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15 r is 1 1 u ntr (£ ta ut c st tx $ Ij i re 

^rcb ;ro ( g i t a I Batxztri 

FOR 1889-90.. 

Thb Council of the Bki.stol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the .Society. The Authors alone 
are responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and the 
Editor for the Notices of Books. 

Donations of Historical or Antiquarian Books, Tracts, 
Maps, Engraving's, &c, are invited to the Society's Library 
at the Museum, Gloucester. Librarian— The Rev. Wm. 
Bazeley, M.A., Hon. Gen. Sec. 



Bristol & (ftlourrotrrolitrr 

Hvtfyataloqital Society 

FOR 1889-90. 

Edited by SIE JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 






Transactions at Berkeley - - - ■ 1-4 

Transactions at Cheltenham .... 189-215 

The Architectural History of Avening Church, Glouc. By R. 

Herbert Carpenter, F.S.A., and B. Ingelow, Architects 5-13 

Testa de Nevill. Returns for Gloucestershire. By Sir Henry 

Barkly, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. - - - 14-47 

The Ancient Apse of Deerhurst Church, By the Rev. George 

BUTTERWORTH - - - - 48-49 

History of the Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers, and 
some account of its Possessors. By Sir John Maclean, 

F.S.A., V.P. - - - 50-116 

Abbot Newland's Roll of the Abbots of St. Augustine's Abbey, 

Bristol. Communicated by J. H. Jeayes, Esq. ' - 117-130 

Sanctuary Knockers. By Mary Ellen Bagnall-Oakley - 131-140 

Pychenecumbe — Abstracts of Original Documents in the Regis- 
ters of the Abbey of St. Peter's, Gloucester. By the Rev. 
John Melland Hall, M.A. - - - 141-162 

Leland in Gloucestershire. By John Latimer - - 221-224 

Remarks on the Liber Niger, or Black Book of the Exchequer. 

By Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. - - 285-320 

On Old Tools and Implements. By Robert Taylor, M.A. - 321-327 
Sevenhampton. By the Rev. John Melland Hall, M.A. - 328-355 
A Perambulation of the Forest of Dean, co. Gloucester, 10th 
Edward I. Contributed by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., 
F.R.S.A. (Ireland) ----- 356-369 
Accounts of Receipts and Payments for Exploration of the 

Roman Villa at Tockington Park. By Sir John Maclean 216-219 

Treasurer's Annual Account, 188S-9 - - - 220 

In Memoriam—Rey, Harry Mengden Scarth, M.A. . - 164-165 

„ „ William Henry Paine, F.R.C. P., F.G.S, - 370 



Diocese of Salisbury — The Church Plate of the County of Dorset, 
with Extracts from the Returns of Church Goods by the 
Dorset Commissioners of Edward VI., 1552. By J. E. 
Nightingale, F.S.A. .... 165-172 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library — Bibliographical Notes. 

Edited by Georce Lawren t ce Gomme, F.S.A. - - 172-174 

Barnstaple, and the Northern Part of Devonshire during the 

Great Civil War, 1642-1646. by Richard W. Cotton - 174-179 

Popular County History. — A History of Cumberland. By Rich. 

H. Ferguson, M. A., LL.M., F.S A. - - - 179-182 

The A. B.C. Book, both in Latin and English : being a, facsimile 
of the earliest extant English Reading Book, with an Intro- 
duction by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. - - - 182 

Proceedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Club for 1884-6 (Vol. I.) 

Edited by Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. - - - 183-184 

A Dictionary of Heraldry, with upwards of 2500 Illustrations. 

By Charles Norton Elvin, M.A. - - 184 

The Antiquary.— A Magazine devoted to the Study of the Past. 

Vols. XX. and XXI. - 185, 390 

Yorkshire Chap Books. Edited by Charles A. Federer, L.C.P. 185-186 
Yorkshire Legends and Traditions, &c. By the Rev. Thomas 

Parkinson - 186-187 

Calendar of State Papers (Domestic Series), 1644-16±6. Edited 
by William Douglas Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A., of 
H.M. Record Office - - - 371-373 

Fort Ancient, the Great Pre-historic Earthwork of Warren 

County, Ohio, U.S.A. By William K. Moorhead - 373-375 

An Introduction to English Economic History and Theory. By 

W. J. Ashley, M.A. - 375-376 

Studies in Evolution and Biology. By Alice Bodington - 377-37S 

Glimpses into Nature's Secrets. By Edward Martin - 378-379 

Passing Thoughts of a Working Man By Herbert Cloudesdey 379 

A Consideration of Gentle Ways. By Edward Butler - 379 

Newspaper Reporting in olden time and to-day. By John Pen- 
dleton ------ 379-380 

Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland of the reign of 
Elizabeth, 1692-1696. By Hans Claude Hamilton, Esq., 
F.S.A ------ 380-385 

Ireland under the Tudors, with a succinct account of the Earlier 

History, Vol. III. By Richard Bagwell, M.A. - 3S5-390 

Hallcn's London City Registers— St. Botolph. Transcribed by 

A. \V. Cornelius Hallen, M.A. . . . 300 

Church Plate in Kent. By the Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson - 391-392 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Edited by the Rev. Beaver 

H, Blacker, M.A. - - - - 392-393 

The Scottish Antiquary, or Northern Notes and Queries. By the 

Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.) - 393-394 

Cyniru Fu— Notes and Queries relating to the past History of 
Wales and the Border Counties, Vol. II. Edited by Geor<;e 
H. Brierley ..... 394. 

Western Antiquary — Note Book for Devon & Cornwall, Vol. II. 

Edited by W. H. R. Wright, F.R. Hist. Soc. - 394-395 

Notes and Gleanings. — A Monthly Magazine devoted chiefly to 
subjects connected with the Counties of Devon & Cornwall, 
Vol. II. Edited by W. Cotton, F.S.A. , and James Dallas, 
F.L.S. ------ 395 





Plate I. Plans of Avcning Church - - to face p. 

Plate II. „ „ - 

Plate III View of Manor House, Clifford Chambers 

Plate IV. Plans of Clifford Chambers Church - 

Plate V. Chalice and Paten, Clifford Chambers, 1494-5 - „ 

Fig. 1. Knop or point of the feet of the Chalice - on page 

Plate VI. Monumental Brass of Hercules Rainsford and 

Elizabeth, his wife, at Clifford Chambers - to face p. 91 

jPlate VII. Monumental Brass of Elizab. Marrowe, at Clif- 
ford Chambers .... 


Fig. 2 Escutcheon of the Arms of the Rev. Francis 

Hanbury Annesley - - - ou page 

Sanctuary Knocker, St. Nicholas Church, Glouc. 

*Fig. 3 
*Fig. 4 
*Fig. 5 

Do. at Adel Church, Leeds 

Do. at St. Gregory's, Church, 

Do. at All Saints' Church, York 

Do. at Durham Cathedral 

View of the Sanctuary, Holyrood - 
Chalice at Combe Keynes, Somerset 
Paten at Buckhorn, Weston, Somerset 
Chalice at Sturminster Marshall, Somerset 
Chalice at Wyley, Wilts - 
Elizabethan Cup with Paten Cover, 1576 
Chalice ami Paten from Cillingham 
Cup at Wraxall, 1615-1620 
Cup at Nosterton, 1714 - 
View of Church of Ozleworth, Clouc. 
N. Pier of Chancel Arch, Stoke Orchard, Glouc. 
Base of North Pier of ,, ,, 

Bell Turret of 
Plate XVII. View of Stoke Orchard Church, 
Plate XVIII View of Postlip Chapel 
Chancel Arch do. 

Base of Shaft of Arch, Postlip „ 

View of Sevenhampton Church 
Interior of Sevenhampton Church Tower 
Monumental Brass of John Camber - 




*Fig. 6 
*Fig. 7 
"Plate VIII 
t Plate IX. 
fFig. 8 
t Plate X. 
fPlate XI. 
fPlate XII. 
fPlate XIII 
fPlate XIV. 
fPlate XV. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. 9 

Fig. 10 

Fie. ii 

Fig. 12 
Fig. 13 
Fig. 14 
Fig. 15 
Plate XIX 


to face p. 140 


on page 167 

to face p. 168 
















to face p. 343 

on page 

to face p. 

on page 

J A donation of £10 10s. was made to the Society by the Rev. F. H. Annesley in aid of 
the printing and illustrating Sir John Maclean's " History of the Manor, &c, of Clifford 

* The drawings for the illustrations thus marked were made by the Author. 

t The engraved blocks for the illustrations thus marked were kindly lent by the Author 


instol nub &lsmmhtB$xt %xcbmla§mxl Satittg 

in 1889-90. 

Proceedings at the Spring Meeting, held at Berkeley, on Wednesday. 

29th May, 1889. 

The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society was held this day at Berkeley, 

where there was a very full attendance. Among those present were Mr. R. 

V. Vassae- Smith, President of the Society, Gen. Hale, Dr. Beddoe, V.P., the 

Revs. S. E. Baktleet and J. Mellaxd Hall ; Messrs. H. Adams, F. N. 

Baynton, W. J. Brackenridge, B. Bonnor, H. W. Bruton, E. Bush, J. 

B. C. Burroughs, C. H. Dansey, E. A. D'Argent, H. Derham, R. G. 

Foster, H. Martin Gibbs, J. Hale, W. W. Hughes, H. Lloyd, P. D. 

Prankerd, B. Matthews, C. Trusted, Rev. W. Bazeley, Hon. Secretary, 

Mr. V. R. Perkins, Local Secretary for Dursley, and a large number of 


The various sections of the party met at Berkeley station, and at once 

set out for 

Berkeley Church, 

where they were welcomed by the Revd. J. L. Stackhouse, the vicar, 
who read a paper, in the course of which he said that one striking 
peculiarity which immediately arrests the attention of the visitor is 
that the tower is separated from the church itself. There are many 
instances of separate towers, but few cases in which they are so far 
apart from the church as at Berkeley. In this case the distance is 
146 feet. The reason for this separation may be that a tower attached 
to the church would have been full of peril to the Castle, as archers once 
established on the top of such a tower would have commanded the Keep. In 
fact the church itself proved to be a danger to the neighbouring fortress, 
for it was through the church that the castle fell into the hands of the 
Cromwellites. The contest was in the north porch ; the carnage was fright- 
ful, the battle decisive for the beseigers, who immediately set to work to 
put some small guns on the roof of the church, and the castle surrendered. 
The present tower dates only from 1753, but it is a fair reproduction of 
an older tower which stood on the same site. It contains six bells, of fine 
tone and weight, which have just recently been re-hung and the tower itself 
restored. The curfew still rings out its ponderous note of warning at the 
hour of eight o'clock from Old Michaelmas day to the 25th of March. The 
churchyard is blocked up by unsightly tombs, which are quaint in size 
and shape, and still more quaint for the inscriptions upon them. He recom- 
mended the members to look at an old altar-tomb near the north door, 
Vol. XIV. b 

•2 Berkeley Church. 

to the memory of Thomas Pearce. On the west end of it, towards the path, 
is the following inscription : 

Here resteth the Body of 


who was five times 

Mayor of this Town 

who deceased the 25 

of Feb 1665 statis 77. 

And on the north side this : 

Here lyeth Thomas peirce whom no man taught 

Yet he in Iron. Brass, and Silver wrought, 

He Jacks and clocks and watches (with Art) made 

And mended too, when others' work did fade. 

Of Berkeley five tymes Maior this Artist was 

And yet this Maior, this artist, was but grasse, 

When his owne watch was downe on the last day, 

He that made watches, had not made a key 

To wind it up ; but useless it must lie, 

Until he rise againe no more to die. 
And at another, whereon is an epitaph on Richard Pearce, the Earl of 
Suffolk's jester, as under : 

Here lies the Earl of Suffolk's Fool 

Men call'd him Dicky Pearce ; 
His folly served to make Folks laugh, 

When wit and mirth were scarce. 
Poor Dick alas ! is dead and gone 

What signifies to cry 
Dickys enough are still behind 

To laugh at bye and bye. 

Buried Juke 18th, 1728, aged 63. 

The words, which are attributed to Dean Swift, are more witty than reverent. 
The exterior of the church gives no idea of the beauty of the interior. The long 
nave with its low roof, and the absence of a clerestory window on the north 
side, give the visitor who approaches the church for the first time an im- 
pression that the building is deficient in architectural beauty. Passing round 
the exterior to the west end, he said, you will come suddenly on a grand 
west front, with a doorway between two blank pointed arches ; the doorway 
itself has an obtuse arch elaborately foliated, with a detached shaft of Pur- 
beck marble on either side. The old oak door still bears the marks of the 
battle which took place on 23rd Sept. 1645. There are perforations through 
which the beseiged pointed their muskets at the attacking forces, and there 
are also many marks of the hostile bullets of the besiegers. Above the 
west door is a fine Early English window of five lights, which is one of 
the principal features of the building. Passing into the interior it is im- 
possible to enter this noble church without feeling that it is at once 
beautiful in its structure, and reverent in its arrangements. The nave and 
aisles belong to the 13th and 14th centuries, but the south doorway is a 
very remarkable example of transition from Norman to Early English. The 
font is a most interesting one of Norman workmanship ; three of the sides 

Transactions for the Year 1889-9(1. X 

bear marks of rough usage. At the screen there was an altar to St. Mary the 
Virgin, to whom the church is dedicated, and the piscina of this altar 
still remains, and j on the south side an altar to St. Andrew. These were 
founded— the first by Thomas Lord Berkeley (the third of that name), and 
the other by his widow. Their tomb is close by, with their effigies upon 
it. It is well known that this Lord Berkeley was tried for the murder of his 
Sovereign, and ultimately acquitted. Close to the screen, on the south side, 
a Roman tile has been built into the wall, and bears the following letters, 

< BCLVl7 

which were scratched upon it whilst still soft, and, probably, indicate that 
the situation had been occupied by the Tenth Cohort of the 6th Legion, but 
this interpretation would seem to be very doubtful. The first letter is very 
indistinct. On the south side of the chancel is the chapel used as the burial 
place of the Berkeley family. The stone roof is of a most interesting charac- 
ter, some of the carvings being very curious, especially one on a boss on the 
south side, with the representation of a fox with his paws on the pulpit, 
preaching to two geese, who are turning their heads away. The reredos 
is a recent gift to the church by Lady Fitzhardinge, who has placed it 
there as a memorial to her late father and mother. It represents the four 
Evangelists and our Lord in the centre. The window above is in memory 
of the great Dr. Jenner, who was buried in the chancel. The registers of 
the church go back only to October, 1653, and the ancient ones have been 
sadly torn and misused, so that they are scarcely legible. 

The President conveyed the thanks of the members to Mr. Stack- 
house for his paper, which, he said, had invested the subject matter with 
a new interest. The company having inspected the various details of the 
sacred edifice, a visit was paid to the vicarage, formerly the residence of 
the famous Dr. Jenner, and one of the sights of which was a summer-house 
where the doctor is said to have vaccinated his early patients. After lunch 
at the Berkeley Arms Hotel, the party proceeded to 

The Castle, 

having got safely under shelter in the Great Hall just before one of many 
heavy showers fell. They were received by the Hon. Elton Gifford, Lord 
Fitzharddinge's nephew, Mr. J. Peter, his Lordship's agent, and the latter, 
with the Revd. William Bazeley, acted as guides to the building. Many 
documents of interest were exhibited by the former gentleman, and Mr. 
Bazeley read notes on the History and Architecture of the Castle, collected 
from the able and exhaustive article on the subject by Mr. G. T. Clark, of 
Dowlais, F.S.A., on the occasion of the first visit of the Society to the 
Castle in 1876, printed in the first volume of the Transactions. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Bazeley's remarks, the party being \ 7 ery 
numerous, was divided into three sections, which were conducted by Mr. 
Bazeley, and Mr. Vincent Perkins, Local Secretary to the Society at 
Dursley, over the building, the chapel, King Edward II. 's reputed chamber, 
and other objects of special interest in the building. Afterwards the mem- 
bers were invited to ascend to the leads of the castie for the purpose of 

B 2 

4 The Castlk. 

seeing from that elevation the view of the Vale of Gloucester and the sur- 
rounding scenery. It was, however, somewhat disappointing, the rainy and 
misty state of the atmosphere tended greatly to obscure the prospect, which, 
from the inconsiderable height of the elevation, is not very extensive, and the 
thick foliage of the neighbouring trees greatly intercepted the view. Even 
the heights of the Cotswold hills, on the east, which bound the vale, could 
only be imperfectly seen. Mr. Perkins pointed out the sites of the chief 
places of interest, and read some interesting extracts from Leland, Camden, 
and from Smith's Hundred of Berkeley, relative to the ancient privileges of 
the Borough of Berkeley which was formerly a small port. These privileges 
however, have long since ceased, and the borough has dissolved itself and 
surrendered its municipal insignia to the Lord of the Castle. 

The Meeting now terminated, aud the parties returned to the railway 
station and proceeded to their respective homes, having, notwithstanding 
the stormy weather, spent an enjoyable day. 

A vexing Church, Glot-cesti:kphirf. 


An extract from the Report submitted to the Rector and Church- 
wardens, September 1st, 1S88. 


There is not, so far as we know, any documentary evidence 
connected with the history of the church in this place earlier 
than the time of the Norman Conquest ; soon after which the 
land called " Avening " was given by Queen Matilda who granted 
this and other manors in Gloucester to the nuns of "La Trinite " 
or the " Abbaye aux Dames," founded at Caen, in Normandy, 
by her. 

Previous to the Norman Conquest the Manor of Aveninge 
formed parcel of the vast possessions of Brictric, the son of Alnod, 
of the whole of which he was deprived by the Conqueror, who 
conferred the greater portion upon his Queen. 

The abbey had estates both in Gloucestershire and Dorset- 
shire, and it is on record that the Abbess occasionally crossed 
the sea to visit her English possessions. 

There was in all probability a Saxon church' at Avening, 
indeed the arches and lower windows of the tower are of such 
an architectural character that they might well have formed 
part of a building erected during the last period of the Saxon 
rule. But after a careful consideration and comparison of the 
various details, we are of opinion that the earliest portions of 
the church were probably erected after the land came into 
possession of the Nuns. 

The Drawing (Plate I. fig. 1) shews the plan of the church as 
it probably appeared until the end of the Norman period. 

Whether the actual termination of the east end was circular 
or square is uncertain, an apse, no doubt, was a very general 

6 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

feature of this period, more particularly in Normandy, but in 
this district of England the Normans frequently built square 
east ends, as at Devizes, Elkstone, Iffley, and Oxford. 

The chief entrance is on the north side of the nave ; it is 
a very fine round-headed doorway, with twisted ornamental 
shafts and carved capitals, of which latter, that on the left, has 
the frequently found treatment of two horse-like animals, with a 
human head common to both bodies : the other, or right-hand 
capital, has very rich conventional foliage. The tympanum 
enclosed by the moulded and chevron ornamented arch is, how- 
ever, now quite plain, instead of being filled with sculptures or 
figures from the " Bestiarium," as are so many of those described 
by Mr. Romilly Allen in his "Christian Symbolism." 

On the internal jamb is a curious sculptured stone, and it 
has been suggested by Fosbroke that the subject represented 
on it is Adam and Eve, symbolical of the Sacrament of Marriage, 
but on careful examination it is evident the stone is not in its 
original place, and that it has been cut at each end and used 
as a jamb stone for the inside of a doorway inserted in the 15th 
century. The portion of the stone which has been cut off from 
the east end can be seen in the rough stone filling-in between 
the outside jambs of the earlier and later doorways. The figures 
are arranged in pairs, in three divisions, under rudely-cut arches 
with pillars between each division, the figures are too mutilated 
to be identified, but as two of them hold something like an apple, 
they have been mistaken for Adam and Eve ; the figures are, 
however, draped, so Fosbroke's suggestion falls to the ground. 
This doorway should be compared with the south door at Wotton 
Church, which much resembles it, and also with the very singular 
south door at Beckford. The door in the south wall of the nave 
was much more simply treated. It is now blocked up, but a part 
of it is still visible externally ; its cill is about 28 inches above 
the level of the floor inside, this was in order to suit the ground 
outside, and is not uncommon in churches of this date. 

The windows of this first church are very plain and round- 
headed, with a wide internal splay ; three of them still remain, 

Avkxixg Church, Gloucestershire 7 

two above the north and south arches of the tower, and one 
on the north side of the chancel. They are all very high up, 
and are at about the same level, and probably traces of others 
may yet exist on the south side beneath the wall plastering. 
The fine eastern arch of the tower, the tower groining, and part 
of that in the western bay of the chancel are of this date, and 
of simple and massive character. 

The eastern arch is not a tx'ue semi-circle, but depressed and 
flattened at the crown, as in the case of the western arch of 
Sherborne Abbey tower (this is a not uncommon treatment in 
Norman times, the object aimed at was probably a better relative 
proportion of the arch to its piers, when these latter were low 
and the arch wide). It may be remarked that the inclination 
southwards of the southern pier is too slight to account altogether 
for the depression. 

We may here observe that inside the chancel at the western 
end of the south wall there is a square-headed doorway, now 
blocked up, but formerly communicating with the circular stairs 
leading to the upper stages of the tower ; from its position inside 
the chancel it is not likely that this door was intended for bell 
ringers only, and we suggest there was at Avening, as at Elkstone 
and Leckhampton, and probably at S. Mary's, Wareham, a room 
over the chancel used by the priest. At the east end of the 
nave, on the south side, is a recessed segmental arch very richly 
moulded, it has the characteristic chevron, and corresponds in 
detail with the north doorway. The lower part of it is now 
blocked up by pews, formerly, it is probable, there was an altar here. 
It is worthy of note, that during the recent works at Minchin- 
hampton, indications of a similar altar were discovered, with a 
recess above it to receive a piece of sculpture, and Sir Henry 
Dryden informs us that at the church of Langford, he found in a 
corresponding position evidences both of an altar and of a 
sculptured retable above it. 

We have now to describe, and if possible account for, the 
remains of a very curious ancient arrangement On the western 
jamb of the north-west tower piers there can still be traced the 

8 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

lines of an opening now filled up ; this, on the transept side, was 
2ft. 6in., but on the tower side much narrower, its cill was about 
3ft. 6in. above the floor, and close to it, on the angle of the great 
tower buttress, and in the transept, is the chamfered jamb of a 
doorway opening inwards to the west, the chamfer has a moulded 
stop under the end of the former flat lintel head, and thus 
resembles the blocked-up doorway in the west wall of the transept. 
Now in point of date we consider this work is Norman, and thus 
earlier than the north transept, and the position of the doorway 
seems to preclude the idea of its having been the entrance to a 
chapel. How, then, are these two openings to be accounted for 1 
It is suggested that they may have belonged to a " recluse's cell " 
attached to the church. We admit, of course, that these cells are 
very uncommon, but we know at least of one such at Aldrington 
in Sussex, where we restored and partially rebuilt the church. 1 
Here there was documentary evidence, not only of the existence 
of the ceil (which was attached to the chancel), but also of the 
" establishment " of the recluse by the Bishop of Chichester. 
(There are also some remains of a cell at Walpole, St. Andrew's, 
Norfclk, built against the western tower.) We may fairly believe, 
therefore, that a somewhat similar arrangement existed at 
Avening, and that the chamfered jamb was part of the outside 
door of the cell of a recluse, and that the opening through the 
pier was to enable him, or her, to join in the services of the 
church. Subsequently when the cell was removed and the 
transept built, the opening Avas blocked up for the sake of 
security before the arch in the tower was constructed. 

On the north side of the nave there is an arcade, much 

mutilated, of two round arches opening into a short narrow aisle 

or chapel. There is some evidence that this chapel was groined 

probably with a plastered stone vault, without ribs, as over the 

ambulatories of St. Bartholomew. Smithfield, but the alteration 

of the chapel into an aisle in the 14th century necessitated the 

removal of the vault. Possibly the blocked-up Norman doorway 

now in the transept Avail formerly belonged to the chapel. 

1 At Quinton, in this county, there is evidence of a similar cell (alluded 
to by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., Trans., Vol. XIII. p. 16S). 

Plate 1 

Fit> i 

Avening Church. 

t...r, ?. 

J T_ 

f -. 

DencUs Nc-rma*.: 

Early EngUsii.. 

•' Ancient wails no* 


Avenixcx Church, Gloucestershire. 9 

There is one other feature which calls for remark ; it is high 
up in the eastern wall of the porch, and is therefore only visible 
in the parvise or room over. It is a low, square opening with 
jambs, chamfered and stopped, and a flat lintel, resting on moulded 
corbel stones. It is impossible to say positively either what it 
was, or whether it is still in its original position, but as its cill 
is nearly on the level, which would correspond with the top of 
the groining (which there is reason to believe formerly existed 
over the aisle), while its head is at about the same level as the 
collars of the Norman rafters might have been, it may be in 
its original position, and may have been used for access into the 
space above the Norman vaulting. This opening may also have 
been made use of when the parvise was erected, and possibly an 
upper story in connection with it over the aisle. 

The ancient Norman roofs of the nave and chancel were lower 
in pitch than the present, so that their ridges would come below 
the string-course under the still remaining belfry windows of that 
period. These windows were doubtless repeated on the other faces 
of the belfry stage, and the tower was probably surmounted by 
a low lead-covered timber spire, such as still exists at Canterbury 
Cathedral, and at the old parish church of Dover. We may here 
note that through the timbers of the later roof the doorway (now 
blocked up) can still be seen by which access was gained from the 
tower to the space above the flat-boarded ceiling of the roof over 
the nave. 

The next stages in the history of the fabric are shewn on plan 
[Plate I. fig. 2), which gives the church as it may have appeared 
about the end of the 13th century. The first addition made was 
a chapel on the north side of the chancel, opening into it by a 
doorway, the jambs of which still remain. This building was 
most likely a Lady Chapel ; it was probably destroyed by fire ; 
its eastern foundations can still be traced, and its piscina (partly 
formed out of a Norman window-head) still exists in the north 
wall of the chancel, some ancient tiles, a piece of melted gold, 
and other relics have been found within its area. 

The porch, and the south and part of the north transept, also 
belong to this period ; the latter were built as chapels, and to 

]0 Transactions iok the Year 1SS9-9U. 

connect them with the church arches were pierced in the tower 
walls, that on the north being specially skilful in construction. 

The porch of this period was doubtless only a one-storied 
building, the roof being kept high enough to clear the beautiful 
arch of the north doorway. 

The plan (Plate I. fig. 3) shows the next important change in 
the fabric. 

This was the addition of the eastern bay of the chancel, a 
work of much artistic merit; it is groined in stone, and the 
vaulting ribs are so arranged as to harmonize with the lines and 
proportions of the earlier vault, the piscina still remains, and 
though mutilated, it is evident that originally it was a feature of 
great beauty. 

The object of this eastward extension is not absolutely certain, 
but it seems probable that it was to provide a Lady Chapel in 
place of that on the north side, which had been burnt down. The 
east window is low and wide in its proportions ; it has now 
completely lost its tracery, but we know that its centre light was 
wider than the side lights, for the original cill remains with the 
" stools " of the first mullions worked on it. These stools do not, 
however, fit the mullions now standing on them, while the 
insertion of a narrow piece of stone in the cill shows that the 
window was widened soon after its erection, and it is possible 
that some of the discarded ti-acery was put into the northern 
window of the chancel, which last was itself an insertion after the 
removal of the earlier Lady Chapel. The other side windows 
differ in their details from either of these two, and they are 
remarkably small and narrow in their lights. A similar one, now 
blocked up by the vestry, existed in the western bay. 

In the south wall of the Lady Chapel are some remains of the 
jamb of the ancient doorway, used possibly by the owners of the 
Lady Chapel and chancel as their private entrance. This door- 
way existed as recently as 1829, and is shewn on a plan of that 
date in possession of the Incorporated Church Building Society. 

Two of the southern windows of the nave, and the west door- 
way, were inserted in the 14th century, as well as the beautiful 

Avexixi; Church, Gloucestershire. 11 

northern and eastern windows of the north transept. [The ancient 
tracery and mullions of the former window were removed and re- 
placed with new in 1888, when the stained glass was put up.] No 
doubt there was a west window of this period destroyed when the 
wall was rebuilt in its present form. The fine roof of the nave is in 
very good condition, and, excepting the loss of the carved bosses 
at the intersection of the ribs, it has suffered but little change. 
It is considerably higher in pitch than the roof which it replaced, 
and consequently blocks the lower part of the Norman belfry 
windows before referred to. 

The transept roofs were altered in the 1 7th century, anciently 
they were of what is termed the " trussed rafter type," but the 
old cross ties or bi'aces have been taken away ; these, however, 
could easily be replaced, as the mortices still remain to show 
where they were framed in. 

The roof over the chancel was also reconstructed in the 17th 
century, and is lower in pitch than the ancient one of the 14th 
century, as is shewn by the old stone water-table of that date, 
on the then rebuilt eastern face of the tower. 

The northern chapel of the nave was rebuilt, and an arch was 
cut through into the transepts, and of this date a mutilated two- 
light window still exists, there is also a richly-moulded wall plate 
carried on corbels, which were let into the irregular face of the 
nave wall after the removal of the groining. The construction 
of this roof is now hidden under plaster, but it probably continued 
down the slope of that of the nave. 

In the 15th century the two buttresses on the southern side 
of the nave were built to strengthen the inclining wall, and the 
window between them was inserted ; this alteration involved the 
block ing-up of the old south doorway. 

At about the same time new stonework was inserted within 
the Norman north doorway, and another story or " parvise " was 
added to the porch ; this story was probably a priest's chamber ; 
the floor was formed by beams and joists, now removed ; there is 
nothing to show how the stairs to this room were arranged, but 
certain peculiarities in the walls give reason to think that there 

12 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

may have been at this time an upper story over the north aisle ; 
and that from this story the parvise may have been entered by 
means of the ancient opening described before, while the upper 
story itself was reached by stairs or by a ladder, arranged per- 
haps in connection with those to the rood-loft hereafter described. 

It is also possible that steps were contrived inside the porch 
on the west side (as at S. Martin's, Wareham), leading up into 
the parvise. With regard to the suggested upper story to the 
aisle, it is not a little remarkable that there is an example of one 
at Bishop's Cleeve, near Cheltenham, and that here too it is 
connected with the parvise of the porch. 

It would be very interesting to find out whether there are 
traces of a similar arrangement in any other of the Gloucester- 
shire churches (at Laycock, Wilts, there is an annexe to the south 
porch of two or three stories). 

The belfry stage of the tower was considerably altered, and the 
two upper battlemented stages were added, the general proportion 
and effect of this work are good, but the detail is somewhat 

It may be noted that inside the belfry there are large holes, 
apparently for beams, as if these stories had been originally 
divided by a floor. The work of this period was probably executed 
by the great Convent of Sion, to whom the property, forfeited to 
the Crown as that of a foreign convent, had been granted by 
Henry V. 

With these last works the mediaeval history of the fabric may 
be said to have closed, and we pass to the consideration of the 
ancient ritual arrangements, so far as they can be discerned or 
reasonably conjectured. 

In the first place it is obvious that there must formerly have 
been a rood-screen and loft across the east end of the nave, for 
the door leading to the latter still exists in its north wall just 
above the arcade of the side aisle. The cutting away and 
mutilation of the pillars, capitals, and arch-mould of the western 
tower arch were no doubt occasioned by its construction ; but 
these defects would, of course, be hidden by the woodwork of the 

Atoning Church, Gloucestershire. 13 

screen and its projecting gallery. It is not possible at present 
to determine how the stairs were contrived, although what may 
have been a portion of them still exists, formed of solid oak, but 
further investigation may throw light on this difficult and 
interesting question. 

With regard to the altars, there was one, as already observed, 
at the east end of the nave on the south side, but we have as yet 
found no traces of any ancient steps or levels to guide us as to 
the position of the high altar. If, however, the eastern bay of 
the present chancel was at one time a Lady Chapel, there would 
be some form of screen separating it from the chancel of the 
parish church, and against this screen or retable on its western 
side the high altar would stand, while doors in the screen would 
give access to the Lady Chapel, which could also be entered, 
without first going through the church, by means of the ancient 
door on the south side. 

The level of the footpace of the Lady Chapel altar may be 
inferred from the height of the ancient piscina. 

The General Plan of the Chmxm as it now exists, and indi- 
cations of the alterations made from time to time, are shewn in 
in Plate II. 

1 See Mr. R. Paul's paper "Notes in Gloucestershire." 

14 Transactions for the Yeak 1889-90. 



No. 8. 


The Return at page 82 headed " De Testa de Nevill," as if copied 
from the original Record thus designated, though printed last, 
ranks next in order of time, if my surmise x be correct that the 
payments from Religious Houses, credited at its close, were made 
on account of the Aid of 1235. 

It begins with a list of tenants by Serjeanty, liable, as is known, 
to oontribute on such occasions. In the case of the first eleven, the 
christian and surname alone are noted, without allusion to office, 
or locality and extent of holding. As the families referred to, 
however, are, as will be seen from the following enumeration, con- 
nected with the Forest of Dean (a single exception perhaps 
occurring), there can be little doubt that we have here the names 
of the officials x employed in its custody and remunerated by the 
occupation of a certain portion thereof by serjeanty, viz. — 
1. " Robert Erchemband holds by serjeanty. " 

The family of this name was chiefly connected with Cirences- 
ter, where Richard Erkenband is given in a subsequent Return as 
holding under a serjeanty in 1249, and where Geoffrey Erkenbald 
had an estato in 38th Henry III., 3 three years later. Rudder 
expresses an opinion that the latter was the descendant of the 
"freeman" mentioned in Domesday as holding two hides in 
that township " for which he did service to the sheriff throughout 

1 Trans., Vol. XIII., p. 352. 

2 Bigland gives a long list of the Wardens, Verderers, Woodmen, &c. , 
in the reign of Henry III.; whilst a document published by Rudder shows 
that in the time of Edward I. the forest was divided into ten Bailiewicks, 
each under an hereditary guardian. 

3 Rudder's Gloucestershire, p. 355. 

Testa de Nevill, 15 

all England. I can trace no connection with Dean, but they 
must have spread at an early date through the county, for in 
1128 a " Robert son of Erkenbald " gave half a hide of land in 
Condicote (near Stow) to St. Peter's Abbey. 1 

2. Thomas de Blacen by serjeanty. 

Evidently "Blakeney,"' which was one of the Bailiwicks of 
the Forest. Thomas de Blakeney was a juror for the Liberty of 
Dean Forest in 1248, 2 and in the reign of Edward I. he, or his 
son of the same name, held of the King in capite. 3 

3, Ralph Avenel by serjeanty. 

Though of good standing in Normandy at the date of the 
Conquest, the Avenels do not appear as Crown tenants in Domes- 
day. They however acquired lands in England during the reign 
of Henry I. principally in the Isle of Wight, then an Earldom 
of the De Redvers family. Probably through the same connection 
they became prominent in Gloucestershire 4 not long afterwards, 
for we find a Ralph Avenel holding from 1167 to 117-1 in Sand- 
hurst, a manor in which the Earls of the Isle had an interest 
subsequently. 5 Another Ralph, presumably his son, obtained in 
1200 continuation of a weekly market 6 in his vill of Bicknor, one of 
the Bailliewicks of Dean Forest, which constituted the Serjeanty 
above referred to. This Ralph died in 1223, and was succeeded by 
his son William, who held Bicknor till his death in 1226, when it 
passed to his daughter. 7 Either, therefore, the name of Ralph is 
inserted by mistake for his sons, or this List of Serjeanties is of 
earlier date than I conjectured. 

1 Cartulary, Vol. I., p. 124. 

- Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Society. Vol. X., p. 301. 

3 Rudder's Gloucestershire, p. 35.1. 

4 In the Carucage of 1221, in Cirencester Hundred, a vill of Avenel held 
by William de Marrys, appears to suggest the idea that the family in that 
county was of local origin, but I believe it to be a mistranscription of 
A vening. 

5 Vide Retain 1, Xo. IS, Testa de Xevill.— Trans. Bristol and Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. XII., p. 264. 

6 Close Roll, 2nd John. 

7 Vide Pedigree of the Avenels of Gloucestershire, by Sir John Maclean, 
Appendix to his Paper on the Manor of Bicknor. — Trans. Bristol and Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. IV., p. 318, 

16 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

4. William, son of Geoffrey de Dene, by the same. 

No doubt the William de Dene, who was one of the jurors for 
the Liberty of the Forest in 1248, and died seized of the manor 
of Great Dean, within the Forest of Dean in 1259. 1 

5. Robert de Aubemarle, by serjeanty. 

The Gloucestershire family of this name was apparently an 
offshoot of that in Devonshire, which sprung from Robert de 
Albamarla, who held a score of manors in the latter county at 
Domesday. On the Pipe Roll of 17th Hen. III. (Glouc.) Willia?n 
de Albamara rendered account of 10 marks for having sasine of 
the land of Rowarton (i.e. Ruardean, one of the forest bailiewicks), 
which his father Robert held from the King by serjeanty. This 
again seems to shew that the list is of earlier date than the rest 
of Return 8, but the explanation may be that the manor was not 
transferred to the son's name till his relief was paid. William had a 
younger brother of the name of Robert, whose daughters succeeded 
to Ruardean on their father's death in 40th Henry III., 2 but it is 
scarcely probable that this Robert, junior, should have inherited 
within the space of two years. 

6. Godfrey de Boxclive by serjeanty. 

I have failed to trace the connection of this family with any 
particular bailiewick, but it resided near the Forest, for the jurors 
of Blideslaw Hundred in 1221 make a presentment as to William 
de Boxclixe, who had been slain, and James and Martin de 
Boxclive, are pledges for the prosecution. 3 

7. John de Lascy, by serjeanty. 

Orde Lacu, as printed in Return No. 11, doubtless more cor- 
rectly, as one of the Bailiewicks of the Forest was so called. In 
1221 the jurors present the " Serjeanty of the Lake "as in the 
King's hands, and in the custody of John de Monmouth, 4 which 

1 See Sir John Maclean's History of the Manors of Dene Magna and 
Abenhall, and a pedigree of Dene and descendants. — Trans. Bristol & Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. VI., pp. 123-209. Inq. p.m, 43rd Hen.III. No. 18. 

2 See Sir John Maclean's History of Ruardean. — Trans. Bristol & Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. VIII. 

3 Pleas of the Crown for the County of Glouc. in 5th Henry III., edit. 
F. W. Maitland. 

4 Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester, 5th Henry III. — 
Edit. F. W. Maitland. 

Testa de Nevill. 17 

is continued by an entry in the carucage of that year under the 
heading "Liberty of the Forest of Dean." 1 William de Lacu 
was a juror for that Liberty in 1248. Nicholas de Lacu held in 
the time of Edw. I., when the manor was known as "the Lea." 2 

8. John Blund, by serjeanty. 

I presume a scion of the Blunts of Aure, who were better 
known by the latter surname. John Blund held in St. Briavels in 
1248, and was among the jurors for the Liberty of the Forest of 
Dean in the same year. 

9. Elias Rudele, by serjeanty. 

He no doubt took his name from Rodley, in Westbury 
Hundred. Ralph de Rodley attended the assizes in 1221 as one 
of the verderers (viridarii) to present complaints from the Forest, 3 
and there was one of the same name connected with it in the reign 
of Edward I. 4 

10. Walter, son of Walter, by serjeanty. 

Doubtless the then head of the Aure family, who having, ap- 
parently, been a minor in 1221, had succeeded since, both to the 
Ferm of Aure and to the twenty shillings' worth of land in that 
manor which was held by the serjeanty of waiting in the King's 
chamber. 5 

11. Richard de Blechesdon, by serjeanty. 

This family derived its surname from a vill in Westbuiy 
Hundred. 6 Baderon de Blechesdon held it in 4th John, 7 and 
Richard, probably his son, was one of the verderers who repre- 
sented the Forest in 1221. 8 From this point, as will be seen, 
information is added in each case in the Return as to the nature 
of the service. In the three first, vizt. — 

1 Testa de Nevill, p. 79b. 

2 Rudder's History. 

3 Pleas of the Crown for the County of Glouc, 5th Hen. III. 

4 Rudder's History. 

5 See Return 1 , where this Walter's grandfather is referred to as Walter 
Blund of Aure. —Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XII., p. 287. 

6 Gloucestershire Carucage of 1221, Testa de Nevill, p. 79. 

7 Pedes Finium in Anno. 

8 Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester, 5th Henry III. 

Vol. XIV. c 


12. Peter de Kingeshome, by serjeanty of keeping the King's door. 

13. Osbert de Grava, by archery — land in Upton. 

14. Heirs of Isaac de Stradewy — by 100 arrows 

It is worth noting that the entries repeat in an abbreviated 
form those on Return No. I 1 (marked likewise as from "Testa de 
Nevill "), no allusion being made to the changes of name in the 
later holders of the serjeanty as indicated by Return 3. These 
have already been fully described. 

15. Hugh de Kylpecke holds Little Tainton by serjeanty — of which 
the Canons of Stodleye :? hold half a virgate from him in alms. 

In Domesday, " Tatinton " (identified with the above manor) 
was held by William, son of Norman, Hugh's progenitor. It was 
" free land," and worth 20s., but a virgate lay on the Forest (of 
Dene) and paid 12d. William's land in Dene was held free on con- 
dition of keeping that forest, but Little Taynton was held by his 
descendant by the serjeanty of keeping the Hay of Hereford, that 
is the woodland around that city." 4 

16. Richard de la Mare — holds a certain portion of land by the 
serjeanty of keeping the King's door. 

" Many others are concerned in the same service through him." 

The Gloucestershire portion of the lands, held in virtue of this 
serjeanty was at Wenrich, in Slaughter Hundred. It appears to 
have been already alienated and subdivided, but fuller particulars 
on the subject will be given hereafter, Avhen 1 come to discuss 
Return No. 11. 

17. John Archer, two carucates in Stoke by the service of archery. 

According to a Return of the time of King John, to be found 
in the " Testa," at page 42, under Worcestershire, John the Archer 
held five hides in Stoke of the King, and the King from the Bishop 
(of Worcester) by the serjeanty of archery. Originally, no doubt, 

1 Vide Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Soc, Vol. XII., p. 288-9. 

2 Vide Ditto, Vol. XII., p. 299 and 302. 

3 Hugh was in ward to William de Cantilupe, patron of Stodley Priory, 
until his coming of age in 1216. He died in 1244, when his estates went to 
his two daughters. 

4 Plac. Coron, 32nd Hen. III., Rot. 10 in dorso. 

Testa df. Nevill. 19 

the service had to be performed in person, but it had resolved 
itself into the obligation of finding a bowman for forty clays to 
follow the King's army within the four seas of England : in time 
of war. 
18. John Blund, lands in Walcworth by the serjeanty of carrying 

writs (Brevia). 
Otherwise Walsworth, a hamlet in King's Barton, which seems 
to have been farmed by the bearers of writs when Gloucester 
was a Royal residence. Ralph de Walsworth held 2 virgates there 
by this service in 53rd Hen. III., and Adam de Arderne 1 virgate 
there, later. 2 Probably John Blund was predecessor of one or other. 

After this entry comes a note, apparently inserted by the 
copyist, to the effect that " In other counties through the fore- 
going Inquisitions nothing is found as to this Inquisition concern- 
ing serjanties," 3 meaning, I take it, that he has not found by the 
Returns of the Aid of 1235 for other counties any notice of 
assessments on serjeanties ; — a statement which, so far as I have 
searched, is accurate. 

The copyist then proceeds without comment to make the 
twelve entries as to amounts assessed upon the religious houses 
in Gloucestershire for the same Aid, beginning with "The Prior 
of Ashley," and ending with " The Abbot of St. Augustine's, 
Bristol," as already cited in my former paper. 4 As these do not 
require to be repeated, I pass to 

RETURN No. 9, 

" Aid of the Prelates granted to the King against his crossing 
into Gascony in the 26th year of his reign." 
This is an extract of so much as relates to the County of 
Gloucester, of a Roll bearing this title, but including the whole 
of England, which is still preserved at the Record Office. 5 

1 Vide Inq. ad quod damnum, taken at Gloucester 25th Edw. III. (2nd 
Nov. 1350), Calendar No. 47. 

2 See Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 23S. 

3 " In aliis comitatibus per inquisitiones premissas, nicliil p inquisionem 
istam invenitur de Serjanterijs." 

4 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XIII., p. 354. 

5 See a Paper by me in the Genealogist, Vol.V., No. 16, on the mode in 
which the Testa de Nevill was compiled. 

C 2 


Henry III. having, in February, 1242, been refused a subsidy 
by his nobles, raised such funds as he could, and sailed for his 
Continental dominions after Easter, with a view of supporting 
his step-father, Hugh Count de Marche, in his revolt against the 
French King. 1 

The Aid above referred to was in all probability not granted 
until after his departure, for the Lords Spiritual had concurred 
with the Lords Temporal in this refusal, though they gave way 
subsequently, at the instance it may be inferred of the Archbishop 
of York,- who was left Guardian of the Kingdom. It would seem, 
however, as if in lieu of a regular assessment, each prelate had 
agreed merely to give as much as his House could afford. Only 
eight indeed contributed in Gloucestershire, vizt. — 

1. Abbot of Winchcumbe 

2. Abbot of Gloucester 

3. Abbot of Cirencester 

4. Prior of Lanthony .... 

5. Abbot of Tewkesbury .... 

6. Prior of Newent .... 

7. Prior of Deerhurst - 

8. Abbot of St. Augustine's, Bristol - 

and it will be found by a comparison of these amounts with those 
in Return No. 8, that no uniform ratio existed between the con- 
tributions of the same religious houses at the two periods. Thus 
in the first case, the amount payable in 1242 was half as much 
more than in 1235. In the third, fifth, and eighth cases it was 
precisely the same. In the second and the seventh it was half ; 
whilst in the sixth it was three-fifths, and in the fourth, three- 
eighths only. The Priories of Ashley, Horsley and Beckford, 
which appear in the list of 1235, are omitted. The result is that 
the total was but 166 marks = £110 8s. 8d. instead of as before 
273£ marks = 189 2s. 3d. 

1 Matthew Paris, Vol. IV. 

2 Walter de Gray, who had held that dignity from the commencement of 
the reign, and was a man of great influenee. The Archbishopric of Canter- 
bury was in the King's hand. 

















Testa de Nevjll. 21 

The inequalities, moreover, in the Gloucestershire payments 
are trifling compared with those discoverable in a supplementary 
Return printed among "Returns from Divers Counties " almost 
at the end of the Testa (p. 412) under the heading : " In Account 
of the Aid for the crossing of the King into Gascony," wherein, to 
take Lincolnshire, the Prior of Bakemere is entered for one mark, 
and the Prior of St. Swithin comes next for two hundred ; whilst 
the Prior of Parva Lude (Louth) gives a single palfrey, against 
three palfreys given by the Abbot of Fountains, Yorkshire. 
Altogether the accounts are more like those of a " Benevolence " 
than an Aid levied in the ordinary manner. Another sign too is 
that payments in several instances were not made at the Ex- 
chequer in the usual form, but are specially noted as having been 
handed to Peter Chacepore (the King's clerk) in the wardrobe. 

RETURN No. 10. 
Although the Return which follows No. 9 has been headed (pro- 
bably by the Exchequer copyist of the 14th century) as if it related 
to serjeanties, 1 its proper title is evidently that set out lower 

" Receipts of the Scutage of Gascony from the Bailiwick of 
Cirencester," the latter phrase meaning the " Seven Hundreds 2 " 
farmed by the abbey of that place from the Crown. 

After an inglorious campaign, ending in a truce for four years 
with King Louis, Henry took up his winter quarters at Bordeaux, 
where the expense of supporting his troops was so heavy, that he 
had recourse to the usual expedient of taxing his tenants in 
capite at home. Rapin, the only English historian who adverts 
to the matter, states at the commencement of his narrative for 
1243, 3 that the archbishop, under orders from his Royal master, 
obtained of the parliament a scutage of 20s. on every knight's fee. 
Bishop Stubbs, 4 in the absence of evidence as to parliamentary 

1 The primary heading : " Serjantie mutate in Servicia Militaria." Hen. 
de Monenue 1 am partem Wills Wyberd 1 am partem " must have been 
copied by mistake from some Return not now extant. 

s Vizt., Cirencester, Bradley, Britwoldsbury, Bisley, Rapsgate, Langtree 
and Whitston. 

3 Vol. III., p. 76. * " Select Charters." 

22 Transactions for the Year 1SSJ-90. 

sanction, suggests that the tax was exacted by an exercise of the 
Royal prerogative alone. 1 This accords with the charge of 
"extortion" brought against the King by Matthew Paris, from 
whose Chronicle it may be further gathered that the order was 
issued at Michaelmas, 1242, and that not 20, but 40, shillings per 
fee was the amount to be collected.- The latter assertion is 
corroborated by this Return (No. 10), in which all payments 
credited are at the higher rate, another instance being thus 
afforded where the "Testa de Kevill " serves to clear up a doubt- 
ful historical point. 

Whether the circumstance of these payments being accounted 
for through the Abbot of Cirencester, instead of by two lay 
collectors as in 1235, indicates that the influence of the church 
was as far as possible employed in collecting an obnoxious impost, 
there is not evidence to decide, this being the sole Return in the 
Testa for a particular county. This may perhaps be attributable 
to the fact that such accounts must in the main have been but a 

1 That Henry had resolved to adopt this course even before he left 
England is clearly shown by his having on 1st May issued writs at West- 
minster granting permission to the nobles who were to accompany him, to 
levy a scutage on their own tenants. The Roll on which these writs were 
engrossed is in the Record Office. It is entitled " Scutagium concessum ad 
transfretandum domini Regis Henrici filii Johannis in Vasconiani — anno 
regni ipsius Regis H. xxvi., militibus subscriptis qui cum rege venerunt. " 
Read between the lines it throws light in many ways on the situation. He 
styles his brother Richard for example not only Earl of Cornwall, but Earl of 
Poictou, the cause of his quarrel with France, whilst the disinclination of 
the Baronage to espouse that quarrel is shown by the small number who 
went (77 in all), and by the length of time which elapsed before some of 
them followed him, — Simon de Montfort not getting his writ until the 25th 
June, and others as late as the 28th August at Bordeaux, when the campaign 
was over ! It need only be added that the concessions are expressly stated 
to be " de dono regis," without allusion to council or parliament. The last, 
however, to Geoffrey le Despenser, for a fee which he held in ward, is said 
to be granted " at the time when it was provided that a scutage should 
be given in the Kingdom of England," which almost looks as if the Royal 
edict had eventually received some sort of sanction. 

- After a paragraph in which the above date is mentioned, the Cotton 
MSS. has eodem tempore scutagium per totam Angliam (viginti) solidos de 
(scuto) Rex Anglie sibi fecit extorqueri," — the words between brackets 
being blank in the text, but added in the mai'gin ; whereas the MSS. in 
the library of Corpus Christi College states the amount as " tres marcas," 
which is clearly correct. 

Testa de Nevill. 23 

repetition of the collection made at the same rate in 1235, not, 
however, without appreciable differences, as shewn by a Return 
for the County of Kent at page 416 in the Testa, which is headed : 
" These are in the Aid for marrying the King's sister, but not in 
the Scutage of Gascony." 

It should perhaps be added that the Return for Divers Coun- 
ties, at p. 412, already alluded to, might be taken to prove that 
there ivere lay collectors, since it begins by naming Sir Robert 
Passelew, and Nigel the Clerk, as rendering account for Hamp- 
shire, to the extent of £14 Is.; but the former was the King's sub- 
Treasurer, and the latter, no doubt, an Exchequer official, so that 
they probably were acting ministerially ; whilst as regards the 
other counties noted in the margin, no collectors are named. In 
fact the lay contributors mentioned seem to have been for the 
most part custodes of the lands of minors, subject, of course, to 
pressure from the Crown. 

Proceeding after this digression to an examination of the Return 
it will be found, comformably with its second title, to contain a list 
of the names of certain sub-feofees in the Hundreds around Ciren- 
cester, with the sums l'eceived from each. The entries run as 
follow : — 

1. From Ralph de Leche for a whole fee in Eastlech of the fief 1 

of the Earl of Gloucester, 40s. 

Ralph de Leche was in 1248 one of the jurors 2 of Brit- 
woldesbury, in which this fee was situated, and in 1285 a person 
of the same name, perhaps his son, held it of Herbert de St. 
Quinton, and Herbert of the Earl of Gloucester. 3 In 1346, John 
de Leeche is said to hold the lands and tenements in Eastleach 
and Twining, which had been Ralph's, as the fourth part of a fee. 4 

2. From Richard de Baggindon for half a fee, and the twelfth 
part of one fee in Baggindon, of the fief of Roger de Chandos, 
23s. 4d. 

1 I translate feodum " fief " when used in this wider sense, in order to 
avoid confusion. 

2 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. X., p. 305. —A Gloucester- 
shire Jury List of the 13th century. 

3 Idem , Vol. XL, p. 143— Kiiby's Quest. 

* Idem., Vol. X., p. for Knighting the Black Prince. 

24 Transactions fok the Year 1883-90. 

The subinfeudation of the Baggindons in the manor from 
which they derived their surname, has been already mentioned in 
the notice of Roger de Chandos in a previous paper. 1 It lasted 
upwards of a century longer, for in the Return for Cirencester 
Hundred in 1346, a Richard de Baggyndon held the half and 
twelfth part of a fee there 2 which his predecessor of the same 
name had done in the time of Edward I. 

3. From Cecilia de Evereus and Galiena de Turvill for two fees 

in Estlech of the rief of Walter de Lacy, £i. 

It may be surmised that these ladies were sisters, and that as 
the manor they held conjointly in Britwoldesbury Hundred was 
known as Eastleach-'iWvi/e, — the former had changed her name 
through marriage. The two fees thus held of Walter de Lacy 
are apparently those for which Henry le Fleming answered in the 
Aid of 1235, 8 and it might have been assumed that they were at. 
that date in ward to him together with the heiresses, were there 
not circumstances tending to prove that the latter had long ere 
that passed their minority. As regards the first, the fact of the 
manor being styled " Lecche Cecilia" in the Carucage of 1221, 
looks as if she were in possession even then, and this idea is 
corroborated by finding that about the middle of the century she 
had a grown up son, Nicholas, 4 to share her inheritance, which ex- 
tended into several counties. I imagine that she was the second 
wife of Stephen d'Evei'eux, 5 the name of whose son and heir, 
William, often stands next to hers in these Returns. 

Galiena de Turvile seems to have been of age still earlier, for 
so far back as 1213 she transferred by fine 6 the manor of Norton 
to her sister Dionisia, widow of William de Berkeley of Cobberly, 
who is known to have been a daughter of Robert de Turvile." 

1 Idem., Vol. XIII., p. 340. 

- Mem., Vol. X., p. 281. 

3 Idem., Vol. XIII., p. 327. 

4 Vide Testa de Nevill, p. 414. I am not sure of the date of the Return 
in which he is mentioned. Possibly it may not be earlier than 1260. 

5 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XIII., 339. 

6 Pedes Finium, Glouc, 15th John, No. 66.— Though bound up with the 
Fines of that county, I believe it to relate to Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. 

7 Vide Cal. Inq. p.m., 27 th Henry III., No. 26.— On Giles de Berkeley. 

Testa de Nevill. 25 

Galiena was also a joint-tenant of two fees in Wilts, under John 
fitz Geoffrey, and held in capite the vill of Hosington, in Hants, 
as a tenth of a fee in which Jordan la Ware had been sub-enfeoffed. 

4. From Gilbert de Schipton for one fee in Schipton of the fief of 

William the Monk (Monachus), 40s. 

This was not the knight's fee which William le Moine held by 
serjeanty in the same vill, but another held by military service, 
wherein the family whose surname was taken from it, as above 
shewn, had long before been sub-enfeoffed. Probably indeed they 
descended from Rumbald, the sub-tenant who held 10 hides plus 
1 hide in Seipetune at the time of the Domesday Survey, for it 
was a Gilbert, son of Rumbald, who in 1199 fined 100s. to be 
recognised by Robert le Moyne as feoffee of the two knights' fees 
held of him at Scipton. 1 

This arrangement was so far modified in 1210 that Gilbert 
agreed to resign the advowson of the church of Scipton to Ralph 
le Moyne, who thereupon diminished the service by half a knight's 
fee, and also gave up a virgate of land and a messuage situated 
between their respective manor houses. 2 

When and why the service was further reduced to that of a 
single knight does not appear, but it was no mere temporary 
concession, since in 1285 it was found that William le Moyne 
held in Skipton by the serjeanty of being the King's larderer, and 
that Gilbert de Skipton held one knight's fee in the same vill, 
from the aforesaid William. 3 The history of the serjeanty will be 
traced when we come to Return No. 11. 

5. From William de Mara for two and a half fees, and the third 
part of a fee in Rindcoinbe, Cerney, Kalemundesdon, and 
Truesbiri, of the fief of the Earl of Gloucester, 113s. 4d. 

Rendcombe and North Cerney, of which latter Calmesden is 
a hamlet, are in the Hundred of Rapsgate ; belonged to the 
same owner at Domesday ; and descended together afterwards. 

1 Pedes Finium, Glouc, 1st John, No. 22. 

2 Idem., 12th John, No. 65. 

3 Kirby's Quest— Hundred de Langtre. — Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. 
Society, Vol. XL, p. 152. 

og Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Trewesbury, in the parish of Cotes, Cirencester Hundred, may 
have constituted the third of a fee spoken of ; but if so, the Earl's 
small manor in Cotes must have been reckoned with it, for it was 
only half a hide. Both had belonged to Gislebert fitz Turold at 
Domesday, and usually passed as one holding. 

With regard to William de Mara, the great fief of Mara in 
the Commune of Antretot, in Normandy, had given a surname to 
its lords before the Conquest, and the Sire de la Mare is included 
by Wace among those who fought at Hastings, The name, how- 
ever, does not appear among the tenants in capite at the time of 
the Great Survey, although there is reason to infer that William 
son of Norman, the ancestor of the lords of Kilpeck, was entitled 
to bear it. 1 What is certain is that before 1123 Walter of 
Gloucester, father of Milo, afterwards Earl of Hereford, gave to 
William de Mara, his nephew, two fees in Little Hereford ; 2 and 
further that in 1165, Robert de Mara, who can be shown to have 
been that William's successor, held ten fees of William Earl of 
Gloucester. 3 The latter must have included those here mentioned 
in Rendcombe, for he gave lands in that vill to Bruern Abbey, co. 
Oxon ; a donation which was confirmed, and probably enlarged, 
by another William de Mara, presumably Robert's son, between 
1171 and 1183. 4 

The William de Mara of this Return was, of course, of a still 
later generation. His descendants continued to hold the same 
manors under the Earls of Gloucester for upwaixls of a hundred 
years after its date, for in 1285, 5 a William de la Mare is found 
holding Rendcombe of the Earl as three fees, as also Trewsbury 
as the tenth part of a fee ; whilst in 1346 6 Thomas de la Mare 
and his tenants paid the aid for two knights' fees in Rendcombe. 

6. From William de Lesseberg for one knight's fee, in Lesseberge, 
of the fief of William de Kaines, 40s. 

1 Vide Roll of Battle Abbey, by the Duchess of Cleveland, Vol. II. , p. 192. 

2 Vide Ancient Charters, edited by J. Horace Round, Esq., part 1, No. 11. 

3 Liber Niger, Vol. I., p. 160. 

4 Ancient Charters ut supra, No. 45. 

6 Kirby's Quest. — Trans. Bristol & Gloucester Arch. Society, Vol. XI. 
s Aid for Knighting the Black Prince, ditto, Vol. X. 

Testa de Nevill. 27 

The William de Kavnes mentioned in Return No. 1 l as hold- 
ing two knights' fees of the king (John), died in 6th Henry III., 2 
leaving his son and heir of the same name a child, in ward at 
first to the Bishop of Salisbury, but later, apparently, to Simon de 
Montfort, to whom an order regarding him was addressed in 19th 
Henry III. 3 His minority accounts for the absence of the second 
William de Kaynes from the list of those who paid the aid of 
that year, but he had clearly come of age before 1242. As the 
Kaynes family resided in Somersetshire, their sub-feofees at Las- 
borough seem to have become practically independent, An earlier 
William de Lasborough had bestowed a hide out of it on St. 
Augustine's, Bristol, 4 and the one here mentioned, who was appoint- 
ed Sheriff* of Gloucestershire in 1255, obtained in the following 
year a grant of free warren 5 over his demesne lands in the manor, 
the existence of his overlord not being even alluded to. In the 
Inquisition on his death, however, in 1260, he is stated to have 
held a fee in Lasseberge worth twenty marks per annum of Sir 
William de Kaynes by the service of one knight. 6 His only 
daughter and sole heiress, Agatha, then twenty years of ago, was 
married to Henry, son and heir of William cle Dene, which Henry 
is recorded in Kirby's Quest as holding the fee of the heirs of 
Robert de Kaynes." Another William de Dene succeeded, after 
whose death in 1310 s a third had livery of his inheritance in 
Dene on 14th October in the last named year. This William 
died in 1319 9 leaving two daughters and coheirs, Isabel five years 
old, and Joan aged only one month, whose wardship and marriage 
fell to the King, 10 as the lands in Great Dean were held of him in 
capite. The Manor of Lasborough was found on the same occasion 
to have been held by William of Hugh le Despencer, senior. By 
what means its overlordship had been wrested from the De Kaynes 

1 Testa de Nevill.- Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XII. p. 267. 
- Excerpta e Rot. Fin., Vol. I., p. 82. 
3 Excerp' e Rot. Finium, Vol. I., p. 275. 
* Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 408. 

5 See Charter of Inspeximus on Patent Roll, 4th Rich. II. 

6 Inq. p. m. 45th Hen. III. No. 20. 

7 See Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Soc, Vol. X.. p. 152. 

8 Writ of " Diem Clausit Extremum " dated 7th Edw. II. Rot. Fin. 

9 Inq. p. m. 12th Edw. II. No. 31. 
10 Ibid. 

2S Transactions tor the Year, 1889-90. 

family, I have not discovered, 1 but this had, apparently, been 
done with the connivance of the sub-feoffee, since it is recorded 2 
that Hawise, wife of Robert de Kaynes, had, " as Lad)' of the 
Fee," 3 put one Henry de Lasborough into possession, whilst Hugh 
le Despencer supported the claim of William de Dene, who is 
styled " his steward." The result proved disastrous to the latter's 
infant daughters, for shortly after his decease, Hugh demised the 
manor by deed to Geoffrey de Westone (who had appeared at the 
Inquest in the capacity of his attorney) to be held of him as 
custos till the minors should attain the lawful age. 4 This arrange- 
ment lasted till 1326, when, after Hugh, who had been created 
Earl of Winchester, was beheaded, the custoship was transferred 
to Robert de Gold hull, by whom Lasborough was shortly after- 
wards surrendered to the King's escheator, William Trussell, who 
claimed it as part of the Earl's forfeited estates. Notwith- 
standing the verdicts of jurors after the Inquisitions on oath in 
1327 and 1328, whereby it was distinctly declared that the manor 
was William de Dene's, and that Hugh le Despencer had entered 
on it after William's death in no other capacity than that of 
custos pending the minority of his daughters, the claim of the 
Crown seems to have prevailed, and neither they, nor the husbands 
to whom they were subsequently wedded, Ralph ap Eynon and 
Ralph de Abenhall, ever obtained sasine. How long it was kept 
by the escheator does not appear precisely, but we find that in 
1346 the aid in respect to it was paid by Thomas de Astern, 1 who 
cannot, however, have continued in possession beyond 1354, in 
which year a charter of free warren over the lands was granted to 

1 Three years later Robert de Kaynes, junior, was in common with most 
of the Gloucestershire Barons, attainted for " the Pursuit of the Despencers," 
After their downfall he was pardoned, but never recovered Lasborough nor 
the more important Domain of Somerford-Keynes, in Wiltshire, of which it 
had been made a dependency. 

2 See documents quoted by Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 408. 

3 Dugdale (Baronage, Vol. I., page 427) says Hawise was the widow of 
Robert de Kaynes, and the title here given to her looks as if she held 
Lasborough in dower. 

4 These particulars are derived from an Inquisition in 2 Edw. III. No. 80. 

5 See Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. X., p. 284. It is not 
clear who he was. There are manors so called both in Gloucestershire and 

Testa IjE Nevill. 29 

John Basset. 1 The latter died in January, 1363, seized " in demesne 
as of fee of the King of the Manor of Lasborough, by fealty as of 
the demesne of Samford-Keynes in the hand of the King existing," 
leaving as his nearest heirs two daughters : Margaret two years 
old, and Alice one. 2 This John was the eldest son of Sir Simon 
Basset 3 of Uley, who survived him by rather more than a year. 
He had received from his father, on his marriage, 4 Wynford, 
Saltford, and other manors in Somersetshire, held of the Honour 
of Gloucester, but these, on his premature decease, instead of being- 
kept for his infant heirs, were resumed by Sir Simon, and retained 
by the latter's second wife, Maude, 5 daughter of Sir John de 
Bitton, in spite of protracted litigation, till her death in 12th 
Ric. II., when she made them over to her surviving son, Edmund 
Basset of Uley. It is unnecessary to give details of the contro- 
versy or its issue here, 6 as it did not affect the Manor of 
Lasborough, the custody of which, including that of the minor 
heirs, passed in due course into the King's hand. Alice, the 
younger of the two, dying at the age of five, her sister suc- 
ceeded to all her rights. 7 These passed afterwards to Walter 

1 Both Atkyns and Rudder assert this fact, but, as usual, give no refer- 

2 Inq. p. m. 36th Edw. III. No. 19. 

s So described in Inquisition, p.m., 13 Ric. II., No. 4. 

4 "In dote." See Inquisition. 

5 Smyth (Hundred of Berkeley, p. 184) says Sir Simon had no children 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, but Maude was clearly John Basset's step- 
mother, for her former husband, Sir Wm, de la More, did not die till 1341. 
(Herald and Genealogist, Vol. IV. p. 195,) so that no son of hers by Simon 
Basset could have had a Charter of Free Warren in 1354, nor died a Knight 
in 1363, with a daughter 2 years old. Moreover, the Chancery Decree in 
7th Ric. II., declares that she had no grounds for occupying Wynford, &c, 
either through "affinity or consanguinity," which could hardly have been 
asserted if she were the mother of the last owner. 

fi It seemed desirable to advert to it however, if only for the purpose of 
pointing out the absurd errors into which Rudder fell, through finding in 
the Calendar several Inquisitions, at distant dates, as to the lands held by 
a John Basset, and not taking the trouble to ascertain that they all related 
to the same person, who died on the Thursday after Epiphany in 36 Ed. III.; 
instead of referring, as he does, that of 7th Rich. II. to a John, son of John 
Basset, and that of 21st Ric. II. to a John, son of the second, who, according 
to his idea, was the fatlier of Margaret —See Rudder's Gloucestershire Las- 
borough, p. 5)6. 

7 See Inq. p. m. 5th Ric. II. No. S. Alice had died in 41 Ed. III. (1367). 

30 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

Broun, to whom the hand of Margaret was given soon after 
the commencement of the reign of King Richard the Second. In 
1381, on the plea of her being " Cousin and Heir " 1 to the William 
de Lasborough who had, a hundred and twenty years previously, 
obtained the grant of free warren (then exhibited), over his 
demesne lands in Lasborough and Pagenhull, 2 she and her 
husband received letters patent 3 confirming similar privileges to 
themselves. The former manor was in their possession till 1397, 
but as no Inquisition on the death of either is extant, it is hard 
to say how much longer they held it. Judging from the non- 
existence of notice of any subsequent owner for considerably more 
than a century, it seems probable that they left no issue, and that 
it had reverted to the crown. 
7. From William de Rodmerton for the third part of a fee in 

Rodmerton of the fief of William de Kaines, 13s. 4d. 

When remarking that the two fees held by William de Kaynes 
were in Lasborough and Rodmerton, 4 both in Langtree Hundred, 
I overlooked the fact that his ancestor, Hugh Maminot, held 
likewise at Domesday five hides in Sopeberi, which being in 
Grumboldsash Hundred is not included here. The Revd. Mr. 
Taylor identifies it with Little Sodbury, 5 of which Fosbroke 

1 Fosbroke, on the strength of this, represents John Basset as having 
succeeded to Lasborough as a near relation of the Dene family, but we know 
for certain that the last William de Dene left daughters whose issue was 
still living. The fact is that as the original giant had been made to William 
de Lasborough and his heirs, it became necessary— by a sort of legal fiction — 
to describe the actual holders as being so ! It was doubtless no difficult 
matter in those days to procure an " Inspeximus " upon pi*oducing the 
original charter and paying the required fee (in this case half a mark was 
paid into the Hanaper). There seems to have been no Inquisition by jurors, 
although it was manifestly out of the question that the King in Council 
could without one, judge of the truth of a complicated descent through two 
or three families. It would be easy to cite other cases in which allegations to 
the same effect were accepted unhesitatingly after the lapse of several 

2 Otherwise Pagan Hall, in the Parish of Stroud, held by him of the Earl 
of Hereford. It went to the Denes, but was held subsequently by John of 
Monmouth (Inq. ad quod damnum, 28th Edw. III. No. 37), and there is no 
reason to think that it had passed to John Basset's daughter. 

3 See Patent Roll of 4th Rich. II., second part, mem. 16. 

4 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XII. , p. 267- 

5 Analysis of Domesday, Vol. II., p. 188. 

Testa i>k Nevill. 31 

despairingly says "there is no mention in record." 1 In 1346, 
however, it is entered as being held as half a fee by Jordan 
Bysshop, 2 the overlord being, as usual in that Return, omitted. 

This accounts for one fee and five-sixths of a fee out of the 
original two fees of King John's time — the sixth still missing, 
being presumably that which in Kirby's Quest William de Red- 
merton is stated to hold in Roclmerton of the manor of Tetbury. 3 
How this portion of Rodmarton had became detached from the 
rest, and included in the great Lordship of the De Braose family, 
is a mystery, but the same thing had happened in the case of 
other adjacent manors, 4 notably that of Cherington, belonging to 
the Honour of Wallingford, in which this same William de 
Redmarton likewise held a fifth of a fee from William de Braose. 
It looks certainly as if these acquisitions had been simultaneously 
and amicably effected, at some period between the dates of Returns 
Nos. 1 and 10, at which, in all probability, the Barony of St. 
Valery, whereof Tetbury was a member, had been in the hand of 
the King. Apparently William Redmerton was the last male of 
his line, for in 9th Edward II. , the manor had passed into the 
possession of no less than five lords. 5 

8. From Ralph de Cotes for one knight's fee in Cotes of the fief of 

Walter de Lacy, 40s. 

That the de Lacy fee in the parish of Cotes, Cirencester Hun- 
dred, was held by the above-named Ralph in 1235, has been 
already noted. 6 

9. From Fulk Cokerel for half a knight's fee in Cotes, of the fief 

of Ralph Russell, 20s. 

Reference was likewise made in my Paper on the Aid of 
1235," to the tenure of the Cokerel family both then and in 1285, 

1 Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 29. 

2 The Bisshop family had held for some time. In the Nomina Villarum 
of 1316 John Bisshop and Robert Livett are given as the Lords of Sodbury 
and Hildersley. 

3 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XL, p. 152. 

4 It will be seen that fractions of six manors, amounting in the whole to 
one fee and eleven-thirtieths had been added, yet in 1346, Tetbury with its 
members was assessed as only one knight's fee. 

5 Vide Nomina Villarum in Pari. Writs. 

8 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XIIL, No. 21, p. 326. 
3 Idem., p. 320 

32 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

of the half fee in the same parish which had come to the Russells 
of Dyrham. The Fulk here mentioned was doubtless son of 
Elias Cokerel, whose widow was their sub-tenant at the earlier 


No mention is made of the third and smaller sub-division of 
Cotes, which, since its forfeiture by Gilbert fitz Turold, had formed 
part of the Honour of Gloucester, but, as before suggested, it 
may be included with Trewsbury. At the date of Kirby's Quest, 
it was held separately of the then Earl by a Walter de Cotes as 
one fifth of a fee. 

10. From Geoffrey Martel for half a knight's fee in Stowell of 
the fief of William de Hastings, 20s. 

The same overlord and the same feoffee appear seven years 
before. 1 The descendants of the latter continued to hold in 
Stowell, in Bradley Hundred, long after the Barony of Eaton 
Hastings had passed into other hands, Adam Martel holding it in 
1346 for a half fee, as an ancestor of the same name had done in 

1 1 . From Richard de Hampton for a knight's fee in Stratton of 
the fief of Walter de Lacy, 40s. 

There is nothing to add to what is said in my previous Paper 
as to this fee, excepting that in 1346 it had passed to a lady 
known as Johanna de Cirencester, who was perhaps heiress of 
the Hamptons. 

12. From Adam Kaily and Thomas de Gardinis, for one knight's 
fee in Side and Gardino, of the fief of John le Brun, 40s. 

The Manor of Side, in Rapsgate Hundred, which had belonged 
at Domesday to Ansfrid de Cormeilles, continued in the possession 
of his descendant, Walter de Cormeilles, during the reign of 
John. 2 Upon the partition of the Barony among Walter's 
three daughters in 1218, it must have gone to Richard le Brun. 3 

1 Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XIII., No. 317. 

2 Vide Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XII., p. 253. This 
effectually disposes of Sir Robert Atkyns' assertion that "Side came soon 
after the Conquest " to the Giffards of Brimpsrield ; although it will be seen 
from what follows that a scion of that House was sub-enfeoffed therein 
before the close of the 12th century, presumably through marriage with a 
daughter of the House of Cormeilles. 

3 Not as Fosbroke suggests, to Hugh Giffard, the husband of the eldest, 
neither of whose sons inherited an acre in Side. 

Testa df. Nevill. 33 

who had married the second, and from him descended to his son 
the above-named John. The Kaily family — its sub-tenants — were 
feoffees of the Giffards in Wiltshire, 1 and had inter-married with 
them on several occasions. Adam, though apparently only a 
cadet, had obtained the hand of one of the daughters of Richard 
Giffard, and succeeded in her right, on the death of Osbert her 
brother, to this sub-en feoffment in Side, as well as to an interest 
in lands in other counties." 2 


The association of his name with that of Thomas de Gardinis 
in this Return, can mean no more than that the combined holdings 
of the two made up the knight's service for which their overlord 
was answerable. There was certainly no connection between the 
manors named, as shown by their appearing in Kirby's Quest 
under distinct headings, the half fee in Side being then held by 

1 Elyas de Kailleway appears in the Wilts Returns (Testa de Nevill, pp. 
142 and 157) as joint holder of four fees under Elyas Giffard (iv), whose 
sister Berta lie had married : two of them are said to be in Kaillewent, which 
looks as if the name were of territorial origin, though the "de" is often 
omitted. Perhaps it was derived from " Caillou," a flint, as it is occasionally 
spelt so. The spelling in fact was so various, — even sometimes in the same 
document, that no conclusion can be come to. 

2 This information is derived principally from Bracton's recently pub- 
lished Note Book. In No. 1717, a.d. 1226, Oxon., Osbert Giffard calls 
Elyas Giffard (iv) to warrant a fee which the latter's grandfather Elyas (in) 
had given to his nephew Richard Giffard (presumably the Justice Itinerant 
of the reign of Hen. II. ) which fee seems to have been made over by Richard's 
son Osbert, to Adam de Kaylli and his wife Mabilia. In No. 671, a.d. 1231, 
Kent, Warin de Montchesney claims and obtains the homage of Adam de 
Kaylli and Mabilia, as well as that of Matilda Giffard, and of Isabella de 
Fre\dlle, in respect to a fee in that county ; the two former ladies plead- 
ing that it had been granted to their father Richard Giffard, and had come 
to thorn on the decease of their brother Osbert. The third, Isabella de 
Freville, is shown by a reference in Dugdale's Baronage (Vol. I., p. 501), to 
have been the widow of this Osbert (and not consequently, I may add, of 
the Osbert supposed by him, who did not die until 1247 (Cal. Geneal., p. 28). 
We are thus enabled to comprehend the entry on the Close Roll of 15th 
Hen. III., quoted by Fosbroke, as to a suit brought by Ralph de Wylington 
and Olimpias his wife, against the same defendants, with the addition of 
the Prior of Lanthony, with regard to their tenancy of three hides of land 
in Side. This was the extent of the whole manor at Domesday, and it may 
be inferred that Adam de Kaylii and his wife (called in the Close Roll 
Matilda, probably in mistake for Mabilia) became seized of it after the 

Vol. XIV. d 

34 Transactions fur the Ykar 1889-90. 

Simon de Caly, 1 under Simon de Crome, and that in Duntisborne 
and in "Gardino," by Thomas de Gardinis, jointly with Henry de 
Lesa— in both cases of John le Brun, son of the preceding John. 
It may be inferred from the second reference that " the Garden," 
from which Thomas derived his surname (often written de Gardino) 
was situated in Duntisbourne Lire, the only one of the three 
Duntisbournes in Rapsgate, unless indeed it were in Elkstone, 
an adjacent parish in that Hundred, in which in 1346 a Thomas 
de Gardinis paid for a quarter of a fee, John de Acton, the le 
Brun representative, paying for another. Strange to say, no 

death of her sister, and of her father's widow, since we find that in 1255 
Matilda Kaylli passed a fine of half a knight's fee in Syde, and of the fourth 
of a fee in Stoke Giffard and Brimpsfelde, in favour of one Adam de Crumbe, 
on condition of his paying her 100s. and undertaking the services required 
of her by John Giffard and John le Brun (Pedes Finiurn, Glouc, 39th 
Henry III., No. 420.) There seems no means of deciding whether this 
Matilda was the widow, or the daughter, of Adam de Kaylli. The tenancy 
of Side by Simon de Caley in 1285, would be more easily accounted for on 
the former supposition, but it seems odd if she had a son that she should 
have sold the superiority of the lands, 

1 The way in which Side shortly after this date became the property of 
the Giffards of Brimpsfield is not altogether clear. In the General Inquisitions 
as to their Heirs, taken in 1st Edw. III. (Cal. Inq. p.m., No. 84), it is stated 
positively that the manor was purchased from Adam Caylcy by John 
Giffard, senior, and settled on his third wife, Margaret Nevill. This mar- 
riage cannot have taken place later than 1286, as her son, the second John 
Giffard, was born on Midsummer day in that year (Calend. Geneal., p. 28) 
but the settlement may have been post nuptial, and made at any time 
before her husband's death in 1299. The difficulty is that, as has been 
shown, Adam had then been dead between thirty and forty years, and it 
can only, I think, be solved by assuming that the jurors of 1326, after the 
lapse of nearly as long a period, had forgotten that the christian name of 
the vendor was in reality Simon. That juries were by no means infallible is 
evident, for in one of the two Inquistions as to Side, in this very escheat, it is 
affirmed that the manor was held of John de Crome, whilst in the other John 
Giffard is said to have held it "in demesne as of fee " on the clay he died. In 
neither case is any allusion made to the overlordship of John le Brun, which 
had evidently ceased to be more than nominal. Perhaps the motive of the 
latter declaration was, that Side, having been made over by Margaret Nevill 
(who still survived) to her unfortunate son, had been confiscated after his 
execution in 1322, and granted by the crown successively to Hugh le Des- 
penser, John Maltravers, and Thomas de Berkeley. The last named continued 
in 1346 to hold it as half a fee, but, strange to say, his predecessor (c. 32nd 
Edw. I.) is called Robert de Kailly, showing how loose and perfunctory was 
the record of christian names in such documents. 

Testa de Nf.vill. So 

mention of a hamlet or subordinate manor called Gardinum is to 
be found in any of the county histories, or original records. 

13. From Lucia de Cormailles for a knight's fee in Winestun of 

the fief of John le Brun 40s. 

Winson, in Bradley Hundred, the fee here referred to, is 
shown in my Paper 1 on the Aid of 1235 to have then been held 
by Walter de Baskerville of the Honour of Cormailles. How it 
had passed in the interim to John le Brun, who is there recorded 
as holding only two fees in Elkstone, of the same Honour, in 
right of his father's marriage with one of the last Baron's co- 
heiresses, does not appear ; nor is there any clue to the relation- 
ship of the sub-feofee, which cannot have been close or her 
position would have been different. There were at the time of 
the partition several male collaterals, from one of whom she 
probably sprung. Apparently she was the last of the name con- 
nected with the manor, for in Kirby's Quest this Wynston is 
said to be divided between John le Brun, Walter de Berton, 
Absolom Clericus, and Simon de Solers. In 32 Edw. I. John le Brun 
levied a tine, 2 of his interest in favour of John de Acton, as he 
had done with most of his lairls, so that in the Nomina Villarum 
of 1316, Thomas de Berton, the Abbot of St. Peter's Gloucester, 
(representing Absolom the clerk), Simon de Solers, and John de 
Acton, are its lords. In 1346 John de Acton, John de Solers, and 
Walter de Cirencester paid for half a fee in Wynston, which John 
Broune? Walter de Berton, and William Absolom, formerly held 
4. From Robert de Meysi for half a knight's fee in Hampton of 

the fief of the Earl of Gloucester, 20s. 

1 A family bearing the same surname is said to have derived it from 
Gordano, in Somersetshire (Collinson). There was a Thomas de Gardinis in 
that county temp. Hen. III. A Thomas de Gardinis was Sheriff of Glouces- 
tershire from 21st to 27th Edw. I. — Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, 
Vol. XIII., p. 331. 

2 Pedes Finium, Glouc, 32nd Edw. I., No. 240. 

3 The way in which John " le Brun " is now Anglicised into plain John 
Brown is worth noticing. 

D 2 

3(j Transactions for the Year 1883-9. 

Hampton, in Gersdon (afterwards Cirencester) Hundred, had 
belonged to the Honour of Gloucester ever since its forfeiture by 
its Domesday lord, Earl Roger (Montgomeri), and had probably 
been occupied during the entire period by the family from whom 
it acquired its second appellation, 1 for Godfrey de Maisey was a 
tenant of Robert Earl of Gloucester in other manors so far back 
as 31st Henry I. 2 In 1165 a Robert de Meysi held nine fees of 
Earl William, Robert's son, of which Hampton doubtless was one, 
and about a hundred years later another Robert, probably the one 
of this Return, appears as holding eight fees of the Honour. In 
1285 Hampton Meysey was still held by a Robert de Meysi, but 
before 131 6 3 it passed in marriage to the St. Maur's, who held in 
1346. 4 

15. From Christiana de Mutton for half a knight's fee inTorinton 
of the fief of William de Hastings, 20s. 

About this lady no information seems procurable. In 1235 
the wife of Osbert Giffard held one fee in Torinton (i.e. Farming- 
ton, in Bradley Hundred) of William de Hastings, and it is not 
improbable that she may have left it divisible between two 
married daughters, of whom Christiana was the elder, since it 
appears from Kirby's Quest that Peter de Staunton then held 
half a fee in Thormanton of Nicholas de Multon, 5 while William 
de Ramsden held another half fee in the same, both of Benedict, 
son of Benedict, who had succeeded to the Barony of Hastings of 

16. From Richard Tirel for one knight's fee in Schipton of the 
fief of Roger de Chandos, 40s. 

Feoffee and overlord remain as in 1235. The fee came to be 
distinguished by the addition of the name of the former, there 

1 To distinguish it from Hampton, in Bernetre Hundred, now Shire- 

2 Mag. Rot. Pipe, 3 1st Hen. I. 

3 Nomina Villarum. 

4 Aid for Knighting the Black Prince, ante Vol. X., p. 280. 

6 As there was a great family in the north of this name, it struck me this 
might be the true spelling, until I found that a Nicholas de Mutton at this 
very time was entitled to the alternate presentation to the Church of Kyn- 
merton. — Vide Calend. Geneal., p. 307, 9th Edw. I. (Mutton, I believe, is 
a corruption of Mytton, a well known name.) 

Testa de Xevill. 37 

being no fewer than three " Sheep-towns " in Bradley Hundred 

17. From Richard le Bret for one third of a knight's fee in 
Weston of the fief of Hugh de Kylpec, 13s: 4d. 

Hugh de Kilpeck did not die till 1244, two years after the 
date of this Return. Weston Birt, as it came to be called from 
a corruption of the tenant's name, in Langtree Hundred, belonged 
at Domesday to Earl Hugh (of Chester), and how it had passed to 
the descendant of William, son of Norman, 1 have failed to 
discover. In 1285 it was held by the heir of John le Bret as half 
a fee and one-tenth of a fee, of the Lord of Kilpeck ; but in 1346 
the service again appears as one-third only. 

18. From Geoffrey de Langele for half a knight's fee in Suthington 
of the fief of Walter de Lacy, 20s. 

Though a Domesday manor of the de Lacys, this Siddington, 
a part of St. Peter's parish, in Cirencester Hundred, was omitted 
in the list of Walter's fees in 1235. It must have been held of 
him by the present feoffee for many years, since in the Carucage 
.of 1221 it is distinguished as " Sodington-Geolfrey," and it con- 
tinued in the latter's posterity in 1285, when John de Langley is 
returned as holding it as an entire knight's fee of one of the de 
Lacy heirs, Geoffrey de Geneville. It long continued to lie known 
as Siddington-Langley. 

Here Return No. 10 terminates abruptly with the notification, 
" Sum total £33 3 8." This suffices to prove, at any rate, that 
it is complete so far as it goes, and not a mere fragment, as might 
have been supposed, seeing that it comprises scarcely one-fourth 
of the number of fees lying within the Seven Hundreds, the whole 
of those in Bisley and in Whitstan being left unnoticed. Pre- 
sumably, as in the case of the Aid of 1235, the document preserved 
at the Exchequer, and later on copied into the Testa de Nevill, 
was the precursor only of the fuller account of his collections 
subsequently rendered by the Abbot. 

3S Tka.nsactio.ns for the Year 1SS9-90. 


No. 11. 

De Serjanttis aientatis per Robertum Passeleive, temp. Hen x Jil. 

Regis Johannis. 

As the Inquisition referred to in the above heading was made by 
Judge Passelew in the year 1250, 1 this Return appears to be 
later than any other for Gloucestershire preserved in the "Testa." 

Robert was brother to Simon Passelew, one of the Barons of the 
Exchequer, 2 and had himself tilled the office of Under Treasurer. 
Since his mission had for its object to extract a rental from 
persons who had alienated lands held by serjeanty, or neglected 
to perform the services in consideration of which they were 
granted, it was naturally unpopular, and Matthew Paris describes 
him as "one of the King's ' Evil Counsellors.' " 

The contents of the Return scarcely bear out its title, however, 
for they evidently comprise memoranda as to Serjanties noted on 
various occasions, instead of judicial decisions given during a 
single Iter. The first fourteen entries are a repetition of those as to 
Serjeants in the Forest of Dean, which occur at the beginning of 
Return No. 8. 3 

Then follow notes as to four Serjeanties, each in turn declared 
forfeit by reason of the alienation of the lands, but stated in 
subsequent paragraphs to be confirmed under commuted annual 
payments to the crown amounting to about one-third of the rent 
obtained by the respective Serjeants, who likewise renew their 
covenant for the due performance of the Customary Service. This 
portion of the Eeturn contains in substance, no doubt, the record 
of Robert Passelew's work, — but, strange to say, his judgments 
are in every instance succeeded, not always immediately nor in 
the same order, by other recitals to a similar effect, although 

1 Vide Madox History of the Exchequer, Vol. I., p. 46. 

2 Foss' Judges of England. 3 Ante pp. 14-19. 

Testa de Nevill. 39 

slightly varied in details, and in somewhat different phraseology, 
presumably the work of another judge on some subsequent 

Return 11. in short was, notwithstanding its heading, evidently 
not transcribed from a single Roll, but forms one of those com- 
posite documents of which the Exchequer copyists of the 14th 
century were so fond, and which, in the absence of dates, and of all 
distinction between the several extracts embodied therein, prove 
so puzzling. To obviate repetition, my comments on each of the 
four Serjeanties in question, will be preceded by a summary of 
the whole of the notices relating to it placed consecutively. 

I begin with the entry which 1 have numbered 
15. " The Manor of Sipton, in the County of Gloucester, which is 
the head of the Serjeanty of William le Moyne, in Madinton, in 
the County of Wilts, is in part alienated, whereby, indeed, the 
Serjeanty by which he ought to be buyer for the Kitchen of 
our Lord the King is aliened." 
" From the same William for two virgates of land of the same 
Serjeanty alienated which William and Richard, sons of 
Richard de Wokinges hold from him, four shillings and six- 
pence per annum : And he will do the aforesaid customary 

In addition to this, at page 78, column B, near the end of the 
Return, we have : 

" The Serjeanty of William le Moyne in Sciptun, by which he 
ought to be Buyer for the King is alienated in part. William 
and Richard, sons of Richard of Woking/ta?», hold of it two 
virgates of land which are worth one mark per annum. And 
the said William (le Moyne) made on this account an agree- 
ment for the said tenants, with their consent, vizt., -Is. 6d. per 
annum. So that each of these tenants may answer to the 
same William for a third part of the value of his holding. 
And the same William } may do the service of the aforesaid 

1 As the William le Moine in question died in 1252, and the concluding 
entry is in the present tense, it cannot be of later date. In the earlier entry 
the word is in the future faciei, which is clearly more correct ; but in the 
later faciat. The same observation applies to each of the foar (or five) cases. 

40 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

Allusion has already been made in my remarks J on Return 

No 10, to this Serjeanty of William Monachus, as he is there called, 

in Shipton. 

The manor belonged at Domesday to Maci de Mauretania, of 
whom, although he held important fiefs in at least half a dozen 
counties, nothing is known. This is of the less consequence, as 
they all escheated to the crown by the end of the 11th century, 
presumably in default of heirs, since his sub-feoffees seem gener- 
ally to have been left in continuous occupation, which would 
scarcely have happened had he been in rebellion. His estates in 
Somersetshire were divided between the Honour of Gloucester and 
the Barony of Castle Cary, but certain of his manors in Glouces- 
tershire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Essex, and, possibly, Berks and Hants, 
were granted by King Henry I. 2 to Ralph " the Monk " to be 
held by the serjeanty of keeping the King's larder. Who this 
Ralph was, and whether the first of his line distinguished by an 
appellation so unusual for a layman, has not been ascertained. 3 

i Ante p. 25, No. 4, 

2 That he held by gift of that King rests on the testimony of a Return 
of the reign of Edward I. in the "Testa de Nevill," which states that the 
ancestor of this Ralph held the Manor of Oweres, in Dorsetshire, from the 
time of Henry I. by Serjeanty of the Kitchen, p. 164 

The date is so far confirmed by our finding on the Essex Pipe Roll, 31st 
Hen. I., that William Monachus was excused payment of Danegeld, in Essex. 

3 The name is to be found on the so-called Battle Abbey Roll, and the 

William le Moine there mentioned has been claimed by the family of Monk, 

of Potheridge, co. Devon (from whom the celebrated Duke of Albemarle 

sprung), as their ancestor who, it is alleged, held that manor in 1066." We 

learn, however, from Domesday that Mertone, of which it formed part, was 

held in capite partly by the Bishop of Coutances and partly by Baldwin the 

Sheriff, nothing whatever being said of sub-tenants. It must be admitted, 

nevertheless, that a " Willelmus Monachus" does appear among the lay 

witnesses to a charter of Robert Duke of Normandy's to the Church of 

Bayeux in \0S9, h and it is not improbable that he was Ralph's father, but 

this in no way proves his connection with Potheridge ; and the Duchess of 

Cleveland prudently confines herself to stating that the le Moines were 

seated at that place temp. Edward I. , and that not improbably the first of 

them was a younger son of the family of Shipton Moyne, Gloucestershire. 

The county historians of Essex set up another claim in favour of a certain 

Gilbert, an under-tenant of William de Warrenne'sat the time of the Survey, 

whose descendants held a manor afterwards called Moyne, near Bumpstead 

Steeple, but they give no authority for the assertion. 

« Vide Pedigree in Playfair's British Family Antiquity, Vol. V., Appendix. 
*> Yeatman's House of Arundel. c Battle Abbey Roll, Vol. II. 

Testa de Xf.vill. 41 

He can only be conjectured to have been some younger son of a 
good House, who, after entering a monastery, upon unexpectedly 
becoming the Head of his family procured a papal dispensation 
from his vows. 1 

The descent from Ralph of William Monachus or le Moine, of 
Returns Nos. 10 and 11, can be traced without much difficulty, 
although it cannot always with certainty be determined who was 
head of the house at any particular period. William appears to 
have been succeeded by John le Moine before 40th Henry III., 
the threat of declaring his serjeanty forfeited by reason of the 
alienation of two virgates of land, presumably in Shipton-Moine, 
having been carried no further than the extraction of a payment 
of 4s. 6d. per annum for the deficiency, in addition to a renewed 
pledge for the performance of the customary service of the 
serjeanty. The latter, which probably at first included attendance 
on the King at the three great festivals at least, had, so early 
as the accession of Richard I. been reduced to acting as " Lar- 
derer " 2 at the coronation of a new Sovereign, a privilege claimed 
by the holders of the manors to the present day. Those manors 
passed on the death of Sir John Moyne to Sir William Stourton, 
who had married Elizabeth, his daughter and heiress, in 22nd 
Richard II., and some of them are still in possession of their 
posterity. Shipton Moyne, however, was alienated long ago to 
the Estcourts, :j who, it may be inferred from the entry 4 in the 
" Aid for Knighting the Black Prince " in 1346, had, before 
the end of Edward I. reign become joint tenants of the fee 

1 Such an occurrence was by no means unprecedented, as shown by Mr. 
A. Lower, in his " Patronyinica Britannica," under the head of Ecclesiastical 
Surnames. Among other examples he cites one of a married tenant of St. 
Paul's, in the reign of John, who is described as William the Goldsmith, 
surnamed " Monachus." 

- " Achateur de Roy et Lardinier de Roy au temps de coronement de 
Roy d' Engleterre," as denned tempore Henry V. 

3 They are said to have derived their surname from living at the East 
Court — no doubt the manor house or ' ' curia " of Gilbert de Shipton referred 
to in a tine formerly quoted (p. 18). 

" De Emma opie fuit uxor Johannis Beauboys, et Simone de Estcourt pro 
une feodo militis in Shipton-Moigne quod Johannes Beauboys et Walterus 
de Estcourt quondam tenuerunt ibidem."- — Vide Trans. Bristol and Glouc. 
Arch. Society, Vol. X., p. 283. 

42 Transactions ior the Year 1SS9-90. 

formerly held by Gilbert de Shipton, 1 and, after holding that 
of the Stourtons for a time, eventually acquired from them the 
entire manor, which has been transmitted, through female heirs, 
to the present owner, the Rev. Edmund Hily Bucknall-Estcourt. 

The history of the two virgates alienated to the sons of Richard 
of Wokingham I am unable to trace, though Fosbroke considers 
them to be the lands of which Mary Giffard, William de Sley, 
and John de Dene were returned as lords in 9th Edw. II., when 
John le Moine held the principal manor. 

16. "Part of the Serjeanty of Gunnora de la Mare in Wenerich 
pertaining to the Manor of Elsicot, in the County of Oxford, 
for which she ought to be keeper of the door of the King's 
Hall, is wholly alienated." 

" From the same Gunnora for five virgates of land of the Serjeanty 
alienated in the County of Gloucester, which Peter Prentuc 
and Robert de la Mare 2 hold of her, fifteen shillings a year, 
and she will do the service of half a fee for the said land, and 
for the lands of the Serjeanty which she holds in the counties 
of Oxford, Wilts, and Gloucester." 
At page 78, column b, this is repeated with further particulars, 

vizt., that Peter Prentuc holds half a virgate of the land worth 

5s. per annum. 

Robei't de la Mare three virgate and a half worth 30s. per ann. 
John Lesquier one virgate worth 10s. per ann. 

" Amount of the alienation, 45s. And the said Gunnora agreed 
with her said tenants to pay 15s., the said tenants each answer- 
ing to her for the other thirds, and the said Gunnora will do 
the service as noted in the County of Wilts." 
There is no reason to suppose that these De la Mares were 
scions of the great Gloucestershire family referred to in Return 
No. 10. 3 We only know of them that they filled offices of menial 

1 Ante Vol. X., p. 283. 

2 Presumably son of Richard de la Mare mentioned in connection with 
this Serjeanty in Return No. 8, ante p. 18. 

3 There were at least twenty families of the name scattered all over 
England in the 13th century, and it seems more reasonable to infer that in 
many cases they had received it from their Norman compatriots on account 

Testa de Nevill. 43 

origin about the King's court, vizt., keeping the door of the King's 
chamber, supplying brushwood and litter for the Royal household, 
and preserving order among the laundresses 1 following the court, 
in reward for which services they held by Serjeanty lands in 
Winterburn la Mare, Wilts ; Windrush, in Gloucestershire ; and 
Alvescot and Elton, Oxon. Though it is not easy in the two 
former cases to be sure as to the Domesday owners of the lands, I 
feel satisfied on close examination that they were held at the time 
of the Survey, possibly on similar conditions, by Saxons, who, having 
been themselves or their relations in the service of the Confessor 
still continued in that of the Conqueror. 2 At what period these 
Saxon dependants were succeeded by Normans is not clear, but, 
probably, during the reign of Henry I. 3 These Serjeanties, how- 
ever, cannot be traced to the De la Mare family until that of 
Henry III., early in which, as we learn from " Testa de Nevill," 
Henry de la Mare " held a hundred solidates of land in Winter- 
burn for being Marshal of Litter for the King " (p. 143) and 
likewise 5s. in Laverstoke, (p. 148) in Wiltshire; and twelve 
librates of land at Alvescot, in Oxfordshire, by the Serjeanty of 
keeping the door of the King's Hall (p. 106). He died in 33rd 
Henry III., just before the date of Robert Passelew's Inquisition, 

of residence near English Meres, than that it was derived uniformly from a 
single Mere in Normandy. The next Hundred in Wiltshire to that in which 
Winterourn la Mare is situated, is called "Mere," and there are others so 
named in Domesday. 

1 Designated in those days of plain speaking by the uncomplimentary 
epithet of " Meretrices Regis." 

2 In Oxfordshire, under the heading, " Richard and other Servants of the 
King," Elfeijescote (two hides) appears as held by Saric, in place of Ailwin. 
In Wiltshire, under " Odo and other Thanes of the King," we learn again, 
"Saric holds Winterburn, one hide and a half , which Ailwin held " — while 
as proof of his nationality, it is stated with respect to another manor held by 
him, and later on by the De la Mares (Laverstock), that it had been held by his 
brother Gert. In Gloucestershire, two Wenrics appear among the lands of 
the " King's Thanes," but as one was of considerable extent and its overlord- 
ship was claimed by Winchcombe Abbey, whereas the other in Gersdone 
Hundred, held of Chetel, was a hide and a virgate, or exactly the five virgates 
alienated by Gunnora, there can be little doubt it was the latter. 

3 In the earliest extant Pipe Roll a Henry de la Mare is credited with 
payment in the Oxfordshire Return of no less than <£2S 6s. Sd. for having his 
father's office of huntsman, but Dugdale claims him as ancestor of the de la 
Mares, of Garsington, in that county, summoned as Barons, t. Edw. I. & II. 

44 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

leaving Henry, his son and heir, a minor ; l the performance of the 
services being undertaken by Gunnora, the widow, during the 
nonage of the boy. The latter was entrusted to the custody of 
John Mansel, by whom he was so badly brought up, that he 
became on attaining manhood a " robber of churches," and was 
slain in 51st Henry III. when flying from justice. His lands were 
inconsequence forfeited. — Winterburn — " Gunnor," as it is still 
sometimes called, being given by the King to his son Prince 
Edward,' 2 who bestowed it in alms on St. Mary's, Bristol ; while 
Alvescote eventually fell to Robert Walraund, including, probably, 
the overlordship of Windrush. The latter had indeed, according 
to the Return, been "wholly alienated" or sublet, the chief 
tenant, however, being a member of the De la Mare family. 

17. "The Serjeanty of Henry de Monemewe, in Laghampton, by 
which he ought to be the King's cook, is changed into another 
service because the said Henry did not do that aforesaid." 

" From the same Henry for the same Serjeanty, which contains 
half a virgate of land, 12d. per annum. And he will do the 
service of the first 3 part of one fee." 

" Moreover William Wyberd holds in the same vill half a virgate 
of land of the same Serjeanty, for which he ought to do the 
aforesaid service. And because he has not done it, it is there- 
fore changed into another." 

" From the same William for the same land 12d. per annum. 
And he will do the service of the fiftieth part of one fee." 
At page 78, column b, these statements are repeated with 

slight variations and additions — 

Henry being said to hold an entire virgate worth 5s. a year, 

William to hold of the same Serjeanty half a virgate worth 2s., 

whilst the latter's service is said, like Henry's, to be for the first 

part of one knight. 

1 Extent cited from the Hundred Rolls of 39th Henry III. (1255) by Sir 
Richard Hoare, Hist, of Wiltshire. 

2 Hoare's Wiltshire. 

3 I do no understand what is meant by " prima pars feodi," nor how 
that tallies with the fiftieth of one, which I take to be equal to the tenth of 
a hide. 

Testa de Nevill. 45 

This Serjeanty in Leckhampton, with its holders, has twice 
already been alluded to in these Gloucestershire Returns, and 
there is little to add to what has been said on the subject. 1 Henry 
de Monmouth was presumably son to the Roger who in 1228 had 
in some way acquired a share of Peter of the Hall's Serjeanty, 
but William Wyberd did not hold at that date, and may possibly 
have married another of the heiresses afterwards. A person of 
the name is mentioned in the Fine Roll of 1253 as connected with 
Kent, but as it is there spelt Wybe, t, a well known Teutonic per- 
sonal appellation, this constitutes no sufficient proof of identity. 
William's interest in the Serjeanty seems soon to have ceased, for 
Walter Monmouth alone is mentioned in 29th Edward L, and 
his son John in 9th Eclw. II. 

18. " The Serjeanty of Richard de Pirie in Cirencester, by which 
he ought to convey the King's treasure, at the expense of 
the sheriff within the county of Gloucester, and at the cost 
of the King outside the county, is alienated in particles." 

" From the same Richard for seventy-two solidates of land alien- 
ated from the said Serjeanty, 2 which the undermentioned hold 
of him, one mark per annum. And he will do the service of 
the twentieth part of one fee." 

Agnes daughter of Roger holds thereof a messuage worth 3s. per 

Gunnilda holds a messuage which is worth 2s. 4d. a year. 
Maurice of Cirencester holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Richard the Tailor holds a messuage worth 2s. a year. 
Richard the Merchant holds a messuage and 8 acres worth 5s. a 

Henry Avance holds a messuage worth 3s. 6d. a year. 
Walter de Pirie holds a messuage worth 2s., with 3| acres of land. 
Henry de Lattar holds 6^ acres of land and 1 acre of meadow 

worth 6s. 
Alice Dune] holds two half acres of land worth 6d. a year. 

7 Trans. Bristol & Gloue. Arch. Society, J°{ - $lh P " 2 ™. 

•' V ol. XIII. , p. 296. 

" I have here slightly varied the text so as to avoid having to repeat the 
names as well as the preliminary recital. 

46 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Ralph Brid holds a messuage worth 2s. a year. 
Humphrey de la Barre holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Richard Thorel holds a messuage worth 3s. year. 
Jordan the Merchant holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Edwin the Merchant holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Geoffrey the Clerk holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Lyme Spiring holds a messuage worth eighteenpence a year. 
Brian the Merchant holds a messuage worth eighteenpence a year. 
Joseph holds a messuage with two acres in one field, and two in 
another, worth 4s. a year. 

Robert de Cotes holds a messuage worth 3s. a year. 
Geoffrey le Berkier (the Shepherd) holds a booth dedicated to the 
service of the Blessed Mary worth 2s. a year. 

William de Duntesborn holds a booth dedicated to the same 

service worth 2s. a year. 
William de Ponto holds 6 acres of land worth 2s. a year. 
Richard Herkebaud holds a croft worth 3s. a year. 
The Almoners of Cirencester hold 6 acres worth 3s. a year. 

As to Richard de Pirie, or the history of his Serjeanty, I 
can discover very little. 1 He was, presumably, the same Richard 
who is given in the Testa as holding a quarter of a fee in Wilt- 
shire of the Earl Marshal, 2 but whether related to the William de 
Pirie who held a fee in Pirie, in Staffordshire :? is uncertain. As 
the word, however, means simply "a Pear Orchard," 4 it is perhaps 
most likely that they were of distinct families. 

Similar duties to those discharged by him are noted in the 
Testa as performed by Serjeants in other counties, and as such 
functions were of great antiquity, it is not improbable that the 
twentieth part of a fee which he held represented one of the two 
virgates mentioned in the Domesday account of Cirencester, as 
appropriated to an officer who obeyed the behests of the shei'iff. 
The land in question must have been close to the town, as it had 

1 Fosbroke includes the name of " De Pirye " among the benefactors of 
Cirencester Abbey, referring to Dugdale, who does not mention it. 

2 Testa de Nevill, p. 137. 

3 Testa de Nevill, p. 46. 

4 The name is often written " Atte Purie." 

Testa df. Nevill. 47 

been divided into five-and-twenty allotments, which paid Richard 
a rental of no less than 61s. a year, a good deal of it being let at 
6d. an acre, then a high rate. The value indeed of the property 
is shown by an entry on the Fine Roll of 1258, which shows that 
the Abbot of Cirencester agreed to pay to the King thirty marks 
for a charter authorising the receipt of one mark a year from the 
Serjeanty which had been Richard de Pirye's. This looks as if 
Richard was then dead, or had alienated the land. As there is 
no allusion to this purchase in the text, we have another proof 
that its compilation was anterior to the date above quoted. The 
two other tenures by Serjeanty, in Little Tainton and Stoke 
Archer, mentioned in No. 8, 1 were, apparently, not dealt with by 
Robert Passelew, as they are left unnoticed. 

I have now completed my review of the Gloucestershire por- 
tion of the so-called Testa de Nevill, and have shown that the 
eleven fiscal Returns comprised in it date from the first half of 
the 13th century. It is to be regretted that more were not pre- 
served, and that some of those that have been relate to but a 
portion of the county. Moreover, it is unfortunate that when they 
were being transcribed into the Exchequer Register during the 14th 
century a stricter supervision was not exercised over the copyists, 
so as to have prevented their piecing together extracts from dif- 
ferent original Rolls, under sometimes very misleading headings. 

Still, despite deficiencies and drawbacks, these Returns furnish 
much interesting information, and are well worth the attention of 
the local historians of the future. I shall not, I trust, be sus- 
pected of over-estimating the utility of what T have done to 
identify and arrange them according to date, if I, in concluding, 
express a hope that the example will be followed with regard to 
other counties, so that materials may eventually be forthcoming 
for the new edition of the " Testa," contemplated by my lamented 
friend, the late Walford D. Selby, at whose suggestion my share 
of the task was undertaken. 
1 Ante p. IS. 

48 Transactions fok thk Year 1889-90. 



Ever since the publication of Mr. J. C. Buckler's interesting account 
of the Priory Church of Deerhurst in the Society's Transactions, 
Vol. XL (and, indeed, from a much earlier starting point), it has 
been the wish of many to ascertain, if possible, what was the 
actual form of the Apse of this well known Primitive Romanesque 
building. Mr. Buckler having to frame his judgment upon very 
slender evidence, viz., that afforded by 12 ins. of extremely rough 
walling forming the commencement of the apse on the south side, 
pronounced, positively, that it had been pentagonal. However, as 
this shape is very unlikely to have been adopted in a building of 
the Saxon period, he felt himself obliged to suppose that the 
existing fragment of wall represented an apse of a later date than 
that of the rest of the building, in spite of the herring-bone work 
which charcterises the former, and that possibly it had taken the 
place of an earlier semi-circular apse. But not a few persons, 
among them the writer of the present lines, were unable to ac- 
quiesce in the opinion that the shred of wall remaining above 
ground was really a part of a straight-sided apse : to them it 
seemed rather to suggest a curve. I am glad to be able to announce 
that on the 24th September of the present year (1889), by means 
of excavations made on the spot, I found myself in a position to 
decide authoritatively the question. The shape was without 
doubt semi-circular ; and there was never a polygonal apse. There 
happened to be considerable difficulty in the way of effecting an 
entirely satisfactory examination. The greater part of the site of 
the ruined sanctuary of the church is occupied by a cider house. 
However, the tenant of the Priory, Mr. Win. Phillips, obligingly 
allowed me to make excavations both outside, and within, this 
erection. Within the building, the outer face of the wall of the 
apse was uncovered for the space of 7 feet, just at the crown of 

Ancient Apse of Deerhurst Church, 49 

the curve. Outside it, we struck upon the inner face of the north 
wall, before the commencement of the spring of the curve, and 
followed it for 7 feet beyond the spring. This section gave us 
also, in its terminal portion, the outer face of the wall. The wall 
is 3£ feet thick — the general thickness of the walls of the ancient 
part of the church being about 2^ feet. We were able, in spite of 
obstructions, to open a small third section, which presented to the 
eye a portion of the outer face of the hidden wall. The examin- 
ation was completely satisfactory, demonstrating the existence of 
an apse of a curved form, as well as the non-existence of any 
subsequent polygonal apse. There can be no reasonable doubt as 
to the preservation, beneath the surface of the soil, of the entire, 
unbroken span. 

The dimensions of the ancient sanctuary are these : — space 
between the crown of the curve and the chord, 9h feet ; from the 
chord to the line of the arch separating the sanctuary and choir, 
8£ ft. Thus 18 feet = extreme length of sanctuary. 

Mr. Buckler observes, in his remarks on Deerhurst, that " a 
Saxon apse remains to be discovered. It would be an interesting 
revelation to make at Deerhurst." Thus the accomplished writer 
almost anticipated the present " revelation " ; he erred only in 
imagining that traces might also be found of the straight-sided 
erection, of which, as it now appears, he himself was the sole 
architect and builder. 

Vol. XIV. 

50 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 



Vice-President of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Hon. Member of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, <kc, <kc. 

The Manor of Clifford before the Conquest was a member of the 
great Manor of Tewkesbury, and was held by Algar, a great Saxon 
Thane, who is supposed to have united all his lands and manors 
in the north of Gloucestershire to that manor. From him it 
descended to his son Brictric, known in history as Brictric, son of 
Algar, who held that important manor with its appendages, and 
various other manors in divers counties, at the time of the Con- 
quest. His romantic history is too well known to be treated of 
here, suffice it to say that Matilda, the wife of William Duke of 
Normandy, treasuring up the mortification she had experienced 
from him many years before in his rejection of her proffered love, 
determined upon revenge, and maliciously contrived his destruc- 
tion. The King's grant to her afterwards, of the greater portion 
of Brictric's large possessions, including the great Lordship of 
Tewkesbury, would seem to give some colour to the truth of this 
legend. Before her death, in 1083, she conferred the Manor of 
Clifford upon Roger de Busli, as appears from the following ex- 
tract from the Domesday book : — 

In Clifford are seven hides pertaining to the same manor 
(Tewkesbury). There are there three carucates in demesne and 
fourteen villans with five ploughs, and a mill worth 12s., and two 
acres of meadow. There are between the male and female serfs 
thirteen [ploughs 1] and a church and a priest with one carucate. 
The value was £8, now £6. This land the Queen gave to Roger 
de Busli, and it is geldable for four hides in Tewkesbury. To 
this is added a recital of the other lands and manors under the 

Maxor axd Advowson* of Clifford Chambers. 51 

Manor of Tewkesbury, amounting in the whole to 85 hides, 50 
hides being quit and free of all money tax and royal services. 
This Manor of Tewkesbury, when it was whole, all under one in 
the time of King Edward, was valued at £100, When Ralph re- 
ceived it was only worth £12. because it was destroyed and dis- 
ordered. Now it is appraised at £40, yet Ralph pays £50. This 
manor, Brictric, the son of Algar, held in the time of King 
Edward. 1 

Roger de Busli or Bushley, married a lady named Muriell, 
but of what family she was we know not. Mr. A. S. Ellis is of 
opinion that she was in some way connected with Queen Matilda, 
because the Queen granted the Manor of San ford, in Devon, 
jointly to the said Roger and Muriell his wife, and because 
Muriell was a party with her husband in the grant of Clifford to 
the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester, she must also have been a 
party, directly in the Queen's bounty. This, however, though not 
improbable, does not, necessarily, follow, for the manor having 
been granted to her husband in fee, the wife would of course have 
a claim upon it for her dower, for there were not at that time 
settlements to bar dower. 

Roger de Bushley, anterior to the date of Domesday, the 
exact date we do not know, granted the Manor of Clifford to the 
Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, but among the donations of 
land confirmed to the abbey by William the Conqueror at Christ- 
mas in the very year of Domesday, is, in Gloucestershire Clifforde, 
of the gift of Roger de Buseley. And in the abbey list of donations 
to the house we find " Rogerus de Buseley et Muriel uxor ejus 
dederunt Clyfford." 

It must not be supposed that the whole of the revenues of the 
Religious Houses were carried into a common fund for the use of 
the community at large. Grants were frequently made by bene- 
factors for specific purposes, but more frequently the abbot and 
convent, in chapter, appropriated the issues of certain manors and 
lands for the support of specific offices. Many instances might be 
easily cited. In this case, at an early date, the Manor of Clifford 
was appropriated to the Abbot's Chamber, and was administered 
1 Domesday Survey, Facsimile III. 
E 2 

52 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

by the Camerarius, or Chamberlain, and hence it became known as 
Clifford Chamberer or Chambers. 

There is not much of interest to be written of the manor 
during the five centuries, nearly, that it was in the possession of 
the abbey, but we should not omit to notice a few incidents : — 

Abbot Hameline, who ruled the convent from 5th December, 
1148 to 1179, with the consent of his chapter upon the petition of 
Reric, son of Illger, granted in fee and inheritance to Walter, 
son of Hugh de Brithelmetona, a certain virgate of land belonging 
to Clifford, in Warwickshire, which the said Illger and Reric held 
in succession free and quit of all services, except aids, at the rent 
of 5s. 6cl. annually to be held by the said Walter on the same 
conditions. 1 

And the same abbot granted to the said Walter, upon the 
petition of Geoffrey, Dean of Hereford, one hide of land in Clifford 
which Semannus held, to be held of the convent in fee and inheri- 
tance at the annual rent of 20s., to be paid to the Chamberlain, to 
be free and quit of all exactions, except aids, and service at the 
abbot's courts. 2 

Of greater interest is an extent of all the manors held by the 
Chamberlain in the year 1266. These consisted of Clifford, Buck- 
land, Guiting and Hinton. The following is the extent of the 

Manor op Clifford. 3 
Robertus le Freman tenet quatuor virgatas terrse et duas 
acras prati per cartam, qualibet virgata existente triginta sex 
acris. Et tenet per cartam hsereditarie. 

Et reddit inde per annum viginti quinque solidos sex denarios 
ad duos anni terminos. Et si obierit, dominus habebit equum 
suum cum hernesio et arma, si qua? habuerit. Et si han-es ejus 
infra retatem sit, dominus habebit ipsius custodiam et terras 
ejus maritagio. Et si legitime fuerit aatatis in obitu patris sui faciet 
homagium, et dabit relevium domino suo pro terra sua, et faciet 
forinseca servitia quae ad terrain suam pertinent. 

1 Hist, et Cartularium Monasterii, St. Petri, Glouc, Vol. I., p. 256. 

2 Ibid. Vol. II., p. 220. :t Ibid., III., p. 49. 

Manor axd Advowsox of Cliffokij Chambers. 53 

Radulphus de Eylestone tenet unam vigatam terra? continen- 
tern quadraginta octo acras, et reddit hide per annum non redditum 
aliquem, sed sequetur eomitatum Warwici et hundredum de King- 
tone pro domino, et curiam de Cliflbrde pro omni servitio. Et si 
obierit, fiet de herieto et de custodia terrse et ha?redis ipsius siout 
superius in servitio Roberti le Freman. 

Henricus filius Fabri tenet unam virgatam terra? continemtem 
quadraginta octo acras [pro] eodem servitio in omnibus sicut 
pra?dictus Randulphus. Et si pro defalta dictorum Randulphi et 
Henrici dominus distringatur, ipsi in toto debent dominum in- 
demnem conservare. 

Willelmus filius Symonis tenet unam virgatam terra? continen- 
tem quadraginta octo acras per cartam, et reddit hide per annum 
septem solidos ad duos anni terminos. Et sequetur curiam de 
Cliflbrde. Et si obierit, fiet in omnibus sicut de prsedicto Ran- 
dulpho. Et faciet, forinseca servitia qua? ad terrain suam pertinent. 

Willelmus filius Roberti tenet unam virgatam terre per cartam 
continentem quadraginta octo acras, et reddit hide per annum 
septem solidos ad duas anni terminos, et faciet in omnibus sicut 
pra?dictus Randulphus. Duo molendina qua? solebant reddere 
sexaginta solidos et sex denarios ad quatuor anni terminos erunt 
ad Annunciationem Beata? Maria? proximo futuro in manibus 
domini, quia tunc terminus praxlictorum molendinorum ad firmam 
positorum pra?teriet. 

Willelmus Molendinarius tenet duodecim acras terra? ad ter- 
minum vita? sua? et uxoris sua? tantum, et reddit inde per annum 
decern solidos ad quatuor anni terminus. Et facit minutas con- 
suetudines non taxatas qua? ad terrain suam pertinent. 

Tota villa de Clifforde dat in communi de annuo redditu pro 
quadam parva pastura scilicit [in] quadam via sex denarios. 

Nicholaus Hentelove tenet unam mesuagium cum curtillagio 
et duas acras terre, et reddit inde per annum tres solidos ad duos 
anni terminos. Et dabit auxilium secundum numerum animalium. 
Et dabit pannagium, scilicet pro porco superannato unum denarium, 
et pro juniori porco obolum, dummodo separatus sit vel liabilis ad 
separandum. Et si braciaverit ad vendendum, dabit duodecim 

54 Transactions eor the Year 18S9-90. 

lagenas cervisire ad tonnutum, vel pretium earum. Et debet 
redimere filium et filiam. Non potest vendere equum nee bovem 
sine licentia. Et cum obierit dominus habebit melius averium 
suam nomine haarieti. 

Adam Textor tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio, et reddit 
inde per annum duodecim denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et 
levabit fcenum domini per quatuor dies, et valet duos denarios. 
Et faciet tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et 
alias consuetudines faciet sicut pmedictus Nicholaus. 

Willelmus Marescallus tenet unum mesuagium cum curtil- 
lagio et unam acram terrse, et reddit inde per annum duodecim 
denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et faciet in omnibus sicut dictus 

Alexander Sinne tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et 
unam acram terras, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex 
denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent 
quatuor denarios obolum. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit 
fcenum domimi per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et 
omnes alias consuetudines faciet sicut praadictus Nicholaus. 

Hugo tilius Laurentii tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio 
et unam acram terra?, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex 
denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent 
quatuor denarios et obolum. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit 
fcenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. Et 
omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet dictus Nicholaus. 

Thomas le Careter tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et 
unam acram terrse, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos sex 
denarios ad duos anni terminos. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et 
levabit fcenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. 
Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et 
faciet in omnibus sicut praadictus Nicholaus. 

Cristina Widye tenet simile tenementum, et facit adunationem 
[adjuvationem] foeni per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. 
Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et 
reddit de annuo redditu ad duos anni terminos duos solidos sex 
denarios. Et in omnibus aliis idem faciet sicut praadictus Nicholaus. 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 55 

Matilda relicta Galfricli tenet simile teneraentum, et reddit 
indeper annum duos solidos sex denarios. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] 
et levabit fcenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent duos denarios. 
Et faciet tros bederipas, et valent quatuor denarios obolum. Et 
omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet sicut prfedictus 

Johannes Lasteles tenet unum mesuasium cum curtillasio et 
reddit hide per annum duos solidos sex denarios. Et adunabit 
[adjuvabit] et levabit fcenum domini per quatuor dies, et valent 
duos denarios. Et facit tres bederipas, et valent quatuor denai'ios 
et obolum. Et omnes alias consuetudines non taxatas faciet sicut 
dictus Nicholaus. 

Adam Bruggemon tenet unum mesuagium cum curtillagio et 
cum quadam pastura, et reddit inde per annum duos solidos ad 
duos anni terminos. Et sustinebit pontem pro omni servitio. Et 
est ibi qusedam collecta annua de tota villa cle Clifforde, scilicet 
quindecim solidi, et inde liberantur annuatim hundredo de Theuk- 
[esburia] decim solidi, et quinque remanebunt domino. 

Willelmus de "Wmnecote tenet quinque cotagia de feodo domini, 
et percipit inde novem solidos annuos, et nihil inde domino reddit 
nisi sectam ad curiam de Clifforde. Et debit homagium domino 
abbati Gloucestria\ Et cum obierit dominus abbas habebit cus- 
todiam redditus pnedicti, et hreres infra setatem fuerit, usque ad 
legitimam petatem ipsius. 

Summa certi redditus per annum, prater hrman molendinorum, 
septuaginta sex solidi sex denarii. 

Consuetudinarius ; memorandum quod plus tenet. 1 

Ricardus de Porta tenet unam virgatam terra? et dimidiam 
acram prati, virgata existente de triginta sex acris. Et debet arare 
dimidiam acram ad yemale et dimidiam acram ad Quadragesimale, 
et illam terrain herciare tempore seminis. Et valet in summa quatuor 
denarios. Et a festo Sancti Michaelis usque ad festuin Sancti 
Petri ad Vincula debet qualibet septimana operari opus manuale 
per quatuor dies cum uno homine, et valet qiuelibet dicta obolum. 
Et summagiabit apud Gloucestriam bis in anno, et valet octo 
1 This sentence is writen in red ink. 

56 TiiANSACTloxs fou the Year 1SS9-90. 

denarios. Et etiam debet qualibet septiraana quinto die vel sexto, 
pro voluntate domini, summagiare apud Hinetone vel Boclande et 
valet quaelibet dieta unum denarium obolum. Et lavabet et tondet 
bidentes domini per duos dies, et valet unum denarium, allocate ei 
opere illius diei. Et debet falcare pratum domini per quatuor dies, 
et valet quaelibet dieta ultra operationem debitam unum denarium. 
Et adunabit [adjuvabit] et levabit fcenum domini per tres dies et 
amplius si necesse fuerit et valet quaelibet dieta obolum, non 
allocata operatione. Et debet cariare fcenum domini per unum 
diem, et valet duos denarios ultra operationem illius diei manualem, 
quae extenditur ad obolum. Et debet cariare buscam ubicumque 
dominus voluerit, et allocabitur ei pro opere unius diei. Et debit 
facere duas bederipas ante acl Vineula Sancti Petri cum duobus 
hominibus, et valent tres denarios. 

Summa valoris operationem ante autumnum quatuor decim 
solidi sex denarii obolus. 

Et a festo Beati Petri ad Vineula usque ad festum Beati 
Michaelis, debet qualibet septimana operari in messe domini per 
quinque dies cum uno homine, et valet quaelibet dicta unum 
denarium obolum. Et faciet octo bederipas cum duobus hominibus, 
et valent in summa duos soliclos. Et debit bis in hebdomada per 
quatuor septimanas cariare bladuin domini, et valet quaelibet dicta 
ultra operationem manualem unum denarium obolum. Et debet 
portare tassa in grangia domini per unum diem, et valet obolum. 
Et dabet auxilium secundum quantitatem terrae et numerum 
animalium. Et si braciaverit ad vendendum, dabit duodecim 
legenas cervisiae ad tonnutum vel pretium earum. Et debet 
pannagiare porcos, scilicet pro porco superannato unum denarium, 
et pro juniori porco obolum, dummodo fuerit separatus vel habilis 
ad separandum. Et non potest vendere equum nee bovem sine 
licentia. Et debet redimere filium et filiam. Et cum obierit, 
dominus habebit melius averium suum nomine lierieti. 

Summa valoris operationum in autumuo octo solidi et obolus. 

Walterus tilius Yvonis tenet imam virgatam terrae continen- 
tem triginta sex acras, et facit in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. 
Memorandum quod plus tenet. 

Manor and Ahvowson of Clifford Chambers. 57 

Henricus de Wilicote tenet unam virgatam terrre, et facit in 
omnibus sicut prsedictus Ricardus. 

Alicia Williames tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in 
omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. 

Nicholaus de Middeltone tenet unam virgatam terra, et facit 
in omnibus sicut Ricardus. 

Matilda Adam tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in omnibus 
sicut dictus Ricardus. 

Relicta Johannis Rondulf tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit 
in omnibus sicut Ricardus. Memorandum quod plus tenet. 

Willelmus le Orl tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in omni- 
bus sicut pnedictus Ricardus. 

Ricardus Palmerius tenet unam virgatam terra 1 , et facit in 
omnibus sicut prsedictus Ricardus. Memorandum quod plus tenet. 

Ricardus de Ovetone tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in 
omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. 

Thomas Rawe tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in omnibus 
sicut prsedictus Ricardus. 

Nicholaus le Orl tenet unam virgatam terre, et facit in omni- 
bus sicut prsedictus Ricardus. 

Bertram Belami tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit in omni- 
bus sicut pra?dictus Ricardus. 

Robertus filius Willelmi tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit 
in omnibus sicut dictus Ricardus. 

Sampson Neweman tenet unam virgatam [terra?] et facit in 
omnibus sicut prsedictus Ricardus. 

Johannes filius Willelmi tenet unam virgatam terra?, et facit 
in omnibus sicut praedictus Ricardus. 

Item apud Aileston. 

Galfridus de Forde tenet unam virgatam continentem viginti 
octo acras, et debet a festo Sancti Michaelis usque ad festum 
Sancti Petri ad Vincula qualibet septimana per quatuor dies 
operari opus manuale cum uno honiine, et valet quselibet dieta 
obolum. Et summagiabit bis in anno ad Gloucestriam, et valet 
octo denarios. Et quinto die vel sexto qualibet septimana sum- 
magiabit apud Hynetone aut Boclande, et valet quselibet dieta 

58 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

unam denarium obolum. Et debet arare dimidiam acram et illaru 
herciare tempore seminis, et erit quietus per totam illam hebdom- 
adam qua araverit dimidiam acram. Et levabit et tondet oves 
domini per duos dies, et valet unum denarium obolum. Et 
falcabit pratum domini per quatuor dies, et valet quselibet dieta 
ultra operationem debitam duos denarios. Et adunabit [adjuvabit] 
et foenum levabet per quatuor dies, et valet quaelibet dieta ultra 
operationem debitam obolum. Et cariabit foenum et valet duos 
denarios ultra operationem manualem illius diei qua? extendit[ur] 
ad obolum. Et debet cariare buscam ubicumque dominus voluerit, 
et allocabitur ei pro opere diei. Et faciet duas bederipas ante 
Gulaustum cum duobus hominibus, et valent tres denarios. Et 
a festo Sancti Petri ad Vincula usque ad festum Sancti Michaelis 
debet qualibet septimana operari in messe domini per quatuor 
dies cum uno homine, et valet qurelibet dieta unum denarium. 
Et debet quinto die summagiare, et valet dieta unum denarium 
obolum. Et faciet octo bederipas cum duobus hominibus, et 
valent in summa duos solidos. Et debet bis in hebdomada per 
quatuor septimanas cariare bladum domini, et valet dieta ultra 
operationem manualem unum denarium obolum. Et csetera cuoque 
faciet sicut dictus Ricardus de Porta. 

Willelmus de Rye tenet unam virgatam terras, et facit in 
omnibus sicut praedictus Galfridus. 

Thomas le Orl tenet unam virgatam terra, et facit in omnibus 
sicut praedictus Galfridus. 

Rogerus Silvestre tenet unam virgatam terra;, et facit in om- 
nibus sicut dictus Galfridus. 

Radulphus Frankeleyn tenet unam virgatam [terras], et facit 
in omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus. 

Alicia Mauger tenet unam virgatam terras, et facit in omnibus 
sicut pra^dictus Galfridus. 

Ricardus Newcomene tenet unam virgatam terras, et facit in 
omnibus sicut dictus Galfridus. 

Robertus de Forda tenet unam virgatam, et facit in omnibus 
sicut dictus Galfridus. 

Cristina relicta Carectarii tenet dimidiam virgatam terra? et 

Manor and Asvowsox of Clifford Chambers. 59 

facit naedietatam servitii in omnibus, sicut praedictus Galfridus de 
Ford a. 

Omnes prsedicti consuetudinarii dant annuatim de auxilio 
viginti solidos, et omnes debent cariare molas, scilicet petras 
molares ad molendinum domini, vel dabunt in communi tredecim 
denarios quadrantem. 

Item apud Clifforde sunt quatuor carucse arantes in dominico, 
et sunt ibidem triginta sex boves, scilicet cullibet caruca? octo 
boves et quatuor ultra. 

From the above Extent it will be seen that in the ville of 
Clifford there were five Free tenants. Of these, Robert le Freman 
held of his inheritance 4 virgates of 36 acres of land, and paid an 
annual rent of 25s. 6d. If he died the lord had his horse, harness 
(armour) and arms, and should his heirs be within age he had the 
custody of their lands and their marriage. If of full age on the 
death of their father, on doing homage and paying their relief, the 
lands were restored to them subject to such services as pertained 
to the same. 

The other four free tenants held each a virgate of land of 48 
acres. One of these, Radulphus de Eyleston, paid no rent, but 
was bound to do the abbot's service in following the Earl of 
Warwick, and at the Hundred of Kington for the lord, and at 
the Court of Clifford for all services; and his heirs on his death 
were subject to the same conditions as those of Robert le 
Freman. Henry, the son of the Smith (Fabri) held his virgate of 
land also rent-free by the same services in all things as Randolph, 
and if through default of the said Randolph and Henry, the lord 
suffered loss the same should indemnify him. 

The other two tenants, William son of Symon and William 
the son of Robert, held their virgates by charter by the same 
tenure as Randolph, and each paid rent at 7s. 6d. per annum. 

There were two mills which produced a rent of 66s. 4d., and 
William the miller held 12 acres of land for the term of his own 
life and that of his wife at a rent of 10s. per annum. 

So that the total issues of the free tenants and the mills 
amounted to £5 10 per annum. 

60 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

There were also nine cottager tenants who held between them 
12 acres of land, and paid in the whole 19s. 6d. rent, and one 
other who held five cottages paid 9s. rent, but he owed no other 
service to the court of Clifford. He owed homage, however, to 
the lord abbot at Gloucester, and when he died the abbot had the 
custody of his heirs and rent aforesaid until they attained full age. 

The sum of the rents of this class was 76s. 6d., beside the farm 
of the mills. 

The customary tenants appear to have been of two classes. 
Of the first class there were 17, each of whom held one virgate of 
land, containing 36 acres ; and of the other class there were 8, of 
whom each held a virgate of 28 acres, and the ninth, a woman, 
held half a virgate, or 14 acres. These were held rent free, but 
the tenants had to give labour in the cultivation of the demesne, 
the saving of the crops, and other such services, the value of which 
for each tenant was estimated at £1 2s. 7d. a year, the woman, in 
respect to her half virgate, paying half that sum. 

All the aforesaid customary tenants gave annually of aid 20s., 
and all owed mill carriage, viz., mill stones, &c, to the lord's mill 
or gave in common 13Jd. 

At Clifford there were four ploughs for the arable land in 
demesne, and there were 36 oxen, viz., for each plough 8 oxen 
and 4 besides. 

At this date a very large portion of the manor consisted of 
open fields, and so continued down to the middle of the last 
century, when they were enclosed and apportioned. 

We have no records relating to the Abbey of St. Peter's during 
the 15th and 16th centuries, and must therefore pass over the 
history of the Manor of Clifford during this long period. It is 
not likely, however, that any stirring incidents occurred to disturb 
its quiet course under the government of the abbots down to the 
eventful reign of Henry VIII. 

By an Indenture dated in the feast of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel, 18th Hem-y VIII. (1526), between William, Abbot of 
St. Peter's, and the convent there of the one part, and William 
Raynesford, Johanna his wife, Charles their son, Joice their 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 61 

daughter, John Alderfull son of Walter Alderfull, of Knyghtwike, 
in co. Worcester, and Elianora daughter of the said William 
Raynesford of the other part, it is witnessed that the said abbot 
and convent grant, and to farm demise, to the said parties of the 
second part the reversion of the site of the Manor of Clifford 
Chamberer with its appurtenances, including two water mills with 
the mulcture of the tenants and the fishery of the waters of the 
same, now being in the tenure of George Tumour, to have and to 
hold and occupy the said manor to the said William and the 
others of the second part for the term of 61 years, if either of 
. them should so long live, rendering to the said abbot and convent 
by the hands of the chamberlain £16 sterling per annum in two 
equal portions, and pay for the said abbot and convent and their 
successors 16s 10^d annually : viz., a free rent arising out of the 
Manor of Hyneton to the heirs of the Lord le Despenser 10s., to 
the bailiff of Tewkesbury 5s., and to the bailiff of the Hundred of 
Kington 2'2%d.; and the said farmers (firmarii) were to provide 
for the chamberlain and steward [senescallum] and their servants 
and horses, twice annually when they came to hold the court, their 
food and drink and fodder for their horses, &c, good and honest 
for two days and two nights ; and further the said farmers were 
to keep in repair the site of the manor and mills and all edifices 
during the aforesaid term, for which they were to have timber, &c, 
and they were also to have wood and underwood there growing, 
heybote, firebote, ploughbote, and cartbote by their hands without 
making waste, and the said farmers were to collect rents and other 
profits of the manor and account for them to the said abbot at 
Gloucester. And the said farmers were to receive on entering 
upon the premises the store of implements of the aforesaid George 
and his executors, &c., with covenants for the payment of the 
rent, or in default to suffer distraint and removal. 1 

We give a tolerably full abstract of this lease as an example of 
the usual form of abbey leases. It will be observed that no fine 
was demanded, and it may be concluded that the rent agreed upon 
was considered the full value of the manor at this date, but it is 

1 Hist, et Cartularium Monasterii Sancti Petri, Gloucestria?, Vol. III., 
pp. 308-311. 

62 Transactions foe the Year 1889-90. 

well known that the abbey rents were, generally, very low. 

On the dorse of the lease is the following Inventory of the 
Implementum of the Demesne, with this title : — 

Inventorium sive staurum deliberandum infranominato 
Willielmo Raynesford et aliis in ingressu suo infra tirmam de 
Clifford, quod percipiet de ultimo firmario ibidem existente, vel 
ejus executoribus sive assignatis. 

In prim is, octodecim quarteria whete. 

Item, viginti quatuor quarteria barly. 

Item, sexdecim quarteria pulsae. 

Item, tria quarteria otes. 

Item, duo oxe waynes. 

Item, duo plowes. 

Item, octo yron cheynes with yokes and other necessariis belonging 

to two waynes. 
Item, two harrowes for horses, whereof one is called a bastard 

harrow with yron teeth. 
Item, an horse saddle, three colers of lether, three payre of tracys. 

Item, a wayne rope. 

Item, two sackes, a busshell measure bounde with yron, one forke 

for hay, two forkes for corne. 
Item, a fate. 
Item, forty-eight acres twys falowes and thries falowed and 

Item, a trowe of stone for swyne. 
Item, a great mortar of stone. 
Item, a coffre. 

Item, a tabulborde, a payre of trestelles. 
Item, a ledon furneys. 

Item, all the haye of the medowes of the demaynes growing. . 
Item, all the strawe and chaffe remayning in the garners at that 


We are informed by the Rev. Win. Bazeley that, as might be 
expected, there is a large number of leases copied into the Abbey 
Registers in the Chapter Library at Gloucester, which the editor 
of the Historia et Cartularium Monasterii GlcucestricB did not 

Manor and Advowson or Clifford Chambers. 63 

consider of sufficient public interest to notice in that work. Mr. 
Bazeley says there are no fewer than eighty deeds copied into the 
registers relating to the conveyance of land in the Manor of 
Clifford Chambers alone, with the names of witnesses and dates 
of the 14th and 15th centuries. We pass these by. They doubt- 
less were chiefly leases to farm. There are one or two, however, 
of later date it will be desirable to mention. 

In the register of Abbot Parker, Vol. II., is recorded a release 
granted by William, abbot, and the convent, dated 24th July, 
1537 (29th Henry VIIL), of the site of the manor, &c, to the 
above-mentioned William Rainsford and Johanna his wife, and 
to Charles, Gaudiosa and Elianora their son and daughters, and to 
John and Walter Aldersfull, of Knightwick, co. Wore, and to 
William Rainsford their cousin, son of John Rainsford, of 
Michel Teme, in co. Oxon, from the feast of St. Michael, 1534, 
for the term of 80 years, if either of them should so long live, at 
the rent of £17 per annum. The reversionary interest still rested 
in the abbot and convent, and, on the 3rd Mar. 1537-8, in the same 
regnal year, by Indenture under the Common Seal, they demised 
to John A Combe.' of Stratford-upon-Avon, gent., the reversion of 
the site of the same manor with appurtenances. All these leases 
would seem to be entirely ignored, for what reason does not 
appear, for on the 10th October following (30th Henry VIIL) the 
abbot and convent granted a lease of the whole manor, with all 
its appurtenances and franchises (the advowson of all churches, 
chapels, and chantries excepted) for the term of ninety and nine 
years to John Russell, of Strensham, co. Wore, Knt., and Jerome 
Cooke, of Clifford Chambers, gent., their heirs and assigns, to 
commence from the feast of St. Michael then last past, 1 at the 
annual rent of £35 ; and there is an extz'act from the Minister's 
Account of the 3rd Edward VI. shewing that that sum was 
received and accounted for by the minister of that year as the 
farm of the manor, and it continued to be held by the said parties 
down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the 4th year of that 
Sovereign, however, by letters patent dated 1st May, 1562, the 
Queen, in consideration of the sum of £1,260 paid into the 
1 Clifford's Muniments. 

t}4 Transactions for thk Year 1889-90. 

Court of Augmentation, granted to Charles Rainsford, Esq., all 
the Manor and Lordship of Clifford, alias Clifford Chamberer, with 
all its rights, liberties, franchises, ike. , and appurtenances, late in 
the tenure of John Russell, Knt., and Jerome Cooke, gent., for a 
certain term of years not as yet expired, and also all those lands, 
tfec, called the hamlet of Ayleston, in the parishes of Ayleston 
and Clifford, in the counties of Warwick and Gloucester, of the 
annual value of £35, beyond reprises, reserving all lead and all 
advowsons of churches, chapels, &c, to have and to hold to the 
said Charles Rainsford, his heirs and assigns for ever by the 
service of the 20th part of one knight's fee for all rents, services, 
and demands whatsoever. 1 

Charles Rainsford was twice married. By his first wife Jane, 
dau. of John Morgan, of Camberton, co. Worcester, by whom he 
had issue nine children — -1. Thomas; 2. Hercules, who succeeded 
him at Clifford, and was executor to his father's will ; 3. Morgan, 
living in 1 - r )78 ; Jane, who married John Prouse, of Slaughter, co. 
Glouc. ; Elizabeth, wife of Robert Wincott, of Kensham, co. Oxon, 
both living in 1578 ; Eleanor, who on 20th February, 8th Eliz., 
being then 40 years of age, surrendered to her father what interest 
she had, or was supposed to have, in the manor ; Margaret being- 
unmarried 1578. His second wife was Frances, daughter of 
Henry Wynrlsore, who survived him, but had no issue. On 31st 
May, 10th Eliz., (1568) Charles Rainsford by his Indenture con- 
veyed all his estates in Clifford to certain trustees to the use of 
himself for life, remainder to Hercules Rainsford his son and the 
heirs males of the said Hercules for ever. And, at Clifford, on the 
26th April, 20th Elizabeth (1578), he made his last will, in which 
he names his daughter Margaret, son Morgan, and a certain 
Ambrose Rainsford, whom we have failed to identify, and appoints 
his son Anthony Rainsford and his (testator's) wife Frances, 
executors to his will, and died on the 30th of the same month. 
On an Inquisition taken at Stratford-upon-Avon, 18th December, 
following under a torit diem clausit extremum dated the 12th 
September previously, the jurors found that the said Charles on 
the clay on which he died did not hold any lands or tenements in 
1 Rot. Pat., 4th Eliz., Part 2. 

Maxor axd Advowsox of Clifford Chambers. 65 

the County of Warwick of the Queen or of any other person. 1 
There is no Inquisition extant for Gloucestershire. 

Thomas Rainsford, the eldest son of Charles, appears to have 
married a certain Alice and to have resided at Clifford, and 
had by her three children ; Alice, John and Frances. Frances 
died in 1576 and Alice in 1578. John was not baptized until 
1599, and we do not know anything further concerning him. 

Hercules Rainsford, who succeeded his father at Clifford, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Parry, of Denbigh, by 
whom he had issue Henry and Elizabeth. The latter became the 
wife of Edward Marrow, son and heir of Samuel Marrowe, of 
Barkwell, co. Warr. She died 29th Oct., 1601, and was buried 
at Clifford, where there is a Brass to her memory (see Plate ) 

Hercules Rainsford himself died 2nd Aug. 1583, intestate, aged 39, 
and administration of his effects was granted the following day to 
Elizabeth his relict. There is a Brass in Clifford Church commemo- 
rating both (see Plate ). The Inquisition taken at Campeden, on 
11th Dec. 1583, is a document of considerable interest. It begins 
by reciting the convent leases of 16th July, 21th Henry VIII. , 
and 3rd March, 29th Henry VIII., as if they had been carried 
into effect, but says nothing of that of the 30th Henry VIII. 
to Sir John Russell and Jerome Cooke, who, we have seen from 
record evidence, held the lease on to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and it had not expired when the manor was granted in fee to 
Charles Rainsford. It recites also the settlement deed of the said 
Charles, and his will which we have noticed above, and the jurors 
say further that the aforesaid Hercules took to wife a certain 
Elizabeth, who was still alive at Clifford, as was also Frances the 
relict of his father ; and they say further that Henry Rainsford 
is the son and nearest heir of the said Hercules, and on the 18th 
instant will be 8 years of age. Lastly they say that the said 
Manor of Clifford is held of the Queen in capite by the 20th part 
of one knight's fee, and that its value per annum, beyond reprises, 
is £18. 2 

1 Inq. p.m. 21st Elizabeth, No. 110. 

2 Inq. p.m., 26th Eliz. No. 198. 

Vol. XIV. y 

66 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

On the 2nd August, following the death of Hercules Rains- 
ford, an extent was taken by Christopher George, Esq., the 
Queen's Feodary, to ascertain the value of all the manors, messu- 
ages, lands and tenements of the said Hercules which have 
descended unto Henry Rainsford, his son and next heir, of the 
age of 8 years the 18th of December next after the finding of the 
office, taken at Campeden the 11th December, 26th of the Queen 

First it is found that the site of the Manor of Clifford Cham 
berer, with the houses, edifices, buildings, stable, lands, two water- 
mills, one orchard, two gardens, divers closes, meadows, leasowes 
feedings, and pastures to the same belonging in the counties of 
Gloucester and Warwick, are worth by the year c£16. And it is 
stated that Frances, late the wife of Charles Rainsford, deceased, 
is now living and doth hold part of the said lands for her life in 
consideration of her jointure, and that the same Hercules died 
seized of certain tenements, parcel of the said manor, of the value 
of £6 a year, included in the said sum of £16. There were two 
free tenants who paid rents of assize, amounting together to lOd. 
per annum, two conventionary tenants, who, together, paid a rent of 
£2 9s. Eleven copyhold tenants who, together, paid rents amount- 
ing to £8 9s., and twelve tenants at will who paid annually 
£2 15s. 10d., making the total value of the manor £29 13s. 8d. 
(miscast as £29 13s. 10d.), out of which was payable an annuity 
of £13 6s. 8d. to Thomas Rainsford for the term of 60 years if 
the said Thomas, or any woman the said Thomas should marry, or 
either of them should so long live ; and it is stated that the said 
manor is held of the Queen in capite by the service of the 20th 
part of a knight's fee, and that Elizabeth, late the wife of the 
said Hercules, is still alive. Dated 15th June, 26th Elizabeth 1 

Six months after the death of Hercules Rainsford, his relict 
Elizabeth, who, the day following his death, hastened to obtain 
letters of administration to his effects, had already contracted a 
second marriage with William Barnes, 2 of Taulton, in the parish 

1 Clifford Muniments. 

2 William Barnes was the eldest son of William Barnes, of Bercheston 
and Talton, co. Wore. , by Alice daughter of Middlemore, of Egebaston, 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 67 

of Tredington, co. Wore, who by an Indenture dated 10th June, 
(1584) made a post nuptial settlement by which he conveyed to 
Sir Henry Sidney and other trustees certain houses and closes of 
land in Wincott, in the parishes of Clifford and Quinton, known 
as a moiety of the Manor of Wincott, and also all the Manor of 
Tadlington, alias Taulton, to the use of the said William Barnes 
and Elizabeth his wife, and the survivor of them, remainder to 
the heirs of the body of the said William in tail male, in default 
remainder to the said William, his heirs and assigns for ever. 
And so, for the Manor of Taulton under the same limitations : 
and that the said William and his heirs will indemnify the said 
Elizabeth against all charges on the moiety of the Manor of Win 
cote and the Manor of Taulton, except the estate of Alice Barnes 
mother of the said William, and the rents and charges created on 
the latter by the will of William Barnes, deceased, and the rents 
and services due to the Queen and their other chief lords ; and 
further, if it shall happen that at any time during the life of the 
said Elizabeth the residue of the estate for a term of years by the 
lease of the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester to John Combes 
gent., deceased, should fall into the hands of the said William he 
will convey the same to the aforesaid trustees to the uses of the 
said William and Elizabeth for life, remainder to Henry Rainsford, 
son and heir of the aforesaid Hercules and the said Elizabeth, and 

co. Warr. By his will dated 22nd August, 1621, for the special love and 
affection for his well-beloved son-in-law (? stepson) Sir Henry Rainsford, Knt. 
and Dame Anne his wife, and, for the consideration of Sir Henry, paying 
all his (testator's) debts and legacies, &c. , as set forth in a schedule annexed 
to his deed of gift granted to the said Sir Henry and Dame Anne all his 
goods and chattels except as set out in the said schedule. In this schedule. 
he gives to his cousin, Thomas Bartlett, £110 due on account. To Mrs. 
Freeman, London, one half of 162 chilver lambs (ewe lambs) and one half of 
170 theaves (ewe lambs one year old) depasturing in his ground at Taulton. 
Mentions William Barnes, the elder, of Taulton, and gives to him the other 
half of his chilver lambs and the theaves. To his cousin, Francis Rainsford, 
second son of Sir Henry, a chain of gold, which was his grandmother's ; to 
his cousin, Henry Rainsford, eldest son of the said Sir Henry, his white bason 
and ewer of silver and two great pots belonging to the same ; to cousin, 
Eilinor Rainsford, his wife, £10 to buy a Jewell ; to cousin, Ann Goodere ; 
to cousin, William Barnes' wife ; to sister, Anne Woodward and Mrs. Alice 
Alder, her daughter ; cousin, Thomas Hooper ; and many others (Probate, 
6th Nov., 1621, P.C.C.) 

F 2 

68 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

the heirs of the body of the said Henry, in default to the heirs of 
the body of Elizabeth, daughter of the said Hercules and Elizabeth, 
in default remainder to the executors of the said William and 
Elizabeth the mother. And the said William further covenants 
that after the coming of age, or the marriage of the said Elizabeth 
the daughter, he will bestow upon her the sum of £500, and that 
he, the said William, after the said Henry Rainsford shall have 
attained the age of 24 years will deliver to him all such buttons 
of gold and silver, and the best salt of silver, with a cover, which 
were parcel of the goods of the aforesaid Hercules Rainsford 
deceased. 1 

We do not know the precise date of the grant of the wardship 
and marriage of the youthful heir of Hercules Rainsford to 
William Barnes, whether before or after the marriage of the said 
William with the lad's mother, but it was within a year of the 
death of his father, for William Barnes held, on behalf of his 
ward, courts of the manor in the 26th year of Elizabeth. There 
is every reason to believe that he treated his ward with great 
kindness, and protected his interest as if he had been his own son. 

Henry Rainsford did homage and had livery of seizen of his 
estate and at the King's coronation, 23rd July, 1603, he received 
the honour of knighthood. He married Anne, only daughter of Sir 
Henry Goodier, of Polesworth, co. Warwick. We do not know 
the exact date, but it was soon after 1595, when, as one of the 
executors, she proved her father's will, dated 26th January, 1594-5, 
and proved by her the 6th May following. 2 Pier second son was 
baptized in 1599. On the 5th December, 1616, he received letters 
patent authorising him to impark and make a free warren of all or 
any part of his lands in Clifford, alias Clifford Chambers, and in 
Aleston, alias Alveston, in co. Warwick, and the sheriff was 
directed to levy £10 upon any person who should hunt, &c, 
within the said manor over and above the penalty of £10 reserved 
by act of parliament for hunting in parks, &c, to be paid to the said 
Sir Henry Rainsford, his heirs and assigns for ever. 3 The site of 

1 Clifford Muniments. 

2 Probate with Clifford Muniments. 
8 Rot. Pat. 14th James, Part 2. 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 69 

the park is well known and it called " The Park " to this day, but 
it has been long disparked. He died 27 th Jan v., 1621-2, leaving 
issue a son and heir named Henry, who succeeded him, born in 
1599, as stated above ; his elder brother, named William, having 
died v.p.; the third brother, called Francis, of whom presently. 
By letters patent, dated 20th November, 1623, he received special 
livery of seizin in the Manor of Clifford and in all the lands which 
were heretofore enjoyed by Sir Henry Rainsford his father, 
Hercules Rainsford his grandfather, or Charles Rainsford his 
great-grandfather, or any other person in trust for them. 1 He 
married, cir. 1619, Elianora, one of the two daughters and coheirs 
of Robert Boswell, of Eastwick, in the parish of Combe, co. South- 
hants, by which marriage he acquired, Eastwick. She died and 
was buried at Combe, 18th August, 1637. He was knighted at 
Tutbury, 17th August, 1624, and was burgess in Parliament for 
Andover. He died 10th April, 1641. 

In the Inquisition taken at Cirencester on 3rd May, 1641, 
before Thomas Harte, Esch., and a jury, the jurors found that long 
before his death the said Sir Henry was seized in his demesne as 
of fee tail to him and heirs male of his body of the Manor of 
Clifford, &c, in default of such issue remainder to Francis Rains- 
ford his brother, under like limitation, in default of such issue, 
remainder to the right heirs of the said Sir Henry. The jurors 
also found that he was seized of and in free warren in all his lan«ds 
in the parish of Clifford, ats Clifford Chambers, and in the Manor 
(sic) of Aleston, alias Alveston, in the county of Warwick, and 
also in the advowson of the Church of Clifford. And they say the 
said Henry Rainsford died 10th April last past, and that Henry 
Rainsford, Esq., is son and heir of the said Henry in the writ 
named and on the 11th May last past was aged 18 years. 2 

Sir Francis Rainsford, the youngest son of Sir Henry by Anne 
Goodere, was of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Middlesex. He was 
knighted at Theobald's, 22nd June, 1633. He married Mary, 
daughter of Henry Ewer, of the Lea, co. Hertford. 

1 Rot. Pat., 21st James. 

- Inq. p.m., 17th Charles, Part 3, No. 8. 

70 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Henry Rainsford, the son and heir of the second Sir Henry, 
though so young on his father's death, was quickly involved in the 
political troubles of the age in which it was his misfortune to live. 
The great rebellion broke out very soon after his father's death, 
and Henry Rainsford, like his neighbours in this part of Glouces- 
tershire, who, as pointed out by Mr. Tomes, ante Vol. XII., p. 292, 
were eminently loyal, appears to have entered with ardour into 
the King's cause, and, like a large number of the other gentry of 
the country who staked their lives and lands thereon and lost the 
stake to the ruin of themselves and their families, he brought ruin 
upon himself. His first step seems to have been to compound 
with the Court of Wards for his wardship for £600, for the 
payment of which sum the whole of his estates was made over 
by the said court to Mr. Job Dighton, 1 to whom, on 15th 
February, 1641-2, was granted his wardship and marriage to the 
ward's use for the sum of .£300, of which £100 was paid and 
£200 remained unpaid, and the lands were charged with it, 
and a lease of the lands was granted by the court to the said 
Job, at the low rent of £100 per annum. Being in arms for the 
King at Oxford he was made prisoner, but effected his escape and 
petitioned the committee to to be allowed to compound for his 
delinquincy, for which purpose he was required to render the 
particulars of his estate both real and personal. In this document 
it is stated that, under a deed dated 1st February, 17th James 
(1619-20), his father was seized to him and the heirs male of his 
body of the Manors of Clifford and Ayleston in the counties 
of Gloucester and Warwick, and of divers lands and tenaments 
thereto belonging of the yearly value before the troubles of £300. 

The manor and lands are chargeable under a deed dated 7th 
November, 5th Charles (1629), with an annuity of £80 per annum 
to the Lady Mary Rainsford, late wife of Sir Francis Rainsford, 
deceased, for the term of her life. Besides which engagements 
the said Henry Rainsford is indebted to several persons in the 
sum of £1000. 

He has also six brothers and sisters to be provided for out of 
the estate. It is certified that he took the solemn league and 

1 Rot. Pat., 17th Charles. 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 71 

covenant on the 30th October, 16-16, and on 1st October, 1619, he 
paid <£900 for his composition. 1 

By Indenture dated 1st April, 21st Charles (1615), Henry 
Rainsford had granted to Job Dighton, described as of the Middle 
Temple, Esq., and Richard Quiney, citizen and druggester, of 
London, the Manor and Lordship of Clifford, with appurtenances, 
and the Hamlet of Ailston, with appurtenances, together with the 
advowson of the Church of Clifford, to hold to the said Job 
Dighton, his executors and assigns, for the term of 99 years, if the 
said Job so long should live, at the yearly rent of one pepper-corn 
if demanded, under certain provisoes of trust. 2 By a further 
Indenture dated 1st February, 22nd Charles (1616-7, Henry 
Rainsford of the one part, and the aforesaid Job Dighton and 
Richard Quiney of the other part, recites the above abstracted 
Indenture of 1st April, 21st Charles, and witnesseth that the said 
Henry Rainsford for the consideration mentioned in the before 
recited Indenture, and the sum of £578 18s. 3d., all of which 
upon account made between them amounts to the sum of £1371 
3s. lOd, hath remised and released and for ever quit-claimed for 
himself and his heirs unto the said Job Dighton and Richard 
Quiney the said trust provisoe in the said Indenture mentioned, 
with the intent to make the said Indenture absolute for the full 
term of 99 years, and after the expiration of the said term to 
revert to the use and benefit of the said Henry Rainsford and his 
heirs, and to none other use and purpose whatsoever; and it is 
further declared that a fine suffered by the said Henry Rainsford, 
in Trinity term 3 preceding to Francis Smith and John Beddowe, 
of certain lands included in the aforesaid Indenture, was done for 
the release and extinquishing of the aforesaid Indenture, and the 
said Henry Rainsford for himself and his heirs covenants to and 
with the said Job Dighton and Richard Quiney quiet possession 
and free egress to and from the said premises during the remain- 
der of the said term of 99 years. 4 

1 Royalists' Composition Papers, 2nd series, Vol. XXI., pp. 187-195. 

2 Clifford Muniments. 

3 Pedes Fin., 22nd Charles, Trinity. 

4 Clifford Muniments. 

72 Transaction's fok the Year 1889-90. 

By Indenture dated 8th December, 1649, made between Henry 
Rainsford, of Clifford Chambers, Esq., of the one part, and Job 
Dighton, of the Middle Temple, Esq., and Henry Dighton of the 
same place, gent., and Thomas Warren of the other part, the said 
Henry Rainsford, in consideration of several sums of money 
therein mentioned, amounting to £4,450, conveyed to the said 
Job and Henry Dighton, their heirs and assigns, his reversionary 
interest in all the Manor of Clifford, together with the advowson 
of the church, the mills, free warren, &c, with all its appurtenances. 
Thus the possession of the Manor of Clifford passed into another 
name and other blood. 

Henry Rainsford having sold his estates went beyond the 
seas, as appears by certain proceedings in chancery dated 1 0th 
July, 1649, and died in East Indies unmarried. Administration 
of his effects was granted 5th December, 1659, to Francis Rains- 
ford his brother. This Francis was of the Tower of London. He 
married and had issue, but it is not our purpose to carry the 
descent any further. 3 

Dightox, of Clifford Chambers. 

The descent of Mr. Job Dighton is not certainly known, but 
it is supposed by his descendants that he may be identical with 
Joabe Dighton, eldest son of Thomas Dighton, of Ashby de la 
Zouch, co. Leic, younger son of Christopher Dighton, of Norman- 
by, co. Line, but no evidence of this has been obtained, further 
than that Thomas Dighton had a son named Thomas, and that Job 
Dighton, of Clifford, in his will, mentions a brother of that name, 
whom he makes trustee for his two sons. Moreover, the arms 
allowed in the Heralds' Visitation of Worcestershire in 1569, to 
the Dightons of that county, were painted on two hatchments lately 
remaining in Clifford Church, affixed to the wall of the chancel, but 
the hatchments being rotten and otherwise decayed, were removed 
on the recent restoration of that edifice. In one case they are 
quartered with : az. 3 falcons ducally crowned o>; and bearing on an 

1 Clifford Muniments " Rainsford v. Whistler. 

3 Those who desire further information are referred to a very good 
pedigree of the family printed in Vol. II., p. 105, of The Genealogist (first 
series), to which we are indebted for some of the facts above stated. 

Manor and Advowsox of Clifford Chambers. 73 

escutcheon of pretence the arms of Keyt. These are clearly for 
Richard Dighton who married Alice, dau. and coh. of Francis Keyt, 
of Hidcote, which Richard died in 1738. On the second hatch- 
ment is Dighton quartering Keyt and impaling Selman and Lister 
quarterly. This is for Francis Keyt Dighton, the eldest son of 
the above Richard (see ped. p. 108) There is no monument or 
inscription now remaining in commemoration of this family. 

Job Dighton married Anne, daughter of William Harswell, of 
Coventry, and died in 1659. He left two sons, Job and Henry, 
both named in his will dated 21st September in that year. He 
bequeathed to the latter the arrears of rent due from certain 
property which he possessed at Loughborough, co. Leic, which 
had not been paid for above twenty years, and his furniture and 
books in his chambers in the Temple. He gave to his son Job a 
sum of £100 due from Henry Rainsford, secured by a judgment 
bond of twice that amount. Job, the son, however, died in 
1669 unmarried and intestate, and administration of his effects 
was granted to his brother Henry, who succeeded his father at 
Clifford, and by Sarah his wife, daughter of Dr. Richard Bayly, 
Principal of St. John's College, Oxford, and Dean of Salisbury, 
had issue Richard Dighton, son and heir, who succeeded to 
the Manor of Clifford and presented to the church in 1729. He 
married Alice, daughter and coheir of Francis Keyt, of Hidcote, 
in the parish of Mickleton, through which marriage he acquired, 
on the death of the said Francis, that estate and other lands. He 
had issue Francis Keyt, son and heir, and three other sons, Richard, 
Henry and John, and five daughters. Richard and Henry died 
without issue. Of John we shall write presently. Richard 
Dighton (the father) died in 1738, and was succeeded in his 
estates by his eldest son Francis Keyt, who presented to the rec- 
tory in 1732 and 1735, during his father's lifetime. He married 
Sarah, only daughter of Daniel Selman, of Old Ford, in Bow, co. 
Middlesex, a Turkey merchant, by Sarah his wife, daughter and 
heir of Matthew Lister, of the same place. He left issue Lister 
Dighton, his son and heir, and two daughters, Alice and Arabella. 
He sold, in 1769, under the direction of his father's will, Hidcote 
Bartham and the Mikleton lands, acquired by his grandfather's 
1 Heralds Visit of Wore, 15G9, Hail. Soc. Pub., Vol. XXVII., p. 49. 

74 Transactions foh the Year 1880-90. 

marriage, to Morgan Graves, of the last named place, Esq, In 
1776 he presented to the Rectory of Clifford as he did again in 
1787. This benefice becoming void in 1793 by the resignation 
of John Brewer, the then rector, he presented his nephew, Arthur 
Annesley, clerk, thereto. Lister Dighton married Mary, daughter 

of Foulds, of Bow, co. Middlesex, but died in 1807 

without issue. By his will, dated 2nd December, 1805, he directs 
that his body shall be buried in a plain and secret manner in the 
family vault in Clifford church, as near to his late wife as may 
be. Among other legacies he gives to Mrs. Mary, widow of Bertie 
Egerton, late of Wednesbury, co. Oxon, clerk, deceased, an annuity 
of £10 per annum for life. To Lister Mason, the godson of his 
late wife, £50, and to Lucy Mason, his own god-daughter, £50. 
To Elizabeth Dighton, widow of John Dighton, Esq., deceased, 
£1000. To James Lucy Dighton, Esq., £200. To his (testator's) 
niece, Arabella Annesley, £1000. To John Robert Mason, of 
Alveston, £50, and to Mrs. Mason, his wife, a mourning ring. To 
the Rector and Churchwardens of Clifford, £20, to be placed out 
at interest, and the money arising therefrom to be laid out in 
bread to be given to the poor on St Thomas's day. 1 He gives and 
devises to his nephew, the Rev. Arthur Annesley, all his capital 
mansion house, (see PL III) manor, mills, messuages, ic, &c, with 
all it rights, royalties, liberties, privileges, and appurtenances, and 
all other his real estate, wheresoever, to hold all the said estate 
to his said nephew, Arthur Annesley, his heirs and assigns for 
ever, and appoints his said nephew residuary legatee. The pedigree 
of Dighton, of Clifford, is in the Annesley pedigree jwst page. 

The property, after remaining vested in the family of Dighton 
for five descents, extending over a period of nearly of 160 years, 
was carried by marriage into another name, but before following 
it we desire to add a few words respecting the family of Dighton 
which has now been settled in Gloucestershire about 250 years. 

John Dighton, fourth son of Richard Dighton by Alice Keyt, 
was of Staples' Inn, London. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 

1 The Rev. Francis Annesley in 187*2 made a similar donation in aug- 
mentation of this bequest. 




i— i 





Manor and Advowsox of Clifford Chambers. 75 

John Hunter, of Fort St. George, in the East Indies, and by her 
became the founder of the existing families of Dighton, of Glouces- 

Annesley, of Clifford Chambers. 

We have seen above that Lister Dighton, by his will, dated 
2nd December, 1S05, bequeathed the reputed Manor of Clifford, 
together with the mansion house and all other its rights, members 
and appurtenances, and all other his real estates wheresoever in 
England to his nephew, Arthur Annesley, clerk, who had been in 
1793, upon the presentation of his said uncle, instituted to the rec- 
tory of the church. This gentleman was the son of Arthur Henry 
Annesley, clerk, D.D., of Trinity College, Oxford, and Vicar of 
Chewton Mendip, in co. Somerset, by Alice, sister and coheir of 
the aforesaid Lister Dighton. Dr. Annesley was the fourth in 
descent from the Right Hon. Sir Francis Annesley, Knt., and 
Bart., who held many high offices in Ireland, and on 8th February, 
1628-9, was created Baron Mountnorris, in co. Armagh, having, 
on 11th March, 1622-3, had secured to him and his heirs male the 
reversion of the Viscounty of Valentia after the death of the then 
Viscount, to which he eventually succeeded. Lord Valentia was 
the twelfth in descent from Sir Reginald de Annesley, of county 
Notts, son of Ralph, son of Reginald, son of Britto. By his 
first marriage Lord Valentia became the ancestor of the present 
Earl of Annesley (the Viscounty of Valentia and the Barony of 
Mountnorris having been lost by his eldest son through attainder. 
By his second marriage with Jane, fifth daughter of Sir John 
Stanhope by his second wife Catherine, daughter of Thomas 
Trentham, of Rowcester Priory, co. Stafford, and sister of Philip 
Stanhope, first Earl of Chesterfield, he was the ancestor of the 
Annesleys of whom we are writing. But this high descent is as 
nothing compared with the collateral descents of this family, 
which are traced from the Saxon Kings of England, Malcolm 
Canmore, King of Scotland, Henry I., King of France, William 
Duke of Normandy, the Conqueror, and from four of the six sons 
of King Edward III., and many Baronial lines (see Tables post.). 

The first of the family of Annesley who settled at Clifford was 
the Rev. Arthur Annesley, who succeeded to the Clifford estates 

76 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

under the will of his uncle, Lister Dighton, who died in 1807 ; but 
Mr. Annesley had been instituted to the rectory, upon the presen- 
tation of that uncle, as stated above, in 1793. It would seem, 
however, to be desirable in our brief notice of this family that we 
should go back to a somewhat earlier date, on account of a re- 
markable incident which still affects it, and will continue to affect 
it, in perpetuity. 

We all know the celebrated library (now, happily, deposited 
in the British Museum) which was collected by Sir Robert Cotton, 
Bart., the famous antiquary. In accordance with the will of Sir 
John Cotton, the third Baronet, grandson of Sir Robert the foun- 
der, this renowned library was purchased and dedicated to the 
public use by an act of parliament for the sum of £'4500, which 
was directed by the act to be laid out in the purchase of estates 
in the counties of Bedford or Hants, in which counties the bulk 
of the Cotton estates were situated, and settled on the right heirs 
of Sir John Cotton for ever. 

Sir John Cotton, the fourth Baronet, grandson of the former 
Sir John, died in 1730-1, s.p., leaving his sister, Frances, his sole 
heir. This lady married William Hanbury, of Little Marcle, co. 
Hereford, Esq., and, by an act of parliament in 1752 was granted 
to her and the male issue of her four daughters in succession- 
according to seniority, the privilege of appointing successive Cot- 
tonian Family Trustees to the British Museum. 

The two elder of these daughters, Elizabeth and Frances, died 
without issue. Mary, the third, and eldest surviving daughter, 
in 1732, married the Rev. Martin Annesley, D.D., the grandfather 
of the Rev. Arthur Annesley, the devisee of the Clifford estates. 

After the death of Mrs. M. Hanbury in 1796, Francis Annesley, 
LL.D., Master of Downing College, Cambridge, the eldest son of 
Dr. Martin Annesley, became the first hereditary Cottonian family 
trustee of the British Museum. On his death in 1812, the here- 
ditaryship descended to his nephew, the Rev. Arthur Annesley, 
Rector and Lord of the Manor of Clifford Chambers. 

The Rev. Arthur Annesley, the first possessor of Clifford, 
married Elizabeth Vere, his cousin german, daughter of George 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 77 

Booth Tyndale, of Bathford, and of the Inner Temple, heir-at-law 
of his uncle, the Lord Delamere, by Elizabeth, daughter of the 
Rev. Martin Annesley, D.D., Prebendary of Sarum, Vicar of 
Bucklebury, and Rector of Frilsham, co. Berks. By this marriage 
the family received a further influx of the best blood in England, 
four descents from King Edward III. already mentioned. By his 
will, dated 19th May, 1836, Arthur Annesley bequeathed the 
whole of his estates in remainder, after the death of his wife, in 
equal shares to all his children to sell or retain as the majority 
might determine. Accordingly the whole property was sold, with 
the exception of the Advowson of Clifford, which was reserved. 
The Manor of Clifford was dismembered and sold in portions, the 
greater part with the royalties, &c, having been purchased by Mr. 
Roberts West, of Alscot Park, co. Warwick, but some portion, 
including the manor house, have since been purchased. The right to 
the next presentation to the benefice was conveyed by the members 
of the family interested to the Rev. T. Gr. Tyndale, who presented the 
Rev. Francis Annesley in 1845, and the advowson was purchased 
of the other members of the family by the present rector, the Rev. 
Francis Hanbury Annesley, as lately as 1872. He has married 
his cousin, Marie Charlotte, only child and heir of his uncle, 
Francis Annesley, clerk, eldest son and heir of Arthur Annesley, 
formerly Rector of Clifford, as above mentioned, and has issue : 
Edith Vere, born 25th September, 1863 ; Reginald Cecil, born 
15th April, 1865, died December 15th, 1882 ; Arthur Dighton, 
born 20th October, 1866 ; Isabel Charlotte, born 17tn December, 
1868; Francis Cotton, born 12th April, 1871; Alice Tyndale, 
born 25th April, 1873 (see pedigree post). 

The Advowson of the Church. 

During the whole period that the Manor of Clifford was vested 
in the Abbey of St. Peter, the advowson of the church pertained 
to it, but it will have been noticed that in the grant of the manor 
in 1562 to Charles Rainsford the advowson was reserved. 1 After 
a diligent search we have been unable to discover the grant from 
the crown. It so happens that the volume of the index in the 
Record Office to such grants during the period in which this grant 

1 Rot. Pat. , 4th Elizab. Part. 

7S Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

would probably have been made are imperfect, some pages being 
missing. 1 What seems to be still more remarkable, we cannot 
find any institution to the benefice from 1494 to 1574, when 
the Queen presented, though Ave have searched the Episcopal 
Registers of Institutions both at Worcester and Gloucester. On 
the 20th January, 20th Elizabeth (1577-8), Charles Rainsford 
presented in his full right. How this right accrued we know 
not, perhaps it was for that turn only, for by an Indenture 
inrolled in chancery, dated 8th May, 23rd Elizabeth, 1581, 
Henry Best, scrivener, and John Wells, citizens of London, 
sold, inter alia, the advowson of the church of Clifford to Edward 
Grevill, of Milcote, co. Warwick, and Johan his wife, and the 
heirs and assigns of the same Edward for ever. 

Nevertheless, we find that by an Indenture, dated 30th Dec, 
1598 (40 Eliz.), also inrolled in chancery, that Sir Edward Greville 
sold the said advowson to John Woodward, citizen and ironmon- 
ger, his heirs and assigns, and by another Indenture dated 24th 
February, 1609-10 (7th James), Sir John Woodward, Knt., son 
and heir of the aforesaid John, deceased, sold the advowson, &c, 
of the said Rectory of Clifford to John Wells and Marten Freeman 
to the use of Sir Henry Rainsford, his heirs and assigns for ever. 

It would appear that there must have been some dispute with 
respect to the title. This is further indicated by the irregularity 
of the presentations and institutions which occurred. It will be 
observed that King James presented, by reason of lapse, a clerk, 
who was instituted 1st February, 160S, In the meantime, viz., 
on 6th November, 1606 (4th James) an Indenture was made 
between Sir Arthur Ingram, Knt. (who now first appears), John 
Eldred and Marten ffreeman, before mentioned, of the one part, 
and Sir Henry Rainsford of the other part, whereby the said Sir 
Arthur Ingram, at the request of the said John Eldred and 
Marten Freeman, and in consideration of a sum of money, sold 
all that Rectory or Advowson of Clifford, with appurtenances, 

1 It appears, however, from Abbot Braunche's Register (Gloucester 
Cathedral Lib.) that the abbey presented one Dr. Frocester in 1501, who, 
doubtless, was duly admitted, and we have inserted another name found in 
the Parish Register. 

Maxor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 70 

which theretofore was held by the before mentioned Henry Best 
and John Willes, to the said Sir Henry Rainsford and his heirs 
and assigns for ever. 

The advowson, after having for a considerable period, exactly 
how many years we cannot say, been held in gross, now again 
became attached to the manor, and so continued until the manor 
itself became dismembered, but it so happened that no one of the 
Rainsford lords ever again had an opportunity of presenting. 

Institutions, kc, to the Church of Clifford. 

1274. id. Dec. Robert le Wise, 1 Rector of St. Mary's, by the 
Friars Minors, was collated by the Bishop to 
the Church of Clifford to hold in commendam. 

1324. id. Nov. Thomas de Bradewalle 2 was admitted to the 
Church of Clifford upon the presentation of the 
Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, Gloucester. 

1344. John Kyngcot 3 is named as Rector. 

1349. June 21. John de Wynchecombe 4 was instituted to the 
Church of Clifford upon the presentation of the 
Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's. 

1361. Sept. 11. Richard Bundy 5 was instituted to the Church of 
Clifford, void by the death of John the last 

1391. Feb. 18. William Way te 6 was instituted to the Church of 
Clifford upon the presentation of the Abbott 
and Convent of St. Peter's (Glouc.) 

Nob known. John Bokeland. 

1458. June 16. Thomas Jolyff 7 was instituted to the parish 
Church of Clifford Chamberer, void by the 
resignation of John Bokeland, same patrons. 
1 Bp. Giffard's Reg., fol. 47 (Wore.) 
5 Bp. Cobham's Reg., fol. 36 (Wore.) 

3 Stratford-upon-Avon Mun. Records. 

4 Wolstan de Braunsford's Reg. II., fol. 13 (Wore.) 

5 Bp. Bryan's Reg., I., fol. 36 (Wore.) 

6 Bp. Wakefield's Reg., fol. 89. He is named as rector in Stratford-upon- 
Avon Mun. Records in 1410 and 1413. 

7 Bp. Carpenter's Reg., I , fol. 145. 

&0 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

1465. Mar. 21. Richard Skardeburgh, 1 Bachelor in Theo. was 
admitted to the Church of Clifford Chamberer, 
void by the resignation of Thomas Jolyff, same 

1467. Jan. 29. Hugh Chesewell,' 2 M.A., was admitted to the 
Church of Clifford Chamberer, void by the 
resignation of Rich. Scardeburgh, same patrons. 

1494. Dec. 2. John Dorseley 3 was admitted to the Church of 
Clifford, void by the death of Hugh Chesewell, 
same patrons. 

1501. Edward Frocester, S.T.P., was presented to the 

Rectory of Clifford upon the death of John 
Dursley by Abbot Braunch and the convent 4 

1542. John Brown, 5 Clarke, would appear from the 

Parish Registers to have been rector or resident 
curate in this year. 6 

1574. Nov. 4. Walter Roche, 7 A.B., was admitted to the Rec- 
tory of Clifford, void by the resignation of 
(blank), upon the presentation of the Queen 
pleno jure. 

1 Bp. Carpeuter's Reg., 191. 

2 Ibid., fol. 216. He is named as rector in the Stratford-upon-Avon Mun. 
Records in 1469. 

6 Bp. Morton's Reg., fol. 57. 
1513. William Sklatter, chaplain of Clifford, was taxed at vj s viij d . Bp. de 
Gigliis, fol. 99. 

4 In 1533 Abbot Parker sold the next presentation to the benefice to Sir 
William Kingston, Knt., and his son, Sir Anthony Kingston, Knt. 

5 Glouc. Reg. 

6 1542. Charles sonne vnto John brown clarke was bapt. 10 Oct. 

1545. Richard sonne vnto John brown clarke was bap. 14 Aprill. 

1550. Hellyn dawghter vnto John brown clarke was bapt. 6 June. 

1551. Anne dawghter vnto John brown clarke was bapt. 2 October. 

1 546. Thomas sonne vnto John brown clarke was buried 20 Dec 1 " 
1551. Agnes dawghter vnto John brown clarke was buried 26 Dec r r.R. 

There were several other children of a John brown baptized between the 
years above stated, but lie is not described as clerk. 

7 1575. Mary, dau. of Walter Roche, minister, was baptized. A Walter 
Roche was the Master of the Grammar School at Stratford in 1569, and was 
succeeded by Thomas Hunt in 1571 (Stratford-upon-Avon Mun. Records).) 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 81 

1577-8. 20 Jan. Richard Faune, 1 was admitted to the Rectory 
of Clifford, void by the resignation of Walter 
Roche, upon the presentation of Charles Rains- 
ford, pleno jure. 

1578. July 2. Edward Vernon 2 was admitted to the Rectory 
of Clifford, void (blank) upon the presentation 
of the Queen. 

1585. Dec. 3. Hugh Powell 3 was admitted to the Rectory of 
Clifford, upon the presentation of Queen Elizab. , 
by lapse. 

1585-6. Feb. 9. Edward Vernon 4 re-instated by order of the 
Court of Arches, and Hugh Powell removed. 

1609-10. Feb. 1. John Salisbury, 5 A.M., was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, void by the resignation of 
Edward Vernon, on 3rd Nov. 1609, upon the 
presentation of King James I., by lapse. 

1616. John Albright 6 is described as rector as early as 

this year. 

1661-2. Feb. 7. Jaspar Maris 7 was admitted to the Rectory of 
Clifford, void by the death of John Salisbury, 
upon the presentation of Henry Dighton, Esq., 
pleno jure. 

1 Glouc. Bps' Reg. - Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 

5 Ibid. John Salisbury's bond for institution dated 20 Dec., 7 Jas.(ltiU9). 
1619. Alice dau. of John Salisburie bapt. 3 Aug. 
1628. John son of John Salisbury bapt. 8 June. r.R. 
6 1646. William son of John Albright, Rector, bap. 29 Sept. 

1650. Mary dau. of John Albright, Rector, bap. 17 Sept. 
He was, without doubt, one of the Puritan intruders. 

7 Ibid. We do not know the date of the death of John Salisbury, but 
Jaspar Maris signs the Register as " Minister" early in Dec. 1660. He, 
doubtless, was also an intruder, but continued. In the Register of Burials 
we find the following declaration : The booke of articles of y e Religion of y e 
Church of England I Jaspar Maris Rector of the parish church of Clifford 
Chambers in y° countie of Gloucester did read on the Sabaoth day, viz., y a 
sixth day of April 1 1662 in the Parish Church of Clifford aforesaid in the 
end of morning prayers and do approve allsoe & consent vnto those articles. 
In witness whereof I havj subscribed my name. Attested by eight parish- 

Mr. Jaspar Maris Rector of the Parish Church of Clifford Chambers in 
the County of Gloucester, Bach, of Arts in the University of Oxford, obiit 
y« 10 day of Nov. and was buried y e 12th aged 71. i'.R. 
Vol. XIV. G 

S2 Transactions for the Year 1S69-90. 

1667. Nov. 18. William Watts' 1 was admitted to the Rectory of 
Clifford, void by the death of Jaspar Maris, 
upon the presentation of Henry Dighton, Esq., 
pleno jure. 

1687. Nov. 4. Christopher Smith 2 was admitted to the Rectory 
of Clifford, void by the death of William Watts, 
upon the presentation of William Smith, jun., 
pleno jure.. 

1729. Sep. 22. Richard Dighton, A.M., was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, 3 void by the death of Chris- 
topher Smith, upon the presentation of Richard 
Dighton, Esq. 

1732. Aug. 22. Robert Goodall was admitted to the Rectory of 
Clifford, void by the death Richard Dighton, 
upon the presentation of Francis Keyt Dighton, 
•pleno jure. 

1735. July 30. John Martin, Clerk, 4 A.M., was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, void by the resignation of 
Robert Goodall, Clerk, last incumbent, upon 
the presentation of Francis Keyt Dighton, pleno 

1776. July 19. Stephen Mason, Clerk, M.A., was admitted to 
the Rectory of Clifford, void by the death of 
John Martin, Clerk, upon the presentation of 
Lister Dighton, of Clifford Chambers, Esq., 
pleno jure. 

1787. Aug. 18. John Brewer was admitted to the Rectory of 
Clifford, void by the death of the last incum- 
bent, same patron. 

i Glouc. Bps' Reg. 
16S2. Mary the wife of William Watts, parson, was buried 28 Feb. 
1687. Mr. William Wates buried 21 October, p.r. 

2 Glouc. Bps' Reg. 

1700. Susannah, wife of Christopher Smith, parson, was buried 27 July. 
1729. Mr. Christopher Smith was buried 23 April. 

3 He was the son of Richard Dighton, born 10th August, 1705, was of 
St. John's College, Oxford, and buried at Clifford, 7th June, 1732. 

4 He was rector also of Bucklaud. 

Plate IV. 

Clifford- Chambers ■*■ Church . 


C'usn/t- HuaU 

( before JJtiratwri/.) 

( after JSoct& nsii?fv y 

12 6 

I i i I i i I i i I i i i 

cale of Feet 




John Cotton, 



ManoIv and Aj>vowson of Clifford Chambers. 83 

1793. May 22. Arthur Annesley, Clerk, was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, void by the resignation of 
John Brewer, Clerk, last incumbent, upon the 
presentation of Lister Dighton, Esq. 

1803. May 25. Arthur Annesley, Clerk, was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, void by the cession of the 
said Arthur Annesley, upon the presentation of 
the same patron. 

1845. Mar. 13. Francis Annesley, Clerk, was admitted to the 
Rectory of Clifford, void by the death of Arthur 
Annesley, Clerk, last incumbent, upon the pre- 
sentation of Thomas George Tyndall, of Holton, 
true patron for that turn. 

1879. July 31. Francis Hanbury Annesley, Clerk, M.A., was 
admitted to the Rectory of Clifford, void by the 
resignation, on 24th May last past, of Francis 
Annesley, Clerk, the last incumbent, upon his 
own petition. 

The Church. 

The ancient Church of Clifford Chambers is dedicated to St. 
Helen. It was of Norman architecture, as shewn by various 
remains, and originally consisted of nave and chancel only, with 
N. and S. doors, and so has remained to our own time, though 
there would seem to be some addition to it made in the 13th 
century, external to the north-eastern end of the nave, probably 
a chapel, but this has long been swept away, most likely in the 
15th century (PL IV..fij. 1). Remains of a pointed arch, about 
lift, in span exist in the north wall, the jambs of which were 
simply chamfered, but close by, on the east side, is a small shaft 
about 4 ins. in diameter, with base and capital, the latter being 
enriched with the cable pattern in the hollow. It is difficult to see 
the purpose of this shaft in its present position, and possibly it may 
have been brought hither from some other part of the building. 
The arch has been walled up and a Perpendicular window of four 
lights opened through it. This may be an indication of the date of 

G 2 

S4 Tkan.sactiox.s for thk Veab 18S9-90. 

the removal of the chapel. In the north wall, at the western end of 
the chancel, was a rectangular low side window, formerly known 
as a lichnoscope, but the precise use to which such windows were 
applied is, we believe, still an open question among ecclesiologists. 
Many symbolisms have been attributed to it. This window, it 
may be remarked, commanded a view of the altar 

The chancel arch in its original state was low and narrow, as 
this feature in all Norman churches were, and the windows were 
also narrow, but usually deeply splayed on the inside. 

From the 13th to the 15th century no changes of any con- 
sequence would seem to have been made in the structure, but 
during the latter period considerable alterations would appear to 
have been effected. The whole of the fenestration of the church 
was changed. The narrow Norman windows were removed, and 
were replaced with large windows of three or four lights, with 
tracery in the head of Perpendicular character. A tower in the 
same style was built at the west end of the nave and a timber 
porch was erected at the south door. The font would appear to 
be of about the same date. It is peculiar in form, being septan- 
gular with a circular bowl 18 inches in diameter and 14 inches 
deep. The north door has been walled up, but, probably, this 
was not done until a later date {Plate IV., Jig. 2). 

Again, about the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th 
century further alterations took place. The roof was removed 
and re-erected at a flat pitch, and the walls were surmounted 
with an open parapet of debased gothic architecture, which still 
remains, and about the same time, or perhaps somewhat later, 
other changes, chiefly of a ritual character, were made. The altar, 
if it had been removed, as probably was the case, was restored to 
its original position against the east wall of the chancel and railed 
in, in accordance with Archbishop Laud's Injunctions, There 
still remains in the chancel the ancient piscina, which is of a 
rather unusual type. It has a semi-octagonal basin, supported on 
a shaft attached to the wall. The chancel, previous to the recent 
" restoration," was lighted by a large four-light Perpendicular east 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 85 

window, two single-light windows on the north side, probably 
Early English, and two two-light windows of the same period on 
the south. 

The 17th and 18th centuries saw other changes introduced. A 
new carved oak pulpit with sounding board, and reading desk, 
were set up, as were high square pews, displacing the ancient 
open benches, some few of which, at the extreme west end, re- 
mained underneath the gallery in 1884, which gallery it was found 
necessary to erect to provide accommodation which had been 
absorbed by the great square pews. 

Such was the state of the church in 1886, when, from its general 
disrepair, Mr. J.Cotton, of Birmingham, architect, was called upon 
to examine and report upon it. He found it, from a long period 
of neglect and mismanagement, in a condition of great dilapidation 
and weakness, and very damp and unwholesome, whilst the cut- 
ting away of the north wall of the chancel for the erection of 
the Rainsford monument had so weakened the wall that serious 
bulging had ensued ; and the practice of burials in immediate 
proximity to the walls, especially those of the chancel, had resulted 
in serious settlements, endangering the stability of the structure. 
The result was a determination to carry out a thorough restoration 
of the sacred edifice, and we have all learnt by this time what 
that means. Architects are not content with simple restoration, 
they must make some improvements of their own, and generally 
destroy some of the most interesting and characteristic features 
of the ancient structure committed to their charge. 

As to the necessary repairs and removal of modern excrescences 
we shall make no remarks. The principal alterations that have 
been made are the extension of the chancel several feet eastward, 
making its length disproportionate to that of the nave ; building 
a new organ-chamber and vestry room combined on the north side 
of the chancel, with a passage leading to it from the exterior passing 
the priest's door, and taking down a portion of the north wall of 
the chancel, opening it to the vestry room ; removing the low side 
window from its original position and making it to open into the 
vestry ; taking down the western wall of the chancel and original 

86 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Norman chancel arch, and building a new arch nearly the full 
width of the chancel, "to," in the words of the architect, " better 
connect add open up the chancel to the nave, which," he hopes, 
" will constitute a very great improvement in the interior." There 
is no chancel screen. 

The Bells. 
There are five Bells in the tower which were all recast by 
Matthew Bagley in 1771, except the fifth, which was recast in 
1773, as shewn by the following epigraphs. The Bagleys were 
bell founders at Chacombe, in Oxfordshire. An account of the 
family is given by the same person in "Beesley's Banbury," p. 93. * 

1 M. B. MADE • ME : THE ■ LEADER : OF : THIS : PEALE : TO : BE . 1771 



C. \V. 


BAGLEY : MADE : MEE : 1771. 

5 AND : NOW : I : HOP : TO : PLEASE : YOU : ALL : AND : SING : TO 

BAGLEY : MADE : MEE : 1773. 

Running borders, as figured 90 and 9-i in Ellacombe's Church 
Bells of Gloucestershire, surround eaoh bell. 

The Church Plate. 

The most rare, curious, and beautiful ornaments belonging to 
the Church of Clifford is the ancient Church Plate, which were 
brought to licht on the occasion of the visit of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society to the church on the 11th 
August, 1887. With the obliging permission of the Rector and 
Churchwardens it was exhibited at the Society of Antiquaries 
soon afterwards by Sir John Maclean, with the following des- 
cription, where it attracted much attention. And it is considered 
that from the rarity of such objects, duly authenticated, it is 
desirable to describe it with some detail in the Transactions of 
the Society for the information of its members. {Plate V.) 

These ornaments very much resemble the beautiful chalice and 
paten at Nettlecombe, described in 18G7 by Mr. Octavius Morgan 

1 Ellacombe's Gloucestershire Bells, p. 10. 


Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 87 

in the Archaeological Journal, Vol. XXIV. p. 73, and, two years 
afterwards, beautifully illustrated in the Archceologia, Vol. XLIL, 
Plates XXI. and XXII. 

" The chalice is 6^ins. in height, and the bowl, which is 4^ins. 
in diameter at the brim, and 2^ ins. in depth, is in form like 
that of the Nettlecombe example, which Mr. Morgan describes as 
" between a cone and a hemisphere, that is the bottom round, 
"whilst the sides continue straight and conical," a form, he says, 
" which is indicative of its date." The stem is hexagonal, divided 
by a knot in the usual manner, the ornamen- 
tation of which very much resembles that of 
the Xettlecombe chalice, except that the six 
facets are flat and lozenge-shaped. The first 
of these bears a cross pattee, and the other 
five the letters IffSVS in gothic capitals in 
sunken panels, which appear to have been 

. . ,i j-.,, , .,, i m, c • Fig. 1. Knop or point of the 

originally failed with enamel. Ihe toot is foot of the Chalice. 

hexagonal, and of the mullet shape, measuring 4f inches from 
point to point, these points being guarded by crescents to pre- 
vent them from catching in the altar-cloth {fig. 1), the extreme 
breadth of the foot being 5£ inches. On the front panel of the 
foot is a representation of the Crucifixion, the arms being bent 
as on the Nettlecombe example, and there is a sprig of foliage 
in each angle at the bottom, but not so full or ornate as in the 
example referred to. The ground is roughly " hatched," and, 
probably, was originally filled with enamel. 

The stem of the chalice and the knot, together with the mould- 
ings, which are plain, the Crucifixion, the mouldings of the foot 
and the crescents, arc gilt, as is also the inside of the bowl, the 
gilding extending over the brim ^ of an inch. This chalice falls 
in Fb of the classification of Messrs. W. H. St. John Hope and, 
T. M. Fallow. It weighs 11 ozs. and 16 dwts. 

The paten is 5f- ins. in diameter, the margin being surrounded 
by a plain line moulding with a brim f of an inch wide. Within 
this is sunk a six-lobed concave depression about § of an inch 
deep. The marks of the centres for striking the lobes still remain 

88 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

as on the Nettlecombe paten, and the spandrils are filled with 
radiating ornaments, similar to those on the example just cited, 
except that there is no central boss. In the centre is the vernicle, 
but this differs much from that at Nettlecombe in the form of the 
nimbus and in other details. In this case % the nimbus would 
appear to be of a lunar form, extending as far as the ears, and 
below a circle surrounding the head, which is hatched, but seem- 
ingly too shallow for enamel. Beyond this, rays on a hatched 
ground extend to the margin of the centre circle. The paten would 
also appear to have been parcel gilt, viz., the outer moulding, the 
ornaments filling the spandrils of the lobes, and the vernicle. The 
weight of the paten is 3 ozs. 16 dwts. 11 grs. There is a. fleur- 
de-lis on the nimbus. 

With respect to the Hall Marks, this plate would seem to 
be unique. There are three stamps : 1. The leopard's head 
crowned, the crown being of the earliest type, as pointed out 
by Mr. Hope in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 
Vol. XL, page 426. 2. The date letter is a gothic capital R in 
Mr. Cripp's Table I., 3rd edition, the same cycle in which is 
placed the Nettlecombe vessels under B, which marks the year 
1479-80 as the R does 1494-5. 3. The maker's mark appears to 
to be an eagle's or a vulture's head. All the marks are alike on 
paten and chalice, shewing that they were made by the same 
craftesman, and in the same year. The vessels are somewhat 
larger than the Nettlecombe examples, both are perfect and in 
excellent condition. 

Very few articles of ancient altar plate now remain to us. I 
believe that ten years ago there were scarcely half a dozen massing 
chalices known to exist, but since that date several others have 
been brought to light, and within the last three or four years 
considerable additions have been made to them by antiquaries, 
and especially are we indebted to the energy and perseverance of 
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope in this branch of inquiry. 

Patens are more plentiful than chalices. They were not in 
the reign of Edward VI. and Elizabeth so ruthlessly destroyed as 
the latter. The chalice and paten which are now submitted for 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 89 

inspection are among those of the earliest date. Setting aside the 
few funeral chalices found in the coffins of bishops and priests, the 
chalice and paten found in use at Berwick St. James, Wilts, in 
1879, is supposed by Mr. Micklethwaite 1 to be of the 13th cen- 
tury. It is, of course, not hall-marked, nor is there, I difidently 
venture to think, anything else to indicate so great an antiquity. 
There is a chalice at Hampton Ridware, co. Staff, to which circa 
1350 is assigned. The next earliest is one at Gouthland, co. York, 
to which the date 1150 is given. But the ealiest dated chalice 
with its paten as yet found are those at Nettlecombe, to which 
we have frequently alluded above, and these are — if the date 
assigned to the Nettlecombe example be correct — just 15 years 
older than those to which I invite your attention as, at least, 
the second earliest dated altar vessels known to be in existence. 
In two respects are these unique. There is no piece, that I 
know of, of any other plate in existence made in the same year, 
or by the same silversmith. 

Besides the ancient plate described above, there are a flagon 
and two cups. They bear the hall-marks used for standard silver 
between 1697 and 1720, viz., the lion's head erased, and the 
figure of Britannia. The year letter is a court-hand V, indica- 
the year 1715-6. The maker's mark is Pa, surmounted by a 
fleur-de-lis with dot in base, which is the mark of Humphrey 
Payne. There is a large flagon at Winchcombe by the same 
maker. The flagon at Clifford is of the well known tankard type, 
8 ins. high- The cups are bell-shaped, with paten covers, 5| ins. 
high. The arms of Dighton impaling Keyt are engraved on each 
piece. This plate therefore was, doubtless, presented by Richard 
Dighton, who died 1738 (see pedigree, page 108). There are also 
two plates of pewter for collecting alms. 


In the chancel are some interesting sepulchral memorials, the 

most important of which is that to Hercules Rainsford, in armour, 

and Elizabeth his wife, dau. of Robert Parry, Esq., with the figures 

also of two sons and a daughter. It consists of engraved Brasses, 

1 Proc. Soc. Ant., VIII., p. 155. 

90 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

which, until the recent restoration of the church, were inlaid on a 
slab 4 ft. 6ins. by 1 ft. 10 ins. on an altar tomb at the east end of 
the nave, where the deceased probably was buried. His wife 
survived him, and very soon afterwards remarried, as we have 
seen above. 1 The pulpit partially rested on this tomb, concealing 
the figures of the children, except their heads. On the recent 
restoration of the church the tomb was found to be much decayed 
and inconveniently situated, consequently it was taken down and 
the Brass was removed and set up against the chancel wall, the 
entire figures of the children being exposed. 

Hercules Eaynsford (as the name is here written) is repre- 
sented bare-headed, his hair cut short and his head resting on his 
helmet. His moustache and beard are of moderate length. Around 
his neck and wi*ists are slight frills. A gorget of plate reaches to 
the chin, the paldrons have their upright edges scroll-shaped, 
brassarts of plates, with plain coudieres, protect the arms, and a 
cuirass covers the body. At this period civilians wore trunk-hose, 
and this was also adopted by men in armour, and the skirt of mail 
disappeared. Trunk-hose were large breeches, well padded, puffed 
and slashed. As this stuffing was not of sufficient firmness to 
protect the thighs, to the projecting rim of the breast-plate or 
cuirass, were hinged tassets, which somewhat fulfilled the functions 
of the tailles so conspicuous in earlier armour. These tassets 
consisted of a series of small plates ri vetted together, and may be 
considered to be the last remnant of the skirt of taces. In this 
example the plates of the tassets are of a rectangular form. Steel 
armour encases the remainder of the legs, and his genouillieres 
have elegant rosettes. Large rowelled spurs are screwed into the 
heels, whilst the sollerets with very wide toes complete the suit of 
armour. Around the waist is a narrow strap, from which hangs 
obliquely, another to which is attached, a long sword on the left 
side. On the right is affixed a short dagger, or misericorde. 

Elizabeth Eaynsford is represented as wearing a close fitting 
hood, cut square in front, her hair being brushed back under it, 
with a lapet, or veil, falling down over her shoulders behind, and 
i Ante p. 66. 




. jjjma w^m^wstes .parr? c R^Mww^tiw® 


Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 91 

a small tight-fitting ruff about her neck, apparently tied with a 
ribbon in front, the ends of which fall down. Her gown is some- 
what close-fitting about the body and arms, and close at the 
wrists, which are finished with small frills. The skirt appears to be 
plaited, and is open in front, shewing a handsomely-embroidered 
peticoat underneath. A girdle encircles the waist, tied in a bow 
in front, and her shoes have broad toes. 

The figures stand erect, the lady being on her husband's left 
side, they are mutually turned a little towards each other. Their 
hands are joined in the attitude of prayer. On the plate beneath 
the feet is the following inscription : 

Wtxt lies 3Suri?cB theBotHJ? of Hercules ftaintsforO C?squter 
ILorB of tin's janitor toijo marrgeO ISltjtoctfje $arn?, 
Daughter of Robert $arn?, ©squter, bi? toijome ijabmtg 
issue too sonnes anK on daughter DteB tfje seeonB Baije 
of August ano Ont 1583, anU in tije j>ear of Ins age 39. 

The children are represented lower down on the slab, the two 
boys underneath their father. Their hair is cut close. They have 
little frills about their necks, and wear long gowns down to their 
feet with sleeves hanging from their elbows. Their hands are 
joined as those of their parents. Their shoes are square-toed, 
Their faces are slightly turned to the left, towards their sister, 
whose figure is shewn below her mother's. She 4 is represented 
three-quarter-faced turned towards her brothers, her dress being 
very similar to that of her mother. 

Above the head of Hercules is the full achievement of arms 
of fifteen quarters, with helmet crest, and mantling. The arms 
quartered are those of — 1. Rainsford ; 2. Wylcotes of Wylcott; 
3. Wyllycotes of Tew Magna ; 4. Mollins ; 5. Hall ; 6. Glanville ; 
7. Lions ; 8. Greene ; 9. Scocathe ; lO.Wakested ; 11. Arderberg ; 
12. Purcell; 13. Berwicke; 14. Shershall ; 15. Pratell ; the blazon 
of which we have given post p. 99, but the marshalling is some- 
what different. Above the head of Elizabeth is a shield Raynsford, 
differenced with a crescent, impaling three boars' he-ids, erect, couped 
2 and 1. (sett Plate VI.) 

92 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Elizabeth Raynsford, the daughter of Hercules (the little girl 
figured on her father's monument), married Edward Marrowe, as 
described below, and was buried at Clifford, as was her little 
babe a few weeks afterwards. 1 She was commemorated by a 
brass in the church, two pieces of which are mentioned by Haines 
as " loose," and Mr. Cecil T. Davis, writing in Sept. 1885, says : 
" the two pieces of brass plate, forming this memorial, are lying 
loose in the church," sizes 2ft. Tins, x lOins., and 1ft. 9ins. x 6^ins. 
The church has since been restored, and they have now been set 
up against the north wall of the chancel. The lady is described 
as having her hair brushed back from the temples, and wearing 
a French hood of the shape popularly appropriated to Mary 
Queen of Scots, but this is nearly hidden by a huge calash which 
covers the head and shoulders and falls down behind the back 
nearly to the ground. A stiff ruff encircles the neck, but no 
frills are worn at the wrists, instead a neat cuff appears. 
She wears a large loose gown, and an embroidered stomacher, 
peaked in front, relieves the plainness of the rest of her costume. 
A slight farthingale supports the weight of her skirts, which barely 
reach her ankles. Low thick soled shoes, with a rosette in front, 
complete her dress. She is represented standing slightly turned 
to her right, and carrying on her right, arm a little babe wrapped 
in swaddling clothes. Over its head is thrown a small hood, a 
little ruff is round its neck, and on its breast is a plaited bib. 

On the other piece is this inscription : 


In Rudder (page 375) mention is made of another piece of 
brass, on which is a scutcheon : Baron and femme, argent, a fess 

1 Elizabeth, wife of Edward Marrowe, Esq., was buried 29th October, 
1601. Francis, daughter of Edward Marrowe, Esq., was buried 7th Jany. 
1701. — Parish Register. 

2 See Plate VII. 



or Barkswell in tfe covntie of Warwick Eso_ 
w"elizabeth deceased tk %y of OctofjJGoi • 


Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 93 

engrailed sa. betw. three maids' heads couped proper, for MARROWE ; 
and: arg., a cross sable for Rainsford. 1 This has now been annexed 
to the effigy, but a portion of the shield is still missing (PI. VII.) 


of Clifford in the County of Gloucester, Knight, 

(son of Hercules Rainsford, Esq.) 

Died '27th of January 1632 

in the Year of his Age 46. 

He married Anne, Daughter and Coheyre 

of Sir Henry Gooder, 

of Polsworth in the County of Warwick, Knight, 

With whom he lived 27 Yeares, 

And had Issu three sonnes. 

William died. 

Henry married Elenor, 

Daughter and coheire of Robert Boswell, 

of Combe in the County of Southampton, Esq. 

and Frauncis 

Heiwico (hen charum caput) Herculis 
Fil. Rainsforde, Eq. Aur. hujnsque diem 

Yixit villa? Domino, ingentis animi 
Yiro, nee ideo prudentis aut mitis minus 
Ad honesta qua?cumque nato, ad meliora 
Regresso fratri Charissimo 
(& quod pulchrius) 
Amico cum lectissima & luctuosissima conjuge ejus, 
Eoromque (Guliel. Fil.) Gooderus tanti vix 
Damni & superstes, dum suis & suorum 
Lachrymis indulget 
Moerentissimus P.L. 
Nee minus exultat Memoria exemplo 

( Charitatis ^ p u i Ha f Uxor, familia amicorum consensus 
Tantae -! Industrial !- rp. . • - Patriae patriseque Colonia Virginia. 
( Pietatis ) \ Deus 

Nee sibi exoptat allud monumentum. ad 

Meliorum famam quam quod tantarum 

virtutum, testis sit 


1 We are indebted to Davis's "Gloucestershire Brasses," (Nos. LXX, 
and LXXVI. ) for some of these particulars. 

94 Transactions for the Year 1889 90. 

Here lyeth the Body of WILLIAM BARNES, Esq. 

Lord, whilst he lived, of Talkon, alias Gadlington, 

in the County of Worcester, 

which he gave to his Nephew 


and of the Moiety of the Mannor of Wincot 

in this County and Parish, 

which he gave to his Son in Law 


Lord of the Mannor of Clifford) 

He married, and having lived with her 36 years, 

died Sep. 24, 1622, aged 76. ' 

There were formerly two hatchments against the wall of the 
chancel bearing the following arms, but having become greatly 
decayed they have been taken down. There is now no memorial 
whatever in the church of the family of Dighton, except the arms 
on the altar plate. 

1. Quarterly : Ar. a lion pass, betio. 3 crosses pattie fitchy gu. for Dighton — 

2 and 3, az. a chev. betio. 3 Kites' heads erased or. for Keyte. 4 as M ie 
first : impaling, quarterly, lit and Ifbh. Erm. on a bend, sable 3 Eaglets 
displayed or., Selman. 2nd and 3rd Erm. on afess sable 3 Mullets or., 
Lister. Crest — A lion's gamb or. holding a cross paUe fitchy gu. 

2. Quarterly 1 & 4 Dighton, 2nd and 3rd three Falcons ar. ducally crowned 

or. on an escutcheon of pretence for Keyte as before. 

Upon a marble tablet, surmounted by an urn, draped, is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 














Him that cometh unto me 1 will in no ivise cast out. — John VIII., v. 6. 

1 This Inscription, as printed by Rudder, must, we think, be inaccurate. The name O 
the wife is altogether omitted, though she is referred to, and we conclude the omission must 
have arisen from carelessness on the part of the transcriber for the press. The epitaph 
cannot now be verified, for the gravestone, unfortunately, no longer exists. Wm. Barnes's 
wife was Elizabeth, the daughter of Robert Parry, and relict of Hercules Kuiusford. {See 
Rainxford, ante p. Ul) 

Manor and AdvowsoK of Clifford Chambers. 95 


widow of the above 

who died 15 june 1s60 

in the s7th year of her age and was 

buried at torquay 

An answer to the Instructions sent to the Minister and Church- 
wardens of Clifford Chambers in the County of Gloucester 
For directions to make an accompt of all Charitable guifts 
within the said Parish, to be Registered in the office of the 
Lord Bishope of Gloucester, as folio weth : 

Imp' 8 S r Hugh Chasnall, Clerke, heretofore did grant and enfeoffe 
vnto several Inhabitants of Clifford aforesaid fovver Messu- 
ages or Tenements Scittuate and beeing in Stratford vpon 
Avon in the County of Warwicke, one whereof is in the High 
Street there, now in the occupation of Thomas Nason, one 
other of them in Bridge Street there, now in the occupation 
of Christopher Wharinge, one other of them in a Street called 
the Eeley Street in the occupation of Wield' Parr, and the 
other of them in a certain place or Lane called the Chappel 
Lane, now in the occupation of Richard Marshall. The 
Rents and yssues thereof were and are to be Imployed : (viz* 
for an Obit to bee kept in the Church of Clifford aforesaid 
on Midlelent Sunday yearely, giveing to the Priest ffowre 
pence and to the Clerke Two pence To pray for the Soule of 
the said S r Hugh and all Christian Soules, and towards the 
refreshing of the said Inhabitants of Clifford at the said 
obit, And in meate for them vpon the Monday and Tuseday 
in the Whitson weeke yearely, to be bought after such sort 
and as it hath beene heretofore laudibley vsed, six shillings 
two pence over and besides Six pence before granted to the 
Preist and Clerke there, making vp the sume Six shillings 
Eight pence, And the residue of the yssues and Reveanues of 
the fnnisses to the Inhabitant" of Clifford and their succes- 
sors &, the same to be accompted for And thereupon to be 
put into safe keeping And finally to be Imployed it bestowed 
in payeinge of Tenths & fifteenths or Taskes hornishingc of 

96 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

Soldiers towards the Kinges Warr, and such other charges 
whereby the said Inhabitants may be exonerate of the same, 
or be Imployd in such other meane or weale as by the said, 
Inhabitants shall bee thought meete hereafter. 

To y e 3 The yssues and profits thereof haue beene made vse of 
accordinge to the intent of the doner (except sixteen pounds 
fowre shillings & five pence thereof which, in the yeare of 
Our Lord 1666, was delivered into the hands of Henry 
Dighton of Clifford aforesaid Esq 1 ' by William Case, one of 
procto 1-8 of the said Parish and resteth detained in the hands 
of the said Henry Dighto 

Item There is a House standing in the churchyard of Clifford 
afores d called the Church-house built by the Inhabitants of 
the parish and anciently enjoyed by the Parishione™ who 
in former time granted the same to tennants who paid Rent 
to the Proctors of the Parish for the publique vse of the 
Inhabitants vntill about nine years past the said Church- 
house was seized by the said Henry Dighton, and by him is 
still detained, And hath received Six pounds Rent for the 
same which Rent now rests in his hands 

Item Thomas Jackson of Clifford aforesaid dec d gave by his last 
Will &, Testament one hundred pounds for a free schoole for 
the Children of the Parishioners to be taught by a Schoole- 
master, moreover he gave fifty pounds that the vse &, benefitt 
thereof should be to the vse of the Poore of the said pish, 
and the Executors of the said Thomas Jackson gave other 
fifty pounds more to the same vse making vp the sum of 
Two hundred pounds with which said Two hundred Pounds 
the said Executors purchased Lands to the value of Ten 
pounds p Ann lyeinge and beinge in Tiddington in the 
Parish of Alveston and County of Warwick, now in the 
occupation of William Cod win 

Item Henry Toms of Clifford aforesaid dec (1 gaue Ten dozen loafes 
of Bread to the value of Ten shillings to be distributed to 
the poore of this Parish vpon good Friday yearely for euer, 
for pformance thereof hee charged or tied Three Tenements he 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers 


had within the Burrough of Straforcl upon Avon aforesaid, 
now in the tenure of M r Hunt, hauing the Tenement f -^r 
Stephen Hunt on the north side, and the Tenernen ts of Henry 
Cawthery in Old Stratford on the south side of them, And 
is distributed accordingly 

Lastly The Deeds and Evidences relating to the Bequests of the 
said S r Hugh Chesnall and of the said Thomas Jackson are 
now secured in the Chest standing in the Chancel of the 
Parish Church of Clifford Chambers aforesaid in the said 
County of Gloucester. Written and made under the hand 
and Seale of William Watts, Minister, of Clifford aforesaid 
and vnder the hands of other the said Parishoners the nine 
and twenttyth day of October, Anno Domi, 1683, Anoc^ Regni 
Regis Caroli Seci in Angt &c. tricessimo quinto. 



Bobt Loggan 
William Carle 
William Smart 
George Morris 

Exh'30 Oct 1G83 

Mem' 1 " 1 There is a Certificate dated 
26 Dec r 1704 shewing that there 
is an exact Terrier of the Glebe 
Lands in the Parish Chest. 

Wm Watts V^i 
The 16 u 4 s 5 d above 
mencioned was before 
my time, but pceive 
if it may be true by 
an Inquisition thereof 
shewed me and exe- 
cuted at Stow before 
the Comion s for Chari- 
table vses. 

There is also in this Registry a Terrier of all Messuages <k 
Tenements Glebe Lands & other appurtenances belonging to the 
Church & Parsonage dated the 26 February 1677. 1 

1 See Kelly's Directory of Gloucestershire. 

Vol. XIV. 



Transaction's pok the Year 1S89-90. 


William Rainsford=^Eleanor, da. and heir of Edward Brockysborne. 


Laurence Rainsford=f=Elizabeth Fynes, da. of JamesLord Saye and Sele. 


John Rainsford, of Rains-n=Anne, daur. of Sir Humphrey 
ford Hall, co. Lancaster. | Stokey, Knt. 

Henry Rainsford,of Tew=rElizabeth, dau. and heir 
Magna, co. Oxon. Eldest I of John Wilcott, Esq. 

Humphrey Rainsford. 




John Rainsford, of=pAlice, dau. of Sir 

William Rainsford, of=i=Agnes, daur. of William 
Tew Magna. | Anne, of Northaston, co. 

1 Oxon. 

Wm. Rainsford, =y=Johanna, da. 

Tew Magna. Eldest 


Wm. Danvers, of 
Cothorpe, co. Oxon. 

2nd son. 



Wm. Rainsford, Francis, daur. of— Charles Rainsford, of^pJane, dau. of 

living 29th Henry Henry Windsore, Clifford, co. Clou. Inq. 

VIII. joint executrix to p.m. 21st Eliz.No. 40. 

her husband's Will dated Apr, 1578 

will, living 1582. died 30th samemonth 

John Morgan, 
of Camberton, 
co. Worcester 
1st wife. 

1 Thomas Rains- 
ford, bapt.* 20th 
Aug. 1540, living 
25th June, 1583. 

=Alice. 2 Hercules Rains- 
ford, bap. 3rd Dec. 
1544, of Clifford, 
died 2nd August, 
je. 38, adm° of his 
effects granted 3rd 
August, 1583, to 
Elizabeth, his relict. 
Inq. p.m. 26th Eliz. 
No. 198. 

da. of Robt. 
Parry, re- 
marr. Wm. 
Barnes, of 
living 1582 

i — i 

3 Anthony, 
bap* Sep.' 1748, 
joint executor 
to his father's 
will. — 
Morgan, bap.* 
4th Nov. 1555. 



bur.* 20th 

June, 1578. 

John, bap.* 

Frances, Sir Henry Rainsford, of Clif-- 

bap.*25th ford, k td at the King's coron. 

August ; 23 July, 1603, ex r of the will 

bur. * 3rd of Wm. Barnes, his stepfather, 

October, 1001 ; died 27 Jan. 1631-2, 

1576. Eet. 41, bur. at Clifford, m.i. 

Anne, dau.& coheir of 
Sir Henry (Joodere, of 
Poleswortli, co. Wore. , 
living 1621. 


\Y illiam 


ob. v.p. 

Sir Henry Rainsford, of Clifford and of Combe, : 
South Hants ; bap.* 24th Dec. 1599, M.P. for An- 
dover ; kntd. atTutbury, 17th Aug. 1624 ; died 10th 
Ap. 1641. Inq. p.m., 3 May, 17 Chas. No. 105 ; adm° 
7 May, 1641, to Frances Boswell, the maternal 
grandmother of his children. Adm° de bonis non, 
&c, granted 8th Nov. 1647, to John Kingston, a 

Eleanor, da. 
and coh. of 
Rt. Boswell, 
Frances, his 
wife; bur. at 
Combe, 18th 
Aug. 1637. 

Henry Rainsford, of Clifford ; bap.* 12 May, 1622, aged 18 yrs. 12th May, 1640; 
was in arms for the King and taken prisoner at Oxford, and having escaped, 
petitioned Parliament to compound for his estates. Sold the Manor of Clif- 
ford to Mr. Job Dighton and went beyond seas, as appears by Chancery 
Proceedings, 10th July, 1649 (Rainsford v. Whistler). Died a bachelor in 
East Indies. Adm° of his effects granted 5th Dec. 1659, to Francis Rainsford, 
his brother. 

Manor and Advowson of Clifford Chambers. 


The following arms appear on the monument of Sir Henry Rainsford, in Clifford 
Church, who died in 1621-2, but we do not know if they are of authority. 
The blazon is printed in Bigland's History of Gloucestershire, Vol. I. p. 386, 
and agrees with a tricking in Harl. MS., 1041, fol. 31 b , and, generally, with the 
Visitation of Oxfordshire in 1574, in Queen's College Library, Oxford, (See 
Harl. Soc. Pub., Vol. V., page 165), though from the pedigree the arms would 
seem to be incorrectly marshalled : — 

1. Argent, cross sa. 2 Az., an eagle displayed ar. ducally gorged and beaked 
membered or, for Wylcott. 3. Az. an eagle displayed or. for Wyllycotes, of 
Great Tew, Oxon. 4. Sa. on a chief ar. three lozenges gu. for Mollins. 5. Ar. 
an eagle displayed gu. for Hall. 6. Az. a chevron erm. betw. three bucks trippant 
or, for Greene. 7. Ar., a chief indented az. for Glanville. 8. Per pale or 
and az. a cheoron erm. for Lioms. 9. Gu. on a clievron ara. cinquefoil between 
three garbs for Scocathe. 10. Ar. a chevron between three cinquefoils gu. for 
Wakested. 11. Ar. a chevron Eng. betiueen three escallops sa. for Ardenburgh 
or Arderboughe. 12. Vairie ar. and gu. on a bend sa. three boars' heads 
couped close argent tusked or. for Purscell. 13. Or. three bears' heads erased 
sa. muzzled of the first, for Berwicke. 14. Ar. three bendlets az., on a canton sa. 
a lion passant or, for Shershall. 15. Or, three chevronels interlaced sa. on a 
chief gu. three p>latesJor Prattell. To this may be added the arms of Goodere 
of Polesworth,"(7«., a fess between two chevrons vaire ; vert, a chevron between 
three bears' heads erased. Boswell of Combe : ar. a fess fusillee of five gu., in 
chief three wolves or bears' heads erased sa. Boswell, three doves ar. Foote, 
acquired since the settlement of the family in Gloucestershire. 

Mary, bap.* 1556, 
bur.* 19 Ap. 1557. 

~i — r 

Jane, wife of 
John Prous, of 
Slaughter, co. 

Elizabeth, wife of 
Robert Wincott, of 
Kensham, co. Oxon, 
bap.* Oct. 1542. 

Eleanor, bap. 
Mar. 1545. 


1 — i 

Margaret, bap.* 

19 Jane, 1547. 

living unmarried 


Henry, bap.* 10 

Mar. 1580. 

Edward, bap.* 26 
May, 1553, bur.* 
2nd Aug. follow - 

Dorothea, bap. * 
30th Oct. 1551. 

1 1 

Elizab. , wife of Edw.Marrowe, another son, name 

son and heir of Saml. Marrowe, unknown. He probably died 
of Barkewell, co. Warw. ; died young. He is figured on his 
29 Oct., 1601, m.i. at Clifford. father's Brass. (PI. VI.) 

Sir Francis Rainsford, bap.* 14th Sept.=^Mary, dau. of Sir Henry Ewer, of 

1601, of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Mid- 
dlesex, and of ClilFord, Knt., knighted 
at Theobald's, 22nd June, 1632, des- 
cribed as Captain, adm° of his effects 
granted 11th June, 1635, to Dame Mary 
Rainsford, his relict, in which she is 
described of St. Andrew's, High Holborn. 

the Lea, co. Herts. Will dated 28th 
Aug. 1655 (in which she is described 
as of High Holborn, Middlx.) Prob. 
17 Sept. following. Marr. lie. dated 
26th Aug. 1629, described as of St. 
Dunstan's, West, aged 18, daur. of 
Henry Ewer, Esq. , of the same place, 
vj/to be married at Edgware. 

~l i I — i — i 
Many other 
sons and 

Francis Rainsford, 2nd son, Deputy Con- 
stable of the Tower of London, 1676 ; 
Adm" to his brother's effects, 1659 ; died 
1 1th Oct., 1678, and bur. in the Church of 
St. Peter ad Vincula in the Tower ; Will 
dated 2nd Oct., 1678, and proved by his 
relict, 27th Oct. following. \j/ 

* At Clifford. 

=Elizabeth, Executrix 
to her husband's will, 
which she proved 21st 
Oct., 1678. 


Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 



1 Annesley See Blazon 

2 Chandos, of Radbourne 

3 Han bury, of Little Marcle 

4 Cotton, of Ridware 

5 Cotton, ancient 

6 Ridware 

7 folville 

8 Wessenham 

9 Bruce 

IOEdmund, King of England 

Fig. 2. 



1 11 Malcolm, King of Scotland 23 

2 12 Edgar Athelin 24 

3 13 David, Earl of Huntingdon 26 

4 14 Hugh Cyveliok, E. of Chester 28 

5 15 Ranclph, Earl of Chester 31 
10 16 Brocas & Roches, quarterly 34&35 
17 17 Dighton, of Clifford 46 

19 18 Annesley 49 

20 19 Booth, of Dunham Massey 51 

21 20 Egerton 73 

Royal Descents of Axnesley axd others. 




JMmcslcg, (llotton, $ooth, ^gnbale 


Waiter de Ridware, of Hamstall=|=Matilda, dau. & heir of Nicholas 

Ridware. I Peche, of Draycot, co. Staff. 7 

. I 


Roger de Ridware, co. Staff. 6= 

William de- 
Cotou. 5 


Simon, son of ; 
Wm, Coton. 


Walter de- 


Joan, dau. 
and heir of 
John de 
Basinge. 8 

Walder de=pJohanna 

Johanna : 

Sir Reginald de^fdau. and heir of 

, Huskarle 

(a Huskarle 
held Clopton of 
Wm. Gozen- 
boded, temp. 

-Wm. =Isabe 


Annesley, of co. Notts, 
son of Ralph, son of 
Reginald, son of Britto 


Sir Walt. = 
de Rid- 
ware, of 
co. Staff. 

da. & heir 

dau. and 


Edmund 1 

16 Ed. III. 

Sir John Annesley, =p Annora, dau. of 

of Annesley, Knt., of 
which he had free 
warren 12S0. Sheriff 
of Derby and Notts, 
14-1S. Edward I. ob. 8 
Sept., 9 Edw. II. (131 5) 

Sir Robt. Pier- 
point, ob. 10th 
May, 10 Ed. III. 


=Cath- SirWalt.= 

erine de Rid- 
aged 32, 

i ' caston. 10 

Agnes, da. and heir 
Walter Ridware. 

d. & heir 
of John 
of Thur- 

Sir John Annesley, =j= da. of. 

Knt., ob. 23rd June, 
31st Edw. III. (1357). 


William Coton, of ; 
Ridware, jure 
uxor is. 


John Coton, of=i=Isabella, or Elizab. 

Hempstall Rid- dau. and heir of Sir 

ware, anno 12th Wm. Fawkenor, of 

Hen. IV. Thurcaston, co. 

-J-Linc. 12 

(page 104) A 

(pcvje 104) B 


Transactions fok the Yeak 1SS9-90. 

Richard de Abrincis,=j=Emma, sister of Williamthe Conqueror. 

Hugh Lupus, = 
Earl of Chester, 
ob. 1101- 29 

da. of Hugh de 
Earl of Bevoys. 

Ralph de Meschines,=fMaud, coheir of her 

Lord of Cumberland. 


Richard, E. of Chester, ob. s.p. 1119. 

Edmund II., King of England, = 
called Ironside, ob. 1016. 21 

=Algitha, sister of Edric, 
Earl of Mercia. 

Edward, called the Outlaw, =f=Agatha, daur. of Henry II., 
ob. soon after 1057- I Emperor of Germany. 22 

nephew, Richard 
Earl of Chester. 


ob. s.p. 

King of 
Scotland. 23 

: Margt. sis. & 
heir of Edgar 

Ranulph Bricasard, : 
Lord of Cumberland 
and Earl of Chester 
ob. 112S. 31 

Lucia, d. of Algar 
Earl of Mercia, 
relict of Roger de 
Roi nara, E. of Leic. 

K. of Scot. 
ob. s.p. 

David I.- 
King of 

-Maud, da. & heir 
of Waltheof, Earl 
of Huntingdon, 
by Judith, grand- 
daughter of Wm, 
the Conqueror. 

Randolph, = 
of Chester. 

Maud, dau. of Robert 
the Consul, Earl of 
Glo'ster, illegitimate 
son of King Henry I. , 
by Mabel, d. & coh. of 
Robt. Fitz Hamon 32 

r - 

Henry, Prince of : 
Scotland, Earl of 
Huntingdon, ob. 
1152, v. p. 


Adama, dau. of Hugh 
Magnus, E. of Warren 
and Surrey, by Eliz., 
da. of Hugh Magnus, 
2nd son of K. Hen. I. 
of France, rel.of Robt. 
de Beaumont, Count 
of Meullent. 

liok, Earl 
Palatine of 
ob. 1181. 

Cyve-=pBertred, da. of Simon 

Earl of Evereus, 



— 1 


Isabella, dau. and coheir. 

David, 3rd son, Earl of Huntingdon=T=Maud, dau. and coh._of Hugh Cyveliok. 

and Garriock, ' 

Robert Brus, Lord of Annandale, in Scotland, = 
nearest male heir in blood to the Crown of Scot- 
land on the death of the Fair Maid of Norway. 

Bernard Brus, 2nd son, Lord of Connington and : 
Exton, ob. before Aug. 1266. Inq. p.m., 50th 
Henry III. No. 51. 



dau. of 


Bernard Brus, Lord of Connington and Exton, =f= Agatha, da. of , claimed 

ob. 23 Nov. 1300. Inq. p.m., 4 Ed. III. No. 38. | dower 30 Edw. I., Ex. 145. 


Bernard Brus, Lord of Connington and Exton^Agnes, da. of , survived 

aged 26 on his father's death. Died 3 Edw. III. 
(1329). Inq. p.m., 4 Edw. III. No. 9. 

her husband, ob. 10 Edw. III. 

Bernard de Brus, son and heir,= 
Lord of Connington & Exton, 
born 24 July, 1311; dead 18 
Deer., 10 Edw. III., ob. s.p.— 
Inq. p.m. 24 Edw. III. No. 76. 

^Matilda, da. of Sir 
Ralph Crophill. 
Inq. p.m., 24 
Edw. III. No. 76, 
ob. Deer. 1350. 
Inq. p.m., 33 Ed. 
III. No. 46. 

John de Brus, : 
heir to his bro. , 
Ld. of Conning- 
ton and Exton, 
ob. 18th or 19th 
Edw. III. 




Bernard de Brus, 
posthumous son, 
b. 1345, ob. 1346. 
Inq. p.m., 33 Ed. 
ill., No. 46. 

Robt. Lovetot,-=Agnes de Brus, : 
2nd husb., ob. of Connington, 

Sep. 1393. Inq. 
p.m. 17 Ric, II. 
JN'o. 37. 

coheir, aged 19, 
Feb. 1357-8. 
Inq. p.m. 33 
Ed. II. 20 


Sir Hugh Wesen- Jane, 
ham, ob. in Nov. coh. 
1375. Plac. Cor. 
Rege, 47 Ed. III. 


pa ye 105 

Royal Descents of Anxesley axd others. 


Peter de Roches, Knt. , the Great 
Bishop of Winchester and Jus- 
ticiary of the Kingdom, ob. 1238. 

. de Roches : 

Geoffrey de Roches, ob. ante=f=Emma, dau. of William Fitz Roger, of North 

1253, nephew of the Bishop of 

Fareham and Bradley, co. Hants (1295), heir to 
her brother, survived her husband. 36 

i ; 1 

Sir Hugh de Roches, heir of=p Martin Roche,=Lucy. 

his brother Martin, who died 
s.p. 1277, ob. ante 1300. 

dau. & heir of Steventon, 
of Roger ob. s.p., 1277. 
de Hoo. 


John de Roches (at the battle-pMargery, daughter and sole heir of Enfemia 

of Falkirk, 1298), ob. 1312. 


, who was daughter of Sir Herbert de 

Sir John de Roches, born circa=pJohanna 

12S9, ob. ante 1349. 

ob. Sep. 1361. 

— 1 

Ida de Roches, mar. Sir John 
de Plecy (widow in 1354). 

Sir Bernard Brocas, of Beaure-=p Mary de Roches, daughter and sole heir, relict 

paire and Roche Court, Hered. 
Master of the Buckhounds, ob. 

of Sir John Borhunte (2nd husb.) 35 brought 


Sir Barnard Brocas, Treasurer^=Johaima, daughter of ? Vernon, of Beligh, 

to Anne Queen of Richard II., 
attainted and executed on 
Tower Hill, Jan. 1399-1400. 

ob. 1429. 

Bernard Brocas, of Alton and=pSibilla Croke. 
Bradley, ob. ante 1432. 

Bernard Brocas, of Horton,=pEmmeline Erwyn, of Bedington, relict of Kin- 
etc., Sheriff of Hants, 1457, sell. 
ob. 1459. 

Bernard Brocas, of Horton, 4th=j=Anne, daughter and heir of Sir John Morell, of 

son, ob. 1502. Will dated 24th 
July, 1502. 

Uunstaple. Brought in 40 & 41 

— ■ {paye 10S) L> 


Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 


Sir John Annesley, of =f Isabella, dau. & 
Annesley, Knt., M.P. heir of Margt. 
for Nottingham, 30th 3rd sist. & coh. 
Edward III. to 11th | of Sir John 
Rich. II., living 1388. | Chandos, K.G. 
- J 2 

=Agnes, dau. of 
Robt. Clifton, 

Rich. Cotton, 
Hemstall, 6th 
Hen. VI., of 


: Eliz., sister & coh. 
Sir Hugh V enables 
Knt. 15-16 

Thomas Annesley, of- 
Annesley, M.P. for 
co. Notts., 7 Rich. II. 
(1353) living 1413. 

of co. Notts. 

Sir Hugh Annesley,=j= dau. of Sir 

of Annesley, son and 
heir, ob. 13th Sept. 
2 Hen. IV. (1401). 


Hugh Annesley, of= 

Annesley, aged 8 yrs. 

on his father's death, 

only son and heir. 

of Chilwell, co. 
Derby, Knt. 

= , dau. of 

William Fitz 

Wm. Cotton, of : 
Connington, 2nd 
son, slain at the 
battle of St. 
Albans, 37 H.V1. 

I ' 

Thomas Cotton, - 

of Connington. 


: Mary Folvylle,dau. 
and coh. aged 54 on 
her father's death. 
Died 14 Mar., 1499. 



■Elizabeth, dau. 



of Connington, ob. 
9th Henry VIII. 
Will proved 1517. 

Cotton,=j=Johanna, daur. of 

John Annesley, of 
Annesley, son & heir, 
ancestor of Viscount 

-~ l 

Thomas Annes- 
ley, of Roding- 
ton, co. Notts, 
2nd son. 

of Connington, 
Sheriff of Hunts 
and Cambridge, 
1 Edw. VI. 

William Annesley, of=T=Mabel 

John Parys, of Lin- 
ton, co. Camb. 

Lucy, dau. and coh. 
of Thomas Harvey, 
of Helmstoke, co. 
Line. 33 


son and 

English. Thos. Cotton, of Con -^Elizabeth, daur. of 

nington, co. Hunts, 
5 & 5 Philip & Mary, 
1557. Sheriff of Cum b. 
and Hunts, 26 Elizab. 
1584, ob. 1592. 

Francis Shirley, of 
Stanton Harold, co. 
Leic. , ancestor of 
the Earls Ferrers. 

Robert Annesley, of Newport Pagnel,=f Joan, daughter of William Cloville, of 
co. Bucks, 4th son, buried there. Will Coldhall, co. Essex. 
proved p.c.c, 29th July, 1553. 

George Annesley, of Newport Pagnel.= 
son and heir, bur. there 17th Jan. 1607. 

-Elizabeth, daur. of Robert Dove, of 
Moulshoe, co. Bucks. 

Robert Annesley, of Newport Pagnel, son and heir, some- 
time an officer in the navy and afterwards a captain in 
the army in Ireland, and an undertaker in the plantation 
of Minister. 

^Beatrix, dau. of John 
Cornewall, of Moor 
Park, co. Herts. 

Dorothy, eld. dau. : 
of Sir John Pliilipps 
of Picton Castle, 
co. Pembroke, ob. 
May, 1624, bur. in 
St. John's Church, 
Dublin. 1st wife. 


The Rt. Hon. Sir Francis Annesley, 1 
Knt. and Bart, of Ireland. Prin.Sec. 
of State, Vice Treas. , Rec. General of 
Rents & Rev., and a P.C. of Ireland, 
cr. Bar. Mountnorris, of Mountnorris, 
co. Armagh, 8th Feb. 1628-9, and pre- 
viously had the reversion 11th March, 
1622-3, of the Viscounty of Valentia, 
secured to him and his heirs male on 
the death of Henry Power, the then 
Viscount, to which title he eventually 
succeded; bur. atMorgansy, co.York, 
23rd Nov, 1660. Portrait, 
{page 206'). 

: Jane, 5th da. of Sir 
John Stanhope, Kt., 
by his second wife 
Catherine, dau. of 
Thos. Trentham, of 
Rowcester Priory, 
co. Staff., and relict 
of Sir Peter Cour- 
teen, of Aldington, 
co. Wore. 2nd wife. 

(page 106) 

Royal Descents of Annesley and others. 


C— j 

Robert W essenham, of Connington, aged 30 and=j= 
more, Nov. 1393. Inq. p.m. 17 Ric. II., No. 37, 
ob. 9th Aug., 1st Henry IV., i400. Inq. p.m. 
2nd Sep. 1400. 

. i 

Folvylle, 17 Edw. IV.=pJane Wessenham, coh. of her brothers, Thomas 

a Ex. No. 71. and Robert. Died before Sep. 1477. Inq. p.m. 

17 Edw. IV., No. 71. 19 


Thomas Lucy, 2nd husb. Inq.=Sir Thomas Billinge. 3rd husb., Chief Justice of 
p.m., 17 Edw. IV., No. 71. the King's Bench. (Weaver, 268-9). 

D-- , 

John Brocas, of Horton 

=j=Elizabeth, daughter of Marshall, 

j of Dunstaple. 

Robert Brocas, of Horton and^Dorothy, daughter of Robert Ruthall, of 

Buckingham, ob. 155S. 

Wm, Brocas, of Thedingworth, 
jureuxoris, 2nd son. 

Moulshoe, co. Bucks. 

=Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Dexter, of 
Thedingworth, ob. 1621. 42 

" I 

Sir Robt. Cotton of Connington, Knt., cr. Bart., 29 June, 1611.= 
(collector of the famous library, which, by his will, he settled 
on his grandson) born 22nd Jan, 1570, M.P. for Hunts, temp. 
James I., ob. 6th May, 1631, bur. at Connington. Portrait. 


Sir Thomas Cotton, of Connington, 2nd Bart.,=fMargt. Howard, dau. of Lord 

Elizabeth, dau. 
and coheir. 

only surviving son, M.P. for co. Hunts, 1639. 
Sheriff of Camb. and Hants 1636, ob. 13th May, 
1662, set. 68, bur. at Connington. 

William Howard, of Naworth 
Castle, co. Cumb., marr. 17th 
June, 1617, ob. 5th Mar. 1621, 
1st wife. 


Sir John Cotton, of Connington, 3rd Barnet, sold the=fDorothy, only child 

celebrated Cottonian library under an Act of Parliament 
for £4,500 to the Trustees of the British Museum, to be 
invested in the purchase of lands in the counties of Bed- 
ford or Huntingdon, ob. 12th Sep. 1702, in his 80th year, 
bur. at Connington. Portrait. 

I — 

John Cotton, Esq., only son=pFrances, only daur. and 
by 1st wife, ob. 24th March, eventually heir of Sir Geo. 
1681, v.p., aged 31, bur. at Downing, Bart., of East 
Connington. Hadley, co. Cumb. 45 

G (page 107) Portrait. 

and heir of Edmund 
Anderson, of Stratton 
Park ; by the 2nd wife 
Alice, da. and heir of 
John, Constable of 
Dromonby, co. York, 
aged 7i years on her 
father's death in 1638. 


Transactions for the Year 1SS0-9O. 

E— , 
Arthur, 1st Lord Angle- 
sey, ancestor of the 
Earls of Annesley and 

The Hon. Francis Annes-=pDeborah, dau. of Henry 

ley, of Castle Wellan, co. 
Down, born 23rd and bap. 
31st Jany. 1628-9, at St. 

Jones, D.D., Ld. Bishop 
of Meath, relict of John 
Bowdler, of Dublin, Dy. 
And. Gen. of the Excheq. 
in Ireland. 

Francis Annesley, of Thurganby, co. York., & Bletchingdon, =f=Elizabeth, dau. 

co. Oxon. , Barr-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Arthur Earl of 
Annesley, his cousin, bequeathed to him all his unsettled 
estates, and thus he acquired Thurganby and Bletchingdon ; 
ob. 7, and bur. 16 April, 1750; bur. at Bletchingdon, ret. 80. 

of Sir Joseph 
Martin, of 

Francis Annesley, Clerk, LL.D., 
son and heir, Rector of Winwick. 

William Annesley, 6th son, ancestor of 
the Earls of Annesley. 

i i 

Francis Annesley, LL.D., Master of Downing College, Camb. , Eliz. Annesley, 
M.P. for Reading, co. Berks. Hereditary Cottonian Trustee married George 

of the Brit. Mus. 

Died 17, and bur. 24 Apr. 1S12, s.p. 

Booth Tyndale. 
See post p. US, 

James Tooker, of Norton Hall, Som. Sometime= 
Major in Somersetshire Militia, bap. at Chil- 
compton, 2nd Aug. 1752, ob. 8th March, 1S13. 

26th Jan. 1766, 
mar. 23rd Nov. 
1791, ob. 5th 
Dec. 1803. 

born 19th 
Aug. 1773, 
ob. 21 June, 
1815, unm. 

Geo. Annesley, of=j= 
Regent Sq. , co. 
Middx., born 13 
Sep. 1807, 4th son. 
Hered. Trus.Brit. 

Emily, da. of Alb. 
Forster, of Upper 
Woburn Place, 
Middx. , by his 
wife Eliz. Dobree 

Francis Annesley, : 
clerk, M.A., of St. 
John's Coll , Oxf-, 
son and heir, born 
8 Dec. 1800, bur.*30 
July, 1882. Will dat. 
21 Dec. 1869. Prob. 
19 May, 1S84. 

^Charlotte, onlyda. 
of Henry Hodges 
Mogg, elk,, Vicar 
of High Littleton, 
Som,, marr. 3rd 
June, 1837, bur. at 
Farrineton Gour- 

Emily Vere Annes- 
ley, born 21st Nov. 
lS39,bap. 20th Feb. 
1840, at St.Pancras, 

Francis Banbury Annesley, clerk, ; 
born 19th Dec. 1837, bap. 20th Feb. 
184 , at St. Pancras. Inst, to the 
Rectory of Clifford, 31 July, 1ST!). 
Cott. Trus. of the Brit. Museum. 

ney, Som. 

-Maria Charlotte 

Annesley, only child 

and heir, born 3rd 

Apr. 1837, marr. 21 

Aug. 1862. 49 

ban. at 
Surrey, 15 
Nov. 1S63. 

Cecil, bap. at 
co. Camb., 17 
May, 1865, 
died 10 Dec. 



bapt. at 


Camb. 16 


Isabell Char- 
lotte, bap. at 
on-Stour, co. 
Warr. , 31st 
Jan. 1869. 



bap. at 



14 May, 




Tyndale, bap. 
at Totsfield, 
Surrey, 22nd 
June, 1873. 

Eoyal Descents of Annesley and others. 



Wm. Hanbury, : 
co. Heref., son 
of Thomas Han- 
bury, of the 
same place, ob. 
19th Oct. 1737, 
set. 70. 

^Frances Cotton, only da. and 
heir of her brother, Sir John 
Cotton, 4th Bart. By Act of 
Pari. 26 Geo. II. (1732), she 
obtained the privilege of ap- 
pointing successive Cotton- 
ian-family Trustees to the 
Brit. Mus., with remainder 
to the male issue of her four 
dans, in succession according 
to seniority, ob. 21st Nov. 
1756, »t. 80. 45 

Sir John Cotton, = 
4th Bart. , of Con- 
nington &Stretton 
Died 5th Feby. 
1730-1, in the 
52nd year of his 
age, s.p. 

=Elizab. , da.o, 
Jas. Herbertf 
of Kingsey, 
co.Oxon. Da. 
11th Feb. 
1731 -2, bur. at 
aged 42, s.p. 

Martin Annesley. 3rd son, Clerk, D.D., 8t.= 
John's College, Camb., Preb. of Sarum Vicar of 
Bucklebury & Rector of Frilsham, Berks ; born 
5th and bap. 14th Oct. 1701, at St. Andrew's, 
Dublin ; ob. 4th and bur. 10th June, 1749. Will 
dated 17th 'April, 1737-t Cod., 5th Oct. 1742. 
Prob. 17th Aug. 1749. 

-Mary Hanbury,3rd surviving 
daur. and coheir of William 
Hanbury. Prov. her husb.'s 
will ; born 170S, marr. 12 
Dec. 1732, died 20 Dec. 1796, 
bur.t 3 

Arthur Hen. Annesley, clerk, d.d. ,of : 
Trin. Coll., Oxon, Vicar of Chewton 
Mendip, in co. Som., in 1764, born 
8 & bap. 15 May, 1735, ob. 12 July, 
1792,at Chewton. Will dat.23May, 
1792. Prov. 27th Feb. 1793. 


-(page 10S)~K 

=Alice, dau. of Francis Keyt Dighton, of 
Clifford Chambers, and sister and heir of 
Lister Dighton, of the same place, marr. 
7 Nov., 1761, died 29 Nov. 1790, buried* 

Arthur Annesley, clerk, M.A., born 10th : 
Oct. 1768. Inst, to the Rectory of Clifford, 
22 May, 1793, again 25 May, 1803, Heredit. 
Cott. Trus. Brit. Mus. Will dated 19 May, 
1836. Prob. 21st Feb. 1845. Died 9 Feb., 
Bur.* M.I. 


Elizabeth Vere, only dau. of Geo. 
Booth Tyndale,of Bathford,and heir 
of her uncle Nathaniel, 4th Lord 
Delemere, born 12 July, bap. there 
10 August following, marr. 14 Jan. 
1800, at Reading, Berks. Died 15th 
J June, 1860. m.i. 48-50 

t At Bucklebury. 

Clifford Chambers. 


Transactions for the Year 1SS9-93. 

Thomas Dighton, 
named in brother 
Job Dighton's 

Job Dighton, of the Middle Temple, : 
London, purchased in 1649, of Henry 
Rainsford, the Manor and Advowson 
of Clifford, bur.*30th Oct. 1659. Will 
dated 21st Sep. 1659. 

-Anne, dau. of 
Wm. Harewell, 
of Coventry, 
bur.* 20 May, 1655. 

Henry Dighton, of the= 
Middle Temple. Pres. 
to Clifford 1661 and 
1667. Bur.* 21st Feb. 
1687, died intestate 
adm° to his son and 
heir Richard Dighton, 
7th May following, 
named in father's will. 

Sarah, da. of Rich. 
Bayly, clerk, n.i>. 
Pres. of St. John's 
Coll., Oxon., and 
Dean ofSalisbury, 
ob. 1667, post 
nupt. sett s 19th 
Feb. 1663, bur.* 

Mary, named in 
father's will, mar. 
John Frogmore. 

Job Dighton,bap* 
15th April 1639, 
bur.* 11 Oct. 1669. 
Adm° to his bro. 
10 Nov. 1669. 

Anne, married 
Francis Watts, of 
Eastcot, alias 
Urcott. Married 
settl,9Apr. 1651. 

Eliz., marr 

without her 
father's consent — 
these named in 
their father's will. 

Richard Dighton,=j=Alice, dau. and coh. of Francis Keyt, of Hidcote, co. Glouc, 

«^« &■ 1-.™%. Ur.-^ * K-.r Kip iiri-Fc Ali/-»o A o n rAi f or nf Siiv YVillinm ftnpiir»pr nf "Yflrn- 

son & heir, bap. 
6th Mar. 1664-5. 
Pres. to Clifford, 
1729, bur.* 27th 
August, 1738. 

by his wife Alice, daughter of Sir William Spencer, of ;Yarn- 
ston, Oxon., by his wife Constance, dau. of Sir Thomas Lucy, 
of Charlecote, born 10 April, bap. 2 May, 1671, at Mickleton. 
Marr. settl. 5 Jan. 1687. Died at Hidcote, and bur.* 3 Sep. 

Francis Keyt : 
Dighton, of Clif- 
ford and Hidcote, 
son and heir, born 
26 April, bap.* 18 
May, 1699. Pres. 
to Clifford 1732, 
1735. Bur.* 11 
Feb. 1768. 

=Sarah, only da. of Samuel 
Selman, of Old Ford in 
Bow, co. Middx., mercht., 
by Sarah his wife, da. and 
coh. of Matthew Lister, of 
the same place, born 9th 
June, 1705, marr. settlemt. 
2 July, and marr. 27 Aug. 
1723, died 3rd and bur.* 
6th May, 1737. Portrait. 

1 — i 

Ric. Dighton, 

2nd son, bap* 

10 Aug. 1705, 

bur. 2 June, 

1733, unmar. 

Hen. Dighton 
3rd son, bap.* 
31 Jan. 1706-7 
bur. 5th Feb. 

ton, 4th son da. of 
bapt. 22nd John 
June, 1713. Hun- 
ter, of 
St. George, 

H( ? >.107) r 

Lister Dighton, of Clifford, son and heiiv 
Pres. to the Rectory of Clfford 1776, 1787, 
1793. Bur.*ll May, 1807. Will dated 2nd 
Dec. 1805. Prob. 20th June, 1S07, s.p. 

; Mary, dau. of Foulds, marriage 

settl. 20th July, 1793, bur.* 30 June, 
1798. Adm° 31st Oct. following to 
husband, Lister Dighton. 

* At Clifford Chambers. 



Royal Descent of Annesley and others. 


Humphrey de Bohun, kinsman of Wm.= 
Duke of Normandy, with whom he came 
to England. 

Arms. — Az. a bendlet cotised betivecn and 
lioncels ramp. 


Bernard de Newmarch, Lord : 
of Brecknock. 

Arms. — Gu. 5 lozenges conjoined 
in /ess or. 

Humphrey de Bohun- 
the Great. 


: Maud, da. of Milo de Gloucester, Ear I=f=Sibyl, da. and 

Edward de 

of Hereford, 28th July, 
1140. High Constable. 
Ob. 24th Dec. 1143. 


Humphrey de Bohun, ob. 1187=f Margery, eldest of the coheirs of Milo de Glouc. 


Humphrey de Bohun,=pMargaret, dau. of Henry Earl of Huntingdon, sister of 

Earl of Hereford. 

William the Lion King of Scotland. 

Henry de Bohun, 8th Earl=j=Maud, only dau. of Geoffry Fitz Piers, Earl of 

of Hereford, ob. 1st June, 

Essex, and heir to her brother William de Mande- 
ville, last Earl of Essex, and heir of her great- 
grandmother, Margaret, dau. and heir of Eudo 
Dapifer. Arms. — Qrtly. or <£,• gu. a bordure wavy. 


Maud, dau. of the Earl of=f=Humphrey de Bohun, cr. Earl of=j=Maud de Aventye 

Ewe, 1st wife. 

Essex (1st John) and of Hereford. 


Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of^Eleanor, dau. and coheir of William de Braose, 

Hereford and Essex, Baron 
of Brecknock jure uxoris. 

Lord of Brecknock. 

Arms. — Az. semee of cross-crosslets gu. a Uonramp. 

or, armed flanged gu. (Banks). 

Humphrey de Bohun, son & heir, Earl of Hereford=^=Maud, dau. of Wm. Fienles. 
and Essex, Baron of Brecknock and Constable 
of England, ob. 1298. 

Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Here-=fElizabeth, dau. of King Edw. I., relict of 
ford and Essex, Lord of Brecknock, John Earl of Holland, 
ob. 1321. 





John de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford 
and Essex, Lord 
of Brecknock, ob. 
1336, s.p. 

Humphrey de 
Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford and 
Essex, ob. 1361 



Win. de Bohun. = 
a Earl of North- 
ampton, ob. 1360. 

Humphrey de Bohun, heir of his= 
uncle Humphrey, Earl of Hereford 
and Eesex, and of Northampton, 
Lord of Brecknock, ob. 1372, s.p.m. 

r Joan, da. of Rich. 
Earl of Arundel 

Elizabeth, sister & coh. 
of Giles Lord Badles- 
mere, by Margaret, dau. 
and coh. of Thomas 3rd 
son of Richard de Clare, 
J Earl of Glouc. , relict of 
Edmund do Mortimer. 
Arms. — Badlesmere, ar. 
a fess betiveen two bars 
gemelles gu. Clare or, 3 
chevronels gu. 


da. & coh. 


^Thomas Plantagenet, 

(called of Woodstock) 

Duke of Gloucester, 

and E. of Buckingham, 

K.G., 7th son, ob. 8th 

Sep. 1397 


John Plantagenet, : 
K.G., Duke of Lan- 
caster, born 1340, 
ob. Feb. 1399, 4th 


Catherine, dau. of Sir 
Payne Roet, 3rd wife, 
relict of Sir Hugh 
Swinford, ob. 1403. 

r - 

Humphrey Plantagenet, Duke 
of Gloucester and Earl of Buc- 
kingham, only son, K.G., died 
of the plague at Chester on his 
return from Ireland, 1 Hen. IV. 

Ann Plantagenet, sister 
and coheir remar. Win. 
Bouchier, Earl of Eu, 
bur. at Lanthony, Glouc. 

=Edmund, 5th Earl 
of Stafford, K.G., 
slain at N'hampton, 

Humphrey Stafford, - 
1st Duke of Bucking- 
ham, slain at North- 
ampton, 10 July, 1460 

Humphrey Stafford, : 
Earl of Stafford, slain 
at St. Albans, 23rd 
May, 1455. 

Anne, dau. of 
Ralph Nevill, 
K.G., Earl of 
died 14S0. 


John de Beau- : 

fort. K.G., Earl 

of Somerset, d. 

16th Mar. 1410 


; Margaret, daur. of 
Thomas de Holland, 
Earl of Kent, died 


Edmund de Beaufort, = 
K.G., Duke of Somer- 
set, slain at St. Albans, 
"23rd May, 1455. 

=Eleanor, da. & coh. 
of Richard de Beau- 
champ, Earl of 
Warwick, d. 1407. 

Henry Stafford, 2nd D.=j=Catherine 

of Buckingham, K.G., 
Lord High Constable 
of England, born 4th 
Sept. 1456, beheaded 
2nd Nov 14S3. 

6th dau. of 
Rich. Earl 

Sir Rich. Pole, K.G. 
died Nov. 1504. 



Countess of 

Salisbury, born 

1473, beheaded 

27th May, 1541. 

Edward, 3rd Duke of : 
Buckingham, K.G., 
H igh Constable of 
England, beheaded 17 
May, 1521. 

Alianora Percy, 
eld. da. of Henry 
Percy, Earl of 
K.G., died 13th 
Feb. 1531. 
J page 112 

Henry Stafford (2nd 
son) created Earl of 
Wilts, 3rd Feb. 
1569-10, K.G., died 
6th March, 1522-3. 

K page 11 \ 



Royal Descents of Annesley anu others. 


Roger Mortimer, =j=Jeane de Genevil, dau. and 
coheir of Peter de Genevil, 
Lord of Trim, in Ireland, 
remarried Wm. de Bohun, 
Earl of Northampton. 

1st Earl of March, 
ob. 1287. 

King Edw.III. 

Philippa, dau. of 
William, Count of 


Edmund Mortimer,=r=Elizabeth, dau. and 

2nd Earl of March, 
ob. 1331. 


Edmund =flsabel, da. 

i - 1 Plantagenet, 
Duke'of York 
born 1 341, ob. 
Jan. 1402, 5th 

and coh. of 
King of 
Castile and 
Leon, ob. 

Lionel Plan- 
of Clarence 
(3rd son), bn. 

da.and heir 
of William 
de Burgh, 
of Ulster. 

coh. of Bartholomew 
Lord Badlesmere, of 
Ledes Castle, Kent. 



3rd Earl 
of March, 
ob. 13(50. 

Philippa Plantagenet, : 
only child, ob. 1379. 

=Edmund Mortimer, 4th 
Earl of March, born 1352, 
ob. 1381. 

da. of Wm. 


1st Earl of 


by his wife 


J da. of Wm. 

and sister 

and coh. of 

Otto de 


r - 


Roger Mortimer, 5th=j=Alianora, dau. of Thomas 
Earl of March, ob. 139S | Holland, Earl of Kent, ob. 1405. 

i , 

r - 

Richard Plantagenet, =j= Anne Mortimer, sister 

Earl of Cambridge, I and heir of her bro. 

beheaded 1415. | Edmund. 


John Massey, of 
Dunham, co. Cestr. 

Edmund Mortimer.Earl 
of March. 6th Earl, 
ob. 1425, s.p. 

= da. and heir of 

Venebles, of Bollin. 53-54 

L 1 

Tomalin =j=Ellen, dau. Wm.Massey,=f= Alice, da. & heir of 

Booth. of Wrotley. of Dunham. Eustice Whitney 55 

Sir Robt. 
(2nd son). 

Dulcia, da. 
and heir of 
Massey, of 


K.G., Duke 
of York (only 
son), slain at 
1465, Const, 
of England. 


Sir Wm. Booth, =j= d. & heir 

of Dunham, died 
17th Edw. IV. 

of JohnFilton 
of Bollin, co. 
Cestr. 56, 57-66 

Cecily, da. of 
Ralph Nevill, 
Earl ofWest- 
m or land, died 

Sir 01iver=pMargaret, 
St. John, of sis. & heir 

co. Glam. 

of John 
of Bletsoe. 


Sir John St. John, 
son and heir. 

Alice, da. of 

Bradshaigh, of 
Haigh, co. Lane. 

I ■ — 

George = 
Booth, of 

da. and heir 


M ountford 

i page 113 

G eorge 
Duke of 
Clarence (6th 


Isabel, eld. da. 
and coheir of 
Richard Nevill, 
K.G., Earl of 
Warwick and 
Salisbury, born 
1409, died 12th 
Dec. 1476. 

Sir JohnSt. : 
John, of 
K.B., 17th 
Hen. VII., 
only sur- 
viving son. 

Sibill, dau. 
of Morgan 
ap Jenkin 
ap Philip. 

M page 113. 
■ H 


Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Henry Stafford, Baron- 
Stafford by restoration 
of, 3rd Edw.IV., died 
5th May, 1563. 


Ursula Pole, only daughter. She had four brothers, the 
three elder of whom were attainted, and the fourth, 
Cardinal Pole, died 1558, s.p., when she became their 

Sir William Stafford, of Chabsey, Knt d; 
by the Earl of Hertford in Scotland, 23 
Sep. 1545, 6th in descent from Margt. , 
dan. of Ralph, 1st Earl of Stafford, ob. 
1372. She married Sir John Stafford, of 
Ainelcote, co. Stafford, 2nd son of Sir 
William, of Sandon, great-grandson of 
Milicent, 1st Baroness Stafford. 


JJorothy Stafford, a Lady of the Bed- 
chamber to Queen Elizabeth, had grant 
from the Crown, 5th June, 1584, of 
Marlwood Park, in Thornbury, co. 
Glouc. , with rem. to her two sons, John 
and William, in tail male. Marr. 1545, 
died 22nd and buried 23rd Sep. at St. 
Margaret's, Westmiuster. 

Wm. Stafford of the Court 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

: Anne, dau. of Thos. Gryme, of Antingham, Norf., 
by his wife, Amphillis, dau. of Robt. Themilthorp, 
of Foulsham, in same county. 

~~ I 

Thomas Tyndale, of Eastwood Park, Thornbury, =j=Dorothy Stafford, marr. cir. 

co. Glouc, which he sold in 1619. Thomas, son 
and heir, in 1619, unmarr. Died 13th Feb. 1671-2, 
aged 84, buried at Kington St. Michael, 22nd 
following. Will dated 7th May, 1671. Prob. 23rd 
April, 1682, p.c.c. 

1620, died 20th July, 1664, 
a?t. near 72, bur. 22nd July 
following at Kington St. 

Wm. Tyndale, of Milbourn, Malmesbury,= 
Wilts, sometime of Stapleton, Glouc, 
born at Iron Acton, and bap. at Thorn- 
bury, 14th June, 1625, ob. 3rd Nov. 1675. 

=Margaret, dau. of Anderson Acheley, 
sister and coh. of Anderson Acheley, 
of Bitterley, near Ludlow, born 1st 
Feb. 1639-40, marr. at Ludlow, 23rd 
June, 1665, ob. 17th Jan. 1715-6. 

Thomas Tyndale, of Bathford, sometime=j=Elizab. , 2nd surviving dau., born 9th 

Collector of Customs at the Beach, Ches- 
ter, born 2nd and bap. 6 June, 1667, died 
18 Oct. 1747, and bur. at Bathford. Will 
dated 16th May, 1747. Prob. 14th Nov. 



Feb., 1675-6, marr. settl. dated 30th 
Dec. 1699, marr. 1 Jan. 1700, ob. 14th 
Nov. 1768. Will dat. 26 June, 1763, 
in which she desires her children to 
quarter the arms of Booth with those 
of Tyndale. Bur. at Bathford. 

George Tyndale, of Bathford and Bristol, ^Vere Booth, 2nd surviving dau., and 

only surviving son and heir, born 29 Jan. 
1703-4, bap. at Trinity Church, Chester, 
10th Feb. following. Died 12th Feb. 1771. 
Will dat. 24th Jan. 1771. Prob. 15th April 


George Booth Tyndale, of Bathford, and ; 
of the Inner Temple, heir-at-law of his 
uncle, Lord Delamere, born 8 Sep. 1737, 
bap. at St. Augustine's, Bristol, died 28th 
Dec. 1779, bur. at Bathford. 


eventually coheir of her brother the 
last Lord Delamere, mar. at Kensing- 
ton, Middlesex, 27 Nov. 1736, died 31 
May, 1753, bur. at Bathford, 50 

Elizabeth Annesley, dau. of Arthur 
Annesley, Clerk, d.d. (See ante p. 106) 

Royal Descents of Anxesley and others. 




Sir Win. Booth, of ^Margaret, dau. and coh. of 



Sir William Ashton. 
69, 70, 71, brought in. 

George Booth, 

of=pElizabeth, dau. of 
Sir Thos. Butler, 
of Beauley. 

Sir John St. John : 
of Bletsoe, son 
and heir. 

: Margai-et, da. of Sir 
Win. Waldegrave, of 
Smallbridge, Suff. 



Sir George Booth, =j=Elizabeth, dau. of Oliver St. John,=j=Agnes, da. of John, 

of Dunham. 

Sir Wm- 
Booth, of 
died 1579. 

Sir Edmund 

1 Baron St. John, 
of Bletsoe, 1559, 
died 1582. 

and grand-dau. and 
heir of Sir Richard 
Fisher, who died 18 
June, 1648. 

Elizab. , 
dau. of 
Sir John 

John, 2nd 
Baron, ob. 

Oliver, 3rd Baron=f Dorothy, da. and heir of 

St .John, of Blet- 
soe, had livery of 
of the Manor of 
Boddington in 
right of his wife. 

Sir George Booth, of= 
Dunham Massey, cr. 
Bart. 1611. Died 24th 
Oct. 1652. Bur. at 
Bowdon, co. Cestr., in 
his own vault, in his 
own chapel there. 

Catherine, dau. of Sir 
Edmund Anderson, 
Chief Justice of Com. 
Pleas, of Eysworth,co. 
Beds. Mar. 1592, d. 13 
Feb. 1638-9, buried at 


Sir John Rede, Knt. , of 
Boddington, co. Glouc, 
grandson of Win. Rede 
and Margaret, dau. and 
coh. of Rich, last Baron 
Beauchamp, of Powick, 
by his w. Elizab., da. of 
Sir Humphrey Stafford, 
of Grafton, co. Wore. 

Sir Anthony=pMary, da. of Wm. 

St. John 
(2nd son) 

Awbrey, D.C.L., 
and relict of Wm. 
Herbert, of Crick - 


William Booth, : 
M. P. for Cheshire 
ob. v.p., 26 Apr. 
1636. Buried at 
Bowdon. Funeral 
a cert., 4 May, 1636 

-Vere, dau. and coh. of 
Sir Thos.Egerton, eld. 
son of the 1st Earl of 
Ellesmere, and Vis 1 
Breckley, marr. Sep. 
1616, bur. 4 May, 1629. 
at Bowdon. Fun. cert. 
28th May, 1629. 72 

Sir John Booth, of- 
Woodford (2nd son) 
Kntd. 1660, born 
1610, died 9th May, 
1678, buried at St. 
Werburgh, Chester, 
loth following, aged 
67. Fun. cert. 



TJorothy, dau. 
and heir, died 
Jan. 1655. 

George, 1st Lord =|=Elizab., eld. dau. George Booth, of=j=Martha, dau. of 

Delamere, of Dun- 
ham Massey, 2nd 
Bart., born 18 Dec. 
1622, ob. 8th Aug. 
1684, buried at 

of Henry Earl 
Grey , of Stamford , 
ob. 14 Jan. 1690. 

Woodford, bapt. 
26 Nov. 1635, ob. 
12th Nov. 1719. 

Ralph Hawtrey, 
of Parley, Surrey, 
son of Ralph Haw- 
trey, of Middlesex, 
born May, 1645, ob. 
6th May, 1718. 


The Hon. Robert Booth, D.D. , Dean=|=Mary, dau. of Thomas Hales, of Howlett, 

of Bristol born 1661. Died 8th and 
bur. 11 Aug. 1730, in the Cathedral 
Yard, Bristol. 

Kent, eldest son of Sir Robert Hales, of 
Beakesbourne, in the same county, Bart., 
died 4th June, 1732. 

Nathaniel Booth, 4th Lord Delamere 
and 5th Bart., born 1709, died 1770 
s.p., when the Barony became extinct, 
and the Baronetcy devolved upon his 
second cousin. 

Vol. XIV. 


Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 


to which the Rev. Francis Hanbury Annesley is entitled, deduced 
from the Heralds' Visitations, Ancient Monuments, and other 
reliable authorities. 

1 Annesley 

2 Chandos of Radbourne 

3 Hanbury, of Little Marcle 

4 Cotton, of Rid ware 

5 Cotton, ancient 


7 Peciie 

9 Waldesheap, of Boylston 


Paly of 6, ar. and az.,a bend., gu. 

Or, a pile, gules. 

Or. a bend, engrailed, vert., with 
plain cotises, sa. 

Az., an eagle displayed, ar. 

Ar.,abend. sa. betw. three pellets 

Az., an eagle displayed ar., and a 
chief, vair. 

Gu., a fess between six crosses 
crosslet, ar. 

8 Basinge, of Boylston, Derby Or., six eaglets displ. 3, 2, and 1, 

sa., a canton, erm. 

Gu., a chev. ar. betw. 3 garbs, or. 

A.Z., an eagle display ed, ar., and a 
chief, vair. 

11 Falconer, of Thurcaston Ar., three falcons, gu. 

12 Thurcaston, of Thurcaston Sa., three owls 2 and 1. ar. 

13 Ridware Az., an eagle display ed, ar., and a 

chief vair. 

Ar., three falcons, gu. 

Az., two bars, ar., in chief two 

mullets of the second. 
Az., two bars, argent. 

Barry nebule of six, a canton, gu. 
And, gu. a chev. betw. three 
eagles displ. ,double headed ar. 

Sa., a fess dancette betw. three 
mullets, ar. 

Az., a saltier and a chief, or. 

14 Falconer 

15 Venables, of Bollin 

16 Venables, of Kinderton 
17-18 Folville 

19 Wessenham 

20 Bruce 

21 Edmund (Ironside) King of Az., a cross patonce betw. four 

crowns, or. 

Az.,an eagle displayed with two 
heads, sa. 


22 Austria 

Royal Descents of Annesley and others. 


23 Malcolm (Canmore) King Or., a lion ramp., within a double 
of Scotland tressure, gu. 

24 Edgar Athelin Az., a cross patonce between four 

crowns, or. 

25 Edward (Confessor) King Az., a cross patonce between four 
of England martlets, or. 

26 David, Earl of Huntingdon Or, three piles, gules. 

27 Gospatric, Earl of Nor- Gu., a saltier, argent. 

28 Hugh Cyveliok, Earl of Az., six garbs, or, 3, 2 and 1. 

29 Hugh Lupus, Earl of Ches- Az., a wolf's head, erased, or. 

30 Richard, Earl of Chester Gu., crusilly, a wolf's head erased, 


31 Ranulph de Meschines Or, a lion ramp., his tail erected. 

32 Fitz Hamon, Earl of Glouc. Gu. three rests, or. 

33 Harvey Or, a chev. betw. three leopards' 

faces, gu. 

34 BROCAS 1 These Coats were usually g a a ]i on ramp, guardant, Or. 
o k t* r borne quarterly by ~ ' , , . , i , • 

35 Roches J Brocas. Sa., two lions passant guardant m 

pale, or, armed and langued, 

Quarterly, or and gu., a bend sa., 

and a label of three points. 
Quarterly, sa. and argent. 
Az., a cross, engrailed, or. 

Az.,on a f ess betw. two chevrons, 
or,a stag's head, cabossed, gu. 

Ar., a cross betw. four mullets of 
six points, gu. 

Az., a fess betw. 4 chevronels, or. 

Or, a chevron betw. three eagles, 

displ., sa. 
Ar. a chev. betw. 3 crosses flory, 

Quartei'ly. gu. and vaire, on a 
bend or an annulet. 
Barry of 8 ar. and vert, a griffin 
segreant, or. 
Ar., a lion passant betw. 3 crosses 

pattee fitchee, gu. 
Az., a chevron betw. kites' heads, 

erased, or. 

36 Fitz Roger 

37 De Hoo 

38 De Caune 

39 Morrell 

40 Banbury 

41 Cosnard 

42 Dexter 

43 Anderson 

44 Constable 

45 Downing 

46 Dighton 

47 Keyt 

i 2 


Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

48 Tyndale 

49 Annesley 

50 Tyndale 

51 Booth, of Dunham Massey 

52 Barton? 

53 Massey, of Dunham 

54 Venables, of Bollin 

55 Venables, of Kinderton 

56 Whitney 

57 Fitton 

58 Moberley 

59 Thornton 

GO Kingsley 

61 Kingsley's Forester's Coat 

62 Starton, of Starton, Chesh. 

63 Hellesby 

64 1 

65 Hatton 

66 Crispin 

67 normanville 

68 Mountpord, of Ressote 

69 Ashton, of Ashton-under- 

70 Stayley 

71 Boteler, of Beausy 

72 Egerton 

Ar., upon a fess gu. betw. three 
garbs, sa., a martlet of the 

Faly of 6 ar. and az.,a bend.,gu. 

Ar., upon a fess gu. betw. three 
gai*bs, a martlet of the first. 

Ar., three boars' heads erect and 
erased, sa., languecl, gu., a 
crescent for a difference. 

Ar., a fess engrailed, gu. 

Quarterly, gu. and or, in the first 
quarter a lion passant, ar. 

Az., 2 bars and in chief as many 
mullets, ar. 

Az., two bars, ar. 

Paly of six or & gu. , a chief, vair 

Ar.,on a bend, az., three garbs, or. 

Ar., 2 chevronels & a canton, gu. 

Ar., on a bend., gu., three escar- 

buncles of eight rays, or. 
Vert, a cross, engrailed, ermine. 

Ar., a bugle-horn stringed, sa., in 
dexter chief, a cinquefoil. 

Ar., a holly tree eradicated and 

erected in pale, ppr. 
Or, a saltier, sa, 
Sa., a cross raguly, gu. 
Az. a chevron betw. 3 garbs., or. 
Barry bendy sinister, ar. and gu. 

Ar. on a fess,gu. cotised, sa., three 

fleurs-de-lis, ar. 
Bendy of ten, or and az. . 
Ar., a mullet, sa. 

Ar., a chevron, engrailed, az. 

Gu.,a cross engrailed, erm., within 
a bordure gobony, or and az. 

Ar., a lion ramp., gu., betw. three 
pheons' heads, sa. 

N.B. — The Rev. F. H. Annesley is entitled to impale all these coats in 
right of his wife and cousin, and their children to quarter them. 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 117 




Communicated by I. H. JEAYES, Esq., 
Assistant in the Department of MSS. in the British Museum. 

On the suggestion of Sir John Maclean and the Ven. Archdeacon 
Norris I have availed myself of the kindness of Lord Fitzhardinge 
to lay before the members of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Arch- 
aeological Society the transcript of a portion of Abbot Newland's 
Chronicle Roll of the Berkeleys. This particular portion includes 
Newland's introduction, and his Chronicle of the Abbots of St. 
Augustine's Abbey, Bristol, from Robert Fitzharding, the founder, 
to Robert Elyot, the twenty-first Abbot, elected 28th August, 

As regards the Roll itself, Smyth, in h'S Lives of the Berkeleys, 
makes frequent mention of Newland's Chronicle, but, unfortu- 
nately, in terms not sufficiently explicit to show whether it was 
this identical document he had before him or the original roll in 
the Abbot's own hand, of which this must be a copy. For that 
this is not the original is plain from the fact that Newland's 
death, burial and achievements are recorded in it, as well as the 
election of his successor, in the same handwriting as the body of 
the Roll. 

If any further proof were necessary that this is but a copy 
of an older Roll, it is easily found, for having suffered considerable 
damage from damp, etc., at the edges, the missing words have in 
many places, notably in the preamble, been supplied by an 18th 
century hand, and evidently from a much older document, as the 
spelling and quaint wording bear witness. This too seems to 
prove that when these late additions were made the original 
Chronicle was amongst the muniments in Berkeley Castle. It 
cannot now be found, but it is possible that when I have completed 

118 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

the catalogue of the Castle Muniments, which I hope to do in 
the coming autumn, it may be discovered. 

A brief description of the Roll is necessary. Tt is written on 
paper, and is in two pieces, the upper part measuring 23 ins. by 
16 ins., being pasted on 17th century parchment, and the lower 
part measuring 16 ft. 6 ins by 16 ins., being much torn at the top 
and at the edges. The upper part contains the preamble, or the 
Abbot's preface, the Chronicle commencing " Kyng Harri the 
first," which illustrates the part taken by Robert son of Harding 
in the civil wars of King Stephen, and the marriage covenant 
uniting the families of Berkeley and Fitzharding. (The original 
covenant is still in good condition at Berkeley Castle). The lower 
part contains the descent of Robert Fitzharding and the account 
of founding the Abbey, followed by the chronicle of the Abbots, 
and, running parallel to it, the chronicle of the family. On the 
other side of the Roll is a complete list of the Mayors, Sheriffs 
and Bailiffs of Bristol from " William Cannyng, Maior, and Henry 
Vyell," vicecomes et primus Bristollie, and "William Combe et 
Thomas Knappe, Ballivi [1374, the year in which Edward III. 
made Bristol a separate county], down to John Hutton, Maior, 
Thomas Jeffereis and Johannes Spryng, vicecomites [1524]. Side 
by side with the list is a meagre chronicle of the deaths and 
accessions of the Kings of England; for example, "1272 [Anno] 
56. Et obiit [Henricus III.] xvi Kal. Decembris sepultus apud 
Westmonasterium cui successit Alius ejus Eclwardus primus." 
Finally, there are in addition a few historical notes, of which the 
following are specimens : — 

1520. This yere whete barly and benes where for the more part of 
the yere at xxij d the bz [bushel] and above and grete sca[r]sty 
of corne was amonges the people. Also the same yere was 
beheddid the noble lord Edward Due of Buckingham the 
xviij day of May and berid at the Austen Freris in London, 
and about Seint Jamis tide whete was at iij s iiij d the bz. 
Anno 31. [i.e. Johannis Newland Abbatis]. Isto anno in festo 
Sancti Laurencii combusta fuit navis vocata Regent cum 
inagno Carricke de Brest supra mare. 

Abbot New-land's Roll. llfl 

Under the year 1327, where an interesting note might be 
looked for, there is unfortunately nothing but the bare record of 
the death, and burial at Gloucester of the ill-fated Edward II., 
whose memory will for ever be associated with the famous Castle 
of Berkeley. 

Hereafter folowith the trewe and noble Petegre of William |lord 
Marquyes Berkeley EarleJ of Noty[ngham and grete Eric 
Marchall of England] originalli and lineally descending from 
the Kyng of Denemark 1 [and in the tyme of William] 
Conqueror [whos noble Ancestours lordis of Berkeley sithin] 
diverse tymes have maryed w* the Royall blode of the Kynges 
of Englande [with many other] lordes of this II [ancle of right 
hygh estate as here after shall more] evidently appere. This 
noble Petegre was compiled and translated out of latyn into 
Englishe in the v [yere of the Regne of our soverayne lord 
and Kynge] King Harry the vij th and bi John Newlande 
Abbot of the Monastery of Senct Augustines bi Bristow [and 
where hit is undirstandid of the said John Newland] Abbot 
that the devote mynde and intent of the olde noble funda- 
toures of monasteries some tyme was [to employe and con- 
tinually to mayntene the] service of God bothe bi day and 
nyght. And that also the especiall remembrance in prayers 
of Religiouse [men shuld be don for ever for all there funda- 
tours] and benefactoures. Therefore full moche convenient 
hit thinketh me that all Religous men knowe bi [name their 
fundatours and especial benefactours] for whom thei ought 
most devoutely pray for, whiche for the love of God and in 
perpetual almys have geven [and procurid to be geven unto 
them grete possessiones and liberteis, And for this cause 
movid y the foresaid John N[ewland] Abbot for my more 
larger knowledge [and informacion of my brethren Chanons 
present] And for evir after to be come have taken uppon 
me to put into writing the lineal and trew descent of [Sir 

1 See Lives of the Berkeleys (Maclean's Edition), Vol. I., p. 19, Note a.— Ed. 
The words v\ ithin the square brackets have been supplied by an eighteenth 
century hand, 

120 Transactions *'ok the Year 1889-90. 

Robert Fizherding the son and eyre of herding] whiche 
herding Avas son of the King of Denemarke whiche Robert 
foresaide was first created lord of Berkeley [and so lineally 
from him I shall continew unto] William now lord marquyes 
Berkley for whom And all othir of his noble auncestoures 
we ben bounde [specially to pray and as that I shall begynne] 
this said noble Petegre First y shall declare Iioav the said 
Sir Robert fizherding was first made lorde of the [Barony of 
Berkeley and shall expresse folowyngly] certeyue conven- 
ciones made atwixe the saide Sir Robert fizherding and [Sir] 
Roger of Berkeley [lord and Baron of Dursley], 

Kyng Harry the first the iij de son of King William Conquerour had 

issue remaynyng on doughter named Mawde whiche was first 

maryed unto [the Emperour of] Alemayne whiche clecessid 

w*out eny issue of here body begoten. And where all the 

othir children of the said King Harry lawfully begoten were 

drowned in [the see comyng] out of Normandie And had 

none othir Eyre the saide King Harry send for his foresaide 

doughter Mawde the Emparice into Englande And in opyn 

parlia(ment declared) and ordeyned her to be his eyre. To 

whom then and there were sworen all the lordes of Englande 

And made unto her sewete admyttyng here for his (eyre, 

Amongs) whom principally and first was sworen Stevyn Erie 

of Boleyn Nevowe of the said King Harry the first. This so 

done this saide Mawde the Emparice was (after mai'yed) un 

to Galfride Plantagenett Erie of Angewe whiche begate of 

here a son whiche was named Harry. Whiche after was 

King Harry the secunde. But (sone after that) Kyng Harry 

the first was decessid the foresaide Stevyn Erie of Boleyn 

presumed and usurped the crowne And was made King 

contrary to his othe And promisse (made unto) the said 

Mawde the Emparice. But when then after Harry the Son 

and Eyre of the said Mawde the Emparice And also of the 

saide Galfride Erie of Angewe was (growen) unto man is 

state he w fc his saide Moder Mawde w* a smalle power came 

The words within the round brackets are supplied from Smyth's Lives of 
the Berkeleys. 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 121 

ovir in to Englancle And claymecl their right and heneritance 
in the v th yere of (the raigne of) the said Kyng Stevyn And 
so continued grete discorde and Batelle atwixe them bi the 
space of ij yeres And the vij th yere of the Regne of the saide 
Kyng (Steven there) was a Batelle made at Lyncolne at 
Candelmas where the saide Kyng Stevyn was taken bi the 
Erie of Chester And from thens was brought to Bristowe 
(to the sayd) Mawde Emparice And to her son and Eyre 
Harry, wher then thei were in this wise agreid and finally 
accordid that the saide (Steven should regne Kynge) duryng 
his life And he that ovir lyved othir of the saide Stevyn or 
Harry shuld henerite the Realine and Crowne And so the said 
Harry (overlivid Kinge Steven) And then after was crowned 
Kyng of Englande And namyd Kyng Harry the secunde 
Unto whom in his first entre and werres the foresaide Sir 
[Robert Fitzhardinge] gave and lende grete substance of goodes 
to the supportacion And maynetenance of his werres, And 
when this Harry had obteyned his right he rememb(ered the 
great kyndnes and) benefites of the saide Sir Robert fiz- 
herding And gave unto him And to his Eyrys for evir the 
Barony of Berkley Whiche Barony Roger of (Berkeley, 
Baron of) Durseley helde of the Kyng in fee ferme And 
for so moche the saide Kyng Harry the secunde toke from 
the saide Roger bothe the Barony of Durseley [and that] of 
Berkley for as moche as he toke partye w* Kyng Stevyn 
agenst Kyng Harry. And also for as moche as he refused 
to pay the fee ferme of the Bai-ony of Berkley un to the said 
Kyng Harry. But then after the saide Kynge Harry 
entretid bi the noble lordes of his Royalme gave ageyne un 
to the saide Roger the (Barony of) Durseley as his owne 
heneritance. And the Barony of Berkley he gave And 
confermyd un to the saide Sir Robert fizherding and his 
Eyrys for evir (in recompence) of his grete costes and kynde- 
nes. And when after Sir Robert fizherding was lord And 
Baron of Berkeley the said Roger lord and Baron of Durseley 
(vexed) And troubled with him so grevousely that he came 
un to the said Kyng Harry And prayed him to resume his 

122 Transactions foe the Year !So9-90. 

yefte l ageyne. But then after the saide Kynge Harry 
(made) a peace And a finalle concorde atwixe the saide 
Roger and Robert so that the said Roger shuld geve his 
doughter Alice to wife unto Morice the son and Eyre of 
Sir Robert fizherding w fc the towne of Slymebrigge, Under 
certeyne condicionys as followingly shalle appere. 

This ben the covenantes that wer made atwixe Sir Robert fiz 
herding lord and Baron of Berkley and Sir Roger of 
Berkley [lord and Baron of Dursley in the] howse of Sir 
Robert fizherding at Bristowe And in the presence of Kyng 
Stevyn and of the Harry then Duke of Normandy (and 
Earle of Angewe and by his assent) and in the presence of 
moiiy othirs bothe clerkes and laymen. 

Morice the son and Eyre of Sir Robert fiz herding sball 2 take(n) 
to his wife Alice the doughter of Roger of Berkley Baron 
of Dursley And the saide [Roger shall give] to the saide Morice 
in mariage w* his saide doughter Slymebrigge whiche is of his 
heneritance that is to wete x h wurthe of lande And this 
Morice [by consent] of Sir Robert his fader hath geven un 
to the doughter of Roger that he shall take to wife for her 
dower xx H of lande of the fee of Berkley bi the [agreement 
of the] foresaide lord Duke Harry And under this condicions 
and covenantes That if so Morice the son and eyre of Sir 
Robert fizherding shall happe to dec(esse ere he shall wedde) 
the doughter of the said Roger, that then his next brother 
and Eyre shall take the saide Alice to his wife according to 
all the foresaide convencions And (if soe the second) son of 
the saide Sir Robert fizherding shall fortune to decesse before 


he shall wedde the doughter of the saide Sir Roger that then 
who so evir of the sonncs of the sayd Sir Robert fizherding 
shall remayne to be his Eyre shall take to wife the doughter 
of the saide Roger. And of likewise if the elder doughter 
of the (sayd S 1 ' Roger shall) fortune to decesse afore that she 
be weddid to Morice the Son and Eyre of Sir Robert fiz- 

1 i.e. Gift. 

B " Hath " written over " shall." 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 123 

herding or to eny othir of his brethren that shall remayne 
Eyre (after him that) then the elder doughter levyng and 
remaynyng of the saide Roger shalbe geve to wife un to the 
son of Sir Robert fiz Herding which levith and (shall remayne 
his eire) Furthermore the son and Eyre of Roger of Berkley 
Baron of Durseley shalle take to wife in like forme on of the 
doughters of Sir Robert fizherding (And the sayd) Roger 
shall geve in mariage to the doughter of Sir Robert fizherding 
for her dowery the maner of Siston of Bristow the whiche 
maner is of (the heneritance of the) saide Roger, And Sir 
Robert fizharding shall geve in mariage w fc his doughter to 
the son of the saide Roger x 11 and x s wurthe of lande at 
(Dursley And with) this condicion, that if on of the doughters 
of Robert fizherding decesse afore she be weddid to the son 
and eyre of the saide (Roger, that then the othir doughter 
of) the saide Sir Robert fiz Herding shalbe geven wife unto 
him. And if hit so shall fortune that bothe the doughters of 
Sir Robert fiz (Herding decesse afore eny of them bee) maried 
un to the Son and Eyre of the saide Roger, that then his Eyre 
shalle take to wife the doughter of Hew of Hasele Nece of 
the saide (S r Robert fiz Herding) Of like wise if the first goten 
Son and Eyre of Roger of Berkley Baron of Dursele decesse 
afore that he marye w* eny of the doughteres of (Sir Robert 
fiz Herding) or of the saide Hew of Hasele then that brothir 
that shall remayne to be Eyre of the said Roger shalle take to 
wife on of the doughteres of the saide Sir (Robert fiz Herding) 
And if thei decesse all or that eny of them shalbe maried, 
that then the Eyre of the saide Roger shall take to his wife 
the doughter of the said Hewe (of Hasele nece of the) saide 
Sir Robert fiz Herding according unto all the foresaide coven- 
antes And all thes foresaide covenantes have sworen feithfully 
to holde, kepe (and performe without) eny fraude or deceyt the 
foresaide Sir Robert fiz Herding And Roger of Berkley Baron 
of Durseley, And thei have putte Harry Duke of Normandy 
(aforesaid for plegge) and for juge atwixe them of all thes 
foresaide Covenantes trewly to be performyd atwixe them. 
To thes Covenantes wele and trewly to be observed (have 

124 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

sworen also) viij noble men of the party of Sir Robert fiz 
Herding. And also other viij noble men of the party of the 
saide Roger, whos names ben thes of the party (of the sayd 
Roger, William) the son of Duke Harry of Normandie afore- 
saide, Roger of Shay, Rafe of Iweley, Walberyne, Eng(ewald) 
of Gosynton, Guydo of Sto(ne, Gwafere of Planca) Hew of 
Planca his brothir. And of the partye of Sir Robert fiz 
Herding thes ben their names, Hew of Hasele, Nigelle fiz 
Arthure (Robert of St. Maryes, Elias) the brother of Sir 
Robert fiz Herding and Jordane his brothir, Jordane le 
Fayre, Richard fiz Robert And David Duncepouche, And 
(thes foresayd men with all their) strenght shall holde and 
kepe the foresaide Sir Robert fiz Herding And Roger in all 
thes foresaide covenantes trewly to be observyd (that if soe 
the foresaid Robert) And Roger would go from the foresaide 
covenantes thei shall constrayne them w fc all their power and 
myght (to hold and kepe them, And if they) wulde at eny 
tyme dissent, these foresaide [Noble men] of their service 
and love shalle reduce them therunto And for thes (cove- 
nantes aforesaid wreten, the foresayd) Roger of Berkley, 
Baron of Durseley hathe relesid And quyete claymed al 
maner of chalange and right that he had in the Fee (ferme 
of the Barony of Berkeley). 

Herding (son) of the Kyng of (Denmark) had issue bi his (wife) 
Hvida iij [v] sdnnes (and iij) doughters as hit . . . folowingly 
and (deceased at Bristoll the) vj day of Nov(ember) 1115. 

Robert (fiz) Herding first (lord of) Berkeley (primer fundatour) 
and chanon (of the Monastery) of Seint Aug(ustine's bi Bris- 
towe) had issue as (apperes folow)yngly and (died the fifth 
day of) February (in the) seventeenth yere of Henry II.), 
yere of our lord (1170) and was beriecl atwixe (the Abbots 
and) Priores stalles (and) nexte un to the Abbotes stalle in 
the intreying into the qwere. 

This goode lorde primers fundatour and Chanon of the Monastery 
of Seint Augustines bi Bristowe began the fundacion of the 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 125 

same in the yere of our lord M.c xl. And bilded the churche 
And all othir howses of offices according to the same bi the 
space of vj yeres. And so after in the yere of our lord 
M.c xlvi Robertus Bisshoppe of Worcet r Boniface Bisshoppe 
of Excet r Nicholas Bisshoppe of Landaf And Gregorie 
Bisshoppe of Seint Asse 1 dedicate the churche of the saide 
Monastery. And then after Alured Bisshoppe of Worcet r 
inducte vj chanons of the Monastery of Wigmore gederid 
And chosen by Sir Robert fiz Herding our fundatour in to 
our churche and Monastery aforesaide on the Ester day 
whiche was that yere the xj day of Aprile And in the yere 
of our lord M.c.xlviij. 

[That this Sir Robert fiz Herding first lord of Berk[eley primer] 

Fundatour of our monastery of Seint Augustines 

chanon of the same hit so apperith bi his Obite (which) is 
yerely in our chapiter house in this forme .... Robert fiz 

Herding Chanon And our fundatour , his son and 

Eyre Morice secunde lord of [Berkeley's] charter on this 

wise writen. Be hit that y Morice the son and Eyre 

of Sir [Robert fiz Herding have] grawnted And confermed 
for my Sowle [and the sowles of my] Auncetry to the churche 

of Seint Augustines bi Bristowe whiche my lorde 

And fader hath funded all suche thinges whiche my saide 
fader hath geven And graunted to the cha(nons) of the same 
Churche of Seint Augustines that is to wete Berkley-hurnys, 
Almondesbery, Horefeld, Asshelwurth and the whiche he 
gave un to them when he became and w . . . a chanon, And 
every of them w* all their appertinences.J 

And for this good lorde Sir Robert fiz Herding oure primer 
fundatour And the goode lady Dame Eve his wife this ben 
the speciall thinges done for them besides the generall 
prayers continually done in divine service bi day and nyght. 
First thei bene prayed fore dayly bi name opynly in oure 
Chapiter-howse. Also thei have their Placebo and Dirige 

1 St. Asaph ?— Ed. 

126 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

solennely songe with Ryngyng in the Eve of their Anni- 
versary And on the morowe commendaciones And Masse. 
The Abbot for the fundatour And the Prior for the fundresse 
executing the service And on the day of our saide fundatour 
is Anniversarye ther shalbe c. poore men refresshid in a doole 
made un to them in this forme, Every man of them shall 
have a Chanon is lofe of bred callid a Myche 1 And iii 

Herynges therwith. Ther shalbe delid amonges them also ij 
busshellis of pesis. An other doole also that day shalbe made 
in money, cakes and loves of iij to a peny under this forme. 
The Abbot shalle have a Cake price of iiij d with ij castes of 
bred and iiij d for wyne. Also the Priour, the Suppriour 
And the Amener eviry of them shall have ij Cakes price for 
every Cake ij d w* j caste of bred And ij d for wyne And every 
Chanon after bothe of Prestes and also of Novices shall 
have a Cake of ij d with a caste of bred And ij d for wyne. 
More ovir eviry seculer servande of howsehold within the 
monastery shall have a cake of j d And a caste of bred. Also 
every Frere in every howse of the iiij orders of Bristowe 
shalle have a lofe. And in like wise every Prisoner within the 
Gaole of Newgate in Bristowe. And all the remanet of bred 
not divided shalbe delyd at the yate of oure saide Monastery 
un to pore people. And every man takyng parte of this doole 
shalle have xl. dayes of Pardone. And in the day of the 
Anniversary of Dame Eve oure funderesse a doole shalbe 


made under this forme. That day shalbe delyd un to 1. poore 
men 1. lofes callid miches And un to every of them iij 
herynges. And amonges them all shalbe delyd also j bushell 
of Peses. 
Hereafter folowyngly shalle appere the names of all the Abbotes 
of our foresaide Monastery. 

Richarde the first Abbot of oure Monastery was inducte on 
Esterday and the xj day of Aprile in the yere of oure Lord 
M.c.xlviij. And the xj yere of the Regne of King Stevyn. 
And rewlyd xxxviij yeres And decessid the iiij th day of 


September And is beried the yer of our Lord m.c iiij vj. 
1 Myehe=a loaf of bread. 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 127 

John the Secunde Abbot succedid And rewlid xxix yeris And 
decessid the xij day of February the yere of our Lord 

Joseph was electe Abbot and decessid the xvij day of September 
And is beried under a marbill stone. 

This Joseph livid after his Election xxxj wekes and so 
decessid a fore he was installid, the yere of our Lord M.ccxvj. 

David the iij de Abbot succedid And rewlid xix yeris And decessid 
the iij day of Jule And is beried under a Marbull Stone 
with a hedde And a Crosse made of the same in the elder 
chapelle of oure Lady the yere of our Lord M ccl iij. 

This Abbot David resigned And William of Bradstone suc- 
cedid him and was electe the xxi clay of May the yere of our 

William of Bradstone the iiij th Abbot succedid And rewlid viij 
yeris And decessid the xx day of May the yere of our Lord 

This Abbot William of Bradstone resigned And William 
Longe succedid him and was electe the x day of August the 
yer of our Lord 

William Longe the 6 th Abbot succedid And rewlid xxij yeres 
And decessid the xvii day of May the yere of our Lord And is beryed afore the Image of our Lady at 
the North He of our Monastery of the lifte hand of Hew 
Dadyngton the viij th Abbot. 

Richard of Malmesbery the vj Abbot succedid And rewlid xij 
yeris And decessid the xiij clay of September the yere of our 

John de Marina the vij th Abbot succedid And rewlid x yeris 
And decessid the xxj day of February the yere of our Lord 

XX * 

Mcciiij vj. And lythe beried in oure Chapiter House. 

Hew of Dadyngtone the viij tb Abhot succedid and rewlid viij 
yeris And decessid the xxvj day of November and is beried 
streight afore the Image of our Lady in the crosse North He 


atwixe othir ij Abbotes, The yere of our Lorde M. cc.iiij xiiij. 

128 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Jamys Barry the ix th Abbot succedid and rewlid xij yeris. And 
decessid tlie xij day of November the yere of oure Lord 
M.ccc.vj And lythe beried under a marbull stone on the 
southe side of the Rode Auter under the Arche there. 

Edmund of Knulle the x th Abbot succedid electe on Seint Thomas 
day the Apostell And rewlid xxvj yeris And decessid the ix 
day of June the yere of our Lord M.ccc xxxii And lythe 
beried under a brode marbull stone streight afore the Rode 

This reverende fader Abbot Edmunde causid mony notable dedis 
done in his tyme, First he bilded the churche of the new fro 
the Fundamentes w fc the vestrary And began that grete 
werke the 6 th day after the Assumption of our lady at the 


oure of ix. The yere of our Lord xviij. E. then 
dominica letter. The yere also of King Edwarde the first 
xxv. He bilde also of the new from the Fundamentes the 
Kynges Hall And also the Kynges Chamber. Also he reparid 
And kevered the Freytoure w 1 othir goode dedis. 

John Snowe the xj th Abbot succedid and was electe the xvij day 
of June And rewlid ix yeris and decessid the iij day of July 
And lythe beried under a brode marbulle Stone in the intre 
in to the Rode Auter. 

Rafe of Asshe the xij tb Abbot succeedid And rewlid xij yeres 
Electe the xviij day of July And decessid the first day of 
M arche. The yere of oure Lorde M.ccc. liij. And lythe beried 
in the myddis of the qwere within the Gryce afore the 
yongest Novices Stalles. 

William Coke the xiij th Abbot succedid and rewlid xiij yeres 
And resigned the first day of October the yere of oure Lord 
M.ccclxv And decessid the viij day of Aprile the yere of our 
Lord M ccc.lxvj. And is beried in the space a fore the dore 
intreyng in to oure Lady chapell above the high Awter. 

Harry Shalyngforde othirwise namyd Blebury the xiiij th Abbot 
succedid And rewlid xxiij yeres And decessid the ij de day of 


December the yere of our Lord M ccc iiij viij And lythe beried 

Abbot Newland's Roll. 129 

in the nethir Tumbe of the Presbitery whiche he caused to 
be made besides the high Auter. 

John Cernay the xv th Abbot succedid and Electe the xiiij day of 
January. And rewlid v. yeris And decessid the v. day of 
October And lythe beried in the ovir Tumbe of the foresaide 

presbitery the yere of our lord m.ccc iiij xiij. 

John Dawboney the xvj th Abbot succedid electe the xxv. day of 


October the yere of our lord M.ccc.iiij xiij. And rewlid xxxv. 
yeres And decessid the xvj clay of January the yer of our 
lord M ccc xxviij Aud lythe beried in the high tumbe of the 
north side of the Rode Awter. 

Walter Newbery the xvij th Abbot succedid electe the xxv day of 
February And decessid the iij day of September the yere of 
oure Lord M.cccc.lxiii And so rewlid xlvj yeris And is beried 
in the ovir Arche of our Lady Chapelle on the northe side 
of the Auter. 

This wurshipfull fader Abbot Walter Newbery dyd mony grete 
actes in his tyme in bilding of the maner of Fifhide in 
Dorsetshire Also in diverse houses of office at the Maner of 
Lygh in Somersetshire Also in diverse Howsynges at the 
Maner of Almonclesbery And also new bilded the Maner of 
Asshelworth in Glouceturshire with othir diverse Granges 
and appruamentes of landes within the saide maneris and 
also other maneres And was fraudelently deposid the xxiij 
yere of his rewle bi the space of v. yeres And then after 
restorid to his dignite And so decessid on whos sowle Jhesu 
have mercy. 

Thomas Sutton the xvij th (sic) Abbot with subtilite and meyn- 
tenance usurped v. yeres and so after abiecte was made Prior 
of Poughley in Barke Shire. Thes intrusor bykl no thing 
but wastid and spended the goodes of the Monastery for his 
defense And lette downe tenementes and othir howses throw 
his cause also ben withdrawe mony quyte Rentes nevir of 

like to be rekevirid without the helpe of a singuler benefac- 


Vol. XIV k 

130 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

William Hunt the xix th Abbot succedid electe the xxvij day of 
September And rewled viiij yeres And decessid the xiiij day 


of Marche the yere of oure lord M.cccc.iiij j And is beried in 
the Northe side of our ladi chapell in the nethir arche bi the 
qwere there. 

This wurshipfull fader Abbot William Hunt dyd mony benefites 
for his time in bilding of diverse Granges And especially 
that he of the new lette make the hoole Rofe of the churche 
l)othe the bowke and the lies of the same And new lette cast 
the ledde for the same from the Toure all estward with oure 
lady chapelle, with othir howses of office and also benelites 
for the whiche God rewarde him Amen. 

John Newlande the xx li Abbot succedid electe the vj day of 


Aprile the yere of our lord M.cccc iiij.i. And ruled honorably 
xxxiiij yeres And decessid the ij' 1 clay of June the yere off our 
lorde M.v c xv And is beried in the South Side off our Lady 
chapell in the Arch there by the dore going in to the loft 
going to the organs. 

This Reverend Father Abbot John Xewland did many honorable 
dedis in his tyme in bilding of v. new barnys in the parrish 
of Berkeley ij grete barnys att Asshelworth And in repayr- 
ing the manor of Almondesbury And in reedifiing the manor 
of Ligh, the manor of Horefed, the manor of Codrington, the 
manor of Powlet with many other grete Actis in bilding and 
repairing of chaunselles othir Howses Also the said Reverend 
father In his tyme bildid the dortor And fraytor, the Priores 
logginge, the yatehouse, the Amery with the logginges next 
adioynant, the hey barne, the Stabilles ioynyng to the malt 
howse, with the fundacioun of the body of church to the 
soilis of the a Wyndos of the north side And the westend 
with othir Houses of office And many othir grete benefytes 
for the which God reward hym with eternal blisse Amen. 

Robert Elyot the xxj Abbot succedid elect the xxviij day of 
August the yere of our Lord Mv c xv. and Ruled right honor- 

Sanctuary Knockers, 



Upon the doors of a few old churches there still remain large 
bronze escutcheons representing the head of a gruesome monster 
with locks flowing and jaws extended, and in some cases the head 
of a man within them. Through the monster's mouth hangs a 
massive ring which in days gone by served as the Hagoday or 
Sanctuary Knocker, at which when "offenders dyd come and 
knocke, streightwaie they were letten in at any time of the nyght. 1 
On the south door of St. Nicholas Church, Gloucester, there is 
an example of one of these knockers, and the head of the fugitive 
is represented enveloped in his hood, with tongue protruding and 
breathless with haste, escaping into the Church from between 
behind the animal's head. It is a fine specimen of 14th century 
bronze work and is in excellent preservation, though the iron 
bronze ring is modern. (Fig. 3.) 

At St. Nicholas Church, Gloucester. Elg. 3 At Adel Church. Fig. i 

1 Rites of Durham, page 35. 
Notk. — All mention of the cities of refuge, and of any other Sanctuary 
which existed before Christian times, has been purposely omitted from 
this Paper. 
K 2 


Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

The Knocker is still upon the door of Adel Church, near Leeds, 
(fig. 4) and a very similar specimen exists at St. Gregory's, 
Norwich, (Jig. 5) but this latter 
has been removed from its 
original position to a door in- 
side the church. There is another 
at All Saints', York (fig. 6). 

At St. Gregory's Church Norwich. Fig. 5. At All Saints' Church, York. Fig. 6. 

All of these have a similar ornamentation of foliage encircling 

the escutcheon, and as in the 

Adel Knocker the ring 


original and similarly ornamen- 
ted ; all these are 14th century 

The earliest example of 
a hagoday is the magnificent 
specimen on the south door of 
Durham Cathedral, which is 
said to have been placed there 
in the time of Bishop Geoffrey 
Ruful, a.d. 1140 (fig. 7), and 
this Knocker has an additional 
interest attaching to it, as its 
At Durham Cathedral. Fig. 7. purpose and use are fully des- 

cribed in the Sanctuariam Dunelmense, which will be quoted 
later on. 

Sanctuary Knockers. 133 

The Sanctuaries or Asylums were places to which either the 
Church or the Sovereign had given the right of sheltering those 
who claimed protection, and from which no one could be forcibly 
taken without sacrilege. At first this privilege was not intended 
to shelter the wicked from justice, but as a refuge for the innocent 
and oppressed, and to give a man an asylum till he could have a 
fair hearing. The only people to whom this protection was denied 
were apostates and heretics, for they had deserted the Faith which 
made the Sanctuary sacred ; but as time went on, murderers and 
traitors a sought and obtained shelter within the sacred spots, and 
the Sanctuaries of Mediaeval Christendom, which, originally, were 
necessary remedies for a barbarous state of society, became when 
that state had passed away, almost unmixed evils. 

The privilege of Sanctuary in Churches or other sacred places 
was recognised from very early times, though there are no laws 
relating to it older than those of Theodosius (a.d. 401 to a.d. 
450.) It is plain, however, that these laws were not made to 
establish any new right, but rather for the regulation of one 
which was then in use, and in the life of St. Basil (a.d. 329) it is 
recorded that he protected a widow who had taken refuge at the 
altar against the Governor of Pontus. 

In Roman times other places besides Churches were allowed 
this privilege — the statue of the Emperor, his standard in the 
camp, and the graves of the dead were all considered sacred, and in 
later times the cross by the highway, 1 hospitals, and even some 
schools were added to the places to which a fugitive might fiy for 

We are told by Geoffrey of Monmouth that in the time of the 
Druids asylum was allowed in their sacred groves, and the 
rather mythical King Lucius (a.d. 180) is said to have conferred 
it upon the Church of Winchester, but it is not till a.d. 633 that 
Pope Boniface V. confirmed and authorised Sanctuaries, and he 
is generally considered as the founder of Sanctuary, as it after- 
wards prevailed so extensively in the West. Soon after this we 

1 Si qui ad aliquam crucem in via persequentibus inimicus, confugeret, 
liber ac si in ipse ecclesia permaneat. 

Concilium Claramont 1093, 

Apud Du Fresne torn II, Col. 1184, 


find laws were made in England with reference to this privilege, 
and about a.d. 690, Ina King of Wessex enacted " that if a person 
who had committed a capital offence shall fly to a Church, he 
shall preserve his life, and make satisfaction according as right 
requires. If any deserving of stripes shall fly to a Church the 
punishment shall be forgiven him." 

By a law of King Alfred, made a.d. 887, the privilege was for 
three days, and it was enacted that " if anyone took a malefactor 
from a church, it should be considered Sacrilege, and the offender 
was to pay a fine of 120 shillings to the Church. William the 
Conqueror altered this law, and made a difference between places 
of greater or less sanctity — thus a man who took a person from 
an Abbey (Ecclesia Religiones) was to forfeit 100 shillings and 
restore the person, if from a parish Church 20 shillings, if from 
a Chapel 10 shillings ; and this law states that Sanctuary men 
may go 40 paces from the more sacred place, and 30 paces if it be 
only parish Church. 

In Edgar's Canons, a.d. 959, priests are admonished to suppress 
"cultum voluntarium et necromantiam et auguria, et incantationes 
et divinum hominis cultum, et plura qute exercentur in variis 
prpestigiis, et in cathedra pacis, et in ulmis, et etiam in aliis variis 
arboribus et in saxis et in multis aliis phantasmatibus quibus rnulti 
eorum qui non deberent dicipiantur. 1 

The laws of Edward the Confessor made many references to 
Sanctuary, and by the 5th Article it is enacted that a malefactor 
repeating his injustice, and making a practice of getting into 
Sanctuary, must not only make restitution, but must abjure the 
country, and renounce the right of Sanctuary in those precincts. 2 
Quicunqui reus vel noxius et ecclesiam causa praesidii, confugerit 
ex quo alrium tenuerit, a nemine insequente nullatenus apprehen- 
datum nisi per Pontificem aut ministrum ejus." 

William I., in his 4th year, made express laws respecting 
Sanctuary. When he founded Battle Abbey, he made it a Sanctuary 
even for murderers, and ordained that " if the Abbot came upon 
anyone at their place of execution, he should have power to save 

1 Edgar Canon, No. 16. - Collier, Vol. I., p. 537. 

Sanctuary Knockers. 135 

them." From this time the laws of Sanctuary remained in much 
the same state till the reign of Henry VIII., when they were 
materially altered, and restricted by various acts of parliament, 
and ordered that it should not be allowed to those who had 
escaped from the hands of the sheriff, and as religious houses had 
been dissolved, asylum was now confined to Cathedrals and parish 

At first the altar and inner buildings of a Church were alone 
considered as Sanctuary, but soon these limits were enlarged, and 
all the space between the Church and the outer walls, that is 
the houses and lodgings of the abbots and the monks, and the 
cloisters, were allowed the privilege, and this extension no doubt 
arose from the fact that a refugee had to eat and sleep in the 
Church itself, which they were expressly forbidden to do. 

The space which was considered sacred, varied in different 
places, the more sacred the shrine or building, the greater was the 
space allowed around it. At Beverley a mile around on every side 
was safe; at St. Edmondsbury one mile in the direction of each 
cardinal point, terminating with a cross, was the limit. At 
Hexham there were four crosses, set up in four ways, leading 
to the Church, and between these the malefactor was safe. 

The Welsh appear to have had a very largely extended 
Sanctuary, and, we are told, " that they allowed all criminals, even 
murderers, this privilege, and that they were allowed to take their 
servants and cattle with them, for which purpose large tracts of 
pasture land were assigned, and were held sacred and inviolable." 

Geraldus Cambrensis speaking of this subject in his own days, 
A.D. 1146 to 1223, says: l "We observe that they show a greater 
respect than other nations to Churches and ecclesiastical persons, 
to the relicts of saints, bells, holy books and the cross which 
they devoutly revere ; and hence their churches enjoy more than 
ordinary tranquility. For peace is not only preserved towards 
all animals feeding in churchyards, but at a great distance from 
them, where certain boundaries and ditches have been appointed 
by the bishops in order to maintain the security of Sanctuary. 

1 Bonn's edition ; p. oU7a. 

136 Transactions eor the Yeak 1889-90. 

But the principal Churches to which antiquity has annexed the 
greater reverence, extend their protection to the herds as far as 
they can go to feed in the morning and return at night." 

In the laws of Hoel Dha, a.d. 928, fighting is forbidden in 
churchyards and sanctuaries under heavy fines. For fighting 
within the churchyard £14 are to be paid, if out of the church- 
yard and in the sanctuary £7 are to be paid. This seems to have 
been the cause why fairs were often held in the churchyard or 
sanctuary, as at such meetings fights were likely to take place, 
and the sacredness of the situation was more likely to restrain the 
passions or feelings of revenge. 

The ceremonies connected with the taking of sanctuary are 
recorded with great minuteness in the Sanctuariam Dunelmense, 
where they are thus described — "A man from Wolsingham was 
committed to prison for theft, and escaping, sought refuge at the 
Cathedral of Durham, having sounded the Knocker on the great 
door, he was admitted, and took his stand before St. Cuthbert's 
shrine, the Galilee bell then sounded to inform the city that a 
man had taken Sanctuary, and that a coroner was required to 
hear a confession. John Racket, the Coroner of Chester Ward, 
soon arrived to do this duty, and having heard all the culprit had 
to say in self-defence, he sentenced him to abjure the realm. The 
sacrist, sheriff, under sheriff, and other officers being present, the 
man took a solemn oath that he would perform his sentence. He 
then stripped himself of his clothing to his shirt, and gave it to 
the sacrist as his fee, the clothing was at once restored to him, 
and a white cross put into his hand, a black gown, with a yellow 
cross (called St. Cuthbert's Cross) on the shoulder was put on him, 
and he was handed over to the sheriff, who gave him in charge 
of the nearest constable, whose duty it was to pass him on to the 
next in the direction of the sea, and so on, till he reached the 
shore, where he was put on board a ship, and for ever bade fare- 
well to his country." 

These ceremonies appear to have varied in different places, 
for in some Sanctuaries a man could go alone to the sea if he carried 
in his hand a crucifix, and took the most direct route. If he got 

Sanctuary Knockers. 137 

to the port and failed to find a ship, he had to go every day into 
the water up to his knees (it does not say how long he was to stay 
there) and this he had to do for 40 days, when no ship arriving, 
he must return to his Sanctuary. 

It appears that, occasionally, the refugee remained permanently 
in his place of asylum, for in a charter of one of the Saxon Kings 
to Crowland Abbey granting to it the privilege of Sanctuary, it 
expressly declares that criminals who take refuge there shall 
become the slaves of the abbot. 1 

It was ordered in most Sanctuaries that the fugitives should 

be guarded by lay keepers, because the expense of feeding, 

clothing, and watching them would have been too great a tax 

upon the funds of the Church, and as the strictest watch and 

ward had to be maintained by night and day, the city authorities 

were held responsible for the personal care of the fugitives. There 

must have been considerable danger to an unarmed community 

when several of these criminals had to be admitted ogether, and 

we find, as early as the Laws of Theodosius, before referred to, 

a.d. 401 to 450, it is especially provided that all who claimed the 

protection of Sanctuary should be unarmed, except with a blunt 

knife for their food, and they enacted " that if any refused to 

lay aside his arms on entering the Sanctuary, it should be lawful 

to senl for a magistrate, and with the consent of the bishop, the 

officers might come armed into the Church and take the refugee 

by force, and if he chanced to be killed in so doing, it should be 

reckoned his own fault." 2 This seems to have been almost the 

only cause for which an armed force might enter the Sanctuary. 

But for these precautions, a number of armed ruffians might 

have gained access to any Church or Religious house, and slain 

and pillaged its inmates. (If during any man's residence in these 

asylums he did damage, even of Id. value, he was according to the 

Laws of Hoel Dhato leave at once, and seek another Sanctuary.) 

It has been suggested that the rooms over the lofty porches in 
some Churches, were used by the men whose duty it was to admit 
the fugitive, and that a light was kept burning all night to guide 

I Archaologia, Vol. II., p. 313. - Hoel Dha's Law, a.d. 907. 

13S Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

them to the refuge. At Durham Cathedral two rooms similarly 
situated were undoubtedly used for this purpose, and tradition 
says that a light was placed behind the Great Knocker, and 
shone through the monster's eyes. A very improbable story ! 

The violation of Sanctuary appears to have been very rare, 
and when it did occur was looked upon as flagrant sin. The few 
accounts which we have, show what a commotion it caused, and 
what serious results arose in consequence. In early Irish History 
it is related that a criminal had taken Sanctuary at the Abbey 
of St. Ruan, or St. Ruadon, (now the Abbey of Lorha, near 
Roscrea). From this place he was taken, and dragged to Tara, 
the Abbot demanded his restitution, which King Diarmed 
obstinately refused, and finally put the man to death. The enraged 
abbot, and a bishop that was with him went in solemn procession 
to Tara, and " they took the bells that they had, which they rang 
hardly, and cursed the King, and the place, and prayed God that 
no King or Queen ever after should or could dwell in Tara, but 
that it should be waste for ever." This actually occurred, and the 
last assembly of the tribes took place in Tara, about a.d. 562, 1 since 
which time the scene of festivity and song has been silent and 
deserted, and those who have seen the bleak desolation of Tara's 
halls, can fully realise the consequence of the Saints' curse. The 
name of this monastry commemorated the malediction, as it was 
afterwards known as the " Monastery of the Curses of Ireland." 

The Sanctuaries of Ireland must have been very numerous, if 
we care to judge by the following passage, from the ancient eccle- 
siastical Law of Ireland. 

Sinoclus dicit : Ubicunque inveneritis signum crucis Cliristi ne 

Locus sanctus no excedet longitudinem et Jatitudinem atrii 
exterioris laberuaidi et templi Salamonis, qua iwleber per c cubitos 
manus virilis in loiujitudine quinquaginta cubitus. 

Hibernensis Lib. xliv., cap. 31 

Wasserachleben H. 2nd Edit. Leipzig, 1685. 
1 Bingham, Vol. II., p. 580. 
Ancient Laws of Ireland, Rolls Scries, Vol. II., p. 255. 

Sanctuary Knockers. 139 

The laws go on to state that the Church would be liable for 
loss, if she protected fugitives, except under certain conditions as 
to time and crime. 

In 1378 two English knights named Shackle and Hawle took 
Sanctuary at Westminster, and fled to the Choir just at the time 
of the celebration of High Mass ; the Deacon was reading the 
Gospel of the day, when suddenly the clash of arms was heard, and 
the pursuers regarding neither time or place burst in upon the 
Service. One of the knights escaped unhurt, but the other named 
Hawle was pierced with twelve wounds, and sank dead in front of 
the Prior's stall ; he was regarded as a martyr to the injured rights 
of the abbey and obtained the unusual honour of being buried within 
its walls. The abbey was shut up for four months, and parliament 
was suspended lest its assembly should be polluted by sitting 
within desecrated precincts, and the whole case was heard by the 
King himself. The abbot William of Colchester pronounced the 
the excommunication of the two chief assailants and the payment 
by them of £200 by way of penance. This tremendous uproar 
took place in the early days of Richard II. 1 

The Sanctuary of Westminster occupied a very prominent 
situation, and though few of the actual buildings remain, a part 
is still called " the Broad Sanctuary." There are few more ro- 
mantic stories in English History than the one which relates how 
Elizabeth Woodville Queen of Edward IV. with her three 
daughters, her mother and Lady Scrope came and knocked at 
the great door of the Sanctuary of Westminster, and having 
registered themselves as Sanctuary women took up their abode 
within its sacred walls. Soon afterwards the Queen gave birth 
to a son, the future King of England ; there was no one to tend 
the little Prince but a nurse who happened to be within the 
walls, and he was baptised by the sub-prior, with the abbot 
as his godfather, and the Duchess of Bedford and Lady Scrope as 
his godmothers. A few years passed away and the Queen again 
sought the shelter of the abbey ; the little King was not with her, 
but hoping to keep her other son the Duke of York, she carried 

1 Walsingham's Historia Anglicana, Vol. II. p, 375 et seq. 

Master of the Rolls Series, 

140 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

him into the Sanctuary. The Lord Protector however had deter- 
mined to get possession of the boy, and not daring to violate the 
Sanctuary, he held a Council at which it was decided that it might 
be a protection for men and women, but could not be so for children, 
as they could not commit a crime for which it was required, and 
that he might take his nephew from thence if he pleased, this he 
accordingly did, but with the Queen's consent. 

Sanctuaries continued in full power till the Reformation, but 
if we are to believe contemporary accounts they had become most 
dangerous refuges for the lawless and disaffected in all classes of 
society. Speaking of the terrible state to which the Sanctuary 
of Westminster was reduced in the 16th century, the Duke of 
Buckingham is said by Sir Thomas Moore to have thus described 
it. " There they build, there they spend, and bid their creditors go 
whistle for them. Men's wives run thither with their husband's 
plate, thieves bring thither their stolen goods and live thereon. 
Nightly they steal out, they rob, they reave, and kill, and then 
come in again." The right of Sanctuary in fact rendered the 
whole precinct a vast cave of Adullum for all the distressed and 
discontented of the metropolis who desired, according to the 
phrase of the time, to "take Westminster." i When things had 
come to such a state as this, it was time for the law to interfere, 
and various Acts of Parliament were passed by which the privileges 
were lessened, and at last finally suppressed, 21st James I. A 
few buildings and precincts in London still gave shelter to debtors, 
but this also ceased in 1697 and the only Sanctuary which re- 
mained in the Kingdom was the precincts of the Abbey and Palace 
of Holyrood, Edinburgh (PI. VIII.) Here until a short time ago a 
debtor could still knock at the door and register himself a Sanc- 
tuary man, defying his creditors to arrest him. The limit of safety 
was a large one and included the whole of the Queen's road round 
Ai'thur's seat, and a considerable distance in the other direction. 
When Sunday morning came these Sanctuary men could go where 
they pleased, and when night came they returned to remain in 
safety for another week. At last this became such a public scan- 
dal that a law was passed in 1880 to do away with the Sanctuary 
of Holyrood, and nothing now remains of the Right which in 
mediaeval time exercised such a powerful influence in Christendom. 
1 Stanley's Historical Memorials Westminster Abbey, p. 365. 



"PYrilEXECUMBE." 141 


Abstracts of Original Documents in the Registers of the 
Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester. 

Communicated by the Rev. JOHN MELLAND HALL, M.A. 

The parish of Standish, in this county, contains two portions 
which are completely detached and separated from its centre : these 
are Colthrop, consisting of 699 acres, and Pitchcombe of 240 acres 
or thereabouts. This latter portion is distant between three and 
four miles in a direct line from the parish Church of Standish. 
The mode of its annexation has never, so far as we are aware, 
been satisfactorily explained. 

These lands would appear to have been in the possession of 
the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, during the reign of Hen. III., 
if we may conclude that the following charter, which comes under 
the head of "Pychenecumbe," has reference thereto : we think it 
well to give a translation of this charter in full : — 

" This is the agreement made between the lord John [de Felda] 
Abbot and the Convent of St. Peter Gloucester and Richard 
le Breth of Pichenecombe — viz — that the said Abbot and 
Convent have granted and demised in the thirty seventh year 
of the reign of King Henry, son of King John (1253) to 
Richard of Pichenecumbe and his heirs or assigns, custody of 
the land with appurtenances which Henry de Avenebury 
formerly held in the Manor of Stanedys viz., in Hersecumbe 
— with the marriage of the infant and heir of the said 
Henry, without disparagement : to have and to hold the 
custody of the said land as long as by the Custom of England, 
he ought to be under guardianship : so that they cause no 
waste, nor destruction, nor deterioration in the appurtenances 
of the same, housebote and heybote excepted. But if anything 
after the manner of men should happen to the said heir, 

142 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

the Abbot and Convent have granted to the said Richard and 
his heirs custody of the said lands and appurtenances, with the 
marriage of another existing heir: Saving to the same the 
service which pertains to the said land, viz. ' Esquieria,' and 
suit of Court at Gloucester and at Stanedys, with their other 
freemen. For this concession and surrender Richard has "iven 
to the said Abbot and Convent Fifty marcs Silver and one 
Tierce of Wine. And the said Richard and his heirs shall 
observe all these things under a penalty of forfeiting One 
hundred shillings. In testimony whereof we have affixed 
our seals to this writing." 

If we are correct in our conjecture that this grant really 
applies to " Pichenecumbe " — although the reference to the " de 
Avenbury " family and Harescombe, with which we know from 
other sources they were connected, is somewhat perplexing — it 
is suggested, however, that by the decease of the said heirs and a 
subsequent grant, these lands came absolutely to Richard le Breth : 
in which case the fifty-five charters or other writings so carefully 
pi'eserved in the Register of Abbot Froucester in the Cathedral 
Library (abstracts of which are given below), shew us the process 
of their re-acquisition by the abbey, and their connection with 
Standish as a portion of the manors appertaining to the Almonry 
of that place. 

We have here a series of transactions ranging from a.d. 1294, 
in the reign of Edward I. to a.d. 1329 — the second year of his 
grandson, Edward III. In the first place, Richard le Bret, of 
Pychenecumbe, grants to Walter his son and Nicholla his wife 
all his tenement there for the sum of sixty marcs, which he has 
received of the Lord William Maunsel, father of Nicholla. With 
the exception of a few, the other charters relate to the dealings 
of Walter le Bret with this estate, and explain the mode of its 
gradual absorption (creditable or discreditable) into the hands of 
the Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, Gloucester. 

It is remarkable that very few of the names of fields or roads 
here given remain to this clay — Piparesfiche, Eselde, Edytedich, 
Bitesiche, Godeshallewelle, Blakewelle, Barlichforlong, Ballynes- 
brink, Guelde ; among the roads — Portwey, Schiringesweye, 


Amphesweye, Micldehveye, are altogether unknown to the oldest 
inhabitant ; a tradition of a maple-tree as a land-mark (see No. 
345) however lingers. 

Among the names of witnesses which occur in the series, we 
have those of Sir Roger le Rous, 1 Sir John le Rous, 2 Thos. de 
Gardinis, Sheriff, Roger de Tewesdebury, W m de Abbehale, 
Almoners of Standish ; John le Boteler, Hen. de Chevringworth, 
Knt., Adam Mustel (or Martel), Knt., 4 Adam the Chaplain, 
Wm. de Piddesmore, Rich, de Baloun, Roger de Ravenhulle, 
Godfrey de Stonehouse, Wm. de Clifford, Ralph Baron, Roger 
de Aldewyke, Robert de Sudley, Henry cle Basyng, John de 
Caillewe, William de Broke worth, Henry de Brokeworth, 5 Rich, 
de Compton, Clerk, 6 John de Staunton, &c. 

It will be observed that the name of the family principally 
concerned in these transactions occurs in various forms, some 
doubtless errors on the part of the abbey scribes : thus we have 
" Bres," "Breth," "Brut," "Bruht," used almost indiscriminately. 
The origin of the name must be looked for in the domicile, for 
they appear to have sprung from Brittany, hence known as 
Bretons. In "Parliamentary Writs" we have Le Bret — Le 
Brut — Le Breton, as surnames derived from the same root, and 
often applied as equivalent to each other. The name is still 
common, especially in Gloucestershire, though some transposition 
of letters has taken place, but the various stages are plain, first — 
Bret, then Bryt, lastly Birt. This is evident from the distin- 
guishing name given to Weston, 7 in the Hundred of Longtree, 

1 Sheriff of Gloucester in 1278. Knight of the Shire, 1283. Died 1294. 

2 Knight of the Shire- Glouc., 1314-5 ; Hereford, 1330-43. 

3 Sheriff of Gloucester in 1298 and 1303 

4 Adam Martel held lands at Stowell, 15th Edw. II. 

5 Benefactor to Lanthony Priory. — Rife Rev. S. E. Bartleet's "Manor 
and Advowson of Brockworth." — Trans., VII., 159. 

6 Name occurs as witness to Brockworth Charters. — Trans., VII., 152. 

7 See "Glouc. Aid for making Edward the Black Prince a Knight." — 
Trans. Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Soc, X., 283. 

" De heredilms Radulphi de Wylyngton et Thoma? de Bercle pro tercia 
parte unius feodi Militis in Weston' quara heredes Johannis le Bret quon- 
dam tenuerunt ibidem . . . marca." 

144 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

viz., Weston fiirt, which was held by Richard le Bret before 

Another Richard le Bret occurs as Knight of the Shire 
(Hereford) in 1290 : in 1297 as holding lands in that county to 
the amount of £20 yearly : and in 1301 summoned for military 
service against the Scots. 


Richard le Bret,=j=Eva 

" de Pychchecumbe." 


Walter le Bret=j=Nicholla, daur. of Sir William 
Maunsel, of Lypiatt Manor. 1 

John de Caillewe, 
— I " nephew of Walter 

Thomas " cle Holecombe "=Alice. Juliana, le Bret." living 1329. 

or " le Bret " 
(dead in 1311, v. No, 368) 

These charters also furnish an interesting example of the 
origin of the surname " Benet," namely from " Benedict," com- 
pare No. 358-60 with No. 361. 


Carta Piici le Bres de Vijclienecumhe. 335, fol. 141. 

Rich, le Bres (Bret), of Pychenecumbe, grants to Walter his son, 
and Nicholla his wife, all the tenement which he has in 
Pychenecumbe with its appurtenances, for 60 marcs, which he 
has received of the lord William Maunsel, father of Nicholla, 
as her marriage portion, for ever, rendering due service to 
him and his heirs and one rose yearly at the Feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist. Witnesses : Thomas de 
Rodeberwe, John Achord and others. 

1 Cf. Inq. p. m. 18th Edw. II. No. William Maunsell, Lupeyate 

Maner' Extent' Byssleye un' Vivarium, 6 acr' terr' 3 acr' bosci'. 

Rudge states (Vol. I., p. 327) that Upper Lypatt was held of the Honour 
of Hereford, and anciently by the Maunsells until 19th Richard II., then for 
several generations by the family of Wye, whom Leland mentions as residing 
there : afterwards, James I., held by the Throgmortons. 

"Pychenecombe." 145 

Cheirograph'. Walt le Bret. 336, fol. 
Walter le Bret, son of Rich, le Bret, of Pychenecumbe, with the 
consent of Nicholla his wife, grants to Robt. le Knyte, Agnes 
his wife, and John and Walter their sons, Two Messuages 
and Two Curtilages, with one garden and its appurtenances 
in Pychenecumbe, of which Eva le Bret held in dower One 
Messuage and One Curtilage, which John Segrim 1 had, and 
Two acres of arable land in the same ville with appurten- 
ances, of which one acre extends from the land of John Dru 
as far as the said Garden, one Acre lies below Ballvynes- 
brynk, and the other in Barlichforlange, adjoining the land 
of Matilda Baunse. To be held at an annual rent of Six- 
pence at the Feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist ; 
for which Robert and Agnes have given him twenty-five 

In testimony of which to the present writing in two portions, 

we have affixed our seals. Witnesses: Roger de Ai , 

W 1U de Redin, John de Rodeberwe and others. 

Carta Walt, de Bret ad Wm. Ythenard. 337, fol. 
Walter le Bret, of Pychenecumbe, grants to William Ythenard 
and Emma his wife, all his croft adjoining that of Matilda 
ate Henefeld for half a mark of silver which they have paid 
to him. This croft, with all appurtenances they may give, 
devise, sell, or assign at their will, rendering to him and 
his heirs Two shillings yearly ; and vj B iv a at the Feast of 
Saint Andrew ; vj 8 iv d at the Feast of the Annunciation : 
yj s iv d at the Feast of Saint John the Baptist, for all services. 
The said William and Emma to have their plough cattle with 
twenty sheep, in the common pasture. 

Witnesses : Sir Roger le Rus, Knight,- Henry Ythenard, 
and others. 
1 " Segrim," an old Saxon name, still survives as a designation of houses 
in the adjoining Parish of Painswick. John and Alice Segrym paid subsidy 
there in 1327 (1st Edw. III.) 

- The date of this cannot be later than 1294 (22nd Edward I.), in which 
year Sir Roger le Rous, lord of Harescombe, died, 

Vol. XIV. l 

146 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Walter le Bret of Pychenecumbe grants to William de Baloun, for 
twenty shillings silver, Two shillings of annual rent issuing 
from a certain tenement which William Ythenard and Emma 
his wife hold of him for the term of their life. 

Witnesses : Adam Spylemon, Stephen Massyndon and others. 


Walter le Bret gives to John de Yaneworth for his services all 
his wood which lies between the road which leads to Wayn- 
swey on the north and Stoneywey on the south, and which 
extends to Middlewey on the east, and the way which is 
called Portwey on the west ; to hold to the said John during 
life, to cut as he will, to sell or give, without waste, rendering 
One Rose at the Feast of the Nativity of St. John the 
Baptist, for all services and secular demands. 

Witnesses : Simon de Fromylode, Roger de Ravenhulle, and 
others. Given at Pychenecumbe on the Feast of St. Clement 
the Martyr, in the 25th year of King Edward, son of Henry 
King of England [1297]. 


Walter le Bret grants to William de Balon (de Baloniis), for 
twenty five marcs, all that his land lying between Culture- 
hulle and Godschalneswelle in breadth, with the pasture, and 
Edytedich, and the Pasture which is called Oxeleswe with 
appurtenances ; and the whole land lying between Pypares- 
croft and the said pasture in length, and Holdesichwere and 
Maynardesendyng in breadth, and all that toft between 
Catweye and Schynngeswey, and between Portwey, .... 
and Four Groves, which are called Odgrove. 

Witnesses : John de Gloucester, Adam Spylemon, and others. 
Given at Pychenecumbe, on the morrow of Saint Laurence 
the Martyr, in the 29th year of King Edward, son of King 
Henry (1301). 

1 ' Pychenecumbe. " 1 47 


Walter le Bret grants to William de Baloun, for one hundred 

shillings, which he has received of him, One Messuage with 

curtilage and appurtenances, and all the land which Thomas 

de Holecumbe his son formerly held in Pychenecumbe, to 

have and to hold of the chief lords of that fee by due service 

and in manner accustomed (Sealed). 

Witnesses : Adam the Chaplain, Stephen de Masynton de 

Pychenecumbe, Tuesday next after the Feast of Easter, 20th 

Edw. I. (1302). 


Walter le Bret grants to William de Baloun, his heirs and assigns 

for ever, all that pasture called Combe lying between le 

Wingforlong and Godeshallewelle with the pasture called 

Oxeleswe, for which concession he has received One hundred 


Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Thomas de Rodeberwe, &c, 

Pychenecumbe, Thursday next before the Feast of St. John 

the Baptist (1302). 


Walter le Bret de Pychenecumbe gives to William de Baloun, 
for Twelve pounds sterling all his land lying in Piparescrofte, 
and between his Garden and a certain place called Fiswere, 
and all his land in the field called Combe between Colishulle 

and Taylesoline in breadth and between and Bitesiche 

in length, with hedges and appurtenances. 
Witnesses : Will, de Piddesmore, Nich. de Seymour, <fcc , 
Pychenecumbe, Monday next before the Feast of the An- 
nunciation of B.V.M., 30 Edw. I. (1302). 

William de Baloun " de Algriniton " l has remitted and quit- 
claimed to Gilbert de Masynton, for one hundred shillings 
Silver, all his right in his lands and tenements in Pychene- 
cumbe with all appurtenances, and Two shillings of annual 
rent issuing from the tenement which William Ythenard and 
Emma his wife hold in Pychenecumbe for the term of their 
lives, with the reversion of the same. 
1 Algriniton, now Alkerton, in the parish of Eastington. 

148 Transactions kor the Year 1S89-90. 

Witnesses : Stephen de Masynton, Rich, de Baloun, &c. 
Dated Gloucester, on Tuesday the morrow of the Feast of 
St. John "ante Portam Latinam " in 31st year of King 
Edward, son of King Henry (1303). 

Walter le Bret gives to John " dicto de Stanedis," for Twenty 
marcs Silver, all his Toft lying between Stonewey and the 
stream called Pychenescombesbroc, and between Middleweye 
and the land of Hamon " atte Guelde," with all the pasture 
adjacent, and appurtenances : also, the arable land stretching 
from Pychenescombeshevede to Pychenescombesyate between 
the said toft and the brook, with all that pasture called the 
Moor, and all that land extending to the said stream and 
lying between Longeleys, Nether End, and a certain tree 
called " La Mapele," 1 in the field called Pichenecombesfeld 
and "culturam meam," with all appurtenances in the field 
called Brintesbarlichsforlong. 

Witnesses : Roger de Ravenhulle, Steph de Masynton, God- 
frey de Stonehouse, &c. 

Given at Pychenecumbe in the Octave of St. Mathew the 
Apostle, 25th year Edw. I. (1297). 

Walter le Bret confirms to John de Stanedis, Clerk, for Twelve 
pounds Silver all his land lying in the field called Geuelde 
with a meadow adjacent, and a Grove called Medesweyne, 
with all appurtenances. 

Given at Pychenecumbe on the Morrow of the Beheading of 
St. John Baptist in the 25th year of King Edward the son 
of King Henry (1297). 

Walter de Bret gives to John called " de Stanedis " Clerk, 
for Ten marcs Silver, all his land lying between Pychenes- 
combeshevede and Pychenescombesyate in length, and the 

1 Subsidy Roll, 1327, "John atte Mapele" vj d , Minchinhampton. Also 
iu Hants, " Mapuldur-ham " = the ham at the Maple Tree. —Trans. Bristol 
and Glouc. Arch. Soc, Vol. VIII., p. 50. 

"pYCHEKEtJMBE." 149 

stream called Pychenescombesbroc in breadth, -with portions 
extending above the said stream and with the Moors, pasture, 
itc., and all his Toft between Portwey, Middelweye in length, 
and the way called Waynwey and the way leading to Pagen- 
hulle in breadth for ever, rendering thence the capital rent 
to the lords of fee with all services and secular demands. 
Witnesses : Stephen de Masynton, Henr.Ydenard and others. 

Walter le Bret grants to John de Stanedis, for £10 Silver paid to 
him, all his land lying in the field of Pychenecombe between 
the messuage of John atte Guelde and the place called 
Witnesses: Roger de Ravenhulle, Godfrey de Stonehouse, &c. 

The same gives to John called "de Stanedis" Cleric, for one 
hundred shillings Silver, " cameram meam ultra portam 
meam orientalem et stabulum meum juxta p'dictam portam," 
also two granges in the Court, all his pasture between 
the gate aforesaid and Taylesthine in length and the said 
Granges and the way called Ampheysweye in width with a 
garden in the same pasture, also free pasture with all his 
cattle in the field called Combe and in Oxeleswe, and in the 
Toft wherever his plough cattle may happen to be, with free 
ingress and egress as regards all pastures, stable, granges, 
court, &c. 

Witness : Adam Spylemon, Roger de Ravenhulle, Steph. de 
Masynton and others. (No date.) 

The same quitclaims to. John de Stanedis all his right in land 
lying near Pitchcoinbes' Head and Pitcheombes' Gate, and 
between the Toft and Brook ; and the Toft between Portwey, 
Middleweye, Waynweye, and the toft of Pagenhulle, with all 

Witnesses : Steph. de Masynton, Henry Ythcnarcl. 
Given at Stanedis, Feast of St, Andrew, 30 Edw, 1. (1302), 

150 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 


The same grants to John cle Stanedis for One hundred shillings 
silver all his wood between Schiringesweye and Maynardes 
Grove in breadth and between La Romidegne and a certain 
place called Leodo in length, and also all his wood between 
Catweye and Tayleseline in breadth, and the Stonewey and 
field called Combe. 

Witnesses : Stephen de Masynton, Will de Pyddesmore, &c, 
Pychenecumbe, Wednesday next before Feast of SS. Peter 
and Paul, 30 Edw. I. (1302). 

Walter le Bret gives to John de Stanedis for one hundred shil- 
lings silver all his wood between Massieshale and the Well 
called Godeshalneswelle, and the way called Portwey, and a 
certain place called Otegrove in breadth, extending in length 
from the said Well as far as a certain way called Schirenges- 
weye and the said Wood. 
Witnesses : Roger de Ravenhulle, Godfrey de Stonehouse, &c. 

Walter le Bret de Pychenecumbe grants to John called 'de Stane- 
dis,' clerk, for £10 Silver all his land lying between Godeshal- 
neswelle and Blakewell in breadth, and between Editedich and 

Oxeleswe in length with and all appurtenances : And 

all his land lying between Piparescrofte and the aforesaid 
pasture in length and Okie fischwere and Maynardestudyns in 
breadth, and also all the wood between Catweye and Schiring- 
esweye in length, and Portwey and the field called Combe in 
breadth with all appurtenances, And Four Groves called Od- 
Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Roger de Ravenhulle and others. 

Walter le Bret gives to same for £10 Silver his land lying in the 

field called Combe between and Blakewelle in 

breadth, and Barlichforlong and Okie Fischeswere, in length, 
with pasture and all appurtenances : And, all his Arable land 

" Pychenecumbe." 151 

lying between Oxeleswe pasture and Waynweye near Godes- 
halneswelle, and all his wood between Catweye and Taylesoline. 
Witnesses : Roger de Ravenhulle, Stephen de Masynton. 

355 (ii.) 
Walter le Bret de Pychenecombe remits and quitclaims for self 
and heirs all right in lands and tenements with appurtenances 
in Pychenecumbe in which John de Stanedis by divers char- 
ters has been enfeoffed. 

Witnesses : Will, de Clifford, Stephen de Masynton and others. 
Pychenecumbe, Friday next before the Feast of Easter, 33 

Edw. I. (1305.) 


John de Stanedis remits and quitclaims to Gilbert de Masynton 

all the right which he had in all lands and tenements with 

woods meadows pastures and appurtenances in Pychenecumbe 

by the grant of Walter le Bret by means of various conditional 


Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Stephen de Masynton and others. 

Dated on the Lord's Day in the Octave of the Holy Trinity, 

31 Edw. son of King Henry (1303). 

John de Stanedis cleric remits and quitclaims to the lord John 
Abbot and the Convent of St. Peter, Gloucester, and their 
successors, all his right in lands tenements &c. in Pychene- 

Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Stephen de Masynton. Dated 
on the Morrow of the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 

31 Edw. 1. (1303.) 


Walter le Brut (sic) and Nicholla his wife grant to Benedict 

de Holtleye and his heirs for £3 of lawful money Six acres of 

land with appurtenances, viz. three acres lying " in the field 

called Pychenecumbe " and three acres called Guelde. To hold 

of the said Walter and his heirs, rendering to the said Walter 

and Nicholla and their heirs, One Rose at the Feast of the 

Nativity of St. John Baptist, and that rose at the house of the 

said Benedict. 

152 Transactions for thj; Year 1889-90. 

Witnesses : Henry Ythenard, Will Will, de Pyddes- 

more and others. 

Walter de Brut and Nicholla his wife grant to Benedict de Holt- 
leye and his heirs, for Four Marcs of lawful money paid to 
them, Four Acres in Pychenecumbe Field near Gueldesacre 
extending to Pychenecumbe Broc, and Two Acres and a half 
in the Field called Gueld with all appurtenances between the 
Mill and Onesdescrofte, rendering One Rose (as above.) 

Witnesses: Ythenard (sic) Will. Hind, Will, de 8a e, 

and others. 


Agreement made between Walter le Bret and Nicholla his wife 
of the first part, and Benedict de Holtleye of the second 
part : Walter and Nicholla confirm to Benedict for Eight 
mai*cs of lawful money Ten acres Arable mentioned in 
Charter and Feoffment formerly given for Sixty shillings 
[No. 358], and for Four Acres, four marcs, and Ten acres 
Eight marcs and a half, tfcc. , &c. 
Witnesses : Henry Ythenard, William Hind, and others. 

William Benet son and heir of Benedict de Holtleye remits and 
quitclaims to Gilbert Masynton and his heirs all his right 
in lands &c. in Pychenecumbe. 

Witnesses : Adam Spileman, Steph. de Masynton, etc. 
Dated Feast of St. Barnabas Apostle 31 Edw. 1. (1303). 

The same remits and quitclaims to the Abbot and Convent of 
Gloucester and their successors, his right in lands and tene- 
ments in Pychenecumbe. 

Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Steph. de Masynton and many 
others. In Octave of St. Barnabas Ap. 31 Edw. I. 

Juliana, daughter of Walter le Bret, of Pychenecumbe, remits 
and quitclaims to John [Carnage] Abbot of the Convent of 


St. Peter of Gloucester &c. for one hundred shillings silver 

paid to her, all her right ifcc. in lands and tenements which 

the said Walter her father had in villd de Ptjchenecumbe. 


Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Ralph Baron, Roger de Raven- 

hulle and others. 


Juliana daughter of Walter " called le Bret de Pychenecumbc " 
quitclaims to John the Abbot and the Convent &c. for one 
hundred shillings Silver all her right in lands which her 
father had in Pychenecunibe. 

Witnesses : Thomas de Rodberwe, Roger de Aldewykc. 
Standish, the Lord's Day in the Vigil of the Epiphany of Our 
Lord, A Edw. 32 (1304). 


Walter le Bret gives to Thomas de Holcombe his son for his 
service, and for Five marcs, a Messuage with Curtilage which 
Robt Hynder formerly held of his ancestors in Pychenecumbc. 
Has given to the said Thomas all his land in Bishopesendyng 
extending from " la prestres acre " [Query, the Priest's acre] l 
to the curtilage ; and Two acres Arable lying outside Pipares- 
fiche, and Two acres and a half, one of which lies in Esclcle 
under Balldynesbrynk, and the other at Pychenecumbc 
under Braddegrove and is called Shiplondheved. 

Witnesses : John le Rous, Adam Spilemon and others. 


Thomas le Bret quitclaims to John called " de Stanedis " cleric, 
for Sixty shillings silver sterling, all the right that he has in 
a messuage of the gift of his father, and in land " in the field 
of Byshopesendyng," Pychenecumbe's felde and Efelde &c. 

Witnesses : Steph. de Masynton, Wm. de Pyddesmore. 

1 Probably a portion of the ancient Glebe belonging to the Church of 
Pitchcombe, lying near the field called Lower Witcombe, behind the Great 
House ; and lately exchanged for other land (1878). 

154 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 


Thomas le Bret son of Walter le Bret grants to John de Stanedis, 
for Sixty shillings sterling, one messuage &c. and lands as 
above (" Gefelde " for " Efelde.") 

Witnesses : Walter le Bret, Steph. de Masynton, Will, de 
Pyddesmore and others. 


Alicia " who was the wife of Thos. le Bret " in pure and lawful 
widowhood and power remits and quitclaims to John [Thoky] 
by Divine Permission, Abbot of St. Peter's Gloucester and 
the Convent of the same and their successors for Twenty 
shillings Silver, all her right, by reason of dower, in lands in 
Pychenecumbe formerly appertaining to Thomas le Bret her 

Witnesses : Will, de Clifford, Steph. de Masynton and others. 
Given at Standish on the Saturday next before the Feast of 
the Conversion of St. Paul, in the fourth year of Edward, son 
of King Edward [1311], 

John de Caillewe quitclaims to " the religious men " and the 
Convent of St Peter Gloucester his right in all those lands 
and tenements which Walter le Bret his uncle formerly held 
in Pychenecumbe, — Messuages, Gardens, lands arable, pas- 
tures, meadows, <kc. 

Witnesses : Will, de Brokeworth, Henry de Brokeworth and 

Stanedis, Monday next after the Feast of St. Dionysius the 
Martyr, 2 Edw. III. (1329). 

William le Brut (sic) acknowledges himself indebted to John of 
Yaneworth, Cleric, by a letter of obligation given the 23rd 
year of King Edward soil of King Henry, for Fifteen pounds 
Silver to be paid at a certain term to the said John, as 
Attorney for the Church of Stanedis : rendering at the Feast 
of St. Martin, Two quarters Wheat, Four quarters Beans, 
Four quarters Barley, Two quarters Oats ; and at the Feast 


of St. Michael, Six oxen of the value of 40s. or 40s. — and at 
the Feast of the Annunciation B.M.V. Six oxen of the 
value of 60s., or 60s., &c, &c. 

Walter le Bret is indebted to John Stanedis in the sum of £10 
sterling, as appears by the acknowledgment of the said Walter 
made at Bristol before the judges of the Lord the King in 
24 Edward I. To be paid by instalments : viz., 40s. at the 
Manor of Stanedis at the Feast of the Annunciation, 40s. at 
Feast of the Nativity of St. John &c. 


Octave of St, Matthew the Apostle 25 Edw. I. Walter le Bret 
acknowledges £20 received from John de Stanedis on security 
of lands, woods, &c. £10 to be repaid on Feast of St. Michael, 
and the balance within a fortnight after the said Feast. 
Dated at Pychenecumbe, the eve of the Nativity of B.M.V. 


Walter le Brut has granted to John de Stanedis for £10 certain 

lands in Colnurhulle and Godeshalneswelle (in margin, 

Oxeleswe and Piparesfiche). 

Pychenecumbe, Tuesday, Vigil of Purification, 27 Edw. I. 



Walter le Brut having granted to John de Stanedis lands lying 

between Colnurhulle and Blakewelle in Pychenecumbe Field 

with pastures <kc. and Arable land between the pasture called 

Oxeleswe and Waynway near Godeshalneswelle and also 

woods between Catweye and Taylesclyve ; John de Stanedis 

of his special grace concedes that if said Walter on the Day 

of the Assumption of B.M.V. or next after completion 

of these presents, pay to him or his heirs in the Cemetery of 

St. Nicholas of Standish, Twelve marcs sterling, all the 

said tenements shall remain to the use of the said Walter &c. 

Pychenecumbe, Monday next before the Feast of St. George. 

28 Edw. [1300]. 

156 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

William de Baloun " de Algerinthon " quitclaims to the Abbot <kc. 
all right in lands tenements &c. formerly held by him in the 
said Ville. 

Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Steph. de Masynton. Octave 
of SS. Peter and Paul Ap. 31 Edw. I. [1303]. 


Walter le Bret appoints John called 'de Stanedis' his attorney to 

give seisin of all lands ifcc. which he formerly held in Pychene- 

cumbe to Gilbert de Masynton. Gloucester, Feast of St. 

31 Edw. 


Same grants to Gilbert de Masynton for £50 silver all his land 

lying in the Field called Combe and between Combesbrok and 

Maynardesendyng and Byshopesrudyng, and Wood between 

Schiringesweye and Catweye in length and Pomvey and 

"Combe" in breadth; four groves called Odgroves, and 

Oxeleswe pasture, with appurtenances ; Also a messuage 

with curtilage, and all the land which Thomas his son 

formerly held, and two shillings of rent issuing from the 

tenement which Wm. Ythenard and Emma his wife held for 

the term of their life, with reversion of same. 

Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Thomas de Rodeberwe and 

others. Pychenecumbe, Friday, the morrow of the Feast of 

St. Luke the Evangelist 30 Edw. I. 

Walter le Bret grants to Gilbert de Masynton for 100s. silver all 
his lands and tenements in Pychenecumbe with all appur- 
tances saving his Manse (Manor House) and his garden. 
Witnesses : Wm. de Clifford, Steph. de Masynton. Pychene- 
cumbe, Wednesday next befurc the Feast of St. George the 

Martyr 31 Edw. 1. 


The same quitclaims to same all lands &c. 

Witnesses : Wm. de Clifford, Steph. de Masynton. Pychene- 
cumbe Friday next before the Feast of Easter 31 Edw. 1. 

"Pychenecumbe." 157 

Walter le Bret grants to Gilbert cle Masynton his messuage and 
garden in Pychenecumbe and all other tenements which 
remained to him in the same ville at the completion of these 

Witnesses : Adam Spilemon, Steph. de Masynton. 
Dated Monday the morrow after the Feast of the Holy 



Agreement by John, Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, for one 
marc silvei', to be paid at Feasts of the Annunciation and 
St. Michael, in commutation of services due in connexion 
with Tenement at Pychenecumbe which Richard le Bret and 
his ancestors held of the said Monastery : Esquieriam nomine 
serjancii, viz., cum aliqids monachns cccVie n're j)ro negotiis... 
cum uno runcino, &C." 1 

Witnesses : Sir Henry de Cheveringworth, Adam Mastel, 
Knights, Rich, de Oompton, Clerk, and many others. 


John cle Elbeston, on the Feast of St. Luke Evang. 16 Edw. II. 
in the presence of Abbot John, John de Staunton, John de 
Boteler, Wm. de Brocworth. Hen. de Basyng, John de Stan- 
dish and others, received from Sir William cle Abbehale, 
Almoner of St. Peter's, Four Charters and two quitclaims of 
the muniments of Pychenecumbe, with the Charter of the 
lord the King concerning the said Tenements. Gloucester. 


King's Writ addressed to Sheriff of Gloucestershire to make 
Inquisition if it would be to the injury of the King to grant 
permission to Gilbert cle Masynton to assign a Messuage and 
Carucate of land with appurtenances in Pychenecumbe to 
the Abbot and Convent of St. Peter's, Gloucester. 31 Edw. 

1 When lands were held by this service, the tenant was required to find 
a squire and horse to follow any monk dispatched on the business of the 
monastery on his journey, to serve him and to carry upon his own horse the 
furniture of the monk's bed, also a book, cresset, candles, two loaves, and 
half a sextary of wine^or beer.— Hist, et Cart. Mon. St. Peter, Gloitc., Vol. III. 
p. civ. 



Inquisition taken at Gloucester on the Sunday next before the 
Feast of St. Valentine 31 Edw., before Thomas de Gardinis, 
Sheriff of Gloucester, Robert Mort de freyt, Robert de Suclley 
and others, who say that it would not be to the King's 
prejudice to permit Gilbert de Masynton to assign the said 
Messuage and Carucate to the said Abbot and Convent : that 
the messuage is held of the abbot by a rent of 17s. 4d. 
and suit at the Court every three weeks : that there remain 
to the said Gilbert (besides this assignment) lands and tene- 
ments to do custom and service and to meet other charges, 
as in suits, vigils, views, views of frankpledge, talliages, fines, 
redemptions, amerciaments and whatsoever other charges had 
to be sustained : and that the said Gilbert may be put on 
assize and juries, as before he has been put and that the land 
shall not be aggrieved more than has been usual. 

Another inquisition taken at Gloucester on Sunday Nov 25, 
Feast of St. Katharine, finds that Walter le Bret holds in 
the ville of Pychenecumbe a Carucate of land of the Abbot — 
a Messuage with garden, worth yearly xii d ; in demesne 80 
acres arable, each acre worth four pence by the year, sum 
26 s 8 d ; a certain pasture in severalty, xij d : eight acres 
Wood, iij d , sum 2 s : Total of Extent, xxx s viij d . For which 
the said Walter renders xvij s iij d to the Abbot : and that it 
will not be to the prejudice of the lord the King to permit 
Walter le Bret to give and assign the said lands and tene- 
ments to the Abbot and his successors. 


License of King Edward for Grant of Messuage and Carucate to 
Abbot and Convent. Mch. 18 31 Edw. I. 
In the same year " Originalia Roll" states that the Abbot 
of St Peter's Gloucester made a fine with the King in a 
hundred shillings for permission to enter on a lay tenement 
in Pychenecumbe. 

" Pychenecumbe." 159 

Gilbert de Masynton grants to the Church of St Peter Gloucester, 
and to the monks there serving God, in pure and perpetual 
Alms for the augmentation of the Almery of " Stanedis," One 
Messuage and one Carucate of land, with meadows, woods, 
grazings, pastures, ways, paths, fisheries, and all other appur- 
tenances, which he has in Pychenecumbe, Also One Messuage 
with Curtilage, and all land and appurtenances which Thomas 
son of Walter le Bruht formerly held in Pychenecumbe and 
Two shillings and sixpence, rent issuing out of the tenements 
of Will. Ythenard and Robt le Knyght in the same ville, 
with the reversion of the same. 

Witnesses : Wm. de Clifford, Adam Spilmon, Steph. de 
Masynton and others. 

Given on the Day of the Nativity of St. John Baptist 31 
Edward, son of King Henry [1303]. 

The Same for self and heirs quitclaims to Abbot &c. all right 
which he has in any way in lands etc. in Pychenecumbe. 
Witnesses : Wm. de Clifford, Steph. de Masynton. 
Octave of S. J. Baptist 31 Edw. I. [1301]. 


Gilbert de Masynton has given to God and the Church of St. 
Peter, Gloucester and the monks there serving God, for the 
augmentation of the Almonry of Standish, a Messuage and 
Carucate ; and a Messuage with Curtilage, late of Thomas le 
Bret son of Walter — and 2s. 6d. rent &c. as before ; Also 
Ten acres land which William Benet son of Benedict de 
Holtleye formerley held in the said Ville. 
Witnesses : Will, de Clifford, Adam Spilmon, Steph. de 


John [de Gamage] Abbot of St Peter's Gloucester appoints Philip 
de Longford, Cleric, his Attorney, to receive seisin of land 

160 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

and tenements which Gilbert de Masynton has given to the 
Abbey in pure and perpetual Alms in Pychenecumbe. 

Dated Gloucester, Thursday next before Feast of St. Bar- 
nabas the Apostle A 31 Edw. 

Walter le Bruht (sic) quitclaims to Abbot and Convent of Glou- 
cester and successors, in Augmentation of the Almonry of 
"Stanedis," all the right he had in the ville of Pychene- 
cumbe in One Messuage, One Carucate of land, one hundred 
acres Wood, with appurtenances ; for which quitclaim &c. 
the Abbot and Convent have given him £40 silver. 
Witnesses : Will, de Gardinis, Adam Spilmon, Ralph Baron. 
Dated on the day of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 31 Edw. 



" Scriptum Walteri le Brut ad Abbatem." 

[translation in full.] 

" I, Walter called le Bruht of Pychenecumbe have received of 
John [de Gamage] Abbot of Saint Peter Gloucester and 
the Convent of the same place, by the hands of brother Roger 
de Tewesdebuiy, Almoner of Standish, Twenty seven marcs 
Silver for all contracts remissions etc. made to the said Abbot 
and to Gilbert de Masynton concerning lands and tenements 
at Pychenecumbe : I have also received from the said Abbot, 
through brother Roger, Fifty shillings Silver for wrought 
stone sold to the said Abbot & Convent at Pychenecumbe, 
and for all moveables found there on Saturday in the Vigil 
of the Holy Trinity, Anno Edw. 31. [1303]. 
Witnesses, Roger de Aldewyke, Adam Spilmon, W in de 
Clifford it others. 

Dated at Payneswyk, on the Lord's Day next after the Feast 
of St Valerian the Martyr. 

" Finis Cartarum de Pychenecumbe." 

(Registrum B. 

Froucest' Abb ti8 ) 

"Pychbnecdmbe." 161 

As to the subsequent history of these lands we have but little 
information. However, in the Register of Abbot Braunch, 16th 
Henry VII. (1501) 4th January, 1 we find a lease of the Abbey's 
Manor de la Pychenecumbe, " with all buildings, lands, meadows, 
pastures, and part of the Demesne, together with Tythes and all 
and singular the rights thereto appertaining, (lately -held by 
Richard Gardyner) granted to William Gardiner senior, William 
Gardiner his son, Agnes his Avife, and John Gardyner brother of 
William Gardyner senior, for the term of Seventy years or so 
long as all or any one of them shall live, — rendering thence to the 
Abbot and Convent by the hands of the Almoner for the time 
being, 64s. 4d. per annum, at the four feasts : of the Annunciation 
of the B.V. M. ; Nativity of St. John Baptist ; St. Michael ; and 
the Nativity of our Lord, in equal portions : with suit of Court at 
Standyshe, and payment to the lord of Payneswik of all due and 
accustomed rents : housebote and heybote at the discretion of the 
woodward : Heriot, the best beast or one marc silver, at the option 
of the Almoner." 

In Abbot Parker's Register, Vol. II., 2 we also find grants of 
the Reversion of the site of the Manor of Pychenecumbe, viz : 
to Robert Wye, in 152f> and to Richard Gardiner, in 1531, the 
manor at that date being in the tenure of William Gardiner father 
of the said Richard. 

Some of these lands, being parcel of the possessions of the late 
Monastery of St. Peter, Gloucester, and lately in the tenure of 
William Gardiner and others, were granted by Letters Patent, 
dated 15th July, 35th Henry VIII. (1544) to Richard Andrews 
and Nicholas Temple, their heirs and assigns, and the heirs of the 
said Richard Andrews for ever, rendering at the Feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel viij d . Also " the scite and Capital Mes- 
suage of the Manor of Pichenecumbe, lately in the hands of the 
Monastery of St. Peter, and in the tenure of William Gardiner 
senior, Johanna his wife, and William and John Gardiner sons of 
the said William," with Pychenecombe Wood, containing by 
estimation 47 acres, and certain Tythes — to be held in capite by 
the service of the 20th part of one knight's fee, rendering yearly 
at the Feast of St. Michael, 6s. 5|d. 
1 Keg. Braunch, fol. 5 - No. 86. 

Vol. XIV. it 

162 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

By the Standish Tythe Apportionment dated Nov. 21st, 1839, 
John Page, gent., is named as the Impi-opriator of the Tithes of 
Corn, Grain and Hay, which are thereby commuted at £54 10s.; 
but an amended award in 1844 declares that "it has been repre- 
sented to the Tithe Commissioners that John Page is erroneously 
stated in the Original Award to be Impropriator of Tithe of Corn, 
Grain and Hay accruing upon all lands in the third Schedule 
(Oxlinch Tything) whereas in fact, 69 acs. and 3 perches situate in 
the Manor of Pitchcombe, and well known by metes and bounds, 
are by prescription and other lawful means, exempt from the render 
of all tythes; and, as to the remaining 157 acs. 3 r. 37 p. John 
Page is Impropriator not only of tythe of corn, grain, and hay, 
but of all tythes whatsoever. Of this, 88 acres or thereabouts, 
consisted of woodland ; and the whole tythe was commuted at 
: gl3 6s. 6d. 

Skeletons were discovered a few years ago in the neighbour- 
hood of " the Manor Farm House ; " and an old fishpond, paved 
with stone, perhaps " Okie Fischwere," (see No. 354) was filled 
up previously to 1874. The inhabitants of this portion of Standish 
have for many centuries been dependent upon Pitchcombe for 
their religious privileges, by reason of distance from their own 
parish church. 

Under the " Divided Parishes Act," these lands have become 
part of the civil parish of Pitchcombe; though in an ecclesiastical 
point of view, they nominally remain subject to the jurisdiction 
of the vicar of Standish. 

It is a remarkable fact, and one which, so far, we are not able 
to explain — that whilst the Rectory of Standish, with the great 
tythe, formed a portion of the endowment of the new Bishopric 
of Gloucester, the tythes from certain lands situated at Pitch- 
combe, and apparently as much in the possession of the Monastery 
of St. Peter, did not pass with the grant of the rest, but became 
an Impropriation, and thus lost of the church. 

In concluding these notes, we tender our thanks to the Very 
Rev. the Dean of Gloucester for the opportunity of making these 
Extracts from the Abbey Registers preserved in the Library. 


The Science of Arclueology and also the Church of which he was a greatly 
respected minister, have sustained a severe loss in the recent death of the 
Rev. Harry Mf.xgden Scarth, M.A., Rector of Wrington, Prebendary of 
Wells, and Rural Dean of Portishead, in the County of Somerset. Mr. 
Scarth was the son of Mr. Thomas Ereshfield Scarth, of Staindrop, co. 
Durham. He was born in 1814, and educated at the Edinburgh Academy, 
whence he passed to Christ's College, Cambridge, and took his B. A. degree in 
1837 and M.A. in 1840. In the same year he was ordained to the Curacy of 
Eaton Constantine, Salop. Here, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
famous Roman Station of Uriconium, he acquired a taste for Roman Archae- 
ology which never forsook him. He soon afterwards was appointed to the 
Perpetual Curacy of Kenley in the same diocese, but in 1841 he was pre- 
sented by the Duke of Cleveland to the Rectory of Bathwick cum Wooley, 
co. Som. , which benefice he held for thirty years. Here he had an oppor- 
tunity during his hours of recreation of pursuing his favourite study of 
Roman Remains. In 1S71 he was presented by the son of his previous 
patron to the more important benefice of Wrington in the same diocese. 
In 1848 he was made a Prebendary of Wells, and became Rural Dean of 
Portishead as stated above. 

Mr. Scarth was, what is called, a High-Churchman, and worked heartily 
with Archdeacon Denison in forming the Bristol Church Union, which was 
eventually absorbed in the English Church Union. He did not, however, 
we think, become a member of the latter body. Moreover, he was an active 
and zealous Parish Priest. His worth was recognised in the diocese, as 
shewn by his preferments, and his genial, quiet, modest, and unaffected 
manners caused him to be beloved and esteemed by all who knew him. 

Mr. Scarth was well known throughout Eng'and and on the Continent 
as an accomplished expert in Roman and Romano-British Remains. On 
this subject he was a frequent contributor to the Journal of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute from 1852 to the last year of his life ; also to the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society ; to the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society ; the Bath Field Club ; and our own Society, which 
he assisted to inaugurate, and was a member of the Council, and took a 
great interest in the progress and work of the Society from that time to the 
day of his death, especially in the excavation by Sir John Maclean of the 
Roman Villa at Tockington Park in 1S87 and 1888. 

The principal work which he published was " Aquae Solis ; or Notices of 
Roman Bath," which has been long out of print, and we are glad to hear 
that hopes are entertained of a new edition, for which Mr. Scarth had 
prepared notes, bringing the notices down to the date of the recent dis- 

At the request of the S.P.C.K. he wrote for their popular series a most 
interesting little book entitled "Roman Britain," which has given great 
satisfaction, and is often cited by eminent scholars. It has been stated that 
so thorough was his special knowledge of the subject that he was able to 
write this useful book off without being obliged to refer to authorities or 
make any special preparation. 

In 1842 Mi - . Scarth married Elizabeth S. Hamilton, daughter of the Rev. 
J. Leveson Hamilton, Rector of Ellenborough, co. Bucks, by Susan his wife, 
daughter of the Rev. Richard Woodward, Rector, of Glanworth, co. Cork, 
Ireland. His wife and four of his children pre-deceased him, and he was left 
a widower with three surviving daughters. His daughter Alice Centenari, 
the anchor of the "History of the 'Old Catholic' Movement," died at 
Wrington last year to his great grief. 

Mr. Scarth had been failing in health for a year or two, and sought 
rest and relaxation in the South of Europe. This last year, to escape an 
English winter, he, with his two daughters, went by sea to Tangiers, hoping 
the change might restore his health. He greatly enjoyed the sunshine and 
bracing air of the climate, and was much interested in the vestages of Roman 
occupation, as inscribed stones, coins, &c. , which he found there. In one 
of his letters from Tangiers he remarks: "Things, apparently, continue 
here much as they must have been left on the breaking up of the Roman 
Empire. The manners and customs of the people, and their dress and mode 
of conveyance remain the same." He took a chill, however, and suffered an 
attack of intermittant fever with conjestion of his lungs, which was too 
much for him in his feeble condition. He rallied a little, and no serious 
apprehensions were felt by Ins daughters until Holy Thursday, when he 
became worse, and quietly fell asleep on the morning of Easter Eve, 5th 
April, 1890, aged 76. His body was brought home and interred in his own 
churchyard at 'Wrington on the 21st of the same month. He will be greatly 

Notices of Recent Archaeological PtfBLlcATtoN& 165 

Notices of Recent JUchvcologiral ano |}istoviatl $ubliratiort0. 

DIOCESE OF SALISBURY. The Church Plate of the County of Dorset, 
with Extracts from the Returns of Church Goods by the Dorset Com- 
missioners of Edward VI., 1332. By J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A., Salisbury. 
Privately printed 1889. 

After centuries of neglect of Church Plate, during which of late years 
countless sets of Communion Vessels have been sold at the price of old silver, 
or exchanged for modern articles at the same rate, because the old pieces 
have been thought heavy and cumbrous, it is gratifying to find that Bishops 
and Archdeacons have risen to a higher sense of their duty as guardians of 
the goods of the church. In some dioceses and archdeaconries incumbents 
of churches have been required to transmit to the Bishops' Registry com- 
plete lists of all the Plate and other goods belonging to their respective 
churches. This is very satisfactory, as far as it goes, but very few clergy- 
men have given sufficient time and attention to the interesting study of 
Church Plate to attain that knowledge which would enable them to give an 
intelligible description of the Plate they possess. 

A few years ago (1SS4) the Rev. W. Lea, Archdeacon of Worcester, 
published a carefully made Inventory and Description of the Sacred Vessels 
in use in different churches in his Archdeaconry, and made a rule that all 
the plate belonging to the church should be produced before him on the 
occasions of his Visitations, and, compared with such Inventories. Arch- 
deacon Lea's work contains a detailed description of each piece, with 
diagrams shewing the forms of the most characteristic. Two years later the 
Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson, Hononary Canon of Canterbury, and Vicar of 
Throwley, reprinted from the Arcfueologia Cantiana the Church Plate of 
Kent (which, probably, he had himself contributed to that Periodical.) 
Many pieces are very well engraved in his work, but it is very sad to know 
that there is not now remaining a single Mediaeval Chalice in the whole 
County of Kent. The little volume issued in 18S6 was the first Part only. 
We do not know if a second Part has been issued. The description of the 
Church Plate of several other districts has been printed, we may say buried, 
in local Arclueological periodicals. It is to be regretted that these commu- 
nications have not been reprinted as was done by Canon Scott Robertson. 

It is very gratifying that the Bishop of Salisbury has taken the matter 
up as regards his own diocese, though limited, at present, to the Arch- 
deaconry of Dorset, which is conterminate with the County of Dorset, and 
we must congratulate his lordship upon having, in carrying out this under- 
taking, secured the invaluable assistance of so accomplished an expert as 
Mr. Nightingale. The modus operandi adopted is very interesting, both as 
a warning and an example, and may be stated in a few words. The first 
step taken was to issue, through the Rural Deans, printed forms of Returns 
to be filled up by the incumbent of each parish and transmitted to the 


Bishops' Registry, giving the special information required of all the Church 
Plate belonging to his parish. These Returns, Mr. Nightingale tells us, 
form the basis of the handsome volume before us ; but it is evident, as 
might be expected, that many of these Returns were of very little value, for 
they had to be supplemented by other Returns more skilfully made. A more 
or less competent gentleman was afterwards deputed to visit every church in 
each deanery, who, on the spot, described each piece submitted to him, and 
made such sketches, drawings and rubbings, &c, as seemed to be desirable, 
and these Returns, when digested, appear to us to have really formed the 
basis of the volume. Mr. Nightingale himself remarks that " when possible 
the shortest and most satisfactory way is to visit each parish, Cripps in 
hand, and note the details on the spot." 

Turning to the result of these enquiries, for we need not follow Mr. 
Nightingale through his valuable and interesting historical Introduction, it 
is very sad to rind that out of about 300 parish churches in the Archdeaconry, 
in each of which one Chalice, at least, was left for the use of the church in 
1552, when the churches were despoiled by the Protestant Reformers, three 
pieces only of pre-Reformation plate now remain. The question naturally 
arises : What has become of the others? This is a question not very difficult 
answer very briefly. During the reign of Edward VI. some of the ancient 
Chalices were, under the King's injunctions, converted into Communion Cups 
of a peculiar type, but on the accession of Queen Mary these cups were 
discarded, not being considered suitable for Divine Service. Some of them 
doubtless were again converted into Chalices. Edwardian Cups have become 
even more rare than the ancient Chalices. Not a single one now exists in 
Dorsetshire. On the accession of Quejn Elizabeth another raid was made on 
the ancient Chalices by the Protestant zealots. More especially, we regret to 
say, by the new Puritan Bishops, not by the Queen, and another style of 
cup of a special character, which we shall describe presently, was slowly 
introduced, chiefly between 1570 and 1580 instead of what were called 
Massing Chalices, and these cups prevailed everywhere. Mr. Nightingale 
says : " Speaking roughly, out of about 300 parishes, over 100 retain their 
Elizabethan Chalices ; the number possessing Communion Plate of the 17th 
century amounts to about seventy ; in the 18th century large additions of 
single pieces, as well as sets, were made to many parish churches ; while, as 
regards plate belonging to the current century, the greater part of which is 
of the present reign, some fifty parishes are found to have exchanged their 
old plate for new. 

Mr. Nightingale has very properly arranged the Returns under the 
respective Deaneries, but, in the remarks on the work which we are about 
to make, we propose to notice the most interesting pieces in chronological 
order, and in doing, this we shall follow, generally, Mr. Nightingale's des- 

Under this arrangement the first piece which claims our attention is 
the beautiful Chalice of Combe Keynes. This fine piece was exhibited 
by Mr. Nightingale at a Meeting of the Society of Antiquaries on the 16th 
June, 1887, and is engraved in the Proceedings of that Society. It has been 
well preserved and is in excellent condition. Its height is 6| ins.; diameter 
of bowl 4 ins.; depth 2ins.; narrowest part of the mullet-shaped base 3^ins.; 
widest part to the points of the knops 5| ins. The bowl is broad and conical ; 


Notices of Decent Arch.eological Publications. 


the somewhat slender stem is hexagonal and quite plain, with ogee moulded 
bands at the junctions. The knob is full sized, having six lobes spirally 
twisted with traceried openings, terminating in angels' heads, crowned. It 
has a mullet-shaped foot with plain broad-spread and vertically-reeded 
moulding. The points terminate with an elegant knop in the shape of a 
floriated Lombardic M. In the first compaitment of the base is the usual 
crucifix between flowering branches on a hatched ground. The parts gilt 
are the interior and outer lip of the bowl, the knob, the crucifixion, also 
the mouldings of the stem, the base and the knops. No hall marks are 
found, but the date, compared with other examples, is about 1500, perhaps 
earlier, certainly not much later. The weight is about 10 ozs. Mr. Night- 
ingale says : " This is no doubt the same Chalice found by the Commissioners 
of Edward VI. in 1552 and left for the future use of the parish. It falls 
under Fb of Messrs. St. John Hope's and Fallow's classification [Plate IX). 
This Chalice very much resembles in general character the Clifford example, 
though 15 years later, and somewhat smaller, (see ante p. 86 and Plate V.) 

The next earliest example of Mediaeval Plate in the County of Dorset is 
a Paten at Buckhorn Weston. "It measures 5 ins. in diameter, and varies 
from most others in having the second depression formed of hollow shell-like 
sexfoils. The foliated spandrels are somewhat coarsely engraved, as is also 
the sacred monogram in the centre, enclosed within a circle of spiral lines 

or cable. Inside the two lines of the outer rim of the Paten is a very slightly 
punched ornament. There are no hall marks, but the date aligned, to it i& 

16S Notices of Recent Archaeological Publication?. 

between 1510 and 1520. On the rim is either a maker's or a town mark. It 
consists of a circle, in which is a cross with a pellet between either limb, 
but without any shield or border. (Fig. S.J. 

The only other piece of pre- Reformation Plate in Dorsetshire is a Chalice 
at Sturminster Marshall. Unfortunately it is not now quite in its original 
state. The bowl and base are intact, but, at some early period, the old stem 
has been replaced by a plainer one. The present dimensions are, height 
6Jins., diameter of bowl 4Jrins. , depth of bowl 24ins., diameter of base 4§ins. 
and 4,1 ins. Both bowl and foot carry these hall-marks : viz., a Lombardic T 
for 1536, the leopard's head crowned, and the maker's mark T. W. in a shield. 
This maker's mark is also found on a Paten belonging to St. Edmund's 
Church, Salisbury, of the date of 1533. Mr. Nightingale observes that 
" these two pieces are remarkable in more ways than one ; they are the two 
latest dated examples of Church Plate at present knowu in England made 
just before the Eve of the Reformation. This maker's mark too is the 
earliest example of any maker using two letters of the alphabet for his name, 
instead of a symbol of some kind as his mark." The general form of the 
Chalice is shown on Plate X. "There can be no doubt," Mr. Nightingale 
says, " that the upper portion of the present stem, although old, does not 
form any part of the original work. The old stem was hexagonal. This is still 
indicated by the remains of some cresting with baluster-shaped buttresses 
round the upper part of the foot. When the present circular part of the 
stem was somewhat clumsily substituted for the older one, the details of the 
old work at the junction were nearly obliterated, but enough remains to 
shew that the pattern was pretty much the same as that found in a similar 
position in the Chalice of Wyle, Wilts, and Trinity College, Oxford," as 
shewn in Plate XI. These illustrations are drawn on different scales, both 
the Chalices are of the same size. In both the Trinity and the Wylye 
examples at each angle of the hexagon is a baluster-shaped ornament, 
between which is open battlemented arcading, and in the Sturminster case 
there are indications of the same, now destroyed. The new stem is ot the 
Elizabethan period, and Mr. Nightingale is of opinion that it is of local 
workmanship. On the front of the foot is engraved the crucifixion under 
an ogee arch, INRI over the cross, attendant figures of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. John, and a skull and bones. Mr. Nightingale says there are only 
four examples at present known of this particular type of chalice, and they 
vary very slightly. 

We have entered more fully into the description of the ancient Altar Plate 
than we should have done but for its extreme rarity and interest, and we 
shall now proceed to the time of Queen Elizabeth, during whose reign greater 
havoc was made (with the exception of the robberies of her father and brother) 
with the Church Plate than in any period of English history. Not that the 
Queen had any personal objection to chalices, but during the early part of 
her reign her position was very critical, and she was pressed forward by the 
extreme puritan Bishops and others. An Elizabethan cup is found at Buck- 
horn Weston (at which place there is a Mediaeval Paten as noticed above, 
Jitj. 8) as early as 1562, but this would seem to be an exceptional case. The 
progress of conversion did not proceed very rapidly. In 1567 Parker and 
Orindal issued injunctions requiring the disuse of Massing Chalices and the 
substitution of decent Communion Cups, but it was not until 1573 and 1574 . 




trrrw 9 

WYLYE, WILTS, 1525. 





Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 169 

that any general conversion took place. We know not if any further orders 
on the subject were issued, but about this time almost the whole of the 
ancient chalices were destroyed. The Patens fared better. 

It is very remarkable that all the cups now introduced were of the same 
type and ornamented in the same manner, and they were not limited to any 
particular diocese, or even province, but extended all over England. So 
close is the resemblance that it would seem as if some general order, both as 
regards shape and ornament, had been issued, but, notwithstanding the most 
diligent search has been made, no such order has been discovered. 

It seems to be scarcely necessary to describe these cups. Their character 
and ornamentation, with few exceptions, is clearly shewn in PL XII. They 
were all supplied with a cover which served as a Paten. 

We are told by Mr. Nightingale that, roughly speaking, out of about 
300 parishes in Dorsetshire over 100 retain their Elizabethan Chalices, and 
most of them retain their Paten Covers. Of these 71 bear either hall-mark 
date or have dates inscribed on them, which may be accepted as generally 
correct. There is a single cup as early as 1562, to which we have alluded 
above, in which year Archbishop Parker propounded various matters for the 
better regulation of the Church, amongst others an order for Chalices to be 
altered into Communion Cups, but these articles were not allowed. With one 
exception, Mr. Nightingale says, no other dated example of a Dorset Com- 
munion Cup is found until 1570. What other orders upon this subject were 
given, if any, are not known, but they would seem to have been very stringent, 
for, with two exceptions, all the hall-marked cups in Dorset fall between the 
years 1570 and 1574. The two excepted were not stamped until 1591. There 
is a speciality regarding the 32 other cups which are undated. These are all 
supposed to have been made by two local craftesmen, who used what arc 
called provincial or personal marks. The first of these is 40B& 

This mark is found on plate in 30 parishes. On cups with "^. &§&& * 
Paten Covers are 20 examples. On cups without covers xuiCr 

eight, and on Paten Covers without cups two. The majority of these pieces 
have an inscribed date, varying from 1573 to 157S, but about half of the 
examples are of the year 1574. They are distributed all over the county, 
but the greater number are in the southern part. They vary somewhat in 
size and in decoration, but as a rule they are pretty much the same as those 
bearing the London Assay mark. 

The second of these marks, of which an illustration is here given, is 
found on cups of a somewhat different type and style of ornamentation. 
(See Chalice and Paten from Gillingham (PL XIII) dated 1574.) It will 
be observed that instead of the usual knot on the stem, there is a rlan"e 
with cable moulding, and a plain band of intersecting strap-work engraved 
round the cup without foliation. In these respects they differ from the 
Conventional Elizabethan Cups. They bear some resemblance to the rare 
Edwardian Cups. These Elizabethan Cups are found in fourteen parishes, 
and in four others without the stamp, but as all, save one, correspond so 
exactly in details their number may be said to lie 18, With one exception 
these all occur in the northern portion of the county, that on the left bank 
of the river Stour. 

170 Notices of Recent Arch.eological Publication's. 

There is a remarkable 17th century cup at Wraxall. in the Deanery of 
Bridport, unlike any other we have ever seen. Mr. Nightingale describes 
it as if ins. in height, diameter of bowl 3| ins. diameter of base 3} ins. The 
hall-marks consists of a maker's mark twice repeated, the letters H. S. with 
a pellet above each letter and a mullet below, all are enclosed within a 
heart-shaped shield ; there is also the lion passant, and some indication of 
the leopard's head but no date letter. The shape of this cup differs from any 
other in the county. The bowl is straight, slanting a little outwards, the 
foot is circular, tapering upwards to the bowl almost to a point. The 
decoration of both the bowl and base consists of overlapping vertical bands 
alternating plain and granulated. Underneath the bowl is a ring of punched 
circles like daisies. It is made throughout with somewhat thin plate silver, 
all the ornamentation being worked on the surface, and without any mould- 
ings. A maker's mark with the same initials H.S., but with different 
details, is found in " Old English Plate" from 1615 to 1629. This may 
probably indicate about the period of its manufacture. {Plate XIV.) 

There is another remarkable cup with Paten Cover at Mosterton. 
Height of the cup 5J ins., with cover 7i ins. ; diameter of bowl '&% ins.; of 
base 31 ins. There are no marks of any kind, round the bowl is engraved 
" Thomas Sandford of Mosterton, Church Worden Anno Domini 1714." The 
ornamentation consists of a spiral fluting round the base of bowl, and 
double circles of gadroon moulding round the foot and cover. Although 
no hall-marks are found, there can be no doubt that the date of this interest- 
ing cup is about the period of the inscription. (Plate XV). 

From the end of the 16th century Church Plate became more debased 
and unecclesiastieal until the recent revival. Nevertheless, heavy clumsy 
and inartistic as it was during the last and early part of the present century, 
it exhibits the taste and church feeling of the Georgian age, and we trust 
it will be carefully preserved as shewing the growth of both during the 
Victorian era. 

GLEANINGS FROM OLD ST. PAUL'S. By W. Sparrow Simpson, 
D.D., F.S.A., Sub-Dean of St, Paul's Cathedral; one of the Chaplains of 
His G race the Archbishop of Canterbury, London: Elliott Stock, 1889, 
Those who are acquainted with Dr. Simpson's charming little volume, 
"Chapters in the History of old S, Paul's," will gladly welcome the gleanings 
which come after, and who is there so well qualified to gather them up as 
the learned Doctor, who for nearly the third of a century, has been a 
member of the cathedral boily and the librarian, and also is Sub-Dean. 
Notwithstanding the learned labours of Sir William Dugdale, Sir Henry 
Ellis, Archdeacon Hale and Dr, Simpson himself, who all have written upon 
the ancient edifice, there are doubtless many historical incidents, both inter- 
esting and instructive, to be gleaned after the harvest, and we are gratified 
that the present author can encourage us to hope that he will gather up for 
us yet another sheaf of gleanings. 

In his first chapter, Dr, Simpson treats of the College of Minor Canons 
in a brief and popular manner. He wrote very fully on this subject in a 
Paper printed in the " Archreologia " twenty years ago, The college consists 


Notices of Recent Arch.eo logical Publications. 171 

of twelve priests, of whom Dr. Simpson himself is one, It was founded in 
the time of Richard II. and incorporated by Royal Charter, but the canons 
claim that their College existed from a far more remote period, for it appears 
from a document in the Harleian collection in the British Museum, (No. 9S0) 
that St. Paul's had, before the Norman Conquest, two Cardinals, which 
office still continues. They are chosen from the minor canons by the Dean 
and Chapter, and in olden times were called Cardinales Chor't. Though the 
charter and statutes have been repeatedly confirmed by Royal Letters 
Patent, by an act of parliament in 1875 the college was completely changed. 
The canons had their own independent endowment of ancient date, and their 
own corporate seal, and had their own statutes, which are fully set out in Dr. 
Simpson's Paper in the " Archseologia," to which we have referred above, 
though they were also subject to the authority of the statutes of the 
cathedral, all were annulled. 

A very interesting account is given of the Cathedral Library, It has 
been repeatedly consumed by fire, and has more than once been reduced 
to a very low ebb, but it now contains upwards of '20,000 works, more than 
half of which, however, are pamphlets, in which class of literature it is very 
rich ; no fewer than 6,348 of them were presented to the library by the late 
Dr, Sumner, Bishop of Winchester. 

Among the curiosities noticed by Dr, Simpson is a Tonsure Plate, which 
is preserved in the MSS, department in the British Museum, It is a circular 
plate of copper, 3 ins. in diameter, slightly convex on the one side, and con- 
cave on the other, the latter being ornamented with a lion rampant, double 
queued, boldly engraved thereon. It is thought to be of the 13th century, 
and was used tor determining the shape of the tonsures of the clergy. It 
will be remembered that the form of the tonsure was one of the subjects of 
contention between St. Augustine and the British bishops in the 7th century. 
Dr, Simpson describes the difference in shape of the tonsures as worn by the 
clergy of the Roman and of the Celtic churches, and gives much interesting 
information upon the subject, and states that the statutes of St. Paul's 
cathedral are very strict upon this matter, and contain many references 

Passing on, the author gives us an account of some ancient Glass of the 
old Cathedral, and instances two pieces of armorial glass preserved by the 
Society of Antiquaries, which he has figured, and the arms, generally, has 
identified. He also notices some early drawings of theaucient church, many 
of which are lightly etched. 

It is not a pleasant recollection to think of the manner in which, in 
modern times, the Church has been desecrated. Lotteries, Dr. Simpson 
tells us, were drawn at the great west door, but more shocking abuses 
followed, for the hallowed open space in front was used for the execution of 
the participators in the Popish plot, and in 1600 Father Garnet suffered 
martyrdom in the same place. Moreover, as late as ] 648, that year of horrors, 
one of Cromwell's soldiers, said to be a brave young man, only '22 years of 
age, who had refused to march with his comrades, was tried by court mar- 
shall and shot here, to say nothing of the stabling of horses in the sacred 
edifice during the interregnum and of the profanities of Paul's Walk, for all 
which sec Dr. Simpson's introduction to documents illustrating the History 
of St. Paul's Cathedral (Camden Society, 1880.) 

172 Notices of Recent Akch.euumucal Publications. 

We now come to the principal chapters in the volume : " Music in St. 
Paul's Cathedral." Dr. Simpson's observations are not limited to old St. 
Paul's, but are continued down to the present time. It is very interesting, 
historically, but we are not competent to judge of it musically, and shall 
only add that the interesting volume concludes with some curious miscellaneous 
extracts and notes, and that we look forward to another "Sheaf of Gleanings " 
when this impression is out of print, which, we think, will not be a long 

lection of the Chief Contents of the Gentleman's Magazine from 1731 to 
186S. Edited by George Lawrence Gomme, F.S.A. Bibliographical Notes, 
edited by A. C. Bickley. Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, 18S9. 
We consider this volume as the most interesting of the series yet published. 
It is practically a continuation of its predecessor, but whilst that treated 
chiefly of Book-making, Selling and Storing, in this it is endeavoured to 
bring together particulars of the books themselves, and in addition to collect 
information on a variety of subjects which hitherto has existed only in the 
disconnected form unavoidable in periodical publications. 

It is divided into two sections — Notes on Special Books and Notes on 
Special Subjects, and under each of these heads we have numerous notices of 
great and varied curiosity and value, and these are supplemented by a table 
of some sixty notes of erudite Bibliographical Knowledge. 

The first section contains observations on many very rare and valuable 
volumes, some of them unique. The first work treated of is Buonaccorsu's 
Controversia de Nobilitatr, which is carefully and critically examined, with 
a view to the discovery of the author. After this, follows the examination 
of several rare Caxtons, one of which, a unique copy of the Chronicles of 
England, of the first edition, 1482, which was found by Mr. Richard Price in 
1810, in the collection of Mr. Win. Barnes, of Redland House, near Bristol. 
Of the books under this section, a very careful and particular description is 
given of the Decameron, to admit of its identification with the copy, ' ' II 
Decamerone de Boccaccio fol. M. G. Ediz. Prim. Venet Valdarfar, 1471. 
The extreme scarcity of which edition needs no proof, beyond the acknow- 
ledged and recorded fact that after all the fruitless researches of more than 
three hundred years, not one other perfect copy is yet known to exist." It 
is very curious also to note the prices at which this rare work has changed 
hands in the early part of the present century. It was offered for sale at 
the rooms of Mr. R. H. Evans, the famous book auctioneer, in 1819. It had 
been bought by the Duke of Roxburgh for £100, and in 1812 was sold to the 
Duke of Marlborough for £2,200. At Mr. Evans' sale it was sold, in the trade, 
for 873 guineas [£915 15s.] (If brought into the market what would Mr. 
Quaritch give for it now ?) Many other works of great interest are treated 
of, but we must pass on. 

In the section on Special Subjects, the class of books first treated of is 
Almanacks. The subject is very curious, and amusing. The earliest alma- 
nack in print is generally admitted to be that of John Muller, of Monte 
Regio, which was printed in Nuremberg in 1472. He gave the characters of 
each year and of the months, and shewed the places of the planets, and 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 173 

foretold the eclipses 30 years in advance. This almanack, it is said, sold for 
ten crowns of gold. The author was better known as Regiomontanus. There 
are, however, many early manuscript almanacks in the Libraries of the 
British Museum aud Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and there was a 
very curious one in the possession of Mr, Jackson, of Exeter, made in the 
reign of King Edward III. It consisted of slips of parchment folded in 
the shape of a flat stick or lath in, it is said, the Saxon fashion. The 
first account, however, which we have of almanacks in this country, appears 
in the Year Book of King Henry VII., or about fifteen years later than 
that of Muller. The first periodical of this description printed in England 
was issued from the press of Wynkyn de Worde in 1508, which was 
arranged for twelve years, since this time a continuous stream of such 
productions, continually swelling in number, may be traced to our own days. 

We can refer only very briefly to the contents of old almanacks, irrespec- 
tive of the meteorological forecast of changes of weather, &c, day by day, 
and predictions of eclipses, &c, the writers indulged in Astrological 
prophecies of important political events, expressed in very equivocal language, 
as sagaciously recommended by the almanack maker, Gardens, at the time 
of William III., who observes that astrologers ought never to pronounce any- 
thing absolutely or peremptorily concerning future contingencies, the reason 
is lest he bring himself and his art under censure and condemnation if it 
happen that he take not his measures truly, and the event answers not his 
prediction. Poor Carden himself, it is said, having foretold his own death 
starved himself to prove the truth of his own prediction. 

The number of almanacks issued is amazing. In 1828 the stamp duty of 
15d. per copy on English almanacks amounted to £30,136 3s. 9d., shewing 
an issue of 451,593 copies. In 1834 the stamp duty was removed, from 
which time the issues increased. In 1S39 they amounted to 521,000 copies. 
It is said that of Murphy's famous almanack alone 75,000 copies were 
printed and 70,000 sold. So far as we are aware there are no means of 
knowing the number of almanacks now printed, but we know the number 
has vastly increased. 

The subject next treated of is that of Newspapers, the discussion upon 
which is extremely curious and interesting. The origin of newspapers and 
their early history are very obscure, as is also the definition of what really is 
a newspaper, but, practically, we know pretty well of what a newspaper 

It has been very difficult to determine in what country newspapers 
were first published. In England they were first established during the 
great rebellion of the 17th century, under the title of " Mercuries." One at 
least, " Mercurius Aulicus "was carried on in behalf of the Royal cause. This 
was first issued in 1642. The Parliament had several, as " Mercurius 
Rusticus," &c., and, so far as we know, these were the first genuine news- 
papers published in this country, 

A remarkable incident in the History of Newspapers occurred at the end 
of the last century. In 1798 was given to the public, what purported to be 
a newspaper, entitled " the English Mercury " of 158S, giving an account of 
the Spanish Armada. It was received as a genuine English Journal, and 
was quoted by authors as an authority for many years. It was only in 1839 

174 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

that the fraud was discovered and traced to Philipe York the eldest son of 
the first Earl of Hardwick, the great Chancellor. Philip succeeded his 
father in the title in 1764, and died in 1790. What his motive could have been 
for this act is a mystery, for he never published the document or made any 
use of it, though in his library catalogue he treated it as genuine. News- 
papers were printed in Germany a century before they appeared in England. 

It appears from the Gentleman's Magazine for 1731, that the number of 
newspapers then printed in England was forty ; in America, two. In England 
in 1831, they had increased to 100. At page 160 of the volume before us, is 
given a table of the circulation of London Journals in 1833 and 1835, which 
then was enormous, and doubtless is now far greater. 

The next subject treated of is the origin, antiquity, and use of Cards. 
It has been generally thought that they are of great antiquity, but it is 
stated in an account of Playing Cards, translated from the French, that 
cards were invented about the year 1390, for the diversion of King Charles 
IX. of France, who had fallen into state of melancholy, and this statement 
is supported by the following argument : 1st — That no cards are to be seen 
in any sculpture or other work of art of an earlier period, and are frequently 
represented afterwards. 2nd — That no Royal Edict, on Ecclesiastical 
canon exists forbidding the use of cards, but later they were strictly 
interdicted to the clergy, and by Royal edict to the laity, as liable to 
interfere with the manly exercise of the practise of arms, but they were 
sanctioned as a pastime for ladies pro spinulis, for pins and needles. The 
French consider their design as representing the four states oi classes of men 
in the kingdom ; but for the particulars of this we must refer the reader to 
the volume. 

This is followed by observations on the works of many eminent men, 
among whom, we may mention those of Thomas Lodge, Sir Philip Sidney, 
Sir Kenelm Digby, and notes on various class subjects, all written in a 
pleasant and scholarly manner, the last, by the late John Doran, entitled 
"the Tailors measured by the Poets," is replete with learning, wit and 

BARNSTAPLE and the Northern Part of Devonshire during the 
Great Civil War, 1642-1646. By Richard W. Cotton. Privately printed, 

This is the most interesting volume. In addition to a very lucid narrative 
of the military transactions of the civil war in the south-western counties, 
especially in Devon and Cornwall, it throws a flood of light on the social 
condition and character of the inhabitants, and forms a worthy supplement 
to the "Memorials of the Civil War in Herefordshire and the adjacent 
Counties," by the late Rev. John Webb, F.S A. (noticed in Vol. IV. of the 
Transactions of this Society). 

The authors of these works, however, regard the subject matter upon 
which they treat from different points of view. Mr. Webb was thoroughly 
loyal to the cause of the King, whilst Mr. Cotton's sympathies evidently 
lean strongly to that of the Parliament, but they severally seem to have 
judged with equal impartiality both of men and things. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 175 

The work before us primarily treats of the manner in which the war, 
and the events arising out of it, affected the little Devonshire town of 
Barnstaple. We were not prepared to rind the importance it assumed in 
this terrible struggle, second to very few towns in the kingdom, and Mr. 
Cotton does ample justice to the military skill, steady perseverance, and 
heroic defence made by its inhabitants. 

Mr. Cotton divides his work into four parts, not chronologically, but 
marked out by certain distinct epochs in the history of Barnstaple during 
the period from 16-42 to 1646, inclusive ; but first he gives a short introduc- 
tory chapter detailing briefly the causes which led up to this sanguinary 
struggle. He then takes up the history of Barnstaple from the commence- 
ment of the war to the surrender of the town to Prince Maurice on 2nd Sep. 

Barnstaple was intensely Puritan, and, of course, adopted the cause of 
the Parliament against the King with all that rigid obstinacy which might 
be expected from that party. Almost before any actual hostilities had 
taken place, certainly before a single Royalist soldier had entered the 
county, Mr. Cotton tells us, with a precipitancy which was noticed with 
wonder at the time, the corporation of Barnstaple, in an evil hour, decided 
upon fortifying their town. 

Mr. Cotton informs us that of the municipal documents of Barnstaple a 
mass is known to have actually perished, through almost inconceivable 
neglect, within comparatively recent years. Those that survive, although 
unusually rich and extending from the 14th century downwards, ai'e in a 
fragmentary state, and the records of the period to which this relation has 
reference are few and disconnected. There is, however, one book, called a 
" Remembrance Book," of which Mr. Cotton has made considerable use, and 
from this it appears that the first step actually taken towards the fortifi- 
cation of the town was on the 8th of August, 1642. And Mr. Cotton 
remarks that the limited ideas which this book betrays of the impending 
demands upon the corporation consequent upon their adherance to the 
Parliamentary cause are amusing. ' ' It was agreed that in this emergency 
the mayor for the ensuing year shoidd allow the sum of -£10 out of his stipend 
of £30, and spare so much cost at his feast when he is sworn ! ! " neverthe- 
less from this date to the 27th August in the following year the inhabitants 
raised and expended a sum of nearly £14,000 upon the fortifications and 
other expenses connected with the war upon which they had so recklessly 
embarked. It does not, however, appear that they ever faltered in the 
resolution they had adopted. 

It is curious to observe the growth of the proceedings for the defence of 
the town. The clouds began to gather, and the next step was to strengthen 
the old night-watch, and a score of the most substantial of the inhabitants 
volunteered to serve on it in turn. Others undertook each to furnish a 
musket, and besides this a dozen new muskets were ordered to be bought 
" att the charge of the towne with snappanges," which, Mr. Cotton informs 
us was a newly invented spring-fire-lock, which had been recently introduced 
from Holland." James (Mil. Diet.) describes a Snaphange as " a gun which 
tired without a match." A committee was also appointed "to pceed on to 
finish and pfect the fortifications. Mr., otherwise Captain Penfound Curry, 
a buccaneering captain who had carried letters of marque, was engaged at a 

176 Notices of Recent Arch.kological Publications. 

salary of £30 a year to drill a Train Band and the Volunteers, and to order 
the watch. 

The lower classes, and some few of the gentry in Devonshire, were in 
feeling strongly Puritanical, and hence sympathisers with the Parliamentary 
party. When the Earl of Bath, who had been appointed by the King 
Commissioner of Array for Devon, proceeded to execute his commission at 
South Molton, supported by the principal gentry of the county, he was 
assailed by a disorderly mob of a 1000 men, women, and children, armed 
with scythes, bill-hooks, pitch-forks and all kinds of rustic weapons, and 
compelled, at the peril of his life, to desist. Lord Chandos, in similar 
circumstances, had been treated in like manner at Cirencester three weeks 
previously, and the Marquis of Hertford, who was sent with a similar com- 
mission into Somersetshire, failed to execute it. He succeeded, however, in 
raising a small body of troops, but rinding the general feeling of the district 
too much opposed to him he embarked at Minehead for Wales, and his 
troops proceeded into Cornwall under the command of Sir John Digby. 

The quietude of Cornwall had been disturbed by the proceedings on her 
borders. Sir Bevil Grenville had now (August) adopted the Royalist cause 
and united with the loyal Cornish gentry in endeavouring to execute the 
Commission of Array at Launceston, in which they were opposed by the 
local Parliamentary committee, through whose influence Sir Ralph Hopton 
and his troopers at the Michaelmas Quarter Sessions, held at Bodmin, was 
presented in ordinary form of law by the Grand Jury as divers men, 
unknown, who were lately come armed into that county contra pacem, &c. 
The tables were turned, however, when Sir Ralph appeared to the present- 
ment, and quietly produced his commission. The Cornish proclivities, not- 
withstanding this show of opposition, were as overwhelmingly Royalist as 
those of Devonshire were Parliamentarian. Through the action of the 
Sheriff, Francis Basset, afterwards knighted, himself a Royalist, the posse 
comitatis was raised, and by these means in a few days about 3000 foot of 
trained militia were got together, and appeared before Launceston, then 
occupied by the Parliamentarians, who immediately evacuated the place. 
Sir Ralph intended to march eastward, but the Cornish men, being in fact 
the Sheriff's men, lefused to go out of their own county, as they had a 
perfect right to do, and the army quickly melted away, and the work had 
to be begun afresh. 

The general course of this unhappy internecine war is too well known to 
need our following Mr. Cotton through his narrative, though there are some 
details of great interest which he has brought more strongly into light : e.g. 
the Battle of Modbury. Whilst the general struggle was being contested 
elsewhere, and at a distance, the two sister counties of Devon and Cornwall, 
for such in fact they may well be called, for through continual intermarriages 
the ancient gentry were all more or less related, had a small but vigorous war 
between themselves. Mr. Cotton, from his local knowledge, has described 
the sites of the various battles and skirmishes in a very graphic manner, and 
his relations of the incidents of the actions are given with greater spirit and 
vigour than is usually found from a non -military pen. This is strongly 
marked in his description of the famous Battle of Stratton, in which the 
men of Devon and Cornwall were arrayed against each other, and the latter 

Notices of .Recent Archaeological Publications. 177 

obtained a complete victory, The discomfiture and annihilation of the 
Parliamentary army produced the greatest alarm in Barnstaple. Money 
was immediately raised to strengthen the defences, but the town very soon 
afterwards surrendered to Prince Maurice, who granted the inhabitants very 
favourable terms, which was acknowledged by the Mayor and Corporation 
in a letter to the Prince, which Mr. Cotton says " can only be characterised 
as abject and hypocritical." Mr. Cotton's remark upon this letter would, 
at first sight, appear to be very harsh, but subsequent events proved him to 
be justified, at least as far hypocrisy was concerned. 

Part II. of the work embraces the period from the surrender of Barn- 
staple to Prince Maurice to its revolt to the parliament, 2nd Sept. 1643, to 
•26th June, 1644. In the last few days of June, 1644, during the absence of 
the few Royalist horse which had been stationed at Barnstaple, and had 
been withdrawn to act as an escort of the Queen in her flight from Exeter 
in terror on the approach of Essex and his army, the opportunity was taken 
by the townsmen to raise a revolt. It appears to be very evident, however, 
that this was not a sudden ebulition. but had been secretly plotted for 
some time previously, and that the conspirators only awaited a favourable 

Intelligence of the petty rebellion very quickly reached Prince Maurice, 
who was then at Exeter in attendance upon the Queen. Major Paget was 
immediately sent with a party to prevent disturbances, but these disturbances 
had already arisen. Major Paget attempted to enter the town, but finding the 
townsmen up in arms he withdrew to await support. Sir John Digby 
was sent to his assistance with a strong reinforcement, and the combined 
troops, numbering some 500 or 600 strong, with great difficulty fought their 
way into the town. The townsmen offered a gallant resistance. The struggle 
in the streets was a very obstinate one, but resulted in the defeat and 
repulse of the assailants with considerable loss. Mr. Cotton gives a very 
vivid account of this fight, for which we must refer to his pages. 

Mr. Cotton observes that during the few weeks in which Barnstaple was 
held by the Parliamentary troops we are absolutely without any written 
record of the state of affairs within it. Indeed, he says, " that of all the 
incidents of the Civil War in Devonshire, those which have received the 
least illustration from the local historian are the military operations which 
affected the county in the latter part of the summer of 1644." We all know 
that the army of Essex, which had followed the King into Cornwall, was in 
a desperate condition, and that he was imploring the parliament for help 
which it could not give him, and that he was shut tip as in a cul de titc at 
Fowey. On the 31st August, however, through some negligence on the part 
of the Royalist officers, a large portion of Essex's horse managed to escape 
through the lines, led by Sir William Balfour, and the following day the 
remainder of the force surrendered upon favourable conditions. Orders were 
promptly given to the Royalist commanders in Devonshire to use every effort 
to intercept Essex's fugitive cavalry, and North Devon became a scene of 
the utmost turmoil. Middleton, the Parliamentary general in Devon, was 
believed to be somewdiere in the county with a large force, and Goring was 
cautioned not to follow the pursuit too near him. Middleton meanwhile had 
marched across the county and threw himself into Barnstaple with 2000 

Vol. XIV. >' 

ITS Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

horse. Essex's horse, which had escaped from Cornwall, marched to Crediton, 
where they divided into two parties, one making its escape toward Lyme, 
and the other joined Middleton at Barnstaple. Interesting as these marches 
and counter-marches are, as related by Mr. Cotton, we cannot follow them, 
but must confine our view to Barnstaple. It is obvious that that little town, 
with surrounding country scoured by the Royalist troops, could not support 
a garrison of some 3000 horse besides foot soldiers, and Middleton and 
Balfour had to make their escape, as they succeeded in doing across Exmoor 
Forest to Taunton, leaving Barnstaple to its fate. 

As to the miserable condition of Essex's discomfitted and demoralised 
foot soldiers making their way through Devonshire, we must refer to Mr. 
Cotton's work. Our task is with Barnstaple. After the departure of 
Middleton's and Balfour's cavalry it was left with a garrison of about 600 
foot soldiers. In consequence of the fortifications having been quite neglected 
during the Parliamentarian occupation, and, moreover, being unprovided 
with ammunition, it was naturally indefensible. In these circumstances 
overtures were made to General Goring by the Mayor and Corporation for 
the surrender of the town to the King, and on the 12th Sept. 1644, Goring 
in form sent in a summons to the Mayor to surrender, and after some 
negotiations, terms, very favourable to the town, were agreed upon on the 
17th, and the place was evacuated by the Parliamentary garrison the same 
day. This ends the third section of Mr. Cotton's work. 

The fourth and last part, covering the period from Sept. 17th, 1644, to 
14th April, 1646, though by no means the least interesting, we must, for the 
want of space, pass over very lightly, having already exceeded our usual 
limits. The war raged very hotly in Devon during the winter of 1645-6, 
but the Royal army was grievously disorganised in consequence of the 
jealously, quarrels, and insuboixlination of the principal officers. In the 
hope of being able to heal these differences and create a better feeling the 
King commissioned the young Prince of Wales, though only 15 years of age, 
as Generalissimo of the whole of his army in Devon and Cornwall, to act 
with a council of experienced officers, but it seems not to have attained the 
object the King desired. It led, however, to one of the most striking 
incidents relating to Barnstaple, as the Prince for a time made the town his 
head-quarters and kept a sort of court there for about a month, until the 
country became so much disturbed that Barnstaple was thought no longer 
safe for him, and he retired to Tavistock. 

We must, however, make a brief digression to the surrender of the town 
to the King and the circumstances arising out of it. Although it was 
provided by the Articles of Capitulation that the town "should be free 
from plunder," and that no new garrison should be put into it," it was not 
unlikely that when the Royal troops entered the place upon its evacuation 
they could not be altogether restrained from the first offence. This, un- 
doubtedly, was technically a breach of the Articles, and excited the rebellious 
and rancorous feelings which still lurked in the breasts of some of the 
inhabitants, and led to disorders and acts of violence. This caused Six- 
John Berkeley, then Governor of Exeter and commander of the Royal forces 
in the district, to send his lieutenant, Sir Allen Apsley, with a small body 
of troops, as Governor of Barnstaple, to repress existing disorders and 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 179 

preserve peace in future. This was another grievance to the townspeople, 
and tended to increase their dissatisfaction. Sir Allen is represented as 
arrogant and imperious. He was young, and probably hot-headed and 
indiscreet, but upon the whole he seems to have acted fairly well. He set 
to work vigorously to restore the fortifications of the town ; the great fort 
was converted into a sort of citadel to hold a body of troops, the castle 
works were also strengthened, and both strongholds were provisioned, 
equipped, and made capable of withstanding a siege, which it eventually did, 
after an assault, for 49 days under the direction of the most renowned and 
able of the Parliamentary generals, among whom were the renowned Admiral 
Blake and the scarcely less famous Major-General and Admiral Richard 

The town surrendered to General Fairfax on the 14th April 1646, which, 
coupled with the defeat of the army under Lord Hopton, virtually closed 
the war in the west, and released the army of Sir Thomas Fairfax for final 
operations, which brought this unnatural war to a close and led to more 
tragical events. 

POPULAR COUNTY HISTORY.— A History of Cumberland. By 
Richard S. Ferguson, M.A., LL.M., F.S.A., Chancellor of Carlisle, &c, &c. 
London : Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, 1890. 

No gentleman could have been selected for the preparation of this volume so 
well qualified as the learned Chancellor of Carlisle, and the result is what 
might be expected from one so intimately acquainted with the county and 
so able as he. The volume, therefore, is of more than usual interest, though 
its author simply describes it as an attempt to discharge the function of a 
General Introduction to an old-fashioned County History in two or three 
quarto volumes. 

After giving a description of the situation of the county and its boun- 
daries the Chancellor offers some remarks upon the pre-historic inhabitants, 
leading his readers on to the Celtic migration, of which, with Messrs. 
Freeman & Sullivan, he considers there were two waves ; so that the Romans 
on their arrival found the district of Cumberland occupied by three distinct 
races of men, but the Celtic immigrants dispossessed the pre-historic men, 
or absorbed them, and occupied the district under the name of the Brigantes. 
These again were eventually conquered by the Romans. An interesting 
account is given of the Roman occupation, tracing the various roads con- 
structed by that people, and describing their forts and towers, but of this 
class of antiquities the most interesting is the author's account of the great 
Barrier of Hadrian, the trail of the Roman wall, which extended from 
Bowness, on the Solway, to Wallsend, on the Tyne, a distance of 73| miles, 
and having stations, castles, and watch towers at an average distance from 
each other of about four miles along the whole distance. This wall, however, 
was only a portion of a vast system of defence which embraced all Cum- 
berland. For about four centuries the Romans ruled the country. About 
the middle of the fourth century the northern part of Roman Britain was 
greatly harrassed by inroads of the Picts and Scots, and towards the end of 
that century these people formed a league with the Attacotti and the 
Saxons on the south-eastern coast. The Roman Empire was tottering to 

ISO Notices of Recent Akcii.eotxioic.w. Publications. 

its fall. It was pressed on every side and divided in itself, the generals, 
severally, contending for the Imperial power. Eventually, about the middle 
of the fifth century, so great were the necessities of the empire nearer 
home, that all the legions were withdrawn from Britain, and with them 
all the flower of the British youth. 

During the intricacies of the Saxon period and the introduction of 
Christianity, Mr. Ferguson steers his way. His relation is very concise and 
of great interest, but our own limited space forbids us from following him, 
and we must pass on to the Danish invasion. BTalfdene was the Danish 
leader, who ravaged Cumberland and destroyed Carlisle, burning the town, 
throwing down the walls, and killing man, woman and child, the inhabitants 
there then being numerous. And in this state it is said Carlisle remained 200 
years without an inhabitant. The monks of the abbey were driven out, and 
were accompanied by Eadred the Abbot, carrying with them the body 
of St, Cuthbert, with which they traversed the six northern counties for 
seven years, seeking a place of rest and finding none, until, at last, the 
Saint's remains were deposited at Durham. 

The anarchy which arose in Northumbria after the death of King 
Eagfrith — the dismemberment of that powerful kingdom — the invasion of 
the Danes and the settlement of a colony of that people — the Conquest of 
the British Kingdom of Cumbria, which included Cumberland, by Edmund 
King of the West Saxons, and his grant of the county to Malcolm I., King 
of the Scots, on the condition that he should become the ally of England by 
land and sea, especially against the Danes, we pass over, and refer the 
reader to the interesting particulars in Chancellor Ferguson's work, and to 
a valuable Paper on the Early History of Cumberland, by Mr. John Hodge- 
son Hinde in the Archceoloyieal Journal, Vol. XVI. , page 217. Cumberland 
thus became a fief of the English crown. 

Malcolm II., however, appears to have allowed the Danes to establish a 
colony within his dominions, and this, or some other offence, led Ethelred, 
the over-lord of Cumbria, in a.d. 1000, to overrun and devastate the county 
and seize it into his own hands. There is much difference of opinion 
among authorities upon this question. Mr. E. A. Freeman, however, sug- 
gests that "we have here lighted on the clue to the great puzzle of Cumbrian 
ethnology." He says " that Cumberland and Westmoreland are to this 
day largely Scandinavian needs no proof ; but we have no record of the 
process by which they became so." He adds, "this is the only mention of 
a Danish colonization by any historian, but this occupation has not passed 
away without leaving traces behind, both in the language of the people and 
in the nomenclature of the district," and this view is confirmed by the 
author (pp. 153 and 159). In what manner the quarrel between the over- 
lord and the vassal King was adjusted does not appear. But, as at an early 
period, as stated by Mr. Hodgson-Hinde, all the Cumbrian territory south of 
the Solway had been severed from the rest of Malcolm's possessions, it would, 
we think, seem probable that it occurred at this time. The severed district, 
the author tells us, was overrun in 1070 by Gospatric, Earl of Northumber- 
land, in revenge for the devastation of Teesdale by the Scots. The Earl, 
though shortly afterwards deprived of his Earldom and a fugitive at 
Malcolm's court, seems to have been able to put his son Dolfin into possess- 
ion of the district wrenched from Malcolm, but it is suggested that Malcolm 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Pcblications. 181 

might have so placed him for purposes of his own. In the year 1092 William 
Rufus, without any known cause, sent an army into Cumbria, dispossessed 
Dolfin, and annexed the territory to the English crown, and the Saxon 
Chronicle, under this date, states that "William placed a garrison in Carlisle 
and returned to the south, and sent thither a great number of churlish folk 
with wives and cattle that they might settle there and till the ground." 

It is found that in the reign of Henry I. the land of Carlisle was in the 
possession of Ranulf de Meschines, but whether by the gift of the King or by 
that of his brother Rufus is questionable. It is, however, clear that Ranulf 
devoted a large portion of it to the foundation of the Priory of Witheral. 
Mr. Ferguson considers that the grant conveyed Palatine jurisdiction, like 
the Earldom of Chester and others, in which, according to Bishop Stubbs, 
the Earls were endowed with the superiority of whole counties, so that all 
the landowners held feudally of them, in which they received the whole 
profits of the courts and exercised all the jure regalia or royal rights, 
nomination of sheriffs, and held their own councils and acted as independent 
princes, save the obligation of homage and fealty to the King. 

Ranulf married Lucia, daughter of Ivo Talboise, Earl of Angiers, by 
Lucia, daughter and heir of Thorold, Lord of Spalding, co. Lincoln, and 
relict of Roger de Romara, by which he acquired vast possessions in addition 
to those granted to him by the King. He parcelled out the most exposed 
part of the land of Carlisle into three baronies : viz., Gilsland, Lyddale, and 
Burgh by Sands, and when Hen. I. resumed possession of the land of Carlisle 
and constituted Cumberland and Westmorland counties, he carved five ad- 
ditional baronies out of Cumberland, an account of all which is given by the 
author, together with the devolution of the baronies and a description of the 
Forest of Inglewood and of the City of Carlisle. 

The settlement of Cumberland was interrupted on the death of Henry I. 
by the civil war between the Empress Maud, on behalf of her son, and 
Stephen of Blois, who, notwithstanding his oath of allegiance to King 
Henry's daughter, had usurped the throne. This usurpation was so sudden 
and unexpected that for a time it was submitted to. The old King of Scots, 
only, took up arms on behalf of his niece, but he was pacified by the surren- 
der of Cumberland and Westmorland, to the possession of which he had, 
personally, strong claims, though he refused to do homage to Stephen because 
of his oath to Matilda. Henry his son did homage instead of his father, and 
assumed the title of Prince of Cumberland. This arrangement did not last 
long. In 3rd Henry II. Cumberland was recovered to the Crown of England, 
though not without some compensation, for to the Scots were conceded all 
the crown demesnes in Cumberland with the exception of the City of 

Of the municipal history of this city Chancellor Ferguson gives us a very 
interesting account, referring to the ancient charters under which it enjoyed 
divers privileges and franchises, and to the bye-laws for the governance of 
the community, which give us a clear insight into the municipal life in 
Carlisle in mediaeval times. 

The remaining chapters of the work, though very interesting, are written 
with great brevity, and afford us little information beyond what can be 
gathered from general history. There is, however, one incident which may 
have special interest to most of our readers, especially as it has not, as far 

182 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

as we know, been noticed by any of the Gloucestershire historians. We 
allude to the case of Thomas Merks, Bishop of Carlisle. He was a monk at 
Westminster, and was advanced to the Bishopric of Carlisle in 1397. If he 
was not remarkable for anything else he was remarkable for his loyalty to 
King Richard II. Bishop Merks was the only person in parliament to protest 
against the deposition of that unfortunate sovereign. For this he was 
deprived of his Bishopric in 1399. He was afterwards appointed Vicar of 
Sturihinster Newton, in Dorsetshire, and on 13th August, 1404, upon the 
presentation of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster, he was instituted to 
the Rectory of Toddenham, in Gloucestershire. He died in 140S, for on 
13th January, 140S-9, one Robert lily, alias Weston, was instituted to the 
vacancy caused by his death. 


(3f Tf^ /if both in Latyn and Englyshe : being a facsimile reprint 

of the earliest extant English Reading Book, with an 
Introduction by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A., Librarian of Emmanuel College. 
London : Elliot Stock, 02, Paternoster Row, 1889. 

This little book is a photographical facsimile of what is believed to be a 
unique specimen of the ABC Primers published soon after the breach with 
Rowe, in the reign of Henry VIII. The original is in the library of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge. It is not dated, but the colophon describes 
it as " Imprynted at London in Paules Chyrch yard at the sygne of the 
Mayden's head by Thomas Petyt." This Thomas Petyt is supposed to have 
been a relative of a famous French printer, John Petyt, who worked in 
London from 1536 to 1554. This A B C, it is supposed, may probably be 
regarded as an Introduction to a larger Primer, and the late Mr. Henry 
Bagshaw, in a Paper read before the Cambridge Antiquarian Society in 1875, 
said he was satisfied it must have been printed about 1538. In this year 
was printed by John Petyt, under the King's injunctions, the first English 
Primer to which this A B C is supposed to have been intended as an Intro- 
duction, but it was not so used. In the Introduction to ,the authorised 
book, it is recited as being most essential that the multitude of Christians 
should learn by heart the ten commandments, the cieeds and the Lord's 
prayer, called the Pater Noster. It was intended as an elementary reading 
book, a first book of religious instruction for children, as well as of ordinary 
prayers for adults. Mr. Bradshaw called it " The Layman's Prayer Book," 
and Mr. Masked describes it as essentially " The Prayer Book of the Laity." 
In this A B C, however, the Ave Maria appears, but the ten commandments 
are omitted. 

"This book, then, is the earliest known specimen of this class of un- 
authorised primers containing the alphabet and the prayers and elementary 
religious formularies used in the teaching of children and the daily life of 
home." Godless Board Schools did not then exist! 

Mr. Stock has had the little work tastefully printed on thick hand-made 
paper, and it is a little gem of its kind. 

Notices of Recent Arch.eological Publications. 183 

Vol. 1. Edited by Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary. Bristol : 
Printed for the Club by J. Wright & Co., 188S. 

This little Society, which is limited to fifty ordinary members, has recently 
issued its first volume of Proceedings, which is exceedingly well got up, and 
contains many very excellent Papers. Where all are so good it is difficult, 
and may appear invidious, to select any for special notice. We cannot 
refrain, however, from calling attention to some few : e.g., The first Paper 
in the volume is a pleasing and fanciful one by Mr. John Taylor, the City 
Librarian, " On Anglo-Norman Doorways." A more substantial Paper is 
communicated by Lieut. -Colonel Bramble, "On Mediaeval Armour." The 
different fashions of armour which prevailed at different periods in England 
from the Norman Conquest until the time when defensive armour was 
altogether abandoned, though distinct enough in their character, are little 
understood, and the most ridiculous anachronisms have arisen, and Colonel 
Bramble has very judiciously given a series of figures shewing at one glance 
the succession of the several styles, and the period during which they were 
respectively in vogue. The student therefore has an opportunity of com- 
paring one style with another, a method of instruction more effective than 
much writing. Mr. Francis Fox Tuckett, F.R.G.S., has contributed some 
very interesting "Notes on Ancient Norwegian Wooden Churches, with 
some notices of similar early structures in Great Britain and Ireland ;" and 
by the same author there is a still more striking Paper of great interest 
" On some Optical Peculiarities of Ancient Painted Glass." Poets have 
written in glowing terms of the lustrous colours shed by the moon through 
the storied windows of a church or hall, but Mr. Tuckett, from personal 
observation, had arrived at the conclusion that, so far as ancient glass is 
concerned, it is no more than a poet's dream ; for that ancient glass, however 
rich and gorgeous its colours may still appear to the eye, no appreciable 
trace of them can be detected on the walls, floors, or columns of a building, 
even ^when its ancient painted windows are most illuminated by the sun 
himself in his highest splendour, and he relates that being at a dinner party 
during the Meeting of the British Association in Birmingham in lS8b", on 
alluding to this fact he was laughed at and chaffed by some distinguished 
lights in science, and that having but a small array of facts then at his 
command he might have modestly collapsed had not his friend, Dr. Sebastian 
Evans, who happened to be present, after allowing the sceptics to commit 
themselves fully, come to the rescue in the most effectual manner, justifying 
his own right to speak on such a subject with some authority, on the ground 
of having been for seven years manager of Messrs. Chance's Glass Works. 
He pronounced Mr. Tuckett's statement to be absolutely correct ; adding, 
further, that he had, on behalf of that firm, devoted several months to 
studying and drawing the famous windows (mostly 13th century) of Chartres 
Cathedral, and that the one infallible method of distinguishing between the 
ancient glass and the more modern insertions was to allow the sunlight to 
stream through the windows upon a sheet of paper fastened on a board, when 
any resultant spots of colour corresponded exclusively with the more recent 

It is very singular that clergymen and others, who for years have been 
constantly about churches having windows of ancient glass, should not 

184 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

have been familiar with this interesting fact now brought under notice. It 
shews how very unobservant we most of us are of facts constantly before our 

Mr. Tuckett points out in great detail the causes of this remarkable 
phenomenon. It arises, he says, from decay of the surface of the glass from 
chemical and other causes, upon the details of which we have not space to 
enter, but the effect upon ancient glass, even on a sunny day, is equivalent 
to that caused on a gloomy day in the case of modern glass. The difference 
is so distinct as to afford a valuable and easy test of the age of glass in 
regard to the broad question of its being ancient or modern. There is an 
unfortunate instance, Mr. Tuckett remarks, at Fairford, which affords a 
specially good test. When the old glass of the great west window was sent 
away for restoration it literally never was restored at all, but an entirely 
new production took its place, whilst the ancient glass still remains in the 
lower and larger division, and illustrates the correctness of Mr. Tuckett's 
theory. Other examples may be seen in the Major's Chapel, Bristol, and 

At a meeting of the Club on the 20th Dec. 1887, the Rev. The Honorable 
Walter J. Clifford, 8. J., exhibited a remarkable collection of coloured 
drawings, photographs, engravings, and other illustrations of copes of the 
Roman Catholic Church, a description of which is printed in the Proceedings, 
to which is appended Notes on the stitches employed in the embroidery of 
s.ueh copes, by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley. 

The Hon. Secretary, Mr. A. E. Hudd, F.S.A., concludes the volume with 
a very able and interesting "History of the Hospital of St.Katherine, Bright- 
bow (Bedminster), near Bristol," in which he traces its devolution from its 
foundation by Robert (in) Lord Berkeley, at the end of the 12th or beginning 
of the 13th century, through 2(5 masters to its spoliation by Henry VIII. , 
and the final grant of its site in 1587. On this site now stands a huge tobacco 

A DICTIONARY OF HERALDRY, with upwards of 2500 tine illustrations. 
By Charles Norton Elvin, M.A., Author of Handbook of Mottoes, Anec- 
dotes of Heraldry, (fee, <Lc, d-c. London : Kent & Co., 23, Paternoster Row. 
A good Heraldic Dictionary has long been a desiratirn among heraldic and 
genealogical students, and Mr. Elvin's handsome volume is intended to 
supply the need. The work is evidently the result of extensive reading, 
studious care, and ungrudging expense. 

Mr. Elvin has divided his subject unto two sections. The first contains 
forty-six plates of engravings, illustrating the numerous technical terms used 
in the science of heraldry, given, concisely, on the pages opposite to the 
several plates ; and the second is a very full alphabetical dictionary of 
terms, referring again to the examples in the Plates above mentioned. This 
dictionary contains special terms of ordinaries and charges not usually found 
in practical heraldry. It also affords much useful information concerning the 
insignia of several orders of knighthood, and other heraldic subjects. It 
would appear to be in every respect complete and sufficient, and confers the 
greatest credit on Mr. Elvin's industry and perseverance. The numerous 
illustrations arc beautifully engraved. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 1S5 

THE ANTIQUARY : A Magazine devoted to the Study of the Past, 
Vol. XX., July to December, 18S9. London : Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster 
Row, 1889. 

Mr. Elliot Stock has recently issued the twentieth volume of this valuable 
periodical. It contains many Papers of much interest. Among them is a 
series of articles by W. Rendle, F.R.C.S., on the " Records of St. Thomas's 
Hospital." This Hospital was built in 1228, but having fallen into a state 
of dilapidation it was rebuilt in the early part of the 16th century at a cost, 
in our money, of about £3000, and it is curious to observe that the money 
was raised, then as now, by subscription. The records give us many glimpses 
of the social condition, and the manners and habits, of the people in the 16th 
and 17th centuries ; and also of the state of medical and surgical skill at that 
period. There is also an article on the Manor House of Asshton (co. Lane.) 
the ancient seat of the Asshton family, and afterwards, by marriage, of the 
Booths, of Dunham Massie, by E. W. Cox. We notice that Mr. Cox has 
made c a slip in stating that Sir George Booth after the Restoration was 
created Earl of Delamere. There never was an Earl of Delamere. His 
dignity was only a Barony, but his son, the second Baron, was created Earl 
of "Warrington in 1690. We are very sorry to learn that this ancient and 
curious building, now one of the seats of the Earl of Stamford, is in danger 
of destruction from the grasping covetousness and competition of rival rail- 
way companies. Mr. Sparvel-Bayley, E.S.A., gives us some " Notes on a 
historical MS. Metrical Poem of the loth century in the Rawlinson Collection 
in the Bodleian Library, On Mutability of Fortune in the case of Eleanor 
Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, sometime wife of Humphrey, Duke of 
Gloucester, grandson of King of Edward III., called "the good Duke 
Humphrey. " Another instance is alluded to in the poem in the mysterious 
sudden death of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, son of John Beaufort, 
eldest son of John of Gaunt, and another grandson of King Edward III. 
We should also mention a Paper of much interest entitled "A' Sek: an 
Opening from the River Karun to Central Persia," by that veteran traveller 
and archaeologist, W. F. Ainsworth, Ph. Dr., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &c, and 
many other communications well deserving of notice, whilst the monthly 
publication of the " Antiquaries' Note Book and Antiquarian News " form 
a collection of items of archaeological information not to be found elsewhere. 
This volume closes the first series of the work, and a new series was 
commenced on the 1st of January under a different Editor, the numbers of 
which that have been issued shew no falling oft' in the literary character of 
the Periodical. 

YORKSHIRE CHAP-BOOKS, Edited by Charles A. Federer, L.C.P. 
First Series, comprising Thomas Gent's Tracts on Legendary Subjects ; a 
Memoir of the Author, and a select number of Facsimile Reproductions of 
the Original Woodcuts. London : Elliot Stock, 1889. 

Chroniclers, Her Poets, and Journalists. By the Rev. Thomas Parkinson, 
F. R. Hist. S. Member of the Surtees' Society, The Yorkshire Archaological 
and Topographical Association, Vicar of South Otterington. [Second Series. ] 
London : Elliot Stock, 1889. 

1S6 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

The introduction to the first of these volumes forms a very brief but inter- 
esting Essay on Chap-Book literature, which in days gone by formed an 
important branch of literary business, and possessed great influence on the 
lives and characters of the middle and lower classes of the population. Prior 
to the present century books were not only still comparatively scarce and 
costly but not easily obtained in remote rural districts. Moreover, readers 
of works which required any sustained thought were still more rare. The 
literature, therefore, which came into the hands and suited the mental 
capacity of the simple folk we have mentioned were short tales of Adven- 
ture ; The Lives of Bold Highwaymen ; Ballads, historical and amusing ; 
Romantic Stories in ballad form ; Tales and Legends, moral and religious ; 
Broadsides, &c, &c. , which were sold by Chap-men at markets and fairs 
and were hawked about from house to house. These formed the current 
literature of the people, and had a very large sale, and though some of them 
in these days may be considered coarse, they were superior to the trashy 
novels which now flood the press and pollute the minds of the young of all 

Thomas Gent, the author and printer of all the pieces in this volume, was 
pre-eminent among the purveyors of this kind of literature. A sketch of his 
life is given, derived from his autobiography, shewing its vicissitudes, his poverty, 
hardships, perseverance, toil, irrasibility, love, marriage, misfortunes and 
death. The memoir possesses much interest, and exhibits the progress which 
has been made in literature since the first quarter of the last century. We are 
told incidentally that in 1715 there was but one printer in Liverpool, and that 
in 17-2 Gent's printing business in York was practically a monopoly, for no 
other printer could be found in the whole of Yorkshire and Durham. 

Gent was evidently a self-educated man, but he was able and industrious. 
His reading and researches were most extensive. The late Mr. Joseph 
Hunter, F.S.A., the author of the History of Hallamshire and many other 
works, says that " Gent's performances were not like too many modern books 
of topography, mere bundles of pillage from the works of ingenious and pains- 
taking authors, but contained matter honestly collected, and not before his 
time made public by the press," and the Editor of the present volume says 
he has "verified some hundreds of Gent's references to works of most varied 
description and found every one of them strictly accurate." He was the 
author of many works historical and other. Those printed in this volume, 
especially his Legend of St. Winifred in simple verse, is very interesting and 
well adapted to its purpose. The volume is printed upon rough hand-made 
paper, with titles and the quaint illustrations in facsimile, and is got up, 
generally, in Mr. Stock's tasteful style. 

The second volume at the head of this notice seems to fall under the 
designation of Folk-lore as it treats of the Legends and Traditions of York- 
shire. This important subject has received great attention from antiquaries 
during the last few years. It seems but a short time ago, though it extends 
to fifteen years, that a suggestion appeared in that most useful publication 
"Notes and Queries, that a Special Society should be formed to collect, 
arrange, and print all scattered bits of legend, popular mythology, super- 
stitions, local traditions, customs, rhymes and proverbs, not only in this 
country but elsewhere, of which those in the volumes before us are types. 
Ancient customs and superstitions, from various causes obvious to all, are 

Notices of Recent Akch.eological Publications. 187 

fast dying out, and this effort was commenced not a day too soon. We are 
glad to add that the suggestion was very warmly received by many gentle- 
men of great and varied learning, and led to the formation of what is now a 
strong .Society ; and it is with much satisfaction we hail Mr. Parkin's 
interesting volume as a contribution to the object in view. 

Many of the legends and traditions are most interesting and others 
amusing, and all are very pleasingly related, and though, at least in sub- 
stance, some are told elsewhere in distant localities we do not complain, for 
it tends to shew the cosmopolitan character of many traditions, customs and 
superstitions ; and the system adopted of classification under different heads 
renders easier the means of comparison and of shewing the area over which 
the same customs and conditions extend. 


Bristol <uto Gloucestershire <3lrclt<rologiatl §ocictg 

IN 1889-90. 

At the Sicmmer Meeting held at Cheltenham on the 16th, 17th, 

and 18th July, 1889. 

This Society held its 14th Annual Meeeting at Cheltenham, on Tuesday, the 
16th July, and two following days. The Society was formally received by the 
Mayor (Col. Thoyts) and the members of the Local Committee, by whom the 
arrangements had been made, in the Council Chamber at 11 a.m., and the 
opening Meeting was held immediately afterwards. There was a very large 
attendance of members and associates. Among those present were Mr. 
R.V.Vassar-S.mith (the President of the Society), Sir Brook Kay, Bart, (the 
President of the Council), Mr. A T. Agg-Gardiner, M.P. (tie President, elect), 
General Pearce, Major-General Babbage, Col. Forbes, Dr. Cook, Dr. W. 
Davis ; the Revs. F. E. Warren, J. Lockhead, S. E. Bartleet, and the 
Messrs. B. Bonnor, J. Crcdas, E. A. D'Argent, F. Dobell, A. E. Hudd, 
A Le Blanc, W. George, Win. Leigh, V. P., J. Mills, H. P. Prankerd, 
F. de Saumarez, S. H. Swayne, A. J. Skinner ; Rev. W. Bazeley (Hon. 
Gen. Secretary) ; Mr. G. B.Witts (Hon. Local Secretary), Mr. E.Wethered 
(Hon. Local Treasurer), and many ladies. 

The Mayor heartily welcomed the Society to Cheltenham on this its 
second visit, the former visit, he remarked, having taken place some ten 
years ago. He was afraid there were not many objects of archaeological 
interest in the town, but the neighbourhood teemed with antiquarian re- 
mains and relics, in the inspection of which he hoped the members would 
find much of interest. His Worship made a feeling allusion to the loss the 
town had sustained in the death of Dr. Day, and also referred to Dr. Day's 
high scientific attainments, especially in that branch of natural history which 
was his favourite study, viz., pisiculture. Cheltenham had felt honoured in 
having as a resident for the last few years of his life one who had so greatly 
distinguished himself in the world of science. 

The President thanked the Mayor for the kind manner in which the 
the Society had been welcomed, and also for the feeling and sympathetic 
way in which his Worship had alluded to the loss ot one of its most distin- 
guished members. 

The chair was then taken by Mr. Vassar-Smith, who called upon the 
Hon. Secretary to read the 

The Council submits to the members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Arclneological Society the Fourteenth Annual Report. 

There are at present .396 annual members, 75 life members and 3 honor- 
ary members on the Society's list, making a total of 474 members. The 
total number last year was 466. 
Vol. XIV. o 

190 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

The income for the financial year 1888-9 was £294 8s. 5d. The expen- 
diture amounted to £293 5s. 9d. The actual balance at the Society's bankers 
on the 21st April, 18S9, was £264 13s. lOd ; besides this there was a sum of 
£77 15s. lid. due from the Berkeley MS. fund ; and the Society has, more- 
over, a funded capital of £432 3s. 8d. in the new 2| Consolidated Stock, 
representing the composition fees of Life Members. 

The Council has issued during the last year the second part of Vol. XII. 
and the first part of Vol. XIII. of the Society's Transactions, and also the 
second part of "An Analysis of the Domesday Survey of Gloucestershire," 
by the Rev. C. S. Taylor. The third and concluding part of this " Analysis " 
will be issued shortly with the second part of Vol. XIII. The Council 
desires to express its acknowledgement to those who have very kindly con- 
tributed to the expense of illustrating the Transactions. 

The Society has held two General Meetings during the last year — at 
Gloucester on the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th of July, 1888, and at Berkeley 
on the 29th of May, 1889. 

The Annual Summer Meeting at Gloucester, the second held in that 
city, after an interval of twelve years, was most successfully arranged and 
carried out by an influential local committee. The thanks of the Society 
are due to that committee, and especially to Mr. G. S. Blakeway, who, at a 
time of great domestic anxiety, spared neither time nor labour in fulfilling 
his arduous duties as Local Secretary. They are also due to Mr. W. H. 
Stevenson, of the Royal Commission upon Historical MSS., who, having 
spent many weeks in arranging and calendaring the Gloucester City Char- 
ters for the Corporation, attended the Gloucester Meeting, and gave much 
valuable information to the members concerning the various deeds exhibited 
at the Local Museum ; to Mr. John Bellows, for his interesting address on 
Roman Gloucester ; and to Mr. St. John Hope, Assistant Secretary to the 
Society of Antiquaries, who read a paper on The Seals of the City of Gloucester. 
The Dean of Gloucester very courteously received the members at the 
Cathedral, and, with the assistance of Mr. F. W. Waller and the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, pointed out the more interesting features of that ancient structure. 
After the conclusion of the meeting, visits were organized of the working 
classes of Gloucester to the Cathedral, and a large public gathering at the 
Shire Hall listened, apparently with much interest, to popular papers on 
local history and antiquities read by Mrs. Baguall-Oakeley, the Dean of 
Gloucester, Mr. J. Bellows, Mr. F. W. Waller, and the General Secretary 
of this Society. 

The Annual Spring Meeting was held at Berkeley on the 29th of May, 
and more than a hundred members visited the Parish Church, under the 
guidance of the vicar, the Rev. J. Lett Stackhouse, and Berkeley Castle, 
under the guidance of the Rev. W. Bazeley. 

It is unnecessary to give further details of these meetings in this Report 
as a full account of the Gloucester Meeting appears in Part 1 of Vol. XIII. 
of the Society's Transactions ; and the Berkeley Meeting will be described 
in Vol. XIV., part 1. 

Besides these General Meetings, a Local Meeting was held at Stroud, on 
the 21st of February, 1889, to which all the members of the Society were 
invited. The arrangements were admirably made by the Local Secretary, 

Report of Council. 191 

Mr. E. Witchell, and the rest of the Local Committee. A very interesting 
address was given by the Dean of Gloucester, and papers were read by Mr. 
Charles Wethered and Mr. Arthur Playne. Mr. Embrey, of the Gloucester 
School of Science, very kindly attended the Meeting and illustrated the 
lectures with photographs shewn by the magic lantern. There was a crowd- 
ed audience, and much interest was created throughout the neighbourhood 
of Stroud in the Society's work. The Council hopes that similar meetings 
will be held elsewhere during the forthcoming winter. 

The Council having learned from Col. Forbes, the Local Secretary for 
Dursley, that the Uley Tumulus, better known as Hetty Pegler's Tump, 
which has been placed under the charge of H.M.'s Commissioners of Works, 
was being injured by careless or mischievous persons, appointed a committee 
to enquire into and report upon the state of this ancient monument. The 
report so made to the Council was forwarded to Lieut. -General Pitt-Rivers, 
who thereupon paid a personal visit to Uley and examined the Barrow. The 
Council has since been asked to submit to the Board of Works a plan and 
estimate for its restoration. 

Additions have been made to the Society's library during the last year 
by donations from the Rev. B. H. Blacker, Mr. Drayton Wyatt and other 
members ; and also by the purchase of books and tracts, relating for the 
most part to Gloucestershire, at the sales of Mr. Wilton's and Mr. Jeffs 

The Council has arranged exchange of Transactions with the Cambrian 
Archaeological Society, the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
The Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, and the 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. 

Some difficulty has arisen with regard to the storage of the Society's 
books and surplus copies of Transactions, &c, &c.,the space allotted for 
book-cases in the Gloucester Museum being necessarily very small. The 
Council learns with satisfaction that new buildings in connection with the 
Museum, the School of Art and the School of Science, are likely to be 
erected in the vacant site adjoining the present buildings, and hopes that a 
more convenient room may thus be procured for the Society's library. 

A list of the books and pamphlets belonging to the Society has been 
prepared, and rules for their issue to members have been drawn up by a 
committee, aud accepted by the Council. This list and these rules will be 
printed and sent to the members. 

The work of this Society, and of similar Societies in other counties, has 
hitherto been carried on without reference to any central body. It has been 
proposed during the last year that there shall be a union of Archaeological 
Societies in England (with the Society of Antiquaries of London as a nucleus); 
that delegates shall be appointed by each Society, who shall from time to 
time confer together at the rooms of the Society of Antiquaries, Burlington 
House, with a view to the better organization of antiquarian research and 
the preservation of ancient monuments. The Council has had much pleasure 
in complying with this proposal, and has appointed Sir Henry Barkly, 
K.C.B., G.C.M.G., and Sir John Maclean, F.S.A, the delegates of this 
Society. The first Congress will be held to-morrow (July 17th) at Burlington 

O 2 

192 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Reference was made in the last report to the exploration of a Roman 
villa at Tockington Park. The interesting notices which have appeared in 
the 12th and 13th volumes of the Transactions will have informed the mem- 
bers of the discoveries which have been made. Sir John Maclean has 
devoted much time and thought to directing and recording the excavations, 
and the thanks of the Society are due to him, as also to Mr. F. Judge for 
his excellent drawings of pavements and other objects of interest discovered, 
and to Mr. Richard Smith, the occupant of the farm, for the facilities given 
by him for research. The receipts for the Exploration Fund were : —sub- 
scriptions, £53, profits of Tockington Park Special Meeting, £7 0s. 2d. — 
Total, £60 0s. 2d. Of this sum, £46 15s. 4d. has been expended in opening 
and preserving the villa, leaving a balance of £13 4s. lOd. , which will partly 
defray the cost of illustrating Sir John Maclean's notices of the villa in the 
Society's Transactions. 

The Council has noticed with pleasure the announcement of two im- 
portant publications in connection with the City of Gloucester : — " The 
Calendar of the Records of the Corporation " and " The Rental of all the 
Houses in Gloucester, A.o. 1455," edited by Mr. W. H. Stevenson and the 
Secretary of this Society. 

The Council has also been informed that two members of this Society, 
the Rev. W. Bazeley and Mr. Hyett, have been for some time engaged in 
the preparation of a manual of Gloucestershire Bibliography, in which they 
have made considerable progress. It is to be desired that all who possess 
rare books and tracts, relating to this subject, will assist in the work by 
communicating with these gentlemen. 

The Council has again to deplore the loss of several members by death : — 
T. Gambler Parry, Esq., President of the Society in 1S79, when the annual 
meeting was held, as this year, at Cheltenham, and a Vice-President from 
the time of the formation of the Society until his death, was distinguished 
for brilliant genius, profound knowledge of the History of Art, and uniform 
courtesy. The frescoes which he executed at Ely, Gloucester and Highnam, 
will be abiding memorials of his piety and skill. Mr. Wm. Brown Clegram, 
of Saal Lodge ; the Rev. H. T. Price, Rector of Elkstone ; and Dr. Disney 
Launder Thorp, of Lypiatt Lodge, Cheltenham, were donors to the Society's 
library, and Mr. J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps had a world-wide reputation as a 
Shakesperian Antiquary. Dr. Day, who has just passed away, was distin- 
guished rather as a Scientist than as an Archaeologist ; but this Society owes 
him a debt of gratitude for the assistance he rendered to the Council as a 
member of that body. 

The Council now nominates for re-election the President of Council, 
the Vice-Presidents of the Society, the General Secretary, the General 
Treasurer, and the Secretaries Local and Sectional. The Council also 
nominates Mr. Vassar-Smith, the President for 1888-9, Vice-President of 
the Society in the room of the late Mr. Gambier Parry. Local Secretaries 
are needed for Fairford, Cirencester, Newent, Winchcombe, Chipping Camp- 
den and Thornbury. 

The following members of Council retire by rotation, but are eligible 
for re-election :— Major C. H. Fisher, and Messrs. A. E. Hudd, R. T. Martin, 
S. H. Swayne, P. Prankerd, T. S. Pope, C. Bowley and H. W. Bruton. 

Report of Council. 193 

The Council has held five meetings during the last year -two at Bristol, 
two at Gloucester, and one at Cheltenham, and desires to express its thanks 
to the Mayor and Town Clerk of Gloucester, and to the Mayor and Town 
Clerk of Cheltenham, for their courteous permission to meet in the Council 
Chambers of Gloucester and Cheltenham respectively. 

Dr. Cook proposed and Mr. Dobell seconded the adoption of the report, 
which was at once agreed to. 

Mr. B. Bonnor proposed the re-election of the following members of the 
Council -.—Major Fisher, Messrs. E. A. Hudd, R. T. Martin, S. H. Swayne, 
H. P. Prankerd, T. S. Pope, C. Bowley, and H. W. Bruton 

This was seconded and carried. 

Mr. Leigh proposed a vote of thanks to the retiring President for the 
courteous manner in which he had fulfilled his office during the year, and 
remarked that the success of the Gloucester and Berkeley Meetings was very 
much due to Mr. Vassar-Smith's presence and help. He also referred to the 
fact that at Gloucester last year, for the first time in the history of the 
Society, a popular meeting was held in connection with the visit of the 
Societ}', and urged that similar meetings should be arranged in future, in 
order that the humbler classes might be excited to take an interest in the 
history and antiquities of the country and in the preservation of works 
of art and architecture. 

Mr. Swayne seconded the motion, which was heartily adopted. 

In acknowledgement, Mr. Vassar-Smith said he had carried out the 
duties of his office to the best of his ability, and he trusted that the arrange- 
ments from time to time made had worked smoothly and with advantage to 
the Society. He had learnt something of archaeology during his term of 
office, and trusted that he should go on acquiring knowledge, so that in the 
future he might be of some assistance to the Society. He joined with Mr. 
Leigh in urging that popular meetings should be held in connection with 
the Society's annual meeting, and, concluding, bespoke for Mr. Agg-Gardner 
a cordial welcome on his entering on the office of President for the ensuing 

Mr. Agg-Gardner then took the chair and delivered as follows his 


Ladies and Gentlemen, 
When Sir Brook Kay, writing on behalf of your Society, honoured me with 
an invitation to act as the President of this meeting, I was at first unwilling 
to accept the proffered compliment. I observed, on referring to the records 
of your proceedings, that this post had almost invariably been held by some 
gentleman who was more or less identified with scientific research, and 
I felt that my deficiency in this branch of learning would form a fatal bar to 
the adequate discharge of those duties which you assign to your President. 
But Sir Brook Kay and the members of his committee with whom I con- 
ferred, impressed upon me that as established custom called for a Cheltenham 

194 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

President, and the time wherein to discover one, if I failed them, was ex- 
tremely limited, local considerations became more urgent than those of 
learning ; and moreover that formidable as might appear to be the wisdom 
of the Society, this wisdom was balanced and controlled by infinite gener- 
osity. Penetrated by this reasoning, and relying on the benevolent assurances 
I have mentioned, I consented to succeed Mr. Vassar-Smith. And I there- 
fore now appear before you fully conscious alike of my inability to add 
anything to the stock of your information, and of an absolute necessity for 
making a serious inroad on the stores of your indulgence. 

The first duty of the President is to deliver his address, and the first 
difficulty that confronts him in the discharge of this duty is to decide on 
which of the many channels of thought into which the study of Archaeology 
leads us, is to be selected. A kind friend, anticipating my perplexity, sug- 
gested to me that as I was identified with the Manor of Cheltenham, and 
had access to the deeds, I might find among some of its recondite rolls 
abundant material for an interesting if not an instructive essay. But I was 
at once met with the diffiulty that the most ancient and presumably there- 
fore the most interesting of the documents were written in Norman French. 
This would entail the services of an interpreter to unravel, and unhappily 
the desired interpreter is not to be found. Therefore I am afraid, so far as 
I am concerned at least, whatever of interest is to found in these parch- 
ments must remain in their present musty obscurity. To some it might 
appear that the neighbourhood of Cheltenham, strewn as it is with so 
much that is of antiquarian value, would supply on the present occasion the 
proper text for an address. But here again a manifest objection presents 
itself. Only a few years have elapsed since Cheltenham was last made the 
site of the Society's meeting. At that meeting the archaeology of the district 
was examined and explained, not only by several members of the Society, 
but by the President of the day — the late Mr. Gambier Parry. Those who 
knew that accomplished gentleman are well aware how thoroughly he com- 
pleted whatever he undertook. His brilliant and exhaustive address is 
conspicuous on the pages of your records, and the eloquent language in 
which it was clothed lingers still, I doubt not, in the memories of many 
whom I have the honour to address to-day. It would be obviously in the 
nature of an anti-climax, if not of an impertinence, were I to attempt to 
re-tell his well-told tale. It is, of course, possible that some crumbs of 
information were left, or may have fallen since, that might be collected and 
formed by a skillful brain into the materials for a useful if not an ambitious 
address. But this is a task too high for me, and can well be left to those 
students of antiquity of whom this Society happily can boast a strong con- 
tingent, and to whom we shall look for valuable criticisms and interesting 
papers in the course of our expeditions. For myself, as an amateur addressing 
experts, it will be better if during the few minutes in which I am allowed 

Inaugural Address. 195 

to detain you I take a general rather than a particular view, and glance 
briefly at the results of researches that have been recently accomplished, 
rather than to speculate as to where fresh discoveries might be attempted, 
or endeavour to unfold new theories or to combat accepted creeds. 

I presume I am right in supposing that, amongst the numerous votaries 
of antiquity, while some are animated by motives of cimosity, others by a 
pedantic passion for what is old, they are inspired by the purest zeal who 
seek by the aid of its science to perfect their knowledge of the lives, the 
habits, and the history of mankind. Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum 
puto is the motto which the great — perhaps the greatest — living authority on 
archaeology, Sir Charles Newton, has assigned to the archaeologist. To 
collect, he says, the implements, weapons, pottery, costumes and furniture 
of races is to contribute materials not only to the history of mining, metal- 
ling, spinning, weaving, dying, carpentry, and the like arts, which minister 
to civilization, but also to illustrate the physical history of the countries 
where these arts are practised. And wherever man has left the stamp of 
mind on brute matter, whether we designate his work as structure, texture, 
or mixture, mechanical or chymical ; whether the result be a house, a ship, 
a garment, a piece of glass, or a metallic implement, these memorials of 
economy and invention will always be worthy the attention of the archae- 
ologist. It may not, perhaps, be altogether alien to these sentiments if I 
refer to some of the recent discoveries which have been made in the East, 
and which add to, and, particularly where it is derived from sacred sources, 
confirm our historical knowledge. 

In Egypt, through the action of the Exploration Fund and the activity 
of Mr.Naville, a flood of light has been thrown on the sojourn and the exodus 
of the Israelites. The route of the exodus has been determined, and the 
passage across the Red Sea all but marked out. It is now made certain that 
Rameses II. was the Pharaoh of the oppression, and his son, Menepthah, 
the Pharaoh of the exodus ; and that the period of their reigns covered 70 
years, from the commencement of the great oppression to the exodus, as 
stated in biblical history. At the beginning of this time, Rameses founded 
the two store cities of Python and Rameses — one has been discovered with 
its store chambers built of unbaked brick, and with monuments of the reign 
of Rameses and other monarchs downwards from him. 

It was during these excavations that the French Commission discovered 
the Royal mummies at Thebes, collected for security about Solomon's time, 
and which represented the principal sovereigns of the previous 7 centuries. 
These have been unrolled, and we are now, therefore, made familiar with 
the features of Rameses II. The mummies are in the Boulak Museum, but 
a photograph is to be seen in the British Museum, which shows that 
Rameses II. at the age of 90, still preserves, after 3000 years, the determined 

190 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

expression which history leads us to imagine he must have worn in his life- 
time, and which is emphasized, according to the dogma of physiognomists, 
by that rare feature among Egyptians — a Wellingtonian nose. The Pharaoh 
of the exodus has not yet been found, a fact which strengthens the belief of 
those who assert that he was drowned in the Red Sea, though the Scriptural 
expression " overthrown " may be taken to mean defeated as well as drowned. 
There is therefore still a possibility of a fresh addition to the Boulak Museum. 

Very great progress has been made with the interpretation of documents 
historical, religious and legal, and now any trained student can construe 
any Egyptian text on stone or papyrus, in whatever form of character it 
may be inscribed. 

There is one matter which may be of interest to those who desire to 
extract the honey of political information from the dried relics of antiquity, 
though it refers to a question of social rather than of party politics, now as 
then — I mean the question of female rights. From the earliest period of 
Egyptian history the wife was called the lady of the house, and was repre- 
sented as the equal of her husband. Monogamy was, if not obligatory, all 
but universal. There are very few tombs which mention more than one 
wife. In the time to which legal documents belong, from B.C. 700 to the 
Christian era, marriage settlements were carefully drawn. Those which are 
extant are much more in favour of the wife than even those which the 
champions of female rights have been able as yet to wring from the British 
Legislature of to-day. Divorce was rendered difficult and distasteful to the 
husband by the provision that in its event the husband paid the dowry with 
interest from the date of marriage — sometimes at 33 per cent. He had to 
resign all family rights to his eldest son, who became the head of the family ; 
and the only condition that the unfortunate man could exact in his favour 
was that he should be fed, and subsequently mummified. It is scarcely 
surprising that bachelors in those days were, as I hope is the case in the 
present, regarded as prudent, if not praiseworthy pillars of the State. I 
should mention that the best early instance of a marriage settlement is a 
draft of one inscribed on a dessert plate, and which is now in the Louvre. 
The moral which may be drawn from the domestic incident which I have 
related, if I may be forgiven for digressing into anything so dangerous, is 
that if, notwithstanding these abnormal privileges which were granted to the 
Egyptian ladies, the civilization of that country lasted from B.C. 3500 to 341 
A.D., there is not much danger to be apprehended to our civilization from the 
modified privileges which have been granted to the gentler sex of to-day. 
Let me, however, pass on from Egypt to Chaldean and Assyrian researches. 
These, since the discovery of Rawlinson, of the reading of the Assyrian 
characters have moved on with the same rapidity as the Egyptian. Their 
bearing on Biblical history have been even more direct than that of the 
Egyptian. For we find authentic records of the relation between the 


Hebrew kingdoms and the Assyrian from the time of Ahab to that of 
Manasseh, the son of Hezekiah. 

The British Museum contains the record of a great battle fought between 
Ahab and the younger Ben Hadad of Syria on one side, and Shalmanezer II. 
of Assyria on the other hand. We also have the capture of Lachish by 
Sennacherib, and the annals of Sennacherib giving a glowing account of his 
wars with Hezekiah, and omitting all notice of his disaster before Jerusalem. 
This, however, may, as the newspapers describe it, be read " between the 
lines." Besides the historical sculptures and manuscripts, the British Museum 
contains enough of the library of Nineveh — which, by the way, was arranged 
and administered very much like the British Museum of the present day — 
to fill, if translated, some 300 octavo volumes. They are written on clay 
tablets, like cakes of soap. Amongst them, the most curious, is the Deluge 
tablet. This is the Babylonian tradition of the Deluge, similar to the 
Hebrew record in its general outline, and curiously illustrating it, as in the 
case of the raven, which did not return to the ark, because as he is described 
in the Babylonian tradition as feeding on the bodies of the drowned. 

In reference to the Jewish Antiquities, the most important discovery in 
Palestine of late years has been that of the Moabite stone, which was made 
twenty years ago. It is the tablet of Meslia, King of Moab, contemporary 
with Omroy, Ahab, and his two sons. It is written in primitive Hebrew 
characters in the dialect of Hebrew resembling that of the Book of Kings. 
More recently an inscription was traced at the Pool of Siloam at Jerusalem, 
which had been engraved under either Solomon or Hezekiah. The inscrip- 
tion states that the engineers, who had dug a tunnel of about 2,000 feet in 
length to enable the water to enter the pool, met, like those engaged in 
piercing Mount Cenis in recent years, with absolute accuracy from either 
side. Xo doubt these engineers were Phrenicians, who were the scientists 
of those days. Numerous records and remains of course still remain to be 
found, but the ground is jealously watched by the Turks, who have shown 
themselves very jealous of late, but who made one important concession to 
antiquarian science by establishing as curator of the Museum at Stamboul 
a German gentleman of considerable energy and experience, 

The subject of Classical Antiquities is too large for the limits of this 
address. But I may draw passing attention to the recent important discoveries 
of Dr.Schliemann. (1) Those of the early cities in the plains of Troy, existing 
B.C. 120O. (2) The discovery of an entombment in Mycenae about 1200 B.r. 
also where Agamemnon and his comrades were buried. These were the 
remains of warriors in golden armour, whose faces were covered with golden 
masks on which features are still traceable. And these, from the art of the 
armour and of the objects entombed with the heroes, point unmistakeably to 
the fact that they belong to the period of the Trojan war. (3) The dis- 

198 Transactions for thk Year 1889-90. 

co very at Tiryus of a primitive Greek palace, like the house of Ulysses in 
the Odyssey, and of the site of the ancient temple of Aphrodite in Kythera 

In addition to these, German explorations at Olympia have resulted in 
the recovery of some of the finest works of sculpture, and of the most 
interesting inscriptions that adorned the seat of the great Greek games, 
while in the neighbourhood of Athens itself, amongst the principal of recent 
topographical discoveries may be mentioned (1) the walls of the old house of 
Erectheus, and (2) of the foundations of the temple of Roma and Augustus. 

With regard to the latter, though the existence had long been known, 
its exact position has only been definitely fixed by the light of recent dis- 
coveries. It stood on a platform of Pireian stone, 400 feet east of the 
Parthenon. It was a circular building, surrounded by a colonnade of nine 
Ionic pillars. Some interesting excavations have also been made by the 
British School of Archaeology in Athens. The school, which owes its creation 
in no small degree to the energy of that eminent man of letters, Sir Charles 
Newton, to whom I have already referred, but whose valuable services (to 
mankind) can never be adequately acknowledged, was formally opened three 
or four years ago. Its building is now installed in the slopes of Mount 
Hymettus, from whence it commands a wide expanse of scenery, rich in 
historic incident. The report of the last year's work, which has just been 
issued, tells of the excavations in Cyprus, in connection with the Cyprus 
Exploration Fund, and of the discovery of the supposed site of Arsinoe and 
Limniti ; of the finding of Cypriote inscriptions and of artistic objects in 
pottery and terra-cotta ; and also of a successful series of experiments at 
the school itself. But unfortunately the managers of the school have found 
that even in the violet-crowned city the question of the res augusta domi 
will assert itself, a misfortune all the more mortifying to the Phil-Hellenic 
Englishman, when he observes that it is one which the rival schools of 
poorer nations have been able to defy. 

There are other branches of Greek archaeology that call for, and I make 
no doubt have received, your notice, such as sculpture, inscriptions, numis- 
matics. On the latter interesting study Sir Charles Newton mentions a 
valuable addition contributed by Mr. R. Stuart Poole, of the British Museum, 
a gentlemen, the extent of whose learning is rivalled by that of his kindly 
courtesy. But neither your time nor your patience would, I fear, allow me to 
attempt to develope any fresh matter. I leave this duty to those experienced 
savants who are to follow me. I have already run rapidly over a sufficient num- 
ber of instances that serve to show how directly the study of archaeology bears 
upon those matters of history with which even the unlearned are acquainted 
and concerned. Of course, these instances could be multiplied indefinitely, 
and by a suitable authority no doubt a serious moral might be drawn and 
seriously applied. Happily, however, it is no part of my duty to-day to 

Inaugural Address. 199 

point a moral or even to adorn a tale. My function is, if I may be pardoned a 
simile that sounds somewhat of the kitchen, to provide the hors d'osuvres for 
the banquet that is to follow. I own I look forward with pleasure to the visits 
we are to pay to the many places of interest to which we have been kindly 
invited, to the papers that will be read, and to the criticisms that will follow. 
I have no doubt that with our skilled and sagacious secretaries, Mr. Bazeley 
and Mr. AYitts, to guide us, we shall accomplish an agreeable and successful 
meeting. And I trust that as a reward for their labours these gentlemen 
may find that they have kindled a fire of archseologic enthusiasm in Glouces- 
tershire that will never be allowed to slumber or to sleep. Throughout the 
country generally, I am told, the evidence of numbers declares that the 
interest which is being taken in the puruit of archaeology is an ever widening 
circle. That this should be so is scarcely a matter for surprise, as a study 
which brings before the student all the important links and lights of history 
from " the wide grey lampless depths "' of time to the present hour is well 
attuned to the spirit of the age in which we live. 

A philosopher, well known now also as a politician, has told us that 
since the beginning of the present century the critics of life are apt to pitch 
their criticisms in a high poetic key, and to say with Woodworth : 

The human nature with which I felt 
That I belonged and reverenced with love. 
Was not a persistent presence, but a spirit 
Diffused through time and space, with aid derived 
Of evidence from monuments, erect, 
Prostrate, or leaning towards the common rest 
On earth, the widely-scattered wreck sublime 
Of vanished nations. 

For those who share the poet's sentiment, what science can be more sym- 
pathetic than that which finds the text of its teaching alike in the song of 
the peasant, in the myths and legends of faded superstitions, in the cere- 
monies and customs of varied races, in the Pyramids, in the Parthenon, and 
in the " piled up arches of the Coliseum ?" 

And such is the wide field that is offered to the student of archteology, 
in which he is free to find the germ of his reflections and the food of his 
philosophy. Amongst those who are here to-day there are, I daresay, others 
besides myself who can scarcely claim the title of the archaeologist. But by 
our presence, and by our membership, we wish to express our loyalty to the 
cause which the Society exists to further and to advance ; remembering, if 
I may be allowed in my last words to quote again from Sir Charles Newton, 
that archreology is "a chain of continuous tradition which connects the 
civilised nineteenth century with the races of the primeval world — which 
holds together this great brotherhood in bonds of attachment more enduring 
than the ties of national consanguinity, moi'e enobling even than the recol- 
lections of ancestral glory — which, traversing the ruins of empires, unmoved 
by the shock of revolutions, spans the abyss of time, and transmits onward 
the message of the Past." 

200 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

Sir Brook Kay proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Agg-Gardner 
for undertaking the office of President for the coming year. He said it was 
extremely kind and generous of him to accede to the wishes of the Society 
in this respect, notwithstanding the many calls on his time. 

Mr. Le Blanc seconded the motion, which was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. Agg-Gardner, in responding, joined in the expressions of regret 
which had already been made at the loss the town had sustained in the death 
of so cultured a citizen as Dr. Day, and also expressed his personal regret 
that owing to illness Sir John Maclean was unable to be with them, or to 
stay at his (Mr. Agg-Gardner's) house during the Meeting of the Society in 

This ended the proceedings at the Council Chamber. 

Excursion to Swindon, Stoke Orchard, Tredington and Boddington. 
After lunch at the Plough Hotel, a large party, numbering about ninety, 
took their places in the waggonettes provided for them, and, precisely at two 
o'clock, the time appointed, started for the purpose of inspecting the archaeo- 
logical features of Swindon, Stoke Orchard, Tredington and Boddington. 

The first place visited was the 

Church of Swindon. 
The Members were met at the porch by the Rector, the Rev. Gilbert Day, 
and, all being assembled within the walls of the church, Mr. Bazeley sug- 
gested that Mr. Day would be good enough to describe the edifice, but he 
had nothing further to communicate than that it had been either all or in 
part rebuilt. Mr. Bazeley thereupon, in the unavoidable absence of Prof. 
Middleton, who was expected to describe the group of churches in this day's 
programme, was good enough to read some notes on these churches written 
by the late Rev. J. L. Petit, a very high authority on Architecture and 
Ecclesiology, and not of less interest in that they were written nearly 
forty -live years ago. 1 Mr. Petit describes the Church of Swindon as having 
been then "partly rebuilt," "but," he adds, "it still retains its curious 
Norman western tower, of an hexagonal form. The only other instance 
of this kind with which I am acquainted is at Ozleworth, also in this 
county ; of which I therefore send a sketch {Plate XVI.), though it is not 
strictly within the limits of which I proposed to keep in my excursions. 
Ozleworth Church has an hexagonal tower between the nave and chancel. 
It must be of late Norman, as the western arch supporting it is pointed 
and of a decidedly Early English character. This is much enriched by a 
kind of ornament which might have been suggested by the variety of ways 
in which the chevron is laid upon the architrave in late Norman, and of 
which we have noticed examples. It consists of a bold open work of cylin- 
ders forming angles with each other, as in the Norman chevron, but of 
different inclinations, and in different planes ; several examples are to be 
found in transitional building." 

1 His Notes are printed in the Archaeological Journal for 1847, p. 97 et seq. 



Stoke Orchard Church. 201 

Mr. BAZELEY.from Fosbrook (Vol.11., p. 372), read the following particulars 
of the later devolution of the Manor of Swindon. He said it long continued 
in the Priory of St. Oswald until the dissolution of the monasteries, when it 
passed into lay hands. The Cliffords of Frampton, the Trotmans, and the 
Ashmeads, were successive owners, and it then passed to the Sturmys. Mr. 
John Sturmy was Lord of the Manor in 1700. John Stratford succeeded, 
and left it to the Beales, who held it until recent times. 

The President having thanked the Rector for his courtesy to the Society, 
the company rejoined the vehicles. A delightful drive brought the party to 

Stoke Orchard Church. 
Stoke Orchard is a chapelry of Bishop's Cleeve, and contained formerly two 
manors, one here and the other in the Hundred of Tewkesbury. It was an- 
ciently known as Stoke Archer, derived from a family of the name of Archer, 
by whom it was held as early as the time of Rich. I., when Lettice, relict of 
Robert Archer, gave the King four marks for having her Dowry near Cleeve 
(1196), and in 7th Edward II. (1313-4) Richard, son and heir of Richard, 
gave 40s. relief for lands held at Stokes in capite by petty serjeanty, viz., 
by the service of finding a man in time of war with bow and arrows for forty 
days at his own expense. This we cite from Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 356, who 
gives further information respecting the devolution of the manor. It appears 
from Kirbifs Quest that at that time (1284-1289) Nicholas le Archer held 
part of Stoke by the service above described (vide Trans. Vol. XL, p. 142), 
and it appears from the Return of Lay Subsidies, 3rd Henry IV. V/ tnat 
Thomas Berkeley, of Coberlye, held lands and tenements at Stoke (Stoke 
Archer), in the Hundred of Tewkesbury, by the same service (Ibid, p. 330). 

On their arrival at the church the members were met by the Rev. B. F. 
Hemming, the Rector of the parish, who gave them a cordial welcome. Mr. 
Bazeley again had recourse to the valuable Notes of the late Rev. J. L. Petit 
on this interesting church. Mr. Petit described the church as being in many 
respects similar to the Chapel of Postlip, " though evidently of later date as 
regards its Norman portions, whilst the parts which are added, or which had 
been rebuilt, are of Early Perpendicular." We make no apology for giving 
Mr, Petit's description verbatim, especially as we are able to give with it that 
gentleman's admirable illustrations. 

Mr. Petit writes : " The edifice consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
belft-y over the chancel arch. The nave has a small round-headed window, 
with a very deep splay ; the width of the window being only eight inches, 
while that of the aperture on the internal face of the wall is 5ft. 7ins. It has 
no west door, but a south one, very plain, at present square-headed, with a 
semi-circular label. A north doorway is a little richer, having a round torus 
in the jamb, but without any capital ; it has a label with a very concave 
inner surface. The door has some good iron work. The other windows of 
the nave, with the exception of the one inserted, are of the same description 
with that at the west end, though somewhat smaller. The impost of the 
chancel arch is that of a Norman arch of two orders, the lower one resting 
on an engaged shaft, the section of whose base approaches to Early English, 
as will be seen by comparing it with that of Postlip. The arch itself is 


Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

pointed, and of two chamfered orders, and I take it to belong to the same 
period as the central belfry and chancel— early Perpendicular (fi<js. 9 cfc 10) 

Fig. 9. 

North Pier of Chancel Arch, Stoke 
Orchard Church. 

Fig. 10. 

Base of North Pier of Stoke 
Orchard Church. 

To this date probably belongs also a buttress on the north side of the nave 
and those supporting the chancel arch. The windows on the side of the 
chancel are squaredieaded, though with arches and foliations to the lights ; 
and the eastern window is a pointed one of two lights. The piscina occu- 
pies the usual place in the south wall. The font is a fine cylindrical one 
of Norman character, with an arcade of intersecting arches. The dimensions 
of the building are as follow :— Breadth of nave internally 19 ft. 10 ins., 
length to western face of chancel arch 44 ft. 
5 ins., depth of chancel arch 3 ft., span of 
chancel arch 7 ft. 4 ins., breadth of chancel 
12 ft. 9 ins., length of ditto to eastern face of 
chancel arch 18 ft. 5 ins., thickness of side 
walls of nave 2 ft. 7 ins, height of wall of 
nave 12 ft. 8 ins., height of wall of chancel 
to spring of gable 12ft. 3ins." Mr. Petit adds in 
continuation : " We do not here observe the 
proportion that appears in the last example 
(Postlip). The building is altogether longer in 
proportion to its breadth. But we must not 
omit to notice the elegant, though simple, bell 
turret over the chancel arch. The pyramidical 
form given to its eastern elevation, as seen 

from the north and south by similar slopes, 
by which its thickness from east to west is 
made to taper upwards. The arch is a round 
one, somewhat depressed or segmental " (see 
Jig. 11 and Plate X VII. ) 

These particulars having been given by the General Secretary, the Rev. 
B. F. Heming addressed a few words to those present, drawing attention to 
the pieces of mural decorations on the west wall which had recently been 
discovered. They were inspected with much curiosity, and the suggestion 
was thrown out that it might be well to take tracings of them. One of the 
three figures brought to light is evidently that of Our Lord, but as to who 
the others are intended to represent there is nothing to aid conjecture. 

Fig. 11. 
Bell Turret, Stoke Orchard Church. 



■Ate ,18 ill! 


11,1 "II 


1 .' TO 



I !/'■///■' '.I ;J:| 

Boddixgtox Maxor. 203 

From the church the party proceeded to the manor-house, in the grounds 
behind which the line of the old moat was clearly defined. From Stoke 
Orchard the excursionists proceeded to the quaint old 

Norman Church of Tredington. 
Through some accident the Rev. G. E. Webster was not present to receive 
them on their arrival, but came in soon afterwards. In the meantime the 
Rev. W. Bazeley acted as guide and made some remarks on the building. 
He was followed by the Rev. John Green, Mr. Webster's predecessor, who 
had been for many years rector of the parish. 

Mr. Grekn mentioned that the church was dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist, and was one of the most interesting in the county of Gloucester. In 
his subsequent remarks he said that : "The first object which attracts the 
attention of visitors is the shaft of a lofty cross of the 14th century, standing 
on the south side of the church. It is mounted on four steps, measuring, 
respectively, 10ft., 8ft. 4ins., 6ft. 4ins., and 4ft. 9ins square. The shaft itself 
is a slender tapering octagonal monolith, 12ft. 8 ins. in height. Three or four 
drill-holes and a rough surface on the east face indicate the place where 
either an escutcheon or small crucifix was attached. 1 

Upon a tomb facing the south porch, to the memory of one of the family 
of Surman, 1687, is placed a slab, elaborately carved, and of a much earlier 
date than the other portions, and which appears to have been the ancient 
altar, as traces of the four crosses at the corners, and the small receptacle for 
relics in the centre, are still traceable. The position of the ancient chapel 
may be traced on the exterior of the north wall of the nave and adjoining 
the ancient north doorway, and in the interior of the church by a window 
of the sixteenth century. 

There is a Sacrarmm, or niche, on the north side of the altar — "locus quo 
res sacra reponunter." A direction for making such niche occurs in the 7th 
of Archbishop Peckham's Constitutions at Reading, 1279. 

There still remains on the north side of the chancel, but considerably 
below the level of the present seat, a stone bench or long stone seat, sugges- 
tive of the chancel having been built and used for a choir, a grange having 
once existed in the parish in connection with the Monastery of Lanthony. 
It has been thought by some, however, that the present chancel was the 
original church. 

The decayed transverse beam above the chancel arch, and in the nave, 
indicates the position of the ancient rood. A portion of the cross is to be seen 
at Tredington Court. 

It remains only to notice the tympanum above the north doorway— this 
north entrance is blocked up. Bloxam, in the first volume of his Gothic 
Ecdcsiological Architecture, p. 130, describes one of similar construction at 
Pedmore Church, Worcestershire, which has a rudely-sculptured figure of 
our Saviour in the centre with his right arm upheld, while on either side are 
two of the Evangelistic Symbols. 

1 See Pooley's Crosses, p. 30. 

204 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

The ancient bell-cote at the west end of the church was superseded in 
the beginning of last century by a wooden tower containing five bells pre- 
sented by members of the Surman and Cartwright families, and cast by the 
great bell-founders of that period, the Rudhalls, of Gloucester. The present 
tower is the gift of the late John Surman, Esq. , who had a great affection 
for the church and parish, and who laid out the churchyard and recast the 
tenor bell during his lifetime. 

The registers which contain several interesting entries are torn and 
imperfect ; they are, no doubt, of the date 1538, when a Register of Bap- 
tisms, Weddings and Burials was enjoined to be kept in every church. 

The Register of Burials shews that the ravages of the Plague iu this 
parish in the autumn of 1610 and spring of 1611 were very great. 1 

The chalice and paten are of the time of Elizabeth. 
The company next proceeded to 


where they were very cordially received and hospitally entertained at after- 
noon tea by Mr. and Mrs. Gibbons. Having partaken of tea, coffee, and 
fruit and other refreshments, abundantly provided, they had the privilege of 
inspecting Mr. Gibbons' valuable collection of Pictures, in which there are 
some fine examples of the works of the best English and other masters. 

Mr. Gibbons then read a Paper on Boddington Manor, in which he related 
some traditions and incidents connected with the manor and house from the 
time of King Alfred down to the great rebellion of the 17th century, and 
mentioned some relics of the last mentioned period, which had been found 
in the moat, and quoted some entries in the churchwardens' accounts. 

The warm thanks of the Society having been given to Mr.and Mrs. Gibbons, 
and an inspection made of the moat, the exterior of the old mansion and 
other objects of interest, the party left Boddington for Cheltenham, well 
satisfied with the day's excursion. 

The Annual Dinner of the Society was held in the evening at the Plough 
Hotel. The President in the chair. The only toast given was that of " The 
Queen," and the company then adjourned for the 

which was held at the Municipal Offices, Mr. Agg-Gardner again presiding. 
The first Paper read was by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, entitled Sanctuary 
Knockers. The paper traced the origin and history of Sanctuaries — places 
privileged by the Church or Sovereign wherein offenders could not be 
arrested without sacrilege — and Mrs. Oakeley quoted from ancient docu- 
ments a description of the process by which fugitives obtained the security 
of the Sanctuary at various times and in various places. Two drawings were 
exhibited of Sanctuary Knockers — one of a knocker at Durham Cathedral, 
and the other of a knocker at the Church of St. Nicholas, Gloucester. This 
Paper is printed in extenso ante page 131. 

1 See "Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," Vol. II., p. 71-88. 

Postlip Hall and Chapel. 205 

Prof. Middletost next read a portion of a Paper he had written, com- 
paring Roman domestic architecture in Rome with similar architecture in 
this country, showing how the Romans, as a practical people, adapted 
themselves to the climate in which they lived, and used the materials at 
hand for building. At the suggestion of the General Secretary, Professor 
Middleton agreed to read the remainder of his paper at the inspection of 
Spoonley Villa on Wednesday. See his remarks post. 

The last Paper was read by Mr. R. Taylor, of Edge House, near Stroud, 
and was entitled A Plea for Old Tools. In it the writer described some of 
the tools, articles of domestic use, and various implements which were in 
use 50 years or a century ago, which are now obsolete and almost entirely 

WEDNESDAY, 17th July, 1889. 
A large party, consisting of about 100 members and their friends, started 
this morning at 9.30 to make a long excursion to visit Southam House, 
Cleeve Hill Camp, Postlip Hall and Chapel, Winchcombe, Spoonley Roman 
Villa, Sevenhampton Church, and Whittington Court and Church. The first 
halting place was 

Southam House, 

a mediaeval mansion built by Sir John Huddleston in the latter part of the 
loth century. It is now occupied by the Rev. J. T. C. Stacey, through 
whose courtesy the Society was permitted to visit it. It is not the Manor 
House. That is situated near the chapel, a few hundred yards distant. 

The house was visited by the Society on the occasion of its meeting at 
Cheltenham in 1879, but, of course, many of the members then present are 
no longer with us. At the time referred to the late Mr. S. H. Gael acted as 
guide, and gave a historical account of the building and a description of the 
portraits and of the heraldry in the house. Mr. Le Blanc was good enough 
to read Mr. Gael's paper for the edification of those present. It is printed 
in the Transactions of the Society, Vol. IV., pp. 21-23. 

On the conclusion of these remarks the party made a hurried inspection 
of the suites of rooms, and the President expressed to Mr. Stacey the thanks 
of the Society for his obliging kindness, and to Mr. Le Blanc for reading the 
paper. The journey was them resumed to 

Cleeve Hill Camp, 
which was described by Mr. G. B. Witts, and a Paper by him on the 
subject will be printed in extenso post. 

Postlip Hall and Chapel, 
nestling in its Cotswold Vale, was one of the most picturesque of Gloucester- 
shire homes. With its many gables, its giey, antiquated walls, its array of 
dormer windows, and its quaintly-carved sheep on the chimney-stack it would 
have sent Washington Irving into an ecstacy of delight, which would have 
been increased on his entering the house and seeing the rich old oak carving 
and wainscoting in rooms pervaded by the air of substantial old-fashioned 
English comfort. The house was much admired, and the visitors would 
have been glad to learn something of its history, but information on that 
point was not forthcoming. The chief interest, from an archaeological point 

Vol. XIV. p 

20fi Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

of view, centres in the chapel, which stands on rising ground at the back of 
the Hall, and has long been desecrated. It was dismantled at the time of 
the Revolution, and is now nothing more than a barn. Invited to describe its 
architectural features, Mr. J. H. Middleton, F.S.A. , the Slade Professor of 
Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, said it was an interesting and very 
characteristic specimen of Norman work of about the year 1150. Not much 
was known of its history, except that it seemed to have been served by the 
Benedictine monks from the neighbouring Abbey of Winchcombe. The most 
remarkable thing about it was the small opening and external corbel in the 
south wall of the nave, at a considerable height above the floor : this sort of 
"high side window " was not uncommon in English churches at one time, 
but the use of it died out rather early ; it was intended to hold what was 
called the Poor .Soul Light — a lamp lighted every night to invite passers-by, 
or those who saw it at a distance, to pray for the souls of the dead. In 
France it was sometimes placed in a round tower, like a miniature light- 
house ; in England it was usually in the form of a high side window, and 
was found in examples mostly in the 12th and 13th centuries. Attention 
was also directed to the Norman doorway and the low chancel arch (Norman) 
which suggested comparison with that seen at Tredington on the previous 
day. Some remarks on the chapel from Mr. Petit's notes on the Archaeology 
of the neighbourhood of Cheltenham, were read by the General Secretary (the 
Rev. Wm. Bazeley), and then, in welcome sunshine, the party rejoined the 
brakes, with appetites sharpened by the Cotswold breezes, for the refresh- 
ment awaiting them at Winchcombe. On arrival there, 

The Rev. W. Bazeley, as at Stoke Orchard, read some remarks on Post- 
lip Hall and Chapel from the late Rev. J. L. Petit's Architectural Notes in 
the neighbourhood forty-five years ago, to which we have before alluded. 

Mr. Petit writes of the Manor House, that it is practically Elizabethan, 
exhibits Perpendicular features, and, he adds, that the chapel seems to have 
been touched by the same architect who designed or added to the hall, for 
its east and west windows are late Perpendicular, and its belfry evidently 
belongs to a later period, probably that in which the Elizabethan part of 
the hall was built. He writes further : " There are some chimney-pieces of 
the last named period remaining in the house (which is now only tenanted 
by labourers)." He mentions a fine old barn among the farm buildings, 
apparently of the Tudor period, the coping of one of the gables has the figure 
of a man standing upright. 

Of the chapel he says : " It consists of a nave and chancel, the belfry, 
which is comparatively modern, stands over the chancel-arch. On the south 
side is a fine doorway with a semi-circular arch of one order, supported by 
a shaft, and enriched with chevrons on the surface of the archivolt. The 
label is ornamented with balls on its inner surface, and the arch is filled up 
with a transom covered with scale-work, above a band of work not uncom- 
mon in advanced Norman, which may be described as a series of St. Andrew's 
crosses. The same appears on the capitals of the shafts. The nave has one 
narrow Norman window on the south side, and a corresponding one on the 
north side. It has also the remains of a north door. The chancel has one 
window similar to those of the nave on each side, the internal splays being 
very deep." 




Postlip Hall and Chapf.l. 


The later features are, in the nave, a pointed plain niche on the north 

side, near the chancel arch, and a trefoiled piscina on the south side. The 

roof is a timber one, which seems as late as the 16th century. In the chancel 

is a plain pointed niche on the north side, which has no appearance of having 

been used as a piscina. There are 
neither sedilia, piscina, nor door, 
on the south side of the chancel. 
But the principal feature is the 
chancel arch, a round one, of two 
orders, enriched, to the west- 
ward with the chevron (on the 
surface of the outer order of the 
archivolt),the billet (on the label) 
and the ornament I have already 
mentioned, in a band round the 
inner order of the arch, and the 
abacus of the capitals (fig. 12). 
The eastern face of the arch is 
comparatively plain. The outer 
order of the arch (to the west- 
ward) is supported by a shaft 
occupying the usual position be- 
tween two salient angles. The 
Fig. 12, Chancel Arch, Postlip. inner order on a larger engaged 

shaft. The base has the claw that appears at Romsey and in other examples ; 

and its mouldings shew it 

to be very pure (though 

not the earliest) Norman 

(fid. 13). The chapel is now 

only used as a barn, and 

the chancel is altogether 

unroofed (Plate X VIII. ) 

Considering Mr. Petit's 
detailed description of this 
little sacred building at 
the time he wrote of un- 
usual interest, we have 
given it very fully, for 
though it had been dese- Fig. 13, Base of Shaft of Arch, Postlip. 

crated and converted to common uses before he wrote, doubtless it has 
undergone greater changes since. 

The devolution of the Manor and Chapel of Postlip is not so obscure 
as has been supposed. It was one of the sixteen manors in the county held 
by Ansfrid de Cormeilles at the time of the Domesday Survey. Ansfrid's 
son or grandson, Richard, had a son and heir, Walter, whose daughter and 
heir, Margaret, married Hugh de Poer, by whom she had a daughter and 
coheir, who became the wife of Simon Solers. William de Solers, at the 
request of his tenants, built a chapel in the time of Stephen, and dedicated 
it to St. James, and endowed the Abbey of Tewkesbury with lands and 

208 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

tithes on condition that the monks should find a chaplain to perform Divine 
service in the chapel on Sundays, Holydays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
Fosbrooke, from whom these particulars are derived, shews the devolution 
of the manor down to the present time (see Vol. II. , p. 347.) 

The party then proceeded to 


where luncheon had been provided in the schoolroom. The President 
occupied the chair. After the luncheon, a very interesting announcement 
was made by the Rev. F. E. Warren, Vicar of Frenchay, who stated on the 
authority of M. Delisle that a 10th century Winchcombe missal had been 
discovered in the town library at Orleans. The explanation of the matter, 
he said, seems to be this. In the 10th century a monk from the monastery 
of Fleury sur Loire was sent over by Oswald, Bishop of Worcester, to intro- 
duce the Benedictine rule at Winchcombe. He, on his return to France, 
carried the service book with him, and it remained at Fleury until the 
French Revolution, when a great part of the library of the monastery was 
destroyed, but this particular volume came into the hands of the Town 
Council at Orleans, and can now be seen in the library of that city. It is to 
be hoped, said Mr. Warren, that the future local historian would make an 
effort to inspect it. These old missals are not only interesting from a litur- 
gical point of view, but often contained entries respecting the manumission 
of serfs and other matters of ai'chreological value. The Rev. W. Bazeley in 
thanking Mr. Warren for the information, promised that he would call the 
attention of Mr. Royce, who was engaged in . editing the cartularies of 
Winchcombe Abbey, to the subject. 

After an interval of about half-an-hour, during which the excursionists 
strolled through the town, the ancient capital of Mercia, of which an 
admirable history has been published by Mrs. Dent, and inspected the church 
and other objects of interest, among which was a Fire Engine just a century 
old, and the Public Stocks, preserved under the Town Hall, the journey was 
resumed to visit the 

Roman Villa at Spoon lev. 
A drive over a difficult road, passing Sudeley on the left, brought them 
to Spoonley Wood. The villa reached at last, Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley Castle, 
whose interest in archaeology is well known, and to whose permission the 
Society was indebted for the present variation of the day's proceedings, 
was introduced by the Rev. W . Bazeley. Mr. Bazeley then explained that 
the villa was discovered some six or seven years ago, and created a great 
deal of interest at that time. For two years it lay open, and was so injured 
by frost, rabbits, and also, he was afraid, by visitors, that Mrs. Dent thought 
fit to restore the stones to the position in which they were first found, and 
to cover over the best of the pavements, one of which, however, she had had 
removed, rather earlier, to Sudeley Castle. The ground plan was as perfect 
as that of any Roman villa he had seen, and in the restoration it had been 
faithfully preserved. These remains, Mr. Bazeley added, were those of the 
villa urbana, or the residence of the proprietor of the estate ; the villa 
ruatica, or farm, was still unexcavated, and he hoped that at some future 
time Mrs. Dent would allow them to open it. 

Roman Villa at Spoonley. 209 

Professor MlDDLETON then gave a lucid address on Roman Domestic 
Architecture, with especial reference to the points of difference between that 
in England and that in Italy. He said much had been written about the 
Roman house as if there were one tixed type of plan ; but this was a mistake. 
There was really an endless variety, determined by considerations of site, 
surroundings, cost of ground, and whether the house was situated in town 
or country. The Romans adapted their buildings with great practical skill to 
different requirements, and thus a different house was needed in a very rainy 
country where cold lasts longer than in Italy. In Britain the climate affected 
the plan of the house, as seen in the absence of the Atrium or open Peristyle. 
The windows were universally glazed (in Italy not always), and a more 
extensive use of hypocausts and flue-tiles was needed to warm the rooms. 
For fuel, coal was, in some cases, though rarely, used as well as wood, 
especially near the Forest of Dean. Another important point of difference 
was that of materials In Italy the Romans used pozzolaua, which made a 
cement concrete like solid stone ; in this country, that material not being 
available, the walls were not made of concrete, but of rubble frequently, 
with lacing courses of brick. Vaults were rarer, and there were more wood 
floors. Upper storeys seem always to have been built, often of wood, which 
was plentiful in Britain, and half-timbered work was used much like that of 
medieval houses. The roofs in Italy were usually tiled, or, in costly build- 
ings covered with marble or bronze ; here they were more commonly covered 
with the so-called Stonefield slate, fastened with large iron nails. The 
hypocausts, owing to the lack of pozzolaua, were made either with pike very 
closely set, or simply a series of flues ran horizontally through the concrete 
mass of the floor. Marble was very little employed, though in temples in 
the south of Britain blocks of white Luna marble did occur, and at Silchester 
the Basilica had crustoz of white marble. As a rule, however, there was no 
marble, and so mosaics of similar design to those in Italy were made with 
tessera; of red clay, blue lias, and brown and white limestone. Glass tessene 
did not occur in Britain as a rule. The water supply and baths of the 
Roman-British houses were influenced by the fact of lead being much more 
plentiful in Britain than in Italy, as well as water. The pipes were not 
made of clay or stone, but of very thick lead. Water was laid on to upper 
floors, and in streets a central main was laid down, with rising mains 
branching right and left. The hot baths were sometimes lined with lead of 
great thickness as illustrated by the plates found in the great bath at 
Bath, which the Corporation of that place were barbarous enough to sell 
as old metal. The lead was obtained from mines in the Mendip hills, 
in Shropshire, and Cornwall. As in Italy, the cold baths were lined with 
opus signinum, made of lime and pounded pottery. Amid the differences 
thus described, the methods of decoration in Roman houses generally were 
the same. Mosaics with exactly similar patterns were found in examples 
in Italy, Greece, Africa, Gaul, and Britain. The painting and stucco 
reliefs were also of the same character, only perhaps in mouldings of stone 
and in sculpture a local rudeness was sometimes observable. The general 
plan of Roman towns in Britain was often modelled on a military castrum 
Gloucester and Chichester are examples of this, in which wc still sec the four 
main streets in the centre, where in mediaeval times the cross was erected. 
Turning from the general subject of his notes to that of the villa at Spoonley, 

210 Transactions fok the Year 1SS9-90. 

the Professor said it was quite impossible to mark out the special purpose to 
which each room was applied, but doubtless the sleeping apartments were 
upstairs. In the middle of the central block was the Tablinum and the winter 
triclinium : near it was the kitchen, and a great part of one of the wings was 
taken up by hot and cold baths. From the mouldings on the capitals he 
should be inclined to believe that the date of the villa was not before 200 ; 
it might have been earlier than that, but probably it was not older than 
the time of Severus. The sincere thanks of all antiquaries are due both to 
Mrs. Dent and Mr. Bazeley for the money and care that have been expended 
on the excavation of this most interesting Roman house, and the very suc- 
cessful measures which they have taken for its future preservation. 

At the conclusion of this address, the visitors inspected the carefully- 
preserved pavement, and the collection of Roman pottery, coins, and other 
relics, which had been found in the excavation, and which Mrs. Dent had 
caused to be brought from Sudeley Castle expressly for the occasion. Before 
leaving, the President, in the name of the Society, thanked the Lady of 
Sudeley for her kind and courteous reception, and added, that possibly on 
some future occasion they might revisit Spoonley, to inspect the villa rustica, 
which had yet to be opened. Mrs. Dent replied that she had been most 
pleased to welcome the Society, and she should be delighted if the members 
came, each with a spade, to continue the excavations : if they did so she 
would provide the bread and cheese, and they might be rewarded for their 
pains by some discovery of importance. 

In great good humour the antiquaries retraced their steps through the 
tangled albeit particularly sloppy wood, to Waterhatch farm, where the 
brakes were in waiting for them. Owing, however, to the hilly nature of 
the road for a couple of miles or so, a considerable amount of pedestrian 
exercise had to be taken before the drive could be fairly resumed. A great 
deal of time was thus lost, and as the party, by the kind invitation of Mrs. 
Dobell, were to have afternoon tea at 

Whittington Court 
at five o'clock, one feature of the programme was of necessity omitted. This 
was regretted, as the members were unavoidably deprived of the pleasure of 
a visit to Sevenhampton Church, upon which the Rev. J. Melland Hall, for- 
merly vicar of the parish, was to have read a paper. The paper will, however, 
appear in due course in the printed Transactions, so that it will not be lost 
to the Society. At Whittington Court a cordial and hospitable welcome was 
extended by Mr. and Mrs. Dobell, and, after tea, the visitors inspected the 
adjacent church, where they were received by the rector, the Rev. A. C. 
Lawrence. The church, though small, and by so called restoration consider- 
ably modernised in general appearance, contains elements of antiquity and 
interest. The objects which principally attracted the notice of the archae- 
ologists were the two recumbent effigies now at the west end, concerning 
which Mr. Albert Hartshorne has some notes in his Paper on Monumental 
Effigies in the neighbourhood of Cheltenham, printed in the fourth volume 
of the Transactions of the Society. The effigies are of stone, and of the early 
part of the 14th century ; the armorial bearings on their shields showing 
them to represent members of the ancient family of Crupes. The Roll of 
Arms of Peers and Knights in the reign of Edw. II. gives the arms of this 

Whittington Coukt. 211 

family thus : — " Sir Richard de Crupes, de argent a vi muscles de youles e un 
label de azure.'" Fusils, however, and not mascles, are shown on the shield, 
which was doubtless a blunder on the part of the local sculptor. The effigies 
represent Richard de Crupes, who died in 1278, and his son of the same 
name who was living in 1316. Richard de Crupes possessed the manor of 
Whittington in the time of Henry III., and had a grant of markets, fairs, 
and free warren here in 1256. The grant was allowed in the proceedings on 
a writ of quo warranto in 15th Edward I., and the family appear to have 
flourished at Whittington until the middle of the 14th century. A peculiarity 
about these effigies, remarks Mr. Hartshorne, is an extra protection or facing 
over the brow and temples. They both exhibit surcotes of great length, 
hauberks and quilted gambesons, and are carved with much freedom and 
simplicity. In Whittington church also there is a stone effigy of no great 
merit, of a lady wearing a gown and wimple, probably the wife of one of the 
men. The visitors having examined with much interest the church and 
effigies again took their places in the vehicles and returned to Cheltenham 
with the consciousness that they had had an enjoyable though long and 
fatiguing day. 

THURSDAY, ISth July, 1S89. 

The concluding meeting of the Society was held at the Municipal Offices on 
Thursday morning, the President in the chair. Votes of thanks were given 
to the Mayor and Corporation for the use of the Council Chamber, and to 
the Local Committee, and especially to Mr. G. B. Witts, the Local Hon. 
Secretary, for the excellent arrangements made for the meeting. Mr. Witts, 
in responding, said he must share the honours with Mr. E. Wethered, and 
further said they had by no means exhausted the examination of the anti- 
quities of Cheltenham and the district. If the Society paid another visit to 
the town he should be pleased to arrange for another three days' meeting of 
a totally different district from the places now visited. Thanks were also 
accorded to the Rev. J. G. Day, Rev. B. P. Hemming, Rev. G. E. Webster, 
Rev. A. C. Lawrence, Rev. W. R. Coxwell-Rogers, and the Rev. the Hon. 
G. G. C. Talbot, Rector of Withington, for the facilities afforded by them in 
allowing the membei s to visit their respective churches, and for the infor- 
mation imparted on those occasions ; also to Mr. and Mrs. Gibbons and Mr. 
and Mrs. Dobell for their hospitable receptions at Boddington Manor and 
Whittington Court ; to the tenant of Stoke Orchard Manor House, to Rev. 
J. T. C, Stacey, Mrs. Evans, Mrs. Dent, and Lord Eldon for the privilege of 
visiting Southam House, Postlip Hall, and the Roman Villas in Spoonley 
Wood and Chedworth ; to Professor Middleton, Mr. G. B. Witts, and the 
Rev. William Bazeley, for their assistance as guides ; and to Mr. Gibbons, 
Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, Professor Middleton, Mr. R. Taylor, and the Rev. J. 
Melland Hall, for having prepared Papers. 

It was agreed that next annual Summer Meeting of the Society shall be 
held at Bristol, under the Presidency of Dr. Beddoe, F.R.S., and it Mas 
announced that arrangements were being made for a Meeting in September 
next at Chepstow, to include a visit to the old Bishop's Palace at Matherne 
and the Roman City of Caerwent, the latter one of the two advanced posts 
in the country of the bihues. 

212 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

On the motion of Sir Brook Kay, Bart., seconded by Mr. R. V. Vassar- 
Smith, a further vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Agg-Gardner for the 
courteous and able manner in which he had presided at the meetings. 

Mr. Agc-Gardner, in acknowledging it, said that it was much more 
healthy and instructive amusement to visit the breezy Cotswolds in company 
with intellectual Mends than to be in "another place" where he would 
otherwise have found himself listening to the somewhat dry and uninterest- 
ing discusions which there took place. 

Punctually at 10.15 a party numbering about 140 left the Plough Hotel 
yard in brakes, en rout" for Dowdeswell and Withington, and the Roman 
Villa at Chedworth. The first halt was made at 

Dowdeswell Church. 
where the party was met by the Rector, the Rev. W. Coxwell-Rogers, who 
read a brief account of the parish church, written several years ago by the 
late Mr. S. H. Gael. Of the parish Mr. Gael says : " In a country of Wells — 
Owdswell, Sandiwell, Colwell (Colnwell), Whitewell, Isinwell, Elwell— is 
situate the village of Dowdeswell, Fons Dodonis of the ancient charters. 
Owdswell was the Fons Odonis ; and these names call back Odo and Dodo, 
Mercian chieftains of note, and founders of the Abbey of Tewkesbury, some 
years before the Norman Conquest, with whom these two places are said 
to have been in some way connected, though the connection may be fanciful 
from mere resembance of sound. However that may be, if in those early 
days there gathered near Dodo's well a tribe of herdsman, to tend their sheep 
and swine on the adjacent forests and widespread uplands, it is more likely 
that the Tabernacle for their Worship would be wooden, a material corres- 
ponding to the scene of their occupation, than the substantial stone edifice 
now existing. And it is noteworthy that the name, ' Oaken Church Hay,' 
is still attached to a spot at the western edge of Dowdeswell Wood, close 
to one of those primitive tracks — the packway." 

"Dowdeswell Church," Mr. Gael says, "is indeed in its main features 
a post-Reformation structure. An earlier Chapel there doubless was, for 
the living, though a Rectory, was a Chapel to the great Church of Withing- 
ton, a peculiar jurisdiction of the See of Worcester. Remains within the 
Church (Brasses, &c), and without, the Sculptured Stones representing 
Zechariah's Golden Seven-branch Candlestick ; the Lamb bound for the 
slaughter ; &c. , lately dug up on the site, and now re-set, medallion-wise, 
in the new-built walls, testify to an earlier building. Moreover, the South 
Porch, though its handsome Tudor Arch is of a late style, has traces of a 
piscina, and the South Window of the Nave is lancet-headed and earlier. 
But the Chancel, Nave, and Transepts (the Church being cruciform) are of 
similar height and character ; the Parochial Records preserve the date when 
the Tower and its Spire (1575), and when the South Transept (1630), were 
built by, and at the charges of, the Possessors of the Estates of Upper 
Dowdeswell (Abyngton), and the Lower Dowdeswell (Rogers). 

The chancel has a Perpendicular window, almost round-headed, now 
removed to the North transept gable, in displacement of a square-headed 
Tudor Window, like those still in the East and West walls of that transept. 
These and the design of the internal arches of the tower, show a general 
conformity of construction in re-construction in style, and not far apart, and 
all late. 


The West window of the South transept is of a form which occurs in the 
North and South sides of Whitftngton Church (the next parish). These 
latter, it may be inferred from a monumental inscription to a rector there — 
Dr. Ingram, who died in 1756 — were inserted by him. The gable window of 
the South transept is also of this style. Instead of tracery, its head, 
externally, has arcaded mouldings in relief, and it is square within. A 
conjecture may be hazarded that these details are due, in design and perhaps 
in execution, to the masons of the noble, classic Tudor edifice of the neigh- 
bourhood — Whittington Court. The West window is of debased style, and 
good, though recent, workmanship. 

The tower contains three bells. It has plain, round-headed, louvre 
openings on its sides ; from a cant on it, rises the octagonal spire, which is 
brought to the square by bold broaches. It has four sharp-pitched dormers 
midway up, and a rose finial, surmouuted with a cross and vane. The 
whole interior is effectively thrown together by the four arches of the tower, 
which are comparatively lofty. The belfry floor is supported by a ribbed- 
fan vaulting. The font is of stone, octagonal in shape, with quartre-foil 
panels. There is an organ — a modern instrument of great power and com- 
pass. 1 As to the monuments, &c. ; on a flat stone in the floor is a brass effigy 
of an ecclesiastic, without any scroll to denote name or date, but in two of 
corners are brass plates, representing two of the evangelistic symbols. There 
is another such plate detached, and probably there was a fourth, now miss- 
ing.- This, and two adjacent flat stones are of the sandstone formation, 
and consequently were brought from a distance. 

There is also a flat stone in the South transept, with an incised cross, on 
a pedestal of early date, but withont inscription. These are relics of the old 
chapel. The monuments of later dates exhibit, perhaps, more than usual 
varieties of taste and style of form and epitaph. A yew tree in the church- 
yard, described by Bigland as " of primeval date, and in a state of very 
flourishing vegetation," flourishes still, and as Mr. Gael says " may see. the 
decay of some generations yet to come." 

Dowdeswell Camp was the next place to have been visited, but want of 
time prevented it, and a pleasant drive brought the party to 

Withixgtox Church, 
from the bells of which the ringers sent out a hearty peal. The Vicar, the 
Rev. the Hon. G. <J. C. Talbot, met the party, and pointed to two or three 
interesting features of the church, and then Prof. Middleton kindly acceded 
to a request made him, and made some remarks thereon. The structure was 
restored some sixteen or seventeen years ago. The church, Prof. Middleton 
said, is an exceptionally interesting one, and has in many respects followed 
the rule of development commonly seen in English parish churches. It was 
originally a small Norman church consisting simply of a nave and chancel, 
and was built about 1160, as evidenced by the extreme richness of the 

1 This has now been removed and replaced by a harmonium. 

2 The loose one is now lost, as is also the inscription. The Brass is mentioned bj 
Haines, who assigns to it the date cir. 1520, and is more fully described in Mr. Cecil l)a\ is's 
"Gloucestershire Brasses," No. liv. The figure is said to be habited in processional vest- 
ments : viz., a long flowing; cassock reaching to the ground, entirely concealing the feet, a 
full plaited surplice rather shorter, with immense sleeves, around the neck the almucc, and 
over all a cope fastened across the breast by a square morse.— En. 

214 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

mouldings of the south door. Early in the 13th century the chancel seems 
to have been extended and the central tower partly rebuilt. In the 14th 
century the upper part of the beautiful central tower was built and the 
south transept, which contains a beautiful decorated window, added. An 
unusual feature is that early in 13th century the chevron moulding of a 
round arch was re-used in the construction of a pointed arch in the north 
wall of the chancel. A clerestory and large west window date from the 15th 
century ; a rare feature is to be seen on the north side of the chancel, where 
there is a recess made to hold a small lead cistern, which unfortunately is 
not in its original position and was probably altered when moved. The 
water was drawn off from the little cistern in the recess by a pipe and tap. 
The carved stone boss, witli a central hole through which the pipe passed, 
still exists. In monastic churches these little cistern-recesses are not un- 
common, but in parish churches they are very rare. A very similar example 
is to be seen in the north wall of the sanctuary of Highworth church in 
Wiltshire. The use of this supply of water was probably for the washing 
of the chalice, paten and other sacred vessels. In the churchyard is a grave- 
stone to the memory of Mrs. Horlick, who died about a century ago, and 
upon which is the following quaint inscription : — 

In January ninety-one 

She was delivered of a son, 

And after that her time was short, 

Before this world she did depart, 

A husband young- she left behind 

For another wife to find 

As good as she — he wished no more 

Until his fleeting life was o'er ; 

And then in hope to meet again 

In Heaven, in the happy train, 

Chedworth Roman Villa 
was reached about one o'clock, and the party at once made their way to a 
marquee wherein a substantial luncheon, liberally provided by the President, 
awaited them. After the repast, the company drank to the health of 
the Queen, and then Sir Brook Kay gave the toast of "Our President," 
enumerating the services Mr. Agg-Gardner had rendered to the Society, and 
thanking him for the elegant feast, a feast, he said, which the Roman resi- 
dents might have envied. " The Secretaries— general and local," was given 
by the chairman. A vote of thanks having been passed to Lord Eldon for 
allowing the Society to visit the villa, the compauy adjourned to the open 
air to listen to a general description of it by Prof. Middleton. 

Standing on the doorstep of the Roman bath, and addressing the company 
standing or reclining on the greensward before him, Prof. Middleton first 
made some general observations on the villa, which he said is one of the 
most characteristic examples of the difference between the construction of 
Roman buildings in Italy and in Britain. It consisted of a large quadrangle 
surrounded by what resembled very much the mediaeval cloister. Unfor- 
tunately, in England the Romans were unable to rind that very fine cement 
they had in Italy, and they had here to use wood instead of concrete in the 
construction of the upper stories, and hence only the portions being preserved. 
In Rome there are still three or four of these houses left, one, the house of 
the Vestals, being in most respects far more like a villa of British con- 
struction than those usually built in Italy, the reason being that it was 

Chedworth Roman Villa. 215 

erected for six ladies who, presumably from their chilly disposition, had to 
be housed in a building constructed on the plan followed in the colder 
atmosphere of Britain. The house of the Vestals, which adjoins the Forum, 
is one of the most perfect Roman houses that has been discovered, and is 
strikingly like the Chedworth villa, though about double the size, while the 
quadrangle is made of two squares instead of one, and running round the 
building are columns of marble instead of the stone which, by force of 
circumstances, was used in Britain. On the ground floor were the ordinary 
sitting-rooms, kitchens, and bath-rooms, the bed-rooms (as in all Roman 
buildings) being upstairs. The handsome staircases are all lined with 
marble, and each of the Vestals appears to have had a separate suite of 
rooms. The Vestals were not allowed to have the usual water supply laid 
on, for religious reasons, these sacred priestesses not being allowed to use 
such comparatively modern inovations as leaden pipes. Passing on to details 
of the villa at Chedworth, the Professor said the first special point of con- 
struction worthy of notice is the characteristic mosaic, red clay having to 
be used for red marble, and various coloured limestones for the other 
colours, all being laid carefully on three distinct layers of concrete. Another 
skilful piece of construction, of which there is an example here, is the man- 
ner in which the Romans lined their baths, in cases where they did not use 
lead, with a composition made up of broken pottery, lime, and sand, which 
resisted well the action of water. A third point to note is that the walls 
here were built in the characteristic British way and quite unlike the houses 
in Italy ; the fine natural cement before alluded to not being available, they 
were composed of a sort of rubble made of soft oolite which had not withstood 
the ravages of time very well. The fourth point of note is the very inter- 
esting roof tiles, which are characteristic of England and unlike those in 
Italy — stones made of Stonesfield slate. The next feature of interest is the 
very well-preserved hypocausts or hollow floors under •which the hot air 
from the furnaces spread to heat the rooms above. There is a great differ- 
ence between the Italian and British construction of these, which depends 
again on the absence of the fine cement. In Britain a number of small 
supporting pillars had to be used, whereas in Italy these were often dis- 
pensed with altogether, the builders relying entirely on the strength of the 
cement for the support of the floor. In many cases even large upper 
rooms had a flat concrete floor, which was practically like one immense 
slab of stone, needing no support except at its edges, and thus exerting 
no side thrust on the walls as an arched vault would have done. In 
Britain " contignationes " or wooden floors were mainly used for the upper 

Breaking up into four sections, under the guidance of Prof. Middleton, 
Rev. W. Bazeley, Mr. Witts, and Mr. Wethered, the party went on a round 
of inspection. Particular attention was directed to the building in the 
corner in which is a small pond. The late Canon Lysons contended that 
this was a baptistery, while others ridicule the idea of religious associations, 
and aver that it was simply a fish-pond. Mr. Bazeley, however, expressed 
his opinion that the building was originally a heathen temple, and that a 
subsequent resident of the villa was a Christian, and used the building as a 

At 4.30 the brakes were re-entered, and Cheltenham was reached about 
6 o'clock, thus closing what was unanimously voted a day of unalloyed 


Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 


(Jfyra&attDns of tije Human 






To Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., &c. 


Sir William V. Guise, Bart. 



G. E. Lloyd Baker, Esq. 


Rev. C. S. Taylor 


Francis James, Esq. 


John Walker, Esq. 


Rev. Prebendary Scarth - 



A. H. Paul, Esq. 


C. Bowley, Esq. 



Rev. David Royce 


Robert Taylor, Esq. 


Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. 




Sir Brook Kay, Bart. 



W. P. Price, Esq. 



Sir John Dorington, Bart., M.P. 



Thomas Rome, Esq. 


W. C. Heane, Esq. 



A. T. Martin, Esq. 



Rev. J. M. Lamb 



S. H. Swayne, Esq. 



John Bush, Esq. 




E. A. Hudd, Esq. 


F. F. Tuckett, Esq. 


W. E. George, Esq. 



G. W. Keeling, 



C. P. Stewart, Esq. 


W. H. Harford, Esq. 




R. Randall, Esq. 


Rev. H. L. Thompson 


R. A. Charleton, Esq. 


Rev. James L. Peach 


E. Hartland, Esq. 


W. C. Lucy, Esq. 


Rev. G. D. Bourne 


T. S. Bush, Esq. 



Edward Bush, Esq. 



Lord Sherborne 



. 4 

P. i). Prankerd, Esq. 


£ s. 




1 1 





1 1 



1 1 


1 1 






] 1 




1 1 










2 2 










I 1 




£35 5 

Excavations of the Roman Villa, Tockington Park. 



©ilia, Cockington Park. 

Per Contra. 

By Travelling Expenses to and from Tockington Park 
Petty Expenses, Postage, &c. 
Wages of Excavators 

Mr. Smith for rilling up the Excavation by agree- 
ment - 
Donation to Mr. Smith by the Council - 
















By Balance carried forward 

12 13 9 

£35 5 

218 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

<B?):ca&att0tt8 of tljt lomau 


1888 Balance brought forward from last year - £12 13 9 


£ s. 


May 8 

To Sir W. F. G. Guise, Bart. 


1 1 


Collected by Mr. A. T. Martin 





R. A. Charleton, Esq. 



May 24 

Rev. F. J. Poynton 



June 22 

P. D. Prankerd, Esq. 


1 1 


Sir Brook Kay, Bart. 


1 10 


Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., &c. 


1 1 

July 4 

Robert Taylor, Esq. 


2 2 


W. H. Harford, Esq. 




Rev. S. E. Bartleet 




F. F. Tuckett, Esq. 



Society of Antiquaries 


5 5 





Right Rev. Bishop Twells 



Profits of Meeting at Tockington, 

on Oct. 18th, 





£37 8 11 

Excavations of the Roman- Villa, Tockington Park. 219 

mm, oujcKtnpm 


Per Contra. 


By Travelling Expenses 


£ s. d. 
17 6 

Wages of Excavators 


17 10 4 

1889 Ditto - 


4 16 3 

Travelling Expenses- 



By Balance paid the Treasurer in aid of Hi titrations 
Certified, JOHN MACLEAN. 

13 4 10 
£37 8 11 












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Lelakd ik Gloucestershire. 


John Leland, the Father of English Antiquaries, from whose 
celebrated Itinerary the following compilation has been made, was 
born in London about the beginning of the 16th century, and was 
educated at St. Paul's School, Christ Church College, Cambridge, 
and All Souls' College, Oxford. Subsequently he resided for some 
time in France, where he is said to have become an accomplished 
linguist. How he was introduced to the notice of Henry VIII. 
is unknown, but in the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
for 1528, amongst the items under "Quarters wages due at 
Christmas," is the following: — "For Sir John Leylonde's Exhib- 
ition, 25s.," and the same item occurs in March, 1529. * The 
pension then disappears, but on the 17th June, 1530, Leland, who 
had probably returned from France, was presented by the King 
to the rectory of Peppeling in the Marches of Calais, 2 although, 
as will presently be seen, he had not then received ordination as 
a deacon. As his name appears in a lengthy list of courtiers who 
received New Year's gifts of plate from the King in January, 
1533, 3 he was doubtless in the royal service, and may already 
have been, as he soon afterwards certainly was, the palace libra- 
rian. In the following May he co-operated with Nicholas Udal 
in composing " divers verses," Latin and English, which were 
recited before Anne Boleyn, in the London pageant in honour 
of her coronation. Yet in the Vatican Registers, dated three 
months later, is a record of a dispensation of Pope Clement VII. 
for John Leyland, B.A., rector of Pippeling, to hold as many as 
four benefices, not exceeding a total value of 1000 ducats, 
" leaving him within the next seven years to take priest's orders, 
provided he takes sub-deacon's orders within the first two." 4 
Tins remarkable dispensation must have been applied for in view 

1 Calendar, Vol. V., 305, 31S. - Ibid., Vol. IV., 2919. 

* Ibid., Vol. VI., 14. 4 Ibid., Vol. VI., 682. 

Vol. XIV. y 

222 Transactions for the Ykar 1889-90. 

of the prolonged inquiry which Leland was authorised to make 
about the same date, by a Commission under the Great Seal, 
appointing him the King's Antiquary, and empowering him, 
according to his own expression, to investigate " England's Anti- 
quities, and to diligently search all the libraries of monasteries 
and colleges of this realm, to the intent that the monuments 
of ancient writers might be brought out of deadly darkness to 
lively light." 1 That little time was lost in commencing this task 
is proved by a letter from Sir George Lawson, Treasurer of Ber- 
wick, to Cromwell, dated June, 1534, in which the writer 
mentions an incident that had just occurred whilst he was " walk- 
iug with Master Leylond in the Cathedral Church of York." 2 
Some difficulty may afterwards have arisen respecting Leland's 
non-residence in France, for in July, 1536, Henry VIII. granted 
him a dispensation to absent himself from Peppeling "at his 
pleasure. 3 Nevertheless, from some cause unexplained, the anti- 
quary was prevented from prosecuting his travels during the next 
two or three years, since it is clear that nearly all his obser- 
vations were noted down after the suppression of the greater 
monasteries. And in his " JSTewe Yeares Gyfte" to his royal 
master, presented in 1546, Leland states that his itinerary had 
been made "by the space of these vi. yeres past," fixing its 
commencement in 1540. How thoroughly he had executed his 
commission is best shown by his own statement. " Al my other 
Occupations intermitted, I have so travelid yn yowr Dominions 
boothe by the Se Costes and the midle Partes, sparing nother Labor 
nor Costes, that there is almoste nother Cape, nor Bay, Haven, 
Creke or Peere, River or Confluence of Rivers, Brechis, Waschis, 
Lakes, Meres, Fenny Waters, Montaynes, Valleis, Mores, Hethes, 
Forestes, Chases, Woodes, Cities, Burges, Castelles, principale 
Manor Placis, Monasteries, and Colleges, but I have seene them ; 
and notyd yn so doing a hole Worlde of thinges very memorable." 

Leland went on to promise the King, " if God sende me Life 

to accomplische my Beginninges," a map of England engraved on 

a table of silver, and a civil history and topographical description 

1 Newe Yeares Gyfte, Hearne's Edition, Vol. I., xviii. 
a Cal., Vol. VII., (J37. a Life, 10. 

Lelaxd in Gloucestershire. 223 

of the kingdom, to which were to be added six books on the 
adjacent islands, and three books more containing royal and noble 
genealogies from the Saxon times downwards. To carry out this 
purpose he retired to his private house in London, intending to 
digest the mass of materials he had collected. But the death of 
Henry VIII., a few months later, was a heavy blow to the zealous 
antiquary, for the rapacious men who assumed power had no 
sympathy with his labours, deprived him, it is said, of the stipend 
he had hitherto received, and inspired him with anxiety respect- 
ing the security of his manuscripts. He fell, in consequence, into 
a depressed state of mind, which i*esulted soon afterwards in a 
mental alienation from which he never recovered. He died on 
the 18th April, 1552. He held at his death his first preferment 
near Calais, the rectory of Haseley, Oxfordshire, and the prebend 
of East and West Knowle in Salisbury Cathedral. 

Much interest was immediately felt in the antiquary's manu- 
scripts, and offers to purchase them were made to his brother and 
heir. But Edward VI. gave instructions that they should be 
taken into the custody of his able tutor, Sir John Cheek, who 
intended to digest and publish them, but was prevented by the 
troubled state of the country. Sir John afterwards gave four 
folio volumes of the papers (the Collectanea) to a Mr. Purefoy, 
one of Queen Elizabeth's councillors. The rest were dispersed 
into many hands, but a portion was re gathered by Sir Robert 
Cotton, and forms part of the varied treasures of the British 
Museum. Another portion, including eight volumes of the 
Itinerary, was recovered by William Burton, the eminent Leices- 
tershire antiquary, who, after obtaining the four volumes already 
mentioned from Mr. Purefoy's son, eventually presented nearly 
the whole to the Bodleian Library. The eighth volume of the 
Itinerary, which had been lent by Burton to a friend, was pre- 
sented to that library long after his death. Unfortunately, in the 
course of their wanderings, the papers, and especially the Itin- 
erary, had suffered so greatly from damp and neglect that they 
threatened to perish altogether. Burton had taken the precau- 
tion to get a copy taken of the damaged parts, including many 

pages which have since been lost, and luckilv a still earlier 
Q 2 

224 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

transcript of five volumes of the Itinerary, made by John Stowe, 
the historian of London, within about 24 years of Leland's death, 
was also brought to light. Aided by these and other documents, 
the laborious Thomas Hearne edited the first printed edition of 
the Itinerary, which appeared in 1710-12, in nine small volumes. 
A second edition, carefully revised, was published in 1745, and a 
third in 1768-70. Copies of all these issues are now very rare, 
and are beyond the reach of all but wealthy collectors. 

In the following extracts relating to Gloucestershire the 
original text has been faithfully followed. An attempt has been 
made to collect the scattered fragments, which are very numerous, 
so as to bring together all that relates to each locality ; but the 
notes respecting Sodbury have defied this arrangement. Nothing 
has been added save the headings in capitals, denoting the cities, 
market towns, &c, and a few observations placed within brackets. 

The date of Leland's visit, or visits, for he seems to have been 
twice in Gloucestershire, cannot be accurately fixed. As he 
speaks of the "cathedrals" of Gloucester and Bristol, the earliest 
journey must have been subsequent to 1541. There are, it will 
be observed, several repetitions and some contradictory passages 
in the rough notes of the traveller, which would doubtless have 
been removed if he had lived to accomplish his great undertaking. 
The object of this paper being to place before the reader a literal 
transcript of the manuscript, it has been deemed undesirable to 
make any alteration in the text. 

Vol. ii., p. 47, et seq. 

From Faring ton onto S. John's- Bridge of 3. Arches of Stone 
and a Causey a 3. Miles dim. al by low grownd, and subject to 
the overfiowinges of lsis. 

I lerned that Northlech-hroke, that cummith after to Estleche, 
enterith into lsis a litle byneth S. John's- Jiridg. 

This Northlech Water cummith from North to South. 

Northlech is a praty uplandisch Toune viij. Miles from S. John's- 
Bridg by North. Estleche is a 5. Miles lower, both set ripa citer. 
as I cam. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 225 

As I rode over Isis I lernid that ulta. lipa was in Glocestre- 
shir, and citerior and [in] Barkshir, and Oxfordshir not far of. 

At the very ende of S. John's- Bridge in ripa idteriori on the 
right Hond I saw a Chapelle in a Medow, and greate Enclosures 
of stone Waulles. 

Heere was in hominum memoria a Priory of Blake Chanons of 
the Patronage of the Duke of Clarance or York. When this 
Priory was suppressid there were 3. Cantuaries erectid in the 
Chirch of Lechelade ; and ther remaynid ontylle of late dayes one 
Undrewoode, Decane of Wallinyforde founde Meanes that 2. of 
these Cantuaries should be at Wallingford-College, and the third 
to remaine at Lechelade. 

From 6'. John's-Bridge to Lechelade about half a Mile, it is a 
praty olde Village, and hath a pratie pyramid of Stone, at the 
West Ende of the Chirch. 

From Lechelade to Fairford about a 4. Miles al by low ground, 
in a maner in a levelle, most apt for grasse, but very barein of 

Fairford is a praty uplandisch Toune, and much of it longith 
with the Personage to Teivhesbyri-Ahhay. 

There is a fair Mansion Place of the Tames hard by the Chirch 
Yarde, buildid thoroughly by John Tame and Edmunde Tame. 
The bakside whereof goith to the very Bridg of Fairford. 

Fairford never florishid afore the Cumming of the Tames onto it. 

John Tame began the fair new Chirch of Fairforde, and 
Edmunde Tame finishid it. 

[In Vol. iv., p. 30, amongst a quantity of miscellaneous notes 
referring to all parts of England, is the following: — " Mr. Ferrars 
told me that one of the Tames did make the fair Chirch of Fair- 
ford a litle above S. Johns Bridge on Ise." In another set of 
disjointed jottings, Vol. vi., p. 17, we find : — " The Elder House 
of the Tames is at Stowel by Northleche in Glouc. shire. Mr. 
Home of Oxfordshire dwelling by Langeley hath married this Tame 
Doughter and Heir, and shaul have by her a 80. li. Lande by the 
Yere. Syr Edmunde Tame of Fairford up by Crelcelade cam oute of 
the House of Tame of Stowel, Tame that is now at Fairford hath 

226 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

be maried a xii. Yere and hath no Childe. Wherefore be likeli- 
hod Syr Humfre Stafford, Sun to old Staford of Northamptonshire 
is likely to have the Landes of Tame of Fairforde. For he maried 
his Sister. And so the name of the Tames is like sore to decay."] 
Both John and Edmund ly buried in a Chappelle of the Noi'th- 
side of Fairford Quier. 

Epitaph : Joannis Tame. 
Orate pro animabus Joannis Tame armigeri <fc Alicife uxoris 
ejus, qui quidem Joannes obiit 8. die Mensis Maij, a D. 1500, d an 
regni Regis Henrici 7. 16° Et prcedicta Alicia obiit 20. die Mensis 
Decembris, An° D. 1471. 

Epitaph : Edmundi Tame. 

Hie jaeet Edmundus Tame miles, Sf Agnes & Elizabeth uxores 
ejus, qui quidem Edmundus obiit primo die Octobr. a° D. 1534. <& 
a° regis Henr. 8. 26. 

Fairford Water risith a 5. Miles North North West from Fair- 
ford, and after rennith about a Mile lower thorough Welleford 
Village, and about a Mile lower as it were betwixt Welleford and 
S. John's Bridge goith into Isis. 

The streame oilsis lyith from S. John's Bridge thus upward : 

From S. John-Bridge to Lechlad more than half a Mile. 
[Cricklade and other parts of Wilts follow.] 

From Fairford to Pulton about a 2. Miles dim. Going out of 

Fairford I passid over the Water, wher is a Bridg of 4. Stone 


[Account of Pulton Priory, Wilts, follows.] 

Pulton-Hek about a Mile beneth Pulton goith at a Mille a litle 
above Doimamney into Amney Streame. 

From Pulton toward Amney Villag I passid over Amney Water, 
and so to Amney Village, leving it on the right hand. 

Amney Brook risith a litle above Amney Toune by North out 
of a Rok: and goith a 3. Miles of or more to Douneamney, wher Syr 
Antony Hungreford hath a fair House of Stone ripa ulter. 

Amney goith into Isis a Mile beneth Dounamney again Xunne 
Eiton in Wilshir. 

From Pulton to Cireneestre a 4 Miles. 

Lelaxd in Gloucestershire 227 

Cirencestre stondith on Churne Ryver. 

Churncestre caullid in Latine Coriminum. 

Ther was afore the Conquest a fair and riche College of 
Prebendaries in this Toune ; but of what Saxon's Foundation no 

man can telle. 

Henry the first made this College an Abbay of Chanons 
Regulares, giving them the Landes of the Prebendaries totally, 
and sum other Thinges. Rumbaldus, Chauncelar to King Edward 
the Confessor, was Dene of this House, and buried in the Body of 
the Chirch, as it apperith by the Epitaphy on his Tumbe. 

The Est Parte of the Chirch of Cirencestre- Abbay shewith to 
be of a very old Building. The West Part from the Transeptum 
is but new Work to speke of. King Richard the first gave to 
Cirencestre the Cortes and Perquisites of 7. Hundredes therabout 
yn Glocestreshir. 

The Landes of Cimicest re- Abbay litle augmentid sins the 
Tyme of the Fundation by Henry the first. 

There ly 2. Noble Men of S. Awandes buried withyn the 
Presbyterie of Cirencestre- Abbay Chirch. 

And there is buried the Hart of Sentia, wife to Eichard King 
of Romains, and Erie of Comwalle. 

Serlo first Abbate of Cirencestre. 1 

This Serlo made his Brother Prior of Bradene-stoke. 

Ther were xxviij or xxix Abbates of Cirencestre after Serlo. 

M r Blake the last Abbate buildid 2. Fulling Milles at Ciren- 
cestre that cost a 700. Markes of Mony. They be wonderfully 
necessary, by cause the Toun standith alle by Clothing. 

There hath bene 3. Paroche Chirchis in Cirencestre, whereof 
S. Cecilia Chirch is clene down, it was of late but a Chapelle. 
S. Laurence yet stondith, but as no Paroch Chirch. Ther be 2. 
poor Almose Women endowid with Landes. 

Ther is now but one Paroch Chirch in al Cirencestre : but that 
is very fair. 

The body of the Chirch is al new Work, to the which Ruthal, 
Bishop of Duresme, borne and brought up in Cirencestre, promisid 
much, but preventid with Deth gave nothing. 

1 Marginal Note :— " Serlo Decanus Seve/iana 1 Eccl. fit abbas Coriuitnsi*. 

228 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

One Alice Aveling, Aunt to Bishop Ruihal by the Mother side, 
gave an Hundreth Markes to the Building of the right goodly 
Povche of the Paroch Chirch. 

And Mother contributid and other to the Perfor- 
ment of it. 

Alexander Necham, a great Clerk and Abbate of Cirencestre, 
buried in the Entring of the Cloister of Wiccestre, entering out of 
the Chirch into the Cloyster. King Henry the first made the 
Hospital of S. John at Cirencestre. Cirencestre Toun hath but a 
Bailife to govern there. 

Cirencestre is yn Cotesicolde. 

Cirencestre hath the most celebrate Market in al that Quarters 
on Monday. 

The way lyith this from Cirencestre to London: 

To Fairford vj. Miles. 

To Faringdon viij. 

To Dorchestre v. Miles. 

To London 

[In Vol. v. pp. 64-5 are the following additional notes relating to Ciren- 

Cirecester, corruptely for Churnecestre, peraventure of Ptoleme 
cawlled Coriminum, stondeth in a 

Botom apon the Ryver of Churne. Be lyklehod yn times past 

The Cumpace of the old Waul, cujits Guttes were made that Partes 
pauca adhuc extant vestigia was nere of Churne Streame might come 
hand ii Myles. A Man may yet walk- thorough the Cyte, and so to 
ing on the Bank of Churne evidently returne to theyr great Botom. 
percey ve the Cumpace of Fundation of 

Towers sumtvme standing in the Waul, and nere to the Place 
wher the right goodly Clothing Mylle was set up a late by the 
Abbate was broken down the Ruine 

of an old Tower toward making of The Soyle in the Stony 

the Mylle Waulles, in the which Feeldes abowt Cirecestre is more 
Place was fownd a quadrate Stone apt for Barle then Whete. 
fawllen down afore, but broken in Therabowt as in Cotesxvold 

aliquot frusta, wherin was a Romaine is smawl Plenty of Wood ex- 
Inscription, of the which one scantly cept in few Places, kept of 
letterd that saw yt told me that he necessite. 
might perceyve Pont. Max. Among 

Lelaxd in" Gloucestershire. 229 

divers numismata fownd frequently there Dioclesian's be most 
fairest. But I cannot adfirme the Inscription to have been dedi- 
cate onto hym. In the Middes of the old Town in a Medow was 
found a Flore de testellis versicoloribus, and by the Town nostris 
lemporibus was fownd a broken Shank Bone of a Horse, the 
Mouth closed with a Pegge, the which taken owt a Shepard 
founde yt fillid minimis aryenteis. In the South Sowth West side 
of the Waul be likelyhod hath bene a 

Castel, or sum other great Building. . 

Sum say that it was the 
the Hilles and Diches yet remayne. 

_. _ Place wher Sege was laide to 

The Place is now a vv aren tor Conys, . 

, , . , . , . . ,_ the Town, and not far thens is 

and therm hath be townd Mennes 

. a steepe rownd Biry like a 

Bones, msolitce magmtudims, also to 

Wind Myl Hill ext. mums caw- 
sepulchres ex secto lapide. In one . 

lied Grismundes Tower, tor 
was a round Vessel of Leade covered. 

Gusmundes Tower, as theie say. 
and in it Ashes and Peaces of Bones. 

More than iii. Parts of the old Town 

is now goodly Medow Ground. The iiii. Part ys yet wel inhabi- 
ted, having one Paroche Chirche very richely wrought, and an 
Abbay of Blak Chanons fundatore Henrico primo. But there 
afore was a great Chirch of 
Prebendaries. In the Body of the 

Chirch in a sepulchre Crosse of White Ther is also a litle Chapel 

Marble is this [Inscription,] Hie as an Alrnose House. 
jacet Rembaldus presbyter, quondam 

hujus ecclesice decanus, [et tempore Edwardi regis Anglice cancel- 

[The itinerary, which was interrupted to interpolate these notes, 
is now resumed.] 


Tetbyri is vij Miles from Malmesbyri, and is a praty Market 

Tetbyri liyth a 2. Miles on the lift Hand of from Fosse as Men 
ride to Sodbyri. 

Tebbyri was of later tymes the Moulbrays Lande. 

A Castellet buildid by one of the Barkeleys of Spoyle that he 
wan yn France. It standith aboute a Myle from Tettebyri. 
(Note in the margin, " Beverstone Castelle). 

230 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Syr Wylliam Berkeley a very olde Knighte and Lorde of 
Beverstane Castelle welle motid hath also a nother Maner Place 
caullid Over a 4. Miles from Bright stow sumwhat on the right 
Hond by the way from Brightstow to 

Thomas Lorde Barkeley, as old Syr William Barkeley of Over 
and Beverstane told me, was taken Prisoner in Fraunce, and after 
recovering his Losses with Frenche Prisoners and at the Batail of 
Poyters buildid after the Castell of Beverstane thoroughly, a Pile 
at that tyme very preaty. 

Mr. Wikes of Dodington contendith by sum reasons that the 
Berkeley s of Dureslege wher of as olde an House or older then the 
Barkeleys of Berkeley. But the Name of Berkeley Town and 
Lordship of whom the Berkeleys wher caullid soundith to the 

There were Nunnes at Minchin Hampton in Glocestershir to- 
warde Tettebyri. 

Bremisfeld stondith in the Paroche of Estenhaul aboute a 2. 
Miles from Ledebyri. Here is in the Clyving of an Hille a Cas- 
telle having fair Towres It was the Beauchaumpes Lordes of 
Bodington 4. Miles from Glocester. Tt was buildid by the Beau- 
champs. Syr John Talbot of Grafton by Bromesgreve bowte it. 

Ther is at Bodington 4. Miles North from Glocester a fair 
Maner Place and a Parke. It cam to one Rede, Servante to the 
Lorde Beauchamp, that mai'ied his Lordes Doughter the eldest of 
3. and the Redes have it stille. [Vol. vi. pp. 72 & seq.] 

The Hed of Isis in Coteswalde risith about a Mile a this side 


The Fosse way goith oute at Cirencestre, and so streachith by 
a manifeste greate Creste to Soclbyri Market . . . Miles of, and so 
to Bristoiv. 

Coivberkele lyith by North West a vj. Miles from Cirencestre, 
and there ys the Heckle of Coivberkeley-Stre&me. 

Master Bridges hath a fair House at Coivberkele. 

[His House caullid longid onto one Ferrares attainctid 

for cummin" with King Richard the 3. onto the Felde of Bos- 
worth, and so it was gyven to Bridges. Vol. vi. p. 72.] 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 231 

This Streame cummith a 3. Miles lower thorough Rencumbe 
Park, and ther hath Sir Edmunde Tame a very fair House. 

From Cirencestre to Malmesbyri viij. Miles. 

First I roode about a Mile on Fosse, then I turnid on the lifte 

Hand, and cam al by Champagne Grounde, fruteful of Corne and 

Grasse, but very litle Wood. 

[Leland then pursued his way to Malmesbury, Bath, Wells, &c. Whilst 
at Bradford, he made a note of " the notable Stone Bridges apon Avon," of 
which only the following concern this county.] 

Bristow Bridge a 10. Miles lower (from Bath). 

A 2. Miles above Bristoiv was a commune Trajectus by Bote, 
wher was a Chapelle of S. Anne on the same side of Avon that 
Bath stondith on, and heere was great Pilgrimage to S. Anne. 

Vol. iv. ]). 73. 
From Eovesham I passed a 6. or 7. Miles all by Champion 
Ground in the Vale of Eovesham, being all or most part in Wor- 
cestershire to Stanwey Village, standinge in the Bootes of the 
Hills of Cotsivould. 

The Vale of Eovesham is as it were for such an Angle the 
Horreum of Worcester-shire, it is soe plentifull of Corne. It lyeth 
from the Bipe of Avon to the Bootes of Cotstcould-HiUes. 

There is in Stanwey {Com. Clone.) a fayre Mannour Place and 
Lordship, at the East Ende of the Churche, of late belonging to 
the Abbots of Teivkesbury, where he sometimes laye. Mr. Tracy 
hath it now in Farme. 

There cometh downe from East-South-East a Broket, that after 
goeth to Todington streame. 

From Stanwey a Mile to Didbroke, and a Mile beyond is 
Hilly [Hayles] 1 There cometh clown a Purle of Water from the 
South syd of Hales Abbey, 2 and goeth toward Todington Water 

1 Leland's MS. of this tour is lost. There are two early transcripts, and 
the important variations are given within brackets. 

'-In Vol. v. p. 1. is found the following isolated entry, with the words 
" Hayles Abbaye " in the margin : — An° D. 1251°. comummata eat ecclesia 
cum dormitorio, claustro d; refectorio : expensis in operatio?iibux octo marcarum 

232 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 


From Hales to Winchelscombe a Mile and an halfe by fayr plen- 
tifull Hilles. The Towne of Winchelescombe {Com. Glouc.) standeth 
from a litle Valley by East, and soe softly risith in length of one 
principall Street into the West. The Towne of certaine, as it 
appeareth in divers Places, and especially by South towardes 
Sudeley-C&st\e, was walled ; and the Legend, or Life, of Kenelme 
doth testifie the same. 

There was a Fortresse or Castle right against the South syde 
of St. Peter s, The Parish Church of Winchecombe, called of latter 
dayes (as appeareth by Writinges in Winchecombe Abbey) Ivy- 
Castle, now a place where a few poore Houses bee and Gardeins. 
I thinke that the ould Buildinges of it fallinge into ruine, and 
Ivy growinge in the Walles of it, caused it to be called by the 
Name of Ivy-Castle. 

The last Prior of Winchelescombe tould mee that he hath heard 
that there was a Fort or Castle about the East-North-East Part 
of the Towne of Winchelscombe. 

Kenelphus, Kinge of the Merches, had a Pallace in this Towne, 
and first builded a famous Abbey in it, and dedicated it with a 
glorious Solemnity. This Abbey was a 2. sundry tymes defaced 
with Fyer and reedifyed. 

Rich, de Kiddermister, the last Abbot savinge one, did great 
Cost of the Church, and enclosed the Abbey towardes the Towne 
with a rnaine Stone-Wall ex quadrato Saxo. 

There laye buried in the East part of the Church of the Mon- 
astery of Winchecombe, Kenelphus and Kenelmus, the Father and 
Sonne, both Kinges of Merches. There laye in St. Nicholas Chap- 
pell at the East Ende of the High Aulter on Hen. Boteler, that 
covered the Body of the Church of the Monastery with Lead. 
This Boteler was of the House of the Botelers of Sudeley. There 
laye other of the Botelers of Sudeley in the Church of the Monas- 
tery. There was of ancient tyme a Church of St. Nicholas in the 
East part of the Towne, decayed many Yeares since. 

In K. Hen. 5. tyme, the Paroch Chyrch of the Towne was 
kept in the Body of the Church of the Monastery. But in K. 
H. 6. tyme one William Winchecombe, Abbot of Winchelescombe 

Lelaxd ix Glottcestershire. 233 

beganne with the Consent of the Towne a Paroch Church at the 
West Encle of the Abbey, where of ould tyme had beene and then 
was a litle Chappell of St. Pancrace. 

Abbot William made the East Ende of the Church. The 
Parishoners had gathered a 200Z. and began the Body of the 
Church ; but that Summe being not able to performe soe costly a 
Worke Rafe Boteler Lord Sudeley helped them and finished the 

I marked in the South Isle of the Quire, first the Image of 
Tho. Boteler Lord Sudeley. Then were there Images of these his 
Sonnes followinge, John, William, Thomas and Rafe, and an Image 
(as I take it) of Elizabeth Wife to Rafe L, Sudeley. There was 
alsoe, in the Glasse Windowes in the North Isle of the Quire 
Images of 4. Gentlewomen, whereof one was name Alicia, Da. to 
Tho. Boteler L. Sudeley. 

The Parish Church is dedicated to St. Peter. 

There was once an Hospitall in the Towne, but now the Name 
onely of Spittle remaineth. 

The Brooke that cometh downe by the South Part of the 
Towne is commonly called Esteburne. It risith about 3. Miles 
above the Towne by West, and soe runneth by East to the very 
Bottome of the Towne of Winchecombe. Then it turneth somewhat 
North to Todington, not 2. Miles of, and it goeth to the River of 

[In Vol. viii., pp. 98-9, are the following additional Winchcombe 

Notes : 

Averey Parson of Dene tolde me . . . that it aperithe by Seint 
Kenelme's Legend that Winchelcombe was oppidum mnro cinctum. 
And he saythe that the Towne Buyldinge was muche toward 
Sudeley Castell, and that ther yet remayne sum Tokens of a Diche 
and the Foundation of a Wall, and that ther be Tokens of an othar 
Way up a praty way beyonde the highe Strete above the Churche 
where the Farme of Corwedene is : so that of old tyme it was a 
mighty large Towne. 

The Monastery was set in the best Parte of all the Towne, and 
hard by it where the Parioche Churche is was Kynge Kenulphe 
Palace. Winchelcombe is set in the Rottes of Cotisivolde. 

234 Transactions for the Ykar 1889-90. 

The Ryver that cummythe as the old Towne stoode thorough 
the Mydle of V/inchelcombe is comonly caulyd ther Grope cunte, 
but aftar a litle benethe Todington , by the which it rennithe, it 
changythe the Name, and aftar a this syde Eovesham at a litle 
Village caullyd Ampton it rennythe into Avon. The Head of this 
Rivar is a 2. Myles above Wynchelescombe in the Hill. 

This Riveret cummythe within a Qwarter of a Myle of Hayles 
Monasterie in the Valley under it.] 


The Castle of Sudeley is about halfe a Mile from Winchecombe. 

.... Boteler L. Sudeley made this Castle a fundamentis, and 
when it was made it had the Price of all the Buildinges in those 
Dayes. I read but of one L. Sudeley of the Botelers, and is Name 
was Thomas, as it appeareth in the Glasse Windowes at Winche- 
combe in St. Peter's Church. Therefore I take it that it was this 
Ihomas that made the Castle. Yet did Mr. Tracy tell mee, that 
Rafe Boteler builded the Castle ; but he shewed noe Authoribye, 
why. Indeed Thomas had a Sonne called Uafe, sett as yongest in 
order in the Glasse Windowes in St. Peter's Church. 

The L. Sudeley that builded the Castle was a famous Man of 
Warre in K. H. 5. and K. H. 6. Dayes, and was an Admirall (as 
I have heard) on Sea ; whereupon it was supposed, and spoken, 
that it was partly builded ex spoliis Gallorum ; l and some speake 
of a Towre in it called Palmare's Toivre, that it should be made 
of a Ransome of his. 

One thinge was to be noted in this Castle, that part of the 
Windowes of it were glased with Berall. There had beene a 
Manour Place at Sudeley before the Building of the Castle, and 
the plott is yet seene in Sudeley Parke where it stoode. 

K. E. 4. bore noe good Will to the L. Sudeley, as a Man sus- 
pected to be in heart K. H. 6. his Man ; whereupon by Complaints 
he was attached, and going up to London he looked from the Hill 
to Sudeley, and sayd, Sudeley Castle, thou crt a Traytor, not I. 
After he made an honest Declaration, and sould his Castle of 
Sudeley to K. E. 4. 

1 This statement is repeated in nearly the same words in a stray note, 
Vol. viii., p. 99. 

From Winchelescombe to 


Leland in Gloucestershire. 235 

Afterward K. H. 7. gave this Castle to his Uncle Jasper D. of 
Bedford, or permitted him to have the use of it. Now it goeth to 
mine, more pittye. The Trades of Todington were sett up by 
Landes given them by the Botelers. 

There runneth a praty Lake out of Sudeley Parke downe by 

the Castle, and runneth into Esseburne Brooke, at the South syde 

of Winchcombe. 

Tewkesbury 7. 
Cirencester 15. 
Gloucester 12. 
Southam 3. 

by good Corne, Pasture, and Wood but somewhat Hilly. Southam 

there dwell Sr. John Hodlestan, and hath builded a pretty Mannour 

Place. He bought the Land of one Goodman. 

[The following notes on Sudeley occur in Vol. viii.,pp. 31-2 : 

The Lordeshipe of Sudeley in Glocestershire longed to the 
Botelars that were Western Men. 

One Rafe Boteler of Sudeley buylded the Castle of Sudeley 
aboute the tyme of Henry the 6. and Edward the 4. 

Butlar Lorde Sudley was emprisoned in Edwarde the 4. Dayes, 
whereupon he resigned his Castle into the Hands of Kynge 
Edward. This Castle cam after to Gaspar Duke of Bedforde that 
kept Howshold in it. 

The Hawle of Sudley Castle glased with rownd Beralls. 

The Tracyes hold Todington Lordeshipe and othar Lands by the 

Gyfte of the Botelers.] 


To Chiltenham, a longe Towne havinge a Market. It belonged 
to the Abbey of TewJeesburie, now to the Kinge. There is a Brooke 
on the South syde of the Towne. 

From Chiltenham to Gloucester 6. Miles all by lowe Groundes, 
Corne, Pasture and Meadowe. All the Quarter is thereabout from 
Winchcombe to Eovesham and to Tewkesburie, and all the Waye from 
Chiltenham to Gloucester, and thence to Tewkesbury, and partly 
from Gloucester on Severne Ripes to Newenham much lowe 
Groundes, subject to all suddaine Risinge of Severne. Soe that 
after Raine it is very foule to travaile in. I passed over 2. or 3. 
small Lakes betwixt Chiltenham and Gloucester, and they resort to 

236 Transactions for thk Year 1S89-90. 

The Towne of Gloucester is antient, well builded of Tymbre, and 
large, and strongly defended with Walles, where it is not well 
fortified with the deepe Streame of Severne Water. In the Wall 
be 4. Gates by East, West, North and South, and soe beare the 
Names ; but that the East-Gate is called Aillisgate, 

The antient Castle standeth South on the Towne by Severne 
left Ripe, whither Picardes and small Shippes come in almost by 
the Castle. I lerned that the ould Key on Severne stood hard by 
St. Osvmldes, and for strife betwixt the Towne and St. Osivaldes 
House it was thence remooved. When the Key was by St. Osioaldes, 
there was divers pretty Streetes that now be cleane decayed, as St. 
Bride's Street, and Sylver Girdle Street. The truth is that those 
Streets stood not most holesomely, and were subject to the raginge 
Floodes of Severne, therefore Men desired more to inhabit in the 
higher Places of the Towne. The Beauty of the Towne lyeth in 
2. Crossing Streets, as the Gates of the Towne lye ; and at the 
place of the Midle meetinge, or Quarters of these Streets is an 
Aquseduct incallated [incastellid]. 

There be Suburbes without the East, North, and South 
Gates. The Bridge onely with the Causey lyeth at the West 
Gate. The Bridge that is on the cheife Arme of Severne, that 
runneth hard by the Towne, is of 7. great Arches of Stone. There 
is another a litle more West of it, that hath an Arch or 2, and 
serveth at a time for a Ditch or Dreane of the Meades. A litle 
way farther there is another Bridge, hard without the West Gate, 
and this Bridge hath 5. great Arches. From this Bridge there 
goeth a great Causey of Stone, forced up through the lowe Mea- 
dowes of Severne by the length of a Quarter of a Myle. In this 
Causey be divers double arched Bridges, to dreane the Meadowes 
at Floodes. At the Encle of this Causey is a Bridge of 8. Arches 
not yet finished. 

Bell a Merchant of Gloucester now livinge [defunt] consider- 
inge (sic) to a Common- Wealth Bridges and Causeys be, and to 
the Towne of Gloucester hath geven Land by the Yeare to 
the Maintenance of them. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 237 

There are 11. Parish Churches in Gloucester Towne. In the 
Suburbes is Eivines. I cannot surely tell whether this be one of 
the eleven. 

The Grey Fryers Colledge stood within the Towne not farre 
from the South Gate. This place is now turned to a Brew-House. 
One of the L. Berkeley s was Founder of it. 

The Black Fryers Colledge stoocle within the Towne not farre 
from the Castle Garth. K. Hen. 3. and Stephen Diiis de Harnes- 
hull Miles were Founders thereof about 1239. This House is 
made by one Bell a Drapering House. 

The White Fryers Colledge stoode in the Suburbe without the 
North-Gate. There is in the same North Suburbe somewhat 
more by North an Hospitall for poor Folkes endowed with Landes 
dedicate to St. Margaret. The Towneship hath the order of this. 

There is another poore Hospitall of St. Mary Mag del en some- 
what more by North than St. Margarettes. The Priory of 
Lanthony was taken as a Founder there, and was wont to main- 
taine it with a certaine Charity of Bread. 

There is an Hospitall of St. Bartholomew a litle within the 
West Gate. This Hospitall had once a Maister and 52. poore 
Men, and now it hath a Maister and 32. poore Men and Women. 
The B. of Worcester doth give this Hospitall. Some saye it was of 
the Kinges Foundation. One Pancefoot, that was livinge in the 
Mind of ould Men, is buried in the Chappell of this Hospitall. 
Whitmaster a Suffragave now Ruler of this House raised this 
Hospitall, that afore was very subject to the rising of Severne, 
and builded a fayre Lodging for himselfe in the Hospitall. 

Thinges excerpted out of certaine Writinges in the Wall of the 
North Isle of the Body of the Cathedrall Church of Gloucester. 

Osric, first under King and Lord of this Countyre, and the 
Kinge of Northumberland, with the Licence of Ethelred K. of 
March, first founded this Monastery an. drii. 681. Osric by the 
Councell of Bosell, first Bishop of Worcester, put in Nunnes, and 
maketh his Sister Kineburge Abbesse there. 

The [Thre] Noble Women Kineburge, Eilburge, and Eva 
Queenes of March onely Abbasses for the tyme of the Nunnes, 
the which was 84. and 4. (sic) Yeares. The Nunnes were ban- 
Vol. XIV. r 

238 TRANSACTION'S FOR the Year 1889-90. 

ished [ravyshedj and driven awaye by Warres betwixt K. Egbart 
and the K. of Marches. 

Barnidph K. of Marches bringeth in Seculer Canons and 
Clerkes givinge Possessions and Liberties to them. 

King Canute for ill livinge expelleth the Seculer Clerkes, and 
by the Councell of Wolfstan B. of Worcester bringeth in Monkes. 

Eldred B. of Worcester translated to Yorke taketh a great part 
of the Landes of Gloucester Abbey to resedifie the Minster of 

A Nobleman called Wolphine [Wolphire Lehie] for 7. Preists 
killed had Penance to find perpetually 7. Monkes i\\Gloucester. 

Thomas Archb. of Yorke restored the Landes to Gloucester the 
which Mlredus Archb. of Yorke wrongfully did withhould. 

William the Conquerour gave the Abbey of Gloucester decayed 
to Serlo his Chaplaine. Serlo Monachus Scti. Michaelis in Nor- 

K. William the Conquerour an his Sonnes gave Possessions and 
Liberties to the Abbey of Gloucester. 

Sancta Arihla Virgin, martyred at Kington by Thornebury, 
translated to this Monastary had done many Miracles. 

Soger Lacy E. of Hereford, Roger L. Berkeley, Hugh de Portu, 
Helias Giffard, Jo. Maungeant Canon of Hereford, were Monkes 
in Gloucester. 

The Quire and South-Isle of Gloucester-Church were made by 
Oblations done at the Tombe by K. E. 2. 

The Names of Noblemen buried in the Monas'ery of Gloucester. 

Osfric, Founder of Gloucester- Ahhey , first laye in St. PetronelVs 
Chappell, thence remoovecl into our Lady Chappell, and thence 
remooved of late dayes, and layd under a fayre tombe of Stone 
on the North syde of the High aulter. at the Foote of the Tombe 
is this written in a Wall : 

Osirus Rex jjrimus fundator hujus Monasterii. 681. 

Rob tus . Curthoise, sonne to K. William the Conquerour, lyeth in 
the midle of the Presbitery. There is on his Tombe an Image of 
Wood paynted, made longe since his Death. 

K. 25. of Camarvan (or K. E. 2.) lyeth under a fayre Tombe 
in an Arch at the Head of K. Osric Tombe. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 239 

Serlo, Abbot of GLzicester, lyeth under a fayre Marble Tombe, 
on the South syde of the Presbitery. There was of late taken 
up a Crosse wrapped in a Bulles Hide under an Arch at the 
Head of the Tombe of Edw. of Carnarvan, where Maherne, alias 
Parke-, late Abbot of Gloucester made a Chappell to be buried in. 
A Monke tould mee that it was the Corps of a Lady Countesse 
of Pembroke. 

Abbot Horton lyeth under a flatt Stone in the North Part of 
the Transept of the Church. 

Abbot Froucester lyeth in a Chappell at the South West Part 
of the Quire. 

Gamage a Kt. of Wales, and his Wife, lye in a Chappell in the 
North East part of the Body of the Church. 

These Inscriptions be written on the Walles of the Chapter- 
House in the Cloyster of Gloucester. 
Hie jacet Rogerus [Roger Lacy] Comes de Hereford. 
Hicjacet Ricus Strongbowe films Gilberti Comitis de Pembroke. 
Hie jacet Gualterus de Lacy. 
Hie jacet Philippus de Foye miles. 
Hicjacet Bernardus de Novo Mercatu. 
Hicjacet Paganus de Cadurcis. 
Hie jacet Adam de Cadurcis. 
Hicjacet Robertus Curtois. 

These notable thinges following I 
Hanley \ learned of an ould Man, made lately 

Farley 1 a Monke of Gloucester, 

Horton ! Abbotts of Serlo reseddified Gloucester Abbey. 

Sebroke I Glouc. Abbot Hanley and Farley made our 

Froiicester(sic) 1 Lady Chappell, at the East End of 

Morwent / the Church. Abbot Horton made the 

North Part of the Crosse Isle. The 
South Part of the Crosse Isle and much of the Presbitery Vault 
was made by Oblations at the Tombe of K. E. 2. 

Abbot Sebroke made a great Part of the exceedinge fayre and 
square Towre in the Middest of the Church. This Towre is a 
Pharos to all Partes about from the Hilles. 

R 2 

240 Transactions for the Year 1839-90. 

Abbot Froncester (sic) made the Cloyster a right goodly and 
sumptuous Peice of Worke. 

Abbot Morwent newly erected the very West Ende of the 
Church, and 2. Arches of the Body of the Church, one on each 
syde, mindinge if he had lived to have made the whole Body of 
the Church of like "Worke. He also made the stately and costly 
Porch on the South syd of the Body of the Church. 

One Osberne Celerer of Gloucester made of late a fayre new 
Tower or Gate-House at the South West Part of the Abbey 

These fayre Villes or Mannour Places belonge to the Abbot 
of Gloucester. 

Prinknesse on an Hill, where is a fayre Parke 3. Miles from 
Gloucester by East. 

Dineyard [Vineyard] a goodly House on an Hillet at the 
Cawsey End at Gloucester by West. 

Hartlebury 4. Miles by North- West from Gloucester. 

Froncester, where sometimes was a Colledge of Prebendaries, 
suppressed and given to Gloucester Abbey distant from Gloucester 
8 Miles, and standeth a Mile beyond Standley Priory. The Kinge 
hath it now. It is an 100. m. by the Yeare. 

Bromefeild, where sometimes was a litle Colledge, since impro- 
priate to the Abbey of Gloucester, a 2. Miles from Ludlowe. 

The following additional Notes on Gloucester Cathedral are from 

Vol. viii., p. 32 et sea. 

Ex inscriptionibus in occidental! parte Glocester Churche. 

Osricus rex primus fundator of that Monastary in Anno Domini 
dclxxxi. for Nuns. 

Saynt Arild Virgin, martired at Kinton ny to Thorriberye by 
one Muncius a Tiraunt, who cut of hir Hcade becawse she would 
not consent to lye withe hym. She was translatyd to this Monas- 
terye, and hathe done great Miracles. 

The great Southe Ysle of Gloucestar Churche was made by 
Oblations done at the Tombe of Kynge Edward the Second. 

Pvoger Lacye Erie of Hereford. 

Roger Lord Berkley. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 241 

Hugo de Porta. Uelias Giffard. 

Master John Mangeant, Chanon of Herford wer Monks of Glou- 

Bernidf, Kynge of Merche, bringethe in Seculer Chanons and 
Clerks, gyvynge Pocessions and Lyberties to them. 

Kynge Canute for ill lyvynge expellyd Seculer Clerks, and by 
the Counsell of Wolstane Byshope of Wurcestar bringethe in 

Aldred Byshope of Worcester-, transladyd to Yorke, takynge a 
great Parte of the Lands of Glocestar to reedyfie the same. 

A noble Lord, callyd Wolphin Lehie, for 7. Pristes kylled, had 
Penaunce to find 7. Monks at Glocestar. 

William Conquerar gave Glocestar Abbay decayed to his Chap- 
len Serlo. 

Osrik first under Kynge and Lorde of this Contrie, and the 
Kynge of Nor thumb erland, with the Licens of Ethelrede, Kynge 
of Mercia, first foundyd this Monasterye. 

Osrike by the Counsell of Bosel firste Byshope of Worcester, 
putteth in Nunes, and makethe Kineburge his Sister Abbes. 

3. Noble Women, Kineburge, Edburge, and Eva Queues of 
Merchie, and only Abbesses for the tymes of Nunes, the which 
was 84. Yeres. The Nunes wer ravyshed and dryven away by 
Warres betwixt Egbert and Kynge of the Marche. 

Albredus, B. of Wircestar, dedicated the Church of Glocestar, 
whiche he had builded from the Foundation to S. Petar, and by 
the Kyng's Licens obteyned, constituted Wulstan Abbot there. 

Kynge William Conquerar gave, and his Sonns also, Liberties 
and Pocessions to the Monastarie of Glocestar. 

Thomas Archebyshope of Yorke restoryd the Land, the whiche 
Aldrede wrongfully dyd withhold. 

Mauley and Farley Abbats made owr Lady Chapell. 

Hirton Abbas made the Northe Syde of the Crosse Isle. 

The Sowthe Syde of the Crosse Isle made by Offeryngs at the 
Tombe of Kynge Edward the 2. 

Abbote Sebroke made a great Peace of the Belle Towre in the 
midle of the Quiere. 

242 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Abbate Troncester (sic) buryed at the West Encle of the Quiere 
made the Cloistar. 

Abbate Morwent made the new West Ende of the Churche, 
and the goodly Porche by North. 

Gamage a Knight of Wales and his Wife wer buried at the 
Southe West Side witheout the Qwere. 

Osburne Celerer made a late a sqware Towre by Northe W'est 
the Churche Yarde in Abbate Malveme, alias Parker's tyine. 

Robert Curthose is buried in the Presbitere. 

Some thinke that Stranbowe's Wif Countis of Pembroke lay 
where Abbot Malvern had his Tombe. 

Sudeley Castell sold to Kynge Edwarde the 4. 1 

From Winchelescombe to Twekesbyrie 7.Myles. 

To Worcester 14 Mils. 

To Cirencester 15 Miles. 

To Glocester xii. Myles. 

To Southam 3. Mils. 

Sowtliam longed to one Goodman, nowe to Hudelstan. 

From Southam to Chilteham Market 5. Miles. It longed to 
Tcwhesberye. a Broke. 2. Brokes more. 

To Glocestar vi. Miles. 

In Gloucester ar 11. Pariche Churches. Seint Ewines without 
the Suburbe. The Abbey Churche. Seint Oswalde. The Graye 
K. Henry the 3. and and Blake Friers within the Towne. The White 

Stephen de H hhus Frers. Seint Margaret, and Seint Magdalen's 

Knight foundyd the Hospitales without the Towne. Seint Margaret's 
Blake Frers anno Dom. bettar endewed. liartolome's Hospital beyond 
1239. one of the Bridgs. 30. poore Folke. One Pounce- 

Lorde Barkley foundyd volt lyethe in the Bodye of the Churche there, 
the Whit Friers. a greate Benefactor to it. 

vii. Arches in the first Bridge, one in a Gut Bridge beyond, 
v. Arches in a Bridge upon a Pece of Severne. 4. in the Cawse. 3. 
in a nother Place, beside othar viii. at the Ende. 

1 Although this and the subsequent nine lines are interpolated in Leland's 
notes on Gloucester, they are evidently memoranda made whilst at Winch- 

Leland ix Gloucestershire. 243 

Northe Gate. Ailes Gate by Est. South Gate. West Gate 
beyonde the 2. first Bridges new builded. Lands given by Henry 
the 8. Belle and othar Men to mayntayne the Cawsies and 
Bridges and [at] Qlocester. 

Howsys longginge to the Abbat of Glocestar. 

Piulcenes 3. Miles of by Est with a goodly Parke. 

The Vinyarde by West at the Cawsey's End. 

Hartebyriby Northe West [4.] Miles of. 

No Bridge on Sever ne byneth Glocestar. 

Newenham Village 8. Miles bynethe Glocestar rijpa dextra in 
the Forest of Dene. There the Watar at full Se is halfe a Myle 
over. A 2. Myls lower the Water at full Se is a Myle more ovar. 

BarJceley an 18. Miles from Glocestar, somewhat distaunt from 

Thomeberye a 22. Myles, not very farre from Severne on a Creke 
goynge up to it. 

From Glocestar to Bright stow 30. Myles by Land, 40. by Water 
and more. 

No Bridge from Gloucestar to Twexberye. Ther a Bridge. 
To Avon a litle above the Towne. 

Fowre Myles above Twclcexberye a Stone Bridge, but none on 

Inscriptiones in capitulo [Capta] Glocester eccle. 

Hicjacet Richard Strongbowe films Gilberti Earle of Peubroke. 

Hicjacet Philipus de Fox [Foye] miles. 

Hie jacet Bernardus de Novo Mercato. 

Hicjacet Paganus de Cadurcis. 

Hicjacet Adam de Cadurcis. 

Hicjacet Robertus Curtus. 

Froncester a Lordshipe of a c. Marke a Yere 8. Miles from 
Glocester, a Myle beyond Standeley Priory. 

These Hoivses of Whit Monks were made and erectid of Houses of 

a Beligion cawllid Fratres Grisei, an Order that was afore the 


[after mentioning Build was and others]. 

Rogerus, Erie of Hereforde Founder of Flaxley in the Forest of 
Deene. There was a Brother of Rogers Erie of Hereford that was 

•244 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

kyllycl withe an Arow in Huntynge in the very Place where the 
Abbay syns was made. There was a Table of this niatier hanggicl 
up in the Abbay Churche of Flexeley. There was a Byshope of 
Hereford that holp muche to the building of Flexley. 

Vol. iv. p. 81 et sea:. 

The Priory of St. Oswald stood North North West from Glou- 
cestei Abbey upon Severne Ripe. Ethelredus E. of Marches and 
Ethelfleda his Noble Wife, daughter to Fdiv. the first, afore the 
Conquest, founded originally this House, instituting Prebendaries 
in it, and thither translated from Bardney the Body of St. Oswald 
K. of Northumberland, and there richly entombed it. 

It chanced that soone after the Conquest a Blsh. of Lincolne, 
great with the King, required other Jurisdiction or Landes in 
Lindesey belonging to the Seate of York. For the King entreated 
the Archbishop, being at that time also B. of Worcester. Where- 
upon the B. of Yorhe desiringe the Kinge to have the Colledge of 
St. Oswald impropriate to the Seate of Yorke, and soe he had. 
Whereupon he practized with the Prebendaries of a new Founda- 
tion, and that they should be Chanons Regular. Some were 
content, some would not : but the B. brought his purpose to passe 
by Power, and there instituted a House of Chanons Regular, 
impropriatinge Benefices unto them and giving them Coyletts of 
Land, reserving the goodly Landes to the Church of Yorke, that 
at this tyme be yet possessed of it. 

The House of Lantony, a famous Priory of late of Canons 
Regular, stoode on the left Ripe of Severne, a litle beneath Glou- 
cester. One Milo, E. of Hereford was Founder of this House, and 
it first was but a Cell to Llanhancleney in Brecknockshire. This 
Priory had goodly Landes, whereof a notable part was in Ireland. 
There longid to this Priory many fayre Mannour Places. 

Neicarke a pretty House of Stone hard by Lanthony ; Quadesley 
a 3. Miles of ; Bokworth [Brochvorth] ; Barew.Ien in Cottesivould ; 
Alverton by Severne a 3. Miles from Chepstowe [all thes belongyd 
to Lantoney]. 

The River of Severne breaketh into 2. Amies in the Meadowes 
a litle above Gloucester, whereoff the principall Arme striketh 

Leland ix Gloucestershire. 245 

hard by Gloucester Towne Syde, tlie other goeth through a great 
Bridge at the West Encta of the Causey at Glouc. and a litle 
beneath Lanthony Priory they meet together. This Isle or MeJi- 
amnis betwixt these 2 Armes is all very goodly Meadowe Ground, 
and that about Lantony, for Cheese there made is in great Price. 

[In Vol. v., p. 64, are the following additional notes respecting 
Gloucester : — 

Glocestre where yt is not sufficiently defended by Severn ys 
waulled. The Castel is of an wonderful old Building, but no Britons 
Brykes yn yt, seel lapides plerunupue quadrati. Of al Partes of yt 
the hy Tower in media area ys most strongest and auncient- 
Withowt duplici fossa munitur. In the Towne be [xi] Paroche 
Chirches. withowt Blak Monkes yn the Town. Blak Chanons 
lately withowt. 

An Arow shot withowt the Town toward Her ford ys a long 
Bridge of Stone, under the which goeth a great Arme of Severne, 
as I remembre, cawlled Oivseburne. Yt breketh owt of the great 
Streame above the Town, and beneth yt goith againe into the 
mayne Streame. The Curse of yt is abowt a Myle. So that it 
insulateth a goodly Medow.] 

There is noe Bridge on Severne beneath Gloucester. Neither 
is there any Bridge on Severne above Gloucester, 'till the Towne- 
lett of Upton a 11. or 12. Miles from Gloucester, whither at high 
Tydes Severne Sea doth flowe. 

There be fewe notable Buildinges on Severne betwixt Glou- 
cester and A ust Cliff e where the Ferry is over Severne into the 
Forrest of Dene. 

Newhham, an uplandish Townelett in the Forrest of Dene on 
the right Ripe of Severne, is an 8. Miles beneath Gloucester. 
There at a full Sea Severne is halfe a Mile of Breadth. 

A 2. Miles lower Severne is at a full Sea a 2 Miles and an 
half over, and at Aust Cliffe 2. good Miles over. 

Berkeley an 18. Miles from Gloucester somewhat distant from 
the Severne Shore. 

Thornbury a 22 Miles from Gloucester, and a 4. Miles above 
Aust not very farre from Severne Shore. There cometh a Creeke 
up by the Marishes from Severne to Thornebury. 

246 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

From Gloucester to 

Tewkesbury 7. 

Cirencester 18 

Monmouth 20 [26] Miles. 

Neivent 6 

Bristowe 30 


As soon as I passed over the Arme of Severne at the West 
End of Gloucester I entred into the Forrest of Bene, the which 
thence downeward alonge Severne unto the Mouth of Wye River, 
(where it goeth into Severne) and on the other parte again from 
Monmouth to the Poynt of Wye is devided from Wales by the 
left Ripe of Wye River. 

The Soyle of the Forrest of Bene for the most part is more 
fruitfull of Woode and Grasse then of Corne, and yet there is 
good Corne sufficient for the Inhabitants of it. The Ground is 
fruitfull of Iron Mines, and divers Forges be there to make Iron. 

Flaxley Abbey of White Mov.Jces stood in Dene Forrest a 5. or 
6. Miles from Gloucester. 

Mr. Bainham dwelleth at Westbury in the Forrest of Dene 6. 
Miles from Gloucester. 

(Leland then proceeds to describe Hereford). 

There is noe Bridge beneath Hereford on Wye, untill a litle 
above the Confluence of Wye and Mone River .... There is noe 
Bridge on Wiye beneath Monmouth to the very Mouth of Wye. 
There was one of Tymbre at Chepstowe. 

Vol. v., pp. 1, 2, 5. 

Pinolce Welle a Mile from Hayles 

7 . ... 7 „ 77 __ Pinoke Wei is counted ot 

m radicwus de Loteswoule to N anion 

_... ii.i sum for one of the farthest of 

Village, to Burton, and sumwhat be- 

Tcimisc Heddes. 
neth Burton cummith into hit a Water 

rising at Kensdale in Coteswahl, and thens to Hinchwike, wher- 

abowt yt rennith undre the Grounde ; thens to Swelle Village by 

Stoiv ; from £ tuelle to Slawyhter, and so into Burton Water. 

Cumming from Chiping Norton to Stow in the Wold abowt the 
middle way is Adelsthorp and Horse Bridge by wher is a limes 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 247 

Market Toivnes in the Wolde of Glocestreshire. 

Stoic in the Wolde v. Miles from Chipping Northton and vii. or 
viii. from Heyles. 

Camden a vii. Northwest from Stow. 

Northlache a vii Miles from Stoio [Towne] 1 Southwest from 
Stow almost in the Way from Stow to Cicestre. 



Cheltnam a Mai'ket Toun in the Vale [v.] Miles from Hayles 

Glocestre standith on a Brooke that goith into Severne. 

Fairford, wher Mr. Tame dwellith, a vii. Miles from Korth- 

Olney, alias Ainey, about Deorhirst in Glocester-shire. Dcor- 
hurst yet remainith in Glocestreshire as a Celle to Tweksbiri. [see 

Al the way that I rode betwixt Heyles and Pershore was meatly 
here and ther woodid. 

The Fery from Auste in Glocestreshire to a Village on the far- 
ther Ripe of Severn, not far from S. Tereudacus 2 Chapel yn the 
mouth of Wy Kyver, is a iii. Myles over. 

p. 63, et sea. 

Mar.cet Toivnes in Glocestreshire. 


Castelles in Glocestreshire. 

Sadely by Winchelcumbe. 
Cirecestre had a Casfcel by likelyhod. 
Bristoiv Castel. 

Byvers in Glocestreshire. 

Avon touchith at Twehsuiri. 
Another Avon at Bristoiv. 

>This portion of Leland's MSS. is much damaged by damp. The words 
within brackets were supplied by Hearne from the transcript made by Stowe, 
about 24 years after the author's death. 

8 At p. 7 the chapel is called " S. Terendalces." 

248 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

Isis risith a iii. Myles from Cireucestre not far from a Village 
cawlled Eemble within half a Myle of the Fosse Way, betwixt 
Circecestre and Bath. Thens it runneth to Latinelad a 4. [6.] 
Myles of, and so to Grelcelad abowt a Myle lower, sone after 
receyving Chum. 

Chume at Cicester, proprie Chumcestre, a hard by Chestreton, 
improprie pro Chimetown [Chilnertown]. The principal Hedde of 
Churn risith at Coberle, where is the Hed Howse of Sir John 
Bridges. It is a vii. Myles from Glocestre, and a five Myles or 
more from Cirecestre by the which yt renneth, and thens a vi. 
Myles [uno] infra Greklad milliari yt goith into Isis. 

Wher as the very Heel of Isis ys in a great Somer Drought 
apperith very litle or no Water, yet is the Stream servid with 
many Ofspringes resorting to one Botom. 

Communely thorough al Glocester shire there is good Plenty of 
Corn, Pasture and Wood, saving at Coteswold wher the great 
Flokkes of Sheepe be, and yet in sum places ther groweth fair 


[After some notes on Gloucester, Bristol and Cirencester, which will be 
found under those heads, Leland proceeds : — ] 

Cummyng from Glocester to Cirecestre almost yn the Myddle 
Way betwyxt wher the Wood fayleth and Champayne Countery 
toward Coteswold appereth, the faire old Way made by the Britons 
ys very evidently seen, and so goeth as stray t as a Line to Cireces- 
ter and fro thens to Bathe. But sum wold that the Way from 
Cirecester to Bath should be the very Fosse, and the way betwyxt 
Cirecestre toward Glocester to be an other of the iiii. Wayes made 
by the Britons. The Abbat of Gircestre told me that abowt 
Cirecestre should be crosse meating of al the iiii. Wayes. 

At Litle Subbiri, alias Sodbiri, in Glocestreshire a xii. Miles 

from Bristoio as yt were by North Est appereth on a Hille a 

strong Camp of Menne of Warre cloble dichid. It is usid now to 

be sowen by M r Walche. 


Bristow apon Avon a greate Cite, well waulled, having a fair 

Castel. In yt is now, as I remembre, xviii. Paroche Chirches. 

S. Augustines, Blak Chanons extra mcenia; ibique in magna area 

Leland ix Gloucestershire. 249 

sacellivm, in quo sepultus est S. Jordanus, unus ex discipulis Augus- 
tini Angloruni apostoli. A Howse withowt the Waulles, as I 
remembre, cawlled the Gauntes otherwise Bonhommes. [iiii] Howses 
of Freres, of the wiche the White Freres Places ys very fair. 
Avon Ryver abowt a Quarter of a Myle beneth the Towne in a 
Medow casteth up a great Arme or Gut by the which the greater 
Vessels as raiayne toppe Shippes cum up to the Towne. So that 
Avon do Ih peninsulate the Towne, and Vessels may cum of [bothe] 
Sides of yt. I marked not wel whither ther cam any fresch Water 
from the Land to bete that Arme. 

Avon goith into Severn at Kynges Rode iii. [Myles] beneth 
[Bristoui] by Land, and [vi.] by Water. 

In the Hilles about Bristow [Towne be] found litle Stones [of 
divers Colours counterfetynge precious] Stones. 

[In what appears to have been another journey from Bath to Bristol, Vol. 
vii., p. 88, Leland writes : — ] 

A litle above Bitton I passyd over a Brooke that at hand semid 
to come from the Northe and to go into Avon by Southe. 

Ther was a Bridge of 3. Arches of Stone ovar this litle Broke. 

Thens to Hanham a bout 2. Miles. 

There be dy vers Villages togethar caullyd Hanhams, but withe 

a Difference. At this Hanham dwellythe one Ser John Newton in 

a fayre olde Mannar Place of Stone caullyd Barrescourte. 

[Leland records various " thyngs lernyd of Ser John Newton," but they 

relate wholly to Somerset,] 

The Forest of Kyngs Wodd cummythe just onto Barres-courte, 
Mastar Newton's Howse. 

[Antiqui limites Forests de Kinggeswod. 

Furcce de Bristolle. Hunteforde prope Kinggeswood monaster. 
Aqua de Severna. Le Rugwey super cilium montis de Sobbery 


sicut se extend/it de Lontedone usque ad aquam de Alreleg. 

Al the Wodde in the great Valley bytwene Sobbyri and 
Kingeswood was caullid Honvoode. Vol. vi., p. 72.] 

From Barrescourte onto Bristoiv a 3. Myles by Hilly and Stony 
Ground withe Feren ovar growne in dyvers Placis. 

250 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

1 he Site of Brightestow. 

The Castle and moste parte of the Towne by North e stondithe 
apon a Grownd metely eminent betwyxt the By vers of Avon and 
Fraw, alias Frame. 

There rysethe an Hill of an notable Highte in respecte of the 
Plote of the Towne selfe from Fromebridge on so goythe up alonge 
onto Seint Austins, alias the Trinitie, the Cathedrall Churche, and 

there endithe. 

Gates in the Waulls q/"Brightstow. 

There be in sum Partes of the Towne doble Waulls, a Token 

that the Towne hathe been augmentyd. 

Newgate (as me thinkythe) is in the utar Waull by the Castle, 
and a Chapelle over it. It is the Prison of the Citie. 

S. John Gate. A Churche of eche syde of it. S. John Churche. 
It is hard on the Northe Syd of it, and there be Cryptce. 

S. Gils Gate be Southe West of the Key where Frome renithe. 

S. Leonard's Gate and a Paroche Churche ovar it. 

S. Nicholas Gate where is a Churchemm cryptis. 

There [These 1] be the inner Gates of the old Towne cis Sabri- 
nam as the Towne standithe in dextra ripa defluentis Avonse. 

In the utter Waulls. Pety Gate. From Gate in the uttar 
Waulls. Marsche Gate a reqione Avonce. The third is callyd 

In the Waulle ultra pontem fy Avonam be 2. Gates. Radde- 
clif Gate and Temple Gate ; and a greate Towre caullyd Toiver 
harry s, at the very Ende of the Waulle in ipsa ripa Avonam e 
regione pontis ad arcem supra Frai brachiolum. 

The Castle of Brightestow. 
The Ryver of Frome ran sumtyme from the Were by the 
Castle, where now is a Stone Bridge doune by the Este Syde of 
it ; and so doithe yet a litle Armelet of it brekynge out, and 
almoste the hole Streme goithe by the Northe Syde of the Castle, 
and there goithe by New Gate under an Arche. 

In the Castle be 2. Cowrtes. In the utter Courte, as in the 
Northe West Parte of it, is a great Dungeon Tower, made, as is 
sayde, of Stone browght out of Cane in Normandye by the redde 
Erie of Glocestar. 

Lelaxd ix Gloucestershire. 251 

A praty Churche and muche Logging in 2. area. On the 
Sou the Syde of it a great Gate, a Stone Bridge, and 3. Bullewarks 
in lava ripa ad ostium Frai. 

There be many Towres yet standynge in bothe the Cowrtes ; 
but all tendithe to ruine. 

Paroche Church's within the Waulls of Brightstowe 
cis Avonam. 

S. Nicholas ; S. Leonard ; S. Lavrence ; S. John Papt. (sic) 

Christe Churche, alias Trinitie ; S. Audoene ; S. Werborow ; Al 

Haloices ; S. Marie Porte; S. Peter's; S. Stephane intra secunda 


Ultra Avonam. 
S. Thomas apostolus. 

Templum. Wher as now S. Lawrence Churche it was sume- 

tyme a Churche, as it is sayde, S. Sep>ulchri, where was a Kunry. 

And thereby in the same Lane dwellyd the Jewes, and theyr 

Temple, or Sinagoge, is yet sene there, and now is a Ware Howse. 

Paroche Churches in the Suburbs. 

S. Philippics within cis Avonam Ford's Gate (sic) now procul ab 

S. Jacobiis by Brodemede Strete. 

S. Nicholas (sic) Northe from Frome Gate in supercilio montis. 

S. Angtistines a Paroche Churche on the Grene by the Cathe- 
drale Churche. 

The Paroche Churche of Seint Marks in the Gaunts. 

Ultra Avonam. 

Peddiffe longe pulcherr. omnium ecclesia. 

Howses sumtyme of Eeligion in Bristow. 

Fanum Augustini, nunc S. Trinitatis. luscriptio in porta-. Pex 
Henricus 2. ^ dominus Robertus ^j/ms Hardingi, filii regis Dacise, 
hujus Monaster!)' primi fundatores. 

Ther be 3. Tombes of the Barhleyes in the Southe Isle agayne 

the Quiere. 

Fanum S. Jacobi. 

It standithe by Brode Meade by Northe from the Castle on an 

Hilly Grownd, and the Ruines of it standithe hard buttynge to 

the Este Ende of the Paroche Churche. 

252 Transactions foe the Year 1889-90. 

Robertus consul Cownte of Glocestarshire buryed in the Quiere 
in the Mycldle of it in a Sepulchre of Gray Marble set up apon 6. 
Pillers of a smaull Hethe. In his Tuinbe was found a Writynge in 
Parchement concernynge the tyme of his Deathe, and what he 
was. A Brewer in Bristow hathe this Writynge. 

This S. James was a Celle to Twekesberye. 

Non longe a dextra ripa Frai. 

S Magdalene's a Howse of Nunes, suppressyd. on the Northe 
Syde of the Towne. This Howse was suppressyd of late tymes, 
when suche as were under 300. Marks of Rent by the Yere were 
putte downe. Master Wiks dwellythe in this Howse. 

The Gaunts. 

One Henry Gawnt a Knight sometyme dwellynge not far from 
Brandon Hill by Brightstow erectyd a College of Pristes withe a 
Mastar on the Grene by Seint Augustines. And sone aftar he 
chaungyd the first Foundation into a certeyne kynde of Religion, 
and was Governowr of the Howse hymselfe, and lyethe buried in 
the Vesturye undar a flate Stone. This had at the Desolucion 
of the Howse 300. Marks of Land by the Yere. This Henry had 
a Brothar cawlyd Ser Mawryce Gaivnte. He was Foundar of the 
Blake Friers in Brightstow. 

Hospitales in ru (ruin ?) 

Fanum Barptholomaei. 

Fanum 3 m regum juxta Barptolomeanes extra Fromegate. 

Aliud non procul in dextra ripa Frai qua iiur ad fanum 
Jacobi in Lionsmede Strete. 

One in Temple Strete. 

An othar withe out Temple Gate. 

An othar by Seint Thomas Strete. 

S. John's by Radeclife. 

An Hospitall S. Trinitatis hard within Lasford's Gate. 

The Tukkers Hospitall in Temple. 

The We vers Hospitall in Temple Strete. 

Ther was an Hospitall of old tyme whereof late a Nunrye was 
caullyd S. Margaret's. 

The Grey Friers Howse was on the right Ripe of From Watar 
not far from Seint Barptolomes Hospitall. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 253 

The Black Friers stode a litle highar then the Grey on From 
in the right Ripe of it. Ser Maurice Gaunt, elder Brothar to Ser 
Henry Gaunt, Foundar of the Gauuts, was Foundar of this. 

The White Friers stode on the right Pype of Frome agayn the 

The Augustine Friers Howse was harde by the Temple Gate 
withein it Northe Weste. 

Chapels in and aboute Brightstow cis Avon. 

The Bake Chapell by cawse it stoode by the Bake by Avon. It 
longethe onto Seint Nicholas. 

S. Georgis Chapell joyning to the Towne Howse. 

A Chapell ovar the New Gate. 

Owr Lady Chapell on Avon Bridge. 

S. Sprites Chapell in Radclef Churche Yard. This ons a 
Paroche afore the Buyldinge of Radclyfe grete new Churche. 

S. Brandon 's Chapell, now defacyd, on Brandon Hill a Qwartar 
of a Myle by West the Gaunts. 

Bedemister a Mile out of the Towne by Est South Este is 
now Mother Churche to Radeclife, to 8. Thomas within the Towne, 
and Leighe without the Towne. 

Bridges in Bristow. 

The Create Bridge of i. Stone Arches ovar Avon. 

Were Bridge on From hard by the Northe Est Parte of the 
Castle of Bristowe. 

There brekythe an Anne out of Frome a But Shot above Were 
Bridge, and renithe thrwghe a Stone Bridge of one Great Arche, 
and there by at New Gate the othar Parte of From reninge from 
Were Bridge cummithe undar a nothar Stone, and serving the 
Mille hard without New Gate metithe with the othar Arnie. 

The Haven of Brightstow. 
The Haven by Avon flowithe about a 2. Miles above Bright- 

stoive Bridge. 

Seint Anns Ferye is a bout Myle and halfe above the Towne of 

The Shipps of olde tyine cam only by Avon to a Place caullyd 
tlie Bek, where was and is Depthe enowghe of Watar ; but the 

Vol. XIV s 

254 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Botom is very stony and rughe sens by Polecye they trenchid 
soniwhat a lofe by Northe West of the old Key on Avon anno 
1247. and in continuance brynginge the Cowrse of From Byver 
that way hathe made softe and whosy Harborow for grete Shipps. 

Hunge Rode aboute a 3. Miles lower in the Haven then 
Brightstow. At this Rode be some Howsys in dextra Avon ripa. 

About a Myle lowere is Kyng's Mode, and there be also some 
Howses in dextra ripa Avonre 

Ther is a Place almoste agayne Hung Rode caulyd Portchestar, 
where Hardynge and Robert his Sunne had a fayre Howse, and a 
nothar in Brightstow Towne. 

Sum thinke that a great Pece of the Depenes of the Haven 
from S. Vincents to Hung Rode hathe be made by Hand. Sum 
say that Shipps of very auncient tyme cam up to S. Stepkanes 
Churche in Brightstow. 

A Remembraunce of memorable Acts done in Brightstow, out 
of a litle Boke of the Antiquities of the Howse of Calendaries in 

The Antiquities of the Calendaries were for the moste parte 
brent by chaunce. 

The Calendaries, otharwyse cawlyd the Gilde, or Fraternite of 
the Clergie and Comonaltye of Brightstow, and it was firste kepte 
in the Churche of the Trinitie, sens at Al Halows. 

The Originall of this Fratemitie is out of mynd. 

Ailarde Mean and Bitrick his Sunne Lords of Brightestow afore 

the Conqueste. 

Haymon Erie of Glocestar aftar the Conquest and Lorde of 

Robertus consul, Sunne to Hamon, was' Erie of Glocestar, and 
Lorde of Brightstow, and Foundar of the Monasterye of Tewkes- 

Robertus consul Lorde of Brightstow Castle, and Foundar of 
S. James Priorie in the Northe Suburbe of Brightstow,. 

Kynge Stephan toke the Towne of Brightstow by force from 
Robertus consul. 

In the tyme of Kynge Henry the 2. Robert Erie of Glocestar 
(Bastard Sunn to Henry the First) and Robert Hardiuge translated 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 255 

the Fraternitie of_ the Calendaries from the Trinitie onto the 
Churche of Al-Eallows. At this tyme were Scholes ordeyned in 
Brightstow by them for the Conversion of the Jewes, and put in 
the Ordre of the Calenderis and the Maior. 

Hardinge foundyd the Monastery e of S. Augustine at Bright- 
stow, and to it was appropriate the Churche of Al-Hallows. 

Swalo Cardinale a Romaine Legate after the Coranation of 
Henry the third at Glocester cam to Brightstow, and kept a Synode 
there tempore Henrici Blesensis episcopi Wigorn. 

William Erie of Glocestar, Founder of the Monasterye of 
Cainesham, gave the Praefecture and Mastarshipe of the Schole 
in Brightstow to Cainesham, and tooke it from the Calendaries. 

Conducts in Bristow cis ptontem. 
S. Johrfs hard by S. John's Gate. 
The Key Pipe, with a very fair Castellet. 
Al-Haloio Pipe hard by the Calendaries without a Castelle. 
S. Nicholas Pipe withe a Castellet. 

Ultra pontem. 

Redclif Pipe with a Castlet hard by Redclife Churche withe 
out the Gate. 

An othar Pipe withe owte Radclif Gate havinge no Castelle. 

Another by Porte Waulle withoute the Waulle. 

Porte Waulle is the fairest Parte of the Towne Waulle. 

The sayinge is that certein Bochers made a fair Peace of this 
Waull ; and it is the highest and strongest Peace of all the Towne 

The Yere of owr Lorde 1247. was the Trenche made and cast 
of the Ryver from the Gybbe Taylor to the Key by the Comonlty 
as well of Redclife Syde, as of the Towne of Bristoll ; and the 
same tyme thinhabitants of Redclife were combined and incoi'- 
peratyd to the forsayde Towne. And as for the Grouncle of Saynt 
Augustins Syde of the Rivar it was geven and graunted to the 
Comonalty of the sayde Towne by Ser William Bradstone then 
beinge Abbot of the same Monastiry for certeyne Money therfore 
payed to hym by the Comonaltye, as it apperithe by Writynge 

s 2 

256 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

therof made betwinge the Mayor and Comonalty, and the Abbot 
and his Bretherne. 1 

1221. This Yere came the Frere Prechers first into England. 

1225. This Yere on Saynt Boreheus [Bartholomew's] Day the 
Frere Mynors came first into the Realme. Also a Man of Adder- 
lay fayned hymselfe Christ, whiche was brought to Oxford, and 
ther crucified. 

This Yere beganne first the Order of the Augustine Friers in 

The Jew at Tewxbery. (sic) 

1309. This Yere they made new Statuts in this Towne, and 
they called the Senesters Baylifies of the Kings, and they pur- 
chased new Ground to the Towne, and had new Prevylegis gyven 
them of Kynge Edwarde. 

The Almese Howse without Temple Yate is called Rogers 
Magdalens of Nonuey whiche was Founder of it. And the Almese 
Howse by Seynt Thomas Churche is called Burton's Alines Howse. 
Burton Maior of the Towne and Founder is buried in it. 

A nother Hospitall hard by the Greye Fryers: 

And in Temple Streate. 

One Shepward a Marchaunt of Bristow made the right highe 
and costly Towre of S. Stephenes in Brightstow. 

From Brightstow to Stoke levinge it on the lifte Hand a 3. 
Mils or more by Grownd Wooddy and Forest, as of Kingeswod. 
There is a Manor Place of the Barkeleys in Ruine, and a Parke 
Waulle. Barkeley of the Courte is now Owner of it. 

From thens by muche Forest and parteley bareinge Grownd a 
2. Mils to Magngots Filde Village be lyke Ground. Here I saw 
an olde Maner Place sumtyme longginge to the Blunts. Syns 
Ilusey had it be bying for his Sune the Heire Generale. Then it 
came to the Barkeleys by Purchace or Exchaunge. 

\_Mogatesfelde, alias Magnusfelde, a smaul Lordeship. It was 

ons withowte fayle a Nunnery. Parte of the Oloyster standithe 

yet. It is now the Lord Barkeleys. vol. vi. p. 72] 

1 This paragraph was copied by Leland from the Mayor's Kalendar, but 
he has mistaken the date. " H. tercio xxiiij " of the original was, accord- 
ing to civic reckoning, 1240-1. All the dates which follow are more or less 
incorrect. Where the author obtained them docs not appear. 

Lelaxd ix Gloucestershire. 257 

A Mile farther by very Champaine, fruteful of Come and 
Grasse, but somewhat scarce of Woode, to Coderinyton levinge it 
by halfe a Mile on the lyfte Hand. There dwellyd a late at 
Coderinyton a Gentleman of that Name. 

From Coderinyton to Derham a Mile and halfe of, where 
Mastar Dionise dwellithe havinge a fair Howse of Achelei Stones 
and a Parke. 

Thens a 2. Mils and halfe to Dodinyton, where Mastar Wykes 
dwellythe and hathe welle restorid his Howse with fayre Buildings. 
This Maner Place and Land longyd onto Barkels. It was pur- 
chasyd, and now remaynithe to Wiks. 

Vol. vi. p. 72. 

[After stating {v. sup.) that part of Dursley castle was brought to make the 
new house at Doddington, Leland adds : — ] 

The olde Place of Dodinyton withyn the Mote by the new. 

A Glasse with Bones yn a Sepulchre found by Dodinyton 
Chirch yn the High Way. Pottes exceding finely nelyd and 
florishid in the Romanes tymes diggid out of the Groundes in the 
Feldes of Dodinyton. 

A Yerthen Pott with Romayne Coynes found in Dodinyton 

Dodinyton longgid to the BarkeJeys. 

Vol. vii. p. 96. 
Master WaJche dwellithe at Litle Sobbyrye a Mils from 
Dodinyton. Thereby is a faire and large Campe with a doble 


[Gilberte by Camallat maried one of Mr. Wcdsches Doughters. 

Caines Heire of Devonshire a Man of aboute 300. Markes of 
Lande maried a nother. 

Clifordes Sun and Heire maried a nother. Vol. vi. p. 73.] 

It apperithe by Record in Malmesbyri that Malmesbyry was 
rewardyd for Service done in Battayle afore the Conquest at 
Sodbyry Hill. 

An othar Campe at orton but lesse. 

The third by Derham Mastar Dionise Howse, and all towchinge 
on one Hilly Creaste. 

258 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

The 4. at Beketbyri a Mile and halfe frorne Alchrley. 

Walche is Lord of Litle Sodbyri, and hath a fayr Place there 
in the Syde of Sodbyry high Hill and a Parke. 

Okie Sodbyri is a Mile from it, and there appere Ruines of an 
olde Maner Place longynge as the Towne dyd to the Erie of War- 
wike, now to the Kynge. To the Erles of Warwike logged (sic) 
alias Chej.inge Sodbyry, a praty litle Market Towne and Thrwghe 
Fayre to Brightstoiv. There is a Parke of the Kyngs by this 
Towne, sumtyme the Wanciks. Litle Wood in full Light nigh 
the Sowthe Partes of the Campaine Soile aboute Sodbyry. Ther 
is a great Plentye by Southe Sodbyri of Wood in a large Valey 
sumtyme thens clerely to Severn, lyinge in the Forest of Kyngs- 
Wood. The crests of the Hilles that ly by Subbyri croketh one 
way to Glocester. 

From Chepinge Sobbyry onto Alder shy a clothinge Village, 
where Mastar John Poynts dwellith beyng Lord of it. The 
Chanseys were sumtyme Lords of it, as in Edward the third Dayes. 

Kingeswodd stondithe low a good Mile from Alder sley. 

The Ground betwixt enclosyd and metely welle woddyd. Some 
Clothyars in it. els a litle and a bare Village. 

Stones clerly fascioned lyke Cokills, and myghty Shells of 
great Oysters, turned in to Stones founde in parte of the Hills 
Este South Este off to Alderley. 

The Course of Acton River. 

This Brooke of sum is caullid Loden, but communely Laden, 
and risith above Dodivgton, where Mastar Wiks Howse is, and so 
to Acton, Mastar Voyntez House a 4. Myles of, and then toward 
Brightstoiv takynge the Name of Frome. 

There meate 2. Waters halfe a Myle by nethe Acton at a 

Sobbyri Water cummithe from the Hills therby & re (sic.) 

The Water by Alderley is in Evidence caullyd Avon, and goithe 

to Barkeley. 


From Kyngs Woode to Wotton a praty Market Towne, welle 

occupyed withe Clothiars havynge one faire longe Strete and welle 

buyldyd in it ; and it stondithe cly vinge toward the Rotes of an 



There be Ruines of an olde Maner Place at Wottcm by the 
Paroche Churche. It longgyd cms to the Berkeley s, and aftar onto 
the Lords Lisles. Syns forceable recovery d of the Lord Berkeley 
ther by sleinge the Lorde Lisle. 

[There hath been a very great Campe of Menne of Warre on 
an Hille now caullyd NeUey over growen with Wodde aboute the 
my die Way betwixt Wotton Underege and Dersley but nerer to 
Wotton. The Lord Lisle was slayn with an Arow by one James 
Hiatte of the Forest of Beene yn Nebley Paroch. 

Ther were Nunnes at Boxivel 2. Miles by Est from Wotton 
Underedge, destroied, as sum say, by the Danes. It longid now to 
the Abbay of Glocester. Vol. vi. pp. 73-4.] 


Thens a 2. Myles and more by very hilly and woddy Ground 

to Doursley, where is a praty Clothinge Towne stondinge on a 

Pece of the Clyvinge of a Hill, privilegid a 9. Yers sens with a 

Market. There is in the Towne selfe a goodly Springe, and is as 

the principall Hedd of the Broke servynge the Tukkyng Miles 

about the Towne. This Watar resortythe into Severne that is a 

bout a 4. Myles of towchinge by the Way sume other Vilagis. 

This Towne had a Castle in it sumtyme longinge to the Berkeley s, 

syns to the Wiks, sens fell to Decay, and is cleane taken downe. 

It had a metly good Dyche about it, and was for the moste parte 

made of towfe Stone full of Pores and Holes lyke a Pumice. 

There is a Quary of this Stone about Dursley. Yt will last very 


[In some desultory notes, vol. vi. p. 12, are the following : — 

Rogerus Berkeley de Drisilega Sunne maried with the Doughter 
of Maurice [son of Robert Fitzhardinge ] 

Drisilega, alias Dereslega, It was ons in the Foreste. 

Part of Driselege Castel brought to make the new r House of 
Dodington. A Quarre of Tophe Stone by Driselege, whereof much 
of the Castelle was buildidj. 

From Doursley to Torteworthe Vyllage, wher be some good 
Clothiars. There rennithe a Broke. 1 take it to be the Brooke 
that cummythe from Dursley, and that thens it goithe to Berkley 
a 3. Miles lower. There is by the Paroche Churche of Tortivorth 
a Maner Place, where Mastar Throgmerton dwellythe. 


From Torteworthe to Wilts Watar a pratye clothinge Tounlet 
2. Myles. The Lorcle Delaware is chefe Lorde of it. 

Thens moste by Champaine Ground a 4. Myles on to Sodbery 
Market that longyd withe the Village and the Maner Place of 
Olde Sodbyrye onto the Erles of Warwike. 

From Sodbery to Tormerton Village where Ser Edward Wade- 
ham dwellythe. 

Thens about a 4. Myles by playne Grownde onto Maschefeld. 
This Lordshipe longyd to the Canons of Cainesham. 

Thens a 4. Myles farthar I passyd by Hilly Grownde, and went 
ovar a Stone Bridge, under the whiche ran a Broke that a litle 
lower went in sight into Avon Byver by the right Ripe of it. 

Thens by Hilly, Stony and Wooddy Ground a 3. Miles onto 
Bradeford on the right Ripe of Avon. 

[Some Wilts and Somerset notes follow.] 

From Bathe to Tormerton 8 Mils all moste all by Champain 

Tormerton was the l)e la Rivers Lands, sins it descendid to 
S. Loes. Olde Wadeham hath it by Mariage of one of the Ladyes 
S. Clo (sic) for his lyfe tyme, the whiche was the last De la 
Rivers Doughtar. 

There lyeth buryed in the Body of the Paroche Churche of 
Ihormerton one t'etrine De la Ryvers with a French e Epitaphie. 
He was owner of the Lordshype of Tormerton. 

From Thormerton to Sudbyry 2. Myles. 

From thens to Acton 3. Myles by Woddy Grounde. 

Dereham Village is a 2. Mils from Tormerton. There is a fayre 
Maner Place longginge to Mastar Dionyse. The Lordeshipe of 
auncient tyme longyd to the Russels. One John Russell and Eliza- 
bcthe his Wyfe lyethe there buryed in the Paroche Churche ; but 
they had but a meane Howse there. From them it cam by 
Heyre Generall onto the Dionisies, of whom one Gilbert Dionise 
was countyd as one of one (sic) of first that there possessyd. Then 
cam Maurice, and he there buildyd a new Courte. And Ser Guliam 
Dionise buildyd a nother Courte of late yeres. 

The Dionysies hathe here a fayre Parke, and also a fayre 
Lordshipe and a praty Howse a 2. Myles from Dereham at Siseton, 

Lelanp in CtLottof.stf.rshtre. 261 

and a nothar Manor and Place cawlyd Alnestone a 2. Myles from 

Alverstone at the Deforestinge of the old Foreste of Ky>iges- 
ivood was the Kyngs. 

From Tormerton onto Acton 5. Myles, 2 Myles by Champaine, 
and 3. by enclosyd Ground. 

Acton Mannor Place standithe about a Quarter of a Myle from 
the Village and Paroche Churche in a playne Grounde on a redde 
Sandy Soyle. There is a goodly Howse and 2. Parks by the 
Howse, one of Redd Dere, an othar of Fallow. 

The Erles of Heriford were once Lords of Acton Lordshipe. 

From Acton to Thome (sic) a 3. Myles or more by enclosyd 
Ground and well wooddyd. 


The Towne selfe of Thornebyry is set almoste apon an eqwalle 
Grounde, beinge large to the Proporcion of the Letter Y, havinge 
first one longe Strete and two Hornnes goynge owt of it. The 
Lengthe of the Strete lyethe almoste from Northe to Sowthe. The 
right Home of it lyethe towards the Weste, the othar towarde 
the Sowthe. There is a Market kepte Wekely in the Towne. And 
there is a Mayre and Privileges. 

The Paroche Churche is in the Northe End of the Towne, a 
fayre Pece of Worke. Whereof the hole savinge the Chaunsell 
hathe be buildyd in hominum memoria. 

There hathe bene good Clothing in Thornebyry, but now 
Idelnes muche reynithe there. 

There was of aunciente tyme a Maner Place, but of no great 
Estimacion, hard by the Northe syde of the Paroche Churche. 

Edward late Duke of Bukkyngeham likynge the Soyle aboute, 
and the Site of the Howse, pullyd downe a greate Parte of the 
olde Howse, and sette up magnificently in good squared Stone the 
Southe Syde of it, and aecomplishyd the West Parte also withe a 
right comely Gate-Howse to the first Soyle ; and so it stondithe 
yet withe a Rofe forced for a tyme. 

This Inscription on the Fronte of the Gate Howse : This Gate 
ioos beyon in the Yere of owr horde God 1511. the 2. Yere of the 
Reigne of Kynye Henry the viii. by me Edward Duke of Bukkyng- 
ham, Erie of Hereford, Staforde and Northampton. 

26-2 Transactions foe the Year 1S89-90. 

The Dukes Worde : 
Dorene savant. 

The Foundation of a very spacious Base Courte was there 
begon, and certeyne Gates, and Towres in it Castelle lyke. It is 
of a iiii. or v. Yardes highe, and so remaynithe a Token of a noble 
Peace of Worke purposid. 

There was a Galery of Tymbre in the Bake Syde of the House 
joyning to the Northe Syde of the Paroche Churche. 

Edward Duke of Bukkyngham made a fayre Parke hard by the 
Castle, and tooke muche faire Grownd in it very frutefull of Corne, 
now fayr Launds for Coursynge. The Inhabytaunts cursyd the 
Duke for thes Lands so inclosyd. 

There cummith an Armelet of Severne ebbynge and flowyng 
into this Parke. Duke Edward had thowght to have trenchyd 
there, and to have browght it up to the Castle. 

There was a Parke by the Maner of Thornebyry afore, and yet 
is caullyd Morlewodde. 

There was also afore Duke Edivzrd's tyme a Parke at Estewood 
a Myle or more of : but Duke Edward at 2. tymes enlargyd it 
to the Compace of 6. Myles not without many Curses of the poore 

The Severne Se lyethe a Myle and more from Thornebyrie, the 
Marches lyenge betwene. 

From Thornebyry to Briyhtstow a 10. Myles. 

From Thornebyry to Glocester 18. Myles, Sume caull it 20. 

From Thornebyry to Berkeley a Market Towne, havynge a 
Maior and Privelegis, a 4. Myles. A Myle or more or I came by 
the Towne I lefte the New Parke withe a fayre Loge on the Hill 
in it longinge on to Berkeley on the lifte Hand. And by a flyte 
Shote or ever I cam on to the very Towne, standynge on a Clive, 
I passyd over a Bridge, and there ran Forteworthe Ryver downe 
on the lifte Hond to Severne Marches. And at the very enteringe 
of the Towne I passyd over a nothar Bridge where ran a Broke 
commynge from the Springs of clyvers Hills not far of ; and this 
Broke in the Salte Meades a litle benethe the ToAvne meatithe the 
othar Broke of Torteworthe Watar, and goo bothe withe in a Myle, 

Leland ix Gloucestershire. 263 

or there aboute, by the Salte Marsche and New Porte Havenet in 

to Seveme. 

The Towne of Berkeley is no great thynge, but it stanclyth 

well, and in a very good Soyle. It hathe very muche occupied, 

and yet some what dothe Clothinge. 

[Sum say that there was a Nunnery at Berkeley. Vol. vi. p. 

The Churche stondithe as on an Hille at the Southe Ende of 
the Towne. 

And the Castle stondithe at the Southe West End of the 
Church. It is no great thinge. Dyvers Towres be in the 
Compase of it. The Warde of the first Gate is metely stronge, 
and a Bridge ovar a Dyche to it. There is a sqware Dongeon 
Towre in the Castle, sed non stat in mole ejestce terrce. 

Ther be dyvers Lordships there about longynge to Berkley to 
the Some of 1000. Marks by the Yere, whereof Swynbome is one 
of the best. There longe to Berkeley 4. Parks and 2. Chaces. 

Okeley Parke hard by. 


New Parke. 

Handle Parke. 

Miche Wood Chace. 

Vol. vi. p. 46. 
Genealogia Berchelogorum. 

Hardingus ex reyia, prosapia regni Dacise oriundus fuit in tem- 
pore Gul. Conquestoris § Bristolliam inhabitavit a Dni 1069. postea 
Dns de Berkeley. 

An D. 1135. tempore Stephani regis Robertus filius Hardingi 
genuit ex Eva sponsa sua quatour filios, videlicet Mauritium de 
Barkeley, Robertum de Wer, Nicolaum de Tikenham, & Thomam 
archidiaconum Wigorniensem Arc D. 1135. 

An D. 1148. 3 Idus Apr. die videlicit Tsmchsej/undatio monas- 
ter. S. Augustini Bristoll, & congregatio fratrum ejusdem per Dnm 
Robertum /ilium Hardingi prcedicti. 

An" D. 1170. die S. Agatha? Virginia obiit Ds. Robertus filius 
Hardingi, miles, <k canonicus, ac fundator monaster. S. Augustini 

264 Tramsaotions for the Year 1889-90. 

Mauritius primogenitus Roberti filii Hardingi ex Alicia sp>onsa, 
filia Rogeri de Durslegh, genuit Robertum, Thomam, &, Mauritium. 

Robertus primog. Mauritii habuit duas uxores, videlicit Luciam 
& Lucianam, [Julianam 1] <k obiit sine herede de se exeunte, & sic 
descendit hereditas Thomse fratri suo. 

Thomas accepit in ux. Isabellam consanguineam regis Joannis, 
& ex ea genuit Mauritium, Thomam & Robertum. 

Iste rex Joannes habuit fratrem juniorem, scilicet Richardum 
comitem Cornubise, regem Hierusalem ac regem Alemannise, qui 
fuit pater Isabella? predictce, qui fundavit 4. Abbatias, scilicet 
Ascheruge, Hailes & 2. alias. 

Mauritiis primogenitus occisus erat apud Killingeworth. 

Thomas f rater ejics successit ei, & accepit in ux. Joannara filiam 
comitis de Ferreres, & genuit ex ea Mauritium, Thomam, Joannem, 
& Jacobum. 

Mauritius primogenitus Thomas accepit in ux. filiam Ivonis 
Dni de la Zouche, & genuit ex ea Thomam, Mauritiam, Joannem 
Yvonem & Petrurn. 

Thomas primogenitus Mauritii accepit in ux. Margaretam, filiam 
Rogeri de Mortimer, comitis de la Marche, & genuit ex ea Mauritium, 
Thomam & Robertum. Morlua vero Margareta Thomas prcedictus 
accepit in ux. Dominam qiue quondam uxor Petri le Veel. 

Mauritius de Berkeley primogenitus Thomse accepit in tcx. 
Elisabeth, filiam Hugonis de Spenser, & genuit ex ea Thomam, 
Jacobum & Joannem. Obiit 6. Idus Jun. a D. 1359. 

Thomas primogenitus Mauritii accepit in ux. Margaretam filiam 
Wareni le Lisle, & genuit ex ea filiam unam nomine Elisabeth, 
quam Richardus films comitis de Warwick accepit in uxorem. 

Jacobus films Jacobi, filii Mauritii, successit Thomse, & accepit 
in uxorem Isabellam, filiam ducis Northfolcise,t& habuit exea quatuor 
ftlios, Gulielmum, Jacobum, Mauritium fy Thomam. 

An D. 1347, die Martis 3. Cal. Jun. D. Thomas de Berkeley 
desponsavit Dnd. Catarinam, nuper consortem D l Petri le Veele, 
filiam D' Joannis de Glifden [Clifdon] apud Charfeld. 

An" Dnl 1348. 7. die Jun. in Festo Tran. S. Wolstani episcopi 
natus est Thomas filius prcedicti I) 1 Thomse ac Catarinse rt/wc/ Berkeley, 
quern Wolstanus episcopus Wigorn. 4. a Nativitate die baptizavit. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 265 

An" D. 1349. 27. die Maii natus est Mauritiis predicti Thomse 
& Catarinpe filius apad Berkeley. 

An D. 1350. 10. die mensis Julii natus est Edmundus ejusdem 
Thompe & Catering filius. 

An" D. 1351. 21° Jamjar. 1 natus est Joannes prcedicti Thomae 
d- Catarime filius apud Wotton Under Egge. 

Ther was great Harte Burning betwixt the Lorde Berkeley and 
the Lorde Lisle for the Maner of Wotton Under Egge, in so much 
that they pointid to fight, and meting yn a Meclow at a Place 
caullid Nebley, Berkeley's Archers sodainely shotte sore, and the 
Lord Lisle lifteing up the Visar of his Helme was by an Archer 
of the Forest of Dene shotte in at the Mouth and oute of the 
Nek : and a few beside beyng slayn Lisle Menne fled : and Berkeley 
with his Menne straite spoilid the Maner Place of Wotton, and 
kepte the House. Berkeley favorid Henry the 6. Parte. Lisle 
favorid Edwarde the 4. 

Berkeley to wyn after Kinge Eduarde's good Wylle promisid 
to make the Marquise of Dorset his Heire : but that succedid not. 

Berkeley was ons a sure Frende to King Richard the 3. 

Thus partid Berkeley from his Landes. First he was rather 
winkid at then forgyven of the Death of the Lord Lisle. And he 
beyng withoute Heires his Brother solde and dyd bargen for his 
owne Sunne, Heire apparent to the Lands. Wherapon Lord 
Berkeley in a Rage made King Henry the 7. his Heire for [moste 
of his Lands,] and after was made a Marquise, and lyeth buried 
in the Augustine Freres in London. 

Vol. vii. p. 103. 
From Berkley to Acton muche by Woody Ground a 7. Miles. 
Thens to Cheping Sodbyri, and a Myle from thens to Lytic 

The doble dichyd Campe there by on the Hill conteynithe a 2. 
Acres. Kynge Edward the Fowrthe's Men kepte this Campe here 
goinge to Twekesbyry Elide. Old Sodbyri and Chepinge Sodbyry 
were the Erles of G'locester's Lands, and syns Bewchamp's Erles of 
Warwyke. Gilbert de Clare pocessyd them. 

1 Hearne adds "sic." But if the chronicler's year began on the 23th 
March the difficulty is explained. 

266 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

The Maner Place stode harde by the West End of the Churche. 
now clene downe. 

[Badmanton Village a good Mile from Litle Sodbyri, wher in 
remembraunce 3. of the Botelars of the House of Boteler Lord 
Sudeley. Ther is meane Maner Place and a Parke. (In the 
margin : — " Boteler a Man of a 180. li. Landes." Vol. vi. p. 73.] 

From Litle Sodbyri onto Pulklechvrche in Glosestarshire a 4. 
Myles ; one and a halfe by enclosyd Ground, the Resydwe by 
Champaine, but frutefull. Here is a Parke and a goodly Lord- 
shipe longynge unto the Bysshope of Bathe. 

EDMONDE the Elder King of England was slayn at Pulcle- 

chirch, and byried at Glasteinbyri. 

This is written with John Savaricus Bishop of Bathe, and 

Leyland the Antiquary his owne Abbate of Glasteinbyri alienated 

hand, who dyd 18. Apr. 1552. Pucklechirche from Glesteinbyri to 

6. E. 6. 2 Bathe. 

The Personage of Pucklechirch impropriate to the 'Cathedrale 
Chirche of Welles. 

From Pucklechirch to Cainesham 

There be 2. Bridges of Stone at Kainesham, wherof "one of 6. 
greate Arches, now al yn ruine, standith holely in Glocestreslu'r. 
The other hard therby stondith with 3. great Arches of Stone 
over Avon Eyver that there partith Glocestershire and Somersetshir. 

Vol. vi. p. 74. 

Deirhurst in Glocestershir. 

It standith as Severne Ryver cummith doune in Iceva ripa a 
Mile beneth Theokcsbyri, 

The site of the Towne, as it is now, is in a maner of a Medow. 
So that when Severne much risith the Water cummith almoste 
aboute the Towne. 

Tt is to be supposid that it was of olde tyme lesse subjecte 
to Waters, and that the Botom of Severne then deper withoute 
Choking of Sandes dyd at Flouddes leste hurte. 

'-' This nutc was written in the margin of the MS. by Mr. Burton. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 267 

It is now but a poore Village, and the Lordship longgid of late 
partely to the Abbate of Theokesbyri. Suche Parte as Westminstre 
had was longging to Persore Abbay tyl William Conqueror gave it 
away. Derehurst Abbay had the Residew afore that the House 
of Derehurste was alienatid from the Monasterie of S. Dionise 
by Parise, to the which it was a Celle, and one Hugo Magason a 
Monke of S. Dionise was the laste Prior aliene there yn King 
Edwanle the 4. Dayes, and aboute that tyme it was dissolvid, and 
moste of the Landes of it given to Focleringey, and Eton College, 
as it is said, had sum Title. After Sute betwixte the Colleges 
and the Abbay of Theokesbyri Debatinges was, and after long 
Tracte a final Ende made in Henry the 7. days that the Priory of 
Goldeclife, longging then newly to Tcokesbyri, should go with the 
Landes to Foderingey College, and Dehorhurst onto 7 heokesbyri. 

Bede makith mention that yn his tyme there was a notable 
Abbay at Derehurste. It was destroyed by the Danes. Werstanus 
fledde thens, as it is sayde, to Maherne. The Frenclie Order was 
an Erection syns the Conquest. The olde Priory stode Est from 
Severn a Bow shotte, and North of the Town. There remayne yet 
dyverse Names of Streates, as Fischar Streate, and other. But 
the Buildinges of them be gone. Ther be yet 2. Fayres kept one 
at eche day in iuventione Sf in exaltatione Crucis. There is a Parke 
bytwixt the old Plotte of Holme Castelle and it, but it longgid to 
Holme the Erles of Glocesters House, and not to it. There is a 
fair Maner Place of Tymbre and Stone yn this Theokesbyri Parke 
wher the Lord Edward Spensar lay, and late my Lady Mary. 


Trestebyri is a praty Townelet standing There is a Quarre of 

a Mile Este South Este from Cluiltenham yn fine stone aboute Preste- 

Glocestershire. Sum say that it was of old byri, of the whiche Parte 

tyme a Market Towne, and had Fraunchesis. of the fine Stone workes 

It is now made a Market Toune agayne a 20. of Theokesbyri were build 


Yeres syns. The Town hath been larger than it is now, and hath 
be sumwhat defacid with Chaunce of Fier. The Erles of Glocester 
were Lordcs of it. And Gilberte de Clare the sccunde Erie of 

2(i8 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Glocester gave it to the Bisslioprike of Ilerforde for emendes of 
Wronges to Cantulupe Bisshop of Hereforde and to his Chirche. 
One Simon a Freholder, Servante to the redde Erie, having a 
10. li. by Yere in the Lordship was bounde to wayte on the Bisshop 
of Hereforde if he wente ynto Scoltelande. There is now a fair 
House on that Grounde caullid Overton. It is now one Wylliam 
Bagers, and is a Mile dim. oute of Prestbijri, but in the Paroche 
of it. The Bisshope of Ilerforde is Lorde of the Towne, and hath 
a.faire Place there at the Northe West Parte of the Town toward 

Theokesbyri. The Place is well inotid, and standith withyn a 

Quarter of a Mile of Southam. Master 

Tetbyri (?) Castelle 
Is a 2. Miles from Theokesbyri above it in ripa Icsva Salrinoz 
apon a Cliv with doble Diches in the Paroche of Tioyniug. It is 
now overgrowne with Trees and Busshes of Juniper. It longgid to 
Winchelcumbe Abbay. Peradventure it was King Offa, or King 
Kenulphus, House. 

[Some Worcestershire notes follow.] 

Ex libello de Antiquitate Theokebiriensis Monasterii. 
Fundatio Monaster, de Theokesbyri a Di. 715. per duces Mer- 

Temporibus Ethelredi, Kenredi, & Ethelbaldi regum Merciorum 
faerunt Oddo & Doddo duces in Mercia. 

Theocus Heremita mansiuncidam liabuit Sum say that Tlteocus 

prope Sabrinam unde & Theokesbyria. Chapelle was aboute the 

Oddo & Doddo hie construxere monaster- Place wher syns the 
iolum in /undo suo prope Sabrinam in hono- Jues Synagoge was. 
rem Dei & S. Maria? Assumpt* ubi 4. aut 5. 
Monachos cam Priore posuerunt. 

Dederunt Monasterio Stanewey cum membris. 

Oddo & Doddo obierunt a D. 725. 

Sepulti sunt Persorre in Monaster, suo. 

Oddo ante obitum 7nonachus Persorensis. 

Almaricus, /rater Oddonis & Doddonis, sepultus a/pud Deor- 
hurste in parva capella contra portam Prioratus ejusdem. Ilaic 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 2G9 

capella aliqaando fait aida rejia. Ibi monstratur in diem hodier- 
num ejus sepulchr/nn, ubi inpariete scribilur supra ostium: Hanc 
aulam Dodo dux consecrari fecit in ecclesiam ad honorem, Beatae 
Marise Virginia ob amorem fratris sui Almarici. 

Strages,bella, & incerta imperiapene a morte Oddonis & Ddddonis 
usque ad Athelstani monarchiam. 

Incertum igitur quis Mis temporibus patroni fuerit Theokes- 
byriensia Monasterii. 

Theokesbiriense Monasterium bis Mis temporibus spoliatum 

Ueddito sereniori tempore Hugo magmas dux floruit in Mercia, 
patronus Frioratus de Theokesbyri a . D.800. Quo a°.prcedicto sepe- 
livit Brightricum regem Weat-Saxonum in prioratu suo de Theokea- 
byri in Facello S. Ficlei. 

Ob iit dux Hugo a D. 812. $f sepidtus est in eodem Prioratu. 
AdJiuc apparel tumulus ad boream in navi ecclesioi. 

An . Di. 930. sub Eltheatano rege Ailwardus Meaw, sic dictus 
ab albedine, ex prosapia regis Edwardi Seui ris, regis West Saxon- 
uni, erat vir arm/is s'renuus. 

Hie Ailwardus pro se §■ Algiva conjuge sua tempore Ethelredi 
Sf Dunatani episcopi erexit parvum Monaster ium in honorem Dei, tf. 
Maria?, 8f Barptolomasi in fundo suo apud Croneburne circa An. 
Di. 980. 

Alwardus obiit a°. Di 17. Calend. Januarii. 

Ejus filius Algarus cum sua uxore Algiva jure hereditaria suc- 

Algaro successit Brictricua : $r Mi ampliaverunt Monaster, de 

An D. 1066. Gulielmua dux Normann. acquisivit Angliam. 

Robertus, juvenis, films Haymonis domini de Ascrevilla in 
Normannia, venit in Angliam cum Gul. Conquestore. 

Brictricua Imbassiator in Normannia refutavit vuptias Matildis, 
postea uxoris Gul. Conquestoris. 

Brictricus Dvs. Gloceatriaj captus in manerio suo de Hanleia, 8f 
Wintoniam ductus : ubi sine liberis obiit. 

Matildis regin% honorem Gloucestria; mortuo Brictrico accepit. 

Obiit Matildia a°. D. 1083. mense Apr. Deinda, rex sibi servavit 
honorem de Glocester. 
Vol. XIV. t 

270 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Gulielmus Conquestor obiit a . D. 1087. 

Gul. Ruf us processu temporis declit honorem Gloucestrise Roberto 
filio Haymonis cum omni libertate qua eum tenuit Brictricus. 

Robert filius Haymonis ducit in uxorem Sibillam sororem 
Roberti Belesrai comitis Salapise. 

Genuit ex eafilias Mabiliam, Hawisiam, Ceciliam, Amiciam. 

An . D. 1102. Robertus filius Haymonis, exhortatione Sibillse 
uxoris sues 8f Giraldi Abbatis de Corneburne, ecclesiam de Theokes- 
byri ex novo fecit, $f novis possessionibus ditavit. 

Robertus filius Haymonis, relictis tantum Priore 8f 2.fiatribus 
in Corneburne, ceteros cum Giralclo Abbate transtulit una cum 
prcediis Theokesbiriam, quam ex Prioralu in Abbatiam magnifice 

Robertus filius Haymonis obiit Id. Mart, a Di. 1107. Sf a . 7. 
Henrici primi, Sepidtus fait Theokesbirise in domo capitulari. 
Postea per Robertum 3. Abbatem in ecclesiam translates est, 8f in 
dextera parte coemiterii inter 2. columnas honorifice collocatus a . D. 

Isabella uxor Roberti obiit 17. Gal. Januar. a . D 

An D. 1397. Thomas Pakare [Parkere] 1 abbas 18. capellam 
mirifici operis erigi fecit circa novum Roberti filii Haymonis 

Henricus primus rex noluit honorem de Glocestre dividi inter 
filias Roberti Haymonis. 

Cecilia filia Roberti facta est Abbatissa de Shaftesbyri. 

Hawisia Abbatissa de Wilton. 

Amicia nupsit comiti Britannise. 

Mabilia primogenita nupsit Roberto filio notho Henrici primi, 
quern pater rex Henricus integro Jwnore de Glocestre insignivit. 

Hie Robertus nothus wdificavit Prioratum S. Jacobi Bristollise, 
Sr membrum fecit Monasterio de Theokesbyri. 

Robertus nothus solebat singulis solennibus diebus habere secum 
Abbatem de Theokesbyri cum 12. monachis Bristollia?. 

Hie Robertus construxit castrum de Bristolle, fy dedit decimum 

quemque lapidem castri ad fabricam capellce S. Maria? juxta monaster. 

IS. Jacobi Bristollia?. 

1 This and two or three other readings within brackets were obtained by 
Hearne from the original MS. transcribed by Leland. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 271 

Robertus obiit prid. Cal. Novembr. sub a°.D. 1140 [1147.] a°. 
Stephani 12. Sepultus in clwro Monasterii S. Jacobi Bristollise. 

Gulielmus ejus films successit. Buxit in uxorem Hawisiam^/iZ iam 
comitis Leircestriae, genuitque ex ea Robertum qui ante patrem obiit. 

Sepultus fuit Robertus in Abbatia de Cainesham, qioam Guliel- 
mus ejus pater infilii sui Roberti memoriam erexerat. 

Gulielmus etiam fdias genuit, videlicet Mabiliam, quai nupsit 
comiti de Evereux in Normannia. 

Almaricus filius Mabilia?, qui comitatum Glocestrise post mortem 
Isabella? tempore regis Joannis paululum p>ossidens sine liberis cito 
decessit. Alteram genuit filiam Gulielmus Amiciam nomine, quce 
nupsit domino Richardo Clare comiti de Hertforde. 

Tertiam quoque filiam nomine Isabellam genuit. 

Henricus 2. detinuit in manu sua honorem de Glocestre 8. annis, 
& anno ultimo regni sui dedit Isabellam in uxorem Joanni filio suo 
cum int gro honore de Glocester, quern tenuit reqnante Richardo I. 
ej us J'ratre. 

Hie Joannes postea rex fecit pontem de Theokesbyri, qui vocatur 
pons longus, tempore comitatus sui, Sf dedit ad sustentationem dicti 
pentis to turn teloneum mercati de Twekesbyri quod usque hodie 

Joannes cum it no regnassit anno Isabellam, quia liberos non 
habuit,repudiavit, retinens in manu sua honorem de Glocester, castrum 
Bristollise cum Burgo, <& totam Ilundredam de Bertona cum per- 
tinentiis quat non devenerunt ad heredes usque in prcesentem diem. 

Joannes rex maritamt Isabellam Galfrido de Mandeville comiti 
Essexise cum comiiatu Glocestrire. Galfredo Mandeville mortuo 
Isabella tempore Joannis cum Ludovicus Gallus Angliam occuparet 
nupsit Huberto de Burgo summo Angl. Justic'ario permissu regis 
8f paulo post obiit. 

Gulielmus comes Glocestr. obiit a° D. 1173. Sepultus fuit in 
monaster io de Cainesham quam in Roberti filii sui memoriam 

Hie Robertus (lulielmi filius natus fuit apud Cairdif, Sf ibidem 
obiit a . D. 1166. 

Duab. filiabus Gulielmi comitis sine liberis morientibus devoluta 

est hereditas ad Amiciam uxorem Richardi de Clare. 
T 2 

27'2 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Richard us de Clare dbiit a U. 1211. 8f sepultus est apud Clare. 

Successit Richardo Gilbei'tus ejus ex Amicia filius. 

Hie Gilbertus primus Glocestrise fy Hertforclise comes conjunctiva 
<£• divisim, qui accept a covjuge Isabella, filia Gulielmi Marescalli 
senioris, comitis de Penbroke, genuit ex ea filiam nomine matris 
Amiciara a°.B. 1220. 

Gilbertus genuit ex Amicia uxore Richardum secundum heredem 
suum a D. 1221. [mccxxii.] 

Gilbertus postea genuit alios filios, Gulielmum & Gilbertum. 

Gilbei'tus postremo genuit 2. filias, Agnetem & Isabellam. 

Gilbertus primus legavit monaster, boscum Mutha dicitur in 

de Mitha cum corpore suo ad sepeliendum in Bonationibus. Distat d, 

medio presbyterii. Theoci cziria idtrapon- 

An°. D. 1230. Gilbertus primus dbiit in tern 1000. passibus in 

Britannia Minori. montis ad Sabrinae 

Successit ei 2. Richardus ejus filius & lieres ripam. 
comes de Glocester <& Herteforde. Comes Hertford. 

Richardus 2. duxit in uxorem Matildem filiim comitis Lincoln- 
iensis & genuit ex eafilium dictum Gilbertum secundum a . D. 1243. 
apud eccl. Cliristi in Hamptonshire. 

Hie Gilbertus 2. dictus est Comes Rubeus, quia rufos erat <& 
pulcher aspectu. 

Cenuit etiam Gilbertus 2 US . dtoos alios filios, Thomam 8f Bene- 
dictum, & 3. filia*, Isabellam, Margaretam d- Roys. 

Richardus de Clare secundus comes Glocestria; & Hertfordice 
tenuit natalem Dni. a± ud Theokesbyri, & habuit secum 60. milites 
servientes sibi. 

Richardus 2. obiit 14. die Jul. anno Di. 1262. tempore Henrici 
3. regis ante Statutem apud Esmerfeld : & sepultus est in presbyterio 
Theokesbyrire ad dexteram patris sui. 

Uxor ejus ornavt tumulum auro, anjento, & gemmis. 

Gilbertus 2. successit patri Richardo in honorem comit. Glocestr. 
& Hertfordire, & ex sua conjuge Joanna de Acris regis Edwardi I. 
filia habuit /ilium unicum Gilbertum 3. & trcs filius, Elenoram, 
Elizabeth & Isabellam. 

Gilbertus 2. obiit in castcllo de Moncmuthe 7. [vi.] Id. Decembr. 
an P. 1295. Sepultus est Theokesbyrite in sinistra Gilberti priini. 


Successit Gilbertus 3. qui de uxore sua Matilde, filia Joannis de 
Brough comitis Ultonice, genuit Joannem raatura ante patrem morte. 

Joannes sejmltus est Theokesbirise in capella S. Maria?. 

Gilbertus 3. a Scottis apud Strivelyn ociisus est die S. Joannis 
Baptist* an . Edwardi 2. regis ... [vm.] a°. cetads 23. 8° Cat. Jul. 
a . D. 1314. Sepidtus est in Tewkesbyri ad hevarn patris sui. 

Matildis uxor Gilberti 3. obiit a . D. 1315°. 

M01 tuo Gilberto comitatus Glocestrise & Herefordise dispersi sunt, 
videlicet in 3. filias Gilberti secundi, sorores videlicet Gilberti 3. 

Post mortem Gilberti 3. successit in 3 parte, & prima comit. 
Glocestr. Elenora prima soror Gilberti 3. 

Patronatus monaster, de Twekesbyri pervenit adhanc Elenorarn. 

Hrec Elenora vmpta fait Hugoni le Dispenser, filio Hugonis 
Spenser comitis Wintonise, <& genuit ex ea Hugonem 3. d Eduardum. 

Hugo primus punitis in castello de Bristolle 6. Cal. Novembr.a?t°. 
1326. Eodem anno in vigil lia S. Aulrefe apostoli Hugo 2. cumerarius 
Eduardi 2. regis sine judicio & responsione suspensus est <b in 
partes divisus, & in ecclesia de Theokesbyri diu posfea sepultus. 

Obiit Elenora uxor Hugonis 2\ 2". Cal. Jul. An". D. 1337. Erat 
mater Hugonis 3. Edwardi l 1 . & Gilberti ex Hugone 2°. Et post 
obitum Hugonis 2 1 . nupsit Dno. Gulielmo de la Zouchea . D. 1335. 
l a Martii. [... Zouch: qui ex ilia genuit Hugonem Souche. Anno 
diii mcccxxxv. primo Die Martii obiit Dominus Willmus le louche, 
& sepultus est in capella beatre Maria Theokusburice in medio.'] 

Gul. de la Zouche maritus Elenorse sepultus apud Theokesbyri 
in capella S. Marise. 

Elisabeth cle Clare 2. filia Gilberti 2. & soror Alenorse habuit 
3. viros, Joannem (sic) de Burgo corn-item de Holmestre, de rjuibus 
Gulielnius genitus comes de Holuester. A quo Gulielmo Elizabeth 
de Burgo hercs ejus, quavi Leonellus^ms 2. Edwardi 3. regis duxit 
in uxorem. A quibus Leonello & Elisabeth filia processit nomine 
Philippa heres unica. 

[Pedigree of the Earls of March follows.] 

Dna Isabella filia Gilberti 2. copxdata fuit Dno Hugoni de 
Au dele. 

Hugo Le Denspenser 3 s . & 2'. films obiit sine herede ex uxore 
Elisabeth, filia comitis Sarum, sexto Id. Febr. a . D. 1348. Sepultus 
est apud Theokesbyry juxta summum altare in dextera parte. Hie 
appropriavit ecclesiam Latrissancte [Lantessan] monaster. Theokes- 
byryensi. Iste /regit Scheltram in mare in. hello de Scluse a . D. 

274 Trans actions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Elisabeth le Despenser uxor Hugonis 3. obiit apud Asscheley 
in comitatu Hamptonise. Sepulta est juxta Hugonem maritum apud 
Theokesbyry. Edwardus le Dispenser frater Hugonis 3, genuit ex 
Anna filia D [ . de Ferrares Edwardum 2 ni . Thomam, Henricum, & 
Gilbertum secundum, &foriuna belli ante fratrem decessit. Edwardus 
vero 2. filius istius Edwardi s^lccessit Hugoni 3°. Duxit in uxorem 
Elisabetham filiam Dm. Bartolemei de Burwasclie, Sf genuit ex 
ea Eduardum 3. qui obiit duodennis apud Cairdif, sed Tlieoksbirise 
sepelitur in capella S. Maria3 : & Hugonem 4. qui post natalem diem 
cito obiit, & cum Edwaixlo 3. sepultus est. Veinde genuit 4. filias, 
Ceciliam, quce juvencula admodem obiit, & sepidta est cum fratribus 
suis. Deinde Elisabeth, quce postea Dnd de la Zouche, & relicta 
Joannis Arundelle : & Annam, quce fuit desponsata Hugoni Hast- 
inges,&postea Thomse Moreley: & Margaretam quce habuit Robertum 

Prcedictus Edwardus in ultima cetate sua genuit Thomam Dis- 
pensar, postea comitem Glocestrise. 

Hie Thomas successit patri in hereditate, & Constantiam, filiam 
Edmundi de Langeley filii Eduardi 3. in uxorem accepit, ex qua 
genuit Richardum, Elisabeth, & Isabellam. 

Prcedictus Edwardus 2 s . obiit in Cambria apud castrum de 
Lanblethiam die S. Martini episcopi a°. D. 1375. 

Sepultus est Edwardus 2 s . apud Theokesbyry ante ostium vestiarii 
jux'ta presbyterium. 

Uxor Edwardi 2. cedificavit pro tumulo viri sui capellam S. Trini- 
tatis apud Theokesbyry. Dedit hie calicem aureum monaster, de 
Theokesbyri. Permansit viduitate Elisabeth filia Dm Burwasche 
33. annis. Obiit a . D. 1409. Sepulta est infra chorum de Theokes- 

capite punitus 

Thomas filius Eduardi Le Dispensar secundi & heres interfectus 

Bristollia? a popxdari vulgo feria 3. ])ost festum S. Hilarii a . D. 
1369 [mcccxcix], Sepidtusest Theokesbyri. Obiit decern annis ante 
onatrem suam a°. D. 1414. 

Obiit Ds Richardus Le Dispensar 3. filius & heres ejus anno 
cvtatis 18. apud Merton cum adhuc esset in cuslodia regia. Sepultus 
est apud Theokesbyri in sinistra patris sui. 

Post obitum Din Richardi Le Dispensar Isabella soror ejus sus- 
cepit dominium de Dispenseris. Quam desponsavit Dns Richardus 
de Bello Campo, filius & heres Dm. Guliehni Beauchamp Sf dns de 
Abergeveney die 7. Dormientium An°. D. 1411°. 


[Pedigree of the Beauchamps follows. The following are the only passages 

of local interest : — ] 

Henricus comes de Warwike ab Henrico 6. cui charissimus erat, 
coronatus in regem de Wighte, & postea nom hiatus primus comes 
totius Anglise. 

Dedit etiam ei castrum Bristollia} cum omnibus annexis, quod 
olim. rex Joannes detinuit sibi. 

Obiit Dns Henricus Warwik primus comes Anglian, Dns Le 
Despenser, & de Abergevenny, rex de insvlis Wiethe, Gardesey 8f 
Jardesey, Dns quoque castri Bristollise cum suis annexis iii. Id. Jun. 
a . D. 1446. cetatis sum 22°. apud castrum de Hanleia. Sepultus est 
Theokesbyrire in choro. 

Anna unica filia Henrici ... obiit a°. D. 1449. an cetatis sua> 6. 

Mortua Anna filia Henrici Patronatus rnonasterii de Theokes- 
biry devenit ad Richardum Neville 6. filium Richardi Neville 
comitis Sarum, qui duxit Annara filiam Richardi Beauchamp 5 1 . 
comMs Warwike & Isabellas uxoris siue & comitissce & soror Henrici. 

Henricus sextus rex dedit Richardo Neville comitatum War- 
wik & dominium de Le Dispenser atque de Abergevenny sub 
sigillo mag. chartoz suce. 

[An account of the King Maker's descendants follows.] 

An . D. 1476. obiit Isabella ducissa Clarentia? patrona de 
Tewkesbyri. Septdta est apud Theokesbyri. 

An . D\ 1470 belhcm fuit apud Barnet in die Pasche mane, tibi 
Dns de Boucher occisus ex parte Edwardi. 

Ex altera parte Richard Neville comes Warwik & frater ejus 
Joannes Neville inter fecti sunt. 

Eodem anno 3. No. Maii Edwardus Princeps Henrici 6. filius 
venit cum exercitu ad Theokesbyri, & intravit campum nomine 

Princeps Edwardus ibi occisus. 

Fugientes occisi in ecclesia de Theokesbyri. 

Nomina occisorum in bello Gastiensi prope Theokesbyri. 

Edwardus jyrinceps sepultus est in monasterio de Theokesbiri. 

Dns Eclmundus dux Somerset captus 8f decollatus ac ibidem 

Dns Joannes de Somerset, frater Edmundi ditcis, ibid, sepult. 

Thomas Courteney comes Devonise ibidem sejndtus. 

Dns de Wenlok cujus corpus alio ad sepidturam travslatum est. 

276 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Humfredus Handeley decapitatus cum Thoma Courteney, Sf 
una cum eo sepultus. 

Edmundus Hauarde miles. 

Gulielmus Wichingham miles. 

Joannes Delves senior occisus campo & Joannes Delves ejus 
fi'ius decapitatus ibidem, una sepulti, alio postea translati. 

Joannes Leukenor miles occisus campo & pi-ope Delvios sepultus. 

Gul. Yaulz miles campo occisus Sf ibidem sepultus. 

Gervasius Clifton captus & decollatus ac ibid, sepidtus. 

Gul. Car Sf Henricus Ros milites capti Sf decapitati. Sepulti 
in coemiterio de Theokesbyri. 

Thomas Tressam miles captus Sf decapitatus ac ibidem sepultus. 

Gul. Lirmouthe, Joannes Urinan, Thomas Semar, Gul. Rowys 
milites campo occisi Sf ibidem sepulti in coemiterio. 

Gul. Newborow miles captus Sf decollatus, ac ibidem sepultus. 

Henricus Wateley armiger occisus Sf ibidem sepidtus. 

Henricus Barow armiger occisus & ibidem sepultus. 

Felding armiger occisus & ibidem sepultus. 

Joannes Gower ensiger principis Eduardi, Joannes Flore sig- 
nifer ducis Somerset, Henricus Tresham, Gualterus Courteney, 
Robertus Acton capti Sf decollati. 

Prior S. Joannis Londini captus Sf decollatus, cujus corpus Lon- 
dinum ad suos delatum est. 

Donati vita ab Eduardo rege. 
Margareta regina. 
Anna uxor Eduardi principis occisi. 
Fosterus [Fortescue] ])'>'inius Justitiarius Anglian. 
Doctor Makerel, Joannes Throghmerton, Baynton, Wrougton. 
Hugo Courteney captus & postea decollatus. 

Maner Places longging to the Abbate of Theokesbyri. 
Stanwey was almost reedified and augmentid by Abbate Chel- 
tenliam tempore Henrici 7. 

Fordehampto7i a faire Place apon Severne in dextra ripa a Mile 
beneth Theokesbyri and agayn the Parke of Theokesbyri standing 
in laiva ripa. 

The Maner Place in Theokesbyn Park with the Parke was lette 

Leland ix Gloucestershire. i277 

by Henry the 7. to thabbot of Theo&eabyri yn Fee Ferme with the 
Holme wher the Castel was. 


It standith in Iceva ripa Avonce a good flite Shot above the 
Confluence of Avon and Severne. 

Ther is a greate Bridge of Stone at the Northe Ende of the 
Towne, and ther a litle above the Bridge Avon brekith into 2. 
Amies. Yet the Bridge is so larc;e that both cum under it. The 
right Arme cummith into Severne with yn a flite Shot of the 
Bridge, and at the Pointe of this Arme is the Towne Key for 
Shippes caullid Picardes. 

The other Arme cummith downe by the Side of the Towne 
and the Abbay, leving it on the Este, and so passing harde ther 
by Holme Castelle goith into Severne. 

Ther is a litle Broke caullid Suliet dimming downe from 
Clive, and enterith into Avon at Holme Castelle by the lifte Ripe 
of it. This at sodayn Raynes is a very wyldc Brooke, and is fedde 
with Water faulling from the Hilles therby. 

Ther be 3. Streates yn the Towne meating at the Market 
Crosse, wherof the chifiest is caullid the High Strete. Ther was 
no other Paroche Chirch yn the Town but the Weste Ende of the 
Abbay Chirche. 

King John beyng Erie of Glocester by his Wife caussid the 
Bridge of Twekesbyri to be made of Stone. He that was put in 
truste to do it first made a Stone Bridge over the grete Poure of 
booth the Amies by North and Weste : and after to spcde and 
spare mony he made at the Northe Ende a Wodde Bridge of a 
greate Lenght for sodeyne Lande Waters, putting the Residew of 
the Mony to making of the Castel of Hanley on the Inheritaunce 
of the Erledom of Glocester. 

King John gave to the Mayntenaunce of this Bridge the hole 
Tolle of the Wensday and Saturday Marketes in the Towne, the 
which they yet possesse, turnyng it rather holely to their owne 
Profite then Reparation of the Bridge. 

Ther was at the South West Ende of the Abbay a Castel 
caullid Holme. The tyme of the Building of it is oncerteyne. It 
is certeyne that the Clares Erles of Glocester, and especially the 
redde Erie, lay much at Holme. 

The redde Erie much trobelid S. Thomas of Hereforde. 

There hath beene yn tyme of mynd sum Partes of the Castel 

278 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

standing. Now sum Ruines of the Botoms of "Waulles appere. 
Now it is caullid Holme Hylle. 

George Duke of Clarence Brother to King Edward had thought 

to have brought Avon aboute the Toune and to have enlarged the 


There was litle or no Habitation at Odo and Dodo gave to 

Twekesbyri at such tyme as Odo and Theohesbyri Staneway cum 

Docfo Dukes of M< erches and Brothers dyd membris, videlicet Tading- 

erecte there a Priory of Blak Monkes ton, Prestecote et DidcoU. 

Benedictines, a Celle or Filial to Crane- Thracy now dwellith at 

burne in Dorsetshir. After in the later Staneway. 

Reyne of the Danes and Edivarde the Confessor was jEilwerdus 
Meaw Erie of Glocester, and he was countid as Founder of Crane- 

Ailwerdus had a Sunne caullid Brictrice Erie of Gloceter 
aboute the tyme of the Camming of Duke Wylliam of Normandie 
ynto England. Matildis Wife to Wylliam Conqueror askid Bic- 
trice yn Gifte of her Husband, and having hym put hym yn the 
Castelle of Ilanley beside Saresbyri, and there he dyed. Sum say 
that Matildis wold have had hym afore Duke William to her 
Husband, but [he] refusing it had after hard Favor at her Handes. 
Kins: William crave the Prseferrement of the Counte of Glocester 
onto his Wif Matilde. After it cam to Robert Fitz Haymo of the 
Blode of Duke Bollo Nephew onto King William Conqueror. 

This Robert Fitz Haymo made the Priorie of Theohesbyri and 
Abbay, making Cranburne but a Celle onto it, and translating the 
chief Landes of Cranburne to his Monasterie. 

Robert Fitz Haymo was buried at Tivekesbyri, firste in the 
Chapitre House, after translatid into the North Syde of the Quier 
yn a Chapelle. 

Epit. in camera Sacelli. 
Sybillay?7m comitis Arimtinse Hie jacet 'RohevtusJMns Haymonis 

vallis, d- soror comitis Salapire hujus loci fundator. 
uxor fuit Roberti filii Haimonis. This Robert newly made the 

Hawisia uxor Roberti Cons. Buildinges in the Monasterie and 

Chirch with the Towre. 

Robertus Consul ejus gener asdijicavit pyramidem super turrim. 

Eobertus Fitz Haymo left 3. Doughters, wherof the 2. elder 

wher Nunnes, one at Sheaf tesbyri, the other at Wileton. King 

Henry the firste kepte the 3. and she was after maried to Robertus 

Consul, Bastarde onto Henry the firste, and was Erie Glocester. 

Lelaxd in Gloucestershire. 279 

He buildid the Castelle of Bristow or the most "parte of it. Every 
Man sayith that he buildid the great square Stone Dungeon, and 
that the Stones therof cam oute of Cane in JYormandie, and like 
wise the Stones of the Toure of Theukesbyri Chirche. 

Bobertus consul was buried at 8. James Priory in Brightstow, 

Bobertus consul had a Sunne caullid Wylliam that was Erie 
after hym. 

Wylliam had 2. Snnnes, Roberte and Roger. Roberte dyed 
young. Roger was a Preste and Bishop. Wylliam. caussid his 
Sunne Roberte to be buried at Cainsham then a smaule Priory, 
and after he newly repayred and endowed it, making it an Abbay 
of Canons Regular. 

Wylliam dyed yn Brightestow Castel, and wylled to be buried 
by his Father at S. James : but he was prively conveyid by night 
onto Cainsham, and had gyven the hole Lordeship of Marschefel 
onto Cainsham, 1 and impropriate the Benefice therof onto S. James 
Priory, and the Benefice consequently cam to Theokesbyri. 

Wylliam. had 3. Doughters, wherof one was made [maried] to 
Almarike a Britaine, and he was the Erie of Glocester for a 6. 

John Brother to Richard the fyrst maried a nother, and by her 
he was Erie of Glocestre. King John had no Issue by her, and 
kept her but a yere, and so repudiating her toke to Wife the Erie 
of Herefordes Doughter, and reteynid yn his Handes the Toun 
and the Castelle of Brightestow within the Hundrede of Berton 
lying in Glocestershir hard by Brightstow as byttwixt the Forest 
of Kingeswod and it : and so it hath syns stil remaynid yn the 
Kinoes Handes. 

King Johns Wife repudiated was after maried to the Erie of... 
[to Geffry de Magnavilla Erie of Essex.] 

Clare [Richard Clare] mailed a nother of the Doughters of 
Wylliam. Erie of Glocester and was Erie of Glocestre. 

Gilbertus I 8 . Sun to Richarde the first was Erie of Glocestre. 

This Gdberte was buried in the Quier at Theokesbyri. 

Gilbertus the firste had Richard the 2. Erie of Glocester, and 
was buried in the Quier of Tewkesbyri, on the right Hond of his 
Father, and there lay his Image yn Sylver. 

Richard the 2. had Gilberte the secunde, communely caullyd 

the redde Yerle by cause his Body was of a very ruddy and blody 

Color. He delte hardely with the Monkes of Twekesbyri, and 

1 There was, as it is sayde, a Nunnery at Marschefdde. Note by Leland. 


Transactions foe the Year 1S89-90. 

tooke away the giftes of Gilberte the firste his Grand-father. He 
was buried on the lifte Hand of Gilbert the first his Grand-father. 
Gilbert the 2. had Gilbert the 3. and he was Erie of Glocester, 
and restorid to the Monasterie of Tioeukesbyri such Things as his 
Father had taken away. He was slayne at the Batail of Strive- 
line yn Scottelande, and was buried on the lifte Hand of his 

Gilberte the 3. had John that died yn his Infancie, and was 
buried in a Chapel of our Lady at Tewkesbyry. 

This Gilberte the 3. dyed in the 23. Yeres of his Age muche 
lamentid, by cause he was a good Man. He had 3. Sisters 
Doughtters onto the Redde Erie. 
Wherof Eleanore the eldeste was maried 
onto Hugh Spencer the 2. Sun to Hugh 
Spencer Erie of Winchester, and by her was 
Erie of Glocester, and was beheddid and 

quarterid at Hereford est and one of 

the Quarters of hym was buried by the 
lavatory of the High Altare in Twekes- 

byry. A nother was maried to Da ley, 

and by that Line in Processe one of the 
Audeleys was Erie of Glocester. 

After this the Landes beyng disperkelid Thomas of Wodestoke 
the v. Sunne of Edwarde the 3. was made Duke of Glocester. 

Then was after Humfrey Sunne to Henry the 4. Duke of 

After this was Richard Brother to Edwarde the 4. Duke of 

Edwarde Sun to Hugh 
Spensar the 3. had Thomas, 
and he was made Erie of 
Glocester by Richarde the 
2. wich Thorn is had to 
WiieConstancetho Douirh- 
ter of Edmunde Lavyeley 
Duke of Yorke. 

Okington Park longing onto Sr. 
William Berkeley not far from 

Loke wither Maurice wher not 

first caullyd Barkeley and thenne 
Graunte 1 a loco tantum natalinm. 

There is a Quarre of good Stone 
at Beverstane, unde nomen ex con- 

John Lorcle Barkeley was 
Batelle of Potters. After he 
Losses of the French Men. 
1 Leg. Qaunte. Hearn's note. 

Over now longging to old Sr. 
William Barke'ey was of the 
oldeLandes of the Lorde Barkeley. 

The Lordeship of Beverstane 
was firste the Barkeleys. 

Maurice de Gaunte was Lorde 

of Beverstane Castelle by Tette- 

byry. One of the Barke'cys 

bought it. 

wondid and taken, as sum say, at the 

was redemed and wel recoverid his 


One of the Barkeleys, that is to say the greate Graund-facler of 
Syr William Berkeley, had yn Mariage the hole Lordship of Betis- 
tre in Hampshir, mariyng the Doughter and Heir of Betistre. 

Vol. iii. p. 116. 

Thingges notid apon the Book of Bath. 
JEhestun, alias Olvestoun, in Glocestreshire 16. Miles out of Bath 

almost on Severn. 

Cold jEschetnn 4. Miles out of Bath playne North. 
(The rest of the extracts relate to Somerset). 

Vol. vi. pp. 18. 20. 

Palmer of Lemington in the very Egge of Glocetre a 3. Miles 
from Rolleriche Stones cummith oute of the aforesaid House of 
the Palmers of Warioikshire. 

He began first with a very smaul Portion of Lande : and being 
a Galant Felow, and elothid in migtie Colowrs, got a riche Widow 
in Lemington Ton to Wife, a 80. yeres or more hens : and sins 
there hath plantid themselves, and buildid a faire House, and 
bought faire Landes to it. He that now hath it maried one of the 
Gravilles Dowghters of Milcot. 

There is a bigge Stone a 3. Miles West from Rolleriche Stones ; 
and standith yn a Hethe, bering the Name of Barton, a Village 
+1 ierby longging to Mr. Palmer. This Stone is a very Marke or 
Limes of Glocestre, Wicestre, Warwike and Ox/ordeshires. 

And Palmer's Sun told me, that this Stone of certente is the 
Marke, and not Rolleriche Stones. 


Godrike of Pyrtoun in Glocestreshire within a Mile and a di. of 
Gloces're Toune is of an auncient House, and hath at this tyme 
a 100. Marke of Land by yere. 


Wy dwellith at Lipiate beyond Cirercestre towarde Tetbyri. 

Whiteney a Gentilman of a 300. Markes Landes by the yere 
dwellith at Lecumbe in G locestreshir a litle from Stow yn the Wold. 

There is in those Quarters a Village caullid Wynderusch : and 
so is the Ryver of Whiteney cuminunely caullid. 

Vol. vi. p. 35. 
Sum say that there is a Manor Place in Glocestrcthire lately 

282 Transactions for the Year ISS9-90. 

caullid Tresham Haule, or a like Name, and that by likelyhod 
that should be the auncientest House of the Treshams. 

Vol. vi. pp. 53. 54. » 

There remainith yet the Name of a Manor Place in Glocestershir 
caullid Felton, and the Owner of it bare the same Name and was a 
Noble Man of Warre, and one of the Band of Chaundoys. I 
think that this is the Felton that the French Booke caullid Seal a 
Chronicha spekith of whom a Lady Heyre to the Clares Erles of 
Glocestre toke to her secunde Husband per amours. 

The first Nobilitating of the Barkleis of Heron was about the 
tyme of Henry the first or secunde. And then bare they not the 
name of Barkeley, but Fitz Harding, wherof one namid Robert was 
a Noble man. And in Processe the Fitzltardinyes maried_with the 
Heyres Generales of Barkeley of Dourseley : and so the Name of 
Barkeleys was taken of them and continuid. 

The Name of Points, otherwise of sum written Pontz, is very 
auncient, and supposid to be one of them that cam yn with 
William Conqueror, or straite apon the Conqueste. 

Pontz of Glocestre cam owte of a House of a Youngger Brother 
of Sutton Pontz, and they had by Heire General of one Fitz Nicol 
or Nicholas a yongger Sunne of one of the Barkeleys a goodly 
Lordship caullid Hidle, and communely Hille, standing on the 
hither Ripe of Sever ne. This Lordeship was gyven owte of the 
Berkeleys Landes. 

And they had after by Heyres Generales of Acton the Lorde- 
ship of Acton. 

Vol. viii. p. 49. 
Ex annalibus, autore incerto. 

Anno Dom. 1101. Wintonia conflagravit 16. Call. Jun. 

Eodem anno 13. Call. Jun. Glocestria cum monasterio arsit. 

Anno Dom. 1121. Glocestria? pars magna iterum cum monas- 
terio arsit. 

Anno Dom. 1151. fundata est abbat : de Morgan a Roberto 
comite Glocestrise. 

Anno Dom. 1158. Gul. comes Glocestria? captus est in castello 
de Cairdif ab Wallis. 

Anno Domini 1166. obiit J&obertus jilius Gul. comitis Glocestria?. 

Anno Dom. 1216. Gilbertus de Clare suscepit 2 s . comit: Glocester 
<£• Herford: quorum heres fiiit. 

Leland in Gloucestershire. 283 

p. 57. 
Palatia episcopi Herfonden. 

Prestebijri 5. Miles from Glocester hard by CUfe. Ther is a Parke 

hard by Prestebijri. 

p. 60. 
Ex vita Robertl de Betune episcopi Herefunden : auctore Gul. 
Priore Lantonensi ad Reginaldum Weneloke. 

Robertus ad se accersivit convention Canon: Lanhondensiura & 
aliquanto tempore in suis cedibus aluit. Interim qucesivit [Inter 
inquestivit] $ invenit eis locum habitationis apud Glocestriam sub 
Milone Constabulario. 

Expensas dedit ad cedificandum. Secundo anno transtulit illuc 

conventum. Ad supplementum quoque subsidii dedit eis eccl. duas 

Frome <& Brestebyri. 

Vol. vi. p. 44 & seq. 

Ex libro Donationeni Monaster, de Kingeswod. 

Gul. de Barkeley dedit Abbatice de Tinterne Kinggeswood ad 
fundandem ibi Abbatiam. 

Illi de Kingeswood emerunt Haseldene a Dno de S. Joanne, cui 
rex hanc terrain tempore [dederat] hustilitatis. nam erat Peginaldi 
de S.Walerico. 

Reginaldus de S. Walerico suis restitutio terris abegit monachos 
de Haseldene. Postea autem recipit eos, & pars major conventus de 
Kinffseswood translata est ad Haselden. 

Postea propter aquce penuriam Reg. de S.Walerico transtulit eos 
ah Haselden ad Tettebyri. 

Rogerua Bai-keley filius Gul. Berkeley conabatur aut reducere 
monachos de Tettebyri ad Kingeswood, aut Kingeswood eis auferre 
tanquam suum fundum. 

Bernardus de S. Walerico fuudator ecclesia de Tettebyri emit 
Mireford prope Kingeswod a Rogcro Barkeley, Sf eo, quia Tettebyri 
ligni copia carebat, monachos transtulit. 

Reg. Barkeley dedit manerium suum de Acholte monaster. S. 
Maria3 de Kingeswod. 

Henricus Lovel testis. 

Robertus de Berkeley Jilius Roberti cle Berkeley. 
Philippus & Olivarius fratres Roberti junioris. 

Testis Rogerus Comes Herford. 

Hawisia uxor Dni de Veel. 

Nicolaus Kingeston miles. 

Charta Matildis de Veel uxoris Gaufridi de Veel. 

284 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Robertus cle Veeljilius Gaufridi. 

Gaufride de Wrokeshal miles. 

Joannes Chansy miles. 

Petrus de Veel miles. 

•Joannes de Welington miles. 

Thomas de Veel miles films Petri. 

Gul. de Bradelega. [Hugo de Bradelega.] 

Duddelegh pratum. 

Manerium de Hakesbyri. 

Manerium de Acholt, alios tvingeswood. 

Thomas de S. Walerico Bernardi filins. 

Robertus de la Mare. 

Charta abbatis de Bethlesden de terra in villa Chirington. 

Joannes de Warimunde. 

Isabella de Longo-campo uxor Gaufredi de Longo-campo filia 

Henrici de Mineriis. 

Reginaldus de Breuse. 

Gul. Butevilayne. 

Humfredus de Bohun comes Herford ^ constabularius Angl. 

Elizabeth de Gamages. 

Walterus de Esselega. 

Humfridus de Barre [le Barre.] 

Humfredus Bohun comes Herford £ Essex. 

Gul. de Breuse. 

Gul. de Breuse junior. 

Richardus de Br-euse^/iZms Gul. 

Petrus de Bruse filius Gul. 

Alduphus de Tettebyri 

Rogerus Hereuard. 

Henricus le Moyne. 

Richai'dus Passelew. 

Joannes de Breuse. 

Thomas de Planca. 

Petrus de Iwelege. 

Rogerus filivs Philippi de Berkeley. 

Robertus Jilius Nigelli. 

Calicote villa. 

Simon de Olpenne. 

Henricus Berkeley Diis de Dursley. 

Manasserus de Hastinges. 


Robertus de Rochefrt. 

The Liber Niger. 2S5 



Certificates from the King's Gloucestershire Tenants in 
capite, in 12th Henry II., as to the number of Knights' fees 
holden of them, or held by them, in that county. 

The Prelates, Earls, and Barons, throughout England, had 
been enjoined by Royal Letters Patent to send in, on or before 
the first Friday in Lent 1 (17th March), 1166, Returns shewing 
how many Knights they had of the old feoffment (i.e. of the time 
of Hen. I.) ; how many of the new (i.e. made since that monarch's 
death) ; and how many upon their Demesne. 2 

It has usually been taken for granted that this was done in 
view of the levy of the Aid to which King Henry II. would 
become entitled on the marriage of his eldest daughter. That 
event, however, did not take place till nearly three years later • 3 
and as the Aid then was not collected on the lines laid down in 
the Proclamation above cited, 4 it is fair to suppose there were 
other reasons for the step, and that it was in fact the natural 
sequel of fiscal changes which had been for some time in progress. 

When it is considered indeed that well nigh a century had 
elapsed since the lands of the kingdom had been redistributed 
after the Conquest : that sweeping forfeitures among the Norman 
grantees had followed the accessions both of Rufus and of his 

1 We are indebted to the late Mr. Eyton for discovering this date. 

2 No copy of the Writ is extant, but its language may be inferred from 
that of some of the replies. (See Certificates of Robert de Brinton, referred 
to by Dr. Stubbs.— Select Charters, p. 264. 

3 Princess Maud was married on 13th October, 116S, being even then 
only eleven years of age, while her bridegroom, Henry the Lion, Duke of 
Saxony, was nearly fifty. (See Anderson's Genealogies). 

4 It will be shown hereafter that in Gloucestershire the payments only 
accorded precisely in three cases out of ten. 

Vol/XlV. u 

286 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

brother : and that during the protracted civil war between Stephen 
and the Empress further transfers and partitions of fiefs had 
occurred ; it may readily be conceived that the old hidage valuations 
recorded in Domesday had in many cases become inapplicable, 
and that a fresh Register of Holdings was much needed, especially 
when the levy of Danegheld was about to be discontinued, 1 and a 
new mode of assessment adopted. Without entering into the 
vexed question of the exact date at which the Feudal System, in 
its entirety, was introduced into England, 2 it cannot be doubted 
that the feoffments made on so large a scale under Henry I. 
through which a great proportion of the Domesday sub-Tenants, 
or their successors, had been confirmed in their holdings on 
undertaking to perform definite amounts of military service; 
coupled with the still more recent commutation of such service 
into money payments, under the name of Scutage ; marked epochs 
of considerable importance in the establishment of that system in 
this country. 

A great increase, moreover, in the number of such feoffments 
had taken place during Stephen's reign, with the object mainly 
of enhancing the fighting strength of rival Barons, and it must 
have become all the more desirable for the Exchequer to acquire 
reliable information on the present disposition of lands held of the 
King, so that none might escape their share of feudal burdens. 
This Avas all the more necessary because the first attempt at rating 
Tenants in capite for Scutage on such portion of their fiefs as they 
retained in hand, seems to have been opposed as an innovation, 3 

1 According to Dr. Stubbs, Danegheld was imposed for the last time in 
1168. It is a curious fact that the tax is only twice alluded to in these 
Returns of two years prior date. 

2 It is impossible to draw a hard and fast line on the subject. In one of 
these Returns (Liber Niger, Vol. I., p. 96) lands are said to have been given 
in King William's time to a brother " that he might, if necessary, do the 
service of one knight." Whilst as regards Scutayes, Madox, when quoting 
Alexander de Swereford's assertion "that he had never heard nor seen an 
account of anymore ancient than the reign of Henry II.," expresses his own 
belief nevertheless that they were leviedj since remission therefrom is 
granted in Deeds of the time of Henry I. 

3 For example, Humphrey de Bohun ends his certificate by declaring 
" for all his Demesne, and for these 9£ Knights because they are enfeoffed in 
his Demesne, he owes the King no service except that of his body (nisi de 
corpore suo). — Liber Niger, Vol. I., p. 3. 

The Liber Nigek. 287 

though they could not of course deny their liability to personal 
service in respect thereof. I think that this is the only inference 
that can be drawn from several of the certificates, as well as from 
the accounts of the earlier scutage which have come down to us. 
In the first of these on record (2nd Henry II.) tbe prelates alone 
appear as contributing 20s. per fee, for the army of Wales : in the 
second (5th Henry II.) for the same object at the rate of 2 marks 
per fee, the sheriff renders account — not for the prelates only — 
but for the knights of their counties : in the third, (7th Hen. II.) 
levied at the same rate for the army of Toulouse, the Barons as 
well as the prelates are entered as contributing, — but in respect 
only of their knights, (I speak especially of Gloucestershire l ) and 
the same thing is seen in the fourth (8th Henry II.),- — it not 
being until the next scutage, of 14th Hen. II. (levied on the basis 
of these very Returns of the 12th) that the barons paid for all 
fees whether in their own occupation or not. 

The original Certificates of 1166 have (with two exceptions) 2 
long since disappeared, tTut transcripts made early in the 13th 
century, were fortunately entered, along with copies of other 
important documents, in registers known from the colour of their 
respective bindings, as the Liber Rubeus and Liber Niger, or Red, 
and Black, Books of the Exchequer, both of which still exist at 
the Public Record Office. The transcript in the former, as we 
learn from a memorandum therein, dated in 1230, owed its origin 
to Alexander de Swereford, then a clerk in the department, 3 who 
having found, as he tells us, during his early period of service in 
King John's reign, these important public instruments in disorder, 
had arranged them according to counties, and " gathered them 
together in one volume." 4 This he subsequently had copied into 
the Red Book, no doubt for facility of reference, since 250 parch- 

1 Proofs will be adduced when I come to deal with the Certificates. 

2 Consult " Notes on the MSS. exhibited at H.M. Public Record Office 
at the Domesday Commemoration." I presume the Certificate of Hilary, 
Bp. of Chicester, known to Dugdale, Madox and others, is one. 

3 He became one of the Barons of the Exchequer in 1234, and so continued 
till his death in 1245 (See Madox History of the Exchequer). 

4 "in unum recollegi volumen." 

U 2 

•288 Transactions fok the Yeak 1889-90. 

tnent certificates, with seals appendant, must have been bulky and 
inconvenient for searchers. 

The early history of the Black Book is not recorded, but I can 
come to no other conclusion, after a careful comparison of the 
Transcript of the Certificates of 1166 which it contains, than that 
this was not copied from that in the Red Book, but in all pro- 
bability from a common original, perhaps twenty or thirty years 
previously, for the use of the King's Remembrancer, to whose'office 
the Black Book always belonged. The counties follow in both in 
the same order, and the arrangement of the Barons' " Cartse," from 
first to last, is the same, whilst similar additions and interpolations 
occur in each. 1 In the Black Book, however, the latter are more 
undisguised, and are not introduced under explanatory headings 
as is usually the case with the Red. 

Hearne, who early in the last century, published two editions 
of the " Liber Niger 2 — not from the original but from incorrect 
MSS., declared it to be " worth its weight in gold," and to contain, 
"with the exception of Domesday, the most ancient List of the 
Noblemen and Gentlemen of England." This, so far, is undeniable, 
but nevertheless that list is extremely imperfect, owing not merely 
to the absence in many cases of Returns, and to the omission in some 
of those sent in of the names of the sub-tenants, but still more to 
the want of that systematic arrangement which distinguishes the 
record of the Great Survey. Instead of the manors held by every 
tenant in capite in each county being, as in that, grouped together 
under one heading, his certificate embraces his entire holding 
wherever situated, often with no indication as to counties, and 
without the least information as to the manors comprised therein. 
True these Certificates were afterwards roughly classified at the 
Exchequer, according to the particular county in which the head 

1 Not to multiply examples, Fiefs, are in three passages at least, expressly 
stated to have been " of the gift of King Richard." Hearne was, of course, 
aware of this, for he remarks in his Preface "Nee tanem asseveraverim 
Librum integrum Mvi esse Henrici II. Paucula enim Bacardi I., Joannis 
imo, et Henrici III. awum olent," but he did not take the trouble, in cases 
where the anachronisms do not plainly show themselves in the text, to direct 
attention to them by footnotes. 

2 " Liber Niger Scaccarii parvus," to give its full title, as there were 
others so called in the Exchequer Library. 

The Liber Niger. 289 

of the Barony was supposed to be, but sub-feoffees in Gloucester- 
shire, for example, have to be sought under Middlesex or under 
Derbyshire, as the case may be, and the result is a very consider- 
able amount of doubt and confusion. The inconvenience with 
respect to Gloucestershire may be judged by the fact, that whereas 
Domesday specifies the holding of no less than 25 ecclesiastical 
and 52 lay tenants in capite (excluding the King's thanes from 
the latter) certificates from only 1 prelate, 1 earl, and 8 barons, 
are given under the county in the Liber Niger, the others, if 
they exist, being scattered about elsewhere. 

My translation of these Certificates has been made from an 
edition of Hearne's work printed in London in 1774, doubtful 
readings having been collated with the original transcripts at the 
Public Record Office. 

The single Ecclesiastical Returns runs as follows : 
(1) Certificate l of the Abbey of Winchcombf. 

The church of Winchcombe has one fee of the old feoffment, 
and all these hold that feoffment.' 2 

1 Roger de Dichesdon. 3 7 Roger de Hela. 

2 William de Beauchamp. 4 8 William de Morin. 

3 William de Scireburne. 9 Simon de Chulunces. 

4 Jordan de Brochampton. 10 William de Dunetrope. 5 

5 Azo de Wenrich. 1 1 Gilbert de Froulinton. 

6 Nicholas de Toning'. 12 Hugh de Redeford. 

13 William de Chiveleia. 

1 Carta, the word used throughout in the Latin, is rendered ' Cartel ' by 
Dr, Stubbs ; and ' Charter ' in the Record Office Pamphlet, but in modern 
acceptation neither seems applicable. I prefer ' Certificate ' as denoting 
the real nature of the Returns, which are referred to in both the Red and 
Black Books as " Certificationes factte per Prelatos et Barones." 

2 This does not, I fancy, mean that they held in community, but merely 
that they had to furnish the service of one knight between them or pay in 
proportion to the extent of their holdings in the fee : a not uncommon 
arrangement with ecclesiastical fiefs. 

3 Probably Dixton, a parish in Monmouthshire. 

4 Presumably the great Worcestershire Baron, who seems to have been 
a sort of champion general of church lands, holding 1 fee of the Abbot of 
Pershore of the church ; and half a fee at Evesham " at the cost of the 
Abbot," besides 7 fees of the Abbot of Westminster in Worcestershire ; 
and 15 fees of the Bishopric of Worcester. 

5 A William Dunetrope appears as holding a knight's fee in Kent of 
Walter Maminot (Vol. I., p. 58). 

290 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Of the new feoffment — 

14 Humphrey de Scireburn holds one hide. And upon the 
demesnes x 1 knight's fee. 

Several of these sub-tenants took their names from manors 
held by the abbey at Domesday, e.g. Sherborne, Windrush, and 
Froulinton. The lands it then possessed extended in the aggregate 
to 73 hides, but it is added that " in the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor " the Church defended itself for 60 hides in the county." 
It would appear to have still made good its claim to such exemp- 
tion, for the two manors for which it paid scutage in after years 
were, as we know, 2 Cow Honiburn and Adelminton, set down in 
the Survey as containing 13 hides. In all probability these con- 
stituted the 2 fees plus 1 hide included in their Return. 

It only remains to add that they paid 2 marks towards the 
aid of 1168, or for precisely two hides, nothing being charged 
for the fraction. 

It is strange that there is no certificate for the Abbey of 
Gloucester, but it was excused in 1168 for paying for 56 fees of 
the old feoffment. Tewkesbury Abbey was no doubt answered 
for by its patron, the Earl of Gloucester, whilst Cirencester held 
by a fee-farm rent. 

Immediately following the certificate of the Abbey of Winch- 
combe, — without even a dividing line, or heading of any sort 3 — 
comes, in Hearne's edition of the Liber Niger, 

" William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, owes 65£ knights of 
the Honour of Striguil." 

" The same owes 2 knights for Castle Goderich." 

"The same owes for Pembroke." 

As the first William Marshall was not created Earl of Pem- 
broke until June, 1199, this notice must have been added after 
that date in the Exchequer Registers as a memorandum that the 

1 "Super dominia "— as enquired by the King's writ. I am not, how- 
ever, quite sure of the force of "Super" in this connection. May it not 
have meant " over and above " their demesne lands, which they held to be 
exempt ? 

2 See Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XII., p 41 -Paper on Testa de 

3 In the original Black Book, however, two lines on the ruled parchment 
are left blank above this entry. In the Red Book it is introduced under the 
descriptive title — " Novum appositum de honore de Striguil." 

The Lieek Niger. 291 

honours in question ought to be accounted for in Gloucestershire, 1 
although only three manors pertaining to them : Badgworth, 
Stonehouse, and Daglingworth, were situated in that county. 
The verbs being in the present tense, these interpolations cannot, 
however, have been made later than 1231, when the second and 
last William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, died, consequently 
within a very few years of the time when the certificates of 1166 
were entered. 2 

(2) The second Certificate is therefore properly that of William, 
Earl of Gloucester, which begins — 

" This is the Roll of the Knights of William Earl of Glou- 
cester, without his knights of Kent : " 3 

1. Jordanus Sorus owes for - - - 15 knights. 

2. Robert de Mara - - - 10 knights. 

3 Walter de Clavill - - - - 10 knights. 

4 William, son of Robert, son of Roger - 10 knights. 

1 In the returns for the Aid of 1233, the then Earl Marshal is rated at 
65A fees of the Honours of Striguil and Castle Goderich.- Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc., Vol. XIII, p. 350, Testa de Nevill. 

2 In the Red Book the handwriting of the entry seems identical with 
that of the rest of the original Codex of 1230, and in the Black Book I can 
detect little difference either in the handwriting or the ink, in this particular 
case, although in most of the other interpolations there is evident dis- 

3 It is not apparent why a separate return was made for Kent, where 
the Earl (as shown at page 53 of this volume) had only 15 knights, holding 
22f fees. In the West he held not alone in the county from which he took 
his title, but in Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, 
Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire, and probably in other 
counties, his fees in all of which must be included under the heading of 
"Gloucestershire," in this Roll. As regards those in Wales, two of his 
knights (Nos. 39 and 40) are expressly stated to hold there, and I am not 
sure that those said to hold a " Ounlion," 65, 66, 67, should not be in Caerleon, 
but as pointed out by Air. G. T. Clarke (Arch. Journal, Vol. 34, p. 1), the 
Honour of Glamorgan, inherited from Robert Fitz Hamon, his maternal 
grandfather, and comprising about 40 fees is not included. The sum of 
those under the old feoffment, which is left blank in the Roll, amounts to 
256^, which with 13^ under the new, makes a total of 270. Of these I 
doubt whether as many as a fourth were in the County of Gloucester, but 
no sufficient data exist for arriving at a decision, the indications as to 
localities, or names of the manors held, being few and far between. 

In 1221 the then Earl of Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare, was assessed upon 
332 carcuages in that county, which allowing 5 carcucates for a fee, would 
represent 66 fees. 


Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

5 Elias aureis testiculis - - - - 10 knights. 

6 William, son of John - - - - 10 knights. 

7 Richard de St. Quentin - - - 10 knights. 

8 Gilbert de Umfraville ... 9 knights. 

9 The fief which was Robert de Gornays - 

10 The son of William, son of Baldwin - 

1 1 Robert de Maisy .... 

12 The fisf which was Richard de Grenvilles 

13 Adam de Sumeri .... 

14 The fee which was Helias de Dicton's 

15 and Gregory has the 7th, as was adjudged before 
Robert Earl of Gloucester. 

16 Roger Witeng(ham 1) ... 

17 Ponce, son of Simon 

18 Robert de Reini .... 

19 John Eskelin - 

20 Roger Waspail - 

21 The fief which was Geoffrey de Clinton's 

22 Walter de Caisneio .... 

23 Geoffrey de Traili .... 

24 The son of Henry de Pomeroy 

25 Richard de Guiz ----- 

26 William de London .... 

27 William de Nerbert .... 

28 Elias de Clifton .... 

29 Roger de Jelesdona .... 

30 Roger de Berkeley .... 

31 Alexander de Montfort 

32 The fief of Walter, son of Raamer 

33 Robert Lagahit ----- 

34 The fief which was Geoffrey de Ragensfords ! 1 knight 

35 The fief which was Walter de Fered 2 - 

36 William de Einsford - - - - 

37 Roger de Winton .... 

38 The son of Richard Walensis 3 

1 Stanawsford in Red Book. - Faringdon ? 

8 WaloTi in Red Book. Valoniis? 

9 knights. 
9 knights. 
9 knights. 
9 knights. 
7 knights. 
6 knights. 

7 knights. 

8 knights. 
5 knights. 

4 knights. 

5 knights. 
5 knights. 
5 knights. 

4 knights. 

1 knight. 

5 knights. 
4 knights. 
4 knights. 
3 knights. 
3 knights. 

2 knights. 
2 knights. 
2 knights, 
-g knight. 

1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 

The Liber Niger. 


39 Roger, son of Herlowin 

40 William de Cardiff 

in Wales - l£ knights. 
1 knight, and in Wales £ = 
1J knights. 

41 Roger de Rodolic .... 

42 William, son of Odo the Goldsmith 

43 Roger de Kimbis .... 

44 Gilbert de Walberg .... 

45 The fief of William de Hocton 

46 Hugh Wake, of the land which Baldwin fitz Gilbert 

1£ knights. 
1 knight. 
1 knight, 
■g- knight. 
1 knight. 


47 William, son of Hervey 

48 Elias de Torneberia 1 - 

49 William Chamberlain of London - 

50 Nicholas fitz Harding 

51 William de Clivedon 

52 Simon de Nuveton 2 ... - 

53 The fief which was Ruald Croc's 

54 Roger de Villiers .... 

55 Robert de Bolevill .... 

56 Gilbert de Grenemare - 

57 Hugh de Hamtonford - - - - 

58 Laudomar ------ 

59 Gilbert de Furnesham - 

60 Roger de Berkerol 

61 Wermond de Pormont - 

62 Richard de Marci - 

63 Ralph de Marci - 

64 Maurice de Totenham - 

65 William, son of Robert in Gunlion 

66 Azo, brother of Leomer in the same 

67 Roger, son of Malger in Gunlion 

68 Herbert fitz Herbert, the Chamberlain 

69 Roger de Bereguall - 

70 Robert for the land which was William Torneants 

1 knight 

71 Luke, the King's butler 
1 Thornbury ! - Newington. 

1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight, 
li knight. 
1 knight. 

1 knight. 

2 knights. 

2 knights. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
1 knight. 
\ knight. 
4 knights. 

3 knights. 
3 knights. 
£ knight. 
\ knight. 
\ knight. 

\ knight. 
\ knight. 

1 knight. 

294 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

72 Milo de Cogan 2 knights. 

73 Of the fief which was Robert Norensis 2 knights. 

74 Osbert tie Pennard - ... 1 knight. 

75 Robert de Constantini - - - 1 knight. 

76 Of the fief which was Richard Foliots, which Robert, 
son of Richard, holds 4 knights. 

77 Osbert de Winchelsea - - - 1 knight. 

78 Jordan de Capnun, of Umberley and Betinton 2 knights. 
And his other knights are already written in this Roll. 
The sum total of these knights - - - (blank). 

These written below are of the New Feoffment of Demesne — 

79 Hamo, son of Geoffrey, attorns himself for the Demesne. 

80 Hugo de Gunnovill do. do. 

81 William de Hastings do. do. 

82 Robert de Grainvill of the Demesne 

83 William de Bosco do. 

84 Gregory de Turri do. 

85 Roger de Mannavill do. 

86 Fulk fitz Warine do. 

87 Philip de Chahaines 1 .... 

88 Gerbodus 2 

89 Peter de Salso Marisco 3 - £ knight. 

90 Richard de Chardi 4 .... a. knight. 

91 Hamelin de Gunnoville 5 - 1 knight. 

The sum total of those newly enfeoffed is 13^ knight. 

As the only Feodary extant of the original Honour of Glou- 
cester, prior to the incorporation therewith of the great heritage 
of the de Clares, the foregoing List is of much interest, and I have 
felt bound to insert it at full length. It throws less light than 
could be desired on the early history of the county, the names of 
the feoffees being arranged, without reference to locality, according 
to the number of fees held. Representatives, however, of families 
which long continued to be of distinction in Gloucestershire may 
here and there be noted, as I proceed to point out. 

1 Cahaignes ? 2 Gerboldus in Red Book. 3 Saltmarsh, 

4 Chairdyl in Red Book. 5 Gundcville in Red Book. 

for 3 knights. 

1 knight. 

^ knight. 

£ knight. 

| knight. 

1 knight. 

| knight. 

^ knight. 

Thk Liber Niger. 295 

1 . Jordan Sorus, who heads the list with 1 5 fees, enough to 
have constituted a fair sized barony, was presumably son of Odo 
Soi*, who is mentioned as one of Fitz Ramon's companions in his 
Welsh expedition. He, no doubt, derived his second appellation 
from his complexion, since the word "sorus" meant " reddish." 
It affords no clue to his ancestry, but his descendants, under the 
surname of " Le Sor," long continued to reside in Gloucestershire. 
In 3rd John (1201) John le Sor paid 36s. in that county in con- 
nection with 14 fees which he held of the Honour of Gloucester, 
then in possession of that King. 2 At the time of Kirby's Quest 
(1287) another John le Soer is recorded as holding a knight's fee 
at Auricone 3 (Alvington 1) in the Manor of Fairford, from the 
then Earl of Gloucester • whilst in 20th Edward III. (1356) the 
heirs of a John le Ser are given as having a right to the same 
manor ; another bearer of the name appearing as paying aid for 
the fifth of a fee in Shenindon, Tewkesbury Hundred, " which 
Symunda, daughter of John le Ser, had formerly held." 4 

2 Robert de Mara, who is second on the list, with 10 knights' 
fees, represented a yet more distinguished Gloucestershire House, 
for he was grandson of William de Mara, whom Walter of 
Gloucester, the Constable, styles "Nephew," 5 and to whom 
large grants were made, both by him and by Robert, Earl of 
Gloucester, the latter including 2\ fees in Rendcombe, 6 where 
the De la Mares, his posterity, long flourished. 

7 Richard de St. Quentin, who also had 10 knights, held 
chiefly in Wiltshire, but in all probability one of his fees was in 
Gloucestershire, since his descendant, Herbert de St. Quentin, is 
found at the date of Kirby's Quest holding one in East Leach of 
the Honour of Gloucester. 

1 From Italian "Sauro"; French "Satire," e.g. " Harengs Satires"— 
"Red Herrings." In English commonly applied to a hawk with its first 
year's plumage, i.e. a sore-falcon. 

2 Rot. de oblatis et finibns in anno. 

3 Trans. B & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XI., pp. 2S4 and 201. 

4 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. X., p. 291 

5 See Vol. X. of Pipe Roll Society, edited by Horace Round, Esq., No. 
11, circa 1123. 

6 See ditto, No. 43. 

296 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

11 One at least of the 9 fees of Robert de Maisi, was like- 
wise there, the Hampton-Meysey to which he gave his name. 1 
I doubt, however, whether the Robert de Gourney who precedes 
him, and who is unnoticed in Dudgdale's Pedigree, had acquired 
a footing in the county at so early a date. 

17 Ponce, son of Simon, rests on sure ground as ancestor of 
the Poyntz family, and we know that his 8 fees were in the 
county of Gloucester, 1 at Tockington, and 7 at Hailes. 2 

Other equally well-known surnames may be cited, as 

28 Elias de Clifton, one of whose three fees was the Glou- 
cestershire manor from which he got his name, Roger de 
Berkeley, whose two fees consisted of that portion of Dodington, 
and other lands, which his grandfather held at Domesday of Bishop 
Geoffrey of Coutances, whose possessions merged in the Honour 
of Gloucester : (38) the son of Richard Walensis (Walsh) whose 
fee was in Winterbourne : 3 (40) Walter of Cardiff, who held 
the manor of Walton Cardiff, Gloucestershire, besides the half 
fee in Wales whence his name was derived ; and (48) Elias of 
Thornbury, whose surname indicates whereabouts he held — while 
not to dwell on (50) Simon de Newington ; (54) Roger de Villiers ; 
and others as to the situation of whose fees there is no certainty, 
the list of knights of the old feoffment winds up with (78) 
Jordan de Caprun (written Cap?^^t?^, I think by mistake), of whom 
it is stated expressly that he held in Amberley 4 and in Botin- 
tune, 5 where his posterity cannot long have remained, as both 
were in other hands in the early part of Henry III.'s reign. 

The knights of the new feoffment all held of the Demesne, 
but whether Earl William or his father had enfeoffed them is not 
stated. After the names of the first, and the second, in Hearne's 

1 See Trans. B. and G. Arch. Society, Vol. XIV., p. 35. 

2 See Sir John Maclean's " Memoir of the Family of Poyntz," pp. 6 and 
28, and his account of Tockington. — Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XL, 
p. 24. 

3 Testa de Nevill.— See Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XII., p. 28. 

4 A dependency of Minchinhampton, held by the Earl of Gloucester. — 
Vide Atkyns. 

5 Belonged to Te kesbury, but held of the Honour of Gloucester. — 

The Liber Niger. 297 

work, se alto de dominio, is printed, which he, distrusting the 
MSS. he had to use, suggested in foot notes should be taken to 
mean "tenet iii m de Dominio," but I was very much surprised 
to discover on reference to the original " Liber Niger," that the 
version he followed was correct, and that it is confirmed too by 
the text of the original Liber Rubeus. There can be no doubt 
that the contraction " alto " in both should be, atto, i.e. 
" a^ornavit," a common enough feudal term for "undertaking 
to perform military service," but the strange thing is that the 
scribes of the 13th century should have made such a slip of the 
pen, especially as they had in a previous passage, in the certifi- 
cate of the Earl of Arundel (p. 65), written the word at full 
length. 1 I can only suppose that this part of the roll of knights 
of the Honour of Gloucester had become somewhat undecipher- 
able, and I am confirmed in this idea by a further error which 
occurs in the Red Book (though not in the Black), after the 
name of the third knight, William de Hastings, where "se tercio 
mil" follows, — " attornavit " being omitted, and the third part 
of a fee assigned, instead of the three fees — as in the Black 
Book— which he is known to have held. These fees were in 
Southrop and Farmington, and not long afterwards were, with 
two other fees, in Eaton, Berks, and Westwell, Oxon, formed into 
the barony of Eaton Hastings, held direct from the Crown. 2 

79 Hamo, son of Geoffrey, and 80 — Hugh de Gundeville, 
whose holdings are not stated in the Certificate, must, to make 
up the 13| fees given as a total at the end, have had between them 
4| fees. I know nothing of the former : but there was in the 
service of the Bishop of Winchester about this time, a Hugh de 
Gundeville, who became afterwards a man of some consequence, 
being Sheriff of Hants in 22nd, and of Devon in 23rd, Henry II. 
Others of the family 3 will be found holding lands of Gloucester- 
shire lords in 1166, and it seems probable that both Hugh and 

1 Et Rex Hemicus dedit de sue- dominio, quod Comes attornavit ad 
servicium militarc, silicet, &c., &c. , &c. 

- See Testa de Nevill.— Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XII., p. 22. 

3 A sister of Hugh de Gundeville's appears on the Gloucestershire Pipe 
Roll at this date, as having an annual allowance of 15 shillings from Winter- 
burn by the King's gift. 

298 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Hamelin de Gundeville (91), whose name closes the Roll, belonged 
to the county. 

In the reign of Henry III. another Hugh de Gundeville ap- 
pears as a burgess of Campden, which is confirmatory. (William 
de Bosco (83), Philip de Cahaignes (87), and Peter de Salt- 
marsh (89), bear Gloucestershire names), though I cannot identify 
them, but Fulk Fitz Warine (86) is a well-known personage, 
though I am not sure what he held of the Honour of Gloucester. 
His knights' fee in Alveston was always included on the Pipe 
Roll of the county among " lands given," £10, at which it was 
valued, being deducted from the ferm of the sheriff on that 
account ; l but it is possible that at this period it may have been 
reckoned on the Roll of the Earl, as Fulk made no return 

of his own. 

The sum of fees under the old feoffment is left blank, but it 
will be found on adding up the holdings of the 78 knights, that 
they amounted to 256 £, which, with the 13| held under the 
new, by the 13 knights named, makes a total of 270. In the 
account of the receipts for the aid of 14th Henry II., however, 
the Earl of Gloucester is set down as paying for 26H only, no 
reason being given for his being thus excused payment for 8| fees. 

The Certificates of the Barons follow next, for though at 
Domesday there were three Earls connected with the county, 
their small holdings are not noticed. The Manor of Hampton 
(Maisi), then held by Earl Roger (of Shrewsbury), had, in fact, 
after the forfeiture of his son, Hugh de Montgomeri, under 
Rufus, been included in the Honour of Gloucester : the two hides 
in Longborough, then held by the Earl of Moretain, had in like 
manner been confiscated on his son's rebellion by Henry I., 
whilst, although the Manors of Campden and of Bisley were still 
in possession of another Earl Hugh (of Chester), (not, however, 
through descent), no return was sent in for any of the fees of 
his earldom in 1166. 

Presumably the Baronial Returns stand in the order in which 
the originals were arranged by Alexander de Swereford at the 
commencement of the thirteenth century. 

i The entry appears on the Pipe Roll for Gloucestershiie, however, in 
this very year, but so likewise does the £14 to Walter de Ashley, whose fee, 
nevertheless, is returned among Margaret de Bohun's knights. 

The Liber Niger. 




(3) Certificate op Roger de Berchley. 
Let my Lord the King know, that I, Roger de Berchley, 
have two knights and a half enfeoffed of the old feoffment, 

1 Michael holds 

2 William, son of Baldwin 

3 Helyas de Boivill - - - - 

4 Hugh de Planta 

and from these you have an entire knight. 

For making up the half — 

5 Ralph de Yweley 

6 The wife of Ralph Cantilene 

7 Roger de Albamara 

8 Simon de Coveley 

9 The Prior of Stanley 
and here you have half a knight. 
For making up another knight — 

10 Walter de Holecumbe holds 

11 Gerard - 

12 Reginald de Albamara - 
And so these three hold 10 hides, whereof they are unwilling to 

do service to me except for 3 virgates, viz., each for 1 virgate, 
and so 1 you have two knights and a half enfeoffed. 

No new one have I enfeoffed in my time. 

If it be pleasing to your mind to hear about my demesne, 2 
In my Manor of Cobbei-ley I have two knights' fees. 
At Stanley ? one knight's fee, with one hide at Codrington. 4 
In Niveton 5 I have one knight's fee. 

1 The reasoning is unintelligible, 10 hides would have equalled 2 fees, 
but 3 virgates were less than the sixth of 1 fee. I suppose some compromise 
had been previously arranged, for Roger had paid for 2h fees in 7th Hen. II. 

2 Roger de Berkeley apparently enters a sort of mild protest against the 
enquiry as to his demesne lands. 

3 Stanley St. Leonard's, where the second Roger had founded a priory. 

4 Codrington, in the Manor of Wapley, which had been given to Malmes- 
bury Abbey by the de Berkeleys, excepting this single hide. 

5 Newington-Bagpath. 


^ hide. 
I hide. 
1 virgate. 
1 virgate. 
1 virgate. 

3^ hides. 
3-J hides. 
3 hides. 

300 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

In Dursele one hide. 

In Osleworda 1 half a hide. 

In Duddinton 2 three hides and a half. 

In Slimbrigge 3 three hides, which I, with your assent, gave to 

Maurice, son of Robert, whence I have no service. 
Kingswood, the white monks, 4 hold of the gift of William de 
Berckley, for which I do you an entire knight's service, al- 
though they wish to do none. Farewell. 5 
Not a few of the barons address the King as their " dearest 
Lord" or "most beloved Lord," but the foregoing somewhat 
brusque epistle recalls, and confirms incidentally in several re- 
spects, what is known from other sources of the history of the 
writer, the third Roger de Berkeley, who, for alleged luke- 
warmness on behalf of Henry when struggling for the throne, had 
been deprived of the ferm of the Royal Manor of Berkeley, as 
held by his father and grandfather, although allowed to retain 
lands pertaining to it in demesne equivalent to about 3 knights' 
fees, in addition to the 2^ wherein the second Roger had granted 
the aforementioned feoffments; which 5 J fees, together with the 
Manors of Coberley, Codrington, and Dodington, held in capite by 
his Domesday predecessors, constituted the Barony of Dursley. 1 

His first complaint is, naturally enough, as to the refusal of 
three of his old tenants— no doubt in consequence of the for- 
feitures he had incurred — to do the full service they owed for 
their lands. Such renunciations were common after the war, and 
he seems to refer to a sort of compromise on his own part with 
the Crown, as he only debits himself with 1 knight in respect of 
the 10 hides in dispute, which ordinarily would represent 2 fees. 

1 Oselworth. 

2 Dodington, one of the Domesday manors of the first Roger. 

3 Slimbridge, the marriage portion brought by Alice, Roger's daughter, 
to her husband Maurice, Robert fitz Harding's eldest son. 

4 Cistercians. 

5 Hearne's MSS. is at fault here. There is no " Valete" either in the 
Black or Red Book, the words being " nullum servitium facere volvnt." 

6 See Smyth's "Lives of the Berkeleys," edited by Sir John Maclean; 
also "The Earlier House of Berkeley. "—Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. 
VIII., p. 193. 

The Liber Niger. 301 

His second allusion is to the 3 hides in Slimbridge given with the 
King's assent (he might have written at his suggestion) to Maurice 
son of Robert (Fitz Harding) who had married his daughter, from 
which he had no service ; whilst his last grievance was the old 
' story of the knight's fee in Kingswood given for the endowment 
of the Cistercian Abbey thereon by his cousin William de Berkeley 
without his concurrence, a gift which formed the subject of a long 
controversy described in the Kingswood Register. 1 

Little need be said of Roger's feofees, whose holdings were 
small, and none of whom belonged to families of consequence, save 
perhaps (7 and 12) the Albemarles. (4) Hugh de Planca, and (5) 
Ralph de Uley, had been among his sureties in the covenant with 
Robert Fitz Harding in 1154, whilst (8) Simon de Cowley is said 
to have been a relative of the latter. The fact of the Prior of 
Stanley (9) holding under the old feoffment, proves the foundation 
of that House during the reign of Henry I., whereas the gift to 
Kingswood Abbey (which is known to have been founded in 1139) 
is included at the end, among the new. 

Besides the 1\ fees of the old feoffment, for which the assess- 
ment of scutage seems, as I have remarked, to have been previously 
adjusted, Roger de Berkeley admits in this Certificate holding 5 
fees, plus 9 hides, or close on 2 fees more, in demesne, making a 
total of 9^- fees. He appears to have been dealt with leniently 
regarding the latter, as he had on the whole been in respect to the 
former in 1161, for we find that he only had in 1168 to pay 100s., 
or 7 -J- marks, for the aid then levied at the rate of a mark per fee. 
If we suppose that he was relieved of liability for the 3 hides in 
Slimbridge, and for the knight's fee in Kingswood, which had 
passed out of his hands, it would go far to account for the 
reduction made. The Barony of Dursley continued to be rated at 
7^ fees till the close of the century. 

(4) Certificate of Margaret de Bohun. 
These knights has Margaret de Bohun, who were enfeoffed in 
the time of King Henry in the fief of Milo of Gloucester, her 
father, which she holds in capite of the King. 

1 Hugh parvus, owes . . 4 knights 

2 Philip, son of Ernulf ... 2 knights 

3 Otoer de Sunneworthe . . 2 knights 

4 Almaric de Lokinton . . 1 knight 
1 Monasticon, Vol. V., p. 424, 

Vol. XIV. w 

302 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

5 and 6 Ralph Chokerel and Elyas his brother 1 knight 

7 William de Pinkeni ... 1 knight 

8 and 9 Richard and Walter son of Robert 1 knight 

10 Richard St. Quentin . . i knight 

11 and 12 Richard Canute and Walter Moderli 1 knight 

13 Walter de Esseleia ... 1 knight 

14 William Picard ... 2 knights 

15 & 16 Gilbert de Mineriis and Hugh de Cumdicot 

§ knight 
Of these, Isabel, wife of Henry of Hereford has 5 knights in 
dower. These has she (Margaret) also infeft 1 in her demesnes, 
whom her father and her brothers enfeoffed after the death of 
King Henry. 

17 William de Cernai . ^ knight 

18 William Torel in Cernai 

19 Helyas de Kokerel 

20 Roger, son of Alan . 

21 Richard Murdac 

On the decease of Earl Milo's five sons without issue, Margaret, 
as his eldest daughter, became heir to the family honours. She 
had for many years been wife of the third Humphrey de Bohun, 
whose own certificate for 40 knights' fees will be found under 
Wiltshire (Vol. I., page 109). Berta, the second daughter, had 
married Philip de Braose, but both she and her husband had long 
been dead, leaving William their son and heir, who eventually 
succeeded to the Honour of Brecknock, which Milo had got from 
his father-in-law, Bernard de Newmarch. As yet, however,William 
had to content himself with the Honour of Barnstaple, co. Devon 
('Vol. I., p. 127), to which his paternal grandfather had acquired 
a claim, and the only portion of Milo's inheritance which had come 
to him through his father was 2 knights' fees which the earl had 
held of the Bishop of Winchester ;— Humphrey de Bohun inherit- 
ing another; (Vol. I., p. 69). Milo's third daughter, Lucy, was 
wife to Herbert fitz Herbert, Chamberlain of Henry I., and there 
is a tradition 1 that she brought him the Forest of Dean, which 

1 i.e. " These are also enfeoffed in Margaret's demesnes," &c, &e. 

i knight 

1 knight 

1* knights 

1 knight 

The Liber Nioer. 303 

he forfeited later on, but there is no record in the Liber Niger of 
his holding anything that had been his father-in-law's, except, 
perhaps, two fees in Hants of the Bishop of Winchester (67.) 

The Earldom of Hereford had been sequestrated by Henry II. 
upon the death of Milo's eldest son, Earl Roger, in 1155, and as 
neither Walter nor Henry, the brothers who succeeded, had held 
it, Margaret de Bohun's claim was not of course admitted, but 
her husband, and her son after him, both of whom she outlived, 
were allowed to exercise the office of Constable of England, in 
virtue of her tenure of the Manors of Haresfield and Newnham, 
and her grandson, Henry de Bohun, was eventually recognised 
as earl by King John, after he had executed a renunciation of 
his own rights over certain ancient demesnes of the Crown, 
which the Empress Maude, during her struggle for it, had im- 
providently granted to his great grandfather. 

Margeret de Bohun's share of her father's lands was, as set 
forth in her Certificate, 17 fees of the old, and 3 J fees of the new 

The Domesday possessions of Walter Fitz Roger, Milo's 
father, in Gloucestershire, had only consisted of 22j hides, and 
even with the 32 hides in the county held by his granduncle, 
Durand the Sheriff, and a small subsequent concession of the 
lands of Chetel, can hardly have equalled 10 fees. 

It seems to follow, therefore, that at least half Margaret's 
fees were outside the county, probably in Herefordshire, or in 
Wales. In the latter, Milo's possessions had been much aug- 
mented by the Honour of Abergavenny, which his father, Walter 
the Constable, had acquired through marrying the daughter of 
Hamelin de Baalun, and there can be little doubt that the 5 fees 
stated to be held by Isabel, widow of Henry de Hereford, of her 
sister-inJaw, formed part of that Honour, seeing that in the 
Cartulary of Abergavenny Priory 2 the Castle of that place 

1 See Paper by Mr. Crawley-Boevey, in the Trans. B. & G. Arch. Society, 
Vol. XL, p. 206. This tradition is discredited by the fact that when King 
John, not contented with his father's revocation of the gift of the Forest, 
made by the Empress Maud to Earl Milo, obtained a renunciation from the 
heir of the latter, it was from Henry de Bohun and not from Fitz Herbert 
that he exacted it. 

- Monasticon, Vol. IV., p. 613. 
W 2 

304 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

is said to have been settled on this Henry by his grand- 
father nearly forty years before : a story, however, which we 
are not bound to believe. That the whole Honour had not 
passed on Henry's death, two or three years previously, 1 to 
his sisters, is clear, for it appears from the Certificate under 
Herefordshire (Vol. I. p. 153), of " William, son of Reginald " (who 
in the Red Book is styled " de Baalun "), that it was in the 
King's hand, and was claimed by this William as heir to his 
grandfather, Hamelin de Baalun, or, as he diplomatically puts it, 
" he would owe the Service for it, if it should be his Lord the King's 

Of Margaret de Bohun's knights of the old feoffment, but few 
are recognisable as connected with Gloucestershire. 

No. 1. Hugh parvus may be supposed to have been a son of that 
Roger parvus who stands as third witness to Milo's second grant 
to Lanthony Abbey in 1139, and who was, presumably, the 
" Roger, son of Richard," who occupies the same position among 
the witnesses to his first grant. This does not help us in deter- 
mining who he was, or where the 4 fees he held were situated. 
No family bearing the name of Le Petit, Little, or Small, was, so 
far as I am aware, domiciled in the 12th century in Gloucester- 

5 and 6 should probably be Cockerel, as Helyas Kokerel is 
found holding ^ a fee under the new feoffment, and that family 
was, ere this, established in the county. 

8. Richard de Blechesdon bore likewise a well-known Glou- 
cestershire name, and as the vill from which he derived it was 
in Westbury Hundred, he most likely occupied the half hide which 
Durand at Domesday held there. 

10. The St. Quintins, as we have seen, held of the Honour 
of Gloucester, and probably Richard's half fee adjoined his East- 
leach Manor. 

1 The name of Henry de Hereford occurs on the Gloucestershire Pipe 
Rolls of 1162-3, but not later. Maihel de Hereford succeeded him, for he 
confirmed Henry's donation to Brecknock Abbey, but he must have died 
after very brief occupation. I find no evidence that William de Hereford, 
the youngest and wickedest of the five brothers, lived to inherit. 

The Liber Niger. 305 

13. Walter de Ashley held the manor of that name in the 
parish of Charlton Kings, Cheltenham, of the gift of Earl Milo. 1 

15. Gilbert de Miners appears on the Pipe Roll of 31st Henry I. 
as accounting for the Pleas of Milo of Gloucester, in whose 
service he must have been, and his name is found in 1166 not 
only here, as holding under his daughter, but under the Bishop 
of Worcester, and the Archbishop of York, both of whom, it 
must be borne in mind, were large landowners in Gloucester- 
shire. Hearne has a note suggesting that the name should be 
written " Mineries " or " Mineris," but surely the spelling in 
the text is sufficient to show that the family of Mynors, which 
is only just extinct in the West of England, is meant. Gilbert's 
partner in the half fee, (16) Hugh de Condicote, no doubt held 
the hide in the vill thus designated, which belonged at Domesday 
to Durand of Gloucester. 

With regard to the tenants under the new feoffment, (17) 
William de Cerney, and (18) William Torel 2 in Cerney, must have 
been recently enfeoffed in that portion of the Domesday estate of 
Walter Fitz Roger in that manor, which had not been included 
in the grant by Walter de Hereford to St. Peter's, Gloucester, 
a grant confirmed by his brother Henry de Hereford. (19) Of 
Elias Cokerel I have already spoken. 20. Roger, son of 
Alan, has been identified as the ancestor of the family of le 
Rus, or Pvous, who long held Harescombe of the Earls of 
Hereford. 3 It looks indeed, from his being rated at 1^ fees, as 
if he held the entire 7 hides, of which Durand's principal Domes- 
day Manor of Haresfield consisted, and so virtually performed 
the subordinate duties of the High Constableship. 

(21) As to Richard Murdac, who had likewise lately re- 
ceived 1 knight's fee in the late Earl's demesne, I know not 
where it was situated, or who he was. The name has a Celtic 
sound, and was borne by sub-tenants in the north of England 

1 See Testa de Xevill. — Notes in Trans, B. and G. Arch Society, Vol. 
XII., p. 45. 

2 See Willimus Torellus de Pencumbria, holding 2 fees of Robert 
D'Ewias (Hereford, p. 159). 

3 See Paper by the Rev. J. Melland Hall.— Trans. B. and G. Arch. 
Society, Vol. X., p. 109, 

306 Transactions foe the Year 1SS9-90. 

before the Conquest, and in 1166, 1 a century after it, a Robert 
Murdac still held a similar position in Northumberland (p. 333). 
There was, however, likewise a Murdac among the knights of the 
Bishop of Chichester at Domesday, holding 3 hides, worth 30s. 
per annum in Sussex, and as a Richard Murdac, probably his 
descendant, appears in the Liber Niger (p. 63) as holding part 
of a fee in the same bishopric, the chances are that this was 
the man. 2 

It remains only to remark, that Margaret de Bohun is credited 
on the Pipe Roll of 14th Henry II. (1168), with payment of 17 
marks for the aid, whence it would seem that she paid for her 
fees of the old feoffment alone, and was excused in respect to the 
3| held under the new. 

(5) Certificate of Ralph de Sudley. 
It is to be known that Ralph de Sudley has enfeoffed in his 
holding, which he holds in capite of the King, so many knights 
of the old feoffment and of the new. 

1 Richard de Cnictecote of the old feoffment 3 parts of 1 knight 

2 Robert Russell a fifth of 1 knight 

3 Agatha a fifth of 1 knight 


This is the sum total of the old feoffment, the fee of 1 knight. 
4 Also William de Tracy of the new feoffment of his demesne 

the fee of 1 knight 

5 Humphrey, son of William, of the new feoffment of his 
demesne, and of the gift of Roger Parvus, the fee of 

1 knight 

In Domesday, Harold, son of Earl Ralph, held 10 hides in 
Sudley, equivalent, according to the usual rating, to 2 knights' 
fees, and 10 hides in Todington, equal to 2 knights more, but his 
descendant here makes a return of 3 fees only. I do not know 
whether (2) — who held a hide granted in the reign of Henry I., 
— was the Lord of Kingston-Russell, Dorsetshire, who, besides 
holding a fee in that county of Alured de Lincoln, is accused of 
unjustly detaining another from the Abbot of Cerne, 3 (No. 4) 

1 Vide List in Ellis's Introduction to Domesday. 

'- On the Gloucestershire Pipe Roll of 13th Henry II., " Ric. Murdac owes 
5 marks for the right of the land which he has not yet had." 
s Lib. ISig. p. 77. 

The Liber Niger. 307 

was Ralph de Sudley's brother, who had assumed the name of 
Tracy on marrying the heiress of William de Tracy, of Barn- 
staple, co. Devon, and had probably been enfeoffed by his father in 
Todington. He is generally believed to be identical with the 
"William de Tracy, who, a few years later than the date of this 
Return, was foremost in the murder of Thomas a Becket. 

(No. 5) Humphrey is not, I take it, meant for a son of 
William de Tracy but of some other William. 

The donor of the fee may have been the Roger parvus alluded 
to under the previous Return. 

It is strange, in the face of this certificate, to find Ralph de 
Sudley credited with payment of 15s. 4d. only towards the aid of 
1168, or little over the scutage of 1 knight's fee. In 18th Hen. II., 
on the other hand, he paid 63s. that is to say, 3s. more than the 
rate for 3 fees. 

(6) Certificate op Robert de Scrupa. 

It is to be known that I, Robert de Crupa, (sic) hold three 
knights' fees from our Lord the King, and after the death of King 
Henry I have enfeoffed no one. 

The names of those knights are these — 

1 Turstan le Despenser. 

2 Geoffrey the Chamberlain of Glinton. 

3 Simon de Ordingeton. 


The discrepancy between the spelling of the name in the 
certificate, and in the heading, is not due to any flaw in Hearne's 
MSS., for it exists in the original Black Book, although not in the 
Red, where de Scrupa is found in both cases. 

The question of orthography is of some interest, as bearing on 
the alleged descent of this Robert from " Scrob," a Norman 
favorite of Edward the Confessor, as well as on the attempt made 
in after times to identify the Gloucestershire House with the 
Scropes of Bolton, which Hearne, in a footnote, assumes to be 
incontrovertible. In a Paper, however, in Vol. XIIL, p. 351. of the 
Transactions of this Society, I have shown that the pedigree put 
forward by Sir Harris Nicholas with this view, is confuted by 

308 Transactions TOR the Year 1S89-90. 

the irrefragable evidence of " Inquisitiones post mortem," so far as 
his last three or four generations are concerned. I was not aware 
when I wrote, that a Robert Scrop occurs in the Black Book (p. 272) 
as holding a knight's fee in Lincolnshire of Earl Simon (of North- 
ampton), who, there can be no doubt, from Mr. Poulett Scrope's 
researches, was the ancestor of the family of le Scrope of the north, 
and a totally different person from Robert de Scrupa of the south, 
whose name, notwithstanding this casual resemblance, is spelt 
" de Escropes," on the Scutage Roll of 7 Hen. II., and d'Escrupes 
in that of 14th, whilst in the 13th century the preliminary s is 
always dropped, and it become " de Crupes " or Croupes. 

It seems clear from the wording of the certificate that Robert 
de Crupe had been in possession of these three fees pi-ior to the 
death of Henry I., and was in all probability the individual to 
whom that King had, on sub-dividing the escheated lands held by 
William Leuric in Gloucestershire at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, granted the Manor of Whittington in Bradley Hundred ; 
Leckhampton being at the same time given to Thurstan the Dis- 
penser, Hayles to Tancarville the Chamberlain, while other manors 
of less importance fell to the Bassets. 

The fact of Robert de Crupes thus appearing in company with 
such great officers of state, certainly suggests the idea that he was 
connected with the Royal Household, and this is strengthened by 
the circumstance of Thurstan, and Geoffrey de Clinton the Cham- 
berlain, being found here as his feoffees. The latter is now known 
to have been son of another Geoffrey, who held the Manor of 
Glinton or Clinton, in Northamptonshire, at Doniesday, of Geoffrey 
Bishop of Coutances, and whose descendants in after days claimed 
that he was a scion of the great House of Tancarville— hereditary 
chamberlains of the Dukes of Normandy. This claim has gener- 
ally been ignored by genealogists on the strength of an assertion 
by Ordericus Vitalis, that the second Geoffrey de Clinton, though 
made chamberlain by Henry I. , was a man of low birth ; but the 
writer was liberal in such imputations on that King's favourites, 
and it strikes me that Geoffrey's association here in the same 
holding with the head of the Despensers, who unquestionably 
were of Tancarville blood, tends to refute it in his case. 

The Liber Niger. 309 

Robert de Crupes says not a word in his certificate as to his 
holding Whittington in demesne, which he and his posterity 
certainly did. Perhaps he included it with the 3 fees he returned, 
though his language scarcely warrants that supposition. As, how- 
ever, we know for certain from Testa de Nevill that one of them, 
Ordestan, in Berks, was held by a Simon, son of Hugh, presumably 
the Simon de Ordingeton of the text, it would follow in this case 
that his third fee, Baldington, Oxon, was divided between his two 
other knights, Thurstan le Despenser and Geoffrey Clinton. Robert 
de Crupes paid 3 marks in 1168 towards the aid, but in 18th 
Henry II. he paid only for 2 fees, and his son in 6th Richard I. 
for 2|. Subsequently 3 fees was the ordinary rating. 

(7) Certificate of Henry de Newmarch. 
These are the knights of Henry de Newmarch of the old 

I Ernald de Baillioll, and 2 Humphrey de Pancevote hold 5 

knights' fees. 

3 Richard de Malemvilier 

4 Geoffrey, son of Roger - - - - 1 knight 

5 Henry Luvel holds 1 knight's fee, which he does not acknow- 

ledge to hold of me, and I do the service. 

6 Richard, son of Humphrey, -| a knight('s fee) which Jocelin de 
Bailiol holds by the King's precept, nor have I any service 

7 Geoffrey de Galehampton . the i part of a knight. 

8 Geoffrey de Marisco . . the ^ part of a knight. 
2 Walter del Cheisne, four parts of a knight, which Jocelin de 

Bailiol holds by the King's precept, nor have I service thence. 
10 William, son of Alured . . the ^ part of a knight 

II Eustace Pancevot . . four parts of a knisdit 

12 Hamelin de Baalun . . . .la, knight 

13 William de Frohorne 

14 William Mansel 

15 Helyas Cokerel 

16 Robert de Gundevill . . . four parts of a hide 

1 It is clear, from the result of the calculation set out in the certificate of 
Ralph de Suclley, that " four parts of a knight " stands for 4 hides, or f of 
a fee. 


2 knights 
2 parts 1 of a knight 

i a knight 

310 Transactions for the Year 1889 -90. 

17 Humphrey de Kenebelle ... 1 knight 

18 Philip de Gundeville . the tenth part of a knight 

19 William de Cadeberi . the tenth part of a knight 

20 William de Derham . the fifth part of a knight 

2 1 William, son of Reginald . . the fee of 1 knight 
but I do not acknowledge that he ought to hold of me for what I 
do Royal service. 

Of the new feoffment — 

22 Matthew de Baalim (holds) 1 knight of my demesne. 

23 Humphrey Blund. the fifth part of a knight of my demesne. 
Upon the demesne nothing. 

Although his certificate is classed under Gloucestershire, the 
chief seat of Henry de Newmarch's barony was at Cadbury, in 
Somersetshire, in which county the great majority of the fees 
therein referred to were situated. 

The whole at Domesday belonged either to Turstin, son of 
Rolf, or to Wido, son of William, but in what way they had 
descended to Henry de Newmarch, has not been ascertained. 
Neither is the christian name of his father known, nor the relation 
in which he stood to Bernard de Newmarch the Conqueror of 
Brecon. All that is clear is that Turstin's manors came to Henry 
through his mother, daughter and heiress of Winebald de Baladon 
or Baalim ; whether they had been acquired by the latter in 
marriage, or, as seems more probable, after forfeiture, 1 being 
uncertain. Furthermore there is no evidence to show that Wido's 
manors had descended in a similar mode, the donations made to 
the Priory of Bermondsey and to the Abbey of St. Peter's, Glou- 
cester, by Winebald, which Henry de Newmarch confirmed, not 
having included any lands of Wido's. - 

Henry's close connection with the de Baalun family is trace- 
able in his certificate. The Hamelin de Baalun (14) returned as 
holding half a knight's fee, cannot have been a descendant of 
Hamelin, Lord of Abergavenny, Winebald's eldest brother, if 
Dugdale be right in asserting that the former died childless. 

1 Turstin's Domesday Manor of Stanton certainly fell to the Crown, and 
became known as Stanley Regis. 

2 See Dugdale's Monasticon. 

The Libek Niger. 311 

Doubt, however, is thrown on that assertion by another certificate 
under Herefordshire (p. 153), in which William, son of Reginald, 
styled in the Red Book (though not in the Black) "de Baalun," 
describes himself as holding a fee in which his grandfather, 
Hamelin de Baalun, had been enfeoffed in the reign of Henry I. 
and even prefers a claim to the Honour of Abergavenny, which 
that Hamelin is stated to have bequeathed to Brian fitz Count, 
his nephew, from whom it passed to Milo, afterwards Earl of Here- 
ford. There can be little doubt that this "William, son of Reginald, 
is identical with (21) the one whom Henry de Newmarch returns 
as holding a knight's fee of him, but declines to acknowledge that 
he is responsible for the service to the King. 

We likewise find a Matthew de Baalun among the Newmarch 
tenants. It would seem from the passage as to William, son of 
Reginald, as well as from earlier ones in which Jocelin cle Bailiol 
is said to hold parts of Newmarch fees, in two cases by the King's 
precept, that there had been some dispute as to Henry's rights, 
and this, perhaps, is corroborated by his declaration that Henry 
Lovel refuses to recognise him as overlord in another fee, for 
which he has to do the Royal service. As the latter's barony of 
Castle Carey marched with Cadbury, this was probably an en- 
croachment of Lovel's during the civil war, in which he had been 
a very active partisan of King Stephen, but if so, it is strange that 
he should have been allowed to retain it after the accession of 
Henry II. (19) William of Cadbury had the tenth part of a fee 
there, while (7) Galehampton, held by one Geoffrey, is in the same 

Henry de Newmarch's fees in Gloucestershire are not dis- 
tinguished from the rest, but they consisted, as we know, from 
other sources * of Dyrham, the only manor in that county which 
had been held by Wido, son of William ; and of Amney-Crucis, 
Cotes (Cokerel), Hildesley, Tortworth, Frehorne, and Eastington, 
all derived from Turstin fitz Rolf. In the first, a small feoffment 
of one-fifth of a fee, seems to have been created in favour of a 
William de Derham (-0), and it is not improbable that (21) 

1 Testa de Nevill.— See Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc., Vol. XIII. for fuller 

312 Transactions For the Year 18S9-90. 

William fitz Reginald's fee was also there. Cotes (part of Achelai, 
[or Oakley] in the Survey) was the holding of (15) Elias Cokerel as 
half a fee ; (13) William de Frehorne held in the vill from which 
he took his name ; (12) Hamelin de Baalun probably holding in 
Eastington, while (14) William Mansel held in Tortworth. 

(11) Eustace Pauncefote's fee was also most likely in Glouces- 
tershire, though I am not quite sure where these 4 hides were. 

(16) Eobert and (18) Philip de Gundeville did not, I think, 
hold in that county, and (17) Humphrey de Kemble no doubt 
held in the vill of that name in Wiltshire. 

Of the two knights whom Henry de Newmarch had recently 
enfeoffed in his demesne, Matthew de Baalun, already referred to, 
was presumably his cousin, and a person of some consequence, if 
he was the one of the name who held 10 fees in Sussex of the Earl 
of Eu. 1 Humphrey Blund, on the other hand, had only the fifth 
part of a fee, or one hide. 

I am by no means sure that I have correctly interpreted the 
concluding sentence of the certificate, for the word "Super" has 
many meanings ! I take it here to signify that Henry de Newmarch 
did not consider himself liable to pay for his demesne except in so 
far as he had made feoffments in it. It seems to me out of the 
question to suppose that the 6 hides he had thus appropriated, 
constituted the entire demesne of the barony. It is impossible, 
however, to check this view by the amount of his contribution to 
the aid in 1168, since in the first place there is a blank as to the 
number of fees held by (3) Richard de Malemvilier, which prevents 
our judging how many he ought to have paid for. Even setting 
this aside, the calculation is complicated by the minute sub- 
division in many cases of the fees, but 1 think it will be found 
that he held 16 fees plus \\ hides of the old feoffment, and of the 
new 1 fee plus 1 hide, altogether 17£ fees. For these we find him 
credited on the Scutage Roll of 14th Henry II. with the payment 
of £11 14s. 2d., equal to 17 marks and a sixth, or very nearly the 
correct amount. For the scutage, however, of 18th Henry II., the 
next levied, which was at the rate of £1 per fee, he paid £18 
lis. 4d., that is to say for over 18* fees. 
2 Hearne, Vol. I., p. 66. 

The Liber NictEr. 313 

Henry de Newmarch is returned by the Abbot of Westminster 
(p. 51) as holding 2 fees of that church in Worcestershire and 
Gloucestershire, 1 of these was no doubt Hasfield in the latter 
county, a Domesday fee of Turstin fitz Rolf's, held for many years 
by the Pauncefotes. 1 He likewise appears as " Henry de (Novo) 
Foro," in the Bishop of Worcester's certificate, as holding one fee 
and denying another. These, no doubt, were Turstin's Manors of 
Aust and Gotherington. in Gloucestershire, held at Domesday of 
that See, and subsequently rated at half a fee each. 2 

(8) Certificate op Pagan de Mundublel. 
These are Pagan de Mundublel 's knights of the old feoffment — 

1 Humphrey de Bohun holds the fees of 2 knights 

2 Simon de Chelefield ... 5 knights 

3 Adam, son of Simon 

1 knight 
1 knight 
1 knight 
1 knight 
1 knight 

4 Hugh de Radeii 3 

5 John de Baha 

6 Simon de Hara 

7 Ralph Murdac 

but he does not recognise more than | a fee. 

8 Geoffrey de Coldrinton . . ^ knight 

The sum of these is 12| knights 

Of the new feoffment, Pagan de Mundublel gave to Hugh de 

Chaurcis, his brother, one manor for which he does no service. 

And to Nicholas, son of Simon, his steward, a waste land near 

Newbury for his services, by the service of the third part of 1 


A division of the same holding. 4 

It is to be known that of the aforesaid holding Geoffrey de Vere 

holds 7 knights' fees, which 5 Patrick de Chaurcis, grandfather of 

Pagan de Mundublel, held on the clay on which King Henry was 

alive and dead, to wit — 

' See Testa de Nevill.— Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, Vol. XIII., p. 321. 
2 Ibid. 3 Reading ? 

4 In the Red Book there is neither separating line nor fresh heading, the 
words running on — " Sciendum est," &c. , without interruption. 

5 " de quorum," in Latin, which is nonsense — it should be " quce." 

314 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

9 Matthew de Torminton x the fees of 5 knights 

10 Humphrey Francbevalier the fee of . 1 knight 

11 Henry Chevel 2 . . . 1 knight 
And beyond this, Alured de Lincoln holds 1 knight's fee which 

Earl Patrick took during the war, and Earl Patrick holds besides, 
of the aforesaid holding, 20 knights' fees through the marriage 3 
(settlement) of his mother, and three manors of <£60. 4 

And Nigel de Albini one manor of £20, 4 similarly through the 
marriage of his mother, — for which they have done no service. 

Pagan of Montdoubleau, so styled from a castle in France, 
was head of the family of Cadurcis, or Chaworth, which had 
acquired a footing in England towards the close of the 11th 
century through the marriage of Patrick de Cadurcis with one of 
the daughters of Ernulph de Hesding, a great Domesday baron. 
Another daughter was wife to Alan, son of Flaald, ancestor of the 
Fitz Alans of Clune. After the decease of a second Patrick de 
Cadurcis, late in the reign of Henry I., the bulk of Ernulph's 
property passed to Earl Patrick, whose father, Walter of Salis- 
bury, had married Sibilla, daur. of the first Patrick de Cadurcis, 5 
but upon the accession of Henry II. this Pagan de Montdoubleau 
had obtained a charter granting to him all the lands in England 
which his grandfather, Patrick de Cadurcis, had held. 

In 1166, however, after a struggle of 12 years, he had only 
succeeded in recovering the comparatively small number of fees 
here returned in his name. 

Of these, few could have been in Gloucestershire, although 
from the Manor of Kempsford forming the head of his Barony, his 
certificate was classed under that county. Ernulph de Hesding's 
possessions there had, it is true, included besides, the Manors of 
Hatherop, Amney, and Oldbury ; but these were retained, as we 
know, by Earl Patrick ; whilst the Manors of Badminton and 

2 Tormarton, Gloucestershire. 

1 Cheverel ? Among the tenants of Earl Patrick. 

3 " tie Matrimonio Matris suse." 

4 In the Black Book the abbreviation " Libr " follows the Roman numer- 
als lx and xx, but is omitted in Hearne. 

5 See Trans. B. & G. Arch. Society, Vol. XII., p. 14.— Paper on Testa de 

The Libek Nigek. 315 

Acton, likewise part of Ernulph's Domesday holding, as well as the 
Manor of Torinarton, which he had subsequently acquired from 
Richard the legate, were now in the hands of William fitz Alan's 

The 20 hides at which Kempsford was rated in the Great 
Survey, would not have been more than equivalent to 4 knights' 
fees, but possibly some subsequent increment may have brought it 
up to 5, which, presumably, were those held of Pagan by Simon 
de Chelefield, his only large tenant. If this were not the case, one 
would almost be driven to suppose that Kempsford was purposely 
left out as being held in demesne, a view which is so far supported 
by the fact that at the time of Kirby's Quest (1287) the then 
Patrick de Gadurcis held it by barony, no sub-feoffee being 
mentioned, while in 1346 Henry of Lancaster, who had married 
the Chaworth heiress, likewise retained the manor in his own 

Of Pagan's other knights little need be said. 

Humphrey de Bohun's fees were doubtless part of the marriage 
portion his father had received in Wiltshire with the daughter of 
Walter de Salisbury, but how these two had been separated from 
the rest, to be held of Pagan de Montdoubleau instead of Earl 
Patrick, is nowhere explained. Perhaps as Humphrey was Pagan's 
cousin he may have concurred in the arrangement. 

There are indications in respect to Pagan's other fees, that 
they were in Berkshire, where he had got back some of his grand- 
father's manors, as shown by the new feoffment he had created 
near Newbury in favour of his steward, Nicolas fitz Simon. 

With regard to the other division of the holding of the first 
Patrick de Cadurcis, Geoffrey de Vere therein spoken of, had 
married the widow of William fitz Alan, who had the 7 fees in 
question in dower. He was a younger brother of the first Earl 
of Oxford, and a man of considerable influence. It is clear, 
from the name of his principal sub-tenant, Matthew de Tor- 
marton who held 5 out of the 7, that he was a Gloucestershire 
man, but I am not so sure as to Humphrey Franchevalier, or 
Henry Cheverel, who each held one of the other fees. Alured of 
Lincoln's, Earl Patrick's, and Nigel de Albini's, shares of the same 

316 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

holding were in Wiltshire. Who the last named was has not been 
ascertained. 1 

It is not very easy to understand from whom this second 
certificate emanated, but it served as a sort of protest on behalf 
of Pagan de Montdoubleau against the forcible detention of his 
grandfather's lands, and it may have been designed by him also as 
a reason why he should not be rated for the whole fief. That this 
was in contemplation is clear from an entry which appears on the 
Berkshire Pipe Roll of the succeeding year, 2 which runs : " Pagan 
de Mundublel renders account of £18 13s. 4d. for knights, but it 
ought to be required from Earl Patrick and Geoffrey de Vere, who 
have these knights " — "by writ of the Earl of Leicester, by writ 
of the King beyond the sea." 

There is not sufficient evidence 3 to shew whether this order 
was complied with by the powerful nobles 4 to whom it was 
addressed, but it sufficed at any rate to exonerate Pagan from the 
attempted surcharge, since, to the aid for marrying the King's 
daughter, he contributed but 12| marks for as many fees. Those 
of the new feoffment were apparently exempted, as in the case of 
Margaret de Bohun and others. 

It is noticeable, however, that four years later (18th Hen. II.), 
Patrick de Cadurcis, presumably Pagan's son, paid £19 scutage 
for as many fees, that is to say for 6| more than his father had 
done. Possibly he had recovered that number in the interim, 
especially as Earl Patrick had been assassinated in France in 
1168. On the other hand in the collection of the aid of 1235, 
Paean de Cadurcis figures for " 12| fees of Pagan de Mundubbel's. 5 

1 Probably of Cainho, Bedfordshire. A charter of Robert de Albini to 
the Abbey of Beaulieu, in that county, is witnessed by Nigel de Albini, his 
brother, and Patrick de Cadurcis. — Yeatman's House of Arundel, p. 151. 

2 Publications of the Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XI., p. 6.— Great Boll of the 
Pipe for 13th Henry II., 1166-1167. 

3 There is no Returns of the Collection for the Aid in the Shropshire 
Pipe Roll of 14th Henry II. 

* Geoffrey de Vere accounts on this very Pipe Roll as Sheriff of Shrop- 
shire, Holder of the Honour of the Constable, and Receiver of the Bishopric 
of Hereford. 

5 Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc.Vol. XIII., p. 351— Paper on Testa de Nevill. 

The Liber Niger. 317 

(9) Certificate of Robert Son of Harding. 

To Henry, by the Grace of God, King of England, Duke of 
Normandy, and of Acquitaine, Earl of Anjou, Robert son of 
Harding, greeting. Know ye, that I owe you the service of 5 
knights from Berkelai, but Roger de Berkeley holds land of the 
Honour of Berkelai, for which he does me ] no service, to wit, 
Osemorde, 2 and half Neweton, 3 and all the fee of Bernard the 

As the confirmation by Henry II., shortly after his accession, 
of the Honour of Berkeley to Robert fitz Harding, to be held 
by the service of 5 knights, could in no way have invalidated 
the compromise previously effected, by virtue of which Roger de 
Berkeley (m) was to retain all lands held by military service, 
outside the former fee farm manor, — the allegation that the latter 
did no service for these to his successor, can only be attributed 
to pique. As regards the whole of Newington, as well as the land 
of Bernard the Priest, it is clear from Domesday {hat they were 
granted by William the Conqueror to the first Roger de Berkeley, 
though the half hide in Oselworth was, it must be admitted, then 
included in the fee farm manor. Bernard's lands had been given 
by the second Roger to the Priory of Stanley St. Leonard's, which 
he bad founded, but his son apparently continued to perform the 
Royal service. 

Robert fitz Harding appears on the Roll of 14th Henry II. as 
paying 5 marks towards the aid, for his 5 fees. On the Great Roll 
of the Pipe for the previous year he had been excused a far larger 
sum in respect to his lands in Gloucestershire, but, probably, this 
was rather a credit on account than a gift, for he seems still to 
have continued to act as the Royal banker, the cost of conveying 
from Cricklade to London the money which he lent to the King 
being charged by the Sheriff of Berks. 

This concludes the Certificates under Gloucestershire, but 
there are, as previously remarked, many Gloucestershire fees in 
those classed under other counties. Generally there is no allusion 

1 Contracted in the text to m, which Hearne in a note reads modo, but 
this is opposed to the sense. 

2 Oselworth. 3 Newington-(Bagpath). 

Vol. XIV. x 

318 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

to the fact, though, in some cases, the names of persons or of 
places introduced leave little room for doubt. Thus, in the county 
of Salop (p. 145) the guardians of William fitz Alan (n) append a 
list of knights holding 8^ fees of the Wiltshire fief, which the 
minors had inherited from Ernulph de Hesdings, the first name 
being that of Robert de Turvill, who is known from other sources to 
have held the M anor of Acton-Turvill, in Gloucestershire, of him as 
1 fee ; the third, being Robert's near neighbour, Matthew de Tor- 
marton, holding 2 fees ; and the fifth, Humphrey Franchevalier 
with 1 fee ; both of the latter having, as we have seen, been 
returned among the feoffees of fitz Alan's stepfather, Geoffrey de 
Vere, in that county. William fitz Alan's remaining 4£ fees were 
most likely in Wilts, Peter de Lavington, who held 1 of them, no 
doubt taking his name from the vill so called. 

In other Certificates there are no such indications, though it 
may be placed beyond doubt by later Returns that the descen- 
dants of Gloucestershire Domesday Tenants-in-Capite continued 
to possess the manors derived from them, notwithstanding their 
Returns were made elsewhere. Thus Elias Giffard must have 
included among the 9 fees he certified for in Wiltshire, Rock- 
hampton, Stoke (Giffard) and Brimpsfield, in Gloucestershire, 
which his ancestor, Osbern, had held at the time of the Survey. 

Hascoit Musard must no doubt have returned, under Notting- 
ham, the four manors which his ancestor of the same name had 
in Gloucestershire at Domesday, although in the case of one only, 
"Eston," held by a Walter de Eston in 1166, is this discoverable; 
whilst under Herefordshire, though we know that Baderon de 
Monmouth, Hugh de Lacy, Richard de Cormeilles, and Richard 
de Chandos — the last, successor to Hugh 1'Asne's barony, — all still 
held the manors which their ancestors had held in the adjacent 
county at Domesday, there is little to guide one as to the fees in 
which they were comprised a century later. 

The Certificates of the Prelates connected with Gloucestershire, 
scarcely supply more definite information as to the holdings of 
their tenants in that county. That of the Bishop of Hereford 
alludes to two fees held by Hugh de Lacy "of his demesne," 

The Lir.ER Niger. 319 

(though he now denies the service of one) ; and two and a half, 
which Margaret de Bohun holds (but denies the service of the 
half), the whole four and a half being referred to as if there had 
been some connection between them. Margaret's, there can be 
little doubt, was in Sevenhampton, Gloucestershire, a part of which 
Durand the Sheriff had held of the Church of Hereford at the 
time of the Survey. 1 

The See of Worcester had held since before the Conquest the 
Hundreds of Henbury and Cleeve, besides manors in other Glou- 
cestershire Hundreds, and so late as the 13th century paid scutage 
to the King for nearly 14 fees, so that it is not surprising to find 
many knights of that county in the Certificate sent in by the 
Bishop in 1166. Both the Earl of Gloucester and Humphrey de 
Bohun are set clown for 7| fees, but the former only recognised 
the service of 1 ; the latter of 4. Besides these, Elias Giffard 
holds 1 ; Henry de Foro (i.e. Novo Foro, a synonym for New- 
march) 1, and denies another; Gilbert de Mineriis 1- Walter 
de Clifford 1 ; Hugh Puber 2^ ; with several others who were 
presumptively enfeoffed in Gloucestershire. 

Lastly, the Abbot of Westminster, who held the Hundred of 
Deerhurst of the gift of Edward the Confessor, sends in a Certifi- 
cate, under Middlesex (p. 51) in which, unfortunately, his fees in 
Gloucestershire, except in the single case of two held by the Earl 
of Gloucester, are bracketed with those held of the abbot by the 
same feoffees in the adjoining county of Worcester. Thus Hugh 
Puber is returned as holding 3 knights in the two counties ; 
Reginald de Stainlinge 2 ; Henry de Xewmarch 2 ; William 
Folet 1 ; and Ralph de Monmouth 1, though he refused to do the 
service, — following in this the example of the Earl of Gloucester, 
— who since the second scutage for Wales in 5th Hen. II., had, 
it is mentioned, repudiated the obligation. 

It is impossible in most cases to identify the manors held, but 
de Newmarch no doubt possessed Hasfiekl which Turstin fitz Rolf 
had held of the Abbey at Domesday ; and Ralph de Monmouth, 
Trinlie or Tirley, which William fitz Baderon had similarly held. 
What relation the latter was to Baderon de Monmouth, the head 

' See post p. 329. 
x 2 

320 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

of the family, does not appear, but he may have been the ancestor 
of the Roger de Monmouth who held by serjeanty in King's 
Weston and in Leckhampton early in the next century. 

Doubtless other Certificates may include Gloucestershire fees, 
but I have not been able to trace them. 

I will only, in conclusion, add, that I was surprised on looking 
at the original Black and Red Books of the Exchequer to find 
that the name of Robert de Amenevill, which appears at the end 
of Herefordshire in both, is an obvious interpolation, made at a 
period subsequent to 1166. 

On Old Tools and Implements 321 



Read at Cheltenham, 16th July, 1S89. 

[This Paper was intended to fill an interval which I expected to 
occur between two papers at a Spring Meeting at Stroud, an 
informal gathering of which the papers were not for publication. 
It was not wanted at Stroud, and with reluctance I read it at the 
Summer Meeting at Cheltenham ; with more reluctance I consent 
to its publication now, not because I consider the subject unsuited 
to our discussion and our Proceedings, but because it is dealt with 
so lightly, and so imperfectly.] 

I want to claim your attention for a few minutes to what I call 
my Plea for Old Tools ; and I have been the more anxious for 
this opportunity because the appeal can properly be addresed only 
to such an audience as this. In the great workshops of Birming- 
ham tools must disappear as soon as they are superseded ; there 
is no time to waste over, or space to store, any on which an 
improvement has been effected ; in like manner the trim-pared 
villas of Bournemouth have no lumber-room in which old-fashioned 
things may linger. So it is in a country town, in a manufacturing 
district like this, that I should most hopefully begin a search for 

How many relics can we find, I don't say centuries old like 
Mr. Hyett's astrolabe, but of our own or our fathers' time 1 Nay, 
how many can I recall which were familiar enough on the edge of 
my memory, not yet of 50 years' reach, yet are now treasures for 
a museum 1 I can remember the cook's tinder box, with its flint 
and steel, and store of tinder and long matches tipped with yellow 
brimstone, though I never saw her use it : then there was another 
implement meant to do the work better, like a big tin pistol, in 
the butt of which you turned a wheel hoping to let successful 

322 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

sparks fly. Where are these tinder boxes now 1 I am told that 
a neighbour treasures a part of his old box, and have a friend, a 
grave Professor at Cambridge, who proudly shows one he picked up 
in Leicestershire, and boasts very much that he has brought fire 
out of it ! The operation would surprise us as much as it would the 
Andaman Islanders, who have never learnt to make fire, though 
it is no wonder in the Roman Church, for that the Paschal taper 
requires to be lighted from fresh fire year by year; two years ago, 
during the Easter Eve ceremonies in the chief church in Havre, 
I saw the beadle hard at work with his flint and steel, and his 
unsuccessful clicking made me think tenderly of poor women busy 
over damp tinder in the past. And when she had her light — 
think of the candle she had to use ! Is there any place in Stroud 
which could supply a real rushlight 1 or a rushlight stand 1 that 
big cylinder full of holes to frighten timid children 1 And how 
many pairs of snuffers can we raise 1 These implements, I fancy, 
had but a short reign, and just as they had received their last 
improvements, the unlucky discovery of the virtues of bismuth 
wire and plaited wicks uperseded their pride. I remember my 
mother's last pair, the creaking and screaming as it opened its 
fateful jaws, and the crack and snap as the inner door shut down, 
too often with the light inside as well as the soot. Those candles 
which required snuffing are lost, and all others seem inclined to 
follow, under pressure of competition from oil lamps of all shapes 
and sizes. Perhaps systems of lighting have changed more than 
aught else within memory ; we are becoming impatient even of 
gas, clamouring for the dainty electric light even in our bedrooms; 
yet look at this ! thirty years ago not a cottage in North Scotland 
had more light in evening than was given by a rush wick floating 
in coarse fish oil, giving a lurid flame and an excessive abundance 
of greasy fetid smoke ; thirty years ago and you might have 
bought them by the dozen in any village there ; now the com- 
petition of cheap mineral oil has almost destroyed the memory of 
them ! Six years back, my attention was drawn to some in the 
Antiquarian Museum in Edinburgh, and the one I have shewn 
you was obtained by a friend from a crofter in Caithness, and is 

On Old Tools and Implements. 323 

worth half-a-guinea in any curio shop in Edinburgh. 1 This is an 
older relic which was treasured by my grandmother, though I 
believe she did not know its use; as you see it is a holder for a 
coil of wax taper ; when I was a boy an old clergyman, of whom 
I was very fond, used one habitually. 

Again, where the milder manners of the present time threaten 
only " the utmost rigour of the law," which Mr. Justice Mathew 
considers a fair invitation to trespass, in my time all the notice 
boards warned of " mantraps and spring-guns ;" how many of 
either have you seen 1 Jeffreys, in his Gamekeeper in a Southern 
County, gives an elaborate description of a man-trap ; in our last 
spring excursion someone saw a broken one at Old Sodbury 
Manor House, 2 and I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Wathen 

1 The lamp is called a goose-nib, and evidently derives its name from its 
shape, being like the skull and upper bill of a goose, wrought in iron ; each 
lamp has two of these, the lower one rivetted to the bar by which the lamp 
is hung up, the other to a rod which hangs on a tooth projecting from this 
bar ; the oil and wick are put in the upper one, the lower seems intended to 
catch the overflow : besides these, a hook and spike are provided for trim- 
ming. The wicks are called naib, or rushes; in fact they are rushes, and 
authorities are careful to warn you that they must be pulled at full moon. The 
oil was made from the dog-fish, and the day when the fish were boiled down 
was anything but a gaudy-day. The friend to whom I am indebted for my 
goose-nib shewed me a yet more curious, and much rarer, tool, a sort of 
rough spring pincers fastened to an upright to hold the splinter of bogwood 
which serves as candle in inland places ; it was called puir-man, because it 
took the place of the poor wayfarer who might earn his night's shelter by 
holding the light. 

2 Mr. Wathen's Mantrap was a more frightful object than I had expected, 
and I begged permission to keep it for some weeks for the edification of 
holiday visitors. The trap proper consisted of two square-cornered jaws, 
not only serrated but armed with sharp spikes some two inches long ; they 
were kept open by a pin from one side which caught under a projection from 
a plate in the middle, which plate would turn aside, and free the pin, under 
the pressure of any stray foot ; this, of course, answered to the plate on 
which in a rat-trap the bait would be fixed ; the jaws being thus freed, 
two strong springs came into play, which were rivetted to the two ends 
of the flat liar, which made the base of the whole. The whole weighed 54 
pounds ; the bar was 6 feet long, and had a hole at each end for a pin to 
fasten it down ; a victim would be held by the jaws, and their spikes, just 
below the knee, and could certainly not reach both springs at once, so that 
he must wait for help to get free ; Jeffries says that he knew a man who had 
managed to get home with one at his heels, but I am sure Goliath of f4ath 
could not so have dragged this one. I have curious evidence of the length of 
time such things must have been out of use, in that two of my neighbours, 

324 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

for permission to show this magnificent specimen. Spring guns 
I have only seen in the Museum at Reading, and cannot make 
out what harm they could do beyond giving an alarm ; yet I 
remember to have heard that the use of them was given up in 
consequence of an obiter dictum of a judge at Norwich assizes 
about 1847; he spoke somewhat as follows: "Your private 
legislation would make trespass, which at worst is only a misde- 
meanour, a capital crime ; if a case comes before me, I shall know 
what to call it." 

From tortures pass to punishments : how many stocks can you 
find in the county 1 When I was a boy every village had its pair, 
fixed generally between a duck-pond and a nettle-bed, and I 
believe I remember seeing a pair occupied in the market place at 
Shrewsbury. Now the only one I know is that handsome wrought- 
iron one at Painswick, with a rail and the churchyard wall to rest 
against, and a gas-lamp instead of a whipping-post, any man might 
be proud to be enthroned there, yet I have been told that the 
police officer at Painswick held for a long time a warrant of about 
1860 directing him to seat there for two hours a man who had the 
bad taste to run away ! At Huntley there is a wooden pair ; it was 
described to me as complete, but on cross-examination I could 
not be sure that it had a whipping-post ; that fell out of use 
sooner, and though we might manage to put a patient safely away 
away in the stocks, I fear a sturdy rogue might hunt the county 
over without finding a constable capable of tying him up in 
proper form, and beating him " till his back was bloody." The 
form of the companion pillory is known to us all from pictures, 
but a London acquaintance, who had been out with the Archaeo- 
logical Association every year of its existence, and with the 
parent society several years before, 1 had never seen an original 
pillory till we visited Marlborough from Devizes in 1880. Of the 
gallows I don't suppose we have any local relics, even though Sir 

now about 65, natives of different parts of the country, remember to have 
seen such traps hung up in apple trees in their youth, but had never 
actually beheld one set. 

1 I think I have seen lately, in the Illustrated London News, some 
sketches from Waltham Holy Cross, in which the pillory figures as still 

On Oli> Tools and Implements. 325 

Anthony Kingston, who no doubt had been put to inconvenience 
by hurried makeshifts in the course of his campaign in the west, 
left lands to endow one in Sheepscombe, and another in Pains- 

From outdoors let us go back again home. I knew smoke- 
jacks, but never saw a turnspit at work ; what is left of the old 
kitchen fittings, and what of the laundry implements of my 
youth 1 Does anyone dolly clothes ? or do we find we can wear 
them out fast enough by boiling them with strong chemicals 1 Do 
laundresses now amuse themselves with gofering machines 1 or 
crimping machines 1 and what has become of the old array 1 The 
modern mangle is a poor toy in comparison with the old box 
filled with river pebbles, which was forced backwards and for- 
wards by a strap passing over a wheel : even in my time that was 
giving place to the first patent, in which a chain replaced the 
ricketty strap, and the reversing action was automatic, with a 
noise which rivalled a steam roller ! 

I don't like to talk about tools lest I should display my ignor- 
ance ; for instance, I have not seen a flail for thirty years, but 
am not sure that it is not used still for some kinds of seeds, 
though not for corn. About spinning and weaving I am on some- 
what surer ground. Perhaps the earliest of all human inventions 
was that of a spindle and whorl to help twist thread, but, though 
it is still used by wayfarers in India, and no doubt by savage 
tribes all the world over, it has been forgotten in this country for 
many generations ; yet of its remote descendant, the spinning 
wheel, how many genuine specimens, wheels not made to meet a 
fad of the last three years, can be found round the country 1 and 
how many specimens of the old hand-loom, working, I believe, in 
every house in this neighbourhood in the youth of men still living, 
so that, I am told, its rattJe gave a nickname to the villages about 
White's Hill and Randwick 1 Three years ago the Vicar of Uley 
told us at Dursley that one was still to be found at work in his 
parish ; as a loom implies yarn, I wish I had asked how the old 
weaver furnished himself with that. In the Manchester Ex- 
hibition of 1887, I wanted to explain the working of a loom to 
my boy, but there were only two handlooms, both for silk, both 

326 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

hampered with such a multitude of healds that I could make no 

About means of locomotion I had better say nothing ; a stage- 
coach is too big for any museum, and I don't know that any 
detached bit could be worth keeping. A sedan chair I have once 
seen put to good account by being fitted up as a china cupboard ; 
two or three were to be hired in Shrewsbury when I was a boy, 
and a very smart one is still in use at the Pumproom Hotel in Bath. 
But how about packsaddles ? Once, when I was walking up the 
hill towards Rodborough, an old man pointed out the line of the 
old road up which packhorses scrambled in his boyhood ; I could 
not believe his point of time, but a century back I fancy most of 
the Stroud valley cloth made its way to market by such means ; 
are any packsaddles left 1 and could any one properly charge 
them ? A packsaddle is a more ticklish thing to load than a 
railway van. 

If I had been writing this paper for any other town I might 
have been tempted to ask if there are any relics of the trappings 
used in falconry ; but in Stroud I should be sharply pulled up by 
Major Fisher's assurance that falconry is neither a dead nor a 
decaying sport. But, as cock-fighting has now been illegal for 
some 40 years I trust we may speak of its ancient popularity and 
wide prevalence as extinct ; 1 if we cannot find any of the " fair 
silver spurs " of the past, have any of the fair steel ones escaped 1 

Now I have a practical end in view in this short paper ; our 
Society is concerned, not only with antiquities of pre-historic 
and mediaeval times, but also with those of our own ; and I want 
to instigate people to treasure up the relics of old fittings with 
the object of keeping a plain memory of their uses. I think people 
would be surprised if they could realise with how frail a tenure 
we hold most of our handicrafts ; in spite of the vast mass of 
printed books which load our shelves, I am convinced that print- 
ing would be lost, and would need slow re-discovery, if all towns 
1 After I had written this pious hope, my friend, Chancellor Ferguson, 
sent me his paper on Cock-fighting, wherefrom I learn that a late dignitary 
at Carlisle kept his cocks and cockpit up to his death, some 10 years back ; 
and that the sport still lingers in the county ; mains are still fought for 
£100 a side ! 

On Old Tools and Implements. 327 

could perish at once. I may conclude with a story which will show 
how a useful art may be lost ; fifty years ago, the iron of the 
Sone valley was smelted by aid of bellows built up of big leaves 
pinned together with thorns ; great search was made for a speci- 
men to be sent home for the Exhibition of 1851, only one 
imperfect specimen could be found, and either funds or skill were 
wanting to repair it, or make a new one. Now the art is lost 
beyond recall. 

328 Transactions fok thf. Year 1889-90, 



Rector of Harescombe with Pitchcombe. 

Although the name suggests a Saxon settlement there is no 
record, so far as I am aware, of Sevenhampton, previous to that 
contained in the Domesday Survey of 1086. It is there mentioned 
as a portion of the lands appertaining to the Church of Hereford 
(' Terra Eccl'e cle Hereford '), and in connection with Prestbury, 
with which, as it was in a different Hundred, it would appear to 
have become in some unknown manner incorporated. 

It is recorded — 

" In Cheltenham Hundred, the bishop of Hereford holds 
Presteberie. There are 30 hides. In Demesne 3 plough tillages, 
18 villeins, and 5 bordarii with 8 plough teams. There is a priest 
and a Radchenist with 2 plough teams, and in Winchcombe a 
burgess rendering 18d , and of serfs, male and female, eleven. 
There are 20 acres of meadow, and a wood a league in length and 
half a league in breadth." 

" To this manor is adjoined a Ville Sevenhamtone outside this 
hundred [of Cheltenham]. Here are 20 hides of the aforesaid 30 
hides, and there are 2 plough teams, and 21 villeins with 11 
plough teams. There are also 3 free men having 7 plough teams 
together with their own men. Durand [the Sheriff of Gloucester] 
holds three of these 20 hides of the bishop. The whole manor was 
worth twelve pounds in the time of King Edward ; now sixteen 
pounds. This manor Robert bishop of the same city holds." 

The bishop referred to, was, I suppose, Robert of Lorraine,' 2 
who died in 1095, and whose tomb is to be seen in the Cathedral 

1 This Paper was prepared for the Cheltenham Meeting, 1S89, but the 
Society could not visit the Church through want of time on the day arranged. 

2 He was the 28th Bishop of Hereford, and died June, 1095, and lieth 
buried in the south side of the High Altar under an arch of freestone in the 
north wall of that aisle bearing the following inscription " Dominus 
Robertus Lozing Ejhis." Herefordensis obiit, a.p. 1095. — Havergal's Cath. 
Church of Hereford, p. 2. 

Sevenhampton. 329 

of Hereford. This appears to have been all the land held in this 
county of Gloucester by the bishops of Hereford. It will be 
noticed that the value of the manor is said to have been £16, 
instead of £12 as in the reign of the Confessor — an improvement 
in value, which is quite exceptional, as a depreciation was the 
rule almost everywhere else. 

The present area of Prestbury is 3022 acres, and of Seven- 
hampton 3325 acres, so that it would appear that the latter was 
in much better cultivation than the former, unless the extent of 
wood-land made the difference — for reckoning the hide as 120 
acres, only 1200 acres were in cultivation at Prestbury out of the 
3022, as against 2400 out of the 3325 acres at Sevenhampton. 

"The rating of the ten hides," says Mr. Taylor, " is a low one, 
having regard to the area of the manor and the number of tenants :' 
but at Sevenhampton the area of the hide was small and the 
district possessed an average population." 

Possibly the three hides held by Durand may represent the lands 
possessed by Lanthony Priory here : as Mr. Taylor says in his 
Analysis — " Durandus seems generally to have kept what he had," 1 
and as Milo of Gloucester, one of his successors, was the founder 
of the new Lanthony, near that city, it^s likely enough that these 
three hides formed a portion of the endowment : 2 or it may even 
have been the succeeding bishop, Robert de Betun, who having 
been formerly their prior, bestowed many benefits upon the new 
house. Doubtless they had other benefactors here, for we learn 
that Lanthony (by the gift of one Ernalcl of Bannebury, confirmed 
by his son Ralph) had 2 virgates of land in Prestbury and half a 
hide in Callecombe in Sevenhampton, and that the said Ernald 
had these by the gift of Walter de Forthington at a certain rent, 
but the services to the bishop, on Ernald's land thus granted to 
the priory, were carefully preserved. I am afraid the priory was 
sometimes ungrateful to the bishops of Hereford for the benefits 
bestowed upon them, for in 1289 we meet with a record of the 
settlement of a dispute concerning 5 acres of ' Fforloteland ' near 
Prestbury claimed by the bishop ; the prior, on his side, claiming 

1 Analysis of the Domesday Survey of Gloucestershire, p. 156. 

2 See ante p. 319. 

330 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

a croft of pasture at Sevenhampton, lying between the land of the 
bishop and that of his bailiff Gyrard — also a right of depasturing 
their 8 oxen, with the bishop's oxen, in the park of Prestbury and 
elsewhere, granted by his predecessors, Hugh Foliot and Ralph de 

The Household Roll of the same prelate (Richard Swinfield), 
published by the Camden Society, contains many interesting par- 
ticulars. We have a picture of 13th century life presented to 
us — Christmas was to be kept at Prestbury. Robert Calewe, a 
servant, had been sent from Bosbury, another of the bishop's 
manors, to superintend the burning of charcoal, and a great 
brewing of ale. Calewe was assisted by hired female brewers, 
and the malt, we learn, was a mixture of wheat barley and oats. 
In due season the bishop's hounds were taken on to Prestbury 
to be ready for his use on his arrival. The park was well stocked 
with deer, and there was much game in the extensive woods 
of his manor. Then we have an account of other preparations — 
the repairs of the kitchen and oven — the baker and his assistants 
ready beforehand — the bishop's arrival — the number of horses, 
forty-one to fifty-five — the Christmas feast and the provision 
required. On his return from London the bishop remained 
at this manor for nearly a month : intercourse with Gloucester 
seems to have been frequent : it was their principal market : 
the cook and butler went thither as purveyors, and thence 
they drew their supplies of fish. The number of horses, varying 
on different nights, implies a resort of visitors to the manor 
house. During this visit a warren in the park was made, also 
a sort of drawbridge over a moat or trench. 1 The same roll 
and appendix give us some account of the bishop's bailiff, Gyrard 
de Ugina, for whom he seems to have had considerable regard. 
When Gyrard was about to visit France, he made over to the 
bishop, in the event of his death, all his lands in Prestbury and 
Sevenhampton, which it is expressly said he had justly acquired 
for himself and then possessed in fee in " our Manor of Prestbury 
and Sevenhampton." 2 

1 Cf. " Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," Vol. I., p. 336. 
2 " Sevenampton. 

Item Episcopus Hereford' tenet Sevenampton que pertinet ad Baroniam 
suam."— Kirby's Quest, 1283-6. (See Trans., Vol. XI., p. 144.) 

Sevenhamptox. 331 

There is an entry on the Charter Rolls, 5th John (1204), shew- 
ing that half a hide here belonged to one Ralph, then to Philip, 
and John the Clerk and his sons, afterwards to Philip Sintelf by 
their grant, and twelve or thirteen years later (18th John, 1217) 
Ralph Musard, then Sheriff, was commanded to give seizin of the 
Manors of Prestbury and Sevenhampton belonging to the Bishop 
of Hereford, to Walter de Lacy, for the rebuilding of the castle 
at Hereford. 1 

Brockhampton, which forms a considerable portion of this 
parish, is not mentioned in Domesday : it was most probably 
included in Sevenhampton, and not in Prestbury. It occurs in 
an early record, as " Brockhampton in the Wold," whilst in the 
Subsidy Roll of 1st Edw. III. (1327) it takes precedence of Seven- 
hampton, and the entry is for ' Brohampton cum Sevenhampton ' : 
21 names occur, and the amount of subsidy paid is 40s. 2^d. 
Prestbury does not appear to have paid anything on this occasion. 

From the None Rolls Ed. 111.(1340), we learn that Sevenhampton 
was assessed at 161 marcs for the ninth sheaf, fleece and lamb, i.e. 
£11 6s. 8d., but from this was to be deducted £6 7s. 4d., being 
£3 10s. for hay and other tythes of the Rector, and two marcs 
(£1 6s. 8d.) for two years, £2 13s. 4d., " because that the greater 
portion of the arable land lay uncultivated on account of the 
inability of the inhabitants to cultivate it." 2 

This seems (but the Nones appear earlier) to refer to the 
Great Pestilence which desolated the country, and caused a scarcity 
of labour for the cultivation of land, and of artisans to construct 
or repair the implements of husbandry. In one year there was 
a great reduction in prices, which in the next were increased 
four-fold. Knyghton mentions the following as exorbitant wages 
— a mower, a shilling a day with his victuals ; a reaper, eighteen- 
pence with the same. 3 In consequence an Act of Parliament was 
passed to regulate wages. 4 

Among the parcels granted off by the Bishop (Costello) is a 
site for a Church House in Sevenhampton, in 19th Henry VII. 
1 Close Rolls. - Nonarum Inquisitiones, p. 414. 

3 We must bear in mind that money was of ten times the value it is now. 

4 Act 25 Edw. Ill, Cap. 1 and 2.- Lingard, Vol. III., p. 79. 

332 Transactions for the Year 1S89-90. 

(1504) — the deed (now in the possession of the owner of the pro- 
perty) is interesting, as it gives the names of the principal 
inhabitants at that period : viz. , Thos. Morton, Clerk, Rich. 
Wenman, John Hawkins, John Watts, Rich. Mason, Will. Yonge, 
Will. Townsend, Will. Rymall, John Mason, and Thos. Grove. 

An account rendered by the steward of the bishop (temp. 
Henry VII. -VIII.) gives many particulars as to rents, etc. The 
quarries were used by the Abbot of Winchcombe, the Prior of 
Lanthony and others. Rents of Assize, i.e. of free and customary 
tenants, £18 6s. 10|d ; " Sennyngton Meadow," said to be kept in 
hand for sheep ; gradual inclosures are traceable. 

In 1549 we find a lease of the manor granted by the bishop to 
Richard Willyson for ninety years : he assigned it in 1553 to 
Willliam Wenman, of Fringford, co. Oxon ; and in 1568 it passed 
to Stephen Hales, who in the following year transferred his 
interest to Robert Lawrence, of Shipton. 

In 1562, Scory, then Bishop of Hereford, granted the Manors 
of Sevenhampton and Brockhampton to Queen Elizabeth in ex- 
change for other estates. During the time that Queen Elizabeth 
was Lady of the Manor, certain tenants for a fine of £5 were 
permitted to enclose lands, the schedule of which is signed by 
Richard Pate, steward of the manor. He was the founder of the 
Grammar School, at Cheltenham. In the same reign (18th Eliz.) 
lands in Sevenhampton, Brockhampton, and Clopley, viz., Hattars, 
Colynes, Reeves, &c, lately belonging to the Bishop of Hereford, 
were granted to Sir Christopher Hatton. 1 In 1590 the same Queen, 
by Letters Patent, granted to Thomas Crompton, Robert Wright, 
and Giles Meyrick (trustees for Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex— 
Meyrick was his steward, and was afterwards executed, together 
with him, for complicity in his treason) all her manors of Seven- 
hampton and Brockhampton, late the property of the Bishop of 
Hereford, with rents of assize, customary rents, scite of manor 
house, and demesne, court baron, view of frank pledge, free warren, 
fairs, markets, tolls, customs, and all appurtenances. 

In 1591 Crompton and others assigned their interest to Sir 
Thomas Throckmorton, of Corse, Knight, and Reginald Nicholas, 
Pat. Rolls. 

Sevenhamptox. 333 

of Prestbury. The former moiety passed to William Throckmor- 
ton, of Tortworth, Esq., son of Sir Thomas, by gift, who in 1608 
purchased the Nicholas moiety from Reginald Nicholas and Thos. 
Nicholas, Esq., of Stratton, his son, and conveyed the manors and 
their appurtenances to Anthony Lawrence, son of Robt. Lawrence, 
of Shipton, from which time it is said the manors of Sevenhampton 
and Brockhampton have remained in the blood of the Lawrence 

In 34 Edward III., Walter Frenche, of Brockhampton in the 
Wold, granted all his lands in Brockhampton, Whitehall and 
Clopley to William House and John le Eyr in fee. Two of 
the witnesses being John Solers, of Shipton Solers, and John 
de Upcote (Withington). 

In 35 Edward III. Edinunde de Crupes, of Whittington, held 
lands in Brockhampton in capite. 

In 11 Richard II., Robert Coles, of Northleach, grants to Thomas 
le Frenche of Brockhampton in the Wold } a parcel of wood 
called Anneys Wood, lying between Puckcombe and Nash 
Quarry, abutting on the Bishop of Hereford's land and 
extending to the King's highway leading to Stowe, and in 

8 Henry VI., the same Thomas le Frenche, Clerk, grants all his 
lands in Brockhampton, Clopley, Whitewell and the Grove, 
called Agney's Wood to Walter Baker, of Winchcombe. 

There is a crown grant of a messuage and 200 acres in Brock- 
ington to Thomas Dutton, surveyor of crown lands in Gloucester- 
shire, to be held of the manor of Prestbury. 

In 14th Car. I. (1639,) Paul Pert, Esq., Comptroller of the 
King's Counting House, bought lands here of Anthony Lawrence, 
and built Brockhampton House on Ford Hey, purchased from 
Thomas Chandler, in the 15th year of that King. This estate 
he demised by will to Ann Skipwith, his niece ; she married 
Ralph Dodwell, Paul, son and heir, who married Dame Elizabeth, 
only daughter of William Rogers, Esquire, and relict of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Knight., both of Sandiwell ; their eldest son 
William Dodwell, afterwards Sir William Dodwell, Knight., 
1 Vide Bigland's Continuation by Sir Thos. Phillipps, Bart., in loco. 
Vol. XIV. y 

334 Transactions foe, the Year 1SS9 90. 

married twice, viz. — 1st. Anne, eldest daughter of Sir John 
Lethieullier, of Lewisham, in the County of Kent, Knight, relict 
of John Deleau, of Whaddon, co. Surrey, Esq., no issue ; 2nd. 
Mary, daughter of Francis Fuller, Esq., and relict of Thomas 
Miller, Esq., by whom there was a daughter Mary ; in 1746 
she married Thomas Tracy, whom she long survived ; their only 
child, Dodwell Tracy, died unmarried. Mrs. Tracy died leaving 
no issue, and intestate. Judith and Patience Timbrell and 
Rebecca Lightbourne were found, by verdict of Jury in the Court 
of Common Pleas in 1806, to be three of her coheirs. Rebecca 
Lightbourne survived her sisters, and from her the estates passed 
to William Morris, Esq., and his son, who had assumed the name 
of his mother's family, the late Walter Lawrence Lawrence, Esq., 
of Sevenhampton Manor. Brockhampton Park and the adjoining 
estate became the property of the Craven family at the end of the 
last century or the beginning of the present ; now held by Fulwar 
Craven, Esq. l The house was greatly enlarged and beautified 
about 25 years ago. 

William de Wycombe, fourth prior, and also the Historian of 
Lanthony, tells us that in the second year from the time of their 
departure from Wales, the bishop transferred the brethren to 
Gloucester. He helped them much with his influence and money, 
and by reason of his importunity Milo of Gloucester gave them a 
piece of land, called the Hyde and in the Charter " the Castelle 
Mead," as a site for their new Priory of Lanthony : " as an 
additional subsidy (says the same writer) the bishop gave them 
the two churches of Frome and Presteberie. Moreover, to the 
very end of his life, he made over to them the town of Presteberie, 
with all its income." This was Robert de Betun (formerly their 
Prior), who became Bishop of Hereford in 1131. 

' Presteberie,' at this period, appears to have had two churches 
[" unam sub montibus, alteram super montibus "] the one ' super 
montibus ' (on the hills) being the church or chapel of this ville of 
Sevenhampton, and the tithes of this ville (with the exception of 

2 Died since this paper was written viz. Jan. 19th, 1890. 










Seven ha mptox. 333 

two portions of the tythe of the demesne, given to the Dean and 
Precentor of Hereford) were allotted by him to the new Lanthony. 

The office of Precentor in the Cathedral of Hereford is said to 
have been created cir. 1199, but the Register of Lanthony Priory 
contains a charter of Robert Bishop of Hereford addressed to 
Symon Bishop of Worcester — in which mention is made of the 
Precentor — the date of which must not be later than 1148, in 
which year the former died, the latter in 1149. 

In 1291 (Pope Nicholas' Taxation) we have the following 
values : 

Ecclesia de Sevenhampton 
Item, porcio Decani de Hereford 
Item, porcio Precentoris de Hereford 

It is this, I imagine, which guides Fosbrooke, Avho writes 
"This parish was parcel of Prestbury, but was created separate, 
before 1291." 

Lanthony Prioi-y had license, 21st Ric. II. (1398), to appro- 
priate Prestbury, but " the portion " of a vicar is mentioned in 
1291. The Priory of Lanthony was surrendered to the Crown, 
29th Henry VIII. (1538), when its value was returned as 
£748 Os. Hid. 

In 36th Hen. VIII. (1545), we find a grant on the Patent Roll 3 
to William Berners, Esq., one of the King's auditors, and his 
heirs, of all the manor and messuage and farm of Sevehampton 
alias Sevenhampton ; all our rectory and church, with all its rights 
and members now in the tenure or occupation of Roger Fowler, 
yeoman, and lately belonging to the Monastery or Priory of 
Lanthony, near our city of Gloucester. The Advowson, of the 
Vicarage of the Parochial Church of Sevehampton, 4 otherwise 
Sevenhampton ; also all houses, buildings, lands, tenements, 
pastures, grazings, tithes, oblations, obventions, and all other 
profits and emoluments whatsoever ; and the wood, called Prior s 

1 Taxatio Ecclesiastica, p. 223. - Fosbrooke, Vol. II , p. 444. 

3 Patent Roll, 31 Hen. VIII., pt. 13, m. so. 

4 It will be noticed that a Vicarage is here mentioned, although no 
assignment of a vicarage has, so far, been found in the Bishop's Registers at 

Y 2 

336 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Grove, containing 1\ acres — all to be held in free socage as of our 
Manor of Standysshe in the said co. of Gloucester. 

This grantee sold the Rectory and Advowson in the following 
year to Joanna Davys, widow, from whom, in 1563, it passed by 

1 It appears from the documents in the Appendix {post) that the Bishop 
of Hereford in 1135 granted, inter alia, the Church of Sevenhampton with 
all the tithes, except as excepted, to the Prior and Canons of Lanthony 
(No. 303) which gi-ant was confirmed by the Consistorial Court of Worcester 
in 1275 (No. 71), and the Dean Rural of Winchcombe was commanded to 
induct the said Prior and Canons into the said church and to defend their 
right therein. 

The Prior and Canons of an Augustinian Priory had authority to act as 
Ordinary by delegation, and being in absolute possession it was optional 
with them whether they would personally perform the ministerial duties, or 
assign a vicarage, or appoint a chaplain. They evidently elected the former 
course, for there is no institution to a vicarage, or license to a chaplain, to 
be found in the Episcopal Registers at Worcester down to the dissolution of 
the priory. 

The Augustinian Priory of Lanthony was surrendered by Prior Richard 
Hempsted, alias Hart, with 21 canons, on 10th May, 1539, and by Letters 
Patent, dated 25th March, 1545, the King granted, inter alia, to William 
Berners, Esq., one of the auditors of the Court of Augmentation, the manor, 
messuage and farm of Sevenhampton, together with the rectory and church 
with all their rights, members and appurtenances heretofore belonging to 
the Priory of Lanthony lately dissolved, and the advowson, donation and 
free disposal and right of presentation to the vicarage of the parish church. 
To have, hold, and enjoy the said manorial rights, rectory, advowsons, &c, 
tithes, oblations, obventions, &c. , with their appurtenances to the said 
William Berners, his heirs and assigns for ever to the private use of the said 
William Berners for ever, liable to all rents, services, &c, to be held as 
fully and entirely as the last Prior of Lanthony enjoyed the same. 

After the grant by the King to William Berners, he and his successors 
would seem to have concluded from the fulness of the grant that they stood 
in the same relation to the church as did the prior and canons, and from 
that time the church would appear to have been treated as a donative ; the 
stipend of the minister, viz., ten pounds, being paid by the owners of the 
Impropriate Rectory, as a charge on the same. 

Joshua Aylworth, Esq., b} r deed dated 1st April, 1715, demised his 
manor of Aylworth, &c, to trustees to pay £800 in equal proportions to 
four parishes of which Sevenhampton was one, for the augmentation of the 
income of the respective incumbents. This would seem to have produced a 
revenue of £10 per annum. 

Upon an application being made to the Governors of Queen Anne's 
Bounty in 1733 for an augmentation to the stipend of the clergyman, the 
bishop certified it to be a curacy with a stipend of £10 a year, and accord- 
ingly a further sum of £200 was granted by the Governors. And whether a 
donative or chapelry this grant of the Governors would at once convert it 
into a perpetual cure under the Act of 1st George I., cap. 10, sec. 4. — Ed. 

Sevexhamptox. 337 

purchase to William Wenman and Thomas Chandler, after which 
came a partition into severalty. Wenman's moiety, passing in 
1569 to Stephen Hales by purchase, and afterwards in the same 
manner to Robert Lawrence, in whose descendants it remained. 
As for Chandler's moiety, it continued in that family for awhile, 
viz., until circa 1625, when it passed to Joseph Hinckesman. 


The present Parsonage House was built in 1850, or there- 
abouts : at the sole cost, as it is said, (with the exception of a 
grant of <£200 by Queen Anne's Bounty Board) of the Rev. 
Edward Ellerton, D.D., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford ; 
joint founder of the Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholarships in 
that University ; and for the space of twenty- six years Perpetual 
Curate of Sevenhampton. 

A Terrier of Lands in the Bishop's Registry at 

Anno Dofn. 1683. 

The Account of Lands given to the use of the church of Saint 
Andrew in the Parish of Sevenhampton in the County of Glou- 

On the 20th of September in the nineteenth yeare of the 
Raigne of King Henry the Seventh, [1504], was given on*", parcell 
of wast ground lying between the High way and the Church yard, 
36 foot in length, and 21 foot in breadth, to build a House 
called a Church House there, for the use of the Church of St. 
Andrew in the foresaid p'sh of Sevenhampton by Hadrian Castell 
then lord Bishop of Hereford as appeareth by an Indenture in 
our possession — Paying to the lord of the Mannor one halfpenny 
at the Feast of St. Michael yearly. 

There is no other Lands or anything else as we know of given 
to Pious or Charitable use in. our P'ish. 


tTTTT . TTA , r ,-r-r^^ vChnrclwmrdens. 


Approved by me, 



29 Oct., 1683. 

338 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

Joshua Aylworth, Esq., of Aylworth, in this County, by deed 
bearing date April 1, 1715, demised his manor and estate of 
Aylworth, to Aylworth Freeman and Thomas Aylworth, Gent., 
in trust ; amongst other legacies, he bequeathed towards the 
augmentation of the spiritual income of y e several poor benefices 
of y e several towns or Hamlets of Charlton Abbots, Cold Salper- 
ton, Sevenhampton and Compton Abdale, all lying in the County 
of Gloucester, y e sum of Two Hundred Pounds to each said 
town or hamlet, to be laid out by the said Trustees, or the Sur- 
vivor of them in y e most prudent manner, as a Perpetual 
additional maintenance for y e respective Incumbents for y e time 
being ... in a purchase to be made of Lands in Fee Simple." 

This sum of £800 was accordingly laid out by the said 
Trustees in the purchase of lands lying within the manor of 
Cheltenham. — Lansdown MSS. — No. OSS. British Museum. 

In 1733, the benefice was further augmented by the bequest 
of £200 by Sir William Dodwell, of Brockhampton, Knight, met 
by a corresponding grant of £200 from Queen Anne's Bounty. 

By the " Sevenhampton Enclosure Act.," the tythes were 
commuted for land in 1818, when 217a. 3r. 13p. were allotted to 
the Lawrence family, then represented by William Morris (in right 
of his wife), and 221a. Or. 39p. to the Hinckesmans. At the 
same time, the portions of tythe belonging to the Dean and 
Precentor of Hereford were commuted for 77a. 3r. 28p. Thus 
making a total of 517 acres, which represented the ancient pro- 
vision made for the service of God within this parish. 

The seventy-seven acres then allotted to the Dean and Pre- 
centor of Hereford having been acquired by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, and sold by them, they have been enabled to re- 
store to the benefice, the produce of this portion of its long 
alienated possessions — alienated for at least seven hundred years ! 

The following Table shews the population of the parish at two 
dates in the 18th century, and at each decennial period when the 
census has been taken in the 19th century : — 





















































The Church is dedicated to St. Andrew. Sir Robert Atkyns, 
in his History of Gloucestershire, states that Sevenhampton 
Church was built by John Camber, who died in 1447, and lies 
buried in the chancel. This has been repeated by other writers. 
The late Rev. J. L. Petit says that from this statement he 
expected to find that most valuable thing — a church of one 
style, and of a certain date. He was consequently much disap- 
pointed when having made a pilgrimage to it, a glance shewed 
him that Atkyns had made a mistake, and that the architecture 
of the church ranged from Early English, of a very rude character, 

to a debased Perpendicular. 
Nevertheless (he remarks) it 
is a building of great interest, 
and no doubt a considerable 
part of it, especially the cen- 
tral tower and south porch, 
the outer door of which has 
the tracery of the spandrels 
pierced, belongs to the date 
assigned. The front of the 
south transept has a triplet 
of lancets, and the chancel 
Fig. 14. Sevenhampton Church. has likewise indications of 

Early English. The north transept has a late Decorated window, 
and the chancel some early Perpendicular work introduced. But 


Transactions foe the Year 1SS9-90. 

the principal feature is the curious insertion of the central tower. 
On approaching the church 
it seems of very good dimen- 
sions, yet it is considerably , 
narrower than the nave. Its 
western piers consequently ; 
are detached (though there $ 
are no aisles to the church) 4& 
and as they are not very mas- 
sive, they are strengthened 
by flying buttresses in the || 
interior from the piers to the 
corresponding angles between 
the nave and transepts. Fig. 15 Interior of Sevenhampton Church Tower. 

The tower is open to the interior considerably above the roof of 
the transepts, and has a north and south window ; above, there is 
a vaulted roof, with angel corbels with shields. Neither these 
windows nor the belfry windows have their lights foliated, though 
the latter are of very good composition. The tower presents a 
fine bold outline, from the stair-turret at the south-east angle. The 
south porch is close to the transept, which has a string-course rest- 
ing on brackets on its west side, stopped by the face of the porch. 

Sir Stephen Glynne writes : " This is a small cruciform church 
having a central tower and no aisles. The greater part is Perpen- 
dicular, but there is earlier work in the chancel which has single 
lancets on the north and south — the latter of a lychnoscopic 
character, and with rebate for a shutter. The eastern window is 
Perpendicular of three lights, and there is one Perpendicular 
window on the north and south next the eastern end, with some 
fair old stained glass. The external wall at the eastern end shews 
that the original east window was an Early English triplet — (this, 
I think, is now to be found in the south transept ; it has shafts 
internally ; and the contrast is great between the plainness of the 
exterior and the gracefulness of the interior ;) on the east of this 
transept is a late square-headed window of two lights ; there is a 
similar window in the north transept, which also has a good 

Sevenhampton, 341 

Decorated two-light window on its north. The transepts have 
moulded parapets. The windows of the nave are Perpendicular of 
two lights, some square headed. The arrangement of the tower 
is very singular, as it does not fill up the width of the transepts ; 
the north and south arches are very small and narrow, and con- 
nected with the western tower piers by flying buttresses ; they 
leave a wall space next the chancel. The tower, above the arches, 
is open as a lanthorn, having Perpendicular windows of two lights. 
The arches are all continuous without capitals, and of plain Per- 
pendicular character, though not corresponding in size. The 
tower, externally, has a battlement and octagonal stair turret at 
the south- east. There is a pointed arched door to the tower stairs 
opening from the south transept : " these stairs formerly communi- 
cated with the rood loft, as a now blocked up doorway shows. 

There is no piscina now visible in the church, — though doubt- 
less originally possessing at least its three altars, viz., at the east 
end, and in the two transepts. There is a passage — ambulatory — 
between the north transept and the chancel — it is too large, I 
suppose, for a Hagioscope, though probably it also served as such ; 
the stone slab forming the roof is, 1 believe, the ancient altar stone, 
some of the original five crosses are still tangible, though by 
reason of the pews not easily seen. There is a round-headed 
priest's door on the south. There is an ancient stone shelf which 
is interesting, as it shews the height of the original altar, and the 
floor level. The elevation of the altar, by a succession of steps, 
was not common in the early days of the church of our fathers, 
but the change in this respect was gradually made. The church 
of Dowdeswell, which is of late date, is an example of the new 
mode of giving dignity to the altar by raising it much above the 
level of the nave. "A frontell for the schelfe standyng on the 
Altar, of blue sarsenet, with brydds of golde, &c." is mentioned 
in the Churchwardens' Accounts, St. Mary at Hill, in 1486. There 
is an early buttress at the west end. 

The county histories gave no account of the John Camber 
mentioned in connection with this church, so that there was much 
conjecture concerning him. However I was fortunate enough to 

342 Transactions for the Year 1839-90. 

discover his will, dated Sept. 15th, 1496, in the Probate Court 
Registry at Somerset House, a few years ago. It is written in 
the English of the period : " I bequeathe my soule to Almyghte 
God, oure lady Saint Mary and to all the Hallowes of heven, and 
my body to be buried within that Holy Churche in whatsoever 
Parishe it shall so tyme me to decease : And I bequeathe to 
the same churche werke that my bodye shalbe buried in, C s ." 

To the curate of the same to pray for his soule, 6 s 8 d . To 
every priest that shall be at the Dirige and Mass at his burying, 8 d . 

There is no description of his occupation or place of abode, 
but the next clause of the will suggests that his domicile was in 
the City of Worcester, and I think we shall not be very far 
wrong if we take him to have been a wealthy wool merchant who 
periodically visited the Cotteswolds for the purposes of his business. 

" Two honeste prestes that be quere (choir) men to help the 
quere," were to be appointed by his executors, to sing and pray 
for his soul " within the parish churche of Saint Andrew in 
Worcester, by the space of two yeres, to either of them £6 by the 

To the Friars Preachers at Worcester to pray for his soul 20 s , 
and a like sum to the Convent of Grey Friars in that city. 

His "Month's mind" was to be kept within St. Andrew's 
church — every priest present at Dirige and Mass to have 6d., 
every parish clerk 2 d , and " every other childe that may be at 
Dirige and Mass, l d ." The same clay no less than 100 s was to be 
distributed amongst " poore people .... to every pore woman 
and childe, one penny." For the marriage portion of maidens in 
the same city within a year of his decease, 6 8 8 d each. Various 
bequests to cousins and others ; 40 s to his servant who had ap- 
parently assumed his name -, 1 to his executors, Master Thomas 
Morton, Sir Richard Gardiner, and Sir John Sindithurst : the 
whole residue of his goods to be disposed of " after their discretion 
and minds for the welthe " of his soul. 

This will was proved in the Court of the Archbishop at Lam- 
beth within two yeais of its date, viz., May 5th, 1498: so that 
any new work in this church must have been subsequent to that 


1 It is more probable that the servant was a relation. A practice very 
common at the date of the will. — Ed. 


Seven HAMPToy. 343 

The window on the north side of the chancel contains some 
fragments of stained glass, in which the initials J.C. or T.C. can 
be traced ; in the quatrefoil there is a device of a ram. 

On the chancel floor in front of the altar is a small brass 30ins. 
by 13ins. The feet and inscription were, for many years, concealed 
by a step. The step has recently been removed and the inscription 
disclosed. It is as follows, the words being here extended : " Hie 
jacet Johannes Camber qui obiit vicesimo sexto die mensis ffebruarii 
Anno Domini m°ccccxcvii°. cujus anime propicietur Deus. Amen." 
{Plate XIX.) This inscription affords an early example of the 
modern method of writing the number ninety ; viz., 100 minus 
10, it having been more usual at that date to write it lxxxx. 

The costume of the figure would indicate that the deceased 
belonged to the grade of a well-to-do yeoman or merchant. His 
hair is full and long, covering the ears, and is cut so as to form a 
fringe extending almost to the eye-brows, with no appearance of 
beard, whisker, or moustache. He wears a tunic which reaches 
below the ankles. It opens down the front, but in this case it is 
closed, though the mode of fastening is not shewn. At the waist 
it is confined by a wide girdle from which depends, on the left 
side a gypciere, and on the right a tasselled rosary. The sleeves 
are long and loose, wider at the wrists than at the elbows, the 
collar is a narrow band. The tunic covers the fastening, if any, 
of the shoes, which are pointed, a fashion which was soon super- 
seded by broad round toes. Over the right shoulder is thrown a 
hood, which consists of a cap resembling a Scotch bonnet, and to 
it is attached a long streamer, or scarf, which reaches below the 
knees, and is sometimes called a liripipe, which was used for 
wrapping round the head when required. The figure is repre- 
sented full faced, with the hands joined in the attitude of prayer. 
The brass is in excellent preservation. 1 

The chancel contains some quaint epitaphs of the 17th century. 

That to the memory of William Chandler, who held a moiety of 

the impropriation, is as follows : 

1 For further information see Haines's Manual, Vol. II., page 69, and 
Davis's Brasses of Gloucestersliire, No. xxxix. 

344 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

" Subtus dormit qd extingui potuit Gvlielmi Candelarii de 
Senhampton, pie demortui xxvi. Jan. Anno. MDCLI. JEtat LVII." 

" Lumine Mors corpus spoliavit terra recondit, 
Splendet adhuc nomen, mens pia splendet idem 
Lucerit hoc olim Corpus Lumenque videbit 
Non obcfecandum Lumine (Christe) tuo." 

English Poetical Version ( W.H.S.) 
" His light is quench'd, his earth to earth consign'd — 
Yet shines his name, yet shines his godly mind : 
And e'en his body shall one day be bright, 
And in Christ's Light, for ever shall see light." 

The play upon the name Chandler running throughout will be 

On a wooden tablet, on the north wall of the chancel is a 
memorial of the Carter Family, of Charlton Abbots. 
Arms — Checquy arg. and sable, on a bend gules three escallofys or. 

Crest— Out of a ducal coronet a horse's head arg., ducally gorged 


Heic altum dormit inter agnatos 

Cineres, Anna Perdkia Stirpe Antiqua, 

et memoranda, uxor Joh. Aurigarii 

de Charltonia ex Abbate. Gen. 

Supra morem Fida, Prudens, Pia. 

Demortua Feb. xxi ( Sal. mdclii 
Anno \ /Etat. lvi. 

Qua? fuit feterna in terris dignissima fama 

Terra (qua potuit parte jacere) jacet, 
Mens ccelo demissa solo de terra cuducas 
Ruperat exuvias la?ta reditque domum. 
Abijt, non Obijt. 

In the churchyard, near the chancel door, may be seen an 
ancient coffin-lid, and the fragment of an effigy, probably a lady. 
The former measures 6ft. Gins, in length, 30ins. at the head, and 
20ins. at the foot. It is slightly coped, and shews traces of a 
raised Calvary Cross. The head of the effigy is represented rest- 
ing on a cushion Both supposed to be of 13th century date. 

Sevenhamptox. 345 

There are three bells in the Tower with the following in- 
scriptions : — 


W. • CHANDLER ■ 1650. J 2 

2 ►£■ SANCTE § GABRIEL § ORA § PRO § NOBIS. 32 ill. 

3 IOHN TIMBRELL, CHURCHWARDEN, A. R. 1718. 341 i n . 

These Bells are of more than usual interest. To the epigraph on the first 
bell, Mr. Ellacombe has appended the following note/ — 

Before and after the date are impressions of a spurious Jewish Shekel, 
such as are still made for sale. The devices are corrupt followings of those 
on the true shekel, and the inscriptions the same, but in the square charac- 
ter instead of the original " Old Hebrew " or Samaritan. 

Obv. — A cup (cup of manna or wine cup) and the words 7J$ 4 W 7pt£7 
(shekel of Israel). 

Rev. — A branch with leaves and fruit (olive ? Aaron's rod ? ) and the words 

rittHpii D^l^^V (Jerusalem the Holy). 

These sham shekels were figured and described as real by the numis- 
matics of the 17th century, and are still to be bought in London, fresh from 
the mint. They have become more and more debased in character, but in the 
earliest and best of them the imposture is as evident as it would be in an 
imitation of a coin of Edward I., made about twice the size, and with the 
inscription in modern Roman letters. 

I am indebted to the kind courtesy of the Rev. J. T. Fowler, of Durham, 
for this explanation. (See Notes and Queries, 5th Ser., Vol. IV.) 

The second bell is medireval, with the legend in Early Gothic characters. 
— Ed. 

This is the Gabriel bell which was rung every morning and 
evening, and thence called the " day belle" and "Kerfow belle." 
The mid-day bell was never rung in England, and the Angelus, 
as used abroad, only began in France early in the 16th century. 

There are but few remains, yet I think the whole church was 
formerly richly adorned. At the restoration of the south window 
in the south transept, preparatory to the insertion of a memorial 
by the Walker family (the subject, St. John the Baptist pointing 
his disciples to Jesus as the Lamb of God), some mural paintings 
were discovered, together with fragments shewing the general 
mode of wall treatment — these have been variously described, and 
may even now test the ingenuity of some of our members : the 
first, on the left, represents a dog and pomegranate ; the second, 

346 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

on the same side, probably the Annunciation, and the lily stem 
bearing its three white flowers, open and in full bloom ; the third, 
on the right, the head of an angel. It has been suggested, how- 
ever, that " the dog, arrow and tree seem to be a portion of a 
hunting scene, whilst beneath it, is a portion of an angelic figure 
with a scroll, or perhaps it may be a part of the Agony in the 
Garden ; the lower subject on the right is said to be a part of the 
Descent into Hell." 1 

During the reign of Edw.VI. Texts of Scripture with borders, 
and in black letter, took the place of these frescoes ; the texts, &c, 
were defaced in the succeeding reign, that of Mary: Bishop 
Bonner's injunctions expressly mentioning this. In the parish 
accounts of St. Mary, Devizes, under date 3rd Mary (1555), we 
find, " Item, paid for defacing the Scriptures on the walls ij 8 iiij d ." 


No institutions to this Benefice have hitherto been found in 

the Episcopal Registers of Worcester, which date from 1268, but 

the Transcripts of the Lanthony Priory Registers, extracts from 

which are given in the Appendix, furnish us with the names of 

two Rectors : — 

Ante 1264, Sir John de Soincot (Sesincot). 

Ante 1275, Master Ralph de Pirie. 
If reference be made to No. 71 (post p.351) it will be seen that 
the Prior and Convent in that year, 1275, succeeded in ousting 
the Rector, and altogether appropriating the benefice to them- 
selves, no longer content with the portion of forty shillings which 
had previously been paid to them by the Rectors, year by year. 

Probably the cure of souls was henceforth held by the Canons 
themselves : or, the Lessee of their manor might be bound to 
provide a Chaplain for the due performance of the divine offices. 

In " An Account of the Diocese of Gloucester sent to her 
Majestie by Richard, bishop of Gloucester" in 1562, we read : — 
Senhampton ^ The parsonage is impropriated, William 
anc j I Waineman and William Chandler, pro- 

Brokenton. prietaries. No Curate. The number of 

Howseholds there are 20. 
1 Science and Art Dept., 1885. 

Sevenhampton. 347 

Subsequently to the Reformation we meet with the following 

Curates or Ministers, hut the list is imperfect — no institutions 

being requisite. 

1551. John Hanley. 

1565. Miles Busted. 

1584. William Busted. 

1594. John White. 

1597. Elias Woodroffe. 

1599. Nicholas Parry e. 

1607. Miles Nicholson. 

1619. Robert Williams. 

. Foxe. 

1634 John Williams. 

1662. Thomas Hook. 

1673. Dobson. 

1676. John Burbyn. 

1678. John Farmer. 

1681. Charlton Barksdale. 

1713. Gerard Clements, B.A. 

1723. John Hughes, M.A. 

. Petty. 

1758. John Lawrence, LL.B. 

1S08. William Pearce, M.A. 

1825. Edward Ellerton, D.D. 

1851. Charles Chambers, M.A. 

1862. George A. Holdsworth, M.A. 

1868. George E. F. Masters, M.A. 

1872. John Melland Hall, M.A. 

1879. Henry Venn Hebert, M.A. 
A coin of Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 834, was 
discovered either in the churchyard or the vicinity, and is now in 
the possession of Mr. C. W. Lawrence. Remains, probably of the 
period of the Civil Wars were discovered near the south door of 
the nave in the present footpath, about thirty years ago — four 
skulls placed closely together, with a portion of a spear or javelin- 
head and a stirrup, as if of silver, and quite bright even then — ■ 
no bones discovered there. A body was found in a stone coffin on 

348 Transactions for the Year 1SS9-90. 

Oat Hill at the time of the enclosure, a battle axe also near the same 
place. Burials on the north side were anciently made without 
coffins, sloping stones protecting the head. John Davis, a former 
sexton and parish clerk, found in a grave about three feet deep, 
three skeletons " all of a heap " (as he put it), which he thought 
were in their original position. 

There is a tradition of a former village, at a spot known as 
" Old Sennington," about half-a-mile to the north-west of the 
present church, and as there is a path known as " Church "Walk " 
between two rows of hazel trees — the original chapel of Seven- 
hampton may have been built there— (destroyed later on, per- 
haps in the stormy clays of Stephen), when Milo quarrelled with 
the Bishop of Hereford. Remains of foundations may still be 
traced all over the ground. A circular spot, known as the 
Pigeon House, is close to an old maple tree, which (or its prede- 
cessor) may have been a boundary. In making a drain (rather 
lower down) ashes were found, and some coins, of which no 
account now remains. 

The Rev.W. S. Symonds, in "Hanley Castle," gives an extract 
from the "Tewkesbury Feoffees Book," which records a singular 
fact in connection with the climate of the Cotteswolds : 

"Mem. this winter (1634) in the end of January did fall the 
greatest snowe that was ever seen in the memory of man, and it 
was soe extreme colde and violent and tempestuous, that divers 
going home from market and elsewhere, were smothered and 
starved to death. And in the August following a greate quan- 
titie of the same snowe and ice did remayne at Brock ington 
quarre, and divers went purposely to see it, and yett it was a 
most extreme hott summer." 

A few traditions connected with the Civil Wars still linger 
here. A pestilence is said to have broken out among the soldiers, 
and the sick were sheltered in an old tithe barn situated a little 
to the eastward of the church, and adjoining the present 
vicarage ; some skeletons were also discovered on the site of the 
Vicarage — numerous burials took place on the north side of the 
churchyard, which appears to have been very generally used and 

Sevexhampton*. 349 

more spacious than that on the south, which has been consider- 
ably enlarged of late — in consequence, however, of this pestilence 
burials on the north side were long discontinued, except in family 


From Transcripts of the Registers of Lanthony Priory in the 
Tluirlestaine Bouse Library. 

R[obert], Bishop of Hereford, 1 knowing the poverty of the 

church of Lanthony, gives to them the church of Prestbury with 

its chapels : the church of Frome, land which is called the 

' Mora,' the ' Mansio,' which Ernald the presbyter held, with eleven 

acres of land. 

No. 303. 

Robert, Bishop of Hereford, to Symon, Bishop of Worcester : 

Because he has known that the possessions of the church of 
Lanthony have been greatly diminished by reason of the ravages 
of war, he has granted to the Prior thereof two churches in ' Pres- 
teburie ', — the one under the hills — the other upon the hills (super 
montes) with the tythe thereto appertaining, except two portions 
of tythe of his demesne which the Dean and the Precentor of 
Hereford have of grain only, and all the herbage of the park, and 
of crops which are sown or collected within the circuit of the 
park ; the tythe of the rest remains to the said church, because 
it is the land of his villeins. 

We have decreed this gift in the first year of Stephen, King of 

the English [1135]. 

No. 304. 

Robert, Bishop of Hereford, to Symon, Bishop of Worcester. 

Almost repeats No. 303. 

No. 305. 

The Convent of the Chapter of Hereford testify their assent 
to the grant made by the bishop to the Prior and Canons of 
Lanthony, of the two churches in Prestbury, saving the portions 
of the tythe of the demesne. 

1 This Bishop was Robert de Betun, (Bethune) consecrated in 1131. He 
had previously been Prior of Lanthony. Died 1148. and was buried under an 
arch and effigy in the south aisle of the choir. — En. 
Vol. XIV. z. 

350 Transactions for the Year 1889-90. 

No. 306. 
Charter of Robert, Bishop of Hereford, 1 states that the said 
Bishop has given to Lanthony Priory all the small tythes of his 
demesne, in lambs, swine, wool and cheese, both in the vale and 
on the hills, in his manor of Prestbury : — 

Witnessed by Roger, Bishop of Worcester, 2 Henry, Arch- 
deacon of Exeter, 3 and Alured, the Steward. Confirmed by the 
Bishop's seal. [1164-79J. 

No. 307. 

Confirmation by Robert Melun, Bishop of Hereford, of all 
possessions which the Priory of Lanthony had of the church of 
Hereford : the two churches in Prestebury in the vale, and on 
the hills, viz., the church of Sevenhampton with the lands and 
tythes, excepting the portions of tythe of the Demesne. 

No. 42. 

W[alter de Cantilupe], Bishop of Worcester. 

Has inspected an agreement made in connexion with a suit at 
Gloucester, Michaelmas, a.d. 1263, between the Prior of Lan- 
thony, and Sir John de Soincot (Sesincot) before Master W. 
de Wien, his official at Worcester, concerning a certain pension 
of forty shillings to be received from the church of " Sevenhamp- 
tone " : the Prior and Convent appeared by their Proctor, the 
brother William de St. German, and Sir John cle Soincot, 
Rector of the church of Sevenhamtone, by his Proctor, Symon de 
Schirburn, who confessed the liability of the Rector, and offered 
to pay the arrears of the pension together with eight marcs. 

" Given at Kemeseye in the year of Grace 1264." 

1 This prelate was Robert de Muledon [Melun]. He succeeded Bishop 
Bethune, and had also been Prior of Lanthony. Died 1167, and like his 
predecessor was buried under an arch and effigy in the south aisle of the 
choir. — Ed. (See Havergal's Hereford.) 

2 Son of Robert the Consul, Earl of Gloucester. Elected 1163, cons. 13th 
Aug., 1164, died 1179. (See Ante Vol. III., p. 38S.) 

2 Son of Robert Fitz Harding, so named after Henry Fitz Empress 
app d cir. 1148. He held also many other preferments in England. He was 
also Dean of Moretain, and was elected Archb. of Dol, and died at Rome, 
whither he had gone for consecration, in August, 1188. (See Lives of the 
Berkeleys, Vol. I., pp. 54, 55. Maclean's Edition )— Ed. 

Sevenhamptoit. 350 


The Official of the Diocese of Worcester to the [Rural] Dean 
of Wynchcombe : 

With reference to a suit concerning the chapel, &c, of Seven- 
hampton, between the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, with the 
Prior of Strigoil and others, Proctors ; and Master Ralph cle Pirie 
who claimed to be the Rector of the said chapel ; 

Declares that the said chapel has been, and is annexed to the 
church of Prestbury, and ought to be dependent thereon, and in 
full right thereto belonging : and that the said Religious Men 
(the Prior and Canons) are to be put in corporeal possession of 
the said Chapel as if annexed to, and dependent, on the church of 
Prestbury. The Dean is accordingly required, without delay, to 
induct, or cause to be inducted, the said Religious Men, or their 
Proctor, into the corporeal possession of the said chapel accord- 
ing to the Canon, and to defend their rights therein : ' Contradic- 
tors et rebelles ' are to be restrained by the censure of the 
church, i.e. by excommunication. 

Given at Worcester on the Vigil of St. James, in the year of 

Grace, 1275. 

No. 69. 

Richard, 1 Bishop of Hereford, confirms to Lanthony Priory 
the grant of the tythes in his demesne, in the parishes of Prest- 
bury and Sevenhampton, cultivated by themselves, and of the 
food of the animals there, as in the times of his predecessors. 

Dated at Bosbury, 17 Kal. Nov. a.d. 1284. 

Taxation op Pope Nicholas, a.d. 1291. 

Archdeaconry/ of Gloucester. 

The Bishop of Hereford has from Rents of Assize at Prest- 
bury, £20 4 1 ; And Four carucates of land, each being worth 

1 This prelate was Richard de Swinfield. He was consecrated at Glou- 
cester, 12th March, 12S2-3, and died 15th March, 1316-17, and was buried in 
the north transept of his cathedral, in a stone coffin, beneath a richly 
moulded canopy, still bearing this inscription : "Hie: requiescit: Ricardus : 
dictus : de : Swinefield Cantuariensis : diocesis : quondam : Episcopus : 
Herefordensis.'' It is figured by Havergal, Plate II.— Eu. 
z 2 

352 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

40 s ., and one Watermill which is worth 20 s ; from Pleas and 

perquisites, 40 s . ; from profits of Stock, 20 s . Also at Pulgoumbe 

Sevenhampton, £7 5 1^ of Rents, with three Carucates of 

land, each worth 20 s . : and one Water Mill which is worth 13 s 4 d : 

and from Pleas and Perquisites of Court, 20 s . 

Sum £44 2 6£ 

Tenth £4 8 3 

The Prior and Convent of Lanthony have at Prestbury and 
Colecombe [in Sevenhampton] one carucate of land, and it is 
worth 25 s per annum : of Rents of Assize, 10 s . Also from Stock, 
10 s . Sum £2 5 

a.d. 1297. Protest of John, Dean of Hereford, against the 
double taxation of his Tythes here : 

" In the Name of the Lord. Amen. In the year of the same 
1297, Indiction x. 4 Ka. April, in the presence of me the 
appointed Notary Public and of the underwritten witnesses, 
at the Old Temple in London, before Master Walter cle Win- 
ton, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, Sir William de Stoketon and 
John Maunsell, Clerks, of the venerable father the lord Oliver, 
by the grace of God, Bishop of Lincoln, the lord John, Dean 
of the church of Hereford sought remedy from the said father 
and his Commissaries of certain errors concerning his possessions, 
and those of the Chapter of the Church of Hereford — his petition 
being in this form : 

Before you, the reverend father, the lord Oliver, by the grace 
of God, bishop of Lincoln, deputed by the Apostolic See to collect 
the Tenth in England in aid of the Holy Land, Master Walter de 
Winton, &c, John, dean of Hereford, seeks remedy, &c. 

In primis, he says that the deanery is taxed in spiritualities 
generally at £13 6 4 as is contained in the original Roll, and 
that his portion of Tythes in the Manors of the Bishop of Hereford 
in Prestbury and Sevenhampton, is a part of the spiritualities of 
his deanery, which is taxed as a whole, as above. Concerning which, 
an Inquisition was taken by order of the lord, the bishop of Lin- 
coln, when it was found that this was twice taxed, and ought 
not to be taxed in the separate particulars or portions. ****** 

Sevbnhamptox. 353 

These things were done in the year, indiction, day, and place 
noted above— in the presence of Master William de Loddelowe, 
Robert de Mai ton, and Elyas de Croyndon, Clerks ; and Thomas 
de Geyton, John de Dun, laics ; witnesses to the above premises. 

And I, John, [son] of Robert of Clipston, Lincoln Diocese, by 
the authority of the Holy Roman Church, Notary, was present, 
and saw and heard these things, and by request have affixed my 
mark, and my accustomed seal in testimony of these premises. 

By means of the " Valor Ecclesiasticus " ' we arrive at the 

increased values of these manors in 27th Hen. VIII. , i.e. after the 

lapse of 250 years : — 

In Prestbury. 
Rent of Assize per aim. ... 

Issues of the Manor with the Park 

Farm of Demesne Lands ... 

Farm of the Mill .... 

Work of new rental there per annum 

Rent discovered ----- 

Increased rent - 

Perquisites of the Court (average) 

Rents of Assize per annum ... 

Farm of the Demesne Lands 

Issues of the Manor .... 

Farm of the Demesne Lands in Puckcumbe 
Farm of the Quarry .... 

Farm of the Mill .... 

Rents discovered .... 

Perquisites of the Court there 

Among Payments : — 

Pension paid to the Rectors of the Church of Prestbury 
(Lanthony Priory) for Tythes of Agistments and Pannage of the 
Park, 4 B . 

* Vol. III., 3. 








































354 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

Salary of Humfrey Elton, bailiff of Prestbury, 46 s 8 d . 
,, the same, bailiff of Sefihampton, 1 3 s 4 d . 

The Rectory of Prestbury with Glebe, tythes of wheat and hay 
and other profits, was then let to farm to Robert Atwell, 1 for £12 
per annum. 

William Elkyns, perpetual Vicar there, received from a parcel 
of Glebe, Altarage, Oblations, and other issues, £9 13 4 per 

The Proctors (Churchwardens) were possessed of three burgage 
Tenements in Prestbury for the use of the Church, value 18 s 3| d 
per annum. 

The value of the Rectory of Sevenhampton is not given in 
this return, as it was then in the hands of the King, by reason of 
the dissolution of the Priory of Lanthony, and as it would appear 
that no Vicarage had been assigned, the whole revenues (except 
the portions of the Dean and Precentor of Hereford) belonged to 
the Priory. 

The Parishioners were enfeoffed in one burgage tenement with 
an adjoining close, and dovehouse, situate in Prestbury, in order 
to keep the anniversary of John Combes (Camber) yearly, value 
per annum, 6 s 8 d . 

We have also 61 s 8 d per annum paid to Doctor Clifton, Dean 
of Hereford, for certain portions of Tythes in Seueh'mpton and 
Prestbury : a like sum was also received by the Precentor of 

Subsidy Roll, 1 Edw. III. (1327). 

s. d. 

De Roberto de Solers - - - iij vi 

,, Johne le Eyr - - - - — ix 

,, Johne atte Welle ... iiij j 

„ Henr. le Palmere - - - — xiiij ob. 

,, Robto Copland - - ij vij 

„ Galfrido Colynes - - - — xiij ob. 

,, Thoma Bird - - - ij iiij 

„ Rico Lyplofe - - - - — xviij ob. 

Robto de Hales 

X1 J 

1 Apparently Bailiff at Prestbury and Collector of Rents for the Priory. 

Seven hamptox. 355 

De Galfrido de Wytwelle - 
Johfie Henryes 
Nicho Fraunceys 
Agnete atte Welle 
Alice atte Shawe 
Robto le Hattare 
Rico Davy 
Robto Bird 

Willmo de Sevenbarupton 
Joline Justice - 
Henr. Reyner - 
Johfie Reed 





xx ij 


xxj ob. 






viij ob. 


vj ob. 


vj ob. 


xj ob. 


vij ob. 


vij ob. 



xl 8 

ij d 

356 Transactions for the Ykar 18S9-90. 

in the County of Gloucester, 10th Edw. I. (1281-2) 

Contributed by SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.R.S.A. (Ireland), 

Vice-President of the Royal Archceological Institute of Great Britain <& Ireland, 
and of this Society, Hon. Member of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, <Lx. 

As long ago as 1878 the contributor of the following record 
pointed out that "the early History of the Forest of Dene is an 
obscure page of Gloucestershire history which deserves to be 
cleared up," 1 and he forthwith commenced to collect materials, as 
opportunities offered, with the intention of making an effort to 
write a history of this ancient and interesting Royal Forest, which, 
even then, though shorn of its glories in vert and venison, still 
remained a Royal Forest. In making researches for this work he 
found and transcribed the record referred to, as well as others, 
but other labours in the elucidation of the local history and 
genealogy of Gloucestershire have intervened and prevented him 
from carrying out his contemplated work, until, alas ! it is too late 
for him to attempt it ; and he is anxious to place this document 
upon record in the Transactions of the Bristol & Gloucestershire 
Archreological Society for the use of some younger man who may 
be moved to take up and carry out a work which would be as 
interesting in the preparation as valuable in the result. The 
original of this document may be found inrolled on the Rolls of 
the Forest of Dene preserved in the department of the Treasurer 
of the Receipt of the Exchequer in the Public Record Office. 
The present reference to the manuscript is " Chapter House 
Records, Forest Rolls, Box 1, No. 7, Gloucester, 10th Edward I. 

The area of the Forest in very early times was undoubtedly 
much greater than it is at present, or even than that circumscribed 
by this perambulation. As a Royal Forest, and yielding no profit, 
1 Trans, of the Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. III., p. 367. 

A Perambulation of the Forest of Dene. 357 

it does not, of course, appear in the Domesday Survey, but accord- 
ing to tradition, and as shewn by the map published by the late 
Rev. H. G. Nicholls in his Forest of Dene, it extended from 
Newent and Gloucester to Chepstow, embracing the whole of the 
area between the Severn and the Wye below Gloucester. Many 
portions of this district, however, long prior to the Conquest, had 
been assarted, and appear in the Domesday Survey as manors, 
but the Norman and Angevin Kings, who were passionately fond 
of the chace, arbitrarily cast them back again into the forest. 1 The 
Manors of Hewelsfield and Wigheiete in this district were two 
which William the Conqueror commanded should be included in 
the Forest of Dene. But subsequently by various perambulations, 
of which that under notice would appear to be the first for this 
forest, the boundaries were again adjusted. 

The forest as now denned consisted of ten bailiwicks, each 
under its special bailiff who executed under the King direct such 
powers as might be customary under the forest law, or specially 
granted for this forest by the King. The bailiwicks were Abben- 
hale, Blakeney, Bleyth (now called Bley), Bers (now Berse), 
Staunton, Bikenoure (now Bicknor Anglicana), Rywardin (Ruar- 
dean), Laca (now Lea Bailley), Dean Magna, and Dean Parva. 

Before proceeding to the Bailiwicks it is shewn what lands, &c, 
in each bailiwick were held, personally, by the King, and it is 
stated that the Vill of Hunsam (Huntsham), which is situated on 
the left bank of the river Wye, north of Symond's Yat, forming 
a peninsula almost surrounded by the river, and in the county of 
Hereford, is within the bounds of the forest, nevertheless, it is 
added, the men of the said vill do not appear before the steward 
nor verderei's at the Inquisitions, nor, moreover, before the Justice, 
in Eyre. 

The boundaries of the bailiwicks are severally defined, and 
the document then goes on to give an account of the several mines 
within the forest and by whom held. 

The document is printed verbatim, though, for convenience 
the Latin words have been extended. 

1 Trans., Vol. IV., p. 126. 

358 Transactions for the Year 1880-90. 

Domine libera aniniam meam a labljs iniquis et a lingua dolosa. 
Regardum factum in foresta de Dene, die Mercurij in die Cinerum 
(Ash Wednesday), anno Regni Regis Edwardi Decimo, per 
Dominum Willelmum de Derneford, Willelmum Mauncel, Nichol- 
auni de Gam ages, Johannem de la Mare, Mauricium de Salsa- 
marisca, Milites, Milonum de Longetot, Willelmum de Burk, 
Petrum de Tinthescumbe, Robertum de Draycote, Walterum 
Hackett, Robertum de Piritune et Robertum de Coveleye, 
Regardatores Jurati. Qui dicunt per sacramentum quod Willelmus 
de Stuttebrugge tenet in Chirchome unam acram &c. 

Dominus Rex habet Landeas 1 subscriptas in foresta de Dene 

videlicet inter balliuam de Blakeney et Balliuam de Stauntene 
Landeam de Moseleye. Item inter easdem balliuas landeam de 
Seinteleye. Item in balliua de Magna Dene landeam de Konhop. 
Item in balliua de Stanten, landeas de Wychtmed et de Wyteleye. 
Item inter balliuas de Magna Dene et Habehale, landeam de Okie- 
fold. Item in balliua de Abehale landeam de Kenesleye. Item 
landeam de Crumpemede in eadem balliua. Item in eadem balliua 
landeam de Walemore. Walterus de Snappe includit hayam sup- 
radictam landeam de Wychtmed, nescitur quo warranto. In sup- 
radicta landea de Walemor in balliua de Abenhale Radulphus de 
Abenhalle habet ibi vnum pratum infra landeam, nescitur quo 
warranto, et continet 6 acras. Walterus de Helme habet ibi vnum 
pratum, nescitur quo warranto. Abbas de Flexleye habet quoddam 
pratum vocatum New more et continet 6 acras. Idem Abbas 
elargiuit fossatum suum ad quantitatem dimidise acra? terras infra 
predictam landeam. Item omnes terra? et omnia prata qua? pre- 
dictus abbas habet in predicta landea sunt purprisa? In eadem 
landea sunt plures purprestura? qua? non possunt inquiri nee 
videri propter cretinam aqua?. 

Dicunt Jurati quod Radulphus de Abenhale impercauit in ipsa 
landea bestias hominum patria? et sumpsit ab eis 55 ancas 2 et eas 
retinuit ad opus suum proprium et attachiamenta debent esse 

domino Regi. 

1 Landea, or Landia, marshy or sedgy lands surrounded by a ditch or . 
foss to carry off the water. From (erre = land and eie = water. — See Ducange, 
also Jacobs' ', Law Dictionary. 2 ? From Ancercs = geese. 

A Perambulation of the Forest of Dene. 359 

Mete eiusdem pasture incipiunt apucl le Hulke subter Chaxhull et 
durat per fossatum vsque le huntemede et sic per Clarkefeld vsque 
ad viam quse ducit apud addecete et sic de ilia via per fossatum 
vsque ad pratum monachorum quod vocatur Brodemede, et sic 
per fossatum et per la Longmede in la Westmede et sic de la West- 
mede per fossatum usque Suymede et sic per fossatum subter 
pyehurste vsque ad pratum domini Regis quod vocatur la Hay et 
sic per fossatum vsque ad parcum qui vocatur Yisses Croft et sic 
subter Montem de Walemore vsque Ruggeleys Walle et sic per 
fossatum vsque la holke. 

Villata de honsum (Huntsham) est infra metas forestae subtracta 
est de foresta, et homines eiusdem villatse non comparent coram 
Senescallo nee viredariis ad Inquisitiones faciendas nee etiam 
comparuerunt coram Justiciariis in suo Itinere. 

Balliua de Abbenhalle custodita est per Radulphuni cle Abbenhale 
et incipit apud Dychesende supra hopesherde in longitudine inter 
Sheperugge et Abbenhale hulle vsque Vuerhunteneforde et sic vsque 
Vastbaches unde semper per rivulum aquaB et sic vsque Atteleye- 
grene inter ballivam cle parva Dene et la munede 1 de atteleyegrenp 
summum iter usque Sinclerford et sic juxta aquam vsque le Mer- 
broc inter balliuam de Blaken et dictam balliuam de Abbenhale 
et sic de Merbroke vsque caput de Visokenemers prout stren- 
chatur quse vocatur Pyrhales et sic vsque viseches prout summum 
iter ducit et sic summum iter per mediam spinatam de Seyntleye 
vsque meroke extransverso le Blaksennie weye vsque ad caput del 
Mersiche et sic in longitudine vsque Nevverne et sic dividit 
rivulus de Newerne dictam balliuam et balliuam de Dene vsque 
Mulebache et sic de Mulebache prout dividitur per aquam vsque 
Mareforde et sic per altam viam quse ducit uersus Ruwardyne de 
Aletangge et sic in longitudine vsque Briddessete et mariscum 
vsque ad iter quod jacet juxta leymores welle et vocatur Bikenores- 
wey et sic vsque la pulle et iuxta aquam usque Shetersforde et 

1 Fence or hedge. Given in Bailey's Eng. Dictionary, and in Halliwell, 
as " munite" rendered fenced or fortified, from the Latin " munitus," • t' 
and ' d ' being convertible in all languages. 

360 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

sic Spannewey usque la munede, de illo loco usque Hobasrudingge 
et sic sicut fossa ducit usque blakewell broke et sic iuxta aquam 
usque veteretn crucem et per cursum aqua? vsque Sheperugges 
rode et sic per fossani vsque Wylecockes Rudingge et sic iuxta 
cuedenesmore iuxta campum vsque pleystede et sic per fossam 
in longitudine vsque la Rudingge Ade le Palmere et sic per fossam 
vsque terrain Ade Sireman de Hope et iuxta boscum de hope 
vsque dichesende supra hopesherde. 

Balliua de Abbenhale in Chastenarijs incipit apud Merstowe 
et sic suramum iter usque veterem raolendinum et iter vsque 
blakemores halle et sic iter vsque monekene ruddingge et sic per 
fossatum vsque boscum monachorum et sic per la bache vsque 
folegate et sic iter vsque la morstowe et omnes bosci ipsius 
balliuje sunt de dominico Regis. 

Et facta est quaedam trenchea 1 de Spannewey extendens in 
longitudine de Scetaresforde vsque la munede et continet quinque 
acras inter Eywode et Harewode. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Olderende extendens se in longi- 
tudine de la Oldtune vsque la munede et continet vj acras in 
bosco de Eywod. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Newerende extendens se in longi- 
tudine de Oldefolde vsque la munede et continet iiij acras in 
bosco de Eywod. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Prestes rudinge extendens se 
in longitudine vsque bronstonesbroke et continet ix acras in bosco 
de Oures. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Vastlachesreude extendens se in 
longitudine de novo molendino vsque la munede et continet xij 
acras et dimidiam in bosco Oures. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Sinderford extendens se in 
longitudine vsque Piriheye et continet x acras in bosco de Barn- 

Item vna trenchea vocata Newarnereude extendens in longi- 
tudine de Wyteleye vsque Mulebeche continet xj acras et dimi- 
diam in Costera boscorum de Gardino et Wydenheye. 

Item vna trenchea iuxta la pulle et continet x acras iuxta 
landeam de Oldfolde. 

1 Trenchea or Trancheia, would seem to have much the same signification 
as Landea. — See note 1 , p. 35S, 

A Perambulation of the Forest of 361 

Item duoe ti'enchea? in chastaniis, vna extendens se in longi- 
tudine castrum et alia in latitucline de quibus longior continet vj 
acras et alia vj acras. 

Balliua de Blakeney est dominicus boscus domini Regis et 
Walterus de Astune custodit earn. Et incipiunt metse eiusdem 
balliuse a ia blakepulleforde per vicum vocatum Fineethway vsque 
Fineeth et sic per altum vicum vsque semitam vocatam Mersty et 
sic per semitam illam vsque Merbrok et sic per Merbrok vsque 
la pulle inter paruam Stapuleg et magnam Stapuleg, et sic per la 
pulle quae diuidit balliuam de blakeneje et boscum monachorum 
de fflexleye et boscum de Rudele vsque la depeforde, et sic apud 
Erleyeforde et sic per hayam bosci vsque molendinum de Blake- 
neye et sic per costeram bosci vsque la Ritthwaye et sic per 
costeram bosci vsque lonnesbrok et sic per quendam vallem vsque 
ad vicum vocatum Parseteway et per vicum ilium vsque blake- 
mere et sic per Russell um vsque Achebrok et sic per Achebrok 
vsque Smalebrok et per Smalebrok vsque Solewalle et sic per 
medium prati de Akely vsque vicum vocatum brodokewey et sic 
per vicum ilium vsque ad caput de Moseleye et sic per Russell 
descenduntur per medium Moseleye in la blakepulle et sic as- 
sendendo la pulle vsque vadum de Seynteleye et sic vsque 

Et facta est vna trenchea vocata la Colstyerende incipiens apud 
Merbroke et durans ad Castrum de Moseleye et continet lx acras 
et fuit boscus spissus de minutis corulis. 

Item vna trenchea vocata de holebache incipiens apud Seytte- 


ehreneforde et durans vsque Waldinges worpin et continet viij 

Item vna trenchea vocata de la Bromespulle incipiens apud 


Merebrok et durans a la Depeforde et continet vj acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata de la hayermede incipiens a la hole- 
waye et durans vsque Ankeleyeford et continet c acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata blakepullerende incipiens apud a la 


petiteforde et durans vsque la Seyrrugeforde et continet vj acras. 

362 Transactions foe the Year 1S89-90. 

Item viia trenchea vocata Austyerende incipiens apud Roynus- 


cheyne et durans vsque Holeweysende et continet ix acras. 

Item vna trenchea de Sondbedderende incipiens apud Richt- 
waye et durans ad caput de Moseleye et continet cc et xl acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Crofterende incipiens apud le 
Blakepulle supra Moseleye et durat vsque Westbrok, et continet 
C acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata de Stapelegge incipiens ad fontem 

de Merebrok et durans vsque caput de Holebache et continet L 



Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et Radulphus Hopewy 

custodit earn. Et incipit apud la Cocksutgrene et inde per viam 

Regiam vsque ad crucem ante portam curiae Willelmi Bleyth et 

inde per quandam sernitam ducentem iuxta dictam portam et 

curiam quae ducit iuxta terram quce vocatur le Morfurlonge, quam 

terram dictus Willelmus tenet de domino Rege, vsque ad terram 

Johannis de la Boxe, et inde per terram illam vsque ad torrentem 

quae vocatur Merinerudinge broke, et inde per illam torrentem 

vsque ad Ynichebeche et inde per fossatum iuxta terram Abbatis 

Sancti Petri Gloucestri?e vsque ad viam qua? vocatur Tabbinge- 

weye et inde per fossatum dicti Abbatis vsque ad Depemore et 

inde per fossatum eiusdem vsque ad le Heyewaye et inde per 

illam viam vsque Rugwaye et inde per viam illam vsque Scipweye 

et inde per viam illam ducentem vsque Swefforde in la pulle et 

inde per pullam illam vsque ad trencheram illam quaa est inter 

bleytheswyke et boscum de fflexleye, qui quondam fuit de pre- 

dicta balliua, et inde per trencheram illam ascendendo vsque ad 

Rugweye et inde per viam de Rugwaye vsque ad assartum 

Radulphi de Rodleye et inde descendendo per fossatum iuxta 

assarta vsque ad prrenorninatum locum qui vocatur la Cocksute- 



Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et Willelmus Wodewardus 

custodit earn. Et incipit apud Kunesbrok et extendit ex ilia parte 

ad boscum de Alwintune et Aylbertune vsque Payebwallebroke et 

de ilia broka vsque la horewall et de la harewulle vsque Cokwodes- 

broke et de ilia broke vsque Sponnegrene et de Sponnegrene 

A Perambulation of the Forest of Dexe. 363 

vsque Pustanesbroke ad Crucem et de illo loco vsque ad campum 
de Nova terra vsque la Stowe et de la Stowe per campum Sancti 
Breuelli vsque redinor et per Redmor vsque cunnesbroke et in 
eadem balliua est le defens. 

Et facta est ibi vna trenchea vocata bremerende incipiens 
apud la holyene munede et durat apud brodokethurne et continet 
vnam acram et dimidiam. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Aspenemerruede incipiens apud 
Aspennemere et durat vsque la holiene munede et continet iiij 
acras et dimidiam. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Aspunerede incipiens apud la 
Horewalle et durat vsque ad finem et herede et continet x acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata fineecherede incipiens apud Longer- 
rende et durat vsque ad Okwodebrok et continet ij acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata longereode incipiens apud Wynetes- 
buri et durat vsque trellemede et continet ij acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Cleyesladesreode incipiens apud la 
Wytereode et durat vsque la horewalles siche et continet iiij 

Item vna trenchea vocata Sponnerede incipiens apud Sponne- 
grene et durat vsque la bersesenese. 

Item vna trenchea vocata la Wyterende incipiens apud Cley- 
weysencle et durat vsque trellemedesenese et continet x acras. 

Boscus cle Hodenhales est dominicus boscus domini Regis et 
distructus est per homines de Sancto Breuello et ipsi homines 
clamant libertatem capiendi inde pro voluntate et semper inde ita 

Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et Richardus de la More 
custodiuit earn, et nunc est in manu Regis. Et incipit apud la 
Wlfinyenok et extendit vsque Wyteleye per le Mersty et de la 
Wyteleye vsque la Meroky et de la Meroky per le Machuneswalle 
et per la Blakepulle vsque castrum de Moseley et de castro de 
Moseley vsque ad Waldingesworthine per illani viam et de 
Waldingesworthin vsque Crumpemedewe et de Crumpemedwe 
vsque ad le Sned. Et de le Sned vsque ad Rivulum de JSTewerne et 
sic per Newerne usque ad rivulum qui vocatur Druybrok et per 

364 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

Druybroke vsque le bechenehulle et de le bechenehulle per 
Marlewaye weye vsque Payhvallebrok et de Paylwallebroke vsque 
ad le Breme et de le Brerae vsque horewalle et de horawalle 
vsque Okwoclebroke vsque la Sponnegrene et de la Sponnegrene 
vsque Cradokestone et de Cradokestone per Bikenoresti vsque 
ad Wolfinyenok. 

Et facta est ibi vna trenchea vocata la Bechenehulle incipiens 
ad caput de holines et durat ad viam qua? tendit ad Chalfring et 
continet xij acras et dimidiarn. 

Item vna trenchea iuxta Newarne ex vtraque parte incipiens 
apud Ohapmone brugge et durat vsque Wyteleye et continet 


viij acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Newarnerede incipens apud Chap- 
mone brugge et durat vsque Coleforde et continet lx acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Merebrok iuxta Newarne 
et durat vsque Coleford et continet xx acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud pileswalle et durat vsque ad 
viam que tendit ad Waldingesworthine et continet xxx acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Crokedeford et durat vsque 
holiene munede et continet x acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Secoleputtes et durat vsque 
Wartokesey iuxta Newernehey et continet xxx acras. 

Item vua trenchea incipiens apud Pileswalle et durat vsque 
frogcrewall et continet xxx acras. 

Est dominicus boscus domini Begis et Cecilia de Michegros 
custodit earn Et predicta balliua incipit apud Bissopeswere in 
Riparia de Waye et sic per quendam vicum vsque ad altum 
vicum qui ducit de Bikenore vsque Stantune et sic per quamdam 
semitam vsque Wybaltunesbroke et sic per campos de Stauntune 
vsque ad Greneweye et sic per campos de la Newelonde vsque 
Thustanes broke et ascendendo per Thustanes brok vsque ad 
vivarium domini Regis et de viuario domini Regis per altum vicum 
vsque Wlfinyenok et sic per quamdam semitam vsque Kinges- 
perche et sic per semitam quae tendit per medium de Wimberleye 
vsque Kingesok et sic per quamdam semitam vsque Kaderichesok 

Ox the Perambulation of the Forest of Dexe. 365 

et sic per quamdam semitam ducentem ultra montem de fflite- 
newyke ad Lodebrok et sic per campos de Bikenore iuxta 
Hangerby vsque ad vicum vocatum hestbacheswey et sic per 
eosdem campos vsque ad alterum vicum qui tendit versus Mone- 
mouth et sic per quamdam semitam vsque Martines Coksute et 
sic iuxta eosdem campos per Symundeszate vsque Way am ad 
locum vocatum Seotelinde et sic ex transverso montis vsque ad 
longam petram et sic per ripam de Waye vsque bissopeswere. 

Facta est vna trenchea vocata bissopesslade incipiens ab alto 
vico de Bikenouere ad Stantune et durat ad Wayam et continet 


iiij x acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata de Maylescoyt incipiens apud Hoden 
akesputte et durat per wayam vsque Symondesgate et continet ij 
acras et dimidium. 

Item vua trenchea vocata Aluinebache incipiens ab alto vico 
qui ducit versus Staunten durans vsque wayam ct continet vij 
aci-as et dimidium. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Croysedereode incipiens ab alunde- 
bache durans vsque bissopeslade et continet ij acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata Lodebrokesreode incipiens apud 
holebrok et durans vsque campos iuxta hangerbi et continet iiij 

Est dominicus boscus domini Eegis et est in manu domini Regis 
et constabularies Sancti Breuelli custodit earn ; et incipiunt mete 
eiusdem balliue apud Wlfmyenok et sic per le Mersty dividens 
balliuas de Bikenoure et Rywardin vsque ad perticham domini 
Regis et sic per idem Mersty vsque Chasegreysok et sic idem 
Mersty vsque Ludebrok et sic per Ludebrok, vsque wayam, et sic 
assendendo per wayam vsque Smalbroke et sic per Morwode-enese 
vsque Cnappestysenese et sic inter boscum et campos vsque le 
Smitheswey et adhuc inter boscum et campos vsque hanewaye et 
adhuc inter boscum et campos vsque Vokshalegrene et adhuc inter 
boscum et campos usque Barndleysende, et adhuc inter boscum 
et campos vsque Berleysgrene et sic per le Mersty inter balliuam 
de Rywardin et boscum Abbatis Gloucestrire vsque Druybrokes- 
walle et sic per Druyebrok vsque Schuetereforde et sic per altum 
Vol. XIV. 2 a 

366 Transactions for the Year 18S9-90. 

vicum tendens apud Bikenoure vsque Keyerikesok et sic per 1© 
Mersty diuidens balliuam de Rywardin eb balliuam de Dene 
vsque duas pulcras quercus et sic per altam viam tendens apud 
Monmouth vsque la Wlfmyenok. 

Una trenchea incipiens ad crucem avenelli et durans vsque 


Scuteresforde et continet iiij acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipens apud Kederekesok durans vsque 
Knappestyesenese et continet xx acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud brodok extendens vsque 
brodweyesenese et continet xij acras. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Knappestyesforde durans 
vsque Warmwalle et continet xij acras. 

Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et Nicholaus de Lacu custodit 
earn. Metse eiusdem balliuse incipiunt apud Aletune et sic per 
Aletunes brok usque ad crucem de Netherewestune et sic per 
altuni vicum vsque ad arborem vocatam bolletre et sic per altum 
vicum vsque fraxinum vocatam bromesasse et sic per altum vicum 
vsque ad crucem vocatam Luce crosse et sic per quamdam semitam 
vsque ad crucem vocatam Holwardines Croyce et sic per altum 
vicum vsque birchoure et sic per altum vicum vsque Marlwalle 
et sic per quamdam trencheam que diuidit balliuam de Dene et 
balliuam de Lacu vsque Wynterwallethornes et sic ultra le 
muneden vsque ad album lapidem et sic per quamdam semitam 
vocatam Mersty qute diuidit boscum Abbatis Gloucestrise et balliuam 
de Lacu vsque ad Pirihale et sic pir altum vicum vsque Pirihale- 
thorne et sic per quamdam sycheter vocatam Derkesforde vsque 
halewalle et sic per altum vicum vsque crucem de Koctere et sic 
per altum vicum vsque aletune. 

Facta est vna trenchea vocata de Sleperesthorne incipiens ad 
boscum Abbatis Gloucestrise et durans vsque Wyggepol et con- 
tinet vj acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata de Pirihale incipiens apud le Mersty 
inter balliuam de Lacu et boscum abbatis Glouc. et durat usque 
la munedwey et continet vj acras vnam rodam et dimidium. 
Rogerus Spure de Sancto Breuello Walterus Pagum de Bikenore 
Stephanus Edy de Lideneye sunt malefactores de viridi. 

Ox the Perambulation of the Fokest of Dene. 367 

Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et est in manu domini Regis 

et constabularius Sancti Breuelli custodit earn. Et incipiunt 
metse eiusdem balliuae apud le Mersty super Nfewarne et extendit 
se per ilium, Mersty diuidendo ipsam balliuam et balliuam de Staun- 
tune vsque Wlfmyenok et sic vsque duas pulcras quercus per 
publicum vicum et sic per le Mersty qui diuidit ipsam balliuam et 
balliuam de Rywardin per medium de la longereode iuxta crucem 
Awnelli et sic per altum vicum vsque Schutaresford et sic per 
druybrok vsque paruam haseleye et sic per le Mersty qui diuidit 
ipsam balliuam et balliuam de Lacu vsque Wiggepol et sic per 
trencheaui vocatam Newereode vsque Marlewalle et sic per 
costeram bosci vsque Coksuteweye et sic per costeram bosci ad 
locum vocatum Randy et ad hue per costeram bosci vsque Calde- 
walle et sic vltra la munede usque ad caput de Sp^nneway et sic 
per altam viam vsque Scataresforde et sic per la pulle vsque Bike- 
nouresforde et sic per le Mersty qui diuidit ipsam balliuam et 
balliuam de Abenhale vsque ad altum vicum iuxta Leyemoreswalle 
et sic per mariscum inter Wydenheye et Seyrrugge vsque Mare- 
forde et sic per quemdam Sychetter vsque ad Mulebeche et sic per 
Newerne vsque le Mersty super Newerne. 

Facta est ibi vna trenchea incipiens de hopestiesford usque 
Stauntunesforde et continet L acras. 

Item vna trenchea vocata la Merruede incipiens apud la 
munede et durat vsque Marlebrugge et continet dimidiam acram. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens de Druybrokesforde et durans 
vsque Schepesty et continet unam acram et dimidium. 

Item vna trenchea incipiens apud Kockschutesfelde durans 
vsque la munede et continet ij acras. 


Est dominicus boscus domini Regis et Radulphus de Abenhale 

custodit earn, et est in manu domini Regis, et incipit apud 

la Monekenedich et sic per quemdam Sichetum de Bronstonesbrok 

vsque vastbeche et sic per la munede vsque pukeputteswey et 

sic per fossatum iuxta la Ridinge vsque coryeldestone et sic per 

idem fossatum usque Northlepegate et sic per idem fossatum 

vsque la Merstowe et sic usque la Monekenediche. 
2a 2 

36S Transactions fur the Year 1SS9-90. 

In eadetn balliua inveniuntur cippi iiii querciuum succisarurn 
et asportarum propter electionem justitiaria^um apud Glocestriam ; 
et sub-boscus est bene custoclitus. Summa quercuum iiii. 

Facta est ibi vna trenchea incipiens apud Bronstonesbroke et 
durans vsque holemerstowe et continet vnam acrara et xxv fossata 
carboiiis. Summa fossata? carbonis xxv. Jurati dicunt quod in 
omnibus balliuis predictis fuerunt plures cippi quam sint com- 
putati et nullo modo computari potuerunt quia aboliti sunt per 
Vetera fossata carbonariorum que Constabularius de Sancto 
Breuello tenuit super cippis predictis et etiam fforestarij de feodo 
quilibet in balliua sua tenuit similiter Vetera fossata videlicet 
quoniam rex habet vetus fossatum quilibet flbrestarius habet 
unuin ffossatum in balliua sua preter in balliua Radulphi Hathewy 
scilicet balliua de Bleyth. 

Dicunt quod Radulphus de Abenhale 1 habet mineriam in balliua 
de Abbenhale, et Dominus Rex nichil inde habet nisi sex 
summas minerie per septimanam et clat propter hoc operatoribus 
vj clenarios. 

Cecilia de Michegros 2 habet mineriam in balliva de Bikenore 
si inventa fuerit. 

Walterus de Astune clamat mineriam in balliva de Blakeneye 
si inventa fuerit. 

Dominus Rex habet Mineriam in balliva de Ma^na Dene et 
capit de quolibet operatori qui peterit lucrari per septimanam 
tres summas minerie j denarium per septimanam, et quando 
mineria primo invenietur, dominus rex habebit unum hominem 
operantem cum aliis operantibus in mineria et conducet ilium pro 
duobus denariis per diem et habebit partem lucri quantum eveniat 
uni operatori. 

Item Dominus Rex habebit mineriam per septimanam sex 
summas minerie que vocantur lawore et dabit propter hoc 
operanti vj clenarios per septimanam. 

1 See Pedigree, ante Vol. VI., p. 1S3. 

2 Cecilia de Michegros was the daughter and heir of John Avenel, of 
Bicknor, ob. ) 286, and wife of John de Muchegros, ob. 1276. Her husband had 
been dead about six years at the date of this Perambulation. She survived 
to 1301. — (See Pedigree, ante Vol. IV, p. 31S.) 

On the Perambulation of the Forest of Dene. 309 

Dorninus Rex habet in balliva cle Bers quia plures sunt 
ibidem minerie quam in balliva de dene omnia sicuti in balliva 
de dene hoc excepto, quod habet hide per septimanam xxiiij 
summas minerie quae vocantur Laweore et dat propter hoc 
operatoribus per septimanam ij solidos. Dominus Rex habet in 
balliva de Stauntune mineriam et capit incle omnia sicuti in 
balliva de Magna Dene hoc excepto, quod dominus rex habebit 
de quolibet operatori qui poterit lucrari per septimanam tres 
summas minerie unum obolum per septimanam et non amplius. 

Item si dominus Rex habeat vnam forgeam errantem predicti 
operarii invenient ei mineam ad sustentacionem predicts forgese 
et dominus rex dabit eis pro qualibet summa j denarium. 

Item Dominus rex habebit de qualibet summa minerie quae 
ducetur extra forestam vnum obolum et Omnia quae dominus rex 
capit de mineria ponitur ad firmam per xlvj li. 

Item in balliva de Lacu est minea et Dominus Ricardus 
Talebatt 1 habet earn et nescitur quo warranto, et dominus rex 
nihil inde capit. 

Item Comes Warwychye habet mineriam in bosco suo de 
Lideneye et dominus rex nichil inde capit, nisi de mineria quae 
cariatur extra forestam obolum. 

Jurati dicunt quod fforestarii capiunt coperones lignorum 
liberatorum mineariis ad bonduram minearum et faciunt inde 
comodum suum. 

' Sir Richard Talbot, of Goodrich Castle ? 

3n (nUntoriam* 


Since the issue of the last Part of our Transactions the Society has lost 
another of its Original Members in the decease of Dr. Paine, of Stroud, 
after an illness of considerable duration. He was a native of Stroud, and 
was born on the 28th April, 1824, and died the 15th June, 1890, aged 66 

Dr. Paine was much respected in the town for his great professional 
skill, his liberality, his unobtrusive and always courteous demeanour, and 
his devotion to all good works. He was greatly instrumental in the erection 
of the Hospital in the town, and took the greatest interest in its 
management afterwards, visiting it daily. He was very active in the 
establishment of the Cemetery, was the first Chairman of the Board of 
Health, was strenuous in the effort to form a Mechanics' Institute, and sub- 
sequently of the Stroud Institute ; he encouraged young men in the study of 
Art and Science, and himself formed and conducted a class in Physiology. 
He was a great promoter of the foundation of the School of Art and of 
the Stroud Natural History and Philosophical Society, and in advancing 
other philanthrophical objects. He was in the Commission of the Peace 
for the County of Gloucester, and was a member of the Royal Geological 
Society, the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club from its foundation, and of 
the Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, on the Council of which 
he served for some years. He frequently attended the meetings of the 
Society, but he has not enriched the Transactions with any communication. 

Notices of Recent Arch.eological Publications, 371 

£Lotms of ilemtt JUchftotogical & historical publications. 

CALENDAR OF STATE PAPERS (Domestic Sekies) of the Reign of 
Charles I., 1644-1645, preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office. 
Edited by William Douglas Hamilton, F.S.A., of Her Majesty's Public 
Record Office and the University of London. London : Printed for the 
Public Record Office, 1890. 

This is one of the most interesting of the volumes of the Domestic Series 
of the State Papers which have been issued, for it embraces the most critical 
period of the great Civil War, when the fate of the country was, as it were, 
hanging in the balance. The last of Mr. Hamilton's volumes brought down 
the history of thi3 important period to the end of Sept. 1644, covering the 
three campaigns of that eventful year. That volume was noticed in Vol. XIII. 
of our Transactions. The volume now before us includes a further period of 
9 months, extending from 1st October, 1644, to 30th June, 1645. 

The greater number of the Papers calendared in this volume relate to the 
military affairs of the Parliamentary party, as we should expect to find from 
the fact that they were derived almost entirely from Derby House. The 
earlier documents exhibit the miserable condition of the Parliamentary army, 
and the privations the soldiers endured led to desertions and insubordination, 
in some cases amounting almost to open revolt ; nevertheless the men fought 
well when brought into the field. Very great evils, however, arose from the 
jealousies and ill-feeling which existed between the less important officers, 
but these were mere trifles as compared witli the great quarrel that took 
place between the Earl of Manchester and Cromwell, which, in effect, led to 
changes in the personel of the army, the total overthrow of the Constitution, 
and the death of the King. Before, however, we notice this part of the 
subject we must not fail to advert to the fact that the first measure taken on 
the opening of the new year was the attainder and subsequent execution of 
the venerable Archbishop of Canterbury. The two Hothams, and Sir Alex- 
ander Carew, had already been brought to the block. 

On the 4th January, 1644-5, the Ordinance of Attainder of the Archbishop 
was brought into the Commons and hurried through both houses on the same 
day. He was charged with various offences, which were enumerated in the 
Ordinance, and it was declared that "the said Archbishop shall stand and 
be adjudged attainted of high treason, and shall suffer the pains of death and 
incur all forfeitures," &c. , though there was not one of the allegations which 
would legally fall under the law of treason, and so conscious were his per- 
secutors of this that provision was made in the Ordinance that no judge or 
judges, whatsoever, should interpret any act to be treason in any other 
manner than they would have done before this Ordinance was made. 
Nevertheless, under this arbitrary and illegal proceeding, the aged Arch- 
bishop, without regard to his sacred office, was put to death on Tower Hill 
six days afterwards. 

372 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

We now turn to the great quarrel between the Earl of Manchester and 
Oliver Cromwell. We all know that after the overthrow of the Church the 
Parliamentary party became divided into two sections, each bitterly hostile 
to the other. The object of the Presbyterians, to which section the Earl 
of Manchester belonged, was to conquer the King so far only as to constrain 
him to accept the Presbyterian regime and other changes in religion arising 
therefrom. The Independents, on the other hand, including all the numer- 
ous and violent sectaries — Broumists, Anabaptists, Antinonimns, Seekers, 
Socinians, &c, &c. , which naturally arose when all religious restraint was 
removed, went much further than pure democracy. They felt that even if 
the King could be forced to yield to all their demands, he would still be 
King, and they feared to face all the pains and penalties to which their 
consciences told them their conduct had rendered them liable, and they there- 
fore determined upon his destruction. Of this party Cromwell was the leader. 

Moreover, another important matter was at stake. For many centuries 
the nobles and great landed gentry of the kingdom, who were the natural 
leaders of the people, had been the chief officers of the army, and had led 
the army to victory on many a gallant field. 

This system, however, neither in principle nor practice, suited Cromwell's 
designs. It was an obstacle in his way which he determined to remove, and 
what he determined upon his strong, imperious, and unscrupulous will gener- 
ally enabled him to accomplish. To attain his object he thwarted, as far 
as he could, the tactics of the Earl of Manchester, under whom he served as 
second in command, and represented the failure of every enterprise as the 
fault of his general, whose object, he said, was not to crush the King too 
completely in the field but to constrain him to make some compromise. 
Cromwell's charges against the Earl may be resolved into : 

1st. His backwardness to all action, his neglecting opportunities, and 
declining to take or pursue advantages against the enemy. 

2nd. Which was still more galling : that he had expressed much con- 
tempt and scorn of commands from the parliament, or the committee of both 
kingdoms (Cal., p. 143). 

There may be some truth in these averments. Manchester may have had 
these patriotic feelings, but it is manifest from the documents collected by 
the late Mr. John Bruce, and printed by the Camden Society (Misc. Vol. XII. 
N.S.), that on many occasions Cromwell intentionally had witheld that sup- 
port in action required from the cavalry under his command. Moreover, it is 
alleged that he conspired to get rid of all the high mini led officers under his 
command whom he could not bend to his will, and to fill the vacancies by 
men of low birth and of his own sect, of whose subserviency to himself he 
felt assured. One of the witnesses declares that Colonel Cromwell in raising 
the regiment "makes choyce of his officers, not [from] such as were soldiers or 
men of estate but such as were common men, pore and of mean parentage, only 
he would give them the title of godly pretious men ; yet his common practise 
was to casheire honest gentlemen and souldiers that were stout in the cause, 
as I conceive, witnes those that did suffer in that case." (Camden Pub., p. 72) 

The charges brought by Cromwell against the Earl of Manchester, 
the nature of which we have briefly stated above, are somewhat lengthy, 
but they have been very carefully calendared by Mr. Hamilton, as well 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 373 

as the evidence in support thereof, which has not hitherto been printed. 
There are, however, no documents in the Derby House collection to shew 
Manchester's defence, and it was thought that no such evidence existed. 
Fortunately this is a mistake. Some documents are printed in Rushworth's 
collection (Vol. V., pp. 734-736), and a further portion in the collection 
made by the late Mr. John Bruce, before referred to, in the Camden Mis- 
cellany, Vol. VIII., N.S., by Mr. S. R. Gardiner, LL.D. 

These proceedings caused very strong contentions between the friends of 
the respective parties. Mr. Hamilton, in the Preface to this volume, has 
entered very fully into the controversy, but we have neither space nor 
inclination to join in it, and do not share in all Mr. Hamilton's views upon 
the question, which was never cleared up, but was dropped on the passing of 
the Self Denying Ordinance, under which all members of either house of 
parliament were required to resign their commissions in the army. Under 
this Ordinance the Earls of Essex, Manchester, Stamford, and other lords 
and many gentlemen became disqualified and retired. Sir Thomas Fairfax 
became commander in chief, and Cromwell, as Lieut. -General commanding 
the Horse, the second in command. Thus the first step of the Republican 
programme was gained. Cromwell, as a member of parliament, should have 
been included in the Ordinance, and so he was, but he knew how to play 
his cards so as to escape it. Fairfax and Cromwell now had a free hand. 
Not only were the " aristocrat*" excluded from the " New Model," but all 
their friends, and all who had rendered themselves in any way inimical 
to the Independent faction. 

The process of " New Modelling " was professedly carried out by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax under the direction of the Committee for the two kingdoms, 
but the moving spirit was Cromwell. When the "New Modelling" was 
completed neither the commander in chief, nor Cromwell, nor the Committee 
would seem to have had much confidence in the New Army. Orders were 
given that the forces under Fairfax and Cromwell should unite with those 
under Major-General Richard Browne and prepare to besiege Oxford, and 
that the more hazardous task of resisting the King's army, which, under 
Prince Rupert, was marching northwards, should be entrusted to the Scots 
under the Earl of Leven, but the successes of the Royalists under Montrose 
frustrated these plans. 

We cannot follow the movements of the opposing forces during'the 
spring, but on the 14th June was fought the fatal battle of Naseby — fatal to 
the Royal cause. The King's army was greatly out-numbered, and suffered 
a signal defeat, from which his cause never recovered. 

FORT ANCIENT, the Great Pre-historic Earthwork of Warren County, 
Ohio, compiled from a careful Survey, with an account of its Mounds and 
Graves, a Topographical Map, 35 full-page Prototypes, and Surveying 
Notes in full. By Warren K. Moorhead, of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. Miss Millard, Teddington, Middlesex, 1890. 

This great earthwork is described as "situated on a slightly rollino- 
plateau " on the left bank of the Little Miami River, and as " the greatest 
of all the Pre-historic Earthworks in the Mississippi basin." It has been 
very carefully surveyed, mapped, and illustrated by the author and his 

374 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

assistants. It consists of two forts, called the New Fort and the Old Fort, 
which are connected by a narrow neck or isthmus about a fifth of a mile in 
length and strongly fortified at each end. The fortress lies about north-east 
and south-west, and from point to point in a straight line measures about 
5000 feet. The walls, which are composed of tough alluvial clay, and 
average 9 or 10 feet in height, extend in circuit upwards of 10 miles. It 
is remarkable that in some parts the ditch is within the walls, which are 
very carefully and particularly described. 

There are five " small mounds," or barrows, within the area of the New 
Fort, and on the isthmus and Fort Ancient are numerous stone graves. 
They were very carefully opened and drawings made and photographs taken 
of their contents. It is stated that in the centre of the Old Fort is a large wal- 
nut stump, around which are many graves, which are about 2^ft. in depth. 
These graves are formed of limestones brought from the ravines adjacent or 
the river valley below, and are placed on each side of the skeletons at the 
head and at the feet and over them. The skeletons found in the cemetery 
are said to be of an average size, being about 5 feet 6 ins. in height. In one 
interment the skeleton was found quite complete and well preserved. It 
had a large circle of stones placed around it. This is figured on PI. XXVI. 
Together with it were found various relics : e.g., near the left shoulder were 
remains of pottery broken into small fragments. Near the left femur was a 
large spear-head of yellow flint, and near the right femur was a large stone 
celt. About twenty skeletons were taken out of this graveyard in various 
stages of decomposition. They were mostly much decayed. Some of them, the 
author says, " were as deep below the surface as 3^ feet." But we must not 
delay by giving a description of relics found in these interesting excavations, 
but refer the reader to Mr. Moorhead's valuable volume. They consisted of 
stone implements, axes, hammers, celts, &c, much resembling those found 
in Europe. 

In the river valley below Fort Ancient is the site of a large village. It 
extended over a space about half a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. 
At the depth of 2 feet were found numerous bones of animals, ashes, and 
fragments of pottery. The bones were mostly in small pieces, and not nearly 
so numerous as those found at a depth of 4 feet ; shewing that 4 feet of soil 
had accumulated since the former, or great village, had been abandoned, and 
indicating that a long period of time had elapsed. At the lower level, 
pottery of a beautiful texture and finish, and implements of a better character 
were found than those discovered at the higher level. 

The following description is given of the section of the excavations on the 
site of the village: — First, there is a layer of loam about 2ft. thick, then there 
is a thin deposit of ashes, charcoal, &c. Then there are from 2ft. to 30ins. of 
sand and loam, and a heavy deposit of refuse. At 5ft. we find, in places, a 
thick layer of bones, pottery, &c. ; it is not, however, continuous like the 4ft. 
layer (before mentioned), and the village that left it was not so large as the 
two later ones. In some excavations the bones are few, and the mussel 
shells scarce. In others we seem to strike the site of a lodge and find many 
remains of occupation. 

A few pieces of pottery of a dark red colour, which were thick and 
clumsy, and a few bird bones were all that were found at 2 ft. from the 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 375 

surface. From a depth of 2 ft. , until we reached a depth of 4 ft. , we found 
nothing. At 4ft. we found the greatest deposit of objects described. At this 
level we found a large black mass of ashes and soft earth, and burnt stone, 
such as would result from long continued cooking on one spot of ground. In 
this mass of ashes were the bones of 17 animals and birds and many fish scales. 
We also took out 8 bone needles and awls, such as the women of the tribe 
would use for the manufacture of garments of deer-skin. Some of the 
pottery fragments found at this level were quite large and nicely decorated. 
The bones represent the following animals and birds : — bear, deer, elk, 
musk-rat, ground-hog, raccoon, squirrel, rabbit and wolf, wild turkey, wild 
duck, hawk, owl, quail, cat-fish, turtle and gar. Deer antlers also were 
taken out, some of which had been artificially sharpened to be used as needles 
or perforators. The large bones of the deer and bear had been split to extract 
the marrow. 

One of the most interesting discoveries was the skeleton of a child 3 ft. 
deep in the ground. It was 18 ins. in length, and was covered with large 
stones. " It was nearly doubled up, as if it had been placed in a sitting 
posture and allowed to fall over." In the grave, together with other relics, 
was found a fine arrow-head of clear chalcedony. The skeleton of another 
infant less than a foot in length was found in the same village site, as was 
also that of a young woman about 20 years of age, whose skull is well 
formed and the facial angle good ; and, it is remarked, that the skulls found on 
Fort Ancient are a fine type with large brain cavity, indicating a superior 
race of people, while some few skulls were found on the village site which 
were very thick, low, and ill-shaped, the facial angle very acute, the fore- 
head running immediately back, like that of an African, shewing that two 
races of people had inhabited the village. 

The book is stated to have been written in the field, which adds to its 
interest, and may account for some defects in the arrangement, nevertheless 
it is most interesting and valuable, though it sadly wants an index. 

By W. J. Ashley, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. The Middle 
Ages. London : Rivingtons, Waterloo Place, 1888. 

Mr. Ashley introduces his subject with a description of the Agricultural 
Condition of England in Mediaeval Times, explaining the working of the 
Open Field System. He takes a very wide view of the subject, describing 
the various theories which have been formed of the origin of manors from 
that held by the late Mr. J. M. Kemble, now, we believe, generally exploded 
as regards this country, down to that of Mr. Seebohm, whose system the 
author very succinctly, lucidly, and favourably describes. 

Our author draws attention to the great changes which had taken place 
in the relative number of classes forming the population, and of the number 
of individuals belonging to each class of the rural population as described in 
Domesday, as well as in the customals of the end of the 13th century which 
still exist. Whereas in the former record, generally, the population of a manor 
was grouped chiefly under 3 grades : — villans, cottars or bordars, and serfs, or 
slaves as he denominates them, in the latter appear 6 or 8 or even 10 classes. 

376 Notices of Recent Arch-cological Publications. 

He says " the changes appear bewildering in their complexity and variety," 
Such changes, however, appear natural in a period of two centuries. Besides 
it may be observed that he has omitted to mention among the Domesday 
grades those of freemen, radchenistre, &c. It must be admitted that, com- 
paratively, these were few in number, nevertheless freemen are included in 
the great Intpuest, and it is this class in which the greatest increase in 
number, noticed by Mr. Ashley, is found. Other denominations also exist in 
the record to which Mr. Ashley does not allude. 

The great disparity in this proportionate number, especially in the class 
of freeman, is very marked and the causes which led to it, as pointed out by 
the author, are of much interest, and form not the least valuable portion of 
the work. 

Having disposed of the Manor and Village Community the author pro- 
ceeds to shew what was the condition of the urban population in mediaeval 
times. The great and beneficial influence exercised by the gilds during this 
period is even yet scarcely recognised. They pervaded the whole of the dwellers 
in large towns, extending into the smaller country towns, and even into coun- 
try parishes. Mr. Ashley treats of the subject very comprehensively and clearly 
under the several heads of The Merchant Gilds, the origin of the Craft Gilds, 
and the relations between these two classes, which were not always amicable. 
And an account is given of the Internal Organization of the latter. Of the 
Social and Religious Gilds he does not write. Our space will not permit us to 
treat so fully as we could wish of this valuable little work. We cannot, how- 
ever, refrain from saying a few words on the subject of Craft Gilds, and, except 
with reference to the crafts themselves, our remarks will also apply to the 
Social Gilds. The objects of the ancient Gilds were very unlike those of the 
modern Trades Union, which are based upon greed and fraudulent dealing. The 
object of ancient Gilds was the general welfare of the Craft, Masters as well 
as men. And this was sought to be attained by the use of the best materials 
and the best workmanship, which were strictly supervised by the masters, 
wardens, overseers, &c. , of the Gild who were elected annually in a full assem- 
bly of the brethren. And an offending member was expelled by a similar full 
meeting. The credit of the craft was at stake. And this sense of brotherhood 
extended to every relation in life. If a member was sick he was visited by his 
brethren, and every necessary, medically or otherwise, was provided for him 
from the general stock. If he fell into poverty without any fault of his own, 
he was assisted. If he died, the necessaries for his funeral were provided, 
as were the religious rites and ceremonies, and the brethren of the Gild 
attended his funeral, and, moreover, the interests of his children, if they 
needed it, were carefully attended to. 

The last chapter treats of "Economic Theories and Legislation. " Into 
this we must not enter. It may suffice to say that it inculcates in all tran- 
sactions the principle of just dealing between man and man. We have 
seldom read a work with greater pleasure. It is brimful of information 
throughout, and marks very exensive reading, and careful and close study. 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 377 

STUDIES IN EVOLUTION & BIOLOGY. By Alice Bodington. London : 
Elliot Stock, 1890. 

GLIMPSES INTO NATURE'S SECRETS, or Strolls on Beach and Down. 
By Edward Martin. London : Elliot Stock, 1890. 

author of Sketches from Real Life. London : Elliot Stock, 1890 
A CONSIDERATION OF GENTLE WAYS, and other Essays. By Edw. 
Butler, author of Good Consideration. London : Elliot Stock, 1890. 
NEWSPAPER REPORTING in olden time and to-day. By John Pendle- 
ton, author of History of Derbyshire Ac. London : Elliot Stock, 1890. 

We are much indebted to Mr. Stock for the above batch of little books, all 
of which are of considerable interest, and we proceed to give short notices of 
them seriatim. 

Studies in Evolution and Biology. — This little volume forms a small 
Manual on a very large and important subject, only recently introduced as a 
science by the late Mr. Darwin, whose theory has been very hesitatingly 
and cautiously received ; nevertheless the discoveries which have been since 
made are certainly very startling. They cannot, however, we conceive, be 
fully accepted at present. They require further careful investigation and 

The author says she is old enough to remember that most of the facts of 
Zoology which were considered special stumbling blocks in accepting Dar- 
win's theory of Evolution, proved special triumphs from the attention which 
they drew ; amongst other objections it was said, if horses had been evolved 
(from Eohippus, an animal about the size of a cat, the remains of which are 
found in New Mexico, which is supposed to be the progenitor of the horse), 
a five-toed form would have existed, and the five-toed form has been found. 
And it is said that " The pedigree of the horse is one of peculiar interest 
owing to the high state of specialization reached by this animal, and the 
completeness with which every step in its progress has been followed. " 

No scientist, we believe, denies that evolution to some extent may exist, 
and we are willing to admit that disused members may, in the lapse of ages, 
disappear or become modified and adapted to other purposes more suitable 
to the environment of the animal, but we hesitate to accept all the theories 
laid down. 

The author gives a very interesting account of the evolution of the eye, 
leading up to the most amazing description of the processes of evolution in 
all classes of animals arising from their environment as regards climate, 
food, natural selection, and other circumstances. All this is of great interest, 
but it is impossible here to follow her through it, especially as Darwin and 
his disciples differ in opinion upon the subject. 

The most absorbing interest, however, is centred in the antiquity, greater 
or less, of Man, and the work of the hands of Man, whch are more enduring 
than Man himself. These have been found in the drift gravels of the tertiary 
age, accompanied with the remains of the mammoth, the woolly rhinocerns, 
the cave lion, the cave bear and other of the large mammalia, man's contem- 

" We have no means," Sir John Lubbock says, " of measuring the antiquity 
of Man, and it may be doubted whether even geologists realize the great 

37S Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

antiquity of our race." Some have attributed to it millions of years, but these 
estimates are avowedly conjectural and at best approximate. The changes 
which have taken place since his appearance is evidence of a vast, we may 
almost say an inconceivable period of time. .Sir John Lubbock writes: " The 
climate of Europe has changed, valleys have been deepened, widened and 
partially filled up again, caves through which subterranean rivers once 
ran are now left dry, even the configuration of the land has been materially 
altered, Africa finally separated from Europe," and, we may add, England 
from France. 

In California among the rude implements found with the remains of 
Man, Mr. Wallace tells us (Nineteenth century, Vol. XXII , p. 676) that "in 
1860-1869 many mortars, pestles, and other stone implements were found in 
the lower gravels beneath lava beds, and in other auriferous gravels and clays 
at a depth of 150 feet." This would certainly indicate that the fabricators 
of these vessels could be none other than truly Man, and man possessed of 
some amount of civilization. Can it be supposed, in the face of this fact, 
that the theory of the author of the little book before us, that Man was 
evolved from the Lemur, a monkey, of which living specimens are common 
in the Island of Madagascar. 

That man existed upon the earth before the Glacial period must be 
admitted by every one who has at all considered the subject with a candid 
mind. How much earlier there is, as yet, but doubtful evidence. Some 
geologists believe that traces of Man have been found as early as the 
Pliocene or even the Miocene epochs. The above admission, of course, in- 
volves the existence of Man, perhaps various races of Man, before and at the 
creation of Adam, though inferior to him who was created in the image of 
Cod. There is not anything in this theoiy to question the authority of the 
Book of Genesis — God forbid ! On the contrary it is, in our opinion, strictly 
in accordance with, and confirms and supports, the text of Holy Scripture ; 
but we cannot enter upon this subject here. 

Glimpses into Nature's Secrets. — To all who take an interest in the 
various living creatures they may see in their walks, and desire to become 
acquainted with their habits and characteristics, this little volume will be 
an acceptable acquisition, aud especially will it be so to young people and 
intelligent children. 

Mr. Martin divides his work into two sections. In the first he treats of 
the more familiar of the creatures found on the sea beach. He directs 
attention to the escallop, and points out the minute organisms which form 
the thriving colonies on the back of his shell. Oysters, mussels, the sea 
urchin and star-fish, together with numerous other waifs from the sea, which 
thousands daily pass by unobserved, receive his attention and form subjects 
for his interesting remarks or their habits and instincts. 

The second section commences with the description of a "Ramble over 
the Downs." which encircle on three sides the town of Brighton. In this 
the author treats of a subject of a different class from that beforementioned, 
though not of less interest. After describing, generally, the beautiful and 
diversified scenery which this ramble affords — deversified by reason of the 
geological formation of the district, shewing the changes which, during the 

Notice* ok Recent Archaeological Pcblications. 379 

lapse of untold ages, it has undergone, all of which he has explained, the 
author proceeds to describe a geological journey across the country from 
London to Brighton. This journey perhaps affords an opportunity of view- 
ing as interesting and instructive a section of country as could readily be 
found. To say nothing of the London basin, Mr. Martin conducts his readers 
to some of the most illustrative sections shewn in precipices, railway cut- 
tings, &c, which exhibit very fully the stratification of the counties of 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex. These chapters are pregnant with information 
concerning the science of which they treat, delivered in a very pleasing 
manner, and cannot fail to be interesting and instructive to all who have a 
taste for the study of geology. 

Passing Thoughts of a Working Man. — Whether or no the author of 
these Essays be as he describes himself we cannot say. The first three "On 
Woman" are crude and impracticable enough, but the remainder, especially 
those on " Poetry," shew a degree of scholarship, culture and apt illustration 
which we should not expect from a Working Man. 

The writer is an ardent lover of Nature, and his descriptions shew a 
remarkable faculty of observation and poetic description rarely met with 
except in some of the best writers. Some portions are very amusing. We 
can cordially commend the litle work to the perusal of all classes. 

A Consideration of Gentle Ways. — The moral teaching of this little work 
is excellent, except the chapter on " Parables and Apologues," the state- 
ments in which are incorrect and offensive ; and the work, we think, is not a 
safe one to put into the hands of children, or young persons, in consequence 
of the indefinite religious opinions of the writer. 

Newspaper Reporting. — Mr. Pendleton affords much curious information 
upon a subject of the details of which the public have but little acquain- 
tance, though the reporters are continually before us ministering to our curi- 
osity or our knowledge. Though newspapers had their advent in England 
no longer ago than the middle of the seventeenth century, by the ability and 
dogged perseverance of the leaders of the press, undeterred by any false 
sense of modesty, the Press has now become an important factor in State 
affairs and in all commercial pursuits. The Newspaper Reporter is ubiqui- 
tous. There is no public affair of interest, or event of importance, at which 
he is not present to chronicle its history. Through his means, reports of the 
debates in parliament at night are laid on our breakfast tables the follow- 
ing morning, with the long speeches of our leading statesmen often printed 
in extenso. The marvel is by what means is this great task effected ! Mr. 
Pendleton takes us behind the scenes and shews us the machinery through 
which it is accomplished. The recent practice of what is called "Interview- 
ing " is, we consider, most objectionable. 

But this is not all. The reporters even follow our armies into the field 
of battle, and their reports have not unfrequently done much mischief in 
consequence of their having wormed out secrets from the more inexperienced 
officers, and published them in the newspapers, insomuch that some of the 
more cautious of our Generals have forbidden the presence of reporters with 
an army in the field. 

380 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Mr. Pendleton traces the history of reporting from the old news-letters of 
the 16th and 17th centuries down to the present time, and relates many 
incidents and traditions of the " Galleries " of the Houses of Parliament, and 
amusing anecdotes of the hattles between the reporters and the House of 
Commons, in which the former were, eventually, the victors, and also some 
remarkable experiences and adventures in carrying out their arduous duties. 
The little book is very readable and in many parts amusing. 

CALENDAR OF THE STATE PAPERS relating to Ireland, of the Reign 
of Elizabeth, 1592, October— 1596, June, preserved in the Public Record 
Office. Edited by Hans Claude Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A., late an Assistant 
Record Keeper, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls and with 
the sanction of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department. 
London : Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office by Eyre and Spottis- 
woode, 1890. 

We gladly welcome Mr. Hamilton's new volume of the Calendar of State 
Papers for Ireland. The last volume was issued as long ago as 1886, but we 
know that Mr. Hamilton has, from time to time, been taken off this work to 
undertake duties considered to be of greater importance, or more pressing. 
The last volume brought down the Irish Records to the end of September, 
1592, and this commences on the 16th of the following month and extends 
to the end of June, 1596, a period of three years and nine months. 

In noticing the last volume (ante Vol. X., 346) we mentioned the defeat 
and destruction of the great Spanish Armada, and commented on the bar- 
barous cruelties perpetrated in cold blood by the Irish on the shipwrecked, 
castaway, and defenceless Spanish seamen. The destruction of the great 
fleet which had been prepared at an incalculable cost in confident expect- 
ation of conquest, greatly mortified the pride of the Spanish monarch, whilst 
the inhuman cruelties practised on his defenceless subjects naturally aroused 
his wrath and indignation, and determined him to pursue the war by every 
means in his power, and avenge the great indignity he had sustained and 
the intolerable sufferings of his people. 

The administration of the government of Ireland was at this time vested 
in Sir William Fitzwilliams as Lord Deputy. Mr. Hamilton observes that 
"he managed the Earl of Tyrone much better than did his successor, Sir 
William Russell, for he knew not only the Earl, but also the valour and 
disposition of his own English colleagues, and the best way to treat them. 
As for Sir William Russell, his overbearing carriage towards Sir John 
Norris and other eminent soldiers gave Tyrone ample opportunities to 
secure a much firmer hold of confederates than could have been possible for 
him under better and more united rule." 

The Irish malcontent chieftains were only too ready to second the King 
of Spain in his designs, and the arrival of Edmund M'Gauran, whom the 
Pope, upon Philip's recommendation, had appointed Archbishop of Armagh 
and Primate of Ireland, direct from the Spanish court with liberal promises 
of support from the King, encouraged the northern chiefs in their rebellious 
attitude, and the archbishop, who would seem to have been a man of cour- 
age, tact, and ability, was very successful in reconciling any jealousies or 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 381 

differences which existed among them. Sir Richard Bingham, on the 6th of 
June, reports to Burghley that " one M'Gauran, who terms himself Primate, 
doth much mischief, riding on his chief horse with his staff and a shirt of 
mail," but in the same month he was slain at Maghary with seven or eight of 
the Maguires. 

The death of M'Gauran brought the Earl of Tyrone to the front of the 
rebels, though he did not appear publicly, but dissembled, protesting his 
loyalty. He even went so far as to join Sir Henry Bagenall, the Marshal, in an 
expedition against the Maguires, and crossing a ford called Cooloyne, near 
Beleek, defeated them witli loss of more than one-third of their number. In 
the pursuit he got shot through the leg with a dart, and would have been slain 
had he not been rescued. He made a great parade of this wound as evidence 
of his loyalty. Writing to the council on the 5th of November, he says, " If 
I had been in good state of health, able to have written to you of the good 
success which we have had against Maguire I would before this time 
have informed you of the manner of this service, as how every man played 
his part in the same to the honour of her Majesty, and to the confusion of 
the rebel's force, but by reason it was my hap in that day's service to receive 
a dangerous wound in my right leg, which [was] quite run through with a 
spear, on account of which wound I am not yet able to stand but upon a 
crutch, I could not as I fain would inform your Lordship of that matter. 
Now that I feel in myself a little recovery and amendment of my hurt, I 
thought good to signify unto you how that service was taken in hand and 
performed ; being glad, though my hurt was sore, that for a testimony of 
my loyalty and faithfulness to serve Her Majesty it was my chance to have 
a print in my body of this day's service, as I have had many other before 
this time ; not doubting that my blood now lost in this and other services 
heretofore will satisfy the Queen's Majesty, and confirm her good opinion of 
me and also your Lordships'." (170) A letter of commendation was written 
to him by the council. 

This skirmish was of considerable importance, as it was the cause of great 
estrangement between the Earl and Bagenall, brothers-in-law though they 
were, for the Earl had married a sister of the latter, and he considered that 
the Marshal in his official report had not mentioned the Earl's services on 
the occasion as being so important as the Earl himself considered them. 

In 1594 a question of some moment arose as to the liberation of Florence 
McCarthy Reagh, who had been kept a prisoner for many years under very 
romantic circumstances. During the time of the Desmond troubles Queen 
Elizabeth, in order, in some measure, to lessen the influence of that great 
house in Munster, conferred an Earldom on Donnell McCarthy Mor. He 
married a sister of the 15th Earl of Desmond, by whom he had issue a son 
named Tadge, Lord Valentia, who died young s.p., and a daughter, Ellen, 
who became the wife of Florence McCarthy, the supplicant for liberty above- 
mentioned. After the death of his son, the Earl, who had always been ex- 
travagant in his expenditure, became still more reckless. He obtained 
money of a Mr. Nicholas Browne, an undertaker on the Geraldine estate in 
Munster, and contemplated the settlement of this loan by giving his daugh- 
ter, the Lady Ellen, who had become a great heiress, to Mr. Nicholas 
Browne's son in marriage. To this proposal the young lady's mother would 
not for a moment listen, deeming it a great disparagement to the blood of 

Vol. XIV. 2b 

382 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

a McCarthy and a Desmond ; and early in 1589 a private marriage was 
arranged between the Lady Ellen and Florence McCarthy. The result of 
this runaway match would on the death of the Earl be the uniting of the 
territories of McCarthy Reagh and McCarthy Mor in one person, and 
the Desmonds having been destroyed, a McCarthy on such a scale, with 
the influence arising from the alliances of the two united houses, would 
become the strongest man in Munster ; and it was a settled policy of the 
English government to break up the large and powerful estates. The Queen 
was exceedingly wroth, and commanded that Florence should be sent a 
prisoner to London, and he was committed to the Tower, where he remained 
a close prisoner for two years. His wife meanwhile took refuge among her 
own people. After the expiration of two years the Queen was pleased to 
grant considerable amelioration of Florence's imprisonment. He was allowed 
out of the Tower on parole, but he was to remain in London, or within three 
miles of it, and not to approach the Court. His wife was permitted to be 
with him, and this continued for another two years. His lands, however, 
had been extented, so that he could not obtain any revenue from them. He 
was consequently greatly in debt. His condition is shewn by the following 
pathetic letter addressed to Lord Burghley. He is described as a scholar 
and man of gigantic stature, notwithstanding which, he is said to have 
"used his pen more readily than his sword." He was certainly an accom- 
plished letter-writer. 

1592. June 17. 

" Right Hon. my most humble dutie remembered. Having heeretofore 
divers times entreated your Hon. LoP to be a meane unto Her Ma 1 that I 
might have leve to go into my countrey, seeing that I have no means to 
maintain myself here, and perceevinge by Your LoP at my being with your 
Honor, that you moved Her Ma'tie therein, whom your Lor found unwilling 
to grant it, I have thereupon caused my wife not to trouble Her Ma'tie any 
further for the same, and willed her to sue for some maintenance whereby 
myself and Shee might, until Her Ma'tie granted my liberty which she hath 
don, still since my being with your LoP, all which time I could never acquaint 
your LoP vv ithal, because I dare not go before your LoP or anywhere else abroad 
for fear of being arested for myne owne and my wyfes diet ; and for as much 
as she do fynd Her Ma'tie well inclined therunto, and that Her Highness 
doth daily promise to give order to your LoP for her, I am therefore most 
humblie to beseech your Hon. LoP to move Her Ma'tie now for me, and to be 
a mean that I may be partly releived with some maintenance whereby myself 
and my wife and folkes may live whyle Her Ma'tie shall think good to kepe me 
here, beseeching Your LoP not to move Her Ma'tie for my liberty to go into 
Ireland, because I am not desirous to go thither, knowing her Ma'tie to be 
unwilling, as also that I have no meanes to leave my wife any maintenance, 
who is great with child, and not able to go any where, thus beseeching your 
LoP to be myndful of me herein, I humbly take leave this 16 th of June 1592. 

Y r LoP s most humble to command 

fflor McCarthy." 

This petition, seconded by the influence of Lord Burghley, was graciously 
accepted by the Queen, and both suits were granted, the one immediately and 
the other without any unnecessary delay. Florence did not receive a sum of 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 383 

money to meet his pressing needs, but what was for the time of equal value, 
a protection against arrest for debt. 

Florence had been married nearly four years and was still without issue, 
and an announcement to Burghley that his wife was pregnant immediately 
reached Ireland. The intelligence of his early return with the Queen's favour 
caused the greatest consternation among those who were anxiously looking 
for his ruin, and the expectation and hope of the birth of a son to inherit 
Carbery from his father and Desmond from his mother, and save from ex- 
tinction the historic designation of MacCarthy Mor stirred the hearts of the 
men of Munster more than the birth of a royal child would have stirred the 
feelings of Englishmen. A male child was born, and as soon as Lady Ellen 
was sufficiently recovered she passed into Munster with the young heir. The 
Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, one of Florence's adversaries, immediately wrote 
to Sir Geoffry Fenton, which shews the manner in which the child was received 
by his father's people : " Heare is a yonge childe of Fynnynge M c Chartyes, 
who after this countr e y manner is used amonge the people as a yonge Prince, 
caryed abowt the contrey with three nurses and six horsemen, when he 
removeth to anie place, and happie is he who can have him to foster for a 
month, and so from moneth to moneth to the best of the contrey to be 
fostred, with such songes of rejoycinge in the praise of his father Fynnynge 
and the yonge Impe, that yt weare good that his father at his Comynge over 
shold be looked unto, wch wilbe shortlie." 

This, however, is a long story, and may be considered a digression, though 
in the case of Florence it was a very important incident in Irish history. Mr. 
Hamilton cites various documents connected with it, but full particulars of 
great interest and historic value are given in "The Life and Letters of 
Florence MacCarthy Reagh. Tanist of Carbery, MacCarthy Mor." By Daniel 
MacCarthy Glas. Published 1867. 

We must now return to the defeat of Maguire, the archtraitor, as he 
is called, at the ford of Cooloyne, on the 10th of October, 1593. It appears 
from a letter of the Lord Deputy to Burghley, on the 16th of the following 
month, that Tyrone had entered very unwillingly into the conflict with 
Maguire on that occasion, and had made an urgent effort to escape from it 
on the previous day, and moreover kept his men sitting on their horses all 
night close to Marshal Bagenal's camp, which the Lord Deputy considered a 
very supicious circumstance. In his letter he encloses (with many other 
documents) a Journal he had received of Bagenal's march through Fermanagh 
(Maguire's country) between 16th Sept. and 24th Nov., which contains a 
daily record of burning and destroying, seizing of cows, and hanging of men ; 
and ten days later we read (p. 192) that Sir George Bingham had sent to his 
brother, Sir Richard Bingham, Governor of Connaught, from The Boyle a 
horse load of heads of Tumultagh Bane, Edmund Duff, and thirty knaves 
more. It goes on to say " the draught was by a man from whom they had 
taken ten cows when they spoiled William M'Costello, and following the 
villains for his cows could get none, yet they going to the north to Maguire 
and Donnell, he staid in Terehale till they returned, and now Tumultagh 
Bane having his friends about him at this Christmas, lacked butter ; to 
supply which want this poor man promised his help and came in all haste 
unto me. He handled the matter wonderfully well, for the place is 12 miles 
from the Boyle, and my cousin Martenie and the soldiers behaved themselves 
2 b2 

384 Notices of Recent Archaeological Phblications. 

very gallantly and painfully, who departed about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 
and by 8 o'clock had dispatched their business." 
The Boyle, 1593, Dec. 17th. 

We are not surprised to read a little further on (p. 252) that " the whole 
of Fermanagh was left desolate, and the people fled. The richest and best 
of the county are fled to the traitor, who is very strong." 

Whether or no after his defeat at the ford of Cooloyne Maguire took 
temporary refuge in his stronghold of Enniskillen Castle is not stated. Capt. 
Dowdall, who had distinguished himself in the fight at the ford, was after- 
wards placed in charge of the garrison left there, and of the whole of the 
force against Maguire. He laid siege to the Castle of Enniskillen, and after 
nine days' investment took it by assault on 2nd February, 1593-4, and was 
afterwards knighted. A Mr. James Eccersall was appointed constable, and 
on the 22nd May following it is stated that on the 17th of that month 
Maguire, the Earl of Tyrone's brother, and the chief est men of Tyrone, had 
had come with a large force and had closely invested the castle. A sharp 
engagement ensued on the same day (250), and on the 8th June he prays 
he may be relieved in good time, and on the 11th he complains of the 
wicked practices of Maguire against the castle by drafts, ambushes, and 
treacheries (255). Sir William Russell, who was appointed to succeed Sir 
William Fitz Williams, who had resigned on account of ill-health, arrived 
on the 3rd August, and at once complained of want of money, and delayed 
to receive the sword until he may have more money and men, as the 
present rebellion requires, saying the enemy groweth very strong. It is 
thought that 700 men will not be able to relieve the castle of Enniskillen. 
On the 11th he received the sword, and on the 19th he marched to the 
relief of Enniskillen at the head of 1000 foot and 200 horse, and effected 
temporary relief. In the meanwhile the Earl of Tyrone had come in volun- 
tarily, making all kinds of professions of loyalty and promises, to cajole the 
new Deputy, not one of which he kept Russell, after a forced and difficult 
inarch over mountains and through bogs, arrived at Enniskillen on the 30th 
August. On the 15th Jan. 1594-5, the Lord Deputy urges upon Burghley 
that if forces be not sent both Enniskillen and the north will be lost. Such 
is the strong combination of the Earl of Tyrone that there is not any dare 
shew himself a dutiful subject. On the 18th May, 1595, the Lord Deputy 
and Council report that Enniskillen had fallen, but not without suspicion of 
treason ; that the constable and warders had come out with bag and baggage, 
and promise of life, but were immediately put to the sword by the traitors 

On the 23rd June, 1595, Tyrone, O'Donnel, O'Rourke, Maguire and Mac- 
Maho'n were proclaimed traitors, and from this date the northern rebellion 
may be said to have commenced. On 9th Sept. of the same year, is announced 
the death of old Sir Turlough Lynagh O'Neill (The O Neill), father of the 
Earl, and that the Earl had become The O'Neill. 

Sir William Russell had asked for a good officer to help him, but to his 
great disgust the Queen sent him Sir John Norris, as General of Her 
Majesty's Army, with almost unlimited authority. This naturally produced 
an ill-feeling between the Lord Deputy and himself, and increased the 
jealousies which had continuously prevailed among the chief of the English 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 385 

officers in Ireland, and, coupled with the extreme parsimony of the Queen, 
formed the bane of every administration in Ireland during her reign. 

The disordered condition of this unhappy country continued, and, indeed, 
rather increased, a series of skirmishes, truces broken as soon as made 
would seem to have continued during the whole period covered by this 
volume, but we mast conclude our notice of this, unhappily the last of Mr. 
Hamilton's volumes, with the hope that his successor may possess as great a 
knowledge of Irish affairs as himself. 

IRELAND UNDER THE TUDORS, with a succinct account of the earlier 
History. By Richard Bagwell, M.A., in 3 volumes, Vol. III. London : 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1890. 

{Second Notice.) 
Ix writing our notice of the first two volumes of this valuable work (ante 
Vol. X. , p. 320 ) we were misled by the title pages in concluding that those 
volumes concluded Mr. Bagwell's work, and expressed our regret that he 
should not have carried his history down to the end of the Tudor dynasty. 
We were glad, therefore, to receive this third bulky volume, of still greater 
interest, in continuation of the two former. 

Mr. Bagwell resumes his narrative from the year 1579, during the 
interval between the departure of Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy, and the 
transfer of the sword to Henry Lord Grey of Wilton. 

The administration was first temporarily entrusted to Sir William Drury, 
in whose period of government the rebellion of James Fitzmaurice of Des- 
mond broke out. 

This James was the nephew of Gerald, the 15th Earl of Desmond, being 
the son of Maurice Fitz John, a younger son of James Fitz John, the 14th 
Earl. He was a man of very high character, as described by Mr. Thomas 
Russell in his "Relation of the Fitzgeralds of Ireland, written in 1638," 
and printed in the Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland. 

Fitzmaurice landed at the Dingle, in Kerry, on the 17th July, 1579, as 
reported by the Portreeve, and issued two proclamations stating very 
plausibly what were his objects. The Irish government hearing of his dis- 
embarkation sent one Henry Davels, a Devonshire gentleman, well known 
and highly respected in Ireland, and then Sheriff of Cork, godfather to Sir 
John of Desmond, to warn the Earl and his brothers, and endeavour to encour- 
age them in their allegiance. Their mission was not a successful one, and 
the messengers on their return towards home were followed by the Earl's 
two brothers, who overtook them at Tralee, and both were basely and 
brutally murdered in their bed. The circumstances are too well known to 
need repetition here. Before he had been in Ireland quite a month James 
Fitzmaurice himself %vas slain under very tragic circumstances, the details of 
which, as stated by Mr. Bagwell, differ considerably from those related in 1638 
by Mr. Russell, but agreeing in this that Fitzmaurice in a brawl with Theobald 
Burke and his brothers, his near relations (according to Mr.Bedwell) the sous 
of Sir William Burke, when one of the retainers of the Burkes shot Fitz- 
maurice in the breast, who feeling that he was mortally wounded a 
desperate dash forward, killed Theobald Burke and one of his bru.hars, a id 

386 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

then fell and breathed his last. This was the beginning of the decay of the 
great house of Desmond. The Queen so sympathized with the deed that 
she created Sir William Baron of Castle Connell immediately afterwards. 
Sir John and James of Desmond received Fitzmaurice with open arms, whilst 
the Earl, their brother, though equally well disposed, prudently dissembled. 
Sir John, immediately on the death of Fitzmaurice, stepped into his place as 
leader of the rebellion. The Earl still held aloof, and even went so far as to 
take part in an expedition against the rebels. But the time soon came when 
he could dally no longer. He was summoned to appear before the Lord Jus- 
tice to answer to certain charges alleged against him, and was told to lose no 
time, for the Lord Justice was determined not to be idle. A certain day 
was given to him, and he was warned that his proclamation as traitor was 
ready, and in case of his default would be published ; but he came not. A 
last chance was given him, still he came not ; and the die was cast. The 
fate of the ancient and historic house of Desmond was sealed. 

The rigours of the war which now ensued were very severe. The whole 
country was burned and wasted. The cows, whose milk formed the chief 
support of the natives, were stolen and slaughtered, and the population, 
men, women and children, left to absolute starvation, or put to the sword, a 
cruelty perhaps more revolting, but not more cruel than starvation, and that 
these acts should be perpetrated under the direction of cultured English 
gentlemen makes one blush for shame. 

Sir William Drury, already in feeble health, was quite worn out by the 
strain upon him, and was obliged to resign his office, and died at Waterford 
on 30th Sept. 1579. He was succeeded by Sir William Pelham as Lord 
Justice, with the Earl of Ormonde as Lord General. These two met at 
Rathkeale and commenced a work of destruction. " The Earl " Mr. Bagwell 
says, " took the Shannon side and the Lord Justice kept inland, spoiling the 
country far and wide, and meeting no enemy. According to the Four Masters, 
they killed blind and feeble men, women, boys and girls, sick people, idiots 
and old people. Four hundred were killed in the woods on the first day, 
and everything that would burn was burned," The fate of a castle belonging 
to Ulick Burke is thus concisely described : "I put the band, both men, 
women and children to the sword." Maltby was playing the same game in 
in Connaught. It is said that Richard Burke, called Richard in Iron, finding 
that Maltby was too strong for him said he was ready to submit. His castle 
was on one of the islands in Clew Bay. Maltby sent to Achill for boats, but 
the weather was so bad that he could not reach the island for a week. In 
the meantime more than 100 of Richard's followers had died of starvation. 

It is only just to the Queen to say she was greatly displeased at these 
atrocities. Pelham's commission was revoked on the loth July, 1. 580, and 
Arthur Lord Grey, of Wilton, K.G., was appointed to succeed him as Lord 
Deputy ; but in the interval between the sealing of the Patent and his 
arrival in Ireland, Pelham determined to make the best of his time in carry- 
ing out his policy. There seemed about this time a disposition among some 
of the leaders of the rebellion to make their submission, but it was required 
of all important persons sueing for mercy that they must first imbrue their 
hands in some better blood than their own. Among others, Sir John of 
Desmond sought to confer with Sir Warham St. Leger, and was told he could 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 3S7 

have his own life by giving up his eldest brother, the Earl, Dr. Sanders, 
and the Seneschal of Immokilly. The most important event, however, which 
marked the remainder of Pelham's administration was the capture and 
execution of Sir James of Desmond. He was wounded in a skirmish and 
taken, and carried to Cork, where he was tried and condemned, and hanged 
drawn and quartered, having in vain begged for summary decapitation to 
avoid a public trial. 

Lord Grey arrived on the 12th August, 1580, and was sworn on the 7th 
September following. He was instructed by the Queen to deal severely with 
" notorious transgressors of the law." On the other hand the Queen said, 
" she was anxious to have it known that she did not wish to extirpate the 
inhabitants of Ireland, as it had been falsely maliciously reported. Outrages 
committed by soldiers were to be severely punished, and officers of high rank 
were not to be exempt." 

Grey, on his arrival, found the country in frightful disorder. Pelham, 
before leaving Minister for Dublin, had placed the army under the command 
of Sir George Bouchier,who immediately entered Kerry with 600 or 700 men, 
and with the help of Lord Fitzmaurine began to devastate the country still 
further. He said his commission was to burn their corn, spoil their harvest, 
and kill and drive their cattle ; but Winter prevailed upon him to spare 
them on the condition of their maintaining a garrison of 200 foot and 30 
horse at Tralee, and give hostages for their good behaviour, otherwise Sir 
George would execute his commission strictly. (68) 

Winter now left, and within a few days a body of Spaniards landed at 
Smerwick. We cannot enter into details which are pretty well known. 
Eventually the Spaniards surrendered, unconditionally, and 600 men were 
slain in cold blood, Walter Raleigh being one of the Captains on duty that 
superintended the butchery. 

The administration of Lord Grey was very unsatisfactory to the Queen, 
and she summoned him to London on the 14th July, 15S2, to confer with 
her on the affairs of Ireland, at the same time expressing an intention of 
sending him back again, which she never did, and Archbishop Loftus and 
Sir Henry Wallop, Lords Justices, were appointed to act in his absence. 
Grey was called the friend and hero of Spenser, nevertheless, Spenser des- 
cribes him as a "bloody man who regarded not the life of Her Majesty's 
subjects no more than dogs, but had wasted and consumed all, so as now she 
hath nothing almost left but to reign in their ashes," and still more harrow- 
ing details. St. Leger states that "nine-tenths of the men had succumbed 
to the sword, the halter, or the pestilence." One circumstance of note, which, 
if proper advantage of it had been taken, might have been of great benefit 
to the country — the death of Sir John of Desmond, who was accidentally 
found almost alone and without defensive armour, and slain on the spot. 
He was the life and soul of the rebellion, and if this blow, Mr. Bagwell 
thinks, had been promptly followed up, all would soon have been over. But 
the Queen " thereupon " ordered the discharge of 700 men. 

Loftus and Wallop were more successful in their administration than 
Grey had been. They were fortunate, in being able to quell the Minister 
rebellion. Most of the principal Irish chieftains came in to Ormonde at 
Cork and made their submission on 10th July, 1.380, giving pledges for their 
future loyalty, and in the mouth of November following the Earl of Desmond 

3S8 Notices of Recent Akch.eological Publications. 

fell into the hands of the O'Moriarties by a surprise at night. He was taken 
from his bed, half asleep, and fearing a rescue they cut off his head on the 
spot. Thus fell the last of the great and powerful Earls of Desmond. He 
was afterwards attainted and 000,000 acres of land were forfeited to the 
crown. The death of the Earl, the particulars of which are fully given by 
Mr. Bagwell, was the last event of importance during the administration of 
the Lords Justices. 

Sir John Perrott was appointed to succeed Lord Grey, by Patent dated 
7th January, 15S3-4. He arrived in Dublin, 9th June, and was sworn on the 
21st of the same month. He was a man of an irascible temperament, but in 
his speech on his installation he gave great satisfaction to the Irish. He said 
that the Queen held her subjects of Ireland equal to those of England, and 
that her care, as well as his own, was to make them equally happy by means 
of good government. He also remarked that he wished to suppress " the 
name of a churl and crushing of churl," and to substitute such terms, as 
husbandman, franklin, and yeoman. But he gave great offence next day by 
not treating the English officers and members of the council with, as they 
thought, proper respect. This was especially felt by Archbishop Loftus and 
Vice Treasurer Wallop, who in place stood next to the Deputy, and who had 
virtually exercised the government for the last two years. 

Although it was said that Minister was completely cowed, Sir William 
Stanley, who governed the province during Sir John Norris's absence in the 
north, found pretences for 300 executions. This he alleged " terrified them 
so that a man now may travel the whole country and none to molest him." 
The President, on his return, declared the country was a waste and depopu- 
late. Even malefactors were scarce, and there was no chance of re-settling 
the province but by importing people." 

We have alluded above to Sir John Perrott's inaugural address as Lord 
Deputy, and, we believe, he honestly endeavoured to carry out his promises. 
This was recognised by the Irish, and he became popular with all classes of 
that people, and they placed confidence in him, to which, probably his fine 
presence, dignified manner, open bearing and, substantially, fair-dealing, 
doutblessly contributed. He succeeded in achieving a task which Sidney 
attempted without success. He induced one-third of the chieftains and 
others of Connaught to be willing to surrender their lands to the Queen, to 
receive them back again by Letters Patent at fixed rents. The plan of the 
composition was a good one, but it was not generally accepted, and even- 
tually it fell through. With his council and his English officials he could 
not succeed. He suffered much in health, and the climate did not suit him, 
and, doubtless, he was oftentimes rude and overbearing, but he was honest 
in all his intentions. It was manifest, however, that good government 
under these conditions was impossible. 

Soon after Perrott's arrival he heard of an irruption of Scots into Ulster, 
and he hastened to meet them, but, to his great disappointment, on his 
arrival there, he found they were all gone, Elizabeth was much displeased, 
and wrote to him a severe letter on the subject. The Scots next invaded 
Connaught, but Bingham made a gallant forced march at night, surprised 
and charged them before they were aware of his presence. The enemy fled 
at once, and the slaughter was terrible. " I was never," Capt. Woodhouse 

Notices of Recent Akch.eological Publications. 389 

said, " so weary with killing of men, for I protest to God, for as fast as I 
could I did but hough and paunch them. In an hour it was all over." 

Perrott had been long desirous to be relieved of his charge. His recall, 
however, it is apprehended, was due rather to the acts of his enemies than in 
deference to his wishes. All he requested, however, was that Sir William 
Fitz Williams, who was appointed to succeed him, might come at once, but 
he came not for six months. Mr. Bagwell writes : " when at last the time 
arrived for delivering the sword to his successor, he presented to the Cor- 
poration of Dublin a silver gilt bowl with his arms and crest and the words 
relinquo in pace " thereon, and he left the country in perfect peace. He said 
to the new Deputy : " There is no ill-minded or suspected person in this 
kingdom, which can carry but six swords after him into the field, but if you 
will name him and shall desire to have him, notwithstanding that I have 
resigned the sword, yet .... if they come not on my word, I will lose the 
merit and reputation of all my service," Fitzwilliams replied that it needed 
it not, for all was well. 

Three days later Perrott left Ireland for ever. "A great number of noble- 
men and gentlemen came to see him off, among whom old Tirlogh Luinleach 
was conspicuous. That representative of an order that had almost passed 
away accompanied him to the ship, and would not put off until the last 
moment. He watched the retreating sail until it was below the horizon, and 
then shed tears ' as if he had been beaten.' Nor was it only lords and chiefs 
who mourned for Perrott. The poor came forty miles to see him pass, pray- 
ing for his long life and striving to take his hand if possible, or to touch the 
hem of his garment. When he asked them why they did so, they answered, 
' That they had never enjoyed their own with peace before his time and did 
doubt that they never should do so again when he was gone.' " Perrott pro- 
ceeded direct to his home at Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire. 

We must add a few lines as to the fate of Perrott, whose enemies followed 
him to England with false accusations of treason, producing a letter, alleged 
to have been written by him offering the Crown of England to Philip of 
Spain on condition of being made hereditary Prince of Wales. The letter 
was shewn to have been forged by one Charles Trevor and one Dennis 
Roughan, both of bad character, the former a convicted perjurer and the lat- 
ter a renegade priest, whom Perrott had imprisoned. Perrott was brought 
to trial for high treason upon this evidence. He would not condescend to 
employ lawyers to defend him. " On one side," writes Mr. Bagwell, "were 
Popham, Egerton and Puckering, (eminent lawyers), and on the other a rough 
old Knight, conscious of many rash speeches but strong in the confidence 
which innocence gives, and renouncing the merits and mercy of his Saviour 
Jesus Christ if he was really guilty. He was supposed to be the illegitimate 
son of King Hen. VIII. , whom he much resembled in person, voice and man- 
ners. He could do little but protest that he was innocent and that Roughan 
and Williams (witnesses against him) were perjured scoundrels. He was 
declared guilty, and Naunton says that on his return to the Tower after his 
trial, he said, in oaths and fury, to the Lieutenant, Sir Owen Hopton — 
"What, will the Queen suffer her brother to be offered up as a sacrifice to 
my frisking adversaries," The Queen, when told of his speech to Hopton 
and the warrant for his execution was presented to her for signature, refused 

390 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

to sign it, and swore by Goi>\s death he should not die, that they were all 
knaves, and that he was a honest and faithful man. 

This brings down the history of Ireland to the end of the first great 
rebellion of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and we must here stay our hand, for we 
have greatly over-run our space, but we hope to return to this interesting 
volume later on. 

Bishopsgate, 1558-1753. Transcribed by A.W. Cornelius Hallem, M.A., 
Aloa, N.B., 1890. 

Since our last notice of these valuable Registers (Vol. XIII. p. 409) Mr. Hallen 
continues to make steady progress. Vol. I. with Title-page and Index, has 
now been completed and issued to the subscribers, and to the Index has been 
added a short Appendix containing certain names which, by some accident, 
were overlooked in arranging the slips. For this Mr. Hallen apologises, 
saying the labour in issuing this series single handed is very severe, and 
expresses a hope that as the value of the transcripts become better known, 
and subscribers increase, he may be able to put the Index into professional 
hands, and thus avoid the blemishes to be found in this volume, some of 
which he has corrected, and further additions and corrections will be found 
in Vol. II. 

In our last notice we stated that of Vol. II. 440 pages had then been 
printed, and at the present time the printing of the text has been extended 
to 632 pages, and the Index to that volume has been worked oft' as far as 
GRA of the alphabet ; and the printing of Vol. III. has been commenced, 
and 208 pages worked off, bringing down the Baptisms to 1667. 

We have only to add that the Editorial care and the beauty of the letter- 
press continues as perfect as at first. 

THE ANTIQUARY.— A Magazine devoted to the Study of the Past. 
Vol. XXL, January to June, 1890. London : Elliot Stock, 1890. 
The "Antiquary" has always been remarkably well conducted, but we 
must confess that under the care of the new Editor it has improved, at least 
we consider the volume before us exceptionally good. The Papers, generally, 
are so interesting it is difficult, and may perhaps be thought invidious, to 
select any for special remark ; nevertheless, there are a few to which we 
should like to invite attention. Among these we would mention the late Mr. 
H. H. Lines's treatise "On Roman Castrametation," who gave twenty years 
study to the subject on which he wrote. It has not been before published, 
and has been obtained for the " Antiquary " through the kindness of Mr. 
Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., the well-known Hon. Secretary of the Powis-land 
Club. The Paper will repay careful and studious reading. 

The " Notes on the late Tudor Exhibition," by the Hon. Harold Dillon, 
F.S.A., and Secretary to the Society, are well deserving special attention. 
Mr. Dillon's remarks on " The Armoury of Henry VIII. and on the Portraits 
in the Exhibition " are of much interest, and his pertinent enquiry as to 
what has become cf all the splendid jewelry which bedeck the Royal and 
Noble portraits is not easily answered. A treatise on the ' ' Armour and 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 391 

Arms at the Tudor Exhibition," by the Baron de Cosson, F.S.A., F.R.G.S., 
should not be passed by, as the Baron is the highest authority we have, or 
perhaps in Europe, on the subject. Whilst praising the magnificence of the 
collection, as far as it goes, he laments the loss of much which must have 
existed during the Tudor period. He says that " a glance around the room 
will shew that English gentlemen of that time were not behind their foreign 
brethren in their appreciation of richly-wrought helmet, breast-plate, sword 
or dagger," and he continues : " Fine as the assemblage of the arms and 
armour at the New Gallery is, it cannot represent a tithe of all the varied 
forms of arms of offence and defence devised by the active ingenuity of the 
craftsmen of those times, nor of the wealth of artistic invention lavished on 
them by men who were in every sense of the term artists." He then proceeds 
to comment on the historical pieces hi chronological order. 

The Baron supplies another Paper which merits notice " On a Collection 
of Sporting Weapons at the Grosvenor Gallery," brought together mainly 
through the energy of Mr. W. H. Spiller, the Hon. Secretary of "that 
armour-loving fraternity known as the Kernoozers Club." This is very 
curious as shewing the origin and growth of sporting weapons as compared 
with their present perfection. 

A series of Papers entitled "The Conference" is commenced in this 
volume, and is of great interest. The first treats of "Marking of Ecclesi- 
astical Altar Stones," in which various writers take part. In the next 
Conference the vexed question of the " Low Side Windows " is discussed, 
and also illustrated ; the writers describe many examples found in various 
places, but any decision on the purpose of the construction and use of these 
remarkable windows would seem to be as distant as ever. There is another 
discussion on the "Preservation of Local Records." We think there are 
many strong objections to the removal of Local Records from the locality to 
which they specially relate. It would, we think, be better to appoint 
some properly qualified gentleman in each county as conservator of the 
records of the county, who should be held responsible for their safe keeping, 
and be authorised to make annual circuits of inspection at the charge of the 
county. There are various other Papers which merit special attention, e.y. a 
series of articles "On Holy Wells, their Legends and Superstitions," arranged 
alphabetically under counties, by Mr. R. C. Hope, F.S.A. ; "On Mediaeval 
Tiles in the Priory Church of Great Malvern, and on the Chase and Manor," 
by the Rev. Alfred S. Porter, M. A., F.S.A. ; " On the Manor House of South 
Wraxall," and there are others we would fain mention did space permit. 

CHURCH PLATE IN KENT. By the Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson, M.A., 
Honorary Canon of Canterbury, and Vicar of Throwley. Part II. Parochial 
Inventories. London : Mitchell & Hughes, Wardour Street, W. 

We gladly welcome another fasciculus of Canon Scott Robertson's "Church 
Plate of Kent." This Part contains the " Parochial Inventories," the 
parishes being alphabetically arranged, and extending from Acrise to Can- 
terbury Cathedral. The description of the Plate is given in great detail, 
and in the case of Donors the Author has given some biographical and 
genealogical account of them, together with the blazon of any Arms which 
may be engraven on the pieces. He seems to have obtained the co-operation 

392 Notices of Recest Archaeological Publications. 

of the parochial clergy and churchwardens, whose valuable assistance he 
cordially acknowledges. The Kentish clergy seem to possess an unusual 
knowledge of the specialities of Old Plate. 

No piece of mediaeval date is noticed. There are several unusually 
Early Elizabethan Cups, ranging from 1562 to 1564, mentioned. They seem 
to possess some of the characteristics of the well-known types so widely 
brought into use some eight or ten years later, but differ in details. 

Two or three remarkable pieces are brought under notice and illustrated : 
e.g. at Bonnington is a porringer, which is used as a Chalice. No date 
letter can be traced, but it bears the trade mark of Thomas Whipham and 
Charles Wright, well-known silversmiths, which fixes the date from 1757 to 
1759. At Bredgar is a handsome repousse" dish, used as a Paten, for which 
use it is wholly unsuitable, or indeed for any other ecclesiastical purpose. 
It is 8^ inches in diameter, and was made in 1631-2. It was presented to 
the Church by Mrs. Margaret Aldersey, of Swanton Court, who gave a 
similar, though smaller, dish to the Church of Bicknor, and it is said there 
are two or three belonging to other Kentish Churches. The dish is suitable 
for sweetmeats or other dessert condiments, and were it not that the pieces 
vary in date a few years, we should be disposed to suggest that Mrs. 
Aldersey had divided her dessert service between some of the Churches in 
which she was interested. 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Edited by the Rev. Beaver H. 
Blacker, M.A. London : Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., 1890. 
Part XLVIII, just issued, completes the 5th volume of the Gloucestershire 
Notes and Queries, save the Index, which, we presume, will follow. The 
work still maintains its position as among the best of this class of publi- 
cations, now, we are glad to say, so growing in popularity that there are 
few counties without its representative. The bulky volume now before us 
extends to nearly 700 pages, exclusive of Notices of Books and the Index. 
We are sorry, however, to notice that the Editor has cause to complain that 
he does not receive that support, either by literary contributions or sub- 
scriptions, which is necessary for the satisfactory conduct of the work. He 
announces that in the future volumes some slight changes will be made 
which will tend to the increased value, and will improve the appearance, of 
the work. We think, however, that, in appearance, it is already all that 
can be desired in a work of the kind. 

There are many notes in the present volume of considerable interest and 
value. First among them we will mention a series of Extracts from the 
Close Rolls of the time of Henry III. relating to Gloucestershire, which 
contain many entries of interest. A list of fifty-six of the Largest Churches 
in England, among which are four in this county : viz., Gloucester Cathedral, 
Tewkesbury Abbey, Bristol Cathedral, and St. Mary Redcliffe Church, 
Bristol, which, in regard to proportions, stand in the list as the 16th, 22nd, 
26th and 40th. The part is rich in monumental inscriptions. They are given 
from the churches of Stonehouse, Brimscombe, Filton, King's Stanley, Rod- 
borough, Randwick, St. Werburgh (Bristol), Brockworth, St. George's 
(Brandon Hill, Bristol), Cheltenham, Cromhall, and Christ Church (Bristol) ; 
and Extracts from the Parish Registers of Maismore, and Rockhampton Par- 
ish Accounts all of which are valuable for Genealogical purposes. We should 

Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 393 

also mention some very interesting Letters of Alexander Pope, giving a par- 
ticular description of Bristol in 1739. It would be easy to cite many others. 

Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, Parts VII. to XI. Edited 
by Hugh Morris, South Petherton (Local Secretary for Somerset to the 
Society of Antiquaries of London), and Charles Herbert Mayo, M.A. 
(Vicar of Long Burton with Holnest, and Rural Dean, author of Bibliotheca 
Dorsetiensis). Sherborne : Printed by J. C. Sawtell. 

The first volume of this serial, the first six Parts of which we noticed in our 
last volume, was completed with the eighth Part at the close of 1889 ; and 
the portion we now notice includes two Parts, containing 120 pages of 
Volume II. The Papers now given are equal in interest to those we have 
already noticed. Part VII. opens with a Court Roll of the Abbey of 
Shaftesbury, dated in the 32nd Henry VI. (1453). We find also a series 
of Papers on the Genealogy of Strode, of Shepton Mallet, accompanied 
by a pedigree contributed by Mr. G. Milner-Gibson-Cullam, F.S.A., of 
Hardwick House, Suffolk, shewing its connection with the Cullums, of Ealing, 
and in connection with this is a note on John Strode, of Knighton 
or Ryme. There is also a memoir of Hugh Speke, son of George Speke, of 
White Lackington, Som. , shewing the secret history of the Revolution of 
1688, continued from Volume I. and concluded. Mr. J. E. Nightingale, 
of Wilton, contributes a Grant of Arms made in 1546, by Christopher 
Barker, Garter, to John Skutt, of Strawton, Somerset, an ancestor of the 
Earls of Shaftesbury, by whom the arms thus granted are quartered. 
Mr. Nightingale remarks from Anstis's Coll. of Heraldry, that Grants of 
Arms were made at this time for a consideration, by order of Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Earl Marshal, the rates varying from £6 13s. 4d. 
to £5, but the difference in the value of money must be remembered. We 
observe also an interesting memoir of the Family of Daubeney in connection 
with the Memorial Brass of Sir Giles Daubeney and Joan Darcy, his second 
wife, in South Petherton Church. In the Parts before us a discussion is 
raised on the subject of ancient Terrace Cultivation, which is considered by 
Mr. Lawrence Gomme to be, probably, remains of Iberic or non-Aryan 
races of Britain. Mr. G. S. Fry contributes a series of Papers on Dorset 
Administrations of Estates of Intestates, extracted from the records of the 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, now at Somerset House — a most useful 
list. Mr. H. A. Helyar, of Coker Court, and of Her Majesty's Diplomatic 
Service, contributes two valuable historical letters of Mr. Edward Phelips, 
of Pylle, Somerset, addressed to Mr. H. A. Helyar's ancestor, Col. Helyar, 
of East Coker, illustrating the Sedgmoor campaign against the Duke of 
Monmouth. Mr. Arthur A. Jewers furnishes two lists of Commonwealth 
Marriages in Somerset, a large number of which are not recorded in the 
Parish Registers. Many of the Papers, in addition to those we have cited, 
are well worthy of notice. 

The Scottish Antiquary, or Northern Notes and Queries, Vol. V. Edited 
by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., F.S.A. {Scot.) 
Since our last notice of " Northern Notes and Queries " (Vol. XIII., p. 413) 
the title of this periodical has been changed from ' ' The Northern Notes and 
Queries & Scottish Antiquary " to " The Scottish Antiquary and Northern 

394 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

Notes and Queries," and Mr. David Douglas is no longer the publisher. It 
is still under the skilful Editorship of Mr. Hallen, so we apprehend no 
change will arise in the conduct of the work. The articles commenced under 
the former title are continued. 

The new volume commences with the genealogy of the Stewarts of 
Rosyth and Craigyhall, in the counties of Fife and Linlithgow, respectively, 
descended from Sir John Stewart, of Bonkye, a younger son of Alexander, 
the fourth High Steward of Scotland. This is almost immediately followed 
by a most interesting letter from the Prince, commonly known in England 
as the " Old Pretender," the son and heir of James II. of England and VI. 
of Scotland. The history of the Ross Family is continued from the last 
volume. An interesting document is given, being a list of the noblemen, 
gentlemen and others who were attainted of High Treason after the '45. 
There is also an article on Orkney Folk lore, and there are interesting Notes 
and Replies to Queries. 

Cymru Fu. — Notes and Queries relating to the past history of Wales and the 
Border Counties, Vol. II., Parts 5 and 6. Edited by George H. Brierley. 
These two Half-yearly Parts of " Cymru Fu " have been issued since our 
last notice, and they sustain the favourable opinion of the periodical ex- 
pressed in the notice alluded to. Among the valuable contributions now 
printed we may mention : " An attempt by Mr. W. H. Green to define the 
boundaries of what is called the Ancient Kingdom of Ergynfield, on the 
Wye (the Archenfield district), from a List of the Churches given in the 
Liber Landavensis, but the locality of many of them Mr. Green has, un- 
fortunately, not been able to identify, though he considers it included 
Monmouth and extended close to Hereford, but excluded Ross, at which he 
is surprised, for, according to tradition, Ross was one of the most important 
places in the Kingdom of Ergyng. He says we read " that shortly before 
the reign of King Arthur, who was crowned at Caerleon 517, and the close of 
the 5th century (? 6th) the celebrated Dubritius, illegitimate son of Pepiau, 
King of Ergyng, was born at Madeley, (but he omits to cite the work in 
which this statement appears.) From this he infers that the limits given 
in the Liber Landavensis were considerably exceeded in prior times. Com- 
ing down to a recent date, Mr. J. E. Samuel gives a very interesting account 
of the Chartist Riots in Montgomeryshire in 1889. Though this incident 
can scarcely be said to belong to " Wales of the Past," the Editor, we 
think, has acted judiciously in preserving this almost contemporary account 
whilst it may be had. Mr. W. H. Green also supplies an article to shew 
the identity of the : 'John de Monmouth" who was hanged in 12S0. Mr. 
J. Wilson Evans gives the boundary of the ancient Principalities of Wales, 
and there are several other valuable Papers and Folk lore Notes and Super- 
stitions which, for want of space, we are unable to refer to more particularly. 

Western Antiquary. Note Book for Devon and Cornwall. Edited by 
W. H. K. Wright, F.R. Hist. Soc, Borough Librarian, Plymouth, &c, &c. 
Plymouth : W. H. Luke. London : George Redway. Exeter : James C. 
Commin, 1889-90. 

The Western Antiquary under the skilful management of Mr. Wright, with 
the assistance of his numerous able contributors, pursues its useful course. 

Notices of Recent ARrn.EOLO&icAL Publications. 395 

Mr. W. Crossing's interesting Monograph on " Croken Tor and the 
Stannary Parliament," commenced in Volume VIII. , is not yet completed, 
and several other Papers, commenced in the last Volume, are continued and 
completed in this, and several important new Papers have been begun. Mr. 
Edward Windeatt introduces an interesting historical article on " Totnes 
— its Mayors and Mayoralties," which is not yet completed. The Rev. 
Sabine Baring-Gould and Mr. R. Twigg, F.S.A., contribute an " Armory of 
the Western Counties," from an old manuscript in the libiary of the late Mr. 
Northmore Lawrence, of Launceston, a gentleman who was well-known as 
an able genealogist. This Manuscript, the contributors shew from internal 
evidence, was written about 154S. The article will worthily occupy con- 
siderable space in the periodical for some little time. A Paper entitled 
" The Easton Family, and the Arms of the County of Devon," by " Gene- 
alogist," is replied to by Mr. Charles Worthy, in which he takes exception 
in a crushing reply to the genealogy set forth in the Paper, and gives a 
counter descent, and " Genealogist " has, for the present, disappeared. The 
Rev. Prebendary Hingeston- Randolph continues his " Kingsbridge Manu- 
scripts," and there are many minor notes of much interest by the Rev. 
Samuel Barber, the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, Dr. Brushfield, Dr. Drake, 
and other well-known writers. 

We have only to add that the illustrations, generally, have been greatly 

NOTES AND GLEANINGS. A Monthly Magazine devoted chiefly to 
subjects connected with the Counties of Devon and Cornwall. Edited by 
W. Cotton, F.S.A. and James Dallas, F.L.S. Vol. II. Numbers 19-25. 
Exeter : Printed by W. Pollard & Co., 1889. 

In our last volume we noticed this serial as far as number 18 of Vol. II., and 
we now take it up from number 19 to the end of that volume. 

In the first of the numbers now before us, a very interesting descriptive 
and illustrated notice is given of the " Early Greek Pottery " in the Albert 
Memorial Museum at Exeter. Mr. Edward Ashworth gives a brief sketch 
of an ancient House, which was situated just beyond the South Gate of the 
City, known as " Larkbear House " from a family of that name, to whom it 
belonged as early as the 14th century. The Larkbears appear to have be- 
come extinct before the 15th century, and the house afterwards passed into 
the possession of divers families in succession, and was altered, from time to 
time, for the convenience of the occupants, but now it has been demolished 
for building purposes. Externally, the house shewed some 18th century 
work of good character, but on removing this, it was found that it incased 
some fine old work of the lGth century, illustrations of which are furnished. 
A very good account is contributed of the ancient Church of St. Pancras, 
Rousdon, with a list of the institutions of the Rectors — 40 of them — includ- 
ing an intruder during the interregnum of the 17th century. These institu- 
tions commence in 1282 and continue to 1881, a period of 600 years. Mr. 
C. J. Tait contributes a feeling artistic treatise on the painted Glass in the 
Church of Doddiscomeleigh. The Abstracts of the Municipal Records 
are continued, and biographical sketches are given of Exeter and Devon 

I IN" ID IE zx: 

Abbehale, de, 143, 358, 359, 360, 367, 368 

Abbenhale, Bailiwick, 357,358, 359, 367 

A.B.C. Book, The, noticed, 182 

Abenhall, M., 16n 

Abergavenny, Hon. of, 303, 310, 311 

Abergavenny, Priory 

^Ebred, Archb. of York, 238 

Abrincis, de, 102 

Absalom, 32, 35 

Account (Sir J. Maclean) for Excavations 

at Tockington Park, 216-219 
Account, Treasurer's Annual, 220 
Achebrok, 361 
Acheley, 112 
Acholt, M., 284 
Achord, 144 
Acombe, 63 
Acton, 315, 318 
Acton, de, 32, 34, 35, 276 
Acton (Iron), 258, 260, 261, 265 
Acton, river, 258 
Adam, 57 

Adam, son of Simon, 313 
Adams, 1 

Adel Ch., Leeds, Hagoday at, 132 
Adelminton, 290 
Adelsthorp, 246 
Agatha, 306 

Agg-Gardiner, at Cheltenham, 189 ; elec- 
ted President, 193 ; his Inaugural 
Address, 193-199 ; is thanked for ac- 
cepting the office and for his Address, 
200, acknowledges the same, 200 ; 
presides at Evening Meeting, 204, 
is thanked for his courtesy as Presi- 
dent, 212 ; acknowledges the Vote, 
ib., 214 

Agnes, dau. of Roger, 45 

Aids, 14 

Ailward, 269 
Ailward, Meaw, 269 

Ailwin, 43n 

Akeley, 364 

Alan, Roger, son of, 302 

Albamara, de, 299 

Albemarle, 301 

Albemarle, Duke of, 40n 

Albini, de, 314, 315 

Albright, 81, 81n 

Albredus, Bp., 241 

Alder, 67n 

Alderfull, 61, 63 

Alderley, 258 

Aldred, Bp., 241 

Aldewyke, 143, 153, 160 

Aletangge, 359 

Aletunes brok, 366 

Aletune, 366 

Alexander, King of Scots, 102 

Alfred, K., 134 

Algar, 50, 269 

Algar, E. of Mercia, 102 

Algaro, 269 

Algiva, 269 

Algrinton, see Allccrton 

Alkerton, 147, 156 

Aleston, 57, 68, 74, 96 

Allen, 6 

All Saints' Church, York, Hagoday at, 132 

Almaricus, 268, 279 

Vol. XIV. 2c 

Almondesbury Ch., 125 

Almondesbury, M., 129 

Aluinebache, 365 

Alured, 350 

Alvescot, 43, 44 

Alveston, 244, 261, 281, 298 

Alveston, Warr., see Aleston 

Alvington, M., 295 

Alwinton, 262 

Amandes, 227 

Amberley, 296 

Amenvill, de, 320 

Amney, 226, 314 

Amney Crucis, 311 

Ampton, 234 

Anderson, 105, 113 

Andover, 69 

Andrews, 161 

Ankeleyeford, 361 

Anna, w. of Prince Edw., 276 

Anne, 98 

Anne, St., 231 

Annesley, 74, 74n ; fam. 75, 76, 77, SO, 94, 

101, 104, 106, 112, 114, 116n 
Anneys Wood, 333, 
"Antiquary," The, noticed, 185 
"Antiquary," The, Vol. XXL, noticed, 300 
Antrelot, in Normandy, 26 
Archer, 18, 201 
Arilda, V. and M., 238, 240 

Anderson, 115 

Annesley, 100, 114, 116 

Arderberg, 91, 99 

Arundel, 110, 297 

Ashmead, 201 

Atwell, 354 

Badlesmere, 110 

Banbury, 115 

Barton, 116 

Basinge, 114 

Berwick, 91, 99 

Bohun, 109 

Booth, 100, 116 

Boswell, 99 

Boteler, 116 

Braose, de, 109 

Brocas, 100, 115 

Bruce, 100, 114 

Carter, 344 

Caune, de, 115 

Chandos, 100, 114 

Chester, E. of, 116 

Constable, 115 

Cosnard, 115 

Cotton, 100, 114 

Crispin, 115 

Crupes, 211 

Cyveliok, Hugh, 115 

David, E. of Huntingdon, 100, 115 

Dexter, 115 

Dighton, 72, 89, 94, 100, 115 

Downing, 115 

Edgar Athelin, 100, 115 

Edmund, K., 100, 114 

Edward Conf., 115 

Egerton, 100, 116 

Falconer, 114 

Fitton, 116 
Fitz Hamon, 115 



Arms — Continued 

Fitz Roger, 115 

Folville, 100, 114 

Footc, 99 

Glanville, 91, 99 

Greene, 91, 99 

Hall, 91, 99 

Hanbury, 100, 114 

Hatton, 116 

Harvey, 115 

Hellesbv, 116 

Hco, de, 115 

Hugh Cweliok, 100 

Keyte, 94, 115 

Kingsley, 116 

Kington, 238 

Lions, 91 

Lister, 94 

Lupus, Hush, 115 

Malcolm III., 100, 115 

Marrowe, 93 

Massey, 116 

Meschines, de, 115 

Mobcrley, 116 

Mollins, 91, 99 

Mountford, 110 

Newmarch, de, 109 

Normanville, 116 

Morrell, 115 

Partridge, 344 

Peche, 114 

Pratell, 91, 99 

Puroell, 91, 99 

Roche, 100, 115 

Scocathe, 91,99 

Sehnan, 94 

Shershall, 91 

Starton, 116 

Stayley, 116 

Thornton, 116 

Thurcaston, 114 

Tyndale, 116 

Venables, 114, 116 

Wakested, 91, 99 

Waldesheaf, 114 

Wessenham, 100, 114 

Whitney, 116 

Wylcotes, 91, 99 

Wylcott, 99 
Asaph, Bp. of, 125 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 72 
Ashe'hvorth, M., 129 
Ashelworth, Ch., 125 
Ashley, 19, 29Sn, 305 
Ashley, Priors of, 20 
Ashley, W. J., M.A., his " Introduction 

to English Economic History and 

Theory," noticed, 375 
Ashton, Sir William, 113 
Ashton, Cold, 281 
Asne 1', 318 
Aspennemere, 363 
Aspenemerruede, 363 
Aspunerede, 363 
Asshe, Kafe de, Abbot, 128 
Aston, de, 28 
Astune, 361, 368 
Athelstan, K., 269 
Atkyns, 30, 339 
Atteleyegrene, 359 
Aubemarle, de, 16 
Aure, de, 17 
Aure, M., 17 
Aust Cliff, 245 
Auste, 247, 313 
Austyerende, 262 
Avance, 45 

Aveling, 228 

Avenel, de, 15, lBn 

Avening, M., 5, 15n 

AveningCh., report on, by Messrs. Car- 
penter and Ingelow, 5-13 

Aventye, 109 

Averey, 233 

Avon, riv., 231, 243, 247,249, 250, 260, 266, 

Awnellis Cross, 367 

Aubrey, 113 

Aylberton, 263 

Aylston, Co. Warr., 64, 70, 71 

Aylworth, 336, 337, 338 

Baalun, de, 303, 304, 309, 310, 311, 312 

Babbage, Gen., 189 

Babington, 104 

Baderon, 17, 31S 

Badger, 268 

Badlesmere, 110, 111 

Badminton, 266, 314 

Baggindon, 23, 25 

Baggindon, de, 23, 25 

Bagley, 80 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs., her Paper on 
"Sanctuary Knockers," 131-140, 211 

Bagwell, Richard, M.A., his " Ireland un- 
der the Tudors," noticed, 385 

Baha, de, 313 

Bailiwicks, in Forest of Dene, 15, 16, 356, 

Bailliol, de, 309, 311 

Bainham, 246 

Bakemere Priory, 21 

Baker, 333 

Baladon, de, 310 

Baloun, de, 143, 146, 147, 148 

Bannebury, de 

Barenden, 244 

Barkier, le, 46 

Barkly, Sir Henry, K. C. B., &c., his 
" Testa de Nevill," Returns for Glouc. , 
14-47 ; app. Delegate to Archaeological 
Congress, 191; his Remarks on "Liber 
Niger," 285-320 

Barksdale, 347 

Barkswell, 92 

Barndleysende, 365 

Barnes, 66, 66n, 07, 67n, 68, 93, 94 

" Barnstaple, and the Northern Part of 
Devonshire during the Civil War," b3' 
R. W. Cotton, noticed, 174-179 

Barnstaple, Hon. of, 302, 307 

Barnulph, K., 238 

Baron, 143, 153, 160 

Barow, 276 

Barre, de la, 46 

Barre, le, 284 

Barres Court, 248 

Barry, James, Abbot, 128 

Bartieet, Rev. S. E., at Berkeley, 1, 189 

Bartlett, 67n 

Barton, de, 32, 35 

Basinge, 101, 143, 157 

Basset, 308 

Bath. 231, 248, 260, 206, 281, 326 

Bathford, 77, 107, 118 

Baunse, 145 

Bayeux, Ch. of, 40n 

Bayly, 73, 108 

Baynton, 1, 276 

Bazeley, Rev. W., Hon. Sec. at Berkeley, 
1 ; acts as Guide at Berkeley Castle- 
3 ; 62, 63 ; at Cheltenham, 189 ; reads 
Report of Council, 189-193 ; 190 ; pro- 



jects publication Glouc. Bibliography, 
192 ; 200 ; his remarks on the Manor 
of Swindon, 201 ; 20(5, 20S ; on the 
Roman Villa in Spoonley Wood, 208, 
210 ; Guide at Chedworth, 215 

Beauboys, 41 

Beauchamp, 110, 111, 113, 23C, 265 ; ped. 
of, 275, 2S9, 289n 

Beaufort, 110 

Beau lieu, Abbey, 31Cn 

Beaumont, de, 102 

Beaurepaire, 103 

Bechenehull, 364 

Becket, 307 

Beckford, 6 

Beckford, Priors of, 20 

Bede, 267 

Beddowe, 71 

Beddoe, Dr., 1 ; elected President for 
1890-1, 211 

Bedford, Duchess of, 139 

Bedfordshire, 76 

Bedminstcr, 253 

Belami, 57 

Beligh, 103 

Bell, 236, 243 

Bells, Inscriptions on, 86 

Bellows, .1., 190 

Bereguall, de, 293 

Berkeley, 3, 25, 31n, 34n, 19, 143n, 201, 
229, 230, 217, 238, 240, 242, 243, 245, 
256, 257, 259, 262, 263, 280, 2il,300, 301 

Berkeley Castle, 117, 118, 119, 190, 230 

Berkeley Church visited by Society, 1 

Berkeley, of Dursley, 120, 121, 122, 123, 
124, 230, 282, 283, 284, 291n, 292, 294, 
29i\ 299n, 300, 301, 317 

Berkelej*, Genealogy of, 263, 255 

Berkeley harness, 125, 300 

Berkeley, of Heron, 282 

Berkeley, Hon. of, 317 

Berkeley, Royer, of Durslev, his Knights, 

Berkeley, Spring Meeting there, 1 

Berkeley, Tombs in the Cathedral, 251 

Berkshire, 40, 77, 225, 315, 316, 317 

Berleysgrene, 365 

Bermondsey, Priory of. 310 

Bernard, the Priest, ."17 

Berners, 335, 336 

Bernulph, K., 241 

Bers, (Berse) Bailiwick, 357, 362, 363, 36S 

Berwick, St. James, Wilts, 89 

Berwick-upon-Tweed, 222 

Best, 78, 79 

Bethlesden, Abb. of, 2S4 

Betistre, Co. Hants., 281 

Betun de, Bp., 283, 329, 334, 349n 

Beverlev, 135 

Beverstone Castle, 229, 230, 280 

Benet, 159 

Bikenor fields. 364 

Bikenour Bailiwick, 357, 364, 368 

Bikenoresti, 364 

Bikenoure, 365, 366 

Bikenoursford, 367 

Bicknor, M., 15, 15n 

Bicknorswey, 359 

Billinge, 105 

Bird, 354, 355 

Bishop, 28, 28n 

Bisley Hund., 21n, 37 

Bisley, M., 298 

Bissopeslade, 365 

Bissopesweie, 361, 365 

Bitton, 249 

Blake, 227 


Blakemore, 361 

Blakeney Bailiwick, For. of Dene, 15, 351, 
358, 361, 368 

Blakeney, de, 15 

Blakenevc, 361 

Blakeneye Mill, 361 

Blakepulle, 361, 363 

Blakepultorde, 361 

Blacker, Rev. Beaver H., his " Glouces- 
tershire Notes and Queries," noticed, 

Blacker, Rev. B. II., 191 

Blakeway, 190 

Blaksennie, 3f9 

Blanc, Le, 189 ; seconds vote of thanks, 

Blechesden, 304 

Blechesden, de, 17 

Bletchingdon, 106 

Blevth, 362 

Bleyth, (Bley), Bailiwick, 357, S62, 36S 

Blideslawe, Hund., 16 

Blund, 17, 17n, 19, 256, 330, 312 

Blunt, see Blund 

Bodington, Alice, her " Studies on Evolu- 
tion and Biology," noticed, 377 

Bodinffion, M. visited, 204; 214 ; 230 

Bodvill, de, 299 

Bohun, de, 109, 110, 111, 2S4, 2S6n, 29S, 

Bohun, Margaret, de, her Knights, 301, 
303, 303n, 304, 306, 313, 315, 316, 319 

Bokeland, 79 

Boleville, de, 293 

Boleyn, Anne, Q., 221 

Bolletre, 366 

Boniface, V., Pope, 133 

Bonnor, lip., 346 

Bonuor, B., 1, 1S9 ; proposes resolution, 

Booth, 111, 112, 113 

Bordeaux, 21, 22n 

Borhunte, 10 

Bosco, de, 294, 298 

Bosell, Bp., 237, 241 

Boswell, 69, 93, 98, 93 

Bosworth Field, 230 

hoteler, le, 143, 232, 233, 234, 235, 266 

Botinton, 291, 296 

Bouchier, 110 

Bowdler, 106 

Bowley, C, re-elected on Council, 192 

Bow, Middlesex, 73, 74 

Boxclive, de, 16 

Box, de la, 362 

Boxwell, 259 

Bratenstoke Priory, 227 

Bradewall, 97 

Bradford, 260 

Bradley, de 2S4 

Bradley, Hants, 1C3 

Bradley, Hund., 29, 35, 36, 37, SOS 

Bradshaigh, 111 

Bradstone, W., Abbot, 127, 255 

Brackenridge, W. J., 1 

Brandon Hill, 2)2 

Braose, de, 28, 109, 284, 302 

Brasses, Monumental, 89-95, 213, 213n, 

Braunch, Abbot, 161 

Brecon, 3ln 

Brecknock, 109, 302 

Brecknock Abbey, 304n 

Brecknockshire, 244 

Breme, le, 364 

Bremerende, 363 



Breth, Bret, &c, le, 37, 141, 142, 143 ; ped. 

144 ; 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 

153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160 
Brewer, 74, 82, 83 
Bricssard, Ranulph, 102 
Brictric, son of Alnod, 5, 50, 51. 269, 278 
Brid, 46 

Briddessete, 359 

Brierley, G. H , his " Cymru Fu," no- 
ticed, 394 
Brimpsfield, 30, 34n, 318 
Brinton, de, 285n 
Bristol, 155, 192 ; selected as place of 

meeting next year, 211 ; 231, 243, 246, 

247, 254, 258, 262, 279 
Bristol, St. Augustine's Abbey, 19 ; Roll 

of Abbots, 117n ; 119, 124 ; founda- 
tion of, 125, 126, 250 
Bristol, St. Augustine's Abbey, Abbot of, 

20, 117 
Bristol-upon-Avon, 18 ; Parish Churches — 

St. Augustine's, 248, 252 

The Gauntes, 249, 251, 252 

Four Houses of Friars, 249, 252 

The City Gates, 250, 252, 253, 255 

St. John's Church, 250 

The Castle, 250 

The Bridge, 250, 251 

St. Nicholas Church, 261 

St. Leonard, 251 

St. Lawrence, 251 

St. John Baptist, 251 

Christ's Church, alias Trinity, 251 

St. Ewen, 251 

St. Werburgh, 251 

All Hallowes', 251, 254, 255 

St. Mary Port, 251 

St. Peter's, 251 

St. Stephen's, 251, 254 

St. Thomas, Apostle, 251 

St. Sepulchre, 251 

l^t. James Priory, 252, 279 

Hospitals, 252 

Chapels, 253 

Bridges, 230, 253 

Ferries, 253 

The Harbour, 11 

The Calendaries, 2 

Beyond Avon. 

Redcliff, 251, 252, 253 

St. Mary Magd., 252 
Bristol, Deans of, 113 
Brithelmetona, de, 52 
Britto, 75 

Britwoldesbury, Hund., 23 
Brocas, 103, 105 

Brookampton, 331, 332, 333, 334, 338 
Brockhampton, de, 289 
Brockworth, 244 
Brockyeborne, 98 
Brodemede, 359 
Brodokethume, 363 
Brodokwey, 361 
Brod\veve:-enese, 366 
Broke, 98 

Brokeworth, de, 143, 143n, 154, 157 
Bromefield, 240 
Bromeasse, 366 
Bromespulle, 361 
Bronstonesbrok, 367, 368 
Brown, 32, 32n, 35n, 80, SOn 
Bruce, 102 
Bruern Abbey, 26 
Bruggeman, 55 

Brun, le, 29, 30, 31n, 34, 34n, 35, 35n 
Bruton, H. W., 1 ; re-elected on Council, 
192 ; Auditor, 220 

Buckthorn Weston, Church Plate, 267 

Buckingham, Duke of, 140, 261,*262 

Buckland, M. , 56, 57 ; Church, 82n 

Bucklebury, 77, 107 

Buckler, J. C, 48, 49 

Bucknall-Estcourt, 42 

Bundy, 79 

Burbyn, 347 

Burk, de, 358 

Burgh, de, 111 

Burton, 223, 246 

Burroughs, 1 

Bush, 1 

Busli, de, 50, 51 

Busted, 347 

Butevilayne, 284 

Butler, Edward, his " Consideration of 
Gentle Ways," noticed, 379 

Butterworth, Rev. G., his " Notes on the 
Apse of the Ancient Church of Deer- 
hurst," 48-49 

Cable, 97 

Cadbury, de, 311 

Cadbury, Som., 310, 311 

Cadurcis, see Chaworth. 

Caen, 279 

Caerleon, 291 n 

Caerwent, visit to, 211 

Cahaignes, de, 294, 298 

Cailey, see Kailey. 

Cainsham Abbey j 255, 260, 266 

Caines, 257 

Cainho, 316n 

Caisneio, de, 292 

Calais, 221, 223 

Caldewall, 367 

Calewe, de, 330 

Calicote, 284 

Calewe, de, 143, 144, 154 

Calmesden, 24 

Camber, John, 341 ; his will, 342 ; his 

Monumental Brass, 343, 354 
Camberton, 64 

Cambridge, Christ Church College, 221 
Cambrensis, Gerald, 135 
Cannynge, 118 
Cantelene, 299 
Canterbury, Cathedral, 9 
Canterbury, Archb. of, 347 
Cantilupe, de, 18, 268, 350 
Canute, 302 
Canute, K., 23S, 241 
Caprun, de, 294, 296 
Car, 276 
Cardiff, de, 293 
Carectar, 58 
Careter, le, 54 
Carle, 97 
Carlisle, 326n 
Carpenter, Ingelow, Report on Avening 

Church, 5, 13 
Carter, 344 
Case, 96 
Castell, 337 

Castile and Leon, Pedro, K. of, 111 
Castle Cary, 40, 311 
Caune, de, 103 

Castles in Gloucestershire, 247 
Cawthery, 97 
Ceolnoth, Archb., 347 
Cernay, de, 302 
Cerne, Abbot of, 306 
Cerney, 24, 305 



Cerney, John, Abbot, 129 

Chacepore, 21 

Chacombe, Oxon, 86 

Chalfring, 364 

Chamberlayne, 108 

Chambers, 337, 347 

Chandler, 333, 33", 343, 344, 346 

Chandos, de, 23, 25, 36, 104, 282, 31S 

Chanteries, 225 

Chapmone brugge, 364 

Chardi, de, 294 

Charlecote, 108 

Charles I., K., 70 

Charlton Abbots, 338 

Charlton Kings, 305 

Chasegresok, 365 

Chasnall, 95, 97 

Chaunsey, 258, 2P4 

Chaworth, 239, 243, 313, 314,315, 316, 316n 

Chaxhale, 359 

Chedworth, Koman Villa visited, 211, 214 

Cheek, Sir John, 223 

Cheisne, del, 309 

Chelefield, de, 313, 315 

Cheltenham, Abb., 276n 

Cheltenham, Annual Meeting at, 189, 192, 

193, 235, 242, 247, 267, 305, 320, 332, 

338 ; Grammar School, 332 
Cheltenham, Hund., 328 
Cheltenham, Mayor of, 189 
Chepstow, 357 

Chepstow, Excursion to, 211 ; 244, 246 
Cherington, M., 28 
Cheswell, 80 

Chester, Earls of, 37, 102 
Chester, Hugh, E. of, 298 
Chetel, 303 

Cheverel, 314, 314n, 315 
Chevringworth, de, 143, 151 
Chewton Mendip, 75, 107 
Chichester, 209 

Chichester. Bp. of, 8, 287n, 306 
Chipping, 192, 247, 298 
Chipping .Norton, 25n, 246, 247 
Chirchome, 358 
Chirington, 284 
Chiveleia, de, 289 
Chulunces, de, 289 
Church Plate, 86-89, 165-170 
Churne, riv., 227, 248 
Cirencester, 46, 192, 226, 227, 228, 230, ':31 

235, 242, 247, 248 
Cirencester Abbey, 227, 290 
Cirencester, Abbey, Almoner of, 46 
Cirencester, Abbots of, 20, 22, 47 
Cirencester, Bailiwick of, 21 
Cirencester, de, 29, 35, 45 
Cirencester Hund., 15n, 23, 25, 26, 36, 37, 

Cirencester, Hosp. of St. John, 228 
Cirencester, St. Peter's par., 37 
Clarence, D. of, 225 
Clare, de, 110, 239, 242, 243, 265, 267, 270, 

277, 279, 280, 282, 291n. 
Claremont, de, 102 
Clark, G. T., 3, 291n. 
Clarkfield, 359 
Clavil, de, 291 
Cleeve, Bishops, 12 
Cleeve Hdl Camp, visited by the Society, 

205 ; described by Mr.G. B.Witts,, ib. 
Cleeve, M., 319 

Clegram, W. B., his death, 192 
Clement, VII., Pope, 221 
Clements, 347 
Clericus, 32, 35 
Clerk, le, 46, 331 

Cleyesladesreode. 363 

Cleyewavsendc, 363 

Cliffe, 283 

Clifford, Advow., 74-79 ; Institutions, 79- 
83, 106, 108 

Clifford, de, 143, 151, 154, 156, 159, 160, 
201, 257, 319 

Clifford, Hist, of Manor and Advow. of, 
by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., 50-116 ; 
granted to the Abbey of St. Peter, 51, 
extent of, 51-59, advowson of, 77, 
the church, 83-95, bells, 86, monu- 
ments, 89 ; church plate at, 88-89, 167 

Clifton, 104, 276, 292, 296, 354 

Clifton, Antiquarian Club.Proceedings of, 
edited by Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A., 
noticed, 183-184 

Clinton, 292, 307, 308 

Clipston, de, 353 

Clive, 277 

Cliveden, de, 293 

Clopley, 332, 333 

Clopton, 101 

Cloudesley, Herbert, his " Passing 
Thoughts of a Working Man," noticed, 

Cloville, 104 

Cnappestysenese, 365 

Cnictecote, de, 306 

Cobberley, 25, 201, 230, 299, 300 

Cockerel, 29, 302. 304, 305, 309, 311, 312 

Cocksutgrene, 362 

Coderington, 257, 300 

Codrington, M., 13u, 299, 313 

Coelnoth, Archb., 337 

Cogan, de, 294 

Coke, William, Abbot, 128 

Coksutewcye, 367 

Cokwodesbroke, 362 

Coldhall, 104 

Cold Salperton, 358 

Colecombe, 352 

Coleforde, 364 

Coles, 333 

Colthrop, 141 

Colstyerende, 361 

Colvnes, 332, 254 

Combe, 118, 147 

Combe Keynes, chalice at, Must., 266 

Combe, par., 69, 98 

Combes, 67, 354 

Compton, de, 143, 157 

Compton, Abdale, 33S 

Condicote, 15, 305 

Connington, 102, 104, 105, 107 

Constable, 105 

Constantini, de, 294 

Cook, Dr., proposes resolution, 193 

Cooke, 63, 64, 65, 86, 189 

Copland, 354 

Cormailles, de, 30, 32, 35, 207, 318 

Connailles, Hon., 35 

Cornewall, 104 

Cornwall, 209 

Corwedene, 233 

Coryeldestone. 367 

Cotes, de, 29, 46 

Cotes Manor, 26, 29, 311 

Cotes, par., 26, 29 

Cotteswold Hills, 228, 230, 233, 233, 244 
246, 24S, 342 

Cotton, 76, 8o, 101, 104, 107, 114, 223 

Cotton, R.W., his "Barnstaple and the 
Northern Part of Devonshire during 
the Civil War," noticed, 174-179 
Cotton, William, F.S.A., his " Notes and 
Gleanings," noticed, 395 



Cottonian Library, Hed. Trustees of, 106, 

Coutances, Bp. of, 40n, 308 
Coutances, de, 296 
Courteen, 104 
Courtenay, 275, 276 
Coveleve, de, 299, 358 
Coventry, 73, 108 
Cowley, de, 301 

Cox well-Rogers, Rev. W. It., 211-212 
Cradockstone, 361 
Cranburne, 269, 278 
Craven, 334 
Crawley-Boevey, 303n 
Crekelade, 225, 317 
Cripps, 88 
Croc, 293 
Crofterend, 262 
Croke, 103 
Crokedeford, 364 
Crome, 31, 31n, 34n. 
Crompton, 332 
Cromwell Thomas, 222 
Crophill, 102 
Crowland Abbey, 137 
Croyndon, de, 353 
Croysedereode, 365 
Crudas, 189 
Crumpemede, 258, 363 
Crupes, 210, 211, 333 
Cumberland, Popular County History of, 

by Chancellor H. S. Ferguson, M.A., 

LL.M. F.S.A., noticed, 179,182 
Cumdicot, 302 
Cunnesbroke, 363 
" Cymru Fu," edited by Geo. H. Brierley, 

noticed, 394 
Cyveliok, Hugh, 102 

Dadyngton, Hew de, Abb., 127 

Dagiingworth, 291 

Dallas, James, F.L.S., his "Notes and 
Gleanings," noticed, 395 

Dansey, 1 

Danvers, 98 

Dapifer, 109 

D' Argent, E. A., 1,189 

David, Abbot, 127 

David I., King of Scots, 102 

Davis, 92, 93n, 186, 189, 213n. 

Davy, 355 

Davys, 336, 348 

Dawboney, John, Abbot, 129 

Day, Dr., 189 ; his death, 192 

Day, Rev. J. G., 211 

Deerhurst, Notes on the Apse of the 
Ancient Church, by the Rev. G. But- 
terworth, 48-49 ; 266, 267, 268 

Deerhurst, Prior of, 20 

De la Bere, 284 

Delamere, Lord, 107, 112, 113, 260 

Delean, 234 

Delisle, 208, 217 

Delves, 276 

Denbigh, 65 

Dene, de, 16, 27, 42 

Dene, Forest of, 14 ; officers of, 14n, 15, 
16 ; 17, 38, 209, 243, 245, 246, 259, 302, 
303n ; Perambulation of 10th Edw.I., 
by Sir John Maclean, 356-309 ; Baili- 
wicks of, 357, 359, 366, 369 ; Mines of, 
368, 369 

Dene Magna, 16, IGn ; Bailiwick, 357, 358, 
366, 367 

Dene Parva, Bailiwick, 357, 359, S67 

Denmark, K. of, 119, 120, 124 

Dent, Mrs., 208 ; is thanked, 210, 211 

Denys, 257, 200 

Denys, St., Mon., 267 

Depeforde, 361 

Depemore, 362 

Derbyshire, 289 

Derham, 1 

Derham, de, 310, 311 

Derkesforde, 366 

Derneford, de, 358 

Despenser, 22n 27, 31n, 61, 273, 274, 307, 

308, 309 
Devereux, 332 
Devises, 6,324 

Devonshire, 16, 291n ; sheriff of, 297 
Dexter, 105 
Diarmed, K., 138 

Dichesdon, (Sec Dixton, Mon., 2S9) 
Dicton, de, 292 
Did brook, 231 
Didcote, 278 
Dighton, 70,71 ; family, 72-73 ; 75, 70, 81, 

82, 82n, 94, 96, 98, 107, 108 
Dixton, Mon., 289 
Dobell, Mr. and Mrs., receive the Society 

at Whittington Court, 210 
Dobell, Mr., 189; seconds resol., 193 
Dobson, 347 

Documents, Original, 95-97 
DodiiiL'ton, 230,' 258, 259, 296, 300 
Dodwell, 333, 333 
Dol, Archb. of, 350n. 

Domesday Book, extracts from, 50, 51, 328 
Domesday Survey, 357 
Dorchester, Oxon, 228 
Dorset, Church Plate in, 265 ; local 

stamps, 168 
Dorset, Co. of, 5, 40, 291n, 306 
Dove, 104 
Dover, Ch., 9 
Dowdeswell, Ch. visited, 212 ; Paper by 

Mr. S. H. Gael, thereon read, iu.; the 

camp visited, 213 
Downampney, 220 
Downing, 105 
Draycot, 101 
Draycott, de, 358 
Dru, 145 

Druybrok, 363, 304, 365, 367 
Druybrokesforde, 367 
Druybrokeswall, 365 
Dryden, Sir Henry, Bart., 7 
Duddelegh, mead., 284 
Dun, de, 353 
Duncepouche, 124 
Dunel, 45 

Dunethrope, de, 2S9, 2S9n. 
Dunham Massev, 111, 113 
Dunstaple, 103, 105 
Duutesborne, 31, 32, 34 
Duntisbourne, Lire, 32, 34 
Duntsborn, 46 

Durand, the Sheriff, 303, 305, 319, S28 
Durham, Bps. of, 227 
Durham Cathedral, Hagodav at, 132, 13 

Dursley, 80, 120, 191, 230, 259, 300, 325 
Durslev, Barony, 300, 301 
Dychesende, 359 
Dyrham, 29, 257, 260, 311 

Kastleche, 23, 25, 224, 295, 304 
Eastington, par., 147n, 311, 312 
Eastwick, Hants, 69 
Eastwood Park, 112 



Eaton, Hastings, Barony, 29, 36, 297 

Eaton, Berks, 297 

Edburge, 241 

Edgar Athelin, 102 

Edgar, K., 134 

Edric, E. of Mercia, 102 

Edmond (the Elder), K. , 266 

Edmondesburv, St., 135 

Edward, the Outlaw, 102 

Edward (the Elder), 269 

Edward Confessor, K., 51, 134, 227, 278, 
290, 307, 319, 328 

Edward I., K.,118, 142, 146, 154, 158 

Edward II. K., 119, 238, 239, 240, 241 

Edward II. (Ironside), 102, 244 

Edward III. K., Ill, 118, 142, 258, 280 

Edward IV. K., 139, 234, 235, 242 205, 267, 

Edward VI. King-, 88 

Edward of Lancaster, 275 

Edward, Prince, 44 

Egbert, K., 238, 241 

Egerton, 74, 113 

Edy, 366 

Eilburge, Q., Abbess, 237 

Eiusford, de, 292 

Eldon, Lord, is thanked, 211, 214 

Eldred, 238 

Elizabeth, Q., SI, 88, 223 

Elkstone, 6, 7, 32, 34, 35, 192 

Elkyns, 354 

Ellacombe, 86, 345n. 

Ellerton, 347 

Ellis, A. S., 51 

Elsicot, M., Oxon, 

Elthestan, 269 

Elton, 43, 354 

Ehin, C. N..his "Dictionary of Herald- 
ry," noticed, 184 

Elvot, 117 

Engewald, 124 

Erkenband, 14, 15 

Erleyeford, 361 

Ernald, the Priest, 440 

Erwyn, 103 

Eskelin, 292 

Esselegh, 284, 302 

Essex, Co., 40 

Estcourt, 41, 41n, 42 (See also Bucknall- 

Estenhall, 230 

Eston, 318 

Eston, de, 318 

Estwood, 262 

Ethelbald, K., 268 

Ethelfleda, 244 

Ethelred, K., 237, 241, 244, 268, 269 

Eu, Earl of, 312 

Eva, Q , Abbess, 237, 241 

Evans, Mrs., 211 

Evereux. de, 25, 102, 270 

Evesham, 231, 234, 235, 289n. 

Eveley, de. 124 

Ewer, 69, 99 

Exeter, Archd. of, 350 

Exeter, Bps. of, 125 

Exton, 102 

Eylestone, de, 53, 59 

Eyr, le, 333, 354 

Eyton, Rev., R.W., 285n. 

Eywode, 360 

Fairford, 192, 225, 236, 22S, 247, 295 
Fairford Water, 226 
Falconer, 101 
Falkirk, battle of, 103 

Fallow, 87, 267 

Fareham, 103 

Faringdon, de, 292 

Farington, 224, 22S 

Farley, Abb., 239, 241 

Farmer, 347 

Farmiugton, 36, 297 

Faune, 81 

Fayre, lo, 124 

Federer, Charles, A.L.C.P., his Yorkshire 

Chap Cooks, noticeil, 185-188 
Felda, de, 141 
Felding, 276 
Felton, 282 
Ferguson, Chancellor R.S., his "Popular 

History of Cumberland," noticed, 179- 

Ferrars, 230 
Fienles, 109 
Fifhide, M., Dors., 129 
Fineecherede, 363 
Fineeth, 361 
Fineethway, 361 
Fisher, 113, 192, 326 
Fitz Alan, 314, 315, 318 
Fitz Baderon, 319 
Fitz Count, 311 
Fitz Gilbert, de, 293 
Fitz Hamon, Robt., 102, 254, 269, 270, 

278, 291n, 292, 295, 317, 350n 
Fitzharding, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 

124, 125, 251, 254, 255, 282, 293, 300, 301 

317, 350n 
Fitzharding, Lord, 317 
Fitz Harding', Robert, his Knights, 317 
Fitz Herbert, 293, 302, 303n. 
Fitz Milo, Roger, 243 
Fitz Nichol, 282 
Fitz Piers, 109 
Fitz Roger, 103, 303, 305 
Fitz Rolf, 311, 313, 319 
Fitz Simon, 313, 315 
Fitz Turold, 26, 29 
Fitz Warine, 204, 298 
Fitz Williams, 104 
Flaald, 314 

Flaxley Abbey, 243, 244, 246, 362 
Flaxley, Abbot of, 258, 261 
Fleming, le, 25 
Fleury, 208 
Flitenewyke, 365 
Flore, 276 

Foliot, 294, 319, 330 
Folvylle, 104, 105, 116 
Foote, 99 

Forbes, Col., 189, 191 
Forde, de, 57, 58, 59 
Fordhampton, 276n. 
Forster, 106 

Fort Ancient, The Great pre-historic 
Earthwork of Warren County, Ohio, by 

Warren, K. Moorhead, noticed, 373 
Fort St. George, E. I., 75 
Fortescue, 276 
Forthington, de, 329 
Fosbrook, 201 
Fossway, 230, 231, 248 
Foster, 1 
Fotheringay, 267 
Foulds, 108 

Fountains, Abbot of, 21 
Fowler, 335 
Foxe, 347 
Foye, 239, 243 
France, 221, 330 
Franchevalier, 314, 315, 318 
Frankeleyn, 58 



Fraunceys, 355 
Freeman, 52, 59, 67n, 78, 338 
Frenche, le, 333 
Frethorne, 311, 312 
Frethorne, de, 312 
Freville, de, 30n, 33n. 
Frilsham, 77 
Fringford, 332 
Frocester, 7Sn., 80, 243 
Frocester, Abb., 142, 239, 240 
Froggewall, 364 
Frogmore, 108 
Frome Church, 334, 449 
Frome, riv., 250, 258 
Fromylode, de, 146 
Frothorne, 309 
Froulinton, 289, 290 
Fuller, 334 
Furnsham, de, 293 
Fynes, 98 

Gael, S.H., (the late) his Paper on Southam 
House, read by Mr. le Blanc, 205 ; is 
thanked, ib. 

Galehampton, 309, 311 

Galiena, 24 

Gamage, 152, 239, 242, 284, 358 

Garden, the, 32 

Gardiner, W., 161, 342 

Gardiner, R., 242 

Gardinis, de, 29, 31, 32, 33, 33n, 34, 143, 
158, 160 

Gardinuni, 29, 31, 32, 34, 35n. 

Gascony, 19, 21, 22n. 

Gascony, Scutage of, 21, 23 

Garsington, 43 

Gaunt, 252, 253, 280 

Gaunt's Hosp., 249, 252 

Geneville, de, 37,111 

"Gentleman's Mag. Library, Biographical 

Notes," by A. C. Buckley, noticed, 172-174 

"Gentle Ways," a consideration of, by 
Edward Butler, noticed, 379 

Geoffrey the Chamberlain, 307 (See 

Geoffrey, Dean of Hereford, 52 

Geoffrey, son of Roger, 309 

George, 66, 189 

Gerard, 299 

Gerbodus, 294 

Gernons, Randulf, 102 

Gersdon Hund. (See Cirencester Ilund.) 

Gert, 43n. 

Geyton, de, 353 

Gibbons, Mr. and Mrs., receive the Society 
at Boddington Manor, 204, 211 

Gibbs. 1 

Gifford, 3, 30, 30n, 31n, 33, 34n, 36, 42, 23S, 
241, 318 

Gilbert, 257 

"Glimpses into Nature's Secrets," by E. 
Martin, noticed, 378 

Glamorgan, Hon. of, 291n. 

Glastonbury, 266 

Glastonbury, Abb., 266 

" Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," 
edited by the Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, 
noticed, 392 

Gloucestershire, 5, 16, 18, 19, 19n, 21, 39, 
40, 40n,42, 45, 50, 65, 66, 70, 74, 75, 143, 
192; projected publication of Biblio- 
graphy of, 192; 224, 225, 230, 235, 236, 
242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 262, 284n, 289, 
291, 291n, 294, 304, 308, 810, 311, 312, 
313, 314, 318, 319, 329, 338, 351n, 357 

Gloucestershire, Sheriffs of, 35n, 158 

Gloucester, Honour of, 29, 36, 40, 269 ; 

devolution of, 270, 294, 295, 296n, 297, 

298, 304 
Gloucester, City, 78, 193, 209, 230, 283, 

330, 334, 368 
Gloucester, Mayor and Corp. of, 211 
Gloucester, projected publication of 

Records, 192 
Gloucester and Religious Houses of 

St. Peter's Abbey, 15, 62, 77, 141, 142, 

23S, 259, 290, 305, 310, 362, 365 
Gloucester, St. Peter's, Abbots of, 30, 32, 

35, 60, 63, 142, 239, 365, 366 
Gloucester, St. Peter's, Abbot and Con- 
vent of, 51, 67, 142, 151, 152, 153, 154, 

156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 238 
Gloucester, Cathedral, 224, 237, 238 239 

240, 242 
Gloucester, Bishops, of, 162 
Gloucester, Deans of, 162, 190 
Gloucester, St. Oswald's Priory, 236,242 
Gloucester, St. Nicholas, Hagoday at 131 

Gloucester, St. Bartholomew, Hosp 237 

242 ' 

Gloucester, Black Friars, Coll., 237, 242 
Gloucester, St. Ewen's Church, 237, 242 
Gloucester, Grey Friars, College, 237 ''42 

Gloucester, St. Margaret's Coll., 237, 242 
Gloucester, St. Mary Magd. Hospital, 237 

Gloucester, Duke of (Rich. III.), 139 
Gloucester, White Friars, Coll , 237, 242 
Gloucester, Earls of, 23, 26, 2.50, 267 '?68 

277, 278, 279, 290, 291, 291n, 292, 296! 

298, 319 
Gloucester, William Earl of, his Knisrhts 

291, 294 
Gloucester, de, 26, 109, 146, 295, 334 
Goderich Castle, Honour of 290, 291n. 
Godrike, 281 
Godwin, 96 
Goldcliffe, Priory, 267 
Gomme, G. Lawrence, his " Gentlemen's 

Magazine Library, — Bibliographical 

Notes," noticed, 172-174 
Gonovill, 294 
Goodall, 82 
Goodier, 68, 69, 93, 98 
Goodman, 235, 242 
Gornay, de, 292, 296 
Gosynton, de, 124 
Gotherington, 313 
Gouthland, co. York, 89 
Gower, 276 
Gozenboded, 101 
Grainvill, de, 294 
Grandison, 111 
Grava, de, 18 
Graves, 74 
Graville, 281 

Gray, de, Archbp. 20, 20n. 
Greklad, 248 
Grenemare, de, 293 
Grenewaye, 364 
Grevil, 78 
Grey, 113 
Gryme, 112 
Grove, 332 

Grumboldsash Hund., 28 
Guelde, atte, 149, 151 
Guiz, de, 292 
Gunlion, 293 
Gunnilda, 45 
Gunnoville, de, 294, 297,297n,298, 298, 309, 

310, 312 



Hackett, de, 358 

Hailes, 296, 308 

Hainault, 111 

Hakesbury, M., 284 

Hale, Genl., 1 

Hales, 113,332,337 

Hales, de, 354 

Hall, Rev. J. M., at Berkeley, 1 ; his 
Notes on Pynchenecumbe, 141-162 ; 
210, 211, 305n ; his Memoir on Seven- 
hampton, 328-355 ; the Benefice, 334 ; 
Parsonage House, 337 ; Population, 
338-339 ; Church, 339 ; Monuments, 
343 ; Ch. Bells, 345 ; Mural Paintings, 
345 ; Incumbents, 346-347 

Hallen, Rev.A. W.Cornelius, his " London 
City Church Registers, St. Botolph," 
noticed, 300 ; his " Scottish Anti- 
quary," noticed, 394 

Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., his death, 192 

Hameline, Abb., 52 

Hamilton, Hans Claude, his " Calendar of 
State Papers, Ireland," noticed, 380 

Hamilton, W. D., his " Calendar of State 
Papers (Domestic series)," noticed, 

Hamo, son of Geoffrey, 297 

Hampshire, 23, 24, 40, 76 ; Sheriff of, 297 ; 

Hampton, de, 29 

Hampton, in Gersdon, 36 

Hampton Maisey, 36n, 299, 298 

Hampton Ridware, 89 

Hamtonford, de, 293 

Hanbury, 76, 107 

Handeley, 276 

Hanewere, 365 

Hangerby, 365 

Hanbam, 248 

Hanley, 347 

Hanley, Abbot, 239, 241 

Hanley Castle, 277, 278 

Hara de, 318 

Hardinge, 124, 254, 255 

Hardreshall, 102 

Harescombe, 141, 145, 303, 305, 328 

Harewell, 108, 362, 366 

Harevvood, 360 

Harswell, 73 

Harte, 69 

Hartlebury, 240, 243 

Hartshorne, A., 210, 211 

Harvey, 104 

Haseldene, 283 

Hasele, de, 123, 124 

Haseleye, Little, 367 

Haseley, Rectory, Oxon, 223 

Hasfield, 313, 319 

Hastings, 26, 294, 297 

Hastings, de, 29, 36, 284 

Hastings, Eaton.— See Baton Hastings 

Hatherop, M., 314 

Hathewy, 368 

Hattare, le, 355 

Hatton, 332 

Havarde, 276 

Hawkins, 332 

Hawle, 139 

Hawtrey, 113 

Hay, 359 

Hay, of Hereford, The, 18 

Hayles, Abbey, 231, 234, 240, 247 

Hayermede, 361 

Hearne, Tho., 224 

Herbert, 347 

Hela, de. 289 

Helme, de, 358 

Hemming, Rev. B. P., receives the Society 

at Postlip Chapel, 201, 202, 214 
Hempsted 338 
Henbury, M., 319 
Henefield, atte, 145 
Henry I., K., 228, 278, 29S, 302 
Henry II., Emp., 102, 251, 254, 285, 2S8n. 
Henry II., K., 350n. 
Henry III., K., 20, 21, 22, 22n, 23, 118, 141, 

237, 242, 255, 288n. 
Henry V., K., 232, 234 
Henry VI , K., 232, 234 
Henry VII., K ,235 
Henry VIII., K., 221, 222, 243 
Henry, son of Fabri, 53, 59 
Henryes, 355 

Hemstall, Ridware, 101, 104 
Hentelove, 53 
Heraldry, Dictionary of, by C. L. Elvin, 

M.A., noticed, 184 
Herbert, 107, 113 
Hereford, Bps. of, 268, 277, 283, 284, 318, 

319, 328, 328n, 329, 331, 332, 334, 335. 

337, 348, 349, 350, 351, 351n. 
Hereford, Castle, 331 
Hereford, City, 245, 246 
Hereford, Convent, 349 
Hereford, Co., 76, 291n, 304, 311, 320, 357 
Hereford, Ch. of, 328, 335 
Hereford, de, 302, 303, 304, 304n, 305 
Hereford, Dean and Precentor of, 3J5.338, 

349, 354 
Hereford, Deans of, 52, 352 
Hereford, Earls of, 26, 27, 243, 244, 283, 

303, 305, 311 
Hereford, Hon. of, 144n. 
Hereford, Little, 26 
Herevard, 284 
Herkebaud, 46 
Herlowin, 293 
Hertford, 261 
Hesding, de, 314 
Hestbacheswey, 365 
Hewelsfield, 357 
Hexham, 135 
Heyeweye, 362 
Hiatt, 259 

Hidcote, Bartham, 73, 108 
Highworth Church, Wilts, 214 
Hildesley, 311 
Hill, or Hulle, 282 
Hinchwike, 246 
Hinckesman, 337, 338 
Hind, 152 

Hintone, M., 56, 57, 61 
Hocton, de, 293 
Hodenakesputte, 365 
Hodenales wood, 363 
Hoel Dha, 136, 137 
Holdsworth, 347 
Holebrok, 36 a 
Holecumbe, 147, 153, 299 
Holeway, 361 
Holewaysude, 362 
Holines, 364 
Holland, 109, 110, 111 
Holme, 267, 277, 278 
Holme Castle, 267, 277 
Holmerstowe, 368 
Holtleye, 151, 152, 159 
Holton, 83 

Holwardines Cross, 366 
Holyene, 363 

Holyrood, Edinburgh, Hagoday at, 140 
Honyburn, Cow, 290 
Hook, 347 
Hooper, 67n. 



Hope, 87, 88, 267, 190, 360 

Hopestiesford, 367 

Hopewy, 362 

Horewalle, 363, 364 

Horfield, Ch., 125, 130 

Home, 225 

Horse Bridge, 246 

Horsley, Priors of, 20 

Horton, Abbot, 239, 241 

Horwood, 249 

Hosington, 24 

House, 333 

Hudd, A. E., F. S. A., the Proceedings of 
the Clifton Antiquarian Club, edited 
by him, noticed, 183, 184 ; at Chelten- 
ham, 189 ; re-elected on Council, 192-3 

Hudleston, 235, 242 

Hugh Magnus, 102, 269 

Hugh, parvus, 301, 304, 306 

Hugh, son of Lawrence, 54 

Hughes, 1, 347 

Hulke, 359 

Humphrey, son of William, 306 

Hungerford, 226 

Hunt, 80n, 97 

Hunt, William, Abbot, 130 

Hunteforde, 249 

Huntley, 324 

Hunter, 75, 10S 

Huntingdon, Archd. of, 352 

Huntingdon, Henry E. of, 109 

Huntsham, 357, 359 

Huskarle, 101 

Hussey, 256 

Hyde, 334 

Hyett, F. A., Projects Publication of a 
Bibliographical, Gloucestershire, 192 ; 
Auditor, 220 ; his Astrolabe, 321 

Iffley, 6 

Illger, 52 

Ina, K. of Wessex, 134 

Ingram, Dr., 78, 213 

In Memoriam, Harry Mengden Scarth,163 ; 

William Henry Paine, M. D., 370 
Inscriptions, Monumental, 89-95 214, 226, 

232, 243, 244, 291 
Inscriptions, Roman, 3 
" Introduction to English Economic Hist. 

and Theory," by W. J. Ashley, noticed 

Inventory of Farm Implements, 02 
Ireland, 244 
" Ireland under the Tudors," by Richard 

Bagwell, M.A., 3 volumes ; Vol. III. 

Isabella, sister of K. Henry III., 23 
Isis, riv., 224, 225, 226, 23U, 248 
Ivy Castle, 232 
Iwelege, see Uley 

Jackson, 96 

James, I., K., 81 

Jeayes, J. H., communicates "Roll of the 

Abbots of S. Augustines, Bristol," 117- 

Jeff, 191 
Jeffereis, 118 
Jelesdona, de, 292 
Jenner, Dr., 3 
Joanne, St., 283 
John, Abbot, 127 
John, K , 18, 22n, 28, 30, 141, 142, 277, 303, 

John, son 'of William, 57 
John's, St., Bridge, 224, 225, 226 

Jolyff, 79, 80 
Jones, 106 
Joseph, 46 
Joseph, Abbot, 127 
Judge, F., 1S2 
Justice, 355 

Kaderichesok, 364 

Kalmundesdon, see Calmesden 

Kainsham. see Cainsham 

Kaily, 29, 30, 30n, 31, 33, 34n 

Kay, Sir Brook, at Cheltenham, 189; pro- 
poses a vote of thanks to the President, 
200; thanks Mr. Vassar-Smith, and Mr. 
Agg-Gardiner, 212 ; gives toasts, 214 

Kaynes, de. 25. 26, 27, 28 

Kederekesoc, 366 

Kemble, 248, 312 

Kempsford, M., 314, 315 

Kenebelle, de, 310 

Kenelin, St., K., 232, 233 

Kenesleye, 358 

Keneseye, 350 

Kenred, 268 

Kensdale, 246 

Kensham, 64, 99 

Kent, Church Plate of, Part II., by Rev. 
W.A.Scott Robertson, «o(tc<;d,391-392 

Kent, co., 290, 291n 

Kenulph, K., 232, 233, 268 

Keyerikesok, 366 

Keyt, 73, 94, 108 

Kidderminster, Abbot, 232 

Kilpeck, 26 

Kimbis, de, 293 

Kineburge, Abbess, 237, 241 

Kingesok, 364 

Kingesperche, 364 

Kingsholme, de, 18 

Kingston, 80n, 98, 283, 325' 

King's rode, 248 

Kingston Russell, Dorset, 306 

Kingswood, 249 

Kingswood Abbey, 249, 256, 258, 261, 279, 
283, 300, 301 

King-ton, 53, 59, 61 

Kinsell, 103 

Knappe, 118 

Knappestyesforde, 3f6 

Knappestyesenese, 366 

Knightlev, 104 

Knightwike, Wore, 61, 63 

Knowle, 223 

Knull, Edm. de, Abbot, 128 

Knyghton, 331 

Knyte, le, 145, 159 

Koctere Cross, 366 

Kokschtesfelde, 367 

Konhop, 358 

Kylpeck, de 18, 37 

Kyngcot, 79 

Kynmerton, Ch., 36 

Lacu, de, 366 

Lacu, see Lea Ba'dley. 

Lacy, de, 16, 25, 37, 238, 239, 240, 318, 331 

Lagabit, 292 

Lake, Serjeanty of, 16— See also Lea 

Landea, meaning of, 358n 
Landomar, 293 
Langley, 37, 225 

Langtree, Hund., 24n, 28, 37, 143 
Lankford, Ch., 7 
Lanthony, Prior of, 20, 31, 33n, 332, 231, 

335, 349, 349n 



Lanthony Priorv, 143n, 203, 237, 244, 245, 

304, 329, 334, 335, 346, 349, 360, 351, 

352, 353, 354 
Lasey, 16, 17 
Lasseborough, 36, 27 
Lasseborough, de, 26, 27 
Lasteles, 55 
Latimer, John, his " Leland's Itinerary 

in Gloucestershire," 221-284 
Latinelad, 248 
Lattar, de, 45 
Laud, Archb., 84 
Laverstock, 43n 
Lavington, de, 318 
Laweore, 369 

Lawrence, 210, 211, 332, 333, 334, 347 
Lawson, 222 
Laycock, Wilts, 12 
Lea Bailley, (Lacu), Bailiwick, 16, 357, 366, 

367, 369 
Lea, The, Herts., 69, 99 
Leckhampton, 44, 45, 308, 320 
Leche, de, 23 
Lechlade, 225, 226 
Leckhampton, 7 
Lecumbe, 281 
Ledbury, 230 

Leche Cecilia, see Eastleche. 
Lega, de, 32, 34 
Leicester, Earls of, 316 
Leigh, VV., 189; proposes resolution, 193 
Leigh, Som., M., 129, 130 
"Leland's Itinerary of Gloucestershiie," 

by John Latimer, 221-284 
Lemington, 281 
Le'Petit, 304 
Lesquier, 42 
Lethieullier, 334 
Leukenor, 276 
Lewisham, 334 
Leuric, 308 
Leyland, 266 
"Liber Niger," Remarks on by Sir Henry 

Barkly, K.C.B., K.U.M.G.,&c.,2t:5-320 
Lidne.\e, 366, 369 
Lightbourne, 334 
Lincoln, 121 
Lincoln, Bishops of, 244 
Lincoln, de, 3u6, 314, 315 
Lincolnshire, 21, 208 
Lindesey, 244 
Lipiate, 281 
Lirmonth, 276 
Lisle. 359 

Little Marcle, 76, 107 
Livett, 28n 
Llandaff, 125 
Llanhandeney, 244 
Lloyd, 1 
Lockhead, 189 
Loddelowe, de, 353 
Lodebrok, 365 
Lodebrokesreode, 365 
Loes, St., 260 
Loggan, 97 
Lokington, de, 301 
London, 222, 228, 234, 317, 339 
" London City Churches, St. Botoloph," 

by A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A„ 

noticed, 390 
London, de, 292 
London, Tower of. 72, 99 
London, Old, St. Paul's, Gleanings from, 

by Dr. W. Sparrow Simpson, noticed, 

Long, Win., Abbot, 127 

Longford, de, 159, 337 

Longchamp, 284 

Longerende, 363, 367 

Longetot, de, 358 

Longmede, 3S9 

Long stone, 365 

Longtree, Hund.,see Langtree 

Lontedone, 249 

Lorha Abbey, 138 

Lorraine, lip. of, 328 32Sn 

Louis, King of Prance, 21 

Loughborough, 73, 298 

Louth, Prior of, 21 

Lovel, 283, 309, 311 

Lovetot, 102 

Luce Cross, 36S 

Lucius, K., 133 

Lucy, 105, 108 

Ludlow, 240 

Luke, 293 

Lupus, E. of Chester, 102 

Lypiatt, M., 144, 144n 

Lyplofe, 354 

Machunswall, 363 

Maclean, Sir John, 8n, 15n, 16n ; his 
" History of the Manor and Advow- 
son of Clifford, 60 ; b6 ; his Remarks 
on Ancient Church Plate at Clifford, 
87-^9 ; 117 ; appointed Delegate to the 
Archaeological Congress, 191 ; Excava- 
tion of Roman Villa at Tockington 
Park, 192 ; his Account for Excava- 
tions of Roman Villa at Tockington 
Park, 216-219 ; 296n, 30Un ; his " Per- 
ambulation of the Forest of Dene, 10 
Ed. I.," 356-369 

Madington, Wilts., 39 

Maisey, de, 36, 292, 296 

Maitland, 16n 

Jlakerel, 276 

Magason, 267 

Malcolm Canmore, K., 75, 102 

Malemvilier, de, 3t9, 312 

Malmesbury, Richard, de, 127 

Malmsbury, 229, 231 

Malton, de, 353 

Maltravers, 31 n, 34n 

Malverne, 267 

Maminot, 28, 2S9n 

Mandeville, de, 109, 270, 279, 2C4 

Mangotsrield, 256 

Mansel, 44, 309, 312 

Mapele, la, 148, 148n 

Mara, de, 24, 26, 284, 291, 295, 358 

Marche, de la, - /0 

Marche, see Mercia,. 

Marci, de, 293 

Mare, de la, 18, 42, 42n, 44 

iVlareford, 329, 367 

Marescallus, 54 

Margaret, y., 276 

Marina, John, de, 127 

Marisco, de, 309 

Mariscoe, Salso, de, 294, see Saltmavsh 

Market Towns in Gloucestershire, 247 

Marlborough, 224 

Marlebrugge, 367 

Marlewall, 367 

Marleway, 364 

Marlwood Park, 112, 262 

Marrowe, 63, 92, 92n, 93, 99 

Marry s, de, 16n, el. Sin, 82 

Marsliall, 95, i70, 290, 291, 2'Jln 

Marshtield, 260, 279 



Martel, 29, 143 
Martin, 82, 106 

Martin, Edward, his " Glimpses into Na- 
ture's Secrets," noticed, 378 
Martin, R. T., re-elected on Council, 192 
Martines Coksute, 365 
Mason, 74, 82, 332 
Massey, 111 
Ma-svndon, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 

152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160 
Mastcl, 157 
Masters, 347 
Matherne, visit to, 211 
Mathew, 323 

Matilda, Q., 50, 51, 269, 278 
Matilda, the Empress, 65, 120, 121, 286, 

303, 3(i3n 
Matthews, 1 

Maude, d. of Henry II., 285, 285n 
Mauger, 58 
Maungeant. 238, 241 
Maunsel, 142, 144, 144n, 352, 358 
Mauretania, de, 40 
Maydcnstone, de, 330 
Maylesoot, 365 

Mayo, Rev. Charles Herbert, his " Somer- 
set and Dorset Notes and Queries," 
noticed, 393 
Mediamnis, Isle of, 245 
Melun, Bp., 350, 350n 
Merbroc, 359, 361, 362 
Merchant, the 46, 46 
Mercia, Kings of, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 

Merinerudinge broke 362 
Meroky, 363 
Merruede, 367 
Mersiche, 359 
Merstowe, 360, 367 
Mersty, 361, 363, 365, 366, 367 
Meschines, de, 102 
Meyrick, 332 
Michael, 299 
Michel Tewe, Wore, 63 
Mickleton, 73 
Micklethwaite, 89 
Middlesex, Co., 73, 74, 319 
Middleton, 57 

Middleton, Prof. J. H., 200 ; read a Paper 
comparing Roman Domestic Archi- 
tecture in Rome, with similar Archi- 
tecture in this country, 205 ; 206 ; his 
Address on the Roman Villa, Spoonley 
wood. 209, 210, 211 ; his remarks on 
Withington Church, 213-214 ; on 
Chedworth Roman Villa, ib.; 215 
Milcote, 78, 281 
Miller, 334 
Mills, 189 
Milo Fitz Walter, Earl of Hereford, 244 

283, 302, 305, 311, 329, 334, 348 
Minchinhampton, 230, 296n 
Mineriis, de, 302, 306, 319 
Mireford, 283 
Moderii, 302 
Mogg, 106 
Molindinarius, 53 
Monachus, 24, 40, 40n, 41 
Mone (Monnow), riv., 246 
Monk, The, 24, 4(1, 40n 
Monkenedich, 367 
Monmouth, 246, 318, 366 
Monmouth, de, 16, 2 In, 44, 45, 318, 319, 

Monmouth, Geoffiy, 133 
Monmouthshire, 2b9n 
Montacute, 111 

Montchesney, 30, 33n 
Montgomery, 36, 298 
Montford, 22, 27, 292 
Monuments, Sepulchral, 2, 89-95, 226, 232, 

343, 344 
Moorhead, Warren K., his " Fort Ancient " 

noticed, 373 
More, de la, 363 
Morell, 103 

Mortaine, Dean of, 340 
Morfurlong, 362 
Morgan, 64, S6, 87, 98 
Morin, de, 289 
Morris, 97, 334, 338 
Mort de Freyt, de, 158 
Morteyn, 102, 298 
Mortimer, 110, 111 
Morton, 332, 342 
Moseleye, 358, 361, 362, 363 
Moster'ton, Ch. Plate at, 470 
Morwent, Abb,, 239, 240, 242 
Moulshoe, 104, 105 
Mountfoid, 111 
Mountnorris, 75 
Mountnorris, E. of, 106 
Morwode-enese, 365 
Moyne, le, 24, 39, 39n, 40, 41, 284 
Muchegros, de, 364, 368 
Mulebache, 359, 367 
Muncius, 240 

Mundublel, de, 313, 314, 315, 316 
Mundublel, Pagan, de, his Knights, 313- 

Munedcde, meaning of, 359n 
Murdac, 302, 305, 306, 306n, 313n 
Mu sard, 318, 331 
Mustel, 143 
Mutton, de, 36, 36n 

Nan ton, 246 

Nason, 95 

Necham, 228 

Nerbert, de, 292 

Netherweston, 366 

Nettlecombe, 86, 87, 88, 89 

Nevill, 31n., 110, 111 

Newark, 244 

Newbury, 313, 315 

Newbery, Walter, Abbot, 129 

Newborough, 276 

Newcomene, 58 

Neweman, 57 

Newent, 192, 246, 357 

Newent, Prior of, 20 

Newerende, 360 

Newerne, 359, 363, 364, 367 

Newernehey, 364 

Newernrede, 364, 367 

Newington Bagpath, 299, 317 

Newinn'ton, de, 296 

Newland, 363, 364 

Newland, Abbot, his Roll, 117, US, 119, 

Newmarch, de, 109, 239, 243, 302. 309, 310, 
311, 312, 313, 319 

Newmarch, Henry, de, his Knights, 309- 

Newmore, 358 

Newnham, 235, 243, 245, 303 

Newport Pagnel, 104 

Naworth Castle, 105 

" Newspaper Reporting,'' by John Pendle- 
ton, noticed, 379 

Newveton (? Newington), 293 

Newton, 249 

Nibley, 259 

Nicholas, 332, 333 



Nicolas, Sir Harris, 307 

Nicholls, Rev. H. G., 357 

Nicholson, 347 

Nightingale, J. E., his " Treatise on the 

Ch. Plate of the Diocese of Sarum, 

Archdeaconry of Dorset," noticed,U5 
Nind, 337 
Norensis, de, 294 
Norfolk, co., 8 
Normandy, Dukes of, 8, 30S 
Morris, Archdeacon, 117 
Norris, Hugh, his " Somerset. & Dorset 

Notes and Queries," noticed, 393 
Northamptonshire, 226 
Northaston, 98 
Northleach, 224, 225, 247, 333 
Northleach Brook, 224 
Northlepegate, 367 
Northumberland, co., 306 
Northumberland, K. of, 244 
Norwich, St. Gregory's Oh. , Hagoday at, 

"Notes and Gleanings,'' Edited by W. 

Cotton, F.S.A., and James Dallas, 

F.L.S., noticed, 395 
Nottingham, 318 
Nunne, Eiton, Wilts, 226 

Oakley, 312 

Oddo & Doddo, 263, 269, 278 

Odo, the Goldsmith, 293 

Okington Park, 280 

Okwodebroke, 363, 364 

Oldbury, M., 314 

Oldefold, 358, 360 

Olderende, 360 

Old Ford, Bow, 73 

" Old Tools," Paper on, by |Mr. R. Taylor, 

Oldtune, 360 
Olney, or Alney, 247 
Ordingeton, de, 307, 309 
Ori, le, 57, 58 
Osberne, 240, 242, 318 
Osirus, K., 238 
Osleworth, 3U0, 317 
Osric, K., 237, 238, 240, 241 
Oswald, 243, 244 
Oures, 360 
Overton, 268 
Overtone, 57 
Oweres, M., Dorset, 40n 
Owseburne, 245 
Oxford, All Souls' College, 221 
Oxford, co., 6, 25n, 26, 42, 63, 64, 75, 81n, 

225, 281, 291n, 332 
Oxford, Earl of, 315 
Oxford, Trinity Coll., Ch. Plate at, 168 

Pagum, 366 

Paine, W. H., M.D., In Memoriam, 370 

Painswick, 160, 161, 324, 325 

Palmer, 2S1 

Palmere, le, 354, 360 

Palmerius, 57 

Parker, Abb., 80, 239, 242 

Parkinson, Rev. Thomas, his"Yorkshi 

Legends and Traditions " noticed, 185, 


Parry, 65, 89, 91, 98, 192 
Parrye, 347 
Parseteway, 361 
Parys. 104 
Passelew, 23, 38-47, 284 

" Passing Thoughtsof a Working Man," 

by Herbert Cloudesley,'no£tced, 379 
Pate 332 

Patr]ck,*Earl, 314, 315, 316 
Paul, 13n 

Pauncefot, 237, 309, 312, 313 
Payebwallebroke, 362 
Payne, 89 
Pearce, 2, 189, 347 
Peche, 101 
Peckham, Archb., 203 

Pedigrees — 

Annesley, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107 

Beauchamp, 275 

Bohun, 109, 110 

Booth, 111, 112, 113 

Brocas, 103, 105 

Bret, le, 144 

Bruce, 102 

Chester, Earls of, 102 

Cotton, 101, 104, 105 

Dighton, 107, 108 

Mortimer, 111 

Nevill Richard, Earl of 
scendents of, 275 

Plantagenet, 110, 111 

Rainsford, 9S, 99 

Ridware, 101 

Roches, 103 

St. John, 111, 112 

Saxon, Princes, 102 

Scotland, Kings of, 102 

Stafford, 110, 112 

Tyndale, 112 

Wessenham, 102, 105 
Pedmore Ch., co. Wore, 203 
Pembroke, Earls of, 242, 290, 291 
Pendleton, John, his "Newspaper Report- 
ing," noticed, 279 
Pennard, de, 294 
Percy, 110 
Peritune, de, 358 
Perkins, V. R., at Berkeley, 1 ; acts as 

Guide at the Castle, 3 ; his remarks 

thereon, 3-4 
Pershore, 247 

Pershore Abbey, 267, 268, 289n. 
Pert, 333 
Petit, Rev. J. L., his notes on Swindon 

Church, 200 ; on Stoke Orchard Ch., 

201 ; on Postlip Chapel, ib., 202 ; his 

notes on Postlip Hall and Chapel, 206, 

207 ; Sevenhampton, 339, 340 
Petiteford, 361 
Petty, 347 
Philip, ap, 111 
Philip, son of Ernulf, 301 
Philipps, 104 
Phillipps, 333n. 
Picard, 302 
Picton Castle, 104 

Piddesmore, de, 143, 147, 150, 152, 153, 154 
Pierpoint, 101 
Pileswalle, 364 
Pinkeni, de, 302 
Pinoke Well, 246 
Pirie, de,45, 47, 346 
Pirihale, 366 
Pirihalethorne, 366 
Piriheye, 360 

Pitchcombe.— See Pychenecumbe 
Planca, de, 124, 284, 299, 301 
Plantagenet, 109, 110, 120, 278, 280, 315 
Playne, 191, 103 
Poer, de, 207 



Poictou, 22n, 280 

Pole, 110, 112 

Polesworth, 98 

Pomeroy, de, 292 

Ponto, de, 46 

Pope, T. S., re-elected on Council, 192 

Pormont, de, 293 

Poita, de, 55, 58, 238, 241 

Portman's Tower, 23* 

Postlip Hall and Chapel visited by the 

Society, 305, 306 ; Mr. Petit's Notes 

on, ib., 207, 211 
Potheridge, Devon, 40n. 
Poughley, Prior, 129 
Pouncefoot, 242 
Powell, 81 
Power, 104 
Powlet, M. . 130 

Poyntz, 25S, 282, 292, 296, 226n. 
Prentue, 42 
Prestbury, 267, 268, 283, 328, 329, 330, 331, 

333, 334, 335, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 

354, 354n. 
Prestcote, 278 
Priest's acre, 153n. 
Price, Rev. H. T., his death, 192 
Prinkard, 1, 189 ; re-elected on Council, 

Prinknash, 240, 243 
Prouse, 64, 99 
Puber, 319 
Puckcombe, 333, 353 
Pucklechurch, 266 
Pukeputteswey, 367 
Pulgcombe, 352 
Pulle, la 361, 362 
I'ulton, Priory, Wilts, 226 
Purefoy, 223 
Pustanesbroke, 363 
Pychenecumbe (Pitchcombe) Documents 

relating- to, by the Kev. J. M. Hall, 

141 ; divers field names in, 142, 143 ; 

Pyrhales, 359 
Pyrton, 281 

Quedgley, 244 
Quiney, 71 
Quinton, de, 292, 295 
(^uinton, recluse at, 8n. 
Quinton, St. de, 23, 303, 304 

Racket, 136 

Raden, de, 313 

Rainsden, de, 36 

Rainsford family, 60. 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 

68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 78, 79, 81, S5, 

89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 99 
Raleigh, 333 
Randy, 367 
Randwick, 325 

Ranulph, Earl of Chester, 100 
Rapsgate, Hund., 24, 30, 32, 34 
Ravenhulle, de, 143, 146, 14$, 149, 150, 151, 

152, 153 
Rawe, 57 
Reading, 107, 324 
Rede, 113 230 
Redeford, de, 289 
Redin, de, 145 
Redmor, 363 
Redvers, de, 15 
Reed, 355 
Reeves, 332 
Reinbald, 229 

Reini, de, 292 

Kendcombe, 24, 26, 231, 295 

Report of Council, 189 193 

Reric, 52 

Reyner, 355 

Richard, Abbot, 126 

Richard I., K., 227, 2S8 

Richard III. K., 230n. 

Richard, Earl of Chester, 102 

Richard, son of Humphrey, 3U9 

Richard, the legate, 315 

Ridinge, 367 

Ridvvare, 100, 101, 114 

Ritthwaye, 361 

Rivers, de la, 260 

Rivers in Gloucestershire, 247 

Robert Curthose, 238, 239, 242, 243 

Robert, the Consul, 102, 252, 254, 278 

Robert, son of William, 57 

Robertson, Rev.W. A. Scott, his " Church 

Plate in Kent," Part I., noticed, 387 
Roche, 80, 80n, 103 
Roche Court, 103 
Rochefort, 2S4 
Rockhampton, 31S 

Rodeberwe, de, 144n, 145, 147, 153 156 
Rodborough, 326 
Rodington, 104 

Rodley, in Westbury Hund., 17 
Rodleye, de, 362 
Kodmerton, de, 28 
Rodmerton, M., 28 
Rodolie, de, 293 
Roet, 110 

Roger Parvus, 306, 307 
Rogers, 333 

Rollo, D. of Normandy, 273 
Rolright Stones, War'r., 281 
Rome, 350n. 
"Roman Architecture," Paper on, by 

Prof. Middleton, 205 
Roman Remains, Spoonlev Villa, 208-210 ; 
„ „ Chedworth, 214-215 

,, ,, Tockington Park, pri- 

vate contributions for excavations and 
accounts, 216-219 ; 257 
Roniulf, 57 

Rous, le, 143, 145n, 153, 276, 305 
Rowys, 276 
Royce, R e y. D.,20S 
Ruan, St., Abbey, 138 
Ruardene, 365 

Ruardene, Bail., 16, 357, 359, 365, 366, 376 
Rudele, 361 
Kuful, Bishop, 132 
Ruggeley : s Walle, 359 
Rugvvey, le, 249, 362 
Rumbald, 24, 227 
Russell, 29, 63, 64, 260, 306, 361 
Russellum, 391 
Ruthall, 105, 227, 228 
Rye, de, 58 
Ryniall, 332 

St. Brevells, 263, 365, 366, 367, 368 
St. German, de, 350 
St. John, 111, 113 
St. Maryes, de, 124 
St. Maur, 36 
St. Swithin, Priory, 21 
Salisbury, 81, 81n, 278 
Salisbury, Bp. of, 27 
Salisbury, Cathedral, 223 
Salisbury, de, 109, 314 
Salisbury, Dean of, 73 
"Salisbury Diocese, Church Plate of co. 
Dorset," byj. E.Nightingale,)io«tcerf,16o 



Salop, 209 

Saltmarsh, 294, 298, 309, 358 

"Sanctuary Knockers," Paper on, by Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, 131-140, 204 

Sandiwell, 333 

Saric, 43n. 

Saumarez, 1S9 

Savaricus, Bp., 267 

Saxony, Duke of, 285 

Scardeburgh, 80 

Scarth, Rev. Harry Mengden, Prebend, of 
Wells— In Memoriam, 163-164 

Scetaresforde, 360, 365, 366, 367 

Schepesty, 367 

Schipton, see Shipton. 

Schipton, de, 24 

Schutaresford, 367 

Scipweye, 382 

Scireburne, 289, 290, 350 

Scotland, 267 

Scots, Mary, Q., 92 

" Scottish Antiquary," The, edited by Rev. 
A. W. Cornelius Hallen, noticed, 304 

Scrope, Lady, 139 

Scrupa, 307, 308, 309 

Scrupa, de, Robert, his Knights, 307 

Seyttechroneforde, 361, 366 

Secrim, 145, 145n. 

Sebroke, Abb., 239, 241 

Selby, W. D., 47 

Selman, 73, 108 

Seniannus, 52 

Seotelinda, 365 

Serjeanties in Forest of Dene, 16, 17, 18, 

Serlo, 227, 238, 239, 241 

Sesincot, de, 346, 350 

Sevenhampton, de, 355 

Sevenhampton, Church, 210 ; 350, 351,352, 
353, 354 

Sevenhampton, M., 319, 352 

Seven Hundreds : viz., Cirencester, Brad- 
ley, Britwoldsbury, Bisley, Kapsgate, 
Langtree and Whitson, 21n, 23, 37 ; 

Severn, Riv., 235, 236, 243, 244, 245-247, 
258, 262, 263, 266, 268, 277, 357 

Seymore, 147 

Seymour, 276 

Seyntleye, 359 

Seyrrugeforde, 361 

Seyrrugge, 367 

Shackle, 139 

Shaftesbury, 273 

Shalyngeford, Harry, Abbot, 128 

Shawe, atte, 355 

Shay, de, 124 

Sheepscombe, 325 

Sheperugge, 359, 360 

Sherborne, Abbev, 7 

Sherborne, M., 290 

Shenindon, 295 

Shetersforde, 359 

Shrewsbury, Roger, E. of, 298, see Mont- 

Shirlev, 104 

Shipton, 24, 36, 39, 40, 40n, 332, 333 

Shipton, de, 41n.,42 

Side, M., 29, 30, 30n, 31n, 33n, 34n. 

Sidney, 67 

Silvestre, 58 

Simon, 268 

Simpson, Dr. W. Sparrow, his "Gleanings 
from Old St. Paul's" noticed, 170-172 

Sindithurst, 342 

Sinne, 54 

Sintelt, de, 331 

Sion, Convent 12 

Sireman, 360 

Siston, 123. 260 

Skinner, 189 

Skipton, 24, 41 

Skipwith, 333 

Sklatter, 80n. 

Slaughter, Hund., 18 

Slaughter, par., 64, 99, 246 

Slepersthorne, 366 

Sley, de, 42 

Slimbridge, 300, 304 

Smalebrok, 361, 365 

Smart, 97 

Smith, 82, 82n, 86, 192 

Smitheswey, 365 

Smithfield'st. Barth., 8 

Snappe, de, 358 

Sned, le, 363 

Snowe, Edm. de, Abbot, 128 

Sodbury, 224, 229, 230, 248, 249, 257, 258 

Sodbury, Camp, 257 

Sodbury, Chipping, 258, 260, 265 

Sodbury, Little, 28, 2Sn, 248, 258, 265, 266, 

Sodington, Geoffrey, Cirencester, 37 
Solers, de, 32, 35, 207, 333, 354 
Solewall, 361 
Somerset, 75 266, 291n 
"Somerset and Dorset Notes & Queries," 

edited by Hugh Norris and Charles 

Herbert Mayo, noticed, 303 
Somerset, Duke of, 275 
Somery, de, 292 
Sondbedderende, 363 
Sorus, 291, 295 
Southam House, visited by the Society, 

205 ; 211, 235, 242, 268 
Southants, co., 93 
South rop, 297 
Spannewey, 360, 367 
Spence, Dean. 190, 191 
Spencer, 108, 267, 280 
Spiring, 46 

Sponnegrene, 362, 363, 364 
Sponnerede, 363 
Spoonley Wood, Roman Villa in, visited, 

208, 211 
Spure, 366 
Sprynge, 118 
Spylemcn, 146,147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 

156, 159, 160 
Stackhouse, Rev. J. L., receives Society at 

Berkeley Ch., 1 ; his remarks thereon, 

1-3, 190 
Stacey, Rev. J. T. C, 211 
Stafford, 110, 112, 118, 226 
Staffordshire, 46 75, 89 
Stainling, de, 319 
Standish Church, 141 ; almonry, 159, 160 ; 

Tithe apportionment, 162 ; 336 
Standish, M., 141, 336 
Standish par., 141 
Standish, de, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 

Stanesford ?, de, 292 
Stanhope, 75, 104 
Stanley, Regis, 310n. 
Stanley, St. Leonards, 240, 243, 298, 299n, 

Stanton, 364,365, 367 
Stanton, Harold, 104 
Stanway, 231, 268, 276n, 278 
Stapelegge, 302 
Staples' Inn, 74 
Stapuleg, 361 



"State Papers," Domestic, Calendar of, 
byW. D. Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A., 1644- 
1645, noticed, 371 

,, Ireland, Calendar of. by Hans 
Claude Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A., 1590- 
1596, noticed, 380 

Staunton, Bailiwick, 357, 358, 363, 369 

Staunton, de, 36, 143, 157 

Stauntunesforde, 367 

Staventon, 103 

Stephen, K., 117, 121, 254, 286, 349 

Stevenson, 190, 192 

Stodley Priory, 18, 18n 

Stoke, 18, 256 

Stoke Archer, 47, 201, see also Stoke Or- 

Stoke Giffard, 318 

Stoke Orchard Church visited, 201, 202, 

Stoketon, de, 352 

Stokey, 98 

Stone, de, 124 

Stonehouse, de, 143, 148, 150, 291 

Stourton, de, 41 

Stow, 15, 363 

Stow, John, 224 

Stowcll, 29, 225 

Stow-on-the-VVold, 97, 246, 247, 281, 333 

Stradewy, 18 

Stratford, fam., 201 

Stratford-upon-Avon, 63, 64, 79n, 80, 80n, 
95 97 

Stratton, 29, 105, 333 

Strensham, 63 

Striguil, Hon. of, 290, 290n, 291n 

Striguil, Prior of, 351 

Strongbow, 239, 242, 243 

Stroud, 321, 370 

Stubbs. Dr., 2S5n, 286n 

" Studies in Evolution and Biology," by- 
Alice Bodington, noticed, 377 

Sturminster Newton, Church Plate, 168 

Sturmy, 201 

Stuttebrugge, 358 

Sudeley Castle, 208, 232, 233, 242, 247 

Sudeley, de, 143, 158, 266, 306, 307, 309 

Sudeley, de, Ralph, his Knights, 306 

Sunneworth, de, 301 

Surman, 203, 204 

Sutton Poyntz, 282 

Sutton, Thomas, Abbot, 129 

Swell, 246 

Suymede, 359 

Swalo, Cardinal, 255 

Swavne, S. H., 189; re-elected on Coun- 
cil, 192 

Swefforde, 362 

Swindon Church visited by the Society, 
200 ; remarks on, by the late Rev. J.L. 
Petit, 200 ; compared with Ozleworth, 

Swereford, de, 287, 298 

Swinfield, Bp., 351n 

Sychetter, 367 

Symonds, the late, Rev. W. S., 348 

Symond's Yat, 357, 365 

Tabbingeweye, 362 

Tadington, 278 

Tailor, the 45 

Tainton, Little, 18, 47 

Talbot, of Goodrich, 369 

Talbot, of Grafton, 230 

Talbot, Rev. the Hon., 211 ; receives the 

Society at Withington Church, 213 
Tame, 225, 226, 231 

Tancarville, 308 

Tara, 138 

Taulton, 66, 66n 

Taylor, Rev. C. S., 28, 329 

Taylor, R., M.A., reads a Paper on " Old 

Tools," 205 ; is thanked, 211 ; the 

same printed, 321 
Temple, 161 
Temple, London, 73 
Terendakes, St., 247, 247n 
' ' Testa de Nevill Returns for Gloucester," 

by Sir HenryBarkley, K.C.B., &c, 

Tetbury, 229, 230, 247, 280, 281, 283 
Tetbury, de, 284 
Tetbury, M., 28, 28n 
Tewdesdeburv, 143, 160 
Tewkesbury, 231, 235, 242, 243, 246, 247, 

256, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 276n, 277, 

278, 279 
Tewkesbury, Abbey, 207, 212, 225, 290, 296 
Tewkesbury, Hon., 295 
Tewkesbury, Lordship of, 50, 51, 201 
Tewkesbury, M., 50, 276 
Tewkesbury Park, 276n 
Tew Magna, 91, 98 
Texter, 54 
Thames, riv., 246 
Thedingworth, 105 
Themifthorp, 112 
Theobalds, 69, 99 
Theocus, 268 
Theodosius, 133, 137 
Thoky, 254 

Thomas, Archb. of York, 238, 241 
Thorel, 46 

Thorp, Dr. D. L., his death, 192 
Thornbury, 112, 192, 238 239, 240, 243, 

245, 261, 298 
Thornbury, de, 293 
Thormington, see Farminnton. 
Throgmorton, 144n, 259, 276, 332, 333 
Thurcaston, 101 
Thurganby, 106 
Thurstanesbrok, 264 
Tickenham, 263 
Tiddington, 96 
Timbrell, 334, 345 
Tintern, Abb. of, 283 
Tinthescombe, de, 358 
Tirel, 36 
Tirley, 319 

Tockington, M., 296, 296n 
Tockington Park, Roman Villa at, 192 
Todington, 231, 233, 234, 235, 306, 307 
Todington stream, 231 
Tomes, 70, 96 
Toning, de, 289 
Tooker, 106 
"Tools and Implements, Old," remarks 

on, by Robert Taylor, M.A., 321-327 
Toulouse, 287 
Torel, 302, 305, 305n 
Torinton, see Farmington. 
Tormarton, 260, 261, 314, 314n, 315 
Tormarton, de, 315 
Torneant, 293 
Torquay, 95 

Tortworth, 259, 260, 311, 312, 333 
Tortworth, riv., 262 
Townsend, 332 

Tracev, 231, 234, 237, 278, 306, 307, 334 
Traili, de, 292 
Trajectus, 231 
Tredington Church, Glouc. visited, 203 ; 

remarks on, by Rev. John Green, ib. ; 

Plague at, 204 



Trcdington, Glouc. 200 

Tredingdon, Wore, 67 

Trellemede, 363 

Trellemedesese, 363 

Trenched, meaning of, 360n 

Trentham, 75, 104 

Tresham, 276, 2rf 

Tresham Hall, 2^2 

Trewsbury, 25, 26, 29 

Trinley, 319 

Troncester, (sic), Abb., 242 

1 rotman, 201 

Trovts, Col., 189 

Trusted, 1 

Tudor, 235. 267 

Tumour, 61 

Turri, de, 294 

Turstin, 310 

Turville, de, 24, 25, 318 

Tutbury, 69 

Twining, 23, 268 

Tvndale, 77, S3, 106, 107, 112 

Ugina, de, 330 
Uley, de, 2S4, 299, 301 
Uley Tumulus, 191 
Ulfinyenok, 363 
Umberley, 293 
Umfraville, 292 
Underwood, 225 
Upcote, 333 
Upton, IS, 245 
Urman, 270 

Valentia, Viscount, 75 

Valery, St., 283, 284 

Valery, St., Barony, 28 

Valoniis, 292 

Vassar-Smith, (President), at Berkeley, 
1 ; at Cheltenham, 189 ; elected Vice- 
President, 192 ; is thanked as Presi- 
dent, 212 

Vasbaches, 359 

Vastlachesrende, 360 

Vaux, 276 

Veel, 283, 284 

Venables, 104, 111 

Vere, 313, 315, 316, 318 

Vernon, 81, 103 

Villiers, de, 293 

Vineyard, 240, 243 

Visses Croft. 359 

Vokshalegrene, 365 

Vuerhunteneforde, 359 

Wadeham, 260 
Wake, 293 
Wainman, 346 
Waloerg, de, 293 
Walbervne, 124 
Walch,*248, 257, 292, 296 
Waldegrave, 113 
Waldeschief, 101 
Waldinges, 361 
Waldingesworthine, 363, 364 
Walemore, 358, 359 
Walery, St , see Valery. 
Wales, 246, 291n, 334 
Waleworth, 19 
Waller, F. W., 190 
Wallingford College, 225 
Wallingford, Hon., 28 
Walpole, St. Andrew's, Norfolk., recluse's 
cell at, 8 

Walraund, 44 

Waltheof, barl, 102 

Walter, the Constable, 295, 303, 304 

Walter, son of Yvonis, 56 

Walton, Cardiff, 290 

Warburton, 113 

Wareham, 7, 12 

Warimund, de, 284 

Warniwalle, 366 

Warren, 72, 1S9, 207 

Warrenne, de, 40n 

Wartokesey, 364 

V\ arwick, Co., 53, 59, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 78, 
92, 96, 281 

Warwick, Earl of, 59, 258, 260, 363 

Waspail, 292 

Waterbach Farm, 210 

Wathen, 323 

Watts, 82, S2n, 97, 108, 332 

Wayte, 79, 7Kn 

Webster, Rev. G. E., 203, 211 

Welle, atte, 354, 355 

Wellington, 2»4 

Wells, 78, 231, 266 

Wenlok, 275 

Wenman, 332, 337 

Wenrich,de, 289 

Wenrich, IS 

Wapley, M., 299 

Werstanus, 267 

Wessenham, 102, 105 

West, 77 

Westbrok, 267 

Westbury, Hund., 17 

Westbury-on-Severn, 246. 304 

" Western Antiquary " The, edited by W. 
H. K. Wright, noticed, 394 

Wethered, E., Hon. Treas., Cheltenham, 
189, 211 ; Guide at Chedworth, 215 

Westmede, 358 

Westminster, Abb. of, 289n, 313, 319 

Westminster, Sanctuary at, 134, 140 

Weston, 320 

Weston Birt, 37, 143, 144 

Westwell, Oxon, 297 

Whaddon, 334 

Whateley, 276 

Whistler, 98 

White, 347 

White's Hill, 325 

Whiteney, 281 

Whitewell, 333 

Whitney, 111 

Whitmaster, 237 

Whitstan Hund., 23n, 37 

Whittington, Church visited, 213 ; por- 
tion of Brass recently lost, 213 

Whittington Court visited, 210, 211, 213, 

Whittington, II., 308, 309, 333 

W'ichingham, 276 

Widye, 54 

Wien, de, 350 

Wigheiete, 3f 7 

Wight, Isle of, 15 

Wigmore, Mon., 125 

Wikes, 230, 252, 257 

Wilicote, de, 57 

William, Abb., 60, 63, 139, 233 

William Conq., 50, 51, 102, 109, 134, 238, 
241, 267, 269, 278, 282, 286, 357 

William, son of Alured, 309 

William, son of Baldwin, 299 

William, son of Norman, 18, 26, 37 

William, son of Robert, 53, 59 

William, son of Simonds, 53, 59 

William (Rufus), K., 285, 298 



William (the Lion) K. of Scots, 100 

Williams, 57, 347 

Wills, 78, 79 

Willvson, 332 

Wilton, 191, 27S 

Wiltshire, 24, 30, 33, 39, 40, 42, 43n, 44, 

46, 89, 291n, 295, 312, 315, 316, 318 
Wimberleye, 364 
Winchelsea, de, 294 
Winchester, 133 

Winchester, Bp. of. 103, 297, 302, 30 
Winchcombe. 192; visited, 203; 232, 233, 

235, 242, 247, 333 
Winchcombe Abbey, 306 ; Missal, 20S; 232, 

233, 268, 289 
Winchcombe, Abbot, 232, 332 
Winchcombe, Abbot of, 20 
Winchcombe, Abb, Knights of, 289 
Winchcombe Ch., 232, 351 
Winchcombe, Priors of, 232. 233 
Winchcombe, St. Peter's Ch., 232, 233, 

Winchcombe, Spittle Hosp., 233 
Wincott, M. , 64, 67, 99 
Wineston, 32 
Winnecote, de, 55 
Winrush, 43, 44, 290 
Winterbourne, M , 296, 297n 
Winterboum Hun., Som., 43, 43n, 44 
Winterwall thornes, 366 
Winton, de, 292, 352 
■wise, 79 

Witeng(ham)? 292 
Witts, G. B. , Local Sec. , Cheltenham, 189 ; 

Guide to Cleeve Hill Camp, 205 ; 

211 ; Guide at Chedworth, 215 
Witchell, E., Local Sec. Stroud Meeting, 

Wokingham, 39, 42 
Wokings, 39 

Wolfinyenot, 333, 364, 365, 366, 367 
Wolfstan, Bp„ 238, 241 
Wolphine, 238, 241 
Worcester, 78, 242, 342, 346 
"Worcester Archdeaconry," by Rev. W. 

Lea, 265 
Worcester, Bps. of, 18, 125, 208, 237, 238, 

241, 244, 289n, 305, 313, 335, 349, 350, 

Worcester, Co., 18, 63, 64, 72, 98, 231, 2S1, 

2S9, 291 n, 313, 319 
Woodvyle, Q. Elizabeth, 139 

Woodroffe, 317 
Woodward, 78, 362 
Wotton Ch.,6 
Wotton, 258 
Wright, 332 

Wright, W. H. K., his " Western Anti- 
quary," noticed, 394 
Wrokeshal, de 284 
W rough ton, 276 
Wrotley, 111 
Wy, 281 
Wyatt, 191 

Wybaltunesbroke, 364 
Wybert. 21n, 44 
Wycombe, 334 
Wydenheye, 360, 367 
Wydville, 110 
Wye, 161 
Wye, fam., 144n 
Wye, riv., 246, 247, 357, 364, 365 
Wyggepol, 366, 367 
Wylcott, 91 

W'yle, Church Plate at, 168 
Wylcockes ruddingge, 360 
Wylington, de, 30, 33n, 143n 
Wynchcombe, de, 79 
Wychtmed, 358 
Wynderusch, 281 
Wyndsore, 64 
Wvnston, 35 
Wyteleye, 358, 363, 364 
Wyntereode, 363 
Wvnetesburi, 363 
Wyse, 281 
Wyteleve, 360 
Wtvweile, de, 335 

Yaneworth, 146, 154, 156, 159 

Yuichebeche, 362 

Yon»'e 332 

York, Archbs. of, 20, 238, 244, 305 

York, Duke of, 139, 225 

York, See of, 244 

Yorkshire, 21, 89 

" Yorkshire Chap Books," by C. A. Fed- 

erer, L.C.P., 185 
" Yorkshire Legends and Traditions," by 

Rev. Thomas Parkinson, noticed, 86 
Ythenard, 145, 146, 149, 152 
Yweley, see Uley. 



|Cist oi ffizmbtXB for 1890-1 

SEPTEMBER 21st, 1890 

Names op Life Members are given in heavier type 

An asterisk is affixed to t