(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions - Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society"

TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



r\//\ * 



\ x is 1 1 u ttfcr 6 la it r c s 1 1 r s Ij i r jc 



|l r t Ij it a lag ia I J5 1 i c t ji 



FOE 1885-3(5. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Knotol & <&iouct&tev&f)ivt 



Brr^arolotfifiil £ortrt» 



FOR 1885-86. 



Edited by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S A., <Lc. 



VOL. X. 



BRISTOL : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEFFERIES AND SONS 
CANYNGE BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET. 

'»*" '- ""' ' ■ ' ' ■ " M il .!■■. . ■ . 1 1. n I . ii „ ■ ■ ,1 | ,.. ,. .,,. ■ 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor for the Notices on Books. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Transactions at Gloucester 1-15 

Transactions of Tewkesbury 133-160 

Transactions at Newent ........ 238-249 

Catalogue of Exhibits in Temporary Museum, Tewkesbury . 161-167 

Treasurer's Account . . . . . • . . . 168 

The Mint of Gloucester. By J. Drummond Robertson*, M. A. 17-66 
Harescombe — Fragments of Local History. By Rev. J. Melland 

Hall, M.A 67-132 

A By -Path of History. By Mrs. Lawson 169-174 

On the Daubeney Family & its connection with Gloucestershire, 

By B. W. Greenfield, Barrister-at-Law - - - - 175-1S5 
Notes on the Manors & Advowsons of Birt's Morton & Pendock. 

By Sir John Maclean, F.S. A, &c 186-225 

Supplementary to the Article on Haynes. By the Rev. F. J. 

Poynton, M.A 226-229 

Pershore Abbey Church. By Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c. . 230-237 
The Manor of Bosham, Sussex. By John Smyth, of Nibley, 

with Introduction by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. . 250-277 
An Aid Levied in Gloucestershire, 20th Edw III. Contributed 

by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c .... 278-292 
A Gloucestershire Jury List of the 13th Century. By Sir 

Henry Barkly, K.C.B , G.C.M.G., &c. . . . 293-303 
The Will of William Whittington, of St. Briavels. By the Rev. 

W. T. Allen, M.A. 304-312 



NOTICES OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



The Races of Britain. By John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S., &c. . 313-315 
The Unpopular King— Life and Times of Richard III. By 

Alfred 0. Legge. F.C.H.S 315-316 

Our Parish— A Medley. By T. G. H 316-317 

The Yeoman of the Guard and Tower Warders. By Thomas 

Preston 317-318 

The English Catholic Non-Jurors of 1715. Edited by the late 
Very Rev. Edgar E. Estcourt, M.A., F.S.A., and John 

Orlebar Payne, M.A 318-320 

Ireland under the Tudors. By Richard Bagwell, M.A. . 320-322 

A Short History of Tapestry. By Eugene Miintz. Translated 

by Miss Louisa J. Davis 322-324 

The Lake Dwellings of Ireland. By M. G. Wood-Martin, 

M.I.R.A., F.R.H.A.A.I., Lieut. -Colonel . . . 324-333 

The History of the Parish and Manor of Wookey. By Thomas 

Scott Holmes, M.A. , Vicar of the Parish . . . 333-334 

The Life of Chas. I., 1600-1625 By E. Beresford Chancellor 334-336 
The Pipe Roll Society's Publications, Vols. IV. and V. . . 336-337 
The Gentleman's Magazine Library. Edited by George 

Laurence Gomme, F.S.A 337-33S 

Record Evidences among Archives of Ancient Abbey of Cluni, 

from 1077-1534. By Sir G. F. Difckett, Bart. . . . 338-340 
Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester, 1221. Edited 

by F. W. Maitland 340-341 

Six Years in Seychelles. By H. W. Estijidge .... 341-342 

The Register of Edmund Stafford, a.d. 1395-1419. By the Rsv. 

F. C. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A 342-344 

A History of Derbyshire. By John Pendleton . . . 344-345 
Calendar of State Papers— Ireland. Edited by Hans Claude 

Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A 346-347 

Scotland in Pagan Times.— The Bronze and the Stone Ages. By 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D. 347-352 

How to Form a Library. By B. H. Wheatley, F.S.A. . . 352-354 
Notes and Queries 354-355 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 

Piatt 



Fig. 1. Representation of a Norman Coiner* . . p. 10 

2-39. Illustrations of various Saxon and Early -English 

Coinst ...... pp. 31-6-4 

40. Bell-cot Harescombe ChurchJ ... p. 1U4 
I. Details of ,, ,, anil Rebus of Abbot 

Newnton ..... to face p. lOli 

Fig. 41. Thurible found at Ripple .... p. 14!) 

42. Do. found at Pershore§ . . . p. 150 

Plate II. Monument in Bredon Church . . . to face p. 150 

III. Effigy and Carving in Pershore Abbey Church . p. 237 

IV. Crannog Hut discovered at Inver, eo. Donegal || . p. 321) 
Fig. 43-52. Antiquities found in Irish Crannogs || . . pp. 331-333 
Plate V. Urns found in Scotland, and Stone Hammer found 

in Wales . . . . .to face p. 34S 

* For the use of tlie block the Society is indebted to Mr. George Bell. 
t The drawings for these illustrations were kindly made by the Author of this Paper, 
t For the use of this block the Society has to thank Mr. J . Parker of Oxford. 
§ The block for this illustration was obligingly lent by the Society of Antiquaries. 
|| The blocks for these illustrations were very courteously lent by Lieut. -Colonel 
Wood-Martin. 



Transactions of the 

Bristol anb Gloucestershire Jirdurokigual §oricttj. 

At the Spring Meeting, held at Gloucester, 

On Wednesday, 20th May, 1885. 

^-=o<>o~^ 

The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society was held this day at Gloucester, 
under arrangements made by the Local Committee. The chief feature was 
an excursion by steamboat up the Severn to the interesting village of 
Ashleworth, to visit the Church, Court House, Tithe Barn, &c. The 
morning opened most unfavourably. Rain fell continuously in torrents ; 
nevertheless a goodly company of Members and their friends arrived from 
Bristol, Bath, Cheltenham, and elsewhere, though many were deterred from 
attempting the journey. Between sixty and seventy ladies and gentlemen, 
however, had the courage to embark on board the little steamer, the 
Berkeley Castle — in which ample protection from the weather was afforded 
— at the Gas Office Quay, at eleven o'clock, and the party arrived at 
Wainlode Hill without any great amount of discomfort, and in good 
spirits. 

Among those present were :— The Revs. Sylvester Davis, Canon 
Ellacombe, J. Emeris, J. M. Hall, W. H. P. Harvey, Reginald T. Hill, 
T. Holbrow, A. E. How, H. J. Price, F. E. Broome Witts, W. 
Bazeley, Hon. Sec.; Colonel Wright, Messrs. W. E. Booth, W. S. Booth, 
H. W. Bruton, J. H. Cooke, G. J. Cruddas, J. Derham, K. H. Fryer, 
W. C. Grist, E. Hartland, G. W. Keeling, W. Knowles, H. Medland, 
G. Norman, E. H. Percival, V. R. Perkins, W. G. Prichard, J. Reynolds, 
W. G. Richards, M. F. Rome, W. J. Stanton, S. H. Swayne, Robert 
Taylor, T. Taynton, R. Townshend, F. W. Waller, and many ladies. 

Wainlode Cliff. 
Sir William Guise, well known as an accomplished geologist, had kindly 
undertaken to deliver an address on the remarkable section of the junction 
of the beds of the new red sandstone and the lower lias exposed in this 
cliff, which may also be seen in the cliff at Westbury-upon-Severn. In his 
absence the Rev. F. E. Broome Witts described the section, and pointed 
out the various deposits of which it is composed. This section has been 
fully treated of in the Transactions of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field 
Club. From Wainlode Cliff an adjournment was made to the Red Lion 
Hotel at Wainlode Hill, where luncheon had been provided. 

Ashleworth Church. 
After luncheon, the party proceeded by steamer to Ashleworth, and 
on landing, at once, under the guidance of the Honorary Secretary, pro- 
ceeded to visit the quaint little church. Here the members were received 

Vol. X., part 1. b 



2 Transactions at Gloucester. 

by the Rev. H. Williams, the vicar, and Mr. F. W. Waller gave an 
address on the architectural history of the church. He said that in the 
absence of any express records of the building of the church, or of the 
various alterations in the structure, we could only form an opinion of the 
date from the style of the architecture, and the character of the masonry. 
The church, he said, like most parish churches, has a history commencing 
with the Conquest, or perhaps earlier, from which date in different parts of 
the building it is possible to trace all styles of English church architecture — • 
Norman, Early English, Decorated and Perpendicular, and ending in the 
Jacobean pulpit and other fittings. The church consists of a chancel, with 
piscina in the south wall, nave, a chapel on the south of the chancel, in which 
also the piscina still remains, a south aisle to the nave, a north porch, and 
a tower at the west end of the nave. There is an arcade of four arches 
between the nave and the south aisle, a chancel arch, and an arch between 
the chancel and chapel. Part of the steps to the rood loft remain in situ, and 
there is a fine Perpendicular font. The north wall of the nave, 2ft. 7in. in 
thickness, is the oldest part of the building, and the interior presents one 
of the most interesting specimens of herring-bone masonry in this county. 
This may be Saxon or Norman, for it is difficult to determine what 
alterations have been made in this portion of the original structure. 
The quaint old church door with its wooden lock, appears to be of Norman 
times. Next in antiquity is the chancel, of Early-English work, the north 
and east walls of which are 3ft. thick. There are two windows in the 
north wall, one a triplet and the other a single light. The east window 
has been filled in with modern tracery. The tower and part of the chancel 
aisle form fine examples of early Decorated architecture, especially the two- 
light west window of the tower, and a small priest's doorway in the south 
wall of the chancel aisle, which is very simple and effective. The roofs, 
partly Early English and partly Decorated, are of rude construction. The 
arcade between the nave and the south aisle consists of four arches carried 
on piers, the whole structure being of a very rough kind of chopped work. 
The builder of the court house has left his mark on the east window of 
the south aisle ; observe the label moulding of the same section, and 
terminated in the same manner as the Court windows, and especially the 
large relieving arch. The south porch and the upper part of the tower 
and spire are late Perpendicular. One of the bells, dated 1687, cast by 
Abraham Rudhall, is believed to be one of his earliest. The church is 
situated only a short distance from the Severn, and one remarkable fact 
mentioned in connection with its history is that in 1770, on the occasion 
of a great flood in those low-lying districts, the building was flooded to a 
depth of four feet. 

The Rev. W. Bazkley then offered a few remarks on the Church and 
Manor of Ashleworth, and the derivation of the name, which, he said, is 
written in Domesday Book as Escelseworde, and consisted of three hides of 
land. At that time Ashleworth was a member of the lordship of Berkeley, 
which was royal demesne, and during the reign of the Norman kings was 
held in fee-farm by the earlier Berkeleys, for whose history Mr. Bazeley 
referred his hearers to the very able memoir of that family, by Sir Henry 
Barkly, in the eighth volume of the Transactions of the Society. 



The High Cross. 3 

During the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Maud and her 
son Henry, afterwards King Henry II., Robert de Berkeley, the tenant of 
Berkeley, was dispossessed, and Henry, as Duke of Normandy and Earl 
of Aujou, at first granted 100 librates of land, in the Manor of Berkeley, 
to Robert Fitz Harding, to whom it is said he was under great pecuniary 
obligations, and afterwards he granted to him the whole of Berkeley 
Herness in fee. 

In 1440, Robert Fitz Harding had laid the foundation of the church 
of S. Augustine, by Bristol, which, eight years afterwards (114S), was 
opened in great state. And at this time he laid upon the altar a charter, 
granting divers lands, manors and advowsons, inter alios, the manor and 
advowson of Ashelworth, for the endowment of the monastery. 

Mr. Bazeley observed that there is not much to be said concerning 
this manor during the period of nearly four centuries. It was held by the 
Abbey of St. Augustine, but, he said, that in the 7th Edward III., with 
the sanction of the Bishop of Worcester, the Abbot was allowed to take the 
profits of the rectory to the use of the abbey, on condition of making a 
proper provision for a vicar ; and he remarked that long afterwards con- 
tentions arose between the Abbots, as lords of Ashelworth, and the Paunce- 
forts, as lords of Hasfield, and that those disputes were terminated in 1443 
by an agreement inrolled in chancery. And he stated further, from Smyth's 
" Hundred of Berkeley," that the whole of the capital messuage and other 
buildings were re-edified during the time of Abbot Newbury, who died 
in 1463. so that the court house must have been new-built at that date. 

He also remarked that Smyth gave a clue to the date of the Great 
Barn, as he spoke of Abbot Newland, 1481-1515, building two great barns 
at Ashelworth. 

He said he was inclined to assign the same date to the vicarage. 

The High Cross. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley made the following further remarks on the High 
Cross, which formerly stood on the village green, at the junction of the 
roads to Corse and Hasfield. It was a very fine example of a fourteenth 
century cross, of which all, except the lower part of the shaft, remains. 
The stones composing the steps continue in situ, though some of them are 
loose, and unless secured will soon be beyond restoration. The upper 
portion of the tapering hexagonal shaft and the socket, suppoi't a sun- 
dial of curious construction in the churchyard. 

The socket is octagonal, having the upper edge chamfered, and it has a 
square mortice, showing that the lower part of the shaft, which is missing, 
was brought into a square at the base by broaches, as at Charlton Kings. 
The whole height of the shaft probably exceeded seven feet. 

The head of the cross is in the possession of Mr. Taylor, an inhabitant 
of the village, who has very kindly ottered to transfer it to the vicar for the 
restoration of the entire structure, and to haul the stone which may be 
required for the work. 

Mr. Bazeley, referring to Mr. Pooley's work on the "Ancient Crosses 
of Gloucestershire," in which the author describes the Ashleworth Cross, 
said that the head measures 20 inches in length, 15A inches in width, and 
B 2 



4 Transactions at Gloucester. 

10 inches in thickness. Four richly-decorated niches ornament its sides, 
and enclose the following subjects carved in relief : — On the front face is 
a rood, or figure of the crucified Saviour, with St. John on its left, and 
the Virgin Mother on its right, which of course is an illustration of 
St. John xix. 25-27. St. John carries a book in his right hand ; his left 
arm is bent to support the head, which is inclined to the right. 
St. Mary clasps her hands on her breast. The fingers of our Lord are 
half closed over the nails, which pierce the palm. The opposite figure is 
sadly mutilated ; but we at once recognise the figures of the Virgin and 
Child, with what appears to be a female figure kneeling in adoration. This 
female represents perhaps the donor of the Cross. In the niche in which 
the Crucifixion is represented the cusps (of the trefoil headed arch) are 
plain ; in that of the Virgin and Child, the lower cusps are larger, and 
are ornamented with bosses." 

Mr. Bazeley said that the side niches contain two figures, one of which 
he believes to be St. Andrew with his symbol, the cross saltire (Crux de 
cussata), between the arms of which, he said, is some object which he could 
not explain. He described the spandrils of the trefoil-headed arch as 
containing natural oak foliage, which he thought a favourite ornament with 
fourteenth century sculptors. The semi-cylindrical shafts and capitals, with 
hollow mouldings, as well as the four-leaved flower below the sloping roof, he 
said, all belong to the same period. Kneeling by the Apostle is a figure which 
Mr. Bazeley said he ventured to think Mr. Pooley had sadly misrepresented in 
his description of the Cross. He thought Mr. Pooley had been looking at a 
rough sketch, or a bad photograph, and not at the original stone, when he 
wro te : — " Kneeling at his feet, with the hands palm to palm, in the attitude 
of supplication, is a figure dressed in a short kilt, and with a belt round his 
waist. It will be remarked, however, that the head is unnatural, being 
none other than that of a sheep, from whose mouth extends an aim, bent at 
the elbow, and terminating in an unwieldy hand, holding up something in 
the shape of a round ball, or some sort of fruit, to the other figure, whose 
head is slightly turned towards it." And he observed that what Mr. 
Pooley called a kilt, are in reality the arms and hands of the figure in 
the attitude of prayer. There are, he said, no traces whatever of any 
sheep's head, and what Mr. Pooley calls an arm and unwieldy hand are, in 
fact, part of St. Andrew's Cross. The head of the kneeling figure is almost 
gone, only a portion of the hair remaining ; but there is no reason for 
supposing it to have been of unnatural size or form. This kneeling figure, 
he said, probably represents the founder of the church. In the niche on 
the other side of the Cross the figure is so mutilated that it is impossible to 
identify it. 

The head of the Cross was discovered many years ago beneath the fire- 
place of a cottage, now pulled down, but which stood at the south side of 
the village green, some fifty yards from the site of the High Cross. 

The party then examined the sun-dial, and shaft and base of old 
village cross in the churchyard. 

The Court House 

Was the next object of interest visited, Mr. F. W. Waller acting as guide. 
A hurried survey was all that could be made. Mr. Waller remarked that 



The Court House. 5 

he building shows the remains of a very fine and strongly constructed 
manor house, probably of the 15th century. He said it has been altered 
considerably since its erection, but the original building can be easily 
traced. Partitions of various kinds have been erected across the rooms to 
convert the building into the purposes of a farmhouse, for which it is now 
used. The original dimensions of the large hall were 37ft. by 19ft. and 
20ft. high, which has an exceedingly fine open oak roof, and is lighted by 
means of massive transomed windows. On the other side of the hall, and 
extending further towards the east, are large parlours and private rooms, 
and above these are more rooms of the same size, also open to the roof, 
and approached by means of a newel stone staircase. Remains of 
stencilled decoration and inscriptions are to be seen on the walls. The 
timber and stonework throughout the building are singularly massive, and 
the construction of the arch over the front doorway is particularly remark- 
able. In the ceiling of the stone staircase there are two bosses of 
carved heads, one probably representing one of the Henrys. A lean-to 
building formerly existed against the east wall of the house, as may be 
seen by the string course and corbels still remaining, and foundations of 
other buildings have been discovered when digging drains. 

The Tithe Barn. 
The tithe barn, which is situated within a stone's throw of the court 
house, was next inspected, also under the guidance of Mr. Waller. It is a 
large and very picturesque building ; its length being 125ft. and its 
breadth 25ft. Thus its dimensions approach those of the well-known barns 
at Bredon and Frocester. It was probably erected about the same period 
as the court house, and is built of native clay stone, with freestone dress- 
ings. The roof, which is chiefly of oak, has been much altered and 
modernised. There are two porches, over the doorways of which are oak 
lintels instead of stone arches. Parts of the old doors yet remain. A 
very few minutes only could be spared beneath this ancient structure, 
and then the excursionists proceeded to 

The Olo Vicarage. 
Mr. Bazeley and Mr. Waller conducted the party to the old vicarage, 
an admirable specimen of ancient wooden construction which probably 
cannot be excelled in this county. As at present seen it is a per- 
fectly symmetrical house with two wings and a central porch facing 
towards the west, but the wing on the north side has been erected within 
the past fifty or sixty years, and is a fairly accurate copy of the old work. 
The original building possesses a remarkably fine entrance porch. The 
framing and decoration of the woodwork, which was specially admired, 
is singularly fine and interesting, and nothing short of minute drawings 
would convey any adequate conception of the rich character of the 
work. The porch, with its grand old door and framed ceiling, and the 
various bold enrichments in the whole building were examined with much 
curious interest. It is satisfactory to remark that all these old buildings 
have been well cared for, and they are generally— at any rate, it is signally 
the case with the old vicarage— in very good repair. That they have 
suffered from restoration there can be no doubt, and Mr. Waller pertinently 
remarked that few buildings which have passed through the process of 



6 Transactions at Gloucester. 

" restoration " had escaped serious injury. Half-an-hour was occupied in the 
examination of this interesting house and its many remarkable features, 
and the party, through the kindness of Miss Fulljames, partook of refresh- 
ments. 

They next paid a visit to the residence of Mr. Sydney Taylor, at 
Lord's-hill, where the head of the cross has been preserved. 

On their return to the steamer they passed the site of the old village 
cross, which has been described, and the remains of another cross, where 
the roads meet nearer the church. 

The party reached Gloucester shortly after six o'clock, when a sub- 
stantial tea was enjoyed. An hour-and-a-half later a meeting for the 
reading and discussion of papers was held in the lecture room of the Science 
School in Brunswick Road. 

THE EVENING MEETING. 
The Evening Meeting was not numerously attended, the majority of 
members from a distance having returned home by early trains. Sir Win, 
V. Guise, Bart., who had arrived for the meeting, presided. 

The first paper for the evening was read by the Rev. J. M. Hall, M.A., 
On the Early History of Harescombe, which will be printed in extenso in the 
present volume. 

The Chairman, referring to the several money payments mentioned 
by Mr. Hall, reminded the meeting that a shilling in those days was worth 
twenty times its value now. They would be pleased to see the paper in 
print. If all clergymen would take the same trouble in working out the 
history of their parishes as Mr. Hall had done, a really good county history, 
which they very much needed, would eventually be obtained. Mr. Hall 
was right in supposing that the prefix to Harescombe meant "an army.' 
Hare-lane was an instance of the kind in Gloucester. The word "hare' 
was very frequently used in the expression of something connected with an 
army. 

Mr. J. H. Robertson next read a very interesting memoir On the History 
of the Mediaeval Mint of Gloucester, and exhibited some beautiful drawings 
of ancient Coins in illustration of his subject. 

The Chairman offered the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Robertson for 
his interesting and instructive paper upon a subject which to most of 
those present was probably new. It only showed how much instructive 
matter might be got out of old coins. They were the milestones of history, 
and in that respect they were most valuable. Sir William also commented 
on the excellent drawings with which the paper was illustrated. 

Mr. Robertson remarked that he was indebted to Mr. W. S. Booth for 
them. They were beautifully done. 

Mr. Robertson paper will also be printed in the present volume. 

Mr. H. Medland read a paper on Some Finds in Brunswick Road, near 
the Eastgate. He said, " the objects which 1 am about to bring under your 
notice have, I think, some archaeological as well as artistic value, whilst the 
place in which they were found, the city moat, will, I think, give them suffi- 
cient interest to justify me in asking your attention for a few minutes. In 



The Evening Meeting. 7 

the spring of 1882 excavations were made for the Co-operative Stores in 
Brunswick Road, on the site of the old City Moat, in a line with and 
almost due north of the Science School. Whilst these excavations were 
proceeding the following objects were discovered : — ■ 

Copper Coin — Anglesey Mines Halfpenny, 1788. 

A quantity of refuse, probably from glass melting-pots, of greenish 
blue colour, much oxydised, with nodules of silica. 

Remnant of a Crucible, in which silver has been melted — particles of 
silver imbedded. 

A quantity of Shards, dating probably from the 15th century. 

Fragments of Encaustic Tiles, ornamental and plain, daticg from 14th 
and 15th centuries, 

Fragments of Delft Stone Ware, Quart Pots, &c, of fine blue colour. 
Initials A. R. (Queen Anne) and G. R. (probably George I.) existing on 
some fragments. 

Pint Pot, stone ware, upper part painted red, lower part enamelled. On 
enamelled part is, very spiritedly painted, a fox (in blue colour), with the 
legend, " We shall catch him anon." 

Portions of Brown Stone -ware Cups, quart and pint. The name of 
Hodack is stamped on one pint cup. 

Remains of glass Dutch Flasks — one, tolerably perfect, bears a crest (a 
dog's head) stamped thereon. The oxidization on some fragments is very 
beautiful. 

Portions of terra cotta Dish, painted inside a beautiful light blue, with 
portion of (query) head of Charles I., in dark blue, with yellow crown. The 
head has the characteristic long hair of Charles I. 

Freestone head of infant Christ, of 13th century workmanship. The 
carving finished on one side only, the other side having evidently been 
against a Madonna. Remains of gilding existing on the hair. 

Old glass phial and small bottle. 

Enriched classic moulding in white marble. 

Two ancient earthenware Pots. 

All these remains are deposited in the Gloucester Museum. 

The city walls were razed in the year 1662, during the reign of Chas. II. 
Fosbrooke, quoting Matthew of Paris, says, " In the 16th century the walls 
are noted by Leland to be strong, and so continued until the demolition of 
of them in 1662, with castles and other fortifications, on account of the 
mischief experienced from them during the civil war." Subsequently to 
that time, and probably before, the moat was used as a receptacle for rub- 
bish, the result being that the moat and the road adjoining it are buried 
several feet below the present level of Brunswick Road. Mr. Medland here 
exhibited a plan and section shewing the width of the moat and its depth below 
the present roadway. He went on to say that the old city wall on the north 
side of the excavation was laid bare in two or three places. The width of 
moat, 22 feet, was clearly defined, and was found to be bounded on the 
south-east by a stone wall 2 feet thick. A well-constructed road coated with 
pebbles ran alongside the moat, this road and the edge of the moat being 



8 Transactions at Gloucester. 

about 8 feet below the present pavement in Brunswick Road. The bottom 
of the moat— 11 feet 9 inches below the present level — was found to be 
paved with sets of oolitic stone currented to the centre. A sloping way 
from the top of the wall bounding the moat to the bottom of the moat was 
found in the south corner of the excavation. 

The Chatrman briefly commented on the curious character of the glass 
bottles exhibited by Mr. Medland. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley expressed the hope that if the piece of ground 
adjoining the Science School was to be used for building purposes, great care 
might be exercised in the excavations, because it was possible a great many 
things might have been thrown there. 

Mr. H. W. Bruton then read the following 

Notes on the Coverdale Bible. 

I am about to read a few notes respecting the book which is not only 
regarded by the English Bibliographer as the most precious of all volume, 
but cannot fail to be of immense interest to every nation speaking the English 
language, being the first entire Bible printed in English. This first trans- 
lation was made by Myles Coverdale, and was published in the year 1535. 
Pettigrew, the librarian of the last Duke of Sussex, tells us that Myles 
Coverdale was a native of Yorkshire, and was supposed to have been born 
about the year 1486. He became an Augustine friar, but having embraced 
the principles of the Reformation on his return, he was exiled to England 
and was made Almoner to Catharine Parr, wife of Henry VIII. 1 In 
the reign of Edward VI. he was consecrated Bishop of Exeter, but in Mary's 
reign he was deprived of his See and imprisoned. At the solicitation of the 
King of Denmark he obtained his release and was permitted to depart from 
the kingdom. In the reign of Elizabeth he returned and was again 
offered a bishopric ; this, however, he refused from his attachment to the 
Puritans, but he accepted the living of St. Magnus, near London Bridge: but 
declining to conform according to what was then required he was deprived 
of it, and died in indigence on the 20th May, 1567, being then 81 years of 
age. Such is a brief account of the life of a man whose name will always be 
regarded by us with the deepest veneration. The title of the book is as 
follows : — "Biblia, The Bible, that is— the Holy Scriptureof the OldandNew 
Testament, faithfully and truly translated out of Douche and Latyn into 
Englishe" and is dated 1535. The imprint, which is on the reverse of the 
last leaf, runs thus: " Prynted in the year of our Lorde mdxxxv and 
fynished the fourth daye of October." 

The text is preceded by eight leaves which comprise the Title 
—the dedication to King Henry VIII.—" A Prologue Myles Couerdale 
Unto the Chisten reader,"— " The bokes of the Holy Byble," and "The 
first boke of Moses called Genesis what this boke conteynith." The 
title has, however, long puzzled the Bibliographer, for it seems difficult 
to determine with what title the book was published. Five copies of 
the book witli titles are known to exist, three bearing the date 1535, 
the other two that of 1536. Of the three bearing that of 1535, one is in the 
library at Castle Ashby, the property of the Marquis of Northampton— the 

1 He officiated at the Queen's funeral in the chapel of Siuleley Castle in 1548,— Ed, 



The Coverdale Bible. 9 

title in the copy does not contain the words " translated out of Douche and 
Latin," and the inference drawn by Mr. Fry from this and the omission of the 
words from the edition dated 1536, is that they were inserted by the printer 
but that the great translator declined to adopt them. Of the remaining two 
bearing the date 1535 one is in the library of the Earl of Leicester, Holkham 
Hall, and the other is in the British Museum — neither, however, is quite per- 
fect. One of the two copies bearing the date 1536, is, or rather was, in the 
library of the Earl of Jersey, at Osterley Park, the other in the Gloucester 
Cathedral Library, and is now before us. The book is printed in a foreign 
gothic type generally conjectured to be that of Froschover of Zurich. The 
title of the seven preliminary leaves and the map are believed to have been 
printed by James Nicolson of Southwark. Until the publication in 1867 of 
Mr.Fry'swork, "The Bible by Coverdale," the woodcuts illustrating the book 
were assumed to be by Hans Sebald Beham, but the objections urged by Mr. 
Fry to assigning them to this artist appear to me difficult to overcome. In 
the dedication Coverdale says, " Considerynge now (most gracyous prynce) 
the inestimable treasure frute and prosperite euerlastynge, that God geueth 
with his worde, and trustynge in his infynite goodnes that he woulde brynge 
my symple and rude laboure herin to good effecte, therefore as the holy 
goost moued other men to do the cost herof, so was I boldened in God, to 
laboure in the same.'' He calls it a '• special translation " — not as a checker, 
reprover or despiser of other men's translations, but lowly and faithfully 
following his interpreters and that under correction. And he goes on to say, 
"And as I do with all humbleness submitte myne vnderstondynge and my 
poor translaycon unto the spirite of trueth in your grace, so make I this 
protestacyon (hauing God to recorde in my conscience) that I haue neither 
wrested nor altered so moch as one worde for the mayntenaunce of any 
maner of secte: but haue with a cleare conscience purely and faythfully trans- 
lated this out of fyue sundry interpreters, hauyng onely the manyfest trueth 
of the scripture before myne eyes." On its completion it was placed in the 
hands of Bishop Gardiner and others to report upon, and after some delay 
the King demanded their report, when they stated " there were many faults 
in it." " Well (said the King) but are there many heresies maintained in it." 
And on their replying they could find none. " Then in God's name (added 
the King) let it go abroad among our people." It was well received, and 
in 1536 a royal injunction was issued commanding the clergyman of each 
parish to provide the Bible in Latin, and also in English for the use of any 
one in the parish church. 

I shall not detain you by entering into the controversy respecting the 
substitution of the name of Queen Jane for that of Queen Anne in the 
dedication— this has been treated exhaustively in Mr. Fry's book, to which 
I have already made allusion. What, however, more especially interests us 
is that the alterations which were made in the second issue of the volume, 
and which I believe occur in the copy formerly in the library of the Earl of 
Jersey, bearing a similar title to that of the copy before us, do not appear in 
the Gloucester book. Lea Wilson states that the following alterations are 
peculiar to the 1536 edition. At chapter 18 of Genesis, in the first edition 
is a woodcut of the three angels appearing to Abraham ; in the 1536 edition 
this cut, he says, is repeated at chapter 19. In the title " the thirde book 



10 Transactions at Gloucester. 

of Esdras to Machabees " the following note is placed at the foot in the first 
edition : " unto these also belongeth Baruc whom we have set amoge the 
prophetes next to Jeremy because he was his Scrybe & in his time." In the 
1536 edition Wilson says Baruc appears in the proper place. The leaf folio 
xxxi in the New Testament has in the 1535 edition 57 lines on each page, 
in the 1536 editon Wilson states it contains 53 lines on one side and 54 on 
the reverse. I have most carefully collated the volume before us, and was 
surprised to find that the alterations peculiar, according to Lea Wilson's 
account to the 1536 edition, do not appear in it. The inference I drew was 
that the Gloucester Cathedral copy was the 1st edition of 1535, with the title 
of the second edition inserted. The early editions of the Bible are often 
made up of two or more editions. It must be borne in mind that very soon 
after its publication both the book and its owners had to endure persecution. 
The book too became injured from frequent use, and any one who has a 
knowledge of old books does not need to be told that the title is only too 
often missing or defective. The Earl of Jersey's copy was sold by Messrs. 
Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge on the 5th May, 1885, and was purchased 
by Mr. Quaritch for £680. It was described as having the top 
corner of the map mended, and having a few worm holes, but other- 
se sound. I fear the depression in commercial matters generally 
affected its value, for in the Caxton Exhibition catalogue the book 
had been valued at £1500. It occurred to me that if this particular 
copy had the peculiarities which Wilson stated belonged to the 1536 edition, 
the inference I had drawn as to the Gloucester copy was undoubtedly 
correct. I wrote to Mr. Quaritch, but the book had been sold by him, he 
obligingly sent my enquiries to the present owner, whose reply I have not yet 
received. I may add that the copy before us is on the whole in wonderfully 
fine state. The title is a little damaged — no doubt from being incautiously 
handled by those who forget how lovingly and how reverently the book 
should be treated. Half of the map is lost. Two of the leaves of the 
dedication to the King have portions deficient, but with these exceptions the 
text is perfect and of the slight tears and injuries to margins I have made 
a careful particular. In poor condition the book has always been regarded 
as one of the greatest treasures of an English Library. Well may he be proud 
of the grand old folio of which I have given a very inadequate description. 

In reply to the Chairman Mr. Bruton mentioned that the title page of 
the Gloucester book was slightly damaged, and when the new Dean came 
the should draw his attention to it and suggest that it should be repaired. 

The Chairman described Mr. Bruton's paper as most interesting, and 
remarked that the volume in the Gloucester Cathedral library was a very 
valuable one. He had seen Lord Leicester's library, which contained a 
copy, said to be the most perfect in existence. 

The Rev. Wm. Bazeley (Hon. Sec), in the absence of the writer from 
illness, then read the following Paper by the Rev. John James, M.A., of 
High field, Lydney : — 

AlTGUSTINiES AC, 

The place at which, according to Beda, the British and Anglo-Saxon 
Conferences were held, 



AufiUSTTN^S Ac. 1 1 

The precise locality of Archbishop Augustine's conferences with the 
bishops and doctors of the ancient British church, in the year of our Lord 
601-3, has long been a matter of conjecture and corresponding disputation. 

As in the case of Cloveshoo and of Chalkythe, both famous for 
Synods and Witenagemotes during the period of Mercia's predominance in 
the Sth and 9th centuries, the former — Cloveshoo — has been variously 
claimed to be identical with Abingdon, in Berks and Oxon, and with Cliffe- 
at-hoo, in Kent ; while the latter — Chalkythe — has been severally thought 
identical with Kelcheth, in Cheshire, and with Chelsea, in Middlesex, and 
with Calchyth, in Oxfordshire : so Augustine's oak has been severally and 
diversely claimed for spots in Wiltshire and in Worcestershire, in Here- 
fordshire and in Monmouthshire, lastly in our Gloucestershire, and here on 
either side of its great arterial River Severn. 

In this paper the writer proposes to himself the unambitious task of 
tracing through converging lines a way towards the spot where the afore- 
said conferences were really held. 

1.— In a note to Haddan and Stubbs's edition of Wilkins's Councils, 
Vol. in., pp. 40, 41, the following Welsh tradition is quoted as from lolo 
MSS., pp. 547, 8. 

" These are the Bishops who disputed with Augustin, the Bishop of the 
Saxons, on the Banks of the Severn in the Forest of Dean, viz. 

1 Of Caerfawydd = Hereford. 4. Of Bangor— Llantwit. 

2. Deilo = Llandaff. 5. Of Llan-wry=St. Asaph. 

3. Of Llanbadarn Vawr. 6. Of Weeg — Suffragan to Llandaff. 

7. Of Morgan wg=Margam." 

Happy indeed had been the writer of this paper — born and brought up 
(as he was) between the Severn and the Wye — could he have identified 
the site of this Welsh legend amongst any of the vast groves of oak in Dean 
Forest. 

But neither for any grove of oak between those rivers, nor for any 
outlying solitary oak tree, such for instance as that vast peerless oak at 
Newland —still largely verdant, or that grand old skeleton oak at Lydney 
with its one solitary spray of oak leaf — the remnant of 6 or 7 centuries, can 
he pretend to set up a claim, on the score either of local tradition or of 
historical probability. 

2. For Gloucestershire indeed, and for the banks of the Severn, on the 
southern side of that great estuary, the writer does claim the honour of 
having afforded a sheltered site for those painfully interesting and lament- 
ably fruitless conferences. 

And first to that effect he would quote those words of " the Venerable 
Bede," which confessedly originated this episode in the infancy of our Anglo- 
Saxon Church. 

In his Ecclesiastical History of the English Church (Book n. chap. 2.) 
Beda wrote : " Intei-ea Augustinus, adjutorio usus zEdilberti Regis, con- 
vocavit ad suum colloquium episcopos, sive Doctores, proximos provencia? 
Britonum, in loco qui usque hodie (a.d. 700-735) lingua Anglorum Augus- 
tine Ac, idest robur Augustini, in confinio Huicciorum et Occidentalium 
Saxonuin, appellator." 



12 Transactions at Gloucester. 

A passage which is thus Anglicized by the late Dr. Giles : " In the 
meantime Augustine, with the assistance of King ^Ethelbert, drew together 
to a conference the Bishops or Doctors of the nearest province of the 
Britons, at a place which is to this day called Augustine's Oak, on the 
borders of the Wiccii and West Saxons. 

3. — The Huiccii had then lately been put by the West Saxons (of whom 
they seem to have been a conspicuous tribe) in possession of the region 
between the Severn and the Somersetshire Avon, on the occasion of its 
conquest from the Britons under Ceawlin and Cusha, the brother Kings of 
Wessex, at the great battle of Deorham in the year 577. 

And pagan as still were they, both the Huiccii and the West Saxons 
were doubtless readily amenable to the wishes of iEfchelbert, the Christian 
King of Kent, when expressed in favour of a safe conduct being granted to 
Augustin and his companions, as well as to the bishops and doctors of the 
ancient British church, with whom he sought an interview. 

It is interesting here to note, on the authority of Professor Freeman's 
remarks on "Gloucester — its Abbey and Cathedral, and their place in 
English History," (See Records of Glouc. Cathedral, Vol. i), that the 
sub-kingdom of the Hwiceians quickly extended from the Bath and 
Bristol Avon to the Tewkesbury and Evesham Avon, and so came to include 
what was afterwards divided into the two shires of Gloucester and Worcester. 

4. — The foreshore of the river Severn, between Avonmouth and Oldbury, 
was from earliest times the range of the most frequented Ferries, or places 
of departures and arrivals to and from South Wales. Take for example the 
well known Ferries from Avonmouth itself (Abona) and Northwick, now 
New Passage (so called), to Caerwent or Venta Silurum, vi% Caldecot Pill, 
now Portskewet ; from Aust, or Austin Pill, to other Pills in Caldecot Level, 
and to Beachley, the so-called Old Passage ; again from Oldbury Pill to 
Sedbury Pill. 1 ' 

And here it is proper to note that Aust is not to be taken for an 
abbreviation of Augusti. In modern times indeed it was so taken by those 
who blindly accepted the modern form "Augusti Trajectus " as if it were 
the ancient name of the Aust Passage, and as if it stood in that form on the 
lists of the Roman Itineraries. Be it known, however, that no station upon 
the itineraries is so styled, but that there is one styled simply " Trajectus ;" 
and that the Roman station "Trajectus" has been conclusively shewn by 
Bishop Clifford 2 to have been a "passage" — not across the Severn at all, 
but — across the Avon at a Ford, now called Saltford, on a line of com- 
munication between Stanton Drew and another ancient British town or 
temple. 

5. — Dr. Giles's index to his translation of Beda states, under title of 
Augustine's oak, that "Carter thinks it was near Aust, or Aust Clive 
[Cliff], on the Severn." And the same index, under the same title of 
Augustine's oak, quotes Camden's Britannia [page 256, edit. 1607] as 
exclaiming, upon mention of Aust Cliff ; " for it is indeed a Clive [Clivus], 

1 Pills are places of Piles ; whereby, as in the sand-banks of ancient Venice, the 
mud banks of river creeks have to be squared up so as to form convenient quays for traffic. 

2 Transactions of 13, & G, Arch, Soc, Vol. III., part 1. 



AUGUSTINE AC. 13 

precipitous, and rising to a great height,"— as it were, sheer out of "the 
Severn sea " to the height of 90 or 100 feet. 

6.— In another note to Haddan and Stubbs's edition (1871) of Wilkins's 
Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents (vol. iii. pp. 40, 41), commenting 
on the afore-cited text of Beda, are these words: "Either Aust, or 
some spot on the Severn— possibly just across the Severn— would have 
been near to Caerleon, and equally accessible, to Augustin." Again, 
" Somewhere in that neighbourhood, therefore, on the plain of the 
Severn probably stood Augustin's oak." 

And again, "Aust itself is called Austin in a charter of a.d. 691-2, in 
which a grant of lands, there and at Henbury, is made to the Church of 
Worcester, (K.C.D., xxxii.)" 

7. — There stood anciently in this district, between the Avon and the 
Severn, an oak forest which extended probably from one Acton (Oaktown) 
to the other, — from Acton Turville, near Deorham, to Iron Acton, near 
Thornbury, and so onward to the vicinity of the Severn, whose coast line 
in Augustine's time was far more inland than at present. 

Now the verge of such a forest, supposing it to exist, would naturally 
supply, beneath the shelter of an oak or of a grove of oaks, a spot con- 
venient for the conferences which Bede states to have been held at a place 
known to fame, a centui-y later, as Augustiiues Ac. 

S. — That such an oak forest once existed in that locality is attested, not 
only by the names of Acton Turville and Iron Acton — Acton clearly mean- 
ing Oak Town, but by the fact that the furnaces formerly employed for 
smelting the iron, with which the underlying stone of the district is still 
impregnated, must, in the absence of mineral fuel, have needed a whole 
forest of timber to supply the charcoal requisite. 

And it was by these last considerations that the Rector of Iron 
Acton explained to the writer the present non-existence of the said forest, 
as well as the utter discontinuance of smelting operations in that district. 

It may be only fair perhaps here to add, that the fact of the said forest 
not having been kept up by renewed plantations from time to time, such 
as we have seen in Dean Forest within the last two or three generations, 
doubtless arose from its never having, like the Forest of Dean, enjoyed the 
privileges of a royal forest. 

9. — Under the head of Cromhall, a parish lying between Thornbury and 
Chartield, Sir Robert Atkins, in his Gloucestershire at p. 375, makes this 
remarkable statement : "On Anchoret Hill [in this parish] there are the 
ruins of a cell still visible ; the Anchorite of which place was consulted by 
the monks of Bangor, when they went to meet St. Augustine the Monk." 

And Rudder, in his Gloucestershire, published a.d. 1712, writes 
at p. 397 more explicitly to the same effect, as follows : "St. Augustine, by 
the assistance of Ethelbert, King of Kent, called a council of Saxon and 
British bishops to confer on matters of religion. At that time Bangor, in 
[south], Wales, was a famous seminary of learning ; some of the monks of 
which place came hither [to Cromhall] to consult an holy anchorite, who had 
a cell upon a hill in this parish, whence it is called Anchorite Hill, where the 
ruins of the cell are still to be seen." 



14 Transactions at Gloucester. 

Now it is remarkable that "Anchor Hill" is a name still (a.d. 1SS5) 
known to the parishioners of Cromhall ; nay, that two spots, called 
"Anchor Hill," are shewn on the two sides of the lake in the Earl of 
Ducie's park. The one upon the south side stands on an abrupt preci- 
pice. The other stands on the gentle slope of a glen, through which runs 
a little stream, at which the historical anchoret may perhaps have been 
wont to slake his thirst. Nor he alone ; for on the same glen side are to be 
seen substructions extensive enough to represent a cluster of conventual 
cells, of which the existence appears to be explained by the two following 
circumstances : — (1) There stands on the same hill-side a large farmhouse, 
which the ordnance map designates as "Abbot Side Farm." (2) And Sir 
Robert Atkyns thus continues his account of Cromhall parish : ' ' There are 
two manors, one called Cromhall Abbots, because it belonged to the Abbot 
of St. Austin's, in Bristol, given to that monastery by Robert, Lord 
Berkeley, son of Hardinge, 1148. After the dissolution of religious founda- 
tions it was granted to the Chapter of Bristol, 34 Hen. VIII., and now 
continueth in that Church." 

It should be added that this retired nook — the favourite retreat of 
hermits in the 6th and 7th, of friars in the 12th and following, centuries — is 
distant only seven or eight miles either from Iron Acton or from 
Austin Pill. 

10. — The mention by Atkyns and Rudder of "Bangor," as the place 
from which monks came to consult the Cromhall anchorite, affords a fitting 
occasion for the indispensable work of pointing out its true habitat, in con- 
tradistinction to the well-known Bangor of North Wales, for which, or for 
some other monastery in North Wales, it has most strangely been mistaken. 

Dr. Giles's Index to his Beda, for example, describes the Bangor whose 
monks came to the conference with Augustine, and were so solemnly 
denounced by him, and subsequently so ruthlessly slaughtered by King 
Ethelfrid, as " a monastery of the Britons in Cheshire, or as some say in 
Flintshire." And this, notwithstanding that the very same article in the 
Index locates their slaughter at Legacestr, and notwithstanding that the 
Text of Beda's narrative itself explains that the Anglo-Saxon Legacestr means 
City of Legions, and that it was called by the Britons more rightly 
"Carlegion," now Carleon. 

In correction of this marvellous mistake, let Beda's Etymological be 
corroborated by some Archaeological considerations. Not far from Carleon, 
and near the itinerary station Bovium, may be seen to this day at Llantwit 
extensive ruins and substructions of a collegiate institution, said to have 
been founded by the Emperor Theodosius, and after his name to have been 
called by the Welsh "Bangor Tewdws," — Bangor being another name for 
College. And a writer in Lewis's Topographical Dictionary tells us that 
scholars flocked \o this seminary from all parts of Christendom, amounting 
at one time to more than 2,000 pupils ; and that for many generations it 
continued to be the university of Britain. 

Amongst its most distinguished presidents'are said to have been St. 
Patrick the Apostle of Ireland, and St. Iltutus from whom the place 
derives its name of Llantwit, and the dedication of its church St. Iltyd. 



AvGuansms Ac. 15 

And amongst the most eminent of its alumni and monastic denizens are 
enumerated Pelagius, the Heresiarch : Germanus, the Gallic suppressor of 
that heresy ; St. David, Bishop of Menevia ; St. Sampson, Bishop of Dol ; 
Gildas, the historian ; and the Bard Taliessin. 



The Chairman remarked that he considered Mr. James was mistaken 
in respect to Aust. He said that in his own opinion Aust had nothing to 
do with Augustus or Augustine. It signified "East;" "Aust cliff,'' was 
simply east cliff, and it had long been shown that the derivation of the 
word had no reference to the places mentioned by Mr. James. It was 
scarcely possible now, even were it worth the time and trouble, to find 
out where St. Augustine's oak stood ; in fact it was utterly impossible 
to tell where it was. Their theories could only be speculative. 

The Rev. W\ Bazeley proposed a vote of thanks to Sir William Guise 
for presiding, and expressed regret that he had been unable to accompany 
the party during the day. 

The vote was expressed by acclamation. 

The Chairman, in responding, assured the meeting that his absence 
during the earlier part of the day had been his own loss. He specially 
regretted being absent because he intended to point out some particulars 
about the Wainlode Cliff. The 27 feet of black deposit, which they saw at 
the top, was one of the most curious pieces of geology to be found in England. 
At the top of the cliff they saw one of the finest sections to be met with in 
this county. The beds there, which are known as the Rhcetic beds, which 
lie between the top of the red beds and the base of the lias which covers the 
vale in this county, represent a series of beds which, on the continent, 
especially in the Alps, attain a thickness of something like 5000 feet. They 
used to be classed with the Lower Lias, but during recent years they were 
found to contain an entirely distinct set of fossils. One of the beds, from 
one to three inches in thickness, is filled entirely with bones and teeth of 
fishes. All over Europe this bed with fish remains at the bottom of a series, 
showing that at one time, from some cause or other, there was a great des- 
truction of fish life. The fish beds at Aust contains most remarkable teeth, 
which must have belonged to fish of great size ; they were as large as the 
teeth of a hippopotamus. Now they were represented by another fish in 
the rivers of Queensland, which does not exceed the size of the Severn shad. 
Nothing was ever found of the fish, but many teeth had been collected. At 
one time they were worth £20 apiece. 

The proceedings then terminated. 



The Mint of Gloucester, 17 



THE MINT OF GLOUCESTER. 

By J. DRUMMOND ROBERTSON, M.A., 
(Member of the Numismatic Socief;/ of London). 

A memoir on the Gloucester Mint will not, I trust, prove an 
unwelcome contribution to the Transactions of the Society, and 
will at least be accepted as an earnest of the interest felt in its 
work by one of its most recently elected members. 

I am conscious that the subject is not an easy one to deal 
with, in the absence of almost all record, except the evidence of 
the coins themselves ; but it does seem desirable that the 
Society's Transactions should include some attempt at least to 
chronicle the mintage of Gloucester. I do not pretend that the 
list I now present to the Society is at all a complete one, 
covering as it does a period of nearly 400 years, during which 
Gloucester possessed the privilege of coining. I have availed 
myself of all the most accessible sources of information, and 
have been assisted in the compilation by the kind contributions 
of several fellow members of the Numismatic Society ; but there 
are doubtless many varieties and possibly types which I have 
not been able to record. I trust, however, that the publication 
of this paper may be the means of bringing in fresh " readings," 
and that I may be enabled hereafter to add an appendix to this 
first instalment. 

Before proceeding to the immediate subject of my paper, I 
may perhaps be permitted to offer a few prefatory remarks on the 
condition of the coin and coinage generally during the period 
under review, for the benefit of such of my readers as have not 
made a study of early English Numismatics. 

The first Saxon monarch who regulated the coinage by law 
was iEthelstan, grandson of Alfred the Great, who succeeded his 
Vol. X., part 1 . c 



18 Transactions at Gloucester. 

father, Eadwarcl the Elder, as king of Wessex in 924, and who 
died at Gloucester in 940. At a great Witanagemot, held at 
Grateley, it was ordained that there should be one kind of money 
throughout the realm, and that no one should coin except in a town 
under pain of losing his right hand. At the same time moneyers 
were appointed for different towns, but all of them subordinated 
to the mint in the city of London, which furnished them with the 
dies. Gloucester is not specified among the mints which received 
more than one moneyer, and we must therefore conclude that it 
was not considered sufficiently important. It was doubtless due 
to this edict that the practice of stamping the name of the mint- 
town on the reverse of the coin became general, as evidence that 
it was struck under authority. 

The establishment of mints in various parts of the kingdom 
was a necessity of early times, when banks and safe and easy 
means of transport were non-existent, as the only means of 
r-eadily supplying every little centre of commerce with the king's 
current coin. This same necessity has been acknowledged and 
met in our own days by the erection of mints in Sydney and 
Melbourne, to facilitate the distribution of the gold currency in 
those distant colonies, and to deal with the precious metal dis- 
covered on the spot. In Saxon and Norman times, however, the 
number was necessarily large, and amounted to something like 
sixty in the reigns of the Confessor and the two Williams. 

It is perhaps needless to mention that the only coin struck 
during the period we are considering, viz., from ^Elfred the Great 
(872), to Edward I. (1272), was the penny, which was first coined 
by Offa, and represented the 240th part of the Saxon jiound of 
silver, or one pennyioeight of 24 Saxon grains, equal to 22^ grains 
troy. As a matter of fact, the actual weights vary from 13 up 
to 27 grains troy. The silver was of the same fineness as it is 
to-day, 11 ozs. 2 dwts. silver to 18 dwts. alloy. The constant 
changes of type were due perhaps in part to an attempt to 
counteract the evils of clipping and false coining, which were 
very prevalent, but still more to the necessities of the king's 
exchequer. The king received a seignorage on all money coined, 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



19 



and there was therefore a constant temptation to raise revenue 
by calling in an old coinage and issuing another. This con- 
tinual change of the coin was so great a grievance that it was 
commuted, probably by William I., into a triennial tax, called 
"moneyage." This tax was abolished by Henry L, but the 
seignorage was retained. 

The method of coining in 
these times, and until a much 
later date, was extremely primi- 
tive. It is well illustrated in 
the annexed cut. This repre- 
sentation of a Norman coiner 
at work occurs on the capital 
of one of the columns of the 
Church of Saint Georges-de- 
Bocherville, near Rouen, built 
before 1066 by George de 
Tancarville, Chamberlain of 
William the Conqueror. 1 

The lower die, or pile, was securely driven into a large 
wooden block. The coiner laid the blank or jlan upon the 
engraved surface, and then applied to it the upper die, or trussell, 
which he held in his left hand. A heavy blow was then 
administered with a large hammer, and the flan thus received 
the impression of each die simultaneously. This rough and ready 
process answered the purpose with coins as thin as all mediaeval 
pieces are. 

What was the social i*ank of the moneyers whose names 
appear on the coins is a question about which there has been verv 
considerable difference of opinion, but inasmuch as they were by 
the laws of ^Ethelned, subject to a fine of 12 oras, equal to 192 

1 The block has been kindly lent by Messrs. Geo. Bell ami .Sons for 
this paper, being borrowed from my "Handbook to the Coinage of Scot- 
land," of which they are the publishers. The original woodcut, of which 
this is a copy, will be found in Chas. Knight's " Old England,'' vol. 1, 
fig. 790. 

c 2 




20 Transactions at Gloucester. 

pence, under certain circumstances, it is only reasonable to 
suppose that they were men of substance in those times ; and as 
in the same laws their " suboperarii " are spoken of, it is clear 
they were not themselves mere workmen. 

This is not, however, the place to discuss this question, 
except so far as any light is thrown on it by any evidence that 
Gloucester can adduce. Whatever the position of the Saxon 
moneyer, it is probable the conditions of tenure of the office 
would be altered or modified by the Norman Conquest ; for it 
is quite certain that in France, from so early a date as 864, the 
coiners were of gentle blood, privileged to dine at the king's table, 
and the office was hereditary. 

The only reference to the moneyers of Gloucester I have 
been able to discover, is contained in an abstract of the Charter 
to the city, granted by John in his first year. By the courtesy 
of Mr. G. S. Blakeway, the Town Clerk, I have been permitted 
to search for the original deed, but have not succeeded in finding- 
it. The words of the abstract, however, which was made in 
1720, are as follows : — 

" King John grants the town to the burgesses at the rent king- 
Richard granted it to them, and adds that the burgesses of 
Gloucester of the guild of Merchants should not implead without 
the walls, unless it be for foreign matters not committed in the 
town, or the persons so impleading be coiners, or servants of the 
king." 

As I was unable to find the Charters of Henry II. and 
Richard I., I cannot say whether this was merely a confirmation 
of earlier grants ; but I think it is probable, because the same 
expression occurs in the London Charter of Henry II. 's first year, 1 
and also in the Charters given to Winchester and Lincoln in the 
first year of Richard I. ; 2 and it is certain that the liberties 
of London, Winchester and Gloucester were in many respects 
identical. Why the moneyers did not enjoy the exemption does 
not seem clear. 

1 Eliding, p. 51 - Ibid, p. 60, note 5. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 21 

The most interesting evidence of the rank of the Norman 
money er, is however furnished by the persons who held the office 
in Henry TII.'s reign. In 1248 there was a great recoinage — 
the last coinage on which the moneyer's name appears on the 
coin, and the last of the Gloucester mint — and the moneyers from 
every mint-town were summoned to a tibial of the Pix at West- 
minster in that year. The names of these persons are preserved 
in a manuscript in the British Museum, and are given in the 
Appendix to John of Oxenede's Chronicle, published in the Rolls 
Series. Each town is represented by four moneyers, and those 
of Gloucester are as follows : — 

Gloucester ia. — Johannes filius Simonis, 
Ricardus le Francois, 
rogerius de emcp-se, 
Lucas Cornubi^;. 

That these were the actual moneyers is proved by the fact of 
each of their names appearing on the coins of this date, as will 
be seen in my list. 

At this period Gloucester was governed by two Bailiffs, 
chosen annually, and all our moneyers filled this high office at 
one time or another. The dates are not always ascertainable, but 
it appears that they served at any rate in the following years : 
Roger Lenveyse, Danveise, or le Wyse, in 1 245 ; Richard Franceys 
in 1249 ; John Simon, Simund, or Fitzsimon, and Roger Lenveyse 
in 1252; Lucas Cornubiensis in 1254; and John Fitzsimon in 
1255. 

So much for their rank as public men. There are several 
deeds, however, contained in the Registers of the Abbey of 
Gloucester, which our indefatigable secretary, Mr. Bazeley, has 
brought to my notice, and which throw some further light on their 
social position in private life. These Registers consist of collec- 
tions of deeds relating to the transfer of land and property to the 
Abbey, and at this particular period the names in question occur 
as witnesses in almost every document, but there are also a few 
in which they occur as principals. From these it appears that 



22 Transactions at Gloucester. 

Alexander Durand, of Gloucester, held land and houses in the 
Zonaria, 1 which he sold to Richard Franceys, " Burgensis Glou- 
cestrise " for 22f naerks, and which Franceys then transferred to 
Nicholas de Hatherley, who was brother of Alexander Durand, 
for 28 merks, Nicholas then making a deed of gift of the property 
to the Abbey. These Durands were sons of Maurice Durand — ■ 
sometime Bailiff of Gloucester — and of Dionysia Lenveise ; and 
they were doubtless the descendants of Durandus of Gloucester, 
who was Vicecomes, or sheriff, when Domesday was compiled, and 
who held four mansions in the borough, and considerable lands 
in the county. The whole of this transaction, would seem to 
have taken place in one year, for all the documents are attested 
by Roger le Enveyse and William de Chiltenham, being then 
Bailiffs, John Simund or Fitzsimon, Lucas Cornubiensis and 
others. 

In another deed, apparently of the same year, a grant is 
made of " unam shoppam in vico draperije de Gloucestrias ex 
opposito shoppae Rogeri Lenveyse." From this it would there- 
fore appear that Lenveyse was a mercer. 

The Cornish family was also an important one in Gloucester. 
In 1252, Emma Dorilot sells her land in Berlone (Bearland) to 
Stephen Cornubiensis for iii merks and xl pence ; and in another 
deed, dated 1302, Lucas Cornubiensis is mentioned as having 
formerly held land in the great street of Gloucester, Westgate 
Street, near Trinity Church. 

I have not been able to ascertain much about Fitzsimon, — 
apart from his being Bailiff for more than one year — except that 
in a deed of 1254 he is styled " Dominus," a title not bestowed 
on the Town Clerk in the same document. 

Enough, however, has been said to show that all these men 
were burgesses of considerable importance, well-to-do merchants, 
and men of property, well-connected, and holding the highest 
position in the borough. The natural inference to be drawn, 

1 The Zonaria, or Mercer's Row, was on the north side of Westgate 
Street, nearest the Cross, 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



23 



therefore, is that the office of money er was — at any rate in 
Gloucester — bestowed on the most responsible citizens. 

Now as to the importance of Gloucester as a mint. Those 
who heard or have read Dr. Freeman's papers, delivered to the 
Gloucester Cathedral Society, will remember his remark that 
" almost everything that happened in the reign of William R-ufus 
somehow contrived to happen at Gloucester," and will perhaps 
be prepared to hear that the mint was an important one in the 10th 
and 11th centuries. The opposite is, however, the case. I know no 
easier way of making this clear than by means of a table, giving 
the results of the examination of large numbers of coins from 
^thelrad II. to William II. 

























-4-3 












o 


o 


CD 


&; "> 




. T •— -* 






R 3 


2 

C3 


c 

~ 3 


s .s 


O >e 
° 1 








5 o 


K S 


■J — 

o 




a o 

EH 


1-1 J3 

a -g 


< o 




Si o 


° O 


* "S 


. o 


. >> 


2 ° 


< w 




* 2 


A 




Is -= 




j ? 


H > 






Q ■* 


Q 5 


•J <3 


O < 




o 

+3 


o 


o 


a 2 


M L- 


u « 


H 




cc 


oa 


CO 


w 










'"■' 




> — * 










Number of Mints . . 


86 


83 


55 


55 


56 


57 


— 


Position of Gloucester . 


31st 


18th 


20th 


13th 


19th 


21st 


20th 


Total Number of Coins. 


•4562 


39S8 


1049 


867 


219S 


6441 


19105 


Gloucester Coins . . . 


32 


40 


10 


12 


29 


68 


191 


Percentage of Glo'ster. 


0-70 


1-00 

| 


0-95 


1-38 


1-32 


1-05 


1-00 



The first line gives the number of mints of each king, but 
inasmuch as many of those of ^Ethelrsed and Cnut are only 
represented by one or two pieces, they may be left out of account 
in estimating the importance of Gloucester. I have accordingly 
given the rank of Gloucester by stating its order of merit, reckoning 
from the top downwards in each case, and with the result that 
as an average it stands twentieth. The remaining three lines 
will speak for themselves, with the explanation that the first four 
vertical columns have reference to the coins in the Royal Stock- 
holm collection, as described in Hildebrand's great work on Anglo- 
Saxon coins found in Sweden. The fifth column gives the results 



24 Transactions at Gloucester. 

of the examination of nearly 2,200 coins of the Confessor, which 
formed part of the great "City Hoard" of 1872, whilst the 
sixth column refers to the Beaworth "find " of 1833. 

A detailed list of the most important mints is given at the 
end of the paper. 

I have selected the above as being large collections of coins 
casually brought together, and not due in any way to design ; 
and they may be therefore taken as furnishing data upon which 
to found a fairly accurate estimate of the relative importance of 
the different mints. 

It now only remains for me to say a few words on the history 
of the Mint. The name of the mint does not appear on the coins 
of the kings of Mercia, and therefore, numismatically speaking, 
the history of Gloucester commences after its incorporation 
with Wessex. Ceolwlf II., the last king of Mercia, was set up 
by the Danes in 874. In 877 the Danes invaded Mercia and 
Wessex, but were driven back by iElfred, and finally retired 
from Cirencester to East Anglia in 880. The earliest known 
coin of Gloucester is a penny of iElfred the Great, unique both 
as to mint and type. It was found in the Cuerdale hoard of 
1840, and is in the British Museum. The name of the mint, 
with the one exception of Bath, does not occur on the coins of 
his son Eadward, and it is therefore impossible to say whether 
he coined at Gloucester. Owing to the provisions in the laws 
of his successor .iEthelstan, which I have cited, his coins gene- 
rally give the places of mintage, and Gloucester is one of them. 
On the obverse he sometimes styles himself " Rex totius 
Britannia?." During the short succeeding reigns of Eadmund 
(940), Eadred (946), and Eadwig (955), the practice of giving 
the name of the mint, as well as of the moneyer, was generally 
disregarded ; but at any rate no pennies of Gloucester are known 
of these kings. 

Eadgar, the first actual king of all England, came to the 
throne in 959 ; and from this time onward there is no break in 
the Gloucester record until the end of Henry's II. 's reign. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 25 

In Domesday it appears that William drew twenty pounds 
from the mint as the annual rent. 1 It will be found that the 
Saxon moneyers were not dispossessed of their office at the Norman 
Conquest. 

During the reigns of Henry I. and Stephen the issue of coin 
from the Gloucester Mint was very limited, if we may judge by the 
scanty number of pieces which have come down to us. Moreover 
the mint is only represented by one and two types respectively 
out of the many struck by these two kings. This state of things 
would seem to have continued during the succeeding reign of 
Henry II., for in the great find at Tealby, in Lincolnshire, in 
1807, out of 5700 pieces only four varieties are described of 
Gloucester. Rudder says that the mint was near Trinity Church 
in the fifth, sixth and ninth years of this king's reign, but without 
stating whence he derived his information. 2 

Towards the end of Henry II. 's reign it was found necessary 
to strike an entirely new coinage in consequence of the corrup- 
tion of the currency by clippers and false coiners. This issue, which 
is commonly known as the " Short Cross " coinage, took place in 
1180. For a number of years_it Avas a great numismatic crux to 
determine to whom should be assigned these pennies, bearing the 
legend iienricvs rex, and on the reverse a short double cross. 
By some they were attributed to Henry II. and by others to 
Henry III. ; but it has now been, I think, conclusively demon- 
strated that this type, commenced by Henry II. in 1180, was 
continued unaltered through the reigns of Richard I. and John, 
and until the great " Long Cross " coinage of Henry III. in 1248, 
without any change of the king's name, though with some modifi- 
cations in detail. Inasmuch as no penny of this type struck at 
Gloucester has up to the present been discovered, we are com- 
pelled to assume that the operations of coinage were wholly 
suspended here for a period of nearly ninety years. 

1 Reddit ipsa civitas regi lx lib' de xx in oia et tie moneta vero h't 
rex xx lib', i.e. the oity pays the king 60 pounds rent, at 20 pennies to the 
ounce, and from the mint too the king has 'JO pounds. 

' History of Gloucestershire, p. CO, note. 



•26 Transactions at Gloucester. 

Rudder mentions the grant of a mint to the city by King John, 
but without giving his authority. It is possible that he accepted 
the reference to the moneyers in the charters I have cited as 
sufficient evidence of the existence of a mint. Several of the old 
Chroniclers agree in recording a recoinage in 1205; and in 1208 
the moneyers of sixteen towns were ordered to attend at West- 
minster with their dies, but Gloucester is not among the number. 

It however took part in Henry III.'s great recoinage of 1248, 
this brief period of revival bringing to a conclusion the history of 
the Gloucester Mint after a more or less interrupted existence of 
nearly four centuries. 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL MINTS. 



MINT. 


/ETHELR/ED 
(STOCKHOLM) 


CNUT 

(STOCKHOLM) 


HAROLD 1. 
(STOCKHOLM) 


EADW. CONF 
j(STOCKHOLM) 


EADW. CONF.' EADW. CONF.'wiLL. I.& II 
(SEDLESC'MBKCITY H0ARD)j (BEAWORTH) 


TOTAL. 


Bath - - - - 


42 


39 


8 


7 


4 


18 


17 


135 


Bedford - - - 


25 


18 


7 


8 


— 


45 


22 


125 


Bristol - - - 


1 


45 


20 


8 


6 


21 


20S 


309 


Cambridge - - 


86 


74 


10 


10 


— 


45 


31 


256 


Canterbury - - 


155 


77 


29 


23 


28 


81 


285 


683 


Chester - - - 


29 


22 


6 


4 


1 


17 


42 


121 


Chichester - - 


30 


16 


6 


3 


16 


18 


242 


331 


Colchester - - 


52 


31 


8 


9 


6 


51 


96 


253 


Cricklade - - 


14 


22 


3 


o 


3 


8 


15 


67 


Derby - - - - 


16 


9 


15 


4 


2 


14 


20 


80 


Dover - - - - 


56 


69 


16 


7 


» 


8 


96 


261 


Exeter - - - 


180 


70 


17 


9 


23 


39 


ISO 


518 


Gloucester - 


32 


40 


10 


12 


7 


29 


68 


198 


Hastings - - - 


13 


32 


10 


3 


6S7* 


S 


72 


825 


Hereford - - - 


33 


48 


17 


9 


2 


5 


59 


173 


Hertford - - - 


19 


31 


5 


10 


— 


12 


8 


91 


Huntingdon - - 


49 


3G 


4 


3 


2 


39 


6 


139 


Ilchester - - - 


39 


51 


2 


3 


— 


4 


10 


109 


Ipswich - - - 


51 


38 


10 


13 


3 


99 


78 


292 


Leicester - - 


104 


152 


39 


21 


2 


24 


19 


361 


Lewes - - - - 


73 


33 


n 
1 


9 


46* 


S 


77 


253 


Lincoln - - - 


410 


399 


126 


119 


IS 


190 


171 


1433 


London (City) - 


1043 


1033 


262 


213 


52 


458 


792 


3853 


Mahnesbury - - 


11 


7 


4 


1 


3 


2 


8 


36 


Norwich - - - 


117 


101 


26 


21 


9 


151 


236 


661 


Oxford - - - 


61 


59 


26 


21 


7 


45 


145 


364 


Salisbury - - - 


19 


40 


15 


10 


2 


10 


243 


339 


Shaftesbury - - 


36 


28 


4 


6 


10 


14 


72 


170 


Shrewsbury - - 


33 


37 


12 


8 


1 

± 


15 


20 


126 


Southampton 


60 


35 


12 


11 


3 


40 


36 


197 


Southwark - - 


34 


59 


5 


3 


4 


11 


498 


614 


Stamford - - - 


154 


152 


57 


41 


1 


61 


51 


517 


Thetford - - - 


166 


108 


30 


28 


8 


212 


123 


675 


Wallingford - - 


55 


34 


16 


5 


8 


57 


237 


412 


Warwick - - - 


16 


15 


7 


7 


1 


6 


26 


78 


Wilton - - - 




— 


— 


— 


14 


38 


72 


124 


Winchester - - 


333 


219 


52 


41 


55 


129 


1587* 


2416 


Worcester - - 


29 


16 


5 


7 


— 


9 


4S 


114 


York .... 
Total 


423 


455 


92 


95 


6 


75 


S4 


1230 


4099 


3750 


1000 


825 


1049 


2116 


6100 


18939 



Due to local causes. 



28 Transactions at Gloucester. 

In the following list of coins of the Gloucester Mint, allusion 
and reference will constantly be made to the following autho- 
rities : — 

Ruding's "Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain." Third edition, 1840 

Hawkins' " Silver Coins of England." Second edition, 1876. 

"The Numismatic Chronicle." Published by the Numismatic Society 
of London. 

Hildebrand's " Anglosachsiska Mynt i Svenska Kongliga Myntkabi- 
nettet, funna i Sveriges Jord." Stockholm, 1881. 

This last work describes between 10,000 and 11,000 Saxon 
pennies — all varieties, and all found in Sweden, and thus pre- 
sents the results of an astounding amount of labour. It must 
therefore be understood that any conclusions I have drawn from 
the number of pieces of different mints in the Stockholm cabinet, 
are founded on distinct variations, and not upon the actual total 
of pieces found, as is the case with the English " hoards." It is, 
however, not unfair to presume that the variations would be in 
proportion to the total out-turn of each mint. 

The " Chancton " hoard is described by Mr. B. V. Head in 
the Numismatic Chronicle of 1867, p. 63; the "City" hoard 
in that of 1876, p. 323, by Mr. E. H. Willett ; and the " Sedles- 
comb " find, by the same gentleman, in the Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections for 1883, for a copy of which paper I am 
greatly indebted to him. 

I have to acknowledge the courteous attention of the British 
Museum authorities during my examinations of the coins in their 
custody. My best thanks are due to Dr. John Evans, F.R.S., 
President of the Numismatic Society, for kindly communicating 
many varieties of Gloucester pennies in his cabinet ; and I am 
under special obligation to Mr. H. Montagu for valuable assist- 
ance and additions to my list. I am also indebted to Mr. 
W. J. Phelps, of Dursley, for permitting me to examine the 
coins which form a part of his well-known " Collectanea Gloces- 
triensia." 

Whilst these sheets were in the press, I received from Dr. 
Hans Hildebrand, the present Royal Antiquary of Sweden, a 
complete list of all the Gloucester pennies in the Stockholm 



The Mint of Gloucester. 29 

collection, giving with admirable exactitude all the peculiarities 
of the lettering and punctuation of the legends which are not 
indicated in his late father's book. I need hardly say that this 
labour of love has placed me under a debt of gratitude which I 
could only hope to discharge by making the fullest use of the 
information so kindly and spontaneously furnished. To do this 
necessitated the entire re-writing of the whole work and the 
making of some special types which could not otherwise be 
obtained. The extra trouble involved in thus securing the more 
accurate rendering of the legends has fallen largely upon the Editor, 
whose unflagging assistance I cannot too warmly ackowledge. 

Wherever a blank occurs in the obverse legend, I have been 
unable to trace the coin, but the authority is given in every case. 

The illustrations are photographic reproductions of my own 
drawings. I can only regret that in the copying process a 
number of strokes have disappeared, which mars the effect, 
and somewhat detracts from the accuracy of the representa- 
tions. They were in most cases taken from lead-foil impres- 
sions, which I made from the actual coins, though in a few 
instances I have copied from other plates. The plan of in- 
cluding them in the text will, I think, be found more satisfactory 
than that of relegating them to plates at the end of the letter- 
press. 

A few words are necessary in explanation of the printing of 
the legends, and of the special types used. 

The letter A presents a considerable amount of difficulty. 
The late Dr. B. E. Hildebrand was content to use the modern 
type to express every variety of shape. The most usual form is 
7Y. but it is frequently represented by A, and occasionally by two 
strokes slightly inclined to one another at the top, thus A, and 
this again often has a bar across the top, thus /\. The cross 
stroke of the modern A is of rarer occurrence, and then always in 
conjunction with a bar across the top of the letter, A. The 
ordinary diphthong JE is used throughout to represent the Saxon 
form / E. This plan was adopted Dr. Hildebrand, The square 



30 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

C (E) and G (G) are rendered correctly. The round form of the 
latter (6) commences in the middle of Eadward the Confessor's 
reign. M is usually represented by two upright strokes with a 
crescent between them, thus M. In the case of N" the diagonal 
stroke is sometimes omitted. The letter O is usually composed of 
two crescents, ( ), and it is often adorned with a dot in the centre, 
0, especially on the earlier coins. The early form of S (S), the 
negative of the letter Z, is properly given. 

TH is invariably represented by the Saxon f) ; and except on 
some of Eadward the Confessor's coins, where VV occurs, the 
Saxon y is invariably used for W up to end of William II. 's reign, 
after which the true W commences. The letter is, in reality, 
identical with P ; but the special type is used for clearness. I 
have given the double consonants where practicable ; but a more 
exact appreciation of the peculiarities of the Saxon lettering will 
be derived from a study of the illustrations. 



The Mist of Gloucester. 



■31 



KINGS OF WESSEX. 
HdfrctJ tfje (Kreat (872-901). 




Fig. 2. 

Obv. — King's bust to the right, with no inner circle. ALFRED »t 

Rev. — Three limbs of a cross, each terminating in a beaded line, 

which extends to the edge of the coin, dividing the 

legend, JET ELE7TJ77TC- (set Gleawae, i.e. Gleawan- 

ceaster). Fvj. 1. 

This penny is unique, both as to type and mint. It was dis- 
covered in the great Cuerdale hoard in 1840, and is now in the 
British Museum. — Hawkins, p. 123, fig. 617. 



3rHjrtetan;(925- ( j4U). 




Fig. 3. 

Obv. —A small cross in the centre of an inner circle, 
^EDELZTAN RE* BR\£" 

Ret: — Same as the Obv. 

3Pi)EL-]'o Ulo L7LEAqfiZ (fig. 2) Brit, Mus. 

Wt, 23-4 grs. Fig. 2 is copied from Ending, PI. 18, 

fig. 22 ; Uks. type 7. 



32 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



XattmunU (940). ISa&reD (946). lEa&totg (955). 

The mints rarely appear on the coins of these kings, and it is 
therefore uncertain whether they coined at Gloucester. 



SOLE MONARCH S. 
lEa&gar (959-975). 

Obv. — Filleted head to the left within a circle — 

EADGAR REX ANHLCty 
Rev. — Small cross within a circle — 

pYNXIGE M-0 GLEAV Stockholm. 

Hildebrand, p. 11, type 0.2. Hks. type 2, cf. fig. 200. 
cf. Ruding, pi. 20, figs. 6-8. 



ISaBtoeartJ ti)t |ttart»r (975-978). 




Fig. 3. 

Similar in type to that of Eadgar above described. 
cf. Hks., fig. 202. 
Obv.— EADJ7EARD REX ANELO^ 

i? 6U ._BVRHSTAN M° EL"E.V {fig. 3) II. Montagu, Esq. 



The Mint oe G'loecester 



33 



aetijriracU H (978-1016). 




Fig. 5. 

No. 1 

Obv. — King's head diademed to the left in a circle. 
Rev. — Small cross in a circle. 

Hild. type A. ; cf. Hks., fig. 205; cf. Ending, PI. 22, 
figs. 5-7 ; PI. D, figs. 33, 34. 



JEBELRED REX AN} 

TrODPTNE 0N ELE7T 

.^DELR^ED REX AN5LOV 
EODJ7ENE M~0 ELEA 

iEDELRED REX 7TN^ 
n©D]7IXE OX ELE7V 



//. Montagu, Esq. 



Stockholm. 



oo. 



iEDELRED REX AND : • 
C0DFIXE 0X ELEft 

iERELRED REX ANEv 

: C0DPIXE 0N3LEA 

yERELRED REX ANE : • 
EODJ'DE OX CLE 71 



do. 



do. 



do. 



JEDELR^D REX VNE 

•LE0FXIEE ON ELE7T do. 

The illustration (fig. 5) is from one of the specimens (varieties) in 
Mr. Montagu's cabinet. 
Vol. X, part 1. l> 



34 



Transactions at Gloucester. 

iEDELR^D REX 7YNE- : 
LE0FSIEE 0N ELE7V 



Stockholm. 



^DELRED REX XNE : 
LE0ESIEE 0N ELEJ7E 

The legend begins below the bust. 

^DELRED REX ANC: 
SIRED 0X -EL Eft- 



do. 



do. 



^DELRED REX 7tND 
SIRED 0N L7LEAP 



do. 




No. 2 



Fig. 6. 



Obv. — King's bust to the right, filleted, without sceptre, in a 
circle. 

Rev. — A hand, with outstretched fingers, proceeding from a 
bow between the letters a and «, all within a circle. 
Hild. type B.l. Hks type 5; cf. Ruding, PI. 22, 
figs. 9-12, 14. 

^EDELRED REX A:\GLO "2/ 

EODEMAN M-° ERE Stockholm. 



IEDELR^D REX ANELOT/ 
LEOFSIE M-(O) ELE7YJ7E 



do. 



^EDELRiED REX ANELOT/ 
LEOFSIEEM-OELEA^EE (Pellet in the bow.) do. 

A coin, similar to the last, is in the possession of W. J. Phelps, Esq., 
(See Jig. 6). 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



35 




2a 



Fig. 



Obv. — Head to the right, with hair on end, no fillet, and 
with sceptre in front terminating in a cross. 

Rev. — Hand proceeding from a small bow in chief, which 
encloses a cross. The third and fourth fingers are bent 
back. On either side of the bow depends a hook. 

Ililcl. type B.3; Hks. type G. cf. Ruding, PI. 22, 
fig. 15; PI. D. fig. 37. 

MWLRMT) REX AN}LO"U 

LEFSIEE M-0 ELEAP {tig. 7) W. J. Phelps, Esq. 




Fig. 8. 

No. 3 

Obv. — Bust to the left, no diadem, a sceptre ending in three 
pellets, smooth hair ; all within a circle. 

Rev. — A double cross within a cix-cle. In the angles are the 
letters E ft V X. 
Hild. type C. cf. Ruding, PI. 22, fig. 4. 

JEVELRJED ftEX ANH/)^ 
EOD]7ira M-0 ELEA 



^DELR^ID REX 7TN}LO"2£ 
LEFSLEE M-0 elea 

JE¥>EUIJEV REX AKDLOT/ 
LEOFXIEE M-0 ELEA 



Stockholm. 



do. 



do. 



D 2 



30 



Transactions at Gloucester. 

iEDELR^ED REX- A-N^LOT/ 
LEOFSIEE- M-0 LEA 

^DELR^ED REX ANGLOS 
J7IHTS1EE M-0 ELEA {fig. 8) 



Stockholm. 



W. J. Phelps, Esq. 




Fig. 9. 

No. 4 

Obv. — King's bust to the left, without diadem, the hair on 
end, each hair terminating in a pellet. 

Jxev. — A double cross extending to the edge of the coin, each 
limb terminating in three crescents. 

Hild. type D ; Hks. type 8 ; cf. fig. 207 ; cf. Riiding, 
PI. 22, figs. 2, 3 ; PI. 28, fig. 1 ; PL 30, fig. 24. 



JEDELRED REX ANGLd 
L70DJ7LNE M l /0 ELEA 

iEBELR^lD REX 7VNDLOV 
■E0DJ7INE MV0 ELEA 

^DELR^ED REX ANGLOS 
CODEINE MfiO ELEA 

^EDELR^ED REX 7TLO 
LE0FSIDF- M-0 ELE7Y 



Stockholm. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



^EDELR^ED REX AND(L) or 7VKDLO or 7ttCLOX 
LE0FXIEE M a ELEA do. 



EDELR^ED REX ALO 
LEOFSIEE M?0 ELEA 

EDELRED REX 7UEI0 
LEOFSIEE M70 ELEA 



do. 



do. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 37 

.EDELRiED REX 7TIEL© 

LEOFX1E-E M70 L7LE7£ (Jig. 9) H.Montagu, Esq. 

^EDELR^ED REX 7WEL 

LE0FX1EE M70 ELE7Y Stockholm. 



^EDELRiED REX 7ttvDLO0/ 
J7IHTXIEE M^O ELEft 

^EBELR^ED REX AN5L0 
J7IHTXIEE M10 CLE A 



do. 



do. 




Fig. 10. 

No. 5 

Obv. — -King's bust to the left, with a radiated crown upon a 
helmet. 

Rev. — A cross voided, each limb terminating in three crescents 
over a tressure of four incurved arcs, with three pellets 
at each corner. 

Mild, type E. ; Hks. type 1, cf. fig. 203 ; cf. Ruding, 
PL 22, fig. 1. 



^DELRJED REX 7tNGL 
E0.DJ7INE Ml© ELE7V: 

uEDELRiED REX 7vNGL<x 
E©:D]?INE M-0 ELE7V: 

^DELR^D REX 7\rEL0 
L-EQFXIEE M-0 EL -Eft 



Brit. Mus.; Stockholm. 
do. 
do. 



,EDELR^ED REX 7vNDL« 

EODJ7INE Ml © ELEft (Jig. 10) U. Montagu, Esq. 



38 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



No. 1 



©nut (1016-1035). 




Fig. 11. 



Ob v. — King's bust to the left with coronet, in a quatrefoil. 

Rev. — A long double cross terminating in three crescents, upon 
a large quatrefoil. 

Occasionally a cross or pellets occur in the field on 
either side. 

Hild. type E; Ilks. type 7 ; cf. fig. 212; cf. Ending, 
PI. 23, figs. 7-13, 17 ; PL 28 ; PI. D, figs. 38, 39. Of 
these PI. 23, figs. 10 and 13, and PL D, fig. 39 are 
illustrations of Gloucester pennies. 



ENVD REX AKELO^ 

^ELFXI(E) O EL(E)P 

ENVT REX ANELO 
BGELA-.-ON ELE]7- 



Stockholm. 



do. 



ENVT REX ANELO 
BOLLA 0:N ELE^E 



do. 



ENVT REX A'N(E)L- (.3 pellets in front of face. ) 
EODIE M(0)ELE do. 



ENVT REX ANELOR- 
EODJ?LrE : ELE. 



Brit. Mus ; do. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 39 

ENVT REX XNDL0RV: 

E0DJ7ira OKEL' Brit. Mus. 

ENVT R-EX ANN^L- (3 pellets in the field.) 
E0DPTrE EEE do. 

Ruding, PI. 23, fig. 10. Wt. 19-6 grs. 

ENVT REX ANELOR : 

LEOFSIEE O* CLE do. 

Ruding, PI. 23, fig. 13, from which fir/. 11 is copied. 
On the Obv. there is a small cross before the face and there should be 
a pellet behind the head. 

ENVT REX ANELOR= 

EODP1NE ON3LEJ7- Stockholm. 

ENVT REX ftNELO: 

EODJ7INE ON E:LE)7E do. 

ENV.T R-EX ftNEO (Small cross before face.) 
LE0FSIE ON ELEJ7 do. 

ENVT REX ANELOR: (Small cross before face. ) 
LEOFSIEE ON ELE (Pellet in each angle.) do. 

ENVT REX ANELO(R)MM 

* LEOF(SI)EE ON ELE- do. 

ENVT REX ANELO : 

LE0FSIEE ON ELEJ7E do. 

ENV.T RE(X) 7VNELO(R) 

SIRED ON E(L)EA do. 

ENVT REX ANEL0R (3 pellets in the field.) 

SI -RED 0N ELE] 7 do. 

ENVT REX 7TNELORVM : 

SIRED ON ELEJ?:- do. 

ENVT REX ANELOR (u before face.) 

SIRED QN3LEJ7 (Small cross in one angle.) do. 



40 



Transactions at Gloucester. 

ENVT REX ANLL0R (Gbefore face.) 
SIRED 0N CLEF 



Brit. Mu8. 



ENVT REX ANEL0R ( w before the face.) 
XI.RED 0N LLE]? (Cross in one angle, pellet in another. ) 
Ruding, PI. D. fig. 39. Wt. 16} grs. 




la 



Fig. 12. 

Similar to No. 1, but in front of the bust is a sceptre ter- 
minating in three pellets. Hild, type E.c. 

ENVT REX 7TNELO : 

EODpI-ra O CLE Stockholm. 



ENV.T REX ANGLO 
EODJ7L>E O ELE 



Brit. Mm. 



ENVT REX ANEL-0R 

EODJ7irE : EL"]? (Pellet in each angle.) do. 

Ruding, PI. 23, fig. 14, from which fig. 12 is copied. Wt. 15'4 grs. 

ENY.T REX 7TNELO : 

E0DJ7INE 0N ELEJ7 //. Montagu, Esq. 

No pellets in the angles of the cross. 



lb 




Fig. 13. 



Similar to No. 1, but the king wears a round helmet sur- 
rounded by a fillet. 
Ilild, type E.d. cf. Ending, PL 22, fig. 6. 



The Mixt oe Gloucester. 



ENVT REX 7TNEOR- 
EODRIE: 0N ELEJ7. 



41 



Stockholm. 



ENVT REX 7IXEL- \ 

E-0(D]7I)NE ON EEE : do. 

ENVT REX ANEL ' : 

EOD]?DE ON ELEJ7 Brit. Mus. ; do. 

Hild. PI. 6. from which fig. 13 is copied. 



ENVT REX ANELOR 
LEOFSIEE ON ELE 



Christiana 




No. 2 



Fig. 14. 



Obv. — The king's bust to the left, wearing peaked helmet or 
mitre, and with sceptre ending in three pellets in front. 
The head and sceptre are in a circle. 

Rev. — In an inner circle a double cross, the limbs of which issue 
from a circle. Rings in each angle. 
Hild. type G. ; Hks. type 8 ; cf. fig. 2E3 ; cf. Ending, 
PL 23, tigs. 19, 20. 



ENVT REX A : • 
B0LL-7V 0N EL-EJ7E: 

ENV:T REX 7T-N- 
B0LL7V 0N ELEFE: 

ENV:T REX 7IN- 

BOLL7T ON ELEJ7EE or EEEJ'EE 



Stockltolm. 



do. 



do 



42 Transactions at Gloucester. 

ENVT REEX 

E©DRTE ON EL'EpV H. Montagu, Esq. 

ENVT REX A 

E0DRTE ©N EL-EPY Stockholm. 

E-NVT REX TC-NE 

E0D-R-IE ON EL-EJ7E : (fig. U) Brit. Mus. 

ENVT REX 7VNE 

E©DRTD 0-N EL-EJ7E: Stockholm. 

ENVT: REEX- 7Y : 

EODRIE ON ELEJ?EE do. 

ENVT R-EX 7YNEL- 

E:ODRTEE: ON ELEJ7EES do. 

ENVT : REX AND 

EODJ7INE ON ELE rfo. 

•ENVT REEX : 

LEOFNOD ON ELE : do. 

ENVT REEX 7VN 

SIRED 0N EL-EJ7E: do. 

ENVT REEX 7YN 

SIR-ED 0N ELE]?EE: do. 

ENVT REX ANE. 

SIRED 0N EL-EfEE: do. 

ENVT R-EX 7tN 

SIRED ON ELEJ7EEE;- do. 

ENVT REX ANE . 

SIRED: ON: E-LEJ7J7EE do. 

ENVT R-E-EX TCN 

XIR.EDD ON ELEJ7EE : do. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 43 



No. 3 




Fig. 15. 



Obv. — King's bust to the left, with round helmet and 
diadem, and a sceptre terminating in a lys. No inner 
circle. 

Rev. — A small double cross with an annulet in the centre 
in an inner circle. 

Hild. type H ; Hks. type 1 ; cf. fig. 208 ; cf. Ruding, 
PL 22, figs. 1-4. 

ENVT REEX A. 

^EGEL-RTE ON ELE-.- Stockholm. 

ENVT REEX Av 

^EEELRIE 0>CLE]7 do. 

ENVT REEX : 

EODRIE ON EE]7E> do. 

EIIV--T (RE) EX: 

EODRIE ON DLEJ7E : do. 

ENV:T REEX 

LEOFNOt) ON ELJ7 do. 

EHVT-REEX-.- 

J7VLNOD ON ELEJ7 Brit. Mus.; do. 

ENVT REEX 

SIRED ON CL-EJ7E : (Jig. 15) Brit. Mus. 



No. 4 

Obv. — King's bust to the left, holding sceptre in his hand. 

The sceptre terminates in a lys. No inner circle. 
Rev. — A double cross in an inner circle. On the centre of 

the cross is a shield of four incurved sides, each point 

terminating with a pellet. A pellet in the centre. 

Hild. type I ; Hks. type 2 ; cf. fig. 209 ; cf. Ruding, 

PI. 23, figs. 22, 23. 

ENVT REE*. 

J7VLFJ7 RD ON ELE}'6 ; ■ Stockholm. 



44 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



pat'Oin & (1035-1039). 

No. 1 

Obv. — King's bust to the left, with round helmet and diadem. 

No inner circle. 
22et\ — A cross formed of four ovals, issuing from a double 

circle. No inner circle. 

Hild. type A ; Ills, type 1 ; cf. Ending, PL 24, 

fiss. 1-3. 



-HAROLD REX: 
^EEELRIE ON ELE 



Stockholm. 




No. 2 



Fig. 16. 



Obv. — The king in armour to the left, with round helmet and 
diadem, and a shield over the shoulder. Before the 
face a sceptre terminating in a lys. No inner circle. 

fi ev , — A double cross extending through the legend, and having 
rounded limbs proceeding from a double circle. A lys 
in each angle. No inner circle. 

Hild. type B. ; Hks. type 2, cf. fig. 214. cf. Ending, 
PL 24, fie- 4. 



HAROLD RECE 
^LRIL- ON DLEJ? 

HAR-.OLD REX 
^ELFSIIE ON ELE 

HAROLD REEEX 
^L-RIE ON ELEJ7 

HAROLD REEX 
EODRIE ON LLE 

Same as the last, but R\EEX. 



J. Evans, Esq. 
Stockholm. 

do. 

do. 
H. Montagu, Esq. 



The Mist of Gloucester. 45 

har:old REE 

EODRIE 0N ELEJ7 Stockholm. 

HAROLD REEX 

LEOFN ON ELEJ? do. 

HAROLD REE 

LEOFNOf) ON ELEJ7 do. 

HARO:LD REX 

J7VL}V\RD ON1LE do. 

The illustration (jig. 16) is from a coin, similar to the last, in the 
possession of H. Montagu, Esq. 

2a 

Ob v.— As No. 2. 

Rev. — As No. 2, but instead of a lys, a stalk and three pellets 
in each angle. 
Hild. type B.a. 

HAROLD REE: 

^L-RIE OM CLE Stockholm. 



l>artijacnut (1040-1042). 
No. 1 

Obv. — King's bust to the right, with round helmet and 

diadem. No inner circle. 
Rev. — A cross composed of four ovals proceeding from a 

double circle ; a pellet in the centre. 

Hild. type A. a ; Hks. type 2, cf. fig. 216 ; cf. huding, 

PL 24, fig. 1. 

HA RE) A EN VT RE 

^ELF:SIEE ON ELEOEE-.- Stockholm. 

HARDAENVT RE 

EODRIE OH ELEOVV do. 



46 



Transactions at Gloucester. 

IIIIRDAENVT HE 
J7VLFRED ON ELEO : 

HARDAHNVT T-E (blundered) 
J7VLIVOD ON EEEOV: 



Stockholm. 



do. 




Fig. 17. 

No. 2 

Obv. — King's bust to the left, with round helmet and fillet ; 

left arm holding a sceptre. No inner circle. 
Bev. — In an inner circle a double cross, upon which is a 

tressure of four incurved arcs with a pellet at each 

corner. 

Hild. type B. ; Hks. type 3, cf. fig, 217. Figured 

Ruding, PI. 24, fig. 2 ; cf. also fig. 3. 

HADaENVT re 

^EELRIE 0N E-L-EpEj; : St: ckholm. 

HADAENVT RE 

./ELRIIE ONN ELEJ7EE do. 

HADAENVT RE 

iELERIE 0N EL-EFEp : Brit. Mus. 

HARDAEN/T RE 

EODRIE ON ELEJ7EEE : do. 

Fig. 17 is copied from Ruding, PI. 24, fig. 2. 

HARDAENVT RE 

EODRIE ON ELEfEEE Stockholm. 

HARDAENVT RC 

LEOFNOD ON ELEJ7 : do. 



Tiik Mint of Gloucester. 

H/\RD(A)ENVT RE 
LEOFNOB ON ELE]7E\- 

hardaenvt Rex 

J7VJ7ERD OH E-LEJ7 : 



47 

Stockholm, 
do. 



lEa&toarB tljr Confessor (1042-1066). 




Fig. 18. 

No. 1 

Obv. — King to the left, unbearded, with radiated crown, No 
sceptre. Legend commences at the top. 

Bey. — Small cross patee within an inner circle. 

Ilild. type A ; Willett type A • Bead, type 1 ■ Ilks. 
type 15, cf. fig. 226. cf. fouling, PI. 25, figs. 33, 34. 



ED^ERD RE(X) 

PYL-FpERD ON ELEJ? (fig. 18) 



Brit. Mus. 




Fig. 19. 

No. 2 

Obv. — King's bust to the left, filleted. 

Rev. — Small double cross, with pellet in the centre. No inner 

circle. These coins are very small. 

Ilild. type B ; Willett type B ; Head type 2 ; Hies. 

type 20; cf. fig. 229; cf. Buding, PI. 26, figs. 36-38. 



48 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



EDRERD RE(X?) 
EApVLF OISDLEV 

EDJ7ERD RE 

LEOFXOD ON ELE (fig. 19) 

EDJ7ARD •. • 
PVL-pTE OYL ELE 

EDJ7AD RE 
]7VLF]7ARD O EL 



Stockholm. 



Brit. Mus. 



do. 



Stockholm. 



No. 3 



Obv. — King's bust to the left, with round helmet and 

diadem ; in front a sceptre terminating in three pellets. 
Rev. — A double cross within an inner circle, on the centre 

of which is a square, with three pellets at each corner. 

Hild. type C ; WiUett type C ; Head type 3 ; II ks. 

type 4 ; cf. fig. 220 ; cf. Ending, PI. 25, figs. 21-24. 

EDJ7ER--D REX- 

^ELFSIE OX ELEJ'EEE Stockholm. 



EDPE: -:RD REX 
]?VLF]7ERID OX ELE 



do. 




No. 4 



Fie,. 20. 



Obv. — King's head to the left, with round helmet and 
diadem ; in front a sceptre terminating in three pellets. 

Ji eVi — A double cross issuing from an annulet, the limbs 
terminating in a crescent and pellet, and dividing the 
legend. In the angles are the letters PA EX. Xo 
inner circle. 

Hild. type D; WiUett type J); Head type 4; Hks 
type 5 ; cf. fig. 221. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 

EDWARD REX 
*vELL-RIE 0JNDLEJ7G 

JEDYABfi REEX: 
^EL-FSinE ON ErLE (fig. 20) 



49 



Stockholm. 



H. Montagu, Esq. 



4a 

Obv. — Similar to No. 4. 



ft ev . — Similar to No. 4, but the limbs of the cross do not 
extend through the legend. No inner circle. 
Hild. type D.a. ; Willett and Head do not recognise this 
sub-division, cf. Feeding, PL 24, tig. 12. 



EDJ7( )D REX-- 
E-ODRIE ON ELEIJ7E : 

EDJ'ER: D REX 
LEOFNOIaD ON ELIE 



Stockholm. 



do. 




Fig. 21. 

No. 5 

Obv. — King's bust to the left in round helmet and filleted ; 
sceptre in front ending in three pellets. 

Rev. — A cross with expanding limbs issuing from a double 
circle. Inner circle. 

Hild. type E. ; Willett type E ; Bead type 5 ; liks. 
type 1; cf. fig. 219; cf. Ending, PI. 24, figs. 1-8. 
PI. H, fig. 44. 



edj;rd re 
eielrie on slej7e 

edj7erd rex 

iEILRIC ON DL^]7EE 

Vol. X. , part 1 . E 



Brit. J/us. 



Stockholm. 



50 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



EDPE-RD REX 
iELFSIE ON ELEJ7EEE 

ED)7RD RE 
JEyVLF ON ELEJ7E : 



J. Evans, Esq. 
Stockholm. 



ED]7E:-RD REX/. ■ 

ESJ7VLF ON GLEJ7EEE : (Jig. 21) Brit. Mus. 



Obv. (?). 

EAJ7VLF ON 6LEJ7ECES 

EDJ7ERD REEX 
LIOFJ^INE ON GLEJ? 



(City Hoard). 
(N.C. 1885, p. 264) 




No. 6 

Obv.- 



Fw. 22. 



— The king to the right, bearded, wearing a pointed 
helmet, and holding a sceptre in his hand, which ter- 
minates in a cross. The legend commences at the top. 

Rev. — A double cross with a circle in the centre, each limb 
terminating in three crescents. Inner circle. 
Hild. type F ; Willett type ' F ; Head type 6 ; Hks. 
type 16 ; cf. fig. 227 ; cf. Ending, PI. 25, hg 20. 

EDJ7A-RD RE 
iEILRIE ON 6L-EJ7EE: 

EDWARD RE 
^ELFSIIE ON 6LE]?EE 

EDJ7ARD RE- 

60DR1E ON GLEj'E : {fig. 22) 

Obv. (%) 

LEOFENOD ON ELE 



Brit. Mus. 



do. 



do. 



(CHy Find) 



The Mint of Gloucester. 

EDJ7ER 

J7VLFDET ON ELE^E : 

EDJ7ED RE- (Pellet behind head) 
IVLFERD O EL-EJ7 : 



51 



Brit. Mus. 



do. 




Fig. 23. 



6a 



Obv. — The king to the left, bearded, wearing a pointed 
helmet, terminating in a cross. In front a sceptre 
terminating in a cross, but no hand. 

Rev. — As type No. 6. 

Hild. type Ea. ; ci. Ending, PL 25, fig. 19. 

This is a very scarce type. It does not occur in the Stockholm 
Cabinet. Four specimens were found at Chancton, and only one 
in the City Hoard ; whilst the Sedlescomb Find in 187b" furnished 
two, both of which happen to be of the Gloucester mint, and 
read alike : — 

E7n)J7E7CRD REEX : 
ELFSIIE ON 6LEJ7EE 

Fig. 23 is copied from the illustration in Mr. Willett's paper on the 
Sedlescomb Find. 



6b. 



Similar to No. 6, but the sceptre terminates in a lys. 
Hild. type F. b.; cf. Budmg, PI. 25, fig. IS. 



ED}?A(?)RD REX 
pVLFJ'ERt) ON £E]7E : 



J. Evans, Esq. 



E 'I 



52 •Transaction's at Oloucestkr. 




Fig. 24. 

No. 7 

Ql) Vi — The king seated on throne, crowned, usually bearded, 
his head turned to the right, and holding the orb in the 
left and the sceptre in the right hand. 

ft ev , — Short double cross, with a martlet in each angle. 
Inner circle. 

Hild. type H ; Willett type CI. ; Head type 7 ; Hks. 
type 19; cf. fig. 228; cf. Ruding, PI. 24, figs. 13, 14; 
PL 25, figs. 15, 16; PI. 28, fig. 2. 

EADVVEARDVS REX AN6L 

GODJ7INE ON 6LEJ7EEST {fig. .?.£) Brit. Mus. 

Obv. (?) 

LEOEFpiNE ON 6LEJ7E (Sedlescomb find.) 

E7tD]7EAR,D REX 7YNGLO 

LEOFJ7INE ON (6)LE]7E(E) //. Webb, Esq. 

EADJ7EARD REX AN6LO 

LEOF]7INE : ON 6LEVEEST //. Montagu, Esq. 

EADJ7EARD REX AN6LO 

L-REENOD ON SL-EV(?J7) /. Evans, Esq. 

EADJ7EARD REX AN 

SEL6J7INE ON 6LEJ7EE Brit. Mas. 

EADJ7EARD REX ANGLO- 

8ILAE ON E-LEPC do. 

EADj/ARD REX ANGLO 

SILAE ON 6LEFE ./. Evans, Esq. 

EJ7DIED REX 7VN6I (?) 

J7VLF6EAT ON 6LE do. 




The Mint of Gloucester. 53 






No. 8 

Obv. — The king, bearded and crowned, to the right, with 
sceptre. Legend commences at the top. 

Rev. — A double cross extending to the legend, each limb 
terminating in an incurved segment of a circle finished 
by two pellets. 

Hild. type G ; Willett type H ; Head type 8 ; Hks. 
type 6 ; cf. fig. 222 : cf. Ending, PI. 24, figs. 9, 10. 

EADJ7ARRD RE 

BRIHTNOND ON}LE)7 : Brit. Mus. 

Obv. (?) 

BRIHTNOJ) ON 6LEJ' {City Hoard.) 

Obv. (?) 

ELFcol : ON ELEJ/EEET (Sedlescomb find.) 

Obv. (?) 

EODRIE ON ELEELEE do. 

This may be an Ilchester coin ; see N.C. 1S37, p. 95. 

EDJ7ARDRD RE 

6VOLEPIIE Oil ELEJ7E : (fig. 25) Brit. Mas. 

Obv. (?) 

LEOFNOf) ON ELE (City Hoard.) 

Obv. (?) 

LIOFNOD 01GLEJ7EE do. 

E A DJ/ARRD RE 

LTOFPINE ON ELEJ'EEE BriUMus. 

Obv. (?) 

xILAE ON ELE]7EEET (City Hoard.) 



54 Transactions at Gloucester. 

EADJ7RD RE 

J7VLFJ7ARD ON}LE]7EEE Brit. Mus. 

As the last, but EADJ7ARRD RE Major CreeJce. 

Obv. (?) 

J7VLFJ7ARD ON}LEJ?EEE (City Hoard). 

Obv. (?) 

PVLFRIE ON ELEJ7EE (Sedlescomb Find) 

Obv. (?) 

J7VLFJ7INE OIvDLEPEEE do. 

I have taken the order adopted by Mr. Willett, but the frequent 
occurrence of the square Yi in the legends of this type goes to 
prove that Hildebrand's arrangement was correct. 




No. 9 



Fig. 26. 



Obv. — Full faced figure of king's head, bearded and crowned, 
in an inner circle. Legend commences at the top. 

Rev. — A small cross patee in inner circle. 

Bild. type A.c ; Willett type I ; Head type 9 ; Hks. 
type, 13 ; cf. tig. 225; cf. Rnding, PI. 25, figs. 29-31. 

Obv. (?) 

BRIHTNOt) ON 6LE]> (City Hoard.) 

Obv. (?) 

LEOFJ7INE ON 6LEJ7EE do. 

Obv. (?) 

SEOLEJ7INE ON GLEJ 7 do. 

•EMDJ7ARD RE- 

SIL/\E- ON 6LEJ7E (fig. 26) Brit. Mus. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 55 

No. 10 

Ob v.— The king, bearded, to the right, wearing a low arched 
crown ; sceptre in front. Legend commences at the 
king's back. 

Rev. — Short double cross ; in each angle a pyramid termin- 
ating in a pellet, and starting from a inner circle. 
H ild, type I ; Willed type L ; Head type 1 ; Hks. 
type 9 ; Rudmg, PI. 25, figs. 26, 27. 

EADpARD RE 

SILAE ON 6LEJ7E Brit.Mus. 




llMVOltf I& (106G.) 

£*& 

fefe**K3 

Fig. 27. 

06 y. — King to the left, crowned, with sceptre. The legend 
runs below the bust. 

Eev. — In an inner circle the word P7TX between two lines. 

Hks. type 1 j cf. fig. 230 ; cf. Ruding, PI. 26, fig. 3. 

HAROLD REX AN6L : 

IELFSI ON 6LEJ7EEI W. J. Phelps, Esq. 

N/XROLD REX /\N6RO 

ORDRIE ON 6LEJ7EE Brit. Mas. 

H/XROLD REX /\N6L : 

J7NLF6E/VT ON 6LE (fig. 27) do. 



56 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



ffiBMUtam L (1066-1087.) militant M. (lcw-noo.) 

No attempt is made to distinguish the coinages of these two kings, 
but the coins are arranged in the same order as given in 
Hawkins' Plates (tigs. 233-250), for convenience of reference. 
The illustrations in Hawkins are copied from Ruding's Supple- 
mentary Plate B. 



Jfc 






Fig. 28. 

No. 1 

Obv. — Crowned bust to the left, with sceptre. No inner 

circle. 
jftey.—Tri an inner circle, a cross terminating in trefoils, 
cf. Hks. fig. 233. 



J7ILLEMVS REX I 

ORDR1T ON 6LEJ7EE (/fy. &?■) 



7j'/'^. il/«s. 




No. 2 



Fig. 29. 



#6y. — The king, full face, wearing a very wide crown. No 



inner circle. 



ft eVi — I n an inner circle a double cross, the limbs termin- 
ating in two small crescents, with a pellet between 
them ; triangles proceed from the angles of the cross, 
cf. Hks. fig. 234. 



J7ILLEMV& REX 1 

ORDRIE °N eLE]7EEEI (fig. 20.) 



Brit. Mas. 



The Mint of Gloucester 



57 




Fig. 30. 

No. 3 

Obv. — The king, full face, crowned, under a canopy. 

Rev. — In an inner circle, a double tressure of four incurved 
arcs terminating in trefoils ; an annulet in the centre, 
cf. Hks. fi". 236. 



J7ILLEIIVS REX- 

LIOFJ7INE ON 6LEJ7EI {Jig. 30) 

J7ILLEMVS REX- 
7VLF6EAT OX 6LEJ7EE 



Brit. Mus. 



do. 



No- 4 




Fig. 31. 



Obv. — The king, full faced, crowned. On each side of the 
head is a mullet. All within a circle. 

Rev. — Within a circle a cross, whose limbs terminate in 
three pellets, quartering a tressure of four incurved 
arcs ; pellet at each angle of the tressure. 
cf. Eks. fi.tr. 238. 



PILLEM REX IIXI 
LIFJ7INE OX 6LEy fig. 31) 



J. Evans, Esq. 



o8 



Transactions at Gloucester. 




Fig. 32. 

No. 5 

Ob v. — In an inner circle the king's bust, full face, crowned 
and holding a sceptre in the right hand against the 
left shoulder. The crown has a row of pellets. There 
are usually three pellets above the king's right shoulder. 

Rev. — In an inner circle a cross patee, with the letters 
P 7\ X S in the angles, each letter enclosed in a circle, 
cf. Bks. fig. 241. 
J7ILLELMIEX 
BRIHTNOD ON 6LE 



J7ILLEL1VR X 
BRIHTNOD ON GLJ7 

J7ILLELAREX 
BRIHTNOD ON 6LE(ffi) 

J7ILLELMI X 

BRIHTNOD ON 6E]7 (fig. 32) 

J7ILLELMIEX 

BRIHTNOD ON 6LI 

J7ILLELMIEX 
BRIHTOD ON 6LEJ7E 

J7ILLELMIEX 

SILIIE ON 6LJ7EE or 6LEJ7ET 



W. J. Phelps, Esq. 



do. 



Brit. Mus. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



Obv. (?) 

SILAE ON 6LPEEE 

(SainthilVs Olla Podrida, Vol. I., p. 103.) 



J7ILLELBREX 

s n 6lej;ee 



Pnit. Mus. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 59 

pILLELMEX 

SILIIEPINE ON 6EJ7 Brit. Mus. 

PILLELMEX 

IIFGIET ©N GLEpi do. 




Fig. 33. 

No. 6 

Similar in all respects to No. 5, except that the crown has an 
angle of two lines over the brow instead of pellets. 
cf. Hks. fig. 242. 

PILLELMtEX 

SILIIEPINE ON 6EP J. Evans, Esq. 

See Numis Citron., 1877,, p. 343. 

J7ILLELMIEX (no pellets) 

SLLIEEJ7INE ON 6LE (fig. 38) Brit. Mus. 

PILLELJVREX 

IIF6IET ON 6LEJ7E do. 

PILLELMIEX 

V/F6IET «N 6LEJ7IE do. 



No. 7 



Obv. — In an inner circle the king, full face, crowned, and 
holding a sword over his right shoulder. 

Rev. — A cross patee within a tressure of four arcs, each 
terminating in a pellet. Inner circle, 
cf. Bks. fig. 246. 



60 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



Obv. (1) 

. . . . TOD 6LEF 

J7ILLELLM REX 

SE6RIM ON 6LE 



(Tamworth Find.) 
Brit.Mus. 




Fig. 34. 



No. 8 

Obv. In an inner circle the king, full face, crowned and 

holding a sword over his right shoulder. 

Rev.— In an inner circle a cross patee ; from each angle 
proceeds a stalk with a foliated termination, 
cf. Hks. fig. 246. 



J7ILLEM REX I 

60J7INE ON 6LEJ7E {fig. 34) 



J. Evans, Esq. 




No. 9 



Fie. 35. 



Obv. — Tn an inner circle the king, full face, wearing a flat 
crown ; on each side a star. 

Rev. — A double cross in an inner circle, each limb termin- 
ating in a crescent, and with a circle in the centre, 
from which radiates in each angle a stalk terminating in 
an annulet, 
cf. Hks. 250. 



J7ILLEL1VRE 

SEJ7-'I.D (, N 6LEJ7E {fig. 35) 



Brit. Mus. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



61 



$Cltn? I. (1100-1135.) 




Fig. 36. 



Obv. — Full, or three-quarter face to the left, with diadem, the 
right arm bent round, holding sceptre. Beaded circle. 



Rev. 



-In a beaded circle, a tressure of four sides fleurees at the 
corners upon a cross fleuree ; a pellet in each angle. 

Hks. type 6 ; cf. fig. 255 ; cf. Ruding, PI. ii. 6. 



hENRIEVS 

ALFJ7ISE: ON :6LO(P)E(E): 

hENRIEVS • 

. . . J71NE : ON : 6LOJ?E : 

hEN 

NE : ON : 6LOJ7EE 

hENRIEVS 

RODBERT : ON : 6LOE 



Brit. Mus. 



do, 



do. 



do. 



hENRIEVS 

ROD(B)ERT ON : 6L£5E : {fig. 36) H. Montagu, Esq. 



hENRICVS 

W . . . D: ON: 6LO]7 

Ruding gives 6LOEE as a spelling of the mint. 



Brit. Mus. 



Hawkins gives his type 11. as struck at Gloucester; but this 
appears to be an error, as he observes that only two 
specimens are known, one of which was struck at 
Hereford, and the other is illegible. 

cf. Hks. tig. 259; cf. Ending Suppl. II ; PI. ii. tig. 10. 



62 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



&ttpi)C\\ (1135-1154). 




Fig. 37. 
Stephen's coins are always very badly struck. 



No. 1 



Obv. — The king, full face, bearded, with crown fleuree, the 
right arm bent round holding a sceptre fleuree. No 
inner circle. 

ft ev , — X n a beaded inner circle a short double cross pomm^e ; 
a lys in each angle proceeding from a circle. 

Bks. type 1 ; cf. fig. 268 ; cf. Ruding, PL I. fig. 16 
Suppl. II. , PI. ii. fig. 18. 



STIEFN E 

. . . . LF : ON : 6LOVE(E) (fig. 37) 



Brit. Mtis 



No. 2 

Obv. — In a beaded circle, the king to the right, with crown 
fleuree, right arm holding a sceptre fleuree. 

R ev . — Cross moline; the terminations of the limbs turn back 
and form a tressure fleuree internally. Inner circle. 
Bks. type 3 ; cf. fig. 270; cf. Ruding PI. I., fig. 17. 

Hawkins states that this coin was discovered in Hertfordshire in 
1818. 

The following coin of this type was most probably struck at Gloucester. 
The omission of the L occasionally occurs throughout the series : — 



STIFNE REX : 
flBERT (ON) GOJ7E; 



B. Montagu, Esq. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



03 



$cnn> M. (1154-1189). 




Fig. 38. 

Gloucester pennies occur of the first coinage of 1156 only. The 
coins are invariably very badly struck, and are often quite 
illegible. 

Obv. — The king, full face, with a crown fleuree ; arm bent round, 

holding a sceptre terminating in a cross patee. No 

inner circle. 
Rev. — In an inner beaded circle a cross potent, with a small cross 

patee in each angle. On the centre of the cross is a 

small saltire. 

Hks. type 1 ; cf. fig. 285 ; cf. Ending, PL ii. fig. 4 ; 

Suppl. II. , PI. i. fig. 9. 



hE . . . .EX ANGL 
. ftDVLE : ON : 6LOE 

hENRI RE . . N . 

. ADV . . : . . 6LOEEES 

hENRI REX ANGL 

RODBERT : ON : 6LOE (fig. 38) 

(h)ENRI : REX 
ROB MR* ON : 6LE 

hENRI REX AN6L 
(RO)DBERT ON: 6LOE 

hENRI RE 

SS 6LOEEES 



Brit. Mus. 

do. 

do. 

II. Webb, Esq. 

Royal Mint. 

Brit. Jlits. 



The spellings given by Ruding, in addition to the above, are 
GLOBE, 6LOEBE and 6LOV. 

A large hoard of these coins was found at Royston in 1721, and a 
still larger find was made at Tealby, in Lincolnshire, in 1807, to 
the number of over 5,700 pieces. This latter find is described in 
Archaeologia, vol. xviii. p. 1. Four pieces are given of the 
Gloucester mint, all of which are in the British Museum. 



64 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



Ittdjara JL (1189) 



3foi)\X (1199) 



No " Short-Cross " Pennies of the Gloucester Mint have as yet 
come to light, so far as I have been able to discover. 



tycnx* ML (1216-1272.) 




Fn;. 39. 

Second, or " Long Cross " Coinage. Issued in 1248. 

This coinage is peculiar in having for the first time the numeral 

(III' or TGCROCI) after the king's name. This distinction 

does not occur again until Henry VII. 's reign. 

Ob v. — In an inner beaded circle the king's full face, without 

hand or sceptre ; over the head is a star, which precedes 

the legend. 

Ji'eu. — A long double cross pomniee extending to the edge of the 
coin, and quartering the inner circle. Three pellets in 
each angle. 
Tiles, type 3 ; cf. Rudinrj PI. II., figs. 16, 17. 

hatRiavs Rax- nr 
ioh on eLovaa {fig. so) 



her^Riavs rgcx nr 
ion on glovccq: 

bai-Riavs Rax Ta?ai 

TON ON GLOVaa 

haNRiavs Rax nr 

LVa7TS ON 6LOV 



Brit. Mus. 

J. Evans, Esq. 

H. Webb, Esq 

II. Montagu, Esq. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 65 

Hexricus Rex Terci 

Lucas On Glov Dresden Museum. 

This was communicated by H. Montagu, Esq. 

ha^Riavs Rax in' 

Ria^RD OJ 6LOV Brit. Mus. 

bai-Riavs Rax Ta^ai 

Ria^.D OH GLOV H. Montagu, Esq. 

hai-Riavs Rax nr 

R06GB OX GLOV Brit. Mus. 

The following readings of the reverse are given in Sainthill's OUa 
Podrida ,vol. i.,pp. 127, 131 and 137— 

ELGaR OX GLOV 
RODBaRT OX GLOV 

In addition to the above, Ruding gives the following spellings — 
6LO, GLOVaaT, GLOVaaST and GLOVQIT. 



NAMES OF GLOUCESTER MONEYERS. 



^jgelric— Cnut, Harold I. 
^Eilric— Eadw. Conf. 
j3Hleric. — Harthacnut. 

JElfsie or ^]fsiie.— Harold I., Eadw. Conf., Harold II. 
^Elfsige.— Cnut, Harthacnut, Eadw. Conf. 
iElric— Harold I., Harthacnut, Eadw. Conf. 
Alfwine.— Henry I. 
Bolla.— Cnut. 

Brihtnoth or Brihtoth.— William. 
Burhstan.— Eadweard the Martyr. 
Eawulf or .^Ewulf.— Eadw. Conf. 
Ewthelwo.— /Ethelstan. 
Godeman.— -Ethelra;d II. 
Godic— Cnut. 
Vol. X. part 1. E. 



66 Transactions at Gloucester. 

Godric. — Cnut, Harold I., Harthacnut, Eadw. Conf. 

Godwine. — ^Ethelra?d II., Cnut, Eadw. Conf. 

Gowine.— William. 

Guolcwine. — Eadw. Conf. 

Ilg-er.— Henry III. 

Ion.— Henry III. 

Leofnoth. — Cnut, Harold I., Harthacnut, Eadw. Conf. 

Leofsige, Leofsie or Lefsige. — /Ethelrsed II. , Cnut. 

Leofwine. — Eadw. Conf., William. 

Lifwine. — William. 

Lreenoth. — Eadw. Conf. 

Lucas.— Henry III. 

Ordric. — Harold II., William 

Radulf— Stephen (?), Henry II. 

Ricard.— Henry III. 

Robert. — Henry II. 

Rodbert. — Henry II., Henry III. 

Roger.— Henry III. 

Segrim . — William . 

Selgwine.— Eadw. Conf. 

Seolcwilie. — Eadw. Conf. 

Sewold. — William. 

Silac— Eadw. Conf., William. 

Silacwine. — William. 

Siliecwine.— William. 

Sired.— /Ethelra?d II., Cnut. 

Ufgiet. — William. 

Wihtsige.— /Ethelraed II. 

Wulfget or Wulfgeat.— Eadw. Conf., Harold IT., William. 

"Wulfred. — Harthacnut. 

Wulfric— Eadw. Conf. 

"Wulfwerd. — Cnut, Eadw. Conf. 

Wulfwine.— Eadw. Conf. 

Wulnoth. — Cnut, Harthacnut. 

Wulwig. — Eadw. Conf. 

Wuward-— Harold I. 

Wuwerd. — Harthacnut. 

Wynsige. — Eadgar. 



Hahescombe. 67 



HARESCOMBE : 
FRAGMENTS OF PAROCHIAL HISTORY. 
By the Rev. JOHN MELLAND HALL, M.A., 

Rector of Harescombe with Pitchcombe. 

(Read in part at Gloucester 20th May, 18S5.) 

Harescombe is situated five miles due south of Gloucester, 
and in the Hundred of Dudston and Kind's Barton. The srreater 
portion of it lies in the plain immediately at the base of the out- 
liers of the Cotteswolde Hills, and the remainder on their slopes. 
The area is small, containing 479 acres only. The church, which is 
situated at the southern extremity of the parish, is at the foot of 
the well-known range of the Cotteswoldes called the Haresfield 
Beacon, and Broadbarrow Green, the site of ancient British and 
Roman encampments — a part of a chain of fortresses expressly 
mentioned by Tacitus as having been raised by Ostorius Scapula 
betwixt Severn and Avon : old British works adapted by the 
Romans to their own requirements, and carefully surveyed by 
their owner, the late lamented Mr. J. D. T. Niblett, a member 

of our Society. 

The Parish. 

As we endeavour to ascertain the meaning of the word 
" Harescombe," we are told that English place names are mostly 
composed of two elements. In a large majority of names both 
are Anglo-Saxon, a proof of the overwhelming nature of the 
Anglo-Saxon conquest. In Wales the names are purely Celtic : 
and in these west-midland counties there is a small proportion, 
not only of purely Celtic names, but of mixed names of Celtic and 
Saxon elements. Thus localities not unfrequently borrow their 
designations from two languages. In the name of this parish we 
have, as we think, these two elements, the Celtic and the Anglo- 
Saxon. If we begm for convenience sake with the termination, 

E 2 



68 Tkansactions at Gloucester, 

we have the Celtic " Cwm " : English, Combe, a gorge or valley. 
The propriety of the designation is very evident, the hills on the 
south rising almost directly from the church to a height at Broad- 
barrow of between 700 and 800 feet above the sea level, and on 
the north-east somewhat more gradually to a similar altitude on 
Huddiknoll. The former portion of the word seems to be the 
Saxon " here," army or host. If this derivation be correct, the 
full meaning of " Harescombe " will be "the Army's Valley," 
as " Haresfield " will be " the Army's Hill " : in the latter, the 
termination ' field ' is said to be both Norse and Anglo-Saxon : 
in Norse, signifying a hill side ; in Anglo-Saxon, a forest clearing, 
both words coming from the same root "to fall." Thus the 
Danish " field " or " feld " implied a place where ground was on 
the fall : the Anglo-Saxon, a place where trees had been felled : 
" fold " is of the same origin, signifying " a stall made of felled 
trees for the protection of cattle and sheep." The ancient camp 
on Haresfield Hill shews at once the fitness of the appellations. 
The signification of the word " Here" is plain : we can easily 
trace its use : it occurs in the Saxon " Heretochs," dukes or 
duces, "leaders of armies" : " Hereford," the ford of the army : 
" Heriot," derived from Here-geatu, which signifies " army equip- 
ment," and denoted those arms, &c, which escheated to the lord on 
the death of a tenant : afterwards, the best quick beast," and later 
on, commuted for a money payment. In the "Laws of Hen. 1 " 
we find the expression " Omnes herestrete omnino regis sunt " : the 
King's peace had formerly been the privilege of the Four Roman 
Ways, Watling Strete, Fosse, Hikenikle Strete and Erming 
Strete, but it was here extended to all highways in the kingdom. 1 
Old Terriers also supply instances of the use of this word : 2 

1 cf. Dr. Guest, Arch. Jour. xiv. , 99. 

2 All-Cannings, Wilts — mentions a furlong shooting upon Harepath 
[way] " literally Army path," that is, a road wide enough for the passage 
of an army. This word appears to have been commonly used to designate 
what we call a high road, and is said to be of very frequent occurrence in 
Anglo-Saxon charters. [Wilts Arch. Journal, xi. 30] : " Herebie Elyeusem 
intraus insulum" is noticed in Brady's Histoi'y, which says," This " herebie, 
i.e. the army habitation or abiding place, was the old fortilication where 
part of the Conqueror's army lay at the end of Andry Causeway, against the 
Isle of Ely now called by the country people Belsars Hills,' We also find 



Harescombe. 



69 



The following table shews the number of inhabitants and of 
dwelling houses in the parish in the years 1700 and 1774, and at 
the several decennia in the present century : — 



Inhabitants 
Houses 



I 
17001774 



60 
14 



1S01 1811 1821 



108 
24 



1831 



100 



104 



21 

97 



1841 



132 
27 



1S51 



147 
29 



1861 



13S 
29 



1871 



152 
31 



1SS1 



149 
32 



The parish paid " Shipping Money " in 1677, given by Act of 

Parliament, for the speedy building of thirty ships of war — first 

payment : 

Harescombe - £04 19 00 

Pitchcombe - 03 11 00 

In 1692, Royal Aid, £37 10s. 8d. ; in 1694, Land Tax, 

£94 15s. 0d., Poll Tax, £5 10s. Od. In 1803 the Land Tax 

Assessment was £74 5s. Od. ; in 1885, £99 17s. 7d. ; whereof 

£44 12s 6d. was "assessed and exonerated," and £55 5s. Id. 

"assessed and not exonerated." The rateable value, for poor law 

purposes, was £843 in 1840 ; £921 in 1842 ; £1289 in 1884. 

the word in the '' Ormulum.' " A mikell here off enggle peod," "a multi- 
tude of the heavenly host" (Luke n. 13): this rendering "host," we may 
remark, did not appear in our English Bibles till the authorised version of 
1611. Wickcliffe's Bible has " a multitude of hevenlie Knyghthood " : 
Tyndale and Cranmer's " Hevenly sowdiers " : the Rheims version, 
"Heauenly army." In the ' Confiteor ' in English ("Lay Folks' Mass 
Book, Early Eng. Text Soc. ) the penitent is taught to say : 
" I know to God fulle of myght 

And to his moder mayden bryght 

And to alle halowes here 

* * * * 

That I have synned largely 
In many synnes sere." 

Another MS. of later date has ' dere ' in this place, so that it is not 
improbable that ' here ' (host or army) was becoming obsolete. We may, 
however, see the same idea in the Te Deum, " Te Martyrum candidatns 
exercitus" : and in the Latin Proper Preface for Christmastide, " c omni 
militia erelestis exercitus." 

The Rev. J. Earle, Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford, however, whilst he 
does not see, as he remarks, any reason against the derivation from Here = 
army, which he says has much to be said for it, confesses himself to be more 
attached to the common pronunciation (a few years ago) of Hascomb, which, 
like Hasrield, (north of Gloucester) he takes to mean " gray, brown, the 
colour of the Hazel stick, or of a haze which is the same word," 



70 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



The following extracts from the Subsidy Rolls will be of 
interest as shewing who were, at the dates stated, the principal 
persons in the respective parishes. 

Glouc. Subsidy Roll, 1 Edw. III. (1327) y 
Ilundred of Wiston. " Harscoumbe." 

John Organ ... X vj d q 

William Sered - ij 3 iij d ob. q 

Richard Maynard ... X xj d ob. q 

Roger Hayward ... v j d ob. q 

xxij d ob. q 



Hugh Atte More 
Alice Bigge 



xv u 



Berlovu juxta Glouc. 

Harsecoumbe. 

William Atte Hulle 
John Organ ... 

Agnes de Munstreworth - 
Robert Rondulph 



lx 8 ix d q 



Xllf 

xiij d q 

V jd 













U J V J 4 




Harespield. 




John de Bohun - 


- 


x s viij d 


John Atte Bruge 


- 


vij d 


Walter Carpenter 


- 


- ij s iij d q 


Wm. Younge 

Elianor, who was the wife of Herbert ) 
Fitz John ) 


- xviij d ob. q 

- iij s ix d ob. q 


Walter Atte Forde 


- 


xv d ob. 


John Atte Haye 
Walter Dru 


- 


- ij s iij d ob. q 
xxj d ob. q 


Henry Younge - 
Robert Cissorer - 


- 


ix d ob. 
xxij d ob. 


Roger Jones 


- 


ix d ob. 


Robert Cattelyn 
Nicholas Spakett 
John Partrich 


- 


xiv d ob. q 
xij d 
xvj d ob. q 


Felicia Pie 


- 


xix d ob. q 


Gilbert Pie 


- 


xv d 


Richard Shern (Scl 


lesne) 


xxj d 



XXXV s XJ 



d ob. 



Harescombe. 71 

115 

Subsidy Boll, J^-o Ph. and Mary (1557-8) Glouc. ^ 
(Public Record Office). 

Harscombe and Pichyncombe. 
Thomas Myll, gent, in lands, vj u - xxiiij 8 

Geoffrey Lewis, in goods c 8 - - xiij 8 iv d 

Edward Weygh, in goods c 8 - - xiij 8 iv d 



Sum - I s viij' 1 



Hundred of Dudston and King's Barton, within the Citty and 
Countie of Gloucester, 26 Eliz. (158 '4) — John Cover dale, Mayor. 

Harscombe and Pichcombe. 

Thomas Roberts - - in lands xj s 

William Woode - - ,, iiij 8 



Robert Windowe 


in goods iiij 8 


Edward Mill, Esquire - 


in lands xij s 


Robert Wight 


in goods iiij 8 


Edwarde Kinne 


ix 8 viij d 


Edmonde Walker 


iiij 8 



We shall be disposed to consider it somewhat remarkable, 
as we find at various periods of time how the records of these 
small parishes intertwine themselves with the nation's history, 
and bring us face to face with incidents in our national life, setting 
vividly before our minds the strange vicissitudes of regal power 
and popular liberties. The owners of the five manors we have 
mentioned did not possess them in 1086, when the Domesday 
survey was made. Their tenure was in the Confessor's days : the 
record states that after his death " These five lands [Earl] Harold," 
(Comes or Earl appears to be inserted by an after-thought and 
above the line, perhaps the compilers of the Gloucestershire 
Domesday thought it better to be prudent and not to seem in any 
way to acknowledge Harold at any time King of England) " took 
away after the death of King Edward." The holders were dis- 
possessed. It is just possible that we may have a clue to the 
reason, if we remember that as Earl Godwin occupied Castle 
Godwin or Kimsbury Castle during the insurrection made to 



72 Transactions at GLorcESTER. 

expel from the kingdom those foreigners whom the king, who 
lay at Gloucester, seemed too much to favour, these thanes may 
have refused to join the earl, and hence have incurred his dis- 
pleasure and that of his son Harold. This, however, is at present 
merely conjecture, but that some special reason existed for the 
forfeiture is evident from the Domesday narration. The five 
manors then forming part of the ' Terra Regis ' were let out to 
farm by the sheriff, Roger de Ivreio, for the comparatively large 

sum of .£46 13s. 4d. 

The Manor. 

Harescombe is mentioned in the Domesday Survey as then 
forming part of the Royal Demesne. 
• Terra Regis." 

In Dudestan Hund' habuit q'da tain' Edmar iii Maner Hersefel 
and Athelai and Sanher. Iste ho poterat dare et vendere Pra 
sua cui voluisset p ii hid se defdb h Pra. In diiio erant viij 
car et iiij villi et iiij bord. et xxx servi cu v car Ibi pratu 
suffic carucis. 

In Herescome teneb Wiflet iii virg Pre libs sic et Edmar. Ibi 
habeb ii car et ii bord. et v servos et prata carucis. 

In Brostorp tenuit Aluric. iii virg Pre hie habeb ii car et un 
vitt. iii bord. iiii servos. Has v Pras abstulit coin Herald 
post morte Regis E. Has easd Rog s de Ivrei posuit ad firma. 
p xlvj KB et xiiisol et iiii den. 1 

The head of this manor was a Castle which existed here for 

some centuries. It was probably one of the numerous castles 

built in the disorderly reign of Stephen, when every petty baron, 

at his pleasure, built, without license, a castle on his chief manor, in 

1 A certain Thane, Edmar by name, held the three manors of Hersefel 
(Haresfield) Athelai (Hatherley) and Sanher (Sandhurst) : these manors he 
was able to give or sell as he might wish. In Harescome (Harescombe) 
Wiflet had held three virgates by as free a tenure as Edmar, i.e. with the 
same absolute right of disposal : he had there two ploughs, two bordars, 
five serfs, and sufficient meadow land for his ploughs. In Brostorp, Aluric 
had held a similar quantity of land, with two plough teams, one villein, three 
bordars, and four serfs. As Brockthrop now contains double the acreage of 
Harescombe, we may probably conclude that a large portion was, at the 
time of Domesday, foiest and uncultivated. 



Harescombe. 73 

which he ruled like a tyrant, ravaging the surrounding district, 
and perpetrating the grossest crimes and cruelties. If this were 
the case it escaped the fate of the greater number of these sinks 
of iniquity which King Henry II. made a point of destroying in 
the first year of his reign. This castle was certainly the residence 
of Roger Fitz Alan, and, probably, of his descendants until its 
demolition, as we believe, in the time of Edward II. William, 
of Worcester, who wrote, circa 1470, thus mentions it in his 
Itinerary : " Castellum de Havyscombe prope Paynynswicke in 
Glouc." Some of the materials used by John Guise, Esq., in 
building Elmore Court, in the time of Elizabeth, are said to have 
come from the castle of the De Bohun's at Harescombe, and a 
tradition exists that eighty waggons were employed in hauling the 
stones. 1 

Rudge states that an old mansion, said to be the castle of the 
De Bohun's, was situated a little to the westward of the church, 
the appearance of the moat is still to be observed ; 2 but the late 
Mr. NTolett, of Haresfield, was of opinion that the hamlet of 
the Stockend, 3 known as the Harescombe Tithing, of Haresfield 
parish, was the demesne land of this castle, and contained a deer 
park, the lodge of which still exists. This building has a good 
oriel window, but in other respects has been much altered. The 
place is now known as Park Gate, and the adjoining lands as 
Park Farm. 

The following is the next reference we find to Harescombe : 4 
" Roger, Earl of Hereford, when he became a monk at Gloucester, 
gave to the said church one hundred solidates of land in Hereford- 
shire, for which Walter de Hereford, the constable, his brother, 
gave us six virgates in the time of Hameline the abbot [1148-1170], 

1 Parson's MSS. Bod. Lib. Oxon. 2 Hist, of Glouc. 

3 In the above-mentioned hamlet of Stockend, a few years ago a Roman 
villa was found not far from the well-known camp on Haresfield Hill. Large 
numbers of tesserae have been found here; also two columns, flue- tiles, 
pottery, &c, with a silver coin of the Emperor Theodosius. 

Near this spot, circa 1855, in an ai'able field at the end of the 
plantation, were found about twelve human skeletons, supposed to be those 
of soldiers who had been slain in a skirmish during the civil war of the 17th 
century. 

4 Hist. Monast. S. Petri, Glouc, Vol. i. pp.S8-9. 



74 Transactions at Gloucester. 

free and exempt from all secular service, of which six virgates, 
four are in Harsfelcl, and two by the way of Bristol near to the 
park " : however, in the grant of the said Walter de Hereford 
" Constabularius Regis " also given in the Cartulary, 1 we find 
that these four virgates are expressly mentioned as lying in 
Harescombe: 

" Sciatis quod ego pro salute animse mere et omnium anteces- 
sorum meorum, concedo et presenti carta confirmo Deo et Sancto 
Petro, et Hamelino Abbati et Monachis Gioucestrire, sex virgatas 
terra? in Harsefelde, liberas et quietas ab omni servitio seculari, 
quatuor videlicet in Hersecumbe, et duas secus viam de Bristou 
juxta parcum, quas ego monachis tradere feci pro centum solidatis 
terra? quas Comes Rogerus frater meus prsedictre ecclesise, quando 
in ea factus est monachus, me in hoc sibi assensum prsebente 
concessit." 

Here we learn the origin of the connection of lands at Hares- 
combe with the Abbey of St. Peter's, which lands at the dis- 
solution of monasteries and the institution of the Bishopric of 
Gloucester by Henry VIII., became a portion of the endowment 
of the new See. 

Other entries, under the heading " Harscombe " occur in the 
Lanthony Register, but undated : e.g. " Matilda de Bohun con- 
firmed to us and the Chapel of St. Kyneberg to find a Light in 
the said Church Twelve pence to be paid out of the rent of the 
fulling mill at Wydehurste annually by her heirs on the Vigil 
of St. Kyneberg." 

" Humphrey de Bohun has given to us stone from his 
Quarries of Harvesbury [or Hernebury] near to Haresfield, and 
from Windehole near to Harescombe to be taken where and how 
we may wish and without hindrance." 

" The same has given to us stone out of the Quarries of Wyde- 
cliffe and Windewey near to Harescombe." 

At a later date we find that another arrangement concerning 
the lamp in the chapel of St. Kyneberg was made, and recorded 
in the same Register : "To all, &c, Humphrey de Bohun Earl of 

1 Cart. Mon. S. Petri, GIouc, Vol. i. No. cccx. (Rolls Series). 



Hakescombe. 75 

Hereford and Essex and Constable of England, sends greeting : 
Know ye that we have given to the Prior and Convent of 
Lanthony Four shillings, Two pounds of Pepper and One pound 
of Cumin for which the said Prior and Convent have remitted 
to us and our heirs One shilling of rent which they have been 
accustomed to receive out of our fulling mill of Wyte-hurst. 
Witnesses Sir Milo de Boun, Sir Roger le Rus, Sir Robert de 
Hales, Nicholas Arch and others. 

Another reference to the Quarries mentioned above is found 
in the Appendix to the " General Report of the Commissioners 
of Public Records," 1819, 1 which contains an abstract of Royal 
Letters Missive in the reign of Richard II. : the letter itself 
(as indeed all the letters of this king) is in French, and is 
addressed " a tres rev'rend pere en Dieu nre tres chier Cousin 
l'archevesquc de Cautorbiry nre Chanceller " and dated from the 
Abbey of St. Albans on the 2nd day of March. The king having 
ordered Richard de Lone mason to make cannon balls (piers 
pour canons) in his lordship of Harescombe, Gloucestershire, directs 
the chancellor to issue a commission to him, under the Great Seal, 
to take such workmen, artificers, and carriages, as he may stand in 
need of, in that service. 2 

1 In 1338, a period somewhat later than that referred to above, we learn 
from "Hospitallers in' England" (Camden Society, Introd. p. 1) that the 
following prices prevailed, pepper Is. Id. per lb.; cumin 3d. per lb. ; oil 
for one lamp for a year Is.; whilst the rent of a fulling mill from a wool 
comber is given as 40s. 

2 Stone shot was used till the time of Henry VIII., or even later. The 
Talbot Papers give lists of Ordnance delivered by warrant of that king to 
Sir Sampson Norton for use in France : inter alia, Gone stones of iron. v. 
Gone stones of stone, v. Among the relics of the past preserved in the 
Tower of London is a part of the armament of the Alary Rose, lost in the 
wreck of that ship at Spithead in 1545. " The length of the gun (from one 
end of which a portion has disappeared) is 6 ft. 10 ins. : the diameter of the 
barrel 6 ins. The piece is formed of strips of iron welded on a mandrel, 
and bound at intervals with rings of iron. The most curious feature, 
however, of this old gun is, that it still retains the stone shot with which it 
was loaded at the time of its submersion." (Glouc. Notes & Queries, Vol. n., 
p. 431 : quoted from Arch. Jour. Vol. viii. p. 421.) 

In Shaw's " Dresses & Decorations of the Middle Ages," an illustration 
(14th century) shews the machines used for projecting huge stones, called 
pierri4res, calabres, mangonels, tfce. , said to have been introduced during the 
reign of Henry III. by the second Simon de Montfort : and it is not a little 



76 Transactions at Gloucester. 

We find Henry le Rous, son of Roger Fitz Alan, confirming to 
priory of Lanthony all that land of Southgrove, which they had 
of the gift of Alan his grandfather, and of the concession of 
Roger his father, held by a certain Adam, the son of Leofwin : 
" una virgata ire de Sutgroue cu villano nole Lefwyno " in the 
original grant : as this confirmation is attested by " Ralph 
Musard, Sheriff of Gloucester," its probable date will be between 
1 21 3-1 22 2. l Henry also held 3 virgates at Brockthrop and Alans- 
more in Herefordshire ; the bishop appears to have found him 
somewhat obstinate, as we learn that in 25th Henry III. he 
proceeded against him for the nonpayment of " such an aid as he 
himself and his ancestors had been accustomed to make to the 
predecessors of the said bishop, as Bishops of Hereford at their 
entrance on their bishopric." 2 He is one of the witnesses to 
a deed of gift by Lawrence de Chandos of lands at Brockworth 
to Lanthony. 3 

In the long and disturbed reign of Hen. III. the royal revenues 
being greatly diminished by the large concessions made to the 
barons, and by encroachments of various kinds, at the commence- 
ment of the reign of Edward I. a commission Avas appointed, and 
a jury of each hundred and town impanelled, to enquire amongst 
other things what losses the crown had sustained by tenants ' in 
capite ' alienating without license or usurping the right of holding 
courts and other jura reyalia. From " Placita Dili Regis de Quo 
Warranto et Ragemann " for this county, held before Wm. de 
Saham, Roger Loveday and John de Metingham, justices itinerant 
at Gloucester "on the morrow of Low Sunday," in the 14th 
Edward I." (1286-7) we learn that "John de Boun " claimed 

singular that the only specimens which have been noticed of the large stone 
balls or pellets with which the walls of fortresses were battered, by means 
of such artillery, were found a few years since in the soil, on the site of the 
extensive lake which formerly washed the walls of Kenilworth Castle, 
granted by Henry III. to the same de Montfort, Earl of Leicester (Arch. 
Jour., Vol. l. p. 288.) 

1 Radulphus Musard was Sheriff of Gloucestershire from 2 Henry III. 
(1217) to the 9th of the same king (Decius de Egeworde acting for him in 
the 6th year, and he being also custos in the 8th and 9th years. —Ed. 

2 Abbrev. Placit. 25 Hen. III. 

3 Trans, Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Soc, Vol, viii. p. 152. 



Harescombe. 77 

liberties here : view of frank-pledge in his manors of Harsefeld, 
Elmore and Harscombe, infangethef, weyf, estrays, and free 
warren in his manor of Haresfield : and Elmore and Harescombe 
are mentioned as portions of that great manor (" Dicit qd Elmore 
et Harscombe sunt men, bra de Harsefeld.''' ') He pleads that that 
manor was a liberty in the hands of Milo Earl of Hereford who 
was seised of royal franchises : that he had three daughters and 
heiresses : that the eldest was seised of the third part of the said 
manor, and likewise of view of frank-pledge and other " liber - 
talibus regaUfais," as also the other heiresses in their lands and 
tenements in the allotment and partition made : and that Hum- 
phrey de Boun, her eldest son and heir, granted to the said John 
the third part of the manor aforesaid, together with the said view 
of frank-pledge and other liberties, with free warren : and that 
accordingly he claims to have them : he says that he has Gallows 
(fiircas) and Tumberell (Cucking stool) and judicial inquests : 
that they pay no clues to the lord the king by the hand of the 
sheriff, and that the inquests are not held in the presence of the 
bailiff of the lord the king, &c. 

William Inge, who followed for the king, pleads that the said 
John is not fully seized of view of frank-pledge, and that John, 
" son of the Queen," 1 has the third part of the issues thereof, and 
offers to verify this on the part of the king ; and further urges 
that even long possession cannot avail against the lord the king 
in things which appertain to his crown. The jurors, however, 
declare on their oath that John de Boun is fully seized of the 
privileges claimed of view of frank-pledge and all issues, and that 
John, the son of the Queen, had received nothing therefrom. 
But as to the plea concerning long possession, that is for the 
treasurer and barons to decide, before whom the said John duly 
appears by his attorney. The judgment was virtually against 
the king, perhaps in the well-known form " Dictum est quod eat 
inde sine die ad pra?seus, salvo jure Domini Regis, cum Dns Rex 
inde loqui voluerit." 

John de Boun was a son of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford, 
by his second wife, Maud de Avenbury. This earl, who had 

1 John, son of Edward I., by Eleanor, died young. 



78 Transactions at GLorrcESTKR,. 

been an active partisan of De Montfort, died September 25th, 
1275, his body being buried before the high altar in the church 
of Lanthony, and his heart at Workeley. He survived his 
second wife, who died on the eve of St. John, 1273, at Sorgee, 
in Gascony, where King Edward was at that time reducing the 
province to obedience ; but her son, John de Bohun, is said to 
have caused the bones of his mother to be brought to England 
sixteen years afterwards, when they were buried with great 
solemnity in the choir of Lanthony, near to the body of Earl 
Humphrey, his father, 1 on the Festival of St. Kyneberg the 
Virgin, 1290. This Sir John de Bohun took part with the 
barons against Henry III., but had made his peace 50 Hen. III. ; 
he died seized of the manor of Haresfield, &c, 20 Edw. I. (1292), 
and was the father of the lords Edmund and George de Bohun, 
which latter died seized of the same manor, 10 Edw. II. Big- 
land says that these manors were given to this second family 
of the earl in fee farm, reserving the dignity of " Lord High 
Constable," which is expressly said to have been connected with 
the manor of Haresfield, held " p servic' essendi Constabularius 
Angliae." 

Sir Roger le Rous died before 31st August, 1294, for the writ 
diem clausit extremum was issued on that day although the 
inquisition post mortem itself (like so many others) is now missing. 
It was found that he was seized inter alia of Harsecumb manor, 
3 vir^ates at Brokethrop, pertaining to the Berton of Gloucester, 
and 1 virgate at Duntesborne (held of Philip de Mattesdon by 
one penny for all services) afterwards called " Duntesborne Rous " 

or " militis," to distinguish it from that belonging to the Abbey 

of Gloucester, and now known as Duntesborne Abbots. 3 Bishop 
Swinfield's Register also shows that he held Alansmore (Hereford) 
for half a fee, this manor as we have remarked, taking its name 
from his ancestor Alan Fitz Mayn. 

1 See Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc. Vol. III. p. 365. 

2 Rot. Fin. 22 Edw. I. m. G. Inquis. p.m. Ibid. Calend. Vol. I. 

3 Adam de Main gave Duntesborne to Jordan, son of Isaac de Cirencester 
(Cart. 1 Joh.)but it afterwards bore the name of " Duntesborne Mattesdon" 
(MS. Cott. Jul. C.) from that family, by whom it was alienated to Rous. 
(Fosbrooke— Ilia, Glouc., Vol. II. p. GUIS), 



Hakescombe. 79 

In 25th Edw. (1297) " Eleanora qua; fuit uxor Rog 1 le Rous" 
is returned in the Rolls of Parliament as holding lands in Here- 
fordshire exceeding twenty pounds in annual value in connection 
with " service beyond the seas." She survived her husband at 
least nineteen years, and as patroness of the church of Avenbury 
presented a Roger le Rous, possibly a son of Sir Roger, to that 
benefice in 1313. l 

The earliest mention of Sir John le Rous, the son of Sir Roger le 
Rous is in 1 305, 2 4 in which year Hugh de Alnaby and Isabella Tirbot 
acknowledge the manors of Duntesborne and Harescombe with 
their appurtenances and the advowsons of the churches of both 
manors, to be the right of John le Rus and Hawisia his wife, 
through Robt. de Harescombe, their attorney, "for which acknow- 
ledgement the said John and Hawisia gave the said Hugh and 
Isabella £200 sterling." 

The Pedes Finium for 1320 shew a final agreement between 
John le Rous and Hawisia his wife, plaintiffs, and a certain John 
" Persona eccte de Harsecombe, defendant " : in this the Rector 
acknowledges the manor of Harescombe with its appurtenances 
to belong to John and Hawisia. This was doubtless a formal fine 
for purposes of settlement. 

We think it not unlikely that this was the time when the 
stronghold of the Le Rous family in Harescombe was demolished. 
No record devoting ( it to destruction has yet come to light, but 
as a few years later it is spoken of as " waste," we imagine we 
shall not be very far wrong in dating its fall at this time. We 
are quite sure that at this time the king's wrath fell upon the 
lord of a neighbouring stronghold, who had been for some time a 
turbulent noble and the head of the King's antagonists, we mean 
John Giffard, of Brimpsfield. In the Patent Rolls, 15 Edw. II., 
we find mention of the writ for the destruction of the castle there, 
and Leland also refers to it thus : " Dominus Johannes Giffard 
bigas Regis cum armis versus Walliam tendentes spoliavit. Ude 
Rex habita ma«j;na deliberatione versus castrum dicti Joannis 

1 Dunoombe's Hist, of Hereford and MS. Selas Taylor, B.M, 

2 Pedes Finium, 33rd Edw. I, 



80 Transactions at Gloucester. 

properavit et funditus demolitus est.' John GifFard was attainted 
and hanged, and his manors given to his foe, Hugh Despenser. 
(Close Rolls, 15 Edw. II.) The possessions of most of the Barons' 
adherents in this county were now taken into the King's hands, 
" contrariants' lands," as they are called in the series of papers 
in the Public Record Office. Among them, those of Maurice de 
Berkeley, at Upton St. Leonard's ; Reginald de la More, Over ; 
Thos. de Wylington, Ashelworth ; Henry and John de Wylington, 
Sandhurst ; John GifFard, William de Benetham, Robt. Gille, Edw. 
de Norton, Henry Croppet, Beggeworth ; Robert de Prestbury, 
Thos. de Hatherly, Up-Hatherly ; Hen. de Brockworth ; Walter 
de Wylton, Pichencoumbe ; the Castle of Berkeley, the Castles 
and lands of the Earl of Hereford ; also Blen-leveney, Bulke 
Dinas Castles, and lands at Duntesborne Rous, John le Rous, 
junior. In an Inquisition taken at Gloucester on the Tuesday 
next after the Feast of St. Augustine (26th May), in the fifteenth 
year of Edward II (1322), by the oath of Wm. Maunsel, Wm. de 
Bolysdone, Hugh cle Byseley, John de Rumee, John de Glou- 
cester, Thos. de Scto Mainfeo, John de Bury, Wm. le Prout, 
Roger atte Grene, de Bulley, John de Owlepeune, John Spilemon, 
Elias de Blakeny and Rich. Kynmer, " to enquire what, and how 
many, knights' fees were held of the Earl of Hereford of his 
Court of Gloucester," taken in the church of St. Mary in the 
south, the jurors find that John le Rous holds the manor of Harse- 
coumbe by the service of half a knight's fee, and that the said 
manor is worth yearly by estimation £20. In an account of 
Robert de Aston, custodian and collector of the farms of certain 
lands, &c, forfeited to the king, dated 18-19 Edward II., No. 
3,266, he renders account of £i 4s. 10d., received of Richard de 
Foxcote, "farmer of the manor of Dontesborne, which formerly 
belonged to John le Rous the younger," but at that time was 
in the hands of the king. We have also, in the same year, 
the king's writ of enquiry, dated Westminster, June 14th, con- 
cerning a heriot which his bailiffs of the Berton, near Gloucester, 
had claimed of John le Rous, on the death of Richard de 
Munsterworth, for " which they had grievously distrained the 
said John, and did not desist from day to day." The writ 



Harescombe. 81 

rehearses that John [le] Rous had shown that Richard, on the 
day of his death, held all his lands in Harescombe of him, by- 
certain services, and not of the king or his progenitors, and 
therefore had prayed for remedy. The Inquisition was accord- 
ingly taken at Gloucester before Wm. de Bradwelle and Robert 
de Aston, on the Friday next after the Feast of St. Matthew 
the Apostle, in the 19 Edward II., in the presence of William 
de Ga[mage], bailiff of the king in the Berton. The jurors say 
that Richard de Munsterworth held all his lands, viz., a messuage 
and half a virgate of land, &c., of John le Rous by knight 
service : viz., for the tenth part of a knight's fee, and by service 
of 7s. 8d. a year ; also that the said Richard and his ancestors 
held their lands and tenements of the said John le Rous and 
his ancestors by the same services from time immemorial, and 
not of the progenitors of the king, and that after the death of 
each they had been accustomed to take heriot : viz., that the 

said John took an ox as heriot after the death of 

price 10s. ; and also an ox, after the death of Roger, father 
of the said Richard, price 13s. 4d. ; also that Roger le Rous, 

father of the said John, took as heriot of Roger 

de Munsterworth, grandfather of the said Richard, price 18s. ; 
also that the ancestors of the said John le Rous, after the death 
of any one of the ancestors of the said Richard were wont to 
take such heriot of the said lands and tenements from time 
immemorial. 1 

1 Inquis. Ad quod dam. 19 Edw. II., No. 42 
We have here three generations of the family ; — ■ 

Roger de Munstreworth^ 

I 
Roger de Munstreworth=p 

r- J 

Richard de Munstreworth— Agnes 
dead 1326. 

John de Munstreworth presented Ric. le Parker to the Rectory of 
How Caple in 1352, for Rich, de Caple, a minor. (Duncumb's Hereford.) 

Capgrave, Anno 1363, has mention of a " Scr John Monstreworth," 
serving with the army in France, who accused the Commander, Sir Robert 
Knollys, of treason, but afterwards fled and held with the King of France. 

The Register of Bishop Thomas Cobham, Anno 1324, shews that Sir 
Johnnie Rous nominated Sir Roger de Cardoyl to the Church of Harescombe, 
Vol. X., part 1. G 



82 Transactions at Gloucester. 

It would, appear that the Gloucestershire lands were now held 
by the relict of Sir Thomas le Rous, so that it was not until after 
her death that an inquisition was taken, i.e. in June, 1375, 
48 Edward III.) at Gloucester, before John ap Rees ; the jurors 
being John Upcote, Walt, de Sevarne, Nicolas Leroy, Walt. 
de Marcle, Walt. Wynter, John Johnes, John ffremon, Walt. 
Maynerde, John Brokworth, Peter Cappe, Wm. Gerold, Peter 
Heynes : who say that Thomas le Rous, deceased, held the manor 
of Harsecombe in the county of Gloucester in demesne as of fee 
on the day of his death of the king in capite by the service of a 
fourth part of a knight's fee ; that in the said manor there is 
one capital messuage, which is of no value, one garden, worth 
41d., one dovecote worth 41d. 3 one carucate of land worth 6s. 8d., 
four acres meadow worth 4s., thirty acres of 'wood, of which the 
underwood is worth 6s. 8d., and fixed rents £8 2s. 2d. payable at 
the Feasts of the Annunciation, and of St. Michael : one messuage 
called "the orchard," worth nil, one carucate of land worth 6s. 8d. 
and six acres meadow worth 6s., held of the Abbey of St. Peter, 
Gloucester, of the farm of the king's Berton, near Gloucester, 
as of the Berton by the service of making suit at the court 
of the said Berton : that the said Thomas le Rous died on 
the Saturday next after the Feast of St. Stephen the Martyr, 
in the 32nd year of the king, and that Juliana, his daughter, 
was the next heir and of the age of twenty years and more. 
If, however, we compare the dates of these two inquisitions it is 
evident that Juliana was but seventeen years of age, that is, if the 
former statement was correct. 

The Originalia Rolls for the same year (48 Edw. III. Rot. 6) 
contain reference thereto : " The king committed to Rob* de 
Kendale, Knt., and Matilda his wife, the custody of the manors 
of Avenbury with appurtenances in co. Hereford, and the manor 

to which he was presented (according to the settlement of 11S1) by the 
Sub-prior and Convent of Lanthony. A question arising from the mention 
of the Sub-prior was accidentally answered by the discovery in the Inqui- 
sitions concerning the forfeited lands of the Contrariants (10-15-16 Edw. IT., 
No. 48), of the fact that the Prior (doubtless a virulent enemy of the king) 
had been suspended, or at least superseded: "Sub-Prior de Lanthon" 
quod ipse sub-prior habeat custod prsedicti prioratus et ofh pertin'." 



Harescombe. 83 

of Harsecumbe with appurtenances in co. Gloucester, and one 
messuage called " the orchard," one carucate of land and six acres 
of meadow with appurtenances in the same ville of Harsecumbe. 

We may now proceed to mention the names of some of the 
tenants of the manor, of much interest as of those who tilled the 
soil and throve here, serving their generation, by the will of 
God, in trying seasons and troublous times, but of whom no 
other record survives. We have already seen that the Abbey 
of Gloucester had possession of lands here at an early period, 
and we are glad to find in the Cartulary ascribed to the 
period of Abbot John de Gamage (i.e. between 1284 and 1306), 
an " extent " or survey of the manors held by the abbey at 
that time. The manor, or reputed manor, which they had here 
is contained in the " Extenta de Broctrope " where their posses- 
sions were greater. This furnishes us with the names of the 
occupiers of their lands, the particulars of their holdings, the 
rents they paid, and the various customary services which they 

rendered. 

Free Tenants. 

Reginald Atteparde de Harsecumbe, Richard Schesne de 

Harsecumbe, Margery Maynard, Robert Bigge, Matilda la 

Haywardes, Hugh son of Edania, Henry Faber, Richard Waryn, 

Richard de Holeberwe de Pychenecumbe, Elyas Bunte de Pyche- 

necumbe, William Colston de Brocthrop, Robert of the field 

Brocthrop, Robert Bissop. 

Customary Tenants. 

Adam Attehulle, Richard Oswolde, Henry Meryot, Walter 

Bunte, Henry le Haywarde, Richard Daniel, Robert the son of 

Elyas, R,obert in the Field, Robert Locke, Walter le Bonde. 

Ferendelli. 

David Bunte, Gilbert Hering. 

Lundinarii. 

Walerond, John Colston, Robert Bissop, Richard Daniel, William 

Colston. 

Cottagers. 

Alditha la Rede, Editha Textrix, Cristina Hayrun, Juliana Atte- 
hulle. 

g 2 



84 Transactions at Gloucester. 

The holding of the first named, Reginald Atteparde de Harse- 
cumbe is thus described : he has one messuage with curtilage and 
one virgate of land containing 40 acres, and a grove, rent 13s. 4d. 
per annum, payable at the four usual terms. He shall give for 
an aid seven shillings at Michaelmas, and shall perform three 
" bederipes " in autumn with one man, worth 4^d. He shall give 
pannage thus : for full grown swine, Id ; for the young, ^d. If 
he brew ale for sale he shall give the lord (abbot) eight " lagenas " 
as toll, which shall be considered worth 2^cl. yearly. If he shall 
sell horse or mare shod, he shall give 4d. as toll ; if not shod, 2d. 
He is not able to alienate his son, nor to give his daughter in 
marriage without permission. He owes suit to the Halmote 
Court. On his decease the lord shall have the best beast as an 
heriot and his heir shall do the will of the lord for being admitted 
to the said land. In the same way, the widow shall do in all 
respects as the said Reginald, if he die holding the said lands. 

Richard Schesne holds a messuage with curtilage, and a virgate 
of land of 40 acres : he pays 10s. per annum. He does not perform 
such bederipes as other holders of virgates, because a certain woman 
" of Wychio," x from whom the convent have " quandam salinam 
in eadem " was married to the said land, by reason of which one 
day's bederipe was remitted. 

Among the il Oonsuetudinarii," " Customary Tenants " (those 
holding lands according to the customs of the manor), Adam 
Attehulle holds a messuage, with curtilage and a virgate of 
sixty-four acres ; from Michaelmas to the Feast of St. Peter ad 
Yincula (Aug. 1), he must plough half an acre every week, and 
harrow in seed-time whenever he shall be summoned, and each 
ploughing with the harrowing is worth 2^d. He is to plough 
an acre for the winter seed and harrow it, both being worth 5cl. 
Also in every week he is to perforin summage for one day, and 
do manual work at the will of the bailiff, each clay's work being 
worth Id. If threshing be required (wheat 2-| bushels, " Siligo" 
2 k bushels, barley half a quarter, beans and peas half a quarter, 
oats 10 bushels), each clay's work being worth Id. If he be 

1 ftroitwych. 



Harescombe. 85 

called to other agricultural work, he shall labour from morning 
till evening ; he shall mow the lord's meadow for eight days at 
least at 2d. a day, and shall assist in making and carrying the 
hay for twelve days, and more if required, at one half-penny 
per day. As regards harvest work, from St. Peter ad Vincula 
to Michaelmas, he is to reap the lords corn for five clays in the 
week with two men, and in addition perform a bederip with four 
men in each week, the value of each man's labour being l^d., 
and the total value in each week during autumn 2 lid. If 
required to carry corn in autumn with the wagon, six oxen and 
two men, this shall be considered equal to one day's ploughing 
after the Feast of St. Michael, and the wagoners shall have two 
sheaves of whatsoever grain they shall have last carried. 
Pannage, tolls for brewing, sales of horses, marriage and heriots 
as before. 

The services of the " Ferendelli," i.e. those holding a farundel 
(the fourth part of a virgate, usually 12, sometimes 16 acres), 
and of the " Lundinarii " ("Monolayers, because working for the 
lord on the Monday in each week) are. also set forth. And lastly, 
the cottagers are shewn to be required to labour in harvest for 
sixteen days, price per day l^d., in all 2s; and for six days in 
hay time, or more if required, at one halfpenny per day. 

In 5 Henry IV., 1427, a fine was levied between Thomas 
Mille, Quer, and Juliana, who was wife of Andrew Herle, 
Knight, and William Herle, Esq., deft., in which Juliana and 
William, acknowledged the manors of Harescombe and Duntes- 
borne Rous, with appurtenances, and the advowson of the church of 
Harescombe to be the right of the said Thomas. This was Thomas, 
the son of Juliana by her second husband Thomas Mill, and the 
fine was probably the surrender of her dower rights in the said 
manors, of which perhaps William Herle was a trustee, and the 
same " Thomas Mulle de Harscombe Armiger," who, according to 
the Harl. MS., 5805, fol. 336, « was living about 34 Henry VI " 
(1456), and had taken to wife Margeria (or Margaret) Tracy, 
by whom he had, amongst others, Sir William Mulle, or Mylle, 
Knight. 



86 Transactions at Gloucester. 

In 2nd Edward IV. an inquisition was taken of the lands of 
Thomas and Will'us Mulle and Margaret, his wife, attainted, 
wherein it was found that they were seized of lands called Organs, 
Harsfeld toft, called Henbarews, the manors of Duntesbourne 
Rous, messuage, lands, and mill at Chalford, and lands and toft 
in Colcumbe, and also of other messuages and lands in the county 
of Gloucester ; and further of the manors of Alynesmore, Avyns- 
bury, and Tregett, in the county of Hereford. And the said lands 
were granted by the king 1 to Thomas Herbert, Esquire for the 
King's body, in special tail, viz., to his heirs male : " together with 
the manors of Hariscombe and Duntesborne, Glouc.', and Tregett, 
within the demesne of Urchinfeld, as well as all other here- 
ditaments in the county of Hereford and the marches of "Wales ; 
with the advowsons of the churches of the said manors, which 
were the property of William Mulle, knight attainted, to be held 
by fealty alone for all services. Three years afterwards these 
grants were specially exempted from the operation of the Act of 
resumption, 7-8 Edw. IV., 2 which was "not to be prejudicial to a 
grant made to Thomas Herbert the elder of the lands of Mulle" and 
" the manors of Harescombe alias Hariscombe, etc." In the Patent 
Rolls, 14 Edward IV. (1475) the king grants to Sir Richard 
Beauchamp in fee the manors of Hariscombe and Duntesborne 

Rous " quse fuerunt Will'i Mulle ac nuper Thoma? 

Herbert per servit' &c." In 8 Edw. IV. Oct. 9th, the Hereford- 
shire lands forfeited by Sir William Mille, 4th Oct. 1 Edw. IV. 
were granted to Sir Walter Scull and Francisca his wif e (Originalia). 
An Act of Resumption is not to prejudice the above-named 
" Walter Scull Knyght and Francese his wyfe and their heires 
male, as regards the grant of the Manors of Alansmore and 
Avenbury with their appurtenances in the Counte of Hereford 
that late were holden by William Mylle Knyght." 

When, however, the wheel of fortune had made another 
revolution and the Yorkists' cause had received its death blow at 
Bosworth field, and Henry of Richmond had ascended the throne, 
we find in the Rolls of Parliament the record of a petition pre- 
sented to the lord the king in parliament by Thomas Mille, son 

i Patent Rolls, 2 Edw. IV. - Rolls of Pari., vol. v., 5S6. 



Harescombe. 87 

and heir of William Mille, knight, in these words : " That whereas 
the said William Mylle was at the Felde comynly called Palme 
Sondaye Felde, to the uttermost of his power assistyng, according to 
his duty, then his Sovereyn Lorde Kxjnge Henry the sixth in his ryght 
and tytle, wherefore, the said William lost all his londes, pos- 
sessionSy and godes by Act of 1 Edivard IV. forfeit to the Kynge" 
and praying for the restitution of the same, to which the royal 
assent was given in the usual form, " Soit fait come il est desire." 
The Mylle family, however, do not appear to have otherwise pro- 
fited by their faithful services to the cause of the house of Lan- 
caster : there is no record of rich manors, broad lands, or special 
honours bestowed upon them, and although from time to time the 
names of individual members may be met with as discharging 
various royal commissions, it seems to be certain that beyond 
the restoration of their former lands they never received any 
sufficient recompense for their losses and sufferings from that 
avaricious and oppressive monarch Henry VII. 1 



The Advowson of the Church. 

In ancient times, both Harescombe and Pitchcombe were 
chapelries of the parish of Haresfield. Our first knowledge is 
derived from a very important deed of agreement, made in 1181, 
between Alan Fitz Mayn, who was one of the witnesses to a 
charter, cir. 1160, by Walter de Hereford, confirming the grant 
of his father, Milo Fitz Walter, (created Earl of Hereford by the 
Empress Maud) and Roger his son and heir, brother of Walter, 
to the Abbey of .St. Peter's, at Gloucester, of certain lands to their 

1 Notwithstanding the act of restitution cited above it would appear 
that Thomas on his death in 1509 was not then seized of the manors of 
Harescombe and Duntesbourne Rous. Perhaps these manors were held in 
trust for him. For in his inquisition post mortem taken at Dursley 25th 
Oct. 1510, the jurors found that he held no lands or tenements in the county 
of Gloucester in his demesne as of the King, but that he was seized of one 
messuage in Harsfield, in his demesne as of the fee at the rent of 16d. per 
annum, and that the said messuage and lands were worth by the year in all 
issues 26s. Sd. And they say that he died on 7th Oct. 1 Henry VIII., 1509 
and that Edward Mill was his son and heir, and of the age of 23 years 
more (Inq. p.m. 2 Henry VIII.) 



88 Transactions at Gloucester. 

church at Cerney. The agreement to which we refer arose out 
of some dissension, between Roger Prior of Lanthony and Roger 
Fitz Alan, concerning the chapel of Harsecombe, which apper- 
tained to the mother church of Harsefield, and which was settled 
in the following manner : — 

" Let it be known that the contention which had sprung up 
between R[oger], Prior of Lanthony, and Roger Fitz Alan, con- 
cerning the Chapel of Harsecumbe, which appertains to the 
mother Church of Harsefeld, has been settled in the manner 
following : — The Church of Harsefeld is to receive in full every- 
thing which appertains to parochial rights in the Vill of Harse- 
cumbe, i.e. all tithes as well of the Curia as of the Villeins, 
Oblations, Baptisms, Confessions, and Devises of the dying, and 
Burials, and in fact all things pertaining to parochial rights ; so 
that of all these let the chaplain of the said chapel usurp nothing. 
The said Chaplain shall be sustained by those things which Alan 
Fitz Mayn granted him at the " constitution " of the said 
chapel ; that it is to say, the secon 1 tithing of the wheat of his 
Demesne of Harsecumbe ; the first, together with all the lesser- 
tithes pertaining to the mother church of Harsefeld. The said 
Alan also granted for the sustentation of the Chaplain Ten acres 
of land (saving the tithe of the same to the mother church). He 
also gave to the mother church of Harsefeld one acre of land for 
a cemetery, which things Roger his son confirmed and ratified. 
But the Prior and Canons, at the petition of Roger Fitz Alan, 
have granted to the said Chaplain the Tithes of Five Virgates of 
land, which the Villeins of Brockthrop hold (the tithe of which 
pertains to the church of St. Owen), and the small tithes of the 
said Villeins, with their burial, to be held of them (i.e. the Prior 
and Canons) by the yearly payment of Five Shillings at the Feast 
of St. Michael. All the Tithes of the Demesne of Brockthrop, 
as from the time of Walter the Constable, so also now, pertain to 
the Church of St. Owen. 

The Canons have also granted that if the wife of the said 
Roger, or any other free woman in his house, bring forth 
children, they may go whither they will for their Purification 



Hakej-combe. 89 

(churching) ; and that the said Roger and his wife, and the free 
men of his house at their departing (fine suo) may transfer their 
bodies to whatsoever church they will ; but if they decease 
without devise, let them remain for their burial to their mother 
church. The Tithes of one mill the Canons have also granted for 
the sustentation of the Chaplain of the said chapel. They have 
also granted to the said Roger and his heirs that, on the decease 
of the Chaplain of the said Chapel, they themselves shall present 
a Chaplain to the said Canons, whom (if he shall appear to 
them to be meet for this ministry) they shall cause to be 
instituted to the said Chapel by the Bishop or by his Official, the 
usual chaplains' oath being first taken for the faithful observance 
of all the ordinances [of the said chapel] in our Chapter House. 

All these things were settled in the year of Our Lord 
mclxxxi ., in the presence of the Noble Lady and Patroness of the 
Church of Lanthony, Margaret de Bohun, and of William Fitz 
Stephen, then Sheriff of Gloucester, whose seals are affixed to this 
present writing in two portions, for a perpetual testimony, so 
that either being possessed of a writing duly sealed with their 
seals, this agreement and concord may perpetually exist." 

This agreement, made between the prior of Lanthony and 
Roger Fitz Alan relative to the church of Harescombe, was, to 
all appearance, scrupulously observed. The prior and convent 
do not seem to have sought further gain, but to have looked 
upon the agreement made under such illustrious auspices as a 
solemn trust to be religiously and faithfully discharged. On a 
vacancy occurring in the church the nomination of the clerk was 
made by the lord of the manor, and the prior and convent presented 
him to the Bishop for institution down to the dissolution of the 
House. Afterwards the advowson became absolutely vested in the 
lord as appurtenant to the manor, until near the end of the 17th 
century, when the manor itself had become dismembered and sold 
in parcels. Since that time the advowson has changed hands 
frequently at short intervals, as may lie seen by the names of the 
patrons in the List of Institutions. The patronage is now vested 
in the Rev. John Melland Hall, the Rector. 



90 Transactions at Gloucester. 

In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, ad. 1291, the rectory of 
Harescombe would appear to have been included in those small 
benefices which were valued at less than ten marcs, which paid 
no tax; but reference is made to it in connection with the 
possessions of Lanthony. 

" Wygorn' Spirit' "—In Decanat' Glouc' 
Porco Prioris Lanthon in Ecclia de Harsecomb et Pychenecomb 
Taxatio Decima 

0. 5 s . d . 6 d . 

in pecuii 
Pret' h porco Vicar de Harsefeld in ecclia de Harsecombe I s , 
whilst Haresfield itself is taxed (in connexion with the same 
Priory) at 4 H 6 s 8 d , the tenth 8 s 8 d : and Ecclia de Brocthrop at 
1 H G s 8'', the tenth 2 s 8 d l 

In the assessment and sale in 1340 of the ninth sheaf, the 
ninth fleece and the ninth lamb, the chapels of Harescombe and 
Pynchcombe were assessed with the parish church of Haresfield 
at 7 marks, 9s. 4d. or 102s. 8d. 2 The instructions to the assessors 
were that they should levy the Ninth, &c, according to Pope 
Nicholas's taxation, if the value of the Ninth amounted to as 
much as the tax, and to levy more where the true value of the 
Ninth should be found to exceed the tax, but should the value 
of the Ninth be less than the tax, to levy only the true value of 
the Ninth and disregard the tax. 

The "pension" of "five shillings in money," payable by the 
Rectors of Harescombe to the Priors of Lanthony, according to 
the terms of the aforesaid agreement in 1181, here appears 
among the " beneficia " of the priory. And again, at the time 
of its Visitation in 1407, by John Bishop of Worcester, as " a 
yearly pension of five shillings, anciently due from the rectory 
of the chapel of Harscomb." It survived the Reformation, and 
fell with other like spoils into the hands of Henry VIII., and 
was granted or sold by the Crown, and is now in private hands. 
It still continues to be paid, although for 300 years and more 
the priory of Lanthony has ceased to exist, a striking instance 
of the continuity of the English church, from the stormy days of 

1 Taxatio Ecclesiastioa. - Nouarum Inquisitiones, p. 413. 



Harescombe. 91 

Henry Plantagenet, through all the vicissitudes of the Wars of 
the Roses, Reformation troubles, and Puritan ascendancy during 
the Commonwealth, to our own time. 

The tithes, amounting to £113 8s. lid., were commuted in 
1841, and thus apportioned (the Pitchcombe Commutation being 
separate and distinct 1 ) : — 

Rector - - - £89 10 11 

Impropriator - - - - 23 

Mrs. Curtis Hay ward - - 18 

The Impropriator's portion at that time being also vested in 

the Rev. Marlow Watts Wilkinson, the rector. 

An interesting fact may be recorded. The " two acres in the 
South Meadow," near Cloucester, granted, as we shall see here- 
after, by Roger Fitz Alan, to the canons of Lanthony with his 
" body," that is, as a burial fee for the privilege of interment in 
the priory church, 2 can still be identified, because they were 
in the possession of the Priory at the dissolution, and tithe free, 
and they have remained tithe free to this day. A part of Long- 
mead (556 yards w.s.w. of Hempsted Canal Bridge, lj miles from 
Gloucester, and 4 miles from Harescombe Church), charged in 
the Tithe Commutation Award, with the sum of 18s. per annum, 
payable to Mrs. Georgiana Curtis Haywarcl, has also, doubtless, 
its historical associations, but what they are we do not at present 
know. 

The area of the parish, according to admeasurement, is 478a. 
3r. 16p., of which 453a. lr. Ip. are pasture, and the remainder 
(25a. 2r. 15p.) arable. The Glebe consists of 15a. 2r. 

1 There is no reliable information regarding the time of the union of 
these benefices. Pitchcombe is not mentioned in Domesday, nor does the 
name occur till circa 1140, when the abbot of Gloucester, Gilbert Foliot, 
bitterly complains of the cruelties inflicted upon the abbey by certain men, 
viz., John de Marlborough and Walter de " Pinchcomb." The taxation of 
Pope Nicholas, a.d. 1291, shews that it was then united to Harescombe. 
This union has continued to the present day (a temporary divorce having 
taken place during the reign of Edward VI., probably under the auspices 
of Bishop Hooper). In a civil sense the parishes are entirely distinct, each 
supporting its own poor in different Unions and with a separate Tithe 
Commutation Allotment, but the ancient ecclesiastical arrangements still 
prevail, with alternate services on Sundays. 

2 Regist. Lanthon, No. xcv. 



92 Transactions at Gloucester. 

The Charities are derived from the bequests of Giles Cox, 
Gent., ob. 1620; Miles Huntley, Gent., ob. 1790; Miss Ellen 
Matilda Bedwell, ob. 1876. The Huntley charity, originally 
amounting to £50, for the apprenticing of orphans, has consider- 
ably increased, no suitable applications having been made of late 
years ; it is proposed to submit a scheme to the Charity Com- 
missioners for the benefit of the parishioners generally. The 
" Cox" charity, £1 7s., is distributed in money ; the " Bedwell," 
£1 18s. 2d., in clothing, &c, on St. Thomas's Day. 

The list of Rectors is tolerably complete, commencing with a 
certain "Johannes r c ecclie de Harsecombe," made deacon at 
Henbury in the Salt Marsh (an episcopal manor), on the day of 
St. Matthew the Apostle and Evangelist, 1286, by Bishop 
Giffard, whose registers, beginning with 1268, are the earliest 
existing for the bishopric of Worcester, to which diocese Glou- 
cestershire, east of the Severn, appertained. The preceding 
statement may seem to require a few words of explanation, as 
it is so opposed to our modern notions that the incumbent of a 
benefice should not even be in deacon's orders ! But it is evident 
that many were presented to benefices who had taken only the 
minor clerical orders, as sub-deacons or acolytes. These, pro- 
bably, in the majority of cases, had taken a minor order only to 
qualify themselves for holding the temporalities of a benefice, and 
never proceeded to the priesthood at all ; the rectors of such 
parishes employed a chaplain to perfoi'm their spiritual functions 
for them, whilst they enjoyed the fruits of the benefice as if it 
were a lay fee, the minor order which they had taken imposing 
no restraint upon their living an entirely secular life. Matthew 
Paris 1 informs us that when the Bishop of Lincoln urged his 
beneficed clergy to be advanced to the rank of priest, many 
refused, sending money to the Court of Rome to obtain leave for 
some years to " hold schools " without entering the priesthood. 
'•Thus with an appearance of honesty, they with fox-like cunning 
shook off the yoke of the Lord from their necks." The Council 
of Lyons, in 1271, ordered the clergy to reside and to take 

1 Vol. ii. 47S, and Cutts' Scenes and Characters of the Middles Ages. 



Harescombe. 93 

priest's orders within a year of their promotion, in accord- 
ance with which Bishop Swinfield was able to put pressure upon 
a hostile incumbent, who refused procurations, and whose bene- 
fice was ready to be declared vacant, inasmuch as the rector had 
not, within a year after his institution, received priest's orders 
according to that canon. In his mandate, addressed to the 
Official of Hereford, concerning his first ordination, Anno 1280, 
" die Sabbati quo cantatur Sitientes, apud Ledebur," he requires 
all rectors, vicars and others, having sufficient titles, to be cited 
to the said church for admission to the priesthood. 1 

Institutions to Harescombe. 

Circa 1286. — "Johannes, Rector ecct de Harscomb," admitted to 
Deacon's Orders at Henbury, in Salt Marsh, 
on the Feast of St. Matthew, Apostle and 
Evangelist, a.d., 1286. 2 

Ante 1320. — "Johannes, Persona ecctie de Harsecombe." 3 

1324 14 Kal. June. — Sir Roger de Cardoyl, Chaplain, admitted 
to the Church of Harescombe on the nomina- 
tion of Sir John le Rous, and presentation of 
the Sub-Prior and Convent of Lanthony. 4 
Benefice taxed at six marks. 

1328, Sept. 7. — Sir Henry de Honton, lately rector of Aber- 
leveney, Diocese of St. David's, was instituted 
to the Chantry of the Chapel of Harescombe, 
exchanging with Sir Roger de Cardoyl. 

1 Camden »Soc. Bp. Swinfield's Household Roll. App. 

It was not unusual for persons in minor orders to be admitted to 
benefices, and an examination of the Episcopal Registers will shew, that 
usually, very soon afterwards, licence of absence was given them for study, 
sometimes specifying the University. John, when admitted, was in orders 
of a lower degree than deacon. — Ed. 

2 Register of Bishop Giffard, fob 258. 3 Pedes Finium, 13 Edw. II. 

4 This remarkable arrangement is in accordance with the agieement 
between the Prior of Lanthony and Roger Fitz Alan, and it continued down 
to the dissolution of the House. The reader will therefore understand that 
throughout that period, though the Lord of the manor nominated the Clerk, 
the Prior made the formal presentation. — (Reg. Bish. Thorn. Cobham, 
fob 35.) 



94 Transactions at Glouckster. 

1328, Sept. 7 — Master John de Aston, Rector of St. John's, 
Bristol, to the same Chapel or Chantry with 
the chapel aforesaid was made incumbent. 1 

1362, April 6. — Sir William Fremon, Presbyter, instituted to the 
Chapel or Chantry of Harescombe, " with the 
Chapel of Pynchenecombe," on the presentation 
of the Prior and Convent of Lanthony. 2 

1380, July 16. — Sir John Lemynster (Vicar of the Church or 
Chapel of the parish of Corse in the presenta- 
tion of Richard, King of England), exchanged 
with Sir William Ffremon, Rector of the Chapsl 
or Chantry of Harescombe in the Diocese of 
Worcester. 3 

1380, Dec. 28.— Sir Thomas Brokkebury, Chaplain, admitted to 
the Chapel of the Chantry of Harescombe, with 
the Chapel of Pychenecombe annexed to it, 
vacant, on the nomination of Sir Andrew 
Herle, lord of Harescombe, at " Hertlebury." 4 

1399, Apr. 12. — Sir Thomas Hayfeld, 5 admitted. 

1404, Apr. 9. — Sir John Clerc, Presbyter, admitted upon the 
presentation of Prior and Convent of the 
Lanthony. 

1409, Nov. 1. — Sir John Uppynton, Chaplain, admitted to the 
Chapels of Harescombe and Pychenecombe, 
vacant by the resignation of Sir John Clerc, 
upon the presentation of the Prior and Convent 
of Lanthony. 

1420, May 12. — Sir Bernewald, Chaplain, on resignation of Sir 
John Uppynton, May 12th, 1420. 

1439, Oct. 19. — Sir James Cade, Presbyter, 7 admitted on the 
nomination of Thomas Mylle, Lord of Hares- 
combe. 

1 Reg. Bishop Barnet, fol. 7. 2 Beg. Bish. Barnet. 

3 Heg. Bishop Henry de Wakefield. 

4 Reg. Bish. Henry de Wakefield, fol. 21. 

5 Reg. Bish. Tideman de Winchcumbe, fol. 37. 

« Reg. Bish. Rich. Clifford, fol. 66. 7 Reg. Bish. Bourchier. 



Hakescombk. On 

# # # * # 

unknown Sir John Ladcle. 1 

1512, May 27. — Sir William Nicholson, Chaplain, instituted to 
the Chapel or Chantry of Harescombe with the 
Chapel of Pychenecombe, vacant by the death 
of Sir John Ladde, last chaplain thereof, on 
the nomination of Edward Myll, lord of Hares- 
combe, and presentation of the Prior and Con- 
vent of Lanthony. 

c 1537. Sir William Okey. 

c 1548. Sir John Dumbell. 

c 1550. Sir John Hartland [Pitchcombe], 3 upon the pre 

sentation of Edward Mill, Esq., patron ; 
deprived for matrimony, 2-3 Phil, and Mar. 

c 1551. Sir William Corbet [Harescombe],' 2 upon the 

presentation of Edward Mill, Esq., patron. 

1569, July 30. — Richard Rawlyns, instituted upon the presenta- 
tion of Thomas Mill, Esq. 

1576. Vacant at the Visitation of the Metropolitan. 

1577. Peter Hogge. 

1596, Oct. 3. — John Rowles, instituted to the Rectory of Hars- 
comb and Pitchcomb upon the presentation of 
Thos. Mill, Esq. Vacant by the resignation of 
Peter Hogge. 

1605-6, Mar, 15. — Peter Hogge, B.A., instituted upon the pre- 
sentation of Thos. Mill, Esq. Void by the 
deprivation of John Rowles. 

1612, Oct. 25.-— Thomas Lloyde, M.A., instituted upon the pre- 
sentation of Thos. Mill, Esq., and William, his 
son. Vacant by the death of Peter Hogge. 

1 There may have been other institutions between 1439 and 1512, of 
which there is no record, the Registers of Institutions for the loth century- 
being imperfect. 

2 A temporary disunion of the benefices ; the name of each rector is 
given in the separate returns made to Bishop Hooper's Visitation enquiries, 
1551-2. 

3 A "William Corbet" occurs as the last incumbent of a Chantry at 
Painswick ; Annual Pension, 1553, £5 10s. (P.R.O. and Atkyns.) 



96 Transactions at Gloitcestek. 

1669, June 28. — Richard Horston, Clerk, instituted. 

1648, Apr. 18. — Thomas Stock, Clerk, instituted upon the pre- 
sentation of William M-ill, Gent. Vacant by 
the death of Richard Horston. 

1696, Apr. 25. — Charles Stock, junior, Clerk, instituted upon 
the presentation of Charles Stock, senior, Clerk. 
Vacant by the cession of Thomas Stock. 

1708, July 17.— Jonathan Blagge, B.A. (Bras. Coll., Oxon, 

Oct. 26, 1686), instituted upon the presentation 

of Thomas Stock, Clerk, and Christ. Stock, 

Gent. Vacant by the death of Charles Stock, 

junior. 

1726, Sept. 28. — Thomas Rawlins, B.A., instituted on the pre- 
sentation of Mary Blagge, widow. 

1740, Oct. 4.— Richard Bridge, B.A. (Univ. Coll., Oxon, 
June 14, 1734), instituted upon the presenta- 
tion of Thomas Rawlins, Clerk. Vacant by 
the cession of Thomas Rawlins. 

1741-2, Feb. 2.— Charles Neale, B.A. (Ch. Ch., Oxon, June 30, 
1739), collated by the Bishop of Gloucester, 
by reason of lapse. Vacant by death of 
Richai'd Bridge. 

1769, Aug. 18. — Rice Jones, Clerk, instituted on the presenta- 
tion of John Purnell, Esq., and Elizabeth 
Purnell, Spinster. Void by death of Charles 
Neale. 

1791, Mar. 26.— Charles Wallington, M.A. 1 (Ch. Ch., Oxon, 
Dec. 17, 1776; B.A., Nov. 10, 1773), in- 
stituted on the presentation of Thomas Purnell 
Purnell, Esq. Vacant by the death of Rice 
Jones, Clerk. 

1804, Sept. 19. — William James, B.A. 2 instituted on the pre- 
sentation of Ann Purnell, widow. Vacant by 

the cession of Chas. Wallington. 

1 Also, Rector of Lasborough, 1776. 

2 Also, Rector of Evenlode, Wore. 



Harf.scombe. 97 

1825, June 8. — Marlow Watts Wilkinson, B.LV instituted on 
the presentation of Ann Purnell Purnell. Vacant 
by the death of William James, Clerk. 

1867, April 17.— William Melland, M.A., instituted on his own 
petition as Patron. Void by the death of 
Marlow Watts Wilkinson, Clerk. 

1867, Nov. 12. — Edward Lewis, M.A., instituted upon the pre- 
sentation of the Rev. William Melland. Void 
by the cession of William Melland, Clerk. 

1879, July 5. — John Melland Hall, M.A., instituted upon the 
presentation of the Rev. William Melland. 
Vacant by the death of Edward Lewis, Clerk. 

The names of the following Curates in charge under non- 
resident Rectors may be recorded here :— 

Rev. Fr. Quarrington, M.A., 1839-52. 
Rev. Chas. Churton, M.A., 1852-66. 
Rev. W. Lewis Mills, M.A., 1867-78. 

We do not know of anything further of a special nature until 
the period of the Reformation and the Dissolution of the Religious 
Houses ; and referring to the "Valor Ecclesiasticus," 2 we find the 
united benefice of Harescombe and Pitchcombe entered thus : — 

" Harscombe et Pechyncorn valet in reddit' 
et firm' unacu x is et oblac' ibm p annu ultra v 8 
solut' Priori et Convent' de Llanthon' pro quod' 
re u ij 8 pro sinag' et ij 8 viij d archino - - vj 1 ' viij 8 

x a inde - - xij 8 ix d ob. 

xij 8 ix d ob q. 

At the same time the portion of tithes of the demesne belonging 
to the priory is noted 

Priorat' Lanthon' 
D' firma cujusdam porcionis x mar ' apud Herescombe et Brock- 
throp' lvj 8 viij d 

1 Also, Rector of Uley, Glouc. " Vol. II. p. 499. 

Vol. X. part 1. H 



98 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



lxvj li xiij 8 j d ob'q' 



The possessions of the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, in this 
parish, are also given in connection with Brockthrop, 1 in which 
their manor was of greater value, and of which they were also 
Rectors : 

Redd'assis'custuniio^ tenen' < 

in Brokethrope per annu 

Redd'assis'custuinio^ tenen') .... u • s - d 

\ m J 1X * J 
in Harscombe per annu -) 

Firma situs Manij et terr' j ixli x[[ . s ^- d 

doni ca1 ' ibm per annil - -) 
Perquis' Cur' iom ten' per) 

annu. ------ -J 

Firma Rectorie ibm per) 

annu sic dim - - - -) 



V s 11J C 

xl 8 



XXX11] 1 



iii d ob'q' 



-Xllj 



/ 



Rep's 

Feod' Thome Morgan ballivi 
ac coll' reus ibm per annu - 

Penc oe annua solut Vicario") 
ppetuo ibm [Brokethrope] ' 



ix s iiij d 



XXX11J S 111J 1 



s v-iiid 



xlij 8 viij 



p annu 



Et valet clare per annu 



xxx 1 ' xviij 8 vj d ob'q' 



It is shewn by a certain Return concerning Tithes of Hay, 
Grain and Hemp that the farm of the rectories of Brockthorp and 
Hariscombe, by the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, by indenture 
under the Convent Seal, dated 13th July, 12th Henry VIII. 
(1521) was granted to Thomas Gardiner, Agnes, his wife, 
and William, their son. 



1 Vol. II. p. 415. 



Hakescombe. 



99 



■Ml 

e 
o 



>H 



o 

d 
fa 

Oh' 



s 



8 •'. 






© 

CO 

HO 

8 

o 

• (*» 

o 



HO 



s 



© -2 <U ^3 

«c S *S ■& 

a o S3 

V2 03 3 5 .-* 

Ph 



03 .-. 03 „ i— i 

© aaa: r-< o 

Oh © ©,3^:3,5 
©^Htf^ ©;© 

r-i >-< aa xn -? ■*"* i-i 






> is 



"m m -a +3 r^^-j 

Oh § § 2 <* d 

© , — i (O d 'TS 

aO >» © „a a 
~ o o 



a'~;>> 0r 3~?J . 

U [> C3 3 rf Sh ;r r"< 

03 © -1-3 .-< r-H f* 



d 



14-1 © o 



^.S^'STr 



© 



2 ta 



© a 

CD C 

•r-s r-j 

03 £H 

~ 03 

CD 
O 



o> 
o 

a 



=4H 

o 

CD 

a 
i> 

o 

ra 

-r3 



o 

+3 



o 
-v3 



O 



o 

+3 



r£> 



cd 

CD 

o2 
4-3 

o 



CD 
> 
cS 

H 

CD 
-to 

a 

r^ 



rH 

o 
o 

CD 

Ph 



a2 
Pi 

Ph 

CD 

+3 



co 

+3 



a 
o 
o 



o 





b ^ 



e3 



id 




a 




a 




o 




ttH 




© 




2 "ad 




O ^ ^ +3 




o a o a 




s° d js a 




3 aJ 




Cm 




o © -2 


© 


-a a © 
®1: S -a 




a3 — r— I © +3 


© © 


co o a " i 




i © a o a 

o< £ * ■= i -j? 


03 o 

© -a 


r 3 , W >j ««h 


H PL, 


o 


CO 




I-H 




6 




fc 





.3 o 



<D 



to aa 



+2 

o 



xn 
-i-3 



o 
o 

o 

<1 



•~ ~ CO 

"O CD ?-• 

:a? +3 cd 

• 3 O -t3 

•r-< CD CO 



O 
+3 



xn ^j 

.2 -o ^ 

s-h ja ^ 

-4-j eS 



O 



o 
o 

+3 

CD 



O 

+3 



CD GO 

■+3 



a 



to 

c3 



o 



03 



o 



to d 



So .2 

co 

CD CD 

al co 

• i-l CO 

O 
ft 



a 
a 



CD 

tc 

c3 
o 
o 

co 
PI 

o 

a 
a 

o 



=3 :s 



N O 



c3 
co" ."S 

3 I 

O 
rt CD 



^1 
CD 



„ +3 



i — i 



CO 

CD 

ai 



CD 
Ph 

CD CD 

^ .5 

tf ► 
e $ 

S co 
•«» CD 



co 

CD 

O 
c3 



co 

■+3 

§ CO 

co 
>> cr> 

^2 . 



a 2 s ^ o 



t-3 



Pi t- 



-T O 



a -e ^ 



to 

CD 



cc3 
O 



CD 



co 

CD 

co 
CD 
CJ 

o 

O 






t3 

a 

r— « 

CD 

P-, 

a 

5 

CD 



<y-i 
O 



CD 

a. 



3 "£ 

^ a 2 s 



■ CD 



=4-1 

o 



Ph 

cS 



- ^ ^- -« 



ai 

~ CD 

h 3 a 

a a 



a 3 > 



-1-3 
• rH 



co 



■+3 

at 1 

a 
a 
Pl 

c3 
fcO 



o a 
o 

o S 

CO 

co a~ 

o a 

co O 

CO -4-1 

O <D 

Ph ^3 



o 



X CO 

•—i CD 



O 
co 
to 



H-> 



3 .a 2 ^ 



a 

CD 

+3 

e+-l 
O 



CD 



CD 



O 
co 



CD 



ai 

a 
H 



- 

CD 

H-3 
CO 

CD 

o 

a 
o 

3 



JO 
+3 

CD 
U 

03 

to 



F3 



■s a - 

S C5 ? 



S « ^ S -2 B 

a "S - :^ a 'co 



•jts a --H 
fl 8 » 

^3+3 



co a 

CO "H 

M rpl 

CO rt 

2 o 

Ph +3 
CD 

o 

a 

CD 

rH 

CD 

=4H 

CD 



CD p" 

> 

CD 

r* 

c 



a 

CD 

tD co 



-4-3 



T- 



co 

CO 

<3 



r! "H ^ "~1 a 



2 S Ph 



CD 

h? 
O 

Sh 

o 



co a d 

^ o 5 

* £C CD 

a= 

a 

rH 8 

CD CO 
+3 CD 



CD 

^ .a 



CO 

Sh 



CD 



a 

• rH 

CD 



-3 h3 d 

a « 

- <H «g 
-to 

a b-l ^ 

d S* a 

a r— ; C3 



d 

Ph* 

03 

© 



-H 

o 



^ 
o 



CD 

a 

co 



^ W HO -5 



r^ © 



<D CD 

=c ra 
•n -tf 
'u a 
rp -r 

g> ^ 

3 5 



c3 



-4^» 

03 

Ph 



o 

P5 



ii 2 



]00 Transactions at Gloucester. 

In 10 Eliz. (1568), among " Inrolments of leases, County of 
Glouc," we meet with a renewal of the lease to the Gardiners 
already mentioned, viz., to William Gardiner, Elizabeth his wife, and 
John their son, for their lives, upon surrender of the old lease ; 
the new one commencing from the Feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel last past, the fine being £11 6s. 8d. The County 
Histories refer to a lease granted to a certain William Hody, or 
Hoddy, but from an examination of the original documents this 
would appear to have been cancelled. Eight years subsequently, 
18 Eliz., 1576, the Close Roll., part 8, contains a grant of "all 
tithes of hay and grain growing upon two and a half virgates of 
land, and all that Church-house there, and Harescombe acre, 
called the Clerk's acre, a close of pasture, to John Farnham, his 
heirs and assigns for ever." 

In 7 Jac. I. (1610), a portion of tithes here is named in a 
grant to Francis Morrice, and seems to have been previously held 
by Robert Nash, Clerk; this is again mentioned in 22 Car. II. 
(1671), in connection with "the rent of £2 16s. 8cl. for all that 
portion of tythes for the rectories of Brockthrop and Harescombe, 
in the County of Glouc, in the hands of William Dutton, 
Esquire." These tythes remained in the possession of the Dutton 
family until, at least, the early part of this century, Sir John 
Dutton (Lord Sherborne) being assessed for them in the Over- 
seer's accounts for 1799-1800. As regards Brockthrop, we 
imagine that these were tythes of the demesne lands in that 
parish, which, according to the Visitation of John Bishop of 
Worcester, appertained to Lanthony Priory in 1407. These are 
mentioned in a grant of Milo, Constable of Gloucester, together 
with others at Whaddon, Quedresse (Quedgley) and Elmore, " all 
the tithes of Wadon, all the tithes of the manor of Brocrup in all 
things, &c.j and a small parcel of land to collect the tithes." 1 

During the Great Rebellion, Parliament appointed a Com- 
mission for the sequesti'ation of all church lands, and subsequently 
proceeded to " utterly abolish the name and title of Archbishop 
and Bishop, and other Dignitaries, by an ordinance, of 9th October, 

1 Atkyns. 



Harescombe. 101 

1646, by which all their honours, manors and lordships were 
vested in trustees for sale." Among the subsequent sales of 
Bishop's lands, between 1647-51, "the mannors of Brockesthropp 
and Harescombe were purchased by Arthur Cresswell and John 
Watson for the sum of £817 8s. 4d." 

As a prelude to the Restoration, these two acts of spoliation 
were repealed in March 1659-60; and after the king's restor- 
ation all such pretended sales were declared null and void, 
and the lands reverted to their former owners, which, in 
the case of these manors, was the Bishop of Gloucester. The 
lands in this parish were for many years let on lease to the 
Savage family, and reverting to the Bishop on the death of 
Colonel George Savage, were leased to Thomas Smith, gentleman. 
At the commencement of the present century they were sold, 
together with other estates, for the redemption of the land tax on 
the possessions of the See, to the same family, by whose descend- 
ants they are now held ; by reason whereof the ancient connec- 
tion (for seven hundred years, or thereabouts) first with the 
Abbey, and afterwards with the Bishopric, came to an end, but 
the names of "Abbot's Hill," and "Abbot's Hill Grove," still testify 
to the ancient endowment by Earl Roger and Walter de 
Hereford. 

Moreover, during the same lawless period of the interregnum, 
another calamity had like to have befallen the parish in a proposal to 
unite the parishes of Harescombe and Brockthrop. We have not 
succeeded in finding any reference to this scheme in the Parliamentary 
Survey, but it appears from documents relating to the " Augmen- 
tation of Church Lands," now at Lambeth, that through the 
energetic action of the inhabitants this danger was avoided. The 
question was refez-red to " the Trustees," who, on 2nd December, 
1656, after hearing the parties on both sides and their counsel, 
and due consideration of the Survey returned in that behalf, and 
hearing the exceptions made by the inhabitants of Harescombe 
and Pitch comb against the said union, ordered that the said 
parishes should have liberty to sue out another Commission 
for further enquiry on the subject, to be returnable in the Easter 



102 Transactions at Gloucester. 

term following, the said Commission to be sued out, and the 
return thereof procured at the charge of the said parishioners. 1 

At this time the Rev. Richard Capel, previously rector of 
Eastington (which he had resigned for conscientious reasons), 
resided at Pitchcombe. He was a Fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and a Member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 2 

The Church. 

The church of Harescombe is dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, and was consecrated by the Bishop of "Worcester in 
July, 1315. It is of the most simple type, consisting of chancel 
and nave and a south porch. The chancel is 20ft. 11 in, in 
length, and 13ft. 5in. in width, and the nave is 31ft. 11 in. in 
length, and 18ft. 8in. wide, the chancel arch being 15ft. lin. 
above the floor of the nave, and 7ft. Sin. in width. There are 
remains of a north door in the nave, now walled up, formerly used 
for processions and other purposes. We are fortunate in being 
able to fix with certainty the date of the consecration of the 
existing church, which was probably entirely rebuilt in 1315, 
for it would appear from the institutions, and the convention 
made between Roger, prior of Lanthony, and Roger Fitz Alan, 
that a church or chapel existed here previously. 3 

1 My thanks are due to Mr. W. S. Kershaw, M.A., F.S.A', the librarian 
at Lambeth Palace Library, for his kindness in communicating to me these 
particulars. 

2 He was a moderate Presbyterian, and greatly lamented the extra- 
vagances of the religious partisans of that day ; a man of great learning, 
who has left various treatises on religious subjects ; his position in Pitch- 
combe during the Commonwealth is rather difficult to understand, yet it 
is plain that he did not supersede the rector, or altogether usurp his 
functions. His biographer, who had just spoken of his proficiency as a 
physician, and often refusing fees and also stipend, gives us some hints as 
to the relations between the Rector and himself, and proceeds to say, "not 
that he thought it unlawful for a minister to take that maintenance, or that 
maintenance which hath been publicly set aside in this land ; for that he 
paid himself, and very duelie too (all the whole time of his preaching thus 
freely), to one that did not much in the toorh of the ministry, and he did it 
upon this ground also, because he knew it to be his due." 

3 In early times there appears to have been great irregularity in the 
dedication of churches. At a Council held in St. Paul's, a.i>. 1237, under 
Otto, " Legate a latere," in order to ' strengthen and reform the state of the 



Harescombe. 103 

The following extract has reference to this church : — 1 

" Item. Tercio Non Julii (5 July) anno supradicto (1315) dedicavit 
Eccclesiam de Harsecu.be et dom us Rector predictam pcur. et 
feod. similiter." 

that is, On the third Nones of July in the year above written, he 
(the bishop of Worcestei') dedicated the church of Harsecumbe 
and the lord Rector paid his procurations and dues as in the preced- 
ing instances : from this reference, it would appear that five marcs 
of silver were paid on this occasion to the bishop's officers for 
procurations and fees. 2 

From the fact of this dedication of the church in 1315 we 
may conclude that Sir John le Rous, as lord of Harescombe, 

Church of England " this matter seems to have had great prominence. 
Cathedrals, conventual, and parochial churches, not consecrated within the 
space of two years, were to be placed under interdict ; and bishops were 
enjoined to travel through their dioceses at seasonable times "reforming 
and correcting abuses, consecrating churches and sowing the Word of Life in 
the field of the Lord. " We are afraid these injunctions were not very generally 
obeyed, for the great era of church dedications in this county and Worces- 
tershire would seem not to have arrived till eighty years or so later. 
Walter de Maydenstone held the Bishopric of Worcester, but for a brief 
period — three or four years : but his Register contains many interesting 
records concerning the dedication of our parish churches (Glouc. Notes and 
Queries, Vol. n., p. 12). In the year 1315, and in the month of July, we 
have an entry in which this locality is specially concerned, for this was the 
time of the consecration of the church of " Beggeworth" (Badgworth) and 
its great altar, the chapel of " Waddon," with its great altar, the church of 
Harescombe, the church of " Elsmore," the great altar of " Herdwick," 
the church of Fretherne, and the church and great altar of Frampton. 

1 Regist. Bishop Maydenstone, fol. 29. 

2 What has become of the tablet, which (according to the Constitutions 
of Win. de Bleys, Bishop of Lincoln, c. 1229) we may presume to have been 
customarily affixed to the wall of the church, cannot now be said : "in the 
churches dedicated, let the year and day of their dedication, the dedicator 
and the name of the saint in whose honour the church was dedicated, be 
distinctly and clearly written about the great altar in a suitable place : and 
the same in the case of the lesser altars." On these occasions, relics of 
saints were placed within the body of the altar — a weighty slab of stone 
fixed by masons there and then, 'consecrated by the bishop, pouring the holy 
oil and chrism thereon and burning incense in the middle and at the four 
corners. To obtain fire for burning these grains, wax tapers were cut into 
short lengths and laid crosswise two and two, lighted at the four ends all 
at the same time. (Exeter Pontif, de Eccl. Dedic. and Arch. Jour. m. 138.] 



104 



TRANSACTIONS AT GLOUCESTER. 



was the chief agent in the good work of the rebuilding of a 
fabric then fallen into decay. 

The most remarkable portion of the fabric is the bell-turret 
surmounting the chancel arch. This was described some forty 
years ago by that well-known and accomplished antiquary, the 
Rev. J. L. Petit. We cannot do better than reprint his lucid 
observations from the Archaeological Journal, and transfer his 
excellent illustration, vol. I. p. 36. A view of the church, in his 
unrivalled etching, forms the frontispiece to the volume. 

As Mr. Petit writes : — " No belfry is better adapted to a 
small village church than that which is supported by a single 
wall, as it saves much expense of material, and does not interfere 
with the simplicity of the ground plan desirable in an edifice of 
this description." After referring to the difficulty of designing 
a good west front, comprising a bell-gable, and on the other hand, 
one perfectly satisfactory over the chancel arch, he proceeds to 

say that he was on this account 
much pleased when his atten- 
tion was called to some bell- 
turrets which, standing (like 
those at Skelton, Yorkshire, 
Binsey, near Oxford, North- 
borough in Lincolnshire) upon 
a single wall, yet present the 
appearance, on a small scale, of 
steeples whose structure affects 
the ground plan of the building, 
and he was fortunate in seeing 
these specimens in their right 
order, not perhaps as regarded 
their date, but according to 
their development. "The first 
of these," he continues, "is 
37 Harescombe in Gloucestershire ; 
=^?> '" a church mentioned by Rick- 
man as having a singular belfry 
at the cast end of the nave, but with little or no further descrip- 
tion. This belfry serves as a key to all the rest. The wall over 




Harescombe. 105 

the chancel arch is crossed by a block of masonry projecting east- 
ward and westward, and forming each way a sort of corbel or 
bracket. This gives support to the eastern and western faces of 
an octagonal spire, the other two cardinal sides resting on imposts 
raised upon the wall itself, two spaces or apertures being thus left 
for the bells. The diagonal faces of the spire are supported only 
by their connection with the others ; but from the small size of 
the belfry, it is plain that the stone may easily have been cut in 
such a manner as to obviate any difficulty in the construction. 
The whole is strengthened as well as enriched by octagonal pin- 
nacles at the cardinal sides. (Fly. SO) The style of the church 
appears to be Early Decorated ; the windows consist of single 
lancet lights, but foliated ; the font has an Early English 
character." 

Before the restoration of the church the whole structure of 
the spire had subsided on its southern side, and was out of the 
perpendicular. It was therefore carefully taken down, the old 
stones being reset, except those which had perished by weather 
and the rusting of the iron cramps. A pei'fectly plain cross, an 
exact facsimile of the original (although this is absent in Mr. 
Petit's etching) 1 crowns the whole. The four pinnacles now 
appear with a moulding and crosses of iron ; previously these 
were truncated and ended abruptly. 2 

There are two bells : that in the southern compartment of the 
turret we may suppose to be the original bell of the chapel, and 
coeval with the church. As is usually the case with the most 
ancient bells, it has no inscription. It is " of a singular shape, 
long and tapering like the flower of the campanula ; " the bell in 
the northern compartment was somewhat smaller and of later 
date ; it bore an inscription in Early Gothic characters : — 

X IN- HONORE- BEATE- MARIE- VIRGINIS- As it 

had been useless for many years, a large piece being broken 
out of the sound bow, it was recast by Messrs. J. Taylor and Co., 
Loughborough, and was again used for the first time on Sexa- 
gesiina Sunday, Feb. 17th, 1884. 

1 The cross is, however, shewn in a snpprcsseil plate of this church, 
found in a copy of " Lysons' Glouc. Antiquities " in the Bodleian Library. 



106 Transactions at Gloucester. 

The font is of the Early English period. It is of large 
dimensions, 1 a massive circular bowl, 2ft. 6in. in diameter, sup- 
ported by clustered pillars, thirteen in number, having plain bell 
capitals, with no neck, resting upon a plain round plinth (PI. I. 
fig. 3) 2 It would appear to be but one block of Minchinhampton 
stone, and has a drain. The marks of the staples for the cover 
are still to be seen. 

The pulpit is of carved oak of the Jacobean period. Though 
much decayed by age, it was carefully preserved and strengthened, 
but was transferred to the north side of the nave, and placed upon 
a base of Sheepscombe stone, ornamented with quatrefoils and 
sacred monograms. 

It is much to be regretted that the ecclesiastical fashion of 
the day prevented the retention of the ancient canopy ; this, 
however, was utilised in another way. Nevertheless it is to be 
hoped that greater knowledge in the future may preserve the 
few remaining memorials of the past. 

Two Piscina? remain ; one in the southern wall of the Nave 
near to the chancel arch, the other in the Chancel. The latter is 
of the Decorated period, with cinquefoil tracery ; it has a shelf 
for the " cruets,', the " amulre " or " fiola3 " of early Christian art. 
(PI. I. fig. 1). 

The chief works effected in the restoration, in addition to the 
repairs of the bell turret, were the renewal of the greater portion 
of the nave roof (on which the remains of former splendour in 
painting and gilding were traceable) ; the re-arrangement and 

1 Ancient fonts were required to be deep and wide for the immersion 
of the infant ; according to the Sarum use the officiating priest was to take 
the infant by its sides : "in nomine Patris, mergat cum semel versa facie 
ad aquilonem et capite versus orientum, et in nomine Filii, iterum ad 
meridiem : et in nomine Spiritus Sancti mergat tercio recta facie versus 
aquam." cf. Rock. 

(Immersion is now, in fact, the rule of the Church of England, unless 
it be certified that the child is weak, then it shall siiffice that he (the 
priest) pour water upon it. See Rubric in the Baptismal Service). — Ed. 

2 Chrismatories and fonts were ordered to be kept locked to secure them 
from profanation. In a Visitation of churches in Normandy in the early 
part of the 14th century, it was required that locks for the font be provided 
before Easter, under a penalty of excommunication and a fine of 40s. 



Plate I 




■'////////,,///////////////////, 




PISCINA SOUTH SIDE OF ALTAR 

HARESCOMBE CHURCH 

suv.Scale. 




WINDOW IN COLTHROP CHAPEL 
OLD SADDLE BAR HOLES atAaB 
ivtv.ScaJiey 



Fig. 



Fig.2. 




FONT HARESCOMBE CHURCH 
CtoD ONE STONE. 




REBUS OF ABBOT NEWNTON 
PERSHORE. 



Fig 4-. 



IG.O. 



Lavi-b:- Litho 5IBr>0'\D y Bkistdl 



Harescombe. 107 

partial re-seating, the old oak timber being used where 
practicable ; the removal of the western gallery ; and the raising 
of the floor of the nave for the prevention of damp. As usual in 
ancient churches there was a descent of two or three steps at the 
entrance, in consequence of the rise of the ground of the church- 
yard from constant interments, with a similar ascending number 
at the chancel arch, and two more at the approach to the altar. 
The eastern window, from a single light with trefoil heading 
corresponding to the rest, was converted into a two-light window 
with cinquefoil tracery. The position of the rood-loft was plainly 
seen from the existing grooves : this was 2 ft. 10 ins. in breadth 
in the upper part, or nearly the entire width of the north and 
south piers. A light temporary chancel screen now marks the 
place. No traces of steps to the rood loft were discovered. A 
painted cross pattee, enclosed within a circle, was found on the 
north wall, but was unfortunately destroyed in the absence of the 
architect. We think that the remains of another consecration cross 
can be just discerned over the south door. It was the custom, we 
are told, to cover these with silver crosses on the anniversary of 
the dedication and great festivals. The restoration was carried 
out according to the plans of Mr. Francis JSTiblett, of Gloucester. 
The cost was £163, chiefly collected by the energy of the Rev. 
Wrn. Lewis Mills, M.A., Curate in charge. The re-opening took 
place on "the Ember Saturday after the Feast of Pentecost" 
(June 3rd), 1871, by the Lord Bishop of the diocese. 

CnuRcn Goods. 

The silver chalice, weighing 12f oz., was the gift of one of the 
former rectors, the Rev. Jonathan Blagge, whose generosity also, in 
a similar form, extended to the sister parish of Pitchcombe. It 
bears the inscription, " Ex intimo Veneratione Dei Gloria? hoc 
pignus dedit Eccleshe de Harscombe Ionathan Blagge ejusdem 
Rector, Ianuarij 1715." l The paten, which has no inscription, 

1 It bears the hall mark of the same year, and the maker's mark, 
"Lo," with a key above on a shaped shield. It is, doubtless, the mark of 
Nathaniel Lock, though the stamp being bruised we cannot distinguish the 
fleur de lis which that maker used on an alms plate made for Bermondsey 
Church. (Cripps, p. 376.) Ed. 



10S Transactions at Gloucester. 

weighs 15| oz. There is also an alms dish, or perhaps a paten, of 
pewter or other metal : it is stamped with three shields, each con- 
taining a lion rampant, and one with initials, " E.D." A bowl of 
similar material has the date " 1749," and the initials "R.D.," 
probably those of Richard Dowcleswell, the then Churchwarden. 
Two brazen alms dishes were presented by Mrs. Hester Smith, 
relict of Mr. Peter Smith, formerly of Bacchus, in this parish, 
on the occasion of the re-opening of the church after restoration, 
June 3, 1871. At the western end of the churchyard is an ancient 
building (lately enlarged and now consisting of three cottages) 
which is known as "Paradise." It was formerly half stone and 
half timber framed, and in a state of great dilapidation; but a carved 
window of a single light, trefoil heading (PI. I. fig. 2 J co-eval with 
the church, was purchased by the late J. D. T. Niblett, Esq. , whilst 
the alterations were in progress, and placed by him in the vestry 
of the school chapel of Colthrop, an adjoining hamlet, in which he 
was much interested as founder and lay reader. Near to this 
building there was an ancient tithe barn, probably erected by the 
prior and canons of Lanthony, for securing the tithes of the 
demesne which had been allotted to them : no remains of this now 
exist. The ancient name, " Paradise," is still retained. This 
ancient church house is mentioned above. 

The old Registers have disappeared ; those remaining begin 
with 1741. Bigland gives 1618 as the earliest date of the then 
existing. The transcripts in the Bishop's Registry commence 
with 1569, and with occasional intervals, as, e.g. during the 
Commonwealth, come down to our own times. 1 

There are no old customs to record. The ringing of the 
ancient eight o'clock bell on Sunday mornings has been dis- 
continued within the memory of persons now living in the parish. 
It was here, as we suppose elsewhere, an interesting link with the 
past, having been originally rung for matins daily as directed. 

" The kynge and his knyghtes 
To the kirke wente, 
To here matyns of the day, 
And the masse after." — Piers Ploughman, 

1 The Pitehcomhe Register, under the date 1744, contains the following 
entry: " Josiah Gardiner, buried April 17. N.B. — He was hanged at 
Gloucester the Friday before for breaking open his uncle's house at Has- 
conibe, viz. : — Mr. Miles Huntley's." 



Harescombe. ] 09 



FAMILY HISTORY. 

FITZ ALAN OR LE ROUS. 

This family would seem to have been seated at Harescombe at 
an early date. It appeal's from the convention made between 
Roger the Prior of Lanthony and Roger Fitz Alan that Alan Fitz 
Mayn, his father, founded the chapel there circa 1150 (see post). 

Roger Fitz Alan, to whom the church of Harescombe is, 
as shewn in that document, specially indebted, was of course the 
son of Alan Fitz Mayn, concerning whom, unfortunately, we have 
no information beyond the fact that he witnessed (vide ante p. 87) a 
grant by Walter de Hereford of lands, situated at Cerney, to St. 
Peter's Abbey, that he was founder of, or a benefactor to, 
the church of Harescombe, and that he also held a fee of the 
Bishop of Hereford called Mora, in connection with which manor 
his name has been preserved to our own days, " Mora Alani " 
— or Alansinore, situated a few miles to the south of the city of 
Hereford. The name of his son, Roger Fitz Alan, occurs in the 
Liber Niger Scaccarii (Hearne's edition), among the knights of 
Ysabel, wife of Henry de Hereford, son of Earl Milo. This 
Henry de Hereford granted the church of Haresfield to the priory 
of Lanthony in 1161, his charter being afterwards insjjected and 
confirmed by R[obert] Bishop of Worcester. He was treacherously 
murdered by the Welsh previously to the year 1175, in which 
year William de Braose, junior, is recorded to have slaughtered 
many in revenge for his uncle's death, at Abergavenny Castle. 

" Habet Ysabel uxor Henrici de Hereford v mil. in dotem. 
Hos habet eciam feofatos de Dominiis suis post mortem Henrici 
Regis quos pater suus et fratres feodaverunt : 

Willelmus de Cernai. dim. milit. 

Willelmus Torel In Cernai quart, part, milit. 

Helyas de Kokerel dim. milit. 

Rogerus filivs Alani I Mil. et dim. 

Ricardus Murdac I mil. 



110 Transactions at Glotoestfr 

The name of Roger Fitz Alan frequently occurs in the Register 
of Lanthony, as benefactor, or as witness to charters. He gives 
the prior and canons 2 acres of meadow in the South mead : and 
lh acres "in the field of Queddesle." Another entry is fuller 
and recites, " I have given to the Canons of Lanthony with my 
body two acres of meadow in the South Mead, "juxta molle 
pratum eofdem Canon orum , and one acre and a half called Wale- 
well in the field of Queddesle." 

He (together with Ylbert' de Grannavill Rad' fil' Wil') wit- 
nesses a grant by Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, giving 
lands, &c, at Haresfield to Richard de Veyne and others : which 
same Richard de Veyne ' miles' gives to the church of Lanthony 
for the sustentation of tioo Canons perpetually interceding for his 
own soul that of Beatis his wife, and of Henry de Hereford his 
lord (domini mei) all the lands that he held in the manor of 
Harsefeld. 

Henry son of Roger Fitz Alan now comes before us in con- 
nection with whose name we see a departure from a former custom. 
He is not known as Henry Fitz Roger, as we might have expected, 
but as Henry le Rous, which name is afterwards continued in the 
family. 1 

1 Concerning this it has been remarked by a well-known writer on 
family names (Lower's Patron.) "the old French Rous from the Latin 
Rufus, red, has originated the names of Rous, Rouse, Rowse and the 
diminutive Rowsell, whence also in many cases Russell, although the last 
has sometimes a local source. The name occurs in the collection of names 
called the Roll of Battle Abbey, and there is no doubt of its early Norman 
origin. The cognate Leroux is still a common surname in Normandy." It 
is possible that " le Rus " may have previously been a name used by this 
family and that Alan Fitz Mayn, the grandfather, may have been the 
" Alanus le Rus " who witnesses a charter to a monastery in France soon 
after the Conciuest. William Rufus is styled by Hearne, in his preface to 
William of Newburgh, " William Rowse, the secunde sone to William the 
Conqueror crowned at Westminster after his fadir the year of our Lord 
m xx . viij." and we learn that this name was bestowed in consequence of his 
light hair — light, flax-like hair — and ruddy complexion. Malmesbury's 
words are express " colore rufo, crine subflavo." Perhaps the term " Rufus" 
attaches itself to William as a term of reproach justified by his complexion. 
"The red man is a rogue, (say the proverbs ascribed to Alfred) quarrelsome, 
a thief, king of mischief." Judas too was represented with red hair. 
(Pearson's " Early and Middle Ages ") For the credit of this family of Rous, 
however applicable this appellation may have been to William Rufus, we 



Hakescombe. HI 

En the year 1291 a marriage of some interest took place 

here, the bride being Alianora le Rous, daughter of Sir Roger 

le Rous ; the bridegroom being Herbert Fitz John, son of Sir 

John Fitz Reynaud (Reginald). The day was the Sunday next 

after the Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist (April 25) : the time 

' unclerne,' 9 a.m., as Chaucer notes 

" The time of underne of the same day 
Approcheth that this weddyng shulde be." 

the place, the church door, as usual in those times, that so much 

of the world as possible might witness it. 1 

" She was a worthy woman all her live, 
Husbands at the Chirche dore had she five." — Wife of Bath. 

trust it was in no wise expressive of the character of this son of Roger, 
Henry le Rous. The gradual adoption of surnames is a matter of very 
great interest, and much has been already written on the subject. An 
amusing instance occurs at a much later period (when we might have 
imagined patronymics to have been universally adopted) viz., in the Calen- 
dar of State Papers, Henry VIII., 1531, in a letter from a certain Roger 
Walker, " my right name (he writes) is Roger Walker after my father, 
otherwise Roger Sopeinaker, Roger Chawndler, by my syence, otherwise 
Roger Stefyns, Roger Freman, after my master." 

1 To afford shelter from bad weather for the priest and those concerned, 
a wide porch, we are told, was everywhere built before the people's door 
into the church. Hither the king, no less than the beggar-man, brought 
her whom he was about to make his wife. Henry I. and Matilda ; Edward 
I. and Margaret of France "in ostio ecclesia; Christi Cantuar : versus 
claustram." We can picture to ourselves something of the gaiety and 
joyousness of the occasion, the bride crowned with flowers intertwined with 
gold and jewels, wearing her hair flowing down loose upon her shoulders, 
as was the custom with maidens, and with nothing but a wreath of jewels 
called a "paste," or flowers, about her head: " thre ornamentes longe 
principally to a wyfe, says Pauper (fol. 197 b), a rynge on her fynger, a 
broche on her b'reste, and a garlonde on her hede : the garlonde betokenethe 
gladness and the dignitie of the sacramente of wedloke : " conducted by 
her father, and followed by her maidens, her path strewn, witli herbs 
and rushes and flowers — "primroses, maiden-blushes and violets:" the 
minstrels wearing their badges or livery : girls with garlands of wheat and 
flowers, gilt : the rich dresses of the knights and other guests. The priests 
in alb or other vestments meeting the bridal procession at the church door, 
where, according to custom, the jointure was proclaimed, a custom similar 
to that which, as Tacitus tells us, existed among the ancient Germans, 
" Dotem non uxor marito, sed uxori maritus offert." Glanville, a distin- 
guished lawyer and soldier, who was justiciaiy under Henry II., and died 
at the siege of Acre under Coeur de Lion, calls such dower, i.e., '• dos at 
ostium ecclesi;e " — " id quod aliquis liber homo dat sponsa; sua3 ad ostium 
ecclesia; tempore desponsationis sua- : " and Littleton, in the fifteenth 



]12 Transactions at Gloucester. 

At the door of the church of Harscombe on the day of his 
marriage, Herbert Fitz John endowed Alianora, his wife, with 
the assent of John le Fiz Reynaud, his father, with the third 
part of the manors of Barnesley, in the county of Gloucester, 
and of Crookham, Berks, together with the third part of the 
Castle of Blen-leveney, with the honour of the Castle of Built- 
Dinas, Talkard, Llangellan, Cathedyn and La Mare in Wales ; 
whilst the portion brought by the bride Alianora was three 
hundred pounds (a large sum at that time), of which they 
acknowledge the receipt from Sir Roger le Rous, the father. 1 

century, explains it according tc Coke's translation, thus: " Dowment at 
the church door is where a man of full age, seized in fee simple, who shall 
be married to a woman, and when he cometh to the church door to be 
married, thereupon affiance and troth plighted between them, he endoweth 
the woman of his whole land, or the half, or other less part thereof ; and 
there doth openly declare the quantity and certainty of the land which she 
shall have for her dower." Although this custom was laid aside long before 
the Reformation, yet did the rubric relating to it remain long after in some 
churches of this kingdom, for in the manual after the usage of York, after the 
words "With this ring I thee wed, and with this gold and silver I endow 
thee, and with this gift I honour thee," these words are subjoined, "the 
Priest shall ask the dowry of the woman." (L'Esteinge's " Divine Offices.") 

I have given the above quotation at length, because it happens that we 
should not have known of jthis marriage had it not been for this dower, 
which years afterwards had to be enforced by legal process, a result of those 
troublous times which England then had to pass through. 

1 According to Dugdale, the bridegroom belonged to an illustrious 
family, being descended from one of the co-heiresses of Earl Milo ; but it 
will not be necessary to go back further than Peter Fitz Herbert, whose 
third wife was daughter and co-heir of William de Braose, of Brembre, and 
relict of David ap Lewelin, Prince of Wales. Through her the said Peter 
had the lordships of Blen-leveney. Talgardand " Walashire," in the county 
of Brecknock, and other lands in Wales. Peter Fitz Herbert was at first 
on the side of King John, and is said to have been one of his evil 
counsellors, but having revolted, these possessions were forfeited ; soon 
afterwards, however, being restored on his return to his allegiance. His 
son Reginald (Fitz Peter) married Johanna de Vlvonia, and died 14 Edw. I. 
His lands were of great extent, being found in no less than thirteen 
counties. One of the manors being in Haresrield, and held of the king 
"in capite " by the office of constable in wartime, to wit, carrying the 
Royal Standard ; and of six fees held of the same manor, which owed suit 
at the Court of the Constablewick in Gloucester. John Fitz Reynaud 
(Reginald) was his son and heir, his wife, Agnes ; his name occurs frequently 
in the Inquisitions, in one of which the annual value of Blen-leveney and 
other possessions in Wales is stated to be £200, for which he received 



Harescombe. 113 

At Margaret's marriage we are informed that, "all the 
ceremony es accomplyshed, ther was brought by the lordes bred 
and wyn in ryche potts and rich cuppes : " similarly at the 
wedding of Philip and Mary in AVinchester Cathedral. "The 
trumpets sounded, and they both returned hand in hand to their 
traverses in the Quire, and ther remayned til mase was don, at 
which time wyne and soppes were hallowed and delyvered unto 
them both." Many references to this custom occur in Old Plays. 
It survived the Reformation, we may suppose, since Dekker's 
" Satiro-Mastix " has the words " When we are at Church, 
bring the wine and cakes." In the Inventory of Church Goods 
and Ornaments, Wilsdon, c. 1547, we find mention of " Two 
Mazers that were appointed to remayne in the Church for to 
drynk yn at Bride- Ales." It is possible, however, that this may 
refer to the festivities usually held in the church house. 

As we have mentioned, it is the dower assigned at the church 
door which has perpetuated the memory of the marriage. In the 
disturbed times of the next monarch, Edward II., possessions 
were rendered most insecure. The King's favourites, the De- 
spensers, greedily grasped all they could acquire, usurping the 

license to enfeoff his son, Herbert Fitz John, whose marriage with Alianora 
leRous took place at the door of Harescombe Church, a.d. 1291. We can 
imagine all the ancient customs duly observed, " the oblations thrown 
over their heads during their nuptials," mentioned in the wardrobe accounts 
in the following reign as occurring at a marriage "at the door of the 
chapel within the park of Woodstock : " the procession with the Psalm 
"Beati omnes" (Psalm 128) still used in our English rite ; the prayers of 
the people asked for them as they knelt at the altar steps ; after which, 
kneeling on the south side of the chancel, the priest would begin his mass, 
" Missa de Trinitate : " at the " Sanctus " bride and bridegroom again 
went to kneel at the altar's foot, and here, as neither (if we are correct) had 
been married before, the Marriage Canopy, or " Care-Cloth," as it used to 
be called, was held at its four corners by as many clerics. After the nuptial 
benediction this was removed, when the bridegroom, having received the 
kiss of peace from the priest, came back to his wife and gave it to her, 
kissing her on the cheek : a clerk taking the " Pax " and carrying it about, 
as usual, to those who were present. Afterwards wine with sops — pieces of 
cake or wafers — immersed, was drunk in the church by the priest, bride 
and bridegroom and all their friends : " " gustent in nomine Domini " says 
the Old Rubric here : a fair Bride Cup (if the persons, as in this instance, 
were of some position) silver gilt, in it a branch of Rose Mary and bays, 
and decorated with ribbons, being used. — (Leland Collect.) 
Vol. X. I. 



114 Transaction* at Gloucester, 

inheritances of rightful owners, and thus caused much injury and 
suffering. It was of little use to seek justice in the King's courts, 
and hence it is not until the accession of Edward III. that we 
find on record any proceedings of the now widowed Alianora 
regarding her dower out of the manor of Barnesley in this 
county. We have the issuing of two writs, the former addressed 
to the Sheriff of Gloucester, William Traci ; the latter, to John 
de Annesley and Robert de Aston ; both granted expressly it would 
appear "By the Petition of the Council" We have reference 
to a petition of Alianora to the King for the assignment of her 
dower, and as a result, the King's writ, directed to the Sheriff 
of Gloucester, to enquire on the oath of honest faithful men of 
his county, by John de Annesley and Robert de Aston, in the 
presence of the custodian of our manor of Barnesley concerning 
this dower, and the writings shewn in our Court of Chancery to 
confirm the same. The jury was to enquire if the said Herbert 
Fitz John, by the assent of his father, John Fitz Reynaud, had 
endowed the said Alianora at the door of the church of Hares- 
combe on the day of his marriage with the third part of the 
manors and castles aforesaid, or not ; and if the said Alianora, 
after the death of her husband, had been seized of any part of 
the manors, &c, in the name of dower or not; if she had 
remitted or quit-claimed to any lord of the said manor of 
Barnesley any suit she might have for her dower or not ; at 
what time the said Herbert died ; if the manor of Barnesley be 
in the King's hands, then for what reason, and of whom held ; by 
what service, and its value per annum in all its issues 1 Dated at 
Westminster, 22nd February, 1 Edw. III. The result was as 
shewn in the following inquisition : — 

Inquisition taken at Tetbury on the Wednesday next before 
the Feast of St. Gregory the Pope, in the first year of King 
Edward the Third after the conquest, by John de Annesley and 
Robert de Aston, in the presence of William Traci, Sheriff of 
Gloucester and the Guardian of the Manor of Barn[d]esleye, 
according to the tenor of the writ of the lord the king sewn to 
this Inquisition. By the oath of John Notelyn, Henry de 



Harkscombe. 115 

Mayntone, Henry Kett, Richard de la Hoke, John de la Hay, 
Robert le Tailleur, John le Welsh, Hugh de Ravenhull, Richard 
le Clerk, Henry Badecok, John de Fromptone and Elyas de 
Bysrugge, who say on their oath that Herbert le fiz Johan, on 
the Sunday next after the Feast of St. Mark the Evangelist, in 
the nineteenth year of the reign of King Edward, grandfather of 
the King that now is (on which day he married Alianora, who was 
the wife of the aforesaid Herbert, at Harsecomb), endowed the 
said Alianora by the assent and will of John le fiz Reynaud, his 
father, at the door of the Church of Harsecomb, with the third 
part of the Manors of Barnesleye, in the County of Gloucester, 
and Crookham, in the County of Berks, together with the third 
part of the Castle of Blen-leveney, 1 with the honour of the Castle 
of Bulke Dinas, Talkarcl, Llangellan, Kathedyn and La Mare in 
Wales ; and they say that the said John le fiz Reynaud by his 
writing ratified the endowment aforesaid for the three hundred 
pounds, which he received by the hand of the lord Roger le 
Rous, the father of the said Alianora, and of his own accord 
(sua sjDonte) granted and confirmed it. 

The jurors also found that after the death of the said John 
and Herbert, the said Alianora was never seized of any part of 
the Manor of Barnesleye in the name of the dower, nor in any 
other manner, nor of any other part of the manors aforesaid ; and 

1 A south view of " Blaen-Lleveny Castle, in the County of Brecknock," 
was published by Buck in 1741, but a few fragments, however, remained. 
The description states " This Castle takes its name from being placed near 
the rise or head of the Lleveny, which river empties itself into the Lake 
called Lin savadhan by y c Britains, but since, Brecknock Meer, and now 
Llangorse Pool. Near this it is supposed y e famous city, Loventium (men- 
tioned by Ptolemy) formerly stood : and this is rendered y e more probable 
by y e ruins found near the Castle and the great roads of the country tend- 
ing thither. This Castle is situated remarkably low, between Tretur Castle 
and Brecon, not far from the Northern Bank of the Usk, and commands a 
fine view of y e afore-mentioned lake. It was y u demesne of a very con- 
siderable Barony and was fortified by Peter Fitz Herbert, descended from 
Bernard Newmarch Lord of Brecon and his wife Nesta, daughter of Griffin 
ap Llewellyn, Prince of Wales." 

For the traditional origin of the Lake, see Beauties offfligland cfc Wales, 
Vol. win., p. 140— Jones' Brecknockshire, Vol. n.— Lewis' Topogr. Diet, 
of Wales, Vol. i.— and Murray's Handbook, 

I 2 



116 Transactions at Gloucester. 

that after the death of the said Herbert, formerly her husband, 
the said Alianora never remitted or quit-claimed the action which 
she had to the dower aforesaid to Hugh le Despenser the Elder, 
nor to any other lord of the said manor. 

And they say that Herbert died on the morrow of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist in the 14th Edward II., and 
that the manor of Barnesleye is in the hands of the lord the 
King by reason of the forfeiture of the said Hugh le Despenser 
the elder -, 1 and that the said manor, which was of John le 
Fiz Reynaud, is held of the lord the king in capite by the 
service of the fourth part of one knight's fee, and that it is 
worth in all issues by the year according to the true value, Ten 
pounds. 

Whether justice was done her at once as regards this manor, 
we know not ; but it is certain that she had yet to wait for her 
rights in Wales. If the Despensers, father and son, had passed 
away by violent deaths, there was a Mortimer to come upon the 
stage, and play, amongst others, the usurper's part. So that here 
again, in incidents touching this parish and its dwellers, we are 
brought into contact with the varying phases of our national 
history. These lands were held by Roger Mortimer, and it 
would appear that until his death Alianora could not hope to 
recover her rights; but in 6 Edw. III. (1333) we find, in the 
Originalia Rolls, the king's precept (after inquisition made) to 
Hush Tirel, custos of the Castles of Blen-leveney and Bulke- 
dinas with the Honor, lands and tenements there, which lands 
were held by the service of two knights' fees, and worth sixty 
pounds per annum, then being in the King's hands through the 
forfeiture of Roger Mortimer, Lord of the Marches, who met his 
fate at Tyburn, Nov. 29th, 1330, to assign the third part to 
Alianora, but to retain for awhile in the royal hands the knights' 
fees, the third part of the forest of Bulkedinas and the advow- 
sons of the churches. It is likely that Alianora was dead in 
2 Edw. III. (1338), in which year the records shew that Hugh 
Tirel again had custody of the manors and castles of Bulkedinas 

1 For illustration of the usurpations of the De Spenscrs, vide " Pe 
Spensers estate in Wilts." — Wilts Arch. Journ, Hi. 245. 



Harescombe. 117 

and Blen-leveney. In 13 Edw. III., we have the king's writ of 
enquiry concerning these castles, which fourteen years afterwards 
were found to have been held by Gilbert Talbot, whilst in the 
following year, 28 Edw. III. (1355), we meet with their lord 
in another Roger Mortimer, a grandson of the Lord of the 
Marches put to death at Tyburn, as we have just noticed. This 
tends to exhibit the strict equity of our English laws, in the 
reversal of the attainder of Roger Mortimer, and the restoration 
of the title and estates to his grandson, inasmuch as he had 
been condemned unheard, on the plea of the notoriety of the 
facts. 

Matthew Fitz Herbert was the only surviving issue of this 
marriage. His wife's name was Margaret. We conclude from 
the inquisitions, taken after his death, that he died in 30 Ed. III., 
seized, inter alia, of a messuage and carucate of land situate at 
Haresfield, held of Edmund, son of John de Bohun, in fee tail, 
by fine between Matthew and Edmund, reserving to the latter the 
the rent of a rose. Matthew dying without issue, this Edmund 
held the lands of the King in cajnte, &c l 

Sir Roger le Rous (the father of Alianora) appears to have 
been a personage of considerable influence and activity in the 
reign of Edward I., which may be the result of his position 
as one of the knights enfeoffed by the Earl of Hereford, 
as well as of the King's personal favour, although upon one 
occasion he seems to have fallen under his displeasure. He held 
of the King in cajnte, as of the manor of Berton Regis, three 
virgates of land at Brockthrop, which he formerly held of Hum- 
phrey de Bohun, but the king ousted him, and compelled him to 
redeem the lands by payment of fifty marks down and half a 
mark annually. 2 

He was appointed one of the assessors of the subsidy for this 
county granted in 3 Edw. III.. In the. same year he performed 
military service, due from Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford 
and Essex ; muster at Worcester in eight days after the Feast of 
St. John the Baptist. The register of Malmesbury Abbey names 

1 Fosbrooke, Vol. I. p. 300. - Fosbrooke, Vol. I. p. 269. 



US Transactions at Gloucester. 

him as one of the witnesses of the settlement of a dispute with 
the abbot concerning common rights in the wood of Flusrugge, 
claimed by the Earl of Hereford's men at Wockeseye (Oaksey) ; 
he also witnesses a release to the abbey of the marriage of the 
heir of John le Breth, son of Richard le Breth, of Weston, by 
Alan de Plokenet for 15 marks of silver (40 marks previously 
received), together with John Giffard, Walter Heliun, Adam de 
Monte Alto, John Giffard de Twyford, Ralph de Albyniaco, and 
Robt. de Panes, Knights. The wardship and marriage so released 
were sold to Ralph de Leycestre, Archdeacon of Wilts, for 70 
marcs of silver. 

In the Lanthony Register, he witnesses divers grants : viz., 
from William de Waleys de Husmerley : " Rogo Ruffo de Hars- 
combe," with Will, de Parco, Walter de Salle, and Robt. de 
Coverle ; also from John de Bohun of half an acre, near to the 
Court at Haresfield, for the soul of his father, Earl Humphrey, 
and his mother Matilda ; also, from Laurence de Chandos of all 
his Court of Brockworth, with buildings, gardens, curtilages and 
vineries, and all appurtenances, in the field called Westfield. 1 
He witnesses also a grant from Alexander de Mattesdon to Philip 
de Mattesdon, and Isabel, his wife, of all his rights in that vill, 
contained in the Abbot's Register. 2 He was Sheriff of Gloucester- 
shire in 7 Edw. I. (1278). In 1283 he was returned as one of 
the knights for the shire, as " Dominus Rogerus le Rous." 3 

In 1285, in the time of Rich. Swinfield, Bishop of Hereford 
(whose judicial rights within his fee the turbulent citizens of 
Hereford had disputed), we meet with him as Commissioner on 
an Inquisition held on the day of St. Dionysius. 4 In 1290 we 
find him Knight of the Shire for Hereford. 

1 Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Soc, vol. iii. 152. 

2 The Pipe Roll Glou. 15 Edw. I., Roger de Lokinton, Sheriff, has this 
entry, " Rog' le Rus di iii de firma ij virgate terr' in Berton' Glouc' et vij 
iii de eadem de anno p't'. 

3 It is singular that this particular return is supposed to be the only 
existing record of those present at that Parliament, which met at Shrews- 
bury, 30th Sep. 1283, one of its results being the execution of Prince David. 
(Duncumb's Hist of Hereford, vol. i. 303.) 4 Reg. Swinf., fob 28. 



Harescombe. 119 

His name is of frequent occurrence in the Registers of St. 
Peter's Abbey as a witness to grants of lands, &C. 1 

The earliest notice we have of Sir John le Rous, son and heir 
of Sir Roger le Rous, who died in 1294, is in 1305, when, by a 
fine levied in that year, the manors of Duntesborne and Hares- 
combe with their appurtenances, together with the advowsons of 
the churches, were settled upon him and Hawisia his wife (see 
p. 179.) 

As the holder of a fee under the De Bohuns, Earls of Hereford, 
we shall not be surprised to find him actively engaged in the struggle 
of the patriots against the foreign favourites of Edward II., and 
in 1313 he obtained a pardon as an adherent of the Earl of 
Lancaster and for pai'ticipating in the death of Piers Gaveston. 
In the following years (1311-15) he was returned as Knight of 
the Shire for the county of Gloucester, for which he received the 
usual payment for a knight : viz., 4s. a day with charges going 
and returning. And in the latter year we find him rebuilding 
Harescombe church. In 1320 he, with his wife Hawisia, levied 
a fine of John, rector of that church. 

Again, as a follower of Sir Hugh de Audeley the son, 
he obtains pardon in 1321 for all felonies committed in " pursuit " 
of the Despensers : also a similar pardon in connection with 
Roger Dammory. These were brief intervals of reconciliation 
and peace amid the trouble of Edward's reign, but a great climax 
was approaching when the real strength of the royal and the 
popular parties was to be brought to the test. The king's forces 
gained a great success at the battle of Boroughbridge, where the 
barons were defeated, and many of their principal adherents slain, 

1 In 1294 we find him engaged in some dispute with Roger de Mortimer 
concerning the "breaking the park of the said Roger at Penkerlyn in the 
commote of Tyrauff," for which he had omitted to plead the liberties of the 
Earl of Hereford. In Hilary term judgment was given that Roger Mortimer 
might proceed in the court of the Earl for his liberty of Brecknock. In 
Easter term, Mortimer impleads the Earl himself for the "breaking of his 
Park," when the said Earl appears and claims that it is within his liberty of 
Brecknock. 



120 Transactions at Gloucester. 

amongst whom were none more illustrious than Humphrey de 
Bohun Earl of Hereford. 1 

In the year 1324 Sir John le Rous was returned by the Sheriffs 
of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire respectively, for the Great 
Council. Between 1330 and 1343 (4-17 Edward III.), John le 
Rous, Miles, appears to have represented Herefordshire in six 
successive Parliaments ; this circumstance seems to suggest his 
residence in that county, perhaps consequent upon the des- 
truction of the Castle of Harescombe. 2 

1 Capgrave's Chronicle relates, " Ther was Humfrey Bown, Constable 
of England and the king's brother-in-law slayn : as he rod ovyr the brigge, 
on was beneth, and with a spere gored him." This royal success was 
sullied by great cruelties ; the great Earl of Lancaster was executed at 
Pontefract ; lord Badlesmere at Blean, near Canterbury ; vengeance was 
taken on the baron's party generally, and many of their castles were 
destroyed. 

2 He became a benefactor to the Abbey of Dore, bestowing upon it the 
Rectory of Avenbury, as appears by the inquisition following, "taken by 
the Escheator of the king at Hereford, on the 4th June, 12 Edw. III., by 
the oath of Rich, le Boteler, Rich, le Drake, Rich, le Devereux, de May- 
swerne, Hugh de Hullampton, Wm, de Herdwike, Warenne de Brock- 
hampton, John le Bannerton, Thos. de Blechyndon, Walter Ilgar, Walter 
le Bret, John le Hayward, de Bodcnham, Warenne le Yonge, who say it 
would not be to the prejudice of the king if the king were to permit John 
le Rous to assign a garden, with appurtcnance-i, in Avenbury, and the 
advowson of the church of the said Ville to the Abbot and Convent of 
Dore [the Abbey of Dore was a Cistercian house (cf. Dugdale), founded by 
Robert, Earl de Ferrers, "pro anima Sibella; de Braose uxoris mee, &c. 
pro salute Bertai (fuit filia Milonis Comitis Hereford) matris uxoris mee "] 
so that they may appropriate that church, and hold the same appro- 
priated to their own uses. They say that the garden and advowson, 
with the manor of Avenbury, are held of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, by suit at his court at Huntyngton in Wales every three weeks 
for all services ; that the said garden by itself is worth yearly 6d., and that 
the said church is wovth in all issues £11 ; and that the aforesaid earl is 
mesne lord between the lord the king and John le Rous of the said garden 
and advowson. Duncumb affirms that the tythes, &c, were granted at an 
earlier period, temp. Edw. I., but forfeited for want of the king's license, 
which was afterwards granted in 1284 by letters patent at the instance of 
the Earl of Herefoixl (who had married Maud de Avenbury), on condition 
of a sufficient stipend to the vicar. 2 Soon after the dissolution the tythes 
were rented by John Myll, Esq., and valued at £5 6s. 8d., after deducting 
a yearly pension of £3 to the vicar, and 6s. Sd. per annum, payable to the 
choristers of Hereford Cathedral. 

In 1682 a suit was instituted in the Exchequer by the Vicar of Aven- 
bury, Thomas Kettleby, against the impropriator, Richard Corbett, for 



Haresoombe. 121 

In 1309 (2 Edw. II.), among the 234 knights who appeared 
at the tournament at Stevonhithe (Stepney), where Giles 
d'Argentein, with his friends (complicibus), stood against all 
comers, 1 we find mention made of Sir John le Roz le filz, his 
arms being .• — Gu. 3 lioncels ram]). Arg. a label of 3 points, Az. 

The name of Sir Thomas le Roux also occurs in the list, 
whose arms were.- — Ermine on a chief indented G.u., 2 Escallops, 
Arg. As the name of " Sir John le Rous, the son," has been 
met with elsewhere, it is possible that both the son and grandson 
of Sir Roger were so designated, but through the similarity of 
the names it is not easy to distinguish between them. We may, 
I think, find a daughter of this house of Le Rous among the 
nuns in the Convent of Ambresbury, in the name of the Lady 
Johanna le Rous. 

Sir John le Rous probably died in 1346, as an inquisition con- 
cerning lands and manors in Herefordshire is mentioned in the 
Calendar 19 Edward III., No. 11, but the document itself is now 
unfortunately missing. The manors held by him were " Tregat, 
Wormelowe, Mora Alani, La Grene and La Heath." The homage 
of the heir would be on the Fine Rolls. 

Thomas le Rous, his son, appears among the Gloucestershire 

knights in the writs of military summons in 1324, together with 

his father — with whom he was also present, as we have seen, at 

the Stepney Tournament. He died in 1359 (32 Edward III.) 

leaving two children, minors, John and Juliana. This John died 

a minor in August, 1370, leaving Juliana, his sister, the next 

heir, according to an inquisition taken after his death, at Hereford, 

on the 10th May, 1370-1, 2 before Gilbert Anccll, escheator for 

increase of stipend and certain lands. It was said the vicarage had been 
anciently endowed with the rectory house, except the principal chamber and 
cellar, orchard and amall house adjoining, reserved to the Abbot of Dore. 
The suit was decided in favour of the vicar ; the house of residence to be 
rebuilt at a cost of £60. St. Agatha's meadow wss reserved to the vicar, 
with increased stipend of £30. ( Wood's Exch Tithe Causes, vol. i. 212.) 

Among many of the principal and early benefactors to the Abbey of 
Dore that were here interred were the Alancs, lords of Alanes-More and 
Kilpeck and Sir Alane de 1'lokenet, lord of Kilpeck Castle. — Lelaiul's 
Itin. vm, 84. 

1 Collect, iv. G3-G7. - Inq. p.m., 43-4 Edw. III. part 2. No. IS. 



122 Transactions at Gloccestf.k. 

the county of Hereford, and a jury, who found that John le Rous 
did not hold any lands of the king in capite, nor in demesne, but 
being within age he held in his demesne as of fee through his 
guardians, the manor of Allensmore, with its appurtenances, of 
the Bishop of Hereford by knight's service : that he also held by 
his Guardian in demesne as of fee, the hamlet of Wilinhale of 
James le Boteler, Earl of Ormonde, by military service : that he 
also held the manor of Tregatt in the marches of Wales in demesne 
as of fee of John de Bromwich, chevalier, in socage ; and that he 
died on the last day of August, and was then within age, and that 
Juliana, his sister, was the next heir, and of the age of twelve 
years on the 1 2th June last past. 

Juliana, the sole heir of her brother John le Rous, married Sir 
Andrew de Herle, who was knight of the shire for Hereford, 7 and 
9 Rich. II., 1383 and 1385. He nominated Sir Thomas Brokke- 
bury to " the chapel of the Chantry of Harescombe with 
Pychenecombe annexed," who was instituted December 28th, 
1380. Sir Andrew de Herle appears to have died, s.p. about 
twelve years subsequently, viz., in 1392, as we gather from the 
mention of an Inquisition no longer to be found in the Public 
Record Office, though formerly known to some writers of the 
history of this county, and noted by them : " Terras et tene- 
menta Andrea; de Herle, Militia, qui obiit, 15 Ric. II. Hersecome 
et Duntesborne Rous, Co Glouc." 



Harescombe. 



123 



Pedigree of the Family of FITZ ALAN, or Le ROUS, 

of Harescombe and Duntesborne Rous', in the County of Gloucester, and Alans- 
more and Avenbury in the County of Hereford. 



Mayn [or Main]^ 

l ' 

Alan Fitz Mayn=f= 
cir. 1150 

i J 

Roger Fitz Alan=f= , 
living 11SI 



Henry le Rous =p 



living 1241 



i 



Roger le Rous 
Sheriff of Gloucestershire, 1278-9 

Do. Herefordshire, 1293-4 
and dying, his son John acted for 

him. 
Assessor of sub. Glouc', 1274-5 
Knt. for Shire, Glouc' 1283 

Do. Hereford, 1290 

Justiciary, Wilts, 1290 

d. 22 Edw. 1. 1294. (Rot. Fin. m. 6) 



Alianora (Eleanor) de Avenbury, living 
1313 



John le Rous=pHawisia Roger (priest), Alianora =j=Herbert Fitz John. 



Knight of the 



Shire, 
1314. 



Glouc' 



was presented to 
the Church of 
Avenbury, 1313. 



Mar. 25th April 1291. 
Certified one of lords 
of Township of Hares- 
field ('Nom. 
Villarum') 1316. 



John le Rous [Junior ?]=p 



Thomas le Rous : 
died 1359, 32 Edw. III. 



Johanna, nun at 
Amesbury ; took 
... veil on Ascension 
died 1375. Day, 1327. 



I 
Matthew 
Fitz 
Herbert— Margaret 

d. 1357 

Inq.p.m.30Edw.IIL 
No. 43 



I 

John le Rous 
died 1370. Inq. p.m., 
43 Ed. III. 
s.p. 



-L 



P. 2 No. 18 



Sir Andrew Hcrlc= 
Knt. of Shire (Here- 
ford) 1383-1385; died 
1392, s.p. 



^Thomas Mylle (or 
Mulle) Armiger ; 
d. 1421, 8 Hen. V. 



Juliana 1 
bn. 12, 
June, 
r358. 

For issue, vide Pedigree of 
Mylle family (post) 



124 Transactions at Gloucester. 



Mill, or Mylle, of Harescombe. 

Juliana, the daughter and heir of Thomas le Rous, after the 
death of her first husband, s.p., married, secondly, Thomas Mylle, 
of Tremyll, in the county of Devon, Esquire, 1 to whom she carried 
the Rous estates. This seems to have taken place prior to 1395, in 
which year a fine was levied, by which the manors of Harescombe 
and Duntesborn Rous were settled on Thomas Mylle, and Juliana, 
his wife, and the heirs male of their bodies. 2 Thomas Mylle was 
knight of the shire in two Parliaments 9 & 13 Hen. IV. (1407 and 
1411), the former being summoned to meet at Gloucester on the 
20th October, 1407. He was appointed "overseer" of the will 
of John Hare[s]field, of the adjoining parish of that name, in 
1417. Four years later he made his own will dated 23rd August, 
1420, of which the following is an abstract : He describes himself 
as of Harsecombe, and bequeathing his soul to God, directs his 
body to be buried in the church of Harscombe before the altar of 
Saint Thomas the Martyr, and Saint Nicholas, Bishops. Gives to 
the mother church of Worcester ij a ; to the rector of the church of 
Harescombe for his forgotten tythes, half a mark ; to his son, 
Thomas Mylle, all his goods and chattels in the county of Devon, 
the residue of his goods and chattels he gives to his wife Juliana. 
She, her son Thomas, Nicholas Poynes (Poyntz 3 ), John Grey and 
Stephen Dubber to be executors. Proved in the Perogative 
Court of Worcester, June 11th, 1422. 

Besides his son and heir Thomas, one of the executors to his 
will, he left issue two daughters. Elizabeth became the first 
wife of Sir Nicholas Poyntz, of Iron Acton, co. Glouc, knt., and 
was the ancestress of this important branch of the Poyntz family. 

1 Pole says "the manor of Mill, or Tremyll, belonged unto ye name 
of Mille, of w ch sucessively followed Nicholas de Mille, in Kinge Ed. I. tyme ; 
then John, Thomas, & .John, w ch partakinge in y e civill wars betwixt y e 
houses of Lancaster & York, lost it by attainder.'" — Pole 6 Devon, p. 101. 

- Pedes Finium, IS Rich. II. 

3 Nicholas Poyntz, o*f Iron Acton, who was knight of the shire, 
and 9 Hen. VI' 1430, son-in-law of the deceased. 



Harescombe. 125 

The second daughter, whose name is unknown to us, married a 
gentleman of the name of Cassy, said to be of Whitfield. 1 

On the death of Thomas Mill, the elder, in 1422, Thomas his 
son succeeded to the estates, and in 1427 a fine was levied by 
which the manors of Harescombe and Duntesborne Rous were 
settled upon him. He married Margaret, or Margery, authorities 

differ as to her name, daughter of Tracy. He was an 

adherent to the Lancastrian cause, and upon its failure both he 
and his son Sir William Mill were attainted of treason and their 
lands forfeited. The lands were granted to divers persons as stated 
(ante p. 86), and when the Act of Resumption was passed, 7 and 8 
Edw. IV. it was specially provided that it was not to be prejudicial 
to the grantees of the Myll estates ; an indication, perhaps, of the 
greater enormity of the offences of Thomas and Sir William Myll. 

Sir William Mill was appointed by John Lord Talbot (after- 
wards created Earl of Shrewsbury) by patent Receiver of his 
Rents, &c, for the manors of Painswick, Whaddon and Morton. 2 

Thomas Mill, by his wife Margaret, left issue Sir William his 
son and heir, already mentioned, and several other sons, of whom 
Robert founded the family of Mylle, of Croydon (see tabular ped. 
annexed). 

Sir William Mill, according to the pedigree of Mill, recorded 
in the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire in 1569, married 
Frances, one of the daughters and heirs to Edmond Winchcombe, 
who, in the Harl. MS. 1041, is called Aron, or Arona. He left 

1 Harl. MS. 1041. Harl. Soc. Pub. Vol. xxi. p. 216. Visit, of Glouc. 

2 A remarkable court of the manor was held at Painswick on 21st April, 
1400, at which Sir AVilliam Mill was present as Receiver, together with 
Giles Abridges, Esq., and Thomas Abridges, his son, joint stewards, &c. 
Lord Talbot presided in person and made this declaration : — That he had been 
beyond the sea in the King's wars, and at that time he had sixteen men out of 
the Lordship of Painswicke, of which there were eleven married men slain, 
whereby the widows cried on the said Lord Talbot, not only for losing their 
husbands but also for losing their holdings, and some of them were his 
bondsmen ; and the Lord Talbot voluntarily allowed the widows to con- 
tinue their holdings, which was the first introduction of the custom of Free 
Bench in the Manor of Painswick, and, moreover, he granted to the tenants 
of the manor divers privileges which they had not before enjoyed,— 
Sudder 's History of Qlouc, pp, 593-4, 



126 Transactions at Gloucester. 

issue two daughters, as shewn in the pedigree, and Thomas his son 
and heir. 

Thomas Mill, on the accession of Henry VII, petitioned the 
King in Parliament, setting forth the loyalty and services of his 
father whereby all his possessions and goods were forfeited, and 
obtained an act for their restitution ; but up to the date of his 
death in 1509 he does not appear to have obtained possession 
(see ante p. 87. n. ). In the inquisition taken at Dursley on the 
25th Oct. 1510, upon his death, before Richard Yate, escheator 
and a jury, it was found that the said Thomas held no lands or 
tenements in the county of Gloucester in demesne of the King, but 
the jurors say that he was seized of one messuage in Haresfield 
called the Henbarrows, and of three furlongs of lands with appur- 
tenances in Harsfield in his demesne as of fee at the rent of 16d. 
per annum, and that the said lands were worth clear by the year 
26s. 8d., and the jurors say that the said Thomas died on the 10th 
October, 1 Henry VIII. (1509) and that Edward Mill is his son 
and heir, and is of the age of 23 years and more. 1 Certainly 
it does not absolutely follow that because the manors of Hares- 
combe and Duntesborne Rous are not named in this inquisition 
they were not in the possession of the deceased, for they were not 
held of the King ; but it was usual to state in an inquisition, post 
mortem, all the lands of the deceased, of whomsoever held. It 
may, however, be observed that in his will dated 4th October, 
1509, he does not describe himself as of Harescombe, though he 
gives a cow to the parish church. He would seem to have been 
rich in cattle (see his will in the appendix), and little else. 

Thomas Mill married Jacosa, daughter of Sir Richard Crofts, 
Knt., and left besides Edward his son and heir, three other sons : 
Robert, David, and Edward, 2 and two daughters : Anne and 

1 Inq. p.m. 1 and 2 Hen. VIII. Exoh. 

2 This Edward, or Edmund the son of Hugh Mill (sea ped.J, was 
probably the Edmund Mill who had a grant for life of the office of Ranger 
within the Forest of Dene, with wages such as were allowed temp. Edw. III. 
out of the issues of the county, to be paid by the sheriff, and all other wages 
pertaining thereto {Pat Boll, 1 Hen. VII.) An Edmund Mill was also 
granted by the same King, the custody of the farm of Bydfield, within 
the Hund. of Bisseley, in co, Glouc, to hold for the term of his life.— Origin, 



Harescombe. 127 

Sybyl. All these, except the last, are named in his will, and he 
names a William Mill in the same manner, neither of them being 
described as his sons, hut the name of William does not appear 
in the Visitation pedigree, though we think we are justified in 
introducing it. 

Edward Mill, son and heir of Thomas, succeeded his father, 
and presented to the church of Harescombe in 1550 and 1551. 

He married Joan daughter of Sir Thomas Longe, of Draycott, 
co. Wilts. In 1552 he and Jane his wife suffered a fine in one 
messuage and 10 acres of land and 20 acres of pasture with appur- 
tenances in Harescombe, then held by one William Holyday for the 
term of eleven years, of the inheritance of the said Edward and 
Jane, to hold to Richaixl Robyns in reversion for the term of forty 
eight years from the... day of May, 1553, at the rent of 40s. per 
annum. He died before 1569. 1 

Thomas Mill, eldest son of the said Edward, is described as of 
Harescombe, and he presented to the parish church there in 1569, 
1577, 1596, 1605-6, and 1612. He married Katherine, daughter 
of John Davis, of Dursley, and had issue, Edward, son and heir 
and other children (see pedigree). In 1570 this Thomas and 
Katherine his wife suffered a fine of Thomas Bowie of two 
messuages with lands and appurtenances in Ronwick (Randwick) 
and Strowde which the latter regranted to the Thomas and 
Katharine and the heirs of their bodies. 

1 Pedes Fiuium, 6 Edw. VI. - Pedes Finium, 12 Eliz., Easter. 



128 



TRANSACTIONS AT GLOUCESTER. 



liclrigret of 4*ti?n, of 



Thomas Myll,= 
of Tremyll, co. Devon, and 
of Harescombe, Knight of tit e 
shire for Gloucester, 1407, 
1411. Will dated 23rd Aug. 
1420. Prob. 11th June, 1422, 
( Wore.) 



Julian, dau. & heir of Thos. 
Rous, <£■ relict of Sir Andrew 
Herle, Knight, of Avensbury, 
and Allansmore, co. Herf. 
and Harescombe, co. Glouc. 



i 

Elizabeth, 

wife to 

Nicholas 

Poyntz, of 

Iron Acton 

Knt. =f 

4* 



1st Thomas Myll,= 

Sir of Tremyll, named in his 
father's will, of Harescombe, 
living in 1456. Attainted 
with his son, 1st Edw. IV. 



1 1 

Margery da. wife to . . . 

[Margaret] Cassy [ofWhit- 

d. to . . . . field, Harl. 

Tracy. 1041]. 



3 Thomas, 
sanz yssu. 



Sir William Myll,= 
Knt., son and heir, of Hares- 
combe, slain at the battle of 
Towton, 2nd April, 1461, 
Attainted 1 Edw. IV. 



Aron [Arona] Harl. 1041. 
Frances, da. and one of the 
heirs to Edmond Winch- 
combe [Wychingham]. 



Thomas Myll= 
only son & heir. 
Arm. restored by 
authority of Par- 
Mam 1 t,l Hen VII 
died 10 Oct.1509. 
Inq. p.m. 1 & 2 
Hen. VIII. 1510 
(Exch.) 

I 

Edward Myll,= 

Esq. , son & heir, 

aged 23 years 

and more on his 

father's death ; 

living 1552, Ped. 

Fin. Presented 

to the Church of 

Harescombe, 

1550 & 1551. 



; Jacosa [Joys. 
Harl. 1041] dau. 
to Sir Richard 
Crofts, Knt. , pre- 
deceased her hus- 
band. 



Alice, man: 
1st, Nicholas 
Knyveton, of Myr- 
caston, co. Derby, 
Esq., 

2nd. Sir Roger 
My nor s, of Duf- 
field, same county. 



[Ann, mar. Rich, 
ap Gwilliam, 
Harl. 1041] 



: Jone, dau. to Sir 
Thomas Longe, 
Knt. [of Dray- 
cott, in Wilts, 
Harl. 1041].— 

Vide Pedigree of 
Long, Aubrey's 

Wilts, p. 236. 



William, 
named 
in his 

father's 
will. 



Robert. 
David. 



Edmond. 



Anne 
Sibball 



named in fatlter's will. 



I — r~ 
Anne 

Susan 



Mary,- 
dau. to Chris- 
topher Bayn- 
ham, of .... 
in com. Glouc. 
sanz yssue. 



=Thomas Myll, : 

of Harescombe in com. 
of the citie of Glouc. ; 
living 1570. Ped. Fin. 
12 Eliz. Presented to 
the church of Hares- 
combe, 1569, 1577, 
1596, 1605-6, 1612. 



Jyatherine, 
dau. to John 
Davis, of 
Dursley. 



Robert 

Edward. 

William. 



Harescombe. 



129 



Arms .-—Quarterly, 1 and 6 : erm. a millrind sa.; 2. Per pale git. and az. three 
lions ramp. erm. 3. Or, a saltier sa. between four pears gu , within a 
bordure eng, of the second. 4. erm. two annulets interlaced sa., on a chief 
of the second three crosses pattee ar. 5. Quarterly, or and az. on a bend 
gu. three escallops ar. 

Crest : — a lion rampant or. 



Humfrey Myll Hugh Myll,=f= 
2 sonn. 



Robert Myll, =j=Agnes, da. to . 
3 sonn. Poulett. 



Edmondobsp. Gawen Alicia (?)=John Mill=j=Beatrix, d. William 

Mill, of 

Croydon. 



T 



3 Thomas 1 William^Eltzabeth, 2 Henry Myll,=p Elizabeth, d. 



Myll 



d.and coh. to Esq. citizenof Lon- 
HarvyHell don; sheriff 1571 ; 
aid.; d. 1573 ; cet 
69. Bur. at Croy- 
don. 21st Jan. ; 
Mon. effigy. 



of Lawes. Bur. 
at Croydon, 10 
Aug. 1585. 



r 1 — i 1 1 1 

William=p Elizabeth, 2 Thos. Myll. Timothea. Katherin. Johanna. 



Myll. 



da. to 
Bedforde. 



3 Lucas Myll. 



Harl. 1041. 



r - 



2 William Myll. Henry Myll. Elizabeth. Susan. Grace. Mary. 



2 William=j=Agnes, dan. of John 



i — r 



Myll 



Edmund 
Harwell, of 
Besford, co. 
Wore., Esq. 



3 sonn. 



1 — I 

Nycholas, 1 Isabell. Mylesent. 

1 sonn. 2 Francis. Margaret. 



[Rich. Myll 



1 
[Edward 



1 Nicholas. 3 John. Elizabeth. Mylesent. mar. Timothy, Myll, 

2 William. Frances. Margaret, da. of Harl. 

Harl. 1041.] 1041] 



Vol. X. part 1. 



[Henry Myll, of London, 
aid. Harl. 1041.] 



130 



Transactions 



at Gloucester, 
a 



Thomas 
Myll, 2 
son. 



Mary 
Whitney. 



Edw. Myll,= 
son and heir, 
of Hares- 
combe. 
living 1583. 



i — l 



William Myll, Richard. Edward, 

a prentice of Thomas. 2 son 
London, in sanz 

Mark Layn. yssu. 



Mary, da. of . . . 
Manny, of Kent, 
and aunt to Sir 
Anthony Manny, 
Knight. 1 



Elizabeth. 



— i 
Jane. 



Thomas, William, 4 sonne, 
3 sonne. and Anthony, 5 
sonne, both 
twyns, Anthony 
died. 



- 1 
John, 

8 son, 

sanz 

yssue. 



r - 1 

Ambrose 

Myll, 6 

onn. 

Henry, 

7 sonn. 



Mary, da. to 
James Peck- 
ham, of Yal- 
ham,inKent, 
Esq. 



-Poyntz Myll, : 
son and heir, 
of Hares- 
comb. 



i 

Mary 
sup' stes. 



1 

Elizabeth 
sans yssu. 



=Elizabeth, d. 
and coheir of 
John Syden- 
ham, of 

Nympsheld, co. 
Glouc, Esq., a 
younger brother 
to Sir John, of 
Brympton, in 
Somt. — Berkeley 
MSS. Vol. II., 
p. 236. 



— i — 
John 
9 son 



— ;r~i — l . 
Katherine. 

Mary. 

Elizabeth. 



Ursula, 



Margaret. 



wife 



1 Scisseley, daughter of .John Manny, of Biddenton (Biddendon), Kent, was the third 
of Richard Wood, of Brockthrop.— Visit of Glouc. 162S. Hail. Soc.,p. 185. 

Note.— Those portions of the foregoing pedigree printed capitals have been collated with the 
official record in the College of Arms; those printed in small type are additions from 
Harl. MS. 1041 ; and those printed in italics have been added by the author from 
various sources. 



Hakescombe. 



131 



MITCHELL, 1 OF HARESCOMBE. 



The Arms, Mr. Mitchell says, are three lions' heads, and refers himself to the 
Yorkshire Books, but there's nothing entered of this family." 

William Mitchell,=f= dau. of 



of Hoxlins, co. Glouc. , descended from the 
family of Mitchell, of Mitchell Hall, co. York. 



Broune, of Glouc. 



r~ 



Thomas Mitchell, =j= da. of 



of Hoxlins. 



Pleydell, of 
Ampney. 



John Mitchell, of 
Hill, co. Glouc. 



1 John Mitchell, = 
of Hoxlins, ob. 
cir. 1644, set cir. 
70. 



2 John Mitchell, 
living unmarr.ret. 
cir. 50, 16S2 ; ob. 
s.p. Died 9 Jan. 
1700. Bur.* M.I. 
s.p. 



Edith, dau. and heir of James 2 Thomas, 3 Edward 

Sandford, of Harescombe, co. ob. ccel. Mitchell, 

Gloucester, ob. cir. 1667, set citizen of 

cir. 70. London. 



3 Charles Mitchell, =j=Elizabeth, da 
of Harscombe, ret. of Ockold, of 
45 ; Coroner for Upton-St.- 
co. Glouc. ; died 27 Leonard's,co. 
April 1694 ; cet. 55 ; Glouc. 
admin, to Thomas 

Ockold <L Elizabeth ' , 

Michell, relict, 9th Mary, bap* 6 
Nov. 1696. June, 16S1. 



— I — i 1 — I 

Frances Edith. 



Jane Sarah. 



Margaret, 1 
dau. of Thomas 
Roberts, of Hai - s- 
combe, ob. circa, 
1655. Died 5th 
June, 1653. M.L* 



1 

; James Mitchell, =j=Bridget, dau 

of Harscombe, ret. 59, 

1682. Died 9th Sept. 

1698 ; ret. 75. Will 

proved Glouc, 4th Oct. 

1698. 



of Thomas 
Price, of Gloucester, and 
widow of William Clent 
of the same place, living 
16S2 ; ob. 1685 ; cet. 56. 
M.L* ( 3 ). 
1 



1 Joan, wife Margaret, 
of John ret. 1682. 

Huntley, of 
Harscombe, 
both dead. 
She died 15 Feb. 
1670, M.L* 



James Mitchell, 
eldest son, oj' Rand- 
wick, living unmarr. 
ret. circa 35, 1682 ; 
bur.* 23 Nov. 1689. 



Lewis Mitchell, : 
ret. cir. 30 ; adm. 
22 Auy. 1689. 



Mary, 
da. of 



H 



of Stroud, co. 
16SI ; ret. 33. 



John Michell, Alary, bap* 
bap * 19 Oct. 6June,\GM 
1696. 
John Mitch ell, =f Sarah, dau. of Mr. Dutton, of 



Glouc. ; ob. 



Chedworth, co. Glouc. k widow 
of John Griffin, of Stroud. 



1 The introduction of " t " into this name is evidently an error, as the family 

name is usually written in the Parish Registers and elsewhere with- 
out it. 

2 In a "Note of such as were disclaimed to be no Gentilmen within the 

County and Citty of Gloucester, ' 13 Aug. 1623, occurs the name of 
John Michell, of " Harsfeild." But in the "Book of Compositions 
for not taking the order of Knighthood at the Coronation of King 
Charles the lirst," 1630-1, we meet with the same name, "John 
Michell, of Haresfehl, gent. £10." — Vide Trans. B> istol and Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. IX., p. 351. 

8 A tablet formerly existed, with achievements, in the Lady Chapel of the 
cathedral, Gloucester, bearing the following inscription : — 
" Tcdiellam haiic, quasi pignva amoris Brigitta conju.r. Grlielmi Clent, 
nuper de hac civitale Glevenei, generosi, posuit in mtmoriam ejus, <^ui 
obiit, 10 Oct. a.d. 1655."— Fosb. Glouc. p. 267. 
* At Harescombe. 
K 2 



132 



Transactions at Gloucester. 



B 

.J 



only child, set. 2, 16S2, of 
Haresfeld, gent;, bur. 8 Mar 
1758. 



Thoma,s,=f=Bridget, dau. of. Stock; 



bur* 26th Dec, 1746. 



William died 
in infancy. 



Bridget bap. 
1 May, 1711. 



Mary, died in 
infancy. 



1 

John Michell, Gent. M.I. 
bur.* 13 Sept. 1727. a 

, _j 



4 James Mitchell, =i=Mary, da. 



of Harscombe, set. 
cir. 21 ; died 20 Nov. 
1689; cet. 31 M.I.* 
Adm. to Mary, relict, 
6 Feb. 1689-90. 

James Mitcliell- 



of George 
Small, of 
Hampton, 
co. Glouc. 



3 Bridget 
. . . Huntington 



4 Elizabeth, =f-J6hn Ayl- 
mar. 31 Oct. \ burton. 

]695 | 1 

Mitchell = Ann, dau. of 

Ricliard Chinn, of 

Newnham. 



John. 
Thomas. 



! — ! 

Charles. 
William. 



ob. s.p. 



■Mary, da. of. Hillier. 

of King's Stanley. 



.1 son, 



of Deptford. sj/ 



~i — i — 
Mary. 
Sarah. 



n — l 



Hester=Samuel Aldridge, 
Died 19th of Stroud. M.I.f 
Nov. 1764 

IIannah.= William Pegler, 
Died 8 Oct. of Stroud. 
1764. M.I.f 



r~ 



James Mitchell, ^Abigail, dau. of 
of Band wick. Died 
16Mar.l75S,M.I.i 



James. 
Samuel. 



) 



ob. 
young. 



1 

Betty. 
Miles Huntley, of Died 31 Mar. 
Harescombe. 1780. 



Maria Mitchell, =John Wood. 



■William Hogg, of 
Painswick. Died 
8 Nov. 1800, M.I. t 



1 


i 


i 


i 




I 




Samuel. 


Caroline=\ Samuel 


Miles- 


^Elizabeth 


TIiomas=f Sarah, 


bap. 1756, 


Hobson. 


Mitchell, 


Hogg, 


of 


Hogg, of 


dau. of 


died 1784. 


2 John 


1800; bap. 


Pains- 




Pains- 


Henry 




Constable 


1753. Lord 


xoick. 




ivick. 


Jordan, 




3 . . . 


of the 
Manor of 








of Pains 
wick. 






1803. 






I 
Thomas 


Jenner 



Hogg, clerk, 1800. 



1681. June 6. 
1695. Nov. 1. 
1713. Mar. 27. 
1691. Dec. 5. 
1695. July 25. 
1698. Aug. 20. 



| Hare 



1730. Oct. 10. 
1727. Sept. 13. 
1676. Nov. 27. 



Mary, da. of Chas. Michell, gent., baptized. 
William Michell buried. \Harescombi 

Margaret Michell, gentlewoman, buried. J Eef J lsters - 

Anne, wife of Edward Michell, gent., buried. ~} 
Mary, wife of Edward Michell, gent., buried. 
Edward, son of ,, ,, ,, buried. 

1727. Sept. 25. Edward Michell, gent., buried. 
1726. April 16. Arabela, (sic) Michell, widow, buried. 
John Michell, gent., buried. 
John Michell, gent. 
Thomas, son of James Michell, gent., 

aged 8 years ., 

N.B.— The above Pedigree as far as it is printed in Roman type is taken from The Heralds' 
Visitation of Gloucestershire in 1682-3, but the portion printed in Italics has been 
added, by the editors of the printed copy of that Visitation, from other sources, and 
by the author of this Memoir. 

* At Haicsconibe. f At Randwick. { At Painswick. 



J 



~ „ e <=s 

^ °- te 



Harescombe, M.I. 



The Opening Meeting. 133 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Bristol nnb 6louccslersMrc ^rcjpatogtcal Society, 

At the Annual Meeting, held at Tewkesbury, 

On Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, the 2J/th, 25th and 26th 

July, 1S85. 

>-•••—<; 

The Annual Summer Meeting of the Society was held at Tewkesbury on 
the days above-mentioned. Warm genial weather prevailed, and an 
interesting programme sufficed to attract a large gathering of members. 

Amongst those present were Sir Brook Kay, Bart. (President elect), 
Sir W. Guise, Bart. (President of the Council), Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. ; 
Revs. Canon Bourne (retiring President), W. T. Allen, S. E. Bartleet, 
J. Sylvester Davies, W. Sylvester Davies, W. H. V. Harvey, T. 
Holborow, W Bagnall-Oakeley, F. J. Poynton, D. Royce, W. D. 
Stanton, F. E. Broome-Witts, W. Bazeley (General Sec.) ; Lieut. -Colonel 
Blathwayt, Major Davies, Dr. Day ; Messrs. A. W. Allard, W. 
Allard, J. Bush, C. Cruddas, A. E. D'Argent, F. F. Fox, E. Hartland, 
A. E. Hudd, W. Leigh, H. Hume Lloyd, F. Moore, H. New, P. D. 
Prankerd, T. Prothero, J. G. Sibald, R. Taylor, F. F. Tuckett, 
J. Williams and others, including a large number of ladies. 

The Opening Meeting. 

The Worshipful the Mayor (Mr. J. H. Boughton), and other members 
of the Municipal body received the Society at the Town Hall. 

The Mayor, addressing the President (the Rev. Canon Bourne), cor- 
dially welcomed the Society to Tewkesbmy, and said the Council and the 
town were highly honoured by the Society having selected Tewkesbury as 
the place of their annual meeting. He doubted not the members would 
find sufficient of interest in the town and neighbourhood to occupy their 
time profitably and pleasurably. There is a grand old Abbey Church, with 
which were connected many historical associations ; and there were also 
many other things in the locality which would undoubtedly prove of much 
interest. Therefore he trusted when the Society left Tewkesbury they 
would carry with them many pleasant memories. The Mayor repeated his 
hearty welcome to the Society, and then invited the President to take the 
chair, who thereupon in the name of the Society thanked the Mayor of the 
ancient borough and the Town Council for their cordial invitation and 
reception of the Society. As the mayor had properly said, there were 
many points of the greatest interest in the locality, dating back as far as 
the Heptarchy, and all kinds of archaeological tastes would find plenty to 
amuse and afford them gratification, and thereupon called on the Honorary 
Secretary to read the 



134 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

Annual Report of the Council. 
The Council submits the following report to the members of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for the year 1884-5 : — 

There are at the present time on the list of the Society 429 annual 
members, and 81 life members, making a total of 510, as against 511 at the 
corresponding period of last year. 

During the past year 28 new members have been elected, of whom 6 
are life members, and 29 vacancies have occurred by death or otherwise. 
On the 2lst April, 1884, the balance at the Society's bankers was 
£273 8s. 7d. The income of the Society during the years 1884-5 was 
£272 7s. Id., making a total of £545 15s. 8d. The expenditure on the 
general account was £276 4s. Sd, and £103 19s. Id. was advanced for 
printing the Berkeley MSS., making a total expenditure of £383 9s., and 
leaving an actual balance of £165 lis. lid. on April 21st, 1885, at the 
Society's bankers. The gross assets of the Society amounted therefore to 
£269 lis., which will be reduced by the cost of the ninth volume of the 
Society's Transactions, the first part of which will be delivered to the 
members within the next few days, and the second part of which is in 
type, and other charges. Besides this balance on the general fund, the 
Society has a funded capital of £432 3s. 8d., representing the compositions 
of the life members. 

The Society has to lament the loss by death of one of its Vice- 
Presidents, Mr. J. C. Dent ; of Dr. Wright, a member of the Council ; of 
its Local Secretary at Cheltenham, Mr. J. Middleton, and of many of its 
subscribing members. 

The general meeting of the Society was held at Evesham, on July 23rd, 
24th and 25th, 1884. The arrangements for the meeting were admirably 
carried out by a Local Committee, of which the Rev. Canon Bourne was 
Chairman, and Mr. Herbert New and Mr. Robert F. Tomes were Secre- 
taries. 

Financially the meeting resulted most satisfactorily in a balance of 
£13 14s. 4d. in favour of the Society. An account of the proceedings 
appears in the ninth volume of the Transactions. 

The spring meeting was held— after the close of the financial year — 
on the 20th May, and included an excursion to VVainlode Hill and Ashle- 
worth. A detailed account of this meeting, and the papers read at the 
School of Art, Gloucester, will appear in the Society's Transactions for this 
year. There was a profit of £3 13s. lOd. on this meeting. 

The third volume of the Berkeley MSS., containing the " History of 
the Hundred of Berkeley," is now in the hands of the subscribing 
members. 

Extracts from the reviews of the first and second volumes have been 
sent to the members of the Society. These extracts testify to the literary 
importance and value of the work. 

The issue was limited to 300 demy 4to and 50 large paper copies. The 
large paper copies have been all subscribed for, and nearly 200 of the 
demy 4to. If other than members were permitted to subscribe for the 
work, it would soon be out of print, and command a very high price. 



Report of the Council. 135 

Besides the Reports and Transactions of the various Societies with 
which this Society exchanges its own Transactions, the following works 
have been added to the Society's Library : — 

" Archaeologia Cantiana," vols, i.-viii. By purchase. 

" Archaeologia Cantiana," vol. ix. By presentation from the Kentish 

Archaeological Society." 
"Derbyshire Archaeological Society's Transactions," vols, i.-iii. By 

exchange. 
"Reports and Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies of 

Worcestershire," &c, 6 vols. By presentation from the Rev. 

Reginald Hill, and G vols, by purchase. 
"Wiltshire Archaeological Society's Magazine," vols, i.-xvi. By 

purchase. 
"The Baves of Barrow Court." By presentation from the Author, 

the Rev. F. J. Poynton. 
" Sussex Archaeological Society's Transactions," vol. i,, and vols, v.-xx. 

By purchase. 

"The Archaeological Handbook and Map of Gloucestershire." By 
purchase. 
"Some Account of the Haken Family." Presented by the Author, 
the Rev. Cornelius Haken. 

The Society has now the nucleus of a good archaeological library, to 
which it is hoped that, during the ensuing year, many additions may be 
made. A list of the Society's hooks appeal's in the first part of volume ix. 
of the Society's Transactions. The Council will gladly accept gifts of 
Topographical, Historical and Archaeological Works, and such volumes of 
the Transactions of kindred societies, as do not appear in that list. 

The Council has thought fit to order the binding of many of the books 
in the library. These are now ready for issue by the General Secretary, 
under such conditions as may be thought desirable. 

The Council greatly regrets the resignation of Dr. Caldicott, one of the 
General Secretaries, owing to his removal from the county, and the increas- 
ing calls on his time and attention. As Chairman of the Bristol Local 
Committee, as a member of the Council, and as General Secretary, Dr. 
Caldicott has rendered very valuable services to the Society, for which the 
Council accords him its hearty thanks. 

Mr. Bazeley has consented to be responsible for the whole Secretarial 
work until other arrangements are made. 

The Council, in consideration of Mr. Bazeley's services as General 
Secretary for the last six years, and of his contributions to the Transactions 
of the Society, desires to nominate him for election as an Honorary Member 
of the Society, with the understanding that, as such, he will have all the 
rights and privileges of a general member, and also of a member of the 
Council. 

The Council also greatly regrets the resignation of Mr. Giller as 
Treasurer, and desires to acknowledge the very great obligation under 



136 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

which the Society stands to him for his very skilful and painstaking 
management of the Society's accounts since 1881. 

The Council has temporally appointed Mr. E. Hartland as Treasurer in 
Mr. Giller's room, and now desires to nominate him for election. 

The Council nominates for re-election the President of the Council 
(Sir William V. Guise, Bart.), the Vice-Presidents, the General Secretary 
(Rev. William Bazeley), and the Secretaries, sectional and local, with the 
exception of the Rev. Canon Bourne, whom the Council nominates as Vice- 
President, in the room of Mr. J. C. Dent, deceased. The Council nominates 
the Rev. F. S. Forster, Mr. J. H. Middleton and Colonel Forbes as Local 
Secretaries for Chipping Campden, Cheltenham and Dursley respectively. 
The following members of the Council retire by rotation, but are eligible 
for re-election : — 

The Rev. S. E. Bartleet, Mr. Granville Baker, Dr. Paine, the Rev. 
W. Bagnall-Oakeley, the Rev. Canon Ellacombe and Mr. Wilfred Cripps. 

There are vacancies on the Council for Cheltenham and Tewkesbury. 

The Council has held six meetings during the last year — three at 
Gloucester, two at Bristol, and one at Tewkesbury, and desires to express 
its acknowledgments to the Mayor and Town Clerk of Gloucester for the 
use of the Tolzey, and also to the Mayor of Tewkesbury for the use of the 
Town Hall. 

The Rev. F. E. Broome Witts moved the adoption of the report, and 
that the gentlemen named in it be requested to accept the respective offices 
assigned to them. He did so with much pleasure, because the success of 
the Society in a great measure depended upon the wisdom of the Council. 

Mr. P. D. Pkankerd seconded the motion, and it was agreed to. 

Mr. J. Williams proposed " That the following gentlemen be requested 
to accept the position of Members of the Council proper : — The Rev. S. E. 
Bartleet, Dr. Payne, the Rev. W. Bagnall-Oakeley, Canon Ellacombe, Mr. 
W. Cripps, the Rev. J. M. Hall, and the Rev. F. E. Broome Witts. 

Mr. W. C. George seconded the motion, and it was carried. 

Mr. Le Blanc proposed "That the thanks of this Society be given to 
the Rev. Canon Bourne, the retiring President." They had not forgotten 
the genial and courteous manner in which he presided over the Society last 
year at Evesham, and they were in many respects indebted to him. 

Mr. D'Argent seconded the motion, and it was cordially adopted. 

The Rev. Canon Boitrne expressed his thanks for the compliment 
offered him, and his pleasure at seeing the Society at Evesham in the past 
year for the purpose of becoming acquainted with a town which is very 
little known. He hoped they would have another opportunity of visiting 
the locality. He then introduced the new President (Sir Biook Kay, Bart.,) 
and vacated the chair. 



President's Address. 137 

The President's Address. 
Sir Brook Kay, Bart., (the President) then delivered his Inaugural 
Address. He expressed his surprise at finding himself occupying the 
position of President, a post which had hitherto been rilled by men of great 
archaeological knowledge, to which he made no pretensions, although he was 
a great lover of historical research. He remarked that this was not the 
first visit the Society had paid to Tewkesbury. In 1876, when their Congress 
was held at Gloucester, they paid a day's visit to the locality, but the time 
then at their disposal was far too limited to allow a proper examination of 
its grand old abbey church, one of the most magnificent ecclesiastical build- 
ings in this country ; its great battle-field ; and the various other places of 
interest which were to be found in the neighbourhood. Quoting from a 
work lent by Mr. S. H. Gael, on the history of Tewkesbury, he described the 
situation of the town, and said it was to a hermit (Theo) that monkish 
tradition had assigned its name and origin. They, however, attributed to it 
a much more ancient date, and said confirmatory of the idea of a British or 
Roman origin was the existence of Roman roads about Ripple and Mythe, 
and the finding of Roman coins about Oldbury aud other places. The 
monastery was founded in Saxon times — about 715, and in the names of its 
founders, Oddo and Doddo, great Mercian noblemen, traces of that of Tewkes- 
bury had been detected or fancied. It became a considerable establishment, 
and drew settlers to the place. It nourished under the ancestors of the great 
but unfortunate Brictric,who was the patron and lord of the fee at the Norman 
conquest. Brictric's estate was confiscated by William the Conqueror, at 
the instigation of Queen Matilda, who hated the Saxon nobleman, because 
he had rejected her love. William Rufus granted the abbey and lands to 
Robert Fitzhamon, as a reward for the many services rendered by his late 
father. Fitzhamom endowed the abbey with many large possessions, and 
removed the abbot and monks of Cranbourne to Tewkesbury, making the 
former into a priory. After briefly referring to the subsequent lords of 
Tewkesbury, he said a very modern and extremely ugly structure stands on 
the site of Holme Castle, which was the residence of the lords of Tewkes- 
bury, as also Hanley Castle, of which, however, nothing remained but a 
portion of the moat. The President next gave a graphic description of the 
battle of Tewkesbury, fought between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, 
and of the murder of Prince Edward and the slaughter of his adherents, and 
remarked that Somerset, Sir John Wenlock, and others were buried in the 
church, so also Prince Edward, whose supposed resting place was near the 
entrance to the choir and had been marked by a flat stone in the pavement, 
but which was now removed. The town was the scene of several fights during 
the civil war between Charles and the Parliament, and was at different 
periods held by the Cavaliers and their opponents. During the reign of 
James II. that monarch attempted to pack a Parliament, and appointed a 
committee of seven Privy Councilors at Whitehall for the purpose of regu- 
lating the municipal corporation. The boroughs were commanded to 
surrender their charters. Few complied, and in several towns the right of 
voting was taken away from the cummonalty and given to a very small 
number of persons who were bound by oath to support the candidates 
recommended by the government. At Tewkesbury the franchise was con- 
fined to thirteen persons, and yet this number was too large, and the 



138 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

Regulators threatened to reduce the electors to three. The great majority 
of the boroughs firmly refused to give up their privileges, and Tewkesbury, 
animated by the same sentiment, did not yield. The King failed in his 
attempt to obtain a packed parliament. Proceeding to describe the Abbey 
Church, he said — The church consists of a nave and aisles, divided by rows 
of seven massive pillars on each side, transepts, north and south, a choir 
with apsidal chancel, and over the choir arches there is a triforium. Seven 
chapels are built round the walls, and open into the ambulatory or transepts. 
Another on the north is ruinous. The length is 317 feet, of which the nave 
occupies 167 feet, with a recessed west end filled by a large window. The 
tower is Norman, almost the largest in England, and the most beau- 
tiful of its class ; this, with the Lady Chapel, of which are now no remains 
above ground, was the church of the great Abbey of Tewkesbury, originally 
Saxon, but refounded in 1152 by Robert Fitzhamon, by whom the Norman 
parts of the church were built. The sepulchral chapels were for the founder 
and his descendants, and other illustrious persons buried in the church or 
connected with the place, including many who were closely allied to the 
successive Royal houses in England. Probably there was no parish church 
in the country of which the same might be said. Again in later days many 
worthy inhabitants of the town had been interred in the church or its yard, 
and it was to be regretted that many of the monuments and stones, which 
were so useful to the local historian, had been destroyed during the Res- 
toration. The organ is said to have been brought from Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and was set up in 1737, having previously been taken, according to 
some accounts, to Hampton Court, for the use of Oliver Cromwell, who was 
particularly fond of organ music. The fine old gateway, once forming a 
portion of the entrance to the abbey, exists, and the cloisters of the ancient 
monastery are still to be traced. The abbey continued for nearly five 
centuries, when the dissolution of monasteries took place. In 1541 the abbot 
became Bishop of Gloucester. About this date the corporation acquired the 
abbey by purchase, thereby preserving one of the noblest churches and his- 
torical monuments in the kingdom. Since that it has been repaired at different 
periods, the last restoration being commenced in 1875. Alluding to some 
of the points of interest in the neigbourhood, the President said that from 
the abbey tower, 132 feet high, a glorious panorama was to be seen. The 
hills, the valleys, and the plains on the other side of the Severn, all carried 
with them some historical interest. The celebrated camp at Camp Hill, the 
earthworks of which embrace an area of 43 acres, was no result of a war 
panic, but a carefully designed and well carried out enterprise. It was at 
once the home of the people, the seat of council and judgment, and the site 
of an altar served by the Druids. The spots was connected with other parts 
of the country by roads They were not paved with stone or gravel, as in 
later times by the Romans, but their basis was the firm and verdant turf. 
For ages the forests about Warren's Well, in the flank of the Beacon, had 
been refuges for those who, like Owen Glen dower or Sir John Oldcastle, had 
to seek refuge from the wrath of the Kings and ecclesiastics ; or the 
poachers who had offended against forest laws. Oldcastle, after the per- 
secution of six years, during which he was often sheltered in the manor house 
of Birt's Morton, lying under the ragged stone hill, famous for the weird 
legend of its shadow, was tried and found guilty of heresy, and burnt alive 



President's Address. 139 

in St. Giles's fields in 1417. The Red Earl's Dyke might be traced to this 
day along the crest of the hills for several miles, and was the relic of a 
great trench he had dug to mark the extent of his right of chase in the 
direction of Ledbury and Hereford. Carrying the eye along the crest of 
hills they arrived at their highest point, the Worcestershire Beacon, from 
which the most extensive view was obtained. Beneath this nestled the 
modern town of Great Malvern, still retaining its fine old priory church and 
the gateway and relics of the monastic establishment that once existed 
there. Referring to the supply of fish obtained from the Severn, the 
speaker drew attention to the love of Kings and nobles for lampreys, the 
high prices of which were shown by the fact that Maurice, fourth Lord 
Berkeley, sent Edward III. six lampreys at a cost of £6 7s. 2d., the carriage 
paid being 6s. Sd.; and the year following he sent two, which cost £1 6s. Sd. 
Thomas Lord Berkeley, when setting out on an expedition against the 
Scots, took with him from Berkeley nine lamprey pies. The President, 
continuing his description of the neighbourhood, said crossing the valley 
from Malvern to the east the city of Worcester struck the eye, and again to 
the north-east they saw the entrance to the fertile vale of Evesham and the 
town of Pershore, with its sister church to that of Tewkesbury, but of which 
the choir alone remained, and where the two Saxon founders of Tewkesbury, 
Oddo and Doddo, were buried. Returning again to the hills, and 
beginning with Bredon, and passing along the Cotteswold range, fading 
away in the blue distance, all the most remarkable heights and promontories 
of which bore the remains of camps, and were traversed by Roman roads, 
which roads, perhaps, showed more than any other remains the great power 
wielded by Rome and the civilisation she sought to diffuse throughout the 
country. The luxurious habits of the Romans were indicated by the remains 
of sundry villas, always found in picturesque spots, healthy and advantageous 
for cultivation, thus teaching the Briton to improve and cultivate the land, 
over which he had once simply pastured his flocks or hunted. Grand old 
churches and fair manor houses were found in their valleys, bearing tes- 
timony to the faith of later generations and to the residence of landlords on 
their estates, a fashion which, alas, was becoming well nigh obsolete in our 
generation. After noticing other points of interest, the President said that 
returning nearer home, and following the course of the Severn, they came 
to Deerhurst, with its very interesting church, still showing marks of Saxon 
origin, and at the palace in which Canute and Edmund entered into that 
treaty which brought peace to England till the Conquest. The country 
between Bath and Worcester was the great battle ground on which the 
issue was fought out during so many years by Alfred and the Danes, and 
the last crowning victory of the English King was gained at Boddington, 
about four miles from Tewkesbury. Thus he had endeavoiu*ed to sketch in 
the briefest outline the points of archaeological interest surrounding the town 
in which they were at present assembled, and he hoped he had not wearied 
them. 

Sir John Maclean proposed a vote of thanks to the President for his 
address. 

The Mayor of Tewkesbury seconded the proposition, and it was 
carried amidst applause, 



140 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

The President, in acknowledging the compliment, repeated that he 
did not pretend to be an archaeologist, but he was extremely fond of any- 
thing relating to ancient history, and he joined the Archaeological Society 
more for the sake of learning than of attempting to impart any information. 

The members then adjourned for luncheon. 

The Abbey Church. 
On the conclusion of the meeting, the Society paid a visit to the 
Abbey Church, where, in the absence of the vicar, the Rev. Canon Robeson, 
the party was received by the Rev. F. R. Carbonnell, one of the curates, 
who proved a most efficient guide. Many of the members were more or 
less already familiar with the plan, general features, and details of this 
beautiful and impressive edifice from the monograph thereon by the late 
Rev. J. L. Petit, printed in vol. v. of the Transactions of the Society, and 
also with some of the finest of the monuments from the remarks thereon by 
the Rev. W. S. Symonds, in vol. ii. , and the description by, and beautiful 
drawings of, Mr. A. Hartshorne, in vol. iv. of the Transactions of the 
Society. The members present, however, could not fail to be struck with 
the grand and sublime character of the building, and a personal inspection 
of the dignified memorials of some of England's greatest men, the makers 
of her history, from Robert Fitz Hamon, the de Clares, le Despencers and 
Beauchamps, not forgetting the gallant Guy de Bryan, the standard bearer 
at the ever famous battle of Crecy, of whom there is a double effigy. 

Mr. Carbonell, in his remarks, followed the Rev. J. H. Blunt's work on 
"The Abbey and its Associations," describing its history as far as it could 
be ascertained. There was no doubt, he said, that 715 was the date of the 
foundation of the monastic establishment, and by 800 it had become a very 
important place. During the Danish invasions it was twice destroyed, and 
when renewed it lost its independence as an abbey, and became subject to 
the abbey of Cranbourne, Dorsetshire. The monks were frequently driven 
out during those struggles, and the priory itself was twice destroyed by 
fire. In 1102, however, the relations between the two places became 
reversed, and Cranbourne became solely dependent upon Tewkesbury Abbey. 
At the death of William the Conqueror, Rufus granted the manor of 
Tewkesbury to Robert Fitz Hamon, a Norman nobleman of considerable 
wealth and influence. About the year 1100 the monastery and church were 
be<nm. In 1102 the buildings were occupied by an abbot and monks from 
Cranbourne. In that year Abbot Gerald and Fitz Hamon commenced 
building of the church ; and the work of the latter still forms the sub- 
stantial part of the fabric. Neither Fitz Hamon nor the Abbot lived to see 
the completion of the edifice. The former was killed at the siege of Falaise 
on March 15th, 1107, and his body was temporarily buried in the chapter- 
house east of the cloisters, whence it was removed 130 years later to a place 
between the two pillars on the north side of the altar. His lands passed 
with the hand of his daughter Mabel to Robert Fitzroy, first Earl of 
Gloucester, illegitimate son of Henry I., who carried on to completion the 
work at the church which his father-in-law had begun, and the chief 
substance of the building remains to this day. It has been standing for 
750 years, and modern architects who have been consulted on the subject, 
amongst them Sir Gilbert Scott, are of opinion that there is no doubt as to 



The Abbey Church. 141 

its stability, the main walls and pillars being in no need of substantial 
repair. The church was consecrated on Nov. 20th, 1123. Mr. Carbonell 
pointed out the curious formation of the church, with three apsidal termin- 
ations at the east end, and remarked that Tewkesbury was the only church 
in which a triple apse was still clearly marked. A lantern tower, surmounted 
by a spire, fell in 1559. For the next 270 years the earldom of Gloucester 
carried with it the lordship of Tewkesbury and the patronage of the abbey. 
The De Clares, the Despensers, earls of Gloucester, and the Beauchamps 
were amongst its greatest benefactors, and from time to time added con- 
siderably to the fabric of the church. About fifty years after the consecra- 
tion of the abbey, namely, in 1178, there was a great fire. The monastery 
was burnt, and the church itself suffered considerably. Marks of the 
conflagration are still discernible on many of the walls, and the belief is 
that the old wooden roof was totally destroyed. Above the existing 
groining, signs of the fire may be clearly traced on the walls. In some 
places the face of the stone has crumbled off, and although it is now 
impossible to estimate the damage or the exact locality of the fire, traces 
of its ravages may he seen outside the church over the cloisters. Subse- 
quently important additions were made to the fabric by Prior Sipton, who 
pulled down the Norman termination and built outside a square chapel, 
and afterwards to the north of that a second chapel was added, seemingly 
dedicated to St. James, a part of which still remains, and has been recently 
restored. The groined roof of that chapel was not added until 1337. 
Another chapel was added to the two already mentioned a short time later, 
and it is believed it was dedicated to St. Eustacius in 1246. Mr. Carbonell 
then briefly traced the devolution of the manor from the Despensers, 
referring to the additions they severally made to the abbey church, and to 
their respective places of burial within the sacred edifice down to Isabel 
Despenser, the relict of Richard Beauchamp, who for his valour was 
created Earl of Worcester, and being slain at Meaux, was buried at 
Tewkesbury in 1421. Isabel built the beautiful Beauchamp Chapel in the 
following year, and doubtless founded therein a chantry for the repose of 
his soul : and afterwards she married Richard Nevill, Earl of Warwick, the 
king-maker, on whose death the secular manor of Tewkesbury became 
absorbed in the Crown lands. At the dissolution of the Abbey, the eccle- 
siastical manor, that of Barton, also fell into the king's hands, and thus the 
whole of Eitz Hamon's possessions were alienated from his descendants. 

After mentioning some of the principal monuments in the church, Mr. 
Carbonell stated that the Duchess of Clarence lies buried behind the altar, 
and that here also her husband was brought after his supposed murder in 
the tower in 1477. 

The next event described was the battle of Tewkesbury, which took 
place on the 4th May, 1471, when so much of the best blood of England 
was poured out like water almost within the shadow cast by the tower of 
the Abbey Church. On account of the blood shed within its walls, no 
service was held there for a month, until the edifice was reconsecrated. 
Among those who have been brought to their last resting-place there are : 
Prince Edward, said to have been murdered after the battle, the Duke of 
Somerset, beheaded at Tewkesbury, the Earl of Devonshire, and Sir Walter 
Courtenay. On the 9th January, 1539, the abbey and its possessions were 
surrendered to the use of the king and his heirs. 



142 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

The nave, as was frequently the case in monastic churches, had from 
time out of mind been used by the people of the town ; though still 
belonging to the abbey, the monks in order ministering ; bnt upon the 
dissolution the whole edifice was purchased by the town as a parish church 
for the sum of £482. About the end of the 16th century the work of 
destruction began. In 1602 the rood screen was destroyed. The old stone 
altar also was taken away ; at all events in 1607 it was found buried some- 
where in the church. It was dug up, and for a time replaced in its original 
position. In 1730 it was again removed by men who worked during the 
night, being apparently ashamed of their sacrilegious act, or fearing the 
anger of the people of Tewkesbury. At this time it was moved into one of 
the aisles, and at a later date it was divided longitudinally and used as 
porch seats. At the recent restoration it was refaced, polished, jointed 
together, and placed in its original position, and at its original height, 
above the floor of the church. In 1603 the old upper roof of the choir was 
removed, and a lower pitch substituted, but why so much lower a pitch 
was decided upon is not known. The fall of the spire forty years before 
had probably materially damaged the old roof, and led to its removal. The 
roof of the nave was also removed and lowered in about 1720, the western 
gable between the two pinnacles at the west end being removed. It is not 
known when the west window was first inserted. The present window, 
made in 1686, is supposed to be a copy of that which was blown in in 1661. 
Carrying the work of destruction down even to our own days, the old bell 
tower was destroyed in 1817, and the coloured vaulting of the church was 
only yellow washed over in 1828, at which time much '' restoration " went 
on in the abbey. Then again the work ceased for many years, and the 
real restoration was only commenced about ten years ago. 

The visitors were then conducted round the church, and the various 
points of interest were attentively examined. The little chapel on the 
southern side of the church, which is now used for daily service, is a very 
interesting portion of the building. Above it is a large chamber approached 
by a staircase, the original use of which it is difficult to determine, unless 
it were used as a sacristan's chamber. The chapel dedicated to St. Mary 
and the Holy Trinity, one part of which is older than the rest, was next 
inspected, and the party passed on to view the De Spencer monuments, all 
of which are of the most exquisite workmanship. One of the chapels, that 
erected by Prior Henry Sipton, was probably one of the first additions to 
the fabric of the church in 1237. For many years it was walled off from 
the abbey and used as a grammar school. The old colouring is still visible 
on the walls, and the arch in the west end is one of the most handsome 
pieces of work in the building. In the chancel portions of the old sedilia 
remain. In the north transept, built into the eastern wall, is the fragment 
of an effigy of an ecclesiastic, habited in a cassock and surplice, and holding 
a book. He was probably a lector. Effigies so habited are very rare. 
There is a similar one at Dale Abbey, described by Mr. Bloxam as almost 
unique. 

The party then passed through the old cloisters and to the exterior of 
the abbey. Here much of the great interest to antiquaries is to be found. 
Many of the monastic buildings were ordered to be destroyed, " deemed 
to be superfluous." These included "the church, chapels, cloisters, 



The Mythe. 143 

chapter houses, the two dormitories, the infirmary, with chapels and 
lodgings within the same," but the abbot's apartments, including his 
"buttery, pantry, kitchen, larder, and pantry thereunto adjoining" were 
assigned to remain undefaced. But, as Mr. Blunt remarks, there is a 
Providence above all the evil intentions of men, and the church and chapels 
having been purchased of Henry VIII., they are still the home of God's 
worship, and the glory of Tewkesbury. The remains of the old buildings, 
which bore traces of long usage, were examined with much interest, and the 
visitors passed on to view the west window. From the lawn of the abbey 
house, now the vicarage, portions of which undoubtedly at one time formed 
a part of the monastic buildings, an excellent view was obtained of the 
church and adjoining tower ; and adjoining is the "great gateway entering 
into the court, with lodging over the same," believed to be loth century 
work. 

A vote of thanks to the Rev. R. F. Carbonell for his extremely 
interesting description of the abbey church and its surroundings brought 
the visit to a close. 

The proposed visit to the site of Holme Castle, at which Mr. W. H. H. 
Spurrier was announced to be the guide, had to be abandoned. 

Our notice of the abbey church would be incomplete if we omitted to 
refer to the recent acquisition of the ancient abbey precincts, which had 
not been purchased by the parishioners with the church itself, though a 
chamber in the south-west angle of the sacred edifice formed a portion of 
it. By what oversight this occurred we are unable to state, nor do we 
know to what purpose in mediaeval times this chamber was appropriated. 
The other portions consisted of the whole site, and the only existing 
remains of the old monastic buildings, the beautiful 15th century abbey 
gateway, the fine loth century cloisters, and the whole area on the south 
side of the church, affording the only means of access to the exterior of the 
building on that side. These premises were reserved to the crown, when 
the mayor and burgesses purchased the church, and King Henry VIII. 
granted them inter alia to Thomas Stroud, Walter Earle and James Paget, 1 
probably as trustees, for sale. In recent times, the premises in question 
were vested in the family of Martin, of Ledbury. The late Mr. J. Martin, 
of Upper Hall, Ledbury, died a few years ago, leaving his Tewkesbury 
property, of which these premises formed a portion, in his residuary estate, 
to be divided among his children when his youngest son attained his 
majority. This happened in 1883, and the trustees of Mr. Martin's will 
determined to sell the whole by public auction. 

The Revd. Hemming Robeson, the vicar of the parish, alive to the 
importance of the occasion, resolved, if possible, to secure the before- 
mentioned property for restoration to the church. In this he was seconded 
by Mr. Thomas Collins, the well-known builder at Tewkesbury, and the 
premises were purchased by them at the sale at the very high price of 
£9,500, the responsibility being shared by these two gentlemen. This being 
accomplished a committee was appointed, and energetic efforts were made 
to raise subscriptions from the public, and were so successful that a suf- 
ficient sum was obtained to enable the purchasers to convey to trustees 

1 Rot. Pat. 30 Hen. VIII. 



144 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

the ancient buildings above specified ; a portion of the land contiguous to 
the abbey house, and a sufficient precinct to the abbey church itself. The 
result is that the public have now free access to the whole of the south 
side of the church, cloister, &c. The chamber has been opened into the 
nave, and future vicars will have the option of inhabiting the abbey house 
as the present vicar does, or of letting it and residing in the old vicarage 
which has been retained as legally the Glebe House of the Benefice. 

Mr. F. Moore, preparatory to reading his paper in the evening on the 
Mediceval Houses in Tewkesbury, conducted the members to view some of the 
more remarkable of them. The first spot visited was the Bell Hotel, a 
hostelry which has many famous associations. It is a curious and "well- 
preserved" specimen of timber building, an J is an interesting example of 
medieval architecture. At its rear is a bowling green, surrounded by a fine 
yew hedge. A peculiar interest attaches to the " Bell " and its green by the 
fact that they are noticed by Miss Mullock in "John Halifax, Gentle- 
man," wherein the house is referred to as " an ancient hostelry belonging 
to the abbey and formerly within its precincts." The abbey malthouse 
was the next place visited. It is a substantial building of the 15th century 
work, and is supported by six heavy buttresses. The interior affords a 
very considerable storing capacity. Near the malthouse, facing the Avon, 
are several mediaeval houses which attracted much attention. Some other 
dwellings of a similar character, one of which the residence of Mr. Thomas 
Collins who has been already mentioned, has been admirably restored by 
him. Leaving this the party was conducted to the house of Mr. Moore, 
where tea, claret cup, and other refreshments had been very liberally 
provided. Subsequently the perambulation of the town was resumed, Mr. 
Moore by the way pointing here and there to such quaint buildings as were 
deserving of notice. At the market-place a halt was made, and Sir William 
Guise directed attention to its situation, adverting to the old adage, " that 
it takes three men to make a market," and saying that it may be noticed in 
old towns that the market-place is generally situated at the junction of three 
ways. This is the case in Tewkesbury. The old Market-hall has, within the 
past few years, been transformed into a Wesleyan chapel. 

At seven o'clock the Annual Dinner of the Society took place at the 
Swan Hotel, Sir Brook Kay, Bart., presided, and there was a good atten- 
dance of members and their friends, including many ladies. The usual loyal 
toasts were drunk, and also the toast of the evening, " Success to the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society," which was very heartily 
received. 



THE EVENING MEETING. 

Mr. E. R. Dowdeswell read a paper upon The Movements of Queen 
Margaret after the battle of Tewkesbury. Adverting to the singular contra- 
dictions which exist in the narratives of the old historical authorities of 
the events which followed the battle, as affecting the Queen and her son, 
he said it remained an open question whether the prince was slain in the 
field, or whether he was murdered afterwards in cold blood. Upon this 
point he said he would not enter, his object being to discover, if possible, 
from the contradictory accounts to which he had referred, which was, in all 



Medieval Houses in Tewkesbury. 145 

probability, the true state of the case as regarded the Queen. He accordingly 
passed in review the statements of Hall following Polydore Virgil, and 
Philip de Comines ; the anonymous Yorkist writer, quoted by Holinshed 
from the Fleetwood MSS. ; and the French authorities as quoted by Miss 
Strickland. That the Queen took refuge in a small religious house is 
admitted by all ; and after carefully reasoning out all the circumstances 
he came to the conclusion that she was at the battle, but was not taken 
prisoner that night. That when the battle was over, escaping, she fled, — 
not towards Deerhurst, as some of the writers state, but towards Worcester, 
as related by Speed, — not through the town but across the Severn as tradition 
affirms. That worn out and weary she took refuge that night at Paynes' 
Place, in the parish of Bushley, and the following day, continuing her 
journey towards Worcester, she found shelter in some religious house near 
that city, now not known, where on Tuesday she was discovered and torn 
from her refuge by her old enemy, Sir William Stanley, and brought to the 
king at Coventry on May the 11th. 

Mr. F. Moore read the following paper: — "The tourist or traveller 
in visiting or.passing through Tewkesbury for the first time, cannot fail to 
be impressed by the quaint and nearly obsolete style of many of the 
dwellings which meet his gaze in the streets, and of seeing in them the most 
telling evidence that whatever may be its vicissitudes in modern times, the 
old town was in days of yore a place of considerable wealth and commercial 
importance. These old houses in fact constitute — apart from its magnificent 
Abbey Church — the most noticeable feature of the place, and being, as they 
are, more numerous in proportion to its size than in almost any other town 
in the kingdom, have come to be regarded by the inhabitants in the welcome 
light of something worth preserving as connecting them with the storied 
memories of the past, and by visitors as constituting an undoubted right to 
the title of the " Ancient Borough." It should here be stated that archae- 
ologists owe a deep debt of gratitude to Mr. Thomas Collins, of Tewkesbury 
(the well known contractor for church building and restoration), for the fine 
state of preservation in which several of the more beautiful of the ancient 
buildings in his native town are now seen. 

These houses are all of them constructed with a framework of timber, 
the panels being filled in with plaster, and in their plan and construction are 
identical with the specimens of similar styles of early domestic architecture 
which are found in Bristol, Exeter, Chester, Coventry, and some other of 
our English towns. 

Little attention appears to have been paid to the external appearance of 
these half-timbered houses in the disturbed and warlike times which pre- 
ceded the reign of Henry VII. , but from that period a great change took 
place. The wars of the rival houses of York and Lancaster were at an end. 
The time which followed was comparatively happy and peaceful, and 
through six successive reigns the domestic architecture of England continued 
to be cultivated, and as regards external appearance, reached its highest 
state of perfection. The homes of England became as fair to look upon 
without as they were happy within. In the reign of Henry II. some of 
the nobility and wealthy classes began to build their houses of brick, but 
timber continued in use with the great body of the people, rich as well as 
Vol. X. part 2. l. 



146 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

poor. Not only houses in the country, but streets in villages and towns 
were formed of timber in the ingenious old style, but with special regard to 
beauty of appearance. 

The class of domestic architecture, which in its earlier state is called 
the Tudor style, and in its later state the Elizabethan style, may be 
appropriately taken as the style of the sixteenth and early part of the 
seventeenth centuries. In its chief characteristic it is essentially Gothic, 
resembling that of the ecclesiastical buildings, but some parts are altered 
and others added, to suit the difference between church and » house 
architecture. In the gables (with their crowning pinnacles), in the porches, 
the doors, and the general form of the mullioned windows, the resemblance 
is obvious ; but chimneys which are not recpiired for the church, are 
characteristic of the house, and the overhanging of the floors and the 
projection of the windows are still more striking characteristic differences. 
As the walls were formed of nothing more substantial than timbers and 
plaster, the overhanging of the stories was perhaps chiefly required to 
protect the walls from the weather. For the overhanging of the first floor 
story there was another reason which especially applied to streets. Com- 
modities of all kinds were exposed for sale in the open fronts of the shops, 
and were protected from the weather by the overhanging story. The con- 
venience of the passengers also would doubtless be attended to in those 
times — when umbrellas had not been brought into use — ladies might then 
" go a-shopping," even on a wet day, and walk the length of whole streets 
under a complete covering of overhanging stories. 

Such are the characteristics of the old houses now in Tewkesbury, and 
they can easily be recognised in the Gothic pointed front and the mullioned 
windows of the "Wheat Sheaf Inn;" in the high and sharp roof of the 
house adjoining the Swan Hotel, and in the embayed and dormered windows, 
recessed doors, floors projecting over each other, and roofs overhanging all 
of them which are to be observed in numbers of houses in our principal 
streets, and which, although they are in most cases coloured and plastered, 
and white-washed over, still retain the picturesque forms of the olden time. 

It is at night, with a bright moon and clear sky, that these old-world 
buildings are seen to most advantage. Then they throw their long dark 
shadows across the street from one to the other, seeming as if they had 
come back from three centuries ago to converse silently in the sleep-time of 
the modern world on the events of those far off days when they themselves 
were young and fresh. Then, they hold their grotesque heads and quaint 
old tops, up against the sky, and mark upon it, in sharp vigorous outlines, 
the long, straggling, irregular, picturesque, appearance of the streets, which 
in the solitary quietude of midnight peculiarly impresses one with the idea 
of their antiquity. 

The old houses are all in the street ; doubtless there were others 
detached, but if so they are long since gone. Certainly the style was well 
calculated for dwellings surrounded by garden grounds, where the carved and 
painted gables, overhanging floors and galleries, and projecting windows and 
porches must have had an effect in the highest degree varied and pleasing. 
It may be added of them that fantastic as may be their exterior appearance, 



Mediaeval Houses in Tewkesbury. 147 

it is fully equalled by the interiors, many of the better ones having spacious 
though low rooms, panelled with oak aged to ebon blackness, and most 
elaborately carved and ornamented, whilst the number of passages and 
small rooms, cupboards, presses, nooks, and corners, is almost bewildering. 

While so much has been said and written concerning the magnificent 
Abbey Church of Tewkesbury, but little was done previous to the intro- 
duction of photography to bring the humbler monuments of this time- 
honoured town before the public, except by Habershou, and Britton in his 
"half-timbered houses," and a neighbouring artist, Rowe, of Cheltenham, 
by a series of lithographs he published of the " Old Houses of Tewkesbury " 
about 1832. At either entrance to the town are half-timbered houses of 
early date : "The Black Bear" at the High Street entrance, "The Bell'' 
at the Church Street, and the remains of the " Old Tithe Barn" at the 
Barton Street, now transformed into two dwelling houses ; while here and 
there, through the streets and lanes, are to be found more or less perfect 
houses, from the mansion to the humblest cottage, leaving us examples 
of the skill and taste of our forefathers in adapting the materials at hand for 
use and beauty. In many of the old houses line examples of ancient 
tapestry were to be seen down to within the last half century. Till about 
the year 1S28, a room on the first floor of the house, nearly opposite the 
Swan Hotel, the property and now occupied by Mr. George Watson, draper, 
which has a fine Jacobean ceiling, was hung with tapestry, the subject being 
hunting scenes. Two of the rooms in "Abbey House," the newly acquired 
residence of the Vicar of Tewkesbury, were also hung with tapestry 
with figures of the twelve apostles ; and at Walton manor house the walls of 
one of the rooms was formerly also hung with tapestry. Tewkesbury may 
almost be said to be the same town that it was during the time of the 
" Wars of the Roses," as far as its architecture is concerned, except that 
from time to time the fronts of the houses have been modernised, for inside 
very many of them you will still find the ancient timbers. 

Assuming, as it seems the general opinion, that these old houses belong 
to the 16th century, some of them may have been erected before the 
Reformation, and have been silent witnesses looking down on the power and 
wealth and influence, and on the final dissolution and ruin of the great 
monastery, and then in succession on the tyrannies of Henry, the bigotry 
of Mary, the greatness of Elizabeth, the long struggles between the Stuarts 
and the Parliament, and the thousand-and-one great historical facts which 
have occurred in the outward progress of the nation down to these days of 
steam and electricity ; yet still they stand apparently almost as firm as ever, 
but justly entitled to our admiration and care as our " Old Houses." 

In his walks and studies in all parts of the town, the antiquary will find 
abundant material to interest and occupy his attention, and which will 
afford him much pleasure in its inspection. 



THURSDAY, 24th July, 1885. 

This morning a large party of members and their friends assembled at 
at the Town Hall at 9.30 for a carriage excursion. The first place visited was 



L 2 



148 Transaction's at Tewkesbury. 

The Mythk, 
locally called " Mythe Castle," which is situated within the parish of 
Tewkesbury, and is distant about a mile from the town. It is an old cas- 
telated house of the Tudor period. What remains consists of a gabled 
central building flanked at the end by a tower, and doubtless there was 
originally a similar tower at the other end. The moated area is con- 
siderable. 

The Mythe was parcel of the great Manor of Tewkesbury, of which it 
formed the demesne. In 1230 Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, granted 
Mythe Wood to the Abbey of Tewkesbury (Dugdale's Mon. Ang. 61), and 
in 1373 the abbot obtained a license to impark it (Rot. Pat. 47 Ed. III.) 

The great possessions of the ancient lords of Tewkesbury, from the de 
Clares and Despensers passed to the Beauchamps, and after the death of 
Henry de Beauchamp, loth Earl and first Duke of Warwick, who was 
crowned King of the Isle of Wight by King Henry VI. with his own hands, 
and on the death of his infant daughter, it was carried by Ann, his sister, 
in marriage to Richard Ncvill, who was created Earl of Warwick for life, 
and the lands were settled after his death upon his countess Ann and her 
heirs. Richard, we all know, was slain at the battle of Barnet, fighting in 
the Lancastrian cause, and all his lands, including the Warwick lands 
settled upon his wife, were confiscated by the Yorkists. The romantic 
story of these estates, and of the two daughters and heirs of the said 
Ann is too long to be related here. Suffice it to say that upon the death 
of King Richard III. at Bosworth,' Henry VII., by Act of Parliament 
(3 Hen. VII.), restored the lands to the old Countess of Warwick, as haVing 
been taken from her "against all reason, conscience and course of nature, 
and as being contrary to the laws of God and Man." Immediately after- 
wards, however, he wrung from the unfortunate lady a surrender to himself 
in fee by fine (Ped. Fin. 3 Hen. VII. Hil.) the whole of her inheritance, and 
from that date we have no further trace of the great Beauchamp heiress. The 
lands continued vested in the heirs of Hen. VII. until the 1 Edw. VI., when, 
as a portion of the Warwick lands, the Manor of Tewkesbury was granted to 
Sir Thomas Seymour, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, and having reverted to the 
crown upon his attainder two years afterwards, in 7 of the same king, it was 
granted, inter alia, to Daniel and Alexander Perte in trust for sale, and 
they alienated it to Richard Wakeman (Rot. Pat. 7 Edward VI.) Another 
Richard Wakeman had livery of seizing of the capital messuage lands and 
tithes of Mythe in 21 Elizabeth. Probably the house was built by one of 
these owners. 

In 1 Mary, the Abbot's Park in Mythe, with lands in Mythe and Mythe 
Hope, part of the possessions of the late Abbey of Tewkesbury, were granted 
to Sir Henry Jerningham and his wife at the ancient rent of 15s. lOd. 

From the Mythe the members proceeded to the 
Parish Church of Ripple, 
in Worcestershire, where they were received by the Rev. R. Holmes, the 
Rector, who conducted them over the building. The church is dedicated 
to St. Mary, and is, and always has been, in the patronage of the Bishops 
of Worcester. Nash gives a list of the institutions of the incumbents down 
to his time. The plan is cruciform, with a spacious chancel and square 
central tower which was formerly surmounted by a spire, which, on the 18th 



Parish Chtroh ok Ripple. 



149 



Dec. 1583, was struck by lightning and burnt down. There were altars in 
each of the transeptal chapels. Mr. Holmes states that there was a monas- 
tery here in the Sth century, but we do not know upon what authority. 
He says also there was a chantry in each of the transepts, one being called 
the Prior's, and the other founded in 1320. 




FIG. 41. 

Nash describes much armorial glass in the chancel windows, all of 
which is now lost ; and Mr. Holmes states that it was evidently destroyed 
by fire, for the painted glass, partly decayed by damp and partly fused by 
fire, perhaps when the tower was destroyed, was found buried underneath 
the altar, where was also found the very interesting bronze thurible, here 
figured (figAl) These articles, though constantly used in the medieval church 
of England, strange to say, have now become very rare. They were made of 
gold, silver, white and gilt, copper, bronze, and occasionally, it is said, even 
of pottery, but the bronze ones seem now to be most scarce. Of their 
ritual use it is unnecessary here to write. The date of the example here 
figured is about the middle of the 15th century. With the exception of the 
chains which are missing, and the short cup-formed foot, which examples of 
this period usually had to admit of their standing steadily, which has been 
broken off, leaving a hole in the bottom, it is quite perfect. The workman- 
ship is rude in character. It very much resembles a thurible found at 
Pershore in 185G in a heap of old metal in a founder s yard, and said to have 



ir,o 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



been dug up near the abbey church. Mr. Micklethwaite, a high authority 
on the subject, considered this example of English manufacture, and of the 
12th century. At a meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute, at 
which it was exhibited, he called attention to its general characteristics, and 
particularly to the special and unusual arrangement of the details to prevent 
the entanglement of the chains, observing that the directions of Theophilus 
(De Diversis Artibus seu Diversarum Artian Schedula) written in the early 
half of the 11th century, had been adhered to in this particular example. 
Mr. Micklethwaite, after seeing the Ripple example and comparing it with 
that of Pershore, says lie can see no reason for doubting that they were made 
in England. There is nothing, he says, in the workmanship which satis- 
factorily fixed the date, but that he thinks he was wrong in assigning to 
the Pershore example so early a date as the 12th century. The 15th is the 
more likely. He adds, with reference to the rudeness of the work, that they 
were probably made for sale at prices within the means of poor parishes. 

The Pershore thurible, 
which is here figured (fig. 12), 
was engraved for the Archaeo- 
logical Journal in 1S77, vol. 
xxxiv., p. 191, 

Nash also describes a stone 
' ' in the middle of the chancel 
inlaid with a brass. At the 
top the figure of the Virgin 
Mary with our Saviour in her 
arms. Below, a man, robed, 
praying. The inscription : 
Thomas Bastard quondam hujus 
ecclesice rector, qui obiit ultimo 
die Aprilis, a.d. 1584, Post 
tenebras spero lucem. His arms 
on a scutcheon : three leopards' 
heads.' 1 

The Parish Registers com- 
mence in 1573, and are in a 
tollerably good state of preser- 
vation, and appear to be com- 
plete. 

At the request of Sir John 
Maclean the altar plate was 
exhibited. It consisted of an 
Elizabethan communion cup of 
Pig. 42. the usual type, bearing the Hall 

mark of 1571. In addition to this there is a cup of copper, plated, and a 
paten, alms dish, and flagon with the following incription : Sacrum Ecclesice 
de Ripple in Vigor n. Rectore Roberto Lucas, S.7\P. 1793. There are six 
bells in the tower recast by Rudhall, of Gloucester, in 1808. 

We find the following curious account of a robbery here in 1243 : About 
the feast of St. Lucia (Dec. 13) robbers came to Rippel, and having entered 




Severn End. 151 

the court of the parson of that place, and, binding him and all his household, 
carried off whatever they found in gold, silver and books, and took also the 
horses, but slew no one. — Annates de Tfieohesberie, p 135. 

There is a fine headless cross in the village upon a gradation base. 

From Ripple the party drove to 

Hanley Castle. 

"No fragment of the ancient historic fortress now remains. The site is 
surrounded by a wide and deep ditch, within the circuit of which the 
modern mansion has been built, and on one side the ditch has been diverted, 
and partially filled up, to improve the approach to the building. 

From the castle site the party proceeded to the Parish Church, where 
the Rev. W. Isaac kindly acted as cicerone. 

This is one of the few churches in the county of which mention is made 
in Domesday. It consists of a chancel and nave with the tower between, 
the base of which serves as the choir. There is also a south aisle, and east 
of this a mortuary chapel built in the 17th century. This is now used as 
the chancel. There are also north and south porches. Some fragments of 
Norman work have been used up in building the chapel, and the body of the 
church is supposed to have been built with the stones of the old ruined 
castle after its destruction. 

There is a ring of six bells in the tower, of which five were cast by 
Abraham Rudhall in 1699. The fourth was recast by J. Mears, of London, 
in 1S58. 

The old parish registers in 1831 consisted of 3 volumes, beginning in 
153S and extending to 18T2, and were then complete with the exception of 
the period between 1613 and 1618; but, we regret to add, that one of the 
volumes has since been lost. 

The communion plate is all modern, of a plain pattern, and consists of 
a cup, a salver paten, and flagon of silver, bearing the hall mark of 1846, in 
which year it was presented to the church by Miss Sarah Lechmere. There 
was formerly a communion cup of the usual Elizabethan pattern of the date 
of 1571. This was sold, probably in 1846, when the new plate was presented, 
and was bought at a silversmith's shop in Worcester, by Sir Edmund 
Lechmere, Bart., and is now used in his private chapel. 

From Hanley Castle church the party drove to 

Severn End, 
a fine old Elizabethan manor house, long the seat of the Lechmere family, 
mit now only occasionally occupied by them. Here, with the obliging 
permission of Sir Edmund Lechmere, lunch had been prepared, winch 
the large party assembled seemed heartily to enjoy after a hot and dusty 
drive. The old house was a half timbered mansion, and the central portion 
appears to be substantially in its original condition, but the wings have been 
rebuilt, probably about the end of the 17th century. After lunch, the mem- 
bers were conducted over the house in some of the rooms of which, by the 
courteous thoughtfulness of the owner, a large number of ancient charters, 
seals, old china, and other objects of interest had been displayed for the 



152 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

inspection of the members. The Revd. T. W. Wood read in the hall some 
most interesting notes on the history of the manor and of the Lechmere 
family. 

He first referred to the derivation of the peculiar name, " Severn End," 
by which the house is now known, remarking that as applied to the house it 
is comparatively modern. It was formerly known as Hanley and still more 
early as " Lechmere Place." He said the termination, " End," is commonly 
used in south Worcestershire to indicate a hamlet, or a few outlying houses, 
and that Hanley parish abounds in Ends, citing several examples ; but that 
in no other instance is it applied to a house rather than to a district, and he 
accounted for this, as regards Severn End, by supposing that in local 
estimation the house was considered of greater importance than the district. 

He next referred to the Lechmere family as having come into England 
in the train of William of Normandy, but he cited nothing satisfactory for this 
statement, which is very common idea with regard to ancient families. 
However, this may have been there can be no doubt, that the Lechmere 
family have held this district on the banks of the Severn from a very early 
date until now, with the exception of a period of 40 years. 

Mr. Wood stated that the present house, with its surroundings, assumed 
their present form about 250 years ago, it having been partially re-built by 
Sir Nicholas Lechmere, who was made a Baron of the Exchequer on May 8th, 
1689, and received the honour of knighthood on 31st Oct. following. Judge 
Lechmere, by which designation he seems to have been locally known, and by 
which Mr. Wood distinguishes him throughout his narrative, resigned his 
office of Baron of the Exchequer in 1700, and died on 30th April in the fol- 
lowing year, at the age of SS years, and by his own directions was buried in 
the chancel of Hanley Castle church, at midnight, without a coffin. By 
his wife, Margaret, the sister of the unfortunate Sir Thomas Overbury, he 
left several children. 

Nicholas Lechmere, the second son of Edmund the son and heir of Sir 
Nicholas, was also an eminent lawyer, solicitor-general in 1717-8, became 
more eminent than his grandfather. He was created Baron Lechmere, of 
Evesham, in 1721, but dying in 1727, s.p., the title became extinct. Not 
having been in the succession to the " Severn End " estates, Mr. Wood has 
not thought it necessary to mention him, but we think he ought not to be 
passed over here unnoticed. 

Mr. Wood gave a most graphic picture of the life and manners of some 
of the country gentry in Worcestershire at the latter end of the last century 
in the person of Mr. Edmund Lechmere, who was knight of the shire for the 
county in 1734, and died in 1805, in the 95th year of his age. He was the 
great-grandfather of the present baronet, and this notice was written by his 
grandson, the late Sir Edmund. The squire was arbitrary and dictatorial. 
His word was a law which no one ever attempted to contradict. He was very 
choleric, and by no means of polished manners, and he kept a good stick near 
him which he was not scrupulous in using ; nevertheless he was a liberal and 
humane master, and his servants generally grew old with him. He was hos- 
pitable and bountiful to profusion, keeping open house. The neighbouring 
gentry from time to time made formal calls, and are said to have entertained 
great respect for him ; but his chief companions and guests at his heavily 



e 



Pendock Church. 153 

laden table, were the parson, and the village apothecary, and his tenants, some 
of whom walked in every evening to smoke a pipe with the squire and retail 
all the local news and the prices of stock at the latest fairs. Though his 
table was filled with his guests he preserved his dignity by dining at a small 
table alone. Mrs. Lechmere was in character the very reverse of her 
husband :— meek, gentle, patient, charitable, and kind to all. Her influence 
was great, and if anyone could sooth the outbursts of anger of her husband 
it was she alone. 

We should have wished to have printed the whole of Mr. Wood's paper 
in extenso, but the vivid life-like pictures of the old squire, his wife, ser- 
vants, and numerous hangers-on have been already printed. 

From Severn End the party proceeded to Birts Morton, the ancient seat 
of the Nanfan family, descended from John JSTanfan, of Cornwall. The 
house is a fine old moated mansion of the 15th century, or perhaps earlier, 
but it has been greatly pulled about and altered in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies. The church also was visited under the guidance of the vicar. It has 
been very greatly damaged by injudicious " restoration " as it is called. In 
several of the windows are the arms, in 15th century glass, of the Ruyhall 
family, to whom the manor once belonged. 

The next place visited was 

Pendock Church, 
where the party was received by that eminent and veteran geologist, the 
Revd. W. S. Symonds, the rector of the parish and patron of the benefice, 
whose recent pleasing works, " Malvern Chase," and " Hanley Castle," the 
result of his hours of recreation in time of severe sickness, have rendered 
the whole of this district famous. 

Mr. Symonds had kindly prepared for the meeting some notes On the 
Manor and Church of Pendock, which, at his request, were read by Mr. 
Bazeley, the lion, secretary, as under : — 

" During the 40 years I have been Rector of Pendock, I have had the 
opportunity of consulting some Celtic and Saxon scholars with respect to 
the name of this parish, which we find rendered as Pendoc, Pendoke, 
Peonedoc, Pendock, Pendike, and Pendyke. Little consequence is to be attri- 
buted to the spelling, as we may find our ancestors, as late as the civil wars, 

spelling their own names in a different manner, almost in the same docu- 
ment. 

Those who have visited Pendock, in person, and have seen the ancient 
church and its position as regards the Dike, Ditch, or boundary, which 
may be traced to the Severn southwards, and, here and there, in the 
direction of Worcester northwards, have little doubt that Pendike or Pen- 
dyke was the name given by the early settlers near the head of the old 
British boundary. Again it has been suggested that the name may be 
derived from Penda, King of Mercia. The Saxon annals of Pendock take us 
back to the times of Dunstan and Odo, and the murder at Gloucester of the 
beautiful Elgiva : for Pendock is mentioned in King Edgar's Charter. 
(a.l>. 964) as belonging to the church at Worcester. (Nash's Worcestershire) 
In connection with Saxon times, I call attention to the plain old font. The 



154 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

late Lord Talbot de Malahide and Mr. Parker of Oxford, both well known 
as distinguished students of historic architecture, now lost to us, have 
visited Pendock church, and both were of opinion that the piscina and font 
date from Saxon times. 

The Danewort (Sambucus Ebulua) is a rare and local plant, and the 
tradition of its springing up, miraculously, on spots where the Danes were 
massacred is well known. The fact, however, that the Danes introduced 
the plant into this country, is now established, and we may be allowed to 
believe that the Pendock Danewort grows on the site of a Danish garden. 
The medicinal qualities of the plant are described as " emetic and purgative," 
but I remember that 40 years ago it was used by Mr. Pope, who resided at 
Pendock Court, as a poultice for sprains and tumours for cows and horses. 

Pendock is mentioned in Domesday ; and Urso D'Abitot is said to hold 
two hides of land in Pendock. 

Robert de Pendoc is mentioned in 33 Henry III. and also Sir Henry de 
Pendoc, knight. Sir Robert de Pendoc, knight, gave the manor of Pendoc 
to the priory of Lesser Malvern. 

In the reign of Edward I., Galfridus de D'Abitot held in Pendoc two 
hides and a half of land of William de Bellocampo (Beauchamp) which, 
in the time of Edward III., were held by John Sapy. 

The site of the manor, or manor house, is the present farm house, still 
known as Pendock Court, but sometimes corrupted into Pendock's Farm. 
I am, however, inclined to believe that the ancient lords of Pendock resided 
at Ketel, where there was a stronghold, or keep, the ditch surrounding which 
can still be traced, and I have conversed with men who remember ruins 
within it. 

As regards the church I need not tell the members of this Society that 
there are remains of Norman architecture at the north doorway and at the 
chancel arch— the old stones speak for themselves. The entrance to the 
rood-loft and the stone staircase still remain by the pulpit ; and we found, 
on removing coat upon coat of whitewash from the south wall of the nave, a 
huge figure of St. Christopher, which archaeologists have assigned to the 
time of Henry III. 

Historic architects attribute the building of the present tower to the 
time of Edward III. The chancel is supposed to have assumed its present 
form about Edward the IV. 's time, a period when, as I have endeavoured to 
shew elsewhere, "Malvern Chase," notwithstanding the wars of the Roses, 
there was much building and alteration of churches and monastic buildings, 
as witness, at Little Malvern, Great Malvern, Winchomb, Gloucester and 
Hereford, &c. The seats for the church were made from oak, granted in 
Henry VII. 's time, and the papers respecting the grant are still among the 
records of Worcester cathedral. In Elizabeth's time, eighteen families 
lived in the parish of Pendock." 

Having carefully inspected the ancient church, Mrs. Symonds hos- 
pitably received the party at Pendock Court at afternoon tea, after which 
which they returned to Tewkesbury. 



Birt's Morton. 155 

EVENING MEETING. 
At half-past S o'clock a conversazione was held at the Town Hall, when 
the temporary museum was thrown open for the examination of the various 
antiquities and objects of Art and Vertu there kindly collected by the local 
committee. Subsequently a meeting was held for the reading of, and dis- 
cussion on, Papers which had been prepared. The President occupied the 
chair. The first paper read was by Mr. Lawson : ' By-Patlts of History," 
which will be printed in extenso in this volume. In the course of this 
paper a somewhat remarkable stone was introduced, upon which, on the con- 
clusion of the reading, a lively discussion ensued, in which Sir William Guise, 
Mr. Bazeley, and others, took part. 

The stone was spherical in form, and had the appearance of a water 
worn pebble. 

The following paper, by the Rev. W. S. Symonds, on "Birt's Morton 
Court and Church," was then read : — 

' ' Few places in the county of Worcester are more interesting than Birt's 
Morton Court and Church. Both were erected centuries ago among the 
great woodlands of Malvern Chase, and around them have gathered historic 
associations, legends and superstitions, which it is well should be rescued 
from utter oblivion. 

Probably the original founders were Beorts, ancient Saxons, of whom 
one, a certain Ealdorman Beort, is mentioned in the "Saxon Chronicle," as 
having fallen in a battle with the Picts, a.d. 699. (Tewkesbury Register, 
June 8th, 1881.) The name was afterwards changed to Birts, Brut, Brute. 
Birts is still a personal name, and there are one or two families of that name 
still in the neighbourhood. 

It is supposed that the name Birt's Morton may have some connection 
with birch trees, but those who have studied nomenclature more than I 
have, think that the. name which appears in Domesday may be traced to 
Birts' Morton, B'rts' Mere, or Pool-town, Marsh-town (mer. Ang. -Saxon), 
or a " Town-on-the-Moor " (Mor). 

In Norman times a baron, named John de Monmouth, appears to have 
been Lord of Birt's Morton, and those who have studied the architecture of 
the basement, believe they can trace remains of a Norman keep. 

There was a Brute, or da Brute, here in the days of Edward I. In that 
reign, too, the Birts or Brutes intermarried with the family of Rhyalles, 
who took their name from Rhyalle, a hamlet in the parish of Upton-on- 
Severn. 

In the days of Henry IV. we are confronted with the two great historic 
names of 0>ven Glendower and Sir John Oldcastle. Tradition says that one 
of the chieftain's daughters mairied John Scudamore, of Kenderchurch, in 
the county of Hereford. When on a visit to the late Col. Scudamore some 
years ago, I directed his attention to the fact that the armorial bearings of 
his ancient family ornamented one of the panels in the old room at Birt's 
Morton Court, when he shewed me a very old painting on panel, which 
tradition had assigned as the portrait of Owen Glendower. Col. Scudamore 
was acquainted with the tradition that Glendower was in the habit of 
disguising himself in a shepherd's dress, and going to his daughter's and to 



156 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

other friends, some of whom lived at Birt's Morton and the Old Grange at 
Dymock. 

The "Transactions of the Wool hope Club" for 1809 contains a notice 
of " The Ancient Forest of Deerfold," and " The Sollards in Herefordshhe." 
by Dr. Bull, who shews how this great forest afforded a refuge to some of 
the earliest and most noted followers of Wycliffe, and among these we find 
the name of Walter Brut, who was probably one of the family from Birt's 
Morton. For ages, tradition has fixed upon Birtsmorton Court as one of the 
hiding places of Sir John Oldcastle ; and the late Mrs. Webb, of Ledbury, 
who died in her 103rd year, said that she well remembered being frightened 
as a child when shewn the hiding place of Sir John Oldcastle : viz., the 
secret chamber in the panelled room. The Brutes seem to have intermarried 
with the Oldcastles, as, in 1420, we find a Richard Oldcastle concerned in the 
presentation to the benefice with John de Brute. We also find that the 
Brutes of Morton held the manor of John of Gaunt, time honoured Lancaster 
by the rent of a rose. 

It is not easy to make out when the Cornish family of Nanfan came to 
reside at Birt's Morton : there was a Cornish squire whose will is dated 1446, 
and whose effigy, as a man in armour, appears upon the south side of the old 
mediaeval altar tomb in the church, but he was buried in Tewkesbury abbey, 
and gave 40 marks for masses for his soul. He was Esquire for the Body to 
King Henry VI. 

It has been questioned whether the tradition that the great Cardinal 
Wolsey was chaplain to Sir John Nanfan, or to Richard Nanfan, afterwards 
Captain of Calais, and' Esquire for the Body to Henry VII. ; but it is not 
improbable, and I, for one, like to think that the great minister of Henry 
VIII. erected the altar tomb to the memory of his early friend and patron 
who presented Master Thomas Pecliye to the benefice, 1510. But I must not 
encroach on the subject of the monuments in the church, which my friend, 
Mr. Pilson, will, I hope, be well enough to describe. 

I have no doubt that many who are versed in heraldry are in your 
Society, so I shall only ask attention to the armorial quarterings of the 
Scudamores, Baskervilles, and Vaughans, the devices of which are, I am 
informed, as old as the Wars of the Roses ; these were added to by the 
Nanfans, in the days of Henry VII., and in the time of Queen Anne, by the 
Earl of Bellamont. Since that time, I am told, some " sorry dauber " has 
repainted all quarterings, with " wrong colours." 

A discussion on this paper, and on the family of Nanfan, ensued. Sir 
John Maclean said he had investigated the early history of the family of 
Nanfan many years ago when writing his "History of Trigg Minor," and 
could give some information as to the origin of the family of Nanfan, of Birt's 
Morton. Sir Richard Nanfan, son of the John Nanfan mentioned by 
Mr. Symonds, was the first of this family who acquired the manor of 
Birts Morton. Sir Richard was Captain of Calais, and, like his father, an 
esquire for the king's body, and an eminent man in the reign of Henry VII. 
He died without legitimate male issue, and previously to his death he 
settled his large Cornish estates on a Cornish gentleman who, so far as he, 
Sir John, was able to trace, was no way related to him ; and his Worcester- 
shire estates he settled upon his illegitimate son, John Nanfan, who was 



Resolution^. 157 

with him at Calais. In reply to a question in the body of the hall, Sir John 
said that it was an undoubted fact that Wolsey, afterwards the great Car- 
dinal of York, was Chaplain to Sir Richard Nanfan ; and in reply to a 
further enquiry as to what evidence existed for this statement, Sir John 
replied the records of the period, and that he was under the impression that 
Sir Richard had named him in his will as his chaplain, but that he could 
not affirm this with certainty, as he had not seen the documents for many 
years. 

The next paper read was on " The Daubeney Family and its connection 
with Gloucestershire," by B. W. Greenfield, Bar. -at-Law, which will be 
printed in evtenso. 

The meeting then concluded with thanks to the chairman. 



FRIDAY, 24th July. 

At 9.15 the members assembled at the Town Hall for the concluding 
meeting of the Society. The President took the chair and proposed the 
following resolutions : — 

I. That the thanks of the Society be given to the Mayor and Corporation 

of Tewkesbury for their courteous reception of the Society and for the 
use of the Town Hall. 

II. That the thanks of the Society be given to Mrs. F. Moore and Mrs. W. 

S. Symonds for their hospitality in inviting the members to afternoon 
tea, the first at her residence in Tewkesbury, and the latter at Pendock 
Court. 

III. To Sir Edmund A. H. Lechmere, Bart., Mr. T. Collins, Miss Rice, 

Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Ruddle, xYIrs. Gee, Mr. Joseph Padfield, and 
Mr. James Clarke, for kindly permitting the members to visit their 
houses and grounds. 

IV. To the Rev. Canon Robeson, the Rev. Canon Walters, the Rev. R. 

Holmes, the Rev. E. W. Isaac, the Rev. Robert Pilson, the Rev. 
W. S. Symonds, the Rev. J. Townson, and the Rev. H. G. Cavendish 
Browne, for permission to visit the Abbey Churches of Tewkesbury and 
Pershore, and the Churches of Ripple, Hanley Castle, Birt's Morton, 
Pendock, Strensham, and Bredon. 

V. To the Rev. F. R. Carbonell, Mr. F. Moore, Dr. Johnstone, the Rev. 

R. Holmes, the Rev. E. W. Isaac, the Rev. T. W. Wood, the 
Rev. Robert Pilson, the Rev. W. S. Symonds, the Rev. J. Towson, 
Mr. A. R. Hudson, and Rev. Canon Walters, for their valuable 
services as guides. 

VI. To Mrs. Lawson, the Rev. W. S. Symonds, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, 

Mr. F. Moore, Mr. W. H. Spurrier, Mr. B. W. Greenfield, and the 
Rev. T. W. Wood, for papers contributed to the meeting. 

VII. To the Chairman of the Local Committee (the Mayor of Tewkesbury) ; 
to the Local Secretary, Mr. W. Allard ; and to the Assistant Local 
Secretary, Mr. A. W. Allard ; to the Local Treasurers, Messrs. 
A. Baker and C. R. Creese ; to the Custodians of the Local Museum, 
Messrs. H. Spurrier, J. Priestly, A. Baker, and other members of the 



loS Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

Local Committee for their valuable assistance in arranging and 
carrying out the details of the annual meeting. 
All these resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

VIII. Proposed by Sir William Guise and adopted : That the thanks of 
Society be given to the ladies and gentlemen who have kindly lent 
objects of interest for exhibition in the Local Museum. 

IX. Proposed by Mr. W. Leigh ; seconded by Mr. Le Blanc, and unan- 

imously adopted : That the Annual Meeting in 18S6 be held at 
Dursley, and that the choice of President be deputed to the Council. 

X. Proposed by Sir John Maclean, and seconded by Mr. Gael, and 

unanimously adopted : That the thanks of the Society be offered to 
Sir Brook Kay, Bart., for his kindness in accepting the office of 
President of the Society for the present year, and for the activity and 
urbanity which he has shewn in exercising the office. 

On the conclusion of the formal business of the meeting, the Rev. W. 
Bazeley enquired whether the members were desirious of having an 
autumnal meeting. 

Sir John Maclean remarked that he thought these special meetings 
should be locally arranged by the Vice-Presidents and Local Councils of the 
several districts. Several such meetings had been held, and they were most 
popular and in every respect successful, and, moreover, they were agreeable 
to the constitution of the Society. He was desirous of utilising the Local 
Vice-Presidents and Councils, for he was convinced it would add to the 
vitality and greatly strengthen the influence and value of the Society. 

The Rev. W. Blathwayte took exception to the local meetings, saying, 
that in his opinion all meetings should be open to all the members of the 
Society. 

A considerable discussion ensued, in which Sir William Guise, Sir John 
Maclean, Mr. Bazeley, Mr. Gael, and several other members took part, and 
eventually it was agreed that the Secretary should communicate with the Local 
Secretaries of the several divisions with a view to a local meeting being held 
in one of the divisions in the autumn. 

The meeting then concluded. 

As soon as the meeting broke up a carriage excursion was made to visit 

the churches of Strensham, Pershore and Bredon, by way of the Mythe and 

Twining. The church of Twining is of early 12th century date with two 

Roman doorways and a Roman chancel arch. Perpendicular windows have 

been inserted in the Norman walls. This church was "restored" in 1S68 

at a cost of £2000, and now contains little of ecclesiological interest. On 

arrival at 

Strensham 

The Rev. J. Townson, the Rector, met the members at the churchyard gate 
and conducted them over the church. At the west end is a gallery faced 
with the lower part of the ancient rood- screen, on the panels of which are 
painted the figures of the apostles, evangelists and other saints. On the 
floor are a number of good encaustic tiles, which need re-arrangement, and 
are worthy of attentive study. On the floors are various memorials of the 
ancient family of Russel, formerly of this parish, and fiords of the manor. 



Plate H. 




MM 

Layers, Lrrno- Si Broad 5 T Bristol. 



Bredon Church, Worcestershire 

(^Morwjrvervt vrv the, (Jxarvceh ) 



Bredon Church. 159 

Among them are four brasses in a good state of preservation, one or two 
of which are partially covered by the seats. Several of these are described 
by Haines (n. 225-226). 

Sir Wm. Guise thanked Mr. Townson, on behalf of the Society, for the 
courteous reception he had given the members ; and Mr. Bazeley expressed 
a hope that in the event of the church being restored great care would be 
taken of the interesting paintings, tiles and monuments, and that all other 
ancient remains would be most carefully preserved. 

From the church the members walked across some fields to the site of 
the ancient mansion of the Russels, said to have been built in the reign of 
Richard II. and destroyed during the great rebellion in the 17th century. 
It was defended by a double moat, but of the building itself not a vestige 
now remains. 

The party then, still under the guidance of Mr. Townson, visited the site 
of the house of Samuel Butler, where the well known author of Hudibras, 
was born and spent his early years. The Parish Register contains the entry 
of his baptism on 14th February, 1612. His father, a farmer in this parish, 
was churchwarden in the previous year. Samuel Butler was buried in the 
church of St. Paul, Covent Garden, in 1680, and in 1721 Alderman Barber, 
the printer, erected a monument to him in Westminster Abbey. A tablet 
in Strensham Church records his connection with that parish. 

From Strensham the party drove to Pershore Abbey Church, where 
they were received by the vicar, the Rev. Canon Walters, and Mr. A. R. 
Hudson, one of the churchwardens. 

Some notes on this church will be printed post. 

After having lunched at the Royal Hotel, Pershore, the party proceeded 
to 

Bredon Church, 

which, like the last two churches visited, is situated in the county of 
Worcester. This church is a handsome structure dedicated to St. Giles, 
and is in many respects remarkable. It consists of a chancel and nave with 
a plain embattled tower between them consisting of two stages, buttressed 
on the square and surmounted by a lofty, octagonal, ribbed spire. On the 
north and south sides are porches, and extending from them to the tower 
are chapels. The chancel and tower are of Early English date. On the 
south side is a piscina and three sediliae of unequal heights with pointed 
trefoil heads. The windows contain fragments of ancient glass, and the steps 
to the altar are laid with armorial tiles. The walls were formerly covered 
with paintings in distemper, but in taking off the coatings of whitewash with 
which they were covered it was found impossible to preserve them. 

Close to the altar steps on the south side has been placed a remarkable 
monument of the Edwardian period. It was found in the south chapel with 
its face downwards, probably so laid in the time of the Puritan ascendency 
to preserve it from mutilation. Most likely it originally lay on an altar 
tomb. For details we must refer to the illustration Plate II. There are 
other handsome and costly monuments, and on the floor of the chancel is a 



160 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

slab bearing an inscription in memory of John Prideaux, Bishop of Worces- 
ter, who, on being dispossessed of his bishopric in the time of the great 
rebellion, took refuge here with his son-in-law the Rev. Henry Sutton, D.D., 
and died here on 22nd July, 1650, aged 72 years. 

The nave is separated from the chancel by pointed arches which, until 
lately, were walled up so that the chancel was only used at the time of the 
Holy Communion, The stairs to the rood-loft arise from the south chapel. 
The loft is of rich open work, with a border of vine leaves at the base. The 
whole has been richly painted and gilded. 

The nave is of Norman work, except that a large five-light Perpendicular 
window, with elaborate tracery in the head, has been inserted above the 
Norman doorway in the west wall. The chief entrance is now by the north 
door, where there is a large and lofty porch. It is of somewhat late Norman 
work. The circular arch is supported by two rather light cylindrical 
columns, elaborately carved, having square abaci. It is of two orders 
richly ornamented with the chevron and zig-zag mouldings. The pro- 
portions of the doorway are much dwarfed by the raising of the external 
ground. The eaves of all this portion of the church are supported by a 
string of shield-shaped corbels, which extends across the gabled end of the 
porch, and across the porch below is also a string course decorated with the 
chevron moulding. The internal doorway of this porch, the south doorway, 
and the western, the two latter being walled up, are of the same character 
only less elaborate. 

The chapels are each of two bays, that on the south being of Early 
English work having acutely pointed arches supported by large clustered 
columns. The windows are double lancet, with trefoiled heads, the lights 
being divided by slender detached shafts. In this chapel, which is called 
the " Milton Chapel," are some fine monuments to the Reede family. The 
north arcade consists of obtuse pointed arches with heavy clustered octagonal 
pillars and capitals of the 1 4th century, and the windows are of two lights 
with ogee trefoil heads and an elongated quartrefoil in the head. 

This concluded a very enjoyable meeting, and the members separated to 
return to their respective homes, many taking the train at Bredon station. 



Temporary Mcseum. 161 



TEMPORARY MUSEUM. 



Catalogue of Articles exhibited in the Temporary Museum. 



By Mr. Wm. Dowdeswell — 

1. Bronze Crucifix, beautifully chased, found at Queenhill. 

2. Pewter Spoon of the time of Elizabeth. 

3. Fibula, found at Queenhill. 

4. Pike Head, found at Bushley. 

Gases of Coins, found at Bushley, Pull Court, and Queenhill— 

5. Card of 16 Gold, Silver, and Bronze Coins, dates from a.d. 267 to 1760, 

6. Card of 5 Silver Coins and Tokens, found at Old Pull Court House. 

Pictures. 

7. Portrait in oil of Sir Dudley Digges, first M.P. for Tewkesbury, elected 
1600, painted by Cornelius Jansen. 

8. Portrait in oil of Thomas Lord Seymour, of Sudeley, brother to the 
Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. 

9. A Portrait of Mr. W. Dowdeswell, painted by Josh. Rushton. 



By Mr. H. P. Moore — 

1. Thirteen Miniatures on Ivory. 

2. Wedgewood Bust of Lord Nelson. 

3. Indian Box with Miniatures inlaid. 

4. Mediaeval Chest (brass bound). 

5. Case of Fruit Trenchers (Henry 7th) 

6. Two-prong Fork with agate handle. 

7. Knitting-needle Case (1753). 

8. Ivory Casket 

9. Compass in Ivory box. 

10. Card of Antient Keys. 

11. Old English Chronicle. 

12. Drinking Cup (Shakespeare's mulberry tree) 

13. Black Leather Cup. 

14. Ivory Gambling Ball. 

15. Three Papier Snuff Boxes. A case of Silver Crucifixes. Gilt Bex, with 
bottle pieces. 

Vol. X., part 1. m, 



102 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

Bronzes, and Medals, and Coins. 

16. Three Napoleon Medals. 

17. A Numismatic do. 

18. Three Square Bronzes. 

19. Nine Oval do. 

20. A Gilt do. 

21. Handle and Spout of Mediaeval Jug. 

22. Bronze Statuette. 

23. Bronze Tazza 

24. Three cases of Coins. 

Embroidery, <tc. 

25. Jug, George I. (Fulham ware). 

26. Cup, Elizabethan, found under the floor of an old house at Tewkesbury. 

27. Pitcher. (Elizabethan). 

28. Do. (Bellamine) 

29. Jug, found close to Monastic ruins. 

30. Do. found in Oldbury. 

31. Old English Puzzle Jug. 

32. Pierced Tray (Battersea enamel) 

33. Miniature Portrait (Capt. Fotheringham) 

34. Do. do. (lady, time of Louis XIV.) 

35. Tapestry (lady, time of Elizabeth) 

36. Small Sampler 

37. Large do. 

38. Address to Princess Charlotte, on silk. 

39. Collection of Prints and Drawings. 

40. Steel Spur. 

41. Pearl Cameo. 

Silver Plate. 

42. Porringer, two handles beaded. 

Maker's mark, C.I. crowned. Date mark, M. (1712.) 

43. Chalice. 

44. Tankard, with cover 

Maker's mark EV. crowned. Date mark, t) (16S9). 

45. Spoon, Elizabethan, Seal Top. 

Maker's mark, \V. Date mark, B (Lombardic, 1599.) 

46. Do. do. 

Maker's mark. Date mark, (1561 

47. Do. (Charles II.) a pair, pounce. Ornamental rat tail chased on 
back of bowls and front of tops. 

Date mark, i) (1680.) 

48. Do. do. chased handle, coronet and figure. 

49. Do. do. crest of Coventry, ra tail. 




Temporary Museum. 1G3 

50. Spoon, Elizabethan, rat tail, shaped top. Engraved Jl $ 

Date Mark H 1730. Maker's Mark, I.O. 

51. Do. do. Engraved M*S. 1709. 
Date mark B (Court-hand) 1697. Maker's mark, TA' 

52. Do. do. round top. 

Maker's mark, W.T. Exeter date mark, M. 1760. 



53. Do. engraved all over 

Maker's mark, a jOZ? Exeter date mark. 
^ a ^ M. 1785-6. 

54. Three-pronged Fork, engraved with crest : on a cap of maintenance, betw, 
two wings, an escallop, surmounted by a Viscount's coronet, for Viscount 
Tracy. 

Maker's mark, T.S. Date mark, ft. 

55. Six small Rat-tail Teaspoons. 

56. Spice Box. 

57. Tooth-pick Case. The top and bottom engraved as seals with arms and 
monogram. 

58. D-shaped Box, chased and engraved, subject " Fox." 

59. Small Octagon Elizabethan Box, agate top. 

60. Round ditto engraved Chinese figure. 

61. Two Antique Silver Fruit Knives, ebony handles, mounted in silver, 
heart-shaped shields engraved with arms (French). 

62. Agate-handle Two-pronged Fork, silver mounted. 

63. Ancient Silver Bodkin, engraved all over. 

64. Queen Ann Punch Ladle, chased. 

65. Silver Chalice (Glos'shire), engraved round middle and bottom of cup 
and round stand with very quaint fleurs-de-lis. 

Memo. — The marks are all much defaced. 

66. Ivory Casket, silver mounted, with antique silver key. 

67. Ivory and Silver Antique Sun Dial, perpetual calendar. 

68. Old Ivory gambling Ball, 32 sides, a crown on one side and 1 707. 

69. Gilt Box, battle piece — Duke of Marlborough 

70. Gold Coins, between glass — 

George III. Qr. Guinea. British Crown of Henry VIII. (a rose crowned, and arms 
of England crowned). One florin, found on the battle field. One ditto at 
Chipping Norton. Honorius. Valens. 

71. Three Silver Coins, between glass — 

Groats of Edward III. in mint state. Coined at York, Bristow and London. 

72. One Gold Venetian — and Twenty-six Coins, between glass — English. 

73. Cocoa-nut Goblet, temp. Commonwealth. 

" William Lies of Tewkesbury and Mary Lies 
This doace of Good Ale is a cordle for ye eies.' 

74. Cocoa-nut Goblet, handsomely carved. 

M 2 



164 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

75. Black Jack Pint Cup. 

76. Small Carved Cup. 

Said to be made out of Shakespeare's mulberry tree, formerly belonged to Lady de 
Saumarez, who was descended from Judge Lechmere. 

77. Knitting Case of box wood, carved, and dated 1753. 

78. Enamel Card Tray, Turquoise blue, subject, coins, cards and Bank of 
England note. 

79. Set of Ancient Illuminated Ivory Counters, 

80. Ancient Venetian Glass Necklace, blue, gold and white. 

SI. Carved Ebony Indian Box, "silver mounted, five Ivory miniatures on 
the top. 

82. Brass-bound Mediaeval Casket, with secret drawers and ancient lock. 

Embroidery. 

83. Boaz and Ruth, in silk, very old, in original frame. 

84. Lady — time of Elizabeth, in silk. 

85. Lady, encircled with flowers, in silk. 
S6. Ranelagh, in silk. 

87. Map of England and Wales, in silk, 1784. 

88. Small Sampler, Gins, by 4ins., in silk. 

" Mary Latham is my Name," &c 

Miniatures. 

89. Collection of thirteen on ivory. 

90. Ancient Medallion of Nelson. 

91. Admiral Sir Jas. Lawson — time Commonwealth. 

92. Napoleon I. (Painted by F. De Berville, 1815.) 

Presented to a French officer who was taken prisoner, who gave it to a Mr. Hoy, an 
English officer, with whom he became very intimate. 

93. Lady of the Court of Louis XIV. 

94. Capt. Fotheringham, Master of Ceremonies at Chalton, in gold mount 
and case. 

95. Venetian Lady. (Painted on a silvered plate in oil, framed). 

Medals and Bronzes. 

96. Three Bronzes — one Napoleon I., two Napoleon III. 

97. One do. Medal (Numismatic). 

98. Three do. Plaques — one long and two upright. 

99. Nine do. small, oval, round and square. 

100. One Gilt Small Triangular Plaque. 

101. Spout and handle of Mediaeval Jug. 

102. Roman Statuette, 6 inches— female figure — found in Gloucestershire. 

103. Do. Tazza, on three tiny feet, with handles —figures of hare, &c. &c. 

104. Case, containing Crucifix, 14th century. Ditto, with emblem of The 
Passion, and sliding case for relics. Love token, heart-shaped, " Thine 
for ever." Amulet (fillagree) " The Nativity." Two Essence Bottles. 
Medallion of St. Luke. 

105. Pearl Cameo (framed) " The Finding of Moses." 

106. Collection of Mediaeval and Roman Keys (3 cards).) 



Temporary Museum. 165 

Paintings. 

107. A Bit of Old Tewkesbury—" Wall's Court." 

108. Ditto "Mayal's Court." 

109. Gloucester, old Cloisters and Registry Office — group of people in front 
reading the News. 

110. Gentleman in blue coat and white satin waistcoat, temp. George II. 

Pottery. 

111. Elizabethan Pitcher. 

112. Do. Bellarmine, or Greybeard, half -gallon. 

113. Do. do. quart. 

114. Do. Pint cup, found under an upper floor on taking down an 
old house in High Street, Tewkesbury. 

115. Old Jug, found close to old monastic foundations on excavating for 
sewer across Abbey Orchard, Tewkesbury. 

116. Old Jar, found in Oldbury, on excavating opposite Trinity Schools' 
Walk. 

117. Fulham Ware, a small jug head of George I., crowned. 

118. Old English Puzzle Jug, enamelled in yellow. 

119. Old English Pitcher, enamelled in yellow, lamb bearing a flag, 
pelican, &c. 

" Long- may we live, 
Happy may we be, 
Blest with content, 
And from misfortunes free."— Grace Evans, in Glos'tersJtire. 

Antique Anna. 

120. Sword, temp. Commonwealth, with basket handle (Andrea Fererra 
blade). 

121. Do. do. basket handle. 

122. Do. very early, chased handle. 

123. Do. with ivory handle, silver mounted. 

124. Spanish Rapier, beautifully chased, and pierced handle. 

125. Halbert, temp. Commonwealth, found at Bourton-on-the-Water. 

126. Ancient Book, "Chronicles." 



By Mr. Thomas Collins — 

1. Bigland's Gloucestershire. 

2. Baronage of England. 

3. Old Newspaper respecting Tewkesbury at the period of the Common- 
wealth. 

4. Old Newspapers, various. 

5. Indenture concerning house at Bristol, from the Abbot of Tewkesbury, 

14th century. 

6. Case of Coins and Tokens, found in Tewkesbury. 



By Mr. Spurrier— 

1, Early English Timepiece. 



166 Transactions! at Tewkesbury. 

2. One Martin and Calvert Plate, 1694. 

3. Four Views of Old Tewkesbury. 



By Mrs. Banastf.r — 

1. Engraving of Tewkesbury Abbey (exterior). 

2. Ditto ,, (interior). 

3. Atkins' Gloucestershire. 

4. Cathedrals and Abbeys of Great Britain (2 vols.) 
By Mr. H. Stalwell Jones — 

1. Box of Silver Roman Coins, found on Bredon Hill. 

2. Bronze Diana. 



By Mr. B. T. Moore— 

1. Silk Picture of Worcester. 

2. Portrait of Moses Goodyear. 

3. Book of Feoffee Charity. 

4. Early English Bell. 



By Mr. Horniblow — 

1. Oil Painting — View of Old Tewkesbury. 



By Mr. James Smith — 
1. A Porringer, 1702. 

By Mr. Hastings— 

1 Indian Vase (presented to Warren Hastings by an Indian Prince) 



By Mrs. White — 

1. Drawings of Abbey Church. 

2. Umbrella used in Gloucester about 1780. 



By Mr. C. T. Davis— 

Rubbings of Brasses from Strensham Church — 

1. Sir John Russsel (1405), full length 

2. Sir John Russell and wife Edithe (1562). 

3. Robert and Elizabeth Russell (1502) 

4. Robert Russell and wife Edethe (1562). 

5. Robert Russell (1390) 
From Bushley Church— 

6. Thomas Payne and wife Ursula (1500) 
From Deer hurst Church — 

7. Elizabeth (1525). 

8. Lady (unknown), 1523. 

9. Sir John Cassey and wife Alice (1400), full length. 



Temporary Museum, 1G7 

By Mr. W. Allarp — 

1. Locket, with hair of Isabella, Countess of Warwick. 

2. Arrow-head, found at the site of the executions — battle of Tewkesbury. 

3. Early English Spoon, found at Mythe. 

4. Dried specimens of Woad, "Isatis tine tor ia," found at the Mythe. 

5. Portrait of Duke of Marlborough — Kneller ? 

6. Early engraving of Tewkesbury Abbey. 

7. Books of Transactions of Cordwainers' Society, from 1562 to present 
time. 

By The Corporation of Tewkesbury — 

1. Two Silver Gilt Maces. 

2. One Gold Mayor's Chain. 



By Mrs. Scott — 

1. Original Letter of Lord Nelson to — Scott, Esq., written on board the 
Victory. 

2. Portrait of Lord Nelson. 



By Mr. Newman — 

1. Two Martin and Calvert Plates. 

By Mr. Brown — 
1. Vase. 



& 



r* 




H 




W 




h- 1 




o 


CO 


o 


00 
l-H 


CG 


►J 




r— 1 




Pd 


h-1 


CM 


<3 

o 


■< 
O 


1— 1 


<N 


-3 


O 


o 


fc 


P-! 


1— t 

O 


o 


& 


3 


w 

Pi 


W 




o 


i* 


# 


W 


<^ 


w 




tf 


H 


O 


tf 


a 


i— i 


tf 






rt 


« 
^1 


w 


Kl 


H 




DQ 


W 






£ 


•^ 


o 


a; 


H-1 


P-, 


o 


H 




a 




w 


Q 


« 


fc 


o 


<} 


H 




£ 




P 


q 


o 
o 


o 


o 


H 


< 


03 




h- 1 




rt 




M 





i*b 



,Jt-.©.©tt>©«©.»©©a>©©--# 

jiccoH-foowtooiNioa'* 



i~-.ec ph ec — . i— 1 1— i <Mm 



CO 



o 
o 
PP 



i <N ec -* >0 to 
© p-- cn ec -# >o 

00 GO CO GO 00 GO 
GO 00 GO GO GO 00 



p* fH ph. 



IS 



03 

PP b 
u +3 
4> ft 
& 'C 6 6 6 6 6 

to u TJ "w r2 'C r-J 
c3 to 

®-2ph 

■2 3 o d d d 
1 43 SQfiQfi 
Wph't; 

o 
H 



03 

•§£ 

03 
o 

3 

d e 



a 

o 
O 

pH 2 



15 -^ 

GO 



60 



0) 

03 

IpH 



© -S 

TO > 

H ° 
o a 

i— < l_ ~^ 

°- ^ 

gOPh 



_j O O O -O CI o 

aj ** re r- t- ec h 

-H rH PH 

"■ti to n o io li O) 

io oo h h se 

p-i ci 



03 

o 

9 

i— I 

a3 



' M ' 60 

.3 3 



, . 3 

6B ph 

c w ^< 
•p-. 3 3 
+io s 

■p-. -I-* M 

« sM 

3 cs 

o ^'s 
SH° 

3 60m 

3 C «i 

03 ■ rt _3 

U p u 
03 



i <u 
03 

l-H 

H -O 

s 1 

CO i"j 

30 



" . p-H •"-■+■> 

-"1 - . -"i .-n 






P-^ftCLi 

o 
H 



0) e5 

PU 



_; -• O O O 
oi OS © © © 
««o CI CI 

pH ci 



I I I 



pH 


Oh 




h OS 


OS 


H pi 


r— 1 






os ec 


1— 


to © 


ec 


Cl pH 


■* 




**i 





CO 



o o o 

>>> 





03 

3 




O 








-^> 




», P- 


w. 


o> .!h 

CJ in 


H 


3 ° 


Ch 


p5^ 


pH 


<3 S 


Ph 


PPcc 


o 


>> 

PQ 



w 

H-1 

W 
Pd 
PQ 



:oo to 



'■*i o 



1— 

00 
(N 



p* 



-3 
60 
3 
O 



pQ p- 



0) 

o 

3 
eS 

t— t 

c-S 

PP 
o 



c3 



PP 



^ . 


1 


o 




•s 




-u 




^3 . 




60 




3 




P . 




,3 GO 




,oO 




-^ S 




St 

o >- 

O 03 

"13 


J< 


O 
O 


<J^j 


-« 


^3 M 


3 


3^ 
cu ■ J 


03 


25 g 


ft 


m- fl 


CO 


o S 


cS 


<-- "rt 


03 


S- 2 


03 

3 


rf 03 


a 






o3 03 


ct 


ppp-) 


PP 



•73 

3 



A By-path of History. 169 



A BY-PATH OF HISTORY. 

By Mrs. LAWSON. 

I have been asked to contribute a paper to this Congress, and 
will not attempt the semblance of anything that is learned or 
profound. I can only say something of the interest and delight 
which I have found in the history of our own parish of Upton-on- 
Severn, in the hope that others may be induced to find the like 
pleasure in similar pursuits. 

The study of local history may be compared with the work of 
an artist in depicting the human figure ; if he knows nothing of 
anatomy, and is ignorant of the due proportion and relative 
position of the joints and bones which go to make up the human 
body, his figure, however well painted, will be grotesque and out 
of drawing. If, on the other hand, he delineates ever so correctly 
the anatomical frame without the warm hues and rounded out- 
lines of flesh and blood, his picture will be that of a skeleton and 
not of a living form. 

So with our parochial history ; we must collect our dry bones 
of facts from registers and family documents, from national 
records and county histories, and fit them into each other with 
all possible care. A single fact by itself may be valueless, but, 
combined in proper articulation with others, it forms an integral 
part of the history of a parish or family. Still, the mere detail of 
facts, however accurate it may be, is not sufficient to bring the 
story of past times before the minds of others, although it may be 
most interesting to ourselves. We need to realise something of 
the national and social history of different periods, to know what 
changes of religion or of laws, what wars or pestilences have 
affected the lives of those whose names we spell out on crumbling 
tombstones, and decipher with difficulty in the faded ink of 
registers or title deeds. We picture them coming out of the old 



170 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

family abode, now modernised into shop or farm house, in the 
costume of the Tudor, Stuart or Georgian period, gay or sombre 
according to their political tendencies ; we know when they made 
merry at a wedding or mourned at a funeral ; we can tell how 
they suffered fines or imprisonment as being Recusants, or Non- 
conformists, or Non-jurors. Thus by degrees these long departed 
parishioners become to us real persons, with joys or sorrows, 
good and evil qualities, much like our own ; and many an old 
house, or field, or lane opens a page of living history which never 
palls upon us. 

The details which piece out the parochial story are often ob- 
tained from unlikely sources ; from an early entry in an old bible, 
from the bill for a wedding or funeral feast one or two centuries 
ago, and, last but not least important, from oral traditions. We all 
remember old legends of a phantom hovering over the unsuspected 
grave of some murdered victim, and a well-established ghost story 
may be the clue, if we carefully follow it out, to the hidden dry 
bones of some old tragedy, the only record of which lingers in a 
dim popular tradition. Such a story I found at Upton, and it 
proved the stepping-stone to some valuable history of the Civil 
War period. 

I must own that the conscientious study of local history has 
its pains as well as its pleasures ; it is often a vexatious task to 
arrive at anything like accuracy concerning dates and facts, from 
the discrepancy as to these matters in books of reference and in 
public documents. I have found three different months mentioned 
as the period of the Earl of Essex's so-called rebellion : and in 
ancient parchments at the Public Record Office two or three 
different christian names are given to the same individual, as owner 
of the Upton Manor in the reign of John. Another real pain 
is the being obliged by our historical conscience to surrender some 
deeply interesting personage whom we had looked upon as our 
very own. I had thus to disown a most interesting villain of the 
13th century, a pirate and a would-be regicide, whom I had 
believed to be identical with our then Lord of the Manor. I 
studied his history and that of his family with the greatest care, 



A By-path of History. 171 

and had worked up the information thus obtained into several 
pages of manuscript, before I discovered that one link in the 
chain of evidence was missing, and that I could not prove his 
connection with our parish : so I was obliged, with much mor- 
tification, to let my pirate drift away from our local stream into 
the wide sea of general history. 

At Hanley also I did not venture to add the name of Brihtric, 
a noble Englishman of the period of the Norman Conquest, to the 
long list of famous personages who have owned the castle, because 
I could not find any trustworthy evidence upon which to claim 
him. 

I should like to say here that I think our local history will be 
valuable in proportion as we can look upon it as a part of the 
history of the nation. In these historic Midlands there must be 
very few parishes which have not witnessed some episode of war, 
or been the abode of some celebrity. In illustration of this I will 
ask leave to mention a few features of historical interest which 
may be seen from Upton Bridge. As we look at the graceful out- 
line of the Malverns, we notice that highest summit on which the 
beacon fires blazed out to rouse " twelve fair counties " at the 
coming of the Armada ; and further south, that hill whose deeply 
entrenched crest tells us how the Britons vainly strove to stay 
the advance of the legions of Rome. Between the Severn and 
the hills was formerly the vast forest of Malvern Chase ; and 
Gallows' Hill, and Hangman's Lane, the latter in the parish of 
Hanley, still tell the doom of those who broke the forest laws. 
Near at hand is Severn End, which, with one brief interval, has 
been the home of the Lechmeres for eight hundred years. Close 
by is the house at Hanley Quay where Bishop Bonner was born, 
and further west we see the trees which mark the site of Hanley 
Castle. It was demolished early in the reign of Henry VIII., but 
during its four-and-a-half centuries of existence it was the abode 
of some of the most famous men and women of their time. Upton 
also belonged to the lords of Hanley Castle, and we could paint a 
whole series of mental pictures illustrating the history of England 
by thinking of some of those who have come forth from the castle 



172 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

gates and passed along the right bank of the Severn. Thence 
came with stately retinue the barons of the great house of Bello 
Campo, or Beau champ, one of whom helped in winning Magna 
Charta ; one De Clare, who was a leader of the Crusades, and 
another who fell at Bannockburn ; the De Spensers, favourites and 
fellow victims of unhappy kings ; the brilliant young Duke of 
Warwick, whose birth and death occurred at Hanley ; the King- 
maker Nevill, his wife, and their lovely daughters; "false, 
fleeting, perjured Clarence " ; and lastly the young Earl of War- 
wick, who was beheaded in 1409, and was the fourth lord of 
Hanley and Upton put to death for political offences. About 300 
yards above the bridge, a high mound in a field marks the position 
of the camp formed by General Massey to prevent the advance of 
Cromwell's army along the western bank of the river. It all 
looks so peaceful now that it is hard to realise the scene at early 
dawn in August, 1G51, when a few brave men scrambled across 
the broken bridge and surprised the careless guard ; a large 
number of their comrades rode through the ford below, and the 
Royalists taken by surprise made an unsuccessful but gallant 
resistance. Along the river bank, in the street, and in the 
churchyard close by, a short tierce struggle raged, and was ended 
by the retreat of the king's troops ; and the success at Upton 
was the preface to the victory of Worcester. Across the same 
ford, but wading through a much wider and shallower stream, 
the Romans probably made their way to this part of the land 
of the Silures. About thirty years ago a workman discovered, 
deep in the clay of the brick pits which are part of the ancient 
bed of the Severn, a celt of the first century and a curious 
metal ball close together. The ball is conjectured by the 
authorities of the British Museum to be either the weight of a 
fishing net, or, more probably, the missile used in a small Roman 
catapult. If the latter supposition be correct, these relics, which 
are now in the room, are evidences of a fight between the con- 
quering and the conquered race for the passage over our river, 
since the place of their discovery is in the line of the ancient ford. 
An old red brick gable opposite this same ford belongs to the 
"king's stables," where a stud of horses was formerly kept for the 



A By-path of History. 173 

use of the sovereign, probably as some feudal due. The red bank 
further south is a boundary of Ripple Field, where Prince Maurice 
and his cavaliers sent the troops of Waller flying to Tewkesbury, 

Close to the bridge is the old church, disused now for six years ; 
the nave is of Georgian design and date, and possesses no special 
beauty nor historical interest beyond the fragment of the statue 
of a crusader, Sir Thomas De Boteller, which belonged to the 
older and more beautiful church, of the same date as the tower. 
This was built in the earliest half of the 14th century, and it was 
still fresh and new when the Black Death devastated Worcester- 
shire. Many times daily its bell tolled out to call for prayers on 
behalf of the souls of those stricken by the pestilence, as it sounded 
in later times a knell of terror and dismay during some visitation 
of plague, small pox, or cholera. There are several interesting 
old houses opposite the church and scattered about the town : in 
one of them lived the non-juror Thomas Morris, better known 
as " Miserrimus " ; and in the same house his niece was wooed 
and won by the sweet hymn-singer Philip Doddridge 

I have only indicated a few points of interest in the neighbour- 
hood of the bridge, but there are historical associations connected 
with the Bromleys, lords of the Manor for 200 years, which alone 
would All a paper ; and I could point out in the parish many old 
houses and fields which have valuable links with history. 

I venture to suggest that in most parishes, by tracing out the 
personal history of the old families of the working class, much 
romance of the peasantry as well as of the peerage might be 
revealed. We have several families in Upton which were large 
and flourishing when registers began, and if you notice two or three 
of the boys who bear the names of such families, playing marbles 
near the bridge, they will probably be using over their game a 
quaint form of words which, no doubt, has been used in the same 
locality for many centuries. They are strongly-built lads, with 
well-marked features, restless, lively, and warm-hearted, but not 
favourably disposed to perseverance or discipline. Nevertheless, 
the men of these families make good soldiers, and we may be sure 



174 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

that their ancestors fought well under the banner of their feudal 
lords at Bannockburn or Agincourt, Towton or Tewkesbury. 

It will be seen that Upton can neither claim to possess any 
ancient buildings of remarkable beauty or antiquity, nor to have 
been the scene of any of the decisive battles of history. But in 
passing through a vast forest we sometimes find as lovely flowers 
and as beautiful views along the obscure by-paths as in the beaten 
track where a guide is always at hand to tell us what to admire. 
And so an old English parish like ours is a by-path of history, 
wherein we may discover many a noble deed or pathetic story, 
and here and there obtain, through some occasional vista, a glimpse 
of the wider horizon of national life. The by-path may seem 
dull and difficult at first ; but if we go patiently on we shall 
realise, as we can in no other way, that through peace and war, 
through conquests and revolutions, the men and women of past 
centuries and we ourselves are all parts of the same great English 
nation, and that " our rough island story " is written small in the 
history of each parish. 



The Daubknkv Family. 175 



ON THE DAUBENEY FAMILY, & ITS CONNECTION 

WITH GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

By B. W. GREENFIELD, Barrister-at-Law. 

Bead at Tewkesbury, 24th July, 1SS5. 

Modern research has hitherto failed in tracing this branch of the 
great family of Albini higher than the middle of the 13th century. 
The county historians are silent as to its origin. We meet, how- 
ever, with evidences of five successive generations, commencing 
in 36 Hen. III., and ending with the extinction of the name in 
the tragic end of the sole daughter and heiress in the reign of 
Rich. II. 

The earliest member of the line of whom notice is found to 
occur is 

1. £35ttUt'am UC aiiltmaCO (or Albaniaco), who, on 4th April, 
1252, received a grant from King Henry III. of free-warren within 
the demesne of the manor of Henton (Hinton-Daubeney, in the 
parish of Catherington and hundred of Finch-Dean, Hants) — 
provided such demesne lands were not within the bounds of the 
King's forest (of Bere) 1 . At the time of his death, which occurred 
in the interval between the years 1267 and November, 1272, it 
was found by Inquisition that he held, by sergeanty, two carucates 
of land in Kingesholme, near the city of Gloucester, worth eight 
marks per annum, by the service of guarding, ab the King's 
summons, the door of the department of the King's steward. He 
held also of the King, in chief, at an annual rent of 15s. a mill, 
called " Gosivitte Mylle," in the manor of Barton Kings, without the 
city of Gloucester, which was then lately held by Henry Lesseberwe 
and Dyonis his wife, and appertained to their virgate-and-a-half 
of land within the same manor. He held of John de Muchejrros 
a virgate of land at Upthone (Upton-St -Leonards), paying an 

1 Charter Roll, 36 Henry III. m. IS. 



176 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

annual rent to the said John de Muchegros of 20s. and to the 
abbot and monastery of St. Peter of Gloucester of 5s. He held 
of John de Holecumbe a messuage with its appurtenances, at a 
rent of a pound of pepper, and half-an-acre of meadow at Id. 
He also held of Ralph de Walesworth, 10 acres of land in Barton- 
King's, worth 3s. per annum. The jury further found that John 
de Albaniaco, of the age of twenty years, was his next heir. 1 

II. JfoIjU -DaithcnW, called " dominus de la Kingeshame." 2 
Before the year 1284, he gave and granted to Reginald the Abbot 
and the monastery of St. Peter of Gloucester a messuage and land 
at Snedham, near to Gloucester, 3 which he had formerly let to 
William de Ocholte. 4 

A writ of diem clausit, on his death, dated 31st March, 
32 Edw. I. (1304) was directed to Walter de Gloucestre, the 
escheator beyond Trent, pursuant to which an Inquisition was 
taken in the county of Gloucester at " Kyngeshaine," on 7th May 
following, whereby it was found that at the time of his death he 
held in his demesne, as of fee of the King in chief, the manor of 
La Kyngeshame (near to Gloucester) by ancient tenure and by 
the service of guarding, during the King's coronation, the door of 
the department of the King's steward. He also held the mill in 
the manor of Barton-Kings above mentioned. The jury also 
found that John de Aubeny was his son and heir, and of the age 
of eleven years " ad gulavi autumpni" (1st August) last past. 
Another Inquisition was taken at Henton (-Daubeney) in the 
county of Southampton on 28th May in the same year, when it 
was found that he also held the manor of Henton (-Daubeney) and 
that John de Aubeney was his son and heir of the age of twelve 
years. 5 

III. j^OijU iBaubCUCl? (Albiniaco and Albyniaco), as son 
and heir of John de Albiniaco deceased, made proof of his age at 
Grenewycum (Greenwich, in Kent), on 13th February, 8 Edw. II. 
1314-5), pursuant to writ, dated 10th February in the same year. 

1 <■/. Iii((. p.m. ineerto tempore Henry III. No. '247, ami Hist, et Cartul. 
Monasterii 8. Petri Gloue. edit. Hart, 1863-7, III. 67, 69, 70. 

3 Hist, et Cart. S. Pet. II. 79. 3 Ibid. III. 277. 4 Ibid. II. 285-6. 
5 Inq. p.m. 32 Edw. I. No. 52. 



The Daubeuey Family. 177 

It was then found that during his minority, the guardianship of 
his lands had been granted by Margaret, the Queen dowager, to 
Christina, widow of John de Montacute ; that he was born at 
Hokyndene, or Hockingdenne (now Hackendean), Kent, in the 
feast of St. Peter-ad- Vincula, 22 Edw. I. (1st August, 1294), 1 and 
was baptized in the church of St. Mary de Creye (St. Mary's Cray) 
in the same county on the following day ; and that his mother's 
name was Isabel. 2 In September, 1332, he obtained the King's 
licence to convey his manor of Kyngesholme, near to Gloucester, 
in fee to Elias de Godeleye (of West-Perle, in the county of 
Southampton, his father-in-law), to hold to the use of himself 
(John Daubeny) and Cecilia his wife, and their joint issue, with 
remainder to his right heirs. At the same time it was ascertained 
that he was holding the manor of Henton, in the county of 
Southampton, by service of supplying, at his own cost, a man- 
at-arms, fully equipped, for forty days, for the King's war, 3 He 
died at the end of the year 1333, as, in pursuance of a writ of 
diem clausit on his death, dated 7th January, 7th Edw. III. 
(1333-4), an Inquisition was taken at Hentone-Dabeney, in the 
county of Southampton, on 4th February following, when it was 
found that he was holding in fee of the King in chief, by the 
service of guarding the King's larder on the day of his coronation, 
the manor of Henton aforesaid ; he also held of Richard, Earl of 
Arundel, six acres of arable land by the service of rendering six' 
feathered arrows at Michaelmas and suit of court in the hundred 
of Fyncheden (Finch-Dean); and Elias de Albaniaco his son, of 
the age of 18 years at the feast of Michaelmas last past, was his 
next heir, 4 consequently, Elias the son and heir, was born on 29th 
September, 1315. 

©fCiltl, the relict of John Daubeny. There is presumptive 
evidence that she was the daughter of Elias de Godeleye, lord of 
the manor of West-perle, on the borders of Hants and Dorset, for, 
as is shown above, her husband, John Daubeney, in 1332, con- 
veyed his manor of Kingsholme to Elias de Godeleye to the 

1 This date should bu 20 Edw. I. 1292 , see Inq. p.m. 32 Edw. I. No. 52 

2 Esch. S Edw. II. No. SO. :i Ibid. 6 Edw. Ill (2nd nrs.) No. 3. 
4 Inq. p m. 8 Edw. III. (nfs) No. 50. 

Vol. X, part 1. x 



178 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

use of himself and Cecilia his wife, and their joint heirs, and, as 
shewn below, her son Elias was born in West-perle manor house. 
Inquisition upon her death was taken at "la Kyngesholme," by- 
Simon Basset, the escheator in the county of Gloucester, on 17th 
October, 19th Edw. III. (1345) pursuant to a writ of melius scire, 
dated on the 6th of the same month, when it was found that 
Cecilia, the widow of John Daubeney, at the time of her death, 
held the manor of " La Kyngesholme " for the term of her life by 
the feoffment of Elyas de Gocleleye, who held the same by the gift 
of John Daubeney ; she died on Monday next after the festival of 
St. Michael last past (3rd October, 1345), and Elias Daubeney, 
son and heir of the said John Daubeney, and Cecilia his wife, was 
her next heir, and then aged 30 years. 1 

IV. lEltilS HBtUtfJCUC!?, as son and heir of John Daubeney, 
deceased, made proof of his age at Bromere, in the county of 
Southampton, 1 on the 2nd October, 10 Edw. III. (1336) pursuant 
to writ, dated 4th August preceding. 2 The lands of his inheritance 
were committed, during his minority, to the charge of Robert 
de Shawe. The first witness on the Inquisition, viz., Elias de 
Godele (or Godeleye) of the age of 50 years, gave evidence that 
the said Elias Daubeney attained the age of 21 years on the 
festival of St. Michael last past (29th September, 1336), and that 
he was born in the manor house of the said Elias de Godele and 
Christina his wife at West-perle, in the county of Southampton, 3 
on Michaelmas day, 9 Edw. II. (29th Sept., 1315), and baptized 
the same day in the parish church of All Saints, of West-perle 
aforesaid. 4 

By an Inquisition, ad quod dampnum, taken at Chalkton 
(Chalton), in the county of Southampton, on Tuesday next after 
the Nativity of John the Baptist, 26 Edw. III. (26th June, 1352), 
pursuant to writ, dated the 14th of the same month, directed to 
the escheator in the county of Southampton, it was found that it 
would not be to the King's prejudice to allow Elias Daubeney to 

1 Ibid., 19 Edw. III. (1st nfs.) No. 27 

2 Breamorc, on the Hampshire Avon. 

8 West- Parley, on the borders of Hants and Dorset. 
4 Esch. 10 Edw. III. (1 n?s) No. 77. 



The Daubeney Family. 179 

give and grant the manor of Henton-Daubency, with its appur- 
tenances, to Geoffrey le Blount and his heirs in exchange for two 
carucates of land and 50s. of rent in Cromhale and Hordyngton 
co. Gloucester) to be given and granted to the said Elias and John 
de Cokeshale, or Coggeshale, and to the heirs of the said Elias. 1 

By final agreement in 1360, between John Sage, Richard 
Dumound and John Syde, clerk, Querents, and Elias Daubeney, 
and Agnes his wife, deforciants, the first parties granted messuages 
and tenements in Newent and one-third of the manor of Cromhale, 
co. Gloucester, and tenements in Aston, co. Hereford, to the said 
Elias and Agnes for life, with remainder in tail to Richard 
Daubeney their elder son. 2 

Pursuant to the writ of " diem clausit" on the death of Elias 
Daubeney, dated 17th May, 7 Rich. II. (1381), inquisition was 
taken at Suthewyk, in the county of Southampton, on Thursday 
in the feast of (the translation of) St. Richard the Confessor 
7 Rich. II. (16 June, 1381), when it was found that he held the 
manor of Henton-Daubeney, with its appurtenances, for the term 
of his life with reversion over to Elizabeth Giffard (his daughter) 
and her heirs by grant from John Brounyng and Robert Ketford, 
deceased, which manor was held of the King in chief by the 
moiety of one knight's fee, and worth 100s. per annum ; and that 
the said Elias died on Saturday next after the festival of the 
Purification of B.V.M. last past (6th February, 1383-1), and that 
the said Elizabeth, then the wife of Andrew Wauton, was his 
daughter and next heir of the age of 26 years and more. At the 
foot of the inquisition, it is stated that Sir Gilbert Giffard, chivaler, 
and Elizabeth his wife purchased the reversion of the manor of 
Henton-Daubeney by fine, to hold to them and the heirs of the 
said Elizabeth. 3 

V. I&tdjavB -DaubfJtCl?, only son of Elias and Agnes. Pur- 
suant to writ, dated 6th March, 38 Edward III. (1363-4) an 

1 Esch. 26th Edw. III. (2 nrs) No. 43. 

N.B. — Chalton is a parish adjoining to Catherington, in which Hinton 
Daubeney is situated. 

- Fin. Cone. Divers Counties, Glouc. & Hereford, 34th Ed. III. No. OS. 
3 Inq. p.m. 7th RieL. II. No. 31. 



180 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

inquisition was taken at Gloucester on Monday next before the 
feast of St. Gregory the Pope in the same year (11 March, 1363-4) 
on the deaths of the said Richard Daubeney and Johanna his 
wife, when it was found that they held in fee-tail of the King in 
chief a moiety of the manor of "la Kyngesholme," with its 
appurtenances, in the county of Gloucester, in grand sergeanty, of 
the annual value of 66s. 8d. The said Richard died in the festival 
of St. Matthew the Apostle, 35 Edw. III. (21st September, 1361) 
and Johanna, his wife, died on Monday next after the festival of 
the Exaltation of the Holy Gross, 35 Edw. III. (20th September, 
1361), and Elizabeth, sister of the said Richard, is his next heir 
and of the age of ten years (at the time of taking the inquisition) ; 
and Robert de Upcote, chaplain, the executor of the will of John 
Coggeshale, 1 was occupying the said moiety since the deaths of the 
said Richard and Johanna, and receiving the produce and profits 
thereof. 2 

Sir Gilbert Gyffard, chivaler. An inquisition on his 
death was taken at Gloucester, on 31st January, 48 Edw. III. 
(1373-4), pursuant to writ dated on 13th of the same month, 
when it was found that he held — in right of Elizabeth his wife — 
of the King in chief by the service of guarding the door of the 
King's pantry on the day of his coronation, the manor of "la 
Kyngeshome," near to the city of Gloucester, worth 66s. 8d. per 
annum. He also held — in right of the said Elizabeth — a messuage 
and one carucate of land in Matisdon, near to Upton St -Leonards, 
of the abbot and monastery of St. Peter of Gloucester in chief by 
military service, worth 40s. per annum ; also — in right of his said 
wife — the manor of Cromhale, with its appurtenances, of Thomas 
Lord Berkeley in chief by military service. Sir Gilbert died 
abroad — beyond sea — on 10th October, last past (1373), and John 
Giffarcl, his kinsman, of full age, was his nearest heir. 3 

VI. ©ItjabCti) HJaufocnei?, sister and heir of Richard 
Daubeney, deceased. Her marriage and the custody of her lands 
were granted to Gilbert Giffard in 1364. 4 At the instance of Sir 

1 See Inq. ad. q. d. 26 Edw. III. (2 nrs) No. 43, abstracted above. 

2 Inq. p. m. 38 Edw. III. (1 nrs) No. 12. 

3 Inq. p. m. 48 Edw. III. (1 nrs) No. 30. 
* Patent Roll, 38 Edw. III. p. 1. 



The Dadbeney Family. 181 

Gilbert Gyffard, chivaler, who had married the same Elizabeth, 
his ward, a writ, dated 12th June, 43 Edw. III. (1369), was issued 
out of chancery to the escheator in the county of Gloucester to 
take probate of the said Elizabeth's age. By the pursuant 
inquisition, held at Wotton-under-Egge, on 3rd July following, it 
was found that the said Elizabeth, sister and heir of Richard 
Daubeney, deceased, and wife of Sir Gilbert Gyffard, chivaler, 
was born at Cromhale, co. Glouc, on 1 1th November, 28 Edw. III. 
(1354), and baptized the same day in the church of Cromhale, — - 
her sponsors being Walter Goklemere, Rector of Cromhale, 
Elizabeth Revere and Idonia Baron, and, therefore, the said 
Elizabeth was 14 years of age on 11th November last past (1368) 1 

On 24th April, 47 Edw. III. (1373), writs were issued to the 
escheators in the counties of Southampton and Gloucester to enquire 
whether it would be to the King's damage so allow John Brounyng 
and Robert Ketford to enfeoff Sir Gilbart Giffard, chivaler, and 
Elizabeth his wife, in the manors of Henton-Daubeneye and 
Kyngesholme, with their appurtenances, in the respective counties 
of Southampton and Gloucester. By the ensuing inquisitions, it 
was found that the concession would not be to the King's damage. 
Regarding the manor of Kyngeshome, by the Inquisition which 
was taken at the city of Gloucester on 8th May the same 
year it was found that the said manor was held of the King in 
chief by the service of guarding the door of the King's pantry on 
the clay of his coronation, and worth ten marks per annum. 
There remained, beyond the said manor, in the hands of the said 
John Brounyng, a messuage, two carucates of land and twenty 
acres of meadow at Noke (in Churchdown), held of the Bishop of 
York (" EboTj" in the original) by military service; and in the 
hands of the said Robert Ketteford a messuage, one carucate of 
land and forty acres of meadow in Dymmoke, held of Thomas 
Graunssum (de Grandison) by military service. 2 

It has been already shewn by the inquisition on the death of 
Elias Daubeney, her father, in 1384, that he had settled the 
reversion of the manor of Henton-Daubeney — subject to his life 

1 Esch. 43 Edw. III. p. 1 No. S3 

3 Esch. 47 Edw. III. (2 ms) No. 40. 



182 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

estate therein — on (his daughter) Elizabeth Giffard, and that she 
and her husband, Sir Gilbert Giffard, had converted their estate 
in reversion therein into an estate in fee in possession by fine and 
purchase. It is probable that it was this transaction which led to 
the above enquiry in April, 1373. 

Before the date of her father's death, she had married to her 
second husband, Andrew VVauton, by whom she had an only 
child, — a son and heir, John, who died a minor under age on 
5th August, 1392. 1 But at some period between 16th June, 
1384 — the date of the inquisition on her father's death, and 16th 
February, 1387-8, — she was convicted of the atrocious crime of 
feloniously taking the life of her husband, Andrew Wauton, and, 
in accordance with ancient custom, she suffered the penalty of 
being burnt to death, — consequently the lands of her inheritance 
were forfeited and seized into the King's hands.' 2 On 16th Feb., 
1387-8, the manors of Kingsholme, co. Gloucester, and Henton- 
Daubeney, co. Southampton, with their appurtenances, lately held 
by Andrew Wauton, deceased, of the inheritance of Elizabeth 
his wife, and which, by the forfeiture of the said Elizabeth had 
come into the King's hands were committed to John de Shepeye, 
Dean of the Cathedral Church of Lincoln, John Shepeye, junior, 
and John Cokeyn to hold during the King's pleasure, and paying 
for the same 24 marks annually. 3 

Upon representation being made to the King on the part of 
Cecilia Sage, Nicholas Mattesdon-Drois (or Droys), Simon Cadel 
and Eva his wife, and John Swonhongre, that they had become 
the heirs general of John and Cecilia Daubeney, the grand-parents 
of Elizabeth Wauton, in consequence of the said Elizabeth's death 
without issue, the King — being desirous of doing what is just — 
commissioned John Cassy, Robert de Whitynton, the escheator 
in the county of Gloucester, William Aumondesham, John atte- 
Yate and Anselm Guyse, by writ dated 21st Nov r , 18 Rich. II. 
(1394), to make enquiry by a jury as to the truth of their alle- 
gation and of the whole circumstances. In the writ, the descent 

1 Inq. p. m. 16 Rich. II. p. 1, No. 10. 

- Esch. IS Rich. II. No. 81. 

s Originalia Roll, 11 Rich. II. m. G. 



The Dacbexey Family. 183 

of each of the applicants is minutely set forth, and which is 
embodied in the accompanying pedigree. Accordingly, an in- 
quisition was held at Gloucester, on Thursday next before the 
festival of St. Thomas the Apostle, 18 Rich. II. (17th Dec. 1394), 
when the finding of the jury verified the statements contained 
in the writ. 1 

The following is the original paragraph respecting the murder 
of Andrew Wauton by his wife, and its awful consequences : — 

"Ac prefata Elizabeth de morte Andree Wanton quondam viri sui 
felonice per ipsam interfecti convicta fuisset, et virtute cujus conviccionis 
eadem Elizabeth combusta fait, per quod manerium predictum (Kiugsholme) 
tanquam nobis forisfactum seisitum fuit in manus nostras." 

1 Esch. 18 Rich. II. No. 81. 



184 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



|3rtngrcc of rtjc ©auucncj? J-amtli?, of <5*louccfttergf)tre. 



I. William Dattbeney= 
(or de Albiniaco), of the manors of Kings- 
holme, co. Glonc, and Henton-Daubeney, 
co. Southampton ; ob. inter 1267-1272. 



II. John Daubeney, = 
of Kingsholme and Hinton-Daubeney ; 
ob. March, 1304. 



III. John "Daubeny, : 
of Kingsholme and Hinton-Daubeney, 
nat. at Hackendean, in the parish of St. 
Mary's Cray, Kent, 1st August, 1292; 
ob. circa Dec. 1333. 



=Isabel 



Cecilia, dau. of Elias de 
Godeleye, of the manor 
of West-perle, on the 
borders of Hants and 
Dorset. Survived her 
husband, ob. 3 Oct. 1345. 



IV. Elias Daubeney= 
held manors of Kingsholme & Cromhale, 
co. Glouc. and Henton-Daubeney ; nat. at 
West-perle, Hants, 29th Sept. 1315 ; ob. 
6th Feb. 1383-4. 



V. Rich. Daubeney=Joan ; 
of Cromhale, in ob. 20 
1360, and half Sept. 
Kingsholme ; ob. 1361 
21 Sep. 1361, s.p. 



Sir Gilbert^ 
Giffard, 
Chr. mar. 
before 
June, 1369; 
ob. 10 Oct. 
1373, s.p. 



= Agnes, living in 1360. 



-VI. Eliz. Daubeney : 
sole surviving child 
and heir ; held 
Kingsholme, Crom- 
hale and Hinton- 
Daubeney ; nat. at 
Cromhale, 11 Nov. 
1354 ; burnt to 
death for murdering 
her 2nd husb., & all 
her lands forfeited 
to the King betw. 
June, 1384, & Feb. 
1387-8 



i — 



: 2nd hus. 
Andrew 
Wauton, 
m. before 
Feby. 
1383-4. 
Held 
Kingsholme 
& Hinton- 
Daubeney 
j.ux. ; was 
murdered 
by his wife 
before Feb. 
1387-8 



John "Wanton, only child ; ob. under age, 5th Aug. 1392, s.p. 



Matilda 
Daubeney ; 
ob. before 
1393 I 1 ) ( 2 ) 



Wm. Mattesdon-= 
droys, aged 40 in 
1393, and coh. of 
Eliz. Wauton ;(1) 
dead in 1394 ( 2 ) 



Christiana= 
Daubeney ; 
ob. before 
1393 



Cecilia Daubeney, = 
aged 40 in 1393, and 
coheir of Elizabeth 
Wauton inl394( 1 )(-) 



Nicholas Mattesdon-droys, 
coheir of Eliz. Wauton in 
1394 (*) 



Eva [ 



]= 



aged 40 in 1393, 
and coheir of 
Eliz. Wauton in 
1394 (i) (2) 



=Simon Cadel, 
living in 1393 
and 1394 ( J ) ( 2 ) 



Sagel(i) 



The Daubeney Family 



Isabel Daubeney ;=p[Elias ( 3 ) ] Swonhonger 
ob. before 1393 I 1 ) (-) 



Elias Swonhonger ( 2 ) 
ob. 13 Ric. II. ( 3 ) 



=[.Tone, dau. of John] 
Bill ( 3 ) 



John Swonhonger, 
aged IS in 1303, & cob. 
of Elizab. Wanton in 
1394 (!) ( 2 ); ob. 3 Hen. 
IV.s.p.( 3 ) 



[Isabel Swonhonger ( 3 )- 



=John Thorp ( 3 ) ] 

A 



For continuation of Pedigree, see ante Vof. VI. 
p. 322.— Ed. 

(1) Inq. p. m of John (Wanton) son and heir of Elizabeth Oiffard, deceased, 10 Rich. II. 
part I. No. 10. (2) Inq. " melius scire" as to the heirs of Elizabeth, late wife of 

Andrew Wauton, 18 Rich. II. No. 81. (3 Smyth's "Hundred of Berkeley," 370. 

N.B.— The suffix "droys" appears to have been an integral part of the place-name. 
Mattcgdondroys(See Hist, et Cart. S. Pet. Glouc. I., 101 J 



186 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



NOTES ON THE MANORS AND ADVOWSONS OF 

BIRT'S MORTON AND PENDOCK. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

In consequence of the interest manifested on the visit of the 
Society, on the 25th July last, to the old moated mansion of Birt's 
Morton with its church, and to the ancient parish church of 
Pendock ; and of the discussion which followed the reading of the 
paper contributed by the Rev. W. S. Symonds in the evening, we 
have been induced to look up some memoranda relating to the 
Nanfan family, made many years ago when writing the history of 
the " Deanery of Trigg Minor, in Cornwall" ; and also on a short 
visit to London since our meeting at Tewkesbury to make such fur- 
ther researches relative to the devolution of the before-mentioned 
manors and the advowsons of the churches as we could, in 
the short time at our disposal, accomplish. We are conscious 
these notes are very crude and imperfect. Doubtless a more 
systematic examination of the Feet of Fines, the cle Banco Rolls, 
the Fine Rolls, and other Public Records would throw much more 
light on the early history of these manors, but imperfect as our 
notes are they may, and we trust will, induce some Worcestershire 
antiquary to dig deeper into the exhaustless mines to which we 
have adverted. 

Our talented friend Mr. Symonds lias drawn most of his facts 
from Nash's History of the County, which he has lighted up with 
that rich fund of tradition of which he is such an accomplished 
master. We cannot follow in his steps, having no genius for the 
poetical. Our remarks will be simply dry facts culled from the 
only unimpeachable authorities — the national records. 

We propose in the first instance to offer a few remarks on the 
manor of Birt's Morton supplementary to Nash's. His early 




o 

oo 

CO 



I- 
o: 

O 

o 

z 
o 

h 

ce 
O 

s 

CO 

m 



Manor and Advowson of Bikt's Morton, &c. 187 

history of the manor is very slight, and is as vague as it is 
slight. The whole is comprised in two or three short pai-agraphs, 
and the only authority quoted is the Habington MSS., 1 and we 
have had no opportunity of verifying his statements from other 
sources. The first definite authority he cites is no earlier than 
1407, and it must be from that date only that we can take up the 
subject. At that time the manor of Bruttis-Morton was in the 
seizin of one Richard Ruysdale, and it would appear to have been 
vested in the Ruysdale family from a century earlier, for a 
Richard de Ruysdale, Lord of Morton Brut, presented to the 
benefice four times between 1300 and 1361. 2 

However, Rich. Ruysdale being seized of this manor died seized 
and upon the inquisition taken at Worcester, after his death, on 
Saturday next after the Conversion of St. Paul, 10th Henry IV., 
the jurors found that the said Richard Ryal held on the day on 
which he died in his demesne as of fee one bidlariam aquoe scdsce in 
Wych (Droitwych) of the King in burgage, the tenure by which 
the whole town of Wych was held. The same Richard held on 
the day on which he died ten (burgages) in Worcester of the King 
in burgage, being the tenure by which the whole city was held. 
The same Richard on the said day held conjointly with Elizabeth 
his wife a moiety of the manor of Queenhull of the King in socage, 
by servitiam of one canis de muta rendered annually at the feast 
of St. Michael the Archangel ; also the manor of Bruttis Morton, 
together with the advowson of the church of the same, of the 
King as of the Duchy of Lancaster and of the Honour of Mon- 
mouth by the fourth part of one knight's fee ; also eight bidlaria 

1 Mr. Habington's Collection for Worcestershire was in 1735 in the 
possession of Dr. Thomas, of Worcester, upon whose death all the papers 
were purchased by Dr. Charles Lyttleton, Bishop of Carlisle and President 
of the Society of Antiquaries, who made many additions to them from the 
Chapter House, Westminster, then one of the Depositories of the Public 
Records, the Tower Records and other Public Offices. He died in 17G8, and 
by his will left his Collection to the Society of Antiquaries, in whose library 
they remained until 1774, when they were entrusted to Nash for revision 
and publishing. In 17% the papers were, with the permission of the Society 
of Antiquaries, consulted by Valentine Green in the preparation of his 
History of Worcester published in that year. We are glad to be able to add 
that since this note has been in type we have ascertained that the documents 
are now safe at Burlington House. 

- Worcestershire Registers of Institutions. — See List, post. 



188 Transactions at Tkwkesbcry. 

aqiue salsce, also du.as salinas in Wych and Upwych of the King, 
by the same tenure as before stated ; also two messuages in 
Wych of the King in burgage. And they say the said Richard 
died on Monday next before the feast of the Purification of the 
B.Y.M. last past, and that Richard Ryall is son and nearest heir 
of the said Richard, and was aged two years and more. 

Nash states that the Ruyhales were succeeded by Richard 
Oldcastle, but he does not state by what means the said Richard 
acquired the possessions of the Ruyhales, or what became of that 
family, and we are unable to add to his information. It appears 
from an inquisition taken at Upton-upon-Severn, on Monday next 
after the feast of St. Laurence, 10th Hen. V. (1422), after the death 
of Richard Oldcastle that certain John Merbury, Esq., Edward 
Brugg, Esq., and William Poleyne, by a writing produced to the 
jury, dated 7th June, 9th Hen. V. (1421), granted and confirmed 
to the said Richard Oldcastle and Elizabeth his then wife the 
manors of Bruttesmorton and Ruyhale, with appurtenances in the 
co. of Worcester, and a moiety of the manor of Queenhull, with 
appurtenances, and one carucate of land with appurtenances in 
Longdon, to hold to the same Richard and Elizabeth and the heirs 
of their bodies, by virtue of which demise the said Richard and 
Elizabeth were seized, and that in the same state the said Richard 
died seized, and the said Elizabeth is still living and thereof is 
seized. And the jurors say that the King, by letters patent dated 
8th July in the 10th of his reign, pardoned the same John 
Merbury and the others, and the same Richard Oldcastle and 
Elizabeth for the alienation aforesaid without the King's licence. 
And they say that the manor of Brittesmorton is held of the King, 
as of the Duchy of Lancaster, by the service of rendering one rose 
for all services, and that the value of the manor per annum is £4 ; 
and the jurors further say that the manor of Ruyhale is held 
of the Bishop of Worcester as of the right of the church of St. 
Mary of Worcester, by what service they are ignorant, and that 
the value per annum is £3 ; and they say further that the afore- 
said carucate of land in Castelmorton, and the said half carucate 
in Longdon are held of Nicholas Berry, Esq., by fealty for all 



Manor and Advowson of Bjrt's Morton, &c. ISO 

services, and they say that the value of the said carucate is Gs. 8d. 
and that of the said half carucate is 3s. 4d., &c; and they say 
also that the said Richard did not die seized of any other lands in 
the county of Worcester, and that he died on Monday next after 
the feast of the Purification of the B.V.M. 9th of the present 
King, and that Wentelina, wife of Robert Whyteney, Knt., and 
Isabella, wife of Walter Hakelyte, Esq., are sisters of the said 
Richard Oldcastle and his nearest heirs : viz , the daughters of 
Thomas Oldcastle, father of the said Richard, and that the 
aforesaid Wentelina is aged 30 years and more, and the said 
Isabella is aged 21 years and more. 1 

The alienation referred to in this inquisition must have been 
made in or before the year 1399, for in that year John de Mer- 
bury, probably jointly with his co-trustees, presented to the 
church of Birt's Morton, as he did again in 1404 ; 2 and in 
1420 John de Brugge, probably the heir of Edward de Brugge, 
and William Poleyn jointly presented. 

Nash states that John Nanfan was Lord of Brutesmorton and 
Berew in 9th Hen. VI. (1430-1), and by a deed dated at Brutes- 
morton he passed this manor with appurtenances unto Sible de la 
Bere for the term of her life, remainder to Richard Earl of 
Warwick ; as authority for which he cites the Habington MSS. 
Sibella de la Bere presented to the church of Birt's Morton in 
1436. Nevertheless, by charter dated 5th Nov., 12th Hen. VI. 
(1433), a certain Thomas Philipot granted and confirmed to John 
Throgmorton, Esq., William Moreyn, John Coggeshall, chaplain, 
and Thomas Hoke, all those lands in the vill of Morton Folet, la 
Berewe juxta Malvman, Longedon and Morton Brut, which same 
lands, &c, with appurtenances, William Poleyn and Geoffry 
Carpenter, lately had of the gift of Elizabeth, who was the wife 
of Richard Oldcastle, to hold to the said John Throgmorton and 
the others their heirs and assigns for ever of the Chief Lord of 
the Fee, and the said Thos. Philipot warrants the same for ever. :i 

And by another charter, bearing the same date, the same 
Thomas Philipot granted to the same parties those two biillarias 

1 Inq. p.m. 10th Hen. V. No. 16. 2 List of Institutions. 

3 Inrolled Rot. Claus. 12th Henry VI. m. 20 d. 



190 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

aquos salsce with appurtenances in le Wych, which Richard Ruy- 
hale and Elizabeth his wife sometime held of the gift and grant 
of Thomas Brugge, to have and to hold to the said John Throg- 
morton, William Moreyn, John Coggeshall, and Thomas Hoke, 
their heirs and assigns for ever. 1 

We cannot gainsay Nash's statement that John Nanfan 
possessed Birt's Morton as early as 1430, and can only trust to 
his authorities. In speaking of these conveyances we concur in 
his statement of fact that during the troubles of the Wars of the 
Roses, when no man's life or estates were safe, conveyances in fee, 
either publicly or privately made, were very common, under which 
the vendor still continued to receive the profits to his own use, 
and this may have been the case in respect to- Birt's Morton 
during the reign of Edward IV., for the Nanfans were adherents 
of the Lancastrians. 

In the Inquisition taken at the castle of Worcester on the 
24th July, 14 Edw. IV. (1474;, after the death of John Throck- 
morton it was found that the said John held, inter alia, in his 
demesne as of fee on the day on which he died seven bullarlas 
aqiuc, salsai in Droitwych, which were worth per annum GOs., and 
held of the King in capite by homage, scutage and one penny rent. 
And the jurors say the said John died 3rd August, 12th Edw. IV. 
(1472), and that Christopher Throckmorton is his son and nearest 
heir, and was aged G years on the day on which the said John 
died. And they further say that Thomas Throckmorton was 
seized in his demesne as of fee of twenty messuages, 300 acres of 
land, 40 acres of meadow, with appurtenances in Pendok, Morton 
Britte, Berough, and Rie, in co. Worcester, and being so seized 
gave the same to the aforesaid John and Ann his wife to hold to 
them and the heirs of their bodies, by virtue of which gift the 
said John and Ann were thereof seized in demesne as of fee tail, 
and after the said John died and the said Ann herself holds the 
said messuages, &c; and the jurors say the said John held no other 
lands in this county. 2 

1 Inrollecl Rot. Glaus. 12th Henry VI. in. 20 d. 

2 Inq. p.m. 12 Edward IV. No. Hi. In the inquisition taken for Glou- 
cestershire at the same time the jurors say the said John Throckmorton held 
in that county a wood wardship in the Forest of Dean, the advowson of the 
church of Lee, and the manors of Appurley Golverton, Appurlcy Drynley, 
etc. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 191 

The result of the battle of Bosworth, if it produced no other 
good, had the effect of closing the internecine war by which the 
country had been harrassed for a century, and led to the res- 
toration, in a great measure, of social and political order. The 
family of ISTanfan now make their advent in Worcestershire, for 
although it is stated by Nash that they were established at Birt's 
Morton many years before, no very satisfactory evidence is as yet 
forthcoming. John Nanfan, the governor sometime of the Island of 
Jersey, probably acquired the estate, and on his death it devolved 
upon his son. 

It is represented in the History of Worcestershire that the 
Nanfans were a very ancient family in Cornwall, and Nash states 
that Sylvestre Nanfan, the great-great-grandfather, according to 
the pedigree printed by him of the John Nanfan above-mentioned, 
was seated at Trerice. This Silvestre must have lived about the 
middle of the 14th century, but as at that period Trerice was cer- 
tainly vested in the Arundel family, which some century or more 
before they had acquired by marriage of the sole heir of Michael 
de Trerice, we must take leave to doubt the fact. We do not 
dispute the statement that the Nanfans were an ancient familv in 
the county, but they never, in early times, ranked among the greater 
gentry. Until the 15th century they never held any of the great 
offices of the crown. The first who held the office of sheriff was John 
Nanfan in 7th Hen. VI. Of him, Halls, who wrote at the end of 
the last century, says that " according to tradition he was a 
servant to one of the Erysies, temp. Hen. V., and, in that Prince's 
Wars with the French was promoted to a captain's post in that 
expedition, Avherein he behaved himself with so much valour and 
conduct, always attended with success, that he was highly re- 
warded by that prince with much lands in England and France, 
upon which foundation, and by his thrift and good conduct, he laid 
up a very great estate in lands." 1 We need not conclude that 
John Nanfan held any menial office under Mr. Erisey. The earliest 
date at which we have observed the name of Nanfan is in the 
Assize Roll for Cornwall, 35 Edward III. This was an action on 

1 Hist, of Corn., Davis Gilbert, Vol. I. p. 1408. 



192 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

view of assize of novel disseizin to enquire if John Killigren of 
Nanfan, and others had unjustly disseized John Andrew, of Tre- 
gonwal, and Isabella his wife, and Nicholas de Tencous, of their 
free tenement in Nanfan. John Killigren answered as tenant of 
the tenement in view. And said that a certain Robert Nanfyn, 
uncle of the said Isabella and Nicholas, whose heirs they are, was 
seized in the said tenement, and by his charter granted the same to 
Alice his sister, her heirs and assigns for ever, and obliged his heirs 
to warrant the same, and that the same Alice enfeoffed the said 
John Killigren, and that the aforesaid Isabella and Nicholas 
as cousins and heirs of the said Robert, to wit, the said Isabella 
as daughter of Johanna, sister of the said Robert, and Nicholas, 
as son of Alianora, sister of the same Robert, ought to warrant 
the said tenement, with appurtenances, to the said John Killigren 
as assign of the said Alice. This tenement of Nanfan, which 
now appears to have to have been alienated, probably gave name 
to the family, but it does not seem to have been a place of any 
importance. 

Henry Nanfan was Keeper of the Fees of the Duchy of Corn- 
wall in 1374, 1 and he was probably the same whose name appears 
as Henry Nansan (misprinted for Nanfan), as one of the Com- 
missioners of Array of all Men-at-arms, hobelarios and sagi- 
tarios in the county of Cornwall in 1375 for the defence of the 
realm, 2 as also the same Henry Nanfan who held, as one of the 
trustees, certain manors belonging to the family of Brodrigan ; 3 
and in 1393 the manor of Colquite and other lands of which 
he had been with John Pollard enfeoffed in trust by Sir Richard 
Sergeaux. 4 Four years later Thomas Nanfan was one of the 
jurors upon an inquisition taken in 1391 concerning the manor 
of Lanow, and the advowson of the church of the said manor. 5 
In 1395 Henry son of John Pollard petitioned against Thomas 

1 Ministers' Accounts, Duchy of Cornwall, 4S Edw. III. 

2 Rot. Franc. 49 Edw. III. m. 8. Rymer Feod. Vol. n. p. 

3 Ped. Fin. 10 Rich. II. Michs. 

4 Inq. p. m. 17 Rich, II. No. 53. Henry Nanfan was the first person of 
any importance of the name which we have found in Cornwall. 

5 Escheats, 14th Rich. II. No. 97. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 193 

Nanfan and Johanna his wife concerning four messuages in 
Redalan, &c, which, it was pleaded, Henry Pollard, of Redalen, 
gave to John Pollard and the heirs of his body, and which, after 
the death of the said John, ought to descend to the said Henry as 
son and heir of the said John ; but Thomas Nanfan denied the 
allegation that Henry Pollard did make the said grant, and put 
himself upon the country. 1 We do not know the result. The 
same Thomas and Johanna his wife, in 1397, were parties to 
a fine for a settlement upon them and the heirs of their bodies 
the manor of Penfons and other lands in Cornwall, 2 and in default 
of such issues to the right heirs of the said Johanna. 

In the same year (1397) Thomas Nanfan and James Nanfan 
his son are mentioned. 3 

It may be as well to cite here a brief abstract of the following 
lengthy suit, because it affords much genealogical information 
concerning the earlier history of the family, and shews, also, the 
nature of the legal precedure as regards real property at that 
period. 

In the year 1407 a writ of view of recognizance Avas granted 
to enquire if William Trethaek and others had unjustly disseized 
Thomas Nanfan of his free tenements in Penhalvoer [Great Penhal] 
and Penhalvihan [Little Penhal]. The said William pleaded that 
he had not done any injury or disseizin to the said Thomas, and 
that the assize ought not to be, because, he said, a certain Ralph 
Trethaek was seized of the tenements in view in his demesne as of 
fee, and gave the same to a certain Luke Trethaek, to hold to him 
and the heirs of his body, and the said Luke was seized in fee tail 
and took to wife a certain Lucy and had issue a certain John, and 
died, after whose death John entered as son and heir, and assigned 
to the said Lucy dower out of the said lands ; and the said Lucy 
demised the said tenements to a certain Henry Nanfan, father of 

1 De Banco Roll, 19th Rich. II. Michs. 

2 Ped. Fin. 20th Rich. II. Easter. Penfons, or Penfonnd, was a large and 
important manor in the parish of Poundstock, which gave name to an ancient 
family of gentry of which Johanna was probably the representative. It waa 
held of the Earldom of Cornwall. 

3 Assize Rolls, Corn., 20th Rich. II. m 200 d. 

Vol.X. part 1. o 



194 Transactions at Tkwkesbuky. 

the aforesaid Thomas, whose heir he is, for the life of the said 
Henry, and afterwards the said Lucy died, after whose death the 
said John Trethaek, by his charter dated on Tuesday next after 
the feast of St. Margaret, 27th Edw. III. (1353), granted to the 
aforesaid William Trethaek, his brother, the reversion of the said 
tenements, to hold to him and the heirs of his body ; and after- 
wards the said Henry died, and the said Thomas Nanfan, supposing 
the said Henry to have died seized of the said tenements in his 
demesne, entered into the same as son and heir of the said Henry : 
and he prayed judgement if the assize ought to be. 

The said Thomas Nanfan admitted all the early part of the 
pleadings as far as the marriage of Luke Trethaek and Lucy, and 
he alleged that, in addition to a son John, they had issue a 
daughter Johanna. He also admitted that John Trethaek assigned 
dower out of the said tenements to his mother Lucy, and that the 
said Lucy demised the same to the aforesaid Henry Nanfan and 
the aforesaid Johanna at that time his wife, to hold for the term 
of their lives, and afterwards the said Lucy died, after whose 
death the aforesaid John Trethaek, by his charter, dated on 
Monday next after the feast of St. Michael, 29th Edward III. 
(1355) granted for himself and his heirs to the said Henry and 
Johanna and the heirs of their bodies the said tenements to hold 
of the said John and his heirs at the annual rent of 2s. 4d. for 
all services, save suit at the court of the said John and suit at 
Mill ; and in default of heirs of the said Henry and Johanna 
remainder to the said John and his heirs in demesne as of fee tail ; 
afterwards the said Henry and Johanna died seized, after whose 
death the said Thomas entered and was seized in his demesne as 
of a free tenement, and was thereof so seized until he was unjustly 
disseized by the defendants, and this he was prepared to verify. 
The case was postponed, and we know not what was the issue. 1 

In 1416 John Nanfan and Robert Vyhan petitioned against 
Benedict Molure, of Penryn, of two parts of three parts of two 

1 AseizeRoll, Corn., 8th Henry IV. 1407. 2 U, m. 95, 

37 J 
Other pleadings in the same Roll show that Lucy the wife of Luke was 

the daughter of one William Bray. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 195 

acres of land in Treclyn, the third part David Lanyon gave to 
Michael Pennek and Sarah his wife and the heirs of their bodies, 
and which after the deaths of the said Michael and Sarah and 
Gregory their son and heir, and Geta, Sibella and Johanna, the 
three daughters and heirs of the said Gregory, to the aforesaid 
John Nanfan son of the said Geta, and Robert Vyhan son of the 
said Sibella, cousins and heirs of the aforesaid Gregory, and a 
certain Benedict son of John Molure, son and heir of the said 
Johanna, ought to descend. 1 Here we have a John Nanfan son 
and heir of Geta, eldest daughter and coheir of Gregory Pennek, 
son and heir of Michael Pennek, by Sarah daughter and heir of 
David Lanyon. It does not, however, appear who was John 
Nanfan's father. In 1108 Thomas Nanfan is mentioned as son 
and heir of Henry, and James is named as the son of Thomas and 
Johanna. :! Was this James the husband of Geta and father of 
John Nanfan. In 1417-8, James Nanfan and Margaret his wife, 
had license to celebrate divine offices in their houses of Nan van 
and Bony than, in the parish of St. Breace, in co. Cornwall. 3 This 
would seem to be James the son of Thomas, was he twice married? 

We have here narrated all we know of the Nanfans of Corn- 
wall before the reign of Henry VI. Who then was John Nanfan 
to whom we have referred 1 Was he the son of James as above 
suggested, and identical with the John Nanfan who so greatly 
distinguished himself in the French wars of King Henry V., and 
with the John Nanfan who is mentioned by Nash as being the first 
of the name who acquired the manor of Birt's Morton 1 It appears 
to us to be the most probable ; but in that case we must discard 
the first three descents of the pedigree printed in the History of 
Worcestershire, and we know of no evidence to support them. 
John Nanfan, of Cornwall, was sheriff of that county in 1128, 
and again in 1410. In 1431 he purchased the manor of Trethewell 
and other lands, together with the advowson of the church of St. 
Tudy, all in the same county, of David Halep and Margaret his 

1 De Banco Boll, 4th Henry IV. Trinity m. 361. 

2 Assize Boll, Corn., 9 Hen. IV. m. 94. 

s Bishop Stafford's Register, Exeter. 237b, 

o 'I 



190 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

wife, which Margaret was the daughter and sole heir of John 
Billon, of Trethewell, whose ancestors had held that manor during 
several descents; and John Nanfan, described as of "Trethewell," 
presented to the church of St. Tudy in 1444. Upon the death of 
Sir William Bodrugan in 1440, John Nanfan, in conjunction with 
Henry Earl of Warwick and others, Avas granted the custody of 
the lands of the said William during the minority of Henry his 
son and heir, then aged 15 years. 1 In 1450 a grant was made to 
him of the manor and town of Helston. 2 

Nash describes the first John Nanfan as an Esquire for the 
Body of King Henry VI., and cites a deed belonging "to the 
family which is dated at Rouen in Normandy, written in old 
French, purporting, that whereas the King had by his Letters 
Patent, dated July 12th, 1437, given to John Nanfan, Esquire 
to the Body and captain of Conque, sixteen hundred salutes d'or 3 
rent, revenue, and heritage, by the year, to be received upon the 
baronies or other seignorles in the dutchy of Normandy, in recom- 
pence for the sum of 24,000 salutes d'or wherein the said lord the 
King was indebted to the said Nanfan ; now this deed witnesseth 
an assignment of certain lands in that dutchy unto him in lieu 
thereof." 4 He died intestate in 1463, and administration of his 
effects 5 was granted to Thomas Aworthington and Simon West, 
of Morton Byrt. 

John Nanfan, described in the History of Cornwall as son of 
the above, was sheriff of Cornwall in 1451, and again in 1457, 
and of Wilts in 1452. He it was who in this year was appointed 
Keeper and Governor of the Islands of Jersey and Guernsey, with 
the appurtenances, and of the castles, &c, within the same 
retained in the King's service, 6 and an indenture was made 
between the King and the same John to have continually in the 

1 Rot. Fin. 21st Hen. VI, No. 250. 

2 Ibid. 29th Hen. VII. (VI.) in. 19 (29). 

3 Salus, or salute d'or, was a coin struck by our Henry Y. after his 
conquests there, whereon were stamped the arms of France and England. 

4 Hist, of Worcestershire, Vol. I. p. 85. 

5 Lambeth Palace Library (29 Bourchier, 49 b.) 
Hot. Pat. 30th Hen. VI. p. 2. m. 25. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 197 

said islands, for their security and safe custody, 130 archers well 
and sufficiently arrayed, for and during the term of half a year, to 
begin on the day of the musters of the said archers by the said 
John : viz., the 9th Aug. 30th of the said King, and on the 18th 
July an issue was made to the said John of £295 15s. for the 
first quarter of the said half year ; x and four years later he was 
made Collector and Receiver of all Customs in those islands. 2 

This John is said to have been a benefactor to the abbey of St. 
Michael's Mount, Cornwall, 3 but there is nothing in the charters 
printed by Dr. Oliver to support this statement. As Sheriff of the 
county, however, on Tuesday next before the feast of St. Matthew 
the Apostle and Evangelist, 19th Hen. VI., he held an Inquisition 
concerning the occupation by the Abbess of Sion of the possessions 
of the priory of St. Michael, of which she had taken the profits 
from the 9th July, 15th of the King, and he seized the same into 
the King's hand. 4 He is also stated to have been a benefactor to 
to the hospital of St. Bartholomew, London, and to the abbey of 
Tewkesbury by the foundation there of a chantry of 40 marks 
annually for the celebration of two masses for ever, ordeinng his 
body to be buried in the abbey and appointing the abbot with 
others his executors, and Cecily Duchess of Warwick overseer of 
his will. 5 

We do not know the date of the death of this John, but it 
must have been in or before the year 1486, for in that year David 
Phelip and Matthew Baker, Esquires for the King's Body, were 
granted in survivorship the office of Governor of Jersey and 
Guernsey with the same fees, etc., as John Nanfan, Esq., deceased, 
late governor there enjoyed. 6 

1 Devon's Issues of the Exchequer, Hen. III. to Hen. VI. p. 473. 

2 Rot. Pat. 34th Hen. VI. m. 35. 3 Hist, of Wore. Vol. I p. 85. 

4 No reason is shewn why the sheriff took this course, and doubtless the 
King soon amoved his hands. King Henry VI., in his second year, made 
large grants to the monastery of Syon, inter alia, the priory of Mount St. 
Michael, and it continued in the possession of that house down to the dis- 
solution when it was valued at £26 13s. 4d. a year. — Aun<jier , s History of 
the Monastery of Syon. 

5 Hist, of Wore. Vol. I. p. 85. 

6 Rot. Pat. 1st Hen. VII. p. 3. m. 21. 



198 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

We should here mention that in 1855 a document from the 
collection of Mr. W. Maskell, then of Bude castle, Cornwall, was 
exhibited at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute, being a 
certificate of one Sir Humphrey Nanfan, " that being a captive 
with the Turks, money had been paid towards his redemption, and 
for the purchase of the benefits of a Papal Indulgence." It is 
dated in 1478, and the seal thereto bears an escutcheon on which 
is a chevron ensigned with a cross (?) between three human heads, 
looking towards the sinister, in hoods of mail or helmets. On the 
Wend the name Nanfan remains. 1 

O 

John Nanfan was succeeded by his son Richard, who, though 
his father would appear to have held the office of Governor of 
Jersey and Guernsey during the reign of Edw. IV., and perhaps 
Richard III., would seem to have been a staunch partizan of the 
Earl of Richmond, and when that prince assumed the crown was 
held by the new monarch in such favour and esteem that in the first 
year of the King's reign he began to partake largely of the royal 
bounty. He was made an Esquire for the King's Body, and by a 
privy seal dated 18th September, 1485 (No. 51) received a grant for 
life of the office of Steward of the Manor and Town of Tewkesbury 
and Keeper of the Park and Lodge, with the pannage and herbage 
etc., of the Park; also of Steward of the Manor and Lordship of 
Elmesley, co. Worcester, and the Park, Lodge, and Warren there, 
with pannage, herbage, ifcc. ; also of Master or Keeper of the Chase of 
Cioslawude in the same county, with the pannage, herbage, «fec, to 
the said Chase pertaining, and of sheriff of Worcestershire, with 
wages of£20 sterling a year for the office of Steward of Tewkesbury, 
and all wages, fees, &c, pertaining to the other offices described ; 
and these grants were confirmed by letters patent. 2 

Further in the same year he, jointly with Richard Rugge, Esq., 
and Thomas Hillis, gent., received a grant of the custody of the 
Manors or Lordships of Cokeham and Bray, in co. Berks, and of 
everything pertaining to the same, and of the lands, rents, 
pastures, and purprestures in the parish of Bray, in the forest of 
Windsor, and of all assarts, purprestures, &c, &c, as well in the 

1 Archa?ol. Journal, Vol. xn. p. 292. 

2 Rot. Pat. 1 Henry VII. p. 4. m. 2. 



Manor and Advowson of Bibt's Morton, &c 199 

forest of Windsor as in. the manor or lordship of aforesaid, for 
seven years, at the rent of £133 7s. 6d., and a yearly improved 
rent of 6s. 8d. per annum. 1 

Also by privy seal, dated 21st February, 1485-6, afterwards 
confirmed by letters patent, a further grant was made to him 
jointly with John Tresawell and Thomas Hillis, of the custody of 
the Manors and Lordships of Triderley and Sokerley, in the county 
of South Hants, for twelve years, at the yearly rent of £21 6s. 8d., 
all repairs to be kept up ; and it was provided that if any 
annuities had been, or should be, granted by the crown to any 
persons out of the said manors, allowance should be made in the 
rent to be paid by the grantees. 2 

Henry VII. having wrested from the unfortunate Ann 
Countess of Warwick, the sole heir of the Beauchamps, Earls of 
Warwick, and relict of the King Maker, all her extensive possess- 
ions, on the 25th May, 1488, he granted to Richard Nanfan, 
Esquire for the King's Body, the manors of Bliston, Carnanton, 
and Helstontony, with appurtenances in the county of Cornwall, 
to hold to him the said Richard and the heirs male of his body 
lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue to revert to the 
King and his heirs. 3 

In the saine year, under the description of " Mr. Richard 
Nanfan, Knight for the Body of the King," from which it would 
appear that he held this office before he had been advanced to the 
dignity of knighthood, but this could scarcely have been the case, 
he was, in conjunction with Mr. Thomas Savage, Doctor of Laws 
and Chancellor of the Marches (the latter being the Chief Com- 
missioner) and attended by Roger Macado, Richmond Herald, 
and by "John Nanfan, bastard son of the said Richard, on 
an embassy to Spain and Portugal." The object of the mission to 
Spain was to treat with the Commissioners of the King of Castile, 
Leon, Arragon and Sicily, and his Queen Consort, for a perpetual 
league of peace and friendship, and for a marriage between Henry 
the VII. 's son, Arthur, Prince of Wales, and Katherine, one of 

1 Rot. Origin. 1 Henry VII. m. 25. 

2 Rot. Claus. 1 Henry VII. p. 2. m. 8. (19). 

3 Privy Seal, 1 June, 1488. Rot. Pat. 3 Henry VII. p. 2. in. 7. (15). 



200 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

the daughters of the said King of Castile, &c And the mission 
to Portugal was to treat with the King for a firm and lasting 
treaty of peace and friendship : and the same day (21st December) 
Sir Richard Nanfan received • the acolade from the King's hands 
between Westminster and Syon. 

In 1492 Sir Richard Nanfan was one of the knights in atten- 
dance upon the King on his interview with the Lord Querdes, 
Commissioner on behalf of the King of France, upon a treaty of 
peace. He was not long afterwards appointed Treasurer of Calais, 
and eventually he became Deputy there. 

These offices and appointments held by Sir Richard Nanfan, 
have fallen under our notice. Doubtless he occupied others 
which we have not observed, and which, probably a more extended 
and careful search would disclose. 

Sir Richard Nanfan died in 1506, and in the inquisition taken 
thereupon at Truro, on the 29th of January, 23 Henry VII. 
(1506-7) it is recited that the King by his letters patent, dated 
1st June, in the third year of his reign, had granted to Richard 
Nanfan, then esquire, in consideration of his good and faithful 
services, the manors of Bliston, Carnanton, and Helstontony, 
under the limitations before described, by the service of one 
Knight's fee, by virtue of which grant the said Richard was 
seized in fee tail, and so being seized died seized without heirs of 
his body, reversion to the King. It is also recited that by an 
Act of Parliament passed on the 9th Nov. the third of the King, 
John Beaumont, Esq., was attainted of high treason, and all 
his castles, lands, and manors had been forfeited from 15th 
November, second of the King, to hold to the King and his heirs for 
ever, and that by virtue of this act and the King's grant the said 
Sir Richard Nanfan was seized of the manor of Tregonan, in the 
county of Cornwall, in his demesne, in fee tail to him and the 
the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, and being so seized 
died seized without heirs, after whose death the said manor 
remained to Heniy Beaumont, son and heir of the aforesaid John, 
which Henry at the time of the death of the said Richard Nanfan 
was of full age : viz., 26 years and more. And the jurors further 



Manor asd Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 201 

say that the aforesaid Richard Nanfan was seized in his demesne 
as of fee of the manors of Trethewyll, Tregeryan, Trelegh, and Tre- 
gartha, &c, <kc, and the advowson of the church of St. Tudy, 
and so being seized enfeoffed the Bishop of Exeter, Thomas 
Lovell, Knt., Robert Frost, clerk, Richard Vyvyan, and others to 
have and to hold to them and their heirs in fee to the use of the 
said Richard Nanfan and his heirs, and to the uses appointed 
in his will, by virtue of which feoffment the said bishop and 
others were seized in their demesne as of fee to the uses prescribed, 
and afterwards, at the special requisition of the said Richard, and 
with his assent and consent, certain Thomas Bradbury, James 
Erysey and Robert Tredenek recovered the manors of Trethewyll, 
Tregeryan, Trelegh, and Tregartha of the said bishop and others, 
to be held to the use of the said Richard Nanfan, his heirs and 
assigns, and to the uses appointed in the will of the said Richard, 
by virtue of which recovery the said Thomas, Robert, and James, 
entered and thereof were seized in their demesne as of fee to the 
uses aforesaid ; and afterwards the said Richard made his will, 
dated 10th November, 1506, and proved 16th April, 1507, by 
the said James Erysey, by which the said Richard bequeathed to 
the said James, to have and to hold to him and his heirs for ever, 
all the aforesaid manors, etc., which the said Thomas, Robert, and 
the same James, held by virtue of the aforesaid recovery, &c, &c. 
And the jurors say the said Richard died 1st March, 22nd of the 
now King, and that John Bollys is kinsman and nearest heir of 
the said Richard, and is aged 26 years and more. 2 

Abstract of the Will of Sir Richard Nanfan, Knt. 

The will of Sir Richard Nanfan, Knt., dated 5th Nov., 1506. To be 
"buried in the place on the north side of the south yle of the Church of St. 
Bartholomew, Spitell, West Smythfield, in London, where I used to sit in 
my peu there." "My Executors to purvey a convenient tomb to be set 
over my body with a scripture to be graven on laten of all such offices as I 
have held and occupied in this world, to be fixed unto the same tomb." 
Gives £20 for the wele of his soul, and at his mouth's mind other £20 if the 
£40 may be borne by his goods. An honest priest to say mass daily for his 
soul and for the souls of all his friends and all Christian souls at the altar 
of our lady in the said church for two years after his decease. " I will that 
Master Wulcy shall have the custody of Thomas Prior, and that the same 

1 Pc Banco Roll, 20th lien. VII. 488. 2 Inq. p.m. 23rd Hen. VII. No. 8. 



202 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

Mr. Wlucy to have iiij 1 ' for his Keping, and if he will not have the Keeping 
of the said Thomas than I pray the same Mr. Wulcy to get a good Master 
to the said Thomas and then he that shall have the Keeping of hym shall 
have the said iiij u ." Gives to Dame Margaret, his wife, as much plate of 
silver and silver gilt as shall amount to the value of £120 in money. Gives 
to his said wife all the bedding, napery, pewter, &c., of his house. Every yeo- 
man of his house to have the horse he was used to ride upon. "I bequeth to the 
said Mr. Wulcy myn owne hors that I was wont to ride uppon." Gives to the 
Master of the hospital t of St. Bartholomew 40s. to be loving to testator's 
wife, and helping to the execution of his will. Gives to Richard Staverton 
£6 13s. 4d., " to John Nanfan my grete Rede hors that came from Calais." 
His executors to pay to Newburgh, besides York, 40s. Gives a ship of 
pure silver and 6s. Sd. to be offered to St. George in Southwark, and 
another ship of silver of like pure to Seynt George of Cornwall. His offer- 
ing to be borne to our lady of Walsingham, to our lady of Worcester, and to 
St. Thomas of Canterbury ; " 40s. to be restored to Mr. Wulcy after such 
some as he knoweth off." The residue of his goods, &c, after his just debts 
and funeral expenses paid, and legacies performed, given to executors to be 
disposed of to such charitable deeds for the wele of his soul as they shall 
think best. " I will that James Erysy shall have to him and his heirs and 
assigns for ever, all my lands, advowsons, &c, &c, in Cornwall, to the 
intent that he shall pay all such of my debts as the said James shall at any 
time have knowledge, and all the legacies in my will, my feoffees to make 
sufficient estate in the same. I will that all such persons as be enfeoffed in 
all my manors, lands, &c, in the county of Worcester, shall, by sufficient 
writing, grant the same unto William Howell and his assigns for the life of 
the said William as security for the payment to him of an annual rent of 
40s. out of the same "; and he wills that the said persons, after his decease, 
shall, by writing sufficient in law, give to Elizabeth Welles and her assigns, 
for the term of her life, an annual rent of £10, conditionally that the said 
Elizabeth be of good lyving, guyding, and governance. " After the said 
annual rents of 40s., and £10 be granted by my feoffees, the said feoffees, by 
their deed indented, to grant all the said manors and lands, &c, in the said 
county of Worcester, to John Nanfan, my bastard son, and to my heirs for 
the term of 40 years, remainder after the expiration of that term to him and 
the heirs males of his body lawfully begotten, in default to the right heirs 
of me for ever ; the grant of the said manors and lands to the said John 
Nanfan, for the said term of 30 years, being to the intent that the said John 
shall do to be paid to the executors, testators, debts and legacies in my will 
of £40 sterling, within three months of my decease." Appoints Master 
Thomas Wulcy, clerk, 1 and the said James Erysy, gent., executors, and re- 
voking all other wills, declares this to be his last will and testament. - 

Dame Margaret Nanfan died in 1510. By her will she desires to be 
buried in the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, within the hospital 
of Seynt Bartholomew, in West Smythfield, with her foresaid husband. 
Gives to James Arysy her great bed in the great chamber as it standeth, 
and two coffers, residue to Thomas Crewker, Master of the hospital, and the 
brethren and sustren of the same, which Thomas she appoints executor, " to 

1 This was afterwards the great Cardinal Wolsey. 2 Probate P.C.C. 16th April, 1507. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 203 

the intent, inter alia, that the said Master brethren and sustren shall specially 
pray for the souls of Richard Nanfan, Knt. , and Margaret, his wife, brother 
and suster of the chapter of the said hospital, and for the souls of Thomas 
Clemens, and for all Christian souls." The name of John Nanfan is not 
mentioned in the will. 1 

John Nanfan, who, under the will of Sir Richard just ab- 
stracted, succeeded to the Worcestershire estates, is stated by 
Nash to have distinguished himself in the Wars, but we have no 
information concerning him beyond what we have already stated. 
He married Maud, daughter of Sir Richard Cornwalle, of Bering- 
ton, co. Hereford, by whom he had issue : Thomas, his eldest son, 
who died s.p., William, second son, who succeeded to Birts- 
morton, &c, and John, of Barnesley, co. Gloucester. (See Ped. 
Table II.) 

William, of Birtsmorton, died in Lincolnshire in 1572, and it 
was found by the inquisition taken at Lincoln on 19th March, 
15th Elizabeth (1572-3), that on the day in which he died he was 
seized in his demesne as of fee-tail of the manors of Thornoke and 
Laughton, with appurtenances in co. Lincoln, to hold to the said 
William Nanfan. late of Brutes Morton, in co. Worcester, Esq., and 
the heix-s male of his body, and in default of such issue, remainder 
to the Queen and her heirs for ever. And the juroi's say that the 
said William died on the 1st November, 14th Elizabeth, and that 
Giles, the son of the said William, is his nearest heir, and was 
aged 21 years and more at the time of his father's death. 2 We 
do not find any Inquisition for Worcestershire. 

William Nanfan married Maud, dau. of Richard Monington, 
of Sarnesfield, co. Hereford, and had issue, for which see annexed 
pedigree. John Nanfan, the eldest son, married Alice, one of the 
six daughters and coheirs of Thomas Whittington, of Pauntley, 
co. Gloucester. He died in 1569, s.p., and the Worcestershire 
estates devolved upon his brother Giles. His wife survived him, 
and died 1st May, 1578, and by the inquisition taken thereupon 
at Helestonborough, co. Cornwall, on the 10th August in that 
year, it was found that she died seized of the sixth pai't of the 
manors of Manely, Coleshill, St. Eve, (Ive)and of divers other lands, 

1 Proved at Lambeth, 8th April, 1510 (27 Bennett). 

2 Inq. p. m. 15th Klizab. No. 96. 



•204 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

manors, and advowsons in that county in various proportions; 
and the jurors say that the nearest heirs of the said Alice are : 
Blanch St. Aubyn, wife of John St. Aubyn, Esq., sister of the 
said Alice ; Thomas Throgmorton, son and heir of Lady Margaret 
Throgmorton, sister of the said Alice ; Elizabeth Berkeley, dau. 
and heir of Ann Berkeley, sister of the said Alice ; Henry Poole, 
son and heir of Elizabeth Poole, sister of the said Alice ; and 
Thomas Bodenham, son and heir of Joan Bodenham, another 
sister and heir of the said Alice : and they say further that at the 
time of the death of the said Alice they w r ere all of the full age 
of 21 years and more. 1 

Thomas Whittington died seized of divers lands and manors in 
the co. of Gloucester, which doubtless descended to his coheirs, 
but the Inq. p.m. of Alice Nanfan for that county is unf or- 
nately lost. 

We annex a pedigree shewing the descent of Alice Nanfan and 
her heirs. {Table IV.) 

Upon the death of Giles Nanfan an inquisition was taken 
at Evesham on the 18th December, 13th James (1615). The 
jurors say that the said Giles long before his death was seized 
in his demesne as of fee in the manors of Brutes Moreton, alias 
Birch Morton, Pendock, and Berewe, with appurtenances ; and of 
the advowsons of the churches of Brutes Morton and Pendock, 
and of divers other lands and tenements in the co. of Worcester, 
and so being thereof seized : viz., on the morrow of All Souls, 
24th Elizabeth, levied a fine to Thomas Southwell and others 
of the said manors and lands, to hold to the use of the said Giles 
and Elizabeth then his wife, as jointure, and the heirs males 
of their two bodies, and in default of such issue to the use of 
the heirs males of the body of the said Giles, in default remainder 
to Richard Nanfan, brother of the said Giles and the heirs males 
of his body, in default remainder to the right heirs of the said 
Giles for ever. By which fine and a charter thereupon, dated 2nd 
October, 24th Elizabeth (1582), the said Giles and Elizabeth were 
seized of the said manors, &c, to the uses set out in the fine, and 
afterwards being so seized : viz., in 28th Elizabeth, in consider- 
ation of a marriage between William, son and heir of the said 

1 Inq. p.m. 20th Elizabeth, Part 1, No. 14. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 205 

Giles, and Jane, one of the daughters of Erasmus Smyth, Esq., 
and in consideration of a certain sum of money to be paid by the 
said Erasmus, the said manors, with appurtenances, were con- 
veyed to certain trustees to hold to the use of the said William, 
and Jane, his wife, and the heirs males of their bodies, and in 
default of such issue to the heirs males of the body of the said 
Giles for ever. And the lands in Berew, and other lands men- 
tioned, to the use of the said Giles for life ; and if the said 
William survived him, then after the death of the said Giles to the 
use of the said William for life, and after his death to the use of 
the said Jane for life for residue of jointure, and after the death 
of the said Giles and Jane then to the use of the said William and 
the heirs males of his body begotten of the said Jane, and in 
default to the use of the heirs of the body of the said Giles, 
by virtue of which charter the said Giles, William, and Jane 
were seized of the said premises with appurtenances. And fur- 
ther, the jurors say that the aforesaid William Nanfan, of the 
manors of Brutes Morton, alias Birch Morton, Barew, and 
Pendock, being seized, afterwards : viz., in 6th James (1608), 
levied a fine between Robert Smith, querist, and the said William, 
deforciant, by which the said William granted the said manors to 
the said Roger for the life of the said Jane, and for this fine 
the said Roger granted the said manors to the said William ; and 
the jurors say that he being so seized at Barrow, died seized 
on 3rd of December, 10th James, and that Jane, his wife, is still 
living at Berrew. And they further say that the said Giles 
Nanfan being of the said manors seized in the same state died 
seized at Brutes Morton, on 25th September, 12th James, and that 
Elizabeth, his wife, is still living at Brutes Morton ; and they say 
that John Nanfan, gent., is kinsman and nearest heir of the 
aforesaid Giles : viz., son of William, son and heir of the said 
Giles, and was aged 13 years 2 months and 24 days at the time of 
taking this inquisition. And they further say that the manor of 
Brutes Morton, with the advowson of the church, and Castle 
Morton, are held of the King by the fourth part of one knight's 
fee, and the manor and advowson of Pendock are held of 
(illegible). ! 

1 Iaq. p ni. 6th Charles, i>. 3, No. 72. 



206 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

This gives us the descent of the direct line of the family of 
Nanfan, with the devolution of the manor of Birts, or Brutes, 
Morton, down to the year 1630. For the further descent it will 
suffice to refer the reader to the tabular pedigree annexed, from 
which it will appear that, Giles or Bridges Nanfan, so called 
in the pedigree recorded in the Herald's Visitation of Worcester- 
shire in 1634, the grandson of the last mentioned William, was 
then aged 1 1 years. He married Catherine, daughter and coheir 
of Sir George Hastings, brother of Henry Earl of Huntington, 
by whom he left an only surviving child named Catherine. This 
remarkable lady began her wedded life at a very early age, and 
continued it very late. She was born on the 9th and baptized on 
the 13th February, 1665, and married first, at the age of 11 years, 
Richard Coote, Lord Coote, of Coolony, in 1676, and her son and 
heir, Nanfan Coote, was born in 1677, when his mother was only 
12 yrs. old. She married her fourth husband in 1737, a few months 
before her death at the age of 72. She was succeeded in the Birt's 
Morton estates by her second and eldest surviving son, Richard, 
third Earl of Bellomont, who died in 1766, when the Earldom 
became extinct, leaving an only surviving daughter and heir, Lady 
Judith, who, in her life time, sold the manor and advowson of 
Pendock, and on her death demised the manors of Birt's Morton 
and Berew to her distant cousin, Charles Coote, who had succeeded 
her father in the title of Lord Coote, of Coolony, to the exclusion of 
he issue of her first cousin, Lady Francis Clifford (see Pedigree 
Table 1, p. 221), the representatives of the Nanfan family from 
whom the lands were derived. Lord Coolony sold the Birt's Morton 
lands to John Thackwell, of Rye Court, co. Worcester, whose 
grandson, John Cam Thackwell, Esq., now enjoys them. The 
manors have long since been dismembered. 

We are indebted for some of the above particulars to a very 
valuable and interesting collection of papers called the " Bello- 
mont Collection," in the possession of Sir Edmund Lechmere, Bart. 
It was sold in London and afterwards presented to Sir Edmund 
by Lord Beauchamp. The papers have been calendared by 
the Rev. T. W. Wood, Rector of Eldersfield. We are indebted 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 



207 



to the kind courtesy of Sir Edmund for an inspection of these 
Calendars, from which we have gleaned some of the facts men- 
tioned above. It is very desirable that a selection from this 
correspondence should be published. 



List of Institutions to the Rectory of Birt's Morton. 

Dates. Incumbents. Patrons. 

1300. 15Cal. ofApl. William deSchyrburne 1 Richard de Ruyhall, 



1305. 5 id. of Apl. 

1325. 7 Cal. Nov. 
1361. Jan. 3rd 

1399. Dec. 26th 

1401. Oct. 31st 
1420. June 1st 



1346. 
1482. 



Oct. 11th 
Jan. 7 th 



1501. Aug. 7th 

1502. Sept. 15th 

1510. July 15th 

1539. Jan. 26th 
1571. June 30th 
1583. May 6th 



Priest 

Wulstan de Scheldes- 

ley 2 
William de Burstall 3 
Geoffry Herberd, 4 

Priest 
William Palmer, 5 

Chaplain 
JohirHoo, Vicar 

Thomas Webbester, 7 
Chaplain 



John More, s Priest 

Thomas Leybourn, 9 
Chaplain 

John Hopwood 10 
Peter Calstris, 1 Chap- 
lain 



Lord of Morton 
Brut. 

The same 

The same 
The same 

John de Merbury 



John de Brugge and 
William Poleyn, 
litteratus feoffati, 
Ricardi Oldcastle 
and his wife 
Sibilla Delabere 
William Houghton 



Nobilis vir Ricardus 
Nanfan, Mil. 



Thomas Pechye, 12 Chap- John Nanfan, Esq. 

lain 
James Suffylde, 13 Priest John Nanfan, Esq, 

John Jones 14 Wm. Nanfan, Esq. 

Thomas Rychardson, 15 Ptichard Nanfan, of 



Clerk 



1 Bp. Gifford's Reg. fo. 461 a and 

463* 
4 Red. Sed. vac. fo. 112* 
7 Bp. Morgan's Reg. vol. II. fo.ll b 
9 Bp. Alcock's Reg. fo. lll b 
11 Ibid. fo. 21* 

13 Ibid. fo. 64 b 

14 Bp. Bullingham's Reg. 32, fo. 3. 

15 Bp. Whitgift's Reg. fo. 23 a 



Tewkesbury 

- Bp. Gainsborough's Reg. fo. 28 b 
3 Bp. Cobb's Reg. fo. 107 b , 114 
5 Bp. Tidenian de Winchester's 

Reg. fo. 46 a 
■ Bp. Clifford's Reg. fo. 80 b 
8 Bp. Boiu-chier's Reg. fo. 25 b 

10 Bp. S. Gygle'sReg. fo. 16 a 

13 Bp. Bell's Reg. fo. 5* 



20S 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



Dates. 
1585. Nov. 18th 



Incumbents. 
William Clerki Clerk 



1625. July 29th Edward Cowper, A. M. 2 



1661. 

1703. Dec. 22nd 

1742. Nov. 18th 

1771. June 19th 

1778. Jan. 16th 

1779. June 16th 
1791. Oct. 31st 



Henry Walwyne, 3 
Clerk 

Giles Nanfan, 4 Clerk, 
M.A. 

Meder Edwards, M. A. 
void by the death 
of Giles Nanfan 

Charles Stewart Ec- 
cles, Clerk, void 
by the death of 
Meder Edwards 



Patrons. 

Richard Nanfan, of 
Tewkesbury. 

John Cowper, of the 
City of Worcester, 
Clothier, by the 
grant of Giles Nan- 
fan, of Castle Mor- 
ton 

John Nanfan de 
Brutes Morton, Esq. 

Bridges Nanfan, Esq. 

Richard, Earl of Bel- 
lomont 

Charles, Earl of Bel- 
lomont 



Collin Young, B.A., Charles, Earl of Bel- 
void by the death lomont 
of Charles Stewart 
Eccles 



Hon. Edw. Monck- 
ton, of Somerford 

Hall, co. Stafford. 

The same patron 



William Smith, Clerk, 
void by the resig- 
nation of Colin 
Younge 

William Smith was 
again admitted the 
benefice being void 
by the Cession of 
the same William 
Smith 

1797. March 31st Wm. Walker, Clerk, John Thackwell, of 

void by the death of the Berrow, co. 
of William Smith Worcester, Esq. 

1 Bp. Treak's Reg. fo. 31 a 2 Bp. Thornbury's Reg. fo. 115 b 

3 Bp. Morby's Reg. fo. 8 

4 Bp. Lloyd's Reg. fo. 83. ; Matric. Brasenose Coll., Oxford, 16th May, 
1696 ; aged 17, son of Giles Nanfan, of Eastworth, co. Hereford ; B.A. 3rd 
Feb., 1699-1700; ordained Priest, 23rd May, 1703 died; 10th Nov. 1742, 
intestate ; adm°. to Mary Nanfan, his relict, 26th Aug. 176i. 



Manor and Advowsox of Birt's Mortox, &c. 200 

Dates. Incumbents. Patrons. 

1800. Aug. 9th Stephen Thackwell. JohnThackwell,Esq. 

B.A., void by the 

resignation of Wm, 
Walker 

1857. Sept. 23rd Wm. Henry Thack- Edwin Clarke.of Ash- 

well, B.A. leworth, co. Glouc, 

gent., and James 
Collins, of Putley, 
co. Hereford, Esq. 

1858. April 16 Robert Pilson, Clerk, Edwin Clarke and 

void by the resigna- James Collins 

tion of Wm. Henry 

Thackwell 



In the preceding pages we have treated more especially of the 
Manor of Birt's Morton, otherwise called Rrutis or Brugge's 
Morton. Associated, however, with that manor were other manors, 
or reputed manors, and lands, sometime in the tenure of the 
Nanfan family, which require some notice. Chiefly among these is 

The Manor op Pendock and the Advowson op its Church. 

It is stated in an old document 1 with which we have been 
favoured by Sir Edmund Lechmere, Bart., that King Edgar in 
the year 964, in his charter to the church of Worcester, included 
Pendoc as belonging to that church, but it was afterwards violently 
seized, with other lands, by Rawulfus the Sheriff, with the assis- 
tance of William Earl of Hereford, and never again restored. So 
it was stated by Hemming, a monk of Worcester, who wrote 
somewhat after the conquest. 

At the time of the Domesday Survey Pendoc was held by 
Urso DAbetot. Afterwards Geoffry DAbetot, as heir of William 
Broun, held half a knight's fee there by Military Service of Sir 
William de Belio Canipo, and rendered suit at the court of the 
Hundred of Oswaldeslowe with all his men. Robert de Pendoc 
held also two hides and half of land in Pendoc, which was equal 

1 This manuscript, apparently written in the early part of the 17th 
century, has been used hy Nash as a portion of the Habington Collection, 
but we have not ascertained if it is wanting from that Collection. 
Vol. X., part 1. p 



210 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

to half a knight's fee, of the Bishop of Worcester, so that, to- 
gether, they held one whole fee of five hides, or forty yards land. 

In the certificates of Knight's fees rendered into the Exchequer 
13th and 14th Henry II. (1166-7), preparatory to the aid levied 
for the marriage of the King's eldest dau. Maud, to Hen. V. Duke 
of Saxony, William de Bello Campo certifies among his Knights 
that William D'Abitot held of him half a fee. We do not find the 
name of Pendoc in these returns, but the Bishop of Worcester 
certified that William de Bello Campo held of him 15| Knight's 
fees, 1 and Guy de Bello Campo was, on his death in 1314-5, 
seized of these fees, 2 and probably the other half fee in Pendoc 
was included in these. Nash states that Sir Henry de Pendoc 
is named in a deed of Godfrey Bishop of Worcester in 33rd 
Henry III. (1248 9). In the Book of Aids, 20th Edward III. 
for making Edward the Black Prince a Knight, John Sapy is 
returned as holding the two hides and a half in Pendoc which 
Geoffry D'Abitot formerly held. " Formerly " here refers to the 
aid levied in 18th Edw. I., to marry the King's eldest daughter, 
as cited in the Introduction to the accounts. 3 And in the 
Inquisitions taken in 6th Henry VI. (1427 8) it was found that 
the heir of John Sapy held two and a half hides in Pendoc which 
the "same John formerly held. 4 Nash states that " Sir Robert de 
Pendoc gave, with the confirmation of William de Beauchamp, 
the Manor of Pendoc to the Priory of Lesser Malvern ; 5 being 
thus again restored to the church it so continued to the dissolution 
of the monasteries, when," Nash says, "falling to the family of 
Throckmorton, of Gloucestershire, it passed thence to Mr. Thomas 
Barthelet, who sold it to Mr. Nanfan, of Birt's Morton," but we 
shall see presently that it was vested in the family of Throck- 
morton long before the time mentioned, and we have not observed 
any evidence that Thomas Barthelet ever possessed it, and we 
shall see post that the advowson, at least, passed direct from Thomas 
Throckmorton to John Nanfan; and Nash adds that "the patronage 

1 Red Book of the Exchequer, and also the Black Book. 

2 Inq. p.m. 8th Edw. II. 

3 Book of Aids, Exchequer King's Remembrancer's Office. 

4 Rolls of Pari. Vol. II. p. 318. 

5 Hist, of Wore. Vol. II. p. 241. 



Manor and Anvowsox of Birt's Morton, &c. 211 

of the Church has always been annexed to the Manor." He further 
states that William de Pendoke, who presented in 1 357, " recovered 
by law the presentation of the church against the Prior of Little 
Malvern and others." 

If this be correct it is a very remarkable fact that the Abbey 
has never made a single presentation to the church. The first 
presentation, of which we have any record, was made by Robert 
de Pendock in 1290, and the next in 1328 when Sir John Sapy,Knt., 
Lord of Redmarley, presented as guardian of the lands, &c, of 
Robert de Pendoke. The succeeding presentation in 1330 was 
made by the King, because the lands, &c, of Sir John Sapy were 
then in his hands, and the following, in 1357, by William de 
Pendoke. During the next century several different patrons 
presented If therefore the manor at this date was vested in the 
abbey and the advowson pertained to it, it must have been held 
on lease from the abbey by the Pendock family, for more than a 
century and a half. 

The earliest note we have of the place is a fine suffered by 
Thomas de Dorset and Agnes his wife to Rich Bykerton, in Trinity 
term 3rd Edw. II. (1309-10), then described as one messuage six acres 
of land and 14s. rent in Pennedoke. In 1474 it was, together 
with Birt's Morton and other lands and manors, &c, in the seizin 
of the family of Throckmorton, as appears from an Inquisition 
taken at the Castle of Worcester on 24th July, 14th Edw. IV. 
(1474) after the death of John Throckmorton. The jurors say 
the said John was seized in his demesne as of fee of certain lands 
in Eldresfiekl, in Hardwick and in Staunton, in co. Worcester, and 
beins so seized enfeoffed Thomas Throckmorton, Walter Brek- 
hampton, and Thomas Buckland, to hold for the term of their 
lives, to enable them to enfeoff Christopher son of the said John 
Throckmorton when he attained the age of 21 years, in collusion, 
they said, to defraud the lords of the said messuages, lands and 
tenements held of them, of their wardship [and] marriage. And 
they further say that the said John Throckmorton held on the 
day on which he died seven bullarias aqiue salsce in Droitwich, and 

Note. — Peter de Pendock was Abbot of Pershore, 1363. 
o 2 



212 Transaction's at Tewkesbury. 

that the value per annum is 60s., and that the said fadlarias are 
held of the King in capite, by homage, scutage and . . . rent. And 
they say that the said John Throckmorton died on the 3rd Aug. 
12th Edw. IV. (1472) and that Christopher Throckmorton is his 
son and nearest heir, and was aged six years on the day the said 
John died. And further they say that Thomas Throckmorton 
was seized in his demesne as of fee of twenty messuages, thirty 
acres of land, and forty acres of meadow, with appurtenances in 
Pendock, Morton Brittes, Berough, and Pie, and being so seized 
gave the said messuages, &c, to the aforesaid John Throckmorton 
and Ann his wife, to hold to them and the heirs of their bodies, 
by virtue of which gift the said John and Ann were thereof seized 
in demesne as of fee tail ; and they say that afterwards the said 
John died and Ann survived and now holds the said messuages, 
and that the said John held no other lands in the county of 
Worcester. 1 

We have not any further information respecting the Manor of 
Pendock until 1568, On the 9th of April in that year Thomas 
Throckmorton, of Tort worth, co. Gloucester, Esq., probably the 
grandson of Christopher abovementioned, granted the advowson 
of Pendock, and doubtless the manor also to which it pertained, 
to John Nanfan and Alice his wife, and John Nanfan, of Pendock, 
presented to the church in 1583. This John would appear to 
have been the eldest son of William Nanfan, of Birt's Morton, by 
his wife Maud Monington. John died s.p. in the lifetime of his 
father, upon whom the manor would then devolve, with remainder 
to his son Giles, who being seized of the manor and advowson on 
the feast of All Souls, 24th Eliz., levied a fine to certain trustees 
to hold to the use of himself and Elizabeth his then wife, aiul 
four years later a further fine was levied conveying the manor 
and advowson to the use of William Nanfan on his marriage with 
Jane daughter of Erasmus Smyth (see ante p. 205). William 
Nanfan, as we have seen above, died on 3rd Dec. 1612, and both 

1 Inq. p.m. 13th Edward IV. No. 16. In the County of Gloucester the 
said John Throckmorton held a woodwardship in the Forest of Dean, the 
Advowson of the Church of Lee, and the Manor of Appurley-Colverton, 
Appurley-Drynley, &c. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 213 

his wife Jane and Lis father survived him. The said Giles the 
father died 25th Sep. 1614, Elizabeth his wife surviving him, and 
Giles .son of William was found to be his grandfather's heir, and 
aged thirteen years, two months and twenty-four clays. 1 As 
regards the manors of Pendock and Berew the return made by the 
jury was not satisfactory, for eight years afterwards, when Giles 
Nanfan the heir became of age, a writ was issued, which, after 
citing an Inquisition taken at Evesham on the 18th Nov. 13th, 
James, on the death of Giles Nanfan, commanded further inquiry 
to be made concerning the services by which the manors of 
Pendock and Berew were held at the time of the death of the 
said Giles Nanfan. Accordingly a further Inquisition was taken 
at Upton-upon-Severn, on 28th Sept. 13th Charles (1637). The 
jurors now say that the manor of Berewe was at the time stated 
held by the said Giles Nanfan, of the Dean and Chapter of the 
Cathedral Church of Worcester, by fealty and the rent of 40s. for 
all services and demands ; and that the manor of Pendock, with 
appurtenances, and the advowson of the said church, at the time 
of the death of the said Giles, were held of the Bishop of Wor- 
cester in right of his See by fealty for all services and demands. 2 

The manor and advowson of Pendock continued to be held by 
the Nanfan family, with Birt's Morton, until the death of Bridges 
Nanfan in 1704, when it devolved upon Catherine his daughter 
and sole heir, who married first, Richard Coote, Lord Coloony, 
and Earl of Bellomont, and in her own right, as Countess of 
Bellomont, she presented to the rectory in 1710. Her son Richard, 
Earl of Bellomont, died in 1766, having had two sons, both of whom 
died s.p. and v.p. and an only daughter named Judith, who 
became sole heir. She died in 1771, but in her lifetime sold the 
manor and advowson of Pendock to John Martin, of Ham Court, 
co. Worcester, and of Quy Hall, co. Cambridge, Esq., who died 
s.p., when the estate devolved upon his brother Joseph, whose 
grandson and heir, James Thomas Martin, by deed dated in 
1832, conveyed the said manor and advowson to Mr Samuel 

1 Inq. p.m. 5th Charles, p. 3, No. 72. 
u Inq. p.m. 13th Charles, Part -, No, 11 



214 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



Beale, who, by his will dated in 1836, settled it upon his daughter, 
with remainder to her son William Samuel Symonds, clerk, who 
is now (1886) Lord of the Manor, Patron of the Advowson and 
Rector of the Church. 



Institutions to the Rectory of Pendock. 



Dates. 



Incumbents. 



r citrons. 



1290. 6 Ides Aug. The Bishop committed 

the custody cf Rich- 
ard, 1 Rector of Pen- 
dock, Impotentis, to 
John, Prior of Little 
Malvern. 

1290. 3 Kal. Nov. Henry de Nategrave,' 2 

Priest- 



Robert de Pendoke 



1328. June 15. 



Henry de Aston, 3 Clerk John Sapy, Knight, 

Lord of Redmarley, 
by reason of the cus- 
tody of the lands, &c, 
of John, son and heir 
of Robert de Pen- 
doke. 



1330. April 11. 



Richard de Westman- 
cote, 4 Priest. 



The King, by reason 
of the custody of the 
lands, itc., which had 
been the property of 
John de Pendock, 
deceased. 

1357. Dec. 5. Thomas Berde, of William de Pendoke. 5 

Ledebury. 

1369. Sept. 1. Thomas Spycer, G of 

Gloucester, Clerk, hav- 
ing received the first 
tonsure, 

Unknown. William Skynner. 

1 Bp. Giffard's Reg. fo. 322b -2 ib. fo. 326 b 

■ J Bp. Horlton's Reg. vol. I. fo. 16 b 4 Ib. fo. 20 b 

5 Bp. Bryan's Reg. fo. 24 s He recovered at law the Church of Pendoke 
against the Prior of Little Malvern, and Richard Grede, Priest, whom the 
Prior had presented, and against John Sapy, Kut., and Gilbert Moris, Priest. 
G Bp. Lynn's Reg. fo. l b . 



Dates. 
1419. Oct. 3. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c 

Incumbents. Patrons. 



215 



Unknown. 
1452. May 12. 

1461. April 8. 



1465. Aug. 9. 

Unknown. 
1501. March 30. 

Unknown. 
1513. Oct. 7. 



John Berston, 1 Rector Dame Katherine 
of Beamesbarewe, by Bromewych. 
exchange with Wm. 
Skynner, Rector of 
Pendok. 

William Alcock. 

JohnNewnton, 2 Chap- Guy Spencer, 
lain, Wm. Alkokks 
having resigned on a 
suitable pension. 

Hugh Hunt, 3 Chap- John Clapam. 
lain. The benefice 
being vacant by the 
resignation of John 
Newenton, H. Hunt 
is to pay Wm. Alkokks 
his yearly pension of 
four marks. 

William West, 4 Chap- Guy Spencer, 
lain. 



1544. Aug. 12. 



Richard Kinge. 
Thomas Leybourn. 5 

Thomas Langleye. 

Thomas Stock, 6 M.A., 
the benefice being va- 
cant by the death of 
Thomas Langley. 

John Bromesgrove, " 
Clerk, the benefice 
being vacant by the 
death of Thos. Stocke. 



Christopher 
morton. 



Throg- 



John Stock, of Has- 
field, hac vice by 
grant of Wm. Throg- 
morton. 

Wm. Franckum and 
Thos. Nest by grant 
of Thomas Throk- 
moi'ton, of Tort- 
worth, co. Glouces- 
ter, Esq. 

1 Bp. Morgan, vol. I. fo. 2 a 

- Bp. Carpenter's Reg. vol. I. fo. 101 b He swore to pay William Alcock 
a pension of 4 marks per annum. 

3 lb. fo. 159* 4 lb. fo. 189 b 

5 Bp. S. Gygle, fo. 13 b He agreed to yatj Richard Kinge a pension of 5 
mark*. 

6 lb. fo. 103 b ' Bp. Heath's Reg. fo. 4 b 



216 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



Dates. 
1545. Dec. 2. 



Unknown. 
1583. May 1. 



Incumbents. 



Patrons. 



Unknown. 



1638. May 24. 



1661. Aug. 14. 



1688. June 20. 
1710. March 6. 



1731. Oct. 9. 



Henry Davx, 1 M.A., Thos. Throkmorton, 
upon the death of Esq. 
John BromesaTOve. 



Sir Thomas Harwell, 
Clerk. 

Thos. Merrye,' 2 Clerk, 
the benefice being va- 
cant by the death of 
Sir Thomas Harwell, 
Clerk. 



Samuel Broad, Clerk. 

Thos. Nanfan, 3 Clerk, 
A. B., the benefice 
being vacant by the 
death of the last Rec- 
tor, Samuel Broad. 

Nichs. Ballard, 4 Clerk, 
the benefice being va- 
cant by the resigna- 
tion of Samuel Broad, 
Clerk. 

John Arnold, 5 Clerk, 
A.B. 

William Hall/ 5 Clerk, 
A. B., the benefice 
being vacant by the 
death of John Arnold, 
Clerk. 

John Oakley, 7 A.B., 
the benefice being va- 
cant by the death of 
William Hall, Clerk. 



1 Bp. Heath's Reg. fo. 9*> 

- R. 32, Whitgift, fo. 22 b 

4 R. 34, Morley, fo. S b 

6 lb. Lloyd, fo. 97 a 



John Nanfan, of Pen- 
docke. The right of 
patronage was gran- 
ted to John Nanfan 
and Alice his wife, 
by Thomas Throg- 
morton, of Tort- 
worth, Esq., 9 April, 
1568. 



Jane Nanfan, of city 
of Bristol, widow. 



John Nanfan, of 
Brutes Morton. 



John Nanfan, Esq. 

William Caldwell, of 
Birt's Morton, Esq., 
tfc Catherine, Coun- 
tess of Bellomont, his 
wife. 

Catherine, Countess 
Dowager of Bello- 
mont, in the King- 
dom of Ireland. 



3 Bp. Thornborough's Reg. fo. J5 b 
3 lb. Skinner's Reg. fo. 16 b 
7 Bp. Hough's Reg. fo. 31 a 



Manor and Advowson of Birt'.s Morton, &c. 



217 



Incumbents. 

Wm. Wodley, 1 B.A., 

upon the death of John 

Oakeley. 

Joseph Martin, 2 Rec- 
tor, M.A., upon the 
death of Wm. Wod- 
ley. 

Edw. John Herbert. :i 
upon the resignation 
of Joseph Martin, 
Clerk, LL.D. 

1803. March 15. Robert Jackson, 4 Rec- 
tor, upon the resigna- 
of Edward John Her- 
bert, Clerk. 



Dates. 
1735. June 19. 

1785. Jan. G. 
1791. Nov. 22. 



1810. June 23. 



Rich. Francis Davis, 5 
D.D., upon the death 
of £)r. Robert Jack- 



son. 



1815. Jan. 20. 



William Samuel 
Symonds, 6 B.A. upon 
the death of Richard 
Francis Davis, D.D. 



Patrons. 
The same. 



John Martin, of Ham 
Court, Esq., in Up- 
ton-upon-Severn. 

Bishop of Worcester 
by lapse. 



Thos. Bland, of Ham 
Court, Esq. 



Samuel Beale, of 
Upton-upon-Severn, 
Esq. 

Trustees of Samuel 
Beale, deceased. 



1 Bp. Hough's Eeg. fo. 32» 

- Bp. Hurd's Reg. fo. 99 a . Joseph Martin was son of Joseph and nephew 
of John Martin, of Ham Court, the purchaser of the advowson who presented 
him to the benefice. He Mas Rector also of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and a 
Canon Residentiary of Exeter Cathedral. He succeeded to the Ham Court 
Estates on the death of his brother, s.p., in 1821. 

3 lb. fo. 23 a 4 II). fo. 59 b 

5 Bp. Cornwall's Reg. fo. 73 a 8 Bp. Pepy's fo. 2S b 



218 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



TABLE I. 

Pedigree of Nanfan, of Cornwall, & Birt's Morton, Worcestershire. 

Compiled from the Heralds' Visitation of the County and other sources. 

Arms— Sa. a chevron erm. between, three icings displayed ar. were borne by 
Nanfan, of Cornwall, but according to the laws of Arms the Nanfans of 
Birt's Morton, would not be entitled to those Arms without abatement. 



Ralph Trethaek=p 

i ' 

Luke Trethaek,=j=Lucy, da. of William 
son and heir. | Bray. 



David Lanyom 



Michael 
Pennek 



John Trethaek, 
son and heir. In 
1355 demised 
lands to Henry 
Nanfan and 
J ohanna his wife 
and their heirs. 
(Charter 29 Edw. 
III.) 



Johanna^ 



Henry Nanfan, Keeper of 
the Fees of the Earldom of 
Corn wall, 1 374, Commissioner 
of Array there 1375, Trustee 
of Bodrigan lands 12S6, and 
for Sergeaux lands 1393. 
Dead before 1407. (Assize 
Rolls, 8 Hen. IV.) 



: Sarah, da. and 
heir. 



r~ 



Thomas Nanf an, =j= Johanna heir of 



Gregory Pennek- 



son and heir, levied a fine in 
the manor of Penfons 1379 
(Assize Roll, 8 Hen. IV. m. 
98 d.) 



? de Penfons. 



i 



Jas. Nanfan ? ; 
son and heir 
of Thomas. 
(Assize Roll, 
8 Hen. IV.) 



; Geta, da. 
and co-heir 
of Gregory 
Pennek. 



Vyhan. 



John Nanfan, ; 
1416, Sheriff of Cornwall 
1428-1440, Esquire for the 
Body to King Hen. VI. 
bought Trethewell 1431, 
presented to the Rectory of 
St. Tudy, 1444 ; admin. 13 
May, 1403, at Lambeth, 
(49b Bouchier). 



-Sibella, da =j=Johanna, da. 



and coheir 

Gregory 

Pennek. 



Molure 



and coheir of 

Gregory 

Pennek. 



Robert Vyhan. 



John Molure=f= 



Benedict Molure. 



son and heir, of Trethewell, co. Cornw. 
1438, 1450, 145(3 ; Governor of Jersey 
and Guernsey, 1451 ; dead in 14S0. 



John Nanfan, Esq., =j=Joan, dau. and heir of Sir John 



Coleshill, Knight, remarried Sir 
Remfiy Arundel, and. thirdly, 
Sir William Houghton. 



Manor and Adyowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 



219 



Sir Richard Nan fan , : 
of Trethewell, son and heir, 
Esquire for the Body to 
King Henry VII. ; Sheriff 
of Worcestershire, 1486, of 
Cornw. 1480, Knight for the 
King's Body, 148S ; Treas. 
of Calais and Deputy Lieut, 
of the same, 1563. Died 
March, 1506. Will dated 
Nov. in that year. Prob. 16 
April, 1407. (21 Adeane). 
Inq. p.m. 23 Henry VII. 
No. 9. | 



Margaret, named in 
her husband's will 

dau. of 

Died 1510. Will 
proved at Lambeth, 
8 April, 1510 (27 
Bennett). Buried 
with her husband at 
St. Barthol. Hosp., 
Smithfield, ^London. 



1 

Isabell- 



^Richard Bolle, 
or Bollys, of 
Haugh, in right 
of his mother, 
and of Gasher- 
ton, co. Line. 
Bur. at Haugh. 



John Bollys found 
kinsman and nearest 
heir of Sir Richard 
Nanfan, & aged 6 yrs. 
on the said Richard's 
death. 



of Birt's Morton, Esq., by demise 
of his putative father Sir Richard 
Nanfan's will. 



John Nanfan, =j=Maud, da. of Sir Rich. Cornwall, 



of Berington, co. Hereford. Will 
dated 17 Aug. 1559. Prob. 10 
May, 1560, Wore. Bur* 26 Ap. 1560 



Thomas 
Nanfan, 
eld. son, 
ob. s.p. 



Wm. Nanfan ^Maud, da. 
of Birt's 
Morton, Esq. 
2 son & even- 
tual heir, 
named in his 
mother's will 



3 John 
of Richard Nanfan, of 
Monington Barnesley, 
Barnesfield, co. Glouc, 
co. Herf. exor. to 
mother's 
will. (See 
Table II) 



Ann Nan- 
fan, marr. 
JohnBrom- 
M'ich, of 
Bromsboro, 
co. Glouc. 
(Heralds' 
Visit, of that 
co.l623H= 



Mai'garet 
Nanfan 
mar. Giles 
Bridges, of 
Eastington 
co. Wore. 
m* S Feb. 
1541. 
(Heralds' 
Visit, of 
Glouc. 
1623H- 



3 Frances 

4 Richard 



John 

Nanfan, of 
B. Morton, 
Esq., son 
and heir 
mar. Alice, 
d. and coh. 
of Thomas 
Whit'gton, 
of Paunt- 
ley, co. 
Glouc. Dd. 
1st May, 
157S. (Inq. 
p.m. 20 
Elk. p.i. 
No. 14) s.p. 



Eliz. da. : 
of John 
Harley, 
of 

Bramp- 
ton 
Brian, 
co. Herf. 
1st wife. 
Bur.* 
5th Nov. 
15S0. 



-Giles Nan =j=Eliz. da. 



fan, of B'ts 
Morton, 
Esq., Ret. 20 
yrs. 1569, 
on his bro. 
John's 
death. 2nd 
son d.24, 
bur. 25 Sep. 
1614. Will 
dated 24th 
Sep. 1614. 
Prob. sj/ 

15th April c 
following. 



of Rich. 
South- 
well, of 
Horsh'm 
St. Faith, 
co. Norf., 
Esq. 2nd 
wife. 
Bur.' 
29 Sep. 
1630. 



-See Table III. 



i i 

Maud, Anne, 
wife of 
Walter 
Vaughan, 
of Harged 
co. Herf. 
Mar.f5 OcU573 



* At Birt's Morton. 

1 According- to the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1623, this William mar. 
Alice dan. of Richard Maninge, of Herefordshire ; and Elizabeth, his sister, mar. William 
Wyatt unus vallectorii Elizab. Regime, pp. 29, 186. 



220 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



2 Katherine. 

3 Elizabeth. 
Bap,* 8 Sept. 
1577 ; mar.* 
23 Ju!;/, 1599, 
Rich. Brayne. 



Maud. 
Mar* 

5 Nov. 
1593, 

John 

Clinton, 

Esq. 



Thomas Nanfan, 
2nd son, bap.* 
6 Jan. 1578, 
living '1634, ob. 
s.p. Bur.* 13 Sep. 
1616. 



B 



William Nanfan, of=j=Jane, dau. 



Eirt's Morton, Esq. 
eldest sonSbdp. 
4 June, 1576. 



2 Thomas. 

3 William. 
bap.* 7 Feb. 
S Mar. 1609. 



died 



John Nanfan, of ; 
Birt's Morton, 
living 1634, 
bur.* 11 Feb. 
1677. 



=Mary, dau. of 
Edward Fleet, ats 
Waldgrave, of 
the city of Wore. 
Esq. ; died 17th, 
bur.* Am. 1665. 



of Erasmas 
Smyth, of 
Witheott, 
co. Leic. 



Elizabeth, died 
unmarr. Admin, 
of her goods gran- 
ted 11 Feb. 1664-5 
to her brother 
John Nanfan. 



I 

2 John 

Nanfan, 

bap.* 20 

Oct. 1627 



Thos. Nanfan, =pMary, dau. of 



3 son, bap.* 28 
Mar. (1623), of 
Hanley Castle, 
a captain of foot 
under the Earl 
of Plymouth, 
in the militia 
of Worcestersh. 



Rich. Brinton, 
of Powick, and 
and also of the 
city of Wore. 
Mar.* 13 Oct. 
1667. 



Ann, wife of 

Humphry 

Baskerville.of 

Pontrilas, co. 

Hereford. 

mar.* IQMaij, 

1654. 



Mary, bap.' 
24Z>«\1629, 
wife of 
Herbert 
Maisters, of 
Burg hill, co. 
Hereford. 



"~i 



i 

Richard 
Nanfan, 
eld. son, 
aged 14 
yrs.1683. 



George, 
aged 9. 



John, 
aged 2. 



Catherine, 
aged 5. 



Giles or Bridges Nanfan, : 
of Birt's Morton, 
Esq. , son and heir 
bap*25Mar.\Q23, 
Bird 4 tfc bur.* 6 
June, 1704, aged 
82. M.I. 



=Catherine, da. 
and coh. of Sir 
Geo. Hastings, 
Knt., bro. of 
Henry Earl of 
Huntington. 
Dd.SDec 1702 



Richard Coote, ; 
2nd Lord Coote 
of Coolony, in 
Ireland, created 
E.of Bellomont 
in the Kingdom 
of Ireland, 2nd 
Nov. 1689. 
M.P. for Droit- 
wich, 168S ; 
Gov.ofLeitrim ; 
Treas. to the 
Queen ; Gov. of 
N. York, where 
he died 5 Mar. 
1700. Willdat. 
23 Aug. 1697. 
Prob. 25 Feb. 
1704-5. 



: Catherine, = 
da. and heir, 
born at St. 
Giles, in the 
Fields, Midd x , 
9 and bap. 13 
Feb. 1665 ; 
mar. 1676 at 
11 yrs.of age; 
died 12 Mar. 
1 /37-8 ; bur.* 
3 April, 173S, 
aged 72. Will 
proved June, 
1741. 



=Wm.Caldwell,= 

Capt. R.N., 
afterwards 
Rear Admiral 
of the Red ; 
mar. 1 April, 
1702, at St. 
Mary Magd., 
Old Fish St., 
London ; died 
7, bur.*140ct. 
aged 55, 2nd 
husband. 



-Samuel Pitts, = 
of Kyre, co. 
Wore., mar. 
at St. Mary's 
aforesaid, 24 
Nov. 1720 ; 
died 1729, 
3rd husb. 



=William 
Bridgen, 
Alderman & 
afterwards 
( l 764) Lord 
Mayor of 
London ; 
mar. 1737 ; 
living 1779 ; 
4th husband. 



At Birt's Morton. 



Maxor axd Adyowsox or Birt's Mortox, &-c. 



221 



i 

Nanfan Coote, = 

son & heir, 3rd 

Lord Coote of 

Ooolony, and 

2nd Earl of 

Bellomont, 

born cir. 1677, 

when his 

mother was 

only 12 years 

of age ; died 

at Bath, 12th 

July, 170S. 

Adm° to a 

Creditor 23rd 

Aug. 1709, 

s.p.ni. 



D 



Lucia Anna, 
sister of Hen. 
de Nassau, cr. 
Earl of Gran- 
tham, eo.Line. 
169S, by da. of 
Henry Count 
of Nassau and 
Ld. of Auver- 
querque, &c; 
mar. at St. 
Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, 
Middlesex, 
17 Jan. 1704-5; 
died 4th Sept. 
1744. 



Anne, dau. of= 
John Hollo- 
way, of Oxf., 
and relict of 
Sir Henry 
Oxenden, Bt. 
Died s.p.m. 
13th Feb. 
1723-4; 2nd 
wife. Bur. at 
St. Anne's, 
Soho. Adm° 
S July, 1724. 



Lady Frances Coote, =f=Sir Robert Clifton, 



only dau. and heir 
mar. 28 June, 1723 
died 1733. 



co. Notts., Bart. 



Frances Clifford, =George Carpenter, 1st 
sole heir of her Earl of Tyrconnel. 
mother. 



=Richard Coote= 
4th Lord 
Coolony & 3rd 
Earl of Bello- 
mont, succ'd 
his brother 
1708, and his 
mother in the 
lands of Birt's 
Morton, &c:, 
in 1737 ; died 
s.p.m. 10 Feb. 
1766, aged 83 ; 
bur.,* when 
the Earldom 
became 
extinct, & the 
barony desc. 
to a distant 
cousin. 



Judith, da. of 
Francis Wil- 
kinson, of 
Southwark, 
Surrey ; died 
at Dublin, 6 
April, 1719, 
and was 
bur. there ; 
1st wife. 



r 

Lady Judith Coote, only sur- 
viving child and sole heir 
succeeded to the Birt's Mor- 
ton estates, and died unmarr. 
10 Jan. 1771 ; demised Birt's 
Morton and Berewe to her 
distant cousin Charles Lord 
Coote of Coolony. 



222 



Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



TABLE II. 



Pedigree of Nanfant, of Barnesley, co. Gloucester. 
From the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucester shire, 1G23. 



No Arms tricked. 

John Naiifan,= 
3rd son of John Nanfan, of Birt's Morton, by 
Maud, dau. of Sir Richard Cornwall, settled 
at Barnsley, co. Gloucester, and died there. 
Bur.f 15th July, 1590. 



: Bridget, da. and heir, of 

Kemish, of Slough. This lady 
would appear to have been the 
same as married Col. Edward 
Huntley, as Bridget, da. and. 

heir of John K&mys, of co. 

Monm., and afterwards Henry 
Blower, of Barnesley, Esq., as 
■whose relict she died.* 



i 

Richard, 

bap.f7 Apr., 

1586. 



John Nanfan, of the Parky 
Tewkesbury, bap.X 12 Now 
1581. 



i — I 

John 
Nanfan. 

Dorothy, 
bap.%28 
July, 1609. 



Edward, 
bap. 26 Jan. 
1612. 

George, 
bap.%2Q Aug. 
1616. bur.%. 
26 Aug. 1678. 



— r~i i 

Richard, 

hap. % 23 May, 

1619. 

Maud, bap.X 
Apr. 1607. 



Christian, dau. of 
Stephen Baston, 
of Swell. 



1 

Charles, 
bap.X 19 
Nor. 15S4. 



Mary. 

Christian, 
bap.X 
6 Mar. 
1606. 



Jane. 



Anne. 
bap.X. 
21 Apr. 
1617. 



1 — I 

Elizabeth 
bnp.% H 
May, 1620 

Penelope. 



Bridget. 

1 Adminstration of the goods, d.c, not administered fo t of Bridget Blower, 
alias Huntley, alias Nanfan, whilst she lived the wife of Henry Blower, Esq., of 
Barnesley, co. Clone, noiv deceased, left unadministered to by Thos. Hawton, 
granted 7th Nov. 1638, to John Nanfan, gent., of Tewkesbury, natural and 
lawful son of deceased Bridget. — Former grant in 1604. 

N.B.— The portions printed in Italics are added by the Author. 

t At Barnesley. t At Tewkesbury. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 



223 



TABLE III. 



Pedigree of Nanfan, of Tewkesbury. 
From the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1682-3. 

Arms — Sa. a die v. erm. betw 3 wings ar. Crest — A spaniel dog statant ar. 



Continued from c p. 219. 
r— - L - 



Giles Nanfan, : 
3rd son of Giles Nanfan, of Birt's 
Morton, by his 2nd wife Elizab. 
Southwell/far.* 8 Mar. 1664, cet. 
84. 



i — i 



Anne, da. of Charles Mary. Bur. * 24 Sep. 

Trovell/of 1630, unmar. 

co. Hereford. Mar* 

2lst Jan. 1607. Anne. 



William, 
bap.* 11 
Sep.] 620. 



Anthony, 
bap.* 10 
./cm. 1622. 



Edward. 



Slain in the service of 
King Charles I. 



Thomas, 
bap\ Mar. 
1610, 
bur A 26 
Aug-ltilQ; 
died in 
infancy. 



Thomas, 
bap J 29 
Sep. 1616 
Died in 
infancy. 



John Thomas Nanfan, - 

Nan/an, eldest son, of Tewkesbury, bapt 29th 

bap.* 30 Sept. 1616, a Major of Horse in the 

May, service of King Charles I., and in 1682 

1618. a Cornet of Horse in the Militia of 

Gloucestershire. Prime Burgess of 

Tewkesbury, 1662; Bailiff there, 1666, 

1678, 1682 and 1684; died in office. 

WUl dated 12 July, 1683 ; prob. 10 

April, 1685 (Glow.) 



=Frances, da. of 
William Hill, 
of Longdon, co. 
Worcester. 



r 


1 


I 


i 


1 


Elizab. 


Ed ward, 


Bridges Nanfan, =p£7<~(</>. 


Thos. Nanfan 


John 


living 


bap. X 


of Tewkesbury, 




of Dublin, 


Nanfan, 


unmarr. 


13 Nor. 


son & heir appar. ; 




living 1682, 


set. cir. 


1682 ; 


1653 ; 


a-t. cir. 30 years, 




named in 


20 years, 


ex x . to 


bur.X 


1682, then unmar. 




father's will. 


named in 


father's 


8 Jan. 


named in father's 






father's 


will. 


1655. 


will. 






will. 


i 
JohnNanj 


I 
an, Thos. 


N anf an, = Bridges Nan fan, 


i i 
Elizabeth, bap.% 


1 
A n n 


bap.X 7 Jan. bap.X 


20 Aug. bap.% 12 Dec. 


23 Mar. 1690 ; 


Nanfan 


1684. 


1698. 


1701. 


bur.\\Q April, 
1691. 

Elizabeth, 
hup.*. 2nd 
Feb. 1693 


bap. X 
26 A ug. 
1687. 


' ; At Birt's Morton 


% At Tewkesbury. 






N.B.- 


—The portions printed in Italics are 


idded by 


the Author. 





224 



Transactions at Tewkksbuky. 



Elizabeth, =p Giles Nanfan, 



da. of .. 

1st wife ; bur.* 

21 Jan. 1675-0. 



bap* 5th Aug. 1619. 

Capt. in the service 
of King Charles I. 
Bur. * 25 June, 16S5. 



Elizabeth, dau. 
of 



Bridget, living 
man*. 16S2. 



un- 



Elizabeth, Giles Nanfan, clerk. = 

bap.* 21th of Birt's Morton, matric. 

Dec 1675 ; as from Brasenose Coll. 

bur* 0th Oxon. Tlth May, 1696, 

Feb. 1675-6 aqed 17, as son of Giles 

Nanfan. B A. 3rd Feb. 

1699-1700. Inst, to the 

Rectory of Birt's Morton, 

22nd Dec. 1703; died 

10th; bur.* 12th Nov. 

1742, aged 63 yrs, M.I.; 

adm° to relict Mary. 



Mary, dau. cfc heir 
of Thou. Horner, 
of the Berewe, 
adm° to her hus- 
band's will, 1761 ; 
died 1767, agd.Si. 



Anthony, bap. * 
Oct. 1681 ; bur.' 
Oct. 1683. 



13 
11 



I 

John 
Nanfan ; 
bap. * 9th 
March, 
1706 ; 
bur.*21st 
May, 
1719. 



Giles Nanfan 
bap* 1 Nov. 
1708. Of The 
Gate in the 
Berewe, born 
1708 ; mar. 
Susanna, da. 
of John 
Cocks, of 
Keysend. He 
died 20 Jan. 
1724; she 
1744 



William, 
bap.* 24 
April, 
1711. 



John Nanfan,= 
of Broomes- 
berrow ; bap. t 
14.71%, 1720; 

died 7 d-bur.i 
9 April, 1755, 
a i/i'd 34 years, 
M.I. 



in 



Margaret, Mary. Rich. 

dau. of 

Matthew 

Walford,of 

Claverdon, 
co. Wane, 
rnar. lie. 7 
Nov. 1774, 
to be mar. 
there. 



Mary Nanfan,.eld. 
da. & coheir, died 
29 March, 1774; 
bur.* 2 Apr. 1774, 
aged 23. M.I. 



Margaret Nanfan,'- 
after the death of 
her sister, sole heir ; 
marriage license 
dated 4th June, 
1774 ; mar. at 
Sherborne the 
same day. 



Thomas Webb, Esq., 
of Sherbourne, co. 
Warwick. 



At Bill's Morton. 



Manor and Advowson of Birt's Morton, &c. 



Descent of Alice Nanfan and her Heirs. 



TABLE IV. 



Remfrey Arundel, : 
of Treloy, co. Corn. 



: Joan, dau. and heir of=John Nanfan=f=Margare^, died 



Sir John Colshill,Knt. 



1507. 



William Whittington=f=Elizabeth, dau. and 

heir. 



Elizabeth, dau. & : 
heir of Simon 
Milborne, & relict 
of Thomas 
Monington. 



Sir Richard^ 
Nanfan, died { 
1506. J 



Alexander 
Whittington 
of Notgrove, 
co. Glouc. 
^Margaret, 

da. of 

Dauncey. 



: JohnWhittington ; 
of Pauntly, co. 
Gloucester. 



: Elizabeth, 
da. of Sir 
Richard 
Crofts.Knt. 



John=^Maud, dau. of 



Nanfan. 



John 
Whit- 
tington, 
ofPaunt- 
ley. 



-a 
o 

02 



o 



Thomas : 
Whit- 
tington, 
ofPaunt- 
ley. 



d 



Sir Richan 
Cornwall, Knt . 
died 1560. 



Margery, 
dau. of 
William 
Needham. 



i 
William- 

Nanfan. 



Maud, dau. 
of Richard 
Monington. 



r~ 



Ann, da. & 
coh., wife 
of Brice 
Berkeley. 
He died 
1578-9 
Elizabeth 
Berkeley, 
dau. <£.• heir 
of Ann 
Berkeley,^ 
only child ; 
mar. 1st, 
Edward 
Berkeley, 
died 19th 
Eliz. ; bur. 
in Berkeley Ch. 
2ndly,Sir Edward 
Berkeley. 
Srdly, Nicholas 
Strange ways, all 
of whom she sur- 
vived, <t' died s.p. 
1 0th James ; bur. 
at Bradley-by- 
Wotton ( Berkeley 
MSS. II. 267j 



Jane, da. 
and coh. 
wife of 
Roger 
Boden- 
ham 

T 

Thomas 
Boden- 
ham, soil 
and heir 
of Joan 
Boden- 
ham. 



Elizab. 
da.&coh. 
wife of 
Sir Giles 
Poole, 
Knt. co. 
Glouc. 
He died 
24th Feb. 
15SS 

Sir Hen. 
Poole, 
sond-heir 
of Elizb. 
Poole, 
of Super - 
ton, co. 
Glouc. 



Blanche, 
da.&coh. 
wife of 
John St. 
Aubyn, 
of Clow- 
ahce, co. 
Cornw. 
He died 
August, 
1599 ; 
bur. at 

Thos. St. 
Aubyn 
died very 
aged, 27 
March, 
1626. 

T' 

4/ 



Margaret, 
dau. & coh 
wife of 
Thomas 
Throg- 
morton, 
Coss Court 
co. Glouc. 
He died 
1568. Inq. 
p.m. lOfh 
Eliz. exch. 



Alice, =John 



of 



dau. and 
coheir, 
died \&t 
May, 
1578. 
In (j. p.m. 

mttEiiz. 

p. 1. No. 
14, s.p. 



Nanfan 

died 

1509. 



Thomas 

Throg- 

morton, son and heir of 

Margaret Throgmor- 

ton, of Coss Court, co. 



Glouc. mar 
of Sir Edw. 



Ellen da. 
Berkeley. 



N.B.— The portions printed in Italics are added by the Author- 
Vol. X.,part 1. P 



226 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE ARTICLE ON HAYNES 

( Vol IX. pp 277-297). 

By the Rev. F. J. POYNTON, M.A. 

Since the publication of the article On the Haynesses of Wick 
and Abston, the writer has received some further information on 
the youngest line of the family, descending from Joseph Haynes, 
horn 1744, which he thinks of sufficient interest and value to 
communicate. 

The marriage date of Joseph Haynes, senr. (Capt. R.N.) has 
been found in the fly-leaf of an old " Breeches " bible, in the 
possession of Mrs. Lawless Pyne, of Rostellan, co. Cork, a relative 
of the family, who has kindly communicated with the writer. It 
stands as follows : — " Joseph Haynes and Philippa Palmer married 
at St. Michael's Church, Bristol, on Novr. 2nd, 1778." The 
baptism of Joseph Haynes, jun., also there entered : " Joseph their 
son born August 1st, 1781, at 2 o'clock afternoon, baptised at 
Abson by the Revd. Mr. Swayne on the 12th of November. 1 
Sponsors Mrs. Jeffreys, Mr. Thomas Haynes and Mr. Nash." 

An interesting statement, in detail, on this part of the family 
was most courteously added by the same lady, which the writer 
gives thus in summaiy : " Joseph Haynes [senr.] was born in 
1744; entered the Royal Navy: was twice married, first to 
Philippa Palmer, by license; secondly to Elizabeth Shute. Almost 
immediately after his first marriage he had to join his ship, and 
remain at sea for a length of time — two or three years. His son 
Joseph was born in Aug. 1781. Philippa his first wife died at Ros- 
tellan Castle, and was buried in the Cathedral at Cloyne between 
1790 and 1800, for the family on first coming to Ireland resided at 

1 This date of baptism does not agree with the entry made in the 
Parish Register of Abson, which stands .3rd August. The sequence of events 
and entries may have run thus:— Born at Wick, 1st August, privately 
baptised 3rd Aug., and entered in Abson Register : admitted into the 
Congregation (often called '-Christened ") with appointment of sponsors 12th 
Novr. and then entry took place in the Family Bible. 



The Family of Haynes. 22 






Cloyne. Captain Haynes married, secondly, in the early part of 
1800 at Stapleton Church, near Bristol, Elizabeth second daughter 
of the Rev. Richard Shute, who was already deceased when his 
daughter's marriage took place. Her widowed mother was 
residing in 1800 at Stapleton; of which parish her father may 
have been Rector. At all events her brother Henry was Rector 
of Frampton Cotterel. She herself died at Stapleton in April, 
1828, six months before her husband. They were both buried 
at Stapleton. Captain Haynes had been made a magistrate in 
Ireland, but a short time after returned to England and died at 
Stapleton. 

Joseph Haynes, junr., was married at Middleton, co. Cork, on 
the 5th Nov., 1805, to Mary Anne, 2 second daughter of Colonel 
Abraham Augustus Nickson, who had retired from the army, and 
was living on his property in co. Wicklow. When the Rebellion 
of 1798 broke out in Ireland, the command was given to him of 
all the Yeomanry Corps in counties Wicklow, Wexford and 
Carlow. He was killed by the rebels on the 1st July, 1798. Mr. 
Joseph Haynes died on the 29th Nov., 1862, aged 82 ; and Mrs. 
Haynes died on the 20th Sept. 1878, aged 94. Both were buried 
in the churchyard of Ballina Cune, near Middleton. Mrs. Rains- 
torp (nee Sarah Haynes), died 7th May, 1773, according to a 
memorial ring. 

The writer has been favoured with the sight of a copy of the 
will of Mr. Richard Haynes, who died in 1816. It throws no 
new light on the Pedigree, but yet confirms it. This document 
bears date 20th May, 1816 ; appoints Walter Swayne, of Bristol, 
gentlemen, sole executor : we gather from it that Mr. Haynes had 
encumbered his landed estates both in Bitton and Wick for the 
purpose of taking part in two trading companies, one of which was 
working coal seams at Bitton, the other carrying on an iron trade 

1 Joseph Haynes and Elizabeth Shute were married at Stapleton, of 
which parish her father had been sometime "minister" (the church at 
that time being only a Perpetual Curacy), in 1804. She was buried there 
in April, 1S28, and he in October of the same year. — Ed. 

- This lady was aunt to Mrs. Lawless Pyne, whose maiden name was 
Gillespie. 
p 2 



22S Transactions at Tewkesbtxry. 

at Wick and in Bristol. To these operations we attribute the 
origin of those circumstances which led to the sale of the Haines 
property in the next generation, when the ultimate remainder to 
Richard Haynes, nephew of testator, had taken effect. By the 
will, the household effects, pictures, books, &c, are directed to 
follow the course which the residue of the landed estates should 
take. Hence after the death of Mrs. Christian Haynes, and the 
termination of her life interest, as well as that of the testator's 
brother, sole surviving, viz., Capt. Joseph Haynes, all interests 
centred in Richard Haynes, testator's eldest nephew tlnxmgh 
Christopher Haynes late Rector of Siston. 

In connection with the alliance of Hawksworth Haynes with 
Richard Haynes of Thornbury, we have further union of these 
names shewn in the Visitation of co. Gloucester, 1623, where 
Richard, fourth son of Peter Hawkesworth, is married to Christian 
Haynes, daughter of Richard Haynes. In 1634-5, on 5th Feb., 
Robert Hawkesworth, son of Peter Haynes, of Thornbury, gent., 
was apprenticed in Bristol to Thomas Philpot and Jane his wife. 
(Apprentice Roll, civ. Bristol). And in connection with the 
marriage of Anne Haynes with Mr. Stone, we may observe that 
on the 18th Feb., 1670-1, Thomas Stone, son of John Stone, of 
Thornbury, yeoman, was apprenticed to Thomas Haynes, of Bristol, 
grocer, and Mary his wife. 



The Family of Hayxf.s. 229 



SOME CORRECTIONS OF THE HAYNES ARTICLE, Vol. IX. 



p. 281. In the blazon of arms at the head of the pedigree, for hounds read 

hinds, and erase the word heads which follows it. 
,, In the tabular pedigree, under Richard Heynes II, read Bait for 

Butt ; and so again where the will is referred to in p. 286. 
,, In the same table, under Thomas Heynes, make his burial place to 

be at Westbury and not in the Gaunt's Church. 
,, In the same table under Edicard, where it is said " admon. granted 

to bro. Edward," for Edward read Thomas, and cancel the marriage 

of Edward to "Catherine, relict, &c," as the name of his wife is 

unascertained. Edward had a sister Catherine who married one 

Mors or Morse. Her name should stand on the same line with 

Charity and Agnes her sisters. 
p. 282. The mark of descent ( J ) should be placed to Thomas Haynes, and not 

to Mary Lambert his wife : and to Hawksworth Haynes, not to 

Richard her husband. 

p. 2S3. After the name Richard Gibbs add by Jane (Gaisford) his wife, and 

remove the words from their present place, 
p. 284. To the notice of Richard Haynes vill. in the pedigree, add at the 

close, died ISth June, 1816, at Wick, aged 70. 

„ In the notice of Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Hooper, let her burial 
date stand 1S45, not 1 SS4. 

,, Under Margaret C. A. Haynes Haynes, for born, <bc, as in text, read, 
born at Surbiton, llth March, 1877, and bapt. at Downend, 13th June, 
the same year. 

p. 285. Under Joseph Haynes, senr., in the pedigree, for 30th April, 1774 ; 

read 20th April, 1744 ; and for about 1814 read in 1828. 

,, Under Philippa add Palmer, first wife, and secondly, Elizabeth Shute, 
daughter, die, as in the text. 

,, Under Joseph Haynes, junr., add his date of death, 20th Nov., 1S62, 
and supply his wife's name, Mary Anne, daughter of Capt. A. A. 
Nickson, of co. Wicklow, and correct her age from 90 to 94. 

p. 289. In the footnote, for Hawkeston read Hankerton. 

p. 292. Correct the will reference of Mary Haynes from Twiss 122, to 132, 
and the year of her will from 1544 to 1644. 



•2:10 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 



PERSHORE ABBEY CHURCH. 

By Sir JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 
Of this church, which is dedicated to the Holy Cross, we have 
collected the following notes : — 

The Great Abbey Church of Pershore was cruciform with a 
central tower and a Lady Chapel at the east end. According to 
Nash its internal dimensions were 220 ft. 4 ins. by 117 ft. At the 
dissolution of the House in 1539, however, the whole was des- 
troyed except the choir, the tower, the south transept, and a 
transeptal chapel on the north. In instances in which a conven- 
tual church was divided between the monks and the parishioners 
it has been usually found that the choirs have been destroyed 
and the naves retained for use of the latter. In case of Pershore, 
however, the reverse took place, for what reason we know not. 
The only other instance with which we are acquainted is the 
Church of Broxbourne, Herts. 

We are in possession of some MS, notes on the church made 
in 1848 by Mr. John Noakes, a local antiquary, from which it 
appears that at that date it was in a lamentable condition. The 
tower arch against the nave was necessarily blocked up, as was 
also that between the chancel and the ruined Lady Chapel. The 
patrons of the church are the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 
and when, in 1846, it was proposed to restore the Lady Chapel, 
apparently for the purpose of using it as a chancel, the Dean and 
Chapter liberally subscribed to the work. The then Dean, Dr. 
Samuel Wilberforce, afterwards the popular Bishop successively 
of Oxford and Winchester, was invited by the Restoration Com- 
mittee to view the restoration. He expressed a strong opinion 
that the clergyman officiating at the altar would scarcely be seen 
and still less heard at the west end of the church. The Lady 
Chapel was thereupon truncated, and the chancel shorne of its 
proper proportions. To him, therefore, the parishioners are in- 



Pershore Abbey Church. 231 

debtee! for having an apse, instead of a good chancel. It must be 
remembered this was forty years ago, and we have all learnt much 
since that date. The work had been recently executed at the 
time of Mr. Noake's inspection, who alludes to the chapel as 
having been recently restored. At the same time he mentions 
that the church had been partially re-pewed, the whitewash had 
been removed from the massive pillars of the arcades between the 
choir and the transepts, etc., but, he observes, " a great deal yet 
remains to be done, especially to the tower and the south ti'ansept, 
which appear to be in a very dangerous state, presenting extensive 
fractures in the walls. The miserable west gallery," he also urges, 
" ought to be removed, as also the modern floor above it, which 
entirely hides the beautiful tracery forming the inner face of 
the tower above, which, unquestionably, was intended to be 

entirely open." 

With regard to the monuments Mr. Noake remarks that 
among those of any note is that to the memory of Abbot Newton. 
With some difficulty he says he " found it under a heap of matting, 
dust, and other articles piled upon it." It was towards the east 
end of the south chapel, and inserted in the wall, and above it 
was some carved woodwork containing a remarkable legend, 
which he gives, but not quite accurately. A facsimile appears in 
Plate III., which we shall notice further on. Nash states that 
"the church was repaired in 1774, but the inscription to Abbot 
Newnton was preserved. It is new painted and gilded, and 
somewhat disfigured ; but an account of it was communicated by 
Richard Graves, Esq., in a letter dated 3rd Dec. 1772, addressed 
to Mr. Hearne (the antiquary), who printed it in his Appendix 
to Hemming's Cartulary, p. 676." 

In this letter the church is thus described : " The whole church 

was very large and the form thereof was a tower in the 

middle of a cross ; but at the dissolution, the main body of the 
church, or the west end and the north cross ile, and another 
building at the east end of the quire were pulled down and sold ; 
so that there is now only remaining the tower and quire, and 
the abovementioned south cross ile, built by Abbot Newnton 



232 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

which is not made use of, and is all in ruins, though very lofty 
and stately with a carved roof all of stone." 1 His rebus on one 
of the bosses is figured (Plate I. Jig. J+). On the other bosses are 
the following arms and devices : — A head ivith foliage, crowned. 
2. Shield party per pale, three cups and a chief dancettee. Two 
lions as supporters 3. A heart-shaped shield ducally crowned, 
charged with two Wa interlaced with two transverse bars. 4- Shield 
with arms as on (2) borne quarterly, o. Blank shield. 6. Two 
Wyverns with one head. 7. Shield charged with two keys saltier- 
wise. 8. Shield charged loith the cross of St. George. 0. The 
rebus of Abbot Newnton as above. 1.0. Shield with arms as (2). 
11. Ball Jloivers. 12. A plain corbel. The remaining bosses are 
decorated with fine foliage. 

Mr. Noake, after mentioning other monuments on the north 
side of the church to members of the Hazelwood family, and 
especially one in the south aisle, then very recently erected to 
General Marriott, who had greatly distinguished himself in the 
East Indies, alludes to " a figure of a Templar " in the north 
transept, which, he says, " seems to have been placed there to fill 
the office of a sentry, and the authorities, thinking it necessary to 
provide him with a watch box, have jammed him into a stone 
coffin." 

Such was the condition of the church in 1848. The members 
of the Archaeological Institute, on the occasion of the annual 
meeting of that society at Worcester in 1862, paid it a visit under 
the guidance of Mr. E. A. Freeman. Mr. Freeman pointed out that 
the earliest work then to be seen was where the north transept 
joins the base of the tower. The nave, now destroyed, was of 
Norman work, as are likewise the tower arches. He expressed 
his admiration of the tower as singularly fine, and observed that 
its effect might probably be better in its ruinous condition than 
when it wa,s surrounded by the four limbs of the church ; its 
proportions now, he said, " appear lofty and grand, but originally 
it must have appeared comparatively stunted. The nave had a 
low roof whilst the roofs of the presbytery and transepts were 
steeply pitched." On examining the south transept Mr. Freeman 

1 Nash's Hist, of Wore. Vol. II. pp. 251, 525. 



Pershore Abbey Church. 233 

adverted to a memoir on the church by Mr. Hopkins, an architect 
at Worcester, who had given much attenion to local ecclesiology, 
and was inclined to assign the date of this portion of the fabric to 
Earl Oddo (a.d. 1056), but that he himself was not inclined to 
accept so early a date. " The work (he remarked) is very plain and 
rude, with scarcely any attempt at ornamentation, no mouldings, 
and the capitals occasionally present the peculiar volute seen in 
the earliest examples of the style in Normandy. The older portions 
of the church (he continued) correspond closely with those of 
Tewkesbury and Gloucester." On proceeding to the presbytery 
Mr. Freeman stated that "it is an exceedingly good example of 
the common Early-English style : viz., with the round abacus and 
clustered shafts, the piers losing all trace of rectangular section. 
There is no distinct triforium ; the triforium is thrown into the 
clerestory. In the Decorated period the vaulting of the presbytery 
was constructed and made to harmonize with the Early English 
work. No important part of the church belongs to the Perpen- 
dicular period." 

In this year (18G2) Mr. (afterwards Sir Gilbert) Scott, was 
called in to examine and report upon the church with a view to 
its restoration. In his architectural description he very closely 
agrees with Mr. Freeman, but, he adds, " Its form, especially 
towards the east end, is very peculiar, assuming a plan somewhat 
intermediate between the square- ended choir, most usual in 
England, and the apse with radiating chapels, so nearly universal 
in France." Referring to a tire which occurred very soou after 
the completion of the church, he says, " its marks and the repairs 
incident upon it are still plainly visible on the side of the tower 
piers which face the nave;" adding: "it is probable that after this 
fire three special works were undertaken : the higher vaulting of 
the choir, the erection of a beautiful chapel (now destroyed) 
adjoining the choir and the south transept, and the erection of 
the two upper storeys of the tower, which together form, exter- 
nally, the greatest ornament to the church, and of which the lower 
storey formed a lantern open to the interior, and that probably 
(with the single exception of the lantern of Lincoln Cathedral) 
the most beautiful feature of this class to be found in any English 



234 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

church. "This (he adds) was, no doubt, the period of the greatest 
perfection of this church, and from this time it probably became 
deteriorated rather than improved by any alterations that it 
may have undergone." 

The restoration of the church was thereupon carried out under 
Mr. Scott's superintendence. The gallery, to which Mr. Noake, 
very properly took exception, together with the modern floor, 
have been swept away, opening out the beautiful lantern as he 
suggested. The illegal wooden font has also been removed, 
and a new stone one, designed by Mr. Scott, has been set up 
in the south transept. 1 

The cross-legged effigy alluded to by Mr. Noake is now 
deposited in the south chapel. It is a most interesting and 
instructive object. The Knight is habited in a hooded hauberk 
of mail, composed of rings set edgewise. A triangular lappel of the 
coif tie mailles under the chin is unlaced and turned back over the 
hauberk, leaving the chin and neck uncovered, and affording 
an illustration of the manner of fastening the mail hood, (see 
Plate III. Jig. 8.) This arrangement was first brought under the 
notice of English antiquaries by Mr. Waller, on the head of an 
effigy in Dorchester Church, co. Oxon. In that example the 
lappel is fastened up on the right side of the head ready for 
combat.' 2 Over the hauberk is worn a sleeveless surcoat belted. 
The thighs are covered with ring-mail. A long heater-shaped 
shield of the Norman form, suppoi-ted by a guige passing over the 
right shoulder, covers the left arm. The sword is on the left 
side, the left hand on the pommel. The glove of mail attached to 
the right arm is thrown back at the wrist, leaving the right hand 
uncovered, which is represented as grasping a horn. The feet are 
broken oft' at the ancles. 3 (see Plate III. fig. 2.) Effigies with 
horns are very rare, though incised slabs are less so. There is an 
effigy of this class in Wadworth Church, co. York ; and there is 
another, with which many of us are familiar, in the churchyard 

1 The ancient font mentioned by Mr. Noake is now in the garden of Sir 
Richard Temple's residence, The Nash, Kempsey. 

- Figured, Journ. of the Areluel. Assoc, II., 187. 
3 Arch. Join n. XX., 158. 



Pkrshoke Abbey Church. 235 

of Newland, in this county, which commemorates Jenkin, or 
John, Wyrall, Forester in Fee in the Forest of Dean. 1 Both of 
these, however, are in hunting attire, and therein differ from the 
example under consideration, which doubtless represents a war- 
rior who held his lands by what is known as cornage tenure, 
or the service of blowing a horn to give notice of the approach of 
an enemy. 

In the Prattington collection this effigy is described from 
a MS. dated cir. 1660, as being that of a Knight Templar (a term 
until recently, commonly, though erroneously, applied to all cross- 
legged effigies), and it is said " that at his feet is a Wyvern, for 
a Harley, they say."- In the Habingdon MSS. the figure is 
described as a portraiture of a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, and, 
in a general description of the armour, it is remarked, as regards 
the shield, " the extreame and lower end thereof a serpent 
byteth, and it is added that at his feet is a hare" and further, 
" lis a received tradition that his name was Hareley, sometyme 
Lord of a place in this pish called Hareley." 3 The effigy is also 
noticed in the Dingley MS. Collection, made towards the end of 
the 17th century, formerly in the possession of the late Sir 
Thomas Wilmington, Bart., which was, with his obliging per- 
mission, reproduced in facsimile by the Camden Society in 1868. 
The figure is represented in a pen and ink sketch. Dingley says, 
It is defaced " which I have toucht oft' below." 4 It is shewn 
as complete, the crossed-legs resting on a couchant lion, on a 
slab with a foliated border. The right hand of the figure, more- 
over, is inaccurately represented as grasping the hilt of the sword 
instead of the horn. Dingley remarks " there does not appear to 
be any tradition whom the figure represents." 

We have here three varying descriptions of the animal upon 
which the Knight's feet rested. We may, however, set aside 
Dingley's. He evidently " toucht it oft'" from his own imagin- 
ation to complete his sketch, and all his sketches of objects in 
this church are marked by haste and inaccuracy. 

1 Figured ante. Vol. VI. p. 361. 

- Prattington Coll. Soe. of Ant. and Lansdowne MSS. N. 919. p. 53. 

3 Habingdon MSS. Jesus Coll. Oxford, 18. p. 24. 

4 History from Marble, Vol. II. p. 24ti. 



236 Transactions at Tewkesbury. 

There is another effigy which demands our notice. This is 
also figured by Dingley, who described it as being " without 
inscription and adjoins to the door of an ancient chapel now used 
as a schoole, it hath priestly habit and tonsure." ! Gough describes 
it as " the effigy of the last Abbot of Pershore, appearing only as a 
simple monk on his tomb in the chapel now the school house 
at Pershore." 2 

The effigy, represented by Dingley, lies with its feet to the 
east, in a recess under a segmental arch, the spandrils being filled 
with elongated trefoils. The plinth is divided into small square 
compartments, containing sunken quatoefoils, and the ends occu- 
pied by narrow panels under trefoil-headed arches. Above the 
recess is an arcade of nine round trefoil-headed arches, sur- 
mounted by a frieze ornamented with quatrefoils and a plain, 
narrow cornice. According to Nash " the Abbot is shewn as 
wearing the alb, stole, &c, and his head, which is tonsured, 
resting upon the mitre." From this unusual circumstance the 
author supposes him to have resigned the abbacy before his death. 
Abbots William Hervington, Edmund Hart and William Compton 
all did so. The first is probably the person to whom the monu- 
ment is erected. This description is quoted verbatim by Mr. 
Styles, who adds, that on his head the figure has a monk's 
cowl, though not so represented in the illustration in his work. 
The first of these Abbots is probably the persoii to whom the 
monument was erected ; and the late Mr. John Gough Nichols 
thinks this explanation of the design appears to be reasonable, 
though the panelling of the tomb would favour its attribution to 
Compton, and that would agree with the tradition of its represen- 
ting " the " last Abbot who died before the dissolution. Mr. 
Nichols would appear never himself to have seen the ef&gy. We 
believe that as a fact the Abbot is habited as described by Gough, 
and he holds in his hands an object which is probably a heart. We 
agree with Mr. Nichols in thinking that Nash's explanation of the 
design may be correct, though we do not see why, if he had 
resigned the rule of the abbey, he should still bear the Pastoral 
Staff, as he does. We further agree with Mr. Nichols in thinking 

1 Dingley 's " Hist, from Marble," Vol. II. p. 249. 

3 Gough's Monuments. — Introduction. Vol. I. p. clv. 



Pershore Abbey Chfrcii. 237 

that the style of the tomb forbids its being attributed to Abbot 
Hervington, who resigned in 1340, but it may be assigned to 
either Hart or Compton. 

The effigy itself, roughly executed in the first instance, is 
greatly abraded from ill-usage. It is clear, however, that there is 
no appearance of an alb or stole. The habit is the long loose 
gown with wide sleeves, like the sleeves of a surplice, as worn by 
the Benedictine Order, the heavy folds of which would shew it to 
be made of a thick material. The cowl is thrown back from the 
head and is shewn in thick folds on the right side of the neck and 
slightly on the left. The shaft of the pastoral staff is seen under 
the left arm. the pointed end resting on the foot. It reaches to 
the shoulders, but the head is broken off. We give this des- 
cription with some diffidence, as Mr. Bagnall-Oakley is of opinion 
the figure is shewn in a surplice, almuce, and cope. 

Mr. Noake, referring (ante p. 231) to the Abbot's tomb in the 
south chapel, mentions a curious carving then set up in the wall 
above it. This is carefully drawn to scale of an i (Plate III. 
fiij. 1.) The quaint legend therein may thus be read : M = 1000. 
C bisbino, 100 twice doubled = 400 ; triplex X = 30, addere quarto, 
adding 4 = 1434 — the year William Newnton, Lord Abbot, made it. 

In the tracery of the arches are : in the first division, a sceptre 
between H and VI. — Henry VI. 2. A King's head crowned 
between A and XII. Anno 12; and in the second division : 1. 
the head of a pastoral staff between W and N, signifying William 
Newnton ; and 2. An Abbot's head, mitred, between A. & XXII. 
Anno. 22, shewing that the work, probably the chapel of which 
this carving formed a portion of the screen, was built in the 12th 
year of Henry VI. and the 22nd of Abbot Newnton. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1779 is a description and 
illustration of a thurible found a few years previously in a 
mass of gravel in digging a cellar near the middle of the town of 
Pershore. It is made of brass, quadrangular in the base, and 
converging at the top by solid bands, the insterstices being filled 
by open work of a late Saxon character, and it bears the following 
Saxon inscription on one of its sides, <%> b©DrICMEJ? v "rh. 

1 The last word of the inscription must, we think, be inaccurately 
printed in the Magazine. It should read Bodric me Worh[te], Bodric me 
wrought. A common form of Saxon inscriptions. 



238 Transactions at Nrwent. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Bristol anb 6IoucestorsImc g^cjpotocncal Socbtn, 

At a Special Meeting for the Western Division op 

Gloucestershire. 

Held at NEWENT, on Wednesday, 30th September, 1885. 

The party, consisting of a large number of Members and their friends, 
including many ladies, undeterred by tbe threatening aspect of the weather, 
assembled at the Gloucester Railway Station at 10 a.m. There were present, 
Sir William Guise, Bart., Sir John Maclean, Colonel Hardy, Major 
Raikes, Capt. Frowde, Dr. Drew, the Revs. Canon Wood, vicar of 
Newent ; J. Ewens, F. E. Broome Witts, J. Weaver, R. Crawley - 
Boevey, R. Hill, Messrs. Granville LI. Baker, A. E. Hudd, G. W. 
Keeling, and many others, both clergy and laity. Special arrangements 
had been made with the Great Western Railway for conveying the party to 
Barber's Bridge on the outward journey, and from Dymock on the return. 
Leaving Gloucester soon after ten o'clock they arrived at Barber's Bridge 
in due course, where they were joined by Mr. W. P. Price, who conducted 
them at once to the monument which he had erected, with an inscription 
thereon to commemorate 

The Battle of Barber's Bridge. 
On reaching this spot Mr. Price proceeded to give a brief but compre- 
hensive account of the skirmish which took place there in 1(3+3 between the 
Royalist and Parliamentarian troops. Before reading his paper Mr. Price 
distributed amongst the party some printed copies of another on the same 
subject, prepared and read by Major W. E. Price before the Cotteswold Field 
Club, at Tibberton in 1871. This presented in considerable detail what is 
given in a condensed form below, and for our present purposes it is 
unnecessary to quote from it at any length. A few passages, however, 
which represents local tradition on the subject, will be read with interest. 
Having referred to the discovery of S6 skeletons in a hillock at Barber's 
Bridge in the Spring of 1868, and the assumption that they were the bodies 
of men who had fallen in some of the many skirmishes which took place in 
the neighbourhood during the civil wars, Major Price proceeded: — "The 
foreman of the works at that time lodged at a house occupied by the 
daughter of an old blacksmith, named Taylor, who had died a year or two 
before, at the age of 97. Having heard that enquiries were made respecting 
these bodies, she told the foreman that they were the remains of Welshmen, 
who had been engaged in the Siege of Gloucester, and had been slain on the 
spot ; that when she was a child, she was in the habit of passing through 



The Battle of Barber's Bridge. 239 

this field with her father to visit relations in Hartpury, and that he had often 
pointed out the spot to her as that on which the Welshmen had been 
buried ; that she perfectly well remembered being always afraid, in conse- 
quence, of passing through this field alone at night ; and that she had often 
heard her father say, still more recently, that, if ever the mounds were 
disturbed at Barber's Bridge, there would be found the bodies of many 
soldiers who were killed down below by the brookside, and brought up here 
to be buried ; that they were Welshmen who had fought at Highnam and 
had been driven back, and met at the brook by another body of soldiers, and 
there surrounded and killed ; that there was no bridge over the brook then ; 
that the bridge had been built in his life time ; that he had been told by his 
father, that his grandfather was an eye-witness of the fight. Two old men, 
Samuel Colwall and Charles Smith, at the time both of them living in one of 
the Tibberton Alms Houses, confirmed the statements of Hannah Taylor." 

Mr. W. P. Price, having remarked that he was about to proceed to the 
Continent by the next train, read the following paper :— In the year 1643 
Gloucester was twice besieged— once in the month of March by Lord Herbert, 
son of the then Earl of Worcester, of Raglan Castle, and ancestor of the 
Duke of Beaufort, who raised a force of 2,000 men in the county of 
Carmarthen, specially for that enterprise ; and a second time by the king 
himself, in person, in the month of August. It is with the first of these 
that we are concerned to-day. Lord Herbert was the Lord Worcester who 
is said to have been the inventor of the steam engine and a machine of some 
kind worked by steam was used by him in his celebrated defence of Raglan 
Castle. Lord Herbert's men were marched to Highnam through the Forest 
of Dean, across which they fought their way, and on arrival encamped be- 
hind a line of entrenchments which extended from the Leadon to the Severn, 
along the high ground now covered by Mr. Parry's woods. The remains of 
those entrenchments may still be seen on both sides of the road a little above 
the three-mile stone between this and Gloucester. On the top of the high 
hill and above the entrenchments, on a projecting shoulder, may also be 
traced the site of a battery, the guns of which commanded the ground on 
which we stand, and especially the ford over the brook at the spot where 
the county bridge, known as Barber's Bridge, has since been built. This 
ford was known at the time, and was referred to in the local histories as 
Highleadon Passage — as it connected the parish of Rudford on this side with 
the hamlet of Highleadon on the other. — and over it was the road into 
Herefordshire, and one of the roads into Wales. This ford was alternately 
held during the civil wars either by the Royalist or Parliamentary forces, 
which were encamped on the large field on the left hand side of the road as 
you pass over Highleadon Green on the way to Upleadon. A small white 
cottage, in a little enclosure from the common, in the angle between the 
road to Newent and the road to Upleadon, and close to which you will pass 
on your road to Upleadon, is still called the Camp House, as it was the 
head-quarters of the force which guarded the ford, and is now the property 
of Mr. Ellis of Minsterworth. The Welsh force occupied the ground 
between the Leadon and the Severn, overlooking Gloucester, the site of their 
batteries being still visible in the field near Mr. Parry"s Church, and their 
rear was protected by the entrenchments and works to which I have already 
referred. At the date of the events I am describing, Gloucester was held for 



240 Transactions at Newent. 

the Parliament and defended by Colonel Massie, its military governor, and 
the Parliamentary forces in the field operating in this county were com- 
manded by Sir W. Waller. He was engaged at the time in the neighbourhood 
of Cirencester or Malmesbury, and he conceived the idea and concerted the 
plan of a sudden and rapid march by night to the rear of the Welsh forces, 
and a combined attack by himself on that side, and by Colonel Massie from 
Gloucester on the other. Flat-bottomed boats were secretly conveyed and 
kept in readiness at or near Framilode, and having taken the town of 
Malmesbury he caused it to be supposed that he was moving to the attack 
of Cirencester, but in the darkness of the night changed the direction of his 
route, and crossing the river in his flat-bottomed boats, reached Huntley in 
the evening of March 23rd. The whole of that day Col. Massie had engaged 
the Welsh in repeated skirmishes. The attack was renewed in the morning 
of the 24th, and whilst the attention of the Welsh was drawn to their front 
by Col. Massie, Waller coming up from Huntley, suddenly appeared in their 
rear, and thus surprised, the Welsh surrendered, having lost, according to 
different statements, from 400 to 600 men. In 186S the mound on which 
we are assembled was lowered to fill up a large pool which reached up to the 
walls of the shed below. In the course of the work some 80 skeletons were 
uncovered, all of which were re-interred in a place of which the monument 
is the centre. That they were the remains of the Welsh who fell on the -24th 
March, 1643, will, I think, be sufficiently proved by the fuller narrative 
contained in the paper read at a meeting of the Cotteswold Club in 1871, 
and copies of which I have placed at your disposal. Sir W. Waller's 
despatch to the Speaker of the House of Commons with particulars of his 
victory never reached its destination, and a subsequent despatch, called for 
by the House, is confined to the general result, and is wanting in detail. A 
collection of the various reports, public and private, which yet remain to us, 
leave no room for doubt as to the leading facts. The road from Huntley to 
Highnam, by which Sir W. Waller arrived, at that time crossed the field on 
the other side of the railway, and can be traced still in many places. It was 
cut through in constructing the line between the station and the bridge, and 
evidently led to the ford, at which place it would fall into the road between 
Newent and Gloucester. According to tradition, the men whose remains 
were discovered here were seeking to escape from Waller's force by way of 
the ford, and were then intercepted by other troops and slain. The 
historical narratives do not sustain this statement, but they are too imperfect 
to be trustworthy, whilst the tradition has everywhere been confirmed by 
recent discovery. 

Sir Wm. Guise, in proposing a vote of thanks to Mr. Price for his 
interesting address, said he had proved beyond doubt that the bodies placed 
beneath the cross were those of Welshmen who fell in the skirmish when 
Highnam was taken. 

Mr. Price, in acknowledging the vote of thanks, mentioned a curious 
incident in connection with this matter. A great deal of the evidence given 
in Major Price's paper was discovered by accident in one part of a very 
considerable library of works in the British Museum called the " Thomason 
collection." This was originally formed in Oxford, when the king was 
holding his Parliament there, by Thomason, who, thinking that when the 



Church of Upleadon*. 241 

Civil War broke out it was likely to be of some duration, took the pains to 
collect every paper or public document issued in reference to it. These he 
bound in fortnightly volumes, of which there were now about 500 or 600. 
He was directed to these by the librarian at the Museum, and worked his 
way through them to the particular date about which he wanted to get some 
account. The very volume he wanted was missing, and he told the librarian 
so, who, after some reflection, suggested that it might be the "King's 
volume," which amongst other literary curiosities, was kept in a glass case 
in the lobby of the library. And there he found it, and from it obtained 
the greater part of the evidence required for the paper. Its history was this : 
The King being one day short of some document, and knowing that Thomason 
collected all kinds of documents on the Civil War, sent for it. Thomason 
had it in one of his books, but insisted on presenting it to the King himself. 
When he tried to do so the King was mounting his horse, which shied on 
■ seeing the book, and the book fell into the muddy street. The old man 
picked it up and wrote on the fly leaf an account of the incident. This 
account, together with the stains of the mud, was now in the book. 
Additional interest attached to this matter from another fact. Mr. S. R. 
Gardiner, Professor of Modern History at King's College, London, who is 
now engaged in writing a History of England during the time of the Stuarts, 
in acknowledging a paper on the Barber's Bridge subject which he sent to 
him, said it had been particularly serviceable to him because it led him to 
seek and to find in the identical volume referred to some interesting facts 
which he had hitherto been unable to obtain. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Price's address, the party took their places in 
the " drags " which awaited them and proceeded to the 

Church of Upleadon. 

On arriving at the Churchyard Gate the party were met by the Rector, the 
Rev. Gray Lawson, who welcomed them to the village, and invited them 
to follow him into the Church, a building of 12th century date, with a 
half timbered tower. 

Mr. Lawson said that he knew but little concerning the Church and 
Manor of Upleadon ; but an extract from the "Knights' Hospitalers in 
England, printed by the Camden Society, 1856," had led him to believe 
that the Manor of Upleadon was held by the Knights' Templars, and after 
them by the Knights' Hospitalers. 

Mr. Bazeley remarked that the Manor of Upleadon held by the Knights' 
Templars and Knights' Hospitalers, was that of Upleadon in the parish of 
Bostrey, Herefordshire, and referred to the " Household Roll of Bishop 
Swinfield, printed by the Camden Society, 1S55, cxvi. et seq." He then 
read some notes on the Manor of Upleadon, and said that it was shewn 
by the History and Chartulary of St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, that 
Upleadon was given, under the name of Ledene, to that Abbey by Walter 
de Lacy, a.d. 1U30. 

" Ledene had previously belonged to Roger, son of William Fitz Osborn, 
Earl of Hereford, and it Mas one of the 27 manors bestowed by William the 
Conqueror on Walter de Lacy when the possessions of the rebel Earl were 
confiscated to the Crown. 

Vol. X., part 1. R 



242 Transactions at Newent. 

Walter de Lacy had three sons, the youngest of whom, Walter, at the 
age of seven, was devoted to God's service as a monk of St. Peter's Abbey, 
A.t). 1080. Serlo, the abbot of St. Peter's at that time, received with the 
boy the Manor of Ledene, and some years later the Manor of Duntsborne. 
The grant of Ledene was confirmed by a charter, signed at Berkeley and 
witnessed by William I. and many of his nobles. 

It was also confirmed by subsequent charters of King Stephen, A.D. 1138 ; 
Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 1139-1148; and Henry II., 
1154-1183. The earliest mention of a church at Upleadon is during the 
episcopacy of Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, 1148-1163, who, as 
having been previously abbot of St. Peter's Gloucester, a.d. 1139-1148, 
would have special interest in the spiritual welfare of the abbey tenants. 

Bishop Gilbert consecrated a chapel and cemetery at Upleadon "for the 
welfare of souls and as a last refuge for the poor." 

He also ordained that the Church of Upleadon, so consecrated, should 
serve as a chapel to its mother church, St. Peter's, Gloucester, and pay only 
the customary dues of a chapel. 

The north doorway is probably part of the original church, erected about 
the time of Gilbert Foliot. 

Hugh de Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, 1231-1234, confirmed to the Abbot 
of St. Peter's the tithes of Ledene, and also two garbs of the whole tithing 
of the tenants of Ledene. 

In the taxation of Pope Nicholas it is stated that the Abbot of Gloucester 
holds in his Manor of Upleadon, eight acres of meadow, valued at Is. 4d. 
an acre, and that the portion of the abbot in the Chapel of Upleadon is £2. 

In 1195-6 Roger de Stanton, knight, gave the monks of St. Peter's the 
free use of the water of the Leadon and the Clenclie, for the supply of the 
abbey mill at Upleadon. The prior and cellarer, as an acknowledgement for 
this gift, gave him three marks of silver and a palfrey. 

In 1337 contentions arose between Robert de Stanton and the Monks 
about the use of this water, and an account of the legal proceedings which 
followed is given in the Chartulary in Norman-French. In the same records 
is an extent or survey of the Manors of Upleadon and Highleadon. 

In 12S4-1306 Abbot John de Gurneyes built the Abbot's lodging at 
Hartpury and several new houses at Upleadon. 

In 1287 the Abbot claimed, and was allowed, free warren at Upleadon. 
The latest registers of St. Peter's Abbey, are of Abbots Newton and Parker, 
which contain many leases of the manor and tithes of Upleadon. 

After the Dissolution a portion of the tithes of Upleadon was granted to 
the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester. The other portion and the free Chapel 
of Upleadon were granted by Elizabeth, in the 22nd year of her reign, to 
John Farneham, Esq. 

In 40th Elizabeth, the Manor of Upleadon was granted to John Burgess 
and Jerome Corke. It now belongs to J. Dearman Birchall, Esq., of Bowden 
Hall, Gloucestershire. The Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol is the patron 
of the benefice 



Newest Chtjkch. 243 

An inspection was then made of the church, and also of the parish register, 
which begins in 1538, and of a black letter Bible, in fine preservation, 
printed by Robert Barker, and bearing date 1613. An examination was next 
made of the exterior of the church, the most striking features of which are 
the old carved doorway, and the fine old timbered tower before mentioned. 
It was stated that the church dated from 1150 to 1160 ; but the timbered 
tower, though undoubtedly a fine specimen of this class of work, could not 
be more than 350 years old. The line of dark- coloured oak running up the 
tower with the intervening panels, and the old bell just under the modern- 
looking slate roof, render the tower a very picturesque object. 

From Upleadon the party, amidst heavy rain the greater part of the way, 
drove to Newent, and under the guidance of the Rector, the Rev. Canon 
Wood, and Mr. G. H. Piper, F.G.S., visited 

Newent Church. 
Much interest was manifested in the examination of this fine old church, 
which had been recently restored. It is a matter of regret that the restora- 
tion was not made complete by the removal of the two unsightly galleries, 
which disfigure the fine interior. The roof of the church is a striking 
feature. The old ceiling has been removed with the best effect, and the oak 
beams, which are arranged in the form of panels, have been cased, and the 
roof now well harmonises with the warm tint of the stone walls. 

Mr. Piper read a paper, in which he said : — In Domesday Book, which 
was compiled in 1086, this place is called "Noent," and it was afterwards 
spelt Newent, Nuentz, and in other ways. William the Conqueror, at the 
instance of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord of the Marches 
of Wales gave the Manor of Newent to the Abbot and Convent of St. Mary 
de Cormeilles, in Normandy. The Abbot thereupon sent over a Prior and 
some Benedictine monks, and Newent became a cell to that foreign monastery. 
The priory house, which was a small establishment only, stood in the grounds 
of Old Court, adjoining the churchyard, where the present dwelling-house 
now stands, near whereto the prior formed a large fishpond, which may be 
seen on the north side of the church to this day. Henry I. confirmed the 
manor to the Abbey of Cormeilles, and the grant was ratified by Pope 
Alexander III,, and again by King Henry II. The charter of this monarch 
confirming the grant included divers other lordships, lands, and churches 
in the county of Gloucester, Hereford, Worcester, Monmouth, and South- 
ampton. Amongst those in the more immediate neighbourhood were 
Boulsdon, Compton Malswick, Oakley, Pauntley, and Stalling, and the 
advowsons of Dymock and Teddington, with the Manor of Tedgewood and 
the advowson of Aston, in Herefordshire. No doubt the priory contributed 
to the growth and increase of the town by the purchase from Henry III. of 
a right to hold a weekly market, and two fairs in each year, and other 
privileges, and by the company it drew thither. Mr. Piper stated that King 
Edward III. deprived the Norman Abbey of its English possessions, and 
that King Henry IV. on founding the College of Fotheringhay, in 
Northamptonshire, with Edward Duke of York, by virtue of an Act of 
Parliament granted to the college all the manors with their apurtenances 
that had belonged to the Priory of Newent. The grant made to Fothering- 
hay by his father was confirmed by statute 2nd Henry V. at the suppression 
R 2 



214 Transactions at Nf.wext. 

of alien priories in 1415. The Manor and Rectory of Newent remained with 
Fotheringhay College until the general dissolution of Religious Houses in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and eventually Newent was granted to Sir Richard 
Lee in the 1st of Edward VI., and afterwards passed, through Sir John 
Winter, to the Foley family. 

Newent Church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It originally consisted 
of a nave and chancel, with south aisle and Ladye Chapel at the east end, and 
a tower with spire, which stood at the middle of the south aisle, before its 
symmetry was destroyed at the rebuilding in 1675. The archway under the 
tower formed the principal entrance to the church. The buttresses of the 
tower are complete at all the four angles, which might indicate that it had, 
at some period, been a separate structure. The inner archway of the porch 
under the tower, with its Early English mouldings, part of the original 
structure, give undoubted proof that it was joined to the south aisle, and 
that the archway was within the aisle. Again, the south door into the 
church, and the noble archway next to the churchyard, would never have 
been made except as principal entrance to the church. An additional proof 
that the tower was not at any time detached is to be found in the fact that 
the east window in the Ladye Chapel is in its original form and position, with 
hood mouldings, as the builder left it, in the centre of the east wall of the 
chapel and opposite the centre of the south aisle. If the tower had been 
detached there would not have been sufficient room to construct the aisle in 
such a manner that the east window should be opposite to its centre, and the 
south wall of the Ladye Chapel would have projected several feet beyond 
that of the aisle, which was not the case. The inside of the Ladye Chapel 
has been well preserved, and is a fine specimen of Early English architecture. 
All the windows are there, inwardly, as the builder left them in the early 
part of the 14th century, but it is very doubtful whether the new tracery 
thereof are re-productions of the originals. The external hood mouldings 
and finials have no true resemblance to Early English work, and are of modern 
construction and pattern. In the Ladye Chapel is a piscina of Decorated 
work with ball-flower ornament, which seems to have been left at the time 
of its erection in an unfinished state. The south window over this is now at 
least a foot longer than the original, as is shown by the string-course which, 
though unfortunately cut away, shows in a very definite form its original 
line. At the base of this window, and near to the piscina, was found, in 
18S4, a carved stone which Canon Wood has presented to the Gloucester 
Museum. Mural paintings were found in the Ladye Chapel on removing the 
whitewash during the restoration of 18S4, but in a very imperfect condition 
and quite beyond revival. The roof of the Ladye Chapel would appear to 
have been built between the years 1560 and 1600. The original wall plates 
are there. The chancel and Ladye Chapel are separated by an arcade of two 
Early English arches, which still exist, and in all probability the same style 
of arch was continued in the nave to separate it from the south aisle. The 
large and remarkable window at the east end of the chancel of a late 
decorated character is, it is stated, an exact copy of the original window, 
which was, until within a comparatively recent period, blocked up, but the 
tracery of one-half thereof remained perfect. This window, or the greater 
part of it, fell into the church on the 15th July, 1651, some years before the 
fall of the roof. The tower and spire are good examples of Early English, 



Dtmock Chcrch. 245 

probably erected late in the 14th century, as the beautiful tracery in the 
groined roof of the lower chamber, or porch, shows that the Decorated period 
was at hand. This work has been sadly mutilated by holes made for bell- 
ropes, but is capable of thorough restoration at no great cost. The tower 
and spire are 153ft. in height. The top of the spire was blown down in 1662. 
All that now remains of the Early English church is what survived the 
downfall of 1673, as the new part of the church was erected at a time when 
Gothic architecture was in a moribund state before its extinction, and the 
introduction of "Churchwardens' Gothic" in the 18th century. The roof 
of the church fell in 1673, on a Sunday night, after service, caused by a 
quantity of snow lying upon it. After a time the restoration of the church 
was commenced, and the building of the arches was begun from the west 
end, but a parishioner who had been to London, and had seen what Sir 
Christopher Wren was doing at St. Paul's, thought it better to have a timber 
roof. In consequence of this interference the re-building of the arcade was 
abandoned, a matter to be much regretted. The new arches were pulled 
down, and the church was opened. The roof was a curious example of 
timber work. Mr. Piper stated that King Charles II. made a grant of 
timber from the Forest of Dean for the roof, to the extent, he believed, of 
60 tons. When Sir Gilbert Scott examiued the church some years ago he 
said there was timber enough in it to cover six such churches. The work 
was very well done, and it bids fair to last for a long period. 

On the proposal of Sir W. Guise a vote of thanks was given Mr. Piper 
for his paper. 

The party then adjourned to luncheon at the George Hotel, nearly 100 
sitting down. 

On the conclusion of lunch the company resumed their places in their 
carriages and drove to Dymock, passing on the route what is known as 
" Castle Tump." The heavy rain, however, prevented a visit to it. On 
arriving at Dymock they were joined by Mr. T. Gambier Parry, who, with 
the vicar, the Rev. R. Horton, acted as guides to 

Dymock Church. 

Mr. Parry's description of the church was listened to with much 
interest. He pointed out that it is chiefly remarkable on account of its 
masonry, and it is by the peculiar characteristics of its style that some idea 
may be formed as to its date. Many of the Roman walls were built in the 
herring-bone style, but the difference between the Roman and the Early 
English use of it was that the Romans built horizontal courses of stonework 
to keep the zigzag work solid. In England and Normandy the zigzag work 
is always found without these courses. This is the case at Dymock. The 
zigzag or herring-bone, and the reticulated work are styles of masonry of 
ancient origin, and were taken by the English from Roman traditional use. 
Of both of these, and of the pecularities of treatment by modes of tooling, 
there are excellent examples in this church. Of the second kind, known to 
the Romans as " opus reticulatum," thei'e are good specimens in the small 
arches outside the chancel toward the south. Of the zigzag masonry there 
are many other examples in this county, the most important perhaps being 
in the neighbouring church at Ashleworth. in the use of it there was the 



246 TRANSACTIONS AT NEWENT. 

difference between the Roman and the English practice mentioned above. 

The remains of the flat piers, which appear to be quite as much 

designed for the ornamental division of the external walls as for strength, 

and which are characteristic of all architecture of the period when 

the Lombard, the Romanesque and the Norman styles prevailed in Italy, 

North Europe and England, are here valuable also for their peculiarity 

of mason's work by hammering, or hammer-faced work, which was commonly 

practised long before the Normans introduced the use of the chisel. In 

Canterbury Cathedral there is some Norman masonry-work as late as 1120, 

but even there the hammer-work is still noticeable on the surface of the 

stone, and from this circumstance he was of opinion that Dymock church 

was not earlier than 1120. The Norman work on the south side of the 

nave remains only to an irregular height of about 13 or 14 feet ; and by the 

restoration of it being in an advanced style of masonry, it is evident that the 

church must have remained in a ruinous condition for a long time, probably 

not less than a century. The theory by which Mr. Parry accounted for this 

aroused considerable interest. It was to the effect that one of the greatest 

families in this part of England was the De Bohuns, who came over from 

Normandy with William the Conqueror. When the Normans began to 

settle there, a large number of the Norman nobility possessed themselves of 

the land between the neighbourhood of Dymock and Wales, and as the 

condition of the country was disturbed, a certain proportion of them were 

given the title and authority of Lords of the Marches, and were made 

responsible for the safety of the country between that part and Wales. In the 

reign of Henry III., Humphrey de Bohun was made the chief of them, and in 

right of his wife Marjery he became possessed of the manor of Dymock. This 

fact establishes for the De Bohuns a direct interest in Dymock, and tradition 

states — for there is no actual history — that they were possessed of the manor 

and were the actual masters of the place. The elevated situation of the 

village and church afforded fine opportunities for defence against the Welsh 

in all that neighbourhood, and as has already been pointed out tradition 

credits the De Bohuns with erecting the " Castle Tump " in the Eastern part 

of the parish. About the latter part of the reign of Henry III. was one of the 

most troublesome times between England and Wales, and the Welsh made 

inroads into the country. In 12S3 Wales was united with England. There 

had been much trouble between the Welsh and the English forces, and in 

1265 the neighbouring castle of Raglan with others had been taken. Dymock 

was in the heart of the country in which all this trouble was going on. All 

the repairs of the Church are in Gothic of the earliest period of the 14th 

century, and as the De Bohuns must have found the Church in ruins, the 

probability is that at that date they carried out the repairs which are now so 

easily traceable both in the interior and the exterior of the building. 

In reference to the herring-bone work Sir John Maclean remarked that 
the style was still common in some counties in the construction of hedges, 
especially in Devon and Cornwall, and in some cases an intercepting horizontal 
layer was used, similar in design to that mentioned by Mr. Parry in reference 
the Roman masonry. 

On behalf of the Society, Sir W. V. Guise thanked Mr. Gambier Parry 
for his interesting explanations. Mr. Parry, after acknowledging the com- 
pliment, drew attention to some characteristics by which it is sometimes 



Kempley Church. 247 

possible to form an idea of the original style and construction of a dilapidated 
building. He remarked that it was commonly the habit of the Normans to 
construct a short, low, central tower in a church, and judging from the 
situation of the piers in the centre of Dymock Church, he believed that was 
originally the case there. Sir John Maclean, being appealed to, said he was 
of the same opinion. 

The rain had now ceased and the party, under the guidance of Mr. 
Gambier Parry drove to Kempley to inspect 

Kempley Church and its Mural Paintings. 

The little hamlet of Kempley, a few miles from Dymock, possesses 
one of the most remarkable churches in the diocese, and its inspection 
afforded an unusual treat. It consists of a Norman nave and chancel, built 
probably at the end of the 11th century; their sizes are, roughly 
speaking, — nave 3-4 feet by 19, chancel 18 feet by 14. All the walls of this 
early part remain, with the west and south doors, the narrow chancel arch, 
and four of the original windows. In the 15th and 16th centuries a western 
tower was added, a wooden porch built on to the south 6 door, and two 
perpendicular two-light windows were inserted in the nave, probably in the 
place of original Norman ones. The dedication of the church is not quite 
certain, but tradition ascribes it to the Blessed Virgin, and this view is 
supported by legends on the bells which date from the reign of Edward III. 
The chancel, where the best preserved paintings remain, is covered by a 
plain, round, barrel vault, built in rubble. Such vaults are common in 
monastic and military buildings of the 11th and 1 2th centuries ; but, 
excepting the chapel in the keep of the Tower of London, it is believed 
there is no other English instance of a church being so roofed. This vault 
and the chancel arch have both been seriously damaged by settlement, and 
a crack along the crown of the vault has much injured the paintings on the 
soffit. The whole wall surface of the chancel has been painted, and most of 
it still remains in a remarkably perfect condition, considering its great age. 
The comparative freshness of the paintings is chiefly owing to their having 
been thoroughly covered with repeated coats of whitewash, and thus 
preserved from the effects of light and other sources of injury. This covering 
of whitewash was removed, bit by bit, with the greatest caution and delibera- 
tion in the winter of 1872, when the existence of the paintings first came to 
light. The pictures are painted on a single coat of stucco laid on the rubble 
wall, which in places is scarcely covered by it, and there can be little doubt 
that they are contemporary with the building itself, i.e., somewhere near 
the year 1100. 1 

The Rector (the Rev. C Weaver) received the visitors and considerately 
opened the chancel door to admit sufficient light to enable them to examine 
what they had specially gone there to see, and Mr. Gambier Parry 
brieily addressed them in reference to the mural paintings. He pointed 
out that the general subject which occupies the roof and chancel walls 

1 These paintings were discovered by our member, Professor J. Henry Middleton, F.S.A., 
in 1871, who very carefully removed the whitewash and made copies of the pictures, which 
he placed at the disposal of the Society of Antiquaries. The Society in 1»77 printed them in 
facsimile in the Aicheeulogia vol. 40, p, ls7, with a very full detailed description by Mr, J. T 
Micklethwaite, F.S.A.— Ed, 



248 Transactions at Newent. 

is the Glorification of the Redeemer. The central figure of the roof 
is that of Christ in Glory, or what is commonly known as a Majesty, 
which, when associated with other figures, takes the next important 
place, as in the suhjects of the Last Judgment, the Resurrection, 
or others. This example shows the Lord in Glory, and it is one 
of the most complete illustrations extant. Over the chancel arch 
toward the nave, which in the early Christian churches was called 
the Arch of Triumph, there evidently had been a subordinate repre- 
sentation of the Last Judgment. The central figure in the chancel is our 
Lord sitting upon a Rainbow, in the act of blessing. He is surrounded by the 
four evangelistic symbols — the ox and the eagle on the south side, and the 
lion and angel on the north, holding open books. The foiuth figure, which 
is emerging from a cloud, is rather indistinct, which in earliest Christian art 
forms a feature in this subject. The seven candlesticks are also shown, and 
right and left of them are two figures, which appear to be St. Peter carrying 
the keys, and the Blessed Virgin. In front of them, to introduce the 
Heavenly Host, are two enormous cherubim, with six wings each, and two 
cherubim on the east end corresponding. There are two other figures, which 
probably represent the benefactors of the parish. Mr. Parry found no other 
way of accounting for them, particularly as there seems to be no sacred 
associations about them, and he remarked that it is quite a common 
occurrence to find in works of art of every character figures of the persons 
who caused them to be erected. Right and left of the altar are two 
important figures. One is indistinct, but the other is a bishop in mass 
vestments in the act of blessing. The walls of the chancel on each side are 
occupied by ranges of six figures under canopies, and representing the 
twelve apostles, in attitudes expressive of adoration as they look upwards 
to their glorified Master. Alluding to the construction of the vault, he said 
the Normans used to construct them with boards placed longitudinally and 
intersected with rubble, and when the whole was consolidated they took 
away the boards and left the rough surface to be painted on. In the vault 
before them they had a complete example of the Norman way of vault- 
building. Mr. Parry went on to refer to the subject of art itself, saying 
that in the examples before them they had arrived at the complete period of 
the third development of art in Europe. Three distinct courses of art were 
known in Europe, the first being Roman, which died out soon after the 
Romans retired, but the debased forms of it were perpetuated from bad to 
worse by the natives. The same characteristics of diminished height and 
large heads usually prevailed. In England all art seems to have waned 
away in the social and political confusion which ensued. In Europe, at 
least in the north, this seems to have been generally the case, till 
Charlemagne, in his endeavours to establish order and civilization, obtained 
artists, whose style though of a low type, produced good and great effect 
throughout his empire. He was succeeded by three Emperors named Otho. 
Otho the 2nd married a Greek Princess, a lady of much artistic taste, who, 
when she came to her husband's dominions, was shocked at the rudeness 
and want of refinement in everything, and resolved to raise the character of 
the arts of her adopted country. She persuaded her husband to invite 
artists from Constantinople, and thus was marked the third development of 
European art. In the first, as he had remarked, the characteristic was a 



Kempley Chukcm. 249 

stumpiness of figure. In the last, which was brought over from Constanti- 
nople, the figures were developed in the contrary way, being too tall in their 
proportions. The result of this was — for these men from Constantinople 
were true artists— that a revolution took place, and the happy medium in 
size was struck. This happy medium, in which the figures are fairly natural 
in their proportions, is to be seen in Kempley Church. The art and artists 
of that age were mostly associated with sacred buildings, and persons 
belonging to religious establishments, and exhibited the utmost of conven- 
tionalism in drawing and design from the neglect of proper course of study. 
The study of the nude figure, from which alone correct design can be learnt, 
was entirely omitted ; so figures were drawn principally with reference to 
draperies, and the limbs beneath them were ignored ; and hence originated 
the awkwardness of early mediaeval figures, such as these of Kempley, of the 
12th century. 

Another vote of thanks having been accorded to Mr. Parry, the Rev. 
Mr. Weaver conducted the visitors round the church, pointing out the 
characteristics of the building, and calling particular attention to an antique 
chest, roughly hewn from the trunk of a tree, whose age nobody ventured to 
speculate upon. He also pointed out a curious painting in a little window 
on the north of the nave representing St. Michael weighing a soul and the 
Blessed Virgin interceding for it. He asked for some explanation of a 
curious wheel which was painted on the north wall, similar to one in 
Leominster, but the visitors were unable to account for it in any way. The 
time had now arrived for returning to Gloucester, which the party did from 
Dymock station, having, notwithstanding the weather, spent a very enjoyable 
day. 



250 TKAN*AOTrOiNS AT NEWEST. 



THE MANOR OF BOSHAM IN COUNTY OF SUSSEX. 

Introduction. 
By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A. 

The following Memoir on the Manor of Bosham, Co. Sussex, has 
no connection with the County of Gloucester further than that 
it was written by John Smyth of Nibley, and forms one of the 
list of that author's works given by him and printed at pp. 411, 
412, Vol. III. of the Berkeley MSS. If there were no other 
reason, however, the printing of it in our Transactions would not 
need an apology, for the manorial customs of Bosham, as given 
post pp. 264-272, are peculiar, and of considerable general interest ; 
and, moreover, it may, in a sense, be regarded as a continuation 
of the Lives of the Berkleyes. 

It will be remembered that Smyth concluded his Lives of the 
Berkeley s with Theophila, born 1596, and George, born 1601, the 
only issue of Sir Thomas Berkeley, who died v. p. 1610, and 
Elizabeth his wife, the only child of Sir George Carey, Lord 
Hunsdon. George succeeded his grandfather as Lord Berkeley in 
1613. The Lady Theophila married 12th August in this year, 
Sir Robert Coke, Knight, eldest son of Sir Edward Coke, Lord 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. This is the lady mentioned 
by Smyth in the opening part of his letter to Mr. George Berkeley 
as your "excellent Aunt the Lady Coke." 

George Lord Berkeley married in 1616 Elizabeth, second 
daughter and co-heir of Sir Michael Stanhope, of Sudburne he 
being then of the age of 13 years and she nine. They, beside a 
daughter Elizabeth, had issue two sons : Charles, who was 
drowned in 1640 on his way towards Dieppe, and George, who 
was the Mr. George Berkeley to whom Sin y the dedicates this 
memoir. By the death of his brother s.p. , George Berkeley became, 
heir to the title and estates, and succeeded his father therein in 
1656. "He having greatly manifested his loyalty to King 
Charles II. in order to his happy l'estoration, and afterwards by 



The Manor of Bosham. 251 

divers eminent services, (as the patent sets forth) was 1 1th December 
31st Charles II. advanced to the title of Viscount Dursley, as also 
to the degree of an Earl under the title of Earl of Berkeley." 1 
1 Collins's Peerage, Edit 1741 II. p. 415. 

Having inherited the noble library of Sir Robert Coke, he 
presented, during his life, a portion of it to Sion College, in the 
city of London, and devised the remainder by his will to the same 
institution. 

The manuscript here printed is the property of Mr. Charles 
Berkeley, of Funtington, and was most obligingly lent to the 
Society by him for that purpose. 



To Mr. George Berkeley. 
Sir, 

When my most honoured lady, your grandmother Berkeley, 
left this life the 23rd day of Aprill, Anno 1635, you were eight 
yeares and thirteene dayes old : The same month, under the 
tuition of your excellent Aunt, the Lady Coke (honoured of all 
that knew her), you, in the world's judgement, first entred into 
happiness : since when two yeares and twenty daies are now 
expired, before the address of theis. 

In this little handful] of time, by her care and her worthy 
husband's, how profitably the portion bequeathed you by your 
grandmother, hath beene husbanded, this history will declare : 
what you owe to such governors (uncle and aunt), God enable you 
in ripenes of yeares to remember and acknowledge. 

I have, since your grandmother's death, but once seene you, 
neither am like any more heerafter. Age and habitations soe 
farre distancinge us ; The better to informe you in the passage of 



252 Transactions at Newest. 

the purchase of this goodly seigniory of JBosham, the ancient and 
honourable possession of your Ancestors thereby to continue it 
(as already 325 yeares it hath) in your generations. And to 
knowe what it is in demesne services, customes, and liberties. I 
have thus brought togeather this history of that mannor out of 
many scattered corners, as the margents doe shewe, And privately 
cast it amongst those evidences nowe delivered to your use ; which 
if hereafter you fall upon, And not then acknowledge the debt 
and duty you owe for theis there benefitts conferred upon you, 
The graves of us that then are dead, and the tongues of the 
livinge will proclayme you for an ungratefull man ; which, as the 
foulest of vices, God avert from you. 

The humble prayer of 

Your Servant, 
13 Maii, 1637. JOHN SMYTH. 



THE HISTORY OF THE MANNOR OF BOSHAM, with 
the members of Funtington, Thorney and Buckfold, in the county 
of Sussex. 

This Mannor of Bosham, whereto the hundred called Bosham 
hundred is appendant, was parcell of the auncient possessions of 
the Archbishops' See of Canterbury, from the first erection of 
that Bishoppricke till the time of Kinge Edward the Confessor : 
howe it was then sevred, Campden, in his Britannia clescribinge 
this County 1 , shall tell you in his owne words, as Doctor Holland, 
sometimes your father's tutor in Coventry, hath Englished them. 

Bosenham, commonly called Bosham, a place environed round 
about with woods and sea togeather, where (as Bede saith) Dicull 
the Scottish monke had a very small cell. And in it five or six 
religious men livinge poorely in service of the Lord, which many 

1 Campd. Britt. 306, Anno Augl. 70 per Selden, Speed Chron. 



The Man t ok of Bosham. 253 

yeares after was converted into a retiring place of ease for Kinge 
Harold : whence hee (when upon a time for his recreation hee 
made out with a little barke into the maine sea) was with a 
contrary pirrie carried violently into Normandy, and there 
detayned in hold untill hee had by oath assured the Kingdome of 
England unto William of Normandy after the death of Kinge 
Edward the Confessor : whereby hee presently drewe upon him- 
selfe his owne ruine, and upon England the danger of finall 
destruction: But with what a crafty amphiboly or equivocation 
that subtill and captious catcher of sillables Godwyn Earle of 
Kent this Harold's father caught this place, and howe with a 
wily word-trapp hee deceived the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Walter Mapseus, who lived not many yeares after, shall out of his 
booke entitled Courtiers toyes tell you in his own wordes. 1 

This Bosham underneath Chichester (saith hee) Goodwyn 
sawe and had a minde to it ; beinge accompanied therefore with 
a great traine of gentlemen hee comes smilinge and wastinge to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury whose towne then it was : My lord, 
saith hee, give you mee Bosham, alludinge happily to Baseum, 
that is a busse or kisse, used in doinge homage: The Arch- 
bishoppe, marveilinge much what hee demaunded by that question, 
answered, I give you Boseam: Then hee forthwith, with that 
troupe of his Knights and souldiers fell clowne (as hee had before 
taken order) at his feet, and kissinge them with many thankes, 
went back to Bosham ; kept possession of it as lord by stronge 
hande, And havinge the testimony of his friends and followers 
praysed (in the presence of the Kinge) the Archbishop as donor 
thereof, and soe held it peaceably. 

Afterwards as wee read in Testa Nevilli (which was an In- 
quisition of lands made in Kinge John's time) Kinge William 
who attayned to the Conquest of England gave this Bosham unto 
William Fitz Aucher and his heires in fee farme, paying out of it 
yearely into the Exchequer fourty two pounds of silver tryed and 
waighed. 2 And after that William Marshall Earle of Pembrooke 
held it as his Inheritance. Thus Campden. 

1 Mapseus in Biblioth. Oxon. 

3 Rot. feod. miitum vocat Testa Nevilli in Sccio. 



254 TRANSACTION'S AT NeWENT. 

The Inhabitants of Bosham have shewed mee, derivinge their 
knowledge by tradition from their forefathers the ruines of an 
outworne foundation neere to that auncient parish church which 
they called St. Bede's chappell, as small in circuite as Bede maketh 
the cell of Dicull there adjoyninge to bee. 

Howe it moved from Fitz Aucher or his heires I have not 
found ; But Kinge Richard the first in the first yeare of his raigne 
gave this mannor of Bosham to John Marischall and sonne of 
Gilbert and his heires, Rendringe per ami. forty two pounds into 
his Exchequer. 1 

William Marshall (called thelder) sonne of the said John (who 
in right of Isable his wife daughter and heire of Richard Strong- 
bowe Earle of Pembrooke 2 , on the day of Kinge John's coronation 3 , 
was in her right created Earle of Pembrooke, to whom Kinge 
Richard the first in the first yeare of his raigne 4 gave her in 
marriage, shee beinge then his ward,) is the next in whome I 
find the possession of this manor of Bosham to have beene. 

By the said Isable this Earle William had issue five sonnes, 
William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter, and Anselme ; and five daugh- 
ters, Matild. Joane, Isable, Sibill, and Eve: 5 And of this manor 
dyed seized the 1 6 th daye of March in the fourth yeare of Kinge 
Henry the third, Anno 1219, havinge in the second yeare of that 
Kinge obtained a market to be holden weekly in Bosham on the 
Thursdayes, which of late yeares is little frequented. 6 

William Marshall called the younger, sonne and heire of the 
said William and Isable, was also Earle of Pembrooke, and next 
owner of this manor : hee had two wives the latter whereof 
was Eleanor daughter to Kinge John, and sister to Kinge Henry 
the third ; hee dyed without issue the sixth of Aprill 1231, in the 
fifteenth yeare of Kinge Henry the third, leavinge Richard his 
brother to succeed him. 

Richard second sonne of William Marshall th'elder, was also 
after the death of William his brother, Earle of Pembrooke and 

1 Antiq.Cartee in Arce Lond. littera W. No. 9. 

2 Vincent, fol. 413. 3 Anno 1199. 4 Anno 1189. 

5 Rot. Pip?e, 7 Johis. 

6 Rot. Claus. 2 H. Ill, pars. 2.m. 2, in Arce Lond. 



The Maxor of Bosham. 255 

owner of this manor: hee also dyed without issue the 16 th of 
Aprill 1234, in the 18 th yeare of Kinge Henry the third, leavinge 
Gilbert his brother to succeed him. 

Gilbert, third sonne of William Marshall th'elder, was also 
after the death of Richard his brother Earle of Pembrooke 
and owner of this manor : hee married Margaret daughter of 
William King of Scots, but dyed without issue Anno 1241, 21 th 
yeare of Kinge Henry the thirde, leavinge Walter his brother to 
succeed him. 1 

Walter fourth sonne of William Marshall th'elder, was also 
after the death of Gilbert his brother Earle of Pembrooke and 
owner of this manor : hee married Margery daughter and co-heire 
of Robert Lord Quincy sonne and heire of Saer de Quincy Earle 
of Winchester 2 , widowe of John Lacy, Earle of Lincolne, but 
dyed without issue the fourth of December in the 29 th yeare 
of Henry the third, Anno 1245, leavinge Anselme his brother to 
succeed him : 3 which Margery after her husband's death was 
endowed of this manor of Bosham. 

Anselme fifth sonne of William Marshall th'elder was also 
after the death of Walter his brother Earle of Pembroke and 
owner of this manor : he married Maud daughter of Humphrey 
de Bohun Earl of Hereford, and dyed without issue the 18 th day 
after his brother Walter, leavinge his great patrimony and inher- 
itance to be divided amongst his five sisters and heires aforesaid, 
where of the said Matild the eldest was married to Hugh Bigod 
Earle of Norfolk, to whome this manor of Bosham (amongst 
others,) with the office of Earle Marshall was allotted in partition : 
Theis are those remarkable gentlemen buried in the round walke 
in the Temple Church by Fleetstreet, London. 4 

And Eve the fifth sister and coheire was married to William 
Lord Breause, of whome you are discencled, as elswhere in a like 
History to this, I have written. 5 

1 Math. Paris, fol. 546, Glouc. Manusc. Chron. 

2 Math. Paris, fol. 665. 

3 Rot. Claus. 30th Hen. III. pars. 1, m. ult. 

4 Ptita. Term. Michs. 9th Hen. III. Rot. 28, Devon. Hill. 4th Edw. I. 
Rot 7, in dorso in Coi. Banco. 

5 " Lives of the Berkeleys," Vol. I., page 243. 



056 Transactions at Nfavent. 

In the time of Kinge Stephen (saith Campden) 1 Hugh Bigod 
was Earle of Norfolke, as the composition sheweth betweene him 
and Kinge Henry the second, whom Henry the second after againe 
created Earle of Norfolke 2 : hee dyed 27 H. 2. And Roger his 
sonne succeeded, who was also againe created Earle of Norfolke 
by Kinge Richard the first, And was father of Hugh, who by 
Maud the eldest daughter and one of the heires of William 
Marescall Earle of Pembrooke had issue Roger, who at a Turna- 
ment havinge his bones put out of joynt, dyed without issue, And 
Hu^h Bigod Lord Cheife Justice of England slayne in the battell 
of Lewis : To which Hugh and his heires Henry the third granted 
free warren in Bosham Funtington and Stoughton 3 : whose sonne 
Roger succeeded his uncle in the Earldome of Norfolk and dignity 
of Marescall : 4 But havinge incurred through his insolent con- 
tumacy the high displeasure of Kinge Edward the first, was 
compelled to passe away his honours and well neere his whole 
inheritance into the King's hands, (whereof Bosham was parcell) 
To the use of Thomas de Brotherton the Kinge's sonne, whome he 
had begotten of his second wife, Margaret, sister to Phillip the 
faire, Kinge of France ; for thus reporteth the history out of the 
library of St. Austin's of Canterbury, viz., 

In the yeare 1301 Roger Bigod Earle of Norfolke ordeyned 
Kinee Edward the first to be his heire, And hee delivered into 
his hands the rod of the Marshall's office with this condition That 
if his wife brought him any children hee should without all con- 
tradiction receive againe all from the Kinge and hold it peaceably 
as before, And the Kinge gave unto him 1000 11 in mony and one 
thousand pound land during his life, togeather with the Marshall- 
ship and the Earldome 5 : But when hee was departed this life 
without issue Kinge Edward the second honoured the said Thomas 
de Brotherton his brother accordinge to the conveyance aforesaid 
with the titles of Marshall and Earle of Norfolke, whose daughter 

1 Campden, fol. 482. 

2 Pat. 40th Edw. III. part 1 m. 6., Pat. 42nd Edw. III. part 1, m. 2. 

3 Cartas, 36th Henry III. m. 29. 

4 Rot. Fin. 54th Henry III. m. 5, in Arce, Lond., Pat, 22nd Edw. III. 
pars. 2, m. 45, Bosham. 

5 Rot. Pat. Sth Edw. II. pars. 2, m. 10, in Arce, Lond. 



The Manor of BoshaM. 257 

Margaret called Marshallesse and Countesse of Norfolke, wife to 
John Segrave, Kinge Richard the second created in her absence 
Dutchesse of Norfolke for her life, And the same day created 
Thomas Mowbray the daughter's bonne of the said Margaret, then 
Earle of Nottingham, the first Duke of Norfolke to him and his 
heires males, unto whome he had before likewise granted the 
state and title of Earle Marshall of England. Thus that story. 

This is that Duke that was before the Kinge challenged and 
accused by Henry of Lancaster Duke of Hereford for utteringe 
inconsiderately certaine reproachfull and derogatory words against 
the Kinge ; And when they were to fight a combate, at the very 
barre and entry of the lists by the voice of an Herauld It was 
proclaymed in the Kinge's name, That both of them should bee 
banished, Lancaster for ten yeares and Mowbray for ever : who 
after ended his life at Venice in the first yeare of Kinge Henry 
the fourth, leavinge two sonnes behind him in England : of 
which Thomas Earle Marshall and of Nottingham, (for no other 
title used hee) was beheaded for seditious plottinge against Henry 
of Lancaster, who then by the name of Kinge Henry the fourth 
had possessed himself e of the Crowne ; But John his brother and 
heire was by Kinge Henry the fifth raised up to Earle Marshall 
and Nottingham, and by Kinge Henry the sixth declared Duke by 
authority of Parliament, 1 as brother and heire to Thomas sonne of 
the said Thomas who dyed in the eleaventh yeare of that Kinge, 
as many Inquisitions found in divers counties after his death doe 
declare : wherein alsoe are laid downe all the former discents 
from Thomas de Brotherton.- 

After him succeeded John his sonne who dyed in the first 
yeare of Kinge Edward the fourth : And after him John his sonne 
who whilst his father lived was by Kinge Henry the sixth created 
Earle of Surrey and of Warren, and dyed in the fifteenth of Kinge 
Edward the fourth, whose only daughter Anne Richard Duke of 
Yorke, younger sonne of Kinge Edward the fourth marryed, and 
with her had the titles of Duke of Norfolke, Earle Marshall, Earle 

1 Rot. Pari. 3rd Hen. VI. in Arce, Loml. 

2 Diversa; Inquis. post mort. DucisNortf. I lth et 12th Hen, VI, 

Vol. X., part 1. a 



25S Transactions at Newest. 

of Warren and Nottingham : But after that both hee and his wife 
were both made away in their tender yeares, Kinge Richard the 
third conferringe the title of Duke of Norfolke and the dignity of 
Earle Marshall upon John Lord Howard, cozen in bloud and one 
of the heires to the said Anne Dutchess of Yorke and Norfolke, 
as whose mother was one of the daughters of that first Thomas 
Mowbray Duke of Norfolke, And who in time of Kinge Edward 
the fourth was sumoned a Baron to the parliament : All whome 
formerly mentioned in these relations were Lords of this Manor of 
Bosham, as the sevrall Inquisitions found after each of their 
deathes, and many other records doe shewe. 

Take also another relation of the discent of this Manor of 
Bosham out of other authors and records, not soe much varied as 
explaininge what formerly is written ; Thus : From that renowned 
Earle William Marshall th'elder Earle of Pembroke a Peere of 
unvaluable worthiness, Protector of the minority of Kinge Henry 
the third and restorer of the Crowne and liberty of England 
almost devoured by Lewis of France, this manor came to his five 
sonnes (all dying Earles without issue successively each after 
other,) And from the last of them to Mawd their eldest sister 
married to Hugh Bigod, Earle of Norfolke, who had issue Roger 
that dyed without issue, and Hugh Bigod Cheife Justice of England, 
slayne at the Battell of Lewis : To whome succeeded Roger his 
sonne Earle of Norfolke and Marshall who was by Kinge Edward 
the first caste into the Tower, And to regaine Liberty and favour 
conveyed to the same Kinge and his heires in the thirtieth of his 
raigne this Manor of Bosham and other his manors and honours : 
And fower yeares after both hee and the Kinge in one and the 
same yeare leaft them and this world also. 1 

Kinge Edward the second succeedinge his father, In perform- 
ance of his will, did, the 16 tk day of December in the sixth yeare 
of his raigne, give to Thomas de Brotherton his halfe brother this 
Manor of Bosham with many others, To hold to him and the 
heires of his body by the rents of old due and accustomed, leavinge 

1 Anno 12G3, 47th Hen. III. Claus. 7th Edw. I. in dorso. Claus. 19th 
Edw. I. iu dorso. Carta?, 36th Edw. I. m. 5, bis. Daniell, fol. 169. 
Hollingsh. fol. 311. Claus. 30th Edw. I. in dorso. Esch. 35th Edw. I. 



The Manor of Boshasi. 250 

the revertion in the Crowne 1 : under which grant as heire in tayle 
you by lineall discent now hold the same : And the third yeare 
after created him the said Thomas his brother Earle of Norfolke 
and Marshall of England. 2 And afterwards his nephew King 
Edward the third in the hrst yeare of his raigne, when hee gran- 
ted unto him many other manors that had escheated by the 
attainders of the two great Spensers, the father and the sonne, 
hee released the foresaid fee-farme rent of fourty-two pounds 
issuinge out of this manor which these Lres. patents declare to be 
fourty fower pounds per ann : under which you hold it at 
this clay. 3 

This Thomas de Brotherton was borne at Brotherton, in 
Yorkshire the first of June 1300 Anno 28 E. I. 4 And by 
Alice his first wife daughter of Sir Roger Hales had issue 
Edward, Margaret, and Alice. Edward was married to Beatrix 
daughter to Roger Mortimer Lord of Wigmore and dyed without 
issue before his father, whose widowe was after married to Thomas 
de Brewosa Knight. 5 Shee dyed 7 R. 2. 

This Thomas de Brotherton dyed in the 12 th of Edward the 
third, leavinge his second wife Mary his widowe, who was after 
married to Sir Ralph Cobham Knight, by whome shee had issue 
Sir John Cobham, And this Mary was first the wife of William 
Lord Brewes Lord of Brember and of Gower. And shee dyed in 
the 36 th of Kinge Edward the third. 

1 Carta?, 6th Edw. II. m. 14. Pat. 4th Edw. II. pars. 1, m. 21. Pat. 
8th Edw. II. pars. 2, m. 10. Carta?, 6th Edw. II. Nos. 30, 31 & 32. Cartas, 
9th Edw. II. No. 32. Pari. 3rd Hen. VI. m. 4 in ced Pat. 8th Edw. II 
pars. m. 10. Carta?, 9th Edw. II. m. 7. 

2 Claus. 6th Edw. III. in dorso. Liber Priorat. de Winch, in Bibliotheca 
Cottoniana. 

3 Pat. 19th Edw. II. m. 10. Claus. 13th Edw. III. pars. 1, m. 33. 
Bundl. Prob. a?tat. a 30 usq. 41st Edw. III. 

4 Pat. 19th Edward II., m. 10. Claus. 13th Edw. III., pars 1. m. 33. 
Bundl Prob. ,Etat. a 30 usq. 41 et Edw. III. 

5 Fin. 19th Edw. III. , m . 5. Pat. 6th Edw. III., par 3 dorso. Claus. 1 1th, 
Ewd. III., par. 2 dorso., et 12th Edw. III., par. 3, m. 18. Rot. Pari. 3rd Hen. 
VI., m. 4. Esch. 36th, Edw. III., par. 2. No. 9, Claus. 37th, Edw. III., 
m. 28 in dorso. Pari. 1st Rich. II., in. 4. 

s 2 



2(10 Transactions at Newest. 



Margaret the eldest daughter of the said Thomas de Brotherton 
was first married to John Lord Segrave, 1 And secondly to Sir 
Walter Manny, by whome shee had issue Thomas Manny that 
dyed young, and Anne married to John Lord Hastings, Earle of 
Pembroke, who had issue John Lord Hastings that dyed without 
issue in the 13 th of Richard the second. 

Alice the younger daughter of the said Thomas cle Brotherton 
was married to Edward de Monte Acuto, who had issue Jone 
married to William de Offord, Earle of Suffolke but dyed without 
issue. 2 

And that Bosham was the King's free chapell and exempted 
from all Episcopall jurisdiction, plentifully appeares by theis five 
Records heere marginald, which alsoe shewe the various successe 
thereof. 3 

John Lord Segrave dyed in the 26 th of Edward the third, the 
said Margaret his wife survivinge him, by whome hee had issue 
John that married Blanch, daughter of John Lord Mowbray, And 
they both dyed without issue ; And Elizabeth then married to 
John Lord Mowbray, and Anne that was Lady Abbesse at 
Barkinge in Essex : And the said Margaret for the greatnes of 
her birth, revenues and wealth, was in the 21 th of Kinge Richard 
the second created Dutchesse of Norfolke for her life, and dyed 
the next yeare after, And lyeth buried in the Fryers minors in 
London. 

The said John Mowbray and Elizabeth his wife had issue John 
and Thomas, And goeinge to the Holy land dyed at Constantinople 
in the 43 th of Kinge Edward the third, 4 And the said Elizabeth 
his wife dyed after in the 49 th of Kinge Edward the third. 

J Fin. 19th Edw. Ill, m. 5. Fin. 36th Edw. III., m. 21, et m. 7, et 13. 
Claus. 37th Edw. III., m. ult. 

2 Pat. 12th Edw. III., m. 27. Fin. 12th Edw. III. m. 3. Claus. 13th, 
Edw. III., pars 1. m. 33, etpars 3, m. 14. Esch. 5th Rich. II., No. 57. Fin. 
5th Rich. II., m. 12, et 7th Rich. II., m. 23. 

3 Rot. Pari. 8th Edw. II., m. 7. Claus 16th Edw. II., m. 2. Pat 22nd 
Edw. III., pars. 2. m. 4. Rot. Roma? 14th, Edw. II., et 11-12. 13th Edw. 
II., m. 3.. Claus. 29th Edw. III., m. 37. 

4 Pat. 43id Edw. III., pars. 1, m. 13. Pat. 6th Rich. II., in. 7. 



The Manor of Bosham. 261 

The said John, Sonne of John and Elizabeth, was Lord 
Mowbray, Earle of Nottingham and Marshall of England, And 
dyed without issue in the 6 th of Richard the second. 1 

The said Thomas was after the death of his brother John, 
Lord Mowbray Earle Marshal and of Nottingham. And in the 
21 th of Kinge Richard the second created Duke of Norfolke to 
him and the heires males of his body : Hee married Elizabeth, 
sister and co-heire of Thomas Fitz-Alan, Earle of Arundell then 
widowe of William sonne and heire of William de Monte-acuto, 
Earle of Salisbury, and dyed in banishment at Venice in the first 
of Kinge Henry the fourth : The said Elizabeth his wife survived 
him and was after his death first married to Sir Robert Cowshall 
and after to Sir Gerrard Uffiete, whereby shee had the society of 
fower husbands, and vigourous husbands. And dyed in the third 
yeare of Henry the sixth. And this Thomas left issue by the said 
Elizabeth, Thomas, John, Margaret, and Isable. Thomas the 
eld'^t sonne of the said Thomas, was Lord Mowbray, Earle 
Marshall, and of Nottingham, And married Constance daughter 
of John Holland Earle of Huntingdon, neece to Henry the fourth ; 
Hee was beheaded at Yorke 1405, Anno 7 H. 4, leavinge no issue : 
His wife was after married to John Gray, and dyed in the 16 th of 
Henry the sixth ; All which were owners of this manor of Bosham 
in their successive generations. 2 

John brother and heire of the said Thomas, comonly called 
Earle Marshall was in the first of Henry the fifth restored to the 

J Pat. 20th Eich. II., pars. 1, m. 9. Cart. 20th Rich. II, m. 1. Rot. 
Franc. 19th Rich. II., m. 13. Pat. 17th Rich. II., pars. 1, m. 2. Pat. 12th 
Rich. II., pars. 2, m. 21. Claus 12th Rich. II. 

2 Pat. 7th Rich. II., pars. 2, m. 2, Cart. 9th, 10th Rich. II., m. 13. Rot. 
Pari. 21st Ric. II., pars. 5. Rot. Pari. 20 Rich. II., m. 2, Cart. 21st Ric. II., 
No. 23. Claus. 21st Rich. II., m. 12, 18. Pat. 21st Rich. II., pars. 1 m. 5, 
11. Rot. Franc. 22nd Rich. II. Fin. 22nd Rich. II , m. 10. Pat 22nd Rich. 
II. ps,...m. 8, 12. Claus. 1st Hen. IV., pars 2, m. 2nd S. 15, Fin 2nd Hen. 
IV., m. 9. Clause 2nd Hen. IV., pars. 2, m. 1. Pat. 2nd Hen. IV., pars. 4, 
m. 6 Esch. 1st Hen. IV., post mort., Thorn, Due. Norff. Pat 1st Hen. IV., 
pars. 7, m. 22. 23. Pat. 1st Hen. IV., pars. S. Pat 2nd Hen. IV., m. 6, ps. 
1. Fin. 3rd Hen. IV., m. 2. Claus. 5th Hen. IV., ps. 1, m. 7, 19, 25. Pat. 
5th Hen. IV., ps. 1, m. 18, 19. Pat. 6th Hen. IV., ps. 2, m. 7. Claus. 7th 
Hen. IV., m. 39. Fin. 19th Hen. 6, m. 11. Pat 24th Hen. VI. m... 



262 Transactions at Newent. 

Earleclomes of Nottingham and Surrey, with the office of Earl 
Marshall, 1 And is hee that had the great question in Parliament 
in the third of Henry the sixth, for precedence and place with 
Richard Beauchampe Earle of Warwicke, At which time hee was 
restored to bee Duke of Norfolke. Hee married Catherine, the 
daughter of Ralph Nevill the first Earle of Westmerland 2 and of 
Jone his wife daughter of John of Gawnt Duke of Lancaster by 
whome hee had issue John that was after Duke, And dyed the 
nyneteenth of October in the Eleventh of Henry the sixth : His 
wife survived him, and was after first married to John Viscount 
Beamond, And after to Sir John Woodvile, And dyed the 23 th of 
August, in the first of Richard the third. 3 

The said Margaret sister of the said Thomas and John, was 
married to Sir Robert Howard, Knight, created Lord in the time 
of Edward the fourth ; And was father of John Howard first 
Duke of Norfolke of that name, slayne with Richard the third at 
Bosworth field in Leicestershire. 

And Isable the other sister was first married to Henry 
Ferrars of Groby by whome shee had issue a daughter, And 
secondly married to James Lord Berkeley, who had issue William 
Marques Berkeley, James, Maurice, and Thomas, whose lives I 
have at large written in the history of your auncient and honour- 
able family, wherein many things are handled touchinge this 
Manor, whereof I heere forbeare to make a double repetition, 
sith it is alwaies like to lye open unto you. 

John Lord Mowbray sonne of the said John and Catherine, 
was, after the death of his father, Duke of Norfolke, Earle 
Marshall and Nottingham, Lord Segrave and of Gower ; i hee 
married Elianor daughter of William Lord Bourchier and sister 

1 Claus. 2nd Hen. IV., ps., m. 18. Pat. 11th Hen. IV., ps. 1, m. 3. Claus. 
14th Hen. IV, m. 9. Claus 1st Hen. V., m. 23. Pat. 3rd Hen. V., ps. 1, 
Fin 4th Hen. V., m. 19. Rot. Pari. 3rd Hen. VI., m. 4, art. 13. 

2 Fin. 3rd^Hen. VI., m. 17. Fin 4th Hen. VI., m. 11. 

3 Esch. post mort. Willi. Hastings 1st Rich. Ill Pat. 15th Edw. IV. 

4 Cart, a 27th usq. 38th Hen. VI., m. 26, 27. Fin. 11th Hen. VI , m. 2, 12. 
Claus. 11th Hen. VI., m. 8, 13. Claus. 14th Hen. VI., m. 1. Pat 14th Hen. 
VI. pars. 2. m. 9. Fin. 30th Hen. VI. m. 1. Franc. 35th Hen. VI. , m. 9. 
Pat. 1st Edw. IV., pars. 2 m., 18. Fin. 14th Edw. IV., m. ult. 



The Manor of Bosham. 283 

of Henry Bourchier Earle of Essex, By whome hee had issue 
John Mowbray Duke of Norfolke, and died in the first year of 
Edward the fourth ; And the said Elianor dyed in the 14 th yeare 
of Edward the fourth. 

John Lord Mowbray sonne of the said John and Elianor was 
in the life of his father, created Earle Warren and Surrey in the 
[29th] of Henry the sixth, and after his father's death was alsoe 
Duke of Norfolke, Earl Marshall of England and Earle of 
Nottingham, Lord Segrave and Lord Breouse of Gower : hee 
married Elizabeth daughter of John Talbot first Earle of 
Shrewsbury of that name in the 27th of Henry the sixth, by 
whome hee had issue one only daughter, called Anne, And dyed 
the tenth of January in the fifteenth of Edward the fourth, Anno 
1475. His wife survivinge him, dyed in the 22 th of Henry the 
seaventh. 1 

This John by a deed 4 t0 Julii, 7 E. 4, is thus stiled, Johes Dux 
Norfolk : Comes Warren et Surrey, Marischallus et Nottingham, 
Marischallus Anglie, Dns de Mowbray, de Segrave et de Gower, 
whereby he gave to his servant James Hobart his manor of 
Aspeley in the county of Warwicke, for thirty yeares without 
rent. 

Anne, only daughter and heire of the said John and Elizabeth 
under the age of six yeares at the death of her father, was very 
shortly after married to Richard Duke of Yorke, second sonne to 
Kinge Edward the fourth who dyed without issue the 16 th of 
January, in the 1 7 th of Edward the fourth as already hath beene 
said : whereby her inheritance came equally to the Howards and 
the Berkeleys, who were discended of the foresaid Margaret and 
Isable daughters of Thomas Mowbray Duke of Norfolke and 
Elizabeth his wife before mentioned : 2 But howe by William 
Marques Berkeley "sonne and heire of the said Isable his part 

1 Pat. 11th Edw. IV., pars. 2 da . Pat. loth Edw. IV., pars. 2, m. 13. 
Pat. 2nd Edw. IV., pars. 2, m, 22. Fin. 8th Edw. IV., m. 2. Claus. 8th 
Edw. IV. , m. 12 dorso. Court Roll of Bosham 27th Hen. VI. , in titulo. Rot. 
Pari. 14th Edw. IV., m. 120. Pat. 14th Edw. IV., pars. 2, m. 2. Fin. 
15th Edw. IV., et 16. m. 9. Claus. 16th Edw. IV., m. 7 in dorso. 

2 Rot. Pari. 17th Edw. IV. , m. ult. Rot. Patent. 17th Edw. IV., pars. 2, 
m. 6. Pat. 18th Edw. IV., pars. 1, m. 2, et. 16. Act Pari. 22nd Edw. IV. 



264 Transactions at Newent. 

was cast at severall times into the Crowne ; howe it aftsoones 
reverted : howe this Manor was in partition to him allotted and 
confirmed by Parliament ; howe hee againe cast a remainder in 
tayle of this manor with others into Kinge Henry the seaventh 
after the issue of his owne body should bee extinct ; howe hee 
dyed without issue ; howe Kinge Henry the seaventh entred, and 
was of this manor, with other, possessed to him and the heires 
males of his body ; and howe both upon his petition of right by 
vertue of the entayle thereof, to Thomas de Brotherton And by 
Act of Parliament l that prudent Auncestor of yours, the Lord 
Maurice, was restored to this Manor and some others, (by such 
mixt meanes of favour and right as hee used) And thereby at his 
death in the 22 th of Henry the seaventh, found to bee seized 
therof, is at large declared in the history of his life called Maurice 
the fifth, in the generations of your family : from whome it 
discended to the Lord Maurice his sonne ; from him, to the Lord 
Thomas his brother and heire, from him, to the Lord Thomas his 
sonne ; from him, to the Lord Henry his sonne ; from him to the 
Lord George his grandchilde and heire ; from whome theis carefull 
Governors, your Uncle and Aunt, have now purchased the same : 
And the better to informe you what purchase you by them have 
made, I will breifely declare whereof it consisteth, And afterwards 
what records I have read of in the kings severall courts : None 
of which to the best of my remembrance are nowe delivei'ed to 
you, nor ever were at any time in the Evidence house at Berkeley. 
This Manor of Bosham consisteth of seaven severall Tithings 
or hambletts, viz., Bosham, Bradbridge, Hooke, Creed, Walton, 
Fishborne and South wood, which are within the parish of 
Bosham ; and of three others, vizt., Funtington, Eastashlinge, 
and Westashlinge, which are within the parish of Funtington next 
adioyninge, And containeth of Copihold land about foure thousand 
acres, And come to one Court Baron holden at the Manor house 
of Bosham adioyninge to the Churchyard ; Alsoe, you hold every 
yeare within this Manor three particuler Leets upon dayes 
certaine, and one great Leet called the Sheriffs Tourne, with the 
payment of a Comon Fyne of Five pounds, fifteene shillings and 
1 Act Pari. 19th Hen. VII, 



The Manor of Bosham. 265 

five pence yearly : Also, besides the foresaid Ten Tithings, there 
also appeare at theis Leets all the Inhabitants of the Isle of 
Thorney and at the parish of Chidham, which comprehend fower 
other Manors : Also appendant to this Manor is an hundred, 
called Bosham Hundred, of a larger extent than the Manor or 
Leets. 

The Freeholders of this manor are about Twenty, who hold 
to them and their heires accordinge to the course of the Comon 
lawe, And pay in Cheife Rent by the yeare — ll u - 10 s - 4 d - ob. q. 
one pound of pepper and two pounds of Comin seeds : Amongst 
whome is one freehold called Bowley farme in the Tithinge of 
Southmundham within the parish of Pagham in the Hundred of 
Alwicke, more remarkable then any of the other, Aswell for the 
yearly rent of Five pounds which it payeth, as for the tenure 
therof, which (whilst it was intire) was holden of this Manor by 
one knights fee, And is nowe by severall discents the inheritance 
of eight or more Freeholders, Amongst whom (within my remem- 
brance) the owners of this, your Manor of Bosham, have had 
seaven wardshipps, whereon, and on the proofes thereof, I will, 
for your better information, somewhat inlarge my selfe). 

Aunciently in the time of Kinge John, it was the freehold 
land of William de Gardino, or de gardinis ; whose posterity were 
after called Jarden, and lastly, Jurden. Afterward of Knottes- 
ford and Soper, by marriage of the sisters and co-heires of Jarden. 
Afterwards of Darrell, Uvedall, Brunynge and Payne. 

And for proofe are theis Evidences and Records ; some wherof 
are with your Evidences nowe delivered to you ; The rest you 
may heerby knowe in what Courts of Record to finde them, vizt 

1. Rot. Claus : 38 H. 3. membr 11, et 12, m. arce Londini. 

2. Rot. Fin. 18 E. 1, membr. 8, in arce Londini. 

3. Inquisitio, 35 E. 1, post mortem, Rogeri Bigod, in arce Lond. 

4. Liber Escuagij. 4. E. 2, fol. 38, in Sccio cum Rem Thesaur. 

5. Extent. Manerij de Bosham, 15 E. 3. Rot. 190, in Banco 
coi. 

6. Rot, Finiu 2 E. 3, membr. 11 in arce Lond. 



266 Transactions at Newent. 

7. Inquisitio, 12 H. 4, post mortem Thomae Jarden, in arce 
Lond. 

8. Rot. Paten. 12 H. 4, membr. 19, in arce Lond. 

9. Rot. Claus : 13 H. 4, membr. ultima, in arce Lond. 

10. Rot. Claus : 1 H. 5, membr. 11, in arce Lond. 

11. Inquisitio, 6 H. 6., post mortem Jonis Jarden, in arce Lond. 

12. Rot. Finiu. 6 H. 6, membr. 12, in arce Lond. 

13. Rot. Paten. 9 E. 4, pars. 2 da . membrana, 4, in arce Lond. 

14. Six or seaven faire Court Rolls at the least in divers kings 
times nowe delivered unto you, expressely affirminge the 
tenure to bee by knights service. 

15. But, one above all other (omni exceptione maior) isentred of 
Easter Terme Anno 6 t0 Regis Jacobi, Rot. 1141, in the 
Cofnon Pleas upon a writ of Ravishment of ward brought by 
your great grandfather Henry Lord Berkeley against Agnes 
the widowe of Thomas Payne for the wardshippe of Thomas 
Payne her sonne, wherin hee recovered (after stronge defence) 
by a jury of Sussex. 

16. And since that time have divers Releifes been paid and 
wardshipps had, as will appeare in a parchment booke in the 
Evidence house in Berkeley Castle kept by mee from time to 
time, which have happened to your Ancestors for fourty 
yeares past, which, I assure my selfe will alwaies lye open for 
you. 1 

The demesnes of this manor containe about 1600 acres, nowe let 
by 24. Leases, at the yearly rent of — 631 15 10s. Besides the 
Coppice woods, which containe about 175. acres, And were 
two yeares past first let by your father to Henry Chitty of 
Chichester, at the yearly rent of Fourty pounds. Besides 47. 
couple of rent hens and Capons. 
The Copihold rents are by the yeare — 83 u 19 s . ll d . besides the 
23 s . \l d . for berry workes, wherin the tenants have an 
estate of Inheritance, And are of three sorts, knowne by the 
severall names of Forrep land, Bord land, and Cotland, much 
1 The parchment book here referred to is doubtless that numbered 9 in 
Smyth's list of Books, page 411, Berkeley Manuscripts, Vol. in., "Hundred of 
Berkeley."— Ed. 



The Manor ok Bosham. 267 

differinge one from another in their Customes, and in their 
services they doe and performe. 

1. The first called Forrep land, oweth suit to the Court Baron, 
payeth Releif e upon discent as a Socage tenure at the Comon 
lawe : The fyne upon every death or alyenation is only one 
yeares rent, payeth no heriot, beareth noe office in the Manor, 
as Chamberlaine, Reeve or Hayward 

Chamberlaine. 

2. The second called Bordland, oweth suit to the Court Baron, 
payeth the best beast for an heriot after every death or 
surrender, And in default of a beast — ij s . vj d . And Two 
yeares rent for a Fyne, besides the rent of that yeare : From 
out of the tenants of this Bordland are alwaies at Michas 
Court called the Election Court, chosen the three officers, or 
Baylyes, to serve the Lord of the Manor for the yeare 
followinge, viz* the Chamberlaine, who gathereth the cheife 
Rents, Copihold Rente, Rents and demesne rents of the most 
part of the Manor ; Taketh Surrenders out of Court, Exami- 
neth woemen covert Baron, seiseth heriots, presenteth 
Alienations : Hee alsoe is a Coroner : Executeth the servinge 
and returne of writts as SherifFe : seizeth wrecks of sea ; Is 
the Lords Woodward ; looketh to the Lords Custome fishings ; 
Taketh up the fifth mullet and base for the Lord, wherof 
the one halfe is to the Lord, the other to the Vicar of 
Bosham ; And receiveth for executinge this his office two 
pence by the day of ancient Custome. 

Hayward. 

Then alsoe is chosen the second officer, called the Hayward, 
who also gathereth another part of the Copihold rents, and 
all the casualties happeninge within the Manor, and all the 
Perquisites of the Courts Baron, Leets, and Sheriffs Tourne : 
And in absence of the Chamberlaine, taketh surrenders out 
of Court ; and for his fee has of antient custome allowed 
to him the rent of his Bordland, for which he is that yeare 
chosen Hayward. 



268 TRANSACTION'S AT NeWENT. 



Reeve. 



Then also is chosen the third officer called the Reeve, and is 
ever a Copiholder in Funtington or Estashlinge, who also 
taketh surrenders out of Court in the absence of the 
Chamberlaine and Hay ward, gathereth the Copihold rents 
there, and of Funtington Farme, And for his fee hath of 
ancient custome allowed to him the rent of his Bordland, for 
which he is that yeare chosen Reeve. 

3. The third sort of Copihold land called Cotland, doth alsoe 
lye within the Tithinge of Funtington and Creed, each 
containinge a messuage and about five acres of ground : And 
such of them as were in the collection of the Chamberlaine, 
anciently paid — 8 s . 4 d . ob. the peece of ancient rent, And 
those in the collection of the Reeve — vj s . viij d . the peece of 
ancient rent ; wherin at this day is a little alteration through 
want of care or judgement in the Steward of the Manor : 
The Copyholders of this Cotland vpon each dyinge seized or 
surrender, pay five pence only for a Fyne, And five pence 
for an heriott, and noe more. 

The full age of every heire for all theis three sorts of Copihold 
land is at eighteene yeares old : After which, hee may alien and 
surrender away his land, and other the like. 

If an Amerciament or a Fyne bee at any Court imposed vpon 
any of theis Copiholclers by the Steward, And a distresse taken 
for the same, The Copiholder cannot sue a Replevin, but must pay 
it ; And the foresaid Hayward must vpon his Accompt at the 
end of the yeare before the Lords Auditor pay all that by the 
Steward is estreated to him. 

Of many other Customes within this Manor of Bosham you 
may informe your selfe in two paire of severall Indentures (nowe 
delivered to you) made between Lord and Tenants ; and which 
also are comprised in Two decrees made in Chancery vpon the 
suit of your said grandmother, wherin shee prevailed above her 



The Manor of Bosham. 269 

first expectation, As at large is to bee read in the history of your 
family vnder the title of your fathers Lawe suits and hers. 1 

Of the Swanmarke throughout the hundred of Bosham, the 
Sea coasts and Creekes of the Sea, and of the fishponds in the 
wasts, and of the Custome of Mulletts, and Base, two much 
esteemed fishes, I insist not. 

The Steward of the Manor, is Admirall of the Seas adioyninge 
to the Manor, And hath by the grant of Kinge Edward the fourth, 
in the viij th of his reigne, 2 expresse authority to execute those 
offices, And also to resist and withstand the sheriffe of the County, 
And is Escheator, Clarke of the Market, Admirall, Steward, 
and Marshall of the Kings house, if they enter within or infringe 
the Liberty of the said Mannor to execute any of their offices or 
authorities, with other the like, As the said Charter and one other 
in the 7 th of Kinge Edward the first allowed in a Quo warranto 
brought by the Kinge against Roger Bigod, sonne of Hugh 
Bigod, doe declare. 3 

Alsoe, the Lord of this Manor hath by the forementioned 
Charters Returne of all manner of writts and proces out of what 
Court soever, Also all Eynes, issues, penalties and amerciaments 
imposed in any Court by any Judge vpon any the Inhabitants 
within the said Manor and hundred, Also prefynes and postfynes 
for alienations, straied and waived goods, felons goods, Aswell 
beinge felons de se, as otherwise attainted, the goods of fugitives, 
and of outlawed and condemned persons, And (as the generall 
words of the said Charter are) whatsoever to the Kinge may any 
waies happen or accrewe by way of Escheat. 

1 In 1615 Elizabeth Lady Berkeley, relict of Henry Lord Berkeley, who 
held the Manor of Bosham in jointure, visited the Manor to hold a Court, 
see her tenants, and make her son George known to them, and also to 
investigate the customs of the Manor, so that neither heriot nor other 
services might be thereafter denied when due, nor her steward exact more 
than was justly payable. She was received with much insolence by some of 
the copyhold tenants who denied her rights. Eventually a Bill was exhibited 
in Chancery, and in Trinity term, 16 James, a decree was made affirming all 
the lady's claims with costs against the recalcitrant tenants amounting to 
£1,960.— See " Lives of the Berkeley*," Vol. ii,, i>. 432 et seg.—Eu. 

2 Cart : 8th Edw. IV. , in arce Londini. 

3 Quo warranto, 7th Edw. I., in Rcc : Sccij. 



270 Transactions at Newent. 

Also the Inhabitants within this Manor are free from payment 
of any manner of Tolls, passages and carriages throughout England, 
and from Contribution to Knights of the Shire elected for the 
Parliament : free from beinge somoned to Quarter Sessions or 
Assizes, and from beinge returned vpon any Juries or Enquests, 
but only within the said Manor. 1 

In the ll 411 of Richard the Second,- It is allowed to bee a Manor 
in Ancient Demesne, and to bee priviledged accordingly : And soe 
in the second of Henry the fourth, 3 therby free from payment of 
Tolls, Pontage and Custome all England over. 

The Office in the 11 th of Henry the sixth, after the death of 
John Duke of Xorfolke, layeth downe the pedegree thus, (which 
followe) 

William de Breowsa senior, in the Tenth of Edward the first, 
levyed a Fine of the Castle and Manor of Brember, &c. to 
himselfe for life; The Remainder to John Mowbray and Aliva 
his wife and to the heires of their bodies, who had issue John 
Mowbray, who had issue John Mowbray, who had issue John 
Mowbray, Earle of Nottingham, and Thomas Mowbray, which 
John dyed without issue, And Thomas beinge Duke of Norfolke 
had issue Thomas, who died without issue, and this John Duke 
of Norfolke that now dyed 11, H 6. 

And the Office in Com Micld, in the 11 th of Henry the Sixth 
aforesaid after the death of the said John, is an excellent record 
for the Office of Earle Marshall, shewinge all the fees and dignities 
therto belonginge ; And howe the Kings Lres Patents to Thomas 
Mowbray Duke of ISorfolke in the 20 th of Richard the second 
were confirmed to him and the heires males of his body by Act 
of Parliament. 

The Lord hath Wrecks of Sea and many other Liberties in 
Bosham, mentioned in the Marginald Records. 4 

And soe much of Bosham, ISTowe, a word of Thorney and 

Buckfolcl. 

1 Quo warranto, 7th Edw. I., in Kec : Sccij. Pat. confirmed : 10th Eliz. 

-Claus : 11th Rich. II., m. 1. 3 ; Clans : 2nd Hen. IV., pars. 1, m. 17. 

4 Clans : 9th Rich. II., Esch : 17th Edw. I., Claus. 1st Hen. IV., pars. 1., 
Esch : 7th Hen. IV., n° S°. 



The Manor of Bosham. 271 

Thorney. 

Thorney, is comonly reputed a member of Bosham, yet is a 

little Manor of it selfe, consistinge of 83 acres of Copihold land 

there, besides the Farme of Thorney, and of seaven Messuages, 

who vpon death and surrender pay their best good for an heriot, 

whose fines also are arbitrable at the will of the Lord, which 

differeth from all the rest of the Manor : The whole Island of 

Thorney was but one Manor, but nowe three Manors by Coper- 

tioners, wherof the Rectory still remaineth as a badge, wherto 

you have by this your purchase right to present at every third 

Turne. 

Buckfold. 

Buckfold is likewise reputed a member of Bosham, yet is a 

little Manor of it selfe lyinge within the parish of Petworth Ten 

myles from Bosham church, And is within the Leet of Bosham, 

And consisteth of nyne Tenants, holdinge two hundred and ten 

acres or neere therabouts, In which, heriot is paid for Forrep land 

vpon each Tenants death and surrender, beinge the best good of 

the Tenant, which is not soe in Bosham Manor, or in any other 

part of theis your newe purchased possessions : And heere, the 

eldest sonne is heire, and not the younger, as in Bosham. 

Not longe before the death of that great learned Lord Cheife 
Justice Sir Edward Coke, I tooke a note to your Aunt Coke 
with desire to have his opinion thereof, in theis words : 

The Manor of Bosham in Sussex, and others in divers 
Counties were by King Edward the second in the sixth of his 
raio-ne aiven to Thomas de Brotherton his halfe brother, and to 
the heires ef his body, The remainder in fee beinge left in the 
Crowne : It is supposed, that this Intayle was by Act of 
Parliament made a Fee Simple in the issue of Thomas de 
Brotherton, soe longe as it should continue : Quere, whether my 
Lord Coke knoweth, of this Act of Parliament, or not. 

Wherto, on the backe of that note, hee wrote thus : 
1. The Act that made the estate tayle of Bosham and other 
Manors by Edward the second to Thomas of Brotherton Fee 
simple, is either in the first of Henry the Eight, or in | the 



272 Transactions at Newknt. 

third of Henry the Eighth, wherby those lands were stated 
in Fee simple to Thomas sonne of John Howard Duke of 
Norfolke, heire in Taile to Thomas of Brotherton, with a 
savinge of the Kings revertion ; By this Act, Donyngworth, 
Sir Michael Stanhops Manor, was saved ; This Act is in the 
Rolls Chappell. 

2. See another Act in the Tower Anno 3, H. 6. Thomas 

Mowbray Duke of Norfolke, cozen and heire of the body of 
Thomas of Brotherton, was attainted of Treason by that Act ; 
John his sonne was restored. See the Act in the Tower. 

3. If any Cofiion Recovery was suffered before 34 H. 8, by any 

issue of the estate taile ; the estate is barred, Search in the 
Coinon place : Of Brotherton, there is numerosa proles. — 
Thus hee, and the note from him. 

And in trueth, you have a Recovery in the 4 th of King Henry 
the Eighth, vnder the Seale of the Court of Comon Pleas of this 
Manor with a double voucher, nowe delivered with your other 
evidence, And therby a perfect good estate accordinge to the 
opinion of that great learned Judge in his foresaid note, As also 
one or two other the like in the times of King Richard the third, 
and of King Henry the seaventh suffered by your Ancestor 
William Marques Berkeley, As in my history of his life is at 
lars:e to bee read, And also of the Lord Maurice his brother and 
heire, whether I send you if occasion require. 1 

If in ripenes of age you desire a further knowledge of this 
Manor and of the great honour of the owners therof, and of the 
various successes they have undergone, not mentioned in any 
Comon Chronicle, my Marginall vouchers will much availe ; from 
none of which you shall depart empty ; The cause, why I have 
soe loaden them with Records. 

Thus have you the history of your new purchase by the care 
of providence of a worthy vncle and Aunt, made for you before 
you knowe good from evill, as farre as sixteene dayes would give 
mee leave to looke into my old notes, the sports of my youth and 

1 " Lives of the Berkeleys," Vol. II., p. 154 et seq. — En. 



The Maxor of Bosham. • 273 

age ; Otherwise, this Manor, for the payment of your fathers debts 
had beene sold into a strange family ; I end, as I began ; God 
Almighty blesse you, and your posterity with this purchase : And 
when you dye, leave to your posterity in a gratefull memoriall 
the Meritts of this your vncle and Aunt nowe done vnto you. 

Finis. 



Ch'res of Liberties of Bosham, out of the 
trunke of Bosham Evidence vnder 
seale exempli[ti]ed. 

August 23, 1677. 

IHjtltpjmS tt fit arta Dei gratia Rex et Regina Anglie 

Hispaniarum Francie vtriusc^ Sicilie Jerusalem et Hibernie fidei 
defensores Archiduces Austrise Duces Burgundie Mediolani et 
Brabantie Comites Haspurgi Flandrie et Tirolis. Omnibus ad 
quos presentes Lre pervenerint, salutem. Inspeximus Lras 
Patentes Domini Ricardi nuper Regis Anglie Progenitoris nri 
p*dce Regine de Exempliticatione factas in hec verba. Ricardus 
Dei gratia Rex Anglie et Francie et Diius Hibernie, Omnibus ad 
quos jfeentes Lre pervenerint, salutem. Inspeximus tenorem 
irrotulamenti cuiusdam Brevis nri Maiori et Ballivis Civitatis 
Cicestrie directi in hec verba. Ricardus Dei gratia Rex Anglie 
et Francie et Dtis Hibnie dilcis sibi Maiori et Ballivis suis 
Civitatis Cieestr sal'tm. Cum Rogerus le Bygod quondam Comes 
Norff. et Marescallus Anglie clamavit coram Jofte de Raygate et 
socijs suis Justiciar Dni Edwardi filij Regis Henrici quondam 
Regis Anglie Progenitoris nri Anno regni sui septimo, in Coni 
Sussex Itinerantibus liabere in Mafiio suo de Bosham Retornu 

Vol. X., part 1. T 



274 o Transactions at Newest. 

Brium, visum francipleg Assm panis et cervisie, Amerciamenta 
de Turno Vicecom in eod Hundredo Infangenethef, Tholl, Them, 
Sok et sak et wreccum Maris, Aquiet per totum Regnum de Stallag 
et thelon ; Que quidem libertates et Acquietanc coram prefatis 
Justiciar in Itinere p\lco Allocate fuerunt sicut per Certificationem 
Thesau? et Camera? nostro^ nobis in Cancellaria nostram de 
Mandato nostro missam plene liquet ; Vobis precipimus, qd 
carissimam Consanguineam nostram Margaretam Mareschart 
Comitissam Norff. nunc tenentem Manerij pMci libertatibus et 
quietancijs predcis vti et gaudere permittatis iuxta Allocationem 
supraclcam. Teste meipo apud Westm sexto decimo die Novemb? 
Anno ?ni Sri nono. JhlQJJCrintUS etiam tenorem Irrotulamenti 
cuiusdam alterius Brevis nri Vicecom firo Sussex similiter directi 
in hec verba ; XUttWOttS Dei gi'atia Rex Anglie et Francie et Dnus 
HiBnie vicecom Sussex saltm. Cum Rogerus le Bygod Quondam 
Comes Norff. et Marescallus Anglie clamavit coram Jofie de 
Raygate et socijs suis Justicia? Dni Edwardi filij Regis Henrici 
quondam Regis Anglie Progenitoris nri Anno rni sui septimo, in 
Com fid Itinerant habere in Manerio suo de Boseham Returnu. 
brium visum francipleg Assm panis et cervisie, Amerciamenta de 
Turno vie, in eod Hundredo, Infangenethef, Thol, Them, Sok, et 
Sak et wreccum Maris, Que quidem Libertates coram prefat 
Justiciar in Itinere p\lco allocate fuerunt sicut per Certificacoem 
Thes et Camera? iiro^z nobis in Cancellaria iira de mandato 
iiro missam plene liquet, Tibi ficipimus qd carissimam consangui- 
neam fira Margaretam Marescafr Comitissam Norff. nunc tenentem 
manerij pdei KBtatibus pVlcis vti et gaudere permittas iuxta 
allocacoem supradictam. Teste meipso apud Westm decimo sexto 
die Novembris Anno rni nri nono. Nos autem tenore jidcos ad 
requisicoem p^ate Comitisse tenore pneiu duximus exemplificand. 
In cuius rei Testimonium has L?as nras fieri fecimus Patentes. 
Teste meipso apud Westm decimo septimo die Novembris Anno 
regni nri nono. Nos autem tenorem L?ar^ Patentiil pdcar^ ad 
requisicoem Henrici Berkeley Militis Domini Berkeley Mowbray 
Segrave et Bruce duximus exemplificand per pntes. In cuius rei 
Testimoniu has L?as iiras fieri fecimus Patentes. Testibus nobis 
ipsis apud Westmonasteriu duodecimo die Novembris Annis 
regnor^ uror^ Tertio et Quarto, 



The Manor of Bomiam. 275 

Out of an Exempliticacon in the 
trunke of Bosham Evidence. 

23. Aug., 1677. 

iitlbjnrOuS Sextus Dei gratia Anglie Francie et Hibnie Rex 
fidei defensor, et in terra Ecctie Anglicane et Hibernice supremu 
Caput Omnibus ad quos jfeentes Lre pvenerint, saltm. Inspexi- 
mus Lras Patentes Diii Henrici nuper Regis Anglie Quarti 
progenitoris nri ne Exemplificacbne fact in hec verba. 3i>CHVlCU8 
Dei gratia Rex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hibernie, Omnibus 
ad quos pfeentes Lre pervenerint, saltm. Inspeximus tenorem 
Recordi et processus loquele que fuit coram Jofte de Reygate et 
socijs suis nup Justiciar Itinerantibus Dni Edwardi regis filij regis 
Henrici nuper Regis Anglie progenitoris nri apud Cicestr in Coni 
Sussex anno rni pVlci nuper Regis Edwardi, Septimo, Deo eo quod 
Rogerus le Bygod nuper Comes Norff. clamavit habere certas 
Libertates in Manerio suo de Boseham, vidett, Returnu bfium, 
visum Francipleg, assisam panis et cervisie, Amerciamenta de 
Turno Vicecom in eod Hundredo, lnfangenthef Thol et Them Sofc 
et sail wreccum Maris, warenii per totum hundredm pVlcin, et 
quiet per totm regnu de Stallagio et Theolonio quern coram nobis 
in Cancellariam nram venire fecimus in hec verba. ^I'itfl de Juf 
et Assiss coram Jofte de Reygate et socijs suis Justiciar Itinerant 
apud Cicestriam in Com Sussex in Crastino sci Johis Baptiste 
Anno regni Regis Edwardi filij regis Henrici Septimo ; Rogerus 
le Bygod Comes Norff. etc. per Robtum de Chiggewell Attornatu 
suu clamat habere Libertates subscriptas in Manerio suo de 
Bosham, viz*, Returnu bfium, visum Francipleg, assisii panis et 
cervisie, Amerciamenta et Turne vicecom in eod Hundredo, 
lnfangenthef, Thol et Them Sok et Sak, wreccum maris, warennam 
per totum Hundredum pYlcm et quietanc per totum Regnum 
de Stallagio et Theolonio, Et quod pMictis libertatibus vsus 
est, Et quod nulla occupac nee vsurpacoem fecit super 
Diium Regem nee antecessores suos, petit qnod inquiratur. i£t 
Milites ad hoc electi dicunt super sacrm suum, quod jidcus Comes 
et Antecessores sui vsi sunt libertatibus jidcis, Set dicunt, qd Hugo 
Bygod pater ipius Rogeri warrenavit Manerium suum de Stoghtou 
T 2 



276 Transactions at Newest. 

sine warr, Et iste Rogerus warrenavit Manerium suu de Stoke ; 
Ideo concessum est, qd warennam ibi amodo non habeat, Et in 
misericordia quia eum warrenn, Et quoad factm ipius patris sui 
Rex habeat bre cum voluerit. (5*t Rogerus quietus cum alijs 
Libtatibus Salvo iure Dni Regis cum inde loqui voluerit etc. 
Sussex. 0.08 autem tenorem recordi et processus loquele p\lce 
ad requisicoem Johis Ducis Norff. Consanguinei et heredis p?clci 
Rogeri duximus exemplificand per pntes. In cuius rei Testimonium 
has Lras nYas fieri fecimus Patentes. Teste meipo apud Westm 
vicesimo octavo die Octobris Anno regni nri Decimo octavo. Pem- 
berton. Ex 1 " per Jofrem Brokholes et Jofrem Pemberton Clicos. Nos 
autem tenorem Lfar^z Pateu j^dcar^z ad requisicoem Diie Anne 
Barkeley vidue matris Henrici nunc Dni Barkeley duximus 
Exemplificand per pntes In cuius rei Testimonium has Lras nras fieri 
fecimus Patentes. Teste meipo apud Westm vicesimo die Maij 
Anno regni nri, sexto. R. Beamount Ex r p nos [Tjroke et 

Ricum lyell. 

There is an Exemplificacon vnder seale in the Trunke of 
Bosham Evidence Kinge E. 2, his grant of Bigods lands to Thomas 
de Brotherton in 6 E. 2, with many Liberties, &c. And an 
Inquisicon in 35 E. I, post mortem Rogeri Bigod pro Bosham — 
all in one Exempli[fi]cacon. 



A Copy of an Exemplification out of Domesday 
booke, vnder seale in Berkeley Castle, of the 
Manor of Bosham in Sussex and the Hundred 
of Berkeley in Glouc'shire. 

23. August, 1677. 

i£ltJ<li)CtI)a Dei gratia Anglie Francie et Hibnie Regina, fidei 
Defensor etc. Omnibus ad quos j^sentes Lre pveri'it saltm. 
Inspeximus quendam librum vulgariter nuncupat -JDOJUCSftCt i n 
thesauro recept Sccij nri sub custod Thesaurarij et Camario'^z nro^ 
ibm remanen, Cuius quidem libri tenor in Com Sussex (inter alia) 
sub titulo terra'^ regis sic continetur, vt sequitur. 



Thk Manor of Bosham. 277 

SVDSgXg.-T^RRA REGIS. 

Rex Willelmhs tenet in Snio Boseham comes Goduin' tenuit . 7 tc erant 
.lvj . 7 dimict 7 pro . xxxviij . hict geldauit. 7 m° similit' . Tra e. In dilio sunt . vj . 
car . 7 . xxxix . uilii cu. 1. bord" hnt . xix . car. Ibi seccia 7 . xvij . serai . 7 . viij . 
molini de . iiij . li 15 . xxx . dena? min'. Ibi . ij . piscaria: de. viij . sot 7 . x . denar. 
Silua de . vj . pore. 

Ad hoc M. ptin . xj . haga? in Cicestre. T.R.E. qua? redded .vij . solid 7 iiij . 
defi. Modo ht Eps dece de illis . a rege 7 m° est una in M. Totii T. R. E. 
post ; ualuit . xl . lib. Modo similit' . xl . lib . Tarn reddit. L . lift ad arsura 7 
pensu . qua? ualent . xlv . lib. 

De isto M. ht Engeler . ij . hi(t de rege . 7 ibi ht . 1 . ca? . 7 ufi borcf. — 
Domesday vol. I., p. 16. 



<&\lt omnia et singula premissa ad requisicoem dilci et fidelis 
Bubditi nri Johis Smyth gen sub sigillo Sccij nri duximus 
exemplificand per presentes. In cuius rei Testimonium has 
Lras nras fieri fecimus Patentes. Teste ,|^dilect Consiliar iiro 
Wittmo Dfio Burghley almo Thesaurario iiro Anglie septimo dia 
Novembris Anno regni nri Tricesimo septimo. 

Ex r p nos Arthuru Agarde et Georgium Austen 
Cticos Carrlar in dca Recepta Scij Diie Regine 
die et anno supradcis 

Intrat 1 ' hie p me Robtm Mandey 



278 Transactions at Newent. 



THE AID LEVIED IN GLOUCESTERSHIRE 
IN 20th EDWARD III. (1349), 

ON THE OCCASION OF MAKING EDWARD, THE BLACK PRINCE, A 

KNIGHT. 

Contributed by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A. 

During the period of the Early Norman Kings, the Aid under 
the feudal system formed one of the ordinary incidents of the 
revenues of the Crown. The power of the King at that time to 
make such levies was unlimited, but it became reduced to a system 
under Magna Carta, which provided that the only occasions on 
which the King should, on his own authority, make such a levy, 
should be to : — Make his eldest son a knight ; marry his eldest 
daughter once, and for the ransom of his person if made a captive 
in war. 

Under the feudal system the King was regarded as the 
owner of all the lands in the kingdom. AH lands were held of 
him, either immediately or mediately, by military service. The 
barons and knights, who were tenants in chief, had only an 
incidental tenure of their lands, from which they were bound to 
render him military service in war at their own costs. They were 
his vassals — his sworn men. This service, at first, was unlimited 
in respect to duration of time, but by subsequent arrangement the 
service was fixed at 40 days in the year for each knight' 's Jee. The 
area of a knight's fee, like the hide, with which it generally 
coincided, varied according to the quality of the land and other 
causes. It will be observed that in this county the number was 
134| j, j and Jj fees. It was, however, usually four or five hides, 
the annual value being fixed at ,£20 a year. This was reckoned as 
being equal to the support of a knight. These knights' fees formed 
the basis of taxation, and so continued down to the breaking out 



Book of Aids, GLoroEsTEHSHiRE. 279 

of the rebellion in the 17th century, and Military Service was 
abolished by statute in 12th Charles II. 

The principal Aids levied under such of the above-mentioned 
heads, prior to that now under notice, were the following : — 

1. An aid levied by King Henry II. on the marriage of Maud, 
his eldest daughter, to the Duke of Saxony, at one mark per 
fee. 

2. An aid granted to King Richard I. for the ransom of his 
person when made prisoner by the Duke of Austria in 

returning home from the Holy Land, at 40s. per fee. 

King Henry III. had three aids of these kinds during his reign, 
viz : — 

3. An aid on the marriage of his sister Isabel to the Emperor, 
Frederick II. anno regni 29. 

4. An aid to marry his eldest daughter, Margaret, to Alexander 
III., King of Scotland ; and 

5. An aid to make his eldest son Edward a knight, anno regina 38. 

6. An aid was levied by Edward I., on the marriage of Eleanora, 
his eldest daughter, to Alphonso, King of Arragon, anno 
regni 18. This aid was at the rate of 40s. each knight's 
fee, and at the same rate for portions of fees. It is of con- 
siderable importance for it formed the basis of the aid which 
we print below, and the names in the latter of those who 
formerly held the fees respectively, refer to those who held 
them in the 1 8th year of the reign of the now King's grand- 
father. 

The levy on the present occasion was at the same rate, and 
the amount collected would therefore be £269 19s. 8d. 

We have endeavoured to identify the ancient names as they 
appear in the record with those now in use, which are printed 
within square brackets, but have not been so successful as we 
could wish. The Hundreds have been greatly altered. Some 
have been incorporated and others created. This has increased the 
difficulty, and we apprehend that in some cases the text in the 
record is corrupt. 



280 Transactions at Nkwf.nt. 



EXCHEQUER, Q.R. MISCELLANEOUS BOOK, VOLUME III., 

BOOK OF AIDS. 
Glouc. 
Particule compoti Johannis de Actone unius Collectoris auxilii ad primo- 
genitum filium Regis Militem faciendum concessi anno vicesimo pro se et 
Henrico de Clifforde defuncto altere Collectore ejusdem auxilii de eodem 
Auxilio. 

Hfndrel>um r>E Circestre. 
De Thoma de sancto Mauro pro dimidio feodo militis in Hampton Meysy 
quod Nicholaus de Sancto Mauro quondam tenuit sicut contentum in 
evidenciis et inquisitionibus predictis. - - - xx s 

De Willielmo de Cusaunce pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Dounamo- 
neyeswyk [Down Ampney] quod Petronilla de Valers quondam tenuit 
sicut contentum in evidenciis et inquisicionibus predictis - x* 

De Almarico de sancto Amando pro uno feodo et quarta parte unius feodi 
Militis in Southcerneye quod Almaricus de Sancto Almando predecessor 
predicti quo nunc est quondam tenuit sicut contentum in evidenciis et 
inquisicionibus predictis 1« 

De Willielmo de Carswelle pro dimidio feodo Militis in Codyngtone 
Langeleye quod Johannes de Langeleye quondam tenuit sicut contentum 
in evidenciis et inquisicionibus predictis • - xx a 

De Roberto Barbast pro dimidio feodo Militis in eadem villa quod Robertus 
Barbast antecessor ejus quondam tenuit sicut contentum in evidenciis et 
inquisitionibus predictis .... xx s 

De Thoma de Bradestone pro dimidio feodo Militis in Sodyngdone [Sidding- 
ton] Musarde quod Matilda Musarde quondam tenuit ibidem sicut ut 
supra - - ... . . . xx s 

De Johanne Dodecote pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Chestertone 
(piod Edmundus de Langeleye quondam tenuit ibidem sicut ut supra 

xiij s iiij d 

De Abbate de Teukesburj' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Up Ameneye [Ampney 
Crucis] quod Walterus de Cheltenham et parcenarii sui quondam tenuerunt 
ibidem sicut ut supra .... xx s 

De Willielmo Canel et parcenariis suis pro decima parte unius feodi Militis 
in eadem villa que Willielmus Canel antecessor quondam tenuit iiij s 

De Willielmo de Marreys et Waltero de Campedene et Johanne de Evesham 
pro uno feodo Militis in eadem villa quod Johannes de Mareys et Johannes 
de Campedone quondam tenuerunt ibidem sicut contentum in evidenciis 
et inquisicionibus predictis .... x \s 

De Johanne de Poltone et parcenariis suis pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis 
in Astbrok et Upameneye quod Johannes de Poltone antecessor predicti 
qui nunc est quondam tenuit sicut ut supra - - x s 

De Johanne de Wynchestre pro uno feodo Militis in Hamhulle [Harnhill] 
quod Robertus de Harnhulle quondam tenuit sicut contentum in eviden- 
ciis et iiKjuisicionibus predictis • • • - xl s 



Book of Aids, Gloucestershire. 281 

De Emma que fuit uxor Walteri de Circestre pro uno feodo Militis in Cotes 
quod Johannes Waleys quondam tenuit ibidem sicut &c - xl s 

De Ricardo Vernoun pro dimidio feodo Militis in eadem villa quod Elias 
Cokerell quondam tenuit ibidem sicut contentum in evidenciis et 
inquisieionibus predictis - xx a 

De Willielmo Lillebrok pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in eadem villa 
quod Walterus de Lillebrok quondam tenuit ibidem sicut ut supra &c 

.viij s 

De Ricardo de Foxcote pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Dontesbourne 
Hocat [Duntesborne Abbots] quod Willielmus de Gaa quondam tenuit 
ibidem sicut ut supra &c - - - - x s 

De Johanne le Rous pro dimidio feodo Militis in Dontesbourne Rous quod 
Johannes le Rous antecessor predicti Johannis qui nunc est quondam 
tenuit sicut &e - - - - xx s 

De Radulpho Bluet pro duobus feodis Militum in Dagelyngworthe que 
Radulphus Bluet antecessor predicti &c -• - - iiij 1 ' 

De Johanna de Circestre pro uno feodo Militis in Strattone quod Ricardus de 
Hamptone quondam tenuit ibidem sicut ut supra &c - xl s 

De Ricardo de Baggyngdene pro medietate et duodecima parte unius feodi 
Militis in Bagyngdene que Ricardus de Baggyngdene quondam tenuit 
sicut contentum in evidenciis et inquisieionibus predictis - xxiij s iiij' 1 

De Roberto de Penytone pro uno feodo Militis in Baudyngtone [Baunton] 
quod Robertus &c .... x l» 

De Priore Hospitalis sancti Johannis de Lecchelade pro quarta parte unius 
feodi Militis in Baudyngtone que predecessores loci predicti quondam 
tenuerunt sicut &c - - - - - x s 

De herert Walteri Helyon pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Northcote 
que Alicia Helyoun &c - - - - x s 

Summa feodorum — xiiij feoda — quinta parte et 
sexagesima parte unius feodi Militis 
Summa - xxviij 11 . viij s viij d 

HCNDREDUM DE BrADELEYE. 

De Adam Martel pro dimidio feodo Militis in Stokwell [Stowell] quod Adam 

Martel antecessor &c .... X x s 

De Johanne de Solers pro uno feodo Militis in Sheptone quod Willielmus de 

Solers quondam &c .... x l s 

De Willielmo Norman pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Sheptone 

[Shipton] que Robertus de Cly ve quondam tenuit sicut ut supra &c j marca 
De Johanne de Ravenesholm pro uno feodi Militis in Whityngtone quod 

Robertus de Croupes quondam tenuit ibidem sicut &c - - xl s 

De Thoina Comyn pro dimidio feodo Militis in Salpertone quod Thomas 

Comyn antecessor ejus quondam tenuit &c - - xx s 

De Johanne de Actone Johanne de Solers et Waltero de Circustre pro dimidio 

feodo Militis in Wynestune quod Johannes Broune Walterus de Bartone 

et Willielmus Absolon' quondam tenuerunt ibidem sicut &c xx s 

De Thoina de Dagworthe pro uno feodo Militis in Coldastone quod Radulphus 

Piparde quondam tenuit sicut &c - - - xl s 



282 TRANSACTION'S AT NEWEST. 

De Johanne Doiuleswelle pro uno feodo Militis in Doudeswelle quod 
Willielmus Doudeswelle quondam tenuit sicut &c - - xl s 

De Johanne Crosson pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Foxcote que 
Willielmus Crosson' quondam tenuit sicut &c - - j marca 

De Thoma de Rodberwe pro uno feodo Militis in Nategrave [Notgrove] quod 
Thomas de Rodberwe quondam tenuit sicut &c - • xl s 

De Thoma de la Mare pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Hildecote 
[Hidcote] quod Walterus de Marisco quondam tenuit sicut &c viij s 

De Episcopo Hereford' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Hannepenne 
superiori quod heredes Johannis Marmyon' quondam tenuerunt ibidem 
sicut &c 

De Heredibus Hugonis de Sancto Philiberto pro uno feodo Militis in 
Thormerton' [Tormenton] quod Hugo de Sancto Philiberto quondam 
tenuit supra ..... x l s 

De Abbate de Oseneye Johanne de Polton' et Johanne Semare pro dimidio 
feodo Militis in Turkeden' [Turkdean] superiori - xx s 

De henrico de Cors pro dimidio feodo Militis in Thormerton' quod Henricus 
de Cors antecessor quondam tenuit sicut ut supra &c - xx 9 

De Willielmo de Romesden' pro dimidio feodo Militis in eadem villa xx s 

De Comite Herford' Johanne de Morton' et Johanne Muntriche pro uno feodi 

Militis in Hampton' .... x l s 

De Episcopo Herford' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Coppeleye x 

Summa feodorum - xj feoda quarta parte et sexta parte 

Summa - - - - xxij' 1 . xiiij s viij d 

HUNDREDUM DE RESPIGATE. 

De Mauricio filio Mauricii de Bercle pro uno feodo et quarta parte unius 
feodi Militis in Gremesfelde quod Johannes Giffarde quondam tenuit 
ibidem ...... 1* 

De Thoma de la Mare et tenentibus suis pro duobus feodis Militum in 
Ryndecombe. ..... iiij 11 

De Archiepiscopo Ebor' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Northcerneye xx s 

De Thoma filio et herede Egidii de Bercle de Cobberleye pro uno feodo 
Militis in Cobberleghe .... x l a 

De Johanne Daiton' et teneutibus suis pro uno feodo Militis in Elkston' xl s 
De Thoma de Gardinis pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in eadem villa x 3 

De Thoma de Bercle tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt Roberti 
Bailly pro dimidio feodo Militis in Syde. - - xx s 

De Johanne Lohande et tenentibus suis tenentibus terrarum et tenementorum 
que fuerunt Walteri Lohande pro uno feodo Militis in Colesbourne 
Magna ..... x l s 

De Priore Lanton' tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt Johannis 
de Morton' et Elizabethe uxoris ejus pro uno feodo Militis in eadem 
villa ...... xl 3 



s 



Book of Aius, Gloucestershire. 283 

De Comite Warrewyk et tenentibus suis Comitatus Laneaatrie tenentibus 
terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt Hugonis le Despenser et heredis 
Ricardi de Ameforde pro uno feodo Militis in Cheddeworthe unde herea 
predicti Ricardi solum quintam partem - • xl 9 

Summa - - xix 1 *. 

Summa ix feodo dimidium. 

Brightwoldesberghe. 

De Henrico de Lancastria pro uno feodo Militis et dimidio in Kynemers- 
forde [Kempsford] ----- lx s 

De Hugone le Despenser tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 
Comitis Gloucestrie pro uno feodo Militis et dimidio in Fayreforde lx s 

De Episcopo Wygornie pro uno feodo et dimidio Militis in Byebury lx s 

De Johanne de Grey tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 
Hugonis de Sancto Philberto pro uno feodo Militis in Southrope xl 9 

De Johanne de Lecche tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 
Radulphi de Lecche pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Astlecche 
[Eastleach] et Twenynges [Twining] ... x 9 

De Abbate de Bruera Johanne Donopons et Thoma Don pro uno feodo Militis 
in Estlecche et Willamesthorpe [Williamsthorp] - xl 8 

De Abbatissa de Lacok et tenentibus suis pro dimidio feodo Militis in 
Hatherope - xx s 

De Thoma de Bradeston tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 
Johannis Plescy pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Bardesleghe 
[Barnesley] - - - - - viij* 

De Thoma de Bradeston tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 

Hugonis le Despenser pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in eadem villa x s 
De Priore Lanton' juxta Oloucestriam pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis 

in eadem villa - x s 

De heredibus Johannis le Ser de Aldryngton' pro uno feodo Militis in 

Aldryngton' [? Arlington] - xl a 

De Thoma de Berton' tenente terrarum et tenementorum que fuerunt 

Johannis le Bruyn pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Eycote j marca 

Summa feodorum - ix feoda quarta parte et vicesima quarta 

parte unius feodi 
Summa - - xviij u .xj s . iiij d . 

HUNDREDUM I>E LANGETRE. 

De Petro de la Mare pro dimidio feodo Militis in Chiriton' [Cherington] quod 
Robertus de la Mare quondam tenuit ibidem - - xx 9 

De Thoma de Brewes pro uno feodo Militis in Tettebury cum membris quod 
Petrus le Brewes quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl s 

De Emma que fuit uxor Johannis Beauboys et Simone de Estcourt pro 
uno feodo Militis in Shipton' Moigne quod Johannes Beauboys et Walterus 
de Estcourt quondam tenuerunt ibidem - - xl* 

De heredibus Radulphi de Wylyngton' et Thoma de Bercle pro tercia parte 
unius feodi Militis in Weston' [Weston Birt] quam heredes Johannis le 
Bret quondam tenuerunt ibidem - - j marca 



284 Transactions at Nfayent. 

De Edmundo Mauti'avers filio et herede Johannis Mautravers pro uno feodo 
Militis in Wodcestr' quod Johannes Mautravers pater ejus quondam 
tenuit ibidem ..... x ls 

De Rogero Bordoun pro dimidio feodo Militis in Redmerton' [Rodmarton] 
quod heredes Willielmi de Redmerton' quondam tenuerunt - xx a 

De Thoma de Aston' pro uno feodo Militis in Lasseberwe [Lasborough] quod 
Willielmus de Dene quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl 3 

De heredibus Willielmi Chamberlayn' pro decima parte unius feodi Militis 
in Rodmerton' ..... jiijs 

De Abbate de Kyngeswode pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in 
Culkerton' ..... x s 

Summa feodorum - v feoda dimidium quinta parte et decima parte 

Summa - - xj 11 . vij s iiij d . 

Hundredum bk Grymboldesaysshe. [Grumball's Ash]. 

De Nicholao Poyntz filio et herede Hugonis Poynz pro dimidio feodo Militis 

in Tokyngton' quod predictus Hugo Pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem xx s 

De Priore Bathonie pro dimidio feodo Militis in Olueston' - xx s 

De Abbate de Malmesbury pro octava parte unius feodi Militis in Lutleton' 
[Littleton] ..... v s 

De Mauricio de Bercle pro dimidio feodo Militis in Rokhampton' quod 
Margareta Giffarde quondam tenuit ibidem - - xx 3 

De Thoma de Berele pro octava parte unius feodi Militis in Overe quam 

Sibilla de Gornay quondam tenuit ibidem - - v 3 

De Thoma de Bradeston' et tenentibus suis pro dimidio feodo Militis in 

Wynterbourne quod Willielmus de Wanetyng' quondam tenuit ibidem xx s 
De Johanne de Sancto Laudo filio et herede Johannis de Sancto Laudo pro 

quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Clifton' quam Johannes de Sancto 

Laudo pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem - - x s 

De herede Stephani de la More infra etatem et in custodia Thome de Bradeston' 

et Edmundo filio David le Blount pro uno feodo Militis in Button' quod 

Stephanus atte. More et David le Blount quondam tenuerunt ibidem xl s 
De Willielmo Tracy filio et herede Willielmi Tracy pro dimidio feodo Militis 

in Doynton' quod Willielmus pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem xx 3 

De Rogero Cantek pro uno feodo Militis in Derham et Henton' quod 

Willielmus Russel quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl 3 

De Edmundo le Blount pro octava parte unius feodi Militis in Mangodesfelde 

quam David le Blount quondam tenuit ibidem - - v s 

De Abbate de Stanleghe pro dimidio feodo Militis in Goderyngton' prout 

predecessores sui tenuerunt ibidem - - - xx s 

De Jurdano Bysshop' pro dimidio feodo Militis in parva Sobbury qnod 

Johanne filio et herede Johannes Bysshopp' quondam tenuit ibidem xx 3 
De Johanne filio et herede Johannis de la Ryvere pro uno feodo Militis 

in Acton' Turville quod predictus Johannes pater predicti Johannis et 

Willielmus de Godmanston' quondam tenuerunt ibidem - xl 3 

De Rogero le Warre filio et herede Rogeri le Warre pro dimidio feodo Militis 

in Wykewane quod Rogerus le Warre pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem 

xx 3 



Book of Aids, Gloucestershire. 2S5 

De Johanne de la Ryuere pro uno feodo Militis in Termerton' quod Johannes 

de la Ryvere, pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl s 

De Thoma le Botiller pro dimidio feodo Militis in Badmyngton' magna quod 

Thomas le Botiller pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem - xx s 

De Nicholao Bordon pro dimidio feodo Militis in Oldebury quod Agustinus 

(Aug°tin') Burdon' quondam tenuit ibidem - - xx s 

De Johanne le Bercle de Dursele Chivaler pro dimidio feodo et quarta parte 

unius feodi Militis in Dodyngton' quod Johannes de la Ryvere quondam 

tenuit ibidem ..... xxx s 

De Johanne Turpyn pro dimidio feodo Militis in Dudmerton' quod Petrus 

Malere quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx s 

De Abbate sancti Petri Gloucestr' pro uno feodo Militis in Boxwelle xl s 

De Johanne de Acton' Chivaler pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Acton' 

Ilger quam Henricus de Mareys quondam tenuit ibidem - x s 

De Petro de Veal pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Torteworthe 

quam Nicholaus de Kyngeston' quondam tenuit ibidem - viij 8 

De Petro le Veal pro dimidio feodi Militis in Charefelde quod Hawisia de 
Veal quondam tenuit ibidem ... xx a 

De Johanne Chansy pro uno feodo Militis in Alreleye quod Johannes Chansy 
pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem ... xl s 

De Magistro Ricardo de Tormerton' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Herton' 

[Horton] quod Willielmus Burnel quondam tenuit ibidem- xx s 

De Abbate de Pershore pro uno feodo Militis in Haukesbury - xl s 

De Hugone le Despenser pro uno feodo Militis in Sobbury quod Conies 
Gloucestrie quondam tenuit ibidem ... xl s 

Summa feodorum - xvj feoda et quarta parte et undecima parte 

Summa - xxxij 11 . xiij s 

HlTNDREDUM DE POKELCHURCHE. 

De Episcopo Bathon' pro duobus feodis Militum in Pokelchurche iiij 11 

De Priore Bathon' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Aysshton' - xx s 

De Petro Corbat pro dimidio feodo Militis in Ceston' [Siston] quod Maurioius 
de Bercle quondam tenuit ibidem 

Summa iij feoda 

Summa - - - - vj 11 

HUNDREDUM DE BERCLE. 

De Thoma de Bercle pro tribus feodis Militum in Bercleyeshurnes [Berkeley - 
herness] que Thomas de Bercle pater ejus quondam tenuit ibidem vj 11 

De Thoma de Bercle pro uno feodo et dimidio Militis in Beuerston' que 
Johannes Apadam quondam tenuit ibidem - - lx s 

De Johanne Fiz Nichol pro dimidio feodo Militis in Hulle et Nymdesfelde 
quod Nicholaus tilius Radulphi quondam tenuit ibidem xx s 

Summa - - - - v feoda 

Summa x u 



2SS Transactions at Newent. 

HrNDKEDUM DE WySTON'. 

De Mauricio de Bercle pro dimidio feodo Militis in Stanleghe Regis quod 
Almaricus le Despenser quondam tenuit ibidem - - xx s 

De Johanne de Bercle de Durselee pro quarta parte unius feodi militis in 
Stanleghe Leonarde quam Johanna de Bercle quondam tenuit ibidem x s 

De Matheo rilio Herberti pro dimidio feodo Militis in Haresfelde quod 
Johannes Alius Reginaldi quondam tenuit - - xx s 

De Ricardo Talebot Milite pro dimidio feodo Militis in Morton' [Morton 
Valence] quod Almaricus de Valence quondam tenuit - xx 3 

De Humfrido de Bohun pro dimidio feodo Militis in Whitenhurste quod 
Humfridus de Bohun pater suus quondam tenuit - xx s 

Summa - - ij feoda et quarta pars 

Sumraa .... iiij 1 '. x s 

Westbury. 

De Simone de Solers filio et herede Simonis de Solers et Willielmus le Monck 
tenent quartam partem unius feodi Militis in Westbury quain Petrus de 
Helyon et Simon de Solers quondam tenuerunt - x s 

De Philippo de Mareschal pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Blechesdon' 
quam Elias de Blakenhale quondam tenuit ibidem - x s 

De Johanne de Abenhale et Reginaldo fratre ejus pro quarta parte unius 
feodi Militis in Blechesdon' quam Johannes de Abenhale quondam tenuit 
ibidem ...... x s 

Summa dimidium feodum et quarta pars 
Summa - - xxx s 

HUNDREDUM DE BOTTELOWE. 

De Johanne Blount pro dimidio feodo Militis in Tyberton* quod Willielmus 
quondam tenuit ibidem .... xx s 

De Johanne de Bures Chivaler pro dimidio feodo Militis in Magna Teynton' 
et Killecote quod Johannes de Ferers quondam tenuit ibidem xx a 

De Johanne de Knovill' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in parva Teynton' 
quam Bugo [ ? Hugo] de Knovill' quondam tenuit ibidem - xx s 

De Ricardo Talebot Chivaler pro dimidio feodo Militis in Hunteleghe 
[Huntley] quod Johannes de Hunteleghe quondam tenuit ibidem xx s 

De Ricardo de Carswalle pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Carsvvalle 
quam Johannes de Carswalle quondam tenuit ibidem - x 8 

De Henrico de Penbrigge pro dimidio feodo Militis in Dymmok quod 
Willielmus de Penbrigge quondam tenuit ibidem - xx a 

De Reginaldo de Grey pro dimidio feodo Militis in Keinpeleye quod 
Reginaldus de Grey quondam tenuit ibidem - - xx s 

De Willielmo de Whitington' pro uno feodo Militis in Paunteneye [I'auntley] 
et Killecote [Kilcot] quod Thomas de Solers quondam tenuit ibidem xl a 
Summa .... iiij feoda 
Summa .... viij 1 ' 



Book of Aids, GLorcEisTER.sHiRE. 287 

HrjNDREDUM DE BlIDESLAWE. 

De Jacobo de Boxe pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Boxe quam Sibilla 

Pauncefot et Johannes de la Boxe quondam tenuerunt ibidem x s 

De Henrico de Wylyngton' pro uno feodo Militis in Polton' quod Johannes 

del ylle et Johanna uxor ejus quondam tenuerunt ibidem - xl s 

De Johanne de Wyllyg' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Blydeslavve 

quam Rogerus de Blydeslawe quondam tenuit ibidem - x 3 

De Willielmo de Chiltenham pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Pyryton 

[Pirton] quod Johannes Ap Adam quondam tenuit ibidem v s 

De Johanne Wyle pro deciina parte xuiius feodi Militis in Zerdeshull' quam 

Roger us Wyle quondam tenuit ibidem - - iiij 3 

De Waltero Waryn pro decima parte unius feodi Militis inTliokeshale quam 

Walterus Waryn quondam tenuit ibidem - - iiij 3 

De Comite Warwyk pro octava parte unius feodi Militis in Lydeneye V s 

De Priore de Lanthon' de Glouc' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Aywerton' xx s 

Summa - - ij feoda dimidium et quarta 

Summa .... iiij 11 . xviij 3 

HUNDREDUM DE BYSELEYE. 

De Ricardo Talbot pro dimidio feodo Militis in Payneswyk quod Hugo le 
Veer quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx 3 

De Henrico de Husee et Waltero del Islee pro dimidio feodo Militis in 
Saperton' quod Emma Flemmyng' imp tenuit ibidem - xx s 

De Comitissa de Kent pro dimidio feodo Militis in Musardere quod Hugo 
le Despenser quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx s 

De Ricardo de Denton' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Byseleye quod Johanna 
Corbet quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx s 

De Johanne de Alspathe et Hugone Byselye pro dimidio feodo unius feodi 
Militis in Byseleye quam Theobaldus de Verdon' quondam tenuit ibidem 

XX s 

De Willielmo Mauncel pro uno feodo Militis in Lupogate superiori et Tonleye 
quod Willielmus Mauncel quondam tenuit ibidem - .\l s 

De Johanne de Reom et Priore hospitalis saucti Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia 
pro dimidio feodo Militis in Lupegate inferiori quod Willielmus de Reom 
et Prior dicti hospitalis quondam tenuerunt - - xx 3 

De Johanne de Monemuthe et Johanne de la Felde de Pagenhull' Rogero 
Seymor Henrico le Fermer Ricardo le Clerk Ricardo de Dodebrygge 
Waltero le Smythe et Waltero de Dodebrygge pro dimidio feodo Militis 
in Pagenhull' quod Roseia de Dene Margareta soror ejus Nicholaus Seymor 
Henricus le Fermer Ricardus le Clerk Matill' le Walsshe et Ricardus 
Dabetot quondam tenuerunt ibidem - - - xx s 

De Thoma Rotheryk pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Budefelde quam 
Rothericus pater suus quondam tenuit ibidem - ■ x 3 

De Johanne de Alspathe pro dimidio feodo Militis in Wynston" quod 
Henricus Penebrugge quondam tenuit ibidem - - x b 

De Willielmo Mauncel pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Frompton' 
quam Willielmus Mauncel quondam tenuit ibidem - x 3 



288 Transactions at Newest. 

De Johanue Raulye Ricardo Talbjt et Thoma Fabian et Rjberto cle Egges- 
worthe pro dimidio feodo Militis in Eggesworthe quod Alicia de Helion' 
et Thomas de Eggeworthe quondam tenuerunt ibidem - xx s 

Summa - - vj feoda 

Summa - - - xii u 

HlTNDREDUM DE DERHURST ET TeDBALDESTON' 

De Episcopo Wygorn' pro uno feodo Militis et dimidio in Clyve Sutham 
Goderynton' et Brechampton ... x l s 

De Olivero de Boun pro dimidio feodo Militis in Sutham quod Comes Herd- 
ford' quondam tenuit .... xx s 

De Abbate de Teukesbury pro dimidio feodo Militis in Goderyngton' xx 8 

Summa - ij feoda dimidium. 

Summa - - c s 

HlJNDREDUM DE SALMANESBURY IN LIBERTATE DE FlSCAMPO. 

De Abbate de Evesham pro uno feodo Militis in Bradewell' et Borton' xl s 

De Archiepiscopo Ebor. pro uno feodo Militis in Otynton' [Oddington] et 
Condicote ------ xl s 

De Abbate de Wynchcombe pro dimidio feodo Militis in Shirebourne et 
Baldyngton' [Barrington] .... xx s 

De Henrico Honep' et Waltero del yle pro dimidio feodo Militis in Magna 
Rysindon' ..... xx s 

De Willielmo Lucy pro sexta parte unius feodi Militis in Wilie et Rysindon' 

quam Willielmus Lucy quondam tenuit ibidem dimidia marca. 

De Rogero Blaket proquarta parte unius feodi Militis in Rocumbe [Iccumbe] 

quam Thomas de Rocumbe [Iccumbe] quondam tenuit - x s 

De Ricardo de Wylascote pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Wenryche 

[Winrush] quam Magistro Willielmo Wale quondam tenuit ibidem x s 
De Henrico Wenryche pro decima parte unius feodi Militis in Wenryche 

quam Robertus de Moreys quondam tenuit ibidem - iiij s 

De Johanne de Aston' et Waltero Frater ejus pro quarta parte unius feodi 
Militis in Gyforde quam Rogerus de la mare quondam tenuit ibidem (*ic) 

viij s 

De Ricardo Atte Welle pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Overslouthrd' 
[Overslaughter] quam Matilda de Monesleye quondam tenuit ibidem x 

De Priore de parva Malverne pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Newen- 
ton' [Naunton] - j marca. 

De Johanne Crosson et Thoma Hundenemille et pro parcenariis suis pro 
dimidio feodo Militis in Werinton' parva quod Johannes Crosson et Thomas 
de la Hundenemuir quondam tenuerunt - - xx s 

De Radulpho de Cressy et parcenariis suis pro quarta parte unius feoili 
Militis in Wydeford' quam Radulphus Cressy antecessor suus tenuit 
(? Widford, near Burford, co. Oxon.) - - - XX s 

Summa - v feoda quinta parte et decima parte. 
Summa .... x u xij s 



s 



Book of Aids, Gloucestershire. 2S9 

HUNDREDVM DE ChILTENHAM. 

De Roberto Moryn pro dimidio feodo Militis in Swyndon' quod Robertus 
Moryn quondam tenuit ibidem - - - XX s 

Dimidium feodum 
Summa Hundredum de Chiltenham - XX s 

HUNDREDUM DE HENBURY. 

De Episcopo Wygorn' 

De Margeria de Werbelye pro uno feodo Militis in Stoke Giffarde quod 

Margareta Giffarde tenuit ibidem - - - xl 3 

De Radulplio de Wylynton' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Yate quod Johannes 

de Wylynton' quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx a 

De Willielmo Corbet pro dimidio feodo Militis in ychynton' quod Willielmus 

Corbet quondam tenuit ibidem - - - XX s 

De Willielmo Rossel pro dimidio feodo Militis in Auste quod Willielmus 

Rossel quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx s 

De Rogero del Acton' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Auste quod Nicholaus 

Cautel tenuit ibidem - - - - xx s 

De Stephano de Salso Marisco pro dimidio feodo Militis in Weston' sancti 

Laurencii Sutlnnede et Brumesham quod Stephanus de Salso Marisco 

tenuit ibidem - - - - - - XX s 

De Willielmo Weym et Thoma de la Haye et Adam de Hayton' pro uno 

feodo Militis in Weston' sancti Laurencii Hembur' et Westbur' (juod 

heredes Willielmi Weym et heredes Willielmi de la hay ct Adam de 

Eyton' quondam tenuerunt ibidem - - - xl 3 

De Roberto Coneleye pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Wik' quam 

Robertus Coneweye tenuit ibidem - X s 

De Willielmo Bagepuys pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Tlieriddulond' 

quod Willielmus Bagepuys quondam tenuit ibidem - viij s 

De Ancello de Gorneye pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Hampton' 
quam Sibilla de Gorneye quondam tenuit ibidem - - X s 

De Ricardo Greneville pro dimidio feodo Militis in Compton' Greneville 
quod Ricardus Greneville quondam tenuit ibiden - XX s 

Summa - v feoda dimidium et quinta parte 
Summa - - - xj 11 viij s 

Hundredum de Dodeston'. 

De Episcopo Ebor' pro duobus feodis Militum in Churchesdon iiij'i 

De Johanne Dandle et Johanne Strange pro uno feodo Militis in Beggeworth' 

[Badgworth] quod quondam Johannes Giffarde tenuit ibidem xl s 

De Priore de Lantouey pro dimidio feodo Militis in Brocworth' xl s 

De Willielms de Mattesdon' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Brocworth' quod 

quondam Walterus de Glouc' tenuit ibidem - - xx 3 

De Ricardo Talcbot pro quarta parte feodi Militis in Whaddon' quam Johanna 

de Valentia quondam tenuit ibidem ... x s 

Vol. X. part 1. u. 



290 Transactions at Newent. 

De Johanne Gise pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Elinor quod Johannes 
Gise quondam tenuit ibidem - - - j marca. 

De domina de Wilynton' quondam uxor Radulphi de Wilynton' pro uno 
feodo Militis in Sandhurste quod quondam Johannes de Insula tenuit 
ibidem ...... x js 

De Willielmo de Gardinispro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Mattresdon 

[Matson] quam quondam Willielmus de Gardinis tenuit ibidem X s 

De Johanne Ferariis pro tercia parte unius feodi Militis in Langeford' quam 

Johannes de Ferariis tenuit ibidem - - - j marca. 

Summa - vj feoda et sexta parte 

Summa - - xij 11 vj s viij d 

HUNDREDtTM DE KyFTESGATE. 

De Johanne de Walyford' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Shesnescote [Seisincote] 

quod Nicholaus de Shirebourne quondam tenuit ibidem - XX s 

De Abbate de Evesham pro dimidio feodo Militis in Willurdeseye [Willersley] 

XX s 

De eodem Abbate pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Seynesbury X s 

De Thoma Boteler pro uno feodo Militis et dimidio in Weston' [Weston- 
Subedge] et Norton' quod Johannes Gyffard' quondam tenuit ibidem lx s 

De Johanne de Peyto pro dimidio feodo Militis in Ollynton' quod tenentes 
Manerii de Ollynton' quondam tenuit ibidem - xx s 

De domina de Dorsinton' pro dimidio feodo Militis quod Thomas Verdun 
quondam tenuit in Dorsinton' - xx s 

De Johanne Golafre pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Buchesore [Bach- 
sore quam Thomas Golafre quondam tenuit ibidem X s 

De Johanne de Shernescote pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Shesnes- 
cote quam Thomas de Shesnescote quondam tenuit ibidem - viij s 

De Ricardo Lambaunk pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Langeberwe 
[Longborough] ..... x s 

De Abbate de Bruerd pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in eadem X s 

De Johanne Stonore pro dimidio feodi Militis in Cundicote quod Willielmus 

de Cundicote quondam tenuit ibidem - - - XX s 

De Roberto Corbet pro tribus feodi Militum in Ebryton' [Ebbrington] 

Pebbeworthe Clopton' Quentone que Magisb-o Willielmo de Bosco 

quondam tenuit ibidem .... xx s 

De Thoma West pro dimidio feodo Militis in Weston Manduy t quod Johannes 

de Langeleye quondam tenuit ibidem - - - xx s 

De domina Yarmion' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Quenton' [Queinton] quod 

Johannes Yarmion' quondam tenuit ibidem - - XX s 

De Petro Mounford' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Yune quod Johannes de 

Penbrugg' et Edvvardus frater ejus quondam tenuerunt ibidem xx s 

De Ricardo Stafford' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Campeden quod Ricardus 

de Cromwelle et Isabella de Barreye quondam tenuerunt ibidem xx s 

De Abbate de Wychecombe pro dimidio feodo Militis in Holeford' et Gres- 
ton' ...... xx s 



Book of Aids, Gloucestershire. 291 

De Abbate de Abyndon' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Lutleton' xx a 

De domina de Sudeleye pro uno feodo Militis in Sudleye quod Johannes de 

Sudleye cum membris quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl s 

De Willielmo de Somervylle pro uno feodo Militis in Aston' Somervylle quod 

Johannes de Somervylle quondam tenuit ibidem - - xl a 

De Waltero Godham pro dimidio feodo Militis in parva Wyrmynton' 

[Wormington] quod Robertus de Godham quondam tenuit ibidem - XX s 
De Rogero Talbot pro uno feodo Militis in Formcote [Farncote] cum membris 

quod [blank] Willielmus de Bosco quondam tenuit ibidem - xl s 

De domina de Poteslep' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Poteslep' 

[Postlip] quam Johannes de Salers quondam tenuit ibidem - X s 

De Comite Warvvyk pro dimidio feodo Militis in Wykeware - xx s 

xv feoda quarta parte et quinta parte 
Summa - xxx 11 xviij 8 

HuNDREDUM DE TEUKESBURY 

De Comite Warwyk pro dimidio feodo Militis in Kenemerton' [Kemmerton] 

cum membris ..... xx s 

De Waltero de Bello Campo pro dimidio feodo Militis in Kenemerton' xx s 
De Johanne de Ferers pro uno feodo Militis in Kemerton' quod Johannes de 

Ferers quondam tenuit ibidem . . . xl s 

De Willielmo Butlesden' pro uno feodo Militis in Butlesden' quod Willielmus 

Butlesden' quondam tenuit ibidem ... xl s 

De Willielmo Keirdef pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Walton' Keyr- 

def [Walton Cardiff] quam Willielmus Kayrdef quondam tenuit ibidem X s 
De Johanne de Acton' pro sexta parte unius feodi Militis in Fydynton' 

[Fiddington] quam Odo de Acton' quondam tenuit ibidem dimidia marca 

De Johanne Tochet pro dimidio feodo Militis in Oxindon' quod Willielmus 
Thochet quondam tenuit ibidem . . . xx s 

De Willielmo de Esthall' pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Shenindon' 
quam Willielmus de Esthall' et Elia uxor ejus quondam tenuerunt ibidem 

viij s 

De Johanne de Wykham pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Shenindon 
[near Banbury] quam Robertus de Wykham et Elizabetha uxor ejus 
tenuerunt ibidem viij s 

De Henrico Huse pro quinta parte unius feodi [Militis] in Sheandon' quam 
Henricus Husee et Margeria uxor ejus quondam tenuerunt viij s 

De Willielmo de Staure pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Shenindon' 
quam Willielmus de Staure et Ymoyne uxor ejus quondam tenuerunt 
ibidem ...... viij 8 

De Johanne le Sor pro quinta parte unius feodi Militis in Shenindon' quam 

Symunda filia Johannes le Sor quondam tenuerunt ibidem . viij s 

Summa quarta feoda dimidia quarta parte et sexta parte 
Summa . . ix 1 ' xvj s viij d 

U 2 



292 Transactions at Newent. 

hltndredum de westlit' 

De Hugone Mustel pro dimidio feodo Militis in Wodynton' quod Hugo 

Mustel quondem tenuit ibidem . . . XX s 

De Willielmo Whightsed' pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Yminton' 

quam Wego de Knolles quondam tenuit ibidem . . X s 

De Fulco de Burmyngbam pro dimidio feodo Militis in Whightfeld' quod 

Ricardus ate Were quondam tenuit ibidem . . xx s 

De Clemencia Pauncefot pro dimidio feodo Militis quod Grymbaldus 

Pauncefot quondam tenuit ibidem . . - XX s 

De Henrico de Lancastre pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in Eya quam 

Henricus de Lancastre quondam tenuit ibidem . . X s 

De Willielmo Page et Thoma de Canynges et Willielmo Freman pro sexta 

parte unius feodi Militis in Lyminton' quam Laureneius le Poer et Thomas 

de Wateton' et Williclmus le Freman quondam tenuerunt ibidem dimidia 

marca 
De ij feodis sexta parte. 
Summa iiij 11 vj s viij d 

HUNDREDUM r>E TlIORNBURY. 

De Comite Gloucestr. pro dimidio feodo Militis in Wolford' quod Antiqui 

tenet ibidem ..... XX s 

De Willielmo de Wredon' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Symunda de Abee 

quondam tenuit in Wokeford' [Okeford !] . . xx s 

De Willielmo Corbet dimidio feodo Militis in Tyderynton'[Titherington] quod 

Ant[iqui] tenent ibidem. . . . XX s 

De Johanne de Acton' pro dimidio feodo Militis in Acton' cum membris quod 

Ant[iqui] tenent ibidem .... xx s 

De Comite Gloucestr' pro quinta parte unius feodo Militis in Rungeworthe 

[Rangewortby] quod Ant[iqui] tenent ibidem . . viij a 

De Johanne de Sobbery Clerico pro quarta parte unius feodi Militis in 

Westmarsfeld' [Marlewood] quam Ricardus de Heydon' quondam 

tenuit ibidem ..... X s 

Summa iiij u xvii s ij feoda quarta parte et quinta parte. 
Summa feodorum cxxxiiij feoda dimidium quarta parte quinta parte et 

vicesime quarta parte. 

Summa . ■ . cclxix 11 xix d 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 293 



A GLOUCESTERSHIRE JURY LIST OF THE 
THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 

By SIR HENRY BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c. 

The publication of this List in the Transactions of tho Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society seems desirable, not 
merely because it contains the names of some of the principal 
inhabitants of the several Hundreds and Townships in the county 
six hundred years ago, but as throwing light on the way in which 
the Juries responsible for making presentments as to criminals, 
in the Courts of the Justices Itinerant, were constituted. 

It is the only list of so early a date extant, for although, 
according to Bishop Stubbs, the Iters during the reign of Henry 
the third were septennial, the Rolls of but three, out of the eight, 
which on that assumption must have taken place in the County 
of Gloucester, are preserved in the Record Office, those namely 
of the 5th, 32nd, and 53rd years of that King. The first, al- 
though complete in all other respects, does not include any List 
of Jurors, as may be seen on reference to the valuable work 
published by Mr. Maitland in 1884 under the title of "Pleas of 
the Crown for the County of Gloucestershire in 5th Henry III." 
The last is altogether imperfect, such Pleas being wanting. The 
second alone is quite complete, the records of the Civil business, 
which began at Gloucester in the Easter term, 1258, before Roger 
de Tliurkeby and his associate Justices Itinerant, being followed 
by those of the Criminal business held before the same justices, 
on the last two Rotulets of which the list now published is 
engrossed. The entries are in the crabbed hand of the period, 
with contractions and abbreviations which render them often 
difficult to decipher ; particularly as erasures and interlineations 
occur, hurriedly made apparently by the judge's clerk while the 
court was sitting. Indeed but for the kind aid of Mr. Walford 
D. Selby, of the Record Office, I should have failed in some cases 
to satisfy myself as to the names of jurors. 



294 Transactions at Newent. 

The Jury List is prefaced, as will be seen, by an appropriate 
introduction, setting forth first of all the Sheriffs since the last 
Iter, viz., John fitz Geoffrey, and Robert Waleran, who still held 
the office, together with two deputy sheriffs of the said Robert. 

The sheriffs named tally well with the supposition that the last 
Iter had taken place about 7 years previously, John fitz Geoffrey 
who became sheriff in 1238 in succession to Thurstan le Despenser, 
having been succeeded in 1248 by Robert Waleran, so that this 
period would include two years of the formers and five years of 
the latter's administration. 

The Coroners, past and present, during the same term, are 
next mentioned. They exercised, as is well known, at that time 
very important legal functions, transferred in the next reign to 
the custodians of the peace. Gloucestershire had four of them, 
the usual number for each county. In addition six " Coroners of 
the Forest " are enumerated, whose duty, of course, was to see 
that the forest laws were strictly observed. After this the names 
of the Jurors follow under their respective Hundreds and Town- 
ships, those for each being arranged in three parallel columns, 
so that four, or sometimes five, names are in a division, the totals 
varying from twelve to fourteen in a few instances. The Hun- 
dreds and Townships are the same as those mentioned in the 
Assize Rolls of 5th Henry III., and do not differ greatly from 
those of the present day, though two or three have been subdivided. 
In nearly every case the word " Electores " stands at the top 
after the name of a Hundred, a couple of faint lines connecting it 
with the names of two of the jurors in the list below. 1 To under- 
stand this it must be borne in mind that, under Regulations 
regarding " Iters," promulgated in 1198, the justices were directed 
to appoint four knights in each county, who were to choose two 
knights in every Hundred, (the " Electores " of this list) by whom 
ten knights, to complete the Jury of the Hundred were to be 
elected. 2 If there should not be enough knights resident in the 

1 As the lines could not be reproduced in print, these names are given 
in Italic*. 

2 See Introduction to the Curia Regis Rolls, by General Wrotesly, 
in Vol. in. of the Win. Salt Archaeological Society's Collection for Stafford' 
shire. 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 205 

Hundred, then " free and lawful men " were to be chosen to 
make up the number ; an alternative which had no doubt to be 
frequently resorted to, since the tenants in chief of the crown 
do not seem ordinarily to have served on such juries, but acted as 
" recognitors," or jurors in civil actions. In the present list we 
find such names as " Carpentarius," le Mazun, Pistor, tfcc., the 
bearers of which can scarcely at that date have attained knightly 
rank. On the whole, however, the majority of the surnames in 
the Hundreds are of territorial origin, (including some few of 
families not even yet extinct in the country) ; or they are derived 
from the nature of the place of abode, as " de la More," " de la 
Grave," " de la Salla," de Bosco, cle Lacu, de Monte, &c. ; or from 
the position in life of the bearer, or his parents, as " le Butiller," 
le Venur, le Paumer, Clericus, Summonitor, Forestarius, and even 
" le Neuman," while " son of the Provost," and son of the Priest, 
also occur. 

In addition to the reference to Electors in the heading of 
Hundreds, we find prefixed in several cases an allusion to an 
officer designated as " Capit' S.", the first doubtless a contraction 
of " Capitalis," whilst the second is fortunately, in one instance, 
extended as " Serviens," so that his full title seems to have been 
" Capitalis Serviens " or Chief Sergeant. It is generally followed 
by " Jur." as in the case of other jurors, and in one Hundred 
(Bernestre) the requisite number of twelve would not be made up 
without, so that the abbreviation cannot stand for " Juratae." In 
another Hundred (Pucklechurch) " Capitalis Ballivus " appears 
after the name of one of the jurors. The " Capitalis Serviens " 
is not mentioned in any Glossary, but he cannot, under the cir- 
cumstances, be a Sergeant-at-law, and it must be assumed that he 
was chief of the " Sergeants of the Hundred," officers spoken of 
by Bracton as discharging important duties. Wherein they 
differed from the "Bailiffs of the Hundred," with whom he 
couples them, 1 he does not explain. It is clear, however, that a 
chief sergeant's authority extended over several Hundreds, for 

1 The sergeants and bailiffs of the Hundred choose the four Knight. De 
Corona Twiss. Vol. II. Spelman says they were identical, — " Oliin Serviens 
Hundredi dictus fait, modo Ballivus."— Vide Glossary sub voc. 



2% Transactions at Newknt. 

"Idem S." appears on this list above two, three, or even five, 
juries consecutively. As he could only have resided in one, it 
seems an anomaly that he should have acted as a juror elsewhere, 
especially as in Hundreds still owned by the crown, he must have 
been a functionary nominated by the sheriff, and himself a member 
of the court. 

In the case of Townships and other liberties, the word 
" Ballivus " occupies the place of " Serviens " and "Electores." 
It is to be supposed that as regards the larger towns, the bailiff 
was at this time a municipal officer, and not the steward of the 
feudal lord, but there is nothing to show the distinction. It is 
evident, however, from the names of many of the jurors, that a 
good deal of commercial intercourse and activity existed in the 
western counties. In Gloucester, we find William of Tewkesbury, 
John of Lemster, and William of Ludlow, established as burgesses ; 
in Newenham, Richard the Lombard ; in Bristol, Gilbert of Marl- 
borough, and Thomas of Berkhampstead : whilst the nature of 
the occupations of other jurors is denoted by such surnames as, 
merchant, goldsmith, tailor, wimpler, miller, baker, and dyer, the 
last apparently a very thriving trade, as several are found among 
the freeholders summoned from Tewkesbury, Campden, and 
Redcliffe. 

On the whole it is easy to trace the growth of those trading 
and manufacturing interests which were in a few years to entitle 
the boroughs to send representatives to the councils of the Nation; 
and although it may not strike one at first sight that the occasional 
opportunities afforded to such Juries of direct communication with 
the King's judges, — not only as to the crime, but on fiscal matters 
generally, — can have had much effect as a political training, — - 
nobody who is acquainted with the spirit of independence and of 
energetic protest against the encroachments of the great nobles, 
manifested in the Hundred Rolls, which resulted from a special 
extension of the system early in the ensuing reign, — can fail to 
recognise that the habit of making these presentments to the Crown, 
exercised considerable influence in preparing the way for a due 
assertion of the rights of the commonalty by the future House of 
Commons. 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 



207 



PLACITA CORONA 32 HENR. III. [1247-8] GLOUC. Rot 16. 

Isti fuerunt Vicecomites in Com isto post ulti Iter Justiciar, scilicet, 
Joh es fil Galf?, et Rob s Waleranus qui nunc est Vicecomes. Et Galff de 
Derherst et Nich s de Monteacuto Sub Viceconi eict Roberto. Isti sunt 
Coronatores post eundem terminum, Vid 1 , Rad s de Radelegh et Rob 8 Maryn, 
qui obierunt, Et Ric s de Cromhal, Hen? de Chavingworth et Hen? de Drewes 
et Gilb ts de Chyriton. 

Et isti Sunt Coronatores de Foresta, videlicet Philip' de Baderoii, Will' 
de Auny, Hen? Haket, Will 8 de Helyun, Joh' de Bikerton, et Walt' de 
Pulton. 

HuNDR. DE GRYMBOLDE ASH. 

Electores. 



Wms de Killeton - Jur. 


Rob' Joie de Treshehn 


Thorn de la Forthcye 


Thorn de Badmynton 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Steph 8 de Alketun Jur. 


Will 8 Haldrikt - Jur. 


Hen? de Audeby? - Jur. 


Hug de Hillecote - Jur. 


Rob s de la Sale - Jur. 


Walts le Bret - - Jur. 


Colinus Winebald Jur. 


Will 8 Burnel ■ Jur. 


Hen?: Linet - - Jur. 


Thorn Cole - - Jur. 
Hundr' de Aggemed. 
Electores. 




Els Pukerel de Acton 


Herb' de Dodingtone 


Ric' de la Grave - Jur, 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Alan' de Chetteworth 


Alex de Colewelle Jur. 


Elyas le Butiller - Jur. 


Jur, 


Wait 8 Tisun - Jur. 


AS le Mansell - Jur. 


Walt 8 Caretarius - Jur. 


Joh 8 Herman - Jur. 


Mich le Venur - Jur. 
Rob s Tailebosc - Jur. 


Ad le Butiller - Jur 



Rog s Sintell - 
Ric' de Holebrok 
A(T de Fromton 
Will 8 de la Cra 



Pet? Crok 
Ric' de Eudes 
Rob' de Feoda 
Mau? de Cumton 



Huxdr' de Bernestre. 
Electores. 
(Left blank here but given later on 

Httndr' de Puklechyrcii. 

Electores. 
Jur. Ad Joye Cap 8 ball 8 Jur. 
Jur. Ric' de Lasnede - Jur. 
Jur. Rob' Amee - - Jur. 
Jur. Walt 8 Bussel - - Jur. 
Alan de Pukelchyrch 

Hundr' de Langele 
Electores. 
Jur. Will' Franketone - Jur, 
Jur. Hen? de Stokes - Jur. 
Jim. Galf? de Marchel - Jur. 
Jan. Walt 8 de la More - Jur. 



Ph' de Albodestan Jur. 
Will' de Chyrchesle Jur. 
Will 8 Carpentarius Jur. 
Joh 08 Channel - Jur. 
Jur. 



Will 8 de Biughampton 

Jur. 

Rad 8 Corbet - Jur. 

Rob' Bosse - Jur. 

Osb 8 fil Laur - Jur. 



298 



Transactions at Newent. 



Hundr' de Thurnbur' 
Electorea. 



Rog s de Aketon - Jur. 


Bernard' de Audcbyr' 


Joh 8 fil' Hug - - Jur. 


Jur. 


Rob s de Whitcomb Jur. 


Osbern' de eodem - Jur. 


Rob s fil Isabell - Jur. 


Ric' de Boteure - Jur. 




Joh s de Walecote - Jur. 




Hundr' de Swynesheued 




Electores. 


Joh s de Alebu? - Jur. 


Henr. Peyntel ■ Jur. 


Gilb r de Mangoldesfeld 


Joh' de Fremsane ■ Jur. 


Jur. 


Will s del Perer - Jur. 


Job' Pessun - - Jur. 


Petr de la grave - Jur. 



Ric' Frankeleyn - Jur. 
Rob s de Suthmede Jur. 
Ric' le Stut - - Jur. 
Thomas Wayte - Jur. 



Alured' de Bambrok 

Jur. 
Galff de Duddigton Jur. 
Will s Fukera - - Jur. 
Rob s Humphri - Jur. 



Hundr' de Whystan. 



StepK 


de Wyh, Capitalis Servlens Jur. 


Electores. 


Rob s ( ie i a p e ld - 


Jur. Wills d e Stayra - Jur. 


Henr. le Bus ■ - Jur. 


Nich' de Munshull 


Jur. Ad le Waleys - Jur. 


Will' de Colethrop Jur. 


Rog' de Stok 


Jur. Rog s Hackem - Jur. 


Phil'de Quedegleye Jur. 


Ric' le Waleys 


Jur. Will* le Desp'ns - Jur. 
Hundr' de Berkel'. 


Ric s le Bret - - Jur. 


Idem Serv.'' 


Electores Will's de Aubemarle et Nicl' le Rus, Jur. 


Will 3 de Berkel - 


Jur. Maur de Stan Jur. 


Joh' de Draycot - Jur. 


Rob' de Couet 


Jur. Erneius de Hasel worth 


Rob s fil Widofi - Jur. 


Et s de Filton 


Jur. Jur. 


Will* de Kingesweston 


Pet? de Euleye 


Jur. Barth' de Euleye Jur. 


Jur. 



Hundr' de Dudestan. 
Walter'' le Hare Cap' Serv' Jur. Elect. 

Joh' de Piriton - Jur. Will s Girard - Jur. Walt' de Gram 

Rog s de Matesden Jur. Joh' Nichol de Britham- Bob' di Ledene 
Galfr de la grava - Jur. ton - - - Jur. Will 8 le Venur 
HugdeBrithamptonJur. Ad de Uske - 
Wills d e Wetecumbe 



Jur. 
Jur. 
Jur. 



Jur. Wal ts de Snedhowe Jur. 
Jur. 



Ric' de Trohu. 
Wills de Budefudd Jur. 
Will 8 de Aurebyard Jur. 
Will 8 le Curteys - Jur. 



Hundr' de Bisele. 
Wills Oruske Cap' Serv' Jur. Elect. 
Jur. Walt' Ferre - - Jur. Bob' de Buffus 



Will 8 de Tunleye - Jur. 
Will 8 de Hida - Jur. 
Joh es de Frompton Jur. 



Jur. 

Joh 7 de Coles - Jur. 
Will s Hynder - Jur. 
Clemens de la Musardcr 

Jur. 



Hundr' de Salmondebur' 
Ad' Justice Capit Serv' Electores. 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 



290 



Will's 
Hen? Mustel - - Jur. 
Ric' le Poer de Levinton 

Jur. 
Petf RufFus de Ourton 

Jur. 



Hundr' de Chil'tham. 

Idem Serv' Electores. 
Hundr' de Derherst. 

Weclicharm Cap's Jur. Elect. 
Hug de Stokwell - Jur. Wills Freman 
Joh 3 de Wik - - Jur. 
Joh s de Paris - Jur. 

Joh s de Culne - Jur. 
Rob 3 de Aqua - Jur. 



, Jur. 
Joh' de Notclive - Jur. 
Laur 3 de Cumton - Jur. 
Walt 3 Buking - Jur. 
Thorn Alisandr - Jur. 



Joh 3 de Copushull Jur. 
Joh s de Cliva . . Jur. 
Nich' de Grcttofi . Jur. 
Will s de Marisco . Jur. 



Hundr' de Theoksbur' 
Idem Serv' Electores. 
And? de Owlesden Jur. 
Hen? de Alsintofi . Jur. 
Joh s de Godeshelve Jur. 
Ric Payn . . . Jur. 



Pair 1 de Aldingston Jur. 
Will' de Staneweye Jur. 
Joh 3 le Knight . Jur. 
Will 3 de Fraxino . Jur. 



Hen? Bigod . 


. Jur. 


Rob 3 fil Nich 3 


. Jur. 


Samps Gerard 


. Jur. 


Rob 3 de Marem 


. Jur. 



Sim. de Pendale 



Jur. 

Jur. 
Nich 3 de Betelsford Jur. 
Thorn de Hilneton Jur. 



Rob' Pigat 



Hundr' de Theobaldston 
Idem Serv' Electores. 
Will 3 de Sais . . Jur. 
Will 3 fil Nich 3 . Jur. 
Ric' de Brokamton Jur. 
Thoiii de eodem . Jur. 
(Rot 16 in dorso). 

Hundr' de Kyptesgate. 

Bogs' Harang Capit' Serv' Jar. 

Ait de Wathington Jur. Joh s de Hundicote Jur. Rad s de DorsingtonJur 

Joh s de Stegneecote Jur. 
Gilb 3 de Alsecote . Jur. 
Osb 3 de Luntecumb Jur. 
Rami de Stoks . Jur. 

Hundr' de Holeford. 

Idem Serv'. 
Rog s le Nennon . Jur. 
Nich' de Stant . Jur. 
Galf? de Culbolton Jur. 
Ric' de Castres . Jur. 
Will 3 Euriffe . . Jur. 



Thorn La Hunt . Jur. 

Wills Moij . . Jur. 

Alex r de Chardingwyrth 

Jur. 



Rad 3 de Brokhampton 

Jur. 

Rob 3 de Astin de Wir- 

nistin . . . Jur. 

Sim de Holeford . Jur. 



Will 3 de Cama . Jur. 
Will 3 de Wulleston Jur. 
Ph 3 de Weston . Jur. 



Will 3 fil Elie de Cotes 

Jur. 
Hen? de Endlewell Jur. 
Will 3 deDumbleton Jur. 
Ric 3 de Weton . Jur. 



Hundr' de Gretstan. 
Idem Serv' 

(No names of Jurors given. — In oth Hen III. it was combined with Holford). 

Hundr' de Bottelawe. 

Fog's de Bottelave Capit Serv' Jur. 

Jur. Joh 3 de Bosco . Jur. Hen? de Acle . Jur. 

Jur. Ham de Byfa? . Jur. Rog s de Wyka . Jur. 

Walt s de Hunteleg Jur. Will 8 de Cheltened Jur, Rob 3 de Anunde . Jur. 

Math s d e Pietes . Jur. Rob 3 de Stanhuth Jur. Ad le Frankeleyn . Jur. 



Ric 3 de Newent 
Hen? Haket . 



300 



Transactions at Newest. 



Will* Heluifi 

Joh' de Blechesdoii 

Godefr' de Fanton' 



Rot. 16 in dorso. 
Hundr' de Westbur' 
Elias de Heydon, Cap' Jur. 
Jur. HugJuvenis . - Jur. 
Jur. Nich'deBlechesdon Jur. 
Jur. Rog 8 de Bosco . Jur. 



Ad le (sic) Fanton Jur. Henf de Chakeshill Jur. 

Hundr' de Blytheswicke. 



Will'Jex . . Jur. 
Walt' de Heydon Jur. 
Henf fil Clar de Dodleg 
Jur. 
Will 8 le Fulcher . Jur. 





Henr' de Coventr' Cap' Jur. 


ET 


Walt 5 de Aure 


, Jur. Hen? Baret . . Jur. 


W alt' de Pulton . Jur. 


Ph s Badofi 
Will s Menske . 


, Jur. Hug Hedg . . Jur. 
, Jur. Walt' de Eiunas . Jur. 


Pagan' de Hidelegh 

Jur. 
Ph s Hume . . Jur. 


Aft de Blideslawe . 


Jur. Joh s Sorel . . Jur. 


Walt s de Musham Jur. 



Hundr' de Cyrenoestr' 
Umfrkl' de la Barre, Cap" Serv' Jur. El' 



Galfr de Meysi . Jur. 
Joh s Barbast . . Jur. 
Will 8 de Hanckirtefi 

Jur. 
Joh' de eodem Jur. 



Rob 8 de Northleg . Jur. 



Simon de Stokes Jur. 
Walt' de Pulton Jur. 
Walt' de Noeuyl Jur. 



WiiW de Mattesden Jur. 
Anselm de Cerney Jur. 
Ric' de la Hyde Jur. 



Walt' de Barbeflet Jur. Walt Muntag . Jur. 



Hundr' de Bradelegh' 

Idem. Electores. 
Joh' Cleriband . Jur. 



Walt' Juvenis de Oup- 



Rob 8 de Gayton 
Hen? de Shipton 
Joh s de Marisco 



Walt 8 le Hont 


. Jur. 


Rad s filPhi' . 


. Jur. 


Will 8 de Crupes 


. Jur. 


Will s i e Mazun 


. Jur. 



ton . . .Jur. 

Jur. Will s c i e Stabl s . Jur. Joh' de Shipton . Jur. 

Jur. Will s ( j e Segre . Jur. Rob' de Sylers . Jur. 

Jur. Baldeuin de Hennepenne Will 8 Herberd . Jur. 

J ur. 

Hunddr' de Respigate. 

Idem. El' 
Nich' de Bosco . Jur. Hug de Hanape. . Jur. 
Will 8 de la Stable Jur. Walt' Wick . . Jur. 
Henf WariS . . Jur. Thoni de Rindecumbe 

Jur. 
Rob s Segar . . Jur. Ric' Auketin . . Jur. 

Hundr' de Briciitwaldesbergh. 
Idem. El' 



Galfr. Cumin . 
Will 8 de Stokes 
Siwat de Fifide 
Will 8 de Frenes 



Jur. Henf de Kent 

Jur. Ad le Graunt . 

Jur. Ric' de la Cote 

Jur. Ric' Hemwy . 



Jur. Rad' de Leche . Jur. 

Jur. Sim le Mazun . Jur. 

Jur. Wills Waleys , j ur . 

Jur. Walt 8 Belle . . Jur. 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 



301 



Hundr' de Langtre. 
Idem. Serviens Jur. EV 
Galf ? Capun . Jur. 

Walt' Spileman . Jur. 
Walt' de Nayleswfth 

Jur. 
Rob 8 de Upton . Jur. El de Seyntley . Jur. 

de lib e Episc Wicetr. H undr' de Bernestre 

Hear' de Werkeburgh, Cap' Jur. Elect. 



Ric 8 de Wokkesoye Jur, 
Ph° de la Hille . Jur 
Rob s de Ouhtten . Jur 



Ric' le Bret . . Jur. 
Will' de Lasseberge Jur. 
Joh s le Warnemund J or. 

Walt s Bernard . Jur. 



Will s de Vezin 

Will 8 le Saunag 
Will s Cragyn . 
Walt 8 Hoke . 



Jur. Rob s Pistor de Schanton Joh' de Sautemareys 

Jur. Jur. 

Jur. Sim Wymund . Jur. Will' de Haya . Jur. 

Jur. Ric' fil Magri . . Jur. Walt s Couel . . Jur. 
Jur. Alex r de Yate . Jur. 



Walt s de Teokesbf Jur. 
Ric 8 Blundus . . Jur. 
Joh s Meints . . Jur. 
Haty Fromund . Jur. 



VlLLATA GLOUC' 

Bcdlivus. 
Will 8 Cleymund . Jur. 
Joh s Lemster . . Jur. 
Will 8 de Lodelawe Jur. 
E2 8 Piscata . . Jur. 



Will 8 de Waddon Jur. 
Hug Clericus . . Jur. 
Joh 8 de Boneyr . Jur. 
Joh 8 Long . . Jur. 







Vill' dp Campden' 










Bcdlivus. 








Ric' Russell 


Jur. 


Joh s de Burton 


Jur. 


Will 8 de Wulford. 


Jur. 


Joh 8 Tinetor 


Jur. 


AVill 8 le Vele . . 


Jur. 


Rob' le Engleys . 


Jur. 


Rad s Cawe . 


Jur. 


Will 8 de Cestre . 


Jur. 


Ad de Kent . 


Jur. 


Patr s de Stanton 


Jur. 


Rob 8 Page 


Jur. 


Hen? le Taylleur . 


Jur, 






Vill' de Winchccmb' 










Bcdlivus. 








Walt 8 fil CleriC . 


Jur. 


Ph 8 le Endir . . 


Jur. 


Will 8 Aurifaber . 


Jur. 


Rad s Treinmo 


. Jur. 


Gerv 8 de Cruce 


Jur. 


Will 8 Wint . . 


Jur. 


Will 8 Albe . . 


Jur. 


Will 8 Peder . . 


Jur. 


Achelard fil Bhde . 


Jur. 


Rob 8 de KaughaS . 


Jur. 


Walt 8 Reyde . . 


Jur. 


Joh 8 Copping 


Jur. 






Vill' de Tewkesbur' 










Bcdlivus. 








Will 8 fil El 8 . . 


Jur. 


Warm' Tinetor 


Jur. 


Will 8 Ernaud . . 


Jur. 


Walt 8 Berye . 


. Jur. 


Alex 1 ' Isaac 


Jur. 


Ph 8 Mercator 


Jur. 


Regifi le Vaillant , 


, Jur. 


Joh 8 Hakebone 


Jur. 


Ran Marescallus . 


Jur. 


Ric' Tinetor . 


. Jur. 


Nich 8 filSim . . 


Jur. 


Hen? Tinetor . 


Jur. 




LlBF.RTAS DE FORESTE 


de Den' 




Will 8 de Dene 


. Jur. 


Rog s Wyther 


J ur. 


Thorn Ad . . 


Jur. 


Will 8 de Lacu 


Jur. 


Will 8 le"Bret . . 


Jur. 


Walt 8 Herbert . 


Jur. 


Thorn de Blakeny 


. Jur. 


\\'ill s Josce 


Jur. 


Ph 8 Bishop . 


Jur. 


Joh s Blundus . 


. Jur. 


Rcgiu le Paumer 
End oj Roll 16. 


• Jur. 


Rog s de Kotiford 


Jur. 



302 



Transactions at Newent. 



(Rot. 17). 
Manerium be Marshfield. 



Paganus de Marshfield 
Jur. 
Umfred 3 de eodem Jur. 
Will s de Hocford Jur. 
Nich 3 de eodem Jur. 



Will 3 Longus . . Jur. 

Ric s le Lombard . Jur. 

Wills de i a Hille . Jur. 

Rad 3 fil Thorn . Jur. 



Rad 3 Mercator . Jur. 
Rad s Carney . . Jur. 
Benedic 8 de Sodbury Jur. 
Job 3 de Kenegrave Jur. 



Ballivus. 

Rob s Molindarius . Jur. 

Et s de Hocford . Jur. 

Ait de Monte . . Jur. 

Gilbs P'posit 3 . . Jur. 

Vill' de Newenham. 



Rad s de Agmath . Jur. 
Walt 3 de Agmatha Jur. 
Ric s de Hocford . Jur. 
Thorn de Agmtha Jur. 



Ballivus. 

Nich s Marescatt 
Joh s Regulin . 
Joh 3 Chaceg 8 . 
Galf F Serviens 



Jur. Rog 3 Masbill . . Jur. 

Jur. Rad s le Wympler. Jur. 

Jur. Ric s de Haya . Jur. 

Jur. Will s Dorby . . Jur. 



Manerium de Sodbury. 

Ballivus. 
Ait Blundus . 
Ric 3 Clericus. 
Ph s Summonitor 
Petf Juvenis . 



Jur. Sim Pistor 

Jur. Godefr Pistor 

Jur. Joh s le Graunt 

Jur. Joh 3 de Holebrok 



Jur. 

Jur. 
Jur. 
Jur. 



Vill' de Cuderinton. 
Ballivus. 



Nich s de Stanshawe Jur. 


Joh 3 de Stranshawe Jur. 


Henr Brim . 


Jur. 


Andr ad Boscil . Jur. 


Ric 3 Harding . . Jur. 

Vill' de Cyrencestr'. 

Ballivus. 


Will 3 fil pposit 1 


. Jur 


Walt 3 le Bel . . Jur. 


Hug Colle . . Jur. 


Ph 3 Harand . 


. Jur. 


Mich 3 de la More . Jur. 


Thofii le Sannag . Jur. 


Math 3 de Munte 


. Jur 


Ric de aqua . . Jur. 


Rob 3 Barbast . . Jur. 


Gilb 3 Ramond 


. Jur. 


Will 3 Foliet . . Jur. 


Wills de Hazelton Jur. 


Aug le Newman 


. Jur. 



Manerium de Wik. 
Ballivus. 



Jordanus le Ware 


Jur. 


Thom Barbast . Jur. 


Et 3 Herman . . Jur. 


Rad 3 Gule 


Jur. 


Rad de Audertou . Jur. 

Vill' Bristoll. 
Ballivus. 


Regin Forestarius Jur. 


Jacob 3 la Ware 


Jur. 


Will 3 de Bellomonte 


Gilb 3 de Marlebergh 


Thom Long 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Will 3 Clicus . . 


Jur. 


Sim Clericus . Jur. 


Ulmundus Clericus Jur. 


El 3 Long . 


Jur. 


Henr Langeford . Jur. 


Thom de Berchamsted 


Elias Aky 


Jur. 


Rob 3 de Legh . . Jur. 


Jur. 


Walt 3 


Mime 


:lyme . Jur. Ric Juvenis . . Jur. 



A Gloucestershire Jury List. 



303 







Vill' de Redecliye. 






• 




Ballivus 






Hug Wembesting 


Jur. 


Walt s Blundus . Jur. 


Walt 9 Tinctor . 


Jur, 


Wills i e Gape . . 


Jur. 


Walt s de Bedminster 


Ed de Haghelbam 


Jur, 


Thorn Juvenis 


Jur. 


Jur. 


Joh s de Holton . 


Jur. 


Joh s Gilbert . 


Jur. 


Will s King . . Jur. 
Ric fiz al Pretre . Jur. 

the end. 


Galf r Long 


Jur, 



304 Transactions at Newknt. 



THE WILL OF WILLIAM WHITTINGTON, OF 
ST. BRIAVELS, Gent.— 1625. 

Co-nmunicated with Notes by the REV. W. TAPRELL ALLEN, M.A. 

Vicar of St. Briavels. 

There are three pedigrees of the Whittington family of Glouces- 
tershire upon record. First, that descended from a certain Guy 
Whittington by the daughter and heir of Pauntley, from which 
Alice Whittington, who married John Nanfan of Birt's Morton, 
derived her descent, to shew which we have given a portion of the 
pedigree from the Harl. MS. No. 1041, and 1543 (ante p. 223). 
No arms are tricked for this family. From this house sprung the 
branch which for several generations nourished at Notgrove, in 
co. Gloucester, and that at Hampton, in co. Hereford. The 
pedigree is recorded in Harl. MS. 1543, fo. 165, which we believe 
is a record of the Heralds' Visitation of Gloucestershire in 1583. 
The arms assigned to this branch are : — 
Quarterly — 1. Gules, a fess cheque, or and azure. 

2. Gu.,a chev. ermine betw. 3 escalops, ar.; [Milborne] 

3. Argent, a chev. gules betw. 3 hurts ; [Baskerville] 
.£. Azure, a bend cotised between six crosses crosslet 

fitchee, or ; [Blaket]. 
Crest : — A lion's head erased, sa. 

The third is the pedigree of Whittington of St. Briavels, which 
was settled there at an early date. The founder was Guy de 
Whittington, who married a daughter and heir of ... 
Malemore (query Aylesmore, an estate in the same parish). 
He would seem to have been a cadet of the former house, for the 
same arms are allowed to him, differenced with a martlet for the 
fourth son, but we have failed to affiliate him. The fifth in descent 
from this Guy by Alice daughter of Thomas Ball, of Monmouth, 
had, besides daughters, a family of six sons, of whom William, the 
testator, was the fourth, and perhaps he it was who assumed the 
cadency mark, above mentioned, as a distinction. He married 



Will of William Whittinctox. ?,05 

Alice, relict of one TiUadams, by whom he also had a large family. 
His daughter, Frances, married William Carpenter, second son of 
Thomas Carpenter, of St. Briavels, who was fourth in descent 
from Maurice Carpender, who married Lucia, daughter and co-heir 
of John Hope, alias Bayley. 

The arms quartered by Whittington of Pauntley, the blazon 
of which is given on the last page, were brought in by the marriage 
of John Whittington of Pauntley with the daughter and coheir of 
Simon Milborne, of Tillington, co. Hereford, and consist of the 
arms of Milborne, Baskerville, and Blaket. Sir John Blaket, 
of Icomb, co. Gloucester, by Margaret, daughter of Sir John 
Eynesford who died 1420, left a son and heir named Edmund, 
and a daughter Anne, who married Ralph Baskerville. Edmund 
died s.p., and was succeeded at Icomb by his sister, whom, with her 
husband, Edmund names in his will dated 9th September, 1444 
(see ante vol. VII. p. 179). Their daughter and coheir, Elizabeth 
or Jane, married Simon Milborne, one of whose coheirs married 
John Whittington, as above. 

The arms allowed to Thomas Carpender at the Visitation of 
Gloucestershire in 1582-3, were : — Gu'es a /ess cotised or, in chief 
three crosses patonce vaire. But to his sons was allowed a Avholly 
different coat, viz.: — Paly of six argent and azure, on a chevron 
gules three cro^ses-crosslet or ; and the same arms were allowed to 
William Carpender, the great-grandson of the above Thomas, 
when he recorded his pedigree at the Heralds' Visitation of Glou- 
cestershire, 1682-3, with the following crest: — A lion's gamb erased, 
or, the paw grasping an arrow, azure, barbed and fledged, argent ; 
and this certificate is appended : — " An exemplification to Richard 
and William Carpender, gent, and their posterity, by William 
Dethick, Garter, and William Camden, Clarencieux, and also a 
pedigree allowed and subscribed by them 29th May, 1600." 

It may be here noted that the name seems to have been written 
indifferently Carpenter and Carpender. 



Vol. X., part 1. 



306 



PEDIGREE OF WHITTINGTON OF ST. BRIAVELS. 



Arms. — Gules a Jess cheque 1 or. and a.z., in dexter chief a martlet of the second. 
Crest. — A lion's head coupedsa., charged with a martlet. 



Guy of Whittington=p...da. and heir of Malemore. 

Richard Whittington=f= 
r- 



Richard Whittingtom 



J 



John Whittingtom 



Rohert Whittington,=p...da. of Hyett, of Gloucestershire. 

of St. Brevill. ' | 

r J 

Thomas Whittington=j=Alice, da. of Thomas Ball, of Monmouth. 

i . 



! 1 

Thomas ; 
Whittington, 
son and heir. 



J one, dau. 
of John 
Dunning, 
of Lydney. 



Guy 
Whit- 
tington. 



! ( 

Aim, da.=George 2 John. 3Jatncs.= 

of John Mason. | , — | ' 

Callis. fflaru. 22Rilltam. 



3oljn. 



Jane, wife to 
Wm. Bed owe. 

Edward, 
Gth son. 



Charles, 
1st son. 



1 

J oane. 



Richard. 



— i 1 

Edward. Alice. 



i I 
June. 



Dorothy. 



— •_-] — 

Richard. 
5th son. 



William = 

Whittington. 
4th son, of St. 
Briavels. Will 
dated 11th July, 
I 625 . Proved 
2nd A injust 
following at 
Gloucester. 



<&\kt,=r Kobrrt 



SBlarvcu i'ftarnarrt, = 

TOllllit- da. & coh. 

tington, 

oh. s.p. 

before 

1625. 



-Xalliantrl 
It?olityrs, of 
the City of 
Glouc. 



da. of 



-2 P3 



Tilla- 

dams. 

1 

g 

o n 



Emitting* 
ton, of Cold 

Ashton. Mar. 
Eleanor, da. 
of Richard 
Moresley. 

T" 



1 

.■pan 

ffiSIhit= 

itngtou, 

mar. 

(?Thos.) 

Yorke. 



Alary. 



William. 



John. 



aSHilltam 
|t?oDgrs. 



— i 
l 3mtr 



SJ oogcs. 



i 

W&m. Carpmofr, : 
of St. Briavels, 
ob. St. Paul's 
Day, 1680, ast 55. 
Bur.f25Jan. 168£ 



Ann, dau. of 

Hall, of Ledbury, co. 
Hereford, ob. 1654. 



Susanna, wife of 

Newbury, of 

Stonr Provost, 
co. Dorset. 



2 Frances, 
£6t 30, un- 
mar. 



Wm.Carpender=j=Elizabeth, dau. of John 



of St. Briavels, 
born 1654, 
living 1682. 
Bur.fl4 Aug. 1709. 



Higgins, of Hewelstield, 
mar.f 22 Dec. 1673 ; bur.f 
16 Nov. 1712, ayed 82 years 
M.I. 



i 1 ■ — i 

Thomas a?tS, Ann, set 6, bap. %= Thos. Curtis, Elizabeth, vat 3 : bap.% 4th 
bap.%26 Sep. 25 Oct. 1676 ; died of the City of Mar. 1679 ; died 21st Jan. 
1674. and bur. f 25 Apr. Bristol. 1720, aged 44 years ; bur.f 

1753 ; vet 77. M.I. M.I. with Arms. 



At Newland. 



t At St. Briavels. 



J At Hevvelsfield. 



PEDIGREE OF CARPENDER OF ST. BRIAVELS. 307 



Arms. — Paly of six gu. and ar. on a chevron az. three crosses crosslet or. 

Ckest. — A (ion's jamb erased or, the paw grasping an arrow az. barbed and 
fledged ar. 

An exemplification, to Richard and William Carpender, gent., and their pos- 
terity by William Dethic, Garter, and William Camden, Glarencienx, and 
also a Pedigree allowed and subscribed by them .''9th May, 1600. 



Maurice Carpender, gent.,=pLucia, da. and coheir of John Hope, alias Bay ley. 

of Coleford? 

i ■ 

John Carpender=j= 

I 



Richard Carpender=i=Rose, dau. of Thomas Spicer, remar. Richard 

i ' Hammond. 

John Carpender, =i= 
son and heir. 

I J 

Thomas Carpender=pAnn, dau. of Thomas Monnoux. 



1 i 1 

jFranrrs, dau.=f=2123illiam = Lady Elizb. Richard Carpender, 

of Willliam 
Whittington, 
of St.Briavels 



(ffarpmlrr, of Somerset, da. of Coleford. Eldest 

St. Briavels, of Wm. Earl son. Will 1610. 
2nd son. of Worcester, =p 

-I bur.* 30 June , 1 

Elizabeth (?) dau. of William 1597. 1 wife Ann, dau. and heir. 

Carpender, of Coleford, bap* 

4th May, 1615. 



The portions of this Pedigree printed in Roman type are from the Heralds' 
Visitations, and those in Italics from Parish Registers and other 
authentic sources. The name of the testator is printed in small 
capitals, and those of parties named in the Will in black tupc. — Ed. 



w 2 



308 Transactions at Newent. 

The Will. 
In the name of God Amen the elleventh daye of July in the ffirsteyereof the 
raigne of ower most gracious vSovraigne Lorde Charles hy the grace of God 
Kinge of England Scotland ffrance and Irelande Defender of the ffaith 
Ano Dni 1625/ I William Whittington of St. Breavells in the County of 
Glouc gent, beinge sicke in bodye, but of good and pfecte memory, (thanks 
be therefore gyven to allmightye God) Doe make and declare this my last 
will and Testam* in manner and forme followinge (That is to say) ffirst I 
coiiiend my sowle unto Allmyghtye God my Creator Stedfastly assuringe 
myself through the merits of Jesus Christ his onely Sonne, my Savio 1 ' and 
Redeemer and by his bitter death and passion to obteine ffree Remission of 
all my Sinnes and to be made ptaker of his heavenly Kingdom And my 
bodye to be buried in the pishe Church of S fc . Breavells at the discretion of 
my Executor / Itm I gyve bequeathe and appoint the some of ffyve poundes 
of lawfull money to be distributed by my Executo r at my ffunerall to the 
poore wch shalbe then and there present. / Itm I gyve and bequeathe to 
Alice my Wife Sixe Kyne, Twenty Ewes, and Twenty lambes, one Pecke of 
Wheate and Rye now beinge at my house And all my barley now growinge 
in or upon the Horsepool meadowe And all my oates now growinge in or 
uppon my meadow neere to my saide dwellinge house And one Mare and 
my Tallet over the Sheepcotte full of heye and all my p vision for mainten- 
ance of my house ascorne, malt, butter, cheese, meate, pigges, Gees, poultrye 
and such like and also all her wearinge lynnen apparell jewels and Ringes. 
Itm I gyve and bequeathe to my said Wife the use and occupacbn of all my 
plate household stuffe and ymplem ts of householde and the benefit therof 
for & duringe the Terme of her naturall life only, And after her decease my 
will and meaninge ys And I doe gyve & dispose the same to \V m . Hodges 
my grandechilde Sonne of Nathaniell bodges of the Cittye of Glouc. and 
Margaret his wife my daughter/ Itm I gyve and bequeathe to my saide 
wife all those landes called the Whitelands, And one pcell of lande called the 
Worrells wch I hold by Lease of S* Edward Wyntour, Knight, late deceased 
Togither wh all my right title interest estate and terme of yeres therein to 
come and unexpired she payinge and pfonning the Rents Reservations and 
covenants therein conteyned Itm I give to my said wife all that pcell of 
lande as I houlde by Lease of Henry Probert gen. Togither w th the said lease 
& all my estate terme & interest therein to come and unexpired She payinge 
and pforming the Rents Reservacons and Covennts therein conteyned Itm I 
gyve & bequeathe to my saide Wife the some of ffyve poundes of lawfull 
english money to be paid to her by my Executor Itm I gyve and bequeath 
to my two Soninlawes vzt.W m . Tilladdams and Jo h Tilladdams my Wife's 
Sonnes the Some of Tenne Poundes a peece to be payed unto them within Sixe 
moneths next after my decease / Itm I gyve and bequeath to Anne Samford 
my mayde servant the some of Tenne poundes of lawfull English money to 
be payd by my Executor to my brother Rob 1 Whittington to dispose thereof 
to her use within Six monthes of my Decease and also I gyve to her one 
friock bedde and bowlster one healing ] one blankett and one payer of sheetes/ 
Itm I gyve and bequeath to my nephew W". Whittington one heyfer wch I 
bowght of wydow hynam nowe goinge & depasturing in hudnolles Itm I gyve 

1 A coverlet. 



Will of William Whittington. 300 

& bequeath to all my servants one shepe a peece. Itm I gyve & bequeath to 
my late servan Thomas Greene one sheepe. Itm I gyve and bequeath to 
my Godson William Morse the some of Twenty Shyllings to be paid to him 
w'hin Syxe monthes of my decease. Item I gyve and bequeath unto Anne 
hodges my Graundchilde the Some of xxx 1 to be paid unto the hands of my 
brother Rob 1 Whyttington gen. and Dennis Wyse gent w t hin one yeare next 
after my Decease, to be imployed by them to the best benefitt pffitt and use 
of the s d Anne untill shee shall accomplish the age of eightene yeares. And 
then to be by them paid to the said Anne her Executo rs or her assio-nes 
together wth the use pffyt & benefitt thereof/ Itm I gyve & bequeath 
to my Landlord Edward Bell gent my best mare cowlt Itm I gyve & 
bequeath to my grandchilde W m Carpender all my waynes & ploughtacling / 
Itm I gyve & bequeath to my brother Rob* Whyttington one howse and 
garden & one barne & one lyttle cjose thereunto adioyning one pcell of 
meadow neare unto the petty marshe with their appertenances in S 1, Brevills 
afores d nowe in the Tenure of Edward Morse & w ch he holdeth by lease for a 
Tearme of hys lyfe Johan his wyfe William theyr sonne whereuppon is 
Reserved the yearely Rent of ffifty Three Shyllings & Sower pence & one 
cowple of henns./ to have and to hould the same together wth the Rents 
Reversion & Remainder to the said Rob 1 Whyttington for terme of his 
naturalle lyfe and after his decease I gyve & bequeath & my will and mean- 
inge is that the same shall come & remaine to my nephew W m . Whyttington 
his son & to his heyres for ever / Itm I gyve & bequeath to the s d W U1 . hodges 
all those landes with the appurtenances callede Ats marshe & hathwayes 
orcharde well I doe howld of Sir W m . Throckmorton Knight & Barron ett by 
Lease for Diverse yeares yet to come together w*h the s d . Indenture of Lease 
And all my Tyttle Terme & Estate therein to come & unexpyred Itm I gyve 
& bequeath to my Syster Johan Yorke the Some of ffyve pounds of lawfull 
mony of England to be paid her by my Executo'./ And I Do gyve Devyse 
& bequeath the howse and lands web. I howld of Edw Bell gent for lyves 
together w'h the s d lease and all my Right Tyttle interest estate & Terme of 
yeeres therein to come & unexpired unto ft'ranncis Carpenter my dawghter 
yealding & paying and pforming all Rents & Reservacons theruppon Reserved 
Due & payable. Itm 1 gyve & bequeath unto my nephew W m . Whittington 
Sonne of my brother James Whittington & to his heyres for ever one close or 
pcell of land lying in a close called the Gyllowghes w ch I purchased of 
Edmond Whyte & Edw : his Sonne Item I gyve & bequeath to my nephew 
John Whittington his brother and his heyres for ever in full discharge & 
satisfacton of all Reckoninge matters & demands whatsoever w cu he may 
can or might demand claime or challenge from me w ht soever one pcell of 
meadow called Snapcrol'te lying in S*. Bre. afores' 1 & in the tenure of W 1 ". 
marshe on rent of flower & Twenty Shyllings & a cowple of hens. Itm I 
gyve & bequeath to Mary Whittington my neece syst 1 ' of the sd. W m . & John 
Whittington all such other lands lying in Gyllowes w ch I howld by lease of 
Edw Bell gent together with the lease and all my Right Tyttle & interest 
& terme therein to come & unexpired paing all Rents & Rerervafons ther upon 
payable and Reserved x It 111 I give devise and bequethe unto S r Richard 
Catchmay of Bixwear Knight, Warren Gough gent William tyler John 
Griffith William Whittington & John Whittington Sonnes of Juines 

1 This part is written in another hand. 



310 Transaction's at Newest. 

Whittington deceased Edward Dale all that ground with a barne ther upon 
beinge with the appurtenance called or known by the name of harthilles 
beinge divided into two parte in the tenure or occupation of henry martin 
And whiche heholdeth for divers yeres yet to come under the yearely Rent 
of six poundes and one couple of hennes And all that tenement garden barne 
and close of meadowe thereunto adioyninge with the appurtenances in the 
tenure or occupation of Edward morse and whiche he holdeth by will under 
ths yerely rent of thirtie and five shillinges And also one parcell of land with 
the appurtenances lying in the spurralls conteyninge by estimacion fouwer 
acres more or lesse in the tenure or occupacion of blanche lewes widowe 
and under the yerely rent of thirtie shillinges togither with the Revercion 
reversions and Remainder therof and of every parte therof and all Rentes and 
Reservacions due and reserved by and upon all & every demise and graunt 
of the said severall premisses & of every parte therof To have and to 
hold the said ground barnes gardens landes and last mentioned premisses 
with their appurtenances togither with the reversion and revercions due & 
reserved upon any demise or demises of the premisses unto the said S r . 
Richard Catchmay warren gough william Tyler John Griffith William 
Whittington John Whittington and Edward Dale & to their heires and 
assignes for ever upon trust & confidence and to the intent and purpose that 
they and every of them shall & will from time to time and at all times 
hereafter yearely for ever well and truly satisfie content and pay or cause to 
satisfied and paid out of the yearely rents issues and profittes of the 
landes and other the premisses so to them given devised & bequeathed to 
twelve the poorest people of the said parish of S l Brevells for the time 
beinge three poundes of good and lawfull money of England to bee equally 
paid and distributed betweene them at the feast of H t . Michael the 
Archaungell and the Annnciacion of our blessed lady S fc . mary the virgin or 
with in one monthe next after either of the said feastes yearely for ever by 
even and equall porcions And three poundes more of good and lawfull 
money of england yearely for ever for the settelinge abrode placinge to 
trades binding apprentises and providinge stockesfor such poore yonge boyes 
girles and youthes of the said parish of S fc Brevels as for the time beinge 
shalhe fittinge to be setteled placed bound apprentices or deserve to be 
be assisted who are fatherlesse or whose parentes for the time beinge are not 
of ability to so place or preferre them as aforesaid And also twentie six 
shiUinge and eight pence of like lawfull money yerely for ever to one 
sufficient preacher or sufficient preachers of Gods worde to preache fower 
Sermons every yeare in the charche of S l Brevels aforesaid that is one sermon 
in every quarter of every yeare for ever. And twenty shillinges of like 
lawfull money to be yearely for ever bestowed and imployed in Repayringe 
amendinge and beautifieing the said church of S l Brevels and providinge 
decent ornamentes for the same but not to be bestowed and imployed in 
covcringe tylinge wallinge or doinge any outeward worke or common 
Roparacions And the rcmaync and over plus of the yearely rentes issues 
and profittes aforesaid my intent and meaninge is and I doe appoint shalbe 
paid yearely for ever to my two daughters ffrauncis and margarett and to their 
heires The one moyetie of all the rest of my messuages houses edifices 
gardens orchardes landes tenements meadowes pastures walles underwoodes 
Rents reversions & hereditaments whatsoever with their appurtenances 



Will of William Whittingtoit. 311 

within the said parish of S fc Brevels or else where in the said countie of 
Gloucester hereby before not devised I give devise an/1 bequeath unto 
ffrauncis my daughter wife of William Carpender gent for terme of her life 
and after her decease to William Carpender her sonne and my graundchild 
and to the heires of his body lawfully to bee begotten and for want of suche 
issue to the heires of the body of the said ffrauncis my daughter lawfully to 
bee begotten and for want of suche issue to William hodges one other of my 
graundchildren and to the heires of his body lawfully to bee begotten and 
for want of such issue to my right heires for ever. The other moyetie of all 
the rest of my messuages howses edifices gardens orchardes landes tenementes 
meadowes pastures walles underwoodes rentes reversions & hereditamentes 
whatsoever with their appurtenances within the said parish of S l Brevels or 
else where in the said countie of Gloucester I give devise and bequeathe 
unto the said margaret my daughter wife of nathaniell hodges of the citty of 
Gloucester for terme of her life and after her decease to the said William 
hodges her sonne and my graundchild and to the heires of his body lawfully 
to bee begotten and for want of suche issue to the said heires of the body of 
the said margaret my daughter lawfully to bee begotten and for want of 
suche issue to the said William Carpender my graundchild and to the heires 
of his body lawfully to bee begotten and for want of suche issue to my Right 
heires for ever. 

I 1 I give and bequeathe to John Ray servant to my lady Escott x the some 
of ffive poundes of good and lawfull money in satisfaccion of such demandes 
as he demandeth from Warren Whittington my son deceased 2 Itm I give 
and bequeathe to John Gryft'eth my best cloake. Itm I gyve and bequeathe 
to Edward Morse my second cloake. Itm I gyve to Richard Moorton of 
Coif: 3 my best suyte of Apparell Itm gyve to Thomas York one other 
sute of apparell. Itm I gyve to the afores d . Thomas Grene my thirde sute 
appell Itm I gyve ffyve pounds to be imployed for making a causeway in the 
Bearse in the way leading over the Bearse from S l Brevels towards Deane All 
the rest of my goods Cattells and Chattells whoever not herein before devysed 
my debts legacies & funerall expences being Discharged I gyve and bequeath 
to the b d Nathaniell hodges whom I doe make & ordaine my sole executo 1- . 
of this my last will & testain 1 / And I doe appoint constitute & desyre my 
very loving ft'riend Edward Bell gent & my loving brother Rob 1 . Whyttington 
my overseers to dyrect my Executo 1 ". & to see this my Will truly pformed 
And for theyre paines I gyve them xx s a peece to be paid by my Executo 1 './ 

(Signed) 

William Whittixgton 

Signed publyshed & declared in the,presence of 

Will Bell 
Samitell Bayt. 
The marke of John X Greeffeth 
Thomas Phyllpotts /. 
Proved at Gloucester on the second day of August 1625 
before William Sutton, priest A.M. Vicar general in 
spirituals of Godfrey, Bishop of Gloucester. 

1 In the Probate Copy " Estcourt." 

2 The older hand seems to be resumed here. Coleford. 



312 Will of William Whittinuton. 

Notes by Rev. T. Allex. 

The lands called Spurrills and Harthill, which were bequeathed by Wm. 
Whittington to Trustees for the benefit of the parish of St. Briavels, were 
bought by him of George Wyrhall, of Bicknor Court, Esquire, in the first 
year of James I. 

These lands, with the piece called " Morres," continued for more thru 
two centuries in the hands of Trustees, but, through the trust being allowed 
to lapse, the charge upon Harthill was not paid for several years. In con- 
sequence a petition was presented to the Court of Chancery, and in July, 
1852, an order was made by the Court, whereby the fee simple of the lands was 
vested in new Trustees. With the consent of the Chancery Commissioners, 
the interest of the Trustees was, in 1878, sold to the parties entitled to the 
surplus rents, and the proceeds invested for the purposes of the charity. 
Harthill, with other la.nds, has since been sold to the present owners. The 
" Spurrells " now forms part of the Hoggins Farm ; and " Morses Piece," 
much reduced evidently from what it was when devised by Wm. Whittington, 
is merged in the New-house Farm. 

Most of the lands mentioned in the will as belonging to the Testator 
may now be identified, as the names, with perhaps one or two exceptions, 
remain the same. The will was bought by me of Mr. James Coleman, of 
Bloomsbury in 1877, from whom I also obtained the exemplification of the 
fine, whereby Harthill and Spurrells passed from George Wyrhall, Esq. , to 
Wm. Whittington. The original Probate Copy of the will is in the hands of 
the Whittington Trustees. 

I may add a few words respecting one of the witnesses to the will, who 
would seem to have been a somewhat remarkable character — Samuel Bave. 
He is said to have been a Physician, of Christ Church, Oxford, and to have 
taken his degree of M.D. in that University in 1628, having graduated in 
Medicine in Paris before he came to England. He practised in Gloucester 
until 1640, and afterwards at Bath, where he died in 1668. The following 
doggerel lines on him were written and signed "T.W." — 

From an old German Quack y'clipp' Doctor Bavie 
Whose skill is not half so much as his knavery 
And ten to one, will rather kill'ee than save'ee 
Good Mercury defend me ! 

W. T. A. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 313 



Jtoiircs oi ^Utcnt QxchxaloQunl -publuatimis. 



THE RACES OF BRITAIN; a contribution to the Anthropology of 
Western Europe. By John Behdoe, M.U., F.R.S., &c, &c. Bristol : 
J. W. Arrowsmith, Quay Street. London : Triibner & Co., Ludgate Hill, 
1885. 

Even if we were competent to treat scientifically of the intricate subject of 
this work it would be impossible, in the space at our disposal, to do it justice. 
It is based upon close and extended observation reaching over many years, 
and a rigid analysis of facts — physical and characteristic, colour in race- 
type and degree of nigrescenee, &c. The volume is, to a great extent, 
the author tells us, an expansion, or developement, of an essay which, in 
1868, secured the great prize of the Welsh National Eisteddfod, which had 
been competed for without success during four successive years by numerous 
candidates. He remarks, however, that that successful work, though com- 
posed expressly for the occasion, was really the outcome of a great part of 
his leisure of fifteen years devoted to the application of the numerical and 
inductive method to the Ethnology of Britain and of Western Europe. 
Though the essay was satisfactory to the accomplished arbiter (Lord 
Strangford), it did not appear to the author to be ripe for publication, and 
he has therefore devoted nearly another 20 years to the study of the subject, 
has added largely to his material, and accumulated a great store of obser- 
vations, of which this volume is the fruit. In the meantime the value of the 
numerical observations on colour as well as stature, conducted on a large 
scale, have become generally acknowledged by all European scientists, and 
is likely to be adopted officially by most European nations. 

Dr. Beddoe says that, thanks to Boyd Dawkins, Lubbock, Evans, 
and other workers at home and abroad, among whom we must name the 
late Professor Rolleston, we have gained a considerable knowledge of the 
mode of life of the palaeolithic man, and also, from the spirited drawings he 
has left us, of his intellectual development ; but of his physical type we 
scarcely know anything. He remarks that if our palaeolithic races were the 
ancestors of the Eskimaes, as Boyd Dawkins has suggested, it is at least 
possible that they may have left descendants to mingle their blood with the 
neolithic men and their descendants of to-day, and he adds that he thinks 
some traces of the mongoloid character may be discerned in the modern 
population of Wales and the West of England, more especially in their 
almond-shaped, oblique eye, and peculiar thickness of the upper eyelids. 

Dr. Beddoe passes on to consider the various races, from the dolicho- 
cephalic, or long or boat-shaped skulls of those who built the long and 
chambered barrows, who, we know, were succeeded by a brachy-cephalic 



314 Notices of Recent Arcileologiqal Publications. 

race whose introduction into Britain was coeval with that of bronze. 
According to our author the latter were endowed with great physical power, 
and generally were tall and stalwart, their brains large, and features, if 
somewhat harsh and coarse, must have been manly and commanding. Pro- 
ceeding to compare this powerful race, who subdued and extirpated the 
former, with more recent immigrants from the continent chiefly of German 
blood, either in a hostile or peaceable character, he brings us down to the 
advent of the Romans into Britain, and after a close examination, extensive 
admeasurement of crania and consideration of other ethnological peculiar- 
ities, he comes to the conclusion that " the natives of South Britain at the 
time of the Roman Conquest, probably consisted, mainly, of several strata, 
unequally distributed, of Celtic-speaking people, who, in race and physical 
type partook more of the tall blond stock of Northern Europe than of the 
thick-set, broad-headed, dark stock which Paul Broca called Celtic, and 
which those who object to this attribution of that much-contested name may, 
if they like, denominate Arvernian." Some of these layers were Gaelic in 
speech, some Cymric, — they were superimposed on a foundation principally 
formed of the long-headed dark races of the mediterranean stock, possibly 
mingled with the fragments of still more ancient races of Mongoliform or 
Allophylian character. The foundation layer was still very strong and coher- 
ent in Ireland and the north of Scotland, where the subsequent deposits were 
thinner, and in some joarts wholly or partially absent. The most recent 
layers were Belgic, and may have contained some portion or colouring of 
Germanic blood, but no Germans, recognisable as such by speech as well 
as person, had as yet entered Britain. 

Dr. Beddoe does not consider that the Roman occupation of the country 
had much effect on the ethnological character of the people, and what little 
it had, if any, was merely temporary and soon worn out 

Piratical attacks by the Saxon tribes upon this country commenced 
before the departure of the Bomans, and soon after that event Saxon 
colonies were established. 

The account given by Dr. Beddoe of the Saxon conquest and the period 
of the Saxon supremacy is of great interest. He refers to the invasion of 
the various German tribes, the districts upon which they respectively 
settled, and the subsequent extention of their ten'itories. This irruption 
of the Teutonic races necessarily produced a considerable effect, not only on 
the ethnological character of the people, but also on their laws and customs 
and social condition. Their influence, however, in all these particulars, 
varied greatly in different localities, dependent upon the degree in which 
the Roman, Celtic or Teutonic elements prevailed. In the western counties, 
especially in Devon and Cornwall, the British element was far stronger than 
elsewhere. With respect to the political condition of the Saxons, Dr. Beddoe 
points out that it is a mistake to believe that they were a kind of democratic 
community with universal suffrage, and observes that if they ever had been 
such a community they had ceased to be so before they emerged into 
history." 

Ethnological changes of no inconsiderable character took place in various 
parts of England and in the lowlands of Scotland during the ninth century, 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Pcblications. 315 

nevertheless the British race and the British language survived in many 
places. 

Language, of course, is an important factor in distinguishing races, but 
Dr. Beddoe, under his method, relies more on nomenclature, both personal 
and local, and on stature, head-form, the colour of the hair and eyes, and 
the degree of nigrescence, than on any other criteria. The data which he 
has collected of these characteristics during the long course of his study of 
the subject, and his constant close observation of individuals, as shewn by 
the extensive analytical tables he has printed, exhibit his industry and 
perseverance in a very remarkable manner. In conclusion he says it has been 
his "aim rather to lay a sure foundation ; rather to test, and reject unsound 
material ; rather to prepare some small part of a solid platform, whereon 
insight and genius may ultimately build, than himself to erect an edifice of 
wood and stubble, which may make a fair show for a day, and then be 
consumed by the testing fire." 



THE UNPOPULAR KING: The Life and Times of Richard III. By 
Alfked 0. Legge, F.C.H.S., 2 vols, Svo. London: Ward and Downey, 
]2, York Street, Covent Garden, 1885. 

It seems to be impossible to remove the dense cloud of prejudice which has 
shrouded the life and character of King Richard III. for the period of four 
centuries. The false and malevolent representations, for party purposes, of 
the Tudor chronicles has been intensified by the glamour cast over them by 
our greatest dramatist. It has been forgotten that Shakespeare was not an 
historian. He simply dramatised the chronicles, more or less corrupt, 
which fell into his hands. Indeed in Tudor times he would have been a 
courageous man who dared to write the facts, even if he knew them, relating 
to Richard III. and Henry VII. Silence was the best policy. Shakespeare 
accepted the legends as he found them. If they flattered the Tudor dynasty 
at the expense of the House of York, what matter ! His plays, nevertheless, 
have hail such influence on the minds of men that Sir Walter Scott says of 
them, " his perverted facts and a certain knack of embodying them has 
turned history upside down or rather inside out." 

The diabolical charges brought against King Richard are based almost 
entirely upon a work attributed to Sir Thomas More, but which was not 
printed until after the death of that great man, nor indeed, though com- 
menced by him at an early age, was it ever finished. Mr. Gairdner is 
doubtless correct in supposing it to have been a translation by More of a 
work by Archbishop Morton, whose very strong Lancastrian proclivities 
and unscrupulous character would render it of little authority. Mr. Legge, 
like earlier writers, points out the contradictions in the narrative itself, and 
suggests that the great chancellor was so disgusted with its manifold 
contradictions that he never completed it. Certain it is that " this singular 
narrative is prefaced by some remarkable words which forcibly suggest a 
suspicion that they are Sir Thomas More's comment upon a narrative not 
his own, and which his honesty and intelligence alike compelled him to 
reject as apocryphal : ' whose (the young princes) death and final infortune 
hath natheless so far come in question, that some yet remain in doubt 
whether they were in Richard's days destroyed or no." 



316 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Many eminent writers have endeavoured to clear up the mysteries of the 
reign of Richard III., but with little result. They have conclusively shewn 
that the circumstances related by various persons of his greatest crime, if 
committed, the murder of the sons of his brother are contradictory and 
manifestly false. It is difficult to prove a negative, but it may be safely 
said that no evidence has been adduced of this black crime of a King which 
would induce any jury to convict a " tramp " upon a charge of petty larceny. 

Mr. Legge has carefully examined all that has been published on this 
subject, and some contemporary documents which the previous writers had 
not seen, especially a MS. in the possession of Lord Hartington. He has 
manifestly approached his subject in an unbiassed spirit, and has carefully 
and conscientiously weighed the evidence, and though he has been unable to 
satisfy himself as to what became of the young princes he cannot find anything 
to criminate the King, and, nothwithstanding he admits that Richard was 
most ambitious, the considerate tenderness with which he treated the other 
children of his brother forbids the belief that the young princes came to any 
harm through his means ; and this is confirmed by the fact that upon the 
King's explanation the ex-queen cheerfully surrendered her other children 
to his care, and used her utmost endeavours to withdraw her son the Marquis 
of Dorset from the party of the Earl of Richmond. 

In forming his estimate of the character of the King, he says we must 
bring under our survey the whole of his life, steadfastly refusing to fasten 
upon particular acts, which, regarded by themselves, may merit all the 
censure they have evoked. For even these, when we can clearly trace the 
temptations out of which they sprung, should be viewed with restrospective 
indulgence. For his reasoning we must refer the reader to the volumes 
themselves, which are very interesting. It must suffice to say that after a 
careful and philosophical consideration of the whole subject he comes to the 
conclusion that the force of a mighty intellect reveals itself in well-nigh 
every incident of Richard's life as displayed in the political ability as well 
as the military prowess shown by him as a mere boy. He was not 20 years 
old when he won the great battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, and he was 
consulted by his brother Edward IV. in all diplomatic transactions, and to 
that brother he was ever faithful. As President of the Northern Marches 
his administration was most successful, and he so endeared himself to the 
inhabitants that they ever remained loyal to him. His genius and forsight 
enabled him to overcome all difficulties, and he acquired a grasp of the ten- 
dencies of the age and embodied them in his adminstration. He was 
religious without hypocrisy, and generous. In his private life he was a 
dutiful son, a loyal and affectionate brother, a loving and considerate 
husband, and a tender and wise father, a generous and gracious master, and 
a pure-minded and chivalrous man." 



OUR PARISH— A MEDLEY. By T. G. II. Lewes : Sussex Advertiser. 
Hailsham : E. H. Baker. 

Me. Thomas Geering, the author of this little work, is a true lover of 
nature in all her forms — " the hills and the valleys, the shady lanes and the 
open downs appeal to his sensibilities ; and he avows himself a worshipper 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 317 

of trees, he exults in their sturdy trunks, their brawny limbs, their leafy 
fingers and their hoary heads, and we can cordially sympathise with him in 
his lament that these, the greatest ornaments of rural scenery, are not more 
carefully protected by land-owners ; and unite with him in his protest 
against their destruction, and also in the maxim which he enunciates that 
" a man can recklessly destroy in an hour what it has taken a centui'y to 
produce, and another century may be worn away before nature can repro- 
duce and restore what he has destroyed." We would go further and add to 
his century one or two more. 

Nor is his admiration confined to the trees. The flowers of the fields and 
and hedges, and other objects of natural beauty, and especially the birds and 
insect life, share his affections. He has many a pleasing tale to tell of them 
from the old church owl down to the helpless swift taken up as dead. All 
this, however, refers rather to the author than to his work, but it shows the 
spirit in which he writes his fifty years' reminiscenses of a Sussex village. He 
has evidently always been an attentive observer of men and manners, and 
what has passed before his eyes he has the faculty of describing in a pleasing 
and, in many cases, witty manner. He gives his readers vivid pictures of 
village life in Hailsham 50 years ago, and though, perhaps, his pictures are 
coloured with a free brush, our own recollections of village life in a far 
distant county, at the same period, enables us to testify to the general 
accuracy of his description. But, as the late Lord Beaconsfield once said, 
" many things have happened since then," and we very much doubt if, upon 
the whole the people are now more prosperous, more happy, more contented 
or more moral men than they were then. 

Mr. Geering gives us some glimpses of local celebrities, the best known 
of whom was Davis Gilbert, though the chief aristocracy of Hailsham itself, 
appears to have been the resident curate and the village apothecary. And 
he has also many stories to relate, giving graphic illustrations of the customs, 
feelings and habits of the time. Among the former we are pleased to learn 
the continuation of the curfew bell, and it is especially gratifying to know 
that since church rates were abolished the bell-ringer's fee and other expenses 
are cheerfully raised by a collection from house to house. Many stories of 
the inhabitants and their doings are related, all of more or less interest, but 
we think the most amusing among them is that shewing how the author 
went out to shoot a crocodile, and, curiously enough, this is said to have 
been the first sketch that was written. The story is very well told, and we 
think that in its way it is only surpassed by the " Peiran Cherrybeam " of 
the late Mr. J. T. Tregellas, the well known Cornish humourist. 



THE YEOMEN OF THE GUARD ; their history from 1485 to 1S85, and 
a concise account of the TOWER WARDERS. By Thomas Preston. 
London : Harrison & Sons. 

The Corps of the Yeomen of the Guard is now upwards of four centuries in 
duration, having been established by Henry VII. on his assumption of the 
crown. This crown, which he had so eagerly coveted, when attained did 
not fit very comfortably on his head. He was in continual apprehension 
of danger to his person, and he formed the corps of Yeomen of the Guard, 



318 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

consisting of fifty trusty men, to be constantly about his person, day and 
night, for his protection. Mr. Preston gives a most interesting account of 
the duties of the membei's of this ancient corps, their offices about the 
King's body, their presence on all great state occasions and ceremonies, the 
privileges they enjoyed, and the uniform which from time to time they 
wore. King Henry VIII. who, as we all know, was fond of magnificence 
and display, largely increased the number of the yeomen and made an alter- 
ation in their uniform. What that was in 1520 is shewn in a great picture at 
Windsor representing the English cavalcade at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, 
fully described by Sir Joseph Ayloffe, the Antiquary, in 1775, in the 
Archceologia. Many of the Yeomen of the Guard are depicted in this scene. 
The Marquis of Dorset is shewn as followed by six of the Yeomen of the 
Guard on foot, having their partizans on their shoulders. Their habit is 
scarlet as now, guarded and laced on the skirts and sleeves with garter-blue 
velvet ; and on their breasts and backs the Union Rose ensigned with the 
Crown Royal embroidered in gold. There were many more in the procession 
similarly habited, also bearing their partizans shouldered, and fourteen are 
shewn, each carrying from the kitchens a covered dish towards the Royal 
pavillion, preceded by the Lord Steward of the Household. Mr. Preston 
traces the various changes in the uniform of the corps, which are illustrated 
by engravings, some of them beautifully coloured. He has printed a Muster 
Roll, shewing the names and rank of the various individuals, and the dates 
of their joining the corps, and also a List of the Captains from the establish- 
ment to the present time. Moreover the work is brightened by interesting 
anecdotes of officers and men. 

The Yeoman Warders at the Tower, whose stalwart and picturesque 
figures are familiar to us all, form a different corps from the Yeomen of the 
Guard. This corps was established in the time of King Edward VI., and 
consists of fifteen members who are sworn as Extraordinary Yeomen of the 
Guard. They wear the same uniform in full dress as Yeomen in Ordinary, 
the only difference being that the cross-belt worn by the latter to carry the 
carabine, or arquebus, is dispensed with. This difference will be noticed 
when the two corps are, on state occasions, paraded together. The duties 
of the warders are totally distinct from those of the Yeomen of the Guard. 
The chief duties of the former were the charge of the Tower and of the 
State Prisoners there confined. The last mentioned functions have now 
ceased, but the warders have still the charge of the tower gates, the ancient 
ceremonies attending the closing of which are still continued and are graphi- 
cally described by Mr. Preston. 

THE ENGLISH CATHOLIC NON-JURORS OF 1715; being a Summary 
of the Register of their Estates with Genealogical and other Notes, and an 
Appendix of Unpublished Documents in the Public Record Office. Edited 
by the late Very Rev. Edgar E. Estcourt, MA., F.S.A., Canon of St. 
Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, and John Orlebar Payne, M.A. London : 
Burns & Oates, &c, &c. 

The change of dynasty in 16S8, when William Prince of Orange and Mary 
Jus wife, daughter of King James II., superseded that monarch in the 



Notices uf Recent Archaeological Publications. .319 

sovereignty, caused great deprivations and distress to a large number of 
persons. We need here only allude to the well-known fact that Archbishop 
Sancroft and six of his comprovincials, mostly the same who had suffered 
imprisonment for opposing King James in respect to his Declaration of 
Conscience, and upwards of 400 of the clergy were deprived of their offices 
and benefices because, having already taken the oaths of allegiance to the 
reigning sovereign their consciences forbad them to take similar oaths to 
the supplanters of that King, whose sovereign rights they held had not been 
forfeited. Lax as morality is alleged to have been at that period, regard 
was had to the sacred nature of oaths, and it is a glory to the nation that 
in that degenerate age so many were found faithful, especially of the most 
learned and pious of the clergy. 

There was, however, another class of Non-jurors whose loyalty was no 
less true, though they were already suffering very severe persecution and 
had been for a century previously, for conscience sake. We refer to the 
Roman Catholics who still remained faithful to the King. Time had begun 
to soften the rigour of the penal laws, and they had not been much interfered 
with until after the death of Queen Anne. But by an Act of Parliament 
in 1st George I., cap. 55, two-thirds of the whole of the real estates of 
all Romanists were declared forfeited to the King. The preamble of 
the Act alleges a number of charges against the Romanists of this 
kingdom who, it is said, notwithstanding the tender regard that had been 
shewn to them for many years last past, by omitting to put into execution 
the many penal laws which had been made against them, had not only been 
ooncenied in stirring up, and supporting the late unnatural rebellion, (the 
Scottish rising) but had committed various other enormities, therefore it 
is enacted that all Roman Catholics shall, within a time limited by the 
Act, register their estates in the office of the several Clerks of the Peace 
of the counties in which their estates are situated, and declare their value, 
to enable the government to ascertain the amount of composition they should 
pay for the redemption of the two-thirds declared to be forfeited. 

These Returns, lodged in the offices of the Clerks of the Peace, certified, 
and verbatim copies of which were directed to be sent to the commissioners 
for carrying out this Act, and which are now in the Public Record Office, 
form the basis of this work. No reliance can, however, be placed upon the 
registered value of the lands for the reasons stated by the editors, but the 
Returns afford a vast amount of valuable information with reference to the 
devolution of lands and descent of families. The genealogical information 
in some instances is very full : e.g., the well known family of Pendrell, 
under county of Hereford : p. 75. 

Richard Pendrell, of Hobbal | A true particular of all the manors, lands, 

Grange. & c in co - Hereford, whereof 

Thomas How, of Boscobel. we > Richard Pendrell, son and heir of 

John Pendrell, of Parham. Thomas P. late of Hobbal Grange, co. 

Richard Pendrell, of the Salo P- S ent - dec - ' who was sou aiuI 

Savoy parish. heir of Richard P.. also dec; Thomas 

/ How, of Boscobel, co. Salop, gent., in 

right of Catherine my wife and dau. heir of Will. P., late of Boscobel, 
gent., dec, who was son and heir of Will. P. also dec. John Pendre.ll, of 



320 Notices of Recent Arch.eologioal Publications. 

Par ham, co. Sussex, gent., son and heir of fJeorge P., late of Essington, co. 
Stafford, gent., dec, who was son and heir of John P., late of Beamish Hall, 
co. Salop, gent., also dec; Richard P., of the p. of the Savoy, co. Midd x , 
gent., son and heir of Edmund P., late of London, gent., dec. , who was son 
and heir of Humphrey, P., late of Bloxwich, co. Stafford, gent., also dec. 

register estate of five-sixths out of a rental £5 out of Shurringfield, 

and of £8 4. 2. of Rectory of Wembridge, in fee simple ... .by virtue of a 
grant of Lettei-s Patent under the Great Seal of England, dated 24th July, 
27 Charles II , Robert Hope, in right of Anne his wife, and Margaret 
Keeling, widow, her sister, daughters and coheirs of George Pendrell, dec, 
who was son and heir of George Pendrell, also dec, being in receipt of the 
sixth portion, and are Protestants — £13. 14. 2. 

References to the same persons may also be found under Salop, Stafford, 
Sussex, and Worcester. The editors add the following note :- 

Dodd (Church Hist. III., 181) gives an exact list of the Penderels, who 
assisted the King. 

The Appendix of Unpublished Records in the Public Record Office 
contains much of interest, a summary of them may be found in Appendix II. 
to the Fifth Report of Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. 

This volume will prove of great value to all engaged in local history or 
genealogy. It is very carefully and well edited, and moreover possesses a 
good index. 



IRELAND UNDER THE TUDORS, with succinct account of the earlier 
history. By Richard Bagwell, M.A., 2 vols, Svo. London : Longman, 
Green & Co. 

The ignorance of the history of Ireland which obtains generally on this side 
of St. George's channel is as surprising as it is profound. English historical 
students have devoted themselves to the study of the great monarchies of 
antiquity, and of the more modern countries of Europe, but, with excep- 
tions, have disregarded the history of the Irish people, their ancient laws 
and social customs. This has been the cause of the greatest blunders and 
misery, and Mr. Bagwell has rendered considerable service in the well-timed 
issue of his interesting and valuable work. 

The author has treated the subject on which he writes in a most 
impartial and candid manner, but he has simply confined himself to a 
careful relation of historical facts, leaving it to his readers to form their 
own opinions thereon. In forming those opinions however it is necessary 
that the reader should steadily bear in mind the wholly different character- 
istics, both personal and social, of the Celtic and Teuton peoples ; and that 
the former were only just emerging from barbarism, though centuries earlier 
there were men among them of highly cultivated minds probably inmates 
of the ancient monasteries, whose taste and artistic skill is exhibited in 
the numerous remaining examples of most elegant design, beautiful orna- 
mentation, and exquisite workmanship ; but the people generally knew 
nothing of the civilising influence of the feudal system. From the earliest 
times they had lived under the paternal government of their respective 
chieftains to whom they were devotedly attached, each tribe or clan being 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 321 

independent of all others, and the chiefs absolute in their own country and 
over their own people. That quarrels should arise between different clans, 
that battles should be fought and the greatest barbarities committed among 
a people so circumstanced, is no more than might naturally be expected ; 
and however desirable it might be to neighbouring and more civilized 
nations, for their own sakes, that these evils should be abated, it must 
necessarily be a work of time, to be brought about by the gradual intro- 
duction of civilizing principles. It could not be accomplished at the point 
of the sword, by harryings, murders, burnings, and indiscriminate slaughter 
of women and children, or devastation of the country and consequent 
starvation of the people. 

Mr. Bagnall's first volume contains a succinct and lucid account of the 
early history of Ireland down to the death of Queen Mary. It exhibits a 
very sad picture of the anarchy and turbulence which prevailed, but those 
evils would seem to have increased in intensity during the reign of Elizabeth 
through the jealousies of some, and the incapacity, rapacity and greed of 
others, of the superior English officials. To this must be added the duplicity, 
treachery and barbarity of the Irish chieftains ; nor were these crimes confined 
to the mere Irish. The descendants of the early Anglo-Norman settlers, the 
Fitz Geralds, the Butlers, the Burkes, and others, who had become hiberni- 
cised, were equally guilty. There was a standing feud between the first named 
two great clans, the chiefs of which drew many of the smaller septs to their 
respective standards, and were constantly on the verge of, or plunged into, 
a state of internecine war. In Ulster were the O'Neils, who had never 
submitted to the English crown, and were a constant source of trouble and 
anxiety. All these evils were aggravated by the impecuniosity, parsimony, 
and vacillation of the English Queen. She had many other causes of per- 
plexity both at home and abroad which demanded close attention, and was 
ever ready by untimely concessions to patch up a temporary peace, and was 
drawn in different directions by her several favourites. Among other causes 
was the bigotry and intollerance of the extreme puritan party. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Bagwell has closed his history on the 
resignation of the chief government of Ireland by Sir Henry Sidney a 
quarter-of-a-century before the end of the Tudor dynasty. Sir Henry was 
followed in rapid succession by a series of chief governors, few of whom 
were equal in capacity to him. This, however, was one of the stirring periods 
in Irish history. It embraced the long expected invasion of a small party of 
Spaniards under James Eitz Maurice Eitz Gerald and the imposter Thomas 
Stukely, at Smerwick, the consequent rebellion of the Geraldines, the 
iomantic capture and death of the Earl of Desmond, the forfeiture and 
eventual parcelling out of his great estates ; the rise of Hugh O'Neil in Ulster 
and the great rebellion of the north, the second Spanish invasion under Hon 
Juan H'Aquila at Kinsale — the support of Tyrone, the vigorous conduct of 
Sir George Carew, Lord President of Munster and the Lord Deputy Mount- 
joy leading to the defeat and surrender of the Spaniards and submission of 
Tyrone. 

The space at our disposal will not admit of our entering in detail into 
the events of Elizabeth's reign. For these we must refer to Mr. Bagwell's 
work itself, which has been carefully and conscientiously written, and 

Vol. X., part 1. x 



322 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

deserves to be very attentively studied by those who wish to acquire an 
insight into the political difficulties of the all-absorbing Irish question. 
We must not treat of politics in these pages, but may remark, in conclusion, 
that Ireland deserves at the hand of England to be treated with steadfast- 
ness of purpose, justice, and firmness. 



A SHORT HISTORY OF TAPESTRY from the Earliest Times to the end 
of the 18th century. By Eugene Miintz, Conservateur de la Bibliotheque et 
de Musee de VEcole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Translated by Miss Louisa 
J. Davis. Cassell & Co., Limited ; London, Paris, New York, and Mel- 
bourne, 1885. 

The misapprehension which very generally prevails, that all kinds of 
coloured hangings are Tapestry, will, by the perusal of this little volume, be 
effectually dispelled, and its readers will learn that in tapestry the pictures 
produced are an integral part of the fabric and of a superior character 
to embroidery, which is simply worked with a needle on the existing 
material. It differs also from brocade, in which, though woven, the design 
is constantly repeated by machinery, whilst tapestry is always made by 
hand, and each piece has a distinct individuality. 

The production of both tapestries and embroideries are of very great 
antiquity. The author of this volume points out that both arts were prac- 
tised by the most ancient nations — the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the 
Persians, many centuries before the Christian era. Pliny testifies to its use 
among the Greeks, and Homer among the Romans ; and the directions in 
Holy Writ for the adornment of the tabernacle says : " Thou shalt make the 
tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, with cherubim of cunning work shalt thou make them." (Exod. 
xx vi. 1.) 

In the first five chapters Mr. Miintz's treats of the tapestries of the 
ancient Oriental Nations, and from the sixth to the ninth of those of the 
West. It was through the Monasteries that the arts of tapestry ami 
embroidery, like most other arts, were introduced into Europe. We cannot 
say at what date tapestry was first known in England. St. Cuthbert, the 
sixth Bishop of Lindislarne, died in 688, and was first buried in the 
cathedral. His remains were, in 799, removed to Durham and deposited, 
temporarily, in the pro-cathedral there, and in 1104, when the present cathe- 
dral was built, they were finally translated to the new building. On this 
occasion the coffin was opened, and the saint's body was found to be envel- 
oped in costly vestments "of purple, ornamented in the loom with gold, 
and interwoven figures, as well of birds as of small animals extremely 
minute in their workmanship and sub-division." l 

Authorities record that St. Angelm, of Norway, Bishop of Auxerre, 
caused a great number of hangings to be made for his church about the year 
840, but M. Miintz dismisses this statement from the discussion, not deeming 
the document sufficiently conclusive. He says, however, that about 985 — 
and in this case the information is absolutely certain — Abbot Robert, the 

1 Ralne's St. Cutbeit. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 323 

third of that name of the monastery of St. Florent, of Saumur, gave com- 
missions for a quantity of dossers, curtains, &c, all of wool, and that he had 
two grand pieces of tapestry made in which silk was introduced, and on 
which elephants were represented, on others were seen lions standing out 
from a red background. That these various fabrics were woven, not 
embroidered, the word " texere " places beyond doubt. 

In the 11th century, in France, tapestries of great value were produced, 
nor was England neglectful of the cultivation of ornamented textile fabrics, 
either in tapestry or embroidery. In the 10th century a pious lady, 
wishing to embroider a sacred vestment, begged St. Dunstan to draw her a 
design which she copied with golden threads, and the relict of the Earl of 
Northumberland (probably Judith, daughter of William the Conqueror) pre- 
sented Ely Cathedral with a hanging on which the acts of her husband were 
depicted. We must not fail to mention that grand hanging, known as the 
Bayeaux tapestry, which, though not a tapestry, is a great work, em- 
broidered by Queen Matilda and her maidens, and of great historical, 
though not artistic, value, in which latter quality it is, in fact, lamentably 
deficient. 

We may not follow M. Miintz in his detail of the great, beautiful, and 
costly works produced from the looms of Europe, which he brings under our 
notice as he traces this brilliant and sumptuous art through the mediaeval 
period, nor of its manner of treatment in the various schools, nor of 
the fluctuations of the art itself as regards its excellence and decay, 
both in taste and workmanship. Upon all these points, and upon many 
others, much will be learnt from a perusal of his interesting volume. 
Tapestry deservedly held the first place for all decorative purposes, both ex- 
ternal and internal, in all processions and public festivals. Tapestry - 
workers were liberally patronized as well by the Sovereigns and Princes of 
Europe as by the great municipal bodies. During the latter part of the 
16th century the art languished, but Louis XIV., the great King of France, 
(the grand monarch) who was very liberal and magnificent in his tastes, 
lavished untold sums of money upon its encouragement. 

The Gobelins workshops were established in 1630, and speedily took 
the highest place in the art of design and colouring. It is said the waters 
there were the best which could be found for dying purposes. In 1662 the 
(jiobelins manufactory was greatly improved under the designation of the 
Manufacture royalle ties Meubles de la Couronne. This manufactory was most 
active, and some magnificent pieces were produced from its looms. 
" Between the years 1663 and 169U it produced nineteen complete hangings, 
in high-warp, covering a surface of 4,110 square ells, and representing a 
cost of 1,106,275 livres, not including the cartoons ; also thirty-four low- 
warp hangings, measuring 4,29-4 square ells, and costing 623,601 livres." 

The art of Tapestry-weaving was not practised to any great extent 
in England. In M. Miintz's list of the chief centres of manufacture, few 
places in this country are mentioned. We find Exeter, Eulham, London, 
Mortlake, and Soho — all, we believe, of the 18th century, except Mortlake, 
which greatly surpassed them all. This establishment was founded by King 
James I. in 1619, who brought over from Flanders a number of skilful 
tapestry-weavers, and settled them at Mortlake under the direction of Sir 
x 2 



324 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Francis Crane, Chancellor of the Order of the Garter. A yearly subsidy of 
£2,000 was granted by the King and the encouragement of the Prince 
of Wales, the Duke of Buckingham, and other members of the aristocracy, 
enabled the new establishment to develop rapidly. The famous painters, 
Rubens and Vandike, were connected with it. M. Miintz bears high testi- 
mony to the excellence of the works executed at Mortlake, saying, "the 
technical perfection equalled the beauty of the models," and adding that 
" during the whole of the 17th century the work at Mortlake had no rivalry 
to fear except that of the Gobelins." Charles I. had collected some valuable 
pieces, which Cromwell caused to be sold by auction, and they were carried 
to France. Charles II., on his restoration, endeavoured to revive the art, 
which was languishing, and a manufactory was established under the 
direction of Sir Sackville Crow, who received an annual subsidy of £1,000. 
He held the office until 1667, but it did not prosper, and the Earl of Craven 
and other lords undertook to conduct it at their own risk. The cartoons were 
prepared by Verrio the £>ainter. The naval battle of Solebay was ordered 
by Charles II., subsequent to 1672, and is now preserved at Hampton Court. 
In March, 1G73-4, an Exchequer warrant was issued to pay Thomas (? should 
be Francis) Poyntz, Yeoman Arras Maker to His Majesty, £1,000 on account, 
for tapestry hangings made and to be made, to be delivered into the great 
wardrobe (Signet Book Record Office). The art could not, however, survive 
the great overthrow of 16S8, and King James II., on his arrival in France, 
knew no better way to shew his gratitude to King Louis XIV. for the gen- 
erous manner in which he had been received "in his misfortune than by 
presenting him with his rich and magnificent hangings. These were the Acts 
of the Apostles, the masterpiece of the Mortlake workshop, now one of the 
gems of the National Garde Meuble." 

The volume is profusely illustrated with examples of the designs of 
some of the chief pieces which the looms have produced, which shew the 
variation in style at different periods ; and in his last chapter the author 
treats of the modus operandi or technique of tapestry, and initiates his 
readers into the mysteries of looms of high and low-warp, and the arrange- 
ments of threads and spindles, &c. To this is added, for the guidance of 
amateurs, a list of the marks and chief monograms of the different 
workshops. 

The work is one of great research, and has evidently been a labour of 
love to the enthusiastic author ; and Miss Louisa J. Davis has done her 
part with great credit ; whilst Mr. John C. L. Sparkes, Principal of the 
National Art Training School, South Kensington Museum, the Editor, has 
rendered a great service to the British public by the issue of such an instruc- 
tive book. 



THE LAKE DWELLINGS OF IRELAND, or Ancient Lacustrine Habi- 
tations of Erin, commonly called Crannogs. By M. G. Wood-Martin, 
M.R.I.A., F.R.H.A.A.I., Lieut. -Colonel 8th Brigade, North Irish Division, 
R.A., &c, &c. Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & Co., London : Longman, 
Green & Co., 18S6. 

In concluding our notice of Mr. Munroe's most valuable work on the "Lake 
Dwellings of Scotland (Ante vol. vii., pp. 193-199), we expressed a hope 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 325 

that some English antiquaries would follow his example and explore the 
marshes and lakes in England, especially those in the Celtic districts. This 
hope has not yet been realised ; but we hail, with much satisfaction, Colonel 
Wood-Martin's work on the Lacustrine Dwellings of Ireland, which is so 
much accomplished, and which, we hope, will prove an additional incite- 
ment to the antiquaries of England to commence the important work we 
have suggested. 

The Lacustrian Dwellings are, in many instances, of great antiquity, 
and the objects found in connection with them are of considerable value as 
throwing light upon the manner of life and social economy of long forgotten 
generations. They are mentioned by Herodotus and other classic authors, 
and are found generally throughout Europe. The most ancient, interesting, 
and instructive are those in the Swiss Lakes, which have been brought 
under our notice by Dr. Keller (see ante vol. n.) The Crannogs of Ireland 
are constructed upon the same principles as those treated of by Dr. Keller, 
and very closely resemble those in Scotland, to which they are so nearly 
analogous as to lead to the conclusion that they have all been constructed by 
the same race of people, as indeed they probably have been. 

Ireland, from the earliest times down to the end of the 16th century, 
was a country densely covered with wood, intersected with lakes and bogs. 
The people were a wild, excitable, and turbulent race, governed by chief- 
tains who were animated by great jealousy towards each other, leading to a 
constant state of internecine warfare, so that these lacustrine fortresses, for 
such they chiefly were rather than simple dwellings, were essentially 
necessary for the protection and safety of the women and children and the 
valuables possessed by the people. 

The Crannogs of Ireland have not been considered very ancient. Sir 
William Wilde was of opinion that they did not contain any stone imple- 
ments, and but few of bronze ; but his theory has been refuted by subsequent 
experience, as shewn in many instances in this volume. 

The first Crannog discovered in Ireland was near Roscrea, co.Tipperary, 
in 1810, but from a want of knowledge of the importance of the subject 
it attracted little attention. In 1839 a remarkable lacustrine dwelling was 
accidentally found at Lagore. A large quantity of objects of more or less 
arch&ological interest were found in it, but were unfortunately dispersed. 
The site was examined in 1846-7-8 by Sir William Wilde and Mr. W. F. 
Wakeman. The latter has given a list shewing the character of the various 
relics. Col. Wood-Martin has omitted much of this description, but it is, 
we think, of sufficient importance, as illustrative of the Irish crannogs, to 
give it more fully. Mr. Wakeman says, in clearing a little river-course 
which passes through the bog of Lagore, near Dunshaughlin, co. Meath, the 
labourers came upon an immense quantity of oaken stakes, or piles, which 
had evidently been enclosed and pinned in an artificial elevation rising from 
the basin of what had, in ancient times, been a loch. Several hundred tons 
of bones of animals, comprising those of the boslongifrons and boxfrontoxis, of 
red deer, wild boars, four-horned sheep, goats, foxes, wolves or dogs, horses, 
and even of human beings, lay in the boggy matter which surrounded the 
piled enclosure ; and along with these was discovered a hoard of ancient 
manufactured articles of bronze, glass, iron, wood, clay, and bone too 



326 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

numerous to specify. This had been a stronghold of the O'Melaghlins, 
Princes of Meath. In the following year the island was re-opened for the 
purpose of turf-cutting, and an examination was made of more than one of 
these interesting domiciles, when the mode of construction was dis- 
closed. Mr. Wakeman says, " Let the reader imagine a foundation formed 
of four roughly squared planks of oak, each about 12 feet in length, (so 
arranged as to enclose a quadrangle) the ends of which were carefully fitted 
together. From the angles of this square rose four posts, also of oak, to the 
height of about 9 feet. In these grooves were cut, into which roughly-split 
planks of oak had been slipped, so as to form the sides of the house. The 
irregularities between the boards were tightly caulked with moss ; a low 
and narrow opening in one of the sides had evidently served as an entrance. 
There were no traces of window or chimney." 

At Lagore, a Crannog was discovered subsequently, which was neither 
submerged nor surrounded with water. " It consisted of a circular mound, of 
about 520 feet in circumference, slightly raised above the level of the bog, 
and enclosed by piles of black oak, some 6 or 8 feet in height. These were 
mortised into beams of similar material laid flat upon the marl and sand 
forming the bottom of the bog, nearly 16 feet below the present surface. 
The upright posts were held together by cross beams. Parts of a second 
upper tier of posts were likewise found resting on the lower ones. The space 
enclosed was divided into compartments by partitions which intersected 
each other in different directions, also formed of oaken beams in a state of 
great preservation, joined together with greater accuracy than the former, 
in some cases having their sides grooved and rabetted to admit large panels 
driven down between them." This building would appear to have been 
ultimately destroyed by fire. Lake dwellings in Ireland continued to be 
occupied down to a late date. We find them constantly in use in the reign 
of Elizabeth, and Col. Wood-Martin cites a document, dated 14th April, 
1608, and directed to State Officials, concerning the surrender of some 
rebellious clans, in which it is ordered that " the haill houssis of defence, 
strongholdis and cranokis in the yllis perteining to thame and their foir- 
saidis sal be delyvered to his Majestie," &c. 

We have been somewhat particular in describing this structure as it 
would appear to be typical, generally, of Irish Crannogs. It was certainly of 
early date, and would seem, from the great quantity of relics found on the 
site, to have been continuously occupied for centuries. We are not, how- 
ever, prepared to say that it dates from pre-historic times. 

Col. Wood-Martin remarks, generally, upon submerged crannogs built of 
wood, thus : " On the foundation, when raised sufficiently above the water, 
the dwelling was erected ; the hearth was in the centre of the island, for in 
almost every case a collection of flag-stones has been discovered in the 
interior of the enclosure, bearing on them marks of fire. At times several 
hearths occur. In some instances there are indications of these structures 
having had additions made to their height at various times, either to keep 
pace with the chronic rising of the level of the lough ; or, taking into 
consideration the compressible nature of the component parts of the foun- 
dation the island may have required inci"eased elevation owing to the effect 
of natural subsidence. The enormous amount of wood employed in the 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 327 

formation of a crannog, despite the mass of stones and other material with 
which it was laded, must have a buoyant tendency, but according as the wood 
became completely saturated with water, consolidation of a more or less 
pronounced character would, in the course of time, become observable. 
The stones deposited over the lower stratum of fern, bracken, and branches, 
were indubitably used to compress and solidify the substructure, and the 
stones on the upper stratum were used for a similar purpose. Considerable 
ingenuity was displayed in the formation of these island homes, which were 
frequently constructed in a depth of 12 or 14 feet of water, and apart from 
having served in their day as secure retreats for large numbers of persons, 
they have proved their durability by resisting successfully the ravages of 
time, which may be reckoned by centuries. 

Probably the most remarkable of the lake dwellings found in Ireland, 
if dwellings they may be called, are the log huts at Kilnamaddo. They were 
discovered buried under 17 feet of peat; " these," Colonel Wood -Martin 
says, " were practically almost perfect, wanting nothing save the roof ; they 
were very low, the side walls scarcely 4 feet in height, and they might be 
looked upon rather as lairs for sleeping in than dwellings in the modern 
sense of the word ; indeed the primitive races of Ireland, whether building 
in stone or wood, made use of low roofs and consequently of low doors," 

A considerable portion of the townland of Kilnamaddo had apparently, 
in olden times, formed the basin of a sheet of water, and upon one of 
the shoals some primitive tribe had erected a habitation. There were two 
huts which stood f>0 feet apart. They were quadrangular, and the larger 
and more perfect measured, on the outside, lift. Gin. by 10ft. The structure 
was formed of four massive posts of oak, averaging 7 feet in length and 
7 feet in circumference where set in the ground. These timbers, near 
their upper ends, have mortise holes averaging 11 inches in height by 
Si ins. in breadth, through which passed the ends of beams to which slabs of 
oak were attached, and the floor was also composed of oaken planks. The 
roof, as well as a large portion of the sides, did not remain in situ 
at the time of discovery, but a number of timbers found immediately 
adjoining each of the structures were admirably suited for the purpose of 
forming side walls and roofing. The lower frame of the work appears 
to have been very similar to that upon which the roof had rested. In 
the lower portions of the four upright posts were very curious mortise hole3, 
evidently intended for the reception of the ends of the beams. No sign of 
pinning or grooving in the upper portion of the frame could be discovered, 
and it was concluded that the huts were originally built within an excavation 
and the peat heaped against the sides, probably even over the roof, leaving 
a small passage for an entrance. Except that the walls were made of wood 
instead of stone, the structure very much resembled the stone-lined chambers 
and passages found in raths. There was no appearance that the place was 
destroyed by fire. It was suggested by some persons that these places were 
only used by the crannog -dwellers for the preservation of perishable 
commodities, and this theory would seem to be confirmed by large lumps of 
bog-butter being discovered in them carefully rolled up in cow-hide. These 
structures were doubtless of great antiquity. No trace of metal work was 
found in connection with them, though some of the wood appeared to have 



328 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

been cut with a sharp instrument. Hammer-stones, rubbing-stones, flint 
flakes, fragments of rude pottery, and a large tray-like wooden vessel were 
among the principal " finds." 

A still more curious hut of the same type was discovered in 1833 in the 
bog of Drumkelin, parish of Inver, co. Donegal. It was very perfect, and 
surrounded by a staked enclosure, portions of the gates of which were also 
found. The flooring rested on hazel branches, covered with a layer of 
fine sand, a paved causeway, over a foundation of hazel branches and logs, 
led from the door of the house to a fire-place, on and around which 
lay ashes, charred wood, and half consumed turf. It was nearly square, 
12 feet wide and 9 feet high, formed of rough logs and planks of oak, 
apparently split by wedges, and the insterstices filled with a compound 
of grease and fine sea sand. One side of the hut, supposed to be the front, 
was left open. The framework consisted of upright posts and horizontal 
sleepers mortised at the angles, the end of each post being inserted into the 
lower sleeper of the frame and fastened with a large block of wood. The 
mortises were very rough, and appeared to have been made by a blunt 
instrument, the wood being bruised rather than cut, and it is supposed that 
a stone celt lying on the floor was the identical instrument which had been 
used for the purpose, for the marks in the wood corresponded exactly to 
the form of the tool. The logs had been cut by a larger tool of the same 
character. A second stone, of larger size, was found cut in the form 
of a wedge, which had probably been used in splitting the wood. 

The hut was divided into two stories, each about 4 feet in height, its 
flat roof was 16 feet beneath the original surface, therefore nearly 25 feet of 
bog must have grown around it since its first erection. 

The other " finds " consisted of a piece of a leather sandal, somewhat 
similar to a piece dug up in one of the crannogs in Loch Dowalton, Wigton- 
shire, ( Ancient Lake Dwellings of Scotland, p. 49), a flint ari-ow head, and 
a wooden sword. 

The depth at which the hut was buried, and the flint and stone imple- 
ments found in it, leads to the conclusion that it is of extreme antiquity, 
added to which, upon the level of the floor and extending all round were the 
corkers of a forest of hard wood trees, which had co-existed with the 
occupation of the hut. The stakes represented in situ to the left of the 
illustration (Plate IV.) are evidently remains of the stockade, one timber of 
which appears in the foreground, and in the excavation of the drain a 
number of ends of large oak logs, placed in regular order, were observed, 
evidently a portion of the usual crannog foundation. 

It has been supposed that, contrary to the general rule, Irish crannogs 
were completely insulated, but many gangways, both of stone and wood, 
have been discovered, though it is possible that the stones which have been 
found were simply used to give support to the framework of a wooden 
erection. The roads were usually made of planks, generally of oak, laid 
transversely, and lving from 10 to 20 feet below the present surface of 
the bog. Colonel Wood-Martin describes a roadway in Duncan's flow-bog, 
Ballyalbanagh, co. Antrim. It was a wooden roadway laid on the surface 



Notices of Recent ARCHiEOLOGiCAL Publications. 



331 




■Q 




of the black turf, level with stumps of deal corkers ; this road was 7 feet 
wide, formed of longitudinal beams, sheeted with transverse planking of the 
same material. In the centre of ( , - /\ /\ ^ /*\ / ' / \ 3 
the bog, where the foundation was UUUUUOUU 
soft, (Fig, 43) there were eight Fig. 43. 

longitudinal beams, 
whilst in the firmer 
ground {Fig. 44) 
Fj .. 44. near the edge of the 

boc, there were but three, one at each side and one in the centre. The 
roadway, with the exception of one log, was formed entirely of oak ; holes 
worn in the oak planking had been mended (FigAo) with pieces of deal fixed 
in position across the aperture. On the 
roadway there are now 5 feet of uncut 
turf, while 10 feet of "good turf" are 
said to have been taken away. Over the 
good turf there must have been white turf 
and clearing which would add at least 
about 5 feet more to the thickness of 
peat over the roadway. At Kilnock cran- 
nog, co. Antrim, a paved causeway, cov- 
ered to the depth of 8 or 9 feet with 
bog, leads down to what used to be 
the ed^e of the water. 





Fig. 46. 

was a flint arrow head (Fig. 47) in 
a briar-root shaft, the thong which 
tied it still adhering. 



Fig. 45. 

On an ancient wooden causeway, or road, in Bally - 
killen Bog, King's County, a remark - 
ble axe, formed of bone, (Fig. 46) was 
found 7 feet below the surface of 
the bog ; the axe is 8 inches long, 
and the sharp cutting edge at the 
small extremity had been formed by 
an oblique cut of the bone. With it 




The most profitable 




Fig. 48. 



Fig. 47. 
prospecting " grounds for relics are the Kitchen 
Middens. These refuse heaps contain, 
as we have stated before, all kinds of 
disjecta membra, and show, in a very 
remarkable manner, the mode of life 
of the occupants of these lacustrine 
dwellings at various periods of their 
occupation, and the character of the 
"finds" would indicate relatively the 
date of the structure. Articles of all 
descriptions are found in these heaps, 
extending from the stone tc the iron 
periods, generally broken, but no less 
indicating the uses to which they were 
applied, the ingenuity of their con- 
struction, and, in many instances, the 




Fig. 49. 



332 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



beauty of their workmanship. Here may be found weapons consisting of 
arms and spear-heads, swords, daggers, knives and axe-heads of stone, 
bone or horn, [Figs. 48, 49, and 50) bronze and iron ; the remains of 
animals used for food (Fig. 51), the bones split to obtain the marrow; 
vessels of fictile ware and of wood, many of which are ornamented in a very 
simple and effective manner, 
(Fig. 52) and some apparently 
of pre-Christian date. Articles 
of personal use and adornment, rirtfi'illlllllllllBII ll\ /lllll | 7'''flll!IIIH'ili^l 

li I I'll' r\ I''' 1 ''' III 'lin' ii rrH 

some most delicately and beau- 
tifully ornamented, and other 
things too numerous to mention. 



Coins have been rarely found 
in Irish Crannogs, and when 
they are they are of modern 
date. In the crannog of Cloon- 
finlough (p. 135) a few were 
discovered varying in date from 
the Emperor Hadrian to the 
brass money of James II. 
One coin was found in such a 
remarkable manner as to merit 




Fisr. 50. 



mention. "In a lake adjoining the Gleebe House at Aghnamullen, co. 
Monaghan, there are two islands, and in about 1 850 one of them was for the 




Fte. 51. 



first time ploughed, when many curious antiquities were turned up. In 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



333 



1S63 the rector, while seated on the island, and peering into the water, 

observed what to him appeared to be a button 
on the leaf of a water-plant growing up from 
the bottom of the lake ; on pulling the leaf, 
this proved, however, to be an ancient coin — a 
half-groat of the reign of Edward III. The 
natural growth of the aqueous vegetation had 
thus lifted to the surface of the lough some of 
its buried treasures." 



We must conclude our notice of this in- 
Fig. 52. teresting volume, the arrangement of which, 

however, differs from that adopted by previous writers upon the subject. 
It would, we venture to think, have been more convenient to his readers had 
the author brought the description of the "finds" at the several stations 
into connection with that of the dwellings, instead of classifying them 
separately. He has, nevertheless, conferred a great boon upon all who take 
an interest in those ancient and quaint habitations ; and we should be 
greatly gratified were the marshes of England and Wales so intelligently 
explored, and the result given to the public in so able and attractive a 
manner. 




THE HISTORY OF THE PARISH AND MANOR OF WOOKEY ; 

being a contribution towards a future History of the County of Somerset. 
By Thomas Scott Holmes, M.A., Vicar of the Parish. Bristol : C. T. 
Jefferies & Sons, 1S86. 

Mr. Holmes's little volume is what it professes to be "a contribution 
towards a future History of the County of Somerset," a work much needed, 
for Collinson has done the county but scant justice, and Phelps's under- 
taking was never carried to a conclusion. Mr. Holmes has done his parish 
excellently well, and it is hoped that many other of the Somersetshire clergy 
will follow his example and write the history of their several parishes. They 
will not find it an irksome task, but, on the contrary, as we doubt not 
Mr. Holmes will testify, a very seductive one. The clergyman of a small 
rural parish cannot fail to have many leisure hours, and we know not of any 
way in which he could spend them more agreeably to himself or more 
beneficially to his parishioners. Every one of the slightest intelligence 
takes an interest in the locality in which he was born or bred, and there is 
no surer way of cultivating that intelligence than the study, in the first 
instance, of the history of the parish and its former inhabitants, its social 
conditions, the manners and customs, whether manorial or municiple, 
which obtained, in ancient times, and the changes which have gradually 
taken place from those times to our own, and the causes which led to them. 

After giving a general account of the parish and its boundaries, 
Mr. Holmes cites a description, by William Wyrcester, of a very remarkable 
cavern therein called Wookey Hole. This is referred to also by Leland, 
Camden, and by Drayton in his Polyolbiot). This cavern forms the source 
of the river Axe, and it gives name to the parish. " Wookey," Mr Holmes 
tells us, signifies a hole or break in the rocks, as also does " witch," and 



334 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

hence this hole must have an uncanny inhabitant who is commemorated by 
Dr. Harrington, of Bath, in a poem written in 174S. A version of it is 
given by Bishop Percy in his " Reliques of English Poetry," from which it 
is reprinted in this volume. The old inhabitants, Mr. Holmes says, speak 
of the place as Wookey-hole-witch, three words having the same sig- 
nification. 

The most interesting and valuable portion of the volume is, however, 
that which relates to the " Manor and the Manor House," especially the 
excerpts from the ancient Court Rolls and Bailiff's Accounts. m These records 
shew the character of the manor in relation to its common fields, its 
customs, and the gradual enfranchisement of the unfree tenantry. The 
Bishops of Bath and Wells, as lords of the manor, from time to time, 
occupied the manor house ; and Mr. Holmes gives us, from Bishop Bekyn- 
ton's Register, a very interesting account of proceedings at a court held by 
the bishop in the chapel at Wookey concerning the election of a dean, 
in which the Chapter of Wells successfully resisted the induction as Dean of 
the King's Lord High Almoner, who, upon a vacancy, claimed the appoint- 
ment and appeared with the nomination of the Pope and probably the 
recommendation of the King. 

In 1548 Mr. Holmes says Bishop Barlow received from the crown, 
probably on account of the previous cession of the Episcopal Manor ol 
Chard, the Manor of Wookey to himself and his heirs with a license to sell, 
and four months afterwards, in 4th February , 1549, he made a Jree gift oj it 
to Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector ! 

The chapter relating to the Rectory, and the Rectors who were Sub-Deans 
of Wells, is of much interest as is also that on the Vicarage and the Vicars, 
but we must pass over them, merely observing that in giving the List of the 
Incumbents of these benefices, the author, it is to be regretted, has not 
stated the causes of the vacancies and the names of the patrons, especially 
as regards the latter after the alienation of the manor from the bishopric. 

Much other information of a minor character is given, some of which is 
of no interest beyond the boundaries of the parish, as e.g. the List of 
Sextons ; and the volume is concluded with some notes on Local Pamilies. 



THE LIFE OF CHARLES I., 1600-1625. By E. Beresford Chancellor. 
London : George Bell & Sons, 1886. 

Little is known of the early life of King Charles I. Few writers have 
referred to it in any detail, and we welcome Mr. Chancellor's volume on the 
subject, which is of much interest and historical value. Prince Charles was 
born on the 19th Nov. 1600. He was a very weakly child, and it being feared 
he would not survive he was very hurriedly baptized. For some years he 
continued very delicate. At five years ol age he could neither stand nor 
speak, owing to the distortion of his limbs and the malformation of his 
mouth. As lie grew up this general debility and physical defect precluded 
him from taking much active exercise and partaKing in the manly sports 
which his elder brother enjoyed, but it developed a taste for study and 
retirement, and he made rapid progress in his accpuirements. At twelve 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Pcblications. 335 

years of age, when he was confirmed, he is represented by the bishops ; — " as 
touching the principles of religion he manifested such princely understand- 
ing and forwardness ; and upon the sudden gave such ready answers and 
reasons of his faith as surprised all that heard him. Nor was he wanting 
in such secular knowledge as befitted his age." 

The death of his elder brother Prince Henry in 1612, to whom he was 
most devotedly attached, produced in him a great change. He was now 
become the heir to the throne, and he saw how necessary it was he should 
prepare himself to fulfil the duties of the high station to which, in process 
of time, he would be called. He shook off his habits of seclusion and 
engaged in those sports and exercises in which his brother had excelled, and 
in no long time had so practised them that " he was thought to have been the 
best marksman av:d the most comely manager of a great horse of any one in all 
the three kingdoms." Nor was this the only improvement which manifested 
itself in him. Whereas he had formerly been thought wayward and obstinate 
he became of an even temper, pliant to good council, and less wedded to 
his own opinions. Moreover it is said of him " that he was moderate in his 
expenses, prudent in his conduct, regular at his devotions ; his industry 
was considerable, and his pursuits, for the most part, regular and elegant.' 
And Dr. George Carleton writes of him about this time : "I would be silent 
about the Prince rather than tell an untruth, but I must praise his accom- 
plishments, his skill in riding and running at the ring, &c, he has more 
understanding than the late Prince at his age, and is in behaviour, shy, 
grave, swete in speache, very admired, without any evil inclination, and 
willing to take advice." But during all military pursuits Charles never 
forgot his more congenial tastes, and his time when unoccupied with more 
important functions was always sedulously devoted to his collection of 
pictures, his tapestries or his cabinet of medals. It is to be feared, however, 
that he was prone to be led astray, and that Villiers, the King's worthless 
favourite, had too great an influence for evil over his mind. 

On the death of Prince Henry Charles at once assumed the title of Duke 
of Cornwall, and took possession of the manors and houses which belonged 
to the late Prince, but the title was not confirmed to him until afterwards, 
and he was not created Prince of Wales until 1616. He acted as chief 
mourner at his brother's funeral, and on 14th February following, as Brides- 
man at the unfortunate marriage of his sister Elizabeth to the Elector 
Palatine. On the 23rd of the same month the King confirmed to him the 
title of Duke of Cornwall. About the same time a regular Household was 
sanctioned for him at Richmond, and on the 13th May he was made a Knight 
of the Garter. 

From this date very little of importance occurred affecting the Prince 
for some years, except the death of the Queen, who made him executor to her 
will, and left him the whole of her vast property amounting altogether to some 
£800,000. The King became very angry at this bequest, but the Prince in 
the most filial and graceful manner surrendered the whole to his father. 
Mr. Chancellor gives us many anecdotes and much court gossip of great in- 
terest. Charles made himself very popular, and appears in all cases to have 
endeavoured to mould himself to his father's wishes, taking part in the 
masques and jousts of the court, and also in public business, sitting often in 



336 Notices of Recent Akcii.eological Publications. 

the House of Lords and joining in the debates. On one occasion the Lords 
made him their speaker in returning thanks to the King, who had addressed 
them with more than his usual suavity and kindness. 

In 1621 Charles was sworn of the Privy Council. He very diligently 
attended the meetings, and was made President. For many interesting 
incidents during this period we must refer to Mr. Chancellor's pages, and 
especially to some of Charles' letters, which, though few in number, com- 
mence with his childhood. They are marked by deep filial and fraternal 
affection, duty, and respect. 

A design had been formed for the marriage of Prince Henry with the 
Infanta of Spain, but the negotiations had been broken off in an offensive 
manner by Philip III., the Spanish King. Upon the death of that monarch 
in 1621 the negotiations were renewed on behalf of Prince Charles. They 
proceeded very slowly, as at the best might be expected under Spanish 
notions of dignity and etiquette if no reasons existed for delay : Bucking- 
ham conceived the wild and ill-advised notion, for there can be no doubt 
it emanated from him, that the Prince and himself should proceed to Madrid, 
incoijnitio, and in some indefinite way hasten the matter to a conclusion. 
The poor old King, who was entirely under the influence of his favourite, 
was much opposed to this freak, but was bullied and cajoled into giving a 
most reluctant consent, and the result is too well known to be adverted 
to further. Mr. Chancellor gives some interesting personal incidents con- 
nected with this foolish expedition, and shews us that Buckingham's arrogant 
familiarity was so offensive to the Spanish grandees that he was obliged to 
make his escape from Madrid, leaving the Prince to follow him. The two 
Knights errant fortunately reached England in safety, much chagrined, but 
to the great joy of the King and people. The best work we know on the 
Spanish Marriage is that of Professor Gardiner, which, oddly enough, is not 
included by Mr. Chancellor in the long list of authorities which he has 
consulted for his work. 

Mr. Chancellor concludes his work with an account of the negotiations 
for the Prince's marriage with Henrietta Maria of France. Our space will 
not allow us to follow him in this, the result of which is well known, and 
we will conclude by calling attention to the tender and touching letter of the 
Queen mother, Marie de Medicis, which she handed to her daughter when 
taking leave of her on her way to England. It is the gem of the book, and 
though well known cannot be too often printed. 



THE PIPE ROLL SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS, Volumes IV. and V. 
London : Wyman & Sons. 

We are glad to see that this useful Society is making most favourable 
progress. The subscribers are increasing in number, and doubtless will 
increase as the Society becomes better known and scholars begin to recog- 
nise the value of the Pipe Rolls in the elucidation of the early history of the 
country and the genealogy of our ancient families. Every Public Library 
which aspires to assist real historical students, should support this laudable 
enterprise by subscribing. 



Notices of Recevt Arch.eological Publications. 337 

The two volumes now before us, which form the issues to the sub- 
scribers for the year 1885-6, contain the Rolls for the 7th and 8th years of 
King Henry II. Vol. V. has always been regarded as one of the series of Pipe 
Rolls proper, but the editor, upon a careful comparison of the proof-sheets of 
the Roll with the original MS., found that what has been hitherto taken 
without question, to be the Pipe Roll of the 8th of King Henry II. is in 
reality the Chancellor's antigraph belonging to the succeeding year, 9th 
Hen. II., which has heretofore been considered the earliest example of these 
official duplicates of the Pipe Rolls. The character of the antigraphs we 
described in our notice of the previous volumes (ante Vol. IX. p. 358). 

These volumes present the same appearance of careful editing and 
excellence of printing which marked the previous volumes. 



THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE LIBRARY, being a Classified Col- 
lection of the Chief Contents of the Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 to 1868. 
Edited by George Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. Archeology, Parts I. & II. 
London : Elliot Stock, 1886. 

Mr. Gomme is a very active Editor. His volumes follow each other in quick 
succession yet they bear no indication of haste in their preparation. The 
four previous volumes treat of Dialect and Proverbs, Popular Superstitions, 
Manners and Customs, <Lc, and in Vol. V. now before us he commences a 
new branch of the series — Archeology, which is continued in Volume VI. 

The Editor commences Vol. V. with a short but interesting Introduction, 
and the articles in this volume are classified under the following heads : — 
Geologic and Pre-historic Remains, Early Historic Remains, Sepulchral 
Remains and Encampments, Earthworks, &c; and the contents of Vol. VI. 
are classified under the heads of Stones and Stone Circles, Miscellaneous 
Antiquities, which is sub-divided under: British Period, Early Anglo-Saxon, 
Anglo-Saxon — Local ; Anglo-Saxon Ornaments, Late Anglo-Saxon and Scan- 
dinavian. This volume is also preceded by an interesting Introduction, and 
to each are added useful editorial notes explaining some of the communications 
in the text, and furnishing further information upon the subjects of which 
they treat. 

The reader will, of course, expect that the contributors of the numerous 
articles must vary very much in their capacity and skill to treat of the sub- 
jects upon which they write. Many of them, however, were made by very 
distinguished antiquaries. It will be sufficient to mention the names of Dr. 
Borlase, the Rev. T. D. Fosbroke, and Roach Smith, T. Crofton Croker and 
H. M.Westropp, whose valuable communications are thus rescued from com- 
parative oblivion, besides, in consequence of the advance which has been 
made in our critical and scientific knowledge since the commencement of 
the Old Magazine, now more than a century-and-a-half ago, the notions of 
many of the writers will appear crude and untenable, nevertheless even those 
communications are of considerable value, for they record the facts, although 
the deductions of the writers from those facts may not be sustainable. More- 
over such communications have this advantage, that they shew the condition 
of the monuments at the dates they were written, and afford us the oppor- 
tunity of comparing them with their present aspect. This is illustrated in 
Vol. X, part 1. y 



33S Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

two cases to which Mr. Gomme calls attention in his Introduction to Vol. VI. 
One is a description of the famous Stone Circle known as "Long Meg," 
written in 1752, compared with the report made by the Rev. W. C. Lukis on 
same the monument in 1884, printed in the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Vol. X. p. 311. 

The second is a similar comparison between "Carl Lofts," at Shap, 
in Westmoreland, in 1S24, which has been barbarously illused since, with its 
present state. 

Mr. Gomme attributes, as the subject deserves, great importance to our 
ancient Stone Monuments and Circles, and comments upon the various 
conjectures which have arisen as to their origin and use — ideas as numerous 
as they are erroneous. He aptly remarks that " erroneous ideas are hardest 
to abolish." We even now continually hear Cromlechs described as " Druids' 
Altars," and Stone Circles as places of worship and sacrifice. He concludes 
his remarks on the subject by saying : — That Stone Circles are sepulchral in 
origin, is, I think, undoubted, and Mr. Lukis has put the matter into its 
most significant form by the explanation of his " iron railing theory " ; that 
single stones are political centres points to tribal history is equally, to my 
mind, undoubted, and equally capable of historic proof. Mr. Anderson has in- 
vestigated by excavation the area of a number of stone circles and has found 
evidences of interments. He writes that "whatever may be the variation 
in the constructive character of the stone-setting, or in the general nature 
of the over-ground phenomena of these interments, the essential or under- 
ground phenomena are found to be constant in all their typical features : the 
burials are sometimes burnt, and sometimes unburnt, and they are associated 
with urns and other objects that are characteristic of the Age of Bronze." — 
Scotland in Pagan Times, Part II. p. 111. 

These two volumes, in our estimation, are of greater interest and value 
than their predecessors, notwithstanding the simple and quaint traditions, the 
marvellous superstitions and old folk-lore which the former volumes contain. 
They form a complete repertory of all the communications to old Sylvanus 
Urban relating to the Archaeology of the British & Saxons periods of any per- 
manent interest, and the entire discussion upon any given subject is brought 
together, and may, without inconvenience, be read as a whole. The anti- 
quities of the Roman period are, for reasons stated by Mr. Gomme, reserved 
for the next volume. One half of the number of volumes, which at the 
commencement it was contemplated would complete the series, have now 
been issued, and we congratulate Mr. Stock upon the progress he lias made, 
and hope his well-conceived and spirited enterprise has been as successful, 
pecuniarily, as it deserves to be from the excellence of the editing, the 
goodness of the paper, and beauty of the type which marks hi establishment. 



RECORD EVIDENCES AMONG ARCHIVES OF ANCIENT ABBEY 
of CLUNI, from 1077 to 1534, illustrative of the history of some of our 
Early Kings ; and many of its English affiliated foundations. References 
to Records and Description from Delisle's Catalogue of the National Library 
of France. By Sir G. F. Duckett, Bart. Printed for the Author, 1SS6. 

The Abbey of Cluni, founded in 940 by William I. Count of Auverne and 



Notices of Rkcent Arcileolooical Publications. 339 

Duke of Acquitaine, was one of the most important in Europe, perhaps it 
was of greater repute than any other, for it was subject to the Pope alone. 
Alphonso VI. King of Castile, Leon, and Gallicia, commenced the building of 
the great basilica, and was conspicuous above all others in his donations 
towards rearing that fabric which is said to have exceeded all other known 
churches in the world in its construction aud beauty, and he endowed it 
with his entire domains. To this King, Agatha, daughter of William the 
Conqueror, had been betrothed. And Sir George Duckett brings under our 
notice, from these muniments, two facts not before known : viz., 1. That 
our King Henry I. brother of Agatha, took special interest in the completion 
of the building; and 2. That his daughter, the Empress Maud, who was buried 
there, was the express image of his person, and like him was devoted to 
Cluni. " paterne iinaginis et prudentia formam velut sigillo impressam rep re - 
sentavit, et preter alia digna relatu, Cluniacensem ecclesiam more patris 
sincere dilexit." And it was arranged that after her death certain masses 
should be said for the repose of her soul. 

The Abbey of Cluni flourished in great power and dignity throughout 
the middle ages, the Abbots ranking with Princes, Potentates, and Nota- 
bilities, and in the middle of the 16th century we are told 2000 religious 
houses, in divers countries of Europe owed obedience to it. At the sup- 
pression of the monasteries, thirty-five houses in England, irrespective of 
Scotland, were affiliated with it. Of these the most important was the 
Priory of Lewes, founded by William de Warrenne in 1077. The intercourse 
between the mother house and its various offshoots was very close, and we 
consequently find among its muniments many valuable records relating to 
eminent English houses and English persons, more especially in respect to 
the great family of Warrenne, and the parentage of Gundreda, the wife of 
the founder of Lewes, which has of late been hotly contested. 

The Abbey once had a magnificent Library and Collection of Manuscripts 
famous throughout the civilized world. After printing however had super- 
seded writing, the manuscripts became neglected, and during the Reform- 
ation the library was utterley destroyed. In 1562 the Protestants under the 
French reformer Thedore de Beze sacked the Abbey, but, fortunately, some 
MSS. were recovered, and these, on the final suppression of the Abbey in 1790 
were given over to the municiple authorities, and have recently been acquired 
for the National Library of France. All these, and many others which may 
have been otherwise acquired, have been very carefully calendared by M. 
Leopold Delisle, and this gentleman's Catalogue forms the basis of Sir George 
Duckett's little work. 

The archives in Mr. Delisle's Catalogue relating to English Priories of 
Lewes ; Holy Trinity of Lewton, Notts ; Thetford, Norfolk ; Broxholme, 
Montacute, Som. ; Northampton, Pontefract, and Paisley in Scotland, have 
been extracted. They amount to 100 in number, and Sir George Duckett 
has given, in addition to the French abstract with its number in the cata- 
logue, a marginal English translation. He has also given the ipsinsima 
verba of several important charters, with notes thereon, and an excellent 
index. 

y 2 



340 Notices of Recext Archaeological Publications. 

PLEAS OF THE CROWN FOR THE COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER, 
before the Abbot of Reading and his fellows Justices Itinerant, in the fifth 
year of the reign of King Henry and the third of Grace, 1221. Edited by 
F. W. Maitland. London : Macmillan & Co., 18S4. 

This is a volume of great interest to students of the back scenes of the 
general history of the country in the first quarter of the 13th century. It 
is of special interest to those who desire to obtain a knowledge of the social 
condition of Gloucestershire at that period. Mr. Maitland justly remarks 
that what appears "in the foreground in these Placita Coroiue is crime, 
and crime of the most vulgar kind — rape, and murder, and robbery. " This, 
(he observes) would be worth seeing, for crime is a fact of which history must 
take note, but the political life of England is in the near back-ground. We 
have here, as it were, a section of the body politic, which shews the most 
vital parts, of which, because they were deep-seated, the soul politic was 
hardly conscious, the system of local government and police, the organisation 
of County, Hundred and Township." 

Those persons who are acquainted with the Assize Rolls will be aware how 
difficult they are to decipher and understand. The records are in fact mere 
notes, incomplete in construction, rapidly written down in court, in a cur- 
sive hand in very much contracted latin, from English spoken words, and 
the contractions are very often indefinite. Such persons will be able to 
appreciate the labour involved in Mr. Maitland's work. 

The Eyre of 1221 is of great importance, it being the first taken after 
the issue of the Magna Carta, and the first after the abolition of the ordeal, 
and at the dawn of the institution of trial by jury. The ancient mode of 
trying personal wrongs was wager of battle, but Mr. Maitland remarks that 
"during the reigns of Henry II., Richard I., and such part of John's reign 
as was not anarchy, the law had been making rapid advances, both towards 
a more reasonable mode of trial and towards a procedure less dependent upon 
the will of the person immediately wronged, more expressive of the fact that 
crime wrongs the whole community." Nevertheless in 1221 the appeal by 
battle was in full force, and indeed it continued the law until 1817, when it 
was successfully pleaded at the Warwick assizes in the case of Asliford v. 
Thornton, after which it was abolished by statute. The mode of procedure 
in 1221 does not very clearly appear. High authorities somewhat differ in 
respect to details. Glanville considered that unless the appellee was maimed, 
or his fighting days were past (in which case he goes to the ordeal — fire or 
water), he was obliged to fight. He had no choice. He must defend himself 
by his body. Bracton thought he had always a choice, he could defend 
himself by his body or by his country. It would seem, however, that the 
appellee had no right to decline the duel and put himself upon his country 
unless he could shew good cause. It is a question difficult to determine, and 
Mr. Maitland declines " to construct a theory out of inadequate materials." 
Thirty years afterwards we find the principle of trial by jury pretty fully 
established, as shewn by Sir Henry Barkly in the Introduction to the earliest 
extant Jury List for Gloucestershire in 32nd Henry III. which Sir Henry 
contributed to the Society (ante p. 293). The principle and the practice, 
however, differed considerably from that now in use as may there be seen. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 341 

Mr. Maitland's Introduction is a most valuable and instructive desertation 
upon the state of the law and procedure of the court. He shews that the per- 
sonel of the court consisted of seven judges, but, in this instance, Ralph 
Musard, being then sheriff of the county, was, under Magna Carta, disquali- 
fied from sitting ; and he gives a rapid glance at the history of the time. 
In this Eyre was included the south-western counties, and it was opened at 
Worcester on the 7th June. It was a very full assembly. The sheriff was 
commanded, as in all other cases, to summon "all archbishops, bishops, 
abbots, priors, earls, barons, knights, and freeholders of his whole bailiwick, 
and from every township four lawful men and the reeve, and from every 
borough twelve lawful burgesses ; and many of the trading and artizan 
classes, probably all freemen had a light to attend, so that, in fact, the whole 
county, in its corporate capacity was present. In addition to these, Ralph 
Musard, the sheriff, was of course there, and the Coroners, whose office 
was not yet 30 years old, were there. These were Alexander Fitz Neal 
(tilius Nigelli), Henry de Drois, Hugh of Cuillardvill, and Simon of Matres- 
clon (Matson). Of the magnates of the county were present : Gilbert de 
Clare Earl of Gloucester, and William Earl Marshall, son of the great Earl 
who was appointed Protector at the accession of the young King, and died 
just two years before the Eyre. These, Mr. Maitland's remarks, " could 
speak up in defence of their own rights and franchises, or, if needful, say a 
good word for one who in the war had taken the Baron's side." 

The Gloucester Roll, Mr. Maitland informs us, is of special interest. 
The doings and unlawful exactions of Gerard of Athee l and Engelard of 
(Jigogne, while sheriffs of the county, were brought before this Eyre and 
relieved the Roll of the monotonous catalogue ot " common crimes due to 
greed and jealousy, to lust and beer, and diversified them by the exactions 
of these foreign sheriffs, and the mere social history is enlivened by a touch 
of politics." Gerard was of unfree birth, a creature of King John, by whom 
he had been raised above his fellow-serfs to positions of eminence. It is 
evident from the numerous presentments of crime and the references to 
former Eyres that this inquest must have extended a long way back. We 
see it reached back 14 or lft years. 

It would be impossible in the limited space at our disposal to do justice 
to this treatise. There are many intricacies, any attempt to elucidate which 
would require us to enter into much detail. Mr. Maitland states the principles 
of the jurisprudence of the period, and cites from the Roll examples in point, 
with references to upwards of 51)0 notes at the end in further illustration. 
The labour involved in the work is very great, and Mr. Maitland has accom- 
plished it with great skill and ability. In printing the Roll he has extended 
the latin text, to make it more generally readable, with the exception of the 
marginal notes, with respect to which, at the end of the Introduction, he 
has given explanations ot the abbreviations. The volume cannot be read 
without profit. The only thing to be regretted is that it is deficient of an 
Index. An Analytical Index would have been of great value. 



SIX YEARS IN SEYCHELLES, with Photographs from Original Draw- 
ings. By. H. W. Estridge. Privately printed, 1SS5. 

1 Gerard was sheriff in 10th and 11th John and Engelard for the live remaining' years 
of the King's reign. The Pipe Rolls shew that Richard Burgeis acted for them throughout — 
Ed. 



342 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

This little work is of a popular character. The author does not profess to 
be a scientist, though he has shewn himself to be a close observer of nature, 
and has brought under our notice the fauna and flora of a part of this 
great empire scarcely known, even by name, to the majority of Englishmen. 
The Seychelles consist of an Archipelago of about fifty Islands situated in 
the Indian Ocean, and subordinate to the Mauritius. The principal island is 
Mahe\ which is about 20 miles long. Its capital is named Victoria. Mr, 
Estridge gives a short sketch of the history of the group, and a description 
of the chief island and its productions. Those of our readers who have 
visited the Colonial and Indian Exhibition majj have noticed Mr. Estridge's 
collection, placed there, we believe, at the desire of the Colonial Office. 
Among the exhibits are specimens of the fruit of the Coco-de-Mer ( (a species 
of the palm tree which grows only in the Seychelles) which includes a rare 
exhibit of that product in its treble development, as well as some eccentric 
growths of the common cocoa nut. There is also a great variety of birds 
(among which is a species of small hawk, of which there is not an example 
in the British Museum), fish, reptiles, insects, (among which is the curious 
insect called the "walking leaf") geological specimens, and drawings of 
the fruits and flowers — of which photographs of a large number appear in 
his volume. 

Mr. Estridge's description of the habits of some of the lizards and other 
creatures will be read with interest. " The Ichneumon," (he writes) is very 
common. The boys catch them in the woods and vanilla plantations, and 
bring them round for sale. There are many curious and interesting incidents 
related as having fallen under the author's observation of the habits of 
insects and various other creatures. 



THE REGISTER OF EDMUND STAFFORD, a.d. 1395-1419. An Index 
and Abstract of its Contents. By the Rev. F. C. Hingeston-Randolph, M. A. 
Rector of Ringmore, Prebendary of Exeter and Dean Rural. London : 
George Bell & Son. Exeter : Henry S. Eland, 1886. 

Very few people now living are acquainted with the great historical value 
of the Episcopal Registers of the Diocese of Exeter. They are indispensable 
to a student of the local history of the two western counties. The late Mr. 
Ralph Barnes, for many years Deputy -Registrar of the Diocese knew them 
well, as did also the late Dr. George Oliver, of Exeter. We are not aware 
that the former used them for any public practical purpose, but they formed 
the basis of the valuable ecclesiastical historical works of the latter scholar. 
The writer himself has also been privileged to use them for many years. 

These Registers were commenced by that eminent Prelate Bishop 
Walter Bronescombe in 1257. At least his Register is the earliest now 
extant. And it may be here noted that this Bishop as Lord High Treasurer 
was the first originator of the Public Record Office. From 1257 the series 
of Registers is complete with the exception of that of Bishop Bitton, 1292- 
1307, and some few lacunre afterwards, down to the time of the great 
rebellion in the 17th century, when, with the overthrow of the Church, 
they necessarily ceased ; but they were resumed at the Restoration, and 
from that date are complete to the present time. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 343 

The Registers contain entries of all Collations and Institutions, and 
sometimes mixed with such entries, though usually in separate volumes, 
many copies of charters, and some original of pre-Norman date. Copies of 
Bulls, Interdictions, Inquisitions, Sequestrations, Licenses for Chapels and 
Oratories ; Benedictions, Marriage Licenses, and Licenses for Non-Residence, 
Dispensations from disabilities of all kinds, Lists of Persons admitted to Holy 
Orders, and copies of Wills of which there are abstracts of sixty in the volume 
before us. 

These valuable records are unfortunately destitute of Indexes, except as 
regards Institutions, &c, which are very inaccurate, and Mr. Hingeston- 
Randolph has rendered most valuable service to the literary public in under- 
taking to supply, as far as practicable, this deficiency. It is to be regretted 
that he did not commence with the earliest volume, but this oversight, we 
are glad to say, he is now remedying as he is engaged upon Bishop Brones- 
combe's Register, which he has announced will be ready for delivery in the 
course of next year, and he proposes to proceed with the subsequent volumes 
if he receives that support which he so well deserves and which we think 
he can scarcely fail to obtain. 

The volume now issued is arranged upon an excellent plan. It forms an 
Analytical Index to the contents of Bishop Stafford's Register in alphabetical 
order, classified under Persons & Subjects. The abstracts are, generally, terse 
and sufficient, and in the case of the important subject of Wills, of which, as 
we have stated, there are sixty in this volume, nothing but mere legal 
verbiage appears to have been omitted. When, from the nature of the 
subject it appears to be desirable, the ipsissima verba of the document are 
given. In 139S it was desired to raise the sum for the completion, decoration, 
and maintenance of the Cathedral Church, and the Bishop writes to the 
President of the Consistorial Court, the Archdeacons, the Deans Rural, 
etc., and describes the church as " vestra mater et magistra omnium 
ecclesiarum nostre Diocesis. Collections were to be made every Sunday in 
Lent and even up to the Octave of Easter, "usque ad consummacionem dicte 
fabrice et claustri eidem annexi, ac refeccionis eorundem ; cum eandem 
ecclesiam matrem suam saltern semel in anno venerari actualiter teneantur, 
et absque Christi fidelium elemosinarum largicione facilitates ad fabricam 
ecclesie et claustri prescripti, ut ex testimonio fidedignoruin accepiinus, non 
sufficiant." The Bishop orders the collections to be confined to this work— 
"aliis questoribus quibuscumque pro eodem tempore dumtaxat exclusis." 
All moneys so raised were to.be paid in immediately after Easter every 
year, under pain of the greater excommunication if any portion thereof 
were kept back (3rd Feb. 1398-9) i. 25. 

Here is another somewhat remarkable instance in the Absolution of Alice 
Rodcnay after death : which tells it own singular tale. 

" Edmundus, miseracione Divina Exoniensis Episcopus dilecto in Christo 
filio, domino Johanni (Southam), Priori Prioratus Tottoniensis, nostri Diocesis, 
salutem, graciam, et benediccionem. — Ex parte Thome Rodenay, mariti 
Alicie Bastard, nuper uxoris sue, nunc defuncte, nostre Diocesis, cum humili 
insinuacione nobis extitit insinuatum quod cum nos, officium nostrum 
exequentes pastorale, eandem Aliciam, nobis et officio nostro dclatam super 



344 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

eo quod a marito suo legitiino predicto, et ipsius consorcio maritali, absque 
judicio Ecclesie, temere divertebat, et eidem adherere coutempsit, minus 
juste, propter ipsius contumaciam pariter et rebellionom in non comparendo 
coram nobis, certis die et loco, ad quos extiterat legitime evocata, super 
premissis responsura, contractam, excommunicari et ipsam sic excommuni- 
catam publice nunciari fecerimus, et decreverimus, justicia id poscente ; 
eadem tamen Alicia eandem excommunicacionem, licet postea ad maritum 
suum rediens antedictum, sustinuit per dies non modicos, animo indurato ; 
tandem, languens in extremis et morsum habens consciencie ante ipsius 
mortem signa et indicia penitencie de premissis, ut asseritur, habuit mani- 
festa, et sic finivit dies suos : unde ex parte ejusdem de absolucionis bene- 
ficio in hac parte impendendo nobis extitit supplicatum. Nos, igitur, 
attendentes quod Ecclesia nulli claudit gremium set aperit redeunti, vobis 
committimus et mandamus quatinus super premissis diligenter veritatem 
inquiratis ; et si per inquisicionem eandem, inveneritis dictam Aliciam ante 
ipsius mortem signa penitencie et indicia de excommunicacione predicta, ut 
premittitur, habuisse, et sic decessisse — super quibus vestram conscienciam 
intendimus onerare — tunc, et non aliter, eidem beneficium absolucionis in 
in forma juris impendatis, et ejus corpus, sialiud canonicum non obsistat, 
sacra Sepultura sepeliri, ut convenit, faciatis. Ad que facienda vobis com- 
mittimus vices nostras ; in cujus testimonium sigillum nostrum presentibus 
est appensum. Datum in Manerio nostro Criditonensi, vicesimo tercio die 
mensis Marcii Anno Domini Millesimo cccc mo decimo (1410-11) et nostre 
consecracionis anno sexto decimo." I. 121 b . 

It only remains to thank the learned Editor for the great care displayed 
in the preparation of this useful book, which seems to be faultless in all 
respects, and the printers deserve much credit for the manner in which they 
have performed their parts. 



A HISTORY OF DERBYSHIRE. By John Pendleton, author of Old 
and New Chesterfield. London : Elliott Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, 1886. 

This volume can scarcely be regarded as a history of the County of Derby. 
It would be impossible to include a history of the county in the space pre- 
scribed for the publication of this work. It is, however, a very readable little 
book of a popular character, containing sketches of the history of various 
towns, ancient manor houses, and other places of interest within the county, 
illustrated with many old legends, interesting anecdotes, historical notices, 
graphic descriptions of scenery, delineations of character and ballads, old 
and new, of unequal merit ; the whole written in a scholarly pleasant style, 
though in places the diction is somewhat stilted. 

Derby, as being the Chief Town of the County, obviously claims Mr. 
Pendleton's first notice, and receives from him that consideration which is 
her due. In his account of this town he mentions the terrible visitation of 
the Plague here in 1605. It was very fatal. Quoting from Hutton, the 
historian of the town, he says: "The Town was forsaken; the farmers 
declined the market place, and grass grew upon the spot." . . The market 
was removed to some distance from the buildings. ' ' Hither (he says) the 
market people, having their mouths primed with tobacco as a preservative, 
brought their provisions, stood at a distance from their property, and at a 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 345 

greater distance from the townspeople with whom they were to traffic. The 
buyer was not suffered to touch any of the articles before purchase, but 
when the agreement was finished he took the goods and deposited the money 
in a vessel filled with vinegar set for the purpose." The most remarkable 
circumstance, however, is the statement of the same author "as a singular 
fact, that the Plague never attempted the premises of a tobacconist, a tanner 
or a shoemaker." Among the remarkable inhabitants of Derby, Mr. Pen- 
dleton mentions Flamstead the Astronomer Royal, of whom he relates the 
following annecdote : "It was thought by the illiterate that Flamstead 
could foretell events, and a poor laundress, who had lost a parcel of linen, 
requested him to use his art so that she might find the property. With much 
mystery he began to draw circles and squares, and then told her, with the 
air of an oracle, that she would find the linen in a certain dry ditch. Gladly 
she went and found what she sought. No one was more surprised than 
himself, and he said : ' Good woman, I am heartily glad you have found 
your linen ; but I assure you I knew nothing of it, and intended only to 
joke with you, and then to have read you a lecture on the folly of applying 
to a person to know events not in the human power to tell ; but I see the 
devil has a mind I should deal with him. I am determined I will not, so 
never come or send anyone to me any more on such occasions, for I will 
never attempt such an affair whilst I live.' " 

We cannot follow Mr. Pendleton in his quaint descriptions of the still 
quainter old Derbyshire towns and villages, almost every page of which 
would afford an extract 

We must not, however, omit to notice his touching description of the 
c!ief cFceuvre of Banks the sculptor, of the lovely figure of the youthful 
daughter of Sir Brook Boothby in the church of Ashbourne, " before which 
(our author says) even Chantry stood and wondered, and from which he 
designed his celebrated group, the two sleeping children in Lichfield 
Cathedral .... Simplicity and elegance (he says) appear in the workman- 
ship ; tenderness and innocence in the image. On a marble pedestal and 
slab, like a low table, is a mattress, with a child lying on it, both being cut 
out of white marble. Her cheek, expressive of suffering mildness, reclines 
on a pillow ; and her fevered hands gently rest on each other ; near her 
head. The plain and only drapery is a frock, the skirt easily flowing out 
before, and a ribbon sash, the knot twisted forward, as it were, by the 
X'estlessness of pain, and the two ends spread out in the same direction as 
the frock. The delicate naked feet are carelessly folded over each other, 
and the whole appearance is as if she had just turned, in the tossings of her 
illness, to seek a cooler or easier place of rest." 

Of Matlock and Buxton and Sheffield we need not write, nor need we 
do more than allude to Chatsworth and Haddon and Hardwick ; but we 
could linger long over Mr. Pendleton's account of the ancient towns and 
villages of Derbyshire, and the simple habits and old-world customs of their 
inhabitants ; and above all we enjoy his picturesque description of the lovely 
valleys which makes us wish we were young again to saunter quietly along 
the banks of their gushing streams ami enjoy a gallop over the country of 
the Peak. Every oue seeking a quiet holiday retreat would do well to read 
Mr. Pendleton's charming volume. 



346 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

CALENDAR OF THE STATE PAPERS, RELATING TO IRELAND, 

of the reign of Elizabeth, 1588, August, 1592, September. Preserved 

in H.M. Public Record Office. Edited by Hans Claude Hamilton, Esq., 
F.S.A., Assistant Keeper of H.M. Public Records. Under the direction of 
the Master of the Rolls, and with the sanction of H.M. Secretary of State 
for the Home Department. London : Longman & Co., Triibner & Co. ; 
Oxford : Parker & Co. ; Cambridge : Macmillan & Co. ; Edinburgh : A. C. 
Black & Douglas Foulis ; Dublin : A. Thorne. 

Mr. Hamilton's long-looked-for volume has at length been issued, and it 
completely fulfils the high expectations anticipated of it. It is to be 
regretted that his higher duties in the Record Office should have interrupted 
his progress with this valuable volume. The period covered by it extends 
from the 1st August, 1588, to 30th September, 1592. The documents calen- 
dared of course relate to every subject connected with Ireland during this 
stirring time, but, more especially in the earlier part of the volume, it deals 
with the subject which at that time absorbed every man's thoughts both in 
England and Ireland — the great Spanish Armada. 

Mr. Hamilton's last volume concluded with the announcement that the 
Spanish fleet was off the Lizard, and in this he commences his Preface with 
relating a few of the incidents attending its passage from Corunna into the 
English channel, and its being chased through it by the Lord Admiral and 
other English officers, with great loss of life, into the North Sea. 

On the 29th July there was much fighting. Several of the Spanish 
ships were quite disabled, and many among their crews killed and wounded. 
The Duke of Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish fleet, it is said, 
was desirous of turning against the English, and maintaining his position in 
the channel, "but the pilots declared it to be impossible against the wind 
and tide, and said that they must proceed into the North Sea, or be driven on 
the shoals on the Flemish coast. The same day the Lord Admiral wrote to 
Walsyngham : " The Spaniards have been chased in fight till the evening, and 
are much distressed. Their force is wonderful great and strong, and yet we 
pluck their f eathers by little and little. " The Spaniards the less regretted this 
untoward circumstance as they expected aid from Scotland, and by drawing 
the English fleet after them northwards in chasing them it would enable the 
Duke of Parma to land his forces (said to be of 40,000 men) on the south coast 
of England. On the 7th August Lord Charles Howard writes : " We gave 
them chase until we had cleared our own coasts and some parts of Scotland 
of them." And the Spanish narrative says : " We continued our course 
until we got through the channel of the Sea of Norway ; not being possible 
to return to the English channel, though it has been our desire to do so, 
to the present day, the ^th August, on which day, having doubled the 
Islands of Scotland, we are steering for Spain with the wind East-north- 
east." 

The fate of the Armada is very sad even to an Englishman whose liberties 
it was the object of the Spaniards to destroy. The sufferings of the crews 
and soldiers on board make one shudder. From the Sth of August, when 
the English fleet left off the pursuit, they touched no land until 21st Sept. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 347 

when the Admiral's ship, only, arrived at Dingle Cush, on the west coast of 
Ireland, nor had they been able to obtain victuals, or water, or supplies of 
any kind. The fleet had been utterly scattered by a succession of terrific 
storms so that scarcely three or four ships could be gathered together. The 
soldiers and sailors on board were greatly afflicted with desease, hunger and 
thirst, so that great numbers died daily. Eventually they were driven one 
by one, and a few together, upon the Irish coast and completely wrecked. 
Those who unfortunately escaped a watery grave were inhumanly butchered 
in cold blood by the Irish. On the 30th September it is reported that Don 
Pedro de Mendosa and 700 men were drowned off the Isle of Clear. Dowdary 
Roe O'Maly put 100 to the sword. The last with 1000 men and 140 who 
came to land were executed. Don Lewis de Cordova and 4600 Spaniards were 
drowned off Connaught, and 1100 who escaped to land, were executed. On 
another occasion 80 poor wretches, who in a helpless condition reached the 
shore, were slain by one man with a battle axe. Some few who chanced to 
fall into the hands of disloyal Irish chieftians were hospitably received, but 
those eventually met the same fate. The story is too sickening to relate. 

This volume may be regarded as a continuation of Mr. Bagwell's 
" Ireland under the Tudors," (noticed ante p. 320). The portionof it which 
relates specially to Irish affairs is of great historical value, and there is much 
matter of considerable genealogical interest as regards English as well as 
Irish families. The abstracts are so full as to render a reference to the 
originals, generally, unnecessary, and some of the more important papers are 
printed in extenxo. The whole is specially valuable on account of Mr. 
Hamilton intimate acquaintance with Irish affairs and Irish persons of this 
period. We are glad to see that he is proceding with the next volume, and 
trust that his other official duties will not preclude him from making more 
rapid progress with that than he was able to do with the volume under 
notice. 



SCOTLAND IN PAGAN TIMES. —The Bronze and Stone Ages. The Rhind 
Lectures in Archaeology for 1882. By Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Keeper of 
the National Museum of the Antiquaries of Scotland. Edinburgh : David 
Douglas, 18S6. 

Dr. Anderson in this Volume continues and concludes his series as Rhind 
Lecturer in connection with the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. The 
plan he has adopted we have already explained in our notices of his previous 
volumes : viz. , commencing with the known historical period he carries his 
audience, or readers, backward in time to the unknown, by describing the 
phenomena which time and research have disclosed and reasoning therefrom 
to an earlier period of civilization and culture. In his last course of lectures 
Dr. Anderson treated of the Iron Age in Pagan times (see ante Vol. vn. 
pp. 327-334), and he now takes the Bronze and Stone Ages, of which he 
treats in his usual incisive style so suitable and instructive to a popular 
audience. 

In his first lecture Dr. Anderson treats of the Bronze Age, and lays 
before his readers the peculiar types of urns specially associated with inter- 
ments of that period, whether cremated or inhumed. These are profusely 
illustrated. And without woodcuts we cannot convey to our readers in a 



34S Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

clear manner their special forms and the peculiar character of their orna- 
mentation. They are all hand-made, and generally almost as true as if 
made on the wheel, whilst their ornamentation, which usually consists of 
straight lines, though occasionally slightly curved, intersecting each other or 
forming zig-zag patterns. They are so characteristic that though no bronze 
article, or indication of bronze, may appear among the remains, they form 
an unerring evidence that the interments with which they are connected were 
made in the Bronze period. The interments are usually made in Cists formed 
of four or five slabs of stone, and are about 4 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, and from 
2 to 3 feet deep, but, occassionally, the burials take place in simple pits. In 
cases of cremation the ashes, burnt bones, &c, are either placed in urns or 
the urns are turned over them. Unburnt bodies are doubled up in a crouch- 
ing position, the hands covering the face, and are laid on the left side. The 
inhumed and the cremated interments are contemporary, and frequently 
found together in the same burial place. And there are usually found with 
the remains small thin bronze knives with the rivet holes at the wider end, 
through which they were fastened to the handles. They were sometimes 
much ornamented. Occasionally these thin blades were tanged to be set in 
handles. 

Dr. Anderson divides these burial urns into two groups, and each group 
into two types. 
Group 1, consists of cinerary urns containing or covering the burnt bones 

and ashes of cremated burials : — 
Type 1. Large coarsely-made urns, wide-mouthed, narrow based, often with 

a thick overhanging rim, or with slightly x - aised mouldings round the 

sloping part, the ornamentation usually confined to the upper part of 

the vessel.— See Plate V.,fig. 1. 
Type 2. Very small cup-shaped urns, often pierced with two or four small 

holes in the sides, the exterior surface usually ornamented. When these 

vessels occur, they are commonly found within the larger variety of 

cinerary urn. — See Plate V., fig. 2. 
Second Group — Urns that are not cinerary, associated with unburnt 

interments. 

Type 1. Tall urns, with thin everted and bulging sides, highly ornamented. — 
See Plate V.,Jig. 3. 

Type 2. Wide-mouthed, thick-lipped, narrow-bassed urns, highly ornamen- 
ted. — See Plate V. , fig. 4. 

The interments of this period generally contain some kind of bronze 
implement, usually thin knives before mentioned, but never iron or silver. 
Sometimes personal "ornaments of gold, massive and well-made, and the 
forms, though peculiar, are neither rude or devoid of elegance. Necklaces of beads and 
plates of jet are elaborately constructed and carefully ornamented with punctulated 
patterns, which constrast fitly with the polished surface of the material. Thus there 
is taste exhibited in the form of all these variously fabricated objects, and dexterity and 
skill implied in their finish and workmanship. But as we find them all in associations, which 
shew that they are grave-goods— devoted to the dead— we see that they are also evidences 
of the piety and affection which thus expressed themselves in the manner of the time." 

Having in his first lecture dealt with the underground phenonema 
which mark the interments of the Bronze age, in his second Dr. Anderson 



Plate V. 




Fig.l . Vrn. fibarul at MigiaJLeth- 'Sndac Fig 4* Jm^dl Urn fcurid on HeruuJue, 

(I2i In ffigli) (5KffigK). 




Fid" 3 CWi/ from, «. &st a£ 'Broom/telal. 
Inverurie. ( 7 In. BirfK ) 



Fitf S.Stone Hammer FmiruL near 
^Merionethshire (Actual Si 



Lorwen-, 
ze) 



Notices of Recent Arch.eolocioal Publications. 349 

proceeds to consider the surface erections, such as stone circles, groups of 
standing stones, &c. , which accompany interments of the same period. The 
characteristics of the interments themselves below the surface do not, in any 
essential particulars, differ from those previously described. The urns found 
are of precisely the same types, and they are accompanied by the same 
characteristic grave-goods, including the thin flat blades of bronze. The 
overground arrangements, however, widely differ in details. The burial 
ground is, in some instances, marked off by a single circle of stones set 
upright ; sometimes by merely rough natural boulders ; at other times by 
tall slabs set erect and fixed firmly in the ground. Sometimes there is a 
trench and earthen embankment surrounding the circle of stones ; and in 
other cases on the south-west side of the circle the space between two 
pillars is filled by a large slab set on edge. Occasionally the circle is 
doubled, the inner circle being constructed of smaller stones placed end to 
end with their edges slightly protruding above the soil. In rarer instances 
there is a third circle within the second. But in all cases the interments 
are found to be within the inner circle, and from the fact that there is 
generally more than one it is concluded that these circles are not intended 
as monuments to some distinguished individual, but are family or tribal 
burial grounds. Dr. Anderson points fout that whatever form these en- 
closures may assume they are evidently ' ' the external sign by which the 
burial ground is distinguished from the surrounding area." That "like 
the cairn it is the visible mark of the spot of eaith to which the remains of 
the dead are consigned," and therefore held sacred. 

He remarks that it is impossible to say that in every stone circle the 
evidence of interment will be found, observing that there are cairns and cists 
which have not yielded such evidence, but that the absence of evidence in 
some cases does not affect the general conclusion drawn from the concurrent 
testimony of the many instances in which the evidence is unmistakable. 
" In other words (he says) we have so man}' Stone Circles which, upon proper investigation, 
have proved themselves burying-places, that it is impossible for us to conclude that those 
whicli are still uninvestigated will disclose a different purpose for this type of structure." 
And after describing some chambered cairns in connection with stone circles, 
he remarks that "it is the great stone-setting and not the cairn which is 
the principle member of the composite structure, and that although we may find in the more 
extended area of northern or western Europe the characteristics of the underground 
phenonema of burials in such structures as we have bee'i considering are not by any means 
constant, in Britain they are exclusively of the Bronze Age." And " the same conclusion (he 
says) holds good of another class of stone settings, consisting of groups of upright stones not 
set in a circular form." 

Of these structures he describes several remarkable examples which 
consist generally of stones set irregularly in rows, and sometimes associated 
with them a cairn or cist. " Their area (he says), as far as is yet known, is 
chiefly confined to the extreme northern part of the mainland of Scotland." 
These forms of stone-setting in rows, as far as they have yielded evidence of 
purpose, have been associated with a purpose which was sepulchral, and in 
the case of these, as in those of the Stone Circles, "they are the external 
adjuncts of the Bronze Age burial." The essential features of the burials 
remain constant throughout a wide range of variation in the form of the 
external and visible memorials of the interment. 



350 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

As pointed out by Dr. Anderson the result of these scientific investi- 
gations is the complete overthrow of the traditional theory that the Stone 
Circles were of Druidical origin and formed places of Pagan worship. It 
must be accepted as an established tact that they were the burial places of 
our Pagan predecessors of the Bronze Age. The care bestowed upon these 
places in the marking them off and fencing them from the surrounding 
country, work of great labour, and the devotion of costly and valuable 
articles to the honour of the dead, are evidences not only of culture and a 
large amount of civilization, but also of filial piety and family affection, or 
of a more public sympathy and appreciation of worth. 

Dr. Anderson proceeds to give an account of the weapons, implements, 
and personal ornaments of the people of the Bronze Age in Scotland, 
observing that there is no example of a dwelling or stronghold which can be 
assigned to that period. He describes and illustrates a vast number of those 
articles formed both of bronze and gold, many of them elegant in form, well 
adapted to the purposes for which they were intended, and in numerous 
instances of exquisite workmanship and ornamentation. Bronze only was 
used for weapons and tools, the forms of which are familiar to most of us. 
Gold in great abundance was used for personal ornaments. Whether the 
supply was derived from native sources or procured from abroad there is no 
evidence to show, and Dr. Anderson remarks that in either case "it could 
not have been obtained without its relative equivalent in labour or produce." 
The same may be predicated of bronze, whether they procured the copper 
and tin of which it is composed from their own territories or from abroad. 
In the words of Dr. Anderson : "If they imported these metals also, the fact 
that a traffic so complex and costly was maintained and provided, implies 
the existence of conditions of culture and systems of social, commercial and 
even political organization, which cannot be held to indicate a low state of 
civilization." 

Dr. Anderson next proceeds to consider the places of burial and funeral 
remains of the Stone Age. He first takes, as a general type, the chambered 
cairns of Caithness. Although these differ considerably in form from the 
chambered tumuli of Gloucestershire and the neighbouring counties with 
which we are familiar they agree in all essential particulars. The differences 
consist in the horned cairns of Caithness being usually horned at both ends, 
instead of at one end only — in the chambers being mostly tripartite and not 
cruciform as at Uley, Nympsfield, &c, and in the character of the remains and 
dispositions of the interments, which in the Caithness cairns are contained 
in the innermost chamber, and consist of a compact layer of considerable 
thickness covering the floor. This is composed of ashes and burnt bones, 
irregularly consumed, some being merely charred in part of their length and 
others completely calcined. Besides the human bones there are found in 
great quantities the calcined bones of animals, fowls, &c, with fragments 
of pottery, many of them apparently portions of round-bottomed vessels 
made of dark-coloured paste, hard and smooth, and without ornament, also 
chips and flakes of flint and well-formed arrow-heads, and other stone imple- 
ments. All the bodies were cremated. No unburnt skeletons are mentioned. 
But as in the southern chambered barrows the Caithness cairns appear to 
have been tribal or family burial places and not erected to commemorate one 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 851 

distinguished individual. Some of the Caithness cairns are circular in form, 
but in other respects do not differ from the long cairns. "From the 
investigation of the peculiar features of these Caithness cairns (Dr. Anderson says) it is thus 
apparent that they differ widely in their character from the structureless cairns of the Bronze 
Age, and their typical characteristics are (1) the presence of a definite external form, which 
is structural, and (2.) the presence of an internal chamber accessible by a passage. It is also 
apparent that in this small area there are two well marked varieties of the typical form. One of 
these resembles the Bronze Age Cairns in the circularity of its external form, while differing 
from them in its internal construction. The other differs from the Bronze Age cairns both in 
external configuration and internal construction. The inference is that the circular form 
passed on into the Bronze Age, while the other did not, and that the form which is most 
unlike the Bronze Age form is the earlier of the two." Commenting npon the characteristics 
of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and other parts of south-west England, he 
says : " In view of the excessivel}' pronounced peculiarities of that character there is no 
escape from the inference that they are all the work of one race of men." In the words of 
the late Professor Rolleston, "The peculiarities of a Horned Cairn are such that it is im- 
possible to imagine that they do not indicate to us that one race of man, and one only, must 
have combined them as they are combined. And their geographical distribution shows with 
equal conclusiveness, that of whatever stock that race may have been, they were a homo- 
geneous people, spread over the whole area of Britain." 

The chambered cairns of Argyll and those of Orkney of which Dr. 
Anderson next treats, although differing in the minor details of outward 
form or internal arrangement, which he describes " are (he says) of the same 
structural type distinguished b}' two essentual characteristics :— (1) by the presence of an 
internal chamber accessible by a passage ; and (2.) by the existence of a definite external 
outline on the ground-plan, structurally defined by a single, or more usually a double retain- 
ing wall." And he adds: "The system of burial for which they were constructed was a 
system by which the dead were usually provided with grave-goods corresponding to their 
station or condition in life, and from this it resulted not only that the furnishings of the 
houses of the dead bore some resemblance to those of the dwellings of the living, but 
also that these sepulchral constructions were necessarily more or less of the nature of 
chambers to be thus furnished. Their contents disclose to a certain extent the life and cul- 
ture of the people. They possessed the same domestic animals we still possess, and kept 
dogs and hunted the red-deer. Their common weapons were bows with flint-pointed arrows 
and battle-axes of polished stone." And other articles which we have already mentioned. 

The last of Dr. Anderson's lectures describes the weapons and imple- 
ments of the Stone Age. The knowledge of the degree of culture possessed 
by the men of this period can only be drawn from a study of their arms and 
implements. These do not appear to have been deposited as grave-goods 
to the same extent as grave-goods were deposited in the Bronze Age, and the 
examples we possess are derived chiefly from the operations of agriculture 
or from other adventitous circumstances. There is, therefore, a difficulty 
in defining, with certainty, to what period particular examples, thus acci- 
dentally found, belong. The forms and characters of the Stone Age are 
generally familiar to us, and we need not follow Dr. Anderson in his des- 
criptions, which are fully illustrated. Suffice is to say that, though working 
in a different, and one would suppose more intractable, material, no less 
skill and taste is displayed than in the work in metals of a later age. Dr. 
Anderson affirms that : " The workmanship of the best examples is faultless, 
the polish perfect, the edge is regular and finely drawn from the face of the instrument as it 
is possible to make it by the aid of machinery and scientific appliances. The application of 
intellect and energy to the perfection of the art of working in stone is effected in directions 
that are different from those adopted by workers in metals, and therefore the culture of the 
lapidary is a culture which is not the same as the culture of the founder or the smith. But it 
would be manifestly absurd to say that the application of intellect and handicraft to the 



352 Notices of Recent Arch.eolooical Publications. 

perfection of an art is culture when directed, to one material and is not culture when it is 
directed to another — that culture may be manifested in bronze or iron and silver and gold, 
but not in bone or ivory or jet or stone." And again he says with reference to the more 
rudely-finished articles : — 

"The generalisation which leads to a conclusion that grinding or polishing- an imple- 
ment of stone implies higher capacity and more advanced culture than is implied in the 
formation of an implement by simple chipping is completely at variance with the most 
obvious facts regarding the nature of chipped and polished implements of stone. The 
methods of finishing the surface and trimming- the edges of many of these chipped imple- 
ments are the results of reflection and experience applied to the nature of the implement 
it-self and the quality of the material of which it is made." 

A very fine example of work in stone is exhibited in a hammer of 
peculiar form in whitish flint, finely polished, and intended to have been 
finished in a highly ornamental manner by working a lozenge-shaped pattern 
in regnlarly-formed and contiguous facets all over the surface. From some 
cause it was left partially finished. It was found at Urquhart, in Elgin- 
shire, and it is very remarkable that an identical example was found at 
Maismore, near Corwen, in Merionethshire, completely finished. This was 
presented to the National Museum of Scotland by that well-known anti- 
quary, the Rev. E. L. Barnewell, F.S.A., Scotland, of Melksham, co. Som. 
(See Plate V., fig. 5). Dr. Anderson describes it as "truly a beautiful 
piece of work, executed with infinite labour and surprising- skill. The design of the orna- 
ment is peculiar and admirably carried ont, and the labour implied in its execution by mere 
dexterity of handicraft is well nigh incredible. There are upon its surface upwards of two 
hundred separate spaces, each hollowed to a uniform depth in the centre, and rising towards 
the edges so regularly as to preserve the lines of direction of the ridges with perfect accuracy 
and precision. The stone is so hard that steel will not scratch it, and yet the finish of all 
the details of the ornament and the polish of the surface are perfect. Looking at the 
symmetry and beauty of its form, the design of its or anient, and the perfection of its finish, 
in the light of the fact that the processes by which these results have been obtained (without 
the aid of machinery) are matters of speculation and controversy among the experts of the 
present day, it is impossible to doubt that a work like this— irrespective of the time and 
manner of its production, and apart from all questions of the capacity and culture of the 
producer — must of necessity take its place among the products of skill and taste." 

Dr. Anderson observes : "There are certain classes of implements of flint which 
were never ground smooth on the surface, or sharpened to a smoothly ground edge, because 
the chipped surface and the trimmed edge were better adapted to their purpose. 
Some varieties of unground, unpolished implements, wholly fashioned and finished by 
chipping alone, belong not only to the most advanced period of the Stone Age, but 
were used long into, and apparently throughout, the age of Bronze." And he concludes 
that : "In this man of the Stone Age, whose capacity, culture and civilisation are thus made 
dimly visible to us by the relics of his life and the memorials of his dead— this maker of finely 
formed and admirably finished teols and implements in stone— this builder of great sepul- 
chral monuments that are completely structural, we have reached the typical representative 
of primeval men in Scotland. There is no evidence of the existence within our area of any 
representative type of man of higher antiquity or of lower culture than this." 



HOW TO FORM A LIBRARY. By H. B. Wheatley, F.S.A. London : 
Elliot, Stock, 1SS6. 

This is an Age of Books, good, bad, and indifferent. Never in the world's 
history have so many books issued from the press as at the present time, 
and we fear we must say that by far the greater number must be included in 
the last two classes. A good hand-book, is, therefore, necessary as a guide 
in the selection of books to form a moderately sized library. Many works 
have been printed with this object, as noted by Mr. Wheatley, who is a well 



Notices of Recent Arch-EOLocjical Publications. 353 

known man of letters, in his Introduction, but most of them have now 
become practically useless as old standard works become superseded. A 
suitable hand-book is, therefore, still a great desideratum, and Mr. Wheatley 
has done well in undertaking to supply the need, and still better in accom- 
plishing it. 

In his first chapter, which is of great interest, Mr. Wheatley treats of 
"How men have formed Libraries " in former times, both British and Foreign, 
most of which have been entirely dispersed, but some few are still in exist- 
tence. Among the latter is the excellent Collection made by King Geo. III., 
" who was a lover of books of the first rank, and knew his books well." His 
fine library, known as " The King's Library," is now in the British Museum. 
It has not, however, been the rich and great only who have formed libraries. 
Mr. Wheatley instances the case of Thomas Britton, who sold coals from 
door to door, and notwithstanding his sordid surroundings accumulated a 
fine library. He was also a lover of music, and many persons of the highest 
station were in the habit of attending musical meetings held at his house. 
He was, moreover, an excellent chemist. He left behind him not only a 
good library but also a fine collection of musical instruments. 

Our business, now, however, is with the future, and Mr. Wheatley 
furnishes us with much information and many valuable practical hints for 
our guidance, not only how to buy books, but what books to buy. On the 
first point he affords us glimpses of practices at sales, and recommends that 
librarians, and, of course by the same rule, private buyers, should rather 
employ a respectable and intelligent second-hand dealer to make purchases 
for them than bid at sales personally. Our own limited experience leads us 
to the same conclusion. The character of the books to be bought will 
necessarily depend upon the means of the founder and the nature of the 
library, whether Public or Private for which they are intended. The recent 
introduction of the Free Libraries in large towns, supported by rates levied 
generally upon the inhabitants has led to large purchases of books, but 
whether judiciously or otherwise is a question of very great importance. In 
the first place, what is the object sought to be obtained in this enormous 
expenditure ? Are these costly establishments intended as a means of 
instruction, cultivation of the intellect and improvement of the mental and 
physical condition of the working classes, or is the object one simply of idle 
amusement. Much discussion has lately arisen at conferences of librarians 
and elsewhere as to the advisability, or otherwise, of excluding all works of 
fiction from free libraries. Mr. Wheatley has entered fully into the con- 
sideration of this important question, and whilst recognising the value of 
honest fiction for children, and a means of relaxation for the overwrought 
brain of busy men, deprecates the reading of novels by persons who will read 
nothing else, and call all other books dry reading. " Upon minds of this 
class (he says) fiction has a most enervating effect, and it is not to be 
expected that ratepayers will desire to increase this class by indiscriminate 
supply of novels to the free libraries. It is found that the supply of novels 
in some of these libraries often rise to 75 per cent, of the whole supply, and 
that in others the percentage is even higher ; and this evil is accentuated by 
the fact that the better class of novels which are instructive, repose undis- 
turbed, on the shelves, the demand being for the most sensational and 
Vol. X. part 1. z. 



354 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

worthless trash. It is thought that the only way to check this evil is for 
library committees to refuse to purchase a single novel or tale, and it is 
believed that this course would be appreciated by the ratepayers. 

Chapter IV., in which Mr. Wheatley treats of Private Libraries, is per- 
haps the most useful portion of his book. He divides the subject into two 
sections : viz. , Libraries for Town Houses and for Country Houses, for the 
reason that they require respectively somewhat different treatment, because 
in the former a resident in town could have easy access to libraries of all 
kinds, and therefore need only possess works on his particular class of 
studies and a well selected collection of books of reference, whereas in the 
latter case a good collection of Standard works would also be found necessary. 
Accordingly he gives us separate lists of books suitable for each section, 
and these carefully selected lists constitute the special value of this chapter. 
In the following chapters we find lists of useful bibliographical publications 
and of the publishing societies, with careful annotations, and he concludes 
with a list of books to form a library of 100 volumes. 

This useful little work contains a vast amount of information upon 
literary matters and should be possessed by every lover of books. 



NOTES AND QUERIES.— We have usually devoted a few lines in each 
volume to Notices of local Notes and Queries. These little periodical publi- 
cations are very interesting and pop alar. They are most useful as a ready 
means of preserving a record of many a curious historical fact or anti- 
quarian discovery which might otherwise be lost. Among the various 
miscellaneous information they contain we often find extracts from Parish 
Registers, Abstracts of Wills, Monumental Inscriptions, Old Customs, 
and Folk Lore, and other valuable matter. Remarkable discoveries of 
antiquities and notices of old documents are sometimes found in the news- 
papers, where they are buried in a mass of matter, political and otherwise, 
but in Notes & Queries they are carefully indexed at the end of each volume 
for easy reference. Moreover, the class of periodicals under notice afford a 
convenient means of intercommunication between literary men, through 
which we have, ourselves, often obtained information we could not readily 
find. 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. — Our local periodical, under the 
careful editorship of the Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, goes on steadily and 
maintains the high position it had achieved in works of this class. During 
the last year the notes are so generally useful that it would be difficult to 
mention those of special interest, though it may be desirable to refer to the 
extracts from the Registers of the Parishes of Thornbury and Oldveston, 
the list of the Sheriffs for the County from 1779 to 1886, and to a very 
interesting document relating to the ''Gloucestershire Society in London," 
a most useful Society which seems to have dropped almost out of memory in 
our own time. This document was communicated by Mr. E. C. Sewell, one 
of our members, and has been annotated by the Editor. 

The Western Antiquary.— This periodical is described as a "Notebook 
for Devon, Cornwall and Somerset," and is edited by Mr. W. H. K. Wright, 
Borough Librarian at Plymouth. It is conducted upon a plan somewhat 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 355 

different from that of the last mentioned work, but with no less ability. It 
has now been issued several years, and from the first attained a high stan- 
dard of merit which it still maintains. It contains specific articles as well 
as "Notes and Queries." In the recent numbers have appeared articles on 
the "Dartmoor Crosses," the Eddystone Lighthouse, and others of con- 
siderable interest. The work is fully illustrated with sketches of primaeval 
and mediaeval antiquities, old houses, &c. In the last number issued is an 
engraving of the armorial achievement of Sir William Lewis Salusbury 
Trelawney, of Trelawne, Bart., containing 265 quarterings. 

Northern Notes and Queries. — This is a new aspirant to public favour, 
and we are glad to say it has met with a very favourable reception. It is 
conducted by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A. F.S.A. Scot., one of 
the members of this Society. A new serial of this class has always, at first, 
difficulties to contend with, and Mr. Hallen solicits contributions to the 
work to increase its usefulness. The area covered by it is very large, and 
the Editor need not fear that when the value of the work becomes better 
known he will lack contributors. 



IITDEX. 



Abenhale, 286 

Aberleveny, par., 93 

Abridges, 125n. 

Absolon, 281 

Abston, 226, 22fln. 

Abyngdon, Abb. of, 291 

Account, Treasurer's, 168 

Acle de 299 

Acton, 13, 14, 289, 291, 292, 297, 29S 

Acton, Ilger, 285 

Acton, Iron, 124, 124n., 128 

Acton, Turville, Chantry, 99 

Acton, Turville, M., 284 

Actone, de, 280, 281, 285 

Ad', 301 

Addingston, de, 299 

jEgebric, 43, 44, 46, 49 

Alfred, K., 17, IS, 24, 31, 139 

MUsie, 48, 50, 51, 54 

^lfsig, 38, 44, 45, 49, 53 

.Ethelbert, K., 11, 12, 13 

^Ethelred, 19, 22, his coins, 33-37 

^Ethelstan, K., 17, 24, 31 

yEwulf, 50 

Agarde, 277 

Aggemed, Hund, 297 

Aghnamullen, Monaghan, 332 

Agincourt, 174 

Agmath, de, 302 

Aketon, de, 298 

Aky, 302 

Albans, St., Abbey of, 75 

Albe, 301 

Albiniaco, de, 118, 175, see Daubeney 

Albodestan, de, 297 

Alcock, 215 

Aldridge, 132 

Aldyrngton, 283 

Alebur', de, 298 

Alfwine, 61 

Alketun. de, 297 

Alisandr', 299 

Allansmore, 70, M., S6, 109, 121, 121n., 

122, 128 
Allard, \V., local Sec, 133; is thanked, 

157 ; Exhs. in temp, museum, 167 
Allen, Kev. W. T., 133; communicates, with 

notes, Will of William Whittington, 

303 
Alnaby, de, 79 
Alreleye, 285 
Alsecote, de, 299 
Alsinton, de, 299 
Alspathe, de, 287 
Aluric, 72 

Ahvicke, Hund, 265 
Almando, St., de, 280 
Ambresbury, Conv., 121 
Amee, 297 
Ampuey Crucis, 280 
Ancell, 121 
Anchorite Hill, 13, 14 
Anderson, 338 
Anderson, Joseph, LL.D., his "Scotland 

in Pagan Times," noticed, 347-351 
Andrew, 192 
Anne Boleyn, Q., 9 
Annesley, 114 
Aliunde, de, 299 



Ap Adam, 285 
Appurley, 190n., 212n 
Aqua, de, 299, 302 
Arch, 75 
Argyll, 354 
Arms : — 

Baskerville, 304 
Blaket, 304 
Carpenter, 305, 307 
Le Roux, 121 
J,e Roz, 121 
Milbome, 304 
My 11, 129 
Nanfan, 218, 223 
Various, unknown, 232 
Whittington, 304, 306 
Arnold, 216 

Arthur, Prince of Wales, 199 
Arundel, 177, 191, 218, 225 
Asaph, St., 11 
Ashbourne, 345 
Ashleworth, SO, 134 

Ashleworth, excursion to, 2; remarks on the 
Church by P.W.Waller, ib. ; on Church 
and M., by Rev. W. Bazeley, 2, 3 ; 
Barn, 3 

High Cross, remarks, on by Rev. 

W. Bazeley, 3, 4 

Court House, remarks on by F. 

W. Waller, 4, 5 

-TitheBarn, 3,5;01d Vicarage, 5, 6 



Ashton, Cold, S06 

Aspeley, M., Co. Warr.,263 

Astbrok, 280 

Astin, 299 

Aston, de, 81, 94, 114, 214, 284, 288 

Aston, Heref., 179, 243 

Aston Somerville, 291 

Athe'e, de, 341 

Attehard, 83, 84 

Attehull, 83 

Aubemarle, de, 29S 

Aubyn, St., 204, 225 

Audeby', de, 297, 298 

Audeley, de, 119 

Auderton, de, 302 

Augustin, St., 14 15 

Auketin, 300 

Aunv, de, 297 

Aure, de, 300 

Aurebyard, de, 298 

Aurifaber, 301 

Aust, 12, 13, 15, 289 

Austen, 277 

Austin, Pill, 14 

Austria, Duke of, 279 

Avenbury, de, 77 

Avenbury, M., 82, 86, 120n, 123, 128 

Avenbury, rectory, 120n, 123 

Avon, riv., 67 

Aworthington, 196 

Axe, river, 333 

Aylesmore, 304 

Ayloffe, 318 

Aysshton, 285 

Aywerton, 287 



Bachsore, 290 



INDEX. 



3o~l 



Badecock, 115 

Baderon, de, 297 

Badgworth, 103, 289 

Badmyngton, 285 

Badmynton, de, 297 

Badon, 300 

Bagepu}'s, 289 

Bagyngden, de, 2S1 

Bagwell, Richard, M.A., his " Ireland 
under the Tudors," noticed, 320-322, 
347 

Baggyngdene, 2S1 

Bailly, 282 

Baker, G., LI., re-appointed on Council, 
136 ; 238 

Baker, M., 197 

Baker, Mr. A., is thanked, 157 

Ball, 304, 306 

Ballard, 216 

Ballyalbanagh, Co. Antrim, 328 

Ballykillen Bog, King's Co., 331 

Bambrok, de, i98 

Banaster, Mrs., exhs. in temp, museum, 
166 

Bangor, 13, 14 

Banks, 345 

Bannerton, de, 120n. 

Bannockburn, 174 

Barbast, 280, 300, 332 

Barbeflet, de, 300 

Barber's Bridge, battle of, address on, by 
Mr. Price, 238-241 ; 239 

Baret, 300 

Barker, 243 

Barking, Abbess of, 260 

Barkly, Sir Henry, 2, contributes a Jury 
List for Gloucestershire, 13th cent., 
293-303 ; 340 

Barnet, battle of, 148 

Barnestield, 219 

Barnesley, M., 112, 114, 115, 116, 203, 219 
283 

Barnewell, 352 

Baron, 181 

Barrey, 290 

Barrington, 288 

Barthelet, 210 

Bartleet, Rev. S. E., 133 ; re-apptd. on 
Council, 136 

Bartons, 281, 283 

Baskerville, 304, 305 

Basset, 178 

Bastard, 343 

Bath, 1, 139 

Bath, Prior of, 284, 285 

Battle, Abbey Roll, HOn. 

Baunton, 281 

Bave, 311, 312 

Bayley, 305 

Baynham, 128 

Bazeley, Rev. \V., Hon. Sec.., at Glouces- 
ter, 1 ; his remarks on Ashelworth 
Church and Manor, 2, 3; on the High 
Cross, 3, 4; reads Paper by Rev. John 
James on St. Augus tin's Ac, 10 ; 
proposes vote of thanks, 15, 21; at 
Tewkesbury, 133 ; undertakes all the 
Secretarial work, 135, 136; takes part 
in the discussion on Mrs Lawson's 
Memoir " On the Bye-paths of His- 
tory," 156; remarks on local meeting, 
If 8 ; his remarks at Strensham, 159 ; 
his remarks on Manor and Church of 
Uplcadon, 241, 242 

Beachley, 12 

Beale, 214, 217 

Beamesbarewe, 215 



Bearland, 22 

Bearse, 311 

Beauboys, 283 

Beauchamp, 86, 141, 148, 172, 196, 199, 

206, 209, 210, 262, 283 287, 291 
Beaumont, 200, 262, 276 
Beaworth, 24 

Beddoe, Dr., his " Races of Britain," 
noticed, 313-315 

Bede, 11, 12 

Bedford, 27, 129 

Bedminster, de, 303 

Bedowe, 306 

Beggeworth, 80, see also Badgworth 

Bel, le, 302 

Bell, 19n., 309, 311 

Bell-turrets, remarkable, 104 

Belle, 300 

Bellomonte, de, 302 

Benetham, 80 

Berchamsted, de, 302 

Berde 214 

Bere de la 189 207 

Bere'we, 189, 190, 204, 205, 206, 212, 213, 
224 

Berington, Co. Heref., 203, 219 

Berkeley, 2, 3, 14, 80, 139, 180, 204, 225, 
250, 251, 262, 263, 264, 266, 272, 274, 
276, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 298 

Berkeley, Castle, 80, 242, 266, 276 

Berkeley, Chantry, 99 

Berkelev, Hund., 3, 276, 285, 298 

Berkeley, M., 3, 285 

Berkeley MSS., 134 

Berkhamstead, de, 296 

Bernard, 301 

Bernestre, Hund, 297, 301 

Bernewald, 94 

Berry, 188, 301 

Berston, 215 

Betelsford, de, 299 

Beverston, 285 

Bicknor Court, 312 

Biddenden, 130 

Bigg, 70, 83 

Bigod, 255, 256, 258, 273, 274, 275, 276, 299 

Bigsweir, 309 

Bikerton, de, 297 

Bill, 185 

Billon, 196 

Binsey, Oxfordshire, 104, 126n 

Birt's Morton, 138; Manor House and 
Church visited, 153 ; under the guid- 
ance of the Rector, the Rev R Pilson, 
153 ; is thanked, 157 ; Notes on the 
Manors and Advowsons of Brit's Mor- 
ton and Pendockby Sir John Maclean, 
186-225 ; Institutions to the Rectories, 

207, 218, 224 ; 304 
Biselcy, Hund., 287, 298 
Bishop, 301 

Bissop, 83, 284 

Bitton, 227 

Bitton, Bp., 342 

Blagge, 95, 107 

Blaisdon, 286 

Blakency, de, 80, 301 

Blakenhale, 286 

Blaket, 288, 304 

Blaket, Rev. B. H., his "Gloucestershire 

Notes and Queries," noticed, 254 
Blakeway, 20 
Bland, 217 

Blathwayt, Col. at Tewkesbury, 133 
Blathwayt, Rev. W., remarks on local 

meetings, 158 
Blechesdon, de, 300 



35S 



INDEX. 



Blechyndon, de, 120n 

Blen-leveney, to, 112, 112n, 115, 115n, 117 

Blevs, 103n 

Blideslowe, Hund., 287 

Bliston, M. Cornw., 199, 200 

Blount, le, 179, 284 

Bloxam, M. H., 142 

Bluet, 261 

Blundus, 301, 302, 303 

Blunt, 143, 286 

Blydeslawe, 287, 300 

Blythesvvicke, Hund., 300 

Boddington, battle at, 139 

Bod en ham, 204 

Bodenham, de, 120n, 225 

Bodrigan, 192, 196 

Bohun, de, 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 110, 
117, 118, 119, 120, 246, 255, 286, 288 

Bolla, 38, 41 

Bollys, or Bolle, 201, 219 

Bolysdone, de, 301 

Boiide, 83 

Boneyr, de, 301 

Bonnor, Bishop, 171 

Bony than, Cornw., 195 

Books added to the Library, 135 

Booth, 1, 6 

Boothby, 345 

"Bordland" Customs of, 266 

Bordon, 284 

Borlase, 337 

Borton, 288 

Bosco, de, 290, 295, 299, 300 

Boscobel, 319 

Boscu, 302 

Bosham, M., Sussex, Memoir of, by John 
Smyth, of Nibley, 250-277 

Bosse, 297 

Bostrey, Heref., 241 

Bosworth, battle of, 148, 191, 262 

Boteller, 120n, 123, 173, 285, 290 

Botoure, de, 298 

Botiller, 285 

Bottelowe, 286 

Bottelawe, Hund., 299 

Bouchier, 262 

Boulsdon, 243 

Bounghbridge, battle of, 119 

Bourne, Rev. Canon, at Tewskesbury, 133, 
retires as President, and apptd. Vice- 
President, 136; thanked, ib., acknow- 
ledges the same, ib. 

Boughton; J. H., Mayor of Tewkesbury, 
133, receives Society, ib. ; his address, 
ib. ; thanked, 135 ; seconds vote of 
thanks, 139 ; is thanked, 157 

Bourton-on-the- Water, 217n 

Bovium, 14 

Bowie, 127 

Bowley, 265 

Box, 287 

Boxe, de la, 287 

Boxwell, 285 

Bradbridge, 264 

Bradbury, 201 

Bradelegh, Hund., 300 

Bradley, Hund., 281 

Bradston, de, 280 

Bradstonc, 283, 284 

Brad well, 81, 288 

Braose, de, 109, 112n, 255, 259, 280 

Bray, 194n 

Bray, M., 198 

Brayne, 220 

Brechampton, 288 

Brecknock, co., 112n, lion 



Brecknock Park, 119 

Bredon Church, visited under the guid- 
ance of Kev.H. G. C. Browne, 159; he is 

thanked, 157; remarks on by Sir John 

Maclean, 159, 160 
Bredon, Barn, 5, 
Brembre, 112n 
Brember, M., 270 
Breace, St. par. Cornw., 195 
Bret, le, 120n, 283, 297, 298, 301 
Breth, le, 118 
Brewes, de, 283 
Briavels, St., 304-312 
Brictric, 137, 171 
Bridgen, 220 
Bridges, 95, 219 

Brightwoldesberghe, Hund., 283, 300 
Brihtnoth, 53, 54, 58 
Brimsfield, 79 
Brimpton, Som., 130 
Brinton, 220 
Bristol, 1, 27, 74, 145, 216, 226, 227, 228, 

302 
Bristol, St. Augustine's Abbey, 3, 14 
Bristol, Chapter of, 14 
Bristol, Ch. of St. John, 94 
British Museum, 31, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 46, 

47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55. 56, 57, 

58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 
Britain, the Races of, by Dr. Beddoe, 

noticed, 313 
Brithampton, de, 29S 
Britton, 353 
Broad, 216 

Broadbarrow Green, 67 
Brockhampton, de, 120n, 211, 299 
Brokholes, 276 

Brockthrop, Ch. of, 90, 97, 98 
Brockworth, 76, 118 
Brockworth, 289 
Brockworth, de, 80, 82 
Brokkebury, 94, 122 
Brokthorp, 76, 78, S3, 88, 100, 101, 117 
Bromley, 173 
Bromesberrow, 223 
Bromesgrove, 215, 216 
Brom wich, de., 122, 215, 219 
Eronescombe, Bp.342 
Brostorp, 72, 72n 
Brotherton, de, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 264 

271, 272, 276 
Broun, 131, 209, 281 
Brounyng, 179 

Brown, Mr., exhs. in temp. Museum, 167 
Browne, Rev. H. G. C, is thanked, 157 
Broxbourne, Ch., Herts., 230 
Broxholme, 339 
Bruera, Abb. of, 283, 290 
Bruge, atte, 70 
Brugge, 188, 189, 190, 207 
Brughampton, de, 297 
Brumesham, 289 
Brun, 302, 
Brunynge, 265 

Bruton, H. W., 1; his Notes on the Cover- 
dale Bible, 8 
Bruyn, 283 
Bucke, 99 

Buckfold, 252 ; Customs of, 271 
Bucklmd, 211 
Budefelde, 287 
Budefudd, de, 298 
Bukin, 299 

Bulk Dinas, Castle, SO, 112, 115, 116 
Bulk Dinas, Forest, 116 
Bulley, 80 



INDEX. 



359 



Buntc, 83 

Bures, 286 

Burghill, 220 

Burhstan, 32 

Burke, 321 

Burmyngham, 292 

Burnel, 297 

Burstall, 207 

Burton, 301 

Burj', de, 80 

Bush, 133 

Bushley, par., 145 

Bussel, 297 

Butler, 321 

Butler, Samuel, 159 

Buttiler, le, 295, 297 

Butlesdon, 291 

Buxton, 345 

Burnel, 285 

Bydheld, 126n 

Byebury, 283 

"Bye-Paths of History," Memoir on, by 

Mrs. Lawson, 150, the same printed, 

169 
Byfar, de, 299 
Bykerton, 211 
Byseley, de, 80 
Byseley, M., 287 
Bysrugge, de, 115 



Cade, 94 

Cadel, 182, 184 

Caerleon, 13, 14 

Caerwent, 12 

Caithness, 350] 

Calais, 200, 202, 219 

Caldeeott, Dr. resigns Secretaryship, 135 

Caldwell, 216, 220 

Callis, 304 

Calne, de, 299 

Calstris, 207 

Cama, de, 299 

Cambridge, 27 

Camden, 305, 307 

Cam'ey, 302 

Campden, 296, 301 

Campeden, de, 280, 290 

Camp House, 239 

Canel, 280 

Canterbury, 27 

Canterbury, Archb. of, 75, 242, 252, 253, 

256 
Canynges, 292 

Capel, R. 102 ; notice of, 102n. 
Cappe, 82 
Capum, 301 
Carbonell, Rev. F. R., Guide to Tewkes- 

bmw Abbey Church, 140 ; his address 

thereon, ib, ; he is thanked, 143, 157 
Cardoyl, de, Sin., 93 
Caretarius, 297 
Carew, 321 
Carey, 250 
" Carl Lofts," 338 
Carmarthen, 239 

Carnanton, M., Cornwall, 199, 200 
Carpenter, 70, 189, 305, 306, ped , 307, 312 
Carpentarius, 295, 297, 
Carswells, de, 280, 286 
Cassey Family, rubbings of Brasses of, 

exh. 166 
Cassy, 125, 128, 182 
Castle, Ashby, 8 
Castlemorton, 188, 205, 20S 
" Castle Tump," 245 
Castile, King of, 200 



Catchmay, 309, 310 

Castres, de, 299 

Cathedyn, 112 

Catharine Parr, Q. S 

Catherington, par. Hunts, 175, 179n. 

Cattelyn, 70 

Cautel, 289 

Cavendish, 316 

Cawe, 301 

Christiana, 41 

Churchdown, par., 181 ; 289 

Ceawlin, 12 

Cecil, 277 

Cemey, 109, 300 

Cerney, Ch. of, 88 

Cerney, de, 109 

Cestre, 301 

Chac'g', 302 

Chakeshill, de, 300 

Chalford, 86 

Chalkythe, 11 

Chalton, 178, 179n 

Chamberlayn. 214 

Chancellor, E. Beresford, his " Life of 

Charles I., 1620-1625, noticed, 334 
Chancton, 28, 51 
Chandos, de, 76, 118 
Channel, 297 
Chansv, 285 
Chantries, 99, 199 
Chard, M., 334 
Chardingwyrth, de, 299 
Charfield, 13, 285 
Charles I., K., 137, 138 
Charles, I., The Life of, 1600-1625, by E. 

Beresford, Chancellor, noticed, 334 
Charles II., K., 245, 250, 251, 279 
Charlton Kings, Cross, 3 
Charters, 273-277 
Chats worth, 345 
Chaundler, 110 
Chedworth, 131, 283 
Cheltened', de, 299 
Cheltenham, 1, 136 
Cheltenham, Hund., 289, 299 
Cherington, 283 
Cheshire, 14 
Chester, 27 145, 301 
Chesterton, 280 
Chetteworth, 297 
Chavingworth, dc, 297 
Chichester, 27, 253 
Chichester, 273, 274, 275, 277 
Chidham, 265 

Chiltenham, de, 22, 280, 2S7 
Chinn, 132 

Chipping Campden, 136 
Chitty, 266 
Churches, Ceremony at dedication of, 

102n., 103n. 
Church Goods, 107 
(Jhurton, 97 
Chyrchesle, de, 297 
Chyriton, de, 297 
Cigogue, de, 341 
Cirencester, de, 78n., 281 
Cirencester, 240 ; Hund., 280, 300 
Cissorer, 70 

"City Find," 50, 51, 53, 54 
Clapam, 215 

Clare, de, 140, 141, 148, 172, 341 
Clarke, 209 

Clarke, Mr. J., is thanked, 157 
Claverdon, 224 
Clemens, 203 
Clenche, riv., 242 
Clent, 131, lSln. 



360 



INDEX 



Clerc, 94, 115 

Clericus, 295, 301, 302 

Cleriband, 380 

Clerk, 208, 287 

Cleymund, 301 

Clifford, 12, 206, 221, 2S0 

Clifton, 284 

Clinton, 220 

Cloonfinlough, 332 

Clopton, 290 

Cloveshoo, 11 

Cloyn, 226 

Cluni Abbey, Record Evidences of, by 

Sir G. F. Duckett, Bart., noticed, 338- 

339 
Clyve, 2S1, 288, 299 
Cnut, 23 ; his coins, 38-43 ; 139 
Cobham, 81n, 259. 
Cobberley, 282 
Cocks, 224 
Codyngton, 280 
Coelwlf, II., K., 24 
Coggeshale, 180, 189, 190 
Coins, Saxon, memoir on, by J. D. 

Robertson, 17 
Coke, 9, 250, 251, 271, 272 
Cokeham, M., 198 
Cokerell, 281 
Cokeyn, 182 
Colchester, 27 
Colcumbe, 86 
Coldaston, 281 
Cole, 297 
Coleford, 307 
Colesbourne, 282 
Coleshill, 218, 225 
Coleshill, M., Cornw., 203 
Colethrop, 298 
Colewelle, 297 
Colle, 302 
Collins, 200 
Collins, Mr. T., 143, 144, 145, is thanked, 

157; exhs. in temporary raus., 165 
Colman, 312 

Colquite, M., Cornw., 192 
Colston, 83 
Colthorp, 108 
Cohvall, 239 
Compton, 8 

Compton, Abb., 236, 237 
Compton Grenville. 289 
Compton Malswick, 243 
Comyn, 281 
Condieote, 288 
Coneleye, 289 
Connausrht, 347 
Constable, 132 
Constanstinople, 260 
Conweye, 289 
Cooke, 1 
Cooloney, 206 

Coote, 206, 208, 213, 216, ped. 220, 221, 
Coppeleye, 282 
Copping, 301 
Copushnll, de. 299 
Corbet, 25, 95n, 120n, 239, 290, 292 
Cordova, Don Lewis de, 347 
Cormeilles, Convent of, 243 
Cornwall, Co., 193, 194, 195, 246 
Cornwall, de, 21, 22 
Cornwall, Earldom of, 193 
Cornwall, Sheriffs of, 196 
Cormvallis, 203, 219, 225 
Cors, 282 
Corse, 3 
Cote, de la, 300 
Cotes, 281, 298, 299 



" Cotland," customs of, 266, 268 

Cottesvvolde, Hills, 67, 139 

Couel, 301 

Couel', de, 298 

Courtenay, 141 

Coveidale, M3*les, 8 

Coverie, 118 

Coventre, 300 

Coventry, 145, 252 

Cowper, 208 

Cowshall, 261 

Cra, de la, 297 

Cragin, 301 

Cranbourne, 137, 140 

Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., 233 

Cray, St. Mary's, 177 184 

Crecy, battle of, 140 

Creed, 264, 268 

Creeke, 54 

Creese, Mr. C. R., Local Treas., Tewkes- 
bury, thanked, 157 

Cresswell, 101 

Cressy, de,288 

Crewker, 202 

Cricklade, 27 

Cripps, Wilfred re-appointed on Council, 
136 

Crofts, 126 

Crok, 297 

Croker, 337 

Cromhall, 14, 179, ISO, 181, 184 

Cromhal, de, 297 

Cromhale, Rectors of, 181 

Cromwell, 290 

Cromwell, Oliver, 138 

Crookham, 112, 115 

Crosson, 232, 288 

Croslawade, Chase, 198 

Croupes, 281 

Croydon, J 25, 129 

Cruce, de, 301 

(Ji'iidas. 1 

Cruddas, 133 

Crupes, de, 300 

Cruske, 298 

Cudrington, 302 

Cuerdale, 24, 31 

Cuillardville, de, 341 

Culbolton, de, 299 

Culkerton, 284 

Culne, de, 299 

Cumin, 300 

Cumton, de, 297, 299 

Cundicote, 290 

Curteys, le 298 

Cusannce, de, 230 

Cusha, 12 

Customs, Manorial, 83, 125n, 261-272 



D'Abitot, 209, 210, 287 

D'Aquila, 321 

D'Argent, Mr., A.E., 133; seconds reso- 
lution, 136 

Daglingworth, 281 

Dagworthe, de, 281 

Dale Abbey, 141 

Dale, 310 

Dalton, 282 

Dammory, 119 

Danewort, found at rcndock. 154 

Daniel, 83 

Darrell. 265 

Daubeny, 175, 176, 177, 17S, 179, ISO, 
ped. J84 



INDEX. 



36t 



Dauboncy Family and its connection with 
Gloucestershire, b}' R. \V. Greenfield, 
read 157 ; the same printed, 175 
Daudle, 289 
Daux, 216 

David, Prince, 118n. 
David, St., 15 
Davies, 133 
Davies Gilbert, 317 
Davis, 1, 127, 217 
Davis, Mr. C. T., exhs. rubbings of 

Brasses, 166 
Davis, Miss Louisa J. ; her translation of 
Eugene Miintz's "History of Tapes- 
try," noticed, 322-324 
Dawkins, 313 

Day, 133 

Dean, Forest of, 11, 126n, lOOn, 235, 239, 
245, 294, 301 

Deane, 311 

Deerhurst, 145 

Delisle, 338, 339 

Dene, de, 284, 2S7, 301 

Dent, J. C, his death, 134, 136 

Denton, 287 

Deorham, 12, 13 

Derby, 27, 344 

Derbyshire, A History of, by John Pen- 
dleton noticed, 344 

Derehurst, de, 297 

Derham, 1 

Derhurst and Tedbaldeston, Hund, 288, 
299 

Despenser, 80, 116, 119, 140, 141, 142, 148, 
172, 259, 283, 285, 286, 287, 298 

Dethick, 305, 307 

Devereux, 120n, 170 

Devon, Co 246 

Dieppe, 250 

Digges, Sir Dudley, portrait of Exh., 161 

Dingle Cush, 347 

Documents Original, 88, 90, 109, 201, 
251-277, 280-292, 297-303, 30S-311 

Doddington, de, 297, 298 

Doddo, 137, 139 

Dodebrygge, 287 

Dodecote, 280 

Dodleg', de, 300 

Dodyngton, 285 

Domesday, Extracts from, 72, 277 

Don, 2S3 

Donopons, 283 

Donyngworth M., 272 

Dover, 27 

Dorbv, 302 

Dore, Abbey of, 120n, 121n. 

Dorilot, 22 

Dorset, de, 211 

Dorsinton, de, 290, 299 

Doun Ampnev, 280 

Dowalton Loch, Wig-tonsh. 328 

Dowdeswell, R. 108 

Dowdeswell, 282 

Dowdeswell, E. R., reads a Paper " on the 
movements of (jueen Margaret after 
the battle of Tewkesbury," 144 ; is 
thanked, 157 ; exhibits in Temp. 
Museum, 161 

Dowdeswell, Mr. W., portrait of, exh., 
161 

Drake, 120n. 

Draycot, de, 298 

Draycott. 127, 128 

Dresden Museum, 65 

Drew, Dr., 238 

Drewes, de, 297 

Drois, de, 341 



Droit wych, 187, 188, 190, 211 

Dru, 70 

Drunkelin, 328 

Dubber, 124 

Duckett, Sir G. F., his Record Evidences 

from the Abbey of Cluni, noticed, 

338-339 
Dudmerton, 285 

Dudstan, Hund., 67, 72, 289, 298 
Duffield, 128 
Dumbell, 95 
Dumbleton, de, 299 
Dunning-, 304 

Duntesborne Abbots, 78, 242, 281 
Duntesbourne Rous, 78, 79, 80, 85, 86, 

87n, 119, 122, 124, 126, 281 
Durand, 22 

Dursley, 28, 126, 127, 136, 285, 286 
Dutton, 100, 131 
Dymock, 181 ; advowson, 243 ; visit to 

Church of, under guidance of Mr. T. 

Gambier Parry and Rev. R. Horton, 

Rector, 245 ; 286 



Eadgar, his coins, 32 

Eadmund, 24 ; his coins, 32 

Eadred, 24 ; his coins, 32 

Eadward (Conf.) 18, 24, 30 ; his coins, 

47-55 ; 71, 252, 253 
Eadward, (the Elder) K., 18, 24 
Eadward (the Martyr), his coins, 32 
Eadwig, 24 ; his coins, 32 
Earle, 6Sn, 143 
East Anglia, 24 
Eastashlinge, 264, 268 
East Greenwich, M., 99 
Eastleeche, 283 
Eastington, 102, 219 
Eauulf, 48 
Ebbring-ton, 290 
Edania, 83 
Edgar, K., 209 
Edgworde, de, 76n. 
Ed g worth, 288 
Edgworth, de, 287 
Ed mar, 72 
Edmund, 139 
Edward, I., K., 18, 76, llln, 117, 258, 273, 

274, 275 
Edward, II , K., 73, 258 
Edward, III., K., 114, 258, 259 
Edward, IV., K., 257, 263 
Edward, VI., K., 91, 244, 275 
Edward, Prince, 137, 141, 144 
Edwards, 208 
Effigies, at Pershore, Cross-legged 234, 

Must, Plate III, Ecclesiastical, 230 
Eiunas, de, 300 
Eldersfield,206, 211 
Elizabeth, Q. 276 
Elkston, 282 
Ellacombe, Rev. Canon at Gloucester, 1 ; 

re-appointed on Council, 136 
Ellis, 239 
Elmesley, M. 198 
Elmore, 73, 17, 100, 103n., 290 
Elyas, 83 
Emcp-se, de, 21 
Emeris, 1 
Endir, le, 301 
Endlewell, de, 299 
Engeler, 277 
En* leys, le, 301 
Ernaud, 301 
Erysey, 191, 201, 202 
Escott, 311 



362 



INDEX. 



Estcourt, do, 283 

Estcourt, Very Rev. Edgar E., M.A., 
F.S.A. Canon of St. Chads Cathedral, 
Birmingham, his " English Catholic 
Non-Jurors of 1715 " noticed 31S-323 

Esthall, 291 

Estridge, H. W., his "Six years in Sey- 
chelles " noticed, 342 

Ethelfrid, K. 14 

Eude, de, 297 

Euriffe, 299 

Evans, 28, 44, 50, 52, 57, 59, 0, 64, 313 

Eveley, de, 298 

Evesham, 12, 204 

Evesham, Abb. of, 28S, 290 

Evesham, de, 280 

Evens, 238 

Exeter, 27, 145 

Exeter. Bp. of, 201 

Exeter, Cath. 217n. 

Eva, 292 

Eynesford, 305 

Eyton, de, 289 



Faber, 83 

Fabian, 288 

Fairford, 283 

Fanton, de, 300 

Farncote, 291 

Farnham, 100, 242 

Felde, de la, 287, 298 

Feoda, de, 297 

Fermer, le, 287 

Ferre, 298 

Ferrers, Earl, 120n., 262, 286, 290 

Fiddington, 291 

Field, 83 

Fifide, de, 300 

Filton, 298 

Fiscampo, Liberty of, 288 

Fishborne, 264 

Fitz Alan, 73, 76, S3, 89, 91, 93, 102, 109 

see JRous, 110, ped. 123, 261 
Fitz al Pret're, 303 
Fitz Aucher, 253, 254 
Fitz Bu'd'e, 301 
Fitz Els, 301 
Fitz Geoffrey, 294, 297 
Fitz Gerald, 321 
Fitz Hanion, 137, 138, 140, 141 
Fitz Harding, 3, 14 

Fitz Herbert,U2n., 115n.,115, 117, 123, 286 
Fitz John, 70, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 

123 
Fitz Laurence, 297 
Fitz Mag'ri, 301 

Fitz Mayn, 78, 87, 88, 109, HOn. 
Fitz Milo, 73, 87, 89, 101, 109 
Fitz Neal, 341 
Fitz Nichol, 285 
Fitz Nicholas, 299 
Fitz Osborn, 209, 241 
Fitz Peter, 112n. 
Fitz Phi', 300 
Fitz Ralph, 285 

Fitz Reynaud, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 286 
Fitzroy, 140 

Fitz Simon, 21, 22, 87, 301 
Fitz Stephen, 89 
Fitz Thomas, 302 
Fitz Walter, 77, 87, 100, 101, 109, 112, 

120n. 
Flamstead, 345 
Fleet, see Waldgrave 
Flemming, 287 
Flusrugge, 118 



Foliet, 302 

Foliot, Bp. 212 

Forbqs, Col. appd. local sec. for Dursley 

136 
Forde, atte, 70 

" Forrep land " customs of, 266 
Forster, F. S. appointed local sec. for 

Chipping Campden, 136 
Fortheye, de la, 297 
Fosbroke, 337 
Fosterarins, 295, 302 
Fotheringhay, College, 243, 244 
Fox, F. F., 133 
Foxcote, 282 
Foxcote, de, 80, 281 
Framilode, 240 
Frampton, 103, 227, 237 
Franckum, 215 
Francois, 21, 22 
Frankeleyn, 298, 299 
Franketone, 297 
Fraxino, de, 299 
Frederick, II. Emp. 279. 
Freeman, 82, 94, llln, 292, 299 
Freeman, E. A., 23, 232, 233, 292, 
Fremsane, de, 298 
Frenes, de, 300 
Frethern, 103n. 
Frocester Barn, 5 
Fromptone, de, 115, 297, 298 
Fromund, 301 
Frost, 201 
Frowde, Capt, 238 
Fulcher, le, 300 
Fukera, 298 
Fulljames, 6 
Funtington, 252, 256, 284, 268 



Gaa, 281 

Gael, S. H., 137 ; seconds a resolution, 158 ; 

his remarks on local meetings, ib. 
Gaisford, 229 
Gamage, 81, 82 
Gape, 303 

Gardiner, 9, 98, 100, lOSn. 
Gardiner, S. R., 241 
Gardinis, de, 282, 290 
Gardino, de, 265 
Gaunts Church, 229 
Gaveston, 119 



Gayton, 300 

Gealeley, 18 

Gee, Mrs., is thanked, 157 

Geering, T., his " Our Parish — A Medley," 

noticed 316-317 
"Gentleman's Magazine Library," Vols 

v. and vi. Edited by George Laurance 

Gomme, F.S.A., noticed 337-338 
George III., K., 353 
George, W. C, at Tewkesbury, seconds a 

resolution, 136 
Gerald, Abbot, 140 
Gerard, 298, 299 
Germanus, 15 
Ceroid, 82 
Gibbs, 229 
Giffard, 7!), 80, 92, 118, 179, ISO, 181, 182, 

184, 185n, 284, 289, 290 
Gilbert, 303 
Giles, 12, 14 

Giller, Mr., resigns Treasurership, 135, 136 
Gillespie, 227n. 
Gise, 290 
Glauville, llln. 



IXDEX. 



3fi3 



Glendower, 138 

Gloucester, Abbey, 21, 74, 82, 87, OS, 100, 

119, ISO, 242 

Gloucester, Abbots of, 176, 180, 242, 285 
Gloucester, Barton of, 78, 80, 81, 117, 175, 

176 
Gloucester, Bps. of, 95n.,96, 101, 107, 13S, 

242 
Gloucester, Bishopric, of, 74 
Gloucester, Constablewick of, 11 2n. 
Gloucester, de, 80, 176, 289 
Gloucester, Dean and Chapter of, 242 
Gloucester, Earls of, 139, 285, 292 
Gloucester, Memoir on the Mediaeval 

Mint of, by J. O. Robertson, read, 6 ; 

the same printed, 47 
Gloucester, Moneyers of, 20, 21, 65, 66 
" Gloucestershire, Notes and Queries," 

Edited by Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A., 

noticed, 354 
Gloucester ? Pleas of the Crown for the 

County of, by A. W. Maintland, 

noticed 340-341 
Gloucester, St. Margaret's Chantry, 99 
Gloucestershire, Sheriffs, 76, 89, 114, 118, 

120, 123 

Gloucestershire, S2, 87n, 112, 115, 118, 119, 
176, 180, 181, 182, 215, 243 

Gloucester, Some " Finds" near the East 
Gate, by H. Medland, read, 6 

Gloucester, Spring Meeting at, 1 ; Ex- 
cursion to Wainlode Cliff and 
Ashleworth, 1-6 ; Mint of, 18, 72, 76, 
81, 91, 124, 131, 136, 137, 175, ISO, 181, 
183, 238, 239, 240, 301, 306 

Godeley, 177, 178, 184 

Goderyngton, 284, 288 

Godeshelve, de, 299 

Godham, 291 

Godman, 34 

Godmanston, de, 284 

Godric, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 53 

Godwin, 71, 253, 277 

Godwine, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 52 

Golafre, 290 

Goldemare, 181 

Gomme, George Laurence, F.S.A., his 
" Gentleman's Magazine Library," 
noticed, 337-338 

Gorneye, 289 

Gough, 236, 309, 310 

Gowine, 60 

Grandison, 181 

Granville, 110 

Graunt, le, 300, 302 

Grava, 298 

Grave, de la, 295, 298 

Graves, 231 

Gray, 261 

Gray, de la, 297 

Grede, 214n. 

Green, Valentine, 187n. 

Green, la, 121 

Greene, 309, 311 

Greenfield, B. W., his memoir on the 
Daubency Family and its connection 
with Gloucestershire, read, 157 ; is 
thanked, ib ; printed, 175 

Greenwich, 176 

Gremesfelde, 282 

Grene, atte, 80 

Grenville, 289 

Greston, 290 

Gretstan, Hund. 200 

Gretton, de, 299 

Grey, 124, 283, 2S6, 316 

Griffin, 131 



Griffith, 310, 311 

Grist, 1 

Grumbald's Ash, Hund. 2S4, 297 

Guernsey, Isle of, 196, 197, 198, 218 

Gurney, 284 

Gurneves, de, 242 

Guise,' 73, 182 

Guise, Sir William, at Gloucester, presides 
at Evening Meeting, 6 ; thanks Mr. 
Robertson, ib. ; comments on glass 
bottles found at Gloucester, 8 ; his 
remarks on Mr. Bruton's Paper, 10 ; 
his remarks on Mr. James' Paper, 15 ; 
his remarks on the geology of Wain- 
lode Cliff, ib. ; thanks to, ib ; at 
Tewkesbury, 133 ; re-appointed Pres- 
ident of Council, 136 ; his remarks 
on market places, 144; takes part 
in discussion on Mrs. Lawson's 
"By Paths of History," 156; pro- 
poses a resolution, 158 ; remarks on 
local meetings, 158 ; thanks Mr. 
Towson, 159 ; at Newent, 238 ; pro- 
poses vote of thanks to Mr. Price, 240 ; 
thanks Mr. Piper, 245 ; thanked Mr. 
Gambier Parry, 246 

Gule, 302 

Gwilliam, ap, 128 

Gvolcwine, 53 

Gyford, 288 

Gyllowes, 309 



Hackem, 298 

Hackenden, Kent, 177, 184 

Haddon, 345 

Hnghelbam, de, 303 

Hailsham, 317 

Hakebone, 301 

Hakelyte, 189 

Haken, Rev. C, presents books, 135 

Haket, 297, 299 

Haldrikt, 297 

Halep, 195 

Hales, de, 75, 259 

Hall, 216, 306 

Hall, Rev. J. M., at Gloucester, 1 ; reads 
memoir on the Early History of 
Harescombe, 6 ; his paper printed, 
67-89 ; his institution to Harescombe 
and Pitchcombe, 97 ; elected on 
council, 136 

Hallen, A. W. C, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., 
his "Northern Notes and Queries," 
noticd, 355 

Ham Court, 213, 217, 217n. 

Hamelin, Abii. 74 

Hamilton, Hans Claude, F.S.A., his Calen- 
dar of State Papers relating to Ireland, 
noticed, 346, 347 

Hammond, 307 

Hampton, 132 

Hampton, 281, 289 

Hampton, Heref. 304 

Hampton Meysey, M., 280 

Hanape, 300 

Hanckirten, de, 300 

Hankerton, 229 

Hanley Castle, 137 ; visited, 151 ; and the 
Parish Church under the guidance 
of the Vicar, Rev. W. Isaac, ib, ; his 
remarks thereon, ib. ; 171, 220 

Hannepenne, 282 

Haraud, 302 

Hardicnut, his coins, 45-47 

Harding, 302 

llardvvick, 103, 211, 345 



564 



INDEX. 



Hardy, Col. 238 

Hare, lc, 298 

Harescombe Castle, 73, 120 

Harescombe, Family History see Rous, 

109-123 
Harescombe, Memoir on the Early History 
of, by Rev. J. M. Hall, M.A., 
6, 67 ; derivation of name, 67, 68 ; 
populatian, 69 ; assessments, ib ; sub- 
sides, 70, 71, M. 72, 82, 87 ; advow. 
87 ; valuation of, 90 ; area of parish, 
91 ; charities, 92 ; institutions, 93-97 ; 
tithes. 97, 98 ; chantries, 99 ; the 
church, 102, 119 ; belcot, Must. 104 ; 
bells, 105 ; church goods, 107, 127, 131, 
132 
Harescombe, Rectors of, 90, 92, 93 
Harescombe, Tithing;, 73 
Haresfield, parish, subs., 70 ; 72, 74, 77; 
church, 88, 126, 128, 286; M., 110, 
117, 118, 131 
Haresfield Beacon, 67, 73 
Harnhill, 280 
Hamhulls, de, 280 
Harold, I. K., his coins, 44, 45, 71, 72, 73, 

253 
Harold. II. K., 55 
Harrington, 334 
Hart, 236, 237 
Harthill, 312 
Hartland, 95 
Hartland, E., 114 ; at Tewkesbury, 133; 

appointed Treasurer, 136 
Hartbury, 239, 242 
Hartshorne, A., 140 
Harvey, 1, 133 
Harwell, 129, 216 
Hasfield, M.,3 
Hastings, 27, 206, 220, 260 
Hastings, Mr., exhs. in temp, museum, 166 
Hatherly, 22, 72, 72n., 80 
Hatherop, 283 
Haugh, 219 
Hawkesbury, 285 
Hawkeston| 229 
Hawkins, 61 
Haya, de, 301, 302 
Hay, de la, 115 
Haye, atte, 70 
Hayfield, 94 
Haynes, supplementary' article on, by 

Rev. F. J. Poynton, 226 , 
Hay run, S3 
Havton, 289 

Hayward, 73, 83, 91, 120n. 
Hazelton, 302 
Hazelwood, 232 
Hazelworth, de, 298 
Head, 28 
Hearne, 231 
Heath, la, 121 
Hedg, 303 
Hell, 129 

Helstonborough, Co., Cornw., 203 
Helston, Cornw,, 193 
Helston Tony, M., Cornw., 199, 200 
Heluin', 300 

Helyon 118, 281, 286, 288, 297 
Hemming, 209 
Hempstead Canal Bridge, 91 
Hemwy', 300 
Henbarrows, 126 
Henbury, 13, 86 ; Hund., 289, 2S9 
Henbury, in Salt Marsh, 92, 93 
Hennepenne, de, 3C0 

Henry I., K., 19, 20, 25 ; his coins, 61 ; 243 
Henry II., K., 3, 20, 24, 25 ; his coins, 63 ; 
73, llln, 145, 243, 279 



Henry III., K., 21, 25, 26; his coins, 64 ; 

75n, 76, 78, 243, 246, 254, 279, 293 
Henry IV., K., 257, 261 
Henry V., K., 257 
Henry VI., K., 87, 257 
Henry VII., K., 86, 87, 145, 148, 198, 264, 

265 
Henry VIII., K., 90, 143, 171, 244, 275 
Herbert, 207, 217, 300, 301 
Herdvike, 120n. 

Hereford, 11, 27, 61, 120n, 121, 122, 139 
Hereford, Bps. of, 76, 109, 118, 241, 282 
Hereford, Cath., 120n. 
Hereford, Co., 76, 120, 179, 241, 243 
Hereford, de, 73, 87, 89, 101, 109, 117 
Hereford, Earls of, 288 
Herefordshire, Sheriffs of, 118, 120, 123 
Hering, 83 

Herle, 85, 94, 122, 128 
Herman, 297, 302 
Hernebury, 74 
Hartford, 27 

Hervington, Abb., 236, 237 
Hewelsrield, 306 
Heydon, 292, 309 
Heynes, 82 
Hida, de 298 
Hidcote, 282 
Hidelegh, 300 
Higgins, 306 
Highleadon, 239 
Highnam, 239, 240 
Hildebrand, 23, 28, 29 
Hill, 131, 221, 301, 302 
Hill, Rev. R., presents books, 135 ; 23S 
Hillecote, 297 
Hillier, 132 
Hillis, 198, 199 
Hilneton, de. 299 
Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. F. C., his 

Register of Edmund Stafford, noticed, 

342-344 

Hitton Daubenv, Hants, 175, 177, 179, 

179n., 181, 1S2, 184 
Hobart, 263 
Hody, 103 

Hodges, 306, 308, 309, 311 
Hogge, 95, 132 
Hoke, 301 

Hoke, de la, 115, 189, 190 
Holbrok, 297, 302 
Holbrow, 1, 83, 133 
Holecumbe, de, 176 
Holeford, de, 299 
Holeford, Hund., 290, 299 
Holkham, 9 
Holland, 252, 261 
Holloway, 221 
Holme, Castle, 137, 143 
Holmes, Rev. R., acts as guide at Ripple 

Church, 148 ; is thanked, 157 

Holmes, Thomas Scott, M.A., his "His- 
tory of the Parish and Manor of 
Wookey," noticed, 333 

Holtw, de, 303 

Ilolyday, 127 

Honton, de, 93 

Honep\ 288 

Hont, le, 300 

Hoo, 207 

Hooford, de, 302 

Hooke, 264 

Hooper, 229 

Hooper, Bp., 91n, 95n. 

Hope, 305, 307 

Hopkins, 233 



IXDEX. 



365 



Hopwood, 207 

Hord, le, 298 

Hordington, 179 

Horniblow, Mr., exhs. in temp, museum, 

166 
Horsepool, 308 
Horsham, 219 
Horston, 96 
Horton, 285 
Houghton, 207, 218 
How, 1 

Howard, 2.08, 262, 270, 272, 346 
Howell, 202 
Hoxlins, 131 
Hudd, A. E., 133, 238 
Hudnolles, 309 
Hudson, A. R., receives Society at Per- 

shore Abbey Church, 159 ; is thanked 

157 
Hug-', 29S 
Hull, 285 
Hull, atte, 70 
Hullhampton, de, 120n. 
Hume, 300 
Humphri, 298 
Hundenemille, 288 
Hundicote, de, 299 
Husee, 287, 291 
Husmerley, 118 
Hunt, 215, 299 
Hunteleg', de, 299 
Huntingdon, 27, 120n. 
Huntington, 132 
Huntley, 92, lOSn, 131, 132, 286 
H\de, de la, 300 
Hyet, 304 
Hynder, 298 



Icomb, 2SS, 305 

Iccumbe, de, 288 

Ilchester, 27 

Ilgar, 120n. 

Iltyd, St., 14 

Inge, 77 

Isaac, 301 

Isaac, Rev. E. W., acts as guide at Han- 
ley Castle Church, 151 ; thanked, 157 

Isabel!, 298 

Isabel, da. of Hen. III. 279 

Ion, 64 

Ipswich, 27 

Ireland, 226, 227 

Ireland, The Lake Dwellings of, bv M. G. 
Wood-Martin, M.I. R.A.,F.R.H. A. A.I. 
noticed, 322-333 

Ireland, State Papers relating- to, edited 
by Hans Claude Hamilton, F.S.A., 
noticed, 346-347 

"Ireland under the Tudors," bv Richard 
Bagwell, M.A., noticed, 320-322 

Ive, St., Corw., 203 

Ivreio, de, 72 



Jackson, 217 
James, 96, 97 
James, Rev. J., his paper "St. Augus- 

tin's Ac," read, 10-15 ; remarks on, 

15 
Jane, Q., 9 
Jefferies, 226 
Jemingham, 148 

Jersey, Isle of, 191, 196, 197, 198, 21S 
Jerusalem, Prior of the Hospital of St. 

John of, 287 
Jex, 300 



John, K., 20, 25, 26, 64, 112n, 254 

Johnes, 82 

Johnstone, Dr. thanked, 157 

Joie, 297 

Jones, 70, 96, 207 

Jones, Mr. H. S., exhs. in temp, museum, 
166 

Jordan, 132 

Jordon, 7Sn. 

Josce, 301 

Jurden, 265 

Jury List for Gloucestershire, 13th Cen- 
tury, contributed, with Introduction, 
by Sir Henry Darkly, K.C.B., &c, 
293-303 

Juvenis, 300, 302, 303 



Kathedyn, 115 

Katherineof Arragon, Q., 199 

Kaughau, 301 

Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., at Tewkesbury, 
133 ; Introduced as President, 136 ; 
his inaugural address, 137 ; receives 
a vote of thanks for the same, 139 ; 
his acknowledgment, 140 ; presides 
at annual dinner, 144 ; presides at 
concluding meeting, 157 ; is thanked, 
158 

Keeling, G. W., 1, 238 

Keirdef (Cardiff), 291 

Keller, Dr., 325 

Kemmerton, 291 

Keiupley Church visited, 247 ; Mr. T 
Gambier Parry's remarks on the 
mural paintings, ib. ; discovered and 
cleaned by Mr. J.H.Middleton, 247n.; 
described by Mr. Micklethwaite in 
"ArclKeologia " ; Rev. C. Weaver acts 
guide : m 286 

Kempsey, 234n. 

Kempsford, 283 

Kendale, de, S2 

Kenegrave, 302 

Kenilworth Castle, 76n. 

Kent, 287, 300, 301 

Ketford, 179 

Kette, 1 15 

Kettleby, 120n 

Kershaw, I02n 

Kevsend, 224 

Kiftesgate, Hund.,299 

Killeeote, 286 

Killeton, de, 297 

Killegren, 192 

Kilnamaddo, 327 

Kilnock, Co , Antrim, 331 

Kilpeck, Castle, 121n 

Kimsbury Castle, 71 

King, The Unpopular, by Alfred O. Legge, 
noticed, 315-316 

Kinge, 215, 303 

Kingesweston, de, 298 

Kingsholme, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 182, 
184 

King's Stanley, 132 

Kingswood, Abb. of, 2S4 

Kinne, 71 

Kinsale, 321 

Knight, le, 299 

Knights' Hospitalers, 241 

Knights' Templars, 241 

Knollys, sin, 292 

Knottesford, 265 

Knoville, de, 286 

Knowles, 1 

Knyveton, 128 



366 



IXDEX. 



Kokerel, de, 109 

Kotiford, 301 

Kyneburg, St., Chapel of, 74, 78 

Kyngston, 285 

Kynmer, 80 



Lacok, Abb. of, 283 

Lacu, de, 295, 301 

Lacy, de, 241, 242, 255 

Ladde, 95 

Lagore, Co., Meath, 325, 326 

Lambaunk, 290 

Lambeth, 101, 102n 

Lancaster, de, 292 

Lancaster, Duchy of, 1S7, 18S 

Langford, 290, 302 

Langley, 215, 280, 290 

Langtree, Hund., 283, 301 

Lanow, M., Cornw., 192 

Lanthonv, Abbey, 75, 76. 7S, 82, 91, 94, 95, 
96, 98, 110 

Lanthony, Priors of, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 
102, 108, 109, 110, 282, 283, 287, 289 

Lanyon, 195, 218 

Lasborough, 2S4 

Lasnede, de, 297 

Lassberge, de, 301 

Laudo, St., de, 284 

Lawson, Mrs., her Memoir on the " By- 
Paths of Ilistory" read, 156; discussion 
thereon ib. ; is thanked, 157; the same 
printed, 169 

Lawson, Rev. Gray, Guide at Upleadon 
Ch., 241; his remarks on Church and 
Manor, ib. 

Leadon, riv., 239, 242 

Le Blanc Mr., at Tewkesbury ; proposes 
resolution, 136 ; seconds a resolution, 
158 

Lechelade, Prior of Hosp. S. John, 2S1 

Lechmere, Sir E. Bt., 151 ; is thanked, 
157, 207, 209 

Lechmere Familv, Hisfory of, by Rev. W. 
Wood, 152, i-53 ; 171 

Ledbury, 139, 143, 306 

Ledene, see Upleadon 

Lee, 243 

Lee, Church of, 190n, 212n * 

Leeche, 2S3, 300 

Lefywyne, 76 

Legge, Alfred A., his " Unpopular King," 
noticed, 315-316 

Legh, 302 

Leigh, Mr. W., at Tewkesbury, 133 ; pro- 
poses a resolution, 158 

Leland, 79 

Lemster, de, 296, 301 

Lemynster, 94 

Lenveyse, 21, 22 

Leofnoth, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 42, 59, 52, 
53 

Leofsige, 33, 34, 35, 37, 30, 41 

Leroy, 82 

Lessberewe, 175, see also Lasbounyh. 

Laughton, co. Line, 203 

Levinton, 299 

Lewellin, Ap, 112n 

Lewes, 27, 239 

Lewes, battle of, 256, 25S 

Lewis, 71, 97, 310 

Leybourne, 207, 215 

Leycester, de, 118 

Library, How to form a, by II. B. Wheat- 
ley, F.S.A., noticed, 353 

Lichfield, Cath., 345 

Lillebrok, 281 



Lincoln, 20, 27 
Lincoln, Bp. of, 92, 103n 
Lincoln, Cathed., 233 
Lincoln, Co. of, 25, 203 
Lincoln, Dean of, 1S2 
Linet, 297 
Lingon, 99 

Liofwine, 50, 52, 53, 54, 57 
L'isle, 287, 288, 290 
Littleton, M., 2S4 
Littleton, Chantry, 99 
Lizard, 346 
Llanbadarn Yawr, 11 
Llandaff, 11 
Llangellan, 112, 115 
Llangorse Pool, 115n 
Llantwit, 11. 14 
Llewellyn, 115n + 

Lloyd, 95, 133 
Locke, 83, 108 
Lodelawe, de, 301 
Lohande, de, 282 
Lokingdot, de, 118ii 
Lombard, le, 296, 302 
Lone, de, 75 
Longdon, 288, 189, 223 
Longe, 127, 128, 301, 302, 303 
London, 18, 20, 27, 186, 245 
— Friars, Minors, 260 

St. Barth. Hosp., 197, 201, 202, 



203 



Tower of, 75n, 247, 25S 



Longborow, 290 
Longbridge, chantry, 99 
Longmead, 91 
" Long Meg " 33S 
Longus, 302 
Loughborough, 105 
Louis of France, 25S 
Loveday, 76 
Lovell, 201 
Lubbock, 313 
Lucas, 64, 65 
Lucy, 288 
Ludlow, de, 296 
Lukis, 338 
Luntecumb, de, 299 
Lupogate, 287 
Lydney, 11, 287, 304 
Lyminton, 292 
Lyttleton, Bp., 187n. 
Lyons, 92 



Macado, 199 

Maclean, Sir John, at Tewkesbury, 133 ; 
proposes a vote of thanks for the 
President's Address, 139 ; his notes 
on " The Mythe," 148 ; his remarks 
on a Thurible found at Ripple, 149, 
150 ; his remarks on the Nanfan 
family and Cardinal Wolsey, 156, 157; 
proposes a vote of thanks to the 
President, 15S ; his remarks on 
Special Local Meetings, ib. ; his re- 
marks on Bredon Church, 159, 160 ; 
his notes on the Manors and Advow- 
sons of Birt's Morton and Pendock, 
186 ; his notes on Pershore Abbey 
Church, 230-237 ; at Newent, 238 ; 
his remarks on Herring Bone Ma- 
sonry, 246, 247 ; communicates, with 
introduction, Smyth's History of the 
Manor of Bosham, Sussex, 250 ; his 
Observations on Aids, 278 ; contrib- 
utes statement of the aid levied in 
Gloucestershire, 20, Edward III., the 



INDEX. 



367 



same printed, 278-292 ; his introduc- 
tion to Will of Wm. Whittington, 
304-305 

Maismore, 352 

Maisters, 220 

Maitland, 293 

Maitland, F. W., his " Pleas of the Crown 
for the County of Gloucester," no- 
ticed, 340, 341 

Malemore, 304, 306 

Malerv, 285 

Malmsbury, 27, 117, 240 

Malmsbury, Abb. of, 284 

Malvern Hills, 171 

Malvern, Great, 139 

Malvern, Little, 210, 211, 214, 214n., 288 

Mandey, 277 

Mango'ldesfeld, de, 298 

Maninge, 219n. 

Mangodesfield, 284 

Maneley, M , 203 

Manny," 130, 130n , 200 

Manorial Customs, see " Customs Man- 
orial," 

Mansell, 297 

Mape, 253 

Marchel', de, 297 

Marcle, 82 

Mare le, 112, 115 

Mare, de la, 282, 283 

Marem, de, 299 

Marescallus, 301, 302 

Margam, 11 

Margaret, Q., her movements after the 
battle of Tewkesbury, 144, 145, 177 

Margaret, of France, lli 

Marisco, de, 282, 299, 300 

Marlborough, de, 91n., 29G 

Marlebergh, de, 302 

Marie wood, 292 

Margaret, y. of Scots, 279 

Marivys, de. 280, 285 

Marriage, Ceremonial, llln., 112n., 113, 
113n. 

Marriage, remarkable, early and fruitful, 
250 

Marriott, 232 

Marshall, 253, 254, 255, 256, 258, 274, 286, 
341 

Maishtield, M., 302 

Marshtield, de, 302 

Martel, 281 

Martin, 143, 213, 217, 217n. 

Maru, de, 78n. 

Maryn, 297 

Mary, Q. 113, 273 

Masbill, 302 

Mask ell, W., 198 

Massey, 172, 240 

Matlock, 345 

Mattesdon Droys, 182, 184 

Mattesdon, de, 78, 118, 2S9, 298, 300, 311 

Matilda, y 137 

Matisdon, 180, 289, 290 

Maud, dau of Hen. II., 279 

Mauu, Emp. , 3, 87 

Mauduyt, 290 

Maunsel, Si), 287 

Maurice, Prince, 172 

Mauro, St. 280 

Mautravers, 284 

Maydenstone, de, 103n. 

Maynard, 70, 82, 83 

Mayntone, 115 

Mayswerne, 120n. 

Mazun, le, 295, 300 

Meaux, battle of, 141 



Medina Sidonia, Duke of, 346 

Medland, H., 1, reads paper on Some 
" Finds " in Brunswick Koad, Glou- 
cester, 6 

Meints, 301 

Melbourne, 18 

Melland, 97 

Mendosa, Don Pedro de, 347 

Menske, 300 

Merbury, 188, 189, 207 

Mercator, 301, 302 

Mereia, 24 

Merionethshire, 352 

Merrys, 216 

Meryot, 83 

Metting-ham, 76 

Mevsi, de, 300 

Middleton, co. Cork, 227 

Middleton, J., his death, 134 

Middleton, J. H., appointed Local Sec, 
Cheltenham, 136 

Milborne, 225, 304, 305 

Milo, E., of Hereford, 77, 100, 101, 112 

Minchinhampton, 106 

Minster-worth, 239 

Mitchell, Pedigree of, 131 

Molindarius, 302 

Molure, 194, 195, ped. 218 

Mor.ckton, 208 

Moneinuthe, de, 287 

Monesleye, 288 

Moneyers of Gloucester, names of, 65, 60 

Monington, 203, 212, 219,225 

Monk, 286 

Monmouth, 304 

Monmouth, Honour of, 187 

Monmouthshire, 243 

Montacute, 177, 260, 261, 297, 339 

Montagu, 28, 32, 33, 37, 40, 42, 44, 52, Gl, 
62 64, 65 

Monte Alto, 118 

Monte, de, 295, 302 

Montfoid, Simon, de, 75n., 76n., 78 

Moore, 315 

Moore, Mr. B. T., exhs. in temp. Mus. 
166 

Moore, F., at Tewkesbury, 133 ; his re- 
marks on the Mediaeval Houses of 
Tewkesbury, 144, 145 

Moore, Mrs. F., receives the members at 
afternoon tea, 144 ; is thanked, 157 

Moore, Mr. H. P., exhs. in Temp. Mus. 
161 

Moorton, 311 

More, 70, 207 

More, dela, SO, 284, 295, 297, 302 

Moresley, 306 

Moreton, 14 

Moreyn, 189, 190 

Moreys, 288 

Morgan, 9S 

Morrice, 100 

Morns, 173, 214n. 

Morse, 229, 309, 310 

Morse's Piece, 312 

Mortimer, 116, 117, 119n., 259 

Morton, 282, 315 

Morton Folet, 189 

Morton, M., 125 

Morton Valence, 286 

Moryn, 289 

Mounford, 290 
Mountjoy, 321 

Mount St. Michael, Cornwall, Abbey, 197, 
197n. 

Mowbray, 257, 258, 260, 261, 262, 263, 270, 
272, 276 



368 



INDEX. 



Moij, 299 

Muchgros, 175, 176 

Mullock, 144 

Munclyme, 302 

Munshull, dc, 293 

Munstreworth, tie, 70, 80, 81, ped. Sin. 

Munstriche, 282 

Muutag', 300 

Munte, S02 

Muntz, Eugene, hia short History of 
Tapestry, noticed, 322-324 

Murdac, 109 

Musard, 7(3, 76n., 2S0, 341 

Musardere, de la, 287, 298 

Museum, Temporary, Exhibits in, UU-1G7 

Musham, de, 300 

Mustel. 292, 299 

Myll, 71, 85, 86, 94, 95,96, 97, 107, 120n., 
123; Memoir of Family, 124-130; 
Ped. 123-130 ; Arms, 139 

Mynors, 128 

Myth, The, 137 ; visited by the Society, 
148 ; Sir John Maclean's Notes there- 
on, lb. 



Nanfan, 189, 190, 191,192, 192n., 193, 194, 
195,196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 
203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 20Sn , 210, 
212, 213, 216 ; Pedigrees, 218-304 

Nanfan, Dame Margaret, Will of, 202 

Nanfan, Sir Richard, Will of, 201 

Nan van, Cornwall, 195 

Nash, 100, 226 

Nassau, de, 221 

Nategrave, 214 

Naunton, 288 

Nayleswith, de, 301 

Neale, 96 

Needham, 225 

Nest, 215 

Newman, le, 295 

Nennou, le, 299 

Wevill, 141, 172, 189, 199, 262 

New, H., 133, 134 

Newburgh, de, 110 

Newburgh, 202 

Newbury, 306 

Newent, Special Meeting held at, 238, 239, 
240 ; Church visited, 243 ; remarks by 
Mr. G. H. Piper on Manor and Church, 
lb. ; Priory, 243 

Newent, de, 299 

Newhouse Farm, 312 

Newland, 11 

Newland, 235 

Newland, Abb., 3 

Newman, 302 

Newman, Mr., exhs. in temp. Museum, 
167 

Newmarch, 115n 

Newnham, 132, 302 

Newnton, 215 

Newnton, Abb. 231, 236 

Newton, Abb., 242 

Niblett, 67, 73, 107, 108 

Nichol, 298 

Nichols, 236 

Nicholson, 95 

Nickson, 227, 229 

Noake, 230, 231, 232, 234, 234n 

Noeuyl, de, 300 

Noke, 181 

Non-Jurors. English Catholic of, 1715, by 
the late Ven. Rev. Edward E. Estcourt. 
M.A., F.S.A., and John Orlebar 
Payne, M.A. 



Normam, 1, 281 

Northampton, 339 

Northants, 243 

Northborough, Line, 104 

Northcerney, 282 

Northcote, 281 

" Northern Notes and Queries," edited 

by Rev, A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., 

F.S.A., Scot., noticed, 355 
Northleg', de, 300 
Norton, 75n, 290 
Norwich, 27 
Notcliue, de, 299 
Notelvn, 114 
Notgrove, 225, 2S2, 304 
Nympslield, 130, 285, 350 



Oakele.v, Bagnall-, Mrs., 237 

Oakeley, Bagnall-, Rev. W., at Tewkesbury 

133 ; re-appointed on Council, 136 
Oakley, 216, 217, 243 
Oaksey, IIS 
Ockold, 131 
Oddington, 288 
Oddo/137, 139, 233 
Off a, K., 18 
Offord, 260 
Okey, 95 

Oldbury, 12, 137, 285 
Oldcastle, 13S, 188, 189, 207 
Oliver, Dr., 197, 342 
Ollvnutoii, 290 
Olveston, 284 
O'Maly, 347 
O'Melaghlin, 326 
O'Neil, 321 
Ordric, 55, 56 
Organ, 70 
Orkney, 354 
Osseney, Prior of, 282 
Osterley Park, 9 
Ostorius Scapula, 67 
Oswaldeslow, Hund. of, 209 
Oswolde, 83 
Oujrhtten, de, 301 
"Our Palish, a Medley," by T. G. H., 

noticed, 316 
Ourton, 299 
Over, 79, 284 
Overslaughter, 288 
Owen, St., Glouc, 88 
Owlepenne, 80 
Owlesden, de, 299 
Oxenden, 21, 221, 291 
Oxenedc, de, 21 
Oxford, 27 



Padfield, Mr., is thanked, 157 

Page, 292, 301 

Pagenhulle, 287 

Pauenhull, de, 287 

Paget, 143 

Pagham, par., 265 

Paine, Dr., re-appointed on Council, 136 

Painswick, 73, 132 

Painswick, M., 125 ; Customs of, 125n, 

132, 287 
Paisley, 339 
Palmer, 207, 226, 229 
Panes, de, 118 
Paradise, 108 
Parco, de, 118 
Paris, de, 299 
Parker, 81 n, 242 
Park Farm, 73 



INDEX. 



369 



Parma, Duke of, 346 

Parry, T. Gambier, 239 : his remarks cm 
Dymock Church, 245 ; on Kemplev 
Church, 247 ; thanked, 249 
I'artrich, 70 
Patrick, St., 14 
Pannier, le, 295, 301 
Paunceforte, 3, 287, 292 
Pauntlev, 203, 219, 225, 243, 2S6, 304 
Payne, 205, 266, 299 

Payne, John Orlebar, M.A., his " English- 
Catholic Non-Jurors of 1715," noticed 
318-320 
Pebworth, 290 
Pechve, 207 
Peckham, 130 
Peder, 301 
Pedigrees : — 

Fitz Alan, or Le Rus, 123 
Mvll, 129 
Mitchell, 131 
Daubeney, 134 
Nan fan, 218-255 
Tretbaek, 218 
Pennek, 218 
Coote, 220, 221 
Whittington, 225, 306 
Carpenter, 306, 307 
Pegler, 132 
Pelagius, 15 
Pemberton, 276 
Penbrigge, 286, 287 
Penbrugge, 290 
Pendale, de, 299 

Pendock Church visited under the guid- 
ance of the Rector, the Rev. W S. 
Symonds, 153 ; his notes on the Manor 
and Church, ib.; see also Birt's Slur- 
ton, 180, 204, 205, 206 ; Manor and 
Advowson. 209-217 
Pendoc, de, 209, 210, 211, 214 
Pendleton, John, his " History of Derbj - 

shire " noticed, 344 
Pendrell Family, 319, 320 
Penfon, or Penfound, Cornw., 193, 193n 
Penfons, de, 193, 218 
Penhal, Cornw., 193 
Penkerlyn, 119n 
Pennek, 195, 218 ; ped. ib. 
Penryn, 194 
Penyton, 281 
Percival, 1 
Perer, del, 298 
Perkins, 1 

Pershore, Abb. of, 285 
Pershore, 139, 157 ; Abbey Church visited, 
159 ; notes thereon by Sir John 
Maclean, 230-237 ; Abbots of, 236, 
237; thurible found at, ib.; remark- 
able carving in, ib.; Must. Plate III., 
Perte, 148 
Pessun, 298 
Petit, 104, 105, 140 
Pettigrew, 8 
Pevntel, 298 
Pevto, 290 
Phelip, 197 

Phelps, 28, 34, 35, 36, 53, 58 
Philiberto, St., 282, 283 
Philip, K., 113, 256, 273 
Philipot, 189, 22b 
Phvllpotts, 311 
Pie, 70 

Pietes, de, 299 
Pigat, 299- 

Pilson, Rev. R., acta as guide at Birt's 
Morton, 153 ; and is thanked, 157 

Vol. X. 2 a 



Pinchcombe, fee Pitchcomhe 

Pinchcombe, de, 91n 

Piparde, 281 

" The Pipe Roll Society's Publications," 
noticed, 336 

Piriton, de, 29S 

Pirton, 287 

Piscata, 301 

Pistor, 295, 301, 302 

Pitchcombe, par. subsidies, 71 ; SO, 90, 91, 
91n, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 101, 107, 122 

Pitts, 220 

Plantagenet, 90, 119, 124n, 141, 145, 257, 
262, 263 

Plate, old exh., 162, 163 

Plokenet, de, US, 121n 

Poer, le, 292, 299 

Pokelchurch, Hund., 285, 297 

Pokelchurch, M., 285, 295 

Polevne, 188, 189, 207 

Pollard, 192, 193 

Poltone, de, 280, 282 

Pontefract, 339 

Pontrilias, 220 

Poole, 204, 225 

Poolev, 3, 4 

Pordo'un, 284 

Portskewet, 12 

Poteslip, 291 

Poundstock, par., Cornw., 193r. 

Powick, 220 

Poynton, Rev, F. J., at Tewkesbury, 133; 
presents books, 135 ; his " Supple- 
mentary Article on Hayues," 226 

Poyntz, 124", 124n, 128, 284 

Prankard, P. D. at Tewkesbury, 133 ; 
seconds a resolution, 136 

Prepositus, 302 

Prestbury, de, 80 • 

Preston, "Thomas, his "Yeomen of the 
Guard and Tower Warders," noticed, 
317 
Price, 1, 131 
Price, Major W. E., 238 
Price, W. P., his Address on the battle of 
Barber's Bridge, 23S-241 ; thanked, 
240 
Prichard, 1 

Prideaux, John, Bp., 160 
Priestly, J., 157 
Prior, 201, 202 
Probert, 308 
Prothero, 133 
Prout, le, 80 
Ptolemy, 115 
Pukelchyrch, 287 
Pukerel, 297 
Pulton, de, 297, 300 
Purnell, 96, 97 
Pyne, 226, 227 n 



Quaritch, 10 

Quarrington, 97 
Quedegleyle, de, 298 
Quedglev, 100, 110 
Queenhull, M., Ib7, 1S8 
Quenton, 290 
Querdes, Lord, 200 
Quincy, 255 



Radlegh, de, 297 
Raglan, Castle, 239, 246 
Raikes, Major, 238 
Rainstorp, Mrs., 227 
Ramund, 302 



370 



INDEX. 



Randwick, 127, 131, M., 132 

Raageworthy, 292 

Raulye, 28S 

Kavenhull, 115 

Ravensholm, 281 

Rawlvns, 95, 96 

Rawiilfus, 209 

Ray, 311 

Raygate, 273, 274 

Redalan, Cornw., 193 

Redcliife, 290,303 

Rede, la, 83 

Redmarley, 211, 214 

Hfees, Ap., 82 

Regulin, 302 

Reliquary, Saxon found at Pershore, 237 

Rendcombe, 282, 300 

Reom, de, 287 

Report of Council, Annual, 134-136 

Respigate, Hund., 282, 300 

Revere, 181 

Reyde, 301 

Rice, Miss, is thanked, 157 

Richard, 65 

Richard I., K., 20, 25, 64, 254, 279 

Richard II., K., 75, 94, 273, 274 

Richard III., K., 148, 198, 258 

Rickman, 104 

Rie, 190, 212 

Ripple, 137 ; the Church visited under 
the guidance of the Rector, the Rev. 
R. Holmes, 148 ; Sir John Maclean's 
remarks on the thurible found there, 
149; the same illust., ib. ; Mr. 
Micklethwaithe's opinion thereon, 
150 ; a similar one found at Pershore, 
150; the same illust., ib.; Brasses, 
Registers, Altar Plate, &c, ib.; a 
singular robbery committed there, 
150, 151 ; 157 

Ripple Field, 173 

Roberts, 71, 131 

Robertson, J. D., reads Paper on the 
" History of the Mediseval Mint at 
Gloucester," 6; thanked, 6; the same 
printed, 17-66 

Robeson, Rev. Canon, 140, 143 ; is 
thanked, 157 

Robyns, 127 

Rockhampton, 284 

Kodbert, 61, 63, 65 

Rodberwe, 282 

Rodenay, 343, 344 

Rodmarton, 2S4 

Rodmarton, de, 284 

Roger, 65 

Rolleston, 313 

Rome, 1 

Romesden, 282 

Rondulph, 70 

Roscrea, co. Tipp., 325 

Rossell, 2S9 

Rostelian Castle, 226 

Rotheryk, 287 

Rouen, in Normandy, 196 

Rous, le, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 93, 103 ; 
Memoir of Family of, 109 123 ; Pedi- 
gree, 123; 124, 281, 298 

Rowles, 95 

Royal Mint, 63 

Royce, Rev. David, 133 

Royston, 63 

Ruddle, Mrs., is thanked, 157 

Rudford, par., 239 

lludhall, 2,150 

Rnffo, 118 

Ruffus, de, 298, 299 



Rugge, 198 
Rumee, de, 80 

Russell family, 158 ; rubbings of Brasses 
of, exh. in Temp. Museu n, 166 ; 301 
Rychardson, 207 
Ruyhale, 187, 188, 190, 207 
Ryndecombe, 282 
Rvsindon, 288 
Ryvere, de la, 284, 285 



Sage, 182 

Saham, 76 

Sais, de, 299 

Salisbury, 27 

Salle, de la, 295, 297 

Salle, de, 118 

Salmonsbury, Hund., 28S, 298 

Salso Marisco, 289 

Saltford, 12 

" Sambucus Ebulus," see Dancwort 

Sampson, St., 15 

Sandford, 131 

Sandhurst, 72, 72n., 80, 280 

San nag', 301, 302 

Saperton, 225, 281, 2S7 

Sapv, 210, 214 

Sarnesfield, 203 

Sautmareys, de, 301 

Savage, 101, 199 

Saxony, Duke of, 279 

Schanton, 301 

Scheldesley, 207 

Schesne, see Siiem 

Schyrburne, 207 

"Scotland in Pagan Times," by Joseph 

Anderson, LL.D., noticed, 347-351 
Scott, Sir Gilbert, 140, 233, 234, 245 
Scott, Mrs., exhs. in Temp. Museum, 167 
Scott, Sir W., 315 
Scull, 86 
Sedbury, 12 

Sedlescombe, 28, 51, 52, 53, 54 
Segrave, 257, 260 
Segre, de, 300 
Segrim, 60 
Seisincote, 290 
Selby, W. D., 293 
Selgwine, 52 
Semare, 282 
Seolcwine, 54 
Sered, 70 
Sergeaux, 192 
Serviens, 302 
Sevarne, 82 

Severn, riv., 11, 13, 67, 92, 139, 239 
Severn End, visited ; Paper read by Rev. 

W. Wood, on the Lechmcre Family, 

152, 153 ; 171 
Sewold, 60 
Seychelles, Six Years in, by H. W. Es- 

tridge, noticed, 342 
Seymour, Sir Thomas, portrait of, exh. 

161 
Seymour, 148, 287 
Seynsbury, 290 
Seyntley, de, 301 
Shaftesbury, 27 
Shakespeare, 315 
Sheandon, 291 
Sheepscombe, 100 
Sheffield, 345 
Shenindon, 291 
Shepye, 182 
Sherborne, 224, 28S 
Shern, 70, 83, 84 
Shesnescote, 290 



INDEX. 



371 



Shipton, 281, 283 

Shipton, de, 30u 

Shirebourne, de, 290 

Shrewsbury, 27 

Shute, 226n , 227, 227n., 229 

Sibald, 133 

Siddington Musarde, 2S0 

Sidney, 321 

Silac, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58 

Silicwine, 59 

Sintell, 297 

Sion, Abbess of, 197 

Sion Monastery, 197n., 200 

Sipton, Prior, 141, 142 

Sired, 34, 39, 40, 42, 43 

Siston, 228, 285 

Skelton, Yorks., 104 

Skynner, 214, 215 

Slaughter, Over, see Overslaughter 

Small, 132 

Smerwick, 321 

Smith, Mr. J., exhs. in Temp. Museum, 
166 

Smith, 208, 239, 337 

Smyth, 3, 101, 108, 205, 212, 220 

Smyth, John, of Nibley; his "Memoir on 
the M. of Bosham" printed, 250; hi 
Letter to Mr. George Berkely, 251 ; 
277, 287 

Snedham, 176 

Snedhowe, de, 29S 

Sobberv, de, 292 

Sodburv, 284, 2S5, ML, 302 

Sodbury, de, 302 

Sokerley, M. , South Hants, 199 

Solers, de, 281, 286 

Somerset, 239, 307, 334 

Somerville, 291 

Sopemaker, 11 In. 

Soper, 265 

Sorel, 300 

Sorgee, 78 

Sor le, 291 

Southam, 288, 343 

Southampton Co., 176, 178, 179, 181, 184, 

243 

Southampton, 27 

South Cerney, 280 

Southgrove, 76 

Southmead, 110 

Southmundham, 265 

Southrope, 2*2 

Southwark, 27 

Southwell, 204,223 

Southwood, 264 

Spencer, 215 

Spilemoi), 80, 301 

Spokett, 70 

Spurrells, 310, 312 

Spurrier, W. H. H., 143 ; is thanked, 157 ; 
exhs. in Temp. Museum, 165 

Spycer, 214, 3n7 

Stables, de la. 300 

Stafford, 290 

Stafford, Edmund, Bp., of Exeter, Regis- 
ter of, By Rev. F. C. Hingeston- 
Randolph, noticed, 342, 344 

Stalling, 243 

Stamford, 27 

Stan, de, 298 

Stanhope, 250, 272 

Stanley, 145, 284 

Stanley, St. Leonard, 286 

Stanley Regis, 286 

Stanshawe, de, 302 

Stanton, 1, 133, 242, 301 

Stanton Drew, 12 

2 a 2 



Stant', de, 299 

Stanweye, de, 299 

Stapleton, 227 

State Papers relating to Ireland, Calendar 
of, by Hans Claude Hamilton, F.S.A., 
noticed, 346, 347 

Staunton, Wore, 211 

Staur, 219 

Stayra, 298 

Stefyns, HOn, 

Stegneecote, de, 299 

Stephen, K., 25 ; his coins, 62 

Stewart, 208 

Stock, 95, 132, 215, 298, 299, 338 

Stockend, 73n. 

Stockholm, 23, 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 4S, 
49, 50, 51 

Stoke, M , 276 

Stoke Giffard, 289 

Stokes, de, 297, 300 

Stokwell, de, 299 

Stone, 228 

Stonore, 290 

Stoughton, 256, 275 

Stour Provost, Dorset, 306 

Stow-on- the -Wold, Chapel, 99 

Stowell, 281 

Strangford, Lord, 312 

Strange, 289 

Strangeways, 225 

Stranshawe, de, 302 

Stratton, 281 

Strensham Church, visited under the 
guidance of the Rector, Rev. J. Town- 
son, 158 

Stroud, 127, 131, 143 

Stukeley, 321 

Stut,le, 298 

Stubbs, Bishop, 293 

Styles, 236 

Sudburne, 250 

Sudeley, 291 

Suffylde, 207 

Summonitur, 295, 302 

Sussex, 28, 250 

Suthmede, de, 289, 298 

Suthewyk, Southants, 179 

Sutton, 311 

Swavne, 1, 226, 227 

Sweden, 22, 28 

Swinfield, Bp., 78, 93, 118, 241 

Swonhungre, 182, 185 

SwyndoiC 219 

Swynesheved, Hund., 298 

Sydenham, 130 

Symonds, Mrs. W. S., receives the Society 
at Pendock Court, 154 ; is thanked, 
157 

Symonds, Rev. W. S., 148 ; his memoir on 
"The Manor and Church of Pendock," 
153; his memoir on " Birt's Morton 
Church and Court," 156 ; discussion 
thereon, ib., ; Sir John Maclean's re- 
marks on the Nanfan Family and 
Cardinal Wolsey, 156, 157 ; Mr. 
Symonds is thanked, 157, ISO, 214; 
Instituted to Pendock, 217 



Tacitus, llln. 

Tailebosc, 297 

Tailleur, le, 115, 301 

Talbot. 117, 125, 263, 286, 287, 2S8, 289, 

291 
Taliessin, 15 
Talkard, 112, 112n., 115 



372 



INDEX. 



Tancarville, 19 

Tapestry, A Short History of, By Eugene 
Muntz, translated by Miss Louisa J. 
Davis, noticed, 322, 324 

Taylor, 1, 3, 133, 23S, 239 

Taylor & Co., 105 

Taynton, 1 

Tealby, 25, 63 

Teddington, Adv., 243 

Tedgewood, M., 243 

Temple, 234n. 

Teokesbr', de, 301 

Tetbury, 114, 2S3 

Tewkesbury, 12 ; Annual Meeting- at, 133 ; 
Mayor receives Society, 133, 136 ; 
Mavor of thanked, ib ; 137, 138, 139 ; 
Abbey Church visited, 140; Rev. F 
B. Carbonell's address on, 140 ; pur- 
chase of by the town, 143 ; remains of 
of Abbey purchased, ib ; remarks on 
the medieval houses in, by Mr. F. 
Moore, 144 ; Mayor and Corporation 
thanked, 157,159 ; Temporary Museum 
at, 161; Regalia Exh., 167, 173, 174, 
186, 197, 207, 208, 221, 301 

Tewkesbury, Abbot of, 280 

Tewkesbury, battle of, 137, 141 ; On the 
movements of Queen Margaret after, 
by Mr. Dowdeswell, 144 

Tewkesbury, de, 148, 19S, 301 

Tewkesburv, Hund. of, 291, 299 

Tewkesbury, M., 148, 198 

Textrix, 83 

Teynton, 286 

Thackwell, 206, 208, 209 

Theobald, Archb., 242 

Theobaldston, Hund., 299 

Theodosius, Emp., 14, 73n. 

Theriddelond, 289 

Thetford, 27, 339 

Thomas, Dr., 187n. 

Thomason, Collection in Brit. Mus., 240 

Thomason, Mr., 241 

Thornbury, 13, 228 

Thornbur'y, Hund., 292, 29S 

Thorney, 252 

Thorney, Isle of, 265; Customs of, 270, 
271 

Thornoke, Co., Line, 203 

Thorp, 185 

Throgmorton, 1S9, 190, 204, 210, 211, 212, 
212n., 215, 225, 309 

Thurkbv, 293 

Tibbertbn, 238, 239, 2S6 

Tilladams, 305, 308 

Tillington, 305 

Tinctor, 301, 303 

Tirbot, 79 

Tirel, 116 

Tisun, 297 

Titherington, 292 

Tokens and Coins, Exhd., 161, 162, 163, 
165 

Tokington, 284 

Tomes, 134 

Tonleye, 287 

Tormarton, Chantry, 99 

Tormarton, M., 284 

Tormerton, de, 285 

Tormenton, 282 

Tortvvorth, 14, 212, 215, 216, 285 

Touchet, 291 

Townshend, 1 

Townson, Rev. J., acts as guide at Sten- 
sham Church, 158 ; is "thanked, 157, 
158 

Towton, battle of, 128, 174 



Tracy, 85, 114, 128 

Tredenek, 201 

Tredyn, Cornw., 195 

Tregartha, M., Cornw., 201 

Tregellas, J. T., 317 

Tregervan, M., Cornw., 201 

Tregett, M., S6, 121, 122 

Tregonan, M., Com., 200 

Tregonwall, 192 

Trelegh, M., Cornw., 201 

Tremmo, 301 

Tremyll, Co., Devon, 128 

Trerice, 191 

Tresawell, 199 

Treshelm, 297 

Trethaek, 193, 194, 218 

Trethewell, Cornw., 195, 196, 201, 218, 219 

Tretur Castle, 115n. 

Triderley, M., Southants., 199 

Trohu, de, 298 

Trovell, 223 

Tudv, St., Advow., of, 195, 126, 201, 21S 

Tuckett, 133 

Tunleye, de, 298 

Turkd'ean, 282 

Turpvn, 285 

Twining, 283 

Twvford, 116 

Tyburn, 116, 117 

Tyler, 309, 310 

Tyrauff, 119n. 

Ufflete, 261 

Ulev, 350 

" Unpopular King," The, by Alfred O. 

Legge, noticed, 315-316 
Up Ampney, 280 
Upcote, 82," 180 
Up Hatherley, 80 
Upleadon, 239 ; Church of, visited, 241 ; 

Rev. G. Lawson acted as guide, ib. ; 

his remarks thereon, ib.; M., 242 
Uppynton, 94 
Upton Bridge, 171 
Upton, de, 301 

Upton St. Leonard's, SO, 131, 175, 180 
Upton-upon-Severn, Man. and Par., 169, 

170, 173, 1SS, 213, 300 
Up Wych, 188 
Urquhart, 352 
Usk, riv., 115n 
Uske, de, 298 
Uvedale, 265 

Vaillant, le, 301 
Valance, de, 286, 2S9 
Valers, de, 280 
Vaughan, 219 
Vele, 285, 301 
Venice, 257, 261 
Venur, le, 295, 297, 298 
Verdon, 287, 290 
Vere, 287 
Vernon, 281 
Veyne, de, 110 
Vezin, de, 301 
Villiers, 9, 10 
Vivonia, de, 112n 
Vvhan, 194, 195, 21S 
Vyvyan, 204 

Waddon, 301 

Wadworth, Ch., co. York, 234 
Wainlode Cliff, Excursion to, 1 ; Geology 
of, ib. ; Sir W. Guise's remarks on, 15 



INDEX. 



373 



Wainlodc Hill, 134 

Wakeman, 148, 325, 326 

Waldegrave, 230 

Wale, 2S8 

Walecote, de, 298 

Wali-ran, de, S3, 294, 297 

Wales, 14, 67, 112, 115, 110, 239, 240 

Walesworth, de, 170 

Waleys, de, 118, 2S1, 298, 300 

Walford, 224 

Walker, 71, 111, 208, 209 

Waller, F. W. at Gloucester, 1 ; his re- 
marks on Ashelworth Church, 2 ; 
Court House, 3, 4 ; Tithe Cam, 5 ; 
< Hd Vicarage, 5, 6 

Waller, Gen., 172, 240 

Wallingford, 27 

Wallington, 96 

Walsingham, 346 

Walsshe, 2S7 

Walter, the Constable, 8S 

Walters, Ilev, Canon, receives .Society at 
Pershore Abbey Church, 109 

Walton, 201 

Walton, Cardiff, 291 

Walwyne, 208 

Walyford, 290 

Wanteyng, 284 

Wanton, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185 

Ware, le, 302 

Warin, 83, 300 

Warre, le, 284 

Warrenne, de, 339 

Warren's Well, 138 

Warumund', le, 301 

Wafyn, 287 

Wateton, 292 

Wathington, de, 299 

Watson, 101 

Warwick, 27 

Wayte, 298 

Weaver, Rev. C, 238 ; Guide at Kempley 

Church, 247 ; thanked, 242 
Webb, 52, 63, 04, 224 
Webbester, 207 
Wechecham, 292 
Welle atte, 288 
Welles, 99, 202 
Welsh, le, 115 
Wembesting, 303 
Wenlock, Sir J., 137 
Werberlye, 289 
Were, ate, 292 
Werinton, 288 
Werkesberg, de, 301 
Wessex, 18, 24, 31 
West, 196, 210, 290 
Westashlinge, 264 
Westburv, 229, 289 
Westbury, Hund., 30U 
Westbury-upon-Severn, 1, 286 
"Western Antiquary," edited by LI. W. 

K. Wright, 354-355 
Westlit' Hund. 292 
Westmancote, 314 
Westminster, 200 

Westminster, Dean and Chapter of, 230 
West Perle, Southants, 1/7, 178, 184 
Weston, 118, 283 
Weston, de, 299 
Weston, St. Lawrence, 2S9 
Weston-sub-Edge, 290 
Westropp, 337 
Wetecumbe, de, 298 
Weton, de, 292 
Wexford, 227 
Weygh, 71 



Weym, 289 

Whaddon, 100, 103n- M., 125, 2S9 

Whightfeld, 292 

Whightsed', 292 

Whitcomb, de, 298 

White, Mrs., exhs. in temp. Museum, 166 

Whitelands, 30S 

Whitfield, 120 

Withcott, 229 

Whitney, 10 

Whittenhurst, 286 

Whittington, 182, 203, 204, 219, 220, ped. 

ib., 281, 286, 304-312, ped. ?06 
Whittington, William, of St. Briavel's, 
Will of, communicated by the Rev. 
W.T.Allen, 298; his notes thereon, 312 
Whystan, Hund., 298 
Whyte, 309 
Whyteney, 1S9 
Wibert, 62 

Wick, 220, 220n, 227, 228 
Wicklow, 227 
Wickwar, 284, 291 
Widon', 298 
Widford, Oxon., 288 
Wiflet, 72 
■Wight, 71 
Wihtsige, 36, 37 
Wilberforce, Bp., 230 
Wilde, 325 

Wilkinson, 91, 97, 221 
Wille, 288 
Willersley, 290 
Willett, 28, 01 

William I., 18, 19, 25; his coins, 56-60, 
llOn, 137, 140, 241, 242, 243, 246, 253, 
277 
William II., IS, 23, 30; his coins, 54 60, 

llOn, 137, 140 
William, King of Scots, 255 
Williams, Rev. H., received the Society 

at Ashelworth Church, 2 
Williams, J., at Tewkesbury, 133; pro- 
poses resolution, 136 
Williamsthorp, 283 
Willinhale, 122 
Wilsdon, 113 
Wilson, 9, 10 

"Wilson, Mrs., is thanked, 107 
Wilton, 27 
Wilts, Co., 127 
Wilts, Sheriffs of, 190 
Winchcunib, 301 
Winchcombe, 125, 12S 
Winchcombe, Abb. of, 288, 290 
Winchester, 20, 27 
Windeljole, 74 
Windowe, 71 
Windsor, Forest, 198, 199 
Winebald, 297 
* Wilmington, Sir Tho., 230 
Winrush, 288 
Winsile, 32 

Witts, Rev. F. E. B. at Gloucester, 1 ; 
describes Geological Strata of Wain- 
lode Clift, ib. ; at Tewkesbury, 133 ; 
proposes the adoption of Report, 180 ; 
elected in Council, 130 ; at Newent, 
23S 
Wodington, 292 
Wodley, 217 
Wokkesoye, de, 301 
Wolford, 292 

Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal, 201, 202 
Wood, 132 
Wood, Rev. Canon, at Newent, 238, 244 






.1— I 



INDEX. 



Wood-Martin, M.O., M.R.I.A., F.K.H.A. 
A.I ., Lieut. -Col., &c., his"Lakc Dwell- 
ings of Ireland, 7 ' noticed, 324-333 

Wood," Rev. T. W., his history of the 
Lachmere Family, 152, 153 ; thanked, 
157 ; 206 

Woodch ester, 284 

Woode, 71 

Woodville, 262 

Wookey, the History of the Parish and 
Manor of, by Thomas Scott Holmes, 
M.A., noticed, 333 

Worcester, 27, 139, 145, 151, 172, 187, 
211 233 

Worcester Abbey, 117, 124, 188, 209 

Worcester, Bps. of, 3, 90, 92, 100, 103, 
103n., 109, 148, 160, 188, 210, 213, 
217, 283, 288, 2S9, 301 

Worcester, Co., 190, 191, 198, 202, 213, 243 

Worcester, de, 73 

Worcestershire, Beacon, 139 

Worcestershire, Sheriffs of, 198, 209 

Workeley, 78 

Wormelovve, 121 

Wormington, 291 

Worrells, 30S 

Wotton-under-Edge, 181 

Wredon, de, 292 

Wren, SirC, 245 

Wright, 1 

Wright, Dr., his death, 134 

Wright, W. H., K., his "Western Anti- 
quary," noticed, 354-355 

Wulfget, 51, 54, 57, 59 

Wulfbrd, 301 

Wulfred, 46, SI 

Wulfric, 54 

Wulfwerd, 43, 45, 47, 48, 51, 54 

Wulfurl, 48 

Wulfwine, 54 

W .lleston, de, 299 

Wulnoth, 43, 46 



Wvatt, 219n. 

Wydecliffe, 74 

Wydcford, see Widfoi'd 

Wydehurste, 74, 75 

Wye, riv., 11 

Wyk, 289, 29S, 299, 300, M., 302 

Wvkham, 291 

Wyle, 287 

Wylington, de, SO, 283, 287, 280. 290 

Wyllamseote, 288 

Wyllyng, 287 

Wylton, de, SO 

Wydmund, 301 

Wy ni pier, le, 302 

Wynchester, de, 2S0 

Wynchingham, 128 

Wyndewav, 74 

Wynestone, 281, 2S7 

Wynter, 82, 308 

Wynterbourne, 284 

Wyrall, 235, 312 

Wyse, 309 

Wyther, 301 



Yalham, 130 

Yarmion, 290 

Yate, 126, 289, 301 

Yate, atte, 1S2 

Ychynton, 289 

Yeomen of the Guard and Tower Warders, 
History of, by Thomas Preston, no- 
ticed, 317 

Yminton, 292 

York, 27 

York, Archb. of, 282, 289 

Yorke, 309, 311 

Younge, 70, 120n.,208 

Yune, 290 

Zerdeshull (?) 287 
Zonaria, meaning of, 22n. 



BEISTOL & GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY 



|Cist of JEUmbm 

OCTOBER 20th, 1886 



Names op Life Members are given in heavier type 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council. 1886-7 

The Secretary will feel obliged by any correction of error in List 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester 

Adlam. William, F.S.A.. Manor House. Chew Magna. Bristol 

Agg-Gardner, James Tynte. M.P.. Farnley Lodge, Cheltenham 

•Allard, W., Tewkesbury 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell. MA.. St. Briavel's Vicarage, Coleford 

Alston, Rev. A. E., Kingsholm, Gloucester 

Ames, Reginald, 2, Albany Terrace, Park Square, East. London. N.W. 

Armitage, W. H., Wotton-under-Edge 

Arnold, Rev. Wm„ M.A., Canon House, Taunton 

Arrowsmith. J. W., 24, Westfield Park, Redland. Bristol 

Asher & Co.. 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Baillie, Colin Campbell, Glenure House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Baily, W. A., 129 Dyer Street. Cirencester 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Bristol 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke, Gloucester 

Baker. James. Sewelle Villa. Goldney Road. Clifton. Bristol 

Baker, W. Proctor. Broomwell House, Brislington, Bristol 

Baker, William Mills. Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud 

Bamford, Rev. E., M.A.. Gloucester 

Barker, Rev. Canon H. C. R., M.A.. Daglingworth Rectory, Cirencester 

Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., 1. Bina Gardens, South Kensington. 

London. S.W. 
*Bartleet. Rev. S. E., M.A., St. Mark's Vicarage, Gloucester 
Bartholomew F.M.. B.A., Clifton College. Clifton. Bristol 
Barthropp. Rev. Nathaniel S.. M.A., Itton Rectory, Chepstow, Monmouthsbire 
Bathurst, The Right Hon. the Earl. Cirencester 
Baynes, C. R., The Lammas. Minchinhampton 
* Bazeley, Bev. William, 31. A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member), 

(Hon. Sec.) 

Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 

Williamstrip Park. Fairford 
* Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., Mortimer House, Clifton, Bristol 



11. 

Bell, Rev. Canon Charles Dent, D.D., The Rectory, Cheltenham 

Bennett, C. T., Terra Nova, Tyndall's Park, Bristol 

Bennett, Mrs. C. T., Terra Nova. Tyndall's Park, Bristol 

Berkeley, Francis, Leagram Hall, Preston 

Berkeley, Rowland Wilson, 1, Tokenhouse Buildings, Lothbury, London, E.C. 

Bevir, E. J., Q.C., 110, Harley Street, London, W, 

Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris 

Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James Street, London, S.W. 

Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester 

Birchall, Miss, Lanesfield, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham 

Blackburne, G. I. Montague, Bude Villa, Cromwell Road, Montpeilier, Bristol 

Blacker, Rev. B. H., M.A., 26, Meridian Place, Clifton. Bristol 

Blakeway, G. S.. Myton House, Gloucester 

Blandy, F., Birchamp House, Newland, Coleford 

* Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Rectory. Chippenham 
Blathwayt, W. E., Dyrham, Chippenham 

Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester 

Blathwayt, Colonel, Batheaston, Bath 

Bodleian Library, Oxford 

Boevey, A. Crawley, East India United Service Club, 14, St. James 

Square, London, S.W. 
Boevey, Sir T. H. Crawley, Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham 
Boevey, Rev. R., Crawley, M.A., Flaxley Vicarage, Newnham 
Booth, Abraham, Belle Vue House, Gloucester 
Booth, W. S., Belle Vue House, Gloucester 
Bonnor, Benjamin, Barnwood, Gloucester 
Boughton. J. H., Tewkesbury 
Boulger. G. S., F.G.S.. !>. Norfolk Terrace. London, W. 

* Bourne, Rev. Gr. D., M.A., D.L., F.S.A., Weston-sub-Edge. Broadway 

* Bowly, Christopher. Siddington House, Cirencester 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16, Royal Crescent, Bath 

Bramble, Lieut-Col. James Roger, Cleeve House, near Yatton, Somerset 

Bravender, T. B., The Firs. Cirencester 

BriggS, William, St. Stephen Street, Bristol 

Browne, Rev. C. E. Murray, M.A., Uley Rectory, Dursley 

Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester 

Buchanan, James, " Standard" Office, Gloucester 

Burder, G. F.. M.D., F.M.S., 7, South Parade, Clifton, Bristol 

Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 24, Bridge Street, Bristol 

Bush, Edward, Alveston, R.S.O. Gloucestershire 

Bush, James Day, Mount Beacon House, Bath 

Bush, John, 9, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Bush, T. S., Cheese Lane, St. Philip's, Bristol 

Bute, The Most Noble the Marquis of, Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire 

Butterworth, Rev. George, M.A. , Deerhurst Vicarage, Tewkesbury 

Caldicott, Rev. J. W., D.D., Shipston-on-Stour Rectory, Worcestershire 

Campbell. Sir James, Bart.,Whitemead Park, Coleford 

Cardew, C. E., c/'o. King, King & Co. , Bombay 

Cardew, G. A., Bayshili Villas, Cheltenham 

Cardew, Rev. John Haydon, M.A., Keynshambury House, Cheltenham 

Cartwright, F. F., 1, St. Stephen Street, Bristol 

Cashmore, Samuel, Norton Malreward, Pensford, Bristol 

Castle, Major C, Frome Lodge, Stapleton, Bristol 

Cave, Charles, D., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton Park, Bristol 

Chamney, Rev. R. M.,.M.A., Training College. Cheltenham 

Chance, T. H., " Journal" Office, Gloucester 

Cheetham, Joshua Milne, Eyford Park, Stow-on-the-Wold 



111. 



Cheltenham Library, 5, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham 

Chilton, George Horace David. Cambridge Park, Redland. Bristol 

Church, A. H., M.A.,F.G.S., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey 

Clarke. Alfred Alex., Wells, Somerset 

* Clark, George T. F.S.A., Dowlais House. Dowlais 
Clark, Rev. Thomas E., M. D., Isle of Man 

Clarke, Rev. Canon. D.D., Bishop's House. Clifton, Bristol 
Clarke, Miss. 86, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Clarke, John A. Graham, Frocester, Stonehouse 
Clegram, William Brown, Saul Lodge, near Stonehouse 
Clifton College Library 

* Clifford. The Hon. and Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Clutterbuck, Rev. R. H., Enham Knights Rectory, Andover 
Cockshott, Miss, Hazlehurst, Ross 

Colchester- Wemyss, Maynard W., Westbury-on-Severn, Newnham 

Cole, Rev. E. P., B.A., 4. Gt. George Street, Bristol 

Coles, W. C, M.D., Bourton-on-the-Water 

Collier, Col. James A., Stanley Hall, Stonehouse 

Collins, J. C, M.D., Steanbridge House. Slad, Stroud 

Cook, Francis, M.D., 1. Suffolk Lawn, Cheltenham 

Cooke, W. H., Q.C., F.S.A., 42, Wimpole Street. London 

Cornock, Nicholas, 3 Oval Terrace. Addiscombe, Surrey 

Cornford. Rev. Edward, M.A.. Etchowe, Lansdown Road. Cheltenham 

Cornwall, Rev. Alan Kingscote, M.A. Ashcroft, Wotton-under-Edge 

Cossham, Handel, M.P., F.G.S., Weston Park, Bath 

Cowburn, Major J. Brett, Dennil Hill, near Chepstow 

Cowley, Charles, L.L.D., 12 Middle Street, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

Cox, Alfred, Shannon Court, Bristol 

* Cripps, Wilfred, F.S.A. , Barrister-at-Law, Cirencester 
Crisp, H., West Park, Redland, Bristol 

Croggan, Edmund, 4, Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Crossman, George D., Rudgeway, Gloucestershire 
Crothers, Capt. Wallace G., Highfields, Chew Magna 
Cruddas, C. J., Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Cullimore, J., The Friars, Chester 

Dale, Henry F. 

Dancey, Charles Henry, 6, Midland Road, Gloucester 

Davenport Hill, Miss Florence, 25, Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 

Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Vicarage, Enfield Highway, 

London 
Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., 2, Montpellier Road, Gloucester 
Davis. Major Charles E.. F.S.A., 55, Gt. Pulteney Street, Bath 
Davis, Cecil Tudor, The Court House, Painswick 

DArgent, Edward Augustus, Bibury Cottage, London Road, Cheltenham 
Day, Francis, Kenilworth House, Cheltenham 
De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham 
Deane, Rev. J. Bathurst, M.A., F.S.A., Sion Hill, Bath 
Denton, C. Lord, Ourlton, St. Briavels, Coleford 
Derham, Henry, The Manor House, Frenchay, near Bristol 
Derham, James, Sneyd Park, Bristol 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 1 19 Lansdowne Rd., Kensington Park.W. 
Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Aridoversford, Cheltenham 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 
Doggett, E. G., 31, Richmond Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Willsbridge, near Bristol 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester Stonehouse 



IV. 



* Dorington, Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt Park. Stroud 
Downing, William, Springfield House, Olton, near Birmingham 
Drew, Joseph, M.D., Pembroke Lodge, Charlton Kings. Cheltenham 
Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., F.R.S.,Tortworth, Wotton- 

under-Edge 
Dynevor, The Right Hon. Lord, Dynevor Castle, Llandilo, S. Wales 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne. Bristol 

Edkins, William, 12, Charlotte Street, Park Street. Bristol 

Edwards, Alderman George W., Sea-wall Villas. Sneyd Park, Bristol 

* Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol 
Ellett, Robert, Oakley Cottage, Cirencester 

Emeris, Rev. John, M.A., The Rectory, Upton St. Leonard's, Gloucester 
Estcourt, Rev. E. W.. M.A., Newnton Rectory, Tetbury 
Evans, I. B., f>. Douro Villas, Cheltenham 
Evans, Edward C. , Brimscombe, Stroud 
Evans, Rev. E., M.A., Preston Rectory, Ledbury 

Farquhar, Rev. E. M., M.A., Bradley Court, Wotton-under-Edge 
Fawn, James, 18, Royal Promenade. Queen's Road. Bristol 
Fendick, R. G., 3 Claremont Place, St. Paul's Road, Clifton 
Fenwick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham 

* Fisher, Major C. Hawkins. The Castle. Stroud 
Fitzhardinge, Craven, Hyde Dubbo, New South Wales 
Flower, Edgar. The Hill, Stratford-on-Avon 
Foljambe, Cecil, G. S„ M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark 
Flux, Edward HitchingS, 144, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

* Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley 

* Forster, Rev. F. S., M.A., The Vicarage, Chipping Campden 
Foster, R. G., 10 Park Road, Gloucester 

Fox, Alderman Francis Frederick, Yate House, Chipping Sodbury 
Fox, Charles Henry, M.D., The Beeches. Brislington. Bristol 
Foxcroft. E. T. D., D.L., Ashwick Grove, Oakhill, Bath 
Francis, George Edward. Buckstone Cottage, near Coleford 
Francis, R. G., Broadwell Villa, Broadwell, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Fry, Francis J., 104, Pembroke Road. Clifton, Bristol 
Fry, Lewis, M.P., Goldney House, Clifton. Bristol 
Fuller, Rev. E. A., M.A., St. Barnabas Vicarage, Ashley Road, Bristol 



* Gael, Samuel H., Porturet House, Charlton Kings. Cheltenham 

Gaisford, Rev. Thomas Amyas, M. A., 2, Devonshire Place, Wells Road, Bath 

Gaisford, Edward Sands, 23, Bassett Road, N. Kensington, London 

Gallenga, Antonio, The Fall, Llandogo, Coleford 

George, C. E. A., Henbury Hill, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol 

George, W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

George, William, 3, King's Parade, Clifton, Bristol 

Gibbs, H- Martin, Barrow Court, Flax-Bourton, Somerset 

Giles, Oliver, The Crescent, Bromsgrove 

Giller, William Thomas, County of Gloucester Bank, Gloucester 

Godman, E.T., Banksfee, Moreton-in-Marsh 

Godwin, George, F.R.S., 6, Cromwell Place, London, S.W. 

Godwin, J. G., 118. Grosvenor Road, London, S.W. 

Golding. Charles, 9, Crouch Street, Colchester 

Golightly, Rev. Canon T. G., M.A., Shipton Moyne Rectory, Tetbury 

Gray's Inn Library, London, W.C. 

Green, Rev. J. F., M.A., Whiteshill, Stroud 



Greenfield, Benjamin Wyatt, 4, Cranbury Terrace, Southampton 
Griffith, Robert W., The Old House, Llandaff 
Grist, William Charles, Brookside, Chalford, Stroud 
Grove, Commander, R.N., The Grove, Taynton, Gloucester 

* Guise, Sir William Vernon, Bart- D.L., F.L.S..F.G.S., Elmore Court, 

Gloucester 
Gwinnett, Wm. Henry, Gordon Cottage, Cheltenham 

Hale, C. B., Claremont House, London Road. Gloucester 
Hale, Major Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge 
Halsall, Edward, 4, Somerset Street. Kingsdown. Bristol 

* Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe. Stroud 
Hall, Rev. R., M.A., Saul Vicarage. Stonehouse 

Hallen, Rev. A. W. Cornelius. The Parsonage, Alloa, N.B. 

* Hallett. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath 
Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath 

Hallewell, Joseph Watts, D.L., Stratford House, Stroud 
Harding, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn. Monmouth 
Harding, Thomas. Wick House. Brislington. Bristol 
Hardy, Rev. H. H., M.A., The Rectory, Mitoheldean 
Hare, Sholto Vere, Knole Park, Almond.sbury, Bristol 
Harford, William Henry, Old Bank. Bristol 

* Hartland. Ernest, M.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow, (Hon. Treasurer.) 
Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Triibner & Co.. Ludgate Hill. London 
Harvey, Rev. W. H. Peyton, M.A., The Vicarage, Chipping Sodbury 
Harvey, Charles Octavius, Bedford Villa, Richmond Hill, Clifton, Bristol 
Harvey, Edward, Bedford Villa, Richmond Hill, Clifton, Bristol 
Harvey, John, Glenside, Leigh Woods. Clifton, Bristol 

Hazledine, Rev. William, The Priory, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Heane, William Crawshay, The Lawn, Cinderford 

Heffernan. Surgeon-General, Eton Villa, The Park, Cheltenham 

Helps, Arthur S.. Gloucester 

Hemming, Rev. B. F., M.A., Bishop's Cleeve Rectory, Cheltenham 

Henderson, W., Dunholme. The Park, Cheltenham 

Henly, E. H., Wotton-under-Edge. 

Herapath, Howard M., Penleigh, Canynge's Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Hill, Charles, Clevedon Hall, Somerset 

* Hill, Rev. Reginald P., M.A., Bromsberrow Rectory, Ledbury 
Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Sandhurst Rectory, Gloucester 

* Holford, Robert S., D.L., Weston Birt House, Tetbury 
Holloway, G., M.P., Farm Hill. Stroud 

Holmes, Mrs., Whithorne, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

Hopgood, P. Downing, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Howard, Edward Stafford, the Castle, Thornbury 

Howell. Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London. F. 

Howsin, E. Arthur. M.D., 11, Rowcroft, Stroud 

* Hudd, Alfred E., 94, Pembroke Road, Clifton. Bristol 
Hudden, William Paul, 11, Windsor Terrace. Clifton. Bristol 
Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 
Hulbert, Edward, Enfield Cottage, Stroud 

Hunt, J., Palace Yard, Gloucester 

Hutchinson, Joshua Hutchinson. 42. Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park. London 

Hyett, F. A., Painswick House, Painswick 

* Jacques, Thomas W., The Grange, Back well, Somerset 
James, Francis, Edgeworth Manor, Cirencester 
James, Rev. John, M.A., Highfield, Lydney 
Jefferies, James E. , Yeo Bank. Congresbury, Bristol 

Jefferson, David, Boston. U.S.A., c/o. Messrs. Sampson & Lowe, 188 Fleet- 
street, E.C. 



Yl. 

Jenkins, R. Palmer. Beechley, Chepstow 

Jenkinson, Sir George S., Bart., D.L., Eastwood Park. Falfield 

Jennings, Rev. A. C, King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse 

Kane, Miss, The Grange, Monmouth 

* Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

(President) 
Kebie, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, Stroud 
Keeling, George Baker, Severn House, Lydney 

* Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham 
Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham 

Kerslake, Thomas, 14, West Park, Clifton, Bristol 
King, William Poole, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Kitcat, Rev. D., M.A., Weston Birt Rectory, Tetbury 
Knight, J. S., Mendip Villa, Ashley Road, Bristol 
Knight, James P., 2, Hatherley Place, Cheltenham 
Knowles, W., Albion Chambers, King Street, Gloucester 

Lamb, Rev. Matthias Mawson, MA., Swinbrook Vicarage. Buiford. fixon 
Lancaster, Thomas, Bownham House, Stroud 
Lane, C. H., Guildhall, Bristol 

* Lang, Robert, Beaumaris, Durdham Down, Clifton 
Latimer, John, 3, Trelawney Road, Bristol 

Law, William, Littleborough, near Manchester 
Lavars, John, 3, Saville Villas, Clifton, Bristol 
Lavicount, S. W., Elm Villa. Cheltenham 
Lay, Capt., Staverton Court, Cheltenham 

* Le Blanc, Arthur, Prestbury House, near Cheltenham 

* Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse 

Leigh, E. Egerton, Broadwell Manor House, Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

Lewis, Archibald M., Upper Byron Place, Bristol 

Lewis, Harold, B.A., " Mercury " Office, Bristol 

Lindsay, W. A., M.A.. Q.C., Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms, 17, Cromwell 

Road, South Kensington, London. S.W. 
Lingwood, R. M., fi, Park Villas, The Park, Cheltenham 
Little. E. Caruthers, Field Place, Pakenhill, Stroud 
Little, E. P., Pitchcombe House, Stroud 
Liverpool Free Library 

Llewellin, John, jun., Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol 
Lloyd, Captain Owen, 4, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 
London Library, 12, St. James' Square, London 
Long, Lieut. Col., William, Newton House, Clevedon 
Low, Charles Hoskins, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol 

* Lowe. Major A. E. Lawson, F.S.A., Shirenewton Hall, Chepstow 
Lower, Nynian H., Olveston, Almondsbury 

* Loxley, Rev. Arthur, M.A., Vicarage, Fairford 

* Lucy, William C, F-G.S-, Brookthorpe, Gloucester 
Lynes, Rev. W., .D.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham 
Lysaght, John. Springfort, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 

Maclaine, Wm. Osborne, D.L., Kington, Thombury 

* Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A., Glasbury House, Richmond Hill, Clifton. 

Bristol 
Macpherson, J., Invercargill, New Zealand 
Madan, Falconer, Brasenose College, Oxford 
Majendie, Rev. S.. Brookthorpe Vicarage, Gloucester 
Manchester Library, Manchester 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud 



Vll. 

* Martin, A. T., M A., 10 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Matthews, W. G., Wotton-under-Edge 

May, T. F. C, Cotham Park, Bristol 
Medland, James, Clarence Street, Gloucester 
Medland, Henry, Kingsholm, Gloucester 
Merrick, Frank, Hughenden Road, Clifton, Bristol 

* Middleton, J. H., M.A., F.S.A., Westholme, Cheltenham 
Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A.. Upton Helion Rectory. Crediton, 

Devon 
Miles, H. Cruger W., 71, Queen Square, Bristol 
Mills, H. Hamilton, The Field. Stroud 
Monk, C. J., 5, Buckingham Gate, London, S.W. 
Moore, John. Bourton-on-the-Water 
Morgan. Sir Walter, Naish House, Nailsea, Somerset 
Mott, Albert J., F. G. S., Crickley Hill, Cheltenham 
MullingS, John, Cirencester 
Murch, Jerom, Cranwells, Bath 
Murrell, J., Gloucester 



Nairn, Charles J. 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M. A.. Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury 
Needham, Frederick, M.D., Barnwood House. Gloucester 
Nevins, Rev. Willis Probyn, M.A.. 8, Oxford Parade, Cheltenham 

* New, Herbert, Green Hill, Evesham 

Noel, Colonel, D.L., Elston Hall, Newark-on-Trent 

Norman, George, Alpha House, St. George's Road, Cheltenham 

Norris, Venerable Archdeacon, D.D., 3, Great George Street. Bristol 

* Oakeley, Rev. W. Bagnall, M. A., Newland, Coleford 
Oakeley, Mrs. W. Bagnall, Newland, Coleford 
O'Fflahertie, Rev. T. R., MA. , Capel Vicarage, Dorking, Surrey 
Owen, Rev. Richard Trevor, Llangedwyn, Oswestry, Salop 



* Paine, Wm. Henry, M. D., F. G. S., Corbett House, Stroud 
Palmer, Rev. Feilding, M. A., Eastcliffe, Chepstow 

Parker, Rev. Canon Charles J., M. A.. Cathedral House, Gloucester 

* Parry, Thomas Gambier, D. L., Highnam Court, Gloucester 
Pass, Alfred, 15, Upper Belgrave Road, Durdham Down, Bristol 

* Paul, Alfred H-, The Close, Tetbury 
Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Henbury, Bristol 
Percival, E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester 

* Perkins, Vincent, R., Wotton-under-Edge 
Peters, Rev. Thomas, 5, The Circus, Bath 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M. A., B.C.L., 18 Priory Road, Bedford Park 

Chiswick, London 
Phillipps, J. 0. Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A., Hollingbury Copse, 

Brighton 
Philips, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross 

Phillott, G. H.. Trevor House, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham 
Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath 
Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M A., Monkton Combe Vicarage, Bath 
Pitt, Theophilus, King's College, London, W.C. 
Playne, Charles, Theescombe, Stroud 
Playne, Arthur T.. Longfords, Minchinhampton 
Playne, A. W., Morning Side, Nailsworth 

* Pope, T. S., 3 Unity Street, College Green, Bristol 



Vlll. 

Powell, His Honour Judge John Joseph, Q. C, The Lawn, Denmark Hill, 

London, S.E. 
Power, Edward, lfi, Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 
Poynton, Rev. Francis John, Kelston Rectory, Bath 

* Prankerd, P. D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Price, William P., D.L- Tibberton Court, Gloucester 
Price, Rev. H. T., M.A., Elkstone Rectory, Cheltenham 
Prichard, W. G., Norton Court, Gloucester 
Pritchard, J. E., Guy's Cliff, Sydenham Road, Bristol 
Pritchard, Augustin, F.R.C.S., 4, Chesterfield Place, Clifton, Bristol 
Pritchett, Charles Pigott, 5, Hillside, Cotham, Bristol 

Protheroe, Frank, 11, Alfred Place West, Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 

Reed, J. H., 4 Swanbourne Villas, Cotham, Bristol 

* Reynolds, John, Manor House, Redland, Bristol 

Rice, The Honourable Maria Elizabeth Rice, Matson House, Gloucester 

Richardson, Charles, 10, Berkeley Square, Bristol 

Riddiford, George Francis, Barnwood Lodge, Gloucester 

Robertson, J. D., MA., 11, College Green, Gloucester 

Robinson, Wm. Le Fleming, Hillesley House, Wotton-under-Edge 

Rogers, William Frederick, Tetbury 

Rome, T., Charlton House, Charlton Kings 

* Royce, Rev. David, M.A., Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold 

Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham 
Saunders, Joshua, Sutton House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

* Scarth, Rev. Prebendary, M.A., Wrington Rectory, R.S.O., Somerset 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 
Scott, Charles, 52, London Road, Gloucester 

Seaton, Rev. Douglas, M.A., The Vicarage, Goodrich, Ross 
Selwyn, Rev. E. J.. M.A., Pluckley Rectory, Ashford, Kent 

* Sewell, Edward C, Elmlea, Stratton, Cirencester 
Sewell, Rev. H., M.A. , The Vicarage, Wotton-under-Edge 
Sibbald, J. G. E., Accountant General's Office, Admiralty, London 
Shand, Miss, Old Hill House, near Ross 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 11, Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol 

Shaw, Rev. George F. E.. M.A., Edgeworth Rectory, Cirencester 

Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, Sherborne Park, Northleach 

Shipley, Alfred, Westbury-on-Trym 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A. Belcombe Brook, Bradford-on-Avon 

Simpson, J. J., Lynwood, Cotham Gardens, Bristol 

* Skillicorne, W. Nash, D.L., 9, Queen's Parade, Cheltenham 
Skrine, Henry Duncan, Claverton Manor, Bath 

Slater, Alexander, Waynflete, Hampton Road, Bristol 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., The Pynes, Keynsham, Bristol 

Smith. Thomas Somerville, Sittingbourne, Kent 

Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth 

Smith, Richard Henry, Grigshot, near Stroud 

Smith, William, Sundon House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

Society of Merchant Venturers, Bristol 

Sommerville, William, Bitton Hill, near Bristol 

Spencer, W. H.,M.A..M.B.,F. L.S., Lansdown Place, Clifton, Bristol 

Stackhouse, Rev. J. Lett, The Chantry, Berkeley 

Stanton. Charles Holbrow,M.A., 65, Redcliffe Gardens, London, S. W. 

Stanton, Walter John, Cooper's Hill, Stroud 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse 

Stanton, Rev. W. EL, M.A., Haselton Rectory, Cheltenham 

Stevens, Henry, Cheltenham House, Bishopston, Bristol 

Stokes, Miss, Tyndale House, Cheltenham 



II. 

Stone, John, 12, Royal Crescent, Bath. 

Street. Ernest, 43. Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Strickland, Edward 

Strickland, Algernon, Coleford 

* Sturge. Joseph Young, Thornbury 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M. D., 71, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swayne, Miss, 129, Pembroke Road. Clifton, Bristol 

* Swayne, S. H., 129, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Swinburne, T. W., Corndean Hall, Winchcombe 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., College Gate. Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol 
Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park. Bristol 

* Taylor, John, Bristol. City Librarian. 37, Clyde Road, Bristol 
Taylor, Rev. C- S., MA , 1, Guinea Street, Redcliffe, Bristol 
Taylor, Robert, Edge House, Stroud 

* Thomas, Christopher James, Drayton Lodge, Durdham Park, Bristol 
Thomas, William, 7, Charlotte Street. Queen Square, Bristol 
Thompson, Rev. H. L., M.A., Iron Acton Rectory, Bristol 

Thorp, Disney Launder, M.D., (Cantab..) Lypiatt Lodge, Cheltenham 

Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill. Moreton-in-the-Marsh 

Townsend. Charles. Avenue House. Cotham Park, Bristol 

Townshend, R. B„ Hillfields, Redmarley, Newent 

Trinder, Edward. Perrots' Brook, Cirencester 

Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G-.S., Frenchay, Bristol 

Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill. Cirencester 

Turner, A. H., Wotton-under-Edge 

Turner, A. M. Sydney, Barton Street, Gloucester 

Turner, T. 

Twells, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke Gate, Clifton, Bristol 

Uren, Miss, Crofton House, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 

Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar. Charlton Park. Cheltenham 
Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis. B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham 
Vizard, Major Gen., Enderby House. Dursley 
Waddingham, John, Guiting Grange, Winchcombe 
Wadley, Rev. T. P.. M.A., Naunton Beauchamp Rectory, Pershore, Hon. 

Member 
Wait, W. Killigrew, St. Vincent's Hall, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol 
Waldy, Rev. J. E., B.A., Claverton Rectory, Bath 
Walker, General Sir C. P. Beauchamp, K.C.B., 97, Onslow Square, 

London. S.W. 
Walker, C. B., Norton Court, Gloucester 
Walker, John, M. A., Westbourne House, Pittville. Cheltenham 

* Waller, Frederick S., F.R.I.B.A., 18, College Green, Gloucester 
Walters, Charles Astley, Wharfdale House, Cheltenham 
Warren. Robert Hall, Sunnyside. Apsley Road. Clifton, Bristol 
Wasbrough, H. S., 7, Gloucester Row, Clifton. Bristol 
Waters. Rev. Thomas, M.A., Staverton Vicarage, Daventry 
Wenden, James Gordon. 16, Wharton Street. Lloyd Square, W.C. 
Weston, Sir J. D., Dorset House, Clifton, Bristol 

Weston, John, Leslie Court, Barnwood, Gloucester 

Wethered. Charles. West Grange, Stroud 

Wethered. Edward, 5 Berkeley Place, Cheltenham 

Wethered. Joseph. Heatherfield, The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol 

Wheeler. A. C, Upton Hill. Gloucester 

White, George, Didmarton, Chippenham 

Whitwill, Mark, The Shrubbery, Weston-Super-Mare 



* Wig-gin, Rev. William. M.A., Hampnett Rectory, Northleach 
Williams, Rev. Augustin, Todenham Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh 
Williams, Adin, Lechlade 

* Williams, John, 16, Alma Road, Clifton. Bristol 

Wills, Frederick, Avonwood House, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol 

Wills, George. 3, Worcester Villas, Clifton, Bristol 

Wingfield, E. Rhys, Harrington Park, Burford 

Wintle, Charles, Queen Square, Bristol 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., FGS , H, Cavendish Crescent, Bath 

Wiseman, Rev. H. J., M.A., Clifton College, Clifton. Bristol 

Witchell, Edwin, F.G.S., The Acre, Stroud 

* Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham 

* Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, Upper Slaughter, Stow-on-the-Wold 
Wood, William B., Denmark Road, Gloucester 

Woodward, J. H., Richmond Park. Clifton, Bristol 
Wright, J,, Marlborough Lodge, Marlborough Hill, Bristol 

Yabbicom, Thomas Henry, C.E., 23, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Yatman, William Hamilton Highgrove, Tetbury 

Zachary, Henry, Cirencester 



Literary Societies, exchanging Transactions with this Society— 

The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 

London, W. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Royal Institution, Edinburgh 
The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1(5, New 

Burlington Street, London, W. 
The British Archaeological Association, 32, Sackville Street, London 
The Royal Institution of Cornwall. Museum, Truro, Cornwall 
The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby 
The Essex Archaeological Society, Colchester, Essex 
The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent 
The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 
The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 

Taunton 
The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec. Major Gen. 

The Hon. G. Wrottesley 
The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts 
The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. Sec. 

G. W. Tomlinson, Esq., F.S.A., The Elms, Huddersfield 



XI. 



TEEMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 

Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members, for a Composition of £5 5s., and an Admission 

Fee of 10s. fid. which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members, upon payment of 10s. fid. Entrance Fee, and 

an annual subscription of 10s. fid., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volumes of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 22nd of April, and the 
Treasurer. Mr. Ernest Hartland, will be obliged if mem- 
bers will send their subscriptions to him at Haidwicke Court. 
Chepstow. Subscriptions may also be made payable on the 
22nd of April in each year, through Member's Bankers to the 
Treasurer at the County of Gloucester Bank, Gloucester. 

By order of Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those Members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as Members to be made to the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, M.A.. Matson Rectory, Gloucester, Honorary Secretary. 



GETTY CENTER LIBRARY 

.III 



'■•*——"""•-—* 



m 

m 




'tfmm 



WW 



IH 

MM 



fBBLm 



Wmsm 

iK&iSfBlfl&lSBL 



\ 



■ 




mmm 



WMNP 

•'■■'• ■-■ : .'■'■'■ • 



I 
■3 



9 



Una 



II 






HH 



■ -- — ■■•■-■