopped at our 
door, or stayed over night ; hut usually we saw twenty Indians to one 
white man. Red faces became more familiar, as they were much more 
common than white ones. Indian words and phrases crept into our 
vocabularies, and became part of our ever}* day language. As a rule the 
Indians were friendly and civil. Thev hud been, however, the last of 
the Californian tribes to yield to the white man's sway, and the hardest 
to subjugate. They had also succeeded thus far in one way or another in 
keeping white men away from their country. At one time a party of 
miners came down across the Sacramento hills to their river to look for 
gold, but they were waited upon in the morning by three Ciiiefs and three 
hundred warriors, and summarily escorted out of the country. This sort 
of thing was repeated several times. Still later a party of two Ameri- 
cans and eleven Chinamen came up from the Sacramento river to dig for 
gold, and campeil a short distance above the present location of our camp, 
but before morning the McC'Ioud Indians inurdered ever^- one of them, 
not leaving one to tell the stor}'. 

A year ago a Mr. Crooks came to the river, and settled a mile or two 
above us, but the Indians nuirdered him as late as last Septembt-r, 
while I was there. Thus by one means or another they have kept the 
whites out, so that even now. there is not a single white nian living on 
the McCloud river. 

"When we came to the river to erect our house ami hatching works, a 
large number of Indians assembled on the opposite bank and spent the 
whole afternoon endeavoring by threats and ftirious gesticulations t<j 
drive us away, and afterwards several of them waited on me and told me 
in their dialect, of which I had learned a little, that this was their river 
and their land, and these were their salmon, and that I was stealing thfir 
land and salmon ; that they had never stolen any thing from the white 
raau nor taken his land, and that I ought to go away. Some of them 
were very much excited and very angry wliile talking. Others went so 
far as to give out tlueats about my lu-ing killed. When I thought of tin- 
fate of all my predecessors on the McCloud, I did sometimes \'vv\ slight 
misgivings. Imt I adopted a firm and and eoneiliatory policy with them 
which worked so satisfactoiily that I am now pt'rfectly satistied that none 
of us are in anv flaiiger tliere. I ought also to a<ld that thi-y stand in too 
nmch tear of the white man to ilo any oprn injur\-. 

I gave tlif Indians all the salmon which we caught after we ha<l got 
through with them, and I treated them wtdl always, being particidarly 
carefid to be tliouglitful of and attentive to their siek. so that we got 
alon<r with them verv well, and I think reallv niatle frit-nds of some of 



Fislt Cidtitrhts' Ass'trialion. 17 

thi'ni. We found tlu-m vorv serviccaltU- in asslstinc: about our wurk, 
although thov were i)iovokiii<rly freakisli. Wlu-n tht-y workr.l th.-\ 
worked ^vell. hut when thfv (Uil not want to work, thcv wen- a>.)l.-tin:ite 
as mules or as ali-vins — tliosc who are aeeustoiiu-(,l to hatchiuLMi-h u ill 
appreciate tliis last allusion. I know — and then thry would not lift a liand 
to help us. however urgent the eireuiustanees niiirht he. I cniplovi-l thiiu 
to help run the seine, to chop wood, to cook, to huild danis. to work in 
the water, to ,;iek out dead eggs. ;unl to do various odd Jo1>s. Thrv u.rc 
especially ilexteious and niinMi- in jiicking over tlie t-gi:-. Tlicir >l<Midfr 
lingers and delicate touch st-rnu-d particidarly adapted to this li-ht work. 
They couhl not always resist tin- temptation to pilfer >uch little tliiuL'-- as 
needles and soap. an<l somt-tiine^ a ^hirt. hut considering the constant 
oi»portunities they hail fn- stealing on a larger scale. 1 think they de-erve 
a good fleal of credit for not taking more than they did. I am of the 
opinion that we should have lo>t more things in an a\i'rage white c<jm- 
nnmity. under the same circumstances. 

intp:hestin-(; ( hakacteii of camp life. 

Our life at the camp was cxeeedingly interesting and [)leasant. \\'e 
had a harmonious household, the work progre^si'd satisfactorily, the 
mountain air was invigorating, and the landscape- were lu-autiful. or 
magnificent, according to the direction in which one looked. K\ery 
morning we were sure of a cloudless sky and a pleasant day. :iud 
although a (juarter of a mile away the heat was intolerable : nenrer the 
river side where we were, it was so tempered l>y the icy water vi' tiie 
McCloud that we knew nothing al)out it. livery morning al>o it was a 
matter of new interest to know what luck the seine li.id Imd the night 
before, C)r how many eggs ha<l been taken. 

Almost every dav tin- Indian> wonld bring in :i coon or a mink or deer 
or bear skin or at h-ast some bit of uew> that inten-leil us. Tlie s;dmon 
were jumping in tlu' river in front of oui' house, at tin- late of a thou-.-uid 
an hour, and occasionally wi- uotdd see an olter playin::- in the water 
opposite. We fre(|Uently saw emigrant wagons dragging wt-aiily along, 
sonn> uoimr from Califoiriia to Oregon, ami some the rever-e. lioth liojting 
to make a change for tlie better. Twice every twenty-four hour- tlie 
( )resron stage with its six galloping horses made it- ta>t time o\»>rtiie 
>taLCe road on the iiills aln>\e us. cairyinu" the mail fiom San l-"ranci-co. 
C'aliforina. to Portland. < )ri-gon. .and back. Altogether oiii- life at the 
camp, in spite of hard and jx-r-i-tent work. w;i- intere-ting and plea-ant. 

Our tal)le was usually supplied with venison. tn>ut and -almon grilse; 
t!ie small grilse of the fall run ueneiaily bcinir iKX'd eating. We al-ohad 
occa-ionallv quail-, xiuirrel-. rab!)its ai»d fre-li ve'_^-tal>les. Our -t.iples 



18 Report of the American 

to tall back upon when in want of something better were bacon, potatoes 
and baked beans. We had no fresh domestic meat whatever. 

GAME. 

Tlie McCIoud region is a good game country. Deer are very abun- 
<lant, especially after the snow on the mountains had driven them down 
into the valleys. Black and cinnamon bears are (juite common, and it 
was not unusual to see the track of a grizzly bear, though we did not 
encounti-r one. California lions are occasionally seen. C^uails, gray 
S([uirrels and Jack rabbits were (juite common and nut very timid. 
Indeed, a bevy of thirty or forty cjuails, and often more, used to feed 
around the house every day. antl several gray s«iuirrels came regidarly to 
our tal)le at every meal to be fed. Our Indians could almost always go 
out and get a deer of a morning or afternoon, and any one is sure to get 
a boar or two who makes a day's regular hunt for one ten miles up the 
McCloud river in October. 

FROM THE l!>rH OF AUGUST TILL THE E(iGS WEUE SHIPPED. 

To resume the thread of my story, by the I'.Hh of August we turned 
the water through the hatching house, and had the pleasure of seeing 
what I hatl h)ng looked forward to, a successfid hatching apparatus in 
perfect working order in the salmon breeding regions of the Pacific slope. 
There seemed to be somethitig in the very sound of the rippling and 
plasliing water to exhilarate our spirits, as it leaped through the troughs 
tor the tirst time. I celebrated the da}' b\- collecting our whole force of 
whites and Indians at sunset and raising a large American Hag over the 
camp. 

We eontinued to catch more salmon, and to build more corrals tor 
them, and to extt'ud the operations for hatching the eggs. The female 
salmon now begins to show ever}- sign of being, nearly ready to spawn, 
u'ld we wt're <laily e\i)ecting to liml some ripe egu;s. We remained, how- 
ever, in tliis not unpleasant state of excitement and anticipation until 
tlie "J''th of Aiiiiust. when we took the tirst ripe salmon eggs of the sea- 
son, uumlieiiiig 'i:*,'"*". 

Now eaine a new and unexpected drawback. The salmon conlined in 
the eorrals ha<l been literally wearing themselves out in their frantic 
endeavors to a-ceiid the riviT. Kveiy moment, day and night, impi'lh'd 
bv tlieir i^n'pte^.sil)U> instinct, they kt'pt jumping and lashing themselves 
aLCain--i the >ide-- of the eiielo>uies. and now comparatively exhausted by 
their ellorts and biiii-es th*'v wiTC beginning to die from the ell'eet of 
them. Kortuiiately thi-ie weic enough more in the river to get eggs from, 
for had wo di'peniled on our stoek on hand when the tirst eggs were tak»-n 
wo should have obtained a ver\ meagre supplv . As it was. I kept on tithing 



/'/.n7* C'idtill'i.sfs' ^Iss'iridfl'di) . 



VJ 



:iml roplaciii'j tlu> <li':iil salmon witli live ones, su that' we had no lack of 
ejrgs, and obtained in tlu- end the full two millions at which numher I had 
set my limit. Xothiiit; further occurred to inti'rce[>t our steady {»ro<_rre-<. 
We continued to take eg^s every twenty-four houns. hoth ni;zht and da\ , 
and the numlier in the trougiis increar«ed rapidly. 

On the loth of St-pti-mher. at noon, we had a million ciTLT^^ laid <lo\\ii. 
On the 1 Itli of September, at daylight, we hail a million and a halt", and 
on the 2:Jd, at daylight, the quota of two millions was complete. < )n the 
12th of Se{)ti'ml)er the lir.>t eye spots were visilile in the eiiirs taken un 
the 2(>tli of Auiiust, makint; sixteen days for the interval In'tween tlie 
extrusit)n of the ciXii's antl the appearance of tln' eye spots, (the fMiuation 
of the choroid piument.) The water in the river liad a temperature of .'i^J 
de>;rees at sunrise, when the lirst eir^s were taken, hut it always rose in 
the hatching troui^hs durinj^ the ilay, sometimes to -^^ <le^rees, and some- 
times as hiiih as (> I ile<^rees, so that the exact averau'e temperature of the 
water for the whole time cannot he statt'd. 

On the -JOth of Septeml>er I sent :;(M),(HI0 euiis to the Atlantic eoa-t, 
and on the ."!(ith of Se[>teml>er I went east my>elf with f.mi.oiKt more, 
leaving the eam[» in cliary;e of .Mr. \\'oodl)ury. ()n the t',(h (>f ()ctol)er 
Mr. Myron (Jreen left camp with a thiid lot of a cjuarler of a million, and 
about a week later Mr. \Voo«ll»ur3- forwaidi-d tin- balance of the eyiis, 
amounting to another (juarter of a million or more. 



JiKSlL'ls. 

The results in detail of these >hii)meiits havi- been givi'U in tin- {laiJcrs 
several tinu's, >o I will only make the following biief statement here: 
Of tlu' 2.1 11 )(>.()(»( I ('"j;t!;s taken ami laid down in tlie hatching troughs, 
nearlv oui- million and a half wen- shippeil ea>tuard and «-onsigned in 
various i)roi)ortious to Dr. -1. II. Slack. New .Jersey; SethCireeii. .\»-w 
York : .lami's Dully, IVnnsyUania ; (.eorge 11. .K'rome. Michigan ; F. W. 
Webber, ( harh->town. N. 11.: ( harles (.. Atkins. M:iine: K. (.. Tike. 
Connecticut; A. I'. IJockwood, I tali : K. A. Urackett. .M:i>s:uliu>etts ; 
Dr. .1. IL Slack reeei\ iug the lar-e-t number. N»':irly a million ;uii\td 
at their de>tiu;itiou alive, and a lar-e proportion <A' the fish hatched from 
them have >iuee betii di.-triltuted in \:nious >tri';im> and lakes tlnoii-liout 
the Inited Males. 

I'.VC'KLN'ti AND SHiri'INr, TlIK KtltiS 

The takini: of the egifs ami the maturing of tlu-m for >hiiiment w:is a 
marked ■-ucccss. Indi-eil, I luivi- never seen a liner lot of ^almon eggs 
than we h:id in tin- hatching troughs under the manunoth tent at the 
McClou<l. Nothing could be wished for. more happy and prosperous th.-ia 
our progre«.s up to this point of >hippin<j; the <'ggs. I5ut here came a 



20 Report of the American 

formidable and threatening ditliculty. Between our camp and the waters 
which were awaiting the eggs, there lay a long strctcli of 3,000 miles, 
which must be crossed by the yoiuig eml»rvos before they could be made 
available for the service for which they were intended. It was enough to 
nu^ke the most confident enthusiast falter. We all looked forward to 
this dangerous journey of the eggs with dread. When we packed them 
in the moss and screwed down the covers, it seemed like burying them 
alive, and when we saw the crates containing them, loaded into the 
waiions and sent otl' to the railroad station, and thought of the almost 
interminable juurney. and the ten thousand chances of injury that these 
frail creatures would be exposed to on the way, it seemed nothing less 
than infatuation to expect tliat they would survive tliem all. and ever see 
the light again alive. They nuist go. however, and we packed them as 
well as we could and sent them otf. The l)Oxes in wliich they were 
packed were all two feet square and a foot deep. The eggs were j)acked 
as usual with first a layer of moss at the bottom of the box. and tlien a 
layer of eggs, then another layer of moss, then another hiyer of eggs. an<l 
so on to the top. Midway, in the interior of each box. there was a thin 
wooden partition to break the force of the superincuml)ent mass of moss 
and eggs-. "W'e packed about 7.'). 000 in a box. When the box was fdled 
the cover was screwed down and it was packed with another one of the 
same size in a crate which was three inches and a half larger on all sides 
than the combined bulk of the two boxes enclosed, this intervening space 
being filled with hay to j)rotect the eggs from sudden changes of tempera- 
ture. On the top of the crates was a rack for ice. 

The nearest and only suitable ujoss that we could hear of was seventy 
miles away, at the sources of the .Sacramt'utu river. I acconliugly sent 
Mr. Woodbury to ^Ft. Shasta to procure a supply. lie returned in a few 
days with thirty-five bushels of moss, all of which we used in packing. 

The manner of the {jacking has been made a matter of considi-rable 
criticism. On this point I will only say that I had but one prece(lent to 
be f'uided by. viz: the shijjmeut of'salmon eggs from the same place the 
last vear. It was reported concerning this consignment, that the eggs 
which did not hatch on the way arrived in excellent order. In a critical 
and difficult undertaking like the one in (piestion, there seemed to be no 
choice between a<l(>pting a method which had succeeded, and others which 
had never ])een tried, so I adhered to the i)lan of the last year's ship- 
ment, and packed these eggs in precisely the same way. 

THE METHOD OF PACKING DISCl'SSED. 
To give the pro's and con's of this metho<l of packing would lead to a 
long discussion, which would j)erhaps be out of place here, so 1 will 
simply say that the packing was no hap hazard affair, but the result of 



Fish C'nlturiatH' Ansociation. 21 

careful thouglit and the exercii^e of as niucb foicsi<:lit in rt-jranl to the 
joiuney as we eoiihl brin;; to bear upon the subject. an<l even now. alter 
plenty of leisure for reflection. I do not know of any otln-r practicable 
niethoil of })ackini; salmon eir<rs, which are to l»e scut this overland jour- 
ney without an attendant, which secures as many favorable comliiiiations 
or which is not oj)en U) (juite as many objections as the one adopted. 
Indeed, I think the results were a decided vin<licalion of the merits of the 
packiujx. The first lot forwarded in Septembi'r was undoubtidlv de>tro\ ed 
by the heat. The second lot arrived in as ^^oud onh-r as could l»e 
i*x[)ected. The third lot was reported to arrive in excellent conditiou, 
and the finnth and last lot came tlie be>t of all. 

Of those sent to (ireat Salt Lake, distant a thousand miles, only three 
per cent, were lost. What more coidd l)e asked of the paekiuir? A 
method that will carry salmon eirirs a thousand miles with a loss of oidy 
three per cent, cannot be a very bad one. Seth ( ireiii reports a lo>'. on 
the 200. ()()(> e^XiTs consltrued to him of (»nly eleven per cent. l>oth in tran>- 
portation and in hatchinu^. This certainly does not seem to reflect any 
discredit on the packinir of the CLTirs. and wlien we reniend)er tiiat the}- 
came from a climate whert- the mercury stijod 1 lo dtizrees in the >ha<Ie. 
and that they weri' conveyeil twenty-two miles in a waiion. to beirin with, 
over a very rouixli mountain road, and after that ."J.noo miles l>y rail, i 
think it is rather creditable to the packin<^ than otherwise. I am oi)en to 
conviction, however, and if there is any better way of packiuiz the salmon 
ejXiTs for their overland journey. I shouhl like to know it. and should 
be thankful for any light on the stiltject. I shoid<l Ije g^lad to hear the 
subject discussed. 

COST OF THE E(H;S. 

The cost of iiettin*^ the ova and preparintr them for transportation was 
about ??LOOO. There were very nearly l..'»l)0,0(io impreiznateil egjis in 
good condition for shipment. This makes the cost of the eggs at the 
hatciiing works >?2.f>(; a thousand. I think in future with the exj>erien<e 
that has i)een ac([uired. and witii the work that has already been accom- 
plished, that it is highly probaide that the eggs can be got out at a still 
less exi)ense, and I sIkjuM n<jt ite suri)rised in the event of the undertak- 
ing being repeated on the McC'loud river another year, if .'k(MiO,o(io eggs 
could be obtained at a cost of .■?•"). 000, or at the rate of a dollar a 
thousand. 

I beg to say in conclusion that the particulars of the first McCloud 
expedition for salmon eggs are printed in tJie report of the U. S. Fish 
Commission for 1x72. The details of the Clear Lake experiment, of 
the overland trip with shail. and the operations on the McCloud river 



22 Ri'jwrt of the American 

l:ist season, will be found in the rei)ort of the V . S. Fish Coniniissioii fi>r 
1*<7."5, and a full account of the aijuariuin car enterprise in the California 
Fish C'oinnii^isioncrs' report for l-'^T:?. 



EXPERIENCES OF A PRACTICAL FISH 
CULTURIST. 



1;Y SETH (iUEEN. 



Mv first attt-nipt at takiuir brook trout spawn w;i>; in Im", L I took a 
few thousand daily for sixteen days. On the srv('ntt'<'ntli 1 niaile nj) my 
mind tiiat I could tell which sjjawn was impreirnated and wliich was not. 
I eounti'd several iiundreil and found that I had twmty-live per ciut- 
imprcfTiiated. I was s\ne I had to i)ick out all of lh«- l»ad oin-s. I 
did not like the jolt. About that tin»c Mr. Ainsuorth came to \\\y place. 
I told him what 1 had di^eoverrd. lie snid that twenty-fivt' jx-r cent, 
■nas a ixood perecntaire as vwr iiad Im-cu hatch»M!. 1 \v;is not lonii 
in makiniX up my min<l. If that was the lu-st tiiat could lie 
done. I should not stay in the business long. Tiiat night 1 thought it 
over and took a common si-nse virw of it. 1 ha<l usimI a good di-al of 
water, and bnt litth' milt. 1 made up my mind to try a little watii- and 
a iiood deal of milt. I found wIumi sixtt-i-n days had come around tiiat I 
had ninety-tive per cent. imi)regnated. and even b»'t'ier. 1 kept u-iiig 
less and less water until I used scarcely any. I kept it a seeret. ev.ry- 
bodv wanted my spawn. I sold a gri-at many, ami my secret was a> 
gooil as though I Inul a jtati-nt for it. 

I will tell you how I disc(n»'re<i tliat tlie sun would kill -pawn. Tlie 
si>awn in one of my troughs k»-pt dying and in all llie otli«-rs tlii-y wt-re 
irood. 1 pieked them out for several days and tiied several experiments, 
but it was iA' no use. the spawn ke[)t turniiiLr wliite. So I llioULrlit I 
would leave it for two or three ilays. The third day I learned tin- cause. 
The sides of mv trougli were six inches higli. and tlie si.lc >iiaded one 
half of tlie troii'_di. and I lie shady side was ail -rood, but wlure tlu- -un 
hit tliev were all bad. I left tiiem a couple of days ainl seo(.pcd liiem 
out and -hadeil my wiii«low. and 1 did not iiave any iiioit tionMr from 
the -un. < >ne of the one luindrcd antl one dillicidties I liad to oveieonie 
wa- rats. They left tlieir tracks ami I cau-ht them; 1 t.".k :;i)l ti.Mit 
-pawn out of one of their stoniar-Iis. 

I must stop teHiiiLT you the dillieiilties I lia<l to overcome or I -liall not 
liave time to tell yo!i about anything cNc The year 1 '^I'-T tiie (..minis- 



Ft sit Cxlturist.-i' Assi>riafioii. 23 

sioncrs of Fi>beii»'s of four of the New Kniilaiul St;ito:s oaiiie to inv place 
ami wished iiie to izo to llolyoke. on the C'oimeetieiit river, and sec if I 
could maki' a success in liatchiuLr ^had artificially. I airreed to ^'o. I 
arrived at the fishcrv at South IladU-y dam and t(»Id the jiecjplc that I had 
come to hatch slia<l artificially. They tliou;_dit I was crazv and tnaft-d 
me accordingly. My lirst experiment in the use of hatchinj; appai atii^ 
was to huild the same kind of ti-ouirhs that I used for hatching trout, with 
the exception that I slantfd sonit- of thrm a irrt'at deal more than 1 did 
others. I put the sp.-iwii in the tiouixhs ami I lotind that in tin- troiiLChs 
that had the mo-^t fall tlu^ spawn lioated down and out of the end. 'Ihat 
was the tir>t time that I had di-^i-ovcred Ikjw liirht the shad >pawn u a^. 
It is us Uisht in the water as a hiilililr is in the air. 'J'he next niorninir I 
came to s»'e my troughs; thry wen- nearly all hrokendown hy ><>me 
malicious person. \ lixe<l sonit- of them so that I kept the spawn in the 
trough; the next day they were nearly all dead. I cotdd s<c tin- li>li 
Lfgin to form, hut it was sutlering for lack of circulation of water. The 
next da\ they were all dead. I saw what I had to contend with. 1 saw 
that the spawn needed a great cireulafion of w.ater, and the dilliciilty was 
to get some thing that wouhl give tlifin tin- circidation ami not tloat tiie 
spawn away. Tlu' secoml day I had a dozen <iillficnt kimK of hateliing 
apparatus. All failed until the sixth day, when I was st.anding in the 
water with a c:in<lle hox with a >it've bottom, and tipping it one way and 
another until I tippeil the lowci- edge >u th.at the ciirn-nt struck tlif hot- 
tom. The spawn hegan to hoil up atid kept in motion, 'lln- mystery 
was solved ! The second day the (ish showed lift- in tin- eLT-T^. and the 
next dav th«'V hatehed. I made t wo t rials to see what pcii-cntaLrf I coidil 
hatch. I j)Ut ten thoii>iind t 'j;-!-. in the Im>\ and Iiatclird all Iml •»c\cn 
V'^'J:>. 'I"he next trial 1 liatclic(I .-dl hut Ini. 'i hr ( (unmi^-iiniii^ ami 
overvlnxly was d('li'_dited iii\ -<ir in particular. In alioiit liftccn dax-^ I 
hatched fifteen million-, and in ls7(i the ( <»iiui»i-~i<)iiciv of l'i-»|iti io 
reported that tinie wa-'-ixtx percent, iimrf --had in the ( < >niiecl iciit ii\cr 
than there was in the \ear l>>o-J. ;ind 1 hclicve the li-~|iinLr ha- l>ccn a- 
goo<l i'verv year vinee. 

In I'SC.'.i I i-xpciimeiited in lialching uhiteti-li. I took ilie-pawn in 
the same manner that I do the tinut. except that tliey lia'.c li> lie -lirreil 
gentlv for t went \- minute- \i> keep tlieni from -tickiuLT lo'_rfthei-. 1 have 
hatched a gooil main e\i-iy \ ear -iiice t hat time. I halclicd thciii the 
three lir-t \ear-on gravel and on tra\s lour indie- dceji in llir lioiiLih. 
Last year .Mr. M . (J. Iloltoii in\ented a liati-!iin'_^ l.o\ ih.-it will \<r the 
means of stockini: all ot'onr ui'i'at I^kes with whiteli-h and -alinon tioiit- 
e(jual to tlu'ir hot day. and I l>elie\c it can lied, me in I', .ur ycai -. It 
saves nineteen-twentieth- of the room in the si/.i- of tlie hou-e. and can 



24 Jlfjyjii of the American 

he taken care t»l" with one half the hil>or reijiiircd for any hatchin;_' ai)pa- 
ratii-i that I have >een. I havt- used ten of llolton's boxes in our State 
IlatclunLr iiou-e this winter. an<l llml tiieui a i;reat success in hatehiuii 
>ahu(>n. >alnu>n trout, brook trout, and whitetish. 

I have liatelu'd tit'tei-n diiferent kinds of fish artificiallv. viz : brook 
tr<tiit. whitfli^h, hcrriuLr. shad. (_)tse!i;o bass, wall-eyed pikf. salmon trout* 
salmon, red -^ide >uekers, crt-i-k suckers, shiners, wiiite and vellovv perch, 
mullet. >trii)fd bass. froLC^ and lob>ters. 



S.^LMON BREEDING AT BUCKSPORT. 



BY CHAUr.KS (I. ATKINS. 



The method of olttainiuLl s;ilm)ii eij:i5s pursued at IJucksport is cx- 
treiiuly artilicial. The parent \U\\. ww eauirht in -luue, in the tidal i)art 
of the IV-noiiscot river, before they havi' ever entered fresh water, arc 
tran~|i6rted in drays overland to a fn-^h wati-r [>ond that was never 
naturally freiinented by salmon. au<l in its character is tar enouirh re- 
moved from their ideal haiuit^. and tliere contined within an inelosure oi' 
ui'ts iV'im .luue till November, are then cauirht a'j;ain in traps or seiner, 
and depii\ed of their eu:irs am! milt by artificial manipulation, marked 
with nu tal tairs and sent liaek to the river on dravs. The i-irirs ;iie 
fertilized by mixinir the milt with them in a [Kin witiiout water, and 
and developed on wire eloth trays in woo«|rn trouirlis. ;ind are for the 
nu»t i»arl packed up in mo-s and ^('ut away in Feliruarv aiwl March to 
!h' hatehed elseu here. 

.Vll pre\ii>n-- eitorts nt the eoUeetion <>f salmon CLTirs of which I am 
intormed were made in the inunediate vieinitv of tlu' natural spawniiiii- 
Lrrounds. and. the part-nt ti>h were never taken until the near approach of 
the -pawiiin'.i -e;!-on. when they had lu-ru a lonii time in Iri'sh water. 
W the ont-~ei of tlii- expi'riment. therefore, then- were no examples tV<>m 
whieh to leai n the brst im'de^ <'f proceedin-.! or to auLTiu" success or 
tailine, and ihei-e were not wautinuT reasons foe thinkinir the latter ((uitc 
a^ probabh' a> the former. The unknown nuantilit'-- in tiie problcni were 
minuroiis. It was not known whether, of the salmon cau<:ht in salt 
water n*'ar the mouths of tin- rivers in earl\ sunnuer. all or in fact any 
were ^.roiuLC to proihice i"S\l.- and milt at tiie comin<.f spawnintr season. It 
was not known wli<ther they would sur\ive tiie handliuL: to whit-h thi-y 
must be subjected in ca[)ture and tran^porIati<,)n. or. if they did survive. 



Fish Ci'lturis(s' ^1.><.n'o(,^/^/o». 2') 

wlietlu'f, from (lie (•liaiii:*' iVom s:ilt to «'iitirtly fix'sh water l.eiii'_^ pieiiiri- 
tme or too Midden, or f'ruiii the ellV-ets of comiiiciiicnt, tlie iioriiKil and 
healtlil'ul development of the v^-jr^ mvl milt mii:ht not Ix^ prt-ventni. 

The iiKinirv naturally arises, why seleet a site for operations where all 
these im[)ediments are to he encountered? Why not no to thr hcad- 
wati'rs of the river where salmon <j;o to spawn of their own aeeor«l. and 
where they are found at the breedinij season wi'h spawn and milt matured 
undi-r natural conditions? 

These (piestions received due consideration in tin- heicinniii'^. Ihc 
headwaters of the IN'ncjhscot wen' examined, ami the pr(»l>al)iliiie«. of 
success in the collection of salmon >i)awn there were rarefnlh utiirlnd. 
The principal fisheries of tin- I'enoh^cot are in the tidal [...rtion-. ..f the 
river and bay, and here it seems proltahle that the majority of the ^alinoii 
that seek to ascend the rivt'r are caiiuht. The remaindei- i^ -till fiutlier 
reilucetl by the tisherii's at thedani'^ above Hanixor. and alter pa^-inLT ' 'M- 
town they scatter far and wid*- in nearly all the trilmtarie-. Tliou'^li 
salmon are caught at several [>laei< on the main river an 1 the Malta- 
iTamoii. it is (juite doubtful uln-tlier two hundred coiiM be c(,lleete.l at 
any one point. The remot<'ne>- ot" their [)iiiiei[)al re-ort>- from railro.-fN. 
and indi'cd j^ood roads of any kind wa-> another -t-riou-- objection to a 
loi'ation on the headwaters of the river. 

The fu'st ex|)eriment was thei-efore triiil at Oiland. a few miles ea~t 
of the |>re.>.ent location in r>uck>porl. It i> unm'ce^>aiv for me to tletail 
the many mishaps ami mi>takcs aiiil final >iieei'-.- of the tir-t trial. It is 
enouiih tt> state that thoUL::h in vaiiou- ways the liiindie<l and ten >almon 
purchased were, before th(> >pawuin'^ reason arrived, in one uay and 
another reduced to tlie small numlnr of eiLchteen. tho-e that remaim-d 
sutfi-ri'd in no i)erccptible d»'i:ree from the unnatural u-ai:e to uiiieli tiny 
had been sul>ieeted. and that tin- evcr«--ive moitaliiy aniouu' the parent 
salmon was found to l»e fairly attriluUal'le to caii-e-> who>e operation 
could l>e previ-nteil. 

Onlv about To.ihmi euys w»ae obtained, but the >ueci'>'. in fecundation 
was llatteriniX- beinu; at tiie rate of ninety— i\ [ler cent. ; and the sub- 
seijuent develo[iment and hateliiuL: of the citlIs wiae all that i-ould lie 
desired. A> tlu- parent ti>ii had Iteeii kept in ordinary [;ond water in an 
enclosure which in midsummer ua- oid\ tifty feet M|uare .and le<- tlian 
fotu- feet deep, the healthy >tate of the i-;^ir- is to m*- a convinciu'j: [>Vf">t' 
that no I'vil residt need Ik- antieii>ated tVotn the continement itself, and 
that ordinary pc'^nd water is well adapted to sustain them. 

In b^72 the >ite of operations was removed to .Spo!!brd's Pond in 
Bucksport, and the present extensive works umlertakeii. This i- a 
shallow, muddy pond, of about sixty acres in the summer, but spreading 



26 Rppnrt of the American 

in the winter over twice that area of meadows. The muiMy character of 
the bottom is believed to be of positivi* advantage, since it tends to deter 
the salmon from spawninix in tlu' jmnd, :>nd impt'ls them to st'ck the 
brooks where thev can be easily cany:ht. The pond lies about a mile 
from tlie IVnobscot river, antl as the brook throu«ih which it discharjres 
its waters is small and has falls ti)0 steep for even salmon to climb, it is 
necessarv to carrv all the breedinir salmon from the river to tlu* jionil on 
a drav. This is of course a disadvantage, but it does not appear to be a 
very serioiis om-. 

The hatching house is near tin- outlet of the pond, and is supi)lied with 
water from the stream. No availal>le spring could be found in the 
neiiiliborhooil. but the abst-nce of spring water is U>ss to be regretted 
since the majoritv of the eggs collected here are sent away to be hatched 
in other places, and since general experience seems to indicate that it is 
better to set voung salmon at liberty as soon as they begin to W'Cil than to 
attempt to rear them in artificial jtonds with artificially prepared food, 
for which purpose spring water would be desirable. 

The i)roximity of liucksport to the most productive salmon fisheries of 
the IVnobscot renders it the best point at which to collect breeding sal- 
mon. There are within live miles of liucksport village alxint iifty weirs 
that vii'ld not far from four thuus.-iud salmon per year. In case they were 
wanted probably three (piarters of these coidd l>e obtained for breeding 
j)urposes. Thus far a small part of tliese weirs have furnished all the 
salmon necessary. 

The weirs being made for the purpose of catching alewives, nienhailen 
and other small lish as well as salmon, the nets are of so small a mesh 
that sabnon never catch in them, and swim to and fro until tliey are left 
bv the retn-ating tide on a l>oard floor. In taking them for breeding [)ur- 
po-es it is necessary to anticipate the fall of the tide by dipi)ing them 
careftillv out and placing tlu-m earefully in i)erlbrated Itoatsin which they 
are convev»'il to liucksport. At liiuksport they are dippeil from the 
boats and placed in boxes in which they are carted to the pond. Of 
course with the most careful handling the salmon are sometimes fatally 
injured before they reach the jmnd. an<l die soon after. In 1.S72 one 
luiiidrid were found dead in tin- pond in the course of the summer, and 
nearlv all these in June ami .Inly, while the collection was going on, and 
within two weeks after its ch»e. In 1h7:J. out of «'.r)2 bought, only 
seventeen were found dead, owing, it is thought, to improved apparatus, 
iXreatt-r care and increased skill in the persons who handled them. 

Each vear preparations have been made to contine the brt'cding salmon 
within a small enclosur*'. The fust si-ason. 1X72. the hedge made for 
the purpose proved (|uite iuadequate. an<l the salmon being scattered 



/^i'.s/t O'lhurisfx' A.fsofiofi'on. 



over the poul :i l.ii<rf mmibor c^cajx-d captiUL' in thf fall. aii<l many (jf 
them stoh' iiitu a <li:niimtivt' tribiitarv. touipoiarily >\v(>lliu l.v ln-avv 
ruins, and laid tli.ir etr^s hclbiv tliov wt-ro di-.«-uv»Tc-d. In ]^1:\ the 
cnclosurL' contained about ten acres, and was niaili- by stretcliinir across 
the mouth of a cove a sfioni: net. held dou n at tin- bottom by tlie wt-iLrlit 
of a heavy chain, and at the to[) tieil to stakes st-VLial ft-t-t ab.nc the 
surface of the water. Tliis proved i)retty etlectual. and but vt-ry few 
escaped. 

The inclosure includes the outh-t of the poinl wliich is c<jMniiandcd l>y 
a d:im. At the spawninir season a i^ate about a foot square is kept open 
an<l the salmon have free access to it. In their anxiety to tind runninii 
water in which to spawn they run tiiroui,di this trate an<l fall immediately 
into a trap, which leads them thi-oui,di a lonir. nairow sluice in a gratttl 
])en whence they are taken to Ik- manipulated. .Natural instincts are not, 
liowever, stronj; enough to im|>el all the sahnon to enter this narimv 
})Iaci'. and seines are used to diivc or catch the nduetant. 

The spawnin<jj season bctrins the last wct'k in October and continues 
until the middle of Xovemlier. These, I think. woid<l bi- the extreme 
limits with these lish if they h.id frt-e access to a lari^e. natural spa\vnin<r 
bed. but under the unnatural conditions to which they are >u'iji'cted the}- 
in many cases retain their CiTLrs till a later date. A lemale contined in a 
pen on a board llooi- has retained iier eir<i> tor three weeks after they were 
ripe. The two sexes are found lo'j;ether at this ^ea-»(ni. :iiid llioi'irh no 
atti-mpt has been made to distiu'^iiish om- sex fn^m another, in .Itiue, 
when they arc collected, the females have always liet-n fcMind ii> exeecfl 
the males in number at the spawniuii sea><>n. In 1^7 ; the rati*^ of the 
disparity was almo->t two to oiu-. This is a fortunat*- circumstance, and 
it would be still lietter if the dis[)r<iportion were four to one. for tiu-re 
Would still be an ample supply of milt. 

Till- salmon that ent«'r the brook of their own accord aft«'r the twenty- 
lifth (lav of Octolur. are. with Vi-ry few exceptions, foinid to \n- lully ripe, 
and vielil at once all of their «'ir.Lis. except such as lie too far f(;r\vard to 
be reached by pressure. The number left in each ti-li id'ter the lirst 
manipulation is from two to ti\f hundred. The seines ha\e never been 
used to take fish from tiie pond-- larlier than Novemlx-r eiLTJitli. -o that 
we have no means of knowing: the couilitiou <.>f the li^ii previous to that 
<late : but after they were Itroiiuflit into u^*. the .>.aIinon taken in them 
■were fully ripe. .My obsi-rvation leads to the conclusion that the ripeiiiuLJ 
of the ciTLTs of salmon occurs, in all individuals inhabltiui: tin- same 
wati-rs. at about the same time, and that in ca>c> wlu're the efj.;is are not 
(U'posited until after November tenth in the latitude of Ihick-pcnt. the 
delay is commonly owiuLT to some other circumstance than the im- 
niaturitv of the etrirs. 



28 Report of the Americatt 

The mode of tccniKlation adopted is an imitation of the Russian uietbod, 
dirtering from it in this point, that the milt is ai)plied directly to the eirirs 
and thronjrli contact secured l)efore any water is used: uhile tlu- Russian 
experimenter usetl to put water with the milt before ai)i)lyin:ii it to tlu' 
ejrgs, I ilon't know that there is any advantaire in our nu-thotl. l>ut I 
think it rather safer. It requires no great haste: tlu- [)an of eiriis and 
milt may even be made to await for many minutes the convt-nieuee <>f 
the operator without detriment. The ratio of fecundation ulitaiue<l at 
Bucksport by tliis n\eth<)<l is alxiut ninety-eiLrht per cent., and the aver- 
age rate of fecundation in all eggs taken in l^tTi, including numerous 
experiments, was in;. 7 per cent. The average at Oriand in b^Tl was :m; 
per cent. These results are so satisfactory that I have made no attempt 
to apply any other method except in an ex[)erimeiital way. 

The rate of fecundation is obtained Iiy veiy careful ob-.erv:ition. \\ a 
certain stage of the development ot a iV'cund ^')L\z.. the germ begins to ex- 
pand laterally, sending out a thin fold, which at last completely enchase-, 
the volk. At any time during the growth of this fold, tlie position of its 
advancinii margin can l)e traced by a line of color**! oil glolndes, arrar.g- 
ed in a circle on the surface of the yolk. This circle is at first (juite 
small, and surrounds the colored disk so plaiidy visibh' on the upper side 
of the volk. It enlarges day by day until it divifles the surface of the 
yolk into two c([ual parts. As it progresses beyttnd this point.it bi-comes 
smaller, and fiiudly it closes entirely. This process lu-gins. in water of 
the tempi'rature of forty-three degrees F. at about the thirteenth, day and 
is c*)iiipleted in seven or eiLlht days. .Vs it never taki's place in an un- 
fecund egg. its occurrence is positive proof of fecundation. To observe 
it. a strong liixht should be thrown up tiirough the egir. and th«' most con- 
veni»nt wav of elli'cting this is to [)laee the «'gii ov»'r a hole in a pitce of 
sheet metal, and hold it up to a window. To obtain tlu- ratio of u-cunda- 
tioii. a detinite number of eggs is examined from each lot. and the lesult 
made the ba-isof a >trict calcidation. 

The maiii[)ulatiou of the fi-^li is performed at a distance of some twenty 
rods from the hatching house, to which tlie «'iziis aie earrietl in [)ails after 
th»-v iiave complete<l tlu' absorption of water. The hateiiing house i> a 
woollen buihlinsi' seventy f»'et long ami tuenty-eiiiht wide. A fi'ed troiiirli 
runs down one side of it. and ili>eliarges wati-r into forty hatching trouuh^- 
that run aeioss the room. Tlu- i\-ii\ pipes are of ineii-aiid-a-half 1« ad 
pipe, and are all set into the feed trough at exactly the same height, so 
that if a partial stoppage of water accidentally occurs, what still con- 
tituus to run will be divide«l amongst all thi' troughs instead of being 
drawn awav fiom part of them by others at a lower level, as might be the 
case under a different arrani;ement. The volume of water used is about ten 



Fish C'lltnrists' Association. 21) 

thousand irnlloiis |ht liotir. Thi- liatc-liinL^ tioiiuhs aiu a loot u'nU- ami 
six iiiclu's dccj) ; and ttu' nn^st oftliciii aiO tucul\ -tliici- fctt luim. TlifV 
rest on tlu- tlotn-. tin- only )>o>iti(jn practicalilr. owinii to the low lc\rl at 
wliic'li \vt' arc olili-_fo<l to IhimlT the water into tin- Itiiildinix- 'I'licv are 
(|uite level tVoui end to * iid. <-\eej)t I'our tioiiirhs that aic inr!ine<l lour 
inches. The latter ha\e daiii^ at IVe'iiient intervaN to Im-ak and ai-iate 
the water. 

The ejZLTs are depo>it«-d on tiay-- of iron wiri- clotli taekt'd to wooden 
frames, ami eoated with water-proof varni-h. Tlii> a])i)aratu> wa> lir^t 
recoininendt'd to nic l>v Mi'. K. A. Uraekett. of tin- Massaeiiu^etls Coni- 
missicMi. ami ha- proved e\ccfdiniil\- si-i'vieealile. l-"oiir naiU. i>r(>icetinir 
half :in inch IVoni the lower sidi- of the IVame of tin- tray, one at each 
corner, fnrnisji it with leixs. which xt-rve to keep it up from tin- lioitom, 
or from the tray lieneath it. when, a^ i>irem-rally nece->ar\. the tra\> an* 
l)laced in tiers one ahove another t(j economi>e >i)act'. A siie_dc titi- of 
trays throiiiihont tin- troniiii will contain withunt <-r«iwdiiii:. a million and 
a half of saluKJii v<j,'j,~-. auii tiin-i- tin-, the utmo-.t caiiaeitv of llit- house 
at pit-sent, will a!lord room for four-and-a-iialf million-. 

The troutxh> are all fittc(l witii coxta^. >o that tiien- is no oeea-ion to 
t'xchidt- liuht from the room. l)urinir the fn>I >ea-«on tiic trou;^li-. wlii<-h 
were then si\t\ It-et loni: and ran h'nuthw i-c the iMiildinir. weie not 
Covt-red. l>ut the windows were eoveiitl with white cotton cloth. Too 
much liuht was thu-> admitted. an<l its I'llcct on tiic cLr<_r->. !'oth directlv 
and hy i-ncoiu'aiiinii the Lirowth of coufcrxoid viLi.iation in the troniihs. 
was the caii>e of seiions mi-chief. Tiic conlcivnid -pn-ad o\cr the e.:lirs 
in soiiu' of the troiii:lis. -Jiiit them out iVom tin- iiilliicucc of tlic pure 
watt-r that wa- llowiiiu; alio\«- them, .and c\iio-c<| ihcm lo the dc:idly 
inllncnee of a st latum of >ta'_Mianl water lliat li.id a<<-umul:ited iieiieath 
the trav> iti con>ei|uencc of the -pace l>et\\een tliem. and the luitlom- of" 
the troic_di- l>eiii'^' -o louu ,iiid ii.-iiiou a- lo jirexeui tlie c\i-tence of a 
ciiiieiit. A laii:e numlier ..f e_;-- were lo-t iu ihi- way. All tiio-e 
dilliciilt ics arc now remedied. a:id the pre-eiit -ca-oii. witli lil'lx per cent. 
molC CLTLT-. the lo— up to thi- date ( I-'eluiiaiv 7. )i- -e\ ellt\ per Cent. le--. 

'I'lic water ii-cd foe lialciiinLT i- \ti\ cold. thoUL:,! not ijiiitc a- cold a- 
that ii-ed '"X Mr. LcoikikI at the Sehcc Saliiiou Iheediir^ \\ Ork-. where 
the tempcr.at lire Ii.a- hceii ai>o\e thiily-t liree dc'_ii'<'''- hut tlii(cd:iy- -ince 
Xo\(Mul)er l.'ith. At the ]'>iick-|n>rt Ilatchim: ! lou-e the teinpeiatiiie of 
tiic watci- ranL:e- from thiily-two and one-lialf dcjiee- to t hiit \ -foui- 
decree- v.. thli>lli:ll the liio-l of the winter. \\ lien tin- e:irlie-I e'^'^- ;ii-e 
tir-t deposited it i- ai>out forty-foiir dcLiici- V.. and l.efoie the la-t of 
those kept here h:it<-h out early in May. it ri-c- a^ain to the -aiiie point. 
The lowest temper.atiire of the whole season is *-\perienced in .\]iiil. when 
the snow and ice are nu-ltiiiLL. 



30 Repoi-t of the American 

Dcvolopment goes on very slowly, and the eggs arc not generally in 
the proper state tor transportation according to the common standard, 
the ct>loring of the e\-es, nntil Feliruary, at which time the eggs are 
divided amongst the several patrons of the enterprise. Of those falling 
to the share of Elaine in \f>l,i, a portion were kept and hatched at 
Buc'ksport. The most forward of them began to hatch in March, but 
onl}- a few individuals came out then; the fall of temperature that 
accompanied the oi)ening of spring appearing to almost suspend growth. 
The hatching proceeded verv slowly until the last week in April when the 
ice was all thawed in the pond above, and the temperature began to rise. 
1 do not know that there is any disadvantage connected with this low 
temperature. On the contrary, I think it quite likely that the delay of 
hatching until April and May is rather advantageous to young tish that 
are to be turned out to seek tlieir own food. Fish hatched out in January 
and grown to the feeding stage in February or early in March, must 
either be turned out into streams that are so cold as to arrest their growth 
and keep them a long time small and weak, besides being perhaps lacking 
in natural food, or they nuist be fed artiticiall}'. If the latter course be 
adopteil. I fear the tish will be untitted, to a certain extent, to take care 
of themselves. The natural date of the hatching of salmon in the rivers 
of Elaine nuist correspond closely with the date in the Biicksport Hatch- 
ing House. 

The eggs distributed in ls7."5, numbering 1,241,<'<00, were sent to ever}* 
Stato in New F.nglaud. and also to New York. New Jersey, rennsylvania, 
Ohio. Micliigan, and Wisconsin. The young tish hatcheil were in every 
instance set at liberty as soon as the yolk sack was absorbed. The wliolc 
number thus turned out was H7r>,()nO. The present season the nund)er 
of eggs distributed will probably exceed 2,2(M».<)i»(), and, unless some 
extraonliuary misliap interferes, the number of 3"oung tish will be more 
than double that of last year. The distribution is so wide that hartlly 
any river rect-ives an ade<iuate stock, but I trust that in some instances 
the number will be sutlicieut to i)roduce a decided impression. 



Fish Cultun'stn' Association, ;^1 

WORK OF THE U. S. FISH COMMISSION. 



HY SPENCEK F. IJAIUD. 



The subject of tish-culture ami the lisbcries continues to iiicrensr in 
importance, and in view of the economical vahie of the proihicts of tin- 
sea and the interior waters, and in the amount of capital anil ellott 
directed towaril their acijuisition. this interest isj amply justifu-d. 

Several exhibitions durin<r 1«7;'> have been made of lixlu-rv products 
and interests, the most important bcinj; that at \'icnna duriHix the pa-t 
summer. Le<;islation has also I)cen initiated or contimied I<tokin<'' 
toward the judicial determination of tiie riijhts of the irem-ral public and 
of the inilividual, the most important step in this direction bein*'- the 
decision of tiie United States Supreme Court in reference to tlie obli-ra- 
tion of the corporation controHin«r the diun across the Connecticut iJiver 
•it Ilolyoke to construct a suitable fish-way. This river in former vears 
abounded in shad and salmon from its mouth to its sources, ami fur- 
nished a vast amount of excellent food to a larire population. The 
erection of dams along its course obstructed the upward movement of 
the anadromous fish, with the result of fuially exterminating the salmon, 
and of rcduciny: the supply of shad to a mininmm. The most considera- 
ble of these obstructions, ami the first met with above tidi'-water, was 
the great dam at Ilolyoke. An Act of the ^lassachusetts Legislature, 
authorizing the Fish Commissioners of that State to reciuire the con- 
struction of a fish-wa}' over this dam. was resisted by the comijanv. and 
the case carried successively- to the Supreme Courts of Massachusetts and 
of the United States, judgment being given by both tribunals :i<r;uiist tiie 
company, which was thus obliged to yield. A fish-wuy was constructeil 
during l.s7;3 upon the plan of Mr. K. A. Brackett, of Massachusetts, 
which, it is hoped, will answer the purpose in view. 

In no country, however, has the subject of the tisheries and their le<;al 
relations been more thoroughly considered than in Cermany : and a verv 
elaborate system of regulations is now undi'r discussion, whicli it i> 
expected, will be the most complete in existence. 

The numlter of States having Fish Commissioners for the improvement 
and regulation of the tisheries within their lujnlers has heeii increased 
during the year by the addition of P»'nnsylvaiiia. Ohio, and Michigan : 
so that at the present time all the New Fngland and Middle States oxci-pt 
Delaware, and all the States bonU-ring on liie great lakes with the excep- 
tion of Indiana, Illinois. Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are provided \\ith 
these important State ollicers. Movements are in progress, however, 
which it is probable will result during 1><74 in the ap[)oiiitii!ent of Com- 



32 Report of the American 

missioners in Minnesota, Illinois, Mar3land, Virginia, North Carolina, 
and possibly Iowa. 

Numerous statistical publications in reference to the fisheries of the 
Old World and the New have made their appearance, although mostly 
relating to 1^12. We have also a very elaborate communication from 
Dr. Francis Day on the fresh-water fisheries of India, and another by 
the Minister of Marine and the Fisheries of Canada. It is to be 
regretted that no provision is made by the United States government for 
the collection and publication of accurate and exhaustive details on this 
branch of industry, so ably worked up by France, Norway, and other 
foreign nations. 

The special fisheries of the world have been prosecuted with their 
average success. The herring has furnished provision and employment 
for immense numbers of people both in Europe and America. The 
Astrachan herring {^Alosa cuspica^) a species probably like our fresh- 
water herring or alewife, which was, u[) to the years 1^54 and 18.';'», onl}* 
used in extracting the oil, has taken a prominent place as a food fish 
since that time. The Kussian name, bescheuka (the furious fish.) seems 
to have incited a prejudice against it ; but through the etlorts of IMr. 
Baer, and a board of commissioners ai)pointed to investigate the fish- 
eries of Russia, the prejudice was largely overcome, and, under the name 
of herring, as a salted fish it has become an important element in the 
Caspian fisheries. In IH'j.s there were salted in the rivers of Astrachan 
43,000,000 of this fish. The number in LsTl was 140,000,000; and in 
1872, 1(50. 000,000 ; while in 1872 onlv 30,000 were used for oil. 

The cod fisheries of both the Atlantic and Pacific have also been 
abundantlv worked. The occurrence of cod in immense numbers in the 
Pacific is a fact of recent appreciation ; and it is satisfactor}- to know 
that, should the supply from tlie Atlantic be at all seriously impaired, the 
deficiencv can be made up from the Pacific. According to a San Fran- 
cisco journal, .'jS.i.OOO cod-fish were taken by seven vessels off the coast 
of Alaska in the sunnner of 1.S73. No estimate can at present be 
formed of the captures otf the Banks of Newfoundland and the coast of 
Norwav. New cotl banks have lately been discovered otf the coast of 
Spitzbergen. 

The trade in frozen herring otf the coast of Maine and in the Bay of 
Fundy continues to be of great importance. This comparatively new 
interest has been increasing gradually for many years, and now employs 
a large force during the winter season. The fish are taken in gill-nets 
and immediately frozen, and then shipped to the western markets of 
I'ortland, Boston, New York, etc. The Bay of Fundy is particularly 
favorable for this trade ; and the recent establishment of a signal station 



Fish Cnlturints' Association. 33 

at Kastport has been of great moment, by enabling those engaged in the 
business to anticipate the occurrence of a period of hot or cold weather 
in time to take measures to protect themselves from loss. The applica- 
tion of the signal telegraph in the service of the lisherits in the United 
States is comparativeh' recent, and promises to be of great benelit b\" 
communicating information of the occurrence of schools of fish along 
the coast, and of their movements, to those interested in their capture. 

Another application of the signal telegraph is made l)y the dealers in 
tish both on the lakes and the sea-board, who regulate their ortlers and 
shipments of fresh fish by the knowledge thus obtained of im[)ending 
atmospheric conditions. 

The American salmon trade continues to increase, and the number of 
establishments engaged in canning and preparing them for market on 
the Columbia River and in Puget Sound becomes larger every year. It 
would almost seem that the vast numbers taken for this purpose must 
soon bring about their extermination, but as j^et no perceptible decrease 
is reported. Numbers of these fish are brought fresh to the East in 
refrigerator cars to supply the market earlier than the period during 
which the eastern salmon can be taken. 

In view of the great increase of the halibut fisheries otf the coast of 
the United States, the hardy fishermen of Cape Ann, who more espe- 
cially carry on this branch of industr}', are oblige*! to resort to distant 
seas to obtain a supply ; and even Greenland i^5 not too far for their 
efforts. The coast of Iceland, too, has also been visited b}' a (Jloucester 
vessel for this purpose ; but, although tlie halibut were abundant, the 
storm}' nature of the region and other impediments rendered it impracti- 
cable to continue the efibrt. 

A rapidly increasing trade is that connected with the menhaden, 
mossbunker, or pogy, {Breroortin iiU'uhadf'n,) a large species of the 
herring family valuable for the oil and scraj) — the refuse after extracting 
the oil from the lioiltMl fish, which i.> used in direct applications to the 
land, or in the manufacture of fertilizers. Some idea of the magnitude 
of the interest may be learned from the fact that in 1«7.'5 sixty-two 
factories were in operation on the coast of New York and of New Kngland, 
recjuiring the use of .3.s;} sailing vessels and 20 steamers, the factories 
and vessels employing 2.o(JG men. with an investment of S2..']y.S.(»()0. 
The total catch of fish amounted to l,Ui:J,li)U barrels {^oO lish to the 
barrel,) yielding 2.211.^iO() gallons of oil. and ;'»•;. 2.^'.t tons of guano. 
The oil is used principally in dressing leather, and to some extent in 
rope-making and for [)ainting. but not as yet for lubricating. 

Another increasing fishery in the United States is that relating to the 
sturgeon, which, though abundant, has Ijeen but little utilized, thousands 



34 Report of the American 

annually taken in pursuit of other tish havinj^ usually been thrown aside 
as worthless. Now several dealers on the lakes, especially the Messrs. 
Schaclit. of .Sandusky, are entering into the trade, and manufacture 
caviar, isiniilass", and dried smoked meat in great quantities. 

Tlie demand for tish-sounds continues ver}' great, and the shores of 
New England and the provinces are carefully gleaned of all air-bladders 
prociiraI)le of the cod family. Of the species, the bladder of the hake is 
most sought after, bringing about one dollar a pound, and is used chiefly, 
it is said, in the manufacture of gum-drops. 

The seal fishery during IST.") has also been very prothictive, the num- 
ber taken at the Fur-St-al Islands iu the liehring "^ea being up to the 
maximum — namely, 1<M). ()()(), The seals resort by millions to tliese 
islands, and it is said that a considerably larger number miglit l)e caught 
without any detriment to the trade. The capture of the hair-seals otl' the 
coasts of Labrador and Newlbnudland, although less extensive than 1.S72. 
has also l)een a source of great profit. This l)usiness is now carried on 
entirely by steamers, of which not less than twenty belonging to New- 
foundland were occupied, some of them getting two full cargoes. The 
largest catch of any vessel, it is believed, was about 42,000 ; these hav- 
ing been taken in the course of a few weeks, and, from the skints and 
oil, yielding an immense profit. 

The rapid decrease of lobsters on the coast of the Unitt-d States, and 
the extent of the interest connected witii canning them as an article of 
foo<l, has induced a special effort to bring back the supply. The amount 
of this interest may be appreciated when we are told that (hiring 1S7.''> 
more tha-i twenty thousanil tons of canned lobsters were brought into tiie 
United States, or shipp<'d i-lsewhere. from the shores of New l)ruu>wick 
and Nova Seotia aIoii<>. An ordinance has been issued by the Canadian 
authorities prohibiting, under severe i)enaUies, the capture of any lobsters 
wei<j:hinir less tlian a pound and a half; an<l Massachusetts will probaltly 
enact a law prescril»'ug a limit <)f sizo — namely, a minimum of eleven 
incli.vs in leujctli. In Maine, tlie legishition anticipated is that of a close; 
time of two or three months in the summer, when none shall be taken, 
but imp()s>iug no restriction at other si'asousas to size or weight. 

The ovster li>lierii's. as tar as tlie canning int«'rest is eoueerned, sudered 
a severe sliock during the linancial panic, from which it has not yet recov- 
ered, althow'jh the consumption of the oyster while fresh is perhaps as 
"Teat as usual. WsseU now carry entire cargoes fVom Maryland and 
Virginia to Knglainl. wlure tliey are beciiuiini; an established article of 
trade. 

It will be of iuterest to announce that tiu' Tnited States Fish C'ominis- 
sioti is e\perimentiug on a methorl of «'Ueetualiy freeing beds of planted 
ovster-- fioui the ravages of the starlisli, so destru<-tive to them. 



Fish Cult arista' Association. 35 

Much vahmble irifoniuition has been obtained in reference to the 
fisher}' statistics, and the conditions allectinj^ the tisheries generally, hy 
the labors of the L'nited Stati's Fish Commission, which continued its 
investigations nnder the direction of Commissioner, Professor S. F. 
Baird, assisted by I'rofessor Verrill, on the coast of Maine during the 
siimtner of 1H7.». Detailed information was obtained in reference to llie 
habits of the herring, cod, and other useful food (ishes, which will havi- 
an imfxjrtant bearing on tliese interests. Numerous ([uestions in refer- 
ence to the preservation and rei)roduction of lobsters and oysters were 
also met. Oni' result was the freijuent capture of two year-old shad in 
gillnets many miles out to si-a. 

In connection with the subject of the fisheries, the modern methods of 
preserving fresh lish for an indelinitc i)eriod of time should not l>e lo-jt 
sigiit of, especially as their introduction has imparted innnense activity 
to the trade in fresh lish, and enal)h's the dealers to su[)ply salmon, shad, 
Spanish mackerel, bltiefisli, striix-d bass, etc., at all seasons of the year. 

Of tiiese devici's there are two principally in use, one consisting in 
placing the fish in sealed metal boxes in a mixture of ice and salt ; and 
the other, nuicii nunc convenient, being the construction of a chamber 
enclosed within double walls, and fdled with the same mixture. The 
fish are placed in the centre apartment, the temperature of whicli can be 
readily maintain<'d at from eighteen to twent3-tive degrees above zero, 
and are pieserved indefmitely. It is only necessary to renew the supply 
of the mixnue every week or montli, according to tlu' mass, and the 
temperatiMi* above ri-ferred to can lie ke[)t up indellnitely. Some estab- 
lishments in New York an<l elsewliere keep many tliousand pouncN of fi>h 
in this way. subject to call at any tim«'. 

TIu' various methods of increasing artilicialiy the supply of fish and 
other marine animals, technically known as Fisciculture. have been prose- 
cuted with increasing vigor duiing the year 1H7.'?, the earlier experiences 
warranting fiie adoption of more enlarged plans for securing the de>ired 
rcsidt. Associations iiave been foiined. and State Ctnnmissioners 
appointed, while numerous private establishments have been erected. 
The mo>t iiiii)ortant action in this direction is that takiMi by the United 
States Fi>li Coii'mission, establi>lie(l in 1x71. which is now largely occu- 
pied with this work, in addition to special researches in reference to the 
conclitiou ot llie li>liing intei'est on the sea-const ami lakes. 

The measuics adopted have had more special relation to the multipli- 
cation of shad, salmon, and whitefish ; and in these operations the Ignited 
States ('oiM>utssi(»n was fortunate in securing the assistanc-e of !Mr. Seth 
(Ireen, Dr. .1. II. Shick, .Mr. Livingston Stone, and other lish eulturists. 
Its operations Imve lieen conducted on a nmch larger scale than by any 
other nation, and with ver\' iiratiiVini; success. 



36 Report of the American 

With a view of securing a sufficient supply of the eggs of the Cali- 
fornia salmon, Mr. Livingston Stone, as in the previous year, was sent 
out to the United States salmon-breeding camp on the McCloud River, 
near Mt. Shasta, where he obtained about a million and a half of eggs 
which were shipped to the East (a portion to Utah), and about half of 
them successfully hatched out. at various State and private establish- 
luents, and placed in ditierent streams in the Northern, Middle, and 
"Western States. The more important waters supplied are several 
streams in Maine and Massachusetts, the Connecticut, Hudson, Dela- 
ware, and Potomac rivers. Lake Champlain, Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, 
and Lake Michigan, and the Ohio River. 

Durino- the year, also, the establishment at Bucksport, Maine, under 
Mr. Atkins, continued its operations, on an enlarged scale and with very 
satisfactorv success. "While the salmon are seined when wanted on the 
McCloud, at this esta))lishment they are purchased living from the fish- 
ermen, who capture them in weirs in the months of June and July, and 
place them in a large pond, to await the period of reproduction. Here 
they remain until October or November, when the instinct of spawning 
seizes them, and they run down into the outlet of the pond, where the 
hatching works are situated. The spawn is removed by gentle pressure 
into a vessel, and fertilized, and the parent fish returned alive to the 
water, and allowed ultimately to run down to the sea. Previously, 
however, they are mtuked b}- a label, so as to determine whether any 
come back again ; and in this event to ascertain the growth and increase 
of weight in the interval, their original length and weight being 
recorded. 

These eggs are then brought forward to a proper degree of develop- 
ment, and Ihially distributed to State Commissioners, by whom the 
operation is completed, and the young placed in tlie public waters of the 
States. It is exiieeted that, as the result of the operations of these two 
establishments during 1^7;'.. not far from three million young salmon 
will bi' phinted in thi- eastoru, middle, and northern waters of the United 
States, including those placed in the tributaries of the Great Salt 
Lake. 

Another enterprise of a similar character has been the erection of an 
establishment for the hatching of the eggs of land-locked salmon on 
Sebec Lake, in ^Liine. in which the Conunissioners of ^lassachusetts 
and Connecticut have united with the United States Commissioner. 
It is hoped that, when this is fairly in operation, a large supply of this 
most valuable food tlsh will be secured. 

Operations looking toward the multiplication of shad in American 
waters, both on the part of the United States and of son>e of tlie States 



FUfi Culturists' AnsoclcUion. 37 

themselves, have also been conducted on :i lurgc scale. The work was 
prosecuted by the L'niteil States on many of the coast streams from the 
Savannah River to the Penobscot, and hir<re numbers of youn<; fish were 
not only turned into the water at the points wlu-re they were hati-lu-d, 
but transferred to tributaries of the Mississippi and of the ijjreat lakes. 
A successful shipment was also made to the Sacramento UiviT of :'.."». (too, 
and a small nuuibcr to the Jordan, a tributary of (Jrt'at Salt Lake. 

As in i)revious years. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York 
carried on similar operations for the benefit of the local waters, while a 
beginning was made in the same direction by the Commissioners of 
Pennsylvania in the Susquehanna Hiver. 

Tlie cultivation of whitelish lias also been prosecuted with gre:;t /.eal, 
particularly by the States of Michigan and New Vork. while a considera- 
ble mimber belonging to the I'nited States Connnis-ioii wa^ ^ent to tlie 
Commissioners of California, and by them successlully plaiite(l in the 
waters of Clear Lake. 

The operations in comiection with whitelish have of late ye:\r-» I)ttii 
prosecuted on a very large scale by the State of New Vork. under the 
direction of ^Ir. S<'th (Jrcen. In isTi' the State hatc!iing-house at Cale- 
donia contained about :).00<).0<)0, whieh were duly phintt-d when hatclied. 
The number was less in l-sT:;. In l.s72 tlie I'nite.l States C<)iiiiiii>-ioii 
engaged the s(M-viccs of Mr. N. W. Clark, in conm-clion with tin- white- 
fish eggs, and transmitted about Kio.ooo to the State Commis.vioner in 
California. In 1^7;] the State of IMiehigan colleeted a large mimlu-r of 
these eggs for intro«lucti()n into its own and adjacent waters. This fi>h, 
as is well known, is the most important of any specie's taken in tlie hike^, 
and it is fortunate that the method of their artitieial i)roi)agation i>roves 
successful, and promises so satisfaetory results. Only by such a [iroeess 
can the numerous waste and tlrain causi-d liy the fisheries as at present 
prosecuted be met and replaciMl. an expeiiditiuc often or fifteen thousand 
dollars per annum being sutiieient to seeiue the leturii in value of many 
hundred thousand <lollars in productive re-idts. 

The discoverv of a species of <xrayliug ( Th>iiiinU>is trirttlor) in certain 
rivers of Michigan, has suggested the importance of making this fish more 
widely known. l>y introducing it into approjjriate waters elst-where. Fi>h 
of this genus are nmeh estei-med in Kmope. i»oth as ari article of fooil 
and as t'urnishing excelh'iit sport in their capture ; and the American 
variety will probably l)e nmeh sought after when arrangements can be 
nn^de to sujiply the spawn in suHieieut quantity. 

A very important advance in the artificial propagatiou offish was made 
by Seth (ireen and i)arty while in the service of the I'nited States Com- 
mission, in the discovery that strii)cd bass, or rock -fish {Ro'-nis liiK'ufKs.) 



88 Report of the American 

may be bred as easilj- and in much the same manner as the shad ; special 
effort will probably be made during the coming year toward increasing 
the sup^;!}- of this most valuable fish. 



THE FISHWAYS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



BY JAMES \V()RR.U.L 



\_Read before the Amcrfcau Fif<h Cidturista^ Ansoriotion.'] 
Some attention having been drawn to the Fishways constructed in the 
Columbia Dam, on the Susquehanna Kiver, in the State of IVnnsylvania, 
in consequence of the fact that no work of the kind as yet erected in the 
United States has been known by ocular demonstration to have permitted 
shad {Alosn Prnstabilis^) to have passed through it, and having been 
connected with the Pennsylvania Fishways from the commencement of 
the restoration movement, the undersigiu-d hopes that a few words in the 
form of a paper, to be read before this Association at its present meet- 
ing, will not be uninteresting as an endeavor toward the establishment 
of the facts as they have occiu"red. 

The restoration movement in Pennsylvania originated in a Convention 
of citizens, most of them rij);iri;in to the Sus(|uelianna, which assembled 
in Ilarrisburg early in \X(W>. and while tlie Legislature was in session. 
A bill was drawn up in this Convention which subsequently became a 
law, requiring Fishways to be erected in the dams of the Snscjuohanna 
and its tributaries ; containing other provisions for the restoration and 
protection of the fisheries ; and providing also tor the appointment of a 
Commissioner who wns required to be a civil engineer, whose duty it 
was, amongst other prescribed duties, to plan and Iiave these lishwa^'s 
constructed. It so happene(l that vested rights precluded the erection 
of fishways in any dnin on the river except the Columbia Dam ; so the 
Commissioner's attention was exclusively confined to the Columbia Dam. 
The undersigned was .-ippointed Connnissioner, inider the act, by (Jov. 
Curtin, and iunncdintely proceeded to the jjerformance of his duties. 
His only qualification at the time of his ap{)ointment was derived from 
his experience as a civil engineer. lie diil not know the form required 
for such a structure, although he believed liimself competent to construct 
the work as soon as the form could be ascertained. The only successful 
fishway at that time known, was the Foster Fishway, an<l to that, there- 
fore, his attention was natiu'ally directed. Most, if not all the Foster 
Fishwa3s at that time constructed protruded from the dam down stream. 



Fish CuUurint^ Association. 39 

In considering the form of a fish way which would invite shad to pass 
through it, after en(iuiry amongst experienced fishermen and river men, 
the undersigned considered the Foster ladder decidedly objectionable, 
for he ascertained that shad moved more frecpiently in schools and flocks 
than in pairs or sniall numbers. He made up his mind then that the 
true form for shad should be capacious in size and as gentle as i)ossible 
in inclination. Further, that it should be so located as that it would be 
easy to find. All these views indicated a cutting into the dam rather 
than a gradus or ladder below it. He was strengthened in this view by 
advice received from Mr. Daniel Shure, at that time Superintendent of 
the dam. and from Major (Jeorge M. Laimian, (now deceased,) who had 
been engaged in its constrtiction originally. 

Advice was sought on the subject in Massachusetts also, whither he 
repaired and consulted with the Fishery Commissioners of that State, 
but especially with Col. Theodore Lyman. This latter gentleman stated 
that he believed an inclination of 1.10 would be overcome by the shad, 
but agreed otherwise with the undersigned as to the form of the fishwaj'. 
Returning to Pennsylvania, Mr. Shure was consulted again, who also 
recommended 1.10 for the slo])e. The inclination of l.l.'j was however 
eventually adopted, and a simple trough cut into the dam forty feet wide 
at its mouth, narrowing to twi'uty feet at its inlet by means of three or 
four rectangular offsets ; these bi-ing the suggestions of Mr. Shure, who 
believed that they would create eddies and resting places for the fish, 
should the}- fail in gliding through the whole chute by a single impulsive 
movement. The rise to be overcome was about three feet,* and the 
length of the fishway was conse(juently forty five feet, obeying the inclina- 
tion of l.ir>. The width of the chute was considered very small by the 
undersigned (only forty feet in six thousand eight hundred, the length of 
the dam,) but its cost was to be about S-J,U0O, and the whole affair being 
but an experiment, he hesitated in putting the owners of the dam to a 
greater expense than that for a mere trial of a principle. He felt sure 
that \ few fish would ascend the chute and these would soon cause a feel- 
ing ii\ favor of the system which once established would eventually 
induce the Legislature to make ample appropriations for more extended 
works. Thus also the fishway was located near the oti" shore or right 
bank of the river, in expectation of having another closer to the nigh 
shore or left bank. The work was finished in lH(;fi. In 1^07 it was 
looked to with great interest by a few friends of the measure, but it was 
treated with ridicule by most others. The winter of IHOG-T caused an 
abrasion of the dam, and this aiding the fishway-, produced a consider- 

•The dam is six feet high, b»it the tloor of the weir is two feet below the tup of the 
dam, and its lower end one foot above the bottom of the dam. 



40 Report of the American 

able run of shad above it so that a very fair catch was the conseqaence. 
This clrcurastance helped the reputation of the fishway no doubt, nor has 
that fact ever been denied. 

In 1868 the catch was not so great, for there was no abrasion, but the 
catch exceeded the average of former 3'ears, and so matters continued, 
the catch always increasing till 1871-2, when the extraordinarj' catch 
estimated at some 100,000 as against ten, twenty and thirty thousaqd in 
ordinary seasons occurred on the Susquehanna below the dam. 

Fishing was prohibited b}* the law of 186(1 within half a mile of the 
dam, but local pressure in the Legislature repealed the prohibition, and 
since 1867 fishing has been allowed nominally to within 200 ^ards of the 
fishway, but actually there has been no prohibition as to distance, so that 
it has endured the most adverse circumstances. A good catch, how- 
ever, was made above the dam in 1871-2, and from that year onward .the 
river has been regarded as having been partially reinstated in its fisheries. 
New " batteries" have been prepared below Columbia by men who, 
having but small capital, would not have invested in them had the}" not 
believed that the chances for remuneration were very much improved. 

At Newport, on the Juniata, fift}- or sixty miles above the dam, since 
1867, a stead}' increase has been observed, and in those neighborhoods 
no one believes otherwise than that shad in greater or less numbers 
may be confidenth* expected every 3'ear. 

At Newport, in 1872, the catch was quite small, but that is the only 
year since 1867 in which a decided increase has not been observed there. 
This, however, arose from local causes. The river at their fisheries was 
too low during the whole season. The fishermen saw tlie fish but could 
not catch them. But the series of increments met with no real break, 
for at Sunbury, above a second dam, and just below a third one, on the 
Susquehanna, the extraordinary catch of 2,000 was made in IH72. In 
which year there was no abrasion of the Columbia Dam, and 2,000 repre- 
sents a large multiple of the number caught near Sunbury at any period 
in the ([uarter of a century preceding 1867. 

There are facts current amongst the people of the upper Susquehanna 
and the .Juniata, and which are implicitly believed, so nuu-h so that 
whereas the restoration movement commenced in utter incredulity an«l 
ridicule, the Legislature now finds itself encouraged by its constituencies 
riparian to the great rivers in appropriating mone}- for carrying out im- 
provements which have already borne such good fruit. People of Sun- 
bury have stated to the undersigned that previous to 1867 a shad of the 
upper Susquehanna would fetch in their markets always more than a dol- 
lar and sometimes as hijih as three, four and five dollars, ^vhereas they 
look for them now every spring and scarcely have to pay more than a 
dollar a pair for them. 



Fish Culturists' Association. 41 

The people of Maryland riprarian in the lower Susquehanna have 
observed a change for the better in their fisheries. They have done 
nothing to effect this, and the conclusion is inevitable to them that their 
neighbors up the river have been doing something, so that they are now 
exceedingly anxious to know what thej- shall do to aid and abet in the 
good work. There is scarce!}' any doubt that a commission will be 
appointed for that State at their present session of the Legislature. The 
abrasions in the Columbia Dam of l^f73 were not easier of ascent for the 
shad than those of 1H07. Yet the most extravagant claim for the catch 
of 18G7 above the Columbia Dam was 20,U0(), the estimates varying 
between 12,000 and that number. If the fisheries of the river had not 
improved then since 1S67 how could 50,000, (the number justl}- claimed,) 
be caught in 187.'>, whilst the utmost amount for 1«G7 did noi exceed 
20,000? In both years every available seine was emplo3e(l. 

It is entirely fair to infer that a large natural spawning took place 3ear 
after year above the dam in years when there were abrasions of the dam 
as well as in years when there were not. Tiie dam was originally so 
unfortunately located that abrasions have followed each other regularly 
on the recurrence of a severe winter as often before \xiM\ as since that 
time. But before l>i(»7 there was no regular annual increase. There 
wouhi be a good year and a bad 3ear, due almost alone to the abrasions 
of the dam, the number ascending the navigation chutes being always 
very small, the great bulk of the runs of shad missing their mouths 
probably from their out-of-the-way locations. 

There are navigation chutes iu all the <lams. yoi shad only seem to 
ascend the first and second of them. The Shamokin Dam, just below 
Sunbury, has a large chute in it, yet shad, it may be said, are never 
caught above that structure. Vet, up to last vear it was only about a 
foot higher than the Columbia Dam, sa}- seven feet five inches, the 
Clark's ferry dam, up the chute of which a few always have passed, being 
seven feet in height. 

When ordered by the Senate of Pennsylvania in 1h71, to make a Report 
on Fishways. the undersigned again called upon his friends, the Massa- 
chusetts Commissioners, and with the experience gained up to that time, 
they agreed with him that the simple inclined trough was the best for low 
dams and shad. The gentler the inclination of course the better. 

When the IN'unsylvania Commission was appointed, with nione}" in 
their hands to construct ti^-liways, they adopted the idea of the ineline<l 
trough, employing the iiudeisigned as engineer to construct it, and to 
make assurance doubl}- sure, retluced the inclination from 1.1') to about 
1.3.'), whilst they added fifty per cent, to the width of the opening in the 
dam. They, however, regard the success of the ohl chute with incre- 



42 Report of the American 

dulity and hesitate even to prononnce beforehand in favor of the new 
one until shad shall absolutelj* be taken in nets placed at its head. 

Herewith is submitted a diagram of both the chutes, in plan and in 
profile, in order that a correct idea ma}' be formed as to their form and 
their inclinations. 

[It is impossible to give these diagrams as the}- would occup}' too 
much space.] 

In December. 1M73, the Pennsylvania Commissioners, Messrs. Reeder, 
llewit and DuliV, visited both the chutes when the water as it entered 
them was about four feet in depth, the stage at which the shad are 
usually running in the spring. At this stage the chutes can only be 
approached in a steamer. The inclination of the new chute appeared so 
gentle that it was the unanimous opinion of all on board the vessel, that 
if shad could not ascend that comparatively gentle current they would 
ascend no artificial incline that can be made, for them. I have not the 
slightest doubt that shad can and will ascend it. But the old chute wa-s 
also visited, in which they did not express the same confidence. For in the 
first place, the area of the early chute is not one-fourth that of the second, 
whilst the inclination of the first is as 1,15 is to l.oo. Certainly the 
latter structure is much the more easy of ascent. But the effect of the 
two chutes in the water below was very similar. A long stream begin- 
ning in white caps and undulating in diminished graduation, was 
observed below each of them in the line of the axis of the chute, produced 
and plainly proceptible for about two hundred 3-ards below the steeper 
chute and about one hundred and fifty yards below the gentler one. It may 
be nieiitioneil here as a memorandum that the river below the dam, even 
in high water, is not deep. At low water the dam stands on a bottom 
scarcely averaging a foot in depth. And the fishways both fall into 
water at that stage not more than three feet deep, and when the shad 
are running the water below the dam scarcely averages four feet. 

It is well known that shad arc always attracted from their very earliest 
infancy by an opposing current ; and that they are equally attracted by 
both these currents below the dam can scarcely admit of a doubt. 80 
attracted, in the one case 200 yards below the dam and in the other 150 
yards below it. tliey would undoubtedly stem both currents without prefer- 
ring one to the other. For how could they know what there was to overcome 
at the head':' Admitting the fact of the shad entering the currents at all 
the (piestion left to be decided is : Can thev overcome the velocity of 
the chutes. There is no hydraulic rule on the subject of water moving 
down inelined planes, which will give the water in either of these chutes 
a gieater velocity tlian ten miles an hour. 

Impeded by friction and by the water below the dam always endeav- 



Fish Cidtxri^ts^ Ansociatioii. Hi 

oring to outer the chute, lor it luust be remeiuliered tliat if tin- water 
above were arrested, the water below the (hiiii would back up the ehiite, 
nearly, if not <|uite. to tlie liead of tlie iuclint'. lhu> iui|>»d(d. thcu. the 
velocity must l)e eousi(U'ral>ly U-ss than ten Muh'> au hour. It cMunot 
indeed, by any possibility. \h- so <^reat as ten uiiles an houi-. I'or a })ody 
falling in nnn', at the thinl foot <K»i's not exceed tiiat velocity, a^ the 
rule for falling boilies is lVt;i.;;;;:;- f where .s ecjuals >pace in I'eit fallen 
and <• the velocity in feet per second. Ih-re the >pace in feet fallen is 
three, and tliis >nlijected to the luh's givi-s about foiiitien feet per >econtl 
for the velocity, which is less than ten miles per hoiu a- any -chool boy 
may easily ascertain with a slate and pencil. Now iluii lan a >lia(l >teni 
a current of ten miles an Ikmm? It he can. then either ol these chutes 
lie can ascend easily. il lir o-iJI, it is easy to conceive that although the 
shad can ascend a chute, thai he mav not ciioose to do so. For he is an 
extremely timorous fish, and unless the chute be made attractive U) him 
he may avoid it or be scared away from it. I'.ut a <-hute fioni forty to 
sixty feet wide ougiit not to repel hiui. and one >lill widei' ol' couise 
would be less repulsivt-. It is fair to suppose that width would attract 
him, and that having in l\'nn>ylv;inia adopte<l a capacious width, ue are 
at least en the road to a successful tishway. As to the velocity a >had 
attains in swinuning, it may. ami probably dues, rea'h lifty miles an 
hour. The velocity then oftlu' reuusylvania chute cannot In- an obstacle 
to him. The reason why shad did not ascend the Pennsylvania chutes in 
large numbers is. that they were not tlu-re to a-cend. (io liack of IM'.T, 
and ascertain when there wa^ any catch of .'(Ojiiiit >liail iuiiuediately 
below the Columbia Dam. Come this -ide of IM'.T. and in b^Tl there 
was a catch of some lOO.noo ;it ha-t. IhIow the dam : and in \--^~,'.\ we 
have a catch above the dam estimated. n(j doubi fairly, at ."jit.fino. whilst 
there was :ui ordinary catch ininiciliati'ly bcl<»w the dam. As stated then 
the reason why slmd diil not aM-eiid tlu' li^hway in largi* mind)i'r> in the 
early years following l>!»'i7 was. that they were not theic. They had to 
be made first, and where were they made? Alxne tlu' Columbia Dam, 
assm-edly. whilst their mother^ could not have got there in sullicient 
numl»ers had they not l>i'en aided by the early clmte. Then- is not a 
navigation chute in the rivi-rthat will nut admit shad. But these i-hutes 
are not locati'd in the right places, they are not in the runwa\s. A few- 
get up at Columbia, a few at Clark's ferry — these are the lir-t two dams, 
but none get uji at .Sjiamokin. tin- third <iam. the naviixatic^n chute of 
whicli is as easy as the other two and the dam not more than a foot 
higher. Now both the tishways in the Columiiiti Dam are weli located. 
The earliest runs of shad takv- tlu- right ceniic of the rivir : the latter 
runs take the left centre of it — (right and left in deseril)im: rivers are 



44 Report of the American 

alwajvs referred to as looking down stream.) So now we are read}' for 
them at both sides, and proper structures thrown out from the navigation 
chutes guiding the shad to their mouths will bring ver}- large runs to 
them. In rennsylvania then, we are on the way to a good chute for a 
low dam, and if success be assured, it will be eas\' to accommodate 
things to a iiigh one. The principle is wide capacit}- and low velocity. 
But velocity increases in a very strong r:dio in falling water ; it increases 
about as the sciuari- of the fall, and the difliculty of a fishwa^- for a high 
dam is therefore nearly as tlie scpiare of its height. 

In making a chute then, for a high dam and for shad, you must divide 
it into a series of low dams, thus interrupting the uniformly accelerated 
velocity so that the proportion may be directly as the height, instead of 
as the s( pi are of tiie height nearly. There will be difliculty and expense 
then to be overcome in the case of high dams. Dilliculties fiom freshets, 
dirticulties from ice, but American engineers have not often been beaten, 
and it is fair to presume they will not be beaten in this instance. Fish- 
ways have been made wiiich are a success for almost all other kinds of 
migratory fishes. Mr. IJrackett's improvement on Foster's being i)erh:ips 
the best of them. The timidity of the shad has l»alHed us a little at the 
outset, but we will yet accommodate him, and lishways will be macU' as 
attractive to him as to the salmon, the alewife. the rock and the eel. 

The history of this fishery movement will become inteiestiug one of 
these days, and 1 ri'ad this paper in the interest of the truth of that 
history. Its initiation and progressive steps ought to be known and 
understood. There may be mistakes and errors of judgment. Nay, 
there innst be, because it is managinl by Inuiian creatures. But let us 
have as few nustakes and errors as possible. 

I close by saying that tiie rennsylvania fishway is believed to be the 
only ti>hway in the world that has as yi>t, in appreciable numbers, 
admitted shad ; that the lirst one will not admit as many as the second 
only because it is nuidi smaller and steeper, tiiey both I>eing liuilt on the 
same priiiei|)le ; that that principle is <lue to c<:»nsu!tations held by tlie 
undersigned, in the fu'st jtlace with Daniel Shure and ( ieo. IM. Lannum, 
of IVnnsvlvania, the latter now no more, and with Theodore Lyman and 
Mr. Brackett. of Massachuset-ts, and latterly with II. .1. Keeder. James 
Dutly and 15. L. Hewit, the i>resent Fishery Conuuissioners of renn- 
sylvania, whose orders were obeyed in the construction of the latter 
work. There is no doubt of ultimate success, for we are moving in the 
right direction, even if we have not struck the actual pathway. 



Fish Culturists' Association. 4,-, 

LAWS FOR THE PRESERVATION OF FISH. 

BY CHAKLES HALLOCK. 



It IS an evident fact that but one jreneral law, i.lontical as to time of 
close season, can ever thoroughlv protect the lisli, birds or beasts of our 
country. It is perfectly possible to imagine a case where on a river of 
no great length it may be illegal to catch fish (iftv n.iles from its source 
at certain times in one State, when one hundred miles below in another 
State the catching of such fish would in no wav infringe on the fish 
statutes of that State. 

Again, since we owe a great deal to the Canadian Fish Commis- 
sioners, ,t might fre(juently happen that rivers rising in the States and 
flowing into the Dominion might be depopulated of fish at their source bv 
us while protected in the Provinces, or that exactlv the reverse might 
happen. A commercial question enters here into the subject which occa- 
sions no end of dispute and unfortunate conse.,uences. Fish mav be 
legally caught in one State at one particular season of the vear, "then 
shipped and exposed for sale in another State where the timeVor catch- 
ing such fish may be against the law, and it becomes a nice <,uestion to 
decide whether the seller or the pmchaser of the fish are acting in contra- 
vention of the law. 

The following is the preamble ami resolution offered and accepted bv 
the Convention of the American Fish Culturists' Association, with Mr'. 
Ilallock s remarks on presenting them : 

I beg to bring to your notice a subject admitted to be of the .neatest 
importance, though I doul,t whether it co.nes fully within the scope of 
this association : but having heard one of your most distinguished mem- 
bers yesterday assert that, -protection must go hand in hand with pro- 
pagation, and that all efforts in breeding fish will be nullified bv ncdect 
to protect the young fish and (isli in spawn In" judicious legislatioirand 
wardensh.p," I am encourage.l to speak. We set the highest value upon 
provisions and penalties to prevent the use of nets, giant powder, 
cocuh>H nulirns, and other devices for the wholesale and indiscriminate 
catching of fish, and for the taking of gravid and spent fish and all un 
seasonable fishing whatsoever, and for the means devised to prevent 
poaching in private or public waters, and for all those wholesale restric 
tions intended to govern angling on leased and open rivers, lakes and 
streams. All these go far towards the consummation of the main objects 
desired to be accomi)lished, but it is evident that the imperfect operation 
of the existing laws and the great loophole of escape for transgressors 



46 Repoi-t of the American 

lies in the fact that game and fish taken in one State may be sold in the 
markets of another State with impunity. 

What is needed, therefore, is such a co-operation of States as will pro- 
cure the enactment of a law which shall make it illegal to expose for sale 
in the markets of one State fish illegally taken in another State within 
the periods for which their taking is prohibited in such States. Some 
such measure is bv universal consent acknowledged to be necessary, and 
we are pleased to observe that a draft of a bill with this object in view 
has been presented to the Legislature of Massachusetts by the Massa- 
chusetts Angling Association, of which ^r- J- P- Ord«-ay is the very 
earnest and elficient President, and that the works and efforts of this 
society have been endorsed by the Fish Commissioners of Mame ; and 

AViIerev^ The Committee of the said Anglers' Association has, m a 
series of resolutions, invited the co-operatiou of their sister States, and 
urged the formation of similar associations for this purpose; therefore 

be it . . T-- 1 r^ 1 

Resolred That it is the special province of the American Fish Cul- 
turists' Association, composed, as it is, of the State Fishery Commis- 
sioners, and the leading Fish Culturists of the country, to promote and 
encoura-e, either within or outside of its own body, the formation of a 
similar Tocietv as that of Massachusetts, and for the like objects. Also 
in view of the ditlicultv that has hitherto attended the identification of 
species bv a confusion of local names whereby we are unable to distin- 
guish bv the vernacular a trout from a black bass, a pike from a pickerel, 
Ld a bluefish from a tavlor fish, it is of the utmost i.nportauce that an 
uniform nomenclature be adopte<l to enable us to designate each species 
as mav be named within and coming uu.ler the provisions of any sumptu- 
arv act, so that the same be known and recognized in all those States in- 
clu.led within the limits of said act, an<l that the l>etter to decide upon 
and establish such uniform nomenclature a Committee or lk>ard ot Refer- 
ence be formed to be composed of delegates, one from each naturalists 
andsportmen's association in each State, whose qualifications shall be 
defined and deterunne<l by a convention composed of one delegate from 
each naturnlists- and sportsmen's association in the States - co-peratin^ 
and the decision of which Board of Reference or CommUtee .hall be 
final. 



Fish CuUurists' Association. 47 

MEMBERS OF THE 

AMERICAN FISH CULTURISTS ASSOCIATION. 



Ambler, Andrew S.. I);mi>urv, Ct. 
Baird, Spencer F., Wasliinijton, D. C. 
Blackford, E. G., New York. 
Bowles, B. F., Springlield. Mass. " 
Boyer. B. Frank, Headiiiir, Pa. 
Bradley, Richards, Hrattleboro, Vt. 
Brid<rman. J. D., Bellows Falls, Vt. 
Burfjes. Arnold, West Meriden, Ct. 
Chandler. F. J., Alste:i<l, X. 11. 
Chrysler, (Jitford W., Ivinderhook, N. 
Chrysler. M. II., Kinderhook, X. Y. 
Clift, William. Mystic Hri.lge, Ct. 
Colbnrn, Chas. S., Pittsfonl, Vt. 
Collins, A. S., Caledonia, X. Y. 
C*rockt?r, A. B., ^I'orway, Maine. 
Edmmids, M. C, Weston, Vt. 
Farnham, C. II., Milton. X. Y. 
Green, Seth, Rochester. X. Y. 
Ilalloek, Charles, Xew York. 
IIeywoo«l. Levi. Gardner. Mass. 
Ilolley, W. P.. Katonah, X. Y. 
Hunt. J. Da<iijett, Suininit. X. J. 
Iluntiiiiiton, Dr., Watt-rtown, X. Y. 
Jerome. Geo. II , Xiles, Mich. 
Jewett, Geo., Fitchbnri;. ^lass. 
Kent. Alex., Baltimore. Md. 
Laniberton, A. B., Rochrstcr, X. Y. 
Ledyard. L. W.. Ca/,en<>via. X. Y. 
Lowrev. G. 1*., Tarrvtown, X. Y. 
Maiiiiinis. Arthur. Staidiope. Pa. 
^lann. .1. F., Lewistouii. Pa. 
Matht-r Feed, nom-oyc FalU, X. Y. 
Xii<Miii<ri'r, Phil.. Xew York. 
Xrwcll, W. II.. San Krani-isco. Cal. 
Pane. (ieo. S., Xew V(;ik. 
Parker, Wilbur F.. Meriden, Ct. 



48 Mtmbi^rs of the Association. 

I'axton. E. B., Detroit, Midi. 
Portor, B. B., Oakhuul, N. .1. 
* Price. Hoaiuun M.. Uaklaml. N. J. 
Redding. B. B., San Francisco, Cal. 
Redding, (ieo. II.. Stamford. C't. 
Reeder. II. .!.. Kaston. Pa. 
Kockwood. A. P.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Roosevelt, Robert B.. New York. 
Rape, A. C. New York. 
Saltus, Nicholas, New York. 
Sluiltz. Theodore, New York. 
Sprout, A. B.. Miincev, Pa. 
Sterling, E.. Cleveland. Ohio. 
Stone. Livingston, Charlestown, N. II. 
Stoughton, E. W., Windsor, Vt. 
Tagg. Henry, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Thonms, II. II.. Randolph. N. Y. 
Van Cleve, .Joseph. Newark, N. J. 
Van Wyck, .). T., New York. 
"Ward, (leorge E.. New York. 
"NVhitcher. "W. F., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
Whilconil). T. .1., Springlield, ^'t. 
AVliitin, Edward, Whitinsville, Mass. 
Wilniot, Samuel. Newcastle. Ontario. Canada. 
Worrall. .lames. Ilarrishing. Pa. 



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