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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Bristol and Gloucestershire 



Archaeological Society 



KOR 



1899. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



^Bristol an<> (Sloucestersbtre 



Hrcbscolooical Society 



FOR 



l899. 



Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A. 



VOL. XXII 



BRIS roL 

PRINTED FOR Till iOi II 1. 1- 1 W ARROWSMITH, QUAY ST! 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch.eological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor, Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, 
for the Notices of Books. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXII. 



Transactions in the Nailsworth District, May 24th, 1899 

Transactions in the Fairford District, August 9th 
to nth, 1899 

The President's Address on "Stained and Painted 
Glass" 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and Henry of Almaine 
By St. Clair Baddeley 

Notes on Eastleach Martin and Eastleach Turville 
By the Rev. W. H. T. Wright .... 

Notes on Chavenage and the Stephens Family. By the 
Rev. \V. H. Silvester Davies, M.A. . 

Heraldry of the Summer Meeting. By F. Were . 

Pleas of the Ckown at Bristol in 1287. By the Rev 
E. A. Fuller, M.A. 

Documents relating to the Monastery of St. M\i,\ 
Kingswood, belonging to Mi;. F. F. Fox. Transcrihed 
by Mr. V. R. Perkins 

Tin-; Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. By the Rev. William 
Bazeley, M.A. 

Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. By 
J. Latimer ......... 

Tin-: Transactions < 1 Society. By the Editou 

Notices of Publication 

I\ Memoriam: Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley; Mr. C. J. Mo 
Mr. William 



Pagt 

1 

22 

73 
86 

"5 

ui 
138 

'5" 

[79 

257 
272 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Beverston Church — View from South-West . 

„ Western Return of Arcade 

Castle — View from the Churchyard 
,, ,, South Tower 

,, ,, View from North-West . 

,, The Barbican 

Chavenage House — East View .... 
,, ,, South View and North Side 

,, Dining Room — Fireplace 

Avening Church — View from South-West 

„ „ South-}-: ast 

,, ,, ,, of Interior 

,, ,, Driver Monument 

Naii.su okiii Chapel and Priest's House 
Ampni v Crucis— Churchyard Cross . 



Mevse^ Hampton Church— From the Nor 
,, ,, „ Lectern . ■ 

,, ,, Interior 

Fairford Church — Ground Plan 
,, ,, Tower . 

Lec H L A Dl 

Church — Interior 

From i he Bridi .i 

I I SH \M I in R( II ! N l l RIOR 



H-JH 



VST 



Page 

3 



5 
6 

7 

s 

10 

1 1 

12 

iJ 
'4 
c6 
1 8 

20 

25 
28 

29 
30 
19 
42 
44 
45 
46 
48 



List of Illustrations. 



Vll 



Little Farringdon Church 

Langford Church — Porch .... 

,, ,, Crucifix 

„ „ Elizabethan Buttresses 

Southrop — The Font 

Hatherop House — Atkyn's View 

mington Church, a.d. 1792 
Coln S. Aldwyn's — The Manor House 

Bibury — Court 

., Village ...... 

Ablington — -Manor House .... 

Sule.e of De.e Matres, Cirencester Museum 

Cirencester — Church 

Virtues, New College, Oxford 

Leaded Glass ...... 

Enamel ,, ...... 

C11 wenage Manor 

Hayles Abbey — Chapter House 

Door of Undercroft of Dormitorv 

,, ., ,, ,, Monks' Parlour 

,, Moss from Roof of Chapter House 
Door of Frater 



66 



79 



Page 

49 

50 

5i 
5^ 
54 

5" 

59 
61 

63 

64 

and 67 

69 

7^ 

73 

77 
and 84 

ui 

-'57 
•6i 

264 
265 







TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

\mtol an!) ®lammttx$\m ^r c b it 0I a gu a I ^crcichr. 

Proceedings at the Spring Meeting in the 
Nailsworth District, 

On Wednesday, May 24th, 1899. 



The Spring Meeting of the Society was held as above, the 
arrangements having been made by a Local Committee, 
consisting of the Rev. W. H. Silvester Davies, Chairman, 
Messrs. A. J. Morton Ball, E. Benjamin, R. Calcutt, 
W. J. Clissold, H. Denne, A. E. Dickenson, W. A. East, 
Revs. E. W. Edwards, E. W. Evans, Mr. J. Garlick, 
Captain Holford, Messrs. E. Kimber, W. Leigh, S. Marling, 
H. B. McCall, A. Playne, E. Pollock, Q.C., Rev. G. M. 
Scott, Mrs. Selby, Dr. Shettle, Messrs. C. H. Stanton, 
Rev. W. Symonds, Miss Tabram, Major Williams, Messrs. 
G. Lowsley Williams, and R. Wilson. Messrs. A. E. 
Smith and A. H. Paul acted as Local Secretaries. 

A large party of members and associates assembled at 
Nailsworth Station at n.o, where a number of brakes and 
other conveyances awaited them. Among those present 
were : Sir John Dorington, President ; Mr. G. M. Currie, 
Treasurer; Rev. W. Bazeley, General Secretary; .Mr. A. T. 
Martin, Editor of the Transactions ; General Elliot, Colonel 
Archer, Dr. Oscar Clarke, Revs. G. S. Master, S. E. 
Bartleet, D. L. Pitcairn, Messrs. F. Fox, Morton Ball, 
A. E. Hudd, F. Tuckett, W. Seth Smith, E. S. Hartland, 
F. A. Hyett, H. Medland, H. W. Broton, C. H. Dancey, 

2 
Vol. XXII. 



2 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

H. Kennedy Skipton, J. Bryan, W.J. Stanton, E. P. Little, 
F. B. de Sausmerez, most of the members of the Local 
Committee, and many ladies. 

Some little time elapsed before a start could be made, as, 
owing to the unfavourable state of the weather, several 
members who had intended cycling thought it more prudent 
to ride in the carriages, and it was only by dint of great 
exertions by the General and Local Secretaries that seats 
could be found for all. At length, all being ready, the 
lengthy procession moved off, and went by the Bath Road to 

CALCOT BARN, 

in the Parish of Newington Bagpath. The following notes 
on the places visited were prepared by the General Secretary 
for the programme of the Meeting: "The barn, according 
to Bigland, is 130 feet long, and is capable of holding 900 
loads of corn. Its principal interest, however, lies not in its 
great size, but in a stone tablet inserted in the wall, bearing 
the following inscription — ' anno gre mcc henrici abbatis 
xxix fait dom h edificata,' from which we learn that this 
barn, which belonged to Kingswood Abbey, was built by 
Abbot Henry, in the time of Edward I., six hundred years 
ago. There is another tablet which records that the barn 
was partly destroyed by fire in 1728, and was rebuilt by 
John Pill, carpenter, at the expense of Thomas Estcourt, Esq., 
the lord of the manor. There is also a carved stone, which 
appears to be the top of a Roman legionary monument, with 
the figure of a soldier on horseback carrying a round shield, 
and followed by men on foot." 

After various ingenious suggestions had been made 
with regard to the subject of the carving, the party 
proceeded to 

BEVERSTON CHURCH, 

where they were welcomed by the Rector, the Rev. E. W. 
Evans. 

•' The church consists of a west tower, a modern 
porch, a nave 40 ft. by 19 ft., a narrow south aisle, a chapel 



Beverston Church. 



at the north-east end of the nave, known as the Berkeley 

chapel, and a chancel 28 ft. by 14 ft. The church is said to 

have been rebuilt in 1361 by Thomas, Lord Berkeley, who 

also restored the adjoining Castle. The tower has two 

stages, the lower of which is quite plain on the north and 

west ; on the south side are two narrow, round-headed 

windows, and a piece of sculpture, earlier than the tower 

itself, has 

been inserted 

in the wall. 

This has been 

thought to 

represent S. 

Andrew. The 

upper stage 

is battle- 

mented and 

pinnacled. 

The ar- 
cade between 
the nave and 
south aisle is 
Transitional 
Norman, or 
late 12th cen- 
t u r y , and 
consists of 
three pointed 

arches resting on two round capitals with round shafts, 
and on two returns of a similar character. The orna- 
mented capitals are excellent examples of Transitional 
work. The south door belongs to the same period. An 
arched canopy in the south aisle is unfortunately hidden 
by the organ. The upper part of the pulpit is Decorated or 
Edwardian. There is a passage, which, perhaps, at one time 
was only a squint or hagioscope, connecting the Berkeley 
chapel with the chancel. On the south side of the chancel 




BEVERSTON CHURCH FROM S.W. 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



are two very beautiful two-light 14th century windows, with 
quatrefoil and trefoil cusped compartments in their heads, 
and hood-moulding ornamented with ball-flowers. There is 
a priests' door with ogee hood-moulding and crocketed 
finials. The 15th century piscina resembles a piscina in the 
lower chapel of the adjoining Castle." 

In the course of some interesting particulars about the 
church, the Rector said that previous to the so-called 
restoration in 1844, there were some wall paintings visible, 

one of which represented 
the literal transubstantia- 
tion of the consecrated wafer 
into the Body of Christ, 
with Pope Gregory the 
Great kneeling in adoration 
before the altar. This, he 
thought, was in the chancel. 
Another represented the 
Last Judgment ; and there 
was also a picture of S. 
Christopher. These paint- 
ings had been covered over, 
and the font — originally 
beautifully carved — had 
been ruthlessly cut away 
■by the London architect who took in hand the restoration (?) 
to make it more shapely. 

The parish, Mr. Evans mentioned, had been without a 
resident rector at various times, and it was during one such 
period that the ancient rood screen was taken down, and 
eventually found its way, in a very mutilated condition, into 
the rectory garden, where creepers were trained over it. He 
had sent a cartload of the wood to Gloucester, where Mr. 
Frith, under the superintendence of Messrs. Waller & Son, 
had managed to restore the screen as they saw it, and he 
thought they would agree with him that the result was 
extremely satisfactory. 




WESTERN RETURN OF ARCADE, 
BEVERSTON CHURCH. 



Beverston Castle. 5 

The party, having passed a vote of thanks to the Rector, 
on the motion of the President, seconded by the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, then proceeded to inspect the various features of 
interest in the church, particularly admiring the careful way 
in which the screen had been restored. 

Arrangements had been made for luncheon in the school- 
room ; but as the party was too large to be accommodated at 
one time, it was necessary to divide it into two, and while one 
half refreshed exhausted nature the other proceeded, under 
the guidance of the Rev. W. Bazeley and the Rev. E. W. 
Edwards, to 

BEVERSTON CASTLE, 

which had been kindly thrown open to them by Mr. Garlick. 




VIEW OF CASTLE FROM 1SEYERSTON CHURCHYARD. 



"The Castle appears to have been built at two distinct 
dates — by Maurice de Gaunt, c. 1225, and by Thomas, Lord 
Berkeley, c. 1356-61, — but there was probably a fortress on 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



the same site before and after the Norman Conquest. The 
building, when completed, is said to have been quadrangular, 
with four towers, a barbican, and a surrounding moat with 
drawbridge. The remains of a. circular tower have been 
discovered in the rectory garden, outside the Castle moat. 
This tower may have been part of an outer defence, or may 
have belonged to an earlier fortress. 

At the present time there remain a large tower, which 




SOUTH TOWER, BEVERSTON CASTLE. 

would have formed the south-west angle, 34 feet long by 
30 feet wide and 60 feet high ; another tower, set diagonally 
at the north-west angle, 24 feet square ; a curtain or wall 
connecting these towers, containing various rooms and 
galleries, about 65 feet long; and a barbican commanding 
the entrance. The great hall, occupying the south side of 
the quadrangle, seems to have been used as a dwelling until 
the beginning of the 17th century, when, Mr. Blunt thinks, 



Beverston Castle. 



it was destroyed by fire. A farmhouse was built on its 
site, but this was burnt down about 1791, when the present 
house was built. According to Bigland, the Castle was also 
devastated by fire in the latter half of the 17th century. An 
engraving in his Gloucestershire Collections shows the north-west 
tower with a part of the north curtain attached to it, but no 
part of the Castle now remains between this tower and the 
barbican. 

The south-west tower, which is entered by a flat-headed 
doorway on the east side, consists of three storeys. The 
basement, 
probably a 
guard - room, 
has a plain 
13th century 
groined roof 
and an ogee- 
headed win- 
dow in very 
perfect con- 
dition. An 
octagonal 
turret has 
been so in- 
securely at- 
tached to the 
east side of 
the great 
tower that it 
has ; been 

found necessary to secure it with bolts and a chain. It 
contains [a newel staircase, by which access is obtained to 
the upper part of the building. A large room on the first 
floor, which probably was originally used for domestic 
purposes, was set aside in the 15th century as a garrison 
chapel. This is shown by the sedilia and piscina of that 
date. What remains of the 14th century east window shows 




GENERAL VIEW OE CASTLE FROM N.W. 



- 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



that it must have been exceedingly graceful. Another large 
room occupies the third floor, and next to it in the curtain is 
a small chapel, which served for religious worship until the 
15th century. This earlier chapel could contain very few 
worshippers, but a large number of people occupying the 
adjoining rooms could see the priest through the squints, of 
which there are two on either side. 

From the top of the tower, on which the Union Jack 

was flying 
in honour 
of Her 
Maj esty 's 
birthday, a 
good view 
was obtain- 
ed of the 
church, vil- 
lage, and 
surrounding 
country. 

A gallery 
with a nar- 
row passage 
on its west 
side, oc- 
cupying a 
great part 
of the first 
floor of the 

curtain, is now used as store-rooms for the farm. The 
north-west tower is entered from the courtyard behind the 
dwelling-house. The room on the basement retains its 
groining, but those above have lost their floors. Various 
fireplaces and windows enable one to reconstruct in imagina- 
tion the rooms which were probably occupied by the lord's 
family. There are no traces of the north-east and south-east 
towers, if they ever existed. The barbican commands the 




THE BARBICAN, BEVERSTON CASTLE. 



Chavenage House. 9 

chief entrance and the drawbridge over the moat, its outer 
and inner walls being pierced for gateways. Near it is a 
picturesque barn said to have been built to accommodate 
pilgrims on their way to Malmesbury. 

In 105 1 Beverston was the scene of a great gathering of 
the retainers of Earl Godwin and his sons, Harold and 
Sweyn. After the Norman Conquest Beverston, being a 
manor dependent on the King's Hundred of Berkeley, was 
granted to Roger de Berkeley, Lord of Dursley. On account 
of his devotion to King Stephen, this and most of his other 
manors were taken from him by Henry II., and conferred on 
Robert Fitzhardinge. On Robert's death it passed to his 
third son, Robert, surnamed Weare, who was the ancestor 
of the Gaunts, Gournays, and Ap Adams, its subsequent 
possessors. Thomas Ap Adam sold it to Thomas, Lord 
Berkeley in 1331, and he rebuilt it. From the Berkeleys 
the manor and Castle passed in succession to the Poyntzes, 
Fleetwoods, Earstfields, Hickses, and the present proprietors, 
the Holfords. 

The most interesting period in the history of the Castle is 
the year 1644, when it was besieged by the Parliamentary 
forces under Colonel Massey, Governor of Gloucester. It 
held out successfully under Colonel Oglethorpe, its Royalist 
governor; but a little later on, when Oglethorpe had been 
taken prisoner, it was surrendered to Massey by its despondent 
garrison. Colonel Henry Stephens, a kinsman of the late 
owner of Chavenage, then held it for the Parliament." 

When the second division of the party had finished lunch 
the carriages were again entered, and a short drive brought 
the excursionists to 

chavenage house. 

" This interesting manor house, which lies in the parish of 
Horsley, about two miles north-west of Tetbury, was built in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and altered at the end of the 
17th and at the beginning of the 19th century. Like many 
other houses of the same date, it was originally built in the 



IO 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



form of the letter E. It contains many windows of 14th 
century work, which were doubtless brought from Horsley 
Priory, a cell belonging to the Priory of Bruton, in Somerset- 
shire, which formerly stood on the south side of the parish 
church of Horsley. 

Chavenage was part of the manor of Horsley, which 
was granted in 1542 to Sir Thomas Seymour, and, on his 
attainder, to Sir W. Dennys, of Dyrham, whose son Richard 

sold it to the 
Stephenses 
of Easting- 
ton. The 
representa- 
tive of that 
f a m i 1 y in 
the reign of 
Elizabeth 
was Edward 
Stephens, 
who mar- 
ried Joan, 
daughter of 
Richard 
Fowler, of 
Stonehouse. 
Their ini- 
tials E. S. 
and I.S. are 
to be seen 
on the labels of the hood-moulding of the porch, also the date 
1576, which is probably the date of the building of the 
house. 

The arms of Stephens, per chevron azure and argent, in chief 
two falcons rising or, and their crest, a demi-eagle displayed or, 
appear in many parts of the mansion. The Fowler arms, 
quarterly azure and or, on the first quarter a hawk's lure and line of 
the second, may be found on the mantelpiece of the hall. 




EAST VIEW OF HOUSE. 



Chavenage House. 



ii 




In 1891 

Chavenage 

was pur- 
chased by 

Mr. G. 

Lowsley 

Williams, 

by whose 

kind per- 

mission 

the Society 

visited it. 
On the 

party, or 

rather a 

portion of 

it, assem- 
bling in 

the hall, 

Mr. Seth 

Smith gave a description of the chief architectural features 

of the 
house, illus- 
trating his 
remarks by 
a plan which 
he had pre- 
pared; after- 
wards the 
members 
dispersed 
throughout 
the house, 
visiting 
with much 
interest 
various 

VIEW OF NORTH SIDE. 



SOUTH VIEW OF CHAVENAGE HOUSE. 




12 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



rooms associated with the names of Sir Philip Sidney, 
Lord Leicester, Oliver Cromwell (this room contains some 
excellent tapestry), General Ireton, Lord Essex (general 

of the Par- 
liamentary 
forces), 
Colonel 
Stephens, 
Sir Hugh 
Cholmonde 
ley, Queen 
Anne and 
her prime 
minister, 
(H a r 1 e y , 
Earl of 
Oxford.) 
In Queen 
Anne's room 
is a beauti- 
fully-carved 
oak bed- 
stead, two 

chairs of her date, and some Flemish glass representing 
Adam and Eve and the Judgment of Solomon. 

After spending some time in and around the house, the 
members betook themselves to their carriages, and after a. 
pleasant drive arrived at 

AVENING, 

where they were courteously welcomed by the Rector, the 
Rev. E. W, Edwards, who asked them before entering the 
church to sing the national anthem, it being Her Majesty's 
birthday, a request which was, of course, willingly complied 
with. The Rev. W. Bazeley then described at some length 
the most noticeable features of the structure. 

"The Church of the Holy Rood is approached from the 
north by an ancient bridge spanning the Avon, a streamlet 




DINING ROOM FIREPLACE, CHAVENAGE HOUSE. 



Avening Church. 



J 3 



which gives its name to the parish. A view of the church in 
Bigland's Gloucester skive Collections, taken from this point, 
shows a road skirting the churchyard wall, and a man with 
two pack-horses in the foreground, which quite bears out the 
local tradition that the Bath road originally ran between the 
churchyard and the Avon. 

A valuable report of the church, drawn up by Messrs. 
Carpenter and Ingelow, architects, will be found in the 14th 
volume of 
this Society's 
Transactions. 
The church 
consists of 
a nave with 
north porch 
and north 
aisle, a cen- 
tral tower 
with north 
and south 
transepts, 
and a chan- 
cel. 

The west 
wall of the 
church ap- 
pearstohave 

been rebuilt in the 18th century, when the 14th century west 
door was shortened and blocked up, and a classical west 
window of two lights was inserted above it. 

On the south side the two-light windows, one with a 
cusped sixfoil head and the other with a quatrefoil head, are 
Decorated or 14th century ; the buttresses and middle window 
are a century later. There are traces of a south door, which 
was stopped up when the Perpendicular window was inserted. 

The south transept dates from the 13th century. It has a 
Decorated window at the south end which has lost its original 




VIEW OF CHURCH FROM S.W, 



14 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



tracery, a blocked-up Perpendicular three-light window on the 
east, and a modern doorway on the west. The lower part of 
the tower is Norman, the upper stage and the battlements are 
Perpendicular. The original Norman windows of the belfry 
are seen above the roof of the nave. Three square-headed 
Perpendicular windows have been inserted on the south-east 
and north sides of the belfry. There is a staircase leading 
to the belfry on the south side of the tower, the original 
entrance to which was within the chancel. The chancel is 

twice as long 
as it was origin- 
ally ; the west- 
e r n half is 
the eastern 
Norman, and 
Decorated. The 
latter was prob- 
ably built as a 
Lady Chapel 
when the earlier 
Lady Chapel 
was destroyed 
by fi r e . A 
14th century 
wall-plate with 
characteristic 
ball-flower 
ornament runs 
along the 

whole length of the chancel wall. There is a two-light 
14th century window on the south side. The mullions and 
transoms of the east window are modern insertions. The 
original sill remains. On the north side of the chancel the 
foundations of the east wall of the Early English Lady 
Chapel remain, and a round-headed piscina. One of the 
original Norman windows appears high up on the north 
wall, and beneath it is a 14th century window of a flamboyant 




VIEW OF CHURCH FKOM S.E. 



Avening Church. 15 

character, which was inserted when the 13th century door- 
way, leading from the chancel into the older Lady Chapel, 
was blocked up. 

The north transept was also built in the 13th century, but 
has undergone more alterations than the south transept. 
The beautiful east and north windows were inserted in the 
14th century. The tracery of the latter was renewed in 
1888, but the hood-moulding with its rose and ball-flower 
terminations is original. In the west wall of this transept 
may be seen the remains of a Norman doorway. If this is 
in its original position, there must have been a 12th century 
transept or some other building on the site of the present 
transept. 

The porch is of two dates. When constructed in the 13th 

century it had only one storey, the roof of which was clear 

of the Norman arch of the north door; but in the 15th 

century it was divided into two storeys, the upper one 

serving as a parvise or priest's chamber. A square-headed 

doorway, having its spandrels filled with delicately carved 

oak-leaves was inserted in the 12th century arch and a 

hood-moulding with square terminations, ornamented with 

foils. The Norman arch fortunately survives the 13th, 14th 

and 15th century restorations, to say nothing of the many 

later ones. The capitals, which rest on twisted shafts with 

circular and square bases, are carved on the east side with 

two lions, the heads of which appear to merge into a human 

face, and on the west with the braided work characteristic of 

Runic or .Saxon crosses. The head of the arch is now 

enshrined in the Parvise. The tympanum is gone and a 

plain stone occupies its place. In the east wall of the 

parvise is a doorway with a lintel resting on chamfered 

brackets. There are no traces of an internal staircase 

in the porch, and the approach to the parvise may have 

been from the rood-loft stairs through a chamber over the 

north aisle. 

On entering the church, a curious piece of carved stone is 
seen in the east jamb of the doorway. It looks like the side 



i6 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



of a Norman font, and contains three pairs of figures. A 
fragment of this stone is also built into the external jamb. 

The main walls of the nave are Norman, but the south 
windows are 14th and 15th century insertions. The roof has 
a higher pitch than the ordinary 12th century roof; at the 
east end above the timbers may be seen the Norman door- 
way which led from the belfry into the space above the 
Norman ceiling. On the north side of the nave a mutilated 




VIEW OF INTERIOR. 



Norman arcade of two round arches, resting on a shaft with 
a round cap, separates it from a narrow aisle rebuilt in the 
14th century. The roof of the aisle was reconstructed in 
the 17th century. It is evident that there was a rood-screen 
across the east end of the nave, for the pillars of the west 
arch of the tower have been cut away to receive it. The 
doorway at the top of the once existing rood stairs remains. 
A 13th century pointed arch occupies the place of Hie 



Avening Church. 17 

original Norman arch in the west wall of the tower. On 
the south side of the tower arch is a recess with a segmental 
Norman arch, ornamented with chevron moulding. Here, 
no doubt, stood the altar of the Holy Rood, the piscina of 
which still remains in the south wall. 

The groining of the tower is Norman, and has two 
diagonal square ribs resting on shafts fitted in the four 
angles, and there are two deeply splayed Norman windows 
above the north arch. The tower appears to have been 
built with solid north and south walls, but these were 
cleverly pierced with pointed arches in the 13th century. 
The eastern arch of the tower is fairly perfect and 
consists of a plain segmental head resting on massive 
capitals with inverted - cone moulding and half-round 
shafts. 

Messrs. Carpenter and Ingelow, in their report, call 
attention to a square opening, or hagioscope, in the north- 
west pier of the tower, which was apparently filled in when 
the Early English arches were pierced in the north and 
south walls, and also to a low chamfered jamb in the angle of 
the tower buttress. These, they think, may indicate the 
existence of a recluse's cell similar to that mentioned on the 
Clopton brass at Cjuinton, in this county. (See Transactions, 
vol. xiii. 168.) But for the jamb the opening would have been 
called a leper's window. It will be seen that the edge of the 
tower arch has been chamfered to enable the person using the 
window to see the priest officiating at the altar of the Holy 
Rood. The roofs of the transepts were altered in the 17th 
century and the old cross braces removed. The mortices 
remain. 

The south transept has been used as a burial chapel by 
the Driver family, of Aston, near Cherington. There are 
four of their monuments on the walls. One of them depicts 
John Driver, who died in 1687. A pedigree of the family is 
given in the Heralds Visitation of 1682-3, p. 59. The heraldic 
bearings of the family were: Per pale indented argent and azuv 
two lions combatant counter-charged. 

3 
Vol. XXII. 



i8 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



In the north transept is the monument of Henry Bridges, 
fourth son of John, Lord Chandos of Sudeley, who died 
January 14th, 1615. Henry Bridges, we learn from Mrs. 
Dent's Annals of Winchcombe and Sudeley, in his early days led 
the life of a freebooter, " indulging in deeds of lawlessness 
and robbery almost surpassing our modern powers of belief." 
He left the county for a time and dwelt in Kent, but he 
eventually married the eldest daughter of Samuel Sheppard, 
Esquire, of Gatcombe, lord of the manor of Avening, and 

settled down in this retired 
spot. Sir E. Bridges says 
that in his time (circa 1815) 
traditions of his maraud- 
ings still hung about the 
Gloucestershire village 
where he lies buried. 

The groining of the 

chancel is extremely good, 

the 14th century moulded 

ribs harmonising well with 

the round diagonal ribs of 

the 12th century. The 

later work has carved 

bosses at the intersections; 

the earlier none. A 14th 

century piscina remains 

on the south side of the 

sanctuary, and there are 

two blocked-up Norman doorways, one leading to the belfry 

and another, as has been already mentioned, connecting the 

chancel with the earlier Lady Chapel. 

The belfry is now reached by an external doorway and by 
a staircase built against the south wall of the tower. A 
doorway from the belfry leads into the space above the 
groining of the chancel, which is lighted by a small quatre- 
foil window in the east wall. It is possible that there was 
at one time a priest's chamber here as at Elkstone, where 




driver monument in s. transept. 



Avening Church. 19 

it was converted into a culver or pigeon-house, but there are 
no traces of floor beams. 

There are five bells — three cast in 1628, another cast by- 
Abraham Rudhall, of Gloucester, in 1756, and a fifth with 
the names of the churchwardens cut out. For a brief time 
there was a sixth bell, for about 1830 the Avening ringers 
conceived the bold plan of transferring the treble bell of 
Cherington to their own belfry to complete their peal, 
believing that if it were once there it would belong to the 
church. The theft was successfully accomplished, but the 
magistrates soon showed them that their law was faulty, for 
they ordered the bell to be replaced at Cherington, and 
punished the culprits with six months' imprisonment. In 
Ellacombe's Church Bells of Gloucestershire, pp. 144-6, are two 
copies of verses on " The Rape of the Cherington Bell." 

Avening has had two well-known rectors : Robert 
Frampton and George Bull. Robert Frampton, who was 
Dean of Gloucester from 1673 to 1681, and Bishop of 
Gloucester from 1681 to 1691, held Avening, as well as 
Standish, with his bishopric till 1685. He was deprived of 
his bishopric in 1691, after the accession of William III., 
because he refused to take the oath of allegiance and 
supremacy. On his resignation, George Bull, rector of 
Siddington and prebendary of Gloucester, was presented 
to Avening by Mr. Philip Sheppard. He built a rectory- 
house, lived amongst his people, and overcame their aversion 
to his faithful teaching by his loving ministrations. In 1705 
he was appointed to the see of S. David's, but died in 1709. 

Avening was one of the many manors possessed by the 
unfortunate Brictric, son of Algar ; and it is said in the 
Domesday Book that he had a hawks' eyry there. After 
the Conquest Brictric was deprived of his estates and thrown 
into prison. Avening was bestowed on Queen Matilda, and 
she gave it to the Abbaye aux Dames which she had founded 
for nuns at Caen. In the reign of Henry V., when the 
alien priories iwere dissolved, the manor of Avening was 
appropriated to the Bridgetine Convent of Sion, founded by 



20 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

him in 1414. At the dissolution of the monasteries the 
manor was granted to Andrew, Lord Windsor, who sold it to 
the Sheppards." 

Before the members left the church, it was mentioned by 
the Rev. W. Bazeley that the building was in a somewhat 
dangerous condition, and that it was proposed to undertake 
certain repairs, but he was convinced that nothing would be 
done to destroy its ancient features. 

The Rector said that the parishioners were proud of this 
old church, and the necessary repairs would be carried out 
in a very conservative spirit. They did not aim at such a 
restoration as was carried out in some churches, where very 
little was left of the old building. 

The party then proceeded to the grounds of the New 
Rectory to visit, by the kind permission of Mrs. Selby, some 
pre-historic stone chambers. They were removed there in 
1806 from a long barrow, 165 ft. long and 59 ft. wide, which 
then existed in a field near Avening Court. Two chambers 
were discovered, in one of which were eight and in the other 
three skeletons. The circular entrance roughly cut in the 
two front stones of one of the dolmens is very similar to that 





VIEW OF CHAPEL AND PRIEST S HOUSE, NAILSWORTH. 



Chapel and Priest's House, Nailsworth. 21 

found in the Rodmarton barrow. See Transactions, vol., v. 
p. 99; and Archaologia, vol. xvi., p. 362, where a plan of 
the interior is given. 

A lovely drive down the Longfords valley brought the 
party to Nailsworth, where, by the kind invitation of Miss 
Tabram, they inspected the very interesting ancient chapel 
and priest's house at the Bannuts. Until recently, this part 
of Nailsworth was a chapelry of Avening, and, no doubt, in 
mediaeval times one of the priests of the Parish Church 
lived here and ministered to the inhabitants. For many 
years the chapel has been put to secular purposes, and at 
one time was even used as a stable ! A portion of it is now 
utilized as a museum of interesting relics, which were 
collected by the late Mr. Tabram, to whom we are indebted 
for his care of these ancient buildings. 

After tea in the National Schoolroom, lent for the purpose 
by the Rev. G. M. Scott, the vicar of Nailsworth, the party 
repaired to the railway station for their various destinations. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

jSristtfl aiifr <&\mmtm\m ^xtlrxolaqml %at\ttx\ f 

At the Annual Summer Meeting at Fairford, 

On Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, August 9th, 10th, 

and 11th, 1899. 



The Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the Society was held 
at Fairford on the above-mentioned dates, and as the 
weather was beautifully fine it proved to be most 
successful and enjoyable. Upwards of a hundred members 
were present. That comfortable angling hostelry, " The 
Bull Hotel," was made the headquarters, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Busby's excellent arrangements and unremitting exertions 
for the comfort of the large number of guests committed to 
their care gave complete satisfaction. The meeting was 
admirably organised by the General Secretary, the Rev. W. 
Bazeley, whose comprehensive illustrated Guide to the places 
visited was highly appreciated ; while the necessary and 
multifarious local arrangements were excellently planned 
and carried out by Mr. F. B. Bulley, who kindly undertook 
the arduous duties of Local Secretary. Mr. Gardner S. 
Bazley, as President for the year, entered on his duties 
in the course of the first day of the meeting, and his notable 
Presidential address on the subject of stained glass — a 
peculiarly appropriate topic to be selected for treatment at 
Fairford — was one of the not least striking features of a 
highly interesting and enjoyable meeting. The following 
were the Local Committee, and most of them were present 
during the whole or a portion of the meeting : Rev. F. R. 



Ampney Crucis. 23 

Carbonell (Chairman), Mr. E. A. Abbey, Lieutenant-Colonel 
D. Archer, Mr. H. C. Barkley, Rev. F. D. Bateman, 
Earl Bathurst, Rev. G. H. Barrett, Mr. C. H. Bloxsome, 
Mr. C. Bowly, Rev. A. H. Browne, D.D., Rev. L. B. Bubb, 
Rev. J. A. B. Cardus, Major Chambres, Rev. A. Clementson, 
Rev. D. G. Compton, Messrs. R. D. Cooper, R. Daubeney, 
R. Dimsdale, Rev. R. P. Davies, Mr. R. Elwell, Rev. 
J. A. Ford, Messrs. A. Hussey Freke, H. Martin Gibbs, 
Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach, Bart., M.P., Rev. W. P. Hand, 
Messrs. A. Henderson, M.P., A. Hitchman- Iles, Rev. 
C. C. Johnson, Messrs. J. Joicey, J. Jones, Captain Kent, 
Mr. A. U. Kent, Rev. W. S. Leonard, Mr. C. Lewis, 
Rev. C. M. R. Luckman, Mr. G. L. Macgowan, Rev. J. 
MacKaye, Mr. H. J. Marshall, Rev. F. C. Master, Mr. T. 
Butt-Miller, Rev. H. J. Morton, Colonel Porter, Rev. 
H. P. Sketchley, Rev. C. E. Squire, Mr. G. Sloper, 
Rev. F. R. Steavenson, Mr. J. Thornton, Captain W. F. 
Tosswill, Rev. G. J. Woodward, Rev. W. H. Wright, 
and Mr. S. P. Yates. Among others present were : Sir 
John Dorington, Bart., M.P. (President for 1898-99), the 
Revs. J. S. Sinclair, W. Bazeley, G. S. Master, F. E. 
Broome Witts, Bagnall Oakley, Messrs. Christopher 
Bowly, F. F. Fox, A. J. Morton Ball, H. W. Bruton, 
G. M. Currie, St. Clair Baddeley, G. H. Woollaston, 
J. S. Pritchard, S. H. Swayne, J. Baker, F. F. Tuckett, 
F. R. V. Witts, F. J. Tarr, P. Were, H. E. Norris, 
De Sausmerez, Leigh, Lloyd Baker, &c. The gathering 
included a large number of ladies. 

On Wednesday morning, starting from Fairford, or Cirencester, as 
the railway service was to each most convenient, the party assembled at 
Ampney Crucis, where they were received at the Church of the Holy Rood 
by the Vicar, the Rev. J. C. Johnson. The following account of Ampney 
Crucis, as well as of the other places visited, is taken mainly from the 
Archaological Notes which had been prepared by the General Secretary, 
the Rev. William Bazeley, for this meeting : — 

" The present parish of Ampney Crucis is made up of no fewer than 
seven manors called Omenie at the time of the great survey, A.n. 1086. 
There was a priest with a church possessing half a hide of land and four 



24 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

acres of meadow here at that time, and the Church of the Holy Rood is 
mentioned a few years later. Three manors in Omenie were held by Turstin 
Fitz Rolf, Humphry the Chamberlain, and Baldwin, which had been held 
in the days of the Confessor by Tovy, Elwy, and Alwyn respectively. 
Humphry's manor and the church were conferred by William II. on 
Tewkesbury Abbey, and this grant was confirmed by Henry I. At the 
Dissolution the manor was obtained by the Pleydells who held it till the 
18th century, when it passed by marriage to John, Viscount Downe. He 
sold it in 1765 to Samuel Blackwell. The church, which is cruciform, 
without aisles, may be called a 13th century building, though it contains 
portions of an earlier one. The chancel arch with its zig-zag moulding 
and a walled-up doorway and deeply splayed window on the north aisle 
of the nave are Norman. In the 13th century the nave, transepts, and 
chancel appear to have been rebuilt. . The south door, the western tower, 
the arches of the transepts, with their dog-tooth moulding, and the 
transept windows all belong to this period. In the 15th century the pitch 
of the nave roof was lowered, as may be seen by the drip on the east side 
of the tower, and embattled parapets were added to the nave and tower. 
The east window of the south transept is a good example of Perpendicular 
architecture. In the angle between the south transept and the chancel is 
a projection which once contained the stairs of the rood loft. The 
entrance to these in the transept is now walled up. There is a sanctus 
bell-turret on the east gable of the nave. 

The church contains several memorials of the Pleydells, and a 
monument to Viscount Downe, who commanded the 25th Regiment of Foot 
at the battle of Minden, and who was mortally wounded at the battle of 
Cam pen in 17C0. There is also a freestone monument with the figures of 
a man, his wife, and sixteen children, which Atkyns, relying on an 
heraldic coat of arms, assigns to George Lloyd, once lord of the manor, 
ancestor to the Lloyds of Whitminster. 

The Churchyard Cross, of which we give a view from Savory's 
Visitors' Guide to Cirencester, was restored thirty-five or forty years ago. 
under the superintendence of Canon Howman, Rector of Barnsley. It 
has a gabled head, octagonal shaft and base and square steps. It is not 
clear that all these parts belonged originally to one and the same cross. 
The total height is 13 ft. 8 in. The head has four sides, those on the east 
and west being wider than those on the north and south. In the trefoiled 
niche on the east side is a complete rood, i.e. a figure of the crucified 
Saviour with St. Mary on His right hand and St. John on His left. The 
feet of the dead Saviour are crossed and fastened by a single nail. The 
only garment is a loin cloth. 

On the west side are St. Mary and the Holy Child. St. Mary, who 
holds the Child on her right knee wears a closely-fitting kirtle, laced in 



Ampney Crucis. 



25 



front, and over this a long mantle fastened by a brooch. A small portion 
of her crown remains. 

On the north side on a pedestal stands a headless soldier in plate- 




CHUKCHYARD CROSS, AMPNEY CRUCIS. 
Lent by Messrs. Savory & Cole, Cirencester. 



armour, with a lance in his right hand. He wears a breast-plate, quatre- 
foil pallettes, a skirt of taces with a baldric or tranverse belt, gauntlets, 
genouillieres or knee-plates, and solkrets. lie holds in his left hand a 



26 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

round object that may be the handle of a dagger, but it would be the 
wrong hand for it. Around his neck is a collar of roses. He probably 
wore a bascinet. Pooley suggests that this figure represents Robert Fitz 
Hamon, founder of Tewkesbury A.bbey, in the beginning of the 13th 
century ; Sir Henry Dryden thinks it is the donor of the cross. Perhaps 
it is Longinus, who pierced our Lord's side with a spear, and, so tradition 
says, became a Christian. 

The baldric or transverse belt, Haines says, does not appear on 
monumental effigies after 1418, whereas the skirt of taces was introduced 
about that time ; so the date of the cross should be about 1410. 

The figure on the south side, which Pooley calls Geraldus, the first 
abbot of Tewkesbury, is undoubtedly St Lawrence, for he holds in his 
right hand a gridiron and wears a deacon's robes, an alb, and a dalmatic." 

A bird's-eye view of Ampney Crucis, given by Atkyns, includes the 
church and a fragment of the cross. Ampney House, the residence of 
E. W. Cripps, Esq., contains a fine Elizabethan chimney-piece. 

At the adjacent manorial residence, Ampney Park, the party were 
received by Mr. William Cripps, and inspected with much interest the 
handsome mantelpiece in the drawing-room, erected by Robert Pleydell in 
1625, and also the beautiful ceiling in the same room, the work of the 
French and Flemish plasterers brought over by James I. 

Leaving Ampney Crucis, the party had a peep at the well-nigh 
deserted Church of St. Mary, Ampney, which consists of a nave and 
chancel, with a bell-cot on the east gable of the nave, and a priest's door 
on the south side of the chancel. The chief object of interest is the door- 
way on the north side of the nave, now blocked up. A sketch of it and 
some notes by Sir Henry Dryden are given in our Transactions, vol. xvi., 
p. 131. 

The Domesday representative of this church must have been served 
by the priest of Reinbald's manor of Omenie, but almost all the land of 
this manor must lie in Ampney Crucis. Durandus' manor of Esbroc and 
Humphrey's manor of Estbroce represent Ashbrook or Ampney St. Mary. 

MEYSEY HAMPTON 

was the next stopping place, and at the church the party was received by 
the rector, the Rev. J. A. Ford, and one of the churchwardens, Mr. J. L. 
Burgess, being welcomed with a peal on the bells. This manor was held 
in the time of Edward the Confessor by Leueric. In 1086 (d.s.) it was the 
only Gloucestershire possession of Roger de Montgomerie, the great Earl. 
His son Hugh being banished for treason, his lands were seized by Henry I. 
Hampton Meysey then became part of the honour of Gloucester. The 
Knights Templars appear to have farmed the manor in the time of 
Henry III., since they held Court Leets. They were also patrons of 
the living. 



Meysey Hampton. 27 

" Sir Richard Atkyns tells us that Robert de Meysey, Sheriff of the 
County in 1255, was then lord of the manor. His son and heir, William, 
was succeeded by a son, John, who died leaving an only daughter, Eva or 
Eleanour. This Eva was married to Nicholas, son and heir of Lawrence 
de St. Maur, of Rode, Somerset, who was summoned to Parliament as 
Baron St. Maur in I3i5,and died in the following year, leaving by his first 
wife, Eva de Meysey, a son, Thomas, and by Helen de la Zouch, his 
second wife, a son Nicholas. Thomas died (s.p.) and his half-brother, 
Nicholas, was summoned to Parliament as Baron St. Maur from 1350 to 
1360. He married Muriel, daughter and heir of Lord Lovel of Kari, and 
was succeeded by his son Richard, who married Ela, daughter of Sir John 
de Loo, and died about 1400. 

His son and heir, Richard, married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Peyner, and, dying in 1408, was succeeded by his only daughter, Alice, 
born posthumously. She married William, 5th Lord Zouche of Haryn- 
worth, and their son William became 6th Lord Zouche and Baron St. 
Maur. He died in 1466, leaving John, his son and heir, 7th Lord Zouche. 
He sided with Richard III. against Henry VII., and was attainted after 
the battle of Bosworth Field. Atkyns tells us that the manor of Meysey 
Hampton passed by the marriage of the daughter of William, Lord 
Zouche, to William Saunders, who was lord of the manor in 1534, and 
levied a fine of it to Edmund, Lord Chandos. 

In 1608, Sir John Hungerford held the manor, and, late in the 17th 
century, Mr. Barker, of Fairford, obtained it from Sir Matthew Hale in 
exchange for the manor of Alderley. Amongst the principal residents have 
been the Jenners of Marston, the Bedwells, and Forshews. 

The plan of the church, which is dedicated to S. Mary, is cruciform, 
and comprises a nave with south porch, a central tower, north and south 
transepts, and a chancel. The church was probably built by the Knights 
Templars or the de Clares early in the 13th century, and the chancel was 
altered and greatly beautified in the 14th century by the Meyseys or St. 
Maurs, two of whose tombs are still preserved, and one has been only 
recently destroyed. • 

On the left side of the doorway of the porch is a bracket for the figure 
of a saint. We should have expected to find it above the arch, but the 
porch seems to have been built with a view to placing it where it is. 

There is a good Early English window at the west end of the nave, 
having two lower trefoiled lights and a quatrefoil above. 

The windows of the nave and transepts are single or double lancets 
with dripstones or hood mouldings, and a string course below. There is 
an entrance to the tower staircase on the outer east wall of the transept, 
which was made for the use of the ringers about 1850. 

The chancel has a two-light window on the north side and a modern 



28 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



vestry. The geometrical east window is a beautiful example of 14th 
century work. The double border of ball-flower ornament gives it a very 
rich appearance. It would seem, from a sketch taken by Mrs. Lee, 
daughter of the Rev. W. Holmes, a former rector of this parish, that this 
window has been recently shortened, which is truly to be deplored. 
Bigland says the window in the chancel is of curious architecture, of the 
Norman style, ornamented with nail-head moulding. I do not know that 
any window of the chancel has been destroyed since 1786. Can he be 
speaking of the east window ? Mrs. Lee's sketch, which she has kindly 
allowed us to reproduce, shews a little low window close to the two-light 
window on the north side of the chancel. This we shall find when we 



k 



-r- 
I 

IS 




MEYSEY HAMPTON CHURCH FROM N.E. 
From a Sketch by Mrs. Lee, c. 1851. 



enter the chancel has been removed farther east. The buttresses of the 
east wall, which are similar to those of the tower, have simple slopes as 
set-offs, and are characteristic of 13th century, or Early English, masonry. 
On the south side of the chancel are three 14th century windows, a priest's 
door, and a projection, the object of which will appear when we enter the 
chancel. 

The tower has a round-headed two-light window on each side. The 
plain embattled parapet was probably added in the 15th century. The 
Jacobaean lectern and a chain for securing the Bible which rested on it, 
with the inscription "Christian Jacketts, 1622," is more curious than 
beautiful. We were unable to find the name of Jackets in the register, so 



Meysey Hampton Church. 



29 



probably he was the maker. Perhaps James Vaulx was the donor. The 
tower has four plain chamfered arches resting on octagonal caps, shafts, 
and bases, and is supported by massive buttresses. 

In the south transept is a handsome Jacobaean monument with the 
effigies of James Vaulx, his wives, Edith Jenner and "Philip" Horton, 
and sixteen children. This monument was formerly in the chancel affixed 
to the north wall. Rudder tells us that Doctor Vaulx's reputation was so 
great that King James I. thought of making him his own royal physician, 
but wisely enquired how he had obtained his knowledge of the healing 

art. The reply being " By 
practice," his majesty re- 
joined : " Then by my saul 
thou hast killed mony a 
man, thou shalt na' practise 
upon me." In the south 
transept there is or was a 
memorial stone to Margaret 
Griswald (" a pearl of 
price") who died at Mar- 
ston, whither she had gone 
for Dr. Vaulx's advice ! 

On the north side of 
the Chancel, where the 
founder's tomb should be, 
is a beautiful altar-tomb, 
of the same date as the 
east window, with a tre- 
foiled canopy, ball-flower 
ornament, and seven shields 
from which the heraldic 
bearings have been obli- 
terated. This tomb I am 
inclined to assign to Eva 
the last of the Meyseys, 
first wife of Nicholas, Lord 
St. Maur. If so, its date is about 1310. The arms of St. Maur were Argent, 
two chevrons gules, a label azure. The arms of Meysey were, I believe, 
Argent a /esse between three cinque/oils sable, pierced of the field. The arms of 
de la Zouche are argent bexantel. The slab which covered the tomb has 
been removed and the dust of the noble dead has been swept away. In 
i860, another tomb occupied the place of the founder's tomb, and was then 
described as being "much altered and cut off at the top and now a plain 
arch." In another sketch of Mrs. Lee's, which we give, this second tomb 




LECTERN" IN MEYSEY HAMPTON CHURCH. 



3° 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



appears in its original position. The Vaulx monument in Bigland's time 
was in the chancel, and Mrs. Lee tells us that it completely hid the 
beautiful 14th century tomb, and was therefore removed to its present 
position in the south chancel. The decorated tomb had then as now the 
hagioscope, in the shape of a little window, at the back of it. In the time 
of the Rev. W. H. Ranken, Rector from 1869 to 1884, the plainer tomb 
was taken away and the richer one placed where it now is, in order that a 
door might be constructed into the new vestry. Every endeavour should 
be made to find this tomb and replace it in the church. The mouldings 
might give us a clue to its date and thus possibly to the name of the 
person who lay in it. The opening behind the tomb suggests the question : 
Was this originally what is known as a leper window, or was it a 




INTERIOR OF MEYSEY HAMPTON CHURCH. 
From a sketch by Mrs. Lee. 



hagioscope? If the latter, then on the site of the prescent vestry there 
was once a chapel or an anchorite's cell to which access could only be 
obtained from the churchyard. 

Bigland tells us also that in one of the windows of the chancel were 
the arms of de Clare, which are three chevrons gules. Perhaps this was a 
mistake and they were really the two chevrons gules of St. Maurs. 

There are some fragments of 14th century glass still remaining, and it 
would be well to search carefully for traces of the Meysey and St. Maur 
arms. Mrs. Lee's sketch shows a bracket for a statue on either side of 
the altar, and part of one canopy. 

On the south side of the chancel are four beautiful 14th century 



Report of the Council. 31 

niches with crocketted canopies, one of which, that furthest east, contains 
a piscina and a credence : the three others are sedilia. Next to these is 
an altar-tomb, somewhat later than that on the north side, but of the 
same date as the sedilia. As the wall was not thick enough for a recess, 
the projection, we saw outside, was constructed when the tomb was made; 
it may be the dust of one of the St. Maurs still rests here. Next to the 
tomb is a priest's door, and on its right, inserted in the wall, is a very 
ancient poor's box roughly hewn out of a tree and bound with iron hoops. 
Mrs. Lee's sketches are of great help in ascertaining the architecural 
history of this interesting church. Would that such existed of every 
church in the country which has been similarly restored." 

The next move was made to Fairford, which Cobbett, in his Rural 
Rides, described in his usually outspoken manner. He said : " Fairford is 
a pretty little market town, and has one of the prettiest churches in the 
kingdom. It was, they say, built in the reign of Henry VII., and one is 
naturally surprised to see that its windows of beautiful stained glass had 
the luck to escape not only the fangs of the ferocious good Queen Bess, 
not only the unsparing plundering of the minions of James I., but even 
the devastating ruffians of Cromwell." Before, however, the church was 
inspected, there were two important functions demanding observance. 
First luncheon was laid out at "The Bull Hotel," and after the morning 
ride and visits to several villages, the fare provided was duly appreciated. 
Luncheon over, 

THE ANNUAL MEETING 

of the Society was held in the Crofts Hall, kindly lent by Mr. \V. C. 
Arkell. Sir John Dorington presided, and called upon the Rev. 
\V. Bazeley to read the Report of the Council, as follows : — 

Report of the Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Arch.eological Society for 1899 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 
present the following Report for the year ending August, 1899. 

There are at present 321 annual members, S3 life members, and 
3 honorary members on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 407. 

The income for the year ending December 31st, 1898, including a 
balance of /414 10s. on the 1st of January, 1898, was £637 14s. 2d., and 
the expenditure £244 4s. 8d., leaving a balance of ^393 9s. Gd , in the 
Treasurer's hands on the 1st of January, 1899. From this sum must be 
deducted the cost of the Transactions for [898 and the Index to Vols. I.— XX , 
which is drawing near completion and ought to be in the members' hands 
before the close of this year. 

The Society held its Summer Meeting for 1898 in London, under the 
presidency of Sir John Dorington, Bart., Ml'. The programme included 



32 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

visits to many places of national interest in and near the metropolis and 
to many others to which, except on such occasions as these, few persons 
obtain access. The attendance of members was perhaps greater than at 
any previous meeting, and the weather was all that could be desired. 
Marked courtesy and kindness were extended to the Society by the Lord 
Mayor of London, by the Masters and Wardens of the following City 
Guilds — the Brewers, Armourers and Braziers, Drapers, and Barbers ; by 
the Library Committee and Librarian of the Guildhall ; by Mr. G. W. 
Birch, Custodian of the Soane Museum; by the Master of the Temple, 
and many others. 

Amongst those who acted as guides and described the places visited 
the Council would mention especially Mr. G. W. Birch, who was 
indefatigable in his exertions on behalf of the Society, although far from 
well ; Mr. Welsh, the Librarian of the Guildhall ; Mr. Aston Webb, the 
Rev. H. V. le Bas, Mr. Ernest Law, the Rev. A. Povah, D.D., Viscount 
Dillon, Mr. S. W. Kershaw, Mr. Guy Dawber, Mr. J. D. Micklethwaite 
and Mr. St. John Hope. 

To Mr. W. H. Seth Smith and Mr. G. M. Currie, who acted conjointly 
as Local Secretaries; to Mr. Charles Bathurst, Mr. R. A. S. Macalister, 
the Rev. J. W. Robbins, and Mr. C. Turnor, who acted as stewards, the 
hearty thanks of the Council are justly due. Indeed, without such able 
assistance it would have been impossible to carry out, without a hitch, the 
somewhat ambitious programme which had been prepared. The only 
drawback to the pleasure of the members was the absence of the President, 
Sir John Dorington, during the earlier days of the meeting, owing to a 
family bereavement. His place was, however, ably filled by Mr. G. B. 
Witts, President for 1897-8. 

On May 24th, 1899, the Society held a meeting at Nailsworth, and 
visited Beverston Church and Castle, Chavenage House and Avening 
Church. No less than 112 members attended this meeting, a number far 
exceeding any previous record. 

The thanks of the Council are due to Mr. Lowsley Williams for his 
kind permission to visit his interesting residence, Chavenage House, and 
to the Rev. E. W. Evans, Mr. Garlick, the Rev. E. W. Edwards, and 
Miss Tabrum for receiving the members at Beverston, Avening, and the 
Bannut Tree, Nailsworth, respectively. 

The following works have been presented to the Society's library during 
the past year : Memorials of London and London Life, Calendar of Letters from 
the Mayor and Corporation of London, The Guildhall of London : Its History 
and Associations, London and the Kingdom, Roll of Fame of London. All these 
were presented by the Library Committee of the Guildhall. The Perverse 
Widow was presented by Sir Brook Kay, and a second copy by the author, 
Mr. Crawley-Boevey. Avery interesting MS. of Archdeacon Furney's, by 



Report of the Council. 33 

Mr. J. Norton ; 15 vols, of Archaologia, by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet ; and 
various valuable works by Mr. Mullins, of Cirencester. 

The Council has presented copies of the Berkeley MSS., 3 vols. 4to, 
edited by Sir John Maclean for this Society, to the Library of the Guildhall, 
London, to the Master and Wardens of the Drapers' Company, to 
Mr. G. W. Birch, and to the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. Offers of 
copies have also been made to the Corporation of Bristol, to the British 
Museum, and to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, but it was found that they 
already possessed the work 

The Council would be glad to receive for the Society's Library works 
of reference on the various branches of Archaeology. 

The Congress of Archaeological Societies was held at Burlington House, 
on July 12th, 1899, under the auspices of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London, and the presidency of Viscount Dillon. The Congress was 
attended by delegates from nearly all the Archaeological Societies of Great 
Britain and Ireland. Of the two delegates from this Society, Mr. 
J. E. Pritchard and the Rev. W. Bazeley, only the latter was able to be 
present. 

The following subjects were discussed : — 

The Genera! Index of Archaeological Papers, 1682 — ISO I, edited by Mr. 
Gomme. — The Council have subscribed for this useful work, which will be 
published by Messrs. Constable. 

The Safe Custody of Wills, Parish Registers, and other Records. — The 
Congress resolved to recommend the Government to appoint a Royal 
Commission to enquire into the subject of the better preservation and 
arrangement of such Records, with a view to rendering impossible such 
practices as have been lately revealed in the Shipway trial. This Council 
are opposed to any suggestion to remove Parish Registers and other 
Records from the parish to which they belong, but they are of opinion 
that transcriptions should be made, deposited in a central County 
Registry, and be available for research; and that the need of carefully 
preserving the originals against loss, fire, and unprincipled searchers 
should be impressed on the parochial clergy, churchwardens, and other 
parochial authorities. 

A National Catalogue of Effigies. — This Council has obtained promises 
of help in cataloguing the effigies of Gloucestershire ; but the work is 
being sadly delayed by the fact that the directions to be drawn up under 
the auspicies of the Congress are not yet forthcoming. In the meanwhile, 
the Council will gladly accept through the Secretary photographs, 
drawings, and descriptions of Gloucestershire effigies, and will preserve 
them in portfolios with a view to a catalogue. 

The National Portrait Catalogue — This Council regrets that so few 
members, possessing family portraits, have applied to the Secretary for 

4 
Vol. XXII. 



34 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

the forms provided by the Congress for cataloguing such treasures. The 
Congress propose to petition the Government to lower or forego the death 
duties on collections of family portraits as long as they remain unsold. 

The Victoria Series of County Histories.— The Congress passed [the 
following resolution : "This Congress is glad to hear of the project of a 
complete series of County Histories, and hopes that every assistance will 
be rendered by the various Archaeological Societies." This Council on 
their part will gladly render assistance in promoting the excellent work 
taken up by the publishers, Messrs. Constable and Co. They will also 
endeavour to learn what is being done in the matter by kindred societies. 

The Council considers that the hearty thanks of this Society are due to 
Mr. Ernest Hartland, who for many years past has skilfully controlled the 
finances of this Society as Treasurer, and has lately resigned. Air. G. M. 
Currie, who has already done much good service to the Society as Local 
Secretary for Cheltenham and as Local Treasurer for several General 
Meetings, has consented to act as General Treasurer. 

During the year the Council issued the following Circular with regard 
to the ruins of Hailes Abbey : — 

Bristol anD (Sloucestersbire Brcbrcological Society 

An Appeal for Funds to Explore the Site of Hayles Abbey, and Preserve the- 
Ruins from further Destruction. 

This Abbey was founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, and 
dedicated on November 5th, 1251, in the presence of King Henry III., 
and his queen. Eleanor of Provence, together with a vast assembly of 
ecclesiastics and barons. 

In 1 27 1, fire consumed a large portion of the monastic buildings, 
and Earl Richard, then King of the Romans, devoted 8,ooo marks to its 
restoration. 

Again, in the 15th century, it would seem, from internal evidence, that 
the monastery once more fell a prey to an extensive conflagration, and 
a restoration became necessary which transformed the cloisters from 
Early English to Perpendicular. In 1539 the Abbey, with all its posses- 
sions and buildings, was surrendered by the last abbot, Stephen Seager, 
and his monks, to the commissioners of Henry VIII., and all but the 
Abbot's House, standing on the west side of the cloisters, and the kitchen, 
butteries, and larders, on the south-west, were condemned as useless. 
For the third time there came a devastating fire ; and the cloisters and the 
chapter house, with their beautiful vaulting, became a prey to the flames. 

From this time forward, until the close of the 17th century, the 
Abbot's House was used as a residence by the Viscounts Tracy, and the 
Abbey Church and monastic buildings, with the exception of the cloisters, 
lay concealed below the surface. 

For three hundred years Hayles Abbey has been treated as a quarry. 
Most of the ashlar work has been stripped from the walls, and the arches 



Report of the Council. 35. 

which once led from the cloisters into the church and conventual buildings 
have been crumbling to decay. The Abbot's Lodgings, portrayed by Kip, 
Buck, and Lysons, have well-nigh disappeared, and a mere heap of stones 
marks the site of the lordly abode of the Tracys. Much, however, remains 
that is full of interest for students of history and architecture. Within 
the entrance to the chapter house has been found evidence that the whole 
of the Early English vaulting, dating from 1271 — 1277, although prostrate 
on the ground, remains fairly intact. Two richly-carved bosses, with 
conventional foliage, have been extracted uninjured, and there is good 
reason to believe that several more of these lie amidst the heap of moulded 
and carved stones. 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 
have obtained permission to excavate the site of the Abbey, with a view to 
making a plan of its buildings and of saving the remaining cloister-arches 
from collapse. When this is done, the owners will construct a fence to 
protect the ruins. Under the direction of the Secretary of the Society 
and St. Clair Baddeley, Esq., a member of the Council, the cloister-walks 
are now being cleared, and the walls are being excavated to their bases, 
revealing many architectural features which have been hitherto concealed. 
The arches and other parts of the buildings, which have been in imminent 
danger of falling, are being rendered secure. 

The fact that this Abbey was built at a period when English archi- 
tecture was most beautiful in its simplicity, and that few other Cistercian 
abbeys of the same date remain, will render a study of its ground-plan 
and details exceedingly interesting. 

The Council of this Society desire to raise a fund of about £200, so as 
to be enabled to excavate the site in the following order : (1) the cloisters 
and claustral buildings; (2) the church; (3) the infirmary; (4) the gate- 
way and other detached buildings. 

It has been suggested that a local museum should be formed on the 
spot in order to contain objects of interest found during the exploration of 
the ruins. The lavatory lends itself to this purpose temporarily, if it is 
not found necessary to erect a special building. 

An Autumn Meeting of the Society will be held at Hayles, on 
Thursday, September 7th, the programme for which will be sent to the 
members of this Society and to any others who may desire to attend. 

In addition to the Society's grant of £20, the following contributions 
have been already given or promised : Mrs. Dent, £10; The Rev. W. D. 
Stanton, £5; St. Clair Baddeley, Esq., £10; Miss Whalley, £1 is; 
T. Dyer-Ed wardes, Esq., £5 ; The Right Rev. The Master of Pembroke 
College, Oxford, 10/- ; Mrs. Wedgwood, £2. ' 

To this appeal is attached a form, which should be filled in and sent 
together with any contribution to the Treasurer of the Society and of the 
Excavation Fund, G. M. Currie, Esq., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham 

William Bazeley, 
Matson Rectory, Gloucester, lion. Gen. See. 

August 9th, 1899. 



36 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

The Society has sustained a very serious loss by the death of 
Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., whose papers on the Berkeleys of Dursley and 
Coberley, on Testa de Nevill, and Kirby's Quest are amongst the most 
valuable and interesting that the Transactions contain. Sir Henry Barkly 
was President of this Society in 1886, at the Dursley Meeting, and won all 
hearts by his courtesy and learning. 

The Council would also record their regret at the loss by death of 
Mr. C. R Baynes, of Minchinhampton, who hospitably received the 
Society in 18S0; of the Rev. A. W. C. Hallen, an eminent genealogist ; 
and Major-General Vizard, always a welcome attendant at the meetings of 
the Society. 

The Council, in accordance with the powers conferred on them by the 
scheme for holding the property of the dissolved Corporation of Chipping 
Sodbury, have appointed Mr. F. F. Fox one of the Trustees. 

The Council proposes for re-election, the President of Council, the 
Vice-Presidents of the Society, and the Local Secretaries ; and for election 
as Vice-President, The Right Rev. the Bishop of Bristol. 

The following Members of Council retire by rotation, but are eligible 
for re-election : Messrs. A. E. Hudd, A. T. Martin, S. H. Swayne, 
P. O. Prankerd, Christopher Bowly, H. W. Bruton, E. Sidney Hartland, 
and H. G. Madan. 

The Council has held six meetings during the past year, and desires 
to express its acknowledgments to the Mayor and Corporation of Bristol 
for the use of a room at the Guildhall, Bristol. 

The Council cannot close this Report without recording their high 
estimation of the very valuable services of their Hon. Secretary, Mr. 
Bazeley, who has always been indefatigable in carrying on the work of the 
Society, and arranged most admirably the different meetings of the 
Society, especially the London Meeting. 

On the motion of Mr. Lloyd Baker, seconded by Mr. Leigh, the 
Report was adopted. 

The retiring members of the Council having been re-elected, on the 
motion of the Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, 

The President proposed the re-election of the President of the 
Council, Sir Brook Kay, Bart., the Vice-Presidents, and the Local 
Secretaries, with the addition of the Bishop of Bristol to the list of 
Vice-Presidents, and this was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. Christopher Bowly moved a vote of thanks to Sir John 
Dorington, the retiring President, remarking that he had discharged the 
duties with his usual ability and diligence, and he was an exemplification 
of the fact that if they wanted work done they must go to the busiest man 
to do it. 

This was seconded by Mr. Tuckett, and carried with applause. 



Fairford. 37 

Sir John Dorington briefly acknowledged the compliment, and said 
he would make way for the new President and the most entertaining 
address which he believed he had prepared. 

The President then read his address, which is printed separate!y. 

Mr. Hyett, in moving a vote of thanks to the President, said two- 
things were evident — first, that Mr. Bazley's claim to indulgence was 
superfluous, and, secondly, that Sir John Dorington, when he beforehand 
described the address as " most interesting," must either have had a 
private look at the notes or else he occupied the unusual role of a true 
prophet. He was sure that the great majority in that room would now 
appreciate much more thoroughly and intelligently the Fairford windows 
which they were about to inspect than they would have done had they 
not heard Mr. Gardner Bazley's admirable address. 

Mr. de Sausmarez, in seconding the vote, said Mr. Bazley was like 
Mrs. Malaprop's "Cerberus" — "several gentlemen at once" — for he was. 
an apt student, an accomplished artist, and an admirable lecturer. 

Mr. Bazley briefly replied, and a move was then made to the church,, 
and 

THE FAIRFORD WINDOWS 

were inspected under the direction of the Vicar, the Rev. F. R. Carbonell, who 
probably knows the windows better thananyoneelsenowliving; and therefore 
a more accomplished guide could not have been desired. Mr. Carbonell. 
prefaced the tour of the windows with some interesting general observations, 
dealing first with the inevitable and apparently insoluble problem, " By 
whom were the windows designed and painted ? " — as to which, he said, they 
must come to the conclusion that nothing whatever was certainly known. 
He reviewed Mr. Holt's well-known arguments in favour of the Durer 
authorship, and pointed to many conclusive reasons and proofs against 
that theory. Another tradition he also effectively combated ; viz., the 
theory that John Tame, the founder of the church, in 1501 or 1502, took 
the windows from a Flemish ship on the high seas, and then built the 
church to fit them. He remarked that Tame was a Cotswold wool 
merchant, and not a privateer ; and it was absolutely certain that the 
glass was designed for windows and tracery exactly similar to that in 
Fairford Church, and for a church of exactly that size and form, which 
size and form corresponded identically with the older church which 
Tame's church replaced. The general plan of the windows was then 
indicated, and they were afterwards examined in detail. Mr. Carbonell 
was cordially thanked for his able address and explanation of the 
windows. 

The following Notes on Fairford were written for the programme by 
the General Secretary : — 

" Fairford derives the latter part of its name from a ford over the Colne. 



38 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Its position gave it an importance in Saxon times, and the discoveries of 
Mr. Wylie in 1852 prove that there was an important colony here soon 
after the conquest of Britain by our English forefathers. Many beautiful 
objects discovered in the Fairford graves — glass vases, fibulae, drinking 
vessels, weapons of bronze, and amber beads — may be seen in the Ash- 
molean Museum, Oxford. The earliest mention of the place is in a 
Charter of Confirmation, purporting to have been granted by Burgred, 
King of the Mercians, in 872, which, however, in its present state, cannot 
be genuine, in which it is stated that Burgred gave the land of ten cassates 
at Fagranforda to the Church of St. Peter at Gloucester. 

In the days of the Confessor, Fairford formed one of the many 
manors of Brictric, son of Algar. The story of Queen Matilda's early 
love for him and her subsequent hatred because he refused her has been 
too often told to need re-telling ; but, in fairness to the queen, let us 
remember that E. A. Freeman, one of our best historians, throws discredit 
on the whole tradition. Brictric suffered only as well-nigh every other 
Saxon landowner suffered the loss of all his heritage to enrich his 
rapacious conquerors. Fairford had belonged to Queen Matilda, but in 
Domesday it appears as a possession of the King. It descended to 
William II., by whom it was given to Robert Fitzhamon, as part of the 
endowment of the Honour of Gloucester. And thus it shared the fortunes 
of Tewkesbury, passing from Robert Fitzhamon to the de Clares, the 
Despencers, the Beauchamps, and the Nevilles, till it came into the hands 
of Henry VII. He granted it to John Tame, a London merchant, and in 
his time and his son's, Sir Edmund, it flourished as it had never done 
before. John Tame found here a noble 14th century church built on the 
site of one far more ancient, and he levelled it almost to the ground that 
he might construct a sacred picture gallery, where the highest mysteries 
of the Christian faith might be set forth (much as they are in the Ober 
Ammergau Passion Play), by representations of our Lord's life on earth, 
and future judgment ; by scenes from the Old Testament symbolical of 
the Gospel History ; and by the likenesses of holy men who, before and 
since the coming of the Saviour, have written or contended for the faith. 
By way of contrast, twelve Christian martyrs and confessors in the 
clerestory windows face twelve of their persecutors. It is this marvellous 
series of painted windows that makes Fairford so attractive to those 
interested in mediaeval art : but apart from these, the church has many 
attractive features ; and churchmen of to-day may well revere the spot 
where Keble was born and spent his early years. His parents' tombs are 
in the churchyard. His own noblest monument, The Christian War, may 
have derived its first inspiration from the windows with which he was so 
familiar. 

The plan of S. Mary's Church comprises a nave with clerestory, two 



Fairford Church. 



39 




o 



f*. 



Vvt^ t^. rs iin :<.. ., _jil 



:i 







w 



03 



40 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

aisles, which extend to within 14 feet of its easternmost limits, a central 
tower, chancel and vestry. It will be seen on examining the walls and 
buttresses of the chancel that they rest on the plinths of an earlier church. 
There are, moreover, remains of early 14th century work, with the 
characteristic ballflower, embedded in the two western piers of the tower. 
Mr. Joyce seems to think that John Tame, when he removed the transepts, 
allowed the lower tier of the tower to remain. 

The south porch has a flat arch of three members, with quatrefoils 
and trefoils in the spandrels and a square hood terminating in the figures 
of angels. Above the arch is a niche with font-like pedestal on which once 
stood a statue of our Lady. There is a sameness about the windows such 
as we might expect in a church built all at one date. They are of three,, 
four, and six- lower lights, with many quatrefoils in their heads, and 
round-headed arches. The embattled parapets are rich with gurgoyles, 
and the tower is covered with heraldic arms and devices, amongst which 
will be noticed the Despencer fret, the Beauchamp chevron on a ground 
chequy, the lion and dragon of the Tames, and such well-known 
cognisances as the chained bear and ragged staff of the Earls of Warwick, 
and the Yorkist fetterlock. 

The general style of the church may be compared with such con- 
temporary buildings as Henry VII. 's Chapel at Westminster, the Lady 
Chapel at Gloucester Cathedral, and Bath Abbey — some of our latest 
examples of Gothic architecture. It was stated by Dr. Parsons, 
Chancellor of Oxford, at the close of the 17th century, that John Tame 
built the church as a receptacle for some Flemish glass which he had 
previously obtained. Many treatises have been written to prove or 
disprove the assertion, said to have been made by Vandyck to Charles I., 
that Albert Diirer had designed the paintings. 

Mr. Joyce, in his superb monograph on the windows, came to the 
conclusion — for reasons which will no doubt be given us on the spot — 
that the windows were made for the church, and he is decidedly 
opposed to the Diirer theory. The glass fills 28 windows, and may be 
divided into three principal groups : I. The Gospel History, in eight 
windows within the chancel-screen, introduced by four typical studies 
from Old Testament History in a window just outside; II. The History 
of the Faith, in sixteen windows of the nave, aisles, and clerestory ; 
III. The Last Judgment, in the three windows at the west end. The 
order of the history is somewhat disturbed by the insertion of the 
Assumption of the Virgin over the altar of our Lady in the chapel at the 
east end of the north aisle, and by the insertion of the Transfiguration 
over the altar of the Corpus Christi Chapel, in the chapel formerly used 
for the reservation of the Holy Sacrament, in the corresponding chapel 
on the west side, 



Fairford Church. 41 

Let us then commence with the window in the north aisle just out- 
side the screen. 

1. Four Old Testament Symbols, i.e., The Fall, Moses at the Burning 

Bush, Gideon and the Fleece, and the Queen of Sheba's visit 
to Solomon. 

The history of our Lord's mother in the three windows of the Lady 
Chapel : 

2. Joachim and Anna at the Golden Gate, the Birth of the Virgin, the 

Self-dedication of St Mary and her Espousal to Joseph. 

3. The Annunciation, the Nativity, the Adoration of the Magi, and the 

Presentation in the Temple. 

4. The Assumption of St. Mary, the Flight into Egypt, the Massacre of 

the Infants, Christ in the Temple with the Doctors. 

5. East Window. The Passion and Death of our Lord. 

6. The Descent from the cross, the Entombment, Christ in Hades. 

7. The Appearances of our Lord to Mary Magdalene and the other 

women, the Transfiguration. 

8. The Supper at Emmaus. The Unbelief of St. Thomas. 

9. The Appearance of Christ at the Sea of Tiberias. The Ascension, 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. 

The twelve Apostles reciting the Creed : 

10. St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James, St. John. 

11. St. Thomas, St. James the Less, St. Philip, St. Bartholomew. 

12. St. Matthew, St. Simon, St. Thaddaeus, St. Matthias. 

The Fathers of the Church : 

13. St. Jerome, St. Gregory, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine. 

14. The Judgment of David. 

15. The Last Judgment. 

16. The Judgment of Solomon. 

17. The four Evangelists: St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, and St. 

John. 

Twelve of the Prophets, adducing proofs of the Creed from their own 
writings : 

18. Jeremiah, David, Isaiah, Zacharias. 

19. Micah, Malachi, Daniel, Obadiah 

20. Hosea, Amos, Sophronias, Joel. 

In the windows of the Clerestory, south side, beginning from the 
west : 

21. A Pope between two Cardinals. 

22. An Emperor between two Kings. 

23. Fragments, St. Margaret, a Bishop. 

24. St. Dorothy, St. Sebastian, St. Agnes. 



4 2 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



On the north side of Clerestory, beginning at the west : 

25. Annas, Judas Iscariot, Caiaphas. 

26. A King, an Emperor, Herod the Great. 

27. Herod Antipas, a figure in armour. 

28. An Archer, two armed figures sadly mutilated. 

In the Lady Chapel is a good brass with the effigies of Sir Edmund 
Tame and dame Alice, his wife. Between the Chancel and the Lady 
Chapel is the altar tomb of the founder of the church and donor of the 
glass, John Tame, and his wife, Alice, with their effigies. The altar tomb of 
Roger Ligon and his wife is also in the chancel. The monument of Sir 
William Oldisworth, who died in 1689, reminds us of the debt of 
gratitude we owe this worthy knight for taking out and concealing the 
glass when the Puritan soldiers were marching upon Fairford and would 
have destroyed it. Of course, when it was replaced, after the Restoration 

of Charles II., some 
mistakes were made and 
many pieces were lost, 
but when the glass was 
releaded a few years ago, 
the present vicar, with 
much ability and untir- 
ing zeal, replaced, sought 
out, and restored to their 
proper places all the 
pieces which had been 
wrongly placed. 

Authorities on the 
Fairford Glass : The 
Fairford Windows ; A 
Monograph; by the Rev. 
J. G. Joyce; published 
by the Arundel Society, 
1872. A Handbook to 
Fairford Church and its 
Windows, by the Rev. 
F. R. Carbonell, 1893 '• 
price 6d. Remarks on the 
Fairford Windows, by 
the Rev. J. G. Joyce; Trans. B.G.A.S., vol. ii., pp. 53 — 91. 

See also papers on the Diirer controversy by Messrs. Russell, Waller, 
Holt, Blanche, a list of which is given in The Manual of Gloucestershire 
Bibliography, by F. A. Hyett and W. Bazeley, a few copies of which 
remain and may still be subscribed for." 




FAIRFORD CHURCH. 
From the Rev. F. R. Carbonell'% Guide. 



Lechlade. 43 

After dinner at "The Bull Hotel," at which there was again an over- 
flowing attendance, so that one party at least had a pleasant al fresco meal 
in front of the hotel, a 

CONVERSAZIONE 

was held in Crofts Hall, the ladies of Fairford having very kindly received 
the Society to tea in the grounds attached to Mr. W. C. Arkell's residence, 
a tent being erected for the purpose. Hailes Abbey, Winchcombe, which, 
as already noted, is now affording such a pleasant field of exploration for 
the Society, occupied a large share of attention at the conversazione, Mr. 
St. Clair Badoeley reading an exhaustive paper on " Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall," its founder, and the Rev. W. Bazeley giving an interesting 
account of the discoveries already made, and constructing therefrom a 
conjectural description of the great abbey and conventual buildings. Sir 
John Dorington mentioned that the roof of Bisley Church, which had 
to be removed some years ago, and which obviously was not made for the 
church, was traditionally said to have come from Hailes Abbey. It had 
to be pulled down, as it had become unsafe, but some of the timbers were 
preserved in a keeper's lodge which he erected about the same time. 

The Rev. W. H. T. Wright read a paper on the connection of East- 
leach Martin with Great Malvern Priory, and gave an attractive account 
of the beauties of the secluded parishes of Eastleach Martin and Turville, 
and of the two interesting churches of SS. Michael and Martin and 
S. Andrew, but a hundred yards apart, and separated but by the river 
Leach and the roadway. He mentioned that both of those parishes were 
for a time served by John Keble, whose signature frequently appeared in 
the registers, and it was said that his beautiful evening hymn was com- 
posed in the Rectory garden of Eastleach Martin. Mr. Guy Dawbek 
afterwards read a paper on old Gloucestershire houses. 

On Thursday, in beautiful weather, a four-mile drive brought the party 
to Lechlade. "This place derives its name from a lode or ford that flows into 
the Thames below St. John's Bridge. Two other tributaries join that river 
near Lechlade: the Coin and Barker's Brook. It is stated in Domesday Book 
that Siward Bar held the manor of Lechlade in the time of the Confessor. 
Siward was apparently a great-nephew of King Edward. He took part in 
the rebellion of Hereward the Wake in 1071, and was imprisoned till 
September, 1087, when on his deathbed the Conqueror released him. 
William I. conferred the manor on Henry de Ferrars, and his descendants 
held it till the time of Henry III. It formed part of the vast estate of 
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, King Henry's brother, founder of Hayles 
Abbey, who was succeeded by his son, Edmund. Later on it followed the 
fortunes of Barnsley and was held by the 1 >espencers, by the Earls of Kent 
and of March, and by Richard, Duke of York, and the Duchess, Cecily. It 
formed part of the dower of Queen Elizabeth of York and of Oueen 



44 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



Catherine of Arragon. Then it was granted to Dennis Toppes and 
Dorothy, his wife. At the close of the 16th century it passed into the 
Bathurst family, who retained it for two centuries. About 1220, Isabel de 
Ferrars and her husband, Peter Fitz Herbert, founded a hospital near the 
river, and dedicated it to St. John the Baptist. A few years later St. John's 
Bridge was built over the Thames. This is one of the oldest stone bridges 
we have, for though it has often been repaired it still retains much of the 
original design and work. Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and his wife Sancha 
enlarged the hospital and made it a Priory of Augustinian Canons. In 
1472 the Duchess Cecily obtained permission to dissolve the Priory and 
use its endowments for the foundation of a chantry dedicated to S. Mary 
in the parish church, which about this time, Bigland says, was being re- 
built by the vicar, Conrad Ney. When Leland paid Lechlade a visit in 

1534, he saw 
_. -^ . a chapel at 

the very end 
of St. John's 
Bridge, on the 
right hand, in 
a meadow, 
and a great 
enclosure of 
stone walls. 
He also men- 
tions"apretty 
pyramis " at 
the west end 
of the parish 
church. Soon 
after this 

William Kyrbee was ordered to pull down an old church and use the 
materials in repairing the bridge. This was probably the chapel Leland 
saw near the bridge. 

It was a tradition many years ago that the curious sculpture, on the 
south wall of Inglesham Church, of our Lord and His Mother came from 
the Priory Church. 

The church of St. Lawrence consists of a nave, north and south aisles 
and north porch, a western tower, a choir with aisle of the same width as 
those of the nave, a chancel, and a vestry. The church looks as if it had 
been built, or rather rebuilt, at one period. I could find no traces of 
anything earlier than the 14th century, not a sculptured fragment of 
Norman or Early English work. 

The west stage of the tower has a fine vaulted roof of stone. At the 







LECHLADE FROM UP THE LAKE. 
Lent by Mr. Aldcn, Fairford. 



Lechlade Church. 



45 



intersection of the ribs are four shields, parted per pale. Two are charged 
with a lozenge voided. The west windows, like the Tudor windows at the 
east end of the church, appear to be later than the rest. The graceful 
hexagonal spire, with its ribbed work and double band of quatrefoils, 
seems to have been added to the tower early in the 16th century. The 
north and south doorways with square hood-moulding have excellent oak- 
leaf carving in the spandrels of their arches. The north porch blocks 
up one of the windows of the nave. It has a groined ceiling ; I do not 
think that there was a parvise. The windows of the nave, aisles, and 
chancel are all alike, with three lower lights and eight-foiled heads. 

The battlement of the chancel is pierced with trefoils and has 




LECHLADE CHURCH. 
Taunt, Oxford, ph. 



crccketted finials. On the middle finial at the east end is a figure of the 
patron saint, St. Lawrence, robed as a deacon with alb and dalmatic, and 
holding in his hands a book and a gridiron, the symbol of his martyrdom 
A finial or turret at the east end of the nave has been at one time pierced 
for a sanctus bell. 

The vestry on the north side is of the same date as the chancel, and 
has a highly decorated battlement of similar character. 

The nave has two arcades of four arches each and a clerestory 
containing eight 15th century windows of four lights. There are three 
arches at the east end of the nave, those on the north and south sides 
separating the aisles from the chantry chapels. On the north wall of the 



4 6 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



nave is a sculptured stone, much defaced, representing a bishop baptizing 
a child, and behind him an animal of some kind and a Norman Church. 
On a scroll which issues from his mouth are written the words "In 
Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, Amen." The pulpit has a 14th 
century base. The entrance to the roodloft remains. The altar of St. 
Blaise stood at the east end of the south aisle. The altars of St. Mary 
and St. John the Baptist stood respectively in the north and south chapels 
of the choir. 

The chancel has a flat 15th century roof with carved bosses, resting on 
six large and twelve smaller corbels. There are two almeries and a piscina 
in the chancel. In the north chapel of the choir will be found eight steps 
of the staircase leading up to the roodloft. 

Bigland gives a view of Lechlade Church from the north-east, and 
drawings of the two brasses which still remain. On the south side is the 
brass effigy of John Twinyhoe, merchant, founder of the Chantry of St. 
Blaise, and on the north side are two figures— a merchant and his wife. 

The effigy of John Twinyhoe's wife is gone ; it was missing in 1786. 
John Twinyhoe died about 1510. His arms were Argent a chevron between 
three lapwings sable, or, as some read them, 3 poppingays proper. 

The second brass has lost its inscription, but Dr. Parsons, who made 
some valuable notes in the 17th century, has handed down to us the fact 
that it was in memory of John Townshend, merchant and woolman, who 
died in 1458. There are some fragments of stained glass in the Clerestory 
windows, with the badges of Edward IV. and his mother, the Duchess 




LECHLADE FROM THE BRIDGE LEADING TO INGLESIIAM. 
Lent by Messrs. Savory & Cole, 



Lechlade Church. 47 

of York. There is also one of the Twinyhoe poppingjays. Shelley's 
beautiful poem, " A Summer Evening, Churchyard, Lechlade, Gloucester- 
shire," was written in 1815. The late Mr. Achin Williams wrote a 
history of Lechlade which was excellently printed by E. W. Savory, of 
Cirencester. The frontispiece, giving the upper bridge, and Lechlade in 
the distance, has been produced in this programme by Messrs. Savory 
and Cole's kind permission. The brasses have been well described by one 
of our members, Mr. Cecil Davies, Librarian of the Wandsworth Public 
Library, and also by the late Mr. Haines. Mr. Hichin says that in the 
rectory garden is the statue of a woman wearing a crown with a sword 
piercing her breast. It is probably an image of our Lady of Pity. There 
is a fine brass Georgian Candelabra in the nave." 

The ancient parish church of S. John the Baptist, Inglesham, in the 
adjacent county of Wilts, was next visited. The vicar, the Rev. G. W. 
Spooner, received the party. On January 25th, 1205, King John gave the 
Manor and Church of Inglesham to the Cistercian Abbey of Beaulieu, in 
the New Forest, which he had founded. At the Dissolution the estates of 
the abbey were granted, in the 30th year of Henry VIII., to the Earl of 
Southampton; in the reign of William III. they passed by marriage with 
the heiress of the Wriothesleys to Ralph, Lord Montague, and have since 
passed by marriage to the Duke of Buccleugh. 

"The church possesses a nave with north and south aisles, a south 
porch, and a chancel. It is very small, being only 49 feet long and 36 feet 
wide. The anti-restorer will find little to complain of here ; all that has 
been done in the present century has been to restore the roof of the nave 
and to put a drain at the feet of the walls. A fund is now being raised to 
restore the roof of the chancel, under the guidance of J. T. Micklethwaite, 
Esq., and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Monuments, and it 
deserves support. I am indebted to Mr. Micklethwaite's Report, made in 
1886, which he has kindly sent me, for much information about this 
interesting little church. 

The porch, the floor of which is far below the level of the churchyard, 
looks as if it had been rebuilt ; but it contains a 13th century niche. The 
south aisle has been extended to half the length of the chancel, and the 
walls of both aisles have been raised and covered with flat roofs. The 
chapel at the east end of the south aisle contains a little Norman window, 
probably brought from another part of the church ; all the other windows 
of the aisles are 15th century insertions. The chancel has a 13th century 
east window of three lights. The bell-cot at the west end of the gate of 
the nave is pretty, and looks like 14th century work. 

But the chief interest of the church lies in its interior. We enter it 
by a very early 13th century south doorway. The church was evidently 
commenced late in the 12th century, for the south arcade of the nave, the 



4* 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



pillar of the north arcade, and the lower part of the north wall of the 
chancel are of this date. In the early part of the 13th century the east and 
south windows of the chancel were constructed. Mr. Micklethwaite 
considers that at least half a century elapsed between the commencement 
and completion of the church, say from 1180 to 1230. 




INGLESHAM CHURCH. 
Taunt, Oxford, ph. 



The chancel roof is an early example of 13th century timberwork. It 
is of plain trussed rafters, and the eastern half over the sanctuary has a 
boarded ceiling with light transverse ribs. 

The wall-plate cuts into the drip and inner arches of the earlier 
windows on the north side, but fits the east and south windows. 

The eastern part of the aisles has been screened off for chapels. 
There is a good 15th century font and a Jacoba;an pulpit. The cill only of 
the rood screen remains. An hour-glass is affixed to the pillar of the north 
arcade. The pews, cumbrous as they are, should not be removed, as they 
are interesting relics of the 17th century. There is the matrix of a late 
14th century military brass in the chancel. The colouring on the walls is 
not later than the 17th century. Some original 13th century glass remains 
in the south window of the chancel, A curious piece of sculpture has 
been imbedded in the south wall, representing St. Mary and the Holy 
Child. St. Mary wears a kind of turban. From the right corner a hand 
appears pointing to the Child (S. Matt. iii. 17). Below the figure of our 
Lord's Mother are the remains of a sundial, showing that this sculpture 



Little Farringdon. 



49 



was long ago, as now, on the outer south side of some building. The 
figures are badly drawn, and appear to be very ancient — earlier, Mr. 
Micklethwaite thinks, than any part of the existing church. There is a 
15th century churchyard cross, with steps, base, and shaft. It is to be 
hoped that the head of this cross will be found and restored, as at Ampney 
Crucis and Ashleworth." 

Proceeding to the village of Little Farringdon, the quaint church was 
inspected under the guidance of the Rector, the Rev. W. F. Adams. 

" Little Farringdon, formerly in the county of Berks, is now in 
Oxfordshire. It was granted by King John to the Abbey of Beaulieu at 
the same time with Inglesham. The dedication of the church is not 
known. The plan comprises a nave, with north aisle and south porch. 
There is a gabled bell-turret, with two bells, at the west end. The nave 
had formerly a south aisle, but this has been destroyed. The clerestory 




LITTLE FARRINGDON CHURCH. 
Taunt, Oxford, ph. 

remains, and also one of the arches of a 14th century arcade, into which 
has been inserted a window of perhaps 17th century date. In this window 
is some Flemish glass with " la Cornells Vanden Berch, 1605 " and a trade 
mark There is also some good Early English glass, with white con- 
ventional flowers on a ruby ground. The Early English north arcade 
consists of three round arches, with octagonal capitals and bases, and 
round shafts. The conventional foliage on the capitals is well carved. 
Over the centre of each arch, and between every two arches at the junction 



Vol. XXII. 



5° 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



of the hood-moulding, is a small round head. The roof of the nave rests 
on plain corbels, on several of which appears a shield bearing three 
annulets, and on one a lion rampant. A north doorway has been stopped up. 
At the west end of the nave is a round-headed window, deeply splayed, 
and above it a square-headed 15th century window, with two lower lights 
and six quatrefoils. It has some old glass. 

The chancel arch is late 12th century. The chancel has two deeply- 
splayed lancet windows at the east end, and two round-headed windows on 
either side. There is a 14th century piscina on the south side, with an 
almery in the east wall. 

There is a holy-water stoup on the east side of the south door." 
At Langford, where the party were received by the Rev. C. G. 

Wodehouse, the 
Rector, another inter- 
esting church, St. 
Matthew's, was 
visited. 

" The plan of the 
church comprises a 
nave, with norlh and 
south aisles (which 
extend eastwards half 
the length of the 
tower), a central 
tower, and a chancel. 
In the outer wall of 
the porch, above a 
plain doorway with 
segmental arch and 
hood-moulding, is a 
recess into which has 
been inserted a carv- 
ing of the Crucifixion. 
It will be seen that 
the arms of the dead 
or dying Saviour have 
been reversed, and are 
inclined downwards. 
I doubt whether the 
recess is high enough 
to allow them to be placed in their proper position. If so, we may 
conclude that this rood was originally above the eastern arch of the nave, 
and was removed when roods were ordered to be taken down or destroyed. 




POKCH OF LANGFORD CHURCH, 
Taunt, Oxford, ph. 



Langford. 



51 



The attendant figures of St. John and St. Mary have also been reversed, 
for instead of gazing upon the Crucified One, they look outwards. 

The principal figure is in high relief, and is carved on four separate 
stones. The head inclines towards the right shoulder, and behind it is a 
nimbus, with a cross in relief. The loins are clad in a kilt which only 
reaches the knees. SS. Mary and John have each a nimbus. 

On the east side of the porch has been inserted another crucifix, the 
head of which is missing. The Crucified One is dressed in a long cassock, 
which is girt around with a cincture. The artistic treatment is one which 




CRUCIFIX AT LANGFORD. 

From a Photograph by '1 aunt, Oxford. 



belongs to the pre-Norman period, and is very uncommon in England. 
The figure is perfectly upright, as though alive, and there are no wounds 
in hands, feet, or side. The feet are separate It is probable this sculpture 
may have been removed hither from behind the high altar of a Saxon 
chancel. 

In the two crucifixes here and the crucifix on the churchyard cross at 
Ampney Crucis we have examples of the treatment of this most sacred of 
all subjects by the sculptors of the 10th or nth, 12th, and 15th centuries. 
They should be compared with the early sculpture at Daglingworth, so 



52 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



well described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in our Transactions, vol. xiii., 
pp. 260 — 267. 

Inserted in the middle pilaster of the tower, on the south side, is a 
projecting block on which are carved the figures of two men, with bare 
heads, clad in short kilts and close-fitting tunics. They support over their 
heads a disc or sundial, of which the gnomon is gone. They appear to be 
contemporary with the crucifix above the porch. 

In the porch are two portions of a coped coffin-lid with floriated cross. 
If we pass round the church outside it will be seen that the roofs of 
the nave and chancel have been raised many feet, thus dwarfing the fine 
Norman tower and hiding its lower windows on the east and west sides. 

The west end of 
the nave has two 
tower -like pinnacles 
crowning the Norman 
buttresses and an in- 
serted window of a 
debased character. 
On the north side the 
wall is supported by 
two flying buttresses, 
bearing the inscrip- 
tion — "Anno Dmi., 
1574 Ao Regni Eliza- 
beth Reginae Decimo 
Septimo." I cannot 
remember any similar 
Elizabethan but- 
tresses. In the north 
wall are a 15th century 
window, an Early 
English doorway, a 
14th century window 
of flamboyant char- 
acter, and a little 
square - headed win- 
dow. 

The Norman tower 
has two large round-headed windows on each side, two smaller ones in 
niMition on the south side, and one on the north side. On the north side 
is a gabled staircase turret leading to the belfry, which is both picturesque 
and uncommon. The tower is strengthened by pilasters or flat buttresses 
on the north and south aisles. 




ELIZABETHAN BUTTRESSES, LANGFORD. 



Southrop. 53 

The chancel has been unmercifully treated by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners' architect, Mr. Christian, and has lost its former simple 
religious character. The addition of a diamond-shaped light to each pair 
of lancet windows is, I venture to think, no improvement. The Early 
English doorway on the south side must have been placed in its present 
position by restorers. It is too far east to have served as a priest's door. 

On entering the church we see that the nave is separated from its 
aisles by arcades of three wide and lofty arches with circular shafts and 
bases. The upper part of the capitals is cruciform and the lower part 
round, with conventional foliage deeply undercut. The west arch of the 
centre tower is semi-circular, with plain chamfered abaci. Above the arch 
is a doorway which led from the belfry into the chamber above the flat 
roof of the nave. A similar doorway led into a chamber above the 
chancel. The easternmost window of the south aisle of the nave has a 
beautiful inner frame. There is a Jacobaean pulpit. There are no tower 
arches on the north and south sides, showing that the so-called transepts 
are merely prolongations of the nave aisles. The chancel contains an 
almeryof six compartments of unusual character, a 13th century credence, 
and the remains of a piscina. In the south wall are remains of the stair- 
case which led up to the parvise. This church possesses a pre-Reformation 
chalice." Some property in Langford was granted by King John to the 
Abbey of Beaulieu. 

Leaving Langford, where luncheon was served, Southrop was visited, 
where, under the guidance of the Vicar, the Rev. C. E. Squire, the Church 
of S. Peter was inspected. 

" There were four manors described in Domesday Survey, 1086, under 
the name of Lecce : Northleach, Eastleach Martin, Eastleach Turville, 
and Southrop, the south village. 

Walter FitzPonz, who with his four brothers, Drogo, Simon, Richard, 
and Osbert, took part in the Conquest of England, held ten hides at 
Southrop, which belonged, in the time of the Confessor, to Earl Tosti. 
On Walter's death, s p., the heirs of his brother Richard succeeded to his 
estates. The de Clares, Earls of Gloucester and Hertford, seem to have 
been subsequently the chief lords of the manor, for we find Earl Richard 
confirming a grant of the church by Alice de Clermont to the Knights 
Hospitallers in the 13th century. Various families in succession held the 
manor, none of them greatly distinguished, till the reign of James I., 
when it was acquired by Wadham College, Oxford. Rudder says that the 
two effigies, now in the chancel of the church, without an inscription, 
represent Sir Thomas Conway, once lord of the manor, and his lady, the 
arms being sable on a bend cotiscd argent a rose proper between two annulets gules. 
The costume is Elizabethan. The manor house adjoining the church 
contains the remains of a very early dwelling, perhaps that of the Fitz- 



5+ 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



Ponzes, or of the parish priest, early in the 12th century. The cellars 
have deeply splayed narrow lights, and there is a Norman doorway with 
zigzag moulding, in a good state of preservation. 

The Church of S. Peter consists of a nave (without aisles), north 
porch, south transept and chancel. 

A priest is mentioned in 1086, so probably there was a church at that 
period. The north doorway, the two round-headed lights deeply splayed, 
and the eastern arch of the nave are all Norman. The herring-bone work 
in the north and south walls is evidence of their great antiquity. Two 
pseudo-Norman windows have superseded in modern times an original 
Norman light on the north side and a large square-headed window, similar 
to that in the transept, on the south side. 

The chancel and south transept were built in the 13th century. 
Probably there was a small Norman apse previously. I cannot guess the 
purpose for which a small light was inserted below the westernmost 
window on the south side of the chancel. No one in the churchyard 
could see through it the high altar. There is another low window in the 

west wall of the transept, opposite 
the site of an altar. This may 
have been a so - called leper 
window or hagioscope of an 
anchorite's cell. The north door- 
way of the nave is Early English. 
Interior. — The abaci of the 
chancel arch are ornamented 
with rope moulding, and on the 
south side with a lozenge pattern; 
otherwise the arch is quite plain, 
and has no shafts or bases. Steps 
have been inserted in the church, 
raising the floor of the chancel 
far above its original level, as 
may be seen from the position of 
the 13th century piscina — the 
arch and bowl of which remain, 
though separated. 

As at Langford, there is a 

diamond-shaped recess above the 

two 13th century east windows 

of the chancel. This was pierced 

some fifty years ago to make a quatrefoil light. There are the Conway 

effigies alluded to above, an altar-tomb on the north side of the chancel, and a 

monument to the Keble family, dated 1670, the arms being : argent, a chevron 




THE FONT, SOUTHROP. 
Lent by the Vicar. 



Hatherop. 55 

engrailed gules, on a chief azure three mullets or. The Keble family, descended 
from Sir Henry Keble, Lord Mayor of London in 1510, held the manor of 
Eastleach Turville for many generations. 

There are three almeries in the chancel. High up in the chancel arch 
is a square opening with six quatrefoils pierced in its ceiling. 

The most interesting fitting of the church is an early 13th century 
font somewhat similar to the font of Stanton Fitzwarren, drawn for 
Paley's Fonts. 1 The upper part is ornamented with beaded interlacing and 
the acanthus leaf. Within eight trefoil-headed arches, above the shafts of 
which are eight conventional churches, castles or towers, are eight figures : — 
(1) Moses, with horns on his head, holding the two tables of stone and 
stretching out his right hand ; he turns his back on (2) Synagoga, who holds 
a broken shaft, the pennon of which has knocked off her crown and blinded 
her eyes ; her crown is falling off, and the jar or lamp which she holds 
upturned is losing its contents; but he looks approvingly at (3) Ecclesia, 
who holds upright a staff with pennon and Maltese cross in her right hand 
and a chalice in her left. The remaining five figures — soldiers with heater- 
shaped and round bossed shields alternately — represent five virtues 
trampling on five vices: — (4) Pity on Envy, (5) Temperance on Luxury, 
(6) Benevolence on Avarice, (7) Patience on Anger, (8) Modesty on 
Drunkenness." 

Driving through the villages of Eastleach, and glancing at their 
churches already mentioned, Hatherop was reached, and at his stately 
residence, Hatherop Castle, the President and Miss Bazley received 
the members to afternoon tea, and later on Fairford was reached in time 
for dinner. 

" In the days of Edward the Confessor, Dunning and Ulward held the 
two manors of Hatherop. Dunning's manor was given by the Conqueror 
to Roger de Laci, and he held it of the King in 1086. Ulward's manor 
was given to Ernulph de Hesding, who, in the time of Serlo the first 
Norman Abbot of Gloucester, gave the advowson of the Church of 
Hatherop, &c, to that Abbey. Atkyns thinks that later on Hatherop was 
held by Walter d'Evreux, a grandson of one of the Conqueror's com- 
panions, of the same name. Walter d'Evreux and Sybilla de Chaworth 
his wife, founded the Priory of Bradenstoke, in Wilts, and were buried 
there. Their son, Patrick, the first Earl of Salisbury, slain 13 Henry II., 
was succeeded by William the 2nd Earl. Ela, his daughter and heiress, 
married William Longespe, son of Henry II, by Fair Rosamond. She 
survived her husband, and bestowed the manor on the nuns of Lacock 
Abbey, who held it until the Dissolution. Edward VI. granted it to 
Sir W. Sherington, and in 1559 it came into the possession of the 
Blomers. Mary, the daughter and last surviving heir of John Blomer, 
1 Illustrations oj Baptismal Fonts, London, 1844. 




o 



* 

£ 



Votes of Thanks. 57 

who died in 1640, married Sir John Webb, the 2nd Baronet of that name, 
of Canford, Dorset, who died in 1700. Sir John Webb, 3rd Baronet, 
married Barbara, daughter of John, Lord Belasyse, and died in 1745. 
Sir Thomas, 4th Baronet, died in 1763, leaving Sir John Webb, 5th 
Baronet, son and heir. He had an only child, Barbara, who married ia 
1786 Anthony, 5th Earl of Shaftesbury, by whom she had an only child, 
Lady Barbara Ashley. This lady married, in 1814, William Francis. 
Spencer Ponsonby, who in 1838 was created Baron De Mauley by revival 
of a title in his wife's family. In his time the old house, of which a 
bird's-eye view by Kip is given in Atkyns' History, and reproduced here, 
was partly taken down, and rebuilt, as Hatherop Castle. 

Amongst the traditions of the place, for the truth of which we will 
not vouch, are (1) the visit of Charles I. and his queen, Henrietta, who 
are said to have held a court here, and (2) the affecting farewell of Lord 
Derwentwater and his wife, Anna Maria, daughter of Sir John Webb, the 
3rd Baronet, before he joined the Pretender in 1715. This, however, 
must certainly be placed at Dilston, near Hexham. Lord Derwentwater 
lost his head on Tower Hill, on February 24th, 1716. 

In connection with the old Yew Tree Avenue, there are tales of a 
white lady seen at midnight. 

Hatherop Castle was purchased by the trustees of Maharajah 
Duleep Singh in 1862, and by the present Sir Thomas Sebastian Bazley 
in 1867." 

A concluding meeting of the Society was held at Fairford on Friday, 
August nth, under the presidency of G. S. Bazley, Esq. 

The following votes of thanks were unanimously passed : — 

1. That the thanks of this Society be given to the Chairman and 
Members of the Local Committee for the assistance which they have 
given to the General Secretary in drawing up the programme for the 
Meeting. 

2. To Mr. F. P. Bulley, the Local Secretary, for his untiring energy 
in carrying out the arrangements. 

3. To Mrs. Carbonell and the other ladies of Fairford and the 
neighbourhood, who so kindly entertained the members of the Society 
and their friends at the Conversazione on the 9th. 

4. To the Incumbents and Clsrgy-in-charge of Ampney Circus 
(Rev. T. C. Johnson), Meysey Hampton (The Rev. J. A. Ford), Fairford 
(The Rev. F. R. Carbonell), Lechlfde (The Rev. A. Clementson), Inglesham 
(The Rev. G. Spooner), Little Farringdon (The Rev. W. F. Adams), 
Langford (The Rev. G. Wodehouse), Southrop (The Rev. C. E. Squire), 
Eastleach (The Rev. W. H. Wright), Hatherop (The Rev. R. P. Davies), 
yuenington (The Rev. F. Steavenson), Bibury (The Hon. and Rev. F. 
Dutton and the Rev. J. A. B. Carches), Barnesley (The Rev. J. D. 



58 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Compton), and Cirencester (The Rev. J. Sinclair); and to the Church- 
wardens of Ampney St. Mary (R. Darboney, Esq., and H. Cole, Esq.), 
for so kindly receiving the members at their interesting churches. 

5. To E. W. Cripps, Esq., the President (G. S. Bazley, Esq.), 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, R. B. Cooper, Esq., Mrs. George Gibbs, 
\Y. Wykham Musgrave, and Wilfred T. Cripps, Esq., C.B., for their 
courteous invitations to Ampney Park, Hatherop Castle, Coin St. Alvvyn 
Manor House, Bibury Court, Ablington Manor, Barnsley Park, and the 
Walnut Trees, Cirencester, respectively. 

6. To the Rev. F. R. Carbonell, who so lucidly described to the 
members the beautiful series of stained-glass windows in Fairford 
Church. 

7. To the Ladies and Gentlemen of Fairford and the neighbourhood 
who have so hospitably received the members of this Society at their 
houses during the meeting, and also to Mrs. Carbonell, F. Bulley, Esq., 
and A. Hitchman lies, Esq., who have acted as a Hospitality Committee. 

8. To the President for his able address ; St. Clajr Baddeley, Esq., 
the Rev. W. H. Wright, Guy Dawber, Esq., and the General Secretary, 
for the excellent papers prepared by them and read at the Conversazione. 

9. To the Rev. G. Wodehouse, for allowing the Lunch Tent to be 
erected in his field at Langford, and to the Rector, Churchwardens, and 
Bellringers of Meysey Hampton for the merry peal of welcome on their 
arrhal in that picturesque village. 

10. That the selection of a place of meeting for the Annual Meeting 
of 1900, and the election of a President, be left in the hands of the 
Council. 

11. The Society wishes to record their entire satisfaction with the 
way in which Mr. Busby, of "The Bull Hotel," Fairford, has carried out 
his contract for luncheon, dinner, and carriages; Mr. Coombes, of "The 
New Inn," Lechlade, his contract for lunch. They feel sure that the 
same was felt with regard to Mrs. Woodman's arrangements for lunch at 
" The Swan," Bibury ; and also of the Motor Car Syndicate's conveyance 
of passengers and luggage under exceptional difficulties. 

The excursion which followed was fully as successful and enjoyable 
as its predecessors. It was pleasantly occupied with a carriage excursion 
through some of the most charming of the Cotswold country — that part, 
in fact, to which the late Mr. J. A. Gibbs has so delightfully introduced 
the public in his book, A Cotsivold Villagf. The route lay along the course 
of the Coin, and the first stop was at the little village of Quenington, 
where the Rev. F. R. Steavenson, the Rector, showed the party over the 
interesting little church of St. Swithin. 

Rudder thinks that the name was formerly written " Colnington " and 
signifies a village on the river Coin. 



QUENINGTON. 



59 



"At the time of the Survey, a.d. 1086, " Quenintone" was held by 
Roger de Laci, son of Walter de Laci, who, taking part in the conquest of 
England in 1066, and in the defeat of Earl Roger in 1074, was rewarded 
by William I. with a vast fief of 116 manors, including 27 in Gloucester- 
shire. Walter died from a fall, at Hereford, in 1085, and was buried in 
the Chapter House at Gloucester. 

He was succeeded by his son Roger, who was banished by William 
Rufus for siding with Duke Robert, and his possessions were conferred on 
his brother Hugh, who in the time of Abbot Serlo, 1072 — 1104, gave the 
Church of Quenington to Gloucester Abbey. This is the earliest mention 
of the church, but, as there was a priest in 1086, in all probability there 
was a Saxon church. 




QUENINGTON. 

From a Drawing by Lysoiis, A.D. !''■>!. 



In the present fabric we have the remains of an early 12th century 
church, probably built by Hugh de Laci or the monks of S. Peter's, 
Gloucester. The county histories tell us that the de Laci family, assisted 
by the de Maras and the de Leys, founded and endowed a preceptory of 
Hospitallers here. We should expect to find that the manor was in the 
first place given to the Templars, and that at their suppression it passed 
into the hands of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, known as the 
Hospitallers. They were seized of it in the ninth year of Edward II. At 
the Dissolution the manor was granted to Sir Anthony Kingston, and 
passing through the families of Vachell, Powell, Ireton, Forrester, Mack- 
worth Praed, and Blackwell, it came at last to the ancestors of Sir Michael 
Hicks-Beach. 



60 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

The Court Farm, which stands on the site of the Preceptory, retains 
its ancient entrance gate and a portion of the moat which once surrounded 
it and tha church. At the end of the 17th century the Preceptory^ 
Chancellor Parsons says, was still standing. 

The Church of S. Swithin consists of a nave and chancel. If we 
compare the present building with the drawings of it made by Samuel 
Lysons in 1792, we shall realise how much it has been altered in this 
century. 1 The nave appears to have been lengthened westwards, while 
the west window and the bell-turret are modern. Atkyns says that there 
was formerly a spire between the nave and chancel. If so, it must have 
been a small Early English campanile or bell-turret. The north and south 
doorways, the most interesting features of the church, several pilasters, a 
string course, two deeply-splayed windows, and various parts of a chancel 
arch and a corbel table similar to that at Elkstone, and carefully preserved 
by being built into the wall of the nave, are all relics of the 12th century 
church. 

The chancel arch has been rebuilt in the style of the 13th century. 
The east window was inserted in the 15th century. I am of opinion that 
for three hundred years previously there was no window in the east wall, 
as was the case in so many Gloucestershire churches before the restorations 
of modern times. The floor of the chancel appears to have been on a 
level with that of the nave, as in many Norman churches. It has been 
lately raised by four steps. The position of the almery shows this. There 
are two corbels, one on either side of the modern reredos, which probably 
held statues of saints — St. Swithin and another. 

The north doorway, which is the more richly carved of the two, has 
for the subject of its tympanum the Triumph of Christ over Death and 
Satan. Three souls are rising from Hades, symbolised by a whale, and 
are adoring their Saviour. Satan lies on his back, bound hand and foot, 
pierced through the mouth by the staff of our Lord's cross. The figure 
of the sun may represent the First Person of the Holy Trinity ; more 
probably it is simply the sun, which, with the moon, frequently appears in 
representations of the Crucifixion. Above the doorway is a ram's head 
much mutilated. 

The subject of the tympanum of the south doorway is the mythical 
Coronation of the Virgin Mother, which, when thus treated, was con- 
sidered to be symbolical of the Church Triumphant. The Second Person 
of the Holy Trinity is placing a crown on the head of His mother, who 
holds a dove, the symbol of purity and also [of the Third Person. On 
either side are two symbols of the Evangelists : on the right the Angel of 
St. Matthew and the Lion of St. Mark, on the left the Bull of St. Luke 
and the Eagle of St. John. There are, moreover, two angels, one with 
1 Reproduced from his paper on yuenington, in Arch(rologia,\o\. x., pp. 128 — 130. 



Coln St. Aldwyns. 



61 



two and another with four wings, representatives of the denizens of heaven 
above whom Mary is exalted. On the extreme right is a Norman building 
of three stories, with a square tower and a gable, representing the Church 
militant here on earth, or perhaps more probably the Holy Jerusalem, as 
on the tympanum at Autun and elsewhere. 

At the east end of the church is a stone which I thought might be the 
pedestal of a crucifix, but archaeologists have declared it to be a" treasure- 
stone," signifying the concealment or discovery here of something of great 
value." 

Proceeding onwards, the party arrived at the picturesque village of 
Coin St. Aldwyns. Here, in addition to the nicely-kept church, the party 
"were able to view the beautiful old Manor House, now the residence of the 
Lord of the Manor, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, which contains a fine old 
•oak staircase, and many other relics of the Elizabethan age. Sir Michael 
has recently restored it for his own occupation, the family mansion at 
Williamstrip being let. 

"This parish derives its name from the river Coin, and from Aelhun 
■or Aldwyn, Bishop of Worcester, ad. 844 ; or perhaps more probably from 
Aldwine, Bishop of Lichfield, 716 — 727. 

In 1086 the manor was held by S. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, to which 
church it had been given, according to the Abbey Chartulary, by Aldred, 
Subregulus of the Huiccians, 757 — 780, and it continued in the possession 
of the monks till 1540, when it was granted to the new Dean and 




THE MANOR HOUSE, COLN ST. ALDWYNS. 
[Kindly lent by Mr, Murray from " A}CoUwold Village." 



62 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Chapter of Gloucester. They still hold the manor and the advowson of 
the living. 

There is, however, another manor of which Sir Michael Hicks-Beach 
is lord, consisting of lands in Coin St. Aldwyns and Williamstrip. This 
was held in the 14th century by the Handelos, and in the 15th by the 
Appleby s. In the time of Charles II. and William III. it was held by 
Henry Powle, Speaker of the House of Commons. His only daughter 
married Henry Ireton, who was lord in 1712. Williamstrip House was 
built in the time of George I., and came to the family of the present 
owner in 1784. 

Mr. Gibbs, in A Cotswold Village, says: "The beautiful gabled house 
close to the Norman Church of Coin St. Aldwyns is the old original manor 
house.' " 

Next the party proceeded to the still prettier village of Bibury, with 
whose beauties, together with those of the adjacent hamlet of Ablington^ 
readers of Mr. Gibbs' A Cotswold Village must be familiar. In addition 
to the striking church, with its remains of Saxon work and many interesting 
architectural problems, the visitors were able to inspect the beautiful 
manor house, Bibury Court, built in 1623, and now occupied by Mr R. B. 
Cooper, and also the manor house at Ablington, where Mr. Gibbs spent 
the last five years of his life, and of which he speaks with such rapture. 
It was built by John Coxwell in 1590. Luncheon was served at the " Swan 
Hotel " by Mrs. Woodman. 

Between 721 and 743, Wilfrith, Bishop of Worcester, granted five 
cassates out of fifteen cassates by the river Cunuglae or Colne to the 
Earl Leppa for the term of his life and that of his daughter Beaga ; the 
five cassates were afterwards known as Beaganbyrig or Bibury, the 
remaining ten cassates as Eadbaldingtun or Ablington. 

It is likely enough that Beaga founded a minster on her estate, the 
site of which is now occupied by the parish church. 

" In 10S6 (us) the manor of Bibury, then called Bechberie, was held 
by St. Mary's Priory, Worcester, and contained 21 hides of land. There 
was a priest, and, no doubt, also a church. In 11 30 John Pagan, Bishop 
of Worcester, assigned the tithes to the monastery of Osney, founded at 
Oxford for secular canons by Robert d'Oily. From this time until the 
Dissolution the monks of Osney presented to the living of Bibury and 
supplied clergy to perform the services. The church was formerly a 
peculiar, before the Dissolution under the Convent of Osney, since that 
time under the lord of the manor. Concerning this matter, it is stated in 
Ecton's Thesaurus, ed. 1742, p. 187: "The jurisdiction of Biberie con- 
tains Biberie with Winston Chap. Barnsley R. and Aldsworth Chap 
which, as to Visitations, are only subject to the chief Officer of their 
Peculiar ; the Bishop and the Archdeacon having no more to do with them 




H ° 

*-* N 

P : 

O = 

O S 

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35 = 

3 * 






<H 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



after their admission." After the Reformation, this peculiar jurisdiction 
was disputed by some of the Bishops of Gloucester, but the ground on 
which they rested their contention is not clear 

In the time of Edward VI., the manor was alienated from the See of 
Worcester and granted to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who 
was tried, and, being found guilty of treason, was beheaded. 

In 1608 W. Westwood was lord of the manor. In 1708 Henry 
Sackville, then high sheriff, held it. The manor is now vested in Lord 
Sherborne. The beautiful manor house, known as Bibury Court, of 
which, through the courtesy of Mr. Murray, a view is reproduced from 
Mr. Gibbs Cotsuvld Village, was built in the time of James I. by Sir 




Iii&ibary Village 



Kindly lent by Mr. Murray from "A Cotswold Village.' 



Thomas Sackville. The date, 1623, appears on the front of the Manor 
House. 

The plan of the parish church comprises a nave, 75 ft. by 24 ft. ; a 
south aisle, half the length of the nave and 14^ ft. wide; a north aisle 
with a tower at its west end ; a chancel, 44 ft. by 15 ft., and a south porch. 
The original Norman church had probably a nave and short apsidal 
chancel. Late in the 12th century the south wall was taken down and a 
Transitional arcade of three arches and a south aisle were constructed. 
Later on, the north side was treated in the same way. In the 13th century 
the nave was lengthened westward from the point where the 12th century 
arcade comes to an end. At the west end of the nave and on the south side 
are lancet 13th century windows, one being lower down than the others ; 



Ablingtox. 65 

above which is a circular window, splayed inside and out like the windows 
thought to be Saxon or even British at Abury. It has been a matter of 
considerable doubt to what period this window belongs. Was it part of 
the church of 1086 ? Its position is very unusual and requires explanation. 
Was there at one time a chamber above the nave which it lighted ? 

The chancel was rebuilt or enlarged in the 13th century. There is 
some stonework in the wall, just where the earlier church would have 
ended eastward, which may be Saxon. 

The windows of the north aisle are Decorated or 14th century, and 
there is a Perpendicular window in the south aisle. 

There are two piscinae with credence shelves, and four almeries or 
cupboards for communion table, &c, in the chancel. 

This church is exceedingly interesting, but full of architectural 
difficulties. 

The village of Bibury runs parallel with the river Coin, and is a 
favourite haunt of fishermen. 

In the neighbourhood a Norman villa was discovered a hundred years 
ago, and many antiquities were taken out of it." 

" ABLINGTON 

was a manor in the time of King John, when a moiety of it was purchased 
by Ralph de Willington and Olympias, his wife, of Willington Court 
Sandhurst, near Gloucester. This good couple built and endowed the 
Early English Lady Chapel of the church of Gloucester Abbey, now the 
Cathedral. Their descendants held Ablington till the 15th century, when 
the Beaumonts possessed it. Lord d'Aubeny died seized of it in 
6 Henry VIII., and Edward, Duke of Somerset, in the reign of Edward VI. 
In the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth the Bassets held it. When Atkyns 
wrote his History of Gloucestershire Mr. Coxwell owned the manor and 
dwelt in the Manor House. 

Over the doorway of the porch is the following inscription : 

" I'LEAD THOU MY CAVSE OH LORD 
BY JOHN COXWEL ANO POMENEY I59O." 

This was evidently the name of the lord of the manor who built the house, 
and the date when he built it. Underneath this inscription are five heads, 
which, Mr. Gibbs thought, were representations of Queens Mary and 
Elizabeth and Kings Henry VIII., James I., and Philip of Spain. Over 
the solid oak door are the words — 

" l'ORTA l'ATENS ESTO, NVLLI CLAVDARIS HONESTO." 

The old oak in the hall, Mr. Gibbs says, was brought lure when it 
was turned out of Bibury Church. The house contains portraits of the 
Coxwells, amongst others of John Coxwell, who employed Cornelius 

6 
Vol. XXII. 



Barnsley. 



67 



Jansen to build the house. Over one of the windows is "Post tenebras lux." 
The garden, with the river Coin running through it, is delightful ; and we 
can realise, when we see it basking in the August sunshine, how Mr. Gibbs 
loved it, and how he looked forward with delight to the prospect of 
spending many years in this charming hermitage. But it was otherwise 
ordered. In the spring of this year, after a brief illness, he was taken 
away from his many friends amongst rich and poor, leaving as a legacy, 
not only to us, but to Anglo-Saxons everywhere, his delightful notes on 
country life and pursuits in the Cotswolds. We are greatly indebted to 



<^s 







JPIhWH 









:_i= 



" " fl " — - -=-l^^^^«J/!^SK 



The Old Manor House 



Kindly lent by Mr. Murray from "A Cotswold Village." 



Mr. Murray for allowing some of the charming illustrations from his work 1 
to be reproduced here." 

It was intended that a halt should be made at Barnsley, where the 
church would have been shown by the Rector, the Rev. D. G. Compton, 
and permission had been obtained to visit also Barnsley Park, belonging to 
Mr. Wykeham-Musgrave, built by Henry Perrot, early in the 18th century 
in the Italian style, but this was found impossible. 

"Barnsley was part of the Bishop of Worcester's Manor of Bibury, and 
was held in 1086 (u.s.) by Durand and Eudo. In the time of King 
Stephen it formed part of the possessions of Milo, Earl of Hereford, and 
it passed in moiety with Margery and Lucy, his daughters, to the De 
Bohuns and Fitz Herberts. Subsequently, it was held by the Despencers, 
by the Earls of Kent, one of whom was beheaded at Cirencester in the 

i.l Cotswold Village, by J. Arthur Gibbs; London: John Murray, 1898. 



68 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

first year of the reign of Henry IV., by the Earls of March, by Richard 
Duke of York and his widow the Duchess Cecily. Henry VII. granted it 
to Thomas Merton, and it passed with his grand-daughter, Dorothy, to 
Ralph Johnson, who sold it to William Bouchier. This family still held 
it in 1712. Soon after this it came by marriage with an heiress of the 
Bouchiers to Henry Perrot, of Northleigh, Oxfordshire, who built Barnsley 
Park, in the Italian style prevalent in England during the reigns of George 
I. and George II. His two daughters were unmarried, the survivor, 
Cassandra, leaving the manor by will to James Musgrave, who held it 
in 1807. 

The arms of Bouchier are: azure a chevron or between three martlets argent, 
a crescent for difference. The arms of Perrot are : gules, three pears or; on .( 
chief argent a demi-lion rampant sable. 

The plan of the parish church comprises a nave with north aisle and 
porch, western tower, and choir with vestry and organ chamber. The 
upper part of the tower appears to be later than the rest, and was 
perhaps rebuilt in the 17th century. The chancel has a good corbel table 
with heads of men and beasts. The nave contains a small Norman light 
which was brought from Daglingworth. The Norman horse-shoe chancel 
arch is probably of two dates. The chancel has two good 14th century 
windows and a new east window. 

The font is an exact copy of one which was turned out of Broadwell 
Church, Oxfordshire, which lay desecrated in a builder's yard for some 
ten years, and was then bought and given to Barnsley. After a time the 
parishioners of Broadwell awoke to a sense of their loss and begged to 
have their font back again. Canon Howman, then rector of Barnsley, 
very generously acceded to their request on condition that he might have 
a copy made of it for his church." 

Cirencester was reached in the afternoon. Here Mr. Wilfred Cripps, 
C.B., and Mrs. Cripps (Countess Bismark) very kindly received the 
members to tea at the Walnut Trees; and Mr. Cripp's museum was 
inspected, where much attention was directed to the recent valuable finds 
in Ashcroft." 

Mr. Cripps contributed the following notes to the programme of the 
Meeting: — 

" The museum contains all that has been found of Roman remains of 
recent years, and is carefully arranged and labelled to make its contents of 
general interest. It is opened to the public on certain occasions, and 
always on proper application. The cases contain a large collection of 
Samian ware, and also of Anglo-Roman pottery from Durobrivae, 
Upchurch, and other potteries in England; also mortaria, some of them 
inscribed with the names of the makers. The Samian ware gives the 
names of some 200 potteries, many of them identified with the potteries 



Cirencester. 



69 



at Aries and other places in the South of France. Other cases Contain 
bronze implements and ornaments, enamelled fibulae, rings, keys, styli, a 
perfect series of bone pins, bodkins, counters, and other objects made of 
the horn of the red deer, coins, iron objects, horns of red deer sawn into 
lengths for making handles — architectural fragments, columns, capitals, 
reliefs, &c, &c. 

The altar and reliefs found in April, 1899, at Cirencester, are of 
special interest owing to the curious way in which they connect themselves 
with a similar altar previously found at Bath and described in Hiibner and 
by other authors. 

The altar at Cirencester is dedicated to the Sulevce, goddesses like the 
Deae Matres— and, by some antiquaries, thought to be the same — but to 




SULE/E OR DE/E MATRES, IN Mr. CRIl'PS' MUSEUM. 



whom few inscriptions have been found in England. Only two have 
hitherto been published, and of these one is dedicated by the very same 
individual as this recently found at Cirencester. 

The Sulevac were seldom called "mothers," but usually Suleva only ; 
and it is, in point of fact, not known for certain whether they were the 



70 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

usual goddess mothers under another name, or were cognate divinities, 
distinct though somewhat similar. About a century and a half ago a 
votive altar to the Sulevae was found at Bath, known as well in Roman 
times as in our own for its famous medicinal springs; this altar had been 
erected in their honour by one Sulinus, the son of Brucetus, who described 
himself upon it as a scultor, or carver in stone. Nothing was then known 
about these Sulevse, and nothing has been known, till the discovery of the 
stones we are now describing, of their worshipper, Sulinus son of Brucetus. 
But in the course of building operations conducted by Messrs. Saunders 
and Co., at Ashcroft, in Cirencester, the present stones have been found, 
throwing, after this lengthened interval, some little light upon the older 
discovery. They consist, to mention the more important pieces, of an 
altar and two sculptured reliefs, the former bearing an inscription which 
identifies the unknown Sulinus oi Bath as an inhabitant of Cirencester. 
The inscriptions are almost identical, for both at Bath and at Cirencester 
describing himself as Sulinus the son of Brucetus, he adds at Bath, where 
he perhaps would be less well known, that he was a sculptor by profession. 
The large quantity of carved stone, pedestals, reliefs, portion of statues, 
and the like found near and around the altar justifies the belief that they 
were part of his stock-in-trade and of his own workmanship. And it is 
more than probable that the similar dedication at Bath to the one found at 
Cirencester owed its origin to the simple fact of the honest stoneworker of 
Corinium receiving relief from his gout, rheumatic pains, or what not at 
Bath, and erecting there to the divinities who had so blessed the Bath 
waters to his use a similar altar to the one he maintained to their honour 
at his own home. No doubt at Bath he found it convenient to add a note 
of his occupation to that of his parentage, being comparatively a stranger 
there, but it is a very interesting addition, especially from the point of view 
of those who had already imagined that they had discovered a Roman 
stonemason's yard, before the coincidence of finding the owner actually 
describing himself as such. There can be no mistake in the identity of 
the dedicator. The inscription is as follows : — 

SVLEIS 
S VLI N vs 
B R V C E T I 

VS LM 

"Dedicated to the Suleae by Sulinus, the son of Brucetus." The Bath 
inscription is : — 

SVLEVIS SVLINVS SCVLTOR 
BRVCETI F SACRUM 
F. L. M. 

The slight difference of the spelling of the names of the divinities 
honoured as SVLE>E and S V LE V/E is of no importance ; sometimes 



Cirencester. 71 

the spelling is SVLEVI/E. The two reliefs of the goddesses which 
we now proceed to describe are in many ways even more interesting than 
the altar itself. There is nothing actually to prove what divinities the 
reliefs represent — they would be well described as Deae Matres — but it 
is fair to conclude from their being found with an altar such as that 
discovered with them in Cirencester that they represent the Sulevae 
rather than the Deae Matres or any other similar triads. One of these 
reliefs represents the goddesses, if goddesses we can call them, sitting on 
a sort of bench in a row under a canopy, and holding the baskets of fruit 
and other gifts to men, with which they are usually represented. The 
stone is from the local oolite, and notwithstanding its crumbling nature 
the figures are in wonderful, indeed perfect, preservation, as fresh as when 
left by the hand of the artist, and it may be doubtful whether any example 
of Romano-British work is in a similar state of perfection at the present 
day. The other relief is of a different character, but even more interesting 
in its way. It represents the divinities as seated in various attitudes on a 
bench, accompanied by three children grouped with them, and the centre 
figure has a small animal, either lamb or kid, reposing in her lap, together 
with some fruit. The whole represents the attributes of fertility and 
bounty. This relief is not so stiff and conventional as the other, and is 
carved in an altogether higher style of art, but it is less perfect, the canopy 
which had once covered the figures in a kind of alcoved seat being wanting, 
and with it the upper part of the heads of each of the adult figures, which 
had been formed out of the missing stone. The tops of these heads are 
therefore cut off in a straight line, together with the missing arches of the 
canopy. 

We may gather from these reliefs confirmation of the opinion that 
though distinct from the Decs Matres the attributes of the Suleva were 
almost exactly the same ; but it does not solve for us the natural query as 
to how they ever came to be distinguished from each other. Mr. F. 
Haverfield inclines to the belief that the Suleva- were first confused with 
the Dee Matres, rather than that they were at first identical and 
subsequently distinguished. Mr. Haverfield has also pointed out how 
plainly both reliefs, though in different degrees, show an attempt to rise 
above the conventional. Even the more stifily treated relief shows a 
careful difference in the treatment of the dress of each figure and of the 
fruit in each different lap; whilst the freedom of design shown in the less 
perfectly preserved relief places it on quite a high level of art and one 
worthy of a classical origin, although there is nothing to show that it is 
necessarily of a different period to that of the more conventional example. 
It may be added that there is no good reason for connecting the Suleva 
specially with Bath. The prevailing god at Bath had the somewhat 
similar sounding name of Sul-Minerva; but there is no known connection 



7 2 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



between them, except the perhaps accidental similarity in the sound of the 
name. There is only one example of a dedication to them found at Bath, 
and one at Colchester, whilst there are some twenty on the Continent of 
Europe, of which no less than eleven are found in Rome itself. It may be 
mentioned in passing that these eleven seem to have been dedicated by 
soldiers coming from the Rhine, and not by natives of the capital. It is 
probable that Sulinus adopted these Sulevae as his patron divinities owing 
to his name, just as in later days a child would be named after one or 
more saints of the church, whom he would naturally venerate and 
specially invoke ; and just as an altar to the above-mentioned god Sul- 
Minerva dedicated by another Sulinus, this last Sulinus being the son of 
one Maturus, would be equally suggested by the similarity of name." 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, CIRENCESTER. 
FROM THE EAST. 




VIRTUES, HY SIR J REYNOLDS. NEW COLL., OXFORD. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS ON "STAINED AND 

PAINTED GLASS." 

By GARDNER S. BAZLEY, Esq. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — A study of the presidential 
addresses which have been delivered from time to time at 
your Annual Meetings discloses not only the eminence of the 
gentlemen who have hitherto been selected for that office, but 
also the diffident and apologetic tone in which they have 
respectively approached the task before them. But what is 
to be said when an archaeologist of only three months' 
standing ventures to address a learned Society on one of 
their special subjects (Stained and Painted Glass), his own 
acquaintance with that subject being of extremely recent 
origin ? I think that such an undertaking can only be 
warranted by the confidence that the circumstances justify, 
to an unusual degree, an appeal to your indulgence. 

Let me disclaim, however, any intention of anticipating 
the extremely valuable and interesting lecture on the Fairford 
windows which will shortly be given by the Vicar, to whose 
energy and enterprise the windows may be said to owe their 
preservation, and who is, therefore, better qualified to speak 
on that subject than any living man. But it may be 
interesting simply as an introduction to the subject if we 
refresh our memories on one or two points. First, in the 
history of stained and painted glass ; and secondly, in the 
modern art of making a window. 

Another way to describe the subject is : " How a Stained 
Glass Window differs from a Picture" ; for to the uninitiated 
I think that a stained glass window is apt to appear a 
somewhat roughly-drawn and crudely-coloured picture, dis- 
figured by staring black lines as if it were badly-mended 
china. But when one discovers the meaning of such 
expressions as "brilliancy" and " translucency " applied to 



74 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

early glass, it becomes evident that the art in question has 
certain special qualities, as well as special limitations, all of 
which are more easily understood after acquiring some 
knowledge of the technique. It has been well remarked, 
*' In order to appreciate windows one must have developed 
a glass eye." Now, as to the history of the art, Pliny's story 
of the discovery of glass by certain fishermen will always be 
attractive ; but there is another theory, for which we are 
indebted, not to Pliny, but to The Times' 1 reprint of the 
Encyclopedia Britannica. It is, that straw and reeds contain 
in a crude form the chief component parts of glass ; that 
when a rick is burnt down lumps of coarse glass are occasion- 
ally found in the ashes, and that the ancient Egyptians who 
used much fuel in the shape of reeds for their smelting 
furnaces, may have thus made the discovery of glass. 

However, once discovered, colouring in imitation of 
precious stones was a natural step. A well-known instance 
is that of Aventurine glass, which was made by Venetians 
in very early times in imitation of the stone of that name, 
and the effect of which is due to the reflection of crystalline 
spangles of oxide of copper, produced by exposing glass 
treated with copper to a reducing agent. Again, blue glass 
in windows was for centuries known as " sapphire," and 
red glass is still technically called " ruby." So the origin of 
coloured windows may have been due to the idea of jewellery, 
set in plaster or stone instead of in gold. 

Or the idea may have been taken from Cloisonne enamel, 
an art which was practised as early as the eighth century. 
As Mr. Westlake says, " Place a cloisonne enamel vertically, 
substitute lead lines for the copper cloissons, and transparent 
for opaque glass, and you have a coloured window." But 
whatever may have been their origin, the world is ultimately 
indebted for them to Western civilisation, for in the Italian 
churches side windows were unnecessary, owing to the very 
different quality of light in those latitudes (thus one sees 
how in the Pantheon at Rome a small circular opening in the 
roof lights the whole vast interior), and the opaque mosiac 



Stained and Painted Glass. 75 

pictures of Italian churches were naturally replaced by 
coloured windows in more northern climates. 

Now, if we watch, in imagination, the methods of a 
glazier about a thousand years ago, we see that he has 
before him a number of small pieces of coloured glass (for it 
was as yet produced only in small pieces) of about seven 
different colours only, and that he fits them together like a 
puzzle, each colour, or even shade of colour, being repre- 
sented by a separate piece, and joins together the whole with 
lead strips. He has two chief difficulties to overcome : first, 
to prevent, so far as possible, the lead lines from interfering 
with the design, and secondly to avoid weak points in the 
construction. For instance, if any piece of glass had to be 
cut into the shape of an hour-glass, it would be strengthened 
by a lead joint at the waist. It has been said that the 
earliest glaziers " thought in lead, and designed in lead." 
And as an Irishman once defined a net as " a number of 
holes, joined together with pieces of string," so an early 
window consisted, in the artist's mind, of a number of coloured 
spaces connected with lead lines. 

In following the history of coloured windows, we ought to 
trace the course both of design (or treatment) on the one 
hand, and of technique, or workmanship, on the other. In 
other arts, such as painting and sculpture, the enquirer is, in 
a manner, solely concerned with the design. The materials 
and the methods employed are, I believe, of comparatively 
slight importance in determining the date of any particular 
work of art ; but in glass painting the possibilities of 
variation in design are naturally very limited. Such varia- 
tions have been due, generally speaking, to the influence of 
the contemporary schools of painting and of architecture. 
For instance the costumes of the figures and those repre- 
sentations of a stone canopy which are usually seen in the 
upper part of windows followed the current fashions in dress 
and in architecture ; or, to speak more strictly, as the 
glass-painters were a conservative race, they often copied a 
style which had become old-fashioned. Thus glass of the 



76 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

"Early Perpendicular" period would show a " Decorated " 
spirit in its architectural details. 

To quote a few salient points in the history of style : 

In the thirteenth century the design is very flat and 
conventional, in fact archaic ; also medallion windows (a 
name which explains itself) may be generally ascribed to this 
period. 

In the fourteenth century the drawing is already somewhat 
improved ; there is more life and action in the figures, and 
conventional ornament is dying out. 

In the fifteenth century we find less colour in windows; 
white glass often preponderates ; also this period is often 
recognisable by the exaggeration of the canopies. (To the 
end of this period belong the Fairford windows — about 1500. 
Regarding their authorship, one may just notice the statute 
passed in 1483, "on the petition of the glaziers of London 
and other large towns," against the importation of painted 
glass. — 2nd Richard III., cap. 2.) 

In Renaissance windows (about the sixteenth century) the 
subjects are frequently extended across several lights, dis- 
regarding the mullions ; also, instead of the severity of early 
ornament, this style is often distinguished by festoons of 
flowers, ribbons, cupids and similar devices. Of the seventeenth 
century style, it may be enough to say that it became more 
and more like a picture and less like a window. 

Now, as to the history of techique. At first, as has been 
said, the artist confined himself to piecing together bits of 
glass, each of one colour throughout (this has always been 
known as " pot-metal," from being coloured by the addition 
of certain substances while in the melting-pot). But he soon 
began to call in the aid of a certain brown enamel — not by 
any means as a pigment, but, in the first place, for drawing 
outlines, such as the eyes and nose (for which purpose the 
lead strips were not only too clumsy, but, if used to outline, 
say, the lingers of a hand, the narrow enclosures they caused 
would soon be choked with dust) ; also to obstruct light 
where shading was required, as in folds of drapery; and,. 



Stained and Painted Glass. 



77 



lastly, to correct, or, as photographers say, " retouch," the 
rough outlines given to the glass by his chipping- tool. 

This enamel was, and is, composed of metallic colouring 
matter (iron, manganese, or copper) mixed with pounded 
glass. The effect was 
that on placing a piece 
of glass so painted in a 
furnace, the pounded 
glass fused, and the 
surface of the solid glass 
itself becoming slightly 
softened, the enamel was, 
as it were, welded to the 
surface, and therefore 
indestructible. 

The shading required 
was produced, in different 
periods, by different 
modes of applying this 
brown enamel, such as stippling, scratching-out, and cross- 
hatching ; but the general principle soon became "to take 
out lights instead of putting in darks " — like the system of 
line-engraving as opposed to mezzotint. 

The next improvement in technique was the introduction, 
early in the fourteenth century, of a new process, called 
yellow stain. By painting the surface of glass with a solution 
of silver (either oxide or sulphuret) and firing it in the kiln, 
it was found that a delicate yellow tint was produced in the 
part so painted, and not only on the surface but in the 
glass, and absolutely permanent. Lapse of centuries has 
shown that this stain has also the great advantage of 
preserving the glass. It will be noticed how the outside of 
the Fairford windows is honeycombed almost all over with 
thousands of little pits (due to the gradual dissolution of the 
alkali in the glass by the action of the weather). Now, one 
of the specimens of early glass kindly lent by Mr. Bazeley 
from his collection shows in a most interesting manner how 




78 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

the portions of glass which were treated in this way are 
practically free from pits. I fancy, however, that this result 
is either entirely confined to, or much more marked in, cases 
where the stain was applied to the back of the glass. This 
was generally done where much brown enamel was used on 
the front, otherwise the two applications would " run " into 
one another. 

Now this new process, neither an enamel nor a pot-metal 
colour (and it can generally be distinguished from pot-metal 
yellow by its cooler and purer tint), was a godsend to the 
glass-painter, for it enabled him for the first time to have two 
colours next to each other without a strip of lead between 
One has only to look at the halo of a saint, and the hair of 
almost all figures in windows, to see what awkward lead lines 
were thus avoided. Again (though this discovery came 
later), blue glass could thus be stained green, and red 
glass orange, etc., enabling, for instance, the foliage of a 
tree to be represented on the same piece of glass as the blue 
sky, or green grass against the edge of a blue robe, without 
the necessity of a separate piece of glass for each colour. 

A third great resource, also discovered in the fourteenth 
century, was due to the use of " coated " or " flashed " glass. 
Ruby and blue pot-metal were often made with a backing of 
white glass. The ruby, especially, is so intense and deep a 
colour that if it went right through the effect would be 
almost black : so ruby glass is only white glass veneered 
with red. As Mr. Day describes it, " The colour is only the 
jam upon the bread." Now, an ingenious person discovered 
that by grinding away the film of red, a white spot of light 
showed through, which could be enlarged, of course, to any 
size. (This is illustrated by another of Mr. Bazeley's 
specimens, where white pin-holes appear in red glass — the 
ruby film evidently being in this case on the back, and 
attacked by " pitting.") So, where the glazier wished to 
represent, say, pearls on a red robe, or a white centre in a 
scarlet flower, he could accomplish it without " leading in " 
the white separately from the red ; if he chose, he could go 



Stained and Painted Glass. 



79 



3 



a step further, and after abrading a patch of the ruby- 
coating, he might apply the yellow stain to part of the white 
ground so obtained, thus actually producing three separate 
colours with a single piece of glass, instead of three pieces 
joined together, which his predecessors would have used. It 
is obvious that other variations would result from using, say, 
ruby glass "backed" with blue, or yellow "backed" with 
purple. Modern glaziers escape the 
tedious abrading process by the use of 
fluoric acid, which dissolves away the 
coloured film like magic. 

Here the legitimate methods at the 
disposal of the glass-painter end, and 
they are practically those in use at 
the present day. But it is plain that 
all these improvements tended in one 
direction — namely, dispensing with the 
leads ; and whereas the early makers 
of windows designed primarily in lead- 
work, which by itself, without any 
colour at all, would give a fair idea of 
the picture, the glaziers after the 
fifteenth century began to consider 
leading as a necessary evil to be 
avoided as far as possible. Forgetting 
the special qualities of glass and the 
purpose of windows, they tried to 
make them resemble oil-paintings, and 
with this object introduced a wholly 
new and most pernicious method — the 
use of coloured enamels, which were 
necessarily opaque or nearly so. It 
became the practice towards the end of 
the sixteenth century to glaze windows 
in large rectangular panes, to discard 
all coloured glass, and deliberately to 
set to work to paint a picture on the 



-8o Transactions for the Year 1899. 

window. It is evident that this method, known as the 
" Enamel Method," is as different as possible from the 
" Mosaic Method" hitherto described, and it had three great 
defects : 

First. — The lead strips, being no longer used for the 
outlines of the drawing, now became ugly black bars running 
across it, and making the figures look as if they were in a 
cage ; and as the bars were kept as far apart as possible (to 
make them less obtrusive) the glass was less strongly sup- 
ported than in the old method. Secondly. — The glass lost its 
special quality of translucency or brilliancy, it assumed a 
dull, cotton-woolly aspect, ali the " jewelled " effect was 
gone, and the light struggled through in one monotonous 
blurr. Thirdly, and worst of all, the colours rapidly deterio- 
rated and decayed ; they flaked off, sometimes in large 
pieces, and visitors have been known to gaze reverently at 
a much-dilapidated window, thinking it is old, whereas it is 
comparatively modern, but instead of growing mellow, like 
early glass, has merely become shabby. 

Perhaps the most striking instance is that of the well- 
known designs by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the great west 
window of New College, Oxford. Comparing these exquisite 
but rather woolly figures, disfigured by the straight black 
lines of the lead-work, with the rich and lustrous effect of 
the fourteenth century windows on either side, it is sad, on 
the one hand, to think of valuable window-space so unsuitably 
filled, and, on the other hand, to see such beautiful designs 
wasted by being executed in such a perishable medium and 
exhibited in such an ineffective manner. 

It may be asked, Why should these coloured enamels 
flake off, if the old brown enamel was permanent ? The 
answer is, that the early artists were not afraid to use good 
hard enamel, and a fierce heat to fuse it to the glass ; whereas 
the user of coloured enamels feared to risk his delicate tints 
in a very hot furnace, and so was tempted to use borax as a 
flux, whereby the enamel fused more easily, but was 
imperfectly welded to the glass. Windows are naturally 



Stained and Painted Glass. 8i 

exposed to extremes of temperature, under which the glass 
slightly expands and contracts ; now, these coloured enamels 
not being so hard as the glass to which they adhered, had a 
different rate of expansion and contraction, and, so to speak, 
the paint and the canvas sometimes pulled in different 
directions, so the paint had to crack off. It may also be 
remarked that when brown enamel did perish it was not so 
noticeable. 

Thus we find several rough-and-ready tests for criticising 
a window and determining its date, in workmanship alone, 
quite apart from the evidences of style ; such are, brown 
enamel and the different methods of shading; yellow stain; 
abrasion of coated glass ; and also the thickness of the film 
itself, which has varied from -Jth of an inch in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries to about T-^th of an inch in the 
present day ; and, lastly, the use of coloured enamels. 

[Since this address was delivered a further test for age in 
glass has been suggested to me by Mr. F. F. Tuckett, 
F.R.G.S., whose interesting paper, " On Some Optical 
Peculiarities of Ancient Painted Glass," 1 deals with the 
curious fact that whereas modern windows throw patches of 
colour on the floor or walls of a building, early glass fails to 
do so.] 

As regards the modern process of window-making, it may 
be interesting to notice that the glass used (crown and sheet 
glass) is still made by hand, with few more appliances than 
were in use two thousand years ago ; consequently we get 
certain imperfections which are not found in mechanical 
processes, but which are most valuable artistically; as, for 
instance, variations in thickness, and therefore (in coloured 
glass) in depth of tint. These naturally-shaded pieces are 
much prized by the glazier, who sooner or later finds a use 
fur every irregularly-tinted bit. In " coated glass" especially 
the film is liable to taper off, giving a range horn dark red 
to palest pink on one piece of glass. An excellent example 
of this is the representation of the "Soul in Hell, - ' at 

1 Proceedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Club, 1.SS7-S. 

7 
Vol. XXII. 



82 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Fairford, the red-hot bars rising to an almost white heat in 
the centre of the picture. Similarly, in King's College 
Chapel, a beautiful marbled effect is produced by using a 
piece of "spoilt ruby" in the representation of certain 
columns. There is one valuable quality in early glass which 
obviously cannot be reproduced ; namely, the growth of 
lichens, which in the course of centuries gradually spread 
over the surface, and which undoubtedly contribute a soft 
and mellow effect. One is reminded of the question which 
is ascribed to an American tourist, as to the secret of the 
perfection of English lawns, and of the reply of the old 
gardener: "We rolls it and we mows it, and we waters 
it — for hundreds of years." 

In the production of the different pot-metal colours, 
again, modern science has not very materially improved 
upon early methods. The fine sand, before it goes into 
the melting-pot, is saturated with the required metallic 
solution (such as copper for red, iron for yellow, cobalt for 
blue, gold for pink, manganese for violet) and then dried, 
leaving the metal in the sand. " Coating" is simply effected 
by dipping the white-hot bulb of glass, before it is blown, 
into a pot of coloured glass in a liquid state. And here 
may be noticed a somewhat new departure, of recent date, 
originating in America. Mr. Tiffany, whose exhibition this 
summer (1899) at the Grafton Gallery, in London, attracted 
much interest, carries the dipping process above described a 
step farther. In his method, the molten bulb is " charged " 
or dabbed with spots of colour of various shades and sizes ; 
then, as the bulb is expanded by blowing, these patches 
of colour expand with it into streaks and veins of every 
conceivable form. It is claimed that by this means can be 
produced every marking and outline required for foliage and 
flowers, sea and sky, and that the use of brown enamel is 
unnecessary, and is, indeed, wrong in principle, for Mr. 
Tiffany considers that a window should be composed of 
glass in the state in which it leaves the glassblower's hands. 
With this object in view, when the leadwork does not suffice 



Stained and Painted Glass. 83 

for all the outlines required, he resorts to such devices as 
modelling in the glass before it hardens by cooling, producing 
a kind of bas-relief; by this means he represents, for 
instance, folds and wrinkles of drapery ; or he joins several 
thicknesses of glass together, sometimes to a depth of two 
or three inches, in such a manner that the edges of the inner 
pieces, when seen from in front, show a faint outline through the 
outer surface. It may, however, be objected that by the 
use of this variegated and opalescent and extra thick glass 
much light is lost, and that a church with such windows 
would be extremely dark ; and though in theory the use of 
brown enamel may be wrong, still it appears to actually 
enhance the brilliancy of glass by the force of contrast. In 
other words, shading "throws up" the light parts. Never- 
theless, Mr. Tiffany's windows are the only ones which 
resemble the earliest glass, in that they are strictly neither 
" stained " nor " painted." 

We are now, perhaps, in a position to say something 
about what can and what cannot be done in this art ; in 
other words, how a coloured window differs from a picture. 

Plainly, the material is different : glass derives its effect 
from transmitted, not from reflected, light ; indeed, a building 
should have all its windows coloured or none, since reflected 
light kills the glass. 

And the method of production is different, for in windows 
the range of colour is limited and they must be constructed 
like a mosaic, whereas a picture is painted all in one 
piece. 

And the purpose is different, since the function of a window 
is, or should be, to admit light ; here, therefore, are further 
limitations as to amount of shading and deep colour, 
and also as to size and shape, which do not apply 
to a picture. 

And the position is different, for windows are seldom " hung 
on the line;" often, as in the case of the clerestory, they are 
" skied," so what is wanted is a rich or, as it is often called, 
kaleidoscopic effect, at a distance. 



§4 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



If I may say so, the fault of many modern windows is 
that their subjects are too conspicuous, often to the point of 

aggressiveness ; their figures 
are too distinct, and stand 
out too sharply from the back- 
ground. Thus such windows 
lack the mystery and the 
dignified reserve of early 
glass ; they are in such a 
hurry to tell their story that 
they seem to shout it at you 
as soon as you enter the 
church. Much of the charm 
of windows like those at Fair- 
ford consists, I think, in " the 
pleasure of surprise." There 
is almost the fascination of a 
child finding faces in the fire 
or castles in the clouds. One 
is always discovering some 
new feature, some new fancy 
of the artist (often merely 
indicated by symbol) ; and 
meanwhile, even if one makes 
no effort to interpret their 
story, the colour-effect is both 
satisfying and restful. On the 
other hand, certain modern 
windows seem to assert them- 
selves and challenge attention 
almost like a pictorial adver- 
tisement in a London thorough 
fare ; and whatever may he 
the qualities most appropriate 
to a church window, surely 
it should not resemble a 
poster ! 




Stained and Painted Glass. 85 

And if it be objected that the windows at Fairford are 
" grotesque," the answer would be that so are the gurgoyles, 
and that a certain rude force and monumental character are 
more in keeping with the seventy of Gothic architecture than 
to the more ornate and florid beauty which distinguished 
later schools of glass painting. 

Note. — The materials for this address are largely borrowed from the 
works of Judge Winston, Mr. Westlake, and Mr. Lewis Day, to whom I 
am much indebted ; and I have to thank Mr. B. T. Batsford of 95 High 
Holborn, for the four illustrations from Windcvs, by Mr. Lewis Day. — 
G. S. B. 



RICHARD, EARL OF CORNWALL, AND HENRY 
OF ALMAINE, 1209—1272. 

By ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

Born at Winchester, January 5th, 1209, Richard Plan- 
tagenet was six years of age at the signing of Magna Charta, 
and seven when his brother, Henry III., succeeded to a 
kingdom which was practically being governed by William 
Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. His education was entrusted 
to Peter de Manley, at Cone Castle. As he survived until 
his sixty-third year, and died in 1272, his life was co- 
temporaneous with a period of exceptionally grave moment 
in English history ; and even if, as an individual character, 
there be found in him a certain lack of solidity, on the 
other hand, as compared with the King, his brother, this 
defect would not be manifest. But neither his high position, 
as for some years heir to the throne, nor his continuous 
contact with several of the greatest men of a great age — 
such as Frederick II., Robert Grosteste, and Simon de 
Montfort, — nor his immense fortune (for he became the 
foremost millionaire of his time), contrived to render him 
a really impressive figure. Nevertheless, position and fortune, 
not unassisted by a certain average adroitness, enabled him 
to bear a conspicuous part in the political life of England 
during her long and precarious struggle for popular freedom, 
and this could not but confer upon him an unmistakable 
significance. I am, however, here concerned with him, not 
merely as a political personage, but as the founder of 
Hayles Abbey and a Royal figure intimately connected 
with Gloucestershire by many and various ties, especially 
as the father of four princes and the husband of one Queen, 
whose bones still lie beneath the quiet pastures around the 
remains of the Abbey. 

And the first question in this connection which arises 
must be, How came there to be a Crown property at 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 87 

Hayles upon which Richard might eventually build his 
Abbey of S. Mary ? It is certain that in the large field 
north of the parish church of Hayles, in 1225, there stood 
a castle, then held by John de Julin — a castle which can 
be traced back to the possession of Ralph de Worcester, in 
the reign of Stephen. At the owner's death in that year it 
passed with its lands to the Crown. King Henry almost 
immediately discharged the inhabitants of Hayles from the 
Hundred of Winchcomb, and conferred the property witli 
its belongings upon his brother, probably on the occasion of 
knighting him, and when he was also created Earl of Cornwall. 
This done, Earl Richard and his uncle, William Longespee, 
Earl of Salisbury, and Philip de Albini, sailed to Gascony, 
where they spent a year or more, afterwards incurring 
grave perils at sea on their way home. This visit thither 
of Richard was productive of a deputation of the nobles of 
Gascony, Aquitaine, and Poitou, who, headed by the Bishop 
of Bordeaux, waited on King Henry at Oxford in 1229, 
where he was spending Christmas, and begged him to 
come over sea to them in order that they should help him 
to recover his rights, and win back English predominance 
in Aquitaine, which had been lost by King John. "But 
when Hubert [de Burgh] the Justiciary heard this he post- 
poned the matter to a future time, till a more favourable 
opportunity should arise. And the messengers, receiving 
no other reply, returned to their own country, like men 
deceived." However, this was made the motive for a heavy 
requisition upon the Clergy of all orders, from the city of 
London, and from the Jews, on the strength of which the 
King set out with an expedition to Brittany that ended 
most ignominiously, and led to the fall of Hubert de Burgh. 
Among those who died in Brittany was Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, leaving behind him his 
widow Isabel, daughter of William Marshal, Earl of Pem- 
broke (d. 1 231). This lady, scarcely twenty years of age, so 
completely attracted the admiration of Earl Richard that he 
married her, with the King's consent, in the following April 



88 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

( 1 231), and with her he enjoyed Sundon, in Bedfordshire, which 
later passed to her son, Richard de Clare. On this occasion 
the King granted Richard the Crown property of Wallingford 
Castle and a number of other manors. Still heir-presumptive 
to the throne, what with his rich estates and the development 
of his Cornish mines, he was on the way to become as dis- 
tinguished for his wealth and the conserving thereof as King 
Henry was already become for its dissipation. It was doubtless 
no difficult matter for those about the Court to contrast the 
two brothers, and perhaps to flatter Richard for his prudence. 

After three years of matrimony, Earl Richard was led 
to doubt whether he could longer remain in lawful matrimony 
with Isabella owing to someone having informed him that 
he had been related to her first husband in the fourth degree. 
He therefore wrote to Gregory IX. concerning the matter, 
and from him received a reply from Perugia in July, 1235, to 
the effect that he was to lay aside all doubt and remain in 
matrimony. On the following November 5th Isabella gave 
birth at Hayles Castle to a son, who was baptized in 
Hayles Church with the name of the King. He was 
afterwards to become known as Henry of Almaine. 

At the same period we find Richard taking serious interest 
in the monastery of Beaulieu, in Hampshire, a Cistercian 
house which had been ibunded by his father, King John, 
in 1205, and a daughter of Citeaux in France. Among other 
causes, bitter antagonisms that had begun to manifest them- 
selves between the popular, but rival, orders of Dominic 
and Francis were tending to accentuate the especial favour 
with which the Cistercian Order was now being regarded. 
Beaulieu, although its church had not yet been finished, 
enjoyed an annual rental of ^"1,000, and, being situated 
in a lonely spot, it needed little money for the purposes of 
hospitality. The Abbot, however, found himself engaged 
in litigation with the rector of S. Keveran, in Cornwall, to 
recover moneys due to his Abbey from that living, 1 for the 
patronage of which it was indebted to Earl Richard. 
1 Cal. Pafal Registers, vol. i., p. 155. 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 89 

In the following year, the Earl, with his kinsman Gilbert 
Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, and others, assumed the cross 
with the intention of setting forth together to the Holy 
Land ; and Matthew Paris tells us that Richard cut down 
much timber in order to raise funds for that purpose. 
He had, in fact, been spending vast sums upon Walling- 
ford and Berkhampstead, and perhaps, also, upon Hayles 
Castle. But though his wish to join the Crusade was 
unquestionably sincere, he was the next heir to the throne, 
and this circumstance gave pause to the advisers of the Crown, 
especially to the Pontiff himself. The dangers at home as 
well as abroad were manifold. The King, who had put 
aside a vow of celibacy, had at length married Eleanor, 
daughter of Raymond Berenger, Count of Provence, and 
sister of the Queen of France, in January, 1236. The 
sudden increase of French influence — already far too power- 
ful in the eyes of Englishmen — around the King, and the 
absence, as yet, of offspring from the King's union, made 
it imperative the Earl should remain in England. Con- 
sequently, we find special Papal mandates addressed both 
to him, to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and to 
William, Earl of Salisbury, forbidding them to set forth, 
under pain of losing the Indulgence granted to Crusaders, 
owing to " their councils being very necessary to the safety 
of England." The wisdom of this precaution becomes fully 
apparent when, in the wave of indignation caused by the 
King's new exactions, Richard makes himself a popular 
mouthpiece, and actually reproaches Henry with occasioning 
so much desolation throughout the kingdom, and with allowing 
himself to become the mere puppet of the Legate and his 
Consort's relations. Consequently, the Earl and his illustrious 
friends and kinsmen postponed their enterprise, although at 
the same time carrying on active correspondence with the 
Emperor Frederick II. (who had lately married his sister 
Isabella) relative to the practical ordering of their future 
undertakings in the Holy Land. 

This postponement brought other important matrimonial 



90 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

events to the front, especially the marriage, in 1238, of the 
Earl's younger sister, Eleanor (widow of William Marshal, 
Earl of Pembroke), with Simon, Earl of Leicester, and 
that of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, with Matilda, 
daughter of John de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, both of which 
unions proved not only extremely displeasing to Earl 
Richard and to the people generally, but nearly led to 
violence. The King, in fact, had secretly obtained dispen- 
sations from Rome for these marriages, omitting to consult 
either his brother or his nobles. In acting thus he had 
deliberately broken a former pledge to them. In consequence, 
Earl Richard, much to his credit, "rose against the King, 
and was joined by Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, together with 
all the earls and barons of England, and the citizens and 
people in general. It was then most confidently hoped that 
Earl Richard would release the country from the wretched 
slavery with which it was oppressed by the Romans and the 
other foreigners ; and all parties, from the old man to the 
boy, heaped blessings upon him. The King, in finding how 
matters stood, both felt and showed his alarm, and sent 
messengers to each of the nobles of the kingdom, making 
earnest enquiries if he could rely on them for assistance ; to 
which they all, and especially the citizens of London, 
answered that what Earl Richard had begun was brought 
about with a view to their own honour and the advantage of 
the whole kingdom, though he, the King, did not approve of 
his proceedings, and that therefore they would not oppose 
his designs. The Legate, Otto (Cardinal of San Niccolo in 
Carcere) on finding this to be the case, saw that danger was 
imminent, and applied himself with the utmost diligence to 
reconcile the King to his natural subjects, secretly advising 
Earl Richard, who was the chief promoter of this discord, 
to desist from his purpose, promising that the King should confer 
on him still larger possessions, and that the Pope would after- 
wards confirm the grants of these; adding also, that, although 
the entire realm should rise against Henry, he, who was his 
brother, ought patiently to stand by him against all men." 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 91 

To this Earl Richard replied with a vigorous defence of 
his position and a peremptory rejection of the terms offered. 
Whereupon the Legate and the Bishop of Winchester (Peter 
de Roches) went to the King, and their persuasions led to 
a convocation of nobles in London, which, unfortunately, 
resulted in a compromise, owing to Simon de Montfort 
arid the Earl of Lincoln having meanwhile effected 
reconciliation with Earl Richard. " By these irregular 
proceedings" (writes Matthew Paris) "the whole business 
was in a great degree impeded, and the miseries of the 
kingdom in great degree prolonged ; moreover, they clouded 
the reputation of Earl Richard, who thus came to be an 
object of suspicion, when he had been regarded as the 
staff of strength." Simon de Montfort made a temporary 
and adroit absence from England and visited Rome, in order 
to obtain a Pontifical ratification of his union with Eleanor. 
On his return later on, however, he was affectionately 
received by the King, and soon became his chief councillor. 
Moreover, Kenilworth Castle was assigned to him for a 
residence. 

In 1239, on the 17th June (late at night) was born to 
the King and Queen, at Westminster, a son, "and he was 
called Edward, which name he received after the glorious 
King and Confessor, Edward, whose body rests in the 
Church of St. Peter at Westminster." At his baptism, 
four days later, by the Legate, Earl Richard and the 
Earl of Leicester were present in person as sponsors. 

It is manifest that Richard had missed a great opportunity. 
He had resisted the blandishments of the Legate, whose 
words, as given by the chronicler above, were addressed 
clearly to his financial proclivities ; but he had given way to 
the flattering self-humiliations of Simon de Montfort and of 
the powerful De Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. Had he at this 
moment led the Baronage in a whole-hearted manner, and 
backed it with his great resources, the King and his alien 
magnates must have given way. The birth of an heir to 
the throne increased his distance from it at the same time 



92 Transactions tor the Year 1899. 

that his reconciliation with De Montfort and King Henry 
distanced him from the baronage and the affections of the 
people. 

In the following year, 14th January, 1240, Isabella, 
Countess of Cornwall, died in childbed at Berkhampstead 
while the Earl was in Cornwall. Matthew Paris writes 
that a son was then born, to whom was given the name 
of Nicholas ; but he also died. " The noble lady Isabella, 
Countess of Gloucester and Cornwall, was taken dangerously 
ill of the yellow jaundice, and when her time arrived she 
became insensible; and after having had the ample tresses 
of her flaxen hair cut off, and having made a full confession 
of her sins, she departed to the Lord, together with a boy to 
whom she had given birth." The Earl, who, as has been 
already observed, was intimately associated, as a patron, 
with Beaulieu Abbey, over-ruled her expressed desire to be 
buried at Tewkesbury, and meaning to be buried beside her 
when his own time should come, he caused her body to be 
buried before the high altar at Beaulieu, 1 her heart in a 
silver cup to be interred before that of Tewkesbury, while 
the intestines went to a similar resting-place with the monks 
at Missenden. 2 

All these circumstances, it may be conjectured, combined 
in determining the Earl to postpone no longer his departure 
for the Holy Land, and being made ready he came from his 
castle at Wallingford to Reading, where he met the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and some of the Bishops, to whom he 
bade farewell, leaving his children and possessions protected 
by a special Papal indult, but nevertheless with little comfort 

1 In 1862 her tomb was discovered at Beaulieu Abbey by means of a 
horse accidentally putting its leg into a hole in the meadow beyond the 
cloisters. The sculptured and inscribed slab was then found, and beneath it 
lay her skeleton, some of the above-mentioned hair being still attached to 
the skull. Her effigies are crowned, and the inscription bears traces of 
lead-ing. (Cf. Arclurological Journal, 1863, p. 107.) By kind permission 
of Lord Montagu, the writer has been allowed to examine these relics. 

2 Arms of Marshal : Party per Pale, or and vert ; a lion rampant gules, 
armed and langued, azure. 



• Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 93 

at heart. " The prelates, when they saw this, all burst into 
tears, and said : ' Why, Earl, our only hope, do you abandon 
us ? or, for whom do you desert us ? We shall be desolate 
without you. In your absence rapacious foreigners will 
invade us ! ' The Earl, then, in tears, replied to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury: 'My father and Lord, of a truth, 
even had I not assumed the cross, yet would I go, and 
absent myself so that I might not behold the evils of our 
people and the desolation of the kingdom, which 'tis believed 
I am able to prevent, although I cannot really do so! ' " And 
so he departed. 

He had not been long gone when King Louis IX., taking 
-advantage of his absence and the weakness of Henry III., 
conferred upon his brother, Alphonse, the Earldom of Poitou, 
which belonged to Earl Richard. With the latter, however, 
affairs prospered, both on his journey and in the Holy 
Land. Nothing effectual had been achieved against the 
Saracen for several years. Papal authority had sent abroad 
throughout Christendom an army of Dominicans and 
Franciscans, ostensibly to procure funds for a fresh 
crusade, but the chief result had been an extra- 
ordinary enrichment of both those orders so especialy 
vowed to poverty, as well as of the Roman treasury. 
Another conspicuous means of raising these riches is made 
apparent by the Papal registers. Crusaders were encouraged 
to take vows and buy indults for the protection of their 
families and heirs during their projected absence, or in case 
of their deaths. Thereafter they were forbidden to go, and 
induced to purchase commutation of their vows. At the 
meeting of Earl Richard and his comrade barons and 
knights at Northampton, however, they swore to God and 
each other at the altar, that they would no longer be 
hindered by the Church from fulfilling their honourable 
vows, nor allow their arms to be diverted for service in 
Europe against the merely personal enemies of the Pontiff. 
The French Crusaders had preceded their English colleagues, 
but having fallen out with the Templars, and having 



94 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

suffered a severe defeat near Gaza, they now returned 
discomfited to France. 

The Earl acted with worthy decision and rapidity, and 
having demanded in vain from the Emir of Karat fulfilment 
of his agreement to liberate the Christian captives, he 
jnarched with his English host to Jaffa. This movement 
was followed by immediate and remarkable results. The 
captives were liberated, and the Sultans of Cairo and 
Damascus opened negotiations with him. From them 
he contrived to obtain a restoration of the territories 
lost to the Latin kingdom, and an absolute cession of 
Jerusalem, on whose walls he presently planted the banner 
of Christendom. (Cf. Sanudo, lib. iii., xi., c. 15. Matt. Paris. 
Ad. Annum.) And thus he brought the sixth Crusade to a 
successful issue, due in great part, doubtless, to his having 
acted upon the advice of his brother-in-law, the Emperor 
Frederick II. 

On his return journey he landed at Trapani, in Sicily, 
and, being received with great honour, journeyed to Naples, 
where he rested for some time as the Emperor's guest. " He 
was received in the various cities through which he passed 
with the greatest joy and honour, the citizens and their 
ladies coming to meet him with music and singing, bearing 
branches of trees and flowers, dressed in festal array, &c. 
When at length he did reach the Emperor, he was received 
by him with all honour ; and after mutually embracing one 
another, amidst the applause of all the Imperial attendants, 
they indulged in long-desired converse and various sorts of 
consolation, and enjoyed themselves as friends for many 
days. The Emperor, moreover, ordered him to be gently 
and mildly treated with blood-letting, baths, and divers 
medicinal fomentations to restore his strengtli after the 
dangers of the sea ; and at the end of some days, by the 
Emperor's permission, he enjoyed a free and lengthened 
conversation with his own sister, the Empress [Isabella]. . . 
After some days had thus passed in repose from his toils, the 
Emperor sent Earl Richard, in whose fidelity and prudence 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 95 

lie had learned to confide, to the Court of Rome, in order to 
cement peace between the Pontiff and himself. The Emperor 
likewise, in addition to the honours he had already conferred 
on the said Earl, gave him a document, sealed with the 
Imperial seal, binding himself to abide by his decision on 
whatsoever conditions peace should come to be re-established 
by him. On the Earl's arrival in Rome, however, he was 
received with insult and contempt ; and he found the Pontiff 
so inexorable and adverse to peace that he would agree to 
nothing the Earl could propose, and, on the contrary, the 
Pontiff insisted that at all events the Emperor should submit 
unconditionally to his own will and pleasure, abide by the 
commands of the Church, and, furthermore, should take oath 
so to do. But to this the Earl would not agree; and after 
seeing and hearing many things which rightly displeased 
him, he went away, having effected nothing. Having thus 
discovered the tergiversation of the Roman Court and city, 
the Earl returned to the Emperor, and told him his experi- 
ences. The Emperor then replied : ' I am glad that you 
have learned personally the truth of those things which we 
have heretofore spoken to you verbally.' After remaining 
about two months with the Emperor, as a son with his 
father, and enjoying much converse with him, the Earl 
departed, loaded with costly gifts." L Later in the year 
Isabella, the Empress, died in childbirth, leaving a son and 
a daughter. 

We follow Earl Richard on his return, accompanied by 
many of the French nobles and knights whom he had 
liberated in the East and by special attendants provided for 
him by Frederic, and find him joyfully received at Cremona, 
where one special feature of his entertainment was the 
Imperial elephant with its howdah, in which sat a band of 
musicians "playing on trumpets and clapping their hands." 

Earl Richard arrived in England at Epiphany-tide of 1242, 
and found London decorated to receive him upon the feast 
of S. Agnes, the meeting of the King and his brother proving 
1 Cf. Matt, l'aris, ad. Ann. 1241. 



g6 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

to be of a most cordial description. The first question which 
arrested their political attention related to the county of 
Poitou and its recent seizure by King Louis ; for the Count 
de la Marche had urged King Henry to come without delay 
to defend the rights of the Poictevins. These solicitations 
had so worked upon the King that he was determined to 
take aggressive measures. Now, however, the barons, 
feeling galled by his exactions and those of his Ministers, 
refused him needful supplies. As, nevertheless, they had not 
yet been able to thoroughly compact themselves under a 
single strong leader, the King, by persuasions carefully 
addressed to each one individually, finally succeeded in 
obtaining means to equip an expedition. Accordingly, on 
May 15th, 1242, they set out; the Poictevins anticipating 
their arrival by commencing hostilities against Louis. The 
King and Earl Richard, seven other earls, and three hundred 
knights reached the mouth of the Gironde and went to Pons 
and Saintes, where they were received by Reginald, Lord of 
Pons. The French King was meanwhile marching with four 
thousand men-at-arms to repel the " invasion " (as it was 
regarded), and in good sooth to win the campaign, greatly at the 
expense of English prestige. No doubt his forces were increased 
before he reached Tailleburg, on the other side of which the 
English army arrived too late to prevent its surrendering. In 
the events which rapidly followed, Earl Richard played a more 
prudent and dignified part than King Henry, and by grasping, 
before it was too late, the utterly false position in which he 
now found the English forces to have gotten themselves — 
partly owing to the double-dealings of the Count de la 
Marche and his Countess, 1 — he may even be said to have 
made the best of a bad situation, albeit it involved 
the disgraceful flight of his kingly brother and himself. 
Discovering, then, the Poictevin treachery, and addressing 
recriminations to the said Count, who was King Henry's 
stepfather, Earl Richard laid down his sword, and, taking a 

1 Isabella, widow of King John, and called "Jezebel " by the Poictevins 

themselves. 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 97 

staff, went over to the French camp to try and arrange a 
truce. He was received, we learn, with marked respect, in 
regard for his having freed so many French captives in 
the Holy Land. But King Louis only granted a truce until 
the morrow, saying to him : " My Lord Earl, I have 
granted this truce to last for to-day and to-night, so 
that you may meditate what may be best to be done ; 
for night brings counsel with it." The Earl replied: "On 
that account I asked for the truce." He then returned 
and informed Henry of their imminent peril of capture, in 
consequence of which the King and his army at once retreated 
in disorder begotten of panic, and Henry did not draw rein 
until he reached Saintes. Next day the French closely followed 
them, and a considerable skirmish took place, in which 
Simon de Montfort and John Mansel distinguished them- 
selves. It is not surprising to find among the results of this 
disaster that the Count de la Marche immediately set about 
procuring his own reconciliation with King Louis, who, 
moreover, had already captured two of his sons. But Henry 
and Richard were not permitted to remain at Saintes. Louis 
intended to surround and besiege them there. The main 
result of the French plan becoming known to Richard while 
staying there, was a further ignominious flight to Blaye. 
The whole of Poitou was then turned against Henry, and 
a lasting truce between French and English was only 
brought about owing to a decimating outbreak of pestilence 
in the French army. 

The King had been twice in actual danger of capture, 
and we may be sure that Earl Richard was heartily ashamed 
of the whole expedition. It would appear, however, that he 
and Henry soon quarrelled very seriously in regard to 
the Earl's rights over Gascony, which Henry had attempted 
to take from him and confer upon Prince Edward. The 
Earl, after taking refuge in a convent at Bordeaux, made his 
way home from that city alone in October, 1242. Caught 
in a gale, however, his vessel with difficulty made one of the 
Scilly islands. In gratitude for his escape, the Ear] regis- 

8 
Vol. XXII. 



98 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

tered a vow to build an abbey for the Cistercian Order on 
his estate at Hayles, in Gloucestershire- 
It is not a little curious to observe that, at the same 
moment, King Henry was laying pitfalls for the Cistercian 
Order throughout England, so as to extract money from 
them, by the instrumentality of Boniface, Archbishop of 
Canterbury. This prelate, therefore, convened all the English 
abbots of the Order, or met them "with anxious entreatings 
and fair words." The reply of the abbots might be placed 
fittingly in the mouth of a representative Quaker : " We are 
not permitted to assist anybody in carrying on war, in which 
blood, especially Christian blood, is spilled, lest by so doing 
we depart from the rules of our Order, which has a great 
horror of blood. But we will willingly help our Lord and 
patron in efficacious and indefatigable prayers, charities, and 
other pious works." They, therefore, quietly refused the King 
his demand of the year's wool from their flocks, and retired. 

The following year, 1243, was destined to prove eventful 
in the domestic as well as the political career of the Earl. 
He had learnt to sympathise with his brother-in-law, Simon 
de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and with the baronial 
tendency to exercise patriotic resistance towards the King, to 
the Provencal party, and to the Court of Rome which was 
working behind these. The weight of his position, energy, and 
wealth were become of extreme value to the barons, just at a 
time when a most untoward event occurred, namely, a second 
marriage, which was negotiated between him and Sanchia de 
Provence, sister of the Queens of France and England. 
In fact, Beatrice, Countess of Provence, brought her 
daughter in great state to England, and on S. Clement's 
day she and Richard were united at Westminster in 
circumstances of surpassing splendour. But in spite of the 
merry feasting and unbounded prodigality of the occasion, 
there were men who took part in it with bitter hearts, 
who perceived that this union would both commit the Earl 
to the unpopular, or Court, party, as well as import a farther 
batch of Provencals into the country. This was a moment, 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 99 

probably, when the Saxon and Norman elements in England 
looked each other full in the face, not as heretofore, hostile 
to one another, but rather as acquaintances united by a 
common calamity. Well does Matthew Paris exclaim : " How 
contemptible and transitory are such joys ! how shadowy and 
deceptive, this world, when the morrow's dawn dissipated like 
a cloud all these great and varied doings !" 

Meantime there had arisen a new Pope in the person of 
Sinibaldo Fieschi, styled Innocent IV., who lost no time in 
asserting, with the combined ingenuities of his Genoese 
nature and legal education, his intention of grinding the last 
penny from the English people ; so much so, that letters — 
" such as might have softened hearts of iron" — were addressed 
to him and his Cardinals by both the King, Earl Richard, and 
the Magnates of the realm ; but to little purpose. The 
agent sent by the Pope found that he might, as a last resort, 
freely use Excommunication as a process for extracting ore 
from most unpromising materials. He suspended English 
prelates, in all directions, from their benefices, until the 
Church, as well as the people, groaned. 

Up to the year 1246, Earl Richard had taken no steps to 
fulfil his vow, made three years before, of building a 
Cistercian abbey. The reason seems to be forthcoming in 
circumstances attending the dedication of the Abbey Church 
at Beaulieu. That abbey, begun in 1204, had, for some yet 
unexplained reason, not been dedicated, although the monks 
had been able to use their church as early as 1227. In the 
middle of June, 1246, however, we find Beaulieu visited by 
the Royal family, including Earl Richard and his Countess — 
the Abbot, moreover, entertaining the Bishops of Bath, 
Exeter, and Chichester. Shortly after the festival, Earl 
Richard took thirteen monks and some 'conversi,' or lay 
brethren, from the abbey, with probably the architect, Prater 
Johannis Cementarius, and his workmen, to his Gloucester- 
shireestate of Hayles, and there proceeded to hi)' the founda- 
tions of another royal abbey. That it must have ri len with 
unusual rapidity seems certain, owing to the fact that on 



ioo Transactions for the Year 1899. 

November 5th, 1251, it was dedicated. The author of the 
Chronicle of Haylcs cannot resist the opportunity offered him 
by the name of Hayles to make play on it : " Heylis, quod 
sanus es, vel est, intelligitur. Et hoc ipsum nomen in Monas- 
terium primum sua morte fere septennis, Frater Johannis 
Cementarius, die Lunae Rogationis, presente Comite, con- 
firmavit." x 

Although reconciliation over the matter of their personal 
differences, and above all the marriage of the Earl to the 
Queen's sister, had drawn Richard nearer to Henry, we 
find him with Simon de Montfort, Grosteste, Walter de 
Cantelupe and William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 
heading the committee of twelve at Westminster who were 
now appointed to effect reform in the Royal expenditure 
and regulation in the King's conduct. The instability of the 
King, incurable as it had become, had so far not infected his 
brother. 

Money was being arduously collected during the ensuing 
years for the purposes of another Crusade, and both political 
parties were to some extent united in this pious purpose, Earl 
Richard himself collecting six hundred and more pounds. 
In 1247, however, the King received from one of the 
Templars a crystal vase containing some drops of the Holy 
Blood which had been shed from the side of the Redeemer, 
to which was attached a certification, with seals of the 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Grand Master, and other 
ecclesiastical dignitaries. In October of that year, having 
invited his magnates to London, the King carried this sacred 
relic from St. Paul's to the newly-rebuilt Abbey Church of 
Westminster, when Walter de Suffield, Bishop of Norwich, 
preached a sermon exalting the virtue of this wonderful 
treasure, concerning which, by report of his words, it is evident 
that not a little scepticism obtained. This grand festival was 
held purposely on the anniversary of the sainted Edmund 
Rich, formerly Archbishop of Canterbury, whose remains had 

'Arms of Hayles. — Arg: A Bend. A Crosier gules surmounted with 
a lion rampant of the last. All within a Bordure Bezantee. 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. ioi 

recently 1 been translated 2 at Pontigny with great honours, 
in the Cistercian Abbey there. Regretting his absence from 
the great ceremony of the translation at Pontigny, the Earl is 
reported to us to have used these words: " Alas, that it was 
not ordained on high for the King and myself to have been 
present at this glorious and solemn translation ! For he was 
ouv Saint by birth, education, and promotion, although, owing 
to our sins, he withdrew from England. However, what I 
was not present to do there, I will do absent — I will pay due 
reverence and honour to him." And from that time he began 
to love the Saint more sincerely, and to honour him more 
devoutly. Happening to be oppressed by a severe and secret 
illness, endangering his life, he invoked his assistance, and 
was happily freed from his ailment ; wherefore, in gratitude 
to God and the Saint, he took upon himself to build a fourth 
part, that is, the front of the shrine (cf. Matt. Paris, a.d. 1247). 
This is not without considerable bearing, it will be seen, upon 
the building and endowing of Hayles Abbey, and, moreover, 
accounts for the rapidity of its erection and completion. 
Two years later we find him paying a visit to Pontigny for 
the purpose of devotion at the Saint's tomb, and not only 
this, but he christens a son, whom Countess Sanchia bore 
him at Berkhampstead (1250), Edmund, in his honour, as did 
likewise King Henry, in naming his second son Edmund, 
surnamed Crouchback, afterwards titular King of Sicily. 

The Cistercian Order was now at the height of its 
popularity. Many of the most splendid abbeys in the 
kingdom were in its possession, including Tintern, presently 
rebuilding, Melrose, Waverley, Netley, Fountains, Flaxley, 
Whalley, Furness, Rievaulx, and Croxden. Nevertheless, 
the powerful Dominican and Franciscan Orders affected to 
regard the White Monks with contempt, or at least with 
indifference, as being devoted to a simpler life than them- 
selves, and especially as being agriculturists, albeit this side 

'June G, 12.(7. 

2 His remains suffered frequent "translation." To be a Saint in those days 

connoted disturbance of one's remains, not to speak of pilfering. 



102 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

of their life was for the most part delegated to lay-brethren. 
Consequently, we learn of the endowing of Schools at Paris 
and elsewhere, for the study of Theology and Canon law, " so 
that they might not appear inferior to the other Orders." 

On his way back from Pontigny, Richard contrived, while 
at Pans, to purchase from the Abbot of S. Denis his rights 
over the Priory of Deerhurst, with several villages pertaining 
thereto. A little later on he procured, during a visit to the 
Roman Court at Lyons, ratification of this purchase, and on 
returning to Gloucestershire he expelled the monks thence and 
took possession, according to Matthew Paris, in a somewhat 
violent manner. " He also determined to build a castle 
there, on the river Severn." 

On the occasion of his visiting Innocent IV. at Lyons, he 
was accompanied by Sanchia and his son by his first countess, 
Henry, now a lad of fifteen. They were richly attended by 
a retinue of forty knights, three bishops, and five loaded 
waggons. Innocent had desired to see the Earl, probably 
for several reasons. The French King was fallen in great 
difficulties at Damietta while leading a crusade, and on the 
very day that Earl Richard was feasting with the Sovereign 
Pontiff, it happened that he and his brother, Charles, Count 
of Anjou, and Alphonse, Count of Poitou, were taken prisoners 
by the Sultan, and their army was more than decimated. But 
this fact was, of course, not known until some time later, when 
Richard had reached London, in August. The Emperor 
Frederick continuing under excommunication, his throne 
of Naples and Sicily had been declared vacant, and the 
arrogant Pontiff was looking about for a candidate to place 
upon it. In his eyes no one could seem so well fitted for 
such a post as the rich and pious Earl of Cornwall, whose 
wife was the ambitious sister of two reigning Queens. 
Prudence, fear, and, perhaps, silent respect for Frederick, 
dictated his refusal of the proffered honour. Furthermore, 
the German throne was similarly declared to be vacant ; and 
England, being regarded with good reason as the Virgin's 
Dower, the Mexico of Rome, Innocent desired to obtain 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 103 

information viva voce regarding the actual conditions of 
parties there ; as to where pressure could be exerted 
fruitfully, and where it could not be, as well as particulars 
respecting both the King's sons and those of the Earl, in view 
of their possible candidature for puppet-monarchies. In fact, 
there was almost an embarrassment of choice, for, besides 
these Princes, and Earl Richard himself, there was Charles of 
Anjou, who had married (1246) Beatrice of Provence, the 
last daughter of the House which had given Earl Richard, 
King Henry, and King Louis IX. their respective wives. 

In the following December (1250) the great Hohenstaufen 
Emperor succumbed to disease, and the struggle with the 
Papacy only increased in intensity in the hands of his 
excommunicated heirs. 

But by this time the quiet Cotswold vale beyond Winch- 
comb, the inhabitants of which had only been used to the black 
Benedictines of Winchcomb Abbey, had become accustomed 
to the appearance among their fields of the white monks 
and their throngs of workmen, under whose energetic hands 
had already arisen far toward its completion a splendid 
church and convent within three hundred yards of the little 
Norman church and Castle of Hayles. This Parish Church 
of Hayles, together with Hagley in Worcestershire, had 
been recently confirmed to the new Royal Monastery by 
the Pontiff (4 non. Jan., 1248, Kal. Papal Registcvs). By 
the following" November all was sufficiently complete and in 
order for the great Dedication, which it was arranged should 
take place on the anniversary of .St. Leonard's Day and 
the birth of his son Henry, afterwards of ' Almaine.' The 
wealthy Earl, to whom the King, his brother, was now 
become deeply in debt for moneys lent, confessed to have 
spent as much as 10,000 marks (£1,600 of that day) upon 
the building. The King and Queen reached Winchcomb, 
where they stayed a few days, on Saturday, November 4th, 
1251. On Sunday the Abbey of Hayles was dedicated, 
twelve bishops — Ely, Lincoln, Worcester, London, Norwich, 
Salisbury, Exeter, Chichester, Bath and Wells, St. David's, 



104 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Rochester, and St. Asaph (cf. Landboc, Reg. Monast, dc 
Winchelcomba, vol. i., p. xx.) — taking part in the ceremony, 
besides the Abbot of Hayles. Matthew Paris says there 
were thirteen, " who celebrated mass, each at his own 
altar, while the Bishop of Lincoln (Grosteste) solemnly 
chanted mass at the High Altar. This was a Sunday 
(first after All Saints), and the nobles feasted sumptuously 
in company with the bishops and others, who ate meat, 
whilst the religious men took their places, and refreshed 
themselves with large quantities of fish of divers kinds. 
There were present also more than three hundred soldiers ; 
indeed, if I should describe in full the splendour of that 
solemn and festive gathering, I should be thought to be 
exceeding the bounds of truth. When I, Matthew Paris, 
desired to be informed upon the matter, in order that I 
might not insert falsities in this book, the Earl, without 
hesitation, informed me that when all expenses were 
reckoned up, he had laid out ten thousand marks in the 
building of that church ; adding this venerable and laudable 
speech : ' Would to God I had expended what I have laid 
out on the Castle of Wallingford in as wise and salutary 
a manner.' " 

In such a manner, therefore, Earl Richard had now 
fulfilled his vow to the Virgin. We are not told with 
what Holy Relics the Abbey was presented, but that, at a 
later period, it possessed several, including a fragment of 
the Cross, is certain. Moreover, it was destined, like 
Westminster, to be enriched in 1270 with a Relic of the 
Holy Blood, by Edmund, the Earl's son by Sanchia of 
Provence, which came to be known as the " Blood of 
Hayles." 

In the troubles which ensued regarding Simon de 
Montfort, his brother-in-law, who had been governing 
unruly Gascony for four years, and against whom the 
Gascons lodged bitter complaints, the Earl took Simon's 
part, and thus made his weight felt. It is, however, certain 
that although Earl Richard was conspicuous for his piety, 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 105 

and had earlier in life been looked up to with sincere respect 
by the people, he had now become regarded as untrust- 
worthy, and devoted to the accumulation of wealth. This 
was in part attributable to the mystery which had been 
observed in regard to his visit to the Pope, at Lyons. It 
was also known that the King was financially involved, and 
had given him, in consequence, a general concession over all 
the Jews in England, so that he might assist the King 
further, as well as himself. Nevertheless, it sufficiently 
appears that although Richard extracted money from them, 
like most princes of the day, he behaved with conspicuous 
humanity, being apparently moved by the desperation of 
their poverty. He lent the King a further sum of 8,000 
marks, and received from him security "in gold." 

In the year 1255, Richard is found making a pilgrimage 
to the tomb of his lately-deceased friend and fellow-traveller, 
Robert Grosteste, Bishop of Lincoln, whose resting-place 
had already become associated with miracles. Meanwhile, 
Innocent IV. died, and was succeeded by an inferior 
imitator, in the person of Alexander IV., who pressed King 
Henry to accept for his second son Edmund the crown of 
Naples and Sicily. Henry was offered, indeed, exemption 
from his vow to go on the Crusade if he would lead an 
army into Italy against Manfred, to whose successful arms 
Naples had opened her gates. Innocent IV. had, in fact, 
already acknowledged Edmund as titular King of Sicily, and 
his imbecile father was now flaunting the boy before the 
public in England in an Italian costume. But in all this 
Henry gained no favour from his brother. 

Earl Richard was, none the less, occupying his own mind 
with a scheme not unconnected with the wearisome struggle 
between the Hohenstaufen and the Holy See. The German 
Empire had been again rendered vacant through the death, 
in battle with the Frisians, of William, Earl of Holland and 
Vriesland, upon whom its throne had been papally conferred. 
The election of Conradin, the infant nephew of Manfred, to 
the throne was vetoed by the Pontiff, and the seven electors 



106 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

were compelled to look abroad among the various princes of 
Christendom for a candidate. Their eyes without difficulty 
lighted upon Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and having elected 
him among themselves, they sent envoys to Westminster, 
where the King was spending Christmas, in 1256, in order to 
beg the Earl's compliance with their wishes. The Archbishop 
of Cologne wrote further to Richard, assuring him that never 
had there been known so spontaneous and unanimous an 
election among them. The united solicitations of the King, 
the Bishop of Winchester, and Sanchia, his countess, prevailed 
over the Earl's grave misgivings, and he at last used a solemn 
form of acceptance of the honour and responsibility, which 
gave great satisfaction to the envoys. We are told, however, 
by the clever and picturesque chronicler, Matthew Paris, 
that a satirist exclaimed, "The money cries, For my sake, 
Cornwall is married to Rome!" He also records that a 
valuation of the Earl's wealth at this period of his life was 
made, and it was found to be " that he could furnish a 
hundred marks daily for ten years, without counting his 
daily augmenting profits arising from his revenues in England 
and Germany." 

Accordingly, in May, 1257, we see him in company with 
Florenz V., Lord of Holland, Zeeland, and Vriesland, the 
Bishop of London (who was his Agent-General), his Countess 
Sanchia, and his son Henry, with the almost incredible sum 
of seven hundred thousand pounds, "which were blood- 
stained by many crimes, besides his daily increasing revenues 
in England," setting forth from Harwich for Aix-la-Chapelle. 
With him he took likewise a new crown and sceptre, which 
are perhaps among the somewhat mended ones still preserved 
there in a building called the Curia of King Richard. Both the 
Earl and Countess were duly crowned by Conrad, Archbishop 
of Cologne, with magnificent ceremonies, followed by a banquet 
which excited the wonder of the Germans. On the following 
day he knighted his son Henry, to whose career, in con- 
nection with the desperate condition of English affairs and 
with the story of Hayles, the narrative must now pass. 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 107 

Henceforth, Richard is known as King of the Romans, 
" Semper Augustus"; and his son by Isabel Marshall, as 
Henry of Almaine. 

Part II. 

The young Lord Henry was four years senior to his 
cousin Edward, and two years senior to Henry, the eldest of 
his five De Montfort cousins. They had all been brought up 
witnesses of the obstinate but vain struggle of the baronage, 
to secure the right administration of Magna Charta at the 
hands of their uncle, King Henry. They had seen the tide 
of national exasperation at the wholesale exactions both of 
the Pope and the foreign relations of the Queen rising ever 
higher and higher, until it veritably threatened to overwhelm 
the Kingdom. Although there was no lack of divisions and 
jealousies among the more powerful of the barons, the conduct 
of the King and his intimate favourites tended to give them 
the sorely needed cohesion, and their mouthpiece was to be 
none other than Simon, Earl of Leicester, now backed by the 
city of London. Even Edward found it necessary to 
espouse the cause of the Wine-merchants of Bordeaux in 
opposition to his father. Robert Grosteste was in his 
grave ; Earl Richard had become a foreign Royalty and a 
money-merchant, on a large scale. 

The Provisions of Oxford in 1258 placed the power 
of the Crown in the hands of fifteen barons, who soon 
attempted to enact a drastic scheme of reformation. 
Edward, and Henry of Almaine, found themselves, in spite 
of their affection for the King, carried away by the over- 
whelming force of this risen tide: and swearing to the 
Provisions, they acted in entire accord with their uncle, 
Simon de Montfort. During the next five years the agonized 
but not despairing country witnessed the repeated attempts 
of the King to undermine and throw over the Provisions. 
Earl Richard, who had returned to England in 1259 and 
reluctantly taken the oath to maintain the Provisions of 
Oxford, at the hands of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, 



ioS Transactions for the Year 1899. 

found himself in an awkward position, and perhaps gladly 
revisited Germany the following summer. In 1264 Civil war 
had actually broken out, and Henry of Almaine was found 
on the Baronial side. 

The first glimpse in it which we have of Henry is finding 
him engaged in pursuit of the fugitive Minister and favourite, 
John Mansel, who had crossed the channel in order to 
escape the wrath of people and barons, ' fearing for his skin.' 
A French Knight, Ingelram de Fiennes, however, made 
him prisoner near Boulogne, by contriving (it was believed) 
of Queen Eleanor. His father Richard, in consequence, 
made an effectual outcry, threatening to throw his weight 
entirely on the side of the barons unless his son was 
immediately released. Henry was presently set free by 
his captor, and duly returned to England. 

Edward, more and more finding himself inevitably 
bound to his father, although determining his own course 
beneath the current of his policy, now induced his cousin 
Henry likewise to forsake the side of the Barons, 
and their De Montfort cousins. It is reported that he 
stimulated his decision by giving him the Manor of 
Tickhill, in Yorkshire. His father, Richard, who was 
become the King's chief creditor, had likewise drifted 
completely away from the National cause. Henry of Almaine, 
therefore, wrote to Earl Simon, and said: " My Lord Earl, 
I cannot any longer fight against my father, against my 
uncle, the King, and my other relatives. With your consent, 
I will leave you ; but I will never bear arms against you." 
To which the great leader replied: " Lord Henry, it is not on 
account of the loss of your sword that I grieve, but for the 
inconstancy which I see in you." At the same time Hamon 
L'Estrange, Roger de Clifford, and others, broke the 
allegiance they had formerly sworn to the barons. 

After a Royalist success at Tonbridge Castle, in which 
was captured Alicia de Clare, Countess of Gloucester, the 
struggle culminated to a crisis in the battle of Lewes, 
although the Barons had tactfully offered to compromise 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 109 

with the King by giving him 50,000 marks for alleged 
damages done to his property. On this occasion, Richard 
appeared in his full-blown financial capacity, and demanded 
that same sum from them for his personal compensation 
alone. The Baronial party, in vengeance for the Earl's 
desertion of the National Cause, had plundered and 
burned his Manor of Isleworth. This incident is somewhat 
derisively commemorated in one of the contemporary 



songs :- 



"The King of Almain, by my loyalty, 
Thirty thousand Pounds, ask't he 
For to make peace in the countree, 
And so he did more." 

From general Referee and Arbitrator, he had now drifted 
into a speculative middleman ; and he paid a heavy price 
for his degeneration, leaving arbitration in the hands of his 
brother-in-law, King Louis of France. 

At the battle, Richard had with him not only his eldest 
son, but Edmund, his son by Sanchia of Provence, who was 
but fourteen years of age. Many of the Gloucestershire 
barons, such as John de Haresfield and Gifford of Brimsfield, 
were with their enemies. Suffering, as he was, from the 
seizure of certain of his properties by the Barons, he himself 
sent them a defiant message. 

In the fight which ensued then, the King of the Romans 
with his two sons commanded the left wing of the Royal 
army, which was opposed to the force led by their cousins, 
the sons of Simon de Montfort. Moreover, Richard seems 
to have set himself the ambitious achievement of capturing 
the great Earl. The latter, however, by masterly tactics, 
so completely out-manceuvred him that his force was thrust 
over upon King Henry's in great disorder, leaving in its 
wake as prisoners de Bohun, FitzAlan, Percy, and several 
Scottish chieftains. The baronial troops, pressing their 
advantage home over Lewes Downs, finally surrounded the 
fugitive Richard, who had entered a windmill (" with 



no Transactions for the Year 1899. 

sayles ") toward the coast. The soldiers now made free 
to jest on his sorry situation by such exclamations as, 
"Come out, you bad miller!" "You mill-master, 'Semper 
Augustus'!" The Song of the Battle of Lewes sufficiently 
accentuates the point. 

The Royal fugitives, later in the day, surrendered to 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, and Sir John Bess ; 
but Henry of Almaine was not taken, though his half- 
brother Edmund was, and shared the five months' detention 
suffered by their father at Kenilworth Castle. In the 
negotiations which followed the defeat, however, Edward 
and Henry of Almaine were surrendered as hostages to the 
Barons for their respective fathers. Richard then found his 
estate put under sequestration, and he was made to disgorge 
;£*i 7,000, and ,£"5,000 in gold. 

In March, 1265, Henry of Almaine was sent from Dover 
into France in order to treat with King Louis, and there he 
remained still treating, or else breaking parole (for he had 
departed conditionally), till August, when there befell the 
culminating battle of Evesham. So that then he returned 
to England to share in the triumph of his uncle, King Henry, 
and the downfall of the De Montforts, the remnant of whom 
found themselves forced to release Richard from Kenilworth 
and flee the country. When the news of the death of 
Earl Simon and his eldest son and the captivity of the 
wounded Guy reached the younger Simon and Richard 
de Montfort, at Kenilworth, the soldiers on guard there 
were for killing the King of the Romans in revenge. It 
was much to Simon the younger's credit that he prevented 
the deed. It, however, renders perhaps only more mysterious 
the terrible vendetta perpetrated on Henry of Almaine, at 
Viterbo, six years later, by both Simon and Guy, who had 
become commanders of repute in the army of Charles of 
Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily. 

We next hear of Henry of Almaine being despatched 
with a force to confront Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, 
in the North, whom he defeated at Chesterfield and brought 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. hi 

in fetters to London, "acquiring for himself much glory." 1 
(Matthew of Westminster, a.d. 1266.) He was likewise 
rewarded with the Manor of Cringley, near Canterbury, which 
had belonged to William de Furnival. In 1269 ne married, 
at Windsor, Constance, widow of Alfonso of Aragon, and 
daughter of Eskivat de Chabannois, Count of Bigorre, and 
Agnes, daughter of the Count de Foix. In 1270 he joined 
his cousin Edward, and set forth with him to the Crusade at 
Tunis. Arrived there, they found that the King of France, 
their uncle, and Tristan, his brother, were dead of the plague, 
and ignominious truce with the Moslem had been concluded. 
Edward, therefore, determined to proceed to Acre; but he 
sent Henry back to Gascony by way of Italy, under protec- 
tion of Charles of Anjou, in order that he might adjust 
various difficulties which had arisen there. In consequence, 
he joined the funereal procession of Charles and Philip III. 
of France, carrying the remains of the deceased Princes to 
Rome and Viterbo, on the way to France. 

They at length reached Viterbo, where the Conclave then 
sitting seemed to require the presence of Charles in order to 
arrive at the election of a new Pontiff in place of Clement IV. 
These princes took up their lodgings at different palaces of 
the nobles in that city, on March 9th, 127 1. It is probable 
that Henry of Almaine was lodged in that of the powerful 
family of Di Vico, hereditary Prefects of Rome, hard by the 
parochial church of San Sylvestro. In those days the 
piazza of that church (now del Jesu) was the seat of the 
municipality. 

On the morning of March 10th, while the two monarchs, 
his kinsmen, attended mass in the church of S. Francesco, s 
Henry of Almaine went to that of S. Sylvestro. He was 
kneeling before the altar, at the moment of the elevation, 

1 Note. It is not unworthy of remark that tiles bearing the arms of 

this De Ferrers, but within a Bordure, have been lately found in the north 
aisle of the Presbytery of Hayles Abbey. His son may have ended his 
days a prisoner at Hayles. 

- Xot in San Lorenzo, the Duomo, as is usually stated. 



ii2 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

when Guy and Simon de Montfort, advancing towards him, 
shouted to him : " Henry, you traitor, you shall not escape 
us!" and undeterred by the deacons, who vainly endeavoured 
to defend the Prince, they commenced hacking at him with 
their swords. Clinging to the altar, four of his fingers were 
left adhering to it. One of the deacons was killed. 
Aldebrandino Rosso, Count of Anguillara, father-in-law of 
Guy, and William de Baskerville, who had fought at Evesham, 
took part in the murder. The former was afterwards cited 
to appear in answer to the charge by Pope Gregory X. ; 
the latter was presently outlawed for his participation, and 
he put in the plea, when summoned, that he could not be 
tried for a deed committed in a foreign country. The murder 
done, the De Montforts rode away from the town with the 
Count and their accomplices to the castle of Soana. Later, 
fearing the emissaries of Edward, they took refuge in the 
Cistercian Abbey of Galgano, towards Siena. 

The body of the unfortunate Prince was treated in 
accordance with a barbarous usage obtaining in that day, 
the origin of which is probably to be attributed to the vicissi- 
tudes of the Crusades. I refer to divisional, or tripartite, 
sepulture : that is to say, the securing of the prayers of three 
separate congregations by means of distributing important 
members of a corpse among them. As crusading Princes 
desired their remains to be sent back to their family 
sepulchres in Europe, it became necessary to embalm, or 
preserve them in some other manner. King Louis and his 
brother Trislan, who had recently perished, had been boiled 
in wine and separated into flesh, bones, and heart, each of 
which was destined to a different Shrine. Cf. the indignant 
prohibition uttered by Boniface VIII. (" Detestanda feritatis 
abusum ") of the custom. This prohibition, however, was in 
vain, and the custom has continued, by Papal licence, 
down to our own century. The case was not otherwise 
with Henry of Almaine. His body was boiled ; while 
his flesh was buried in the Cathedral of Viterbo, between 
the remains of two popes. His heart, however, was placed 



Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 113 

in a golden vase and sent to the Benedictines at West- 
minster, who consigned it to the shrine of Edward the 
Confessor. Dante refers to this in the well-known passage 
wherein he describes De Montfort as a lonely spirit plunged 
np to the throat in hot blood, and shunned even by other 
murderers, as having smitten in the church " the heart 
which still bleeds for vengeance, beside the Thames " 
(/;//. xii. 119). The bones of the murdered Prince were 
brought to London and thence carried to Hayles, where 
they were interred in front of the then high altar, on 
May 21st, with the utmost solemnity. We hear of a 
funeral mass, performed in his honour, at Norwich as late 
as July 22nd. His arms were: Or, an Eagle Displayed, 
sable. Armed Gules. 

A picture representing the murder is recorded by con- 
temporary chroniclers to have been painted at Viterbo, to 
which certain descriptive verses were appended. These will 
be found in Matthew of Westminster. Another picture, 
perhaps a copy of this fresco, was extant in S. Sylvestro 
until thirty years ago, and Signor Caposalvi, an architect of 
that city, relates that he and others still living well recollect 
it. It is possibly yet extant as a "curio" in the hands of 
someone, who may be unaware of its significance. 

Simon de Montfort, the younger, perished by accident at 
Siena, within a year of the murder. Guy, whose abundant 
correspondence with the Pope respecting it I have obtained, 
underwent certain serious penances, but survived until 1288, 
when he was captured at sea by Ruggiero di Loria, the 
Aragonese admiral, then fighting against Charles of Anjou 
lor the possession of Sicily. He died in a Sicilian prison. 

Earl Richard, whose health had been fast failing, at 
the date of the murder of his son, in September (1271), 
learned of the partial destruction of his abbey at Hayles 
by a fire, and being attacked by paralysis while at his 
manor of Berkhampstead in December of the same year, 
he presently lost his reason. He lingered until February of 
the following year, when he died, lie was buried beside 

9 

Vol. XXII. 



ii4 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

his queen, Sanchia, 1 at Hayles. His son, Edmund (Earl of 
Cornwall), re-built and extended the church for the monks, 
re-dedicating it in 1277, and enriching it with the famous 
relic known as the Blood of Hayles. It is to him the Abbey 
owed the fine polygonal Apse lately uncovered. Richard left 
behind him a third wife, Beatrice, daughter of Dietrich von 
Falkenstein, niece of Conrad, Archbishop of Cologne, reputed 
an exceedingly beautiful woman, whom he had married in 
1269, and another son, Richard, who was killed at Berwick 
in 1296, and likewise buried at Hayles. 2 

1 Sanchia of Provence died in 1261, and was buried November 9th at 
Hayles, whither her body had been brought from Berkhampstead by 
Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, Peter of Savoy, and two Bishops. 
Her arms are — Or, four pallets, gules. 

2 Richard had other issue : — 

Richard, buried at Hayles in 1246, 

Philip, in Holy Orders 1248, 

Isabella, buried at Reading Abbey, 

John, died at Marlow, and buried at Reading Abbey, 
besides a natural son, Richard, to whom Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, gave 
the manor of Thunnack, co. Lincoln, a.d. 12S0. Ancestor of the Cornwalls 
of Burford. 



NOTES ON THE PARISHES AND CHURCHES 
OF EASTLEACH MARTIN AND EASTLEACH 

TURVILLE. 

By the Rev. W. H. T. WRIGHT, 
Curate-in-charge of Eastleach. 

Ox the edge of a spur of the Cotswold Hills lie the twin 
villages of Eastleach Martin, or Burthorpe, and Eastleach 
Turville. The former, a collection of scattered houses and 
cottages, finding a home for most of its people in the little 
hamlet of Fyfield ; the latter, as described in the Society's 
programme, a picturesque village. Perhaps in all Gloucester- 
shire there is scarcely a less known spot — a spot which 
should attract the artist and lover of the beautiful in Nature, 
and at the same time furnish matter of interest to a learned 
Society. What I am endeavouring to put before you should 
be called a few notes on the Parishes of Eastleach Martin 
and Turville, rather than Eastleach Martin and its con- 
nection with the Priory of Great Malvern. 

According to Fosbrooke, both parishes take date from 
about the same period, between the eleventh and thirteenth 
centuries. According to Domesday, Drogo Fitzpons held 
the Manor of Eastleach Martin, being one of five brothers 
of that name who came over with the Conqueror. Of these 
brothers, Richard Fitzpons, or son of Puncius, was a great 
benefactor to the parish. In the latter part of the eleventh 
or beginning of the twelfth century the Church was built, 
the founder being the said Richard, and the deed of gift on 
his part of the Church of Lech to the Priory of Malvern is 
attested by his two brothers, Simon and Osborn, among 
others. The original of this deed may be seen in the 
British Museum. In a small volume entitled The Chitir/i 
and Monastery '/.//, by Mr. Jas. Nott, will be 

found a photographic representation of the original deed, 
together with a translation. The deed sets forth that 



n6 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Richard, son of Puncius, for the good of his own soul, of 
that of his wife Mathildis, and the souls of other members 
of his family, gave the Church of Lech with five virgates of 
land, free and quit and absolved from all service, and with 
the whole tithing of his demesne and of the court of the 
same vill, and with all things appertaining to the said 
Church of Lech : to God, and to St. Mary, and to St. 
Michael of Malvern, and to the monks there serving God : 
and further grants to the aforesaid monks and to their clerks 
for the service of their Church of Lech full common of the 
whole of his vill and land. 

Taken in connection with this, the Charter of the 
Dedication of the Church granted by Simon, Bishop of 
Worcester, shows again the influence of Malvern in the 
parish. To this charter is affixed the seal of Thomas, Prior 
of Malvern, thought by Mr. Nott to be perhaps that of 
Thomas de Wick, who was Prior in 121 7 : this date, however, 
seems too late, as Simon was consecrated Bishop of 
Worcester in 1125. The Prior Thomas in question may 
possibly have succeeded Walcher in that office in 1135. 
This date would of course coincide with the period of 
Bishop Simon's episcopate. Since Gilbert Foliot, Abbot of 
Gloucester, appears one of the witnesses, we know that the 
dedication must have taken place between June nth, 1139, 
the date of his benediction as Abbot, and September 5th, 114S, 
when he was consecrated to the See of Hereford. As Bishop 
of London, he became one of the chief opponents of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury. The seal is a pointed oval in a niche 
under an early form of canopy, the Virgin seated holding the 
Infant Saviour, between St. Michael the Archangel on the 
right, and a Saint on the left. Now the Priory Church of 
Great Malvern is dedicated to St. Mary and St. Michael, 
and until Mr. Nott's book came into my hands it was 
supposed that the dedication of the Church of Eastleach 
Martin was also to St. Mary: such has been the title always 
used, and appearing in the Ordnance Survey Map ; it will 
be altered in the new issue of the map, as the facts of the 



Churches of Eastleach. 117 

case were brought before the officers engaged in surveying 
the district last year. There must have been some reason 
for the dedication being assigned to the Blessed Virgin : 
possibly at some early date the niche in the eastern gable of 
the chancel may have been filled with a group similar to that 
on the Malvern Seal, representing St. Mary, SS. Michael and 
Martin; and from the prominence of the central figure, the 
dedication may have been assigned to St. Mary — or perhaps 
the transept was dedicated to her, and the old names of the 
church gradually dropped out. The following extract refers 
to that portion of the charter dealing with the dedication of 
the Church at Eastleach Martin : " To all the sons of Holy 
Mother Church, Simon by the grace of God, Bishop of 
Worcester, greeting. By the anxious care of the office 
which has been committed to us we are bound to corroborate 
with the diligence of Episcopal authority those things which 
are delivi red to Churches and divine places by the gift of 
the faithful, in order that they may obtain firm stability. 
Therefore let the whole body of those who now exist, and 
posterity which is about to succeed in future times, know 
that in the dedication of the Church of St. Michael and of 
the Blessed Martin of East Lech, which was celebrated by 
our ministration at God's disposition and by the petition of 

our beloved children R , the Prior and the brethren of 

Malvern . . . Therefore to the end that it may stand 
settled for ever and unassailed we fortify with the impression 
of our seal the text of this present document and commend 
it to public knowledge. These being witnesses: Gilbert, 
Abbot of Gloucester, Richard, Archdeacon of Gloucester, 
Patrick and Ralph, Monks of Gloucester, Ernisius and 
Hugh, Monks of Malvern, &c."' 

The dedication, therefore, took place on the petition of 
the Prior and Monks of Malvern. The Abbot of Gloucester 
granted land in Fifhida. lie also confirmed with the gift of 
the land the privileges accorded in the parish by Richard 
the son of Puncius. The Monks of Malvern also gave a 
1 British Museum, L.F.C. xviii. 2, ad. 1139—11 p. 



n8 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

hide of land which they held in Sudtlirop (Southrop), with 
all the liberties and customs which they themselves held in 
the vill of Eastleach. The charter also notes the offering, 
on the part of the parishioners, of the parochial things 
which are due to a church. In 1144 Walter de Clifford, a 
descendant of Drogo Fitzpons, exchanged this manor with 
the Monks of Gloucester, and up till quite recently it was 
the property of the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester. In 
the minister's accounts (Great Malvern) for the years 
1541 — 1543 there appear amongst other names, — Estleche 
Merton alias Brondruppe, Coteland, the latter being 
apparently the same as Prior's Cotes, the name still 
remaining in Cote Mill and Farm. 

Tradition assigns to Cote Farm the site of a religious 
house ; and beneath the road from Southrop to Eastleach 
was a large stone vault, traditionally called the Monk's 
Cellar (the slope is now called Cellar Hill), which was filled 
up, and an entry to that effect made in the Parish Register, 
1748, October: "This month also was buried a large, strong, 
stone-built vault under an hill in this parish called Cruel 
Hill ; and this memorial of it is made to the intent posterity 
may not be imposed upon." Some very good specimens of 
flint arrowheads have been found in the parish, and may be 
seen at Fyfield Manor. 

The Church of SS. Michael and Martin consists of nave, 
chancel, north transept, with a low western tower, and south 
porch. The doorway and shafts and capitals of the 
chancel arch are Norman, the arch itself being of much 
later date; transept, fourteenth century. The windows in 
the church being of various dates. There are the remains 
of a bell cote on the chancel arch. In the nave, some 
ancient oak seats very roughly worked. In the churchyard, 
the ruins of the churchyard cross. 

Separated from the Church of S.S. Michael and Martin 
by the river Leach and the roadway, stands the sister 
Church of St. Andrew, Eastleach Turville, an interesting 
building. The south doorway is Norman. In the centre of 



Churches of Eastleach. 119 

the tympanum, a representation of our Lord seated with the 
hand raised, on either side an angel adoring; the decoration 
above is zigzag. 

The Church shows evidence of having been at some time 
a larger building, there being three arches on the north side 
of the nave and one on the north side of the chancel ; of 
these, all except that opening into the north transept have 
been filled in. The original windows have disappeared, but 
there are two two-light windows, apparently of the Decorated 
period, in the cellar of Fyfield Manor, which are supposed 
to have been removed thither from this Church at some time. 
The chancel is of Early English work, and the threedight 
lancet window in the east end is very beautiful. It is to be 
hoped that the Society will give some information concerning 
this window. Mr. Prior, who accompanied the Society, 
pronounces it to be a very fine specimen of Early English 
architecture. There is a canopied tomb in the north transept, 
with floriated cross on the lid of the stone coffin ; the 
ornamentation of this has been much damaged, and the 
shafts of the chancel arch have suffered much from being 
cut to accommodate the pews. The tower is saddleback. 
In the churchyard is the base only of the churchyard cross. 
The De Lacys held the manor for some time after the 
Conquest, and in the reign of King John, Almain, Earl of 
Gloucester, gave land here to the monks of Bruerne, near 
Chipping Norton. 

Land was granted in the reign of Edward III. to 
Osbern d'Alitor, then parson, to enlarge his manse. The 
vicarage house has entirely disappeared, though it remained 
in the form of cottages until quite recently, some of the 
oak work being of considerable age. The parish of East- 
leach Turville seems to have been joined with Eastleach 
Martin under the name of Long Turville when the abbeys 
of Gloucester and Bruerne divided the parish. 

The Blomer family bought the manor in Queen Elizabeth's 
time. The name Blomer yet remains in Blomer's Mead, 
a meadow on the bank of the Thames at Lechlade, which 



120 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

is still a portion of the Eastleach estate. Through this 
family, by intermarriage, the manor passed on through the 
Webbs to the Ponsonbys. Both parishes were at times 
served by John Keble, whose signature appears often in the 
Register: and whether rightly or not, his beautiful Evening 
Hymn is claimed to have been composed in the Rectory 
garden of Eastleach Martin. He lived at Southrop from 
1823, when he permanently left Oxford, until October, 1825, 
when he settled at Hursley as Curate. Among his pupils 
or visitors at Southrop during this period were Robert 
Wilberforce, Isaac Williams, and Hurrell Froude. 

If by these few imperfect notes some members of the 
Society are encouraged to spend a short time in the viewing 
of our churches, the object of this paper will be accom- 
plished, which is to create some interest in parishes so 
unusually situated as to have two ancient churches within 
one hundred yards of each other. The information with 
regard to Eastleach Martin and Great Malvern is entirely 
taken from Mr. Nott's book on Great Malvern. 



CflAVENAGE Af/KNOR. 

CROUND FLOOR PLAN 
FtEre Re/vex. 

REPRESENTS OAi/GINAL WORK /S/S. 

C^SSl THE RICHARD STEPHENS SUPPOSED ALTERATIONS 

l'-l "^*Vv&>il ?A R T3 GREATLY ALTERED IF NOT REBUILT BY 

RICHARD STEPHENS. 
] THE MORE ACCENT ALTERATIONS. 

THE PROBABLE LINES OF ORIGINAL S W WING 




CHAVENAGE HOUSE. 

By W. HOWARD SETH -SMITH. 

We have in Chavenage House a very good example of an 
Elizabethan house of its class. 

Chavenage is quite free from the eccentricities of plan 
so commonly found in this period. It shows the usual 
developments of the fifteenth century with the great hall in 
the centre, the kitchen and its offices forming a wing at one 
end, generally to the north, in order to leave the more sunny 
aspects for the parlour or dining-room and the family and 
guests' apartments at the opposite or south end of the hall. 
The main peculiarity of the Elizabethan planning is the 
effort at symmetry which is the essence of classic work. 
This symmetry was probably almost perfect at Chavenage 
in the first instance, as will be seen by a glance at the plan 
on which has been shewn the existing walls of the original 
house (dated on the label termination of the porch 1567) in 
solid black, the probable plan of the original house by a 
dotted line, and the additions made probably by Richard 
Stephens in 1684 by diagonal scoring. The unhappy 
patchings of 1803 I have merely outlined. 

Oftentimes this effort at symmetry resulted in the sacrifice 
of convenience to dignity, but by no means always. The H 
form of the plan is an admirable one. The guests' lodgings, 
or sometimes estate offices, occupied the north-east wing, 
and the scullery, dairy, &c, the north-west. The family 
apartments were generally in the south-east range. 

The hi^h-pitched gable is another distinctive feature of 
the Elizabethan period, and replaces the fourteenth and 
fifteenth century battlemented parapet as at Haddon Hall. 
Simpler chimneys and chimney caps also take the place of 
the Tudor elaboration in brickwork. 

In Elizabethan days the functions of the architect were 



122 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

generally confined to supplying the plan and a sketch of the 
elevations, and it was left to the masons, carpenters, joiners, 
and plumbers to supply the details of their respective 
departments; but with more general culture came the demand 
for more knowledge of style and its more refined and accurate 
expression, hence the evolution of the modern architect out 
of his prototype the craftsman. 

In Chavenage House it is very interesting to note the 
local preservation of the Gothic work in the details. The 
section of the window mullions and jambs is hollow, instead 
of round as was so commonly the case. The labels are all 
Tudor in section, but this is only what we should expect in a 
rural district and in a house of modest scale. 

EXTERIOR. 

There can be little or no doubt that the date 1576 on 
the label of the porch lintel is that of the erection of 
the early Elizabethan house by Edward Stephens. The 
porch doorway has been mutilated, not so many years ago, 
for insertion of the modern door, and the porch windows 
were also then inserted for lighting the vestibule thus 
enclosed. 

On a quoin-stone on the south wall of the porch and also 
on the west of the house are seen the initials of Richard 
Stephens, which probably mark the date of the extensive 
alterations in 1684. 

The Decorated two-light Gothic windows and plaque over 
the doorway, as well as various other similar features about 
the house of the same date, appear to have been brought by 
Richard Stephens from Horsley Priory, which, having passed 
by exchange into the possession of Bruton Priory in 1371 
after the dissolution of that house, was granted to Sir Walter 
Denniss in 1553. The many fourteenth century features 
would excuse one's attributing the house at the first glance 
to an earlier date, were it not for the abundant evidence of 
its Elizabethan origin, which a closer view reveals and 
which is confirmed by history. I am strongly of opinion that 



Chavenage House. 123 

Richard Stephens was responsible for the insertion of all 
these relics of Horsley Priory. 

Set in the Tudor-like splayed stone arch is the original 
external door of the house. It is in oak, the bross-boarding 
being riveted together, and the nail-heads forming an 
ornamental feature externally. We notice in addition to the 
lion knocker a very beautiful fourteenth century door ring 
and plate of pierced iron, probably from the Priory. The 
hinges too are excellent in proportion and design,— in fact 
the ornamental ironwork on the old doors throughout is 
one of the most delightful features of the house. 

The demi-eagle displayed, which forms a graceful gable- 
finial over the porch and one of the west gables, is the crest 
of the Stephens family. The Renaissance plaque below it is 
dated 1702, and is probably from some mural tablet from a 
church. Mr. Bazeley says: "On the left of the shield is a 
chevron or, perhaps part of the arms of Catherine Stephens 
nee Beale." 

The flat lintel to the porch door, with its lozenge ornaments 
in the panels, is the only piece of original Renaissance design 
to be found externally. Two small lions' heads and a crown 
have been inserted under the labels of the window and 
painted black. 

Turning now to the south of the porch, notice the evidence 
in the masonry that the three-tier window of hall, the lower 
lights of which were originally of equal length, have been 
lowered about two feet as was so frequently the case. This 
was probably done by Richard Stephens. The reason most 
likely was that the hall, later on, became less the dining than 
a reception room, and a view out and more light within were 
necessary. 

It is interesting to speculate on what has happened on 
the north wall of the original south-east wing. I believe 
there was a doorway opposite that on the north-east wing, 
as at Ashton Hall and elsewhere. Extensive alterations to 
the staircase have undoubtedly been made; probably this 
south-east wing was rebuilt by Richard Stephens. 



124 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

The east gable of this south-east wing would seem to 
support this theory, for the positions of its windows aie 
irregular and their proportion and character out of keeping 
with the Elizabethan house. The south room, which so 
completely violates the symmetry of the plan, is probably 
part of the same alteration, and originally consisted of a 
ground and first floor like the rest of the house, but has more 
recently been opened up to the roof and the present ceiling 
formed. The high windows on the south are mysterious, 
as they are too low to have served an upper storey. I think 
they were inserted when the room was heightened, probably 
at the end of the last century, to prevent the upper part 
being gloomy, but the want of a look-out on to the lawns led 
to the insertion afterwards of the square bay-window in the 
debased Gothic revival type of the end of the eighteenth 
century. 

Note the curious enriched caps of the chimneys, circular 
on plan over a square shaft. 

In the west wall of this addition is another fourteenth 
century Ecclesiastical window, brought from Horsley Priory. 
The head and sill are original, but much of it has been 
restored. 

The south-west wing is, I think, also part of the alterations 
made by Richard Stephens in 1684 : the rose-moulded chimney 
cap again appears, and the even-jointed coping of the gables 
favours this view. It is, moreover, corroborated by the internal 
details. The poor bay-window is of course an insertion of 
the same date as that to the south addition. 

The central chimney-stack was originally like the others, 
but has been spoilt by being rebuilt square. 

On the north elevation all is original excepting the large 
external chimney-stack, probably added when the accom- 
modation of the original kitchen was found insufficient, and 
the larger apartment in the north-east wing was devoted to 
this purpose. 

The upper two-light window next this chimney-stack was 
doubtless once a three-light, corresponding to that to the 



Chavenage House. 125 

west of the gable. Its hood-moulding has been cut to build 
up the chimney-stack, and the quaintly cusped heads to its 
lights are of a later date than the original house. 

The destruction of the early symmetrical plan has 
happened also on this side of the house by the building 
out of a room, which appears to be an addition of Richard 
Stephens' time. 

There are no windows in the north-east gable, nor any 
signs of any having previously existed. We might, pretty 
safely infer that the original south-east gable matched it in 
this respect. 

We notice particularly that there are no rain-water pipes, 
which with their ornamental cast lead heads generally form 
such beautiful features in Elizabethan houses. They were 
probably removed when the present box gutters were formed 
to carry the rain water (so precious on the top of the 
Cotswold Hills, where the wells have to be snnk hundreds of 
feet) to the storage tank ; unfortunately these gutters now 
cross the gables in the most damaging manner. 

The interior has been even more altered than the exterior : 
but if it has lost something in beauty, it is all the more 
interesting to endeavour to trace the changes which have 
taken place. To the right as one enters were originally the 
butteries, and to the left as usual comes the hall ; the former 
have been much altered, but the latter comparatively little. 
In the fine hall the panelling is of the Elizabethan period, 
but it has been cut away to form a door into Richard 
Stephens's south-west wing, and also to insert the later 
Jacobean screens. The parts so removed one will hud 
somewhat carelessly fitted round the entrance passage. 
Mr. Bazeley thinks the screens and minstrel gallery belong 
to Col. Stephens's time, but they appear to me to have been 
in ide up later of odd pieces of old work, and never to have 
been designed as a whole for their position. There is no 
record when this was done, but I incline to think within the 
present century. 1 am informed that the tapestry and much 
of the glass now in the hall windows were found by the last 



126 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

owner, Major Chaplin, stowed away in boxes in the attics ; 
some of the glass probably came from the priory, as it is 
earlier than the house. 

The chimney-piece in the hall and that in the drawing- 
room are extremely fine examples of their style, and would 
alone make the house well worthy of a visit. They are later 
than Elizabeth's reign, and were probably added by Col. 
Stephens. That in the hall bears the Fowler arms, quarterly 
azure and or on the first quarter a hawk's lure a and line of the 
second. The one now in the drawing-room doubtless once 
occupied the original room of the south-east wing ; it is of 
the same height as that storey. 

The arms of the Stephenses appear in various places ; 
they are per chevron azure and argent in chief, two falcons rising, 
and their crest a demi-eagle displayed. 

The coved ceiling of the minstrel gallery is beautifully 
panelled, as was the hall itself, in all probability, in its 
earliest days. 

We now enter the original dining-room, the panelling 
of which is dated 1627. This was probably done at the 
same time as the chimney-pieces were erected. The 
room has suffered less change than any other on the 
ground floor : note especially its chimney-piece, which 
must have been brought from elsewhere, as it is distinctly 
Tudor in style, and very fine indeed ; its panelled over- 
mantel is still older, and may have been brought from the 
Priory. The inner jambs and lintel, which give it a heavy 
appearance, are obviously late additions to accommodate 
the modern register grate. Possibly no staircase existed in 
the original south-east wing, that at the end of the screen 
serving for family and guests to gain access to the upper 
floors. 

Upstairs, we note the woodwork and other details on the 
south-east and south-west wings, corresponding in date 
(late seventeenth century) with Richard Stephens's alterations; 
also the plaster-vaulted priest's cell over the porch, with its 
carved cornice and armoured door between it and the bed- 



Chavenage House. 127 

room adjoining. There is another fine chimney-piece in 
Sir Philip Sydney's room. 

The chapel I believe to have been built by Richard ; if so, 
this will go far to explain the curious assemblage of odds and 
ends probably brought from the Priory, and built in or 
perched in all sorts of odd positions in the tower and 
elsewhere. 

Persons residing in the neighbourhood recollect the west 
door under the tower being used by the public, the south 
porch giving access to the family seats which were 
immediatelv within it. 



NOTES ON CHAVENAGE AND THE 
STEPHENS FAMILY. 

By the Rev. W. H. SILVESTER DAVIES, M.A., 
Vicar of Horsley. 

The interesting manor house of Chavenage was built in the 
reign of Elizabeth, in the year 1576, by Edward Stephens, a 
member, Debrett says, of a " very ancient and honourable 
Gloucestershire family" who then owned the manor. We 
find his initials and those of Joan, his wife, as well as the 
above date, on the labels of the hood-moulding on either side 
of the principal door. 

Edward Stephens, who was also lord of the manors of 
Eastington and Alkerton, would seem to have been very fond 
of building, for he is said to have built the manor house at 
Eastington in 1578, i.e. only two years afterwards. A plate 
of the house at Eastington appears in Fosbroke's Gloucester- 
shire. It was burnt down in the last century, and levelled to 
the ground in 1778, and the materials dispersed and sold. 
In this fire most of the family papers were destroyed. I 
must mention that there is a tradition among the descendants 
of the Stephens family that Chavenage was built by Queen 
Elizabeth's favourite, the Earl of Essex, to receive his royal 
mistress in on one of her progresses. I venture to think, 
however, that this can hardly have been the case, as, 
independently of the testimony of the initials above stated, 
there is no evidence of Essex ever having owned this 
property. Possibly he may have persuaded Edward Stephens 
to build the house with a view to entertaining the Queen, 
but so far as I can gather Elizabeth never came here. Had 
she done so, we may be sure that in a house where so many 
rooms are associated with notable people the room occupied 
by her would be identified. The Lord Essex whose name 
appears on one of the doors upstairs was probably the 



Notes on Chavenage and the Stephens Family. 129 

parliamentary general of that name, and not the " noble 
traytour," Elizabeth's favourite. 

While on this subject it may be well to state that the 
names of the distinguished persons on the doors of some of 
the rooms, e.g. Sir Philip Sidney, Lord Leicester, Oliver 
Cromwell, General Ireton, Queen Anne, and others, have 
been placed there in recent times. Oliver Cromwell never 
was at Chavenage. A picture of him used to hang in the 
room which now bears his name, but the room itself was 
formerly called the " tapestry room." Queen Anne, too, so 
far as is known, never honoured Chavenage with her presence, 
but the beautifully carved bedstead and coverlet in the room 
called after her were given by the queen to her physician, 
Sir Edward Hannes, whose wife was descended from the 
Stephens family. 

Chavenage was part of the manor of Horsley, which 
belonged to the priory of Bruton in Somersetshire. There 
was a cell of this monastery at Horsley, on the south side of 
the parish church, but of which there are now no remains 
above ground. It seems to have been a very small foundation, 
and long before the dissolution of monasteries was without 
prior or brethren. The manor, however, remained in the 
possession of the priory of Bruton until the great religious 
upheaval in the reign of Henry VIII., when it was granted in 
1542 to Sir Thomas Seymour, and on his attainder to Sir 
Walter Denys, of Dyrham, in this county, in 1553, whose son, 
Richard, sold it to the Stephenses. 

This family claimed descent from one Fitz Stephen, 
the captain of the vessel which brought William the Norman 
to our shores. His son was captain of the " White Ship " in 
which the children of Henry I. were drowned. 

In the reign of Henry II., Ralph Fitz Stephen and his 
brother William were joint high sheriffs of Gloucestershire 
for four years, beginning in 1 171 , and William Fitz Stephen 
was high sheriff in 1175, "and so continued thirteen years 
together." 1 

1 Rudder's Gloucestershire. 

10 
Vol. XXII. 



130 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Another Fitz Stephen, Robert, perhaps a brother of the 
foregoing, accompanied Strongbow in his invasion of Ireland 
in 1172. 

The pedigree, however, is imperfect until we come to 
Henry Stephens, in the 16th century, variously described as 
of Frocester 1 and of Eastington. 2 

He married Alice, the daughter and co-heiress of Edward 
Lugg, of Lugwardine in Herefordshire, and had issue Edward 
Stephens, who bought the manors of Eastington, Alkerton, 
and Horsley, and, as already stated, built houses at the 
first and last-named places, in 1578 and 1576 respectively. 

He married Joan, the daughter and heiress of Richard (or 
Edward) :i Fowler of Stonehouse. Her arms (quarterly azure 
and or, on the first quarter a hawk's lure and line of the second) 
may be seen on the mantelpiece of the hall. 

Edward Stephens, who died 22nd October, 1587, had, 
besides several daughters, three sons : Richard, lord of the 
manors of Eastington, Alkerton, Fretherne, and Horsley ; 
James, a clothier of Eastington, and Thomas, of the Middle 
Temple. Thomas, who was attorney general to Prince Henry 
and Prince Charles, purchased the manor of Lypiatt in 1610 
of John Throckmorton, and, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
and co-heiress of John Stone of London, became the ancestor 
of the Stephenses of Sodbury, Lypiatt, and Cherington. 
Lypiatt, now the property of Sir John Dorington, Bart., M.P., 
remained in the Stephens family for five generations, and the 
tombs of many of them are in Stroud parish church and 
churchyard. 

But to return to Richard, the eldest son of Edward 
Stephens. By his wife Margaret, daughter of Edward 
St. Loe, of Kington, Wiltshire, he had, besides other issue, 
Nathaniel, the member of the Stephens family around whom 
so much of the historical or (shall I say ?) legendary interest 
of Chavenage is gathered. 

This Nathaniel Stephens was born in 1589, and was ten 
years old at the death of his father. He was M.P. for 
1 Fosbroke. - Rudder. :1 Rudder. 



Notes on Chavenage and the Stephens Family. 131 

Gloucestershire in 1628-9, an( f from 1640-48, and on the 
outbreak of the civil war zealously espoused the cause of 
the Parliament, and used all his local influence on that side, 
raising a regiment of horse, of which he was colonel. 

It has been said that the families of Cromwell and Ireton, 
his son-in-law, were related by marriage to the Stephens 
family, but I have not been able to discover that this was so, 
at least until some time after the Restoration, when a Hester 
Stephens, of the Lypiatt branch of the family, married a first 
cousin once-removed of the Lord Protector. 

The late Rev. R. W. Huntley, of Boxvvell, published in 
1845 a poem called Chavenage, in which he describes Colonel 
Stephens as giving a reluctant consent to the execution of 
the King. As many of the members of our Society may not 
have seen the poem, I will give a brief outline of the story as 
narrated by Mr. Huntley in the preface to his work. 

It happened that Colonel Stephens was keeping Christmas, 
1648, at Chavenage, and in the midst of the festivity Ireton 
arrived at the house to press his instant attendance in 
Parliament to support by his vote and influence the intended 
measures against the King. His sister is said to have urged 
him to withhold his consent, and to have foretold the extinc- 
tion of his line, should he become implicated in the murder 
of Charles. 

Ireton, seconded by Robert Stephens, the colonel's brother, 
spent the night in entreating him to comply; and at length, 
though Nathaniel's feelings were in accordance with his 
sister's arguments, he allowed himself to be overruled, and, 
giving a reluctant assent, departed with Ireton. 

In the following May he was seized with a lingering sick- 
ness, of which he died in the very year of the restoration of 
Charles II., 1660, after expressing his regret for having 
participated in the King's death. 

Thus far circumstances have the semblance of fact ; but 
upon these a legendary tale has been founded. 

When all the relatives had assembled for the funeral, and 
their several well-known equipages were crowding the court- 



132 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

yard, the household were surprised to observe that another 
coach, most splendidly ornamented and drawn by black 
horses, was approaching the door with great solemnity. 
When it arrived, the shade of the Colonel clad in his shroud 
glided into the carriage, and the door instantly closing upon 
him the coach rapidly withdrew from the house, not, how- 
ever, with such speed but that there was time to perceive 
that the driver was a beheaded man arrayed in royal vest- 
ments, with the Garter upon his leg, and the Star of that 
illustrious Order upon his breast. No sooner had the coach 
arrived at the gateway of the manor court than the whole 
appearance vanished in flames of fire. 

As to the latter part of the story I shall say nothing. Of 
course Chavenage must have its ghost, like every house laying 
claim to a respectable antiquity. And certainly it is far 
better that the ghost should drive away in a carriage and 
pair than roam about the rooms and passages of the house. 

But the historical, or what purports to be the historical, 
part of the story rests on too slender a foundation to be 
accepted without question. For I am bound to say that 
there seems no evidence to show that Nathaniel Stephens 
had any share in the King's death ; indeed, the evidence 
points rather the other way. 

In the first place, we find him, in a speech delivered by 
him in his place in Parliament only a few months before, 
speaking of the decapitation of the king as " a strange cuer.'' 
He says: " Some speake of a strange cuer: they would cutt 
of the heade to save the body ; but as that is impossible in the 
naturall body, so it is unlikely in the politicke body." 

Again, in a book published in 1660 — the year of the 
Restoration — called England's Black Tribtmall giving an 
account of the King's trial, Stephens' name does not 
appear on the list of the members of the court that tried him, 
nor amongst those who were present when sentence was 
passed. 

Further, we find that his eldest surviving son married in 
1654 a daughter of Sir Hugh Cholmondeley, of Whitby Hall, 



Notes on Chavenage and the Stephens Family. 133 

Knight and Baronet, M.P. for Scarborough, who was a 
staunch royalist. 

Sir Hugh had, at first, espoused the cause of the 
Parliament, but, once convinced that the principles of the 
Reformation were in no danger, he returned to his allegiance 
to the King, was made governor of Scarborough, and held the 
castle for more than a year against the parliamentary forces, 
his wife attending to the wounded. In 1645, through want 
of ammunition, he surrendered on most honourable terms and 
went into exile till 1649, when his brother, Lord Cholmon- 
deley, of Vale Royal, in Cheshire, interceded with the " rulers 
of the kingless kingdom " and he was restored to his forfeited 
estates. In June, 1654, Sir Hugh and his lady went to 
London— no inconsiderable journey in those days— to attend 
the wedding of their daughter Anne with Richard, the eldest 
son of Nathaniel Stephens. 

It is almost inconceivable that one who had earned for 
himself the name of "the heroic cavalier" should have 
sanctioned by his presence such a union, at a time, too, 
when political feeling ran so high, had Nathaniel Stephens 
been a regicide ! 

I am inclined, then, to think that there is grave reason to 
doubt the historical accuracy of Mr. Huntley's poem, and that 
if, as has been said, Ireton ever was despatched " to whet 
the colonel's almost blunted purpose," he returned to London 
after a fruitless journey. 

Nathaniel Stephens married Catherine, daughter of Robert 
Beale, of Priors Marston, Warwickshire, " clerke of the 
councele to Queen Elizabeth "—her arms, sable, on a chevron, 
between three griffins heads erased argent, three estoiles gnles, are on 
the mantelpiece in the hall which was probably erected by 
her husband. 

They had a numerous family — Henry, who predeceased 
his father and was unmarried ; Richard, who succeeded to 
the family estates; Robert, a sergeant-at-law, who died 
unmarried; and several daughters, one of whom, Abigail, 
married, as his second wife, Sir Edward Harley, of Brampton 



134 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Bryan, Herefordshire, and was the mother of Queen Anne's 
minister, Robert Harley, first Earl of Oxford, whose room is 
still to be seen at Chavenage. 

Nathaniel Stephens' eldest surviving son, Richard, as 
already stated, married Anne, eldest daughter of Sir Hugh 
Cholmondeley, of Whitby, in July, 1654, and died in 1678, 
aged 58, leaving a large family. 

He was succeeded by his eldest son Nathaniel, High 
Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1698, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Francis Pemberton, Lord Chief Justice of 
England, and died in 1732. 

Nathaniel Stephens left a numerous family and was suc- 
ceeded by three of his sons in succession, none of whom left 
any issue: Richard, who died in 1775; Robert, Rector of 
Eastington ; and Henry, who married Ann, daughter of the 
Rev. Richard Huntley, Rector of Boxwell, Gloucestershire. 

Henry, the last of the Stephens family in the direct male 
line, died at Chavenage, 25th January, 1795, and was buried 
in Eastington Church, where there is a mural monument 
erected by his widow. 

He left his possessions, after his widow's death, to the 
descendants of his aunt, Elizabeth Packer, a daughter of 
Richard Stephens and Anne Cholmondeley. 

Elizabeth Packer had married her cousin, John Packer of 
Shellingford Manor, Berks, whose mother was a Stephens, 
and their only daughter, Anne, married Sir Edward Hannes, 
of Westminster. 

The sole issue of this marriage, Temperance, a ward in 
Chancery, eloped with John Willis, of Redlinglield Hall, Eye, 
Suffolk. This escapade gave rise to a remarkable legal 
decision, for the Chancellor held that he could not punish 
the gentleman because, as he rode behind his fiancee and on 
her horse, she eloped with him, and not he with her! 

Their only surviving son Henry, who first entered the 
Royal Navy, but was afterwards ordained, and became 
Rector of Little Sodbury and Vicar of Wapley, Gloucester- 
shire, married Jane, daughter of Richard Lubbock, of North 



Notes on Chavenage and the Stephens Family. 135 

Walsham, Norfolk. They had a numerous family, and their 
son, Henry Hannes Willis, inherited Chavenage on the 
death of Henry Stephens' widow in 1801. In accordance 
with the provisions of his cousin's will he had to drop his 
own name and arms, and adopt those of Stephens only. He 
became a monk and died at La Trappe, Normandy, in 1822, 
making the children of his sister, Mrs. Richmond Shute, his 
hoirs. The manor went first to his nephew, Henry Richmond 
Shute, who died unmarried in the following year, and then to 
his niece, Alice Elizabeth Shute, who married the Rev. 
Maurice Fitz Gerald Townshend, J. P. and D.L., of Castle 
Townshend, co. Cork, and Vicar of Thornbury, in Glouces- 
tershire. Mr. Townshend took the name and arms of 
Stephens by Royal License, 30th December, 1826. They 
had issue a son, Henry John, and two daughters. Chavenage, 
however, passed into the hands of Mr. Holford, of Weston 
Birt, and was sold by him in 1891 to Captain Lowsley 
Williams, its present owner, by whose courtesy our Society 
was lately enabled to visit it. 

Until 1869, the house was full of the old furniture, 
tapestries, pictures, and china, with other valuable relics and 
curiosities, but a deplorable sale in that year scattered most 
of these memorials of bygone times. 

One may be allowed to be thankful that, if the manor 
was to pass from the possession of the family which were its 
owners for some three hundred years, it should have for its 
present owner one who thoroughly appreciates the historical 
memories which cluster round the old house. I cannot 
finish this short and imperfect account of Chavenage and the 
Stephens family without expressing my grateful thanks to 
Mrs. Pierrepont Mundy for her kindness in furnishing me 
with many particulars about her family and the home of her 
childhood. 



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HERALDRY OF THE DIFFERENT CHURCHES, &c, 

VISITED BY THE 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

DURING THEIR VISIT TO FAIRFORD, 

AUGUST gTH to iith, 1899. 

By F. WERE. 



AMPNEY CRUCIS. 

N. Transept : " Or three fusiis (may be lozenges) in fess 
gules," Bakeley Freeman (generally " Az. & or.") Impaling 
"Azure a chevron between three suns or," Hinson. 

Query panels of a tomb let into wall : Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
*' (Azure) a lion rampant within an orle of roses (or)." 
Bowen, Oxfordshire. 2 and 3, " ? (Gules) three Bowen's knots. 
2 and 1 ? (Argent) " : query Ap Owen. (Bowen has a chevron 
between ; Evan ap Owen of Pentre Evan, early 15th century, 
took the name of Bowen.) 

" ? (Gules) a chevron ermine between three pheons ? (or.)," 
A mold. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, " quarterly (or. & az.) four roebucks 
statant (counterchanged)," Lloyd. (Atkyns says Floid and 
gives wrong coat.) 2 & 3, " (Argent) a quiver (gules) banded 
and filled with arrows or., feathered of the 1st between 
three pheons (sable)," Lloyd (query Lloyde ap Gronow) : 
dimidiated with Bowen above : impaling tierce — 

1. — "Per pale (azure & gules) three lions rampant 
(argent)," Herbert (borne by several families, Vaughan 
amongst them). 2.— Quarterly. 1st, "(Sable) three boys' 
heads couped at the shoulders (argent, may be proper) each 
wreathed about his neck with a snake ? (proper)," Vaughan. 



Heraldry of the Different Churches, etc. 139 

2nd, " (Sable) a chevron between three spearheads (argent) 
embrued (gules)," ? Wathins. 3rd, " ? (Azure) three cocks 
2 & 1 (argent) armed, jelloped and crested, (or.),'' UckdryJ. 
4th, "? (Argent) a lion rampant (sable)," Vaughan, may be 
Morgan. 3. — As Arnold above. Crest, partially defaced: 
Stag's head erased (Glos. Vis. "or.," Fairbairn "sable") 
charged with a crescent (Glos. Vis. ermines, Fairbairn 
ermine), Lloyd. On helmet above, query Dragon's head 
erased, Watkins. (Glos. Vis., 105, George Looyde of Holley 
Koode Ampney = Ann, d. of Richard YVatkin al's Vaghan.) 

S. Transept: 1. — "Gules three query pitchforks, one in 
pale, two in saltire, points upward argent enfiled with a 
coronet in fess ?or., on a wreath (torse)." M. says Swithini 
Adee, 1729 (this crest-like charge is not Adey, which is " Arg. 
on a bend az. three leopards' faces or.," the nearest crest 
I can find is Webb), impaling " Argent on a bend sable three 
leg harnesses (legs couped at thigh and erased at ankle) 
of the 1st," Blagrave. 2. — Blagrave impaling ? Adee (the 
crest-like charge looks more modern, but I cannot find the 
alliances). 

Mural panels : " (Argent) on a bend (gules) between 
two birds ?(Cornish Choughs) may be Plovers (proper) six 
gouttes (d'eau) a chief chequy (sa. & arg. or or.)," Pleydell. 

MR. CRIPPS' DRAWING ROOM. 

Pleydell, quartering (Gules) a lion rampant (or.) between 
four crosses patty (vair), Reason. (William Pleydell ob. 
i556 = Agnes d: & coheiress of John Reason of Corfe Castle.) 
Pleydell, impaling " ? (Per chevron arg. & sa.) three elephants' 
heads erased 2 & 1 (counterchanged)," Saunders. (Robert 
Pleydell of Holy Rood Ampney = Susan, d. of Edward 
Saunders of Brixworth, Northamptonshire.) 

MEYSEY HAMPTON CHURCH. 

S. Transept : M. 1. — "(Azure) three covered cups 2 & 1 
(or.), Jcnncr (without swords). 2. — Quarterly, 1 & 4, 



140 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

" ? (Argent) a bend countercompony (may be chequy) or. & 
gules," Vaux. 2 and 3, " ? (Sable or Azure) a Pelican in piety 
? (arg. or or.)," PLyndc. Crest : Eagle's head erased sable 
collared and studded or., Hodie et non eras. 3. — Quarterly, 
1st, "Sable three bends engrailed argent a canton or.," 
Horton. 2nd, "(Argent) a bend (sable) a label of three 
(gules)," St. Lo. 3rd, "(Gules) a fess chequy (or. & azure)," 
Whittington. 4th, " ? Sable (semy of crosses croslet) a lion ram- 
pant (argent)," Hauteville (for quarterings, see Glazebrooke's 
Worcester Heraldry, page 300). 

"Argent on bend gules between three ogresses 2 & 1, as 
many swans close proper," Clarke. Crest, Swan. 

Glass exhibited in Croft's Hall, Fairford : Quarterly, 
1 and 4, " Argent on a bend sable three bulls' heads couped 
of the 1st," Heton, Bishop of Ely. 2 and 3, "Argent a Moor's 
head wreathed between three fleurs de lys sable ; a cinque- 
foil pierced for difference of the last," Move. 

FAIRFORD CHURCH. 

S. Aisle : " Argent an anchor between two dolphins 
haurient respecting each other, all proper," Alexander 
Ctlsion, 1775. 

" Argent three crosses croslet 2 & 1 sable on a chief gules 
a lion passant guardant ? or.," Redy. (Sarah = 1st, Thomas 
Townsend of Sudely ; 2nd, Alexander Redy, 1731.) 

Chancel. S.E. : " Or in dexter chief an escallop sable 
between two bendlets gules," Tracy. Impaling "Argent a 
chevron between three escallops sable," Lyttlcton. Above 
Viscount's coronet. Robert T. = Bridget L. E.: "Gules 
on a fess argent three lions passant guardant ? purpure," 
Oldisworth. Crest: Lion sejant guardant (gules) resting 
dexter paw (Fairbairn) on carved shield (Glos. Vis.) on 
scroll or. 

Oldisv'orth, impaling " Argent on a fess between two> 
chevrons sable three long crosses croslet? or.,*' Austin. 
(I cannot find this alliance.) On lozenge, Oldisworth, 1680.. 



Heraldy of the Different Churches, etc. 141 

Tomb Brasses : " (Argent) a dragon segreant (vert) com- 
batant a lion rampant (azure) crowned (gules)," Tame : 
impaling " (Argent) a chevron between three lapwings 
close (sable)," Twyniho. (Lines are not correct, only 
shadings.) 

N. Aisle. E. : "(Argent) two lions passant with double 
queues in pale (gules) armed and langued (azure)," Lygon : 
impaling quarterly: 1st, ". . . a bend engr. between 
three leopards' faces jessant de lys 1 & 2 . . . ," Dennis. 
(This coat is nearly everywhere blazoned false, and it seems 
to me to have arisen owing to misreading " Arg. and az." ; 
Glos. Vis., page 49, says: "Gu. a bend engr. az. between 
two leopards' faces jessant de lis or." Atkyns. " Gu. a bend 
engr. az. between three leopards' faces 2 & 1 or. jessant 
de lys of the 2nd," but I have plates of Gloucestershire 
coats, 1792, where it is " Gu. a bend engr. arg. between 
three leopards' faces jessant de lys 2 & 1 or." ; this I believe 
to be right, but it differs from the Fairford one in that the 
faces are 2 and 1.) 2nd, "(Argent) a raven within bordure 
(sable) roundelly (bezanty)," Corbett. 3rd, " (Argent) on a 
chief (gules) three roundles (bezants)," Russell. 4th, 
" Lozengy (or. & azure) a chevron (gules)," Gorges. (William 
Dennis = Margaret Corbett. Sir Gilbert Dennis = Margaret 
Russell. Sir Theobald Russell = Eleanor Gorges. Glos. 
Vis., 51 William Lygon -= Eleanor Dennis.) Crest: Lion 
as in arms (this is quite different from the usual Lygon crest). 

Brass : Dexter defaced impaling " (Sable) on a cross 
engrailed (or.) five roundles (ogresses)," Grevill, 1534. (Glos. 
Vis., 260, query Thomas Tame = Jane, 2nd daughter of 
. . . Grevill.) 

Brass against wall : 1. — Tame with crescent for difference 
impaling Grevill as above. (Sir Edmond Tame, knt. = ist, 
Agnes, d. of Sir Edvvd. Grevell); 2nd, Elizabeth Tyringham.) 
2. — Tame impaling " (Azure) a saltire engrailed (argent)," 
Tyringham. 

S.E. Churchyard Tombs: Quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Argent) 



142 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

a griffin segreant (sable)," Morgan. 2 and 3, " (Gules) a fess 
vair between three unicorns' heads couped (or.)," Bigland, 
Savory. Crest : Reindeer's head couped (or.). 



LECHLADE CHURCH. 

S.E. M. Central Sheld : Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Argent a 
chevron between three cocks' heads erased gules," Coxeter. 
2 and 3, " ? Sable two bars & in chief three crosses patty or, 

a label of 3 ? argent for difference," Bath rst. Crest : Out 

of mural coronet a cock's head gules crested and jelloped or., 
1699. (George Coxeter = Mary Bathurst.) 

Coxeter, impaling " Gules three swords barwise, points to 
the dexter proper, pomels and hilts or. within orle of mullets 
of the last, on a canton per fess argent & ? vert a lion of 
England," Chute (the lion is on the argent, ought to be on 
the vert). (I cannot find this alliance.) 

Bathurst, impaling " Or a fess between two lions passant 
gules," Cooke. (Laurence Bathurst = Susanna Cook.) 

Chancel: "? Argent a (quarter - pierced) cross moline 
sable between three crescents (gules)," Milward, impaling 
" Argent a cross fleur de lisy at the sides between four 
mullets (pierced) sable," Atkyns. Crest : Between two wings 
azure a bear's paw erased sable armed or., holding a sceptre 
in bend sinister of the last entwined by a sprig of oak proper. 
Nee temere nee timide. 

Window : " Gules a falcon volant or within an orle 
? (wavy) arg," Knox, Earl of Ranfurly. 

Knox, impaling "Vert a chevron argent between three 
garbs or," Amyand. Moveo et propitior. (I cannot find this 
alliance.) 

M. : "Argent ? bend sa. between two Proses gules," 
Simons, 1769. (Query, " Arg. a bend engr. az. between two 
fireballs sa," Svnions.) 



Heraldry of the Different Churches, etc. 143 

N. Aisle, M. : "Azure a chevron ? arg., really ermine, 
between three crosses patty argent," Ainge, impaling "Or 
six amulets 3, 2, 1, ? sable," Lodev (generally " Sa. & Or."). 
1778, a knight's helmet. (I cannot find this alliance.) 

LITTLE FARINGDON. 

" Per fess argent & gules a fess engrailed per fess azure 
& or between in chief a cross humetty ? ermine enclosed by 
two helmets sable & in base one of the latter or.," query. 

Impaling, " ? Or three crescents 2 & 1 sable on a canton 
of the last a ducal coronet of the 1st," Hodges. Crest : On 
wreath, five fieurs de lys conjoined barwise in front of demi 
? hind salient regardant holding between forelegs an arrow, 
query. 

W. Window : Plantagenet Royal coat with label of 
3, crowned, surrounded by garter motto, " Honi," &c. 

LANGFORD CHURCH. 

S. Aisle: "Gules three rams' heads couped 2 and 1 or," 
Hamevsley. Impaling "Argent a cross ermines between four 
millrinds sable," Turner, 1694. 

"Barry wavy of six . . . & ... on a chief a ducal 
coronet between two spearheads erect" (possibly a dimidiated 
coat, and the coronet intended for the crest, as) M. says 
Saphina Broderwick, which is "Argent on a chief vert two 
spearheads erect of the 1st embrued gules" impaling 
" (Gules) two chevrons (or)," Fettyplace. (Francis Broderick 
= Sophia Fettyplace.) Also Broderwick, and crest, a spear- 
head (argent) embrued (gu.) out of ducal coronet. 1700-12. 

Brass, Chancel: "(Or) a lion rampant (azure) on a chief 
(of the last) an ostrich feather (of the 1st) between two others 
(argent)," Prunes, Walter, 1619. Crest: ? Lion's gamb hold- 
ing three ostrich feathers ? as in arms. Also Prunes, im- 
paling Quarterly 1 and 4 Phydell, 2 and 3 Reason, sec page 
139, but the crosses in Reason are azure. 



J44 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

" (Argent) a cross moline (sable) with crescent for differ- 
ence," Copley, Impaling " Per chevron (azure) & ermine 
(generally argent) in chief two falcons displayed (or)," 
Stephens, 1592. 

SOUTHEROP CHURCH. 

Lying on S. choir window sill : " Or a chevron engrailed 
gules on a chief sable, three mullets of the field" (generally 
Argent). Crest : On helmet on wreath : Elephant's head couped 
sable (may be proper), Thomas Kebla {Keeble), 1670. 

Chancel: Quarterly, 1 and 4, "(Sable) on a bend (argent) 
cotised (ermine) a rose between two annulets (gules), Conway. 
2 and 3, Azure a cross of the field double voided or," Creuikere 
(see Warwickshire Visitation, p. 26). Crest : On helmet on 
wreath Moor's head sidefaced couped (proper) wreathed 
(argent and azure). 

S. Transept, E. window : ? Azure three fishes naiant 
dexterways in pale argent a bend ? sable, query (without 
bend Roche). 

HATHEROP HOUSE AND CHURCH. 

House, Porch : Quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Gules) a chevron 
between three combs (argent)," Ponsonby. 2 and 3 " . 
lion rampant guardant a chief engrailed." Query. (Query, a 
mistake for " Sa. a lion pass, guard, arg. a chief engr. or.," 
Margetson, one of the usual quarterings of Earl of Bess- 
borough). Inescutcheon: Quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Argent) three 
bulls passant (sable) unguled and armed (or) 2 & 1," Ashley. 
2 and 3, " (Gules) a bend engrailed between six lions rampant 
(or)," Cooper. Crest : Out of a ducal coronet (or) three 
arrows, points downwards, one in pale two in saltire banded 
with a snake nowed, all (proper). Pro rege, lege, grege. 

" (Gules) a cross between four falcons (or)," Webb. In- 
escutcheon : " (Gules) on inescutcheon (argent) a lion 
rampant (of the 1st) within a bordure (or)," Blomir. (Glos. 
Vis. 21 gives this false, Atkyns right. Mary Blomer = 2ndly 
Sir John Webb). 



Heraldry of the Different Churches, etc. 145 

Church, Chancel : Blower, as above. Blower, as above, 
impaling. " (Sable) three lions passant in bend between two 
double cotises (argent)," Browne. (I cannot find this alliance.) 

On lozenge : Webb, as above, with inescutcheon, Blower 
with bordure ermine, impaling Blower with bordure ermine. 
(This seems to be a way of explaining the Blomer impaling 
to be an heiress ; the coat ought to be Webb with ines- 
cutcheon Blomer, the bordure a variety.) 

Window: Webb with Baronet's escutcheon, ? Blower. 
"Ora bend sa.," Mauley. 

QUENINGTON CHURCH. 

Nave, central passage : " (? Azure) a fess ermine between 
three lions rampant ? (or) a crescent for difference," Powle. 
Crest : On helmet on wreath Unicorn passant (az.) horned 
and maned (or), (Rt. Hon. Henry Powle, Master of the Rolls, 
1692). (Papworth says the lions passant.) " Ermine a bend 
ermine," really " Ermine two bendlets gules," Ireton. (Some 
say " Erm. a bend voided gu.," this may have caused the 
mistake.) With inescutcheon, Powle above ; impaling, 
Powle. (This seems to be the way of showing, as in Webb 
above, that the impaling was an heiress.) Crest : A squirrel 
sejant holding nut in forepaws, all proper. (Henry Ireton 
= Catherine, d. and h. of Henry Powle. Atkyns, 322.) 

N. wall: "Azure on a fess engrailed or between three 
swan's heads erased argent ducally gorged ? gules as many 
cinquefoils of the last," Baker, Rev. Mr. George, 1767. 

COLN ST. ALWYN'S. 

House, Hall : Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Vair (argent & gules) 
on a canton (azure) a pile (or)," Beach. 2 and 3, " (Gules) a 
fess wavy between three fleurs de lis (or), a crescent for 
difference," Hicks, and Baronet's escutcheon. Crests, 1 : 
Demi lion rampant (argent) ducally gorged (or) holding in 
paws the canton as in the arms, Beach. 2 : Buck's head 

1 1 
Vol. XXII. 



146 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

couped (or) gorged with a wreath of ? oak (proper), Hicks. 
Tout en bon heure. 

Church, Chancel, brass : " Sable a chevron or between 
three escallops ?( ar ^J, Mitchell; impaling Hicks -Beach. 

Crest: On wreath a Garb (vert.) 

S.E. Tower, over door : " . . . cross . . . sur- 
mounted by a crown," query de Burgh. 

Tower, N. side : " A fess between three birds," query 
Hobby. 

BIBURY CHURCH. 

" ? (Argent) a bend wavy between six cocks 3 & 3 (gules)," 
Coxtvell. Impaling "(Sable) a chevron ermine between three 
unicorns' heads couped (argent)," Head. (Charles Coxwell — 
Eleanor Head, of Winterborn, Berks.) Crest : On esquire's 
helmet on wreath a dragon's head (argent) between two 
wings of the same expanded (gules). 1699. 

On flat stones in nave a great many Coxwells. 

"Argent crusily croslets three talbots' heads erased 
sable," Hall. Cura quietem, 1824. 

Chancel : " Quarterly or & gules a bend vairy (really 
vair)," Sackvillc. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Gules on each of three plates a 
squirrel sejant of the field," Crcsivcll. 2, " Argent (really 
ermine) on a chief indented gules three estoiles or," Estcourt. 
3, " Per fess embattled (arg. and sa. really) sable and argent 
six ? crosses patty 3 & 3 counterchanged," Warneford. 
Inescutcheon : "Argent a saltire (really engrailed) between 
lour mullets sable," Wotton. (Richard Cresswell of Sidbury 
= Elizabeth, d. and h. of Sir Thomas Estcourt, knt., of 
Pinkney. Thomas Estcourt Cresswell = Anne, d. and h. of 
Edmund Warneford, by Elizabeth, d. and h. of Henry 
Sackville. Thomas Estcourt Cresswell the 2nd = Mary, 
d. and h. Samuel Wotton, Devon.) 



Heraldry of the Different Churches, etc. 147 

Wameford, above, " arg. & sa." Inescutcheon, Sackville, 
" bend vair." 

Baker, as in Quenington, page 145. 

ABLINGTON HOUSE. 
Coxwell, as before. 

BIBURY COURT. 

(For the following I can find no reference books, so I am 
indebted to G. E. C. Clarenceux, and Collins' Baronage for 
making them out, but I believe them to be correct.) 

Porch: Quarterly of 12. 1, "Quarterly (or & gu.) a 

bend vair," Sackville. 2, " Fretty." Argent fretty ( 1 )• 

De Den. (Sir Jordan Sackville = Hela, d. of Ralph de Den 
and coh. to her brother Robert of Buckhurst.) 3, " Fleur de 
lys." "Gules a iieur de lys argent," D'Aguillon. (Sir Jordan 
Sackville, ob. 1273 — Margaret, d. and coh. Sir Robert de 
Aguillon). 4, " A cross engrailed." " Argent a cross engrailed 
gules," Dalingnigc (Sir Thomas Sackville = Margaret, sister 
and coh. of Sir John Dalingruge) and De la Lyndc 
(Margaret's great-grandfather = Joan, d. and h. of Walter 
de la Lynde, who = Joan de Nevill, d. of Hugh and h. of 
Philip Neville.) 5, " Lozengy " (or. and gu.) a canton 
dilletty (really ermine), Neville. 6, " Three eagles displayed," 
query crowned. Arg. three eagles displayed gules (generally 
crowned or.), de Courcy. (Hugh de Neville = Alice, d. and 
h. de Courcy.) Impaling: 1, Hungerford. 2, Heytesbury. 3, 
Hussey. 4, Peicrcl. 5, ? Cornwall. 6, Couricnay. Crests: 1, 
A ram's head erased (sable) armed (or.), Sackville. 2, Out 
of a ducal coronet (or.) a garb between two sickles (ppr.), 

Hungerford. Above y ,, and the date, 1633. See Glos. Vis.. 

1623, 89. (T)homas (S)ackville al's Toots = B(arbara 
Hungerford, and the date 1633. 



148 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

WYNCHCOMBE CHURCH. 

" ? Argent a chevron between three cocks gules on a chief 
sable as many spear heads of the 1st (really embrued of the 
2nd)," Williams. (Vis. Glos. 1682, 202, gives this as " Sa. a 
chev. between three spearheads arg. embrued at the points 
on a chief of the 2nd as many cocks gu.") Impaling : " Per 
pale and per chevron three martlets argent and sable, all 
counterchanged," Renshaw. (No tinctures given by Burke or 
Papworth ) Williams, also on flagon. 

Canopy of piscina: "2 bends," query Tracy. " (Az.) 
sword in pale point downwards on two keys in saltire (or.)." 
See of Gloucester up to 1689 Transactions, xvii. 2, 286 and 
plate. " On lozenge on saltire a cross." Query " Azure in 
a quarter pierced saltire or a cross (generally patty) of the 
1st," Winchcomb. 

S. Aisle, E. : " Azure a fess wavy between three lions 
passant or., a crescent for difference," Hawes. 

" Gules on a bend between two castles or. three fusils 
sable," Baylis. (I cannot find this anywhere; the Gloucester- 
shire Baylis, according to a plate, 1792, bore : " Erm. a chev. 
az. between in chief two trees vert & in base a lamb ? or. 
resting dex. foot on a ? billet gu." This also I cannot find 
elsewhere.) 

(1) Defaced. ? " Argent a cross between four roses 
gules seeded or.," Trotman. Impaling: l> Or. three mullets 
between double tressure flory gules," query intended for 
Murray. (2) Trotman, as above. Crest : Garb between two 
ostrich feathers. 

HAILES ABBEY. 

Bosses: (1) Quarterly, 1 and 4, "(Or.) five fusils in fess 
(az.)," Pennington. 2 and 3, " Barry of six (arg. & gu.) a bend 

/az.\ ,, M oncas t ert The Rev. W. Bazeley, our Secretary, 

thinks this quartered coat to be Percy, when it would be 
1 and 4, " (Az.) five fusils conjoined in fess (or), Percy. 



Heraldry of the Different Churches, etc. 149 

2 and 3, " Barry of six or and vert a bend (gu.)," Poynings. 
(2), "(Gu.) fretty (arg.)," Hodehton. (Sir W. Hodelston = 
Bridget Pennington.) (3), Hodehton impaling : " (Arg.) a 
lion rampant queue fourchee (sa.)," Barynton. (Sir Anthony 
Hodelston = Mary Barrentyne.) (4), Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Hodehton. 2 and 3, " Barry of six (arg. & az.)," Grey. 
Impaling: " (Gu.) a lion rampant (or.)," Grey. (Ferdinand 
Hodelston = Jane, d. of Sir Ralph Grey, who = Isabel, d. 
and coh. of Sir Thomas Grey of Northumberland.) 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, "(Sa.) a lion passant guardant (or.) 
between three esquires' helmets (arg.)," Compton. 2 and 3, 

(Shirley, 265; Hutchins, i. 454), "(Arg.) a chevron (^^ 

within bordure ( J roundelly (bezanty)," Compton. (Aug- 
mentation grant, Hen. VIII.) "(Az.) a chain and two hand- 
cuffs chevronwise between three mitres with labels 2 and 1 
(arg.)," Evesham Abbey. 



PLEAS OF THE CROWN AT BRISTOL, 
15 EDWARD I. 

By the Rev. E. A. FULLER, M.A. 
INTRODUCTION. 

The following pages contain a translation of that part of 

the Assize Roll for Gloucestershire at the Paschal Circuit 

of the year 15 Edward I., i.e. a.d. 1287, which concerns the 

Pleas of the Crown for the City of Bristol, as dealt with by 

the justices, Saham and Metingham. A separate roll in the 

case of Saham (No. 283), another part of the roll (No. 282) 

in the case of Metingham, contains the report of the trial of 

civil actions, pleas between man and man ; but what is here 

printed is mainly the review by the King's justices of all 

cases, which had occurred since the last similar circuit of the 

justices, which appertained to what were called Pleas of the 

Crown. These would be cases of death whether by murder 

or by misadventure, cases of transgression against the assize 

of cloth and wine, withdrawals of suit and service to the 

hundred or royal manors, encroachment on the King's 

highway, and attempts to levy new duties or customs by 

local officials, &c. The records of the local courts of justice 

and of the coroners' courts had to be produced, and the 

officials of these courts had to justify their procedure therein. 

Then the English system of social life, fundamentally shown 

as a rule in the enrolment of every adult in some tything, 1 by 

which the folk of a neighbourhood were made answerable 

for the good conduct of their neighbours, was extended to 

their responsibility for all deaths by violence in their district, 

1 There were no tythings in Bristol. (See No. 3.) 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 151 

unless they could prove innocence, and that they themselves 
had done their best to discover the murderer and arrest him. 
So also with regard to their duty to arrest robbers, if the 
theft took place in the daytime; again, had they fulfilled 
their duty in aiding the coroner at his inquest ? Ever)' failure 
or excess of duty was visited by a fine ; and in the margin 
of the roll, by way of index, was in such cases entered mia, 
i.e. in misericordia, i.e. in mercy, the technical phrase for a 
fine for breach of duty, the amount of which was at the will 
of the Crown through the justices, but which the Crown in 
its mercy did not exact to the extent of ruining the defaulter. 
The amount of the fine was settled in the presence of those 
who would know the circumstances of folk, and the list was 
entered at the end of the roll. Where special fines were 
entered in the roll of fines for special offences, I have entered 
the amount of such fine against the case involved. The 
various offences of the borough of Bristol through its officials 
were not separately assessed, but were all comprehended in 
one item of assessment : " From the whole borough of 
Bristol, as a fine for many transgressions, and for the trans- 
gression of the twelve jurors, except Henry Horncastel, 
40 marcs," i t e. £ib 13s. 4d. 

Of course, these fines were a source of some profit to the 
Crown ; and this minute examination of the work of local 
officials, and of mercantile transactions with the consequent 
fines, was felt to be oppressive, so that protests were made 
against it, and it became the accepted rule that there 
should be an interval of at least seven years between these 
Crown circuits of the Royal justices. There was a greater 
chance of small transgressions being passed over, and 
offenders might have had the luck to die. {See No. 44.) 
For some reason this circuit was the first in the reign of 
Edward 1., so that at least fifteen years had elapsed since the 
previous one ; and as a case of death {see No. 2) is considered 
which occurred as far back as 53 Henry III. (i26w\ there had 
apparently been no such review for eighteen years. From 
the Pipe Roll of 16 Edward I., it appears that the amount 



152 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

of the amerciaments levied by Saham and Metingham in 
this circuit was for Gloucestershire ^1281 3s. 8d., and for 
Bristol £115 3s. 3d., these amounts including the value of 
the chattels of felons. 

Another frequent judgment is entered in the margin 
concerning felons who had fled, " exig' et utlag 1 " i.e. 
" exigatuv et utlagetur" i.e. "let him be exacted, that is 
summoned five successive times in the County Court, and 
on non-appearance be outlawed." An outlaw had lost all 
civil rights, carried a wolf's head, as was said, and might be 
slain by anyone with impunity. A woman not being in any 
tything could not be outlawed ; but she might be waived 
{see No. 75), and left derelict, "a waif whom no man could 
warrant and no prince protect." Of course, if a man was 
guilty, but managed to escape, his chattels were confiscated. 
Nor was an innocent man in a better plight, if through fear 
he had at first fled from justice. For though he might 
afterwards, on better thought, return, stand his trial, prove 
his innocence and be acquitted on the charge of felony, yet 
his chattels were equally confiscated because he had fled 
from justice at first. {See Nos. 18 and 53.) 

Another frequent marginal entry of judgment is "abjur'," 
i.e. " abjuravit regnum;" that is, "has abjured the kingdom." 
It was open to any criminal to take sanctuary in some church, 
if he could reach it, and there in the presence of the coroner 
to own his felonious act, and abjure the kingdom. There is 
an instance in No. 29 of a fine upon the coroner for receiving 
the abjuration in a private house which had on right of 
sanctuary, and another instance in No. 26 of a fine upon 
the bailiffs of Bristol for usurping the office of coroner in 
receiving an abjuration. Originally, the felon could choose 
his own port of departure ; but gradually the coroner assigned 
a port, Dover as a rule, and there are instances in this roll, 
Nos. 59 and 74, of the coroner being fined for allotting a 
wrong port to the criminal. The felon, bearing a wooden 
cross, with only a coat on, bareheaded and barefooted, had 
to go by the most direct way to the port of departure, or he 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 153 

ran the risk of being beheaded as an outlaw. There is an 
instance of this in the roll of this circuit, under the head of 
Berkeley Hundred, membr. 23 d. 

" The jurors present that John the Frankeleyn killed 
William de Lench in the Township of Erlingham, 1 and 
afterwards, at the suit of one Letitia Lench, was outlawed 
in the County Court ; and afterwards returned to the country 
and placed himself in the Church of Cirencester and owned 
his crime before the coroner ; and after he had abjured he 
went out of his way and again returned to his country, and 
was pursued by the township of Erlingham, and in his flight 
was beheaded. His chattels were worth 40/-, for which the 
Sheriff has to answer."' 

Occasionally, the ominous S appears, — that is, " sus- 
pendetur," or " let him be hung." But with the opportunity 
of escape by flight, or by abjuring the kingdom, there were 
relatively few executed in proportion to the cases for which 
death was the penalty. With regard to the review of the 
action of the local courts, there are two instances of fines, 
No. 66, a case where the court proceeded to hang without 
making a proper inquisition, and No. 68, where the court 
had a criminal hung without waiting for the arrival of a 
witness called for the defence. 

In the review of the coroner's rolls the judgment and 
marginal entry is really, in all cases where the death was not 
imputed to violence, " Infort'," i.e. " Infortunium," or 
" Misfortune." It is noteworthy that there is only one 
case during these eighteen years of suggested suicide, with 
the verdict of felo-de-se ; 2 and that was shown afterwards to 
be a mistake, as suspicion attached to some person of having 
killed the deceased ; No. 52. The point of difference 
between those days and our own time is the practice then 
and afterwards of forfeiture of the thing — whether living, as 
horse, &c, or without life, as boat, cart, &c. — which was the 

1 Arlingham. 

2 In the Crown Roll of the Assize for 5 Hen. III., i.e. 1221, there is 
only one case of suicide in the whole County of Gloucester. 



154 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

unconscious instrument in causing death. This forfeiture 
was exacted in an irregularly assessed value of the thing 
forfeited ; but this assessed value does not appear to have 
been at any time necessarily the real full value of the chattel. 
Thus in this roll, membr. 4, under the head of the Township 
of Winchcomb, is the case of a man killed by the falling 
upon him of the bell of the great bell-tower of the church, 
and the value of the bell for deodand was assessed at 
12 pence. This forfeit thereupon, being paid as a fine to 
the Crown, was by the Crown, through the justices, given to 
some pious use. It was said to be given to God, and so was 
called a Deodand. There is an instance in this roll, No. 41, 
of a fine inflicted on a person who had appropriated a 
deodand without warrant. This system of deodands, as 
fines to the Crown, continued till the era of serious railway 
accidents, when it began to be felt that a fine of some part 
value of a railway engine and train was not an adequate mulct 
on a company through whose default, by their own insufficient 
precautions, or their servants' neglect, a bad accident had 
happened. Moreover, the sufferers or the relatives of those 
killed were without redress. In a.d. 1841 there was a 
disastrous accident near Twyford on the G.W.R. to a mixed 
train, by which eight persons lost their lives, and seventeen 
were severely injured. The coroner's jury returned a 
verdict of "Accidental death," and assessed a deodand of 
£1000, on the engine, tender and trucks, which was due to 
the lord of the manor under a grant from the Crown by 
James I. At last, in a.d. 1846, an Act of Parliament was 
passed which did away with the old system of deodand, gave 
the Crown a criminal action against a proved defaulter in 
duty, and provided for the sufferers and the dependent 
relatives of those killed a civil action for damages against 
the company. 

The untrustworthiness of trial by combat is shown 
by No. 77, where on review the local court was fined for 
causing a witness to prove his truthfulness by combat ; the 
only person who by law had thus to prove his truth being an 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 155 

approver — that is, an informer. In this case there was a clear 
miscarriage of justice, a truthful witness being hung because 
he did not conquer both of the accused in the combat. 

No. 46 is a case of money clipping. The felon was 
sentenced by the local court to be drawn asunder, and on 
review the officials were fined because they proceeded to 
have him hung. 

No. 75 is a case of murder of a husband by a wife, with 
the judgment of death by burning. 

There is an interesting entry at the beginning of the 
Gloucestershire Roll as to the presentation of Englishry. 
Membr. 2 : — " The whole county records that no Englishry is 
presented in that county, nor was ever wont to be presented, 
but that it is altogether unknown what Englishry is, because 
they had never heard it spoken of. And because it has been 
found from the rolls of the preceding circuit, that is to say, the 
circuit of Richard de Midelton and his companions, justices 
itinerating in that county, that Englishry is presented in that 
county by two on the part of the father, and by one on the 
part of the mother, concerning felonies alone, and both 
concerning males and females, except the children being 
under seven years of age ; and it has been found by the 
same rolls that Englishry was not wont to be presented in 
the hundreds and townships in the western part beyond the 
water of Severn, neither again in the hundred of Berkeley, 
nor in the borough of Berkeley, but in the eastern part in all 
hundreds, therefore the whole county is in mercy." 

Midelton's Roil is not now in existence, but his death in 
a.d. 1272 would make a period of fifteen years since his 
circuit. It has been shown above, however, that it must 
have been at least eighteen years since he went on a circuit 
in the county. With regard to the claim itself, Murdrum was 
the fine inflicted, after the period of the Norman Conquest, 
upon the hundred or other separate liberty in which a 
murder had been committed, concerning which it could not 
be proved that the murdered person was an Englishman. 
The fine was not abolished till 14 Edw. III., 1340. 



156 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

It does not appear from the roll itself what the object 
of this claim of the non-presentation of Englishry thus made 
was. If the non-existence of the presentation of Englishry 
had been equivalent necessarily to freedom from the murder 
fine, it would be easy to understand that the county wanted 
to establish a right by custom to such freedom. But practice 
varied much in the English counties. In his preface to the 
Early Somersetshire Assize Roll, which Mr. C. E. Chadwick 
Healy, Q.C., edited, he gave some specimens of these varia- 
tions as recorded by the counties. Thus, Yorkshire: "No 
Englishry presented in this county, therefore no murder fine." 
Warwickshire : " Be it known that in this county Englishry 
is not presented, therefore there is no murder fine." Lincoln- 
shire : " No Englishry is presented in this county ; yea, 
the whole county says that if anyone is found slain it is 
murder." 

In respect to Gloucestershire, in the Picas of the Crown 
for Gloucestershire in 5 Hen. III., 1221, edited by Mr. F. W. 
Maitland, it is said, with regard to a case of death by violence, 
f. 98 : " The county records that beyond the course of the 
water of Severn, as long as the county of Gloucester endures, 
there is no murder reckoned ; therefore there is nothing (no 
fine) in this case." And Mr. Chadwick Healy quotes from 
the same assize roll for Gloucestershire, under the head of 
Westbury Hundred : " In that hundred there is no murder 
fine, because it is beyond Severn;" and in the case of a 
death by violence, " No murder fine, because it is beyond 
Severn." It might have seemed therefore, apart from the 
detailed evidence of this roll, that the idea of the county was 
to claim the extension over the whole county of this relief 
from the murder fine which existed beyond the Severn ; and 
that they hoped the eighteen years which had elapsed since 
the last circuit might avail to make this claim pass current 
without further enquiry. But the evidence of the cases 
recorded in this roll shows that the entry Nulla Englischeria 
did not carry with it the exemption of the hundred from the 
murder fine. On membr. 20, in the Hundred of Westbury, 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 157 

occurs a case of violent death at Brydewode, 1 with the entry, 
"No Englishry ; judgment, murder upon the hundred;" 
and on the same membrane is a case of violent death at 
Minsterworth, in the same phrase, "No Englishry; judg- 
ment, murder upon the hundred ; " and on membr. 22, a 
similar entry about a violent death at Dymok, in Bottelaw 
Hundred. The Hundred of Berkeley is declared, as above, 
to be under the same rule of the non-existence of the 
presentation of Englishry ; but entries in the roll, membr. 
23 d. and 25 d., show there equally " No Englishry," followed 
by "judgment, murder," either upon the hundred, or upon 
the town as not participating with the hundred. In fact, 
there is no difference in the entries of judgment for violent 
death in these districts said to be under the special rule 
of no presentation of Englishry, and the entries in ordinary 
hundreds, such as Cirencester and Bradley. In all it is 
"No Englishry; judgment, murder upon the hundred." It 
does not appear, therefore, what the idea was in making 
this claim. 

Of course a separate liberty might, by Royal grant, have 
the franchise of being quit of the murder fine, quietus de 
murdvo. Thus in No. 70, " No Englishry," in the case of 
a death by violence on St. Michael's Hill, is followed by 
"judgment, murder upon the Borough of Bristol." Where- 
upon there was produced to the justices a Royal charter 
granting the borough quittance of the murder fine. 

In transcribing the roll, I have numbered the cases for 
facility of reference. 



Assize Roll No. 284, 15 Edward I. — Gloucestershire. 

Pasch. 

Membr. 35. Pleas of the Crown of the borough of 
Bristol, which appears by twelve men. (Their names, given 
on membr. 34 d., are — Gilbert Cissor de Banes, Robert de 
Monemue, John Bruselaunce, Adam de Siston, John Seynt 

1 Birdwood, in Churcham parish. 



158 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

de , Stephen Turtle, Robert la Ware, William Dale, 

Everard Fraunceys, Ralph Romeneye, Henry Horncastel, 
John de Cardiff.) 

These were mayors in the borough of Bristol since the 
last circuit ; namely, Reginald de Panes, John Wyssey, 
Symon the Clerk, and John de Lydherd, who are dead ; and 
after them, Thomas de Hameldene and Everard le Franceys, 
who survive, 1 and Richard de Mangodesfeld, who now is 
mayor and who answers. 

These have been coroners since the last circuit ; that is 
to say, Ergleys, John Tresour, William le Rus, who are 
dead ; and Ralph le Tanur, Richard de Bercham, Roger le 
Taverner, and Gilbert le Spicer, who survive and who answer. 

These have been constables since the last circuit : John 
de Muscegros and Bartholomew le Jofne, who are dead ; and 
Hugh de Turbeville, and Peter de la Mare, who now is 
(constable) and who answers. 

These have been bailiffs since the last circuit ; that is to 
say, Sanekyn Reveward, Ralph Beauflur, William Beauflur, 
and Walter de Berham, who are dead; and Symon Adrian, 
Walter Fraunceys, Henry le Waleys, Richard le Draper, 
and Geoffrey Agodeshalve, who now are bailiffs and who 
answer. 

1. The jurors present that Richard de Clerk fell from a 
bridge and was drowned. The first finder and the four who 
were nearest are all dead. Misfortune. Price of the bridge 
is. 6d., for which the sheriff has to answer; and because the 
twelve jurors made no mention in their verdict of the pledges 
of the first finder, therefore they are in mercy. 

2. Richard Hyne fell off his horse into the Frome, and 
was drowned, in 53 Henry III.- The first finder, &c. Mis- 
fortune. Price of the horse 6s., for which the sheriff, &c. 

1 According to Ricart's Calendar, the names and dates were these : — 

1271. Radulphus Paldene. 1278. Johannes Lydeyarde. 

1272. Johannes Wissy. I2 75 Thomas de Hamelesden. 
1277. Symon de Bardeney. 1276. Gerardus le Fraunces. 

2 12G9. 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 159 

3. Alan Bereman and Roger Byndedevel killed William 
de Mangodesfelde in 54 Henry III., and forthwith after the 
deed placed themselves in the Church of St. Peter, and 
owned to the deed, and abjured the kingdom, in the presence 
of the coroner. They had no chattels, nor were they in a 
tithing, because there are no tithings in that borough. And 
because the borough of Bristol did not arrest them, therefore 
it is in mercy. 

4. John, the son of Robert Brid, was crushed by a certain 
wall. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. Price of wall is. 

5. John le Tanur, in the Church of St. John de la Rede- 
clyve, 1 owned himself a robber, and abjured, &c. His 
chattels were worth 6d., for which the borough of Bristol 
has to answer. And because the B. of B. did not arrest 
him, therefore it is in mercy. 

6. Alice, the wife of Peter the Crossbowman, cut the 
throat of her son William and threw him into her cesspool, 
and abjured, &c, in the Church of St. Peter. She had no 
chattels. 

7. William de Yvenck fell from a boat into the Frome, 
and was drowned. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. Price 
of the boat 2s. 6d. And because the twelve jurors concealed 
the said deodand in their verdict, therefore they are in 
mercy. 

8. Walter le Cornmangere placed himself in the Church 
of St. Mary de la Redeclyve, 54 Hen. III., and owned him- 
self a robber, and abjured, &c. No chattels. And because 
the borough of Bristol did not arrest him, therefore it is in 
mercy. And the wards of Holy Trinity,- of All Saints, of 
Redeclyve, of St. Owen's, and St. Mary did not come fully 
to the inquest before the coroner, therefore they are in 
mercy. 2 

1 The Hospital of St. John the Baptist in Redcliff Pit, where the 
1 1 irnds' Burial Ground now is 

J The present Christ Church. 

:! Wo see from this entry that though the Lords of Berkeley still had 
their prison in Redcliff Street [see No 24), already by 1270 Redcliff was 
reckoned by the Crown to lie in the borough of Bristol. 



160 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

9. Richard de Credewell owned to robbery, and abjured, 
&c, in the Church of St. James. His chattels were worth 5s , 
for which the B. of B. answerable. And because the B. of 
B. did not, &c, therefore it is in mercy. 

10. Adam Olyver killed Gilbert Pistare in the town of 
Bristol, and forthwith placed himself in the Church of 
St. James, and owned the fact and abjured, &c. His chattels 
3s. 4d., for which the B. of B., &c. And because the ward 
of Holy Trinity did not arrest him, and the matter happened 
in the daytime, therefore the ward is in mercy. 

11. Margery, the daughter of Alice Laceby, was crushed 
by something that fell from the roof (de quodam stillicidio) in 
Bristol. The first finder, &c, are dead. No one is 
suspected. Misfortune. The value of what fell 8d., for 
which B. of B., &c. 

12. Nicholas de Weston killed Aaron the Jew and 
straightway fled. Let him be exacted [i.e. summoned in the 
County Court) and outlawed. No chattels. And because 
the B. of B. did not arrest him, and the thing happened in 
the daytime, therefore the B. of B. is in mercy. 

13. Simon Pipereman killed Nicholas le Hunte and 
straightway fled. Let him be summoned and outlawed. No 
chattels. And because the ward of Holy Trinity did not 
answer fully at the inquest before the coroner, therefore it is 
in mercy. 

14. Margery, the daughter of Adam le Comare, fell into 
a caldron full of boiling water, and was scalded to death. 
The first finder, &c, dead. No one is suspected about it. 
Misfortune. Price of the caldron 6s. gd., for which B. of 
B., &c. 

15. John de Calne fell off his horse into the Frome and 
was drowned. Misfortune. Price of the horse 6s. 8d., for 
which B. of B., &c. 

16. John the Fatte thrust William Wellop into a caldron 
of boiling water, so that he was scalded and died at once, 
lohn the Fatte fled and is suspected. Let him be summoned 
and outlawed. Price of the caldron 2s., for which B. of 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 161 

B., &c. And because the ward of Holy Trinity did not, &c, 
therefore it is in mercy. 
Membr. 35 dors. — 

17. Philip le Kemeys killed John Gourde, and was at 
once caught and hung for that deed. Chattels 10s., for which 
B. of B., &c. And because the ward of All Saints put a false 
value upon these chattels before the coroner, therefore it is in 
mercy. 

18. Juliana de Anford appealed Robert de Newent, 
chaplain, concerning the death of her son John. And Robert 
now comes and says that he is a clerk and ought not to make 
answer to the charge here. And upon this comes the Dean 
of Christianity of Bristol, and by letters patent of the Bishop 
of Worcester claims him as a clerk. But that it may be 
known what kind of a man is thus delivered up let the truth 
of the matter be enquired into by the twelve jurors of the 
B. of B., and the jurors say upon their oath that the said 
Robert is not guilty of the said death. Therefore he himself 
is quit of that. And let the said Juliana be committed to 
gaol for false appeal. And the jurors testify that when the 
said John was dead the said Juliana raised a hue against 
Robert, and the said Robert in fear fled to the Church of 
the Holy Trinity and kept himself there for two months, 
and afterwards gave himself up to the peace. Therefore 
let his chattels be confiscated for his flight. They are worth 
13s. 4<J., for which B. of B., &c. 

19. Thomas Brun and William Paternoster killed Robert 
le Cu (Keu) and fled. Let them be summoned and outlawed. 
W. P.'s chattels 4s. 4d., for which B. of B., &c. T. B. had 
no chattels. But because the ward of All Saints did not 
arrest them and this, &c, it is in mercy. 

20. John le Lokere and Walter le Cotiler killed John 
Macy by night in B. of B., and fled. Let them be summoned 
and outlawed. W.C.'s chattels 5s., for which B. of B., &c. 
J. the L. had no chattels. 

21. John Bonsergiant, arrested on suspicion of robbery, 
was taken and imprisoned by the bailiff of John de 

\z 
Vol. XXII. 



162 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Muscegros, at that time farmer of the borough, in the 
borough prison. J. B. broke prison and fled. Let him be 
summoned and outlawed. The executors of John de 
Muscegros have to answer for this escape, and are fined 
£5 os. od. One John de Tolsede was attached for having 
aided and abetted this escape, and was attached by Richard 
Heued, John Beel, Elias of Pokelchurche, John the Clerk of 
the Market, John Dode, and Simon the Smith, and John 
Waryn. John de Tolsede does not appear, nor is he sus- 
pected ; therefore they are in mercy. 

22. Simon Guager and Stephen Cuclake were imprisoned 
in the borough prison, and escaped, and then in St. James' 
Church owned this prison-breaking, and that they were 
robbers, and abjured, &c. B. of B. in mercy for this escape. 
Fined ^"10 os. od. 

23. Sampson, the son of Agnes de Haleweye, fell from a 
boat into the Frome and was drowned. The first finder, &c, 
not suspected. Misfortune. Deodand 3s. 6d., for which 
B. of B., &c. 

24. Roger Bat and Nicholas Bagge killed William Lof 
of Taunton and fled. They are believed to be guilty. Let 
them be summoned and outlawed. No chattels. And 
because the ward of St. Owen did not arrest them, therefore 
it is in mercy. 

24. William Dikere was imprisoned on suspicion of 
robbery by the bailiffs of Thomas de Berkeley, in his prison 
in Redeclyve Street, and escaped. He is believed guilt}-. 
Let him be summoned and outlawed. No chattels. And 
because of this escape, Th. de Berkeley is in mercy. Fined 

£5 os - od - 

25. John Godchild, Seward of Clifton, and Nicholas de 

Ras were in a boat on the Frome. Seward and Nicholas 
threw John into the water and he was drowned. They fled, 
and are believed to be guilty. Let them be summoned and 
outlawed. No chattels. And because the ward of St. Owen 
did not arrest them, and this happened by day, therefore it is 
in mercy. 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 163 

26. William Whiteheved, Peter de Tomasse, and Margaret 
Maniword were imprisoned in Bristol prison, and broke 
prison and killed Walter de la Haye the gaoler. Peter and 
Margaret fled to St. Peter's Church, and owned and abjured, 
&c. No chattels. William was at once taken and hung. 
No chattels. B. of B. in mercy for the escape, and fined 
£10 os. od. The jurors testify that John Dollyng and 
Agnes his wile were also in prison on suspicion of robbery ; 
they also escaped, and were consenting to Walter's death. 
Being brought before Bartholomew le Jofne, then constable, 
since dead, John de Lydechert, then mayor, since dead, and 
the bailiffs, by that Court John was hung, and Agnes in full 
court abjured, ccc. And because the said bailiffs assumed 
the office of coroner and made the said Agnes, a burglar, 
thus abjure, therefore judgment passes upon the whole 
borough and the bailiffs. John's chattels 20s., for which 
B. of B., &c. 

27. Robert de Combe Martyn fell from a boat into the 
Frome and was drowned. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. 
Deodand 4s., for which B. of B., &c. 

28. William Beauchamp fled to the Church of the Brethren 
of Mount Carmel, 1 and owned himself a robber, and abjured, 
&c. No chattels. And because this happened by day, &c , 
therefore B. of B. in mercy. 

Membr. 36 — 

29. The jurors present that Robert, a servant of Robert 
Fromund, was pursued by a man of Mynedep in the count)' 
of Somerset, and for fear placed himself in the house of 
William Litegrom of Bristol, which is of the tenure of the 
Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in England. And he kept 
himself in that house until Richard de Berkham, the coroner, 
came there and caused to be summoned before him the fivi 
wards of that borough. And the said Robert owned that he 
had killed a man on Mynedep, and that he was a robber, and 
he abjured, &c. No chattels. And because the said coroner 
caused the said felon to abjure in the said place where wa 

1 The House of the White Friars, where Colston Hall now is. 



164 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

no sanctuary, and this was plainly against the crown of the 
King, therefore judgement passes upon the coroner (fined 
£1 os. od.) and the whole borough. 

30. William Page fell from a boat into the Avon and was 
drowned. The first finder, &c, Misfortune. Deodand 
6s. 8d., for which B. of B., &c. 

31. Robert Berman killed Robert, the son of Mariota the 
water-carrier, and fled. He is believed to be guilty. Let 
him be summoned and outlawed. And because Roger the 
Taverner, the coroner, did not attach the next neighbours, 
therefore he is in mercy. Fined £2 os. od. 

32. Lyo de Stamford, a Jew, Ryke his wife, and Covesleye 
his son, Abraham Levy, and Mossy, son of Leo le Mire, killed 
Juliana, daughter of William Roscelyn, in the town of 
Bristol. Lyo and Ryke fled, and are believed to be guilty. 
Let them be summoned and outlawed. Chattels 33s. 6d., 
for which Hereward le Boteler and Roger le Rus have to 
answer. Abraham and the others were taken and hung for 
that deed. Chattels 40s., for which as above. It was 
afterwards found by the coroner's jury that Agnes, wife of 
Reginald Wake, had appealed these men in the Bristol 
Court for the death of the said Juliana her sister, but had not 
prosecuted her suit beyond one court only. Therefore let 
her be arrested, and let her pledges for prosecution, to wit 
John, the son of Nicholas Iggelbert le Ireys, Master Ralph 
le My re, and Richard le Ku, are in mercy. 

33. The said Agnes had also appealed in the same court 
Robert de Stafford, cutler, for aiding and abetting the same 
murder. Robert did not appear, and is believed to be 
guilty ; therefore let him be summoned and outlawed. No 
chattels. And because the said Agnes did not &c.,(as before), 
therefore her pledges, Thomas de Lyuns and William 
Dunning, are in mercy. Afterwards Reginald le Rous, who 
with the heir of Adam le Botiller had to answer for these 
Jews' chattels, came and said that they were unjustly charged 
with them, as by the King's command they had, together 
with the sheriff, who was dead, arrested all the Jews in 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 165 

Bristol, and seized their goods, and delivered them to John 
le Fauconner and William Braybrok appointed to receive 
such goods of the Jews, among them being the chattels of 
these murderers. The jurors say that this is so ; therefore 
they are quit. 

34. Robert de Ferleye, a robber, had abjured in the 
Church of St. Werburge. Chattels 6d., for which B. of 
B., &c. 

35. Robert de Sebentone, a robber, had abjured in the 
Church of St. Augustine the Less. Chattels 6d., for which 
B. of B„ &c. 

36. Ralph Osmund fell from a boat into the Frome and 
was drowned. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. Deodand 
is. 4d., for which B. of B., &c. 

37. John the son of Reginald the Woolbeater, a robber, 
had abjured in the Church of St. Mary Redeclyve. No 
chattels. 

38. Peter Cof de Senyse, a companion of the great 
military order (niagne milicie) of the Temple in England, 
killed Robert de la Pole. Peter fled. Let him be summoned 
and outlawed. Chattels 1 marc ; the master of the Temple 
to answer for them. 

39. Richard Bolre of Wynchelse killed David of Ker- 
mardyn. Richard fled. Let him be summoned and 
outlawed. No chattels. And because the B. of B. did not 
arrest him, and this happened by day, therefore B. of B. in 
mercy. 

40. Matthew de Barton, a robber, had abjured in the 
Church of All Saints. No chattels. 

41. Hugh le Ennyse, wishing to oil his mill, was crushed 
between the wheel and axle, so that he died at once. The 
first finder appears. The four neighbours are dead. No 
one is suspected. Misfortune. The value of the wheel and 
axle and the running mill 6s. 8d., for which B. of B., cVc. 
And because the master of St. Marc of Bristol l took the 

1 St. Mark's Hospital in College Green. 



166 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

said deodand without warrant, therefore he is in mercy. 
Fined £1. 

42. John Stok fell from a boat into the Avon, and was 
drowned. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. Deodand, 
2S. yd. And because Walter de Warewyche had taken the 
said deodand without warrant, therefore he is in mercy. 

43. William de Lacy, who was imprisoned in Bristol 
Castle in the time of Peter de la Mare, the constable, had 
escaped, and while fleeing to the Church of St. Philip and 
St. Jacob had been caught and beheaded. Therefore judg- 
ment passes on the said Peter for the escape. But Peter 
produced a Royal pardon. Therefore he is quit. 

Membr. 36 d. — 

44. Robert, the Mower of the Prior of St. James, Bristol, 
killed Robert de Leye in the town of Bristol, and straightway 
fled, and is believed to be guilty. Let him be summoned and 
outlawed. Chattels is. 6d., for which B. of B., &c. Robert 
belonged to the household of the Prior, who has him not 
now to stand the justice of the court. Therefore the Prior 
is in mercy. Afterwards evidence was given that the said 
Prior is dead. Therefore nothing here about him being in 
mercy. 

45. The B. of B. is answerable for the chattels of Robert 
le Boltere, Roger le Ireys, and Sely le Berman, robbers, who 
have been hung. Chattels 4s. 

46. William de Boys of Netlynton l was arrested for 
clipping money to the value of 5d., and was put in prison 
for that deed in the time of Peter de la Mare, constable of 
Bristol Castle, and afterwards before the said Peter and the 
bailiffs of Bristol denied the said felony, and for good or evil 
put himself upon the jurors of the said town. And the 
jurors said upon their oath that he was guilty. Wherefore 
it was considered by the said court that the said William 
should be drawn asunder {dctvaherctuv). No chattels. And 
because the said constable and bailiffs proceeded to have 

1 Nettleton in North Wilts. 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 167 

him hung, therefore judgment passes upon the said Peter 
and the whole borough. Afterwards Peter comes and pro- 
duces a writ of our lord the King, dated June 5th, 1285, 
bidding the justices on circuit not to trouble Peter about 
this matter, as the King had pardoned him this his 
trespass. 

47. Robert Selyman killed John le Hare of Scotland, and 
fled. He is believed guilty. Let him be summoned and 
outlawed. Chattels £\ os. od., for which B. of B., &c. And 
because the B. of B., &c, therefore it is in mercy. 

48. Richard YYombestrong accused Robert Brid the elder, 
Randolf his son, and Thomas the Cornishman, of assault. 
They put themselves upon the jurors of Bristol, who upon 
their oath declare that these men are not guilty of any 
assault. Therefore they are quit. Richard is sent to prison 
for false appeal, but afterwards he is pardoned. 

49. The same borough has to answer for the chattels, 
10s., of John le Ford, a robber, who was hung; and the 
chattels, 3s. 6d., of John le Waters, a robber, who was 
hung. 

50. Maurice de Ingelby placed himself in the Church of 
St. John de Bradeforde 1 in Bristol, and owned himself a 
robber, and abjured, &c. Chattels 6d. So did Humfry le 
Joglur in the Church of St. Peter. Chattels 6d. For both 
these B. of B., &c. So did David of Ireland in the Church 
of St. Mary. No chattels. 

51. Walter Blakers killed Henry Leverych and fled. He 
is believed guilty. Let him be summoned and outlawed. 
The jurors declare that Edith Stoker, a harlot, held Henry 
while Walter killed him. She had abjured in the Church of 
St. James. No chattels. 

52. Eva la Fornere wilfully threw herself into the water 
of Avene and was drowned. The first finder and the four 
neighbours came. No one suspected. Judgment, Felo-de-se. 
Chattels 6d., for which B. of B., &c. Afterwards it was 
testified by the jurors that one John le Grant had lied on 

1 There is nothing known about this Church, said to be in Bristol. 



i68 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

account of that death, and is believed guilty. Let him be 
summoned and outlawed. No chattels. 

53. Saphyret, the wife of Mossy of Kent, appealed in the 
Court of Bristol Mabilia la Noyare for the death of her 
daughter Basse, and Saphyret now does not appear nor 
prosecute her appeal. Therefore let her be arrested, and 
her pledges to prosecute — viz., Hake le Evesque and Samuel, 
son of Samuel le Myre — are in mercy. And it is testified by 
the jurors that the said Mabilia had withdrawn herself 
because of the death of the said Basse, but she is not believed 
to be guilty of the murder. Therefore let her return if she 
will; but let her goods and chattels be confiscated, because 
of her flight. 7s. 4d., for which B. of B., &c. 

54. Walter the baker of Gloucester, imprisoned on 
suspicion of robbery, escaped from prison, and owned and 
abjured in the Church of St. James. Judgment passes upon 
the B. of B. for this escape. Fined £$ os. od. 

55. Simon Hok of Bristol killed Hugh Belchere and fled. 
He is believed guilty. Let him be summoned and outlawed. 
Chattels is., for which B. of B., &c. 

56. Robert le Ware fell into a caldron of boiling water 
and died. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. Deodand 8s. 2d.' 
for which B. and B., &c. 

57. Adam de Howille of Crokerne's Pulle killed Philip 
Archer of Kerry, in Ireland, and fled. Let him be summoned 
and outlawed. No chattels. 

58. John de Southwyk, a robber, abjured, &c, in the 
Church of St. John de Redeclyve. And because the B. of B. 
did not, &c, therefore it is in mercy. 

Membr. 37 — 

59. William Flambord in the Church of St. Thomas 
owned himself a thief and abjured, &c. Chattels 6d., for 
which B. of B., &c. And because the coroner, Richard de 
Bergham, gave him the port of Lyme, therefore judgment 
passes upon Richard. 

60. Richard Frankeleyn of Belmynton owned himself a 
robber, and abjured, &c, in the Church of the Brethren of 



Pleas of the Crown* at Bristol. 169 

the Sack (fvatres sacci) l in the town of Bristol. No chattels. 
So did Richard Gendlac in the Church of St. James. 
Chattels 6d., for which B. of B., &c. So did Philip le Noble 
in the Church of St. Martin. 2 No chattels. So did William 
the Carpenter in the Church of St. Augustine the Less. No 
chattels. 

61. Geoffrey le Hore in the daytime killed Richard Cake, 
and fled. Let him be summoned and outlawed. No chattels. 
And because the B. of B. did not, &c. 

62. Milo de Webley and Matilda de Donhurst were 
arrested at the suit of John South, the valet of Dame 
Margery Mayn, in possession of a bench that had been stolen, 
and other goods to the value 10 marcs; and at the suit of 
the said John they owned the robbery. Wherefore it was 
considered by the said Court (of Bristol) that the said Milo 
should be hung, and that the said Matilda should abjure the 
kingdom as being a woman. Their chattels Ss. 8d., for 
which B. of B., &c. And because this was done contrary to 
the laws and customs of the kingdom, therefore judgment 
passes upon the bailiffs and the whole borough. 

63. Walter the Carpenter for robbery abjured, &c, in the 
Church of St. Augustine the Greater. No chattels. And 
because the B. of B. did not, &c, therefore it is in mercy. 

1 Tanner, Notitia, preface, page xiv., tells us that Friars of the Sac 
appeared in England in ad. 1257. Their right style was Friars of the 
Penance of Jesus Christ. They were more commonly called Friars of the 
Sac from their habits being either shaped like a sack or made of that 
coarse material called sackcloth. They seem to have had their first house 
near Aldersgate, London. But their order was very shortdived here, being 
put down by the Council of Lyons a d. 1307. At page v. he tells us that 
in the reign of Hen. III. there were founded six houses of Friars de Sacco. 
And elsewhere he says that altogether they had eight houses. Where the 
house was in Bristol there is no knowledge. Dugdale gives a short 
account of them vi., 1G05-1608 ; he mentions houses as existing in England 
at London, Cambridge, Leicester, Lincoln, Lynn, Newcastle, Norwich, 
Oxford, and Worcester, but nothing is said about any house in Bristol. 

a The chapel in the outer ward of the Castle was, like Battle Abbey, 
dedicated to St. Martin. Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, who founded the castle, 
had shriven the Normans the night before the battle of Senlac, and had 
fought in the battle. 



170 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

64. The B. of B. has to answer for chattels, worth 6s. 8d. f 
of William Pende of Godseth, a robber. 

65. Ralph the Cook of London in the Church of 
St. Mary owned to robbery, and abjured, &c. So did 
William Hale of Dodyngton, and Isabella his wife, in the 
Church of the Friars Preachers ; and Richard of Malmesbury 
in the Church of St. Philip and Jacob. Their chattels 
3s. 1 id., for which B. of B., &c. 

66. Richard the Hayward of Norton Malreward was 
arrested with a stolen piece of blue cloth, at the suit of 
Ralph Bammeswet, and was brought before the court of 
Thomas de Berkeley at Radeclyve ; and being charged by 
the said bailiff with robbery of the said cloth, both denied 
the fact, and called to warranty Margaret, the wife of Ralph 
atte Slype, who was present in the court, and entirely denied 
having sold and delivered the said cloth. Wherefore the 
suitors of the said court, for defect of his warranty, pro- 
ceeded to have him hung without any inquisition. And 
because the suitors of the said court delivered their judgment 
against the law and custom of the kingdom, therefore 
judgment passes upon the suitors of the said court. After- 
wards the said suitors paid a fine of £2 os. od. for false 
judgment by the pledges of Robert de la Stone and Nicholas 
of Aperle. 

67. Adam Best fell from a boat into the Avon and was 
drowned. The first finder, &c. No one suspected. Mis- 
fortune. Deodand 2s. 3d. B. of B. 

68. Margaret, the wife of Rykon of Yate, was arrested 
in the town of Bristol with a stolen ox at the suit of Thomas 
Gurney, and was brought into the full court, and there called 
one Walter de Smetheleye her husband to warranty about 
the said ox. And the said bailiffs would not wait for 
her warranty, but had her hung. Therefore judgment 
passes upon the said bailiffs and the whole court. No 
chattels. 

69. William the Parchment-maker was crushed between 
the wheel and shaft of a water-mill at Tremleye. First 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 171 

finder, &c. No suspicion. Misfortune. Deodand 4s., for 
which B. of B., &c. 

70. A stranger was found slain upon St. Michael's Hill. 
No one knows who killed him. The first finder comes 
and is not suspected, therefore he is quit. No Englishry. 
Judgment, murder upon the borough of Bristol. Thereupon 
came the burgesses of Bristol and produced a charter of 
the present King, 1 which testifies that they are quit of 
murder. Therefore nothing here of that. 

71. The B. of B. has to answer for the chattels, worth 6d., 
of John Roddyng, who was hung. 

72. Richard Fox of Sydemure killed William of Ameneye 
and fled. He is believed guilty. Let him be summoned 
and outlawed. No chattels. And because the B. of B. 
did not, &c. 

73. Robert Gurnard, barber, in the Church of St. Thomas 
owned to robbery, and abjured, &c. Chattels is. 6d., for 
which B. of B., &c. 

74. William Barbe killed Luke Wall in the town of 
Bristol ; and the said William forthwith placed himself in 
the Church of St. Mary de la Redeclyve, acknowledged the 
crime and abjured the kingdom before the coroner. No 
chattels. And because Gilbert le Especar, the coroner, 
allowed him the port of Portesmue, therefore judgment 
passes upon him ; and because Redeclyve Street did not 
arrest the said William, and the crime was committed by 
daylight, therefore it is in mercy. 

Membr. 37 d. — 

75. Robert of Bristilton was found slain in his house in 
Bristol, in the fourteenth year of the present King ; and it 
is testified by the jurors that Alice de Blakeford, wife of the 
said Robert, and Joan de Bannebyre killed the said Robert, 
and immediately after the deed fled away. The said Alice 
was afterwards caught and brought hack. She now comes, 
and being asked how she would acquit herself of the said 

1 Previous charters of Hen. Ill and John had contained the same 
franchise. 



172 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

death, says that for good or evil she puts herself on the 
twelve jurors of the Borough of Bristol. And the jurors 
say upon their oath that she is guilty of the said death. 
Therefore it was considered that she should be burnt. Her 
chattels are worth 13s. 8d., of which the same borough will 
answer for 4s. 8d. and Master Nicholas de Salford for 9s. 
And the. said Joan de Bannebyre immediately fled and is 
believed guilty. Let her be summoned and wayved. No 
chattels. And it was testified by the jurors that Adam 
Colle, Margery Baker, and Felicia de Lacy were, on another 
occasion, impleaded for the said death. Now they come, 
and being asked how they would acquit themselves of that 
death, they say that elsewhere before Richard de Ripariis 
and his fellow -justices for gaol delivery they had been 
acquitted and let go. And since, on searching the rolls of 
R. de R., &c, this was found to be so, they were quit of the 
charge. And because the said Master Nicholas of Salford 
took the said chattels without warrant, therefore he is in 
mercy. 

76. Elena, who was the wife of Adam Togod, appealed in 
the Bristol Court Richard de Bercham for the death of the 
said Adam her husband. She now comes and withdraws 
her appeal. Therefore let her be committed to gaol, and 
her pledges for prosecution — viz., David the Carpenter and 
William de la Marine — are in mercy. But for the keeping 
of the peace of our lord the King, let the truth of the 
matter be enquired of through the jurors of the B. of B., 
who say upon their oath that Richard is not guilty. 
Therefore he is quit. 

77. Peter le Grey and John le Melemuth were arrested 
by the bailiffs of the B. of B. on suspicion of the theft of 
three measures of salt, worth 2s., which they had stolen. 
Being brought into court before the said bailiffs, and being 
asked how they would acquit themselves of the said robber)', 
they said that they had come into possession of the said salt 
well and faithfully, and they called to warranty about it one 
Richard Tykys, who was present in court, and declared that 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 173 

he had nothing to do with the said salt, and denied handing 
over and delivering the said salt, and said that he never 
knew anything about the said salt ; and this he offered to 
defend against them by his body as the court might consider. 
And the said Peter and John offered to prove their truth 
against him by their bodies. Wherefore it was considered 
by the same men, and by the counsel of the same court 
pledges of battle were given between them ; and battle was 
waged so that the said Richard conquered the said Peter, 
wherefore the said Peter was hung. No chattels. And the 
said Richard and the said John fought in their turn the next 
day, and Richard proved recreant and was hung. His 
chattels were worth 6d., for which B. of B M &c. And the 
said John was taken back to prison until he should find 
pledges for his faithfulness. This he refused to do, but 
owned the said robbery, and was therefore hung. No 
chattels. And because the said court considered that the 
said Richard, who had been called to warranty by the said 
John and Peter, ought to defend himself by his body, which 
is contrary to the law and counsel of the kingdom, therefore 
judgment passes upon the said court and bailiffs. 

78. Robert the Carpenter was crushed by a log of wood, 
so that he died at once. The first finder, &c. Misfortune. 
And one Silvester the Carpenter was attached because being 
present he did not come, and he is not suspected. And he 
was attached by John, the cook of the Abbot of St. 
Augustine, and Jordan 1 of the malthouse ; therefore they are 
in mercy. 

79. Margaret the Fatte fell into a caldron of wort, and 
was so scalded that she died. The first finder, &c. No 
one suspected. Misfortune. Deodand 5s. 4d., for which 
B. of B., &c. 

80. John, the son of Richard Eversone, in the Church of 

St. Leonard owned a robbery, and abjured, &c. Chattels 

4s., for which B. of B., &c. 

1 The name of Jordan in connection with the Abbey is noteworthy on 
account of the existence of St. Jordan's Chapel in College Green, the 
tradition being that he was a companion of St. Augustine. 



174 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

81. John of Bruges appealed Henry de Fynet, a seller of 
woad, for that he, on St. Gregory's day, in the fifteenth year of 
the present King, 1 had after curfew come to the house of the 
said John wickedly and feloniously, and had burgled it, and 
had abducted Clarice the wife of the said John, and took away 
his goods to the value of 40s. And that the said John 2 did 
this wickedly and feloniously he offers, &c. And the said 
John 3 comes and defends all the felony, and demands judg- 
ment on his appeal, because the said John does not in his 
appeal say anything about the circumstances of the place, 
nor of what kind were the chattels taken away. And this 
being allowed him, it was considered that as to that appeal 
he may go free, and that the said John should be committed 
to gaol. However, for the keeping of the King's peace, let 
the truth of the matter be enquired of through the jurors 
of the B. of B. And the said jurors say upon their oath that 
the said Henry is not guilty ; therefore he is quit concerning 
it. And the said Henry de Fynet claims, since he is acquitted 
by his country, that his damages should be taxed according 
to the form of the last issued statute of their present lord 
the King at Westminster, and that the said John should be 
kept in custody till he makes satisfaction, &c. 

82. Concerning serjeanties, they say that Richard the 
Taylur holds a serjeanty called La Maryne in the town of 
Bristol, by the will of the present King, and that the serjeanty 
is worth £\ os. od. a year. 

83. Concerning encroachments, they also say that Edward 
le Fraunceis 4 has narrowed the King's highway near the Tower 
Arras 5 by a certain dyke, newly raised, 46 feet long and 6 feet 
wide ; and Geoffrey de Lung has narrowed a certain common 
pathway which is called Pile Lane" by two dykes ; and 
brother Stephen, 7 the Master of the Hospital of St. John/ has 

1 March 12, 1287. 

2 A mistake fcr Henry. :i Ibid. 

4 Fined 6/8. 6 At the end of the city wall on Temple Back. 

8 Pile Street. 1 Fined £1. 8 In Redcliff Pit. 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 175 

made a certain encroachment by newly erecting a certain gate 
where there ought to be a common passage; and John de 
Portesheved ' has made an encroachment by a wall raised on 
Avene Marsh six perches in length and six perches in breadth ; 
and William, the Vicar of St. Augustine the Less,- has made 
an encroachment on the King's highway by a certain wall 
raised 20 feet in length and 14 feet in breadth ; and Simon 
the Clarke, who is dead, has made an encroachment on the 
water of Avene by a plantation of trees 200 feet in length 
and 10 feet in breadth; and Richard Bell 3 has made an 
encroachment on the king's highway by a certain house 
raised up 10 feet in length and 5 feet in breadth, to the injury 
of the whole borough. Therefore the Sheriff is ordered to 
cause to be thrown down and amended, at the cost of the 
raisers, anything which by the jurors at their view should be 
found to be injurious, and Edward and the others are in 
mercy. Afterwards comes the said William the Vicar, and 
seeks that his wall may stand, as it is not injurious, and the 
jurors testify so. Therefore it is granted by the justices that 
the said wall may stand, and it is rented at sixpence to the 
ferm of the B. of B., &c. 

Membr. 38— 

84. Concerning cloth sold against the assize, they say 
that Thomas de Weston, Ralph Wyneman, William de 
Glastyngbyre, Richard le Draper, 3 Henry de Berewyke, 
Henry de Sytheston, 3 Gilbert le Plumer, John Bryselaunce, 
Ralph le Prude, William de Hampton, John le Ctyvare, 
John le Ley, Hugh de Uphill, John de Seynde, William 
Tyard, William de Powell, John de Kerdif, 8 John le Clerk, 
Jordan le Lung, John Tropyn, Thomas le Wolbetere, Adam 
de Brinton, Robert le Bret, Roger le Taverner, Walter Pypc, 
and William de Farleye have sold cloth against the assize. 
Therefore they are in mercy. They are fined various sums 
from 5s. to 2 marcs. 

1 Fined 6 - Fined 13/4. :j Fined 6/8. 

The names of these men have tli>' pen run through them in the roll 
of fines, and no fine is assessed on them. 



176 



Transactions for the Year 1899. 



85. Concerning wines sold against the assize, &c, they 
say that 



John Koke has sold 


40 casks of wine 


:. Fined 2 marcs. 


Peter Otry 


50 


>> 4 os - 


Robert le Taverner 


10 ,, 


,, A- marc. 


John le Clerke 


20 ,, 


,, 1 marc. 


Henry de Berewyke 


6 


,, $ marc. 


Richard le Draper 


20 ,, 


,, £ marc. 


Richard le Roper 


25 


,, 20s. 


Everard le Fraunceis 


15 


,, % marc. 


William de Eston 


9 


,, 10s. 


Hugh le Hunte 


6 


„ 5s- 


Richard Osmund 


23 


,, 1 marc. 


Henry de Sytheston 


33 




John le Cheddre 


6 


„ 5S- 


John Martyn 


9 


„ 5 s - 


John Tovey 


10 ,, 


,, IOS. 


John Brun 


22 ,, 


,, 1 marc. 


Matthew le Pakkere 


46 


,, 2 marcs. 


•Geoffrey Godeshalve 


45 


,, 1 marc. 


William de Bruges 


25 


,, 1 marc. 


Richard de Calne 


6 


„ 5S. 


Peter le Fraunceis 


33 


,, 40s. 


William Dale 


3 




Robert de Kilmaynam 


*5 


,, £ marc. 


Ralph Dunnyng 


11 ,, 


,, £ marc. 


Nicholas Gange 


13 


,, £ marc. 


Ralph Wyneman 


18 


,, 1 marc. 


Simon Adrian 


62 


,, 40s. 


Walter Beauflur 


7 


,, IOS. 


Roger de Leycestre 


12 ,, 




Stephen Turtle 


5 


,, 4od. 


Richard le Fraunceis 


21 ,, 


,, 1 marc. 


William le Welric 


3 




John le Forester 


1 1 ,, 





Therefore they are in mercy. 1 

1 The names of those against whom no fines are written have the pen 
run through their names on the roll of fines. 



Pleas of the Crown at Bristol. 177 

86. Concerning new customs levied, they say that John 
Champayne, gatekeeper of Bristol Castle, takes by extortion 
undue tolls; viz., from every foreign cart going out of 
Lafforde's Gate id., and from every home cart ^d M where 
there used not to be taken any money. And the said John 
cannot deny this. Therefore he is in mercy ; and it is 
forbidden him, under the forfeiture of 40s., hereafter to 
make any such extortions. (No fine assessed.) 

87. Concerning withdrawals of service, they say that 
Geoffrey, Bishop of Worcester, owes suit to the King's 
Hundred of Bristol ; that he has not appeared, and is now 
six years in arrear, they know not by what warranty. The 
Bishop says by his attorney that his bailiff of Henbury does 
suit for him. The jury say that the Bishop is bound to 
appear personally. They tax the six years in arrear at 6s. 
The Sheriff is ordered to distrain the Bishop to appear in 
future, and the bailiffs of B. of B. are to answer for the 6s. 
of arrears; and the Bishop is in mercy for unjust with- 
holding of service. 1 

S8. John de Aston has withheld service in the hundred 
icr seven years ; so has John Giffard for six years, and also 
Fulco Fitzwarin for six years. The Abbot of Kyngeswode 
has withheld service due in the market of Bristol for twenty- 
two years, and the Prior of Farley has withheld service in 
the hundred for fifteen years. They are all in mercy, and 
fined at the rate of is. a year. The Sheriff is ordered to 
distrain to compel service in future, and the B. of B. to 
answer for the arrears. 

89. Also they say that John of Leygrave holds a tenement 
of the King for 4Jd., but has not for some years made the 
proper payment, only 2^d., they know not by what warrant. 
The Sheriff is ordered to make him appear. John appears, 
and produces his warrant. So he is quit. 

1 In the roll of lines, the Bishop's name is entered, but no line is 
assessed, a marginal note of "Baro" explaining the reason. He was 
a Peer of the realm. There is the same note against the names of 
J. Giffard and F. Fitzwarin 

Vol. XXII. 



178 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Gaol Delivery of the Town of Bristol. 

go. Peter le Sley arrested for the death of Geoffrey, the 
son of William le Hore, and Joan Beumund arrested for 
stealing 40s. from the purse of Nicholas le Kuttede, come 
and defend, &c, and for good or evil place themselves on 
the jurors of the B. of B., who say upon their oaths that 
they are guilty. Therefore let them be hung. The chattels 
of the said Peter are worth is. 4d., for which the township 
of Stapleton is answerable. Joan had no chattels. 

91. Walter Mydewinter, Henry the son of John de Bath, 
John le Coverturwrythe, Roger Mansel, Cristina the wife of 
Richard le Cornwaleis, Mabel the servant of Henry de 
Sitheston, Emma de Wytehulle, Juliana de la Foreste, 
Alice Cosyn, Nicholas Truant, Elena his wife, Philip de 
Wynton, Emma his wife, Leuina de Baa, John Cobbler, 
John de London, Matilda le Holte, Sarra de Portesheved, 
John the son of Martin le Pescur, and Richard Maryot, were 
arrested on suspicion of robbery and other misdeeds. They 
come and defend all, &c, and for good or evil place them- 
selves on the jurors of the B. of B., who say on their oath 
that they are not guilty. Therefore they are quit of this. 

92. These remain coroners in the B. of B., namely, 
Simon Adrian, John le Clerke, and John de Dene; and the 
others, who formerly were coroners, were removed. 

Dors. 

93. Reginald de Horsefeld, chaplain, and William le 
Clerke, dwelling in the Priory of St. James, were arrested for 
the murder of the master of the Hospital of St. Bartholomew. 
They pleaded their clergy, and the Dean of Christianity in 
Bristol claimed them on behalf of the Bishop of Worcester 
as Clerks. The truth of the matter being enquired into, the 
jury of the B. of B. declared that they were guilty. They 
were handed over to the Bishop of Worcester. Their 
chattels were worth 3s. iod. 



DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE CISTERCIAN 
MONASTERY OF ST. MARY, KINGSWOOD, 

IN THE POSSESSION OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 
TRANSCRIBED AND PREPARED FOR THE PRESS 

By Mb V. R. PERKINS, of Wotton-under-Edge. 

The documents which follow were translated by Mr. J. H. 
Jeayes, of the Manuscript Department of the British Museum, 
from originals now in the possession of Mr. F. F. Fox of 
Yate House. The history of these original documents is 
given in a letter written to Mr. V. R. Perkins of Wotton- 
under-Edge, by Sir Henry Barkly, at a time when the 
manuscripts were for sale at Sotheby's in 1895 : "They were 
once the property of Mr. Cholmondeley of Condover as the 
representative of John Smyth, and a list of them is to be 
found in the fifth volume of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission. At Mr. Cholmondeley's death they were sent 
up for sale ; but a few of the most ancient and interesting 
had been abstracted, and Quaritch had only the forty-eight 
now in the book. Quaritch asked ^40 for them. When sold 
at Sotheby's in 1895 they fetched ^"45." They passed into 
the possession of Mr. F. J. Mockler of Wotton-under-Edge. 
Three years later they were again offered for sale, when 
Mr. Perkins made a bid for them, and subsequently purchased 
them for our worthy president, Mr. Fox. 

They are of very great interest, as illustrating the history 
of one of the less known of the large religious houses of the 
Shire, for Dugdale gives but few original documents in hi 
account of ] wood Abbey. We find in the grants the 

whole method of the relations of a wealthy abbey with its 
neighbours set before us. No gift was too great for a 



180 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

monastery to receive, and nothing was too small. Many 
gifts of land and rents there are ; but St. Mary of Kings- 
wood did not disdain to receive and record an annual gift of 
a cartload of hay, or a few pence, as willingly and as carefully 
as the larger gifts. To an embarrassed family, the monks 
would grant a loan on the security of an estate for a term of 
years, or they would buy it outright. To those who desired 
a provision for their declining years, the monks would grant 
a corrody or annuity for life in return for a gift of land. We 
find the convent making a road at Ozleworth, and obtaining 
power to make a better course for its conduit in the park of 
Hawe. 

We find little mention of strife and contention, and it is 
clear that in the 13th century, to which period most of the 
documents belong, the monastery grew and prospered with 
the goodwill of its neighbours ; and as it was constantly 
helped by them, no doubt it was a source of help in return. 
The rolls of accounts are specially interesting, for they give 
the price of almost every article of stock and plant on the 
farms, and they state also the amount of stock on each farm. 
Moreover, they throw a good deal of light on the life of the 
convent. 

The Cistercian monasteries were closely affiliated to each 
other ; Kingswood Abbey had been colonised from Tintern, 
and Waverley Abbey was the oldest Cistercian House in 
England, so we find the Abbot frequently travelling to 
Tintern, and sometimes to Waverley. Cistercians were 
great sheepmasters, so we not only find frequent mention of 
sale of wool of different kinds, but payment is made for 
rams bought in Lindsey, showing not only that Lincolnshire 
was even then famous for its sheep, but that due care was 
taken in the selection of breeding stock ; moreover, it is 
especially stipulated in one case that if it should be necessary 
to distrain on the property of the Abbey, the sheep should 
be exempt from distraint. The Cistercians were exempt 
from paying tithe, but a question arose as to the period at 
which the exemption began to run, and more than one of the 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 181 

documents is devoted to assertions of the right of the case. 
There is a payment for a palfrey for the Abbot, and also for 
the Ambler who taught the colts, that so the Abbot's palfrey 
should be easy and correct in its paces. We find that at 
any rate at Culkerton in 1243 the common fields were 
cultivated on the two-course system, and that in 1262 gold of 
the weight of five shillings was valued at the sum of thirty-five 
shillings and sixpence, giving a ratio of about seven to one. 

Anyone who carefully studies these documents will find 
that he has learned a good deal, not only about the life and 
work on the estate of an abbey, but also about country life 
in Gloucestershire in the 13th and 14th centuries. 

The Society is indebted to its President, Mr. F. F. Fox, 
for permission to publish the documents, and to Mr. V. R. 
Perkins of Wotton-under-Edge for his care and labour in 
transcribing them and seeing them through the press. 

No. I. 

To all to whom the present writing shall come Isabele de 
Longocampo daughter of Henry de Mineriis greeting in the 
Lord. Know ye that I have given and granted and by this 
my present charter have confirmed to God and the Church 
of St. Oswald of Gloucester and the canons there serving 
God all my land in Culcreton which falls to me by hereditary 
right for the salvation of my soul and the souls of all my 
ancestors in pure and perpetual alms with all its appurte- 
nances and liberties and customs namely that virgate of land 
and eight acres which belong to the capital court with all 
its appurtenances, and the aforesaid capital court, and that 
virgate of land which William Prepositus (the steward) 
held with its appurtenances, and that virgate of land which 
Walter son of Henry held with its appurtenances, and that 
half virgate which Richard Balle held with its appurtenances, 
and the messuage which Richard Mei held with its appur- 
tenances. Wherefore I will that the aforesaid canons may 
have and hold the aforesaid land with all its appurtenances 
from me and my heirs freely, and quietly, and honorably for 



1 82 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

ever free from all services and secular demands which may 
exist or may possibly arise except the royal service per- 
taining to such land. Moreover I the aforesaid Isabele de 
Longocampo and my heirs will warrant the aforesaid land to 
the aforesaid canons against all men and women. And that 
this my donation and grant may remain ratified and firm in 
the time to come I have fortified the present writing by the 
appending of my seal. 

Witnesses Ralph Musard, Henry de Estoria, Peter de 
Eggeswere, Ralph de Tiene, Clement de Musardere, 
Geoffrey de Langel', William de Rudmartun, and many 
others. 

No. II. 

To all the faithful in Christ to whom the present writing 
shall come William by the grace of God Prior of St. Oswald 
Gloucester and the convent of the same place greeting in the 
Lord. Let your university (i.e. whole body) know that we 
by our common counsel and will and with the assent and 
will of the venerable father the Lord Walter, Archbishop of 
York, Primate of England J have sold for ^"ioo sterling and 
have quit-claimed for ever, all the lands and possessions 
with all appurtenances which we have held in Culkerton, to 
the monks of St. Mary of Kingeswood. To have and to hold 
to the said monks for ever freely quietly wholly and peaceably 
by performing to the capital Lords the royal services which 
we were accustomed and bound to perform for all services. 
In testimony of which, both the Lord Archbishops and we 
ourselves have appended our seals to this writing. 

Witnesses William de Putot, sheriff of Gloucester, 2 Peter 
de Eggewurth, Bartholomew La Banc, William de Rud 
marton, Nicholas de Culkerton, Adam de Cherleton, Roger 
Baret, and many others. 

Made on the 14th of the Kallends of April (19th March) in 
the year of the incarnation of our Lord 1230 — (1231). 

1 Walter de Gray, Bishop of Worcester Oct. 5, 1214, translated to 
York 1215, died May 1, 1255. 

2 Held the office, 1222 — 1228. Rudder, 51, 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 183 

No. III. 

Let all present and future know that I Adam de 
Cherletune 1 for my soul and for the soul of my father and 
for the souls of all my ancestors and successors have given 
and granted to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary of 
Kingeswood and the monks there serving God in pure and 
perpetual and free alms one virgate of land in the vill of 
Cherletune, namely, that half virgate of land which Richard 
de Ductune 2 held from me, and that messuage and that half 
virgate of land which William Cuif held from me, these two 
half virgates of land thus lying scattered over the fields. In 
the north field lie two half acres to the east of the aforesaid 
messuage which I gave to the same monks, one acre in 
Garstona, 3 half an acre in the north part of the smith's 
garston, half an acre at Curtenecrundle, half an acre at 
Gretethorn, half an acre beyond Meddene which leads 
towards the field of Beuerstone, half an acre at Seppestall, 
and half an acre at Hareburne, half an acre at Hadenhulle, 
two half acres at Cleihulle, one extends towards the west the 
other towards the north, half an acre at Wenscerd, a fourth 
part of an acre beyond Olledene, in Froggaputtesfurlang half 
an acre, half an acre in Westlangfurlang, half an acre at 
Brodesierd, half an acre in Buledene, a fourth part of an 
acre on Olledune, half an acre in Hareburn, half an acre in 
the garston of Everard on the north side, half an acre in 
Ochoure, half an acre in Ochoure on the north side, half an 
acre which stretches towards the land of Osbert in Ochoure, 
half an acre in Gretethorne, half an acre which stretches 
to Beversalevelde, half an acre beyond Meddene, half an 
acre from Hevedlond on the north side, half an acre on 
Stenethulle, half an acre on Curtenecrundle, half an acre in 
Hareburna, half an acre at Westlandesforlanngescnd, three 
parts of acre in Dichforlang, three parts of an acre towards 
Buledene, in the south field half an acre, in . . . (half) an acre 

1 Charlton in Tetbury. a Doughton in T etbury 
3 Old English Gaerstun : a grass - enclosure, meadow. 



184 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

in Breri garston, half an acre at Rixwell, half an acre in 
Hiwoldesdene beyond the way which goes towards Bristol, 
half an acre at Blakingroue, half an acre at Langfurlang, 
half an acre at Langfurlang which rises on to the carriage 
way, half an acre in Puseforlang, four half acres in Dich- 
forlang, the fourth part of an acre in Olledene, half an acre 
in Bradstonesforlang, the fourth part of an acre on the west 
side of Abbewei, half an acre in Beidunesslade, half an acre 
on the eastern side of Brodesierd, half an acre in Olledune, 
the fourth part of an acre stretching towards Ruccadene, the 
meadow which William Cuif held and which lies at the head 
of Prusteland, one acre in Brerigarstone which is rather to 
the east, one acre in Riforlang which is rather to the west, 
half an acre in Wuung, 1 half an acre near the ... of Ductun 
and then turns itself towards Prusteland, half an acre in 
Langforlang, half an acre near the road at Heilmundestre, 
half a capital acre at Langforlang, half an acre which goes 
on to the meadow of John de Tetebire, the more southern 
acre in Riseforlang, two acres on the east of Br(od)esierd. 

This aforesaid messuage and this aforesaid virgate of land 
I have given to the aforesaid monks in pure alms. To hold 
and to have from me and my heirs with all appurtenances free 
and quit of all service and all secular demands in meadows 
and pastures in roads and paths and all liberties and free 
customs as free and pure alms. And I and my heirs will 
warrant to the said monks the land with the messuage and 
all appurtenances against all men. Witnesses William 
Camerarius (Chamberlain), Geoffrey de Chausi, Roger de 
Almundestre, William Scai, Adam his son, Robert de 
Ductun, Henry de Culkretun, John de Tetebir', William 
Buteuilain, Adam Barete, Alured Barete, Nicholas de 
Kingeswode, and many others. 

No. IV. 

Let present and future know that I Henry de Ribbeford 
for the love of God and the salvation of my soul and of the 
1 The Old English Wong or Wang means " a field." 



ClSTl - M STSRT OF St. MaRY 5. K X>D. 1 8< 

soul of Tristrai - .; i ven to G 

and the C of Si res and to the 

Monks then sea og God in pure and perpetual and fin 
alms. .-. rgatc of land in Ch: e, and two mess iges 

:ich Mabilia and Thu: six acres of 

meadow which turn on :: Niddrev : re for 

two hundred sheep, and other two mer 
Kibbe Rag sometime held, with the app 

ter F all the aforesaid. Which s; :e of land with 

the i four ss res and six of meadow and 

re of 200 si ;ep and all other appurten:. 
Ci ae had given to the aforesaid Tristram my t. 

rs for his homage and - :~rom 1 

Tristram, ght the same virgate with ah the 

aforesaid appurtenanc - i to me and of which 

f land with its v ctenanc - I 
Cherletu: iord, aftei .. im my 

brc. ..-. c my relief and homage and n 

hold and to have the said _ te of land • the afc: 

res and meadows and pasture and all other appur- 
tenar; the a i monks of Kingeswode for ever 

peaceably, and tret and honorably, as pure and 
perpetual and free alms quit of all sen and 

uands to me or my heirs belonging, g one penny 

an: St Michael to the said Adam de 

Ch e and to his heirs in his court of Cherletun to 

be paid, and saving royal s uch as belongs to one 

gate of land in the same vill as the said 1 
brc r.d I were bound and accur I to perform. And 

because I wish that this my alms may be firm and perpetual 
I have fortified this charter 1 e imposition of ad- 

Wit s Bartholomew (Le) Banc, Oliver de Berkeley. 

William de Rodmerton, Laurence de L m de 

rietun, Nicholas son of Henry de Culcretun, Walter d 
:ne, Roger de (Ductune), Philip de Tettebur', Geo: 

1 It is interesting to this name so near to Fairford in : 

thnteeatb centon 



186 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Custance, Roger Barette, Walter Bernard, William son of 
Elias, and many others. 

No. V. 

Let all present and future know that 1 Roger son and 
heir of Adam de Cherletune for the love of God and the 
salvation of my soul have granted and by the present 
charter have confirmed to God and the Church of St. 
Mary of Kingeswode and the monks there serving God 
in pure and perpetual and free alms all the grants in 
lands and meadows and messuages with all appurtenances 
and liberties and free customs which the said Adam de 
Cherletune my father, and Henry de Ribbesford, gave to 
the said monks in Cherletune. 

To hold and to have to the same monks with all 
appurtenances for ever freely peaceably, wholly, honourably, 
and quit from all services, customs, and demands, accidents, 
and issues, whatsoever may arise as the charters of the 
donors witness because I and my heirs are bound to 
acquit the said monks of all the aforesaid things, and 
to warrant the said lands with all appurtenances to the 
same monks against all mortals, saving an annual rent 
of one penny to be paid on the feast of St. Michael to 
me and my heirs from that land which the same monks 
have of the grant of Henry de Ribbesford, and saving 
the payment of the royal service from the same land, 
as much as pertains to one virgate of land in Cherletun. 
And that this my confirmation and grant may remain 
firm and stable for ever I have appended my seal to this 
writing in the year of our Lord's incarnation one thousand 
two hundred and thirty two, on the purification of 
the Blessed Virgin. Witnesses Bartholomew La Banc, 
Oliver de Berkeley, Geoffrey de Chausi, William de 
Rodmartun, Laurence de Lasceles, Nicholas son of Henry 
de Culcretun, Walter de Uptune, Roger de Ductun, 
Philip de Tettebur', William son of Elias, Geoffrey de 
Custance, Roger Barette, Walter Bernard and many others. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 187 

No. VI. 

Otto by divine mercy Cardinal Deacon of St. Nicholas 
in Carcere Tulliano legate of the Apostolic See, to all 
who shall inspect these present letters, greeting in the 
Lord. Know ye that we have inspected the letters of our 
Lord Pope Honorius 1 of blessed memory, under this form, 
Honorius, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, to our 
venerable brethren Stephen Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Cardinal of the Holy Church of Rome, and to the Arch- 
bishop of York and their suffragans, and to our other beloved 
sons the prelates of Churches throughout the provinces of 
Canterbury and York, appointed, greeting and apostolic 
benediction. 

Whereas the Abbots of the Cistercian Order at the time 
of the General Council 2 on the advice of I(nnocent III.) 
Pope, our predecessor of happy memory, determined that for 
the future, the brethren of that order (so that they should 
not be further molested in respect of their privileges of the 
Church) should pay tithes of other people's lands, 3 and lands 
which might be from time to time acquired, if they cultivated 
them by their own hands or at their own expense, to the 
churches to which they were before accustomed to be paid 
before that time as taxation unless they should think that 
composition should be made with those churches. Our 
same predecessor (because he was hopeful that the prelates 
would be more eager and efficient in exhibiting to those of 
their own evil-doers the compliment of justice and would 
observe their privileges more diligently and perfectly) having 
gratified and ratified the said statutes 4 has willed and ordered 
that the same should be extended to other regular orders 
who enjoy like privileges. But (and we relate it in grief) 
the thing has turned out contrary, for as we have frequently 
heard from pressing complaints of the Abbots of that order, 
some of the church prelates and others their clerks rashly 
1 Honorius III., 1216 — 1227. a Lateran, November, 1215. 

3 Terrae aliaenae. 
4 Statutum hujus modi gratum hahens et ratum. 



i88 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

despising the privileges and striving mischievously to pervert 
their understanding, disquiet the same in many ways. For 
whereas indulgence was granted to them, that from the new 
lands which they cultivate with their own hands, or at their 
own expense, or from the gardens, and shrubberies, and from 
their fisheries, or from food for their beasts, no one of them 
should presume to exact or extort tithes, certain men pretend- 
ing a perverted intellect saying that these things cannot and 
ought not to be understood except from those (possessions) 
which were acquired before the General Council, weary the 
same with manifold exactions. We therefore wishing in our 
paternal solicitude to provide for the repose of the same, 
firmly enjoy ning your university (i.e. whole body) by apostolic 
writings, command that you altogether preserve unharmed 
the Abbots and brethren of the same order from levy of 
tithes, equally from possessions held before the General 
Council, as from new lands acquired either before or after 
the Council, which they cultivate with their own hands or 
at their own expense as well as from gardens shrubberies 
meadows pastures woods groves mills salt-pits and fisheries 
and from food for their beasts restraining objectors by 
ecclesiastical censure, putting by appeals. Dat — The Lateran 
VII. Kal July (25 June, 1222) in the 6th year of our 
Pontificate. In witness whereof to this transcript we have 
caused to be diligently inspected with the original on the 
prayer of the Abbot and convent of Kyngeswood of the 
Cistercian Order we have appended our seal. 

Dat Waltham Non. Julii (7 July) in the year of the 
Pontificate of our Lord Gregory IX. Pope 1 the . . . 

No. VII. 

Let present and future know that the following agreement 
was made in the year of our Lord's Incarnation One thousand 
two hundred and thirty-nine on the feast of St. Philip and 
St. James between the monks of Kingeswode on the one part, 
and William Maunsel on the other, namely that the said 

1 Gregory IX., 1227 — 1241. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 189 

William Maunsel has granted and leased to the said monks of 
Kingeswode on the said year and day, all his lands in Culcretun 
with villeins and their followings in demesne and villenage 
and possession, 1 and rents and all easements and appur- 
tenances to the aforesaid lands belonging, without any 
retention at his need or the need of his heirs. To hold and 
to have the said lands freely and quietly well and in peace 
for a term of twenty years ensuing for fifty marks of silver 
which the said monks have paid to the said William Maunsel 
into his hands for his great and most urgent business. But 
the said monks will acquit the Royal service from the said 
lands during the said term to the Chief Lord as William 
Maunsel was accustomed to do, and will pay to the said 
William Maunsel and his heirs annually one penny at 
Kingeswode at the feast of St. Michael for all services suits 
and complaints and secular demands when forsooth the said 
William Maunsel or his heirs shall send their letters patent 
besides the said penny to Kingeswode. But when the twenty 
years are passed, all the said lands with appurtenances shall 
revert to the said William Maunsel or to his heirs freely and 
quit from all contradiction of the said monks, saving the crop 
of the following autumn, which the monks shall keep, and 
gather, and have, without any claim dispute hindrance and 
contradiction of William Maunsel or his heirs. Moreover 
the said William Maunsel and his heirs shall warrant all the 
said lands with the appurtenances and all the said agreement 
to the said monks during the said term against all mortals. 
And if the said William Maunsel or his heirs in anything 
come against the said agreement so that the said monks for 
deficit of warranty within the said term suffer loss in any 
way that loss shall be made good to them by view of 
honorable men provided on both sides whether in lands or 
in chattels before that William Maunsel or his heirs receive 
the said lands. But if William Maunsel shall die within the 
said term his heirs shall firmly and faithfully keep all the 
said covenant to the end of the term and if they are not 

1 Tenementum 



190 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

able to keep it they shall make an exchange with the said 
monks in the land of La Lippiette to the value of four marks 
for every year of the back term by view of honorable men 
provided on both sides. The said monks, moreover, have 
received the said lands altogether bare and unploughed nor 
in any way worked by the said William or his heirs, and so 
shall restore them when the term expires. And they pledge 
that this covenant shall be kept without trick or mischief, etc. 
In witness of which thing the seal of William Maunsel 
has been appended on the one part, and that of the Abbot and 
monks on the other. Witnesses Oliver de Berkeley, Robert 
de Rocheford, Robert Dean of Kenepel, 1 William de Mineriis, 
Bartholomew La Banc, Roger de Ductun, Walter de Upton, 
Philip de Teteburi, Colin de Culcretun, Geoffrey distance, 
Nigel de Osleworth, and many others. 

No. VIII. 

Let present and future know that the following covenant 
was made between Thomas the Abbot and the Convent of 
Kingeswode on the one part and Adam son of Henry de 
Chirintun'- on the other, namely that the said Abbot and 
convent of Kingeswode by common counsel and consent 
have granted to the aforesaid Adam son of Henry de 
Chirintun and his heirs for ever all the land with all the 
appurtenances that the aforesaid Henry father of the afore- 
said Adam held from the aforesaid Abbot and convent in 
the Vill of Chirintun, and in addition that croft which was 
Walter de Bertun's, and all the land which lies below the 
Mill of Smallcumbe. To hold and to have to the aforesaid 
Adam and his heirs for ever from the said abbot and convent 
and their successors freely and quietly paying for it each 
year to the same Abbot and convent and their successors 
eight shilling a1 the four terms, viz. at Christmas day 
two shillings, at Easier two shillings, at the nativity of 
St. John B .hillings, at the feast of St. Michael 

1 Kempley. He was probably Rural Dean of the Forest Deanery. 

3 Clierington. 



Cistercian" Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 191 

two shillings, for all services. But that this covenant 
may remain firm and stable, the seal of the Abbot and 
convent has been placed on the portion (of the indenture) 
of Adam, and the seal of Adam has been placed on the 
portion of the Abbot and convent. Witnesses William de 
Rodmortune, Robert Passelewe, Ralph Hereward, Laurence 
de Lasceles, William de Westrop, Hugh son of Nigel, 
Henry parson of Rodmarton, Henry de Culcretun, Roger 
Barette, Geoffrey son of Constance and many others. 

No. IX. 

Let present and future know that I Henry de Cul- 

cretuna for my soul and for the souls of all my ancestors 

and successors have granted and by the present charter 

have confirmed to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary 

of Kingeswode and the monks there serving God all the 

grant of William Butevillain, namely sixteen acres of land 

in the Vill of Culcretun of my fee, to wit nine acres in one 

field and seven acres which the same William Butevilain 

gave to the aforesaid monks with their appurtenances in 

pure and perpetual and free alms . . . quit of all service 

and secular demand. And neither will I nor any of my heirs 

vex the said monks concerning the said acres and liberties 

in any way. And if the aforesaid William Butevilain or his 

heirs shall vex in any way the said monks concerning the 

said lands and liberties I and my heirs within our power will 

distrain them from doing any molestation or vexation to the 

said monks. And that this my confirmation may be made 

known (manifest) to all present and future, I have fortified 

this charter with the impression of my seal. Witnesses 

William Camberlanus, William de Rodmertun, William 

parson of Tetbury, Adam de Cherletun, Robert de Ductun, 

John de . . . , Henry son of Bernard, Alured Barette, 

Robert Muschet, Nicholas de Kingeswode, and many others. 

No. X. 
Let present and future know that I Aimed Barete for 
love of God and the salvation of my soul have given and 



192 Transactions i-or the Year 1899. 

granted to the Monks of Kingeswode in pure and perpetual 

alms two acres of land in the Vill of Culcretun, whereof one 

lies at Stanmereswei, and the other in the field Del West at 

Brethe which is the " head " acre. To have and to hold 

from me and my heirs free and quit from all services and 

secular demands. And I and my heirs will acquit them 

from royal services, and all services, and will warrant them 

against all men and women. Witnesses Henry de Cul- 

cretune, William Scai de Tresham, Adam his son, Henry 

son of Bernard, Nicholas de Kingeswode, Geoffrey son of 

Constance, Adam de Cherletun, William Butevilain, and 

many others. 

No. XI. 

Let all present and future know that I Robert de Roche- 
ford for love of God, and the salvation of my soul, and 
for the souls of all my ancestors and successors, have given 
and granted in pure and perpetual and free alms to the 
Abbot and Monks of St. Mary at Kingeswode such liberty 
in Osleworthe from me and my heirs for ever. As if by 
chance they should be drawn into plea by me or my heirs, 
or by any other man or woman in my court, and if they 
should fall into mercy {i.e. if they should be fined) of me or 
my heirs then the Abbot and Monks shall be altogether 
acquitted of that amercement towards me and my heirs so 
often as it shall happen for ever. Also I have given and 
granted for me and my heirs for ever in pure and free alms to 
the said monks the following liberty, that their sheep or other 
cattle shall never by any fault or forfeit of the said monks 
or their men be emparked or molested by me or my heirs or 
by our servants or men, unless by chance those sheep or 
cattle should be found in my corn or enclosable meadow. 
But if the monks or their men should be delinquent in any 
way, then the monks must be cited and summoned according 
to the law of the land to give satisfaction in our court, or to 
hold their own court and there to give satisfaction to the 
complainants if judgment should go in their favour and then 
if they do not do this and it should be necessary they must 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 193 

be compelled through their cattle, but never through their 
sheep. And because I wish that these liberties may be 
inviolably kept by the said monks for ever, I wish and grant 
that whoever of my heirs or if I myself come in any manner 
against those liberties which I have granted to the monks 
let him be in mercy {i.e. be fined) of the Sheriff of Gloucester 
to the sum of twenty shillings of silver. Witnesses Oliver 
de Berkeley, Nicholas Ruffus, Wm. de Bradele, Nichs. 
Mingnot, Roger Petipas, Colin de Culkertun, Wakelin 
Tysun, Robt. le Stabler, and many others. 

No, XII. 

§ Arrears of W. cellarer of Kingswood at the feast of 
St. Peter ad Vincula (August 1) in the year of grace 1240 
^11 gs. id. 

§ Received from the above written term and subsequently 
at the feast of St. Andrew £8. 

Sum total £iq 9s. id. 

Expenses from the above written arrears and receipts : 

Two servants Wallingford i2d. In cheese 28s. 4d. at Pridie. 1 

For two oxen 17s. 8d. there. Also for one ox 6s. iod. In 

cord igd. In canvas 8d. In dried conger 14s. gd. In 

expenses at Pridie is. 8d. In herrings 2od. Tetbury. For 

one horse 8s at Callcot. To Simon and W. Knicht id. for 

seeking a horse. For wheels 14s. iod. Ozleworth. In 

expenses 4d. to Westbury. 2 To the boys of the Abbot of 

Flexley id. At Tetbury is. for carriage in the autumn. In 

Hulle 4.\d. In hay' 5 2s. from Colewich. To Stephen de Wica 

gs. 6d. for carriage of hay (or iron). In boards 20s. 

Ozleworth. For pittance of the Lady Mul(vain ?) 

4s. g^d. eels. To W. de Call(cot) i8d. for labour. To 

brother Odo 6d. for seeking one bretasch'. To Thomas de 

1 I'ricldy on Mendip . the fair was held on the feast of St. Lawrence, 
August iotli 

- Westbury-on- Severn, 0:1 the way to Flaxley Ahoey. 

•' Or Iron, " ferro." 

1 This word has much puzzh- 1 m<- C.odefroi Roqueford, ^c , 
give it " a stockade." 

V 1 XXII. 



ig4 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Ozleworth 3d. for work. To a certain thresher 3d. In 
expenses of the Court at Culcreton 5s. yd. One weigh-beam 
8d. For labour two weeks. For Flaskins 1 iod. B. Labanc. 
R. Marescale Bristol 2d. ("the Marshal of Bristol"?). To 
servants at Bristol 4d. ("the Sergeants of Bristol"?). In 
conger 14s. with portage. In expenses of horses 3d. In 
wine 4d. In nails for the bakehouse 8d. For one barge 8d. 
In a load of herrings 22d. In one horse collar 8d. In fish 
22jd. Tetbury. Also in fish i4d. Malm(esbury). For three 
white skins 4s. 6d. For timber for wheels 3s. one sacristan. 
At Haselden i4d. for the Abbot of Tinterne. At the market 
of Bristol " In alemand " 4s. (" almonds " ?). In cinnamon 3s. 
In saffron is. 6d. In pepper 7s. 3d. In linen web 17s 2d. 
In cloth for sacks 5s. gd. In canvas is. 6d. In wollen cloth 
for harness 7s. 8d. In other cloth 6s. 6d. In a pan is. 4d. 
In spices is. 3d. In small cloth for a horse coverlet 6d. In 
the same for belts 6d. To Brother A. lay brother at the lower 
grange i2d. To a lay brother at Ozleworth 2d. for labour. 
In expenses of horses and to the young men 8d. In one 
white skin 28c!. " Hancis " 5d. for timber. For one pot 5s. 7d. 
In beams 23d. The Grange at Call(dicot) 6d. for necessities. 
To the Prior of •' Lanthony ' 2s. for tithes. To the quarrier 3s. 
three weeks about a road. To the threshers at the lower 
grange 4d. For wax 6d. for sick horses. For fish i6d. 
Tetbury. Also in fish 8d. Cirencester. In companage 2 for 
the threshers 9d. at Norhall. At Haselden 4d. for 1 
Abbot's guest. In fish 3s. 3d. at the feast of All Saints. 
In eels 8d. At Callcot and Haselden 8d. for expenses. For 
one young heifer 3s. 6d. To John Nepos 4s. for a maimed 
cow. In logs 5s. 2d. for timber. To Brother G. 6d for drink 
and pittance. In one say 26d. (Sagus = a say or woollen 
cloth ) In hake 6d. Tetbury. In roofing houses 13d. 
Tetbury. In sieves 3d. Haselden. In two small shoes 32d. 
In Mapscipe (?) King 6d. To the quarrymen about a 
road 26d. In shoes i6d. In roofing houses at Ozleworth 8d. 
1 Flaskin — "a small portable cask." 
- Companagium =" anything eaten with bread." 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 195 

In cloth for a cape for Humphrey 4s. iod. To the quarryman 
i8d. about a road. At Haselden iod. five days' expenses. 
At Callcot iod. in labour. Tetbury 8d. in labour. At the 
lower grange 13d. in labour. In red herrings i2d. In a 
white skin 2s. To Brother R. at Haselden id. for beer. For 
three bolts i6d. At Ozleworth 6d. for the ox-house (boveria). 

Sum £"13 18s. gd. 

Also in autumn gloves and autumn drink in the 
beginning of the writings 39s. 6d. 

Sum total of expenses £15 18s. 3d. up to the feast of 
Saint Andrew of the year '40. Arrears £3 10s. iod. 

Also received from the feast of St. Andrew 1240, £7 
up to the feast of the Purification ; also up to the feast of 
St. Peter ad Vincula (August 1) 1241, £17. 

Sum £24 besides arrears. Sum with arrears £17 10s. iod. 

Also in gloves 6s. 8^d. In autumn drink 18s. gd. to 
the feast of St. Mary 1 Also after the feast of St. Mary 
10s. 2d. In geese 3s. io^d. Sum 39s. 6d. 

Expenses from the feast of St. Andrew in the year 1240. 
In drink throughout the Grange in Advent : — Heselden 3s. yd. 
Tetbury i8d. Caldicote 2s. Ozleworth nd. Upper Grange 
22^d. Lower Grange i8d. Charteshull i5^d. 

Sum of drink of the Lay brethren 12s. 8d. 

Also in drink of the servants at Christmas: — Haselden 
3s 2d. Tetbury i4d. Calcot i5^d. The Beaters 2 3$d. 
Sum 5s. 1 id. 

Sum total of drinks of the Lay brethren and servants 

23s. 7d. 

Also expenses in other things from the feast of St. 
Andrew 1240: — To Brother A. of the lower grange 8d. To 
Brother W. of Tetbury fid. In repairs of the granary at 

1 The Assumption, August 15, or Nativity, September 8. 

2 " Batoribus." I cannot settle this word ; Du Cange has " lutitur " — 
batator, &c — "Qui frumentum flagcllo excutit" — that is, a thresher ; but 
elsewhere triturator is used for this. Habitoria is also a fulling mill 



ig6 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Calcott 6d. To one carter who departed iod. Wippehail 
i2d. over his wages. In wheat 1 26d. from Ozleworth. 
For a certain assart 8d. in Thurinlund. At Cherletune 
2S. for scutage to the Earl.- To Brother Richard at 
Haselden 3|d. for bolts. To Brother Reiner 3^d. for 
sieves. In Hake 8£d. Tetbury. Also in fish 2s. 5d. In 
cloth lor Robert Gaudy 43d. In cloth for shoes 8d. 
In boots i6d. T. Seneschal of Malm(esbury). At Ozle- 
worth i5d. for labour. In eels iod. Tetbury. In oblations 
at Christmas 3Jd. In fish 7s. salmon and oysters contra min. 
At Ozleworth 3s. for a crowbar (?) and other utensils. 
In herrings 48s. yd. In locks and strtll 3 4d. Gloucester. 
In spurs and halters i4d. For two seats i6d. Egge. 4 To 
Will Sumeri i2d. for a roll. To the porter 8d. for a 
prisoner. In expenses at Gloucester 2od. To Roger the 
beater 13d. on departure. To W. Carter of the upper 
grange 4d. sim. In expenses at Gloucester last time 
3s. 5d. For chains 3d. Roger de Ductune 2s. For 
salmon 8d. Bristol. In expenses there 13d. In expenses 
to Gloucester 2od. for a dead man. In wine gd. there 
vie (sic) for the Sheriff. In expenses of Master Henry 
i6d. Gloucester. To Brother E. 3^d. for carting hay. 
To the carters 13d. For crobis (?) Ozleworth. For two 
axes i6d. for R. Ductune and R. Upton. To Brother 
T. Carter 6d. towards Bristol. To Brother Roger de 
Cherteshull 5d. for labour. To Adam Flambard 2s. by 
the Abbot. To Brother A. of the lower grange 5.Vd. for 
labour. To W. de Chalelege 13d. on departure. For 
pease 13d. Tetbury. For two Howis (?) iod. For Honey 
3d. for a stable (?) (marescale.) To a certain boy Ad. to 
Tetbury. For herrings 16s. 4d. Cirencester. For 1 axe 
8d. for B. La Banc. In expenses at Haselden 5^d. from 
Cirencester. In sieves 2d. at Haseld'. In white hides 4od. 
Memorandum. — In the road and quarry at Ozleworth 
from the feast of St. Andrew to the feast of St. Hilary 
— sum of expenses 15s. 8d. 

1 '• Siligo." a Or county "com." 3 Scrapers ( 5 ). * Eda, cf. Ducange. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 197 

For pease for seed i8d. Ozleworth. To Adam de Lache- 
ford id. for herrings. In herrings 2d. Caldicote. For 
hay i4d. Cirefeld. To Roger Sclat 5c]. for shoes; For a 
boy freed. For Stockings 8d. at Tetbury grange 6d. ; In 
works. At the county of Gloucester i4d. ; For coulter 
and ploughshare at Ozleworth i2d. To Hugh Dagan i2d. 
In mackerel 3d. (megaris). To the Harrowers 6d ; In 
herrings and fish Sd. Tetbury. In conger 2s. ; In cloth 
4s. 5d. In expenses of the Abbot of Callecot 3s. 2£d. 
Also to the harrowers 6d. ; To a beater Tetbury 6d. 
for emolument. 1 

On Monday after Palm Sunday : In fish, 19s. 5d. — 
100 milvin and 200 hake. W. Upehull Item 100 milvin 
us.; Item us. in fish. Item in canvas 10s. ; Item in 
fish 7s. id. Item in fish 13d.; In boards 8s. 3d. To 
Laurence de Lasceles 2s. ; In expenses at Bristol 6d. 
At the lower grange 6d. in labour. Expenses at Bath 
and Bristol i8£d. — Easter week. To Brothers H. and 
W. Halseld' 8d. by order of the Abbot. In lime 6d. 
Haseld' ; To a beater there 4d. condiment. To W. 
the Baker 13d. Tetbury; To a certain boy 4d. by the 
Prior. For Maundy - 43d. ; To a certain boy 6d. by 
the Abbot. In oblations 4^d. Easter. ; In nails 5d. On 
quasi modo Sunday 3 two days Gloucester i6d. For a 
bit yd. ; To the wheelwright 6d. For a certain boy 
running with the Cellarer for Homk n 4d. At the upper 
grange 8d. in labour. Lower grange 4d. ; To the beater 
there i^d. for emolument. Tetbury 4d. for emolument to 
a Harrower, i2d. Haseld'. For white salt i£d.; For 
enclosure at Estleya 3Ad. In casu 22d. 

Expenses in drink of the lay brethren by the granges 
in Lent : Haseld' 7s., Tetbury 3s. 4$d., Callecote 3s. 6d., 
Ozleworth 2s., Upper Grange 4s. 4d., Lower Grange 32jd., 
Cherteshule 32 ^d. Sum 26s. 8d. 

' Evantagium=avantagium: (1) prescriptive right, (2)profit or emolument. 

2 Ad Mandatum. 
8 1st Sunday after Easter, April 7. 



igS Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Item in the wall of Ozleworth : First week 400I., second 
week 23d., third 8d., fourth 133d., fifth i8d., sixth 2od. 
Sum 1 os. 2jd. 

To the beaters for emolument 3d. For custody of 
fowls 8d. Item for emolument 3d. To Richard the 
heater 6d. for emolument. 1 Item to another thresher 2d. 
To Brother A. de Lacheford id. For one crennoch 2 of 
salt 1 2d. For Master H. the Clerk 8d. Gloucester. 
For digging the curtilage of Dame Petronella 4d. At 
Heseld' 5d. for Master H. Expenses at Bristol 33d. for 
the Cellarer and Andrew and N. the Smith. To a certain 
boy at Ozleworth 6d. Item there i6d. for labour. At 
Callicote i6d. for labour. To Brother T. carter 4d. to 
Bristol. On Monday before Whitsunday i4d. expenses 
of the County (?). In cloth for Hugh Clerk for stockade (?) 
3od. In cloth for W. Clerk of the Sheriff 34d. In two 
hides 3s. In fish i6d. Tetbury. At Heseld' 3d. in beer. 
Expenses for the Cellarer in heath 5d. Cull(cretone). To 
Colin de Culcreton 4s. for quitclaim of spurs. Expenses 
at Malmesbury 2d. In one white hide 2s. 

In two oxen Osleworth 22s. gd. In three oxen there 
33s. 8d. Expenses at Gloucester 5s. 2d. — minus Com (sic). 
In a tool for the carter 5s. 8d. For one meadow 3s. 
Wortel(ey). To Roger de Cherteshulle 6d. for labour. 
To Brother Godfrey 4d. In an enclosure 3d. Osleworth. 
To Peter de la Mare iod. for wine. For one white roll 8 
2gd. for the use ot the Abbot. In fish against the 
injunction 3s. In expenses at Tetbury 5d. To Brother 
Ernald 3s. for threshing. For a sickle 6d. For the 
Abbot i4^d. Callicote, for the parson of Tetbury. In 
expenses of the Court at Culcreton 26d. ; At Osleworth 
to a hoer i4d. For the meadow of N. de Osleworth 
3s. 3d. For the meadow of H. de Holacra 32d. Item 
for a meadow i4d. for oxen at Osleworth. For a meadow 

1 N.B. — These two entries seem to prove that "bator" is the same as 
triturator.— I.H.I. 

a Crannocum — a measure, a basket. 3 An alb would be alba, not albo. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kixgswood. 199 

at Wortel(ey) us. id. for stable. For hoers and other 
labourers 2s. 4d. Tetbury. To the Lady of Osleworth 
half a mark for a lease. In rope Osleworth 4d. In broad 
nails igd. for the house (hospitium). For a ploughshare 
for the carter 5s. jjd. At Gloucester 5s. 3d. before the 
Justices. For oais 26d. besides " O " expenses (sic). In 
expenses at Gloucester 12s. 8d. — nine days. For a cart 5s. 
to the Lord the King. In victuals 1 for the beaters and 
servants Osleworth 6s. gd. . From the feast of Pentecost 
to the feast of St. James . Item For emolument to the 
beaters for the same term 3s. iod. To a certain Thresher 
iod. on his departure. In hay 3s. id. T. Bareball. Also 
in hay 22d. R. Franceis — setes (?). Item at Wick 23d 
for hay. In expenses at Gloucester 2od. To the beaters 
and servants at Osleworth 13d. for victuals. To the 
Ambler 2 3s. who taught the colts. 

Sum ^19 15s. gd. Arrears ^3 9s. 5d. 
Sum total on both sides of the roll ^"24 is. 5-id. up to 
the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula in the year 1241. 

No. XIII. 

Arrears of the Bursars of the House of Kingswood in 
the year of grace 1241 on the feast of St. Peter ad 
Vincula (August 1) from all receipts of the House ^"120 
and /"15 5s. o£d. all the wool and fleece wool being counted 
together and 20 pounds from arrears of wool of the year '42. 

Received from the same term and then up to the feast of 
St. Andrew of the same year : From fleece wool of the year 
'42 5 marks in arrears. From rents at the feast of St. 
Michael £6 9s. gd. with arrears. From sale of sheep 
£6 7s. 4d. From debt of corn 4s. 6d. From sale of Roc- 
wood 34s. 3d. From money borrowed for the bell 2 marks. 
From debts paid and money collected £6 5s. 5$d. From the 

1 Campanagium. 

2 Ambulator, an Ambler — a horse that ambles. 

Ambula-instrumentum in quo equi discunt ambulare (?) Whether 
this entry is in reference to the breaking-in of colts. 



200 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Lady of Tetes £\ loan. From debt of cider 1 3^d. From 
pannage of Kingswood 8s. From entry of land 20s. 
Sum received ^31 5s. 5^d. 

Sum total received with arrears ^166 10s. 6d. up to the 
feast of St. Andrew. 

Sum of expenses from the said feast of St. Peter ad 
Vincula of the year 1241 up to St. Andrew by parts: In 
gathering fruits ^"35 17s. o£d. In hay for sheep £\*j 7s. iod. 
Item for carting the Abbots and the Household Hay 25s. 4d. 
For rams bought in Lindesay 2 25s. 4d. To the Cellarer for 
expenses £\i. To the Sub-cellarer 12s. 6d. To the shepherds 
for expenses i\ marks. To the Lord Abbot 36s. To the Baker 
10s. 8d. In fish £y 19s. oid. In salt £3 13s. 8d. In oats 
£8 gs. In pensions and annual rents £\ 7s. 8d. In pay 
of mercenaries to the feast of Saint Michael ^24 16s. 7d. 

In edificio — In wine, 3s.; In cheese and tallow 28s. 5d. ; 
At Call' 18s. 2d. about the grange; In the monks infirmary 
6s. 9^d. ; In buildings in the cow shed 8s. id. ; In the bake- 
house and cloister 10s. 3^d. ; In boards and lead there, 16s. 

In gold, jewels, and gifts, £\ 12s. 2d. In farms and lands 
£4 10s. iod. In pleas 17s. 2^d. In other useful things of 
the house £11 7s. gd. Borrowed 13s. 8d. 

Sum total of expenses from the feast of St. Peter up 
to St. Andrew ^"153 14s. gd. Arrears ^12 15s. gd. (or 
otherwise £\b os. 3d. less). 

Item received from the feast of St. Andrew up to the 
feast of St. Peter ad Vincula of the year 1242 : From sheep 
sold £2, 2s. 6d. From rents at Christmas £\ 4s. From 
rents at Ladyday £5 33. 4^d. From rents at Midsummer 
£\ 7s. 3d. From the better wool 40 marks at Hokeday. 
From corn sold ^46 4s. 3d. — 19 sacks, price of a sack with 
profit 3 14 marks. From better wool ^"137, £ a mark 1 sack 
lok. From 1 sack of middle wool £6. From 5 stone oi 
better wool 31s. — 6 sacks 16 stone and a-half. From lok 4 

1 Cicero=:cider ; cicera, a kind of pulse fit for fodder. — Ainsworth. 

2 Lincolnshire. 3 Evantagium=avantagium. 

4 Lok — Inferior wool, collected at the shearing, fleece wool. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 201 

^"24 18s. 7d. Besides 1 sack of profit of pet (good) wool and 
6 stone and a-half of lok. From entry of land and from 
freedom 21s. Sd. From pigs in the piggery 100s. 6d. From 
debts paid £y and 33d. From 1 servant 20s. as a gift. From 
a horse sold 7s. From pannage of Osleworth 2od. From 
the mill of Osleworth 33d. 

Sum total received ^"290 7s. 3£d. with arrears ^"16 from 
the feast of St. Andrew up to the feast of St. Peter of the 
year '42. 

Expenses by parts from the feast of St. Andrew above 
written up to the feast of St. Peter of the year 1242 : 
To the Cellarer £18. To the Sub-cellarer 21s. To the 
Shepherd 1 £■$ 8s. 8d. To the Baker 10s. In oats £g 2s. 2d. 
Also in oats for seed 3 marks. In fish £16 3s. oj-d. To the 
work of the Church 10 marks — gift. In the building of the 
new hospice £i& os. ojd. Item in other buildings 18s. iod. 
In pay for mercenarys at Hokeday ^15 os. id. In one cask 
of wine 3 marks 4od. Also in wine 6s. In soap and cheese 
10s. In salt 33s. id. In rents and payments £3 7s. 4d. 
In gifts and gold £3 16s. 8d. In farms and lands 3 marks 
4s. In hay 20s. gd. In pleas 8s. In other minute things 
^8 3s. ioid. 

Sum total of expenses /115 10s. 2^d. up to the feast of 
St. Peter ad Vincula of the year 1242. Arrears to the same 
term ^174 16s. nd. 

Sum of expenses in fish by the hand of the Sub-Prior 
^"24 24|,d. besides buildings. 

Also expended in fish computed in the house building 
3 marks 2s. 7d. 

No. XIV. 

Let present and future know that I John del Egge have 
granted and given and by this present charter have confirmed 
to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary of Kingeswode, 
and the monks there serving God, all my land which Gillebert 
my Father held, and which descended to me by hereditary 

1 ? Bercarius. 



202 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

right, with the wood and all its appurtenances at La Egge 
in the manor of Simundeshale in perpetual exchange of all 
the land which the said monks held in Rocwood in the parish 
of Biseleye with the wood and all its appurtenances. To 
hold and to have to the said monks for ever freely and 
quietly wholly and honorably well and in peace in woods, in 
plains, in meadows, and pastures, and in all other things and 
places, with all liberties and free customs which can possibly 
belong to the said land, saving the service which I was 
accustomed and bound to perform for the same, to the chief 
lord. And I and my heirs or assigns will warrant to the said 
monks all the said land with wood and all appurtenances 
and liberties for ever against all mortals. But if they are 
unable to warrant all the aforesaid land of Rocwood with 
the wood and all its appurtenances the said monks shall 
freely seize it again without any contradiction of me or of 
my heirs or assigns. And that this my grant and gift may 
remain ratified and stable I have appended my seal to this 
writing. 

Witnesses Peter de Eggeworth, Oliver de Berkeley, 
William de Troham, Richard de Abbenes, Robert de 
Mulecot, Henry de la Strode, Roger Petipas, and others. 

Done in the year of grace 1243 at the feast of Saint 

Martin. 

No. XV. 

Let present and future know that I John del Egge have 
given and granted and by the present charter have con- 
firmed to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary of 
Kingeswode and the monks there serving God all my land 
which Gillebert my Father held and which descended to me 
by hereditary right with wood and all its appurtenances at 
Le Egge in the manor of Symundeshale in perpetual 
exchange of all the land which the said monks had at La 
Rocwde in the parish of Byseleye with the wood and all 
appurtenances. To hold and to have to the said monks for 
ever freely and quietly wholly and honourably well and in 
peace in woods plains meadows and pastures and in all other 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 203 

things and places with all liberties and free customs which 
can pertain to the said land saving the service which I was 
accustomed and bound to perform to the Chief Lord. And 
I and my heirs or assigns will warrant to the said monks all 
the said land with wood and all appurtenances and liberties 
for ever against all mortals. But if we should not be able to 
warrant the whole of the aforesaid land of Rocwde with 
wood and all appurtenances the said monks shall freely seize 
it again without any contradiction from me or my heirs or 
assigns. And that this my gift and grant may remain ratified 
and stable I have appended my seal to this writing. 
Witnesses Peter de Eggeworth, Oliver de Berkeley, William 
de Troham, Richard de Abbenesse, Robert de Mulecote, 
Henry de la Stride, Roger Petipas, and others. (1243). 

No. XVI. 
Let present and future know that I Roger Barette for 
love of God and the safety of my soul have given and 
granted to God and the Church of St. Mary of Kingeswode 
in pure and perpetual and free alms a messuage " on the 
spring" with curtilage and other appurtenances in the Vill of 
Culcretun. To hold and to have to the Monks of the said 
Church of Kingeswode for ever as pure and perpetual and 
free alms quietly and freely from all customs and issues and 
services which can possible at any time issue. Because I 
and my heirs will altogether quitclaim the said messuage 
with curtilage and appurtenances and will warrant it to the 
said monks for ever against all mortals. In witness of 
which thing I have appended my seal to this Charter. 
Witnesses Bartholomew La banc, William de Rodmertune, 
Nicholas de Culcretun, Thomas de la Planke, Roger de 
Calfhage, Geoffrey distance, Walter Bernard, John Cusin, 
Walter de Fromtune, William de Bradeley, Henry de 
Bradel', Robert Passelewe, and many others. 

No. XVII. 
Let present and future know that I William Bretun for 
the love of God and the salvation of my soul have given to 



204 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

God and the Church of St. Mary of Kingeswd and the 
monks there serving God in pure and free alms one cotceld 
(cotcelda = land attached to a cottage) of land in Osleworth 
with all appurtenances which Alice Toki sold to me for five 
marks. To hold and to have to the said monks of Kingeswd 
for ever, as pure and free alms as far as pertains to me 
and my heirs. Paying for it annually, to the said Alice and 
her heirs on the same land, one pair of gloves at Easter, or 
one penny whichever they prefer. And to the Chief Lord 
one pound of cummin at the feast of St. Michael. And the 
royal service which pertains to so much land in the same 
Vill. And I and my heirs will warrant the said land with 
appurtenances to the said monks for ever against all mortals. 
In witness of which thing I have appended my seal to 
this Charter. Witnesses Geoffrey de Chausi, Oliver de 
Berkele, Bartholomew La banc, Nicholas Ruffus, John le 
New, Nigel de Osleworth, Henry de Linez, Walter, clerk 
of Hillesley, William de Bradeleye, and many others. 

No. XVIII. 

This is the covenant made between Roger Baret of the 
one part, and the Abbot and Monks of Kingeswode on the 
other part, namely that Roger Bareth in the year of grace 
1243 at the feast of St. Michael leased and granted to the 
said Abbot and Monks two acres of land in the fields of 
Culcretun, that is to say in Westfelde the acre in la Buchine, 
and in Estfeide the Head acre under Stanhulle, so that the 
said Monks may hold the said two acres up to the end of ten 
years next ensuing, that is to say, until they have received 
five crops entirely from the one acre and five from the other x 
except enclosed pieces (" exceptis inhokis"), 2 if by chance any 
shall be made in the same vill. But they have received the 
first crop from these two acres in the autumn of the year of 

1 Thus the common fields were cultivated on the two-course system. 

* Inhokum = any corner of a common field ploughed and sowed and 
sometimes enclosed with a dry hedge in that year wherein the rest lies 
fallow — Jacob. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 205 

grace 1244 wherefore they will have the last crop in the 

autumn of 1253 besides the crops from the "inhoka" as often 

as there shall be any. But for this lease and grant, the said 

Abbot and Monks have given him six shillings sterling into 

his hands. When however the said Monks have held the said 

acres to the end of ten years, the said acres shall return to 

the said Roger or to his heirs without any contradiction of 

the said Monks. But the said Roger and his heirs will 

warrant to the said Monks the covenant up to its term 

against all mortals, and will quitclaim it of all services and 

secular demands which may ever issue from it. And that 

this covenant may be firmly held it has been fortified by the 

seals of both parties. Witnesses William de Rodmerton, 

Laurence de Lasceles, Robert Passelwe, Geoffrey Custance, 

Nicholas de Culcreton, Walter Bernard, Henry Bernard, and 

many others. 

No. XIX. 

Let present and future know that this is the covenant 

made between the Abbot and Monks of Kingeswde of the 

one party, and Luke de Chirintune of the other party, namely, 

that the aforesaid Abbot and Monks by common counsel and 

will have leased to the same Luke de Chirintune all that 

land with messuage and all appurtenances in Chirintune 

which was Walter de Brachele's, which land the same Walter 

gave to the Monks of Bethlesdene, 1 and the Monks of 

Bethlesdene sold to the said Abbot and Monks of Kingeswde. 

To hold and to have to the same Luke and his heirs for ever 

freely and quietly paying therefore annually to the said 

Abbot and Monks of Kingeswde six shillings sterling, at the 

four terms of the year namely at the nativity of our Lord 

eighteen pence, and at Easter eighteen pence, and at the 

nativity of St. John Baptist eighteen pence, and at the feast 

of St. Michael eighteen pence, for all services customs and 

.... saving the royal service that is to say as much as 

pertains to half a virgatc of land in the same vill. But for 

this covenant and grant the same Luke de Chirintune has 

1 Lat Bechledene. 



206 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

given to the said Monks of Kingeswde eight marks of silver 
for acknowledgement. And let it be known that the said 
Luke de Chirintune or his heirs shall not be able either to 
sell or pledge the same land without license and assent of 
the Monks of Kingeswde his lords. And that this covenant 
may be made firm between them and stable for ever the seal 
of the Monks has been placed to the portion of Luke, and 
Luke's seal to the portion of the Monks. Witnesses 
Bartholomew Labanc, Roger de Duchtune, Thomas de 
Rodeburwe, William de Rodmertune, Henry Hardewine, 
Nicholas de Leppegete, Geoffrey distance, and many 
others. 

No. XX. 

Let present and future know that I Roger de Newentun 
son of Philip de Berkeley for love of God and the salvation 
of my soul have given and granted to God and the Church of 
St. Mary de Kyngeswde and the Monks there serving God 
in pure and perpetual and free alms an acre of land with all 
its appurtenances in the tenure of Newinton which lies on 
the eastern side of the grange of Callicote and tapers one 
head on to Le Rugeweie, and the other towards the grange 
of Callicote, near the two acres which the Monks have of the 
gift of Philip my father. To hold and to have the said acre 
to the said Monks with all appurtenances freely and quietly 
well and in peace as pure and free and perpetual alms. And 
I and my heirs will warrant to the said Monks the said acre 
with all appurtenances for ever against all mortals. And we 
will quitclaim it from royal services, and from all suits and 
demands and customs and services which can ever issue. In 
witness whereof I have appended my seal to this writing. 

Witnesses Peter de Ywelega, Symon son of Nigel de 
Haselcote, Adam de la Home, Richard le Duck, William de 
Westcote, and many others. 

No. XXI. 

Let present and future know that I Roger de Newentunc 
for God and the salvation of my soul have given and granted 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 207 

and by the present charter have confirmed to God and the 
Church of the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswode and the monks 
there serving God in pure perpetual and free alms all the 
land of Bollecote with pasture and all appurtenances which 
lies between Yweleg' (Uley) and Egge near Le Ros in the 
manor of Newenton. To have and to hold to the said 
monks and their successors, and to the aforesaid Church, 
freely and quietly and honourably well and in peace, in all 
things and places, with all appurtenances and all liberties 
pertaining to the said land, as pure perpetual and free alms 
for ever so that they be responsible to no one except for 
prayers only. Moreover they the said monks have granted 
to the said Roger and his heirs that they may have entrv 
into the wood of Bollecote, and there take of the wood 
whenever and whatever they wish, so long as it be done 
without damage to the corn and pastures of the said monks. 
But I and my heirs will warrant the aforesaid land with all 
its appurtenances and liberties belonging to the said land 
to the said monks and their successors and to the said Church 
of Kyngeswode for ever against all mortals, and we will acquit 
them of suits of courts, and of all services which may there- 
from arise for ever. And that this my grant and gift may 
be ratified and stable for ever, I have appended my seal to 
this writing. Witnesses Lord Geoffrey de Chausi, Henry de 
Linez, Peter de Yweleg', Walter de Neylesworth, Hugh 
de Kyllecote, Robert de Uptune, and others. 

No. XXII. 

Let present and future know that I Nicholas de Newinton, 
son of Roger de Newynton, have granted quitclaimed for me 
and for my heirs and by this present charter have confirmed 
to God and the Church of the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswod 
and the monks there serving God, all the donations of Roger 
my father namely all the land of Bollecote (Bowcot ?— V.R.P.) 
with all its appurtenances and all other lands rents houses 
and tenements which the said monks have of the grant of 
Roger my father within the manor of Newynton or elsewhere. 



208 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

To have and to hold all the aforesaid freely and quietly 
according as (the charters) of the said Roger my Father made 
to the same more freely, more fully, and better, bear witness. 
But I and my heirs will warrant acquit and defend all the 
aforesaid, to the aforesaid monks and their successors as is 
aforesaid against all mortals for ever. And that this my 
grant, quitclaim, and confirmation of the present writing, may 
remain ratified and stable for ever I have fortified the present 
writing with the impression of my seal. 

Witnesses Milo de Langthol, Bartholomew de Olepenne, 
Robert de Stone, Robert de Bradestane, Ralph de Camme, 
John de Olepenne, and others. 

No. XXIII. 

Let present and future know that I Roger de Newentun 
for God and the salvation of my soul have given and granted 
and by the present charter confirmed to God and the Church 
of St. Mary of Kyngeswode and the monks there serving 
God in pure perpetual and free alms all that land of 
Bollecote with pasture and all appurtenances which lies 
between Yweleg' and Egge near Le Ros which I sometime 
held in the manor of Newentune. To have and to hold 
to the said monks and their successors and to the aforesaid 
Church freely and quietly, well and in peace, wholly and 
honourably, in all things and places, with all appurtenances 
and all liberties pertaining to the said land as pure 
perpetual and free alms for ever so that they be responsible 
to no one except in respect of prayers. But the said monks 
have granted to me and my heirs that we may have entry 
into the wood of Bollecote, and there take, whenever, and as 
much as we like from the wood, provided however that 
this be done without damage of corn or pasture of the 
said monks. But I and my heirs will warrant the afore- 
said land with all its appurtenances and aforenamed 
liberties to the said monks and their successors and to 
the aforesaid Church of Kyngeswode for ever against all 
mortals and will acquit them of suits of courts, and 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 209 

hundreds, and of all services which may issue therefrom 
for ever. And that this my grant and gift may be ratified 
and stable for ever, I have appended my seal to this 
writing. Witnesses Dom. Geoffrey de Chausi, Henry de 
Linez, Peter de Yweleg', Walter de Neylesworth, Hugh 
de Kyllecote, Robert de Uptun, and others. 

No. XXIV. 

Wages of the House of Kingswood in the year of grace 
of our Lord 1255 

WAGES OF HOCKDAY (i.e. 2nd Tuesday after Easter). 

Upper Grange. — Three ploughmen 6s. Four drivers 
i mark. Carter and Harvestman 4s. Horseman and Cook 
and Cowherd 4s. 6d. Sum 21s. 2d. 

Lower Grange. — Four ploughmen 8s. Four drivers 
£ mark ; a fifth 25. Carter and harvestman 4s. Horseman 
Cook and Cowherd 4s. 6d. Sum 25s. 2d. 

Haseldene. — Four ploughmen 7s. 4d. Three plough- 
men 6s. Five ox drivers 7s. 6d. Three horse drivers 5s. 
Carter and 2 harvestmen 6s. To another Carter 2od. 
Horseman i8d. Cook and boys of the Grange barn 3s. 4d. 
Cowherd i8d. Cook's boy gd. Swineherd iSd. Sum 
42s. id. 

Tetbury. — Horse ploughmen 2s. Two drivers 3s. 2d. 
Carter and Harvestman 43d. Horseman Cook and Cow- 
herd 4s. 6d. Sum 13s. 4d. 

Calecote. — Horse ploughman 2s. Another 22d. Two 
Drivers 3s. Horse driver i8d. Carter 22d. Horseman 
Cook and Cowherd 4s. 6d. Sum 13s. c;d. 

Osleworth. — Two ploughmen 44d. Three drivers 4s. 6d. 
Carter and Harvestman 43d. Horseman Cook and Cow- 
herd 4s. 6d. Sum 16s. 4d. 

Egge. — Two ploughmen 44d. Three drivers 4s. 6d. 
Carter and harvestman 3s. Sd. Horseman i8d. Cook and 
Cowherd 34d. Sum 16s. 2d. 

Vol. XXII. 



210 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Cherteshull. — Ploughman and driver 2od. Horseman 
2s. Cook and Cowherd 3s. Sum 8s. 8d. 

Baggeston. — Master 2s. Ploughman 2od. Driver i8d. 
Cowherd 1yd. Horseman i8d. Sum 8s. id. 

Bakery. — Baker and brewer £ mark. Baker and miller 5s. 
Sifter 1 ? and boy for the Brewery 4s. Swineherd i8d. 
Also two swineherds of the Cellarer 3s. Sum 16s. iod. 

? Curtill. — Two ditchers 4s. Laundryman (laven- 
darius) 2s. Carter 22d. Sum 7s. iod. 

Shepherds 49s. id. Eleven threshers 20s. 2d. A 
twelfth i8d. because he came at the feast of All Saints. 
Five Carters 9s. iod. Five boys of the Abbot 7s. 6d. 
At the Cowhouse 22d. Sum £\ 9s. nd. 

In the Abbey. — John Haybstabularius 2s. Forester 22d. 
The Cellarer's boy i8d. The sub-cellarer's boy 2od. The 
skinner . . . Sum 8s. 

Sum total of wages ^"14 us. 2d. 

Upper Grange. — Three ploughmen 9s. 2 drivers 6s. 4d. 
Two other drivers 5s. Carter and harvestman 6s. Horse- 
man and Cook 5s. Cowherd 3od. Sum 32s. iod. 

Lower Grange. — Four ploughmen 12s. Driver " con- 
versus " and a second driver 5s. 4d. on account of 
Morwellese, three others 7s. 6d. Berkeley 2s. Carter and 
harvestman 6s. Cook and Cowherd 5s. Horseman 3od. 
Sum 15s. 4d. 

Haseldene. — Three Horseploughmen 20s. 6d. Four 
others 14s. Three horse drivers 8s. Three others going 
to Mor'lese 8s. Two others 5s. Carter 3s. Another 
carter 34d ; a third 3od. Two harvestmen 6s. Cook and 
Boys of the grange 5s. 2d. Cowherd 29d. Cook's boy 2s. 
Swineherd 3od. Sum 73s. nd. 

Tetbury. — Horseploughman 3s. 2d. Carter and harvest- 
man 6s. Two drivers 3s. 4d. Horseman and cook 6s. 2d. 
Cowherd 2gd. Sum 22s. 2d. 

Callicote. — Horseploughman 3s. 2d. Another plough- 
man 3s. Three drivers 7s. iod. Carter 3s. Horseman and 

1 Buletare^rto sift meal. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 211 

cook 5s. 2d. Cowherd 2gd. Cook's boy 2od. Swineherd i4d. 
Harvestman 3s. Sum 30s. 5d. 

Osleworth. — Two ploughmen 6s. Three drivers 8s. 
Carter 3s. Horseman cook and cowherd 7s. gd. Harvest- 
man 3s. Cook's boy 8d. Sum 28s. 5d. 

Egge.— Two ploughmen 6s. Two drivers 5s. 8d. ; a 
third 3od. Carter and harvestman 6s. Horseman 3 id. 
Cook and cowherd 4s. 4d. Sum 27s id. 

Cherteshull. — Ploughman 3s. Driver 32d. Horse- 
man 3s. Cowherd 2gd. Cook 3id. Sum 13s. 8d. 

Baggestone. — Master 3s. Ploughman 3s. Driver 32d. 
Cowherd 2s. Sum 10s. 8d. 

Bakery. — Baker and Brewer \ mark. Miller and 
Baker (oven man ? — V.R.P.) 6s. Sifter 1 3od. Swine- 
herd 2s. Brewer's boy 2od. Sum 18s. iod. 

Curtill. — Two ditchers and laundryman 9s. 
Carters 34d. Sum us. iod. 

Pag'. — Thirty - five shepherds and seven peasants 
£\ 14s. 4d. Ten Threshers 30s. 

Four carters and a cutter of brushwood 14s. iod. 
Five boys of the Abbot 6s. At the Cowhouse 32d. 
Sum 23s. 6d. 

Cellarer's boy i8d. Stableman 3s. Forester 3s. 
Sub-cellarer's boy 28d. Skinner 2s. Sum us. iod. 
Sum total of wages ^"23 4s. gd. 



At the Upper 


Grange 


■» a 


16s. 


gd. 


At the Lower 


Grange 


... a 


16s. 


iojd. 


At Haseld' 




- £13 


8s. 


3*d. 


At Tetbury 




••■ £1 


17s. 


n*d. 


At Kallicote 




■■ £3 


18s. 


a^d. 


At Ozleworth 






59s. 


iod. 


At Egge 




.. 


59s. 


8$d. 


At Charteshull 


... 




26s. 


5id- 


At Baggeston 






2gs. 


3id. 


At Hull 








22^d. 


Sum total ,£39 1 


3s. iojd. 






1 Cnbrator 









212 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

The sum of all the sums both in wages and harvestings 
of the whole year ^77 9s. 4^d. 

ON THE BACK. 

Wages of the House of Kyngeswood in the year of 
grace 1256 at the feast of . . . 

WAGES AT HOCKEDAY. 

Upper Grange. — Three ploughmen 9s. Two drivers 
rising at the morning watch 5s. 4d. Two other drivers 5s. 
Carter and harvestman 6s. Horseman and cook 5s. Cow- 
herd 29d. Also a ploughman at the plough newly raised 
(levatitm) 2s. 6d. Also a driver for the same 2s. Sum 

37s. 3^. 

Lower Grange. — Four ploughmen 12s. Two drivers 
rising at the morning watch 6s. 4d. Three other drivers 
7s. 6d. Berkeley (?) 2s. Carter and harvestmen 6s. Cook 
and cowherd 5s. Horseman 3od. Sum 15s. 4d. 

Egge. — Two ploughmen 6s. Two drivers 5s. 4d. A third 
driver 2s. 6d. Carter and harvestman 6s. Horseman 2s. 6d. 
Cook and cowherd 4s. 4d. Sum 26s. 8d. 

Charteshull. — Ploughman and horseman 6s. Driver 
2s. 8d. Cowherd 2gd. Cook 2s. 6d. Sum 13s. 7d. 

Haseld'. — Three horse ploughmen 9s. 6d. Four others 
12s. Three horsedrivers 8s. Three others rising at morning 
watch 8s. Two others 6s. Carter 3s. Another 34d. A 
third 2s. 6d. Two harvestmen 6s. Cook and boy of the 
grange 5s. 2d. Cowherd 2s. 5d. Cook's boy 2s. Swine- 
herd 2s. 6d. Sum 68s. nd. 

Tetbury. — Horse ploughman 3s. 2d. Carter and harvest- 
man 6s. Driver 5s. 4d. Horseman and cook 5s. 2d. Cow- 
herd 2gd. Sum 22s. id. 

Osleworth. — Two ploughmen 6s. Three drivers 8s. 
Carter 3s. Horseman cook and cowherd 7s. 9d. Harvest- 
man 3s. Cook's boy 8d. Sum 28s. 5d. 

Cali.icote. — Horse ploughman 3s. 2d. Another 3s. 
Three drivers 7s. iod. Carter 3s. Horseman and cook 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 213 

5s. 2d. Cowherd 23d. Cook's boy 2od. Swineherd i4d. 
Harvestman 3s. Sum 30s. 5d. 

Baggeston. — Master 3s. Ploughman 3s. Horseman 3s. 
Driver 2s. 8d. Cowherd 2S. Sum 13s. 8d. 

Shepherds. — 33 shepherds and 5 peasants (?) £\ 6s. 6d. 

(Pag')- 

Bakery.— Baker and brewer 6s. 8d. Miller and baker 6s. 

Sifter 2s. 6d. Swineherd 2s. Brewer's boy 2s. 6d. Sum 

igs. 8d. 

Carters. — Four carters namely three for corn and a 
fourth for brush with a cutter and a carter of stones 17s. iod. 
Each carter 3s. The cutter 2s. iod. Sum 17s. iod. 

Nine beaters 27s. — that is to each 3s. Also two beaters 
3s. 6d. Five boys of the Abbot 7s. 6d. Adam de Vaccar 32d. 
Sum 41s. 8d. 

Cuthill. — Two ditchers and laundryman 9s. Carter 34d. 
Sum us. iod. 

In the Abbey. — Stableman 3s. Forester 3s. Cellarer's 
boy 3s. Sum 9s. 

No. XXV. 

Receipts from Michaelmas term 1262 : — From rent in 
Montan' (? ? in amount) 48s. 4d. Also from the same 
rent from term of St. John Baptist (midsummer) 42s. 4d. 
From the gift of Robert le Greye 2s. From Ygete for two 
terms 2 id. From Ralph le Bank i2d. From Witflur 8d. 
From the widow of Gregory sub bosco (Underwood) 13d. 
From a Knight's widow i2d. From the Widow Thurkild 
1 2d. From Tredelaz for two terms of Midsummer and 
Michaelmas 7s. 6d. From rent of land La Skay for 
Easter and Michaelmas terms 7s. From Symon sub bosco 
2s. iod. From Roger Hok 6d. From Walter Cook Mid- 
summer and Michaelmas terms 3od. From Thomas Everard 
Midsummer and Michaelmas terms I2d. From Thomas 
Everard for John de Ductun 6d. From Robert Harding for 
Midsummer and Michaelmas iod. From rent of Bulcard 
7s. 8d. From Pochampton 5s. From William de Taunton 



214 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

of Bath 3s. Arrears 4s. From widow Le Furmer i8d. 
From Richard Hope 3s. From Richard de Haselcote 5s. 
From rent of Richard de Gloucester 5s. From John Le 
Wayte 3s. From Reginald Pelliparius ( = Skinner) from 
arrears and for the Michaelmas term 4s. From Loriner 6s. 
Arrears 3s. 6d. Sum £7 14s. 

Receipts from other things : — From the Vicar of Frocester 
for £ quarter of corn . . . From Richard Le Nevou 
for i quarter of corn . . . From due of corn from 
Tetbury . . . From pannage of the wood of Kyng' . . . 
From Dom. Sampson de Brunegrove . . . From the 
Fuller . . . ^36 . . . £16 . . . From pence of 
Brother W. Pilewyne £5 . . . From the Sacristan 40s- 
From Brother Alexander . . . From the Precentor . . . 
From Roger Russell 9s. From Hugh de la Ford ^ mark. 
From Walter Jacob 4s. From William Whiting 2s. From 
John Crisp i2d. From the Granger of Charteshull 1 mark 
for 1 ox. From Brother W. Knyht for pigs sold 30s. 
From the Swineherd 40s. From old sheep sold £10 . 
From the Refectorius 50s. Sum ^38 14s. 6hd. Sum tota 
of receipts £6y 3s. 2£d. 

Expenses from the term as above : — To the Prior of 
Lanton' 20s. To the Church of Oseneye 20s. To the 
Church of Wottun 10s. To the Church of Nywentun 8s. 
To the Church of Olepenne 3s. To the parson of Tetbury 
£ mark. To Humphy. de la Barre 10s. In rent of Mister 
H. de Bilesby from Michaelmas term 2 marks. In rent of 
Nicholas de Culkertun 1 mark. To Cecile de Rocheford 
9s. 6d. To William Hayrun 6s. 8d. To John Culling for 
his rent 2s. In rent of Dame Joan de Wottune 2s. 
Sum £6 1 6s. 

Expenses in other things : — In the first payment for 
Osleworth £50. To the Shoemaker ^"10. In one horse- 
bought for the granger of Osleworth 14s. id. In another 
horse bought from William Spilemon 15s. To the Abbot 
of Cirencester for amercement £ mark. In eight quarters 
of Corn bought at Aired' 32s. To the sub-cellarer going to 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 215 

London 20s. In Lead 42d. In 17 quarters of Oats bought 
from R. de New . . . 25s. 6d. For Gaudichun (? sic) 1 of 
Robert le Nevouz 2s. 6d. In victuals of Robert le Nevou 
from the feast of St. Lambert to the Circumcision of our 
Lord 4s. In victuals of the Smiths from the Sunday before 
Michaelmas to the Sunday next after the Epiphany 6s. 3d. 
In expenses of Brother R. de Cumbe going to London 5s. 
In expenses of the same to Northampton 9s. yd. For meat 
for 9 Shepherds 6s. For provends for . . . Shepherds 
1 mark. To the Abbot for Alms 12s. for 2 terms. In one 
palfrey for the Abbot's use 20s. In 10 quarters of Beans 
33s. 4d. For oats of W. de Rocheford from Christmas 
term 40s. In cloth namely eleven rods gs. In beer at 
Osleworth 6s. In beef at Osleworth 3s. iod. In partridges 
there 13s. In flesh of Sheep bought ... In meat for 
9 Shepherds at . . . 27d. — each 3d. For meat for 22 
Shepherds . . . 34d. — each i£d. To the young men of 
the Abbot of Flexl' i2d. To the clerk of the Sheriff and 
his young man 5s. 7d. To the Charcoal-burner at Horsley 
. . In expenses of the Prior to Tintern ... In 
meat ... In handles ... In straw . . . To Dame 
Katherine ... In gaudichun (sic) 1 of the Abbot's boys 
. . . In expenses of the sub-cellarer at Gloucester . . . 
In expenses of Brother W. de Bisel' to Tintern . . . To 
the Mower at Cherefeld . . . To Brother Richard de 
Cumbe and Brother Thomas to Northampton ... To the 
Bailiff at Chippenham 6d. In Gold weight of 5s. — 35s. 6d." 
To the young man of W. de Monte 4d. To the young man 
of the Vicar of Berkeley 2d. To the young man of Peter de 
\Vaunchau6d. To the Nephew of Master H. de Bilesby 2s. 

1 Probably a gift or payment of money or food. 

2 Ruding, Annals of the Coinage, p. II, ed. iii , gives the ratio of 
value of gold to silver as 1 to 9 in 1105, 1156, 1207 and 1226 ; 1 to g^fc '" 
1257; and 1 to 10 in 1230 and 1278. The figures are derived from the 
fineness of the metals in the coinage, and the ratio current in business 
transactions would no doubt vary from this. The transactions mentioned 
in the accounts— " in auro— pondus V sol XXXVs. VW." would give 
a ratio of only 1 to 7^. 



2i6 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

In expenses of Brother Roger to Tintern 3d. To a certain 
yonng man sent with letters to the Abbot of Waverley iod. 
To a young man of Tintern who brought salmon 3d. 

Column II. 

Receipts from Christmas term: — (The items of rents) 18 
in number, are for the most part missing owing to the ruinous 
state of the parchment.) The sum of all the rents is 
£\ 16s. 6^d. 

Receipts from other things : — From old stock sold at 
Egge 22s. From Richard le Messor of Cherletun for entry 
of land 2s. From relief of land Custaunce i6d. From the 
Abbot of Malmesbury received for old sheep £9. From 
Peter de Wike for sheep 20s. Sum £12 4s. io^d. 
Sum of all receipts £i& 2s 4d. 

Expenses from same term : — To Humphrey de La 
B . . . 10s. To Cecile de Rocheford gs. 6d. For the 
Lamp of Ozleworth 7s. To the Lady of Wotton 8d. To 
Adam de Berkeley 27d. To William de Rocheford from 
Christmas . . . From Easter term 18s. 4d. Sum 47s. gd. 

Expenses in other things : — In 20 quarters of Oats bought 
at H . . . 33s. 4d. In one cask of wine 55s. 2d. In a 
horse 24s. In another at Haseld' 12s. To Master H. for 
8 quarters of corn 8 quarters of oats 5 quarters of beans 
62s. 2d. To Robert le Skay for corn viz. 15 quarters meslin 
(i.e. wheat and rye mixed) g£- quarters of barley 45s. 2d. 
To Henry de Cumb for one quarter of barley 28s. In 2 
weys of cheese 16s. In cloth for the Abbot's use 20s. 
To Dora Jordan le Warr 1 mark. In expenses of Robt. le 
Veel to London 28s. To Richard of St. Augustine's 6s. 8d. 
To Walter, Clerk of Cirencester 13s. 4d. In expenses of 
the Abbot at Gloucester 31s. For pasture of Suthehay 8s. 
For pasture at Northay 5s. To Roger Baret for pittance 
from the ... of St. John Baptist to feast of St. George 
... To Robert le Nevouz for pittance from Circumcision 
of our Lord to the feast of S . . . In victuals of the 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 217 

smiths from 1st Sunday after Epiphany to Easter . . . 
To W. de Rocheford for his firewood (?) from Easter term i^d. 
In an iron cross at Egge i2d. To the boy of Henry de 
Durseley 3d. In expenses of Brother W. de Bristoll 6d. 
To W. Dimmok and John de Sorstan . . . Cokyn (?) 
(cokinus = an inferior servant) 4d. in 1 furur (?) for the head 
for the use of . . . In expenses of W. Rop to Flexley. 
/;; caudel parts faciend (?) {sic). In expenses of Brother H. de 
Hortun at Bagge(stone) ... In expenses of the Abbot 
to Waverley . . . To the young man Nonni I. de Tyng- 
hurst . . . To the young man of Master H. de Bilesley 
... In lead . . . To the young man of the Vicar of 
Berkeley 3d. To the young man of Dom J. la Warr 6d. 
In wax for the Charters 3d. To John de Framptun 5s. To 
Henry de Cumb 2s. In expenses of the Abbot to Gloucester 
and Tynterne 5s. In one acre of land for sowing bought yd. 
To John de Sorstan at the schools i2d. In expenses of 
Brother Waismer 5d. For tiling the house of W. de Roche- 
ford 4d. In expenses of Brother Llewelin i6d. In expenses 
of the Abbot to the Bishop 3s. io^d. For sewing belts 13d. 
To the plaisterers at the new house 6d. To the Abbot for 
alms i5id. To Bartholomew de Olepenne for his loss from 
sheep bought by us 6s. 8d. In meat for the shepherds on 
Shrove Tuesday i2d. (die Martis ante cap). To the com- 
panion (?) (socius) of Peter de Waucham i8d. To the young 
men of Peter de Waucham i8d. To John de Actun for 
tiling the new house 4s. In expenses of Brother R. de 
Cumb at Baggeston 3£d. In 30 lbs. of figs and 12 lbs. of 
raisins 4s. In expenses of the Abbot to Cirencester 2s. io^d. 
To the 2 beadles of Grumboldshof 1 i8d. To the Abbot for 
the use of John de Meysy 4W. To Philip the carpenter for 
wages 3s. To the hoers i8d. To Hapulf 13d. To the 
warrener of Tetbury 6d. To the beadle of Wallingford 6d. 
To the messenger of the Lord Edward 4d. To 2 cokyns 
(inferior servants, v. supra) 4<1. To the charcoal burner of 

1 Grumbold's Ash. The beadles were officials of the Hundred called 
by that name. 



2i8 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Horsley gd. In 12 carcases of mutton 5s. To the cellarer 
£\. To the sub-cellarer 40s. To . . . for an agreement 
6s. 8d. Sum ^29 14s. 4^d. 

All the next part to the foot of the second column is so 
mutilated that it is impossible to decipher it. It is appar- 
ently the account for Fish, — Herrings, Salmon, Ray, Conger, 
Minnows and many other kinds being mentioned. 

ON THE BACK OF THE PARCHMENT. 

The Heading is missing and the items of the Rent 
receipts are for the most part missing. The sum (of the 
rents) is 34s. 5£d. 

Receipts from other things : — From payment of wool at 
Hockday ^"50. 

Sum total £$\ 14s 5^d. 

Expenses from the same term : — To the Prior of Lanton' 
20s. To the Church of Wotton 10s. To Cecile de Roche- 
ford 8s. 6d. To Humphrey de la Barre 10s. To William 
de Rocheford . . . To Master H. de Billesby 15s. To 
Adam de Berkeley . . . To the sister of Richard le 
Nevouz for rent 6d. Sum 73s. 4d. 

Also expenses in other things : — In one cask of wine for 
use of the Abbot of Cirencester 4 marks 5d. Also in wine 
5s. gd. In hay bought at Tortworth 20s. In hay at 
Thornbury 40s. 4^d. In pasture in Wast' 2s. 6d. In 
pasture in Sapertun 12s. In pasture in Styptun \ mark. 
In pasture of lambs 6s. . . . 33s. 4d. for . . . ; . . . for 
cheese 4s. . . . quarters of oats bought of R. de Skay 
33s. 4d. . . . Rochford, for his oats from Easter term 6s. 
. . . Wottun £25. The servants' wages at Hockday 
£g 15s. 3d. . . . de Nevouz a gift 10s. To Dame 
Katherine 2s. To Jordan de Aula i2d. In expenses of 
Brother W. de Culcretun and Brother J. to Bath 6d. In 
linen cloth 9d. In . . . pair of spurs 6^d. . . . Hosley 
I2d. . . . de Olepenne I2d. . . . Tynterne 2s. . . . 
of the Abbot i2d. . . . Wyk to London i2d. . . . 9d. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 219 

. . . to Oxford i£d. ... who brought two lamps 2d. 
. . . Tynterne i8d. . . . the charcoal-burner from Easter 
to Sunday feast of St. Philip and James 3s. . . . the 
charcoal-burner for three weeks gd. ... by Richd. de 
Cumb 2 id. To the young man of the Vicar of Berkeley 2d. 
To one Hoer 3d. In the passage of Brother W. de Bisel' 
2£d. In the monument of W. de Maunsel 3s. To John de 
Actun for roofing the new house 4s. To the charcoal-burner 
i2d. In expenses of the sub-prior to Bristol 3i-d. In the 
King's writs i2d. To the King's messengers 6d. To the 
Prior's nephew 6d. To the cheirographer 4s. To Richard 
de Boilond 4s. To W. de Rocheford for leggings 2od. In 
cloth for the use of R. de Veel 8s. 8d. To the boy of Elias 
of Cumb 4d. To the boy of G. de Burtun 4d. In pigs 
22s. 8d. In the Abbot's expenses in London 37s. To the 
boy of Robert Wallrand 4d. To the Abbot for alms i2d. 
To the Assarters 3s. Sd. 1 In beer for the use of the Abbot at 
Krtllicotte i3^d. In expenses of Brother R. de Cumb 3^d. 
To the Esquire (?) of Mathew de Bisile i2d. To Thomas 
Clerk of Besill for a cup bought 2s. In expenses of John 
de Haseld' and his companions to London 5s. 7^d. In beer 
for the use of the Abbot at Tetbury 4d. To John Hapulv 
for 4 weeks 1 2d. To W. de Rocheforde in hand from 
Midsummer 21s. To one dubbetot (? duthator) 2s. To the 
stonecutters about the gate i2d. . . . 8d. In gifts i2d. 
In the Abbot's expenses " ad dies amoris '"' at Gloucester 8s. 
To the King's Messenger 4d. In eggs by Brother H. de 
Tetbury 2s. i£d. In 12 gallons of wine 4s. In one 
quarter of beef 2s. In the Abbot's expenses at Gloucester 
8s. gd. To Robert de Nevouz from feast of St. George to 
the feast of S.S. Gervase and Prokasins 2s. To Walter 
de Wymbervile 4s. Sum ^"6o 15s. 2 Ad. with the Cellarers 
and the sub-cellarers. . . . 

(Here at the bottom of this column follows the fish 
account, very mutilated.) 

1 Assart = a woodland grubbed up for cultivation. 

' Dies amoris -dies ad controversial! amice conferendam. — Du Cange. 



220 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Column II. on Back. 

Receipts from Midsummer term a.d. 1263 : — From rent 
in "montan" in (? amount) 42s. 40!. From John le Blund 
of Acton 3s. gd. From Walter Mahel for the whole year 
2s. From rent of Osleworth 31s o£d. — owed to this gd. 
From Bulcard 8s. From Pockhampton 5s. From rent of 
Land de Skay 3s. 6d. From Yegte (?) ioAd. From Robert 
de Buxwell 6d. From Thomas Jacob 2od. From Roger 
Fforester i2d. Sum 71s. 3d. 

Also receipts for other things : — From Brother W. de 
Cnigt for pigs £8. From . . . dead 13s. 4d. . . . 41s. 
. . . 7£ marks. In victuals . . . carpenter 10s. Sum 
£12 3 s. 4d. 

Also from payment of wool at the feast of St. Peter ad 
Vincula a.d. 125 — ^154 os. 4d. 

Sum total of receipts ^"169 17s. nd. 

Expenses for the same term : — To Cecile (de Roche)ford 
15s. 6d. To William Hayrun 4od. To Adam de Berkeley 
i8d. for 2 terms. To Dame Agnes de Kyngton 5s. To 
Richard le Nevouz tor his rent 3s. 4d. For a meadow of 
Tetbury 6s. 8d. Sum 35s. 4d. 

Expenses in other things : — To the Lady of Wottun ^"25. 
To John Giffard ^"10. In hay bought for use of the sheep 
^22 18s. Also in hay for the Abbot's stable 5s. In hay 
bought for the guests' stable and the carter 20s. Also in 
hay bought from Badminton of R. le Veel 8s. In servants' 
wages at Michaelmas £9 18s. 6d. In corn bought of W. le 
Maunsel ^10 16s. 8d. In reaping at the Upper Grange 
3s. 2M. In reaping at the Lower Grange 15s. oAd. In 
reaping at Tetbury 6s. 3d. In cloth for Caps 60s. (Note no 
account.) In cheese 17s. In one horse bought of P. 
Caperun 40s. Also in another horse 20s. In one mare 
bought of the granger of the Upper Grange 12s. 3d. In 
another mare 12s. In one cask of wine at Bristol 
bought 3s. Also in wine there I2d. Also in another 
cask there 3s. Also in 12 gallons of wine there 2s. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 221 

Also in wine there 3s. In wine 22^d. Also in wine 
at Tetbury 140!. Also in wine at Sodbury 22^d. In 
cloth for use of J. the Priest (Vicar of Berkeley) 15s. In 
fourteen crannocks of salt bought at Corsham 14s. 3^d. 
For oats to W. de Rocheford 7s. 6d. To the same for his 
firewood (? busca) 13d. For the house of W. de Rocheford 
6s. To Nicholas de Culkertun for his pittance from the 
feast of Purification to the feast of St. Mary Magdalene 
2s. 3d. To Roger Baret for his pittance from the feast of 
St. George to the feast of St. Calixtus 4s. To Robert le 
Nevouz for his pittance from the feast of SS. Gervase and 
Prothasius to the feast of St. Dionysius 4s. In expenses 
of the Abbot to Bristol 6s. iojd. To the Prior for his 
fishpond I2d. To Peter de Stabulo to London g^d. To 
Brother W. de Margan 6d. In expenses of the Abbot at 
Gloucester when he spoke with J. Giffard 5s. In harness 
and hides for the use of Master H. 8s. yd. In meat 6d. 
For a fine of our men at Culkerton 10s. To John de 
Haseld' and his companion to London 2s. 2d. In expenses 
of the Abbot to Tintern 6d. For eggs delivered to the 
sub-cellarer i2d. In alms 3^d. To John Le D ... 2s. 
To the Esquire (? Scutario) of Master H. i2d. To Peter 
who was at the Abbot's stable I2d. For eggs delivered to 
the sub-cellarer and his young man 22d. To the cellarer's 
brother 2s. To the Abbot for alms 2s. Item in eggs nd. 
In expenses of R. de Cumb to Bristol i3£d. In mowing of 
the land Bulcard 33d. To the Abbot going to the Chapter 
2s. In one ptce (?) for the use of I. priest . . . i8d. To 
William le May to Wa . . . i2d. In tithes of sheep at 
. . . 2s. In tithes of sheep at . . . 2s. In tithes of 
sheep at ... for 2 years 4s. To John Hapulf 8d. To 
a certain workman 6d. To John de Cha . . . of a certain 
meadow 6d. To a servant ... for victuals 4d. 
(The rest much too mutilated to translate.) 



222 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

No. XXVI. 

Imperfect at Top. 

In expenses of the Abbot going to Tintern 8d. In 
leather for making belts i6d. In " alimel " (= lamine = 
blade of a knife or sword, v. Roquefort) 2s. In expenses 
of Brother S. going to Charthuse (?) 3d. In parchment 
bought for use of R. de Chirechesdun 3d. In firewood (?) 
W. De Rocheford 13d. In one bridle for the use of the 
Abbot 2s. In spurs 3^d. In girdles nd. In physic of the 
Monk of Elemos (Almshouse ?) 8d. The King's messenger 
Gd. To the clerk of Siptune 6d. In four gallons of wine 4s. 
To the cellarer £6 10s. To the sub-cellarer 20s. Sum 
^83 19s 8*d. 

In 200 herrings two fresh salmon and eels bought 
against the arrival of the under-sheriff 6s. In 400 herrings 

2 pike 250 herrings us. 5d. In 9 hake 1 milvin 200 
herrings 400 barun = (fish) 5s. 8|d. In 500 herrings 3 
milvin 3 hake 1 fresh conger and minnows us. 3^d. In 
600 herrings 10 fresh milvin 10 fresh hake 12 bren = bream 
one pot of raye 22s. $d. In 18 conger 500 herrings 300 
mackerel 7 milvin 15 haddock 20s. 5d. In 1 pike and 
minnows . . . herrings 3 hake 20s. njd. In fresh hake 

3 salted conger 24 bren = bream 1 fresh milvin us. id. 
In 29 hake half a bundle of herrings 20 salted salmon 
. . . fresh mackerel 14s. 8d. In 30 hake powdered and one 
hake fresh 4 milvin 4 conger 15 hake 18s. 5d. In 30 salted 
conger 2 bundles of herrings 22s. id. In 12 fresh conger 
and 4 salted conger 1 bundle of white herrings 500 red 
herrings 3 fresh milvin 14s. 7d. In 62 conger salted 12 
fresh milvin 16 fresh hake 36s. gd. In 1000 red herrings 
3 bundles of white herrings 6 bundles of pilchards 61 hake 
25s. 3d. Sum of all the fish £11 13s. 2d. Sum total of 
expenses ^202 8s. 6d. And expenses exceed receipts 
£l5 5S. 4d- 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 223 

2nd column. 
Imperfect at the Top. 

In 1 sum of conger and haddock 5s. 6d. In 1 sum 
of raye and 1 sum of conger 7s. iod. In vino ? 
(? alive) 17 conger and 8 milvin us. In 1 bundle of 
herrings 2 fresh conger 13 powdered conger 8s. 6d. In 
15 conger 20 milvin powdered ns. In 14 salmon 20 milvin 
3 ling 6s. 6£d. In 1 bundle of herrings 20 milvin 2 conger 
10s. 5d. In 20 milvin 2 conger 16 ling 8s. 8d. In | a 100 
milvin, £ a 100 ling 35s. Sum of all the fish £15 6s. 4d. 
Sum of all the expenses £$\ 12s. iod. And expenses exceed 
the receipts by ^36 10s. 6d. 

In 9 conger salted 8 milvin 5s. iod. In 2 quantities 
of fish 16 salted conger 24 milvin and ling 8s. 3d. In 
15 conger salted 20 milvin and ling 4 hake gs. iod. In 
15 conger 63 milvin and ling us. 6d. In 30 milvin 30 ling 
and herrings 8s. gd. In 40 milvin and ling and one quantity 
of fresh conger and plaice 13s. 2^d. In 6 powdered conger 

6 milvin and ling 5s. nd. In 7 powdered conger 12 plaice 

7 fresh milvin half a hundred mackerel 10s 7^d. In 100 
mackerel 42 milvin and ling 10s. 7d. In 4 fresh conger 
half a hundred mackerel 30 ling 24 milvin and ling 16s 4^d. 
In one salmon at Gloucester 3s. 7d. To the Cellarer £3 10s. 
To the sub-cellarer 56s. Sum of all the fish ^16 15s. 2d. 
Sum total of expenses £%! 6s. 4£d. And expense exceeds 
receipts ^"29 us. nd. 

In 20 conger 1 bundle of senderlings 13s. In 28 conger 
200 herrings 10 cheeses (?) us. 6d. In £ quantity of 
senderlings and £ quantity of conger 7s. In 1 bundle of 
senderlings 5 conger 4s. 7d. In £ bundle of herrings 4 
conger 4s. 8d. In 8 hake 5 fresh conger 5 salted conger 
100 herrings 8s. 4d. In 27 hake 30 salmon 10s. 8d. In one 
bundle and a half and 1000 pilchards 30 hake 19s. ud. 
Sum of all the fish £ti is. 3d. Sum of all the expenses 
/"158 us. 8d. And the receipts exceed the expenses 
£11 6s. 3d. 



224 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

No. XXVII. 

To all the faithful of Christ to whom this present writing 
shall come. Maurice de Berkeley son and heir of Dom 
Thomas de Berkeley greeting eternal in the Lord. Know 
ye that I have granted and given and released and for me 
and my heirs for ever have quitclaimed to the religious 
men the Abbot and Convent of Kyngeswode all right and 
claim which I had or in any way can have in a certain 
annual rent of ten pence issuing from his lands at La 
Egge within the manor of Symundeshalle which lands 
indeed the said religious men have sometime held of the 
grants of the late Thomas de Berkele uncle of the aforesaid 
Dom. Thomas my father. 

I have given also granted remised and for me and my 
heirs for ever quitclaimed to the above-mentioned religious 
men a certain rent of the Capons issuing from the lands 
which the said religious men have sometime held in the 
Ville of Pokhampton within my manor of Hyneton 1 of 
the gift of the late Robert de Berkeley brother of the late 
Dom. Thomas, grandfather of Dom. Thomas, my father. 

To hold and to have all the aforesaid rents with 
appurtenances by name of perpetual exchange to the said 
religious men and their successors from me and my heirs 
freely and quietly for ever. So that neither I nor my heirs 
nor any other in our name shall be able to exact or claim 
any right or claim in the aforesaid rents or in any of their 
appurtenances for ever but that the said religious men may 
possess the said rents with their appurtenances issuing from 
the aforesaid lands and may for ever enjoy the same rents 
for ever as free pure and perpetual alms more freely and 
purely to be held and considered for ever. I have granted 
also for me and my heirs to the aforesaid religious men and 
their successors that whenever it shall please them to remove 
their conduit of water from our park of Hawe within which 
park it lay on the day of the making of this writing enclosed, 

1 Hinton in Berkeley. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 225 

to another competent place elsewhere outside the park, 
we will cause to be dug and uncovered their said conduit 
at our own expense, and in another place outside our said 
park as far as that park extends and forty perches beyond, 
wherever they like, and where it shall be agreeable to the 
same religious men, to place the conduit more conveniently 
and more directly without contradiction or impediment of 
any one in as good a condition or better as it now lies in, 
together with the house at the aforesaid conduit to be 
repaired cleaned and examined as often as it shall be 
necessary and as they shall wish, notice however having 
been given of a month or three weeks at least concerning 
the removal of the said conduit. And after that the aforesaid 
conduit as is aforesaid, has been removed we and our heirs 
will warrant the same to the said religious men and their 
successors beyond our lands and the lands of our men 
children or servants as far, that is to say, as our said park 
extends and forty perches more beyond as is aforesaid and 
we will defend them from all hardships hindrances and 
claims whatever, which may be laid on them by our said 
men or any of our bailiffs by occasion of the said conduit. 
So however, as all men on whose lands the said conduit 
may happen to lie may be able to plough and sow freely 
and be preserved unharmed. In witness whereof I have 
appended my seal to the present writing. Witnesses 
Dom Nicholas son of Ralph, John de Sancto Laudo, 
Thomas de Berkeley son of Dom Thomas de Berkeley, 
William de Wautone, knights; Robert de Bradeston, 
Henry de Camme, Thomas de Swanhungre, and others. 

No. XXVIII. 

Let present and future know that I Nigel de Kyngescote 
for God and the salvation of my soul and the souls of 
Petronella my wife and of Walter de Mortone have given 
and granted and by this my present charter confirmed to 
God and the Church of the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswode 
and to the Monks there serving God in pure and perpetual 

Vol. XXII. 



226 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

alms, one acre of my land on the field of Nywenton, and 
one head of it abuts on the road leading to Callicote 
towards Kyngeswode, and the other on the pit where the 
said Monks are accustomed to water their cattle. To 
hold and to have the said acre with its appurtenances to 
the said Monks and their successors from me and my heirs 
for ever, freely and quietly, well and in peace, wholly and 
honorably, and in all things and in all places as pure and 
perpetual alms. But I and my heirs will warrant the said 
acre with all its appurtenances to the said Monks and their 
successors for ever. And because I wish that this my grant 
and alms may remain ratified and stable I have appended 
to this writing my seal. Witnesses William de Lasseberg, 
Thomas de Rocheford, Peter du Ywele, Elias du Cumbe, 
Geoffrey Caperun, and others. 

No. XXIX. 

In the year of our Lord 1280 on the feast of St. Mark, 
Evangelist, it was so agreed between the religious men the 
Abbot and Convent of Kyngeswode on the one part, and 
Brother Adam, Prior of the Hospital of St. Bartholomew 
Gloucester and the Brethren of the same place on the other 
part, that the said Abbot and Convent have given and for 
them and their successors have leased and granted to the 
said Prior and the Brethren aforesaid five acres of land 
with appurtenances, whereof an acre and half lie at Acche- 
cumbe towards Olepenne namely between the wood of the 
said Prior and Brethren of Lotegareshale, and the land of 
Robert de Benecumbe at the head of which acre lies another 
half-acre on the south side between the land of the aforesaid 
Brethren on the east side and the land of William de Tette- 
penne on the west side And one ferendel {i.e. £ of an acre) 
of land lies between the land of William de Tettepenne on 
the north side and the land pertaining to the Church of 
Symondeshale on the south side and abuts on the road of 
Wodewelle to the west And a half acre and a ferendel of 
land lie between the land of the Lord of Olepenne on the 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 227 

south side, and the land pertaining to the Church aforesaid 
on the north side, and abuts on the aforesaid road of Wode- 
welle on the west side And one acre lies between the land 
of Gilbert Clappe of Newenton on the north side, and the 
land of Gilbert Holcroft of Symondeshale on the south side, 
and abuts on the road which is called Stondingeston on the 
west, and on the land of the aforesaid Gilbert on the east. 
And a ferendel lies between the land of the said Gilbert 
Holcroft on the south, and the land of Wm. de Tedepenne on 
the north, and abuts on the wall of Tedepenne on the east. 
And one ferendel of land lies between the land of the Lord of 
Olepenne on the east, and the land of Adam de Tedepenne 
on the west, and abuts on the hedge of the aforesaid Adam 
on the north, and on the land of Walter le Southurne of 
Baggepath on the south. And a half acre lies between the 
land of the said Brethren of St. Bartholomew on the north, 
and the land of the Rector of the Church of Newenton on 
the south, and abuts on the road to Tetbury westward, and to 
the land of Wm. de Tedepenne on the east. To have and to 
hold the said five acres of land to the aforesaid Prior and 
his said Brethren and their successors freely and quietly 
well and in peace from the aforesaid religious men for ever. 

But for this grant, lease, and concession, the said Prior 
and his Brethren abovesaid have given and for themselves 
and their successors have leased and granted to the said 
Abbot and their successors in name of a perpetual exchange 
live acres of their land whereof three acres lie in the south 
field of Caldecote, between the land of the Lord of Newentun 
on the south side, and the land of William de Tedepenne 
abutting on the road from Cottenhulle on the north side. 
And one acre lies between the land of Walter Petyth on 
either side abutting on to the muleweye towards the west, 
and on to the land of the said Abbot and Convent on the 
east. And one acre lies between the land of Andrew Miller, 
and the land of John Richer de Kyngescot, and abuts on the 
land of the same Abbot and Convent to the north, and on 
the Bath road to the south. 



228 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

To hold and to have the said five acres of land with 
appurtenances to the said Abbot and Convent and their 
successors freely quietly well and in peace from the said 
Prior and the Brethren of the same place and their suc- 
cessors for ever. But the said Abbot and Convent for 
themselves and their successors, to the Prior and Brethren 
of the same place and their successors, as also the said Prior 
and Brethren for themselves and their successors, to the 
same Abbot and Convent and their successors, will warrant 
acquit and defend for ever the aforesaid lands with their 
appurtenances thus alternately exchanged. And if it should 
happen that the above mentioned parties shall be unable to 
alternately warrant the aforesaid lands with their appur- 
tenances as is aforesaid, or if they shall be hindered by royal 
or chief Lords, or by any other, in reason whereby the said 
exchange, as is described above, cannot hold, it may be 
lawful for both parties to revert to their own lands as they 
were before the exchange and to hold them as they had 
them before without any claim or contradiction of the parties 
predecessors or successors In witness whereof the above 
named parties have appended their seals alternately to this 
hand-written deed. Given in the Monastery of Kyngeswod 
in the year and day above mentioned. 

No. XXX. 

In the year of our Lord 1280 on the feast of St. Michael 
it was thus agreed between the religious men the Abbot and 
Convent of Kyngeswode on the one part, and Thomas de 
Haselcote son and heir of the late Richard de Haselcote on 
the other part, namely that the aforesaid Abbot and Convent 
have given and for themselves and their successors have 
leased and granted unto the aforesaid Thomas two acres 
and a ferendel of land with appurtenances in the fields of 
Kyngescote, whereof three ferendels lie in the vale of 
Kyngescote along the land of the Rector of Beverston 
Church on one side, and on the other, near the land of 
William son of the late Richard and Amice de Kyngescote, 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 229 

and one acre is called Blakenaker in the same field King 
between the land of Nigel son of the late Richard Lord of 
Kyngescote on the east and the land of the late Henry de 
Mathcumbe on the north, and one half acre lies in the same 
field between the land of the said Thomas on either side, 
namely between the Croft and meadow of the same. To 
have and to hold the said two acres with the abovesaid 
ferendel to the aforesaid Thomas and his heirs or assigns 
freely quietly well and in peace from the aforesaid religious 
men for ever. But for this grant, lease, and concession, the 
said Thomas has given and for himself and his heirs or 
assigns has leased and granted to the aforesaid religious men 
and their successors by name of an exchange two acres and 
a half of land in the field of Newyntun, whereof one acre 
lies at the Wynch of the said religious men, between the 
lands of the same on either side. And the other lies in the 
cultivated land of Popethorn, between the land of the late 
Andrew Muller on the east, and the land of the above-named 
Thomas on the west, and half an acre lies at Fiscleshole 
between the land of the late John Richard on the east, and 
the land of the aforesaid monks on the north. To have and 
to hold the aforesaid two acres and a half of land with 
appurtenances to the aforesaid religious men and their 
successors freely quietly well and in peace from the aforesaid 
Thomas and his heirs for ever. But the said religious men 
for themselves and their successors to the often-mentioned 
Thomas and his heirs or assigns, and the aforesaid Thomas 
for himself and his heirs to the same religious men, will 
warrant acquit and defend the aforesaid lands with their 
appurtenances mutually exchanged in the above-mentioned 
manner for ever. And if it should happen that the above- 
named parties are unable mutually to warrant the aforesaid 
lands with their appurtenances as is aforesaid or even should 
be reasonably hindered by royal or chief lords or by any 
others wdiereby the said exchange as is described above 
cannot hold, it may be lawful for either party to revert to 
their own lands as they were before the exchange and to 



230 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

hold them as they held them before, without any claim or 
contradiction of the parties or of their successors or heirs. 
In witness whereof the often-mentioned have mutually 
appended their seals to this manuscript writing. 

Given on the year and day above mentioned in the 
Grange of the said Monks of Caldecote. 



No. XXXI. 

In the 10th year of the reign of King Edward on the day 
of St. Cyricus and St. Julita (16th June) it was thus agreed 
between the Abbot and Convent of Kyngeswod on the one 
part, and Henry Passelewe of Rodmarton on the other, 
namely that the Abbot and Convent have leased and for 
themselves and their successors have granted to the said 
Henry for term of his life four acres of land in the field of 
Rodmarton which indeed they had by grant of the late 
William de Rodmarton, called Le Knyth. Whereof, to wit, 
two acres lie in the north field at La Seyorthforlong between 
the lands of John Brachel on the south side, and the lands 
belonging to the lamp of St. Mary in the Abbey of Cyren- 
cester on the north side, and two acres lie in the south field 
between the lands of John Brachel on the east, and the lands 
of Richard In la Lane on the west, and extend on to the wall 
lying near the road from Rodmarton towards Bristol. To 
have and to hold the said four acres with all their appur- 
tenances to the said Henry for term of his life from the said 
Abbot and Convent freely quietly well and in peace. So that 
after term of life of the said Henry, the said four acres, 
without hindrance from the heirs of the said Henry, shall 
return peaceably to the said Abbot and Convent, excepting 
however the crop of the aforesaid land if it should be at 
that time sown, to the heirs or assigns of the said Henry. 
And that this agreement may remain ratified and stable all 
the aforesaid term the parties have mutually appended their 
seals on the chirographic writing. 

Witnesses John le Bruth Lord of Weston, Philip de la 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 231 

Hulla of Snyptone, William, Lord of Rodmarton, James 

Folyoth, Henry Constaunce, Henry le Feeman, and 

others. (1282.) 

No. XXXII. 

Let present and future know that I Henry Passelewe 
of Rodmerton for God and the salvation of my soul have 
given granted and by this present charter have confirmed 
to God and the Church of St. Mary of Kyngeswude and 
the Monks there serving God in pure free and perpetual 
alms three acres and a half of arable land in the field of 
Culcretun, whereof two acres extend on to Stonhulle and 
lie between the land of the said Abbot and convent on 
the north, and the land of Richard Launcing on the south, 
and one half acre at La Butine lies between the land of 
the late Walter Bernard on the south, and the land of 
the late Walter Suth on the north, and another half acre 
is at Smalthorne, and lies between the land of the said 
Abbot and Convent on the west, and the land of the late 
John Suth on the east, and one half acre is in the same 
furlong and lies between the land of the late Walter Suth 
on the west, and the land, of the late Henry Peris on the east. 
To hold and to have the said three acres and a half with all 
their appurtenances to the said Abbot and Convent and 
their successors and to the said Church of Kyngeswude 
from me and my heirs freely quietly well and in peace 
as pure and perpetual alms as far as pertains to me. So 
that they never be answerable to any man for the same, 
but to God alone in prayers, saving one penny payable 
yearly on the feast of St. John Baptist to Roger Le Freman 
of Culcretun and his heirs for all services, secular exaction, 
or demands. And I Henry and my heirs will warrant acquit 
and defend by the said service the said 3 acres and a half 
with all their appurtenances to the said Monks and their 
successors against all mortals for ever. And that this my 
gift grant and confirmation of my present charter may 
be ratified and stable for ever I have appended my seal 
to this writing. 



232 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Witnesses John de Hamekyntone, Elias Kokerel, William 
de Rodmertun, Roger de Bley, James Folioth, John Neel, 
Roger de Lonwesmere, and others. 

No. XXXIII. 

Account of Brother William de Cumb, Warden of the 
Grange of Charteshull, of Baggestone, of Hull, of Aldrinctun, 
at Christmas 1289. 

And received £"8 10s. gd. for 18 oxen. Also received 
30s. for 4 cows. Also received 69s. for 16 stone of wool. 
Also received 36s. for 24 sheep. Also received 8s. for a 
Bull. Also received i8d. for 5 calves. Also received for 
1 stone of cheese 8s. Also received i8d. for 3 casks of 
butter. Also received 6s. for 10 horse skins. ^"17 14s. gd. 

Then in 19 oxen £\o 6s. iod. Also in 4 Cows 15s. 2d. 
Also in 4 bullocks 12s. Also in 1 heifer 4s. Also in 
24 sheep 48s. Also in 42 ewes 42s. Also in Hay 24s. 
Also to the sub-cellarer nd. Also in my expenses and my 
gifts thro' the autumn to the Monks 3s. 6d. Also in wages 
for Hibrdun 3s. Also in increase of wages for Kele iod* 
Also in wages for E. Nereford 2od. Also in wages for 
E. de Sti . . usenton 3s. Also in table for the lay-brothers 
4s. 6d. Also in pittances for servants against Christmas 
and against the feast of Pancras 3s. 3d. The expenses 
exceed the receipts at Chartishull by 27s. iod. In the 
year 89. 

Oxen at Ch(ertishull) 16 at Baggestone 13 at Hull 7 — 
price for each 13s. 4d. Sum ^24 13s. 4d. 

At Alarintun. — Oxen 8 price each 10s. Sum £\. 
Cows 22 price each 5s. Sum 4os(?). Two bulls price 10s. 
1 bullock of 3 year's price 6s. 8d. And 3 . . . 7 price 28s. 
Bullocks of 2 years 2 male and i female price 6s. Bullocks 
over a year 5 remaining price 5s. Calves 5 price 3s. 4d. 
Mares 5 price 45s. Brood mares 9 price 9s. Sheep 90 
price £\ 5s. Lambs 20 price 10s. Total price dues being 
extracted ^44 14s. 4d. 

State of Baggestone. — Oxen 11, and bullocks 2, cows for 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 233 

the yoke 4, bull 1, bullocks 7 of 4 years, bullock male 1 of 
3 years, bullocks male 3 of 2 years, female 1 of 2 years, 
and female 1 of 1 year, heifers 2. 

State of Charteshull. — Oxen 14, and bullocks, 2 yoke cows 
17, bull 1, bullocks male 2 of 2 years, female 1 of 1 year, 
calves 3 — 2 male and 1 female, heifer 1. 

State of Hull. — Oxen 7, bullock 1, yoke cows 2, bullocks 
3 of 2 years, bullock 1 of 1 year, calves 2, heifers 2. 

State of Aldrinctun. — Oxen 8, 1 cow at the sheephouse,. 
1 cow at the cowhouse, 1 calf. 

on the back. 

Account of Brother William de Cumb of the Grange 
of Charteshull, of Baggestone, of Hull, of Aldrinctun, in 
the year of our Lord 1288. 

Items. — Received from 7 oxen of his own sold 60 (£5). 
and 12s. Received also from 1 heifer of his own sold 6s. 6d. 
Also from 7 oxen "horned" 1 51s. 7d. Also from 7 cows 
sold 38s. gd. (41s., sic). Also from 2 heifers 15s. 6d. Also 
received from 8 calves sold 4s. Also received from 4 pigs 8s. 
Also received from 2 brood mares 4s. Also received from 
1 wey of cheese 8s Also from 4 casks of butter i6d. 
Also from 4 cowskins and from 1 oxskin of 2 years and 

1 calfskin . . . Also received from 4 mareskins 5s. 6d. 
Also from 8 stone of wool 32s. Sum /13 13s. gd. 

Then in 2 mares bought 16s. Also in 4 oxen bought 
44s. 6d. Also in 8 oxen bought for fattening 31s. gd. Also 
m 3 (? 5) cows bought for calving 22s. gd. Also in 5 cows 
bought for fattening 22s. 4d. Also in 1 bullock of 3 
years 4s. 4d. Also in 3 bullocks, 1 of 3 years, and 1 of 

2 years, and 1 of 1 year, 6s. (? 8s.) Also in 3 heifers 
2 for fattening and 1 for calving 10s. 6d. Also in four 

1 Crochunct. I have suggested horned from the old Latin word 
crocha, a hook; but perhaps the old French word crochere— joug, 
— " morceau de bois courbe' du Ton attache les boeufs" [s.v. yoke) 
(Roquefort's glossary) — is the foundation of the word. Hence the 
meaning yoke oxen. But I have given in other parts yoke oxen as 
the equivalent of boves adjuncti (conf. Du Gange). 



234 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

pigs bought 6s. Also in 20 sheep and 31 ewes 61s. 8d. 
Also in servants' wages in various places 34s. 4d. Also 
in table of lay Brothers 4s. 2d. Also in " Colurs " 2d. 
Also in "Beches" 4d. Also in gifts to servants 6d. Also 
to Robert de Yet i2d. Also to the sub-cellarer i2d. Also 
for the meadow of . . . vel 3s. 6d. Also in my expenses 
in the Autumn and in gifts throughout the Grange 3s. 2d. 
Also in wages for Hebed 2s. 4d. Also in wages for Nereferd 
2s. 6d. Also for Monks and sick lay brothers and in my 
expenses throughout the place 2s. gd. Also in rents 5s. 6d. 
Sum ^"14 7s. 4d. (?i5s. 7d.) And the expenses exceed 
the receipts 21s. 7^d. 

Memorandum of 3 mares dead at Baggestone and of 

1 cow dead at Charteshull and of 2 bullocks of 2 years 
and of 1 calf the same. Also memorandum of 3 cows 
delivered for the Larder. 

State of Charteshull &c. at Christmas 1288. — Charteshull 
12 oxen, Baggestone 11 oxen, Hull 7 oxen, Aldrincton 7 oxen, 

2 bulls price 8s. 24 cows, namely at Charteshul 14, at 
Baggeston 6, at Hull 2, at the sheephouse 2. Bullocks of 

3 years 7 — namely at Baggeston 3, at Charteshul 2, at 
Hull 2. Heifers of 3 years 7, bullocks of 1 year 4, and 
heifers of 1 year calves 5, mares 6, brood mares at Bagge- 
stone 19, ewes 31, sheep 20. Bullocks of 3 years 2. 

These are the debtors of Brother W. de Cumbe at 

Christmas 1288: — Walter Wytink and Henry de Bredebrug' 

32s. — and Walter Cook 12s. 2d. and his brother " con- 

versus " swineherd with Master John C ... 9s. A lay 

brother of Charteshul 12s. William Kniht of Hull 12s. 6d. 

Robert Sale 16s. Cristina de Cumb 3s. William de Brug- 

geaunt 3s. 

No. XXXIV. 

Let present and future know that I Ralph Mucator of 
Solbir (Sodbury) for God and the salvation of my soul have 
given granted and by the present charter confirmed to God 
and the Church of the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswode and to 
the monks there serving God in perpetual and free alms that 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 235 

burgage with all its appurtenances in the borough of Solbir, 
which lies between the land of Walter son of Nicholas, 
Clerk on the west side near the bridge which is towards 
the house which was Ralph de Rupe's on one side, and 
that bank which flows into in the fishpond from the said 
bridge on the other side in the same vill. To have and 
to hold the same burgage with all its appurtenances and 
liberties and free customs pertaining to the aforesaid land, 
to the said monks and their successors freely and quietly, 
wholly and honorably, well and in peace, for ever. Paying 
for it annually to me and my heirs on the feast of St. Michael 
one pair of gloves of the price of one penny for all services, 
suits of court, and hundreds, and all secular demands. 
But I and my heirs will warrant to the said monks and 
their successors, and to the said Church of Kyngeswod, 
the aforesaid land with all appurtenances and before-named 
liberties against all mortals and will acquit them of all 
services which may issue from the same for ever. And 
that this my grant and concession may remain ratified 
and stable. I have appended my seal to this writing. 
Witnesses John de Actune, William de Frompton, Adam 
Pistor, Benedict de Dodintun, Thomas Carpenter, Henry 
Bunz, Henry Cokhil, and others. 

No. XXXV. 

Let present and future know that I Jordan de Budeford 
for God, and the safety of my soul, have granted and by the 
present charter have confirmed to God and the Church of 
the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswode and the monks there 
serving God in pure and perpetual alms the grant of 
Geoffrey de Budeford my father by his charter confirmed 
to the said monks containing these words: "Let present 
and future know that I Geoffrey de Budeford for love of 
God and for the salvation of my soul have given and 
granted to the monks of Kyngeswud in pure and perpetual 
alms, one cartload of hay from my meadow of Auckesbury. 1 

1 Hawkesbury. 



236 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

So forsooth that when I or my heirs have made hay of our 
meadow and wish to carry our hay, the aforesaid monks 
by their servants shall come with one cart, and fill that 
cart with our better hay, and take it with them whither 
they wish. This aforesaid gift I have granted and given 
to the aforesaid monks of Kyngeswud with the consent 
of my heirs for love of God to be received from me or my 
heirs every year for ever. And I and my heirs will make 
known each year to the aforesaid monks when we wish to 
carry the hay of my meadow, that they may come and 
receive their hay. And let it be known, that though our 
meadow which we have for the time, be turned into arable 
land the aforesaid monks shall receive the rent of hay in 
the better place in which we have a meadow." Wherefore 
I Jordan de Budeford wish and grant for me and my heirs 
and confirm that the aforesaid monks may receive freely 
every year the aforesaid cartload of hay, as by the grant 
of Geoffrey my father was aforesaid. And that the afore- 
said charter may obtain strength of confirmation I and my 
heirs will warrant and defend the said gift to the said monks 
for ever, against all men and women. And that this my 
confirmation may remain ratified and stable I have 
appended my seal to the present writing. Witnesses Dom 
William Le Maunsel, John De Waunton, Robert le Veel, 
Knights ; Elias de Cumbe, Yvo de Cumbe, Thomas le Archer, 
Richard de Colewiohe, and others. 

No. XXXVI. 

In the year of our Lord 1302 on the feast of St. Michael 
it was thus agreed between the religious men the Abbot and 
Convent of Kyngeswode on the one part, and Laurence de 
Brome on the other, namely that the aforesaid Laurence by 
consent and wish of Agnes his wife has given and for himself 
and his heirs has leased and granted to the said Abbot and 
Convent and their successors twelve acres and a half and a 
ferendel of his land with appurtenances lying in the fields 
of Caldecote in various parcels, of which forsooth certain 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 237 

portions lie in the North field, namely one portion near 
La Leyhtonacre on the south part, and two other portions 
whereof one lies in the eastern part of the land of the 
Lord of Lasseberewe, and the other in the west part of the 
same land. And one portion lies near Le Homelonde in the 
south part. And on two other portions Hyldebrondesslad 
extends. And one portion lies at Wowelande near the land 
of the aforesaid religious men, which they sometime held 
from Walter Petyt in exchange, in the western part And 
one portion lies on Slepareshulle abutting on the path 
leading from Caldecote towards Kyngescote from the land 
of the then Lady of Newenton. And one portion lies at 
Haselgrovethornes stretching one head on Le Rugweye and 
another on the Lower Haycroft. But other portions lie in 
the South field whereof forsooth one lies at the Tumbrell of 
the said religious men, near the land of the same, abutting 
one head to the north another to the south And a second 
lies against Godescroft stretching one head from the western 
part on to the path leading from Newynton towards Calde- 
cote. And a third portion lies at Popethorne which is called 
Gorbrodelond. And a fourth portion lies at Slauhterslade which 
similarly is called Gorbrodelond, and abuts from the west on 
to the Kings Street, leading towards Bath. To have and to 
hold the said twelve acres and a half and one ferendel of 
land to the said Abbot and Convent and their successors 
freely quietly well and in peace from the chief Lords of the 
fee for ever. But for this gift, lease, and grant, the said 
Abbot and Convent have given and for themselves and their 
successors have leased, and granted, to the aforesaid Laurence 
and his heirs by name of exchange, twelve acres and a half 
and one ferendel of land with appurtenances in the North 
and South fields of Baggepath lying also in various parcels, 
of which certain portions indeed lie in the South field of 
Baggepath, namely between Baggepath and Yrcumbe. One 
portion lies in Stepforlong extending towards the north on 
Hungersforlong And a second portion lies in the same 
Stepforlong, extending like the other northward, which 



238 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

portions indeed, an acre of someone else's separates. And 
one portion lies in Hungersforlong, stretching one head 
towards Baggepath, and another towards the meadow of 
Newenton. And one portion lies in Brokeleyesflad so called. 
And one portion lies in another field of Baggepath, namely in 
the furlong at Fragnum, extending on the vill of Baggepath, 
And one portion lies in Hosmareleyeclive, in a third field of 
Baggepath, namely under the same vill between the land of 
the aforesaid Laurence on both sides extending northwards 
on to the croft of the aforesaid Laurence. And another 
portion lies on the croft of the aforesaid Laurence at 
Tonewelle. And one portion lies in the same field under two 
crofts of the same Laurence lengthwise at the aforesaid 
Tonewelle. To have and to hold the aforesaid twelve acres 
and a half and a ferendel of land with appurtenances, to 
the aforesaid Laurence and his heirs or assigns freely quietly 
well and in peace from the chief Lords of the fee for ever. 
Moreover the said Abbot and Convent for themselves and 
their successors, to the said Laurence and his heirs or 
assigns, as also the said Laurence for himself and his heirs, 
to the aforesaid religious men and their successors, will 
warrant acquit and defend for ever all the said lands with 
their appurtenances mutually exchanged in the manner 
above-mentioned. And if it should happen that the afore- 
said parties should be reasonably hindered by the royal or 
chief Lords or others, whereby the said exchange as is set 
forth above, cannot hold, let it be lawful for either party to 
revert to their own lands as they were before the exchange, 
and as they before held them, without any claim or contradic- 
tion of the parties or their heirs. In witness whereof the 
often-named parties have mutually appended their seals to 
this chirograph writing. Witnesses William de Dene Lord 
of Lassebrewe, Nigel de Kyngescote, Walter Petyt, Thomas 
de Haselcot, Robert Trylly, and many others. 

Given in the Monastery of Kingswood on the year and 
day above mentioned. 



Cistercian* Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 239 

No. XXXVII. 

Petition to the King and the Council from the Abbot 
and Convent of Kingswood for redress against John de 
Anesleye who by coverture of the Lady of Chirinton whom 
he had espoused, holds himself to be Lord of Chirinton and 
in spite of a composition made of old time between the said 
Abbey and the Lords Chirinton concerning certain common 
of pasture, has erected a fence and enclosed part of the com- 
mon to the serious grievance of the said Abbey and the 
Abbey's sheep and cattle. Undated. Tern. E. III. 

No. XXXVIII. 

This indenture, made at Berkeley on Monday the Feast 
of St. Mary Magdaline, in the twenty-seventh year of the 
reign of Edward the third after the conquest, between 
William brother and heir of Thomas de Swonhunger of 
the one part, and John Seriaunt the younger of the other. 
Witnesseth that the aforesaid William and John have made 
the partition and division of all the tenements lands and 
rents which they held in common on the day of the making 
of these presents in the vill and hamlets of Ham, Cam, 
Stinchcomb, Kingscote, and Haselcote, except the fishery in 
Severn which is excepted from this partition, and will remain 
in common, that the said William shall have and hold to him 
and his heirs all the tenements, lands, and rents, in Kingscote 
and Haselcote severally, that is to say five shillings of annual 
rent to be taken from the land of William Thomas, and two 
crofts called le Rocdecroftes in Kyngescote, and half a rod of 
land in Haselcote. And the said John shall have and hold to 
him for his whole life as tenant by the courtesy of England 
in law the heritage of Joan daughter of the said John all the 
tenements lands and rents and reversions in Ham, Cam, and 
Stinchcomb, that is to say, the services and two shillings of 
annual rent to be taken from the land of William son and 
heir of John Passemir with wards marriages escheates and 
all other appurtenances and eight shillings rent to be taken 



240 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

from the land of William Le Longe together with the 

reversion of the fourth part of a rod of land after the death 

of the said William as it sh.ill fall in Cam, and Stinchcomb, 

and one parcel of meadow lying near the meadow called Le 

Longemed in the vill of Ham. In witness whereof the 

above-named parties have interchangeably put their seals 

to these indentures. Witnesses John Capel, John Purlewent, 

John Draicote, Stephen Kyneltre, and others. 

These indentures written on the year and date above. 

(July 22, 1353.) 

No. XXXIX. 

This is the covenant made at Berkeley the first day of 
May in the year of King Edward the third after the conquest 
the third, between John son of John de Swonhungre and 
Alice his wife of the one part, and John son of John Le 
Seriaunt and Joan his wife on the other part, daughter and 
heir of Thomas de Stone, that is to say that John the son of 
John de Swonhungre and Alice his wife have . . . and 
released for themselves and for their heirs for ever to the 
said John son of John le Seriaunt and Joan his wife, all their 
right and claim which they had in all the messuages lands 
and tenements in Olverstone, Netterstone, and Woodford, 
which belong to them of the heritage of the aforesaid Thomas 
de Stone as in messuages, lands, meadows, pastures, commons, 
woods, fisheries, and rents, together with all the reversions of 
all the tenements which the tenants hold for term of their 
life, and the heriots and other profits arising from the said 
tenants with all their appurtenances. 

To have and to hold all the aforesaid messuages, lands, 
tenements, meadows, pastures, commons, woods, fisheries, and 
rents, together with all the reversions of all the tenements 
which the tenants hold for term of their life, with the heriots 
and other profits of the said tenants with all the appurte- 
nances to the aforesaid John son of John Seriaunt and to Joan 
his wife and to the heirs of the said John forever, without any 
retention, except the rent of Thomas le Whyte together with 
the reversion of the particular tenements which he holds in 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 241 

Stone, and in Woodford, of the heritage aforesaid, as it shall 
fall, of the chief Lordships of the fee by the rents and services 
which pertain to the aforesaid tenements. And the aforesaid 
John son of John le Seriaunt and Joan his wife will and grant 
for themselves and the heirs of the said Joan, that they be 
charged to perform their rents and services which pertained 
to the chief Lordships of the tenements which the said 
Thomas le Whyte holds in Stone and in Woodford. And 
by this grant and release the aforesaid John son of John le 
Seriaunt and Joan his wife have granted and released to the 
aforesaid John son of John le Swonhungre and to Alice his 
wife all their right and claim which they had in all the 
messuages lands and tenements in Wanswell which belong 
to them of the heritage of the aforesaid Thomas de Stone as 
in lands meadows pastures commons woods fisheries rents 
and reversions and all the appurtenances, except all the land 
which lies in Burifeld, in Calchushull, Ricardescroft, and 
fourteen acres of land in Wyndmullefeld, in all the meadow 
in Longemede, and in Eghammore, together with forty 
shillings rent issuing from a virgate (?) of land which 
William de Swonhungre holds for term of his life, with the 
reversion of the said " virgee " of land after the said William's 
death in proportion as it shall fall with all the appurtenances. 
To have and to hold all the aforesaid messuages lands and 
tenements as in lands meadows pastures commons woods 
fisheries rents and reversions with all the appurtenances 
to the aforesaid John son of John de Swonhungre and to 
Alice his wife and to the heirs of the said Alice for ever, 
except all the land in Buryfield, Calcheshulle, Ricardescroft 
fourteen acres of land in Wyndmullefeld, and all the meadow 
of Longgemed, and in Eghammore, together with forty 
shillings rent issuing from a " vergee " of land which 
William de Swonhungre holds for term of his life, with 
the reversion of the said "vergee" of land after the said 
William's death as it shall fall then with all the appur- 
tenances. The which lands meadows rents and reversions 
with all the appurtenances shall remain to the aforesaid 

17 
Vol. XXII. 



242 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

John son of John le Seriaunt and Joan his wife and the heirs 
of the said Joan for ever paying for them yearly to the chief 
lordships ... for all services and demands. And the 
aforesaid John son of John de Swonhungre and Alice his 
wife will and grant for them and for the heirs of . . . which 
to the chief lordships belong of all the land in Calchushulle, 
Richardescroft, fourteen acres of land in Wyndmullefeld, and 
'the whole meadow of Longgemede, and in Eghammore. So 
nevertheless that all the land, rents, and reversions, which 
Elyanora de Stone mother of the aforesaid Alice and Joan 
held in Kyngescote, remain entirely to the aforesaid John 
son of John de Swonhungre and Alice his wife and John son 
of John le Seriaunt and Joan his wife and to the heirs of the 
aforesaid Alice and Joan by reasonable portion for ever. 
In witness whereof the seals of the parties are interchange- 
ably put to this indenture. Witnesses John Capel, William 
Capel, John Wynch, John de Egeton, Robert de Asshelworth, 
William Gylemyre, Thomas de Crawlegh, and others. 

Given at Berkeley on year and day above named. 
(May 1, 1329.) 

No. XL. 

(Mutilated.) 

Memorandum. — That Dom. Roger de Berkeley Lord of 
Dursley gave to Thomas de Rocheford the manor of Osle- 
worth by charter containing these words : " Let present 
and future know that I Robert de Berkeleye have granted 
and by this present charter confirmed to Thomas de 
Rochefford, for his homage and service, the manor of 
Osleworth. To have and to hold," &c. 

Afterwards, Thomas de Rochefford granted to Henry de 
Billesbi the same manor by his charter containing these 
words : " Let present &c. know that I Thomas de Roche- 
fford have granted ... all that tenement in Osleworth 
with all right and lordship which falls or may fall to me 
after the death of ... To hold and to have to the said 
Henry and his heirs or assigns, or to whomsoever he may 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 243 

assign or bequeath the same — with reliefs, wards and all 
other escheats &c. — freely and quietly from all pleas, 
complaints, aids, demands, and customs, &c. Paying for 
it annually to me and my heirs one pair of gloves, or one 
penny, at Easter for all services, suits, customs, and demand?, 
excepting foreign service, pertaining to the aforesaid tene- 
ment. 

Afterwards Master Henry de Billesby gave the aforesaid 
manor of Osleworth to the Abbot and Convent and Church 
of the Blessed Mary of Kyngeswod. To have and to hold 
by the same service altogether by which the said Master 
Henry held it. 

Afterwards the aforesaid William de Rochefford brother 
and heir of Thomas de Rochefford confirmed the whole gift 
of the said Henry of the said manor to the Abbey Convent 
and Church of Kyngeswod in free pure and perpetual alms. 
And as for him, so for his heirs, he remitted and quitclaimed 
the annual rent of one pair of gloves of the value of one 
penny, or one penny to the aforesaid Church Abbot and 
Convent. To have and to hold the same as free pure and 
perpetual alms for . . . customs and demands, saving 
however foreign service. 

Afterwards Dom. Henry de Berkeleye . . . confirmed 
the said manor to God and the Church of the Blessed 
Mary . . . free and quit of all services and customs 
saving foreign service . . . 

William de la Home gave to the Church . . . the 
tenement of La Home with all its appurtenances in 
free pure and perpetual alms which tenement the said 
William de la Home (had from) Jordon de la Warre 
Lord of Cnolle and his ancestors for the service of one 
pound of pepper for all services. Which pound of pepper 
the said Jordan has remitted, and confirmed the said 
tenement of La Home from himself and his successors 
in pure and perpetual alms to the said Church for ever. 
Moreover Dom. John de Berkeley son and heir of Henry de 
Berkeley has confirmed all the lands and possessions in free 



244 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

pure and perpetual alms which the same Abbot and Convent 
have in the tenure of Newynton. 

XLL 

Account of the Cellarer of Bagg in the year of our 
Lord 131 1 : — In purse namely 4s. 6d. And received of 
42s. for two oxen sold. And of 16s. for one Bull sold. And of 
6s. 6d. for 5 calves sold. And from 6s. 6d. for cheese sold. 
Sum ^4 5s. 

Then in 2 oxen bought 39s. 6d. And in hay bought 16s. 
And in wages for cowherd 3s. 5d. And in pittance and gloves 
6£d. And in geese bought 4s. Sum 63s. 5^d. And the 
receipts exceed the expenditure 22s. 6Jd. Then for 12 
oxen remaining in the last account and from 2 above 
bought, sum 14s. Then in above sold 2 and remain 12 
value 13s. 4d. Sum £&. 

Also received from 12 cows remaining and from 1 yolk- 
cow sum 13. Then in 1 killed and remain 12 value 
per head 5s. Sum 60s. The same received from 1 bull 
remaining and from 1 for the yoke sum 2 and 1 remains. 
Value 6s. 8d. The same received for 3 yearlings and two 
remain value 3s. each. Sum 6s. The same received from 
one bullock remaining and a bull is added above and 
nothing remains. The same received for 3 calves and 
there remain now 1 male yearling and two female value 6s. 
The same received from 1 female bullock (heifer) and is 
added above. The same received from 1 bull remaining 
and value remains as 9s. and 3 colts value returned xxs. 
The same received from 7 calves from issue. Then in 5 
above sold and in murrain one, and 2 remain value 2s. 

And from one foal from issue . . . s. 

Sum of the whole estate with what remains in purse 

^14 8s. 2^d. 

Hulle. — Also the account of the same for Hull and 

there remains in purse 48s. 6£d. From 2 oxen sold and 

i6d. from 1 calf sold sum 44s. iod. Sum £\ us. 33d. 

Then in 2 oxen bought 44s. iod. And in increase of wages 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 245 

6d. And in pittance and gloves 6£d. Sum 45s. io£d. And 
in gifts 85s. 5d. Sum £\ us. 3^d. The same received 
from 8 oxen remaining — value per head 13s. 4d. Sum 
106s. 8d. The same from 2 cows value 13s. 4d. Also 
1 heifer value 6s. 8d. The same received from 2 yearlings 
value 4s. The same received from 2 mares remaining. 
There is one with murrain and there remains 1 value 10s. 
The same received from 1 colt (foal) remaining value 10s. 
Sum of the whole estate £y 10s. 8d. 
And from what remains in purse (= cash in hand) 56s. id. 
The Account of the same from the Cowherd. — And received 
from £6 10s. from 9 oxen sold. And from 20s. from 1 bull 
sold. And from lis. 4d. from 8 calves sold. And from 
48s. lod. from wool sold. And from £6 10s. from corn sold 
in sheaf of Osleworth. And from 1 foal sold 10s. Sum 
£21 6s. 3d. Then in n oxen bought £6 10s. 3d. And in 
sheaf (corn) bought at Osleworth £6. Also 46s. 8d. for 
the present year's tithes. And in 32 lambs 16s. And in 
hay bought 18s. And in forage for the cowherd 6s. And 
in wages for the Cowherd 2s. 8d. And in wages for the 
cowherd's boy i2d. And in grease and tar 3s. iod. And 
in gifts to various bailiffs 5s. And in my own expenses 10s. 
And in pittances and geese (?) 8d. Sum ^"18 12s. id. 
And the receipts exceed the expenditnre 54s. 2d. And for 
1 Heriott " Tredelaz." The same received from 11 oxen 
above bought of them 9 sold above. And in . 2s. . 2 
and in 1 delivered at Culkerton and none remain. Sum 
12 and 2. The same received from 17 cows remaining and 
from 1 added 1 (for yoke). Sum 18 of them — 2 killed for 
the larder and 16 remain value 7s. Sum 112s. The same 
received from 1 bull remaining and from 1 added sum 
2. Of them in 1 sold above and 1 remains value 7s. The 
same received from 2 mares q. sup. adjung' and nothing 
remains. And received from 5 bullocks remaining and 1 as 
a gift and there remain 2 male and 2 female value per head 
4s. Sum 8s. Then in 8 sold above and 2 in murrain 

1 Adjunct. 



246 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

sum 2. And 5 remain value i2d. each. Sum 5s. The same 
received from 120 sheep 22 remain and black. Then in 
gifts 2 and in murrain 1 sum 3 And 48 remain value 6d. 
each. Sum 23s. 6d. The same received from 2 foals 
remaining and from 1 given sum 3 Of them in 1 sold 
above and 2 remain value each 10s. Sum 28s. 

On the back of the deed : Sum extracted owed ^"4 3s. 

No. XLII. 

Account of the Cellarer from the feast of St. Lawrence in 
the year 1315 to the feast of St. Michael next following 1 : — 
Received : 36s. 3d. paid for 43 sheep sold. And 36s. for six 
quarters of barley sold. And £6 os. 8d. for 52 quarters 2 
bushels of oats sold. And £15 from cash (de bursa = purse). 
And 53s. 4d. received from the smith, a lay brother (con- 
versus). And 6s. 8d. received from the grange at Osleworth. 
And 10s. for heriot of Richard Lancyng. And 7s. from 
the goods of Adam le Droys. And 4s. from wood sold* 
Sum ^"28 13s. 1 id. 

In wages of servants both of the Abbey and of the grange 
/io 10s. 5d. And on the part of harvest cutting of all the 
granges ^17 2s. 8d. And in 2^ quarters of salt 21s. gd. 
And paid for green wax 4s. 6d. And in payment to the sub- 
cellarer 8s. 6d. And in pittances of various servants gs. 6d. 
And in expenses about a man killed (?) (occisum) 14s. 6d. 
And in expenses of a boy to Le Wych (Droitwich ?) "pro sale 
sub-arrando" 2 I2d. And in expenses at Osle(worth) about the 
Clerk 6d. And in linen cloth I7d. And in his own expenses 
for travelling 22^d. And in gifts 2s. 7d. And in stockfish 
9s. id. And expenses of David in looking for Richard de 

1 In the autumn of 1315 there commenced the worst famine ever 
recorded in England : in 1316 wheat sold for 16s. a quarter, the average 
price from 1261 to 1540 being 5s. n£d. Compared with the prices in No. 
XXXIII., the value of sheep had already fallen considerably ; but it is 
unfortunate that the account ends at Michaelmas, for the full effects of the 
famine which arose from excessive wet were not felt till the following 
year. (Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, pp. 215, 218, Ed. 1884.) 

2 Sub arare=to plough up. Sub arrare— to espouse, to give a pledge. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 247 

Rodeneye iod. And in expenses of 2 boys travelling 4d. 
And in expenses about the Abbot and Prior and their com- 
panions at the Grange i6d. And in hay bought 6s. 8d. 
Sum £$i 7s. id. And the expenses exceed the receipts 

53 s - 2 £ d - 

And in task of the threshers 14s. 6Jd. And in gloves and 

autumn (?) gloves of the same igd. And in pittance of the 

thresher iod. And in gloves for servants 3s. 6d. And in 

gloves for the monks 4s. And in pittance for the thresher 

being in arrear i4d. And in expenses of the Prior in the 

grange 4s. 5id. And in leather (coriaco) work (?) one skin 

yd. And in 1 augur 2d. And in furniture one horn at 

Haselden 4d. And in payment of the plumber for work 8d. 

And in alteration of one saddle 6d. And in gathering seed 

for corn at the lower grange 7d. And in nails 3d. Sum 

34s. 2d. 

No. XLIII. 

On Saturday in the feast of Faith (6 Oct.) in the year of 
the reign of King Edward the thirteenth It was so agreed 
between the religious men Dom. Richard by the grace of 
God the Abbot of the Church of the Blessed Mary of 
Kynggeswode and the Convent of the same place on the 
one part, and Hugh Lanfford on the other part, namely, 
that the aforesaid religious have leased and granted to the 
aforesaid Hugh and his wife which he shall first marry after 
the making of these presents, one toft in the vill of Culkertun 
situated between the tenement of William le Cartere on the 
one part, and the tenement of Roger le Reue on the other 
part and twenty-four acres of land with appurtenances in the 
fields of Culkertun, whereof four acres lie at Beettesest near 
the land of Walter atte Mere, and one acre at Salt- 
harpewey, and two acres and a half lie at Oldehull, and one 
acre and a half at Barlynghull, and two acres lie at 
Rotherewey, and one acre lies in the same field, near the land 
of Richard West, and four acres lie at Ffernhamthorne near 
Fosse, and one acre and a half lie at Lyncheforlang, and three 



248 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

acres near the way which leads towards Tettebury, and one 
acre at Culkerbrugge, and two acres and a half lie at Wad- 
berewe. To have and to hold the aforesaid toft with the 
afore-mentioned land with all other appurtenances as in 
roads, paths, meadows, fields, and pastures, from the said 
religious and their successors to the aforesaid Hugh and his 
wife freely wholly well and in peace for all their lives only. 
Paying therefore annually the said Hugh and his wife, and 
the one of them who shall survive the other, to the said 
religious and their successors six shillings and eight pence at 
the four terms of the year, namely at the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel twenty pence, and at the feast of St. Thomas 
Apostle twenty pence, and at the feast of the Annunciation 
of the Blessed Mary twenty pence, and at the feast of the 
Nativity of St. John Baptist twenty pence, the term beginning 
at the feast of St. Michael Archangel next ensuing after the 
date of the presents, for all servile services pertaining thereto 
to the aforesaid religious saving suit at the court of the 
said religious in the vill of Culkerton, as often as it shall 
happen to be held after reasonable summons, and the service 
of our Lord the King if any be due therefrom. Moreover 
the aforesaid Religious and their successors will warrant and 
defend the aforesaid toft with all the land aforenoted, together 
with all their appurtenances, during the whole life of the 
aforesaid Hugh and his wife as is aforesaid. It is also 
agreed between the aforesaid parties that the aforesaid Hugh 
and his wife shall build on the said toft at their own expense, 
except that the said Religious shall find the big timber the 
virge ( = yard ? laths) and straw for one house. In witness 
whereof the aforesaid parties have alternately appended 
their seals to this indented writing. Witnesses John Burdon, 
Stephen Clencham, Robert Passelewe, John Bernard, Henry 
Constaunce, Thomas le Fremon, William le Duk and all 
others. Dated at Kyngeswode on the day and year above- 
mentioned. (October 9, 1339.) 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 249 

No. XLIV. 

In the year of the reign of King Edward the third from 
the conquest the twenty-fourth on the feast of St. Martin 
Bishop it was so agreed between the religious men the Abbot 
and Convent of Kyngeswod on the one part, and Richard 
Ardarne and Matilda his wife on the other, namely, that 
the said Abbot and Convent have granted and leased to the 
aforesaid Richard and Matilda all that their tenement, 
together with one virgate of land and a half, and with all 
other appurtenances in Colkerton which indeed tenement 
Jacobus de Lambard formerly held in the same place, of 
which land indeed two acres and a half lie at Smalthorn 
between the lands of Henry Passelewe and Roger Banewell, 
and one acre lies at Le Garstonghede, near the land of John 
Wylecryk, and one acre lies at Swetenhullested, near the land 
of Henry West, and half an acre lies at Lynch between the 
lands of Roger Banewell and Henry Passelewe, and one acre 
and a half lies at Asschemeslad which Walter Le Launsyng 
formerly held, and four acres lie beyond Asschemerseye, and a 
half acre lies at la Sandputtes between the lands of William 
Constaunce and Henry West, and one acre lies at La Butine 
which is called Le Hedacre which Walter de Launsyng 
formerly held and one acre lies at Smalthorn between the 
lands of Thomas Neel and Edith la Reue, and one acre and 
a half at Le Gores lies between the lands of John Bernard 
and the land which Walter de Launsyng formerly held, 
and one acre lies at Middleforlong between the land 
which Walter atte Mere formerly held and the land 
of Edith Le Reue, and half an acre near Smythes- 
weye lies between the land of Henry West and Thomas 
Neel, and one acre lies at Middleforlong between the land 
of Walter Le Geg and William Constance, and two acres 
lie beyond Smythesweye between the land of Roger Perus 
and John Barnewell, and one acre which extends on Le 
Fosse, and one acre near Smythesweye, lie between the lands 
of William Constance and William Arnald, and one acre lies 



250 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

at Rondoune between the lands of Roger Barewel and John 
Bernard, and one acre lies at Sweltenhulleshide, between 
the lands of Henry West and Edmund La Reue, and one 
acre and a half lie at Asschemeslad near La Rythie, and 
one acre and a half lie near his close and near the lands 
of Henry West, and one acre lies at the head of the said 
land near the land of John Wilecryk, one half acre lies at 
la Butine between the land of Henry Passelewe and 
Edmund La Reue, and one half acre lies at Templersquarer 
which is called Le Hedacre, and two acres lie at La Brech 
between the land of John Bernard and Thomas Down, and 
one acre lies at le Brech between the land of John Bernard 
and Launsyngeslond, and extends over Chiryeinedoun, and 
three acres lie in Le Girston before his gate, and half an acre 
lies beyond Wokemeweye between the land of John Bernard 
and John le Reue, and one acre lies at Le Wawes between 
the land of John Bernard and Henry Passelewe, and two 
acres lie at Le Lokforlong between the lands of Roger Perns 
and Edmund La Reue, and one acre lies at Barlychhulle near 
the land of Henry West, and one acre lies near Le 
Rucherweye and the land of Henry West, and one acre lies 
at Stonhull between the land of Henry West and Walter 
atte Mere, and one acre lies at Stanmere near the land of 
Roger Perus, and half an acre at Stanmerlies near the land 
of William Constaunce, and one acre lies at Annesdene 
between the land of Roger Perus and Roger Barnewell, and 
one acre lies at Le Quarer' between the lands of Henry 
Passelewe and John Le Reue, and one acre lies at Le 
Lokfforlong between the lands of Roger Perus and Edmund 
Le Reve, and one acre and a half lie at Lokforlong near the 
land of Thomas Neel, and half an acre lies at Smalthorn 
between the lands of Roger Barnewell and Edmund La Reue, 
and an acre lies near Le Rycherweye, and an acre lies 
at Stonhull near the land of Thomas Neel, and one acre lies 
at Le Riccherweye between the land of Roger Perus and 
John Rubel, and two acres lie at Wodemannesthorn between 
the land of Henry Passelewe and Henry West, and one acre 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 251 

lies at Hordeston between the land of Roger Perus and 
Thomas Neel, and one acre lies at Saltharperweye between 
the land of John Wilecryk and Walter atte Mere, and half 
an acre lies at Le Riccherweye between the land of Henry 
Passelewe and Alice Bernard, and one acre lies at Salt- 
harpeweye near the land cf Henry Passelewe, and one acre 
lies at Mixenhull between the land of Henry West, and one 
acre lies at Stepenhull near the land of Thomas Neel and 
Roger Barnewell, and one acre lies at Stepenhulleslad 
between the lands of Henry Passelewe and John Wilecryx, 
and one acre lies at Oldenhull near the land of Henry West, 
and one acre and a half lie at Le Publilond between the 
lands of Walter Le Geg and Thomas Neel, and one acre 
lies at Oldenhulleslad and is called Le Hedacre, and 
one acre lies at La Rylond between the land of William 
Constance and Thomas Down, and one acre lies at Oldenhull 
near the land of Roger Banewell, and three acres lie 
at Le Gores between the lands of Roger Perus and 
William Constance. To have and to hold all the said 
tenement with all the said land and with all their 
appurtenances aforesaid to the said Richard and Matilda 
his wife to the end of their lives, and the life of the longer 
liver, from the said Abbot and Convent and their successors 
freely quietly well and in peace. Paying for the same 
annually to the aforesaid Abbot and Convent and their 
successors, sixteen shillings sterling, at the four principal 
terms by equal portions for all services and secular demands, 
saving suits of their court and royal service, namely, as much 
as pertains to such tenement and land in the same vill. And 
heriots when they shall fall in. But the said Richard and 
Matilda shall duly keep at their own expense the said 
tenement with all its appurtenances whatsoever, in as good a 
state or in a better state as that in which they received it. 
Nor shall it be lawful to the said Richard and Matilda at 
any time or in any way to give, sell, or alienate, the said 
tenement with its appurtences without their special licence 
first asked for and obtained. And the said Abbot and Con- 



252 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

vent and their successors will warrant and defend the said 
tenement and lands with all the above-named appurtenances 
to the said Richard and Matilda his wife for the term of their 
lives, and the life of the longer liver, against all mortals by 
the aforesaid service. In witness whereof they have alter- 
nately placed their seals to these presents. 

Witnesses Richard de Cherletun, Henry le Wariner, 
William Macherlyng, William Constaunce, Henry Passelewe, 
and others. 

Dated at Kyngeswod on the year and day above- 
mentioned. (November 11, 1350.) 



No. XLV. 

Account of Brother Walter, Granger del'Egge : — And 
received 53s. for 3 oxen sold. And 17s. for 1 ox sold. And 
14s. for 1 bull sold. And 10s. for 1 cow sold. And 4s. for a 
young ox sold. 1 And 7s. id. for 4 calves sold. And £■$ 
received from corn. And 38s. for 13 pigs sold. And 6s. for 
1 heifer 2 sold. And 3s. for wax and honey sold. And 3s. for 
a cowhide sold. Sum £11 15s. id. 

Then in debts repaid £\ 9s. nd. Item in 2 oxen bought 
41s. 6d. Item in 1 ox bought 21s. Item in 1 ox bought 18s. 
Item in 1 cow bought 13s. 3d. Item in 1 sow bought with 
7 little pigs 3 14s. 

Item in servants' wages for gifts " ad communium " 
23s. 2d. Item in wages for Cowherd 3s. 3d._ Item in wages 
for Swineherd 2s. And in food for the swine 5s. 6d. Item 
in "ref" 10s. Item in tallow 4 and (unct?) grease 5s. Item 
in horseshoes and harness 2s. Item for a hoop 2s. Sum of 
expenses £1 2 us. 7d. 

On the back : Below remains unpaid 45s. Oxen 50. 
Cows 13. Bull 1. Bullocks 3, 1 male 2 female. Yearlings 6. 
Calves 4 price 4s. Mares (jumente) for carts 2 price 20s. 
Mares (jumente) for pasture 2 price 10s. Sows 3 price 3s 6d. 

1 Boviculus mas. 2 Bovicula feminina. 3 Porcellis. 
1 Cepo pro sepo. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 253 

Hogs 4 price 5s. Pigs 6 price 16s. Little pigs 16 . . . 
propter. . . . pre. 



No. XLVI. 

Enquiry is to be made in what way the Abbot and 
Convent of Kyngeswood hold those 2 acres of land and the 
tenement which were sometime Thomas le Archer's at . . . 
They were not of the land of the said Aylward ... In 
pure perpetual and free alms. [The following 12 lines are so 
rubbed and so illegible that nothing connected can be got 
from them.] . . . And although a second charter of Robert 
de Berkeley makes mention of 1 virgate of land at Swineheye 
and the mill of Byfford they indeed understand that John le 
Skey of Nybbeley holds that virgate of land in chief of the 
Abbot of Kyngeswode. And that 1 messuage and 1 virgate 
of land of which mention is made in the charter of Thomas 
de Berkeley is now in the hand of John Crennel at La 
Southende. 

Also to enquire how one croft above Aleynghurst near 
the hedge of Hawe Park is held. — In free pure and perpetual 
alms. 

Also how the tenement of William Tudenham is held. 
It is held similarly. 

Also how the grange " del Egge " is held, for they indeed 
say that those ten pence rent of which the charter of the 
said Lord Maurice de Berkeley makes mention as above 
were due for that wood near Bradpen. All in pure and 
perpetual alms. 

Also to enquire who enfeoffed the Abbey of the well and 
the position of the conduit. 



No. XLVII. 

This deed consists simply of the names of eighty-seven 
donors of gifts, in money, and kind, for the use of the Church. 
There is nothing to fix the date of it. 



254 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

No. XLVIII. 

To all the faithful of Christ to whom this present writing 
shall come, Brother John, 1 Prior of the Cathedral Church of 
St. Mary of Worcester and the Chapter of the same place 
greeting in the Lord Everlasting. 

We have received the letters of the Reverend father and 
Lord . . . (Thomas) Bishop of Worcester in these words : 
To all the sons of Mother Church to whom the present 
letters shall come, Thomas z by divine permission Bishop of 
Worcester greeting in the Saviour of all men. Whereas out- 
most excellent prince the Lord Henry, by the grace of God 
Illustrious King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, 
by his letters patent at the request of our beloved in Christ 
the Abbot of Kyngeswode suggesting that he and the whole 
religion of the Cistercian order have been from ancient times 
privileged and exempt from all manner of ordinary juris- 
diction, (so that no one except only our Lord the supreme 
Pontiff and the Court of Rome or his conservators should 
have jurisdiction over them) and that the same convent 
within the said Abbey holding the parish Church has not 
pension, portion, lands, or rents, wherewith to sustain them 
and their servants sufficiently to support their burdens, has 
granted to the said Abbot, that he and his successors the 
Abbots of the aforesaid place, should not be assigned or 
burdened with any tithe or other tax to be granted to our 
aforesaid Lord the King or his heirs by our lord the supreme 
Pontiff, or the clergy of the realm of England, but that they 
shall be quit and exonerated therefrom for ever, notwith- 
standing any assignation or order by us the lord Bishop or 
our successors to the same Abbot or his successors for being 
collectors of any such tithe or subsidy hereafter to be made, 
as in the letters our Lord the King abovesaid more plainly 
appears. We, considering the pious intention of our afore- 
said Lord the King in this particular, wishing to graciously 
1 John Fordham, 1415 — 1438. 

2 Thomas Peverell, consecrated to the See of Ossory in 1397, trans- 
lated to Llandaff in 1398 and to Worcester in 1407 ; died March 2, 1419. 



Cistercian Monastery of St. Mary's, Kingswood. 255 

follow with our favour the said Abbot by sight of the 
premisses and contemplation of Thomas Lord of Berkeley 
patron of the said Abbey, but especially through reverence of 
God, and the observance and continuance of the worship of 
the most blessed Virgin Mary in the aforesaid Abbey, have 
granted for us and our successors to the same Abbot that he 
or his successors and the Abbots of that place may not be 
assigned or burdened by the said Bishop or his successors 
with any tithe or other subsidy which may in any way be 
granted to our Lord the King of England, or his heirs the 
Kings of England, by our Lord the supreme Pontiff, or the 
clergy of the realm of England, at the collection of such 
subsidy in any way, but that the said Abbot and his 
successors may be for ever quit and exonerated therefrom 
except this, that the aforesaid Abbot or any of his successors 
may be in any way burdened and assigned at the collection 
or levy of any title, quota, or subsidy to be granted to our 
Lord the King of England or to any of his heirs in the form 
aforesaid, to be made by us or our successors. In witness 
whereof we have caused our seal to be appended. Given 
at our House within the parish of the blessed Mary de la 
Stronde outside the bar of the New Temple London, on the 
8th day of February in the year of our Lord 1412 and in the 
6th year of our Translation. But we the Prior and Chapter 
aforesaid contemplating the benign will of our said Lord the 
illustrious King, and on account of reverence of the letters of 
Thomas Lord of Berkeley patron of the said Abbey directed 
to us in this particular, and also wishing that the servants of 
God of the Abbey aforesaid may serve their Creator more 
freely and quietly, do corroborate and confirm the aforesaid 
grant of our Lord the Bishop aforesaid, and all and singular 
the things contained in the said letters as far as in us lies 
and pertains to us for us and for our successors. In witness 
of all which things our common seal has been appended to 
these presents. 

Given in our Chapter House at Worcester . . . octavo 



256 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

No. L. 

Mr. Knewton's notes as I take yt : 

I finde that William Berkeley Lord of Dursley was 
founder of the Abbey of Kingeswood, who had issue Roger 
Berkeley of Dursley in the time of Kinge Henry II. in whose 
(which) name they continued lords thereof till Richard II. 
daies, in whose time John (Berkeley) Lord of Dursley had 
issue Elizabeth married to Richard Chelder who solde the 
foundation of the said Abbey. D 83. 

Kinge Henry I. graunted to the Abbot and Monks of 
Kingeswood the manor of Athold in such sorte as Roger 
Berkeley had formerlie given it to them. 

More. I have not yet seene this Monastery of Kinges- 
wood. 

William Berkeley Lord of Dursley giveth to the Abbott 
of Tenterne his manor of Acholte which now is named 
Kingeswood To edefie and build an Abbey of the Order 
of Cistercians. And Maude the Empresse confirmed it. 
The Abbott and the convent received the said William 
Berkeley sonne and heire Lord of Dursley in theire 
Chapter House founders there. Now cometh Roger Berkeley 
sonne and heire to William Berkeley and confirmeth the 
guifte of his Father, and Henry the Second the Empress' 
sonne confirmeth the guift of Roger Berkeley, and soe 
Berkeleys of Dursley continued unto King Richard II. 
time. 

TR6EII. orEIII. and Tyntarne Monastry. I Reige- 
nold's olde clarke of Mr. Osbornes Worne's office. 



THE ABBEY OF ST. MARY, HAYLES. 

BRIEF SKETCH OF ITS HISTORY, AND REPORT OF THE 
EXCAVATIONS IN 1 899 AND I90O. 

By the Rev. WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A., Hon. General Secretary. 

The Cistercian Abbey of Hayles, near Winchcombe, Glouces- 
tershire, was founded in 1246 by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
brother of Henry III., and he transferred thither from the 
Abbey of Beaulieu, in Hampshire, twenty monks and ten 
lay brethren. 

A short chronicle of Hayles, in the British Museum, tells 
us that the church was finished in 1251, together with 
dorter, cloisters and frater, at a cost of 8,000 marks. The 
ruined arches of the cloisters, on the outer side, are of this 
date. On the 9th of November in that year the church was 
dedicated to God's service. Henry III. and his Queen, 
Eleanor of Provence, and Earl Richard and his second wife, 
Sanchia, sister of the Queen, were present. Thirteen bishops, 
whose names and dioceses are given in an ancient manuscript 
preserved in the library of Wells Cathedral, said mass, each 
at his own altar, Grossetete, Bishop of Lincoln, consecrating 
at the high altar. Besides these were an innumerable host 
of nobles, clergy, and common folk, who crowded thither to 
do honour to the founder. 

The first abbot is said to have been Jordan, a monk of 
Beaulieu. The lists of abbots hitherto given are not to 
be depended upon. Hayles has been confused with the 
Praemonstratensian abbey of Hales Owen, on the borders 
of Worcestershire and Shropshire. 

In 1256 Richard was elected King of the Romans, and 
he and his wife were crowned at Aix. Queen Sanchia died 
in 1261, and was buried at Hayles, near the high altar. 
In the same year, Richard, an infant son of Earl Richard, is 
said to have died at Grove Myle, near Hayles, and to have 

18 
Vol. XXII. 



258 Transactions for the Year i8gg. 

been buried in the Abbey. The founder's eldest son, Henry, 
had been born in the Castle of Hayles, and baptised in the 
church in the year 1237. This castle and church were built 
by Ralph de Worcester in the reign of King Stephen. Only 
the earthworks of the castle remain, but the little parish 
church is intact. In 1267 Richard married, as his third 
wife, Beatrice von Falkenstein, the beautiful niece of 
Conrad, Archbishop of Cologne. 

In the same year, the chronicle tells us, Edmund, the 
second son of the founder, purchased in Germany some of 
the Holy Blood of Jesus. A portion of this he gave to 
Hayles on the festival of the Exaltation of the Cross, 
September 14th, 1270, and it was accompanied by a 
certificate from Urban, Patriarch of Jerusalem, afterwards 
Pope. 

On March 12th, 1271, Henry of Almayne, eldest son of 
Richard, was cruelly murdered in the little church of San 
Sylvestro, at Viterbo, during the saying of mass, by his 
cousins, Guy and Simon de Montford, sons of the great 
patriot Earl. The flesh of the ill-fated prince was buried 
between the tombs of two pontiffs in the church of Santa 
Maria dei Gradi ; his heart was placed in a golden vase 
and enshrined in the tomb of Edward the Confessor at 
Westminster. His bones were conveyed in a leaden coffin 
to Hayles, and buried in the Abbey Church before the high 
altar. Richard, broken-hearted at the untimely and terrible 
death of his son, had a seizure, from which he died on April 
2nd, 1272. He was buried in the presbytery beside Queen 
Sanchia, and his widow, Beatrice von Falkenstein, placed 
above him "a noble pyramis " or raised tomb, which was 
ruthlessly broken in pieces at the Dissolution. 

Richard was succeeded as Earl of Cornwall by his son 
Edmund, who in 1272 married Margaret, sister of Gilbert, 
Earl of Hertford and Gloucester. In 1277 "the new work 
at Hayles, together with the shrine in which was deposited 
the precious Blood of Christ, were dedicated by Godfrey 
Gifford, Bishop of Worcester." In 1280 Hugh is mentioned 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 259 

as Abbot. In 1292 the Infirmary and the buildings attached 
to it were commenced. In 1295 Edmund gave to the Abbey 
a golden cross containing a portion of the true cross of 
Christ. In 1299 the boveria or oxhouses were begun and 
finished. 

On October 31st, 1300, Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, died 
at Ashridge, and his bones were buried at Hayles in the 
presence of Edward I. and a great company of bishops 
abbots, and knights. Hugh, Abbot of Hayles, is men- 
tioned in the Patent Rolls as one of the executors of the 
Earl's will. 

Hugh appears to have been succeeded by John, who was 
still ruling the Abbey in 1332, though of great age. 

On the vigil of Corpus Christi, 1337, about the hour 
of Vespers, a great flood of water burst upon the Abbey, 
and caused much loss and destruction. The situation of 
the Abbey in the lowest part of the valley, between two high 
hills, has always laid it open to such visitations. Very little 
has been recorded about the Abbey during the long and 
eventful reign of Edward III. and the reigns of his imme- 
diate successors ; but we know that the plague raged at 
Hayles in 1361-2, and nearly exterminated the monks, 
regular and lay. The last entry in the chronicle tells us 
that on Sunday, October 31st, 1364, some "satellites of 
Satan" broke into the sacristy and carried off many of the 
sacred vessels. In the same year many other English 
monasteries were similarly robbed. Robert Alcester, Abbot 
of Hayles, is said to have been buried at Dowdeswell, near 
Cheltenham, about 1420. He was succeeded by William 
Hendley, a native of Gloucester. I have found a deed 
amongst the muniments of the Corporation of Gloucester, 
dated 1426, bearing his signature and the Abbey seal. John 
appears as Abbot in 1463, and Richard in 1465. William 
\\ hytchurch, whose name as Abbot appears in 1466, has 
the credit for rebuilding the cloisters in the Perpendicular 
style, and converting the cellarium, or house of the la)- monks, 
on the west side of the cloisters, into the Abbot's lodgings. 



260 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

A document has been found amongst the Vatican papers, 
dated 1458, in which Pope Callixtus III. exhorts all the 
faithful to assist the monks of Hayles in repairing their 
ruined Abbey. Whytchurch was at one time Vicar of 
Didbrook, a parish adjoining Hayles. He rebuilt the 
church and had it reconciled in 1471, after the sacrilegious 
murder of some fugitive Lancastrians lrom the fatal field 
of Tewkesbury. He is said to have been buried in the 
church; and there are remains of painted glass in the east 
window with an inscription to his memory as founder of the 
church. 

The name of John de Clitheroe, as Abbot of Hayles at 
the close of the 15th century, is given in a list of monks 
of Whalley Abbey. Two sets of 16th century tiles, of which 
we found fragments in the Chapter House, bear the initials, 
name, or rebus of Anthony Melton and Anthony Stafford 
as abbots. These cannot be earlier than the beginning of 
the 16th century, as companion tiles bear the Tudor Rose, 
Pomegranate, and Portcullis. 

The last Abbot of Hayles was Stephen Sagar, also called 
Whalley, because he was educated as a monk of that abbey. 
He was made King's chaplain in 1537, and obtained a 
pension of ^"100 and the use of Coscombe House for his 
lifetime after the surrender of the Abbey to the King's 
Commissioners in December, 1539. He was buried with 
his brother in Warmfield Church, near Halifax, and the 
following inscription was placed over their grave : — " We 
be two brothers, I pray you let us rest, Stephen Sagar, 
some time Abbot of Hayles, and Otho Sagar, Vicar of 
this parish." 

At the Dissolution the late Abbot's lodging, extending 
from the church to the frater southward, with pantry, 
buttery, kitchen, larder, cellars, and the lodging over the 
same, the baking and brewing houses and garner, the gate- 
house, the great barn, two stables, the oxhouse, and the 
sheephouse were assigned to remain undefaced. The 
church with aisles, chapels, and steeple, the cloister, 




DOOR OF r.\I>;:kCk(>i T <>!• DORMITORY, IIAYI.KS A.BBEY 



Kindly lent by the Society i f Architect*. 




- F' \Rl.< >ur, havl: - 






The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 261 

chapter house, dorter and frater, the infirmary with chapels 
and lodgings to them adjoining, the prior's chamber and all 
other chambers lately belonging to the officers there, were 
deemed to be superfluous. Most of the possessions of the 
Abbey were granted to Admiral Seymour, and, on his 
attainder, to William, Marquis of Northampton, who leased 
them to Henry Hodgkins. Queen Elizabeth renewed this 
lease in 1565, and the manor passed by marriage to 
William Hobby, who restored the parish church, and was 
buried there, at the age of 103, in 1603. His son died in 
the same year, and the manor was sold to Sir John Tracy 
created in 1642 Viscount Tracy. His grandson, John, third 
Viscount Tracy, died at Hayles in 16S6, after which time 
the house does not appear to have been used as a residence 
by the Tracys. Views of Hayles given by Atkyns (1712), 
Buck (1732), and Lysons (1794) show the process of ruin. 

REPORT OF THE RECENT EXCAVATION'S AT HAYLES ABBEY. 

It was for many years the wish of Mrs. Dent, of Sudeley 
Castle, whose death, early in 1900, all her many friends 
deplore, to arrest the unceasing destruction of Hayles Abbey, 
but the opportunity was lacking. 

In 1899, by the courteous permission of the present 
owners, the Economic Assurance Society, and the tenants, 
the Toddington Orchard Company, the Bristol and Glou- 
cestershire Archaeological Society were enabled to commence 
an examination of the site and the repair of the broken 
arches. The superintendence of the work was confided to 
me as Secretary of the Society, and with me was associated 
one of the members of our council, Mr. St. Clair Baddeley, 
an expert in Italian history and architecture. After consulta- 
tion with Mr. St. John Hope, we determined in the first 
place to clear the cloister walks and remove the soil which 
had accumulated at the bases of the walls and arches. We 
felt that this would help visitors to understand the plan of 
the conventual buildings which surrounded the cloister garth 
and add to their interest. The abbey church, with the 



262 Transactions for the Year iSgg. 

exception of its south wall which forms the north wall of 
the cloister, has entirely disappeared, and what little 
remains of the foundations lies two feet below the turf. 

We commenced work with four labourers and a stone- 
mason on July 20th, and soon found the north-west angle of 
the inner wall of the cloister. The masonry is Perpendicular, 
of the same date as the remaining three arches of the west 
cloister walk. 

We found traces of two fires, one earlier than the re- 
building of the cloister, and another considerably later than 
the Dissolution for the stratum of ashes lay a foot above the 
original floor line. It is probable that Lord Tracy's house, 
which stood on the site of the western range of buildings, 
was damaged or destroyed about 1775 by a conflagration. 

The cloister walks are 132 feet long and 12 feet wide. 
The garth is about 100 feet square. The foundations of the 
inner wall have for the most part been destroyed. The base 
of the north-west doorway into the church remains. We 
found it blocked with Perpendicular stonework. 

The five arcades in the north cloister walk are not carrels, 
as suggested by the late Mr. Loftus Brock, for a stone bench 
which he did not see runs along in front of them. Our mason 
restored the level of their floor line with dry walling, and 
we deposited there various interesting relics : — six heraldic 
bosses discovered in the west walk ; the head of the door- 
way leading into the chapter-house, found where it had 
probably fallen 1 ; some window mouldings, which we found in 
taking the dimensions of the church ; and a vaulting rib of 
the presbytery. The largest piece of moulding, which we 
believe to be the central portion of the great east window of 
the presbytery, we found buried in front of the shrine of the 
Holy Blood of Hayles. The curves, when produced, give us 
a three or a five light window, with trefoils, cinquefoils, and 
a quatrefoil in its head. 

We found part of a carrel filling up the north-east 
doorway. The carrels were evidently in the same position 
1 These are now in the Abbey Museum. 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 263 

as at Gloucester, in the inner wall of the cloister walk. 
A corbel carved as an angel with outspread wings, and the 
termination of the vaulting ribs resting on it, in the N.E. 
corner of the cloisters, are, we believe, the work of Abbot 
Whytchurch, about 1466 ; but Sir Arthur Blomfield, whose 
death has been a sad loss to us, thought they might be 
as late as the beginning of the 16th century, which is 
certainly the date of the vaulting bosses found in the west 
walk. All the arches on the north, east, and west sides of 
the cloister seem to be the work of the Early English builders 
in 1246 — 1 25 1, though many of them have Perpendicular 
work inserted to carry the vaulting ribs. 

The arch leading into the sacristy seems to have been 
fairly perfect in 1856 when the British Association visited 
Hayles. Half of the trefoiled and quatrefoiled head is now 
irreparably gone, but we found and replaced the blue lias 
base and part of the shaft. The eastern wall of this room is 
of considerable thickness. The vaulting was supported by 
two sets of shafts in a line with those of the chapter-house. 
The northern wall is completely gone. Ivy of long growth 
has been destroying and at the same time supporting the 
broken arches. We pruned the long branches, and have 
dealt more severely with it this year. 

Next to the sacristy is the chapter-house, with its three 
arches. The sills of the side openings have been restored 
with dry walling, but a foot of soil has yet to be cleared 
away from the cloister walk before the original level will 
be reached. 

We thoroughly cleared the chapter-house, which was 
35 feet wide and 48 feet long, and found the four Early 
English bases of the columns, which divided it into three 
alleys and nine compartments. 

Amongst the rubbisli which covered the floor to the extent 
of nearly eight feet we found most of the vaulting ribs, 
many fragments of blue lias bell-shaped capitals, painted red 
as a ground for gold, six beautiful bosses almost perfect, and 
a trefoil shaft lying near its socket in the stone bench at the 



264 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

east end, part of one of the responds of an arch. We found 
also some mouldings which probably formed part of the east 
window inserted after the fire of 1270. Many fragments of 
tiies of early 16th century date were also found, similar in 
every respect to the Hayles tiles at Southam-deda-Bere. 

The original position of the bosses in the vaulted roof 
may be ascertained from the number of vaulting shafts 
which sprang from them. One boss represents Samson 
rending the lion. The other bosses are ornamented with 
the stiff-leaved foliage peculiar to the thirteenth century, 
and are deeply undercut. We consider them to be the 
original work of 1250. 

The doorway of the monks' parlour, to the south of the 
chapter-house, has been underpinned with Perpendicular 
work, and ruthlessly cut through to insert the corbel from 
which sprang the wall ribs of the groining. This room was 
about 32 feet long by 12 feet wide, and had a plain barrel- 
vaulted roof. 

The doorway leading to the vaulted undercroft of the 
dormitory is semi-circular headed, and has no later insertion. 
There are two cupboards in the wall on the eastern side. 

The broken arch at the south-east corner of the cloister 
leads to a flight of steps which were covered by the roots of 
a large ash-tree. This tree has been cut down and the 
dormitory staircase exposed. 

The doorway of the warming-house has a trefoil-shaped 
head. 

The lavatory was set in a deep recess with a flat 
15th century arch and panelled soffit. The corbel from 
which sprang the wall rib remains. It is not in the centre 
of the arch. Part of the trough may be seen at the east 
end of the lavatory. 

The doorway of the frater, with its seven orders of 
mouldings, its clustered shafts and conventional foliage, 
must have been a splendid example of Early English 
architecture. When the fifteenth century " restorers ' 
inserted their plain arch they appear to have hidden the 




BOSS FROM ROOF OF CHAPTER HOUSE, IIAYI.IS AI'.r.lY 



Kindly lent by the Society o) Architects. 




DOOR OF FRATER, HAYLES ABBEY 



Kindly lent by the Si ciety of Architects. 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 265 

earlier work with plaster. We found an Early English 
capital in a drain about two feet below the floor line of the 
frater. West of the doorway inside is a large cupboard, 
with two arches and a groove for wooden shelves. Adjoining 
it are remains of the usual hatch. The kitchen, butteries, 
and pantry have completely disappeared. On the east of 
the doorway are two smaller cupboards and traces of a table. 
We have only as yet excavated the frater to the extent of 
three feet south of the wall. 

Three only of the inner arches of the cloister remain, on 
the west side. In clearing the floor of the west walk we 
found six bosses and a large quantity of late Perpendicular 
vaulting, also some tracery of the arches. 

The heraldic bearings on the bosses are as follows : — 

(1) Fretty, for Huddleston of Melholme, Cumberland. 

Sir John Huddleston, second son of the Lord of 
Melholme, was governor of Sudeley Castle, two 
miles distant from Hayles, and also of Gloucester 
Castle, during the reigns of Richard HI., Henry VII., 
and Henry VIII. He died January 15th, 1513, and 
was buried, as was his widow, Dame Joan, at Hayles 
Abbey. 

(2) Quavierly, 1 and 4 fretty (for Huddleston), 2 and 3 

three bars gcmcllcs (for Fitz-Alan) impaling a lion 
rampant (for Stapleton). Sir John Huddleston's 
father, John Huddleston, married Joan, co-heir of 
Sir Miles Stapleton, of Ingham, and Joan, his wife. 
Sir Miles Stapleton was the son of Gilbert Stapleton 
and Agnes, his wife, daughter and heir of Brian 
Fitz-Alan of Bedale. 

(3) Huddleston impaling Stapleton, or, if this boss be 

proved to be of later date than the other five and 
to have been inserted in the vaulted roof after 
the Dissolution, Huddleston impaling Barrantyne. 
Anthony Huddleston, grandson of the governor of 
Sudeley and son of Sir John Huddleston III., 



266 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

who built Southam-de-la-Bere, married in 1541 
Mary, daughter and heir of Sir William Barran- 
tyne, of Great Haseley, Oxfordshire. The tail of 
this lion is queued. 

(4) Quarterly, 1 and 4, five fusils in fess (for Percy), 2 and 3, 

three bars geinelles, over all a bend (for Poynings). 
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, was the 
grandson of Eleanor, sole heiress of Robert, Lord 
Poynings, and in her right he was Lord Poynings, 
Brian, and Fitzpaine. It was probably through 
the influence of Christopher Urswycke, Almoner 
of Henry VII., that the Earl of Northumberland 
became a generous patron of Hayles. 

(5) Quarterly, 1 and 4, a lion passant gardant between three 

helms (for Compton), 3 and 4, a chevron within a bordurc. 
This was the ancient bearing of the Compton family, 
and commemorated some gift to Hayles Abbey by 
Sir William Compton, ancestor of the Marquises 
of Northampton. The lion was an augmentation 
granted to him by Henry VIII., in the fourth year 
of his reign. Sir William Compton succeeded 
Sir John Huddleston in 1513 as governor of Sudeley 
Castle, and by his will he left 20 marks to Hayles 
Abbey. He died in 1529. 

(6) A chain with a shack-bolt at either end, between three mitres. 

The chain and shack-bolt refer to a legend of Egwin, 
third bishop of Worcester, the founder of Evesham 
Abbey in 702, and were used as arms by that Abbey. 

On the 22nd of March, 1900, I laid these facts and many 
drawings and photographs of the chapter-house tiles and 
the ruins, &c, before the Society of Antiquaries at Bur- 
lington House. On the following day, I had an interview 
with the representatives of the present owners, the Directors 
of the Economic Assurance Society, and this led to their 
very generously repairing and placing at our disposal an 
ancient barn as a Museum. 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 267 

This year (1900) we have been examining the site of the 
Abbey Church with most interesting results. Many of the 
facts recorded in the Chronicle of Hayles (mentioned above) 
have been verified by recent discoveries. The church, as 
shown by the mouldings of the stonework, is distinctly of two 
dates; viz., Early English of c. 1250, and Transitional Early 
English of c. 1275. The older church ended eastward with a 
straight wall behind the high altar. In 1271-7, the new work, 
an eastern apse, was constructed with five polygonal chapels, 
two semi-circular ambulatories, and a structure, eight feet 
by ten, from a point in which radiated all the rest. This 
structure is, without doubt, the base of the shrine where 
rested for 260 years, together with the piece of the true Cross, 
the Holy Blood of Hayles. This, the most sacred spot at one 
time in the county of Gloucester, was visited by thousands 
of pilgrims annually from all parts of England and Wales. 
We can picture to our minds a shrine like Edward the 
Confessor's at Westminster, or like those of St. Albans, Ely, 
Durham, and Canterbury — an ark-like structure with gabled 
roof, and carved with canopied figures of saints. In 1533, the 
last Abbot, Stephen Sagar or Whalley, begged Thomas 
Cromwell that the case which contained "that feigned relic 
of Christ's Blood, which standeth where it did in the 
nature of a shrine, may be put down, every stick and 
stone, and so leave no remembrance of that forged relic." 
At another time he is willing, he says, to suffer the most 
shameful death if ever the Blood were trifled with ; and he 
speaks of an old monk, eighty years of age, who has had 
care of the sacred relic for forty years, and will certify the 
same. 

Fortunately the matrix of a beautiful seal was found some 
years ago in Yorkshire with the figure of a monk, perhaps 
this very monk of whom Sagar speaks, holding in his right 
hand the phial containing the Holy Blood, and in the other 
the asperges (Lat. aspcrgillas) with which he sprinkled with 
holy water the pilgrims kneeling before the shrine. It bears 
the following inscription : " Sigillum fraternitatis monasterii 



268 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

beatae Mariae de Hayles." Probably Abbot Sagar, when he 
went some years later to his brother Otho Sagar, vicar of 
Warmfield, to die and be buried in his church, took the seal 
with him, and it was subsequently lost. A copy of this seal, 
as well as of another from the muniments of the Corporation 
of Gloucester, is in the Hayles Museum. 

It is a marvel, when we consider that the site of the 
church has been twice dug over for material to build a home 
for the Tracys at Toddington, and again and again to build 
farmhouses, cottages, and barns, that the base of this sacred 
shrine should remain intact. The beautiful apse in which it 
stood reminds us of the choir of Westminster Abbey, which 
was completed in 1269. The apse at Hayles was built to be, 
as it were, a crown on the head of the cruciform church. 

We found several yards of plinth, bases of shafts, and 
portions of the inner walling in situ, and many vaulting 
ribs, shafts, caps, mullions of windows, and one boss lying 
among the debris. The two chapels of the eastern apse on the 
north and the two on the south were floored with late 13th 
century encaustic tiles bearing the royal arms of England 
(three lions passant), King of the Romans (an eagle displayed), 
Queen Sanchia (a paly of eight), Earl of Cornwall (a lion 
rampant, with a bordure bezanty), and De Clare (three 
chevrons). The central chapel was refloored in the 14th 
century with large, thick tiles ornamented with natural 
foliage, etc. Examples of all these tiles have been desposited 
in the Museum at Hayles. 

Westward of this beautiful apse is the Presbytery, with 
north and south aisles, ten and a half feet wide. On the 
north side of the high altar, the floor of which remains, or 
immediately in front of it, was, probably, the "pyramis" 
of the founder and his wife, Queen Sanchia, and, perhaps, 
on the south side, the tomb of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. 
Of Richard's tomb we found a few fragments, one orna- 
mented with a human head of the Edwardian type. 
Moreover, we found parts of the effigies of a mailed warrior 
and his lady, as well as the heads of the lions which lay 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 269 

at their feet. The lower part of a heater-shaped shield 
bearing the foot of a lion and a bordure bezanty is just the 
evidence we could have desired to enable us to assign the 
tomb to the founder and his Queen. Lying in situ on the 
floor of the north aisle of the Presbytery, we found many 
scores of late 13th century tiles, bearing the arms of Ferrers, 
Peverell, Badlesmere, Warren, Stafford, &c. The floor of 
the central gangway of the Presbytery was relaid with tiles 
in the last quarter of the 14th century. This is shown by 
the heraldic bearings on some of them : — 

(1) Fretty, on a canton a cross fleury, for Henry Wakefield, 

Bishop of Worcester, 1375 to 1395. 

(2) A fess between six crosslets, for Thomas de Beauchamp, 

Earl of Warwick, impaling seven muscles 3.3 and 1. for 
his wife Margaret, daughter of William de Ferrers 
of Groby. He died in 1400. 

(3) Barry of six, an escutcheon, on a chief three pales gyroncd, 

for Mortimer. 

(4) A fesse between six martlets, for Beauchamp. 

(5) The same quartering a maiatch, for Hastings or Toney. 

(6) Scmee of fleur de lys. 

(7) A chevron, or perhaps two chevrons, between three wheels ; 

and many others. 

In front of the Presbytery steps we found a beautiful row 
of early 14th century tiles: — (1) the Despencer fret alternate 
with (2) a queer bird with two heads and a long neck, and 
(3) many border tiles with the castle of Eleanor of Castille 
and the fleur de lys of Margaret of France, Queens of 
Edward I. Specimens of all these tiles will be found in the 
Museum. 

Between the Presbytery and its aisles on either side 
were four arcades and a connecting wall or screen, probably 
about ten feet high, as at Tintern. This arrangement is 
always found in the naves and aisled Presbyteries of 
Cistercian churches. Immediately in front of the high altar 
we found a round stone vessel, three feet in diameter at the 



270 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

top and one foot four inches at the base, and near it we 
found masses of lead intermixed with clay. Mr. St. John 
Hope, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
believes this to be a vessel for melting the lead sold at the 
Dissolution. Westward of the Presbytery is the monks* 
choir, occupying the crossing and one bay of the nave. 
Beyond the choir are the pulpitum or screen and the retro- 
choir. The easternmost bays of the north and south aisles 
of the nave were cut off by stone screens, forming them into 
chapels. In the chapels of the south aisle we found traces 
of two tombs, between the pillars of the arcades, and 
hundreds of fragments of two 15th century monuments. 
In the north aisle we found a beautiful 13th century carved 
bracket with three dragons devouring one another. To the 
right and left of the choir are transepts, each with three 
eastern chapels, as is usual in Cistercian churches. There 
are traces of a central tower as at Tintern. The church, 
with the apse, is about 320 feet in length, as long as 
Gloucester Cathedral without the Lady Chapel. 

The Church has now been covered in again. Next 
summer we hope to examine the remains of the abbot's 
lodgings, the frater, the warming house and the infirmary. 

Mr. Harold Brakspear, Architect of Malmesbury Abbey, 
a well-known expert in Cistercian architecture, has made a 
careful ground plan of all that has been uncovered. This 
plan, with subsequent additions, will be reproduced in these 
Transactions. 

While searching for some stained glass said by Rudder 
to have been removed from the Abbot's lodgings to old 
Toddington House we discovered, in a box, twenty-one 
mosaics of beautifully painted glass with the following 
inscription on a piece of white glass : — " This window was 
new glazed and the figures from Hailes Abbey placed here 
by Thos. Chas. Lord Visct. Tracy in 1789." 

The owners having courteously given us permission to 
place this glass in the Museum at Hayles, it has been care- 
fully releaded under the immediate direction of one of the 



The Abbey of St. Mary, Hayles. 271 

members of this Society, Mr. C. H. Dancey. Nine mosaics 
represent the Apostles SS. Andrew, James the Greater, 
John, Philip, James the Less, Thomas, Bartholomew, 
Matthew, and Simon. SS. Peter, Matthias, and Thaddeus 
are missing. S. Andrew repeats the second clause of the 
Apostles' Creed, " Et in Jesum Christum Filiura ejus 
unicum Dominum nostrum," and the rest continue it as 
far as "Remissionem peccatorum." As in the beautiful 
glass at Fairford, the Prince of Wales' feather appears in 
nearly all these nine mosaics, which are apparently of 
15th century workmanship. Seven others are composed of 
fragments of glass of similar date. The remaining five 
belong to the Renaissance period ; the designs of these last 
are — two angels, two cupids, and the arms of the Founder 
as well as of the Abbey. 

The ruins of the Abbey and the contents of the Museum 
have been vested in five Trustees: — Sir Michael Hicks-Beach 
and Mr. C. Wise, appointed by the owners ; Mr. St. Clair 
Baddeley and the Rev. W. Bazeley, appointed by this 
Society; and the Rev. C. H. Stanton, Vicar of Toddington, 
Didbrook, and Hayles, appointed by the owners and this 
Society conjointly. The Trustees held their first meeting 
on the 3rd of September, 1900. 

More than 800 visitors were received at the Abbey last 
summer and autumn, and lectures on the history of the 
Abbey and contents of the Museum were given by Mr. 
Baddeley and myself on Thursday afternoons. 

The Excavation Fund, for which no special appeal was 
made in 1900, is well-nigh exhausted ; but the work is of 
such thrilling interest, that we feel sure fresh subscriptions 
will be forthcoming from the members of this Society and 
other friends. 

G. M. Currie, Esq., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham, 
is Treasurer of the Fund. 



SOME CURIOUS INCIDENTS IN BRISTOL 

HISTORY. 

By J. LATIMER. 

Amongst many remarkable documents entered in the Great 
Red Book of the Corporation of Bristol, at present almost 
unknown to the public, is an account of an extraordinary 
occurrence during the reign of Edward IV., which created 
great excitement at the time, and which gives modern 
readers a vivid picture of city life in the middle ages, yet 
which local historians have thought worthy only of the 
baldest record. The chief actor in the affair was one 
Thomas Norton, an officer in the Royal Court holding the 
important post of Customer of Bristol, and the owner and 
occupier of the Great House in St. Peter's Churchyard, so 
well known to archaeologists. Before narrating his outrageous 
proceedings, it is requisite to give a short account of that 
mansion and its previous owners. 

The house, or an earlier one on the same site, belonged 
in 1401 to one John Corne, and it was sold in that year to 
Thomas Norton, the ancestor of the above Thomas, who had 
come into a great fortune bequeathed to him by Elias Spelly, 
mayor of Bristol in 1390-1, and who himself was elected 
mayor in 141 3. (Corne's charter, given at length in 
Gentleman's Magazine for 1852, part ii., p. 274, disposes of the 
statement in some local works that the Nortons built a 
dwelling on the site in the 12th century.) In 1435 the house 
was in possession of the purchaser's sons, Thomas and 
Walter, who divided it into two dwellings for their inde- 
pendent residences ; but the double ownership had come to 
an end in 1458, when Walter was sole proprietor. That 
gentleman had two sons, both named Thomas, and two 
daughters, married to wealthy Bristolians, Robert Strange 
(thrice mayor) and John Shipward, jun. (mayor 1477-8). 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 273 

For some unexplained reason, Mr. Norton determined to 
convey the bulk of his estates to his younger son, then a 
boy; and by a feoffment, dated October 12th, 1458, he 
assigned all his real property in Worcestershire and Bristol 
to his two sons-in-law (Shipward is called Sheppard in the 
deed, but the same misspelling occurs in other documents) 
and to Richard Bartfield, described elsewhere as his servant, 
directing them as feoffees to reconvey the estate, except one 
moiety of the Great House, to his younger son, "in order 
that lie should not be vexed or troubled by Thomas, his 
elder brother," who appears to have been the boy's senior by 
several years. The delay that occurred before this direction 
was fully carried out is somewhat surprising. It was not 
until three years later that the feoffees executed two deeds, 
one of which demised the Worcestershire estates and exten- 
sive house property in Bristol (all acquired from Spelly), 
together with the eastern portion of the Great House and 
its garden, to Walter Norton and Isabel his wife for life, 
with remainder to their younger son, Thomas, and his heirs, 
remainder to their elder son and his heirs, and further 
remainders to their two daughters in succession. The second 
instrument demised the western part of the Great House 
and its garden, after the lives of Walter and his wife, to 
their elder son, Thomas, with remainder, failing heirs, to 
Thomas the younger and his two sisters, as in the former 
deed. Another delay of two years and a half took place 
before these feoffments were legally completed by the 
appointment, in October, 1463, of an attorney to take seisin 
on behalf of Walter and his wife. Finally, two years and 
a half later still, in June, 1466, Walter, whose wife was then 
dead, at length brought all the above documents to the 
Council House, and requested their enrolment according to 
the custom of the city in order to assure their validity. Not 
content with this formality, Mr. Norton requ the 

mayor, sheriff, and other dignitaries to accompany him to 
St. Peter's Churchyard, which was accordingly done, and 
there the old gentleman delivered possession of the eastern 

19 
Vol. XXII. 



274 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

end of the mansion to his younger son in the name of all the 
estate, declaring that he relinquished all title to and interest 
in the property for evermore, and adding that he had already 
given up his jewels and household stuff to his youthful son 
"to make him sure thereof in his life." (These proceedings 
took place before William Spencer, then mayor, a fact to be 
borne in mind in connection with subsequent events.) Six 
days before this singular scene took place Mr. Norton 
executed his will, by which he left his eldest son only a 
silver cup, some hangings and cushions in the hall of his 
dwelling, and "the standing bed in the great chamber with 
its tester and curtains " ; whilst he bequeathed to the boy 
several pieces of plate (amongst which was a standing cup 
and cover called "a Grype is Eye"), the stained bed and 
hangings, some Arras work, cloth, linen, and blankets, "all 
the steyned cloth of the life of King Robert of Cecyle which 
hangeth in my parlour," saucers, pottingers, platters, pewter 
chargers, five brass pots, "and all my fee simple lands in 
Bristol and elsewhere," the last bequest being probably 
made in apprehension that something might have been 
omitted in the feoffments. The remainder of his household 
goods and chattels, jewels, &c, was also bequeathed to the 
younger son, to be disposed of for the good of testator's 
soul. 

As in that age men rarely made their wills until they 
were in dread of imminent death, it may be surmised that 
Walter Norton was then seriously indisposed. If such were 
the case, however, he recovered, and with recovery came 
regret over the relinquishment of all his belongings and a 
desire to recover them. The next document in the Great 
Red Book bearing upon the case is of ten months later 
date — April 2nd, 1467,— and is a declaration by William 
Canynges, mayor, and John Gaywoode, sheriff, certifying 
that Thomas Norton, junior, who was still a minor, had 
come before them and their brethren at the Tolzey, "lament- 
ably declaring" that in spite of the feoffments recited above, 
under which the complainant had taken the profits of the 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 275 

estate, his father, by the sinister labour of ill-disposed 
persons, had published and noised in various countries that 
he had placed his younger son in possession only for his 
(Walter's) own use, and that he intended to make a re- 
feoffment of the estate, make void the existing deeds, and 
disinherit the complainant, " against all right and con- 
science." The applicant therefore prayed the civic officials 
to make known what they knew respecting the matter. 
Thereupon the mayor, the sheriff, with John Shipward, 
William Spencer, and other members of the Common 
Council, "inasmuch as it is one of the highest duties of 
charity to bear witness to the truth and to appease contro- 
versies," solemnly affirm that they were witnesses to Walter 
Norton's demand for the enrolment of the deeds, and to his 
delivery of seisin to his son in the manner and terms related 
above. This declaration was then formally engrossed, and 
the seals of the mayor and the other worshipful witnesses 
were duly appended, with a view to its production in a 
judicial court. 

There is no evidence that Walter Norton persisted in his 
threatened measures. The date of his death is not recorded, 
but the will of 1466 was enrolled in the Great Red Book, 
and does not appear to have been contested ; and there is no 
mention of further feoffments. But twelve years after the 
declaration made by Canynges and his brethren, in the third 
mayoralty of William Spencer, an extraordinary document 
was entered in the Great Book under the following title : — 

" Here followeth a Remembrance never to be put in 
oblivion, but to put in perpetual memory of all the true: 
burgesses and lovers of the town of Bristol of the Innatural 
demeaning and the inordinate behaving of Thomas Norton, 
of Bristol, gentleman, against the noble, famous, and true 
merchant, William Spencer, being the third time mayor of 
the town of Bristol aforesaid, that is to wit, in the year 
beginning at the feast of St. Michael, the eighteenth year of 
the reign of our most dread sovereign lord King I Edward 



276 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

the Fourth. Gathered and compiled by John Twynyho, 
the recorder of the said town, Which in the same advised, 
counselled and assisted the said mayor in his most true and 
hearty manner." 

This portentous Remembrance occupies twenty-nine 
closely-written folios, and if copied verbatim would extend 
over about as many pages of this volume ; but by eliminating 
legal tautology, and omitting uninteresting details, all the 
chief facts may be brought within a reasonable compass. 
As far as possible, the language of the document has been 
retained, but it has not been thought necessary to reproduce 
the eccentricities in orthography. 

On Friday, the 12th March, 19 Edward IV. (1479), when 
the mayor and John Skrevyn, sheriff, were sitting in the 
Compter, hearing complaints according to old custom, 
Thomas Norton, gent, and water holder, appeared at five 
o'clock in the afternoon with William Banner, yeoman, 
desiring to speak with them secretly ; but the mayor stated 
that the inner chamber was then occupied by divers brethren 
deliberating on great matters, and desired Norton to sit 
down by him and state why he came. Having sate down, 
Norton said secretly, " I must speak heinous words." He 
then stood up and took out of a box a sealed writing, which 
he read in as low a voice as he could. The writing began by 
asserting that he (Norton), one of the King's household, 
appealed the mayor of high treason for reasons he would 
declare^ to the King, protesting that this was not done 
because of any dispute depending between him and the 
mayor, but because of the latter's rotten and traitorous heart 
towards the King. If permitted by the latter, he would 
make this good upon the mayor's wretched person, or on 
that of any co-burgess who would offer to defend him. And 
this to perform, he cast to the mayor a glove attached to the 
writing, sealed with his arms. To which the mayor answered 
that the charge was false, as he should prove himself; where- 
upon Norton gave the appeal to the sheriff, charging him on 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 277 

the King's behalf with the person of the mayor on pain of 
24 marks, and so departed. 

Next day the mayor summoned the sheriff, recorder, and 
Council to the Council House to state the above facts, and 
they, knowing the loyalty and virtue of the mayor, marvelled, 
and discussed the matter long, and gave him much counsel, 
for which he thanked them, but said he could not remain in 
office until he had cleared himself of the charge. He then 
delivered up the sword, charged the sheriff and Council to 
govern the town well, and gave himself up to the sheriff, 
requiring him to convey him to Newgate until the King was 
informed ot the case. The Council, approving of this course 
with weeping eyes and sorrowing hearts, chose eight of their 
body to be coadjutors in governing the town, which they did 
most discreetly. The mayor was conveyed by all his brethren 
through the open Saturday market to gaol. The masters of 
the various crafts were next summoned, informed of the 
facts, and enjoined to see that the King's peace was faith- 
fully kept. Next day (Sunday) the sheriff delivered the 
appeal and glove to Thomas Asshe, yeoman of the King's 
Chamber and Comptroller of the Port, to be given to the 
King, which he did at Eltham on Tuesday, accompanying 
them with a letter from the sheriff. This missive stated that 
Norton had retained divers riotous and idle persons by oath 
and otherwise [the hiring of retainers was then a high mis- 
demeanour], and that five of these retainers on the previous 
Sunday had assaulted the bailiff of Temple fee and left him 
for dead, whereupon the mayor had ordered the arrest of the 
rioters, and three of them were committed to gaol. Hearing 
of this, Norton came to the mayor and recorder, and praised 
them for their action, renouncing the prisoners as his 
servants and promising to assist as a good burgess in re- 
pressing riots. On the Friday following the prisoners were 
indicted at the sessions; but in the afternoon Norton, in 
spite of these promises, came to the Compter and appealed 
the mayor of treason. The sheriff, in conclusion, asks for 
the King's pleasure. 



278 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

On Monday, the 15th, the sheriff, with John Druez and 
Richard Bond, bailiffs, and the rest of the Common Council, 
forwarded an account of Norton's conduct, sealed with the 
common seal, to the King and Privy Council. This state- 
ment is more lengthy than the sheriff's, but to the same 
effect. It adds that Spencer was 63 years old, and that 
Norton had declared before witnesses that his worship was 
the best mayor Bristol had ever had within living memory, 
excepting perhaps Canynges. It further states that Spencer 
had that year prevented a great rise in the price of wheat by 
his care and diligence; had cherished the suites of the King, 
Queen, and Prince when resorting to the town ; had done 
many charitable deeds ; had new made the quere and body 
of the Grey Friars' church, and repaired their house and 
those of divers chantries ; revived an almshouse ; given large 
sums weekly to prisoners, bedridden and infirm, and much 
clothing and blankets; spent much in making bridges and 
highways, and in fine was God's servant and the King's 
liege man. The document then proceeds : And since the 
Council are now driven to open Norton's unlawful and 
riotous proceedings, which has been long forborne because 
he is one of the King's household, they now declare that 
he has retained riotous persons, is a common haunter of 
taverns, where he drinks and rails with his followers until 
midnight, not associating with honest company ; lies in bed 
till nine or ten daily, avoiding divine service ; spends sermon 
time in the afternoon at tennis and frivolous sports, and 
generally promotes mischief. Moreover, for divers years he 
unnaturally warred with and trouble'd his father and mother, 
who often gave him Christ's curse, and he has broken their 
wills since their death. His father gave divers lands and 
tenements to his younger brother Thomas, but he put his 
brother out of the estate, vexed him with many actions, 
kept him a prisoner in the Savoy, and at last drove him 
out of the country to Spain, in the voyage to which he was 
drowned. By the mediation of Sir Richard Chok, justice, 
and the recorder, he agreed to pay a yearly rent to his 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 279 

brother's widow, and to provide a living for his nephew 
Richard ; yet by his might and strength he has withdrawn 
from this undertaking and not paid the rent. He has one 
sister, a good and worshipful gentlewoman, but he un- 
naturally hates her, and forbids her from his presence ; and 
had, moreover, greatly troubled a worthy merchant, John 
Shipward, deceased, who was father unto his wife, 1 inasmuch 
as, when, after Tewkesbury fight, the King ordered him to seize 
the lands of the Earl of Warwick in Somerset, he, by colour 
thereof, alleged he had authority to smite off Shipward's 
head, his father-in-law, and threatened so to do unless 
Shipward would deliver up the deeds relating to his younger 
brother's lands ; in dread whereof Shipward consented, and 
in his trouble died soon after. The letter concludes by 
praying the King that directions may be taken so that the 
common policy and sad rule of the town be not overthrown 
by the malice of Norton and his adherents. The town is not 
only the King's own, but is also the Chamber of the Queen, 
and the inhabitants are most faithful subjects. 

The record goes on to state that on Sunday, the 14th, 
Norton, perceiving the mayor's discreet demeanour, took 
horse in haste to lay his charges before the King ; yet he did 
not reach the Court, at Sheen, until Thursday, the i8tb. 
Asshe, with the town's deputies, had preceded him there, 
and had laid their case before the King and Privy Council, 
and when Norton appeared the King's look was so estranged 
from him that he at once departed to " Braneford," the 
whole Court having him in such loathing that no creature 
made him any cheer. 

On the 19th the sheriff and recorder held a session at 

1 The relationship between the two families was somewhat peculiar, 
and will be best explained as follows : — 

WALTER NORTON 



Thomas = Joan, d r of John Agnes — John Shipwai . 

Shipward, jun. jun. 



280 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Bristol (the mayor being still in ward), and eighty-six of 
the most notable burgesses from the five great wards being 
assembled, four several juries were sworn, and Norton 
was indicted for having illegally kept thirty retainers for 
eighteen months and more. According to which charge, if 
Norton were found guilty, he would forfeit £5 a month 
for each retainer, or /"2,goo in all. 

And although Norton appeared before the King on the 
18th, yet he did not on the 19th appear again to maintain 
his appeal. Whereupon the town deputies prayed the King 
that Norton should be commanded to appear, which was 
done. So on the 20th Norton came before the King and 
Privy Council, when he was asked to show the speciality 
of the mayor's treasons. And God, the searcher of hearts, 
made him so feel his own untruth that he could unnethe 
[neither] look, speak, nor keep his countenance, but deemed 
[demeaned ?] himself as a person ronne in to fronsy, as the 
King afterwards said to the recorder. And as he could 
allege no special treason against the mayor, nor yet any 
offence, the King, after good deliberation with the Privy 
Council, like a right wise sovereign, dismissed the mayor of 
all accusations, and held him as a true subject, commanding 
the sheriff to set him at liberty. The royal letters to that 
effect — one to the sheriff, another to the mayor, and a third 
to the sheriff and commonalty — were brought to Bristol 
by the deputies on the 24th, when a Common Council was 
at once held, and the whole municipal body, with thousands 
of people, joyfully went to the gaol, delivered the mayor, 
gave him the sword, and with great gladness brought him to 
the Guildhall. There the King's comfortable letters were 
read by the recorder to the great consolation of the 
multitude. (The documents are then given verbatim. In 
that directed to the sheriff, the King directs that officer 
to send up to Court one William Wilkyns, upon whom 
Norton "groundeth the matter of his accusation.") 

On the 27th the sheriff, bailiffs, and Common Council drew 
up a paper directed to the Privy Council, which was sent 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 281 

up by two deputies, to whom was also committed the 
prisoner, John Wilkins, butcher. After returning thanks for 
the King's gracious treatment of the mayor, the writers state 
that the prisoner's Christian name is John, not William, 
and that he is the terror of the King's subjects, a night 
walker, a breaker of the peace, always ready for commotion 
and rebellion, and, according to report, a man queller 
(murderer) in Wales, for which he came to dwell in Bristol. 
Six cases are cited to prove his riotous and murderous 
disposition, a man being slain in one outrage, and twice the 
bailiffs were in danger of death. In the previous October, 
when in gaol for one of these crimes, he had threatened to 
accuse the mayor of having ^"400 of the goods of the Duke 
of Clarence [attainted in 1478, when he held the Somerset 
estates of his father-in-law, the King-maker] and ^"300 of 
the goods of the Earl of Warwick [the King-maker himself, 
killed in 1471]. Wilkins afterwards confessed on oath that 
these charges were false, but was kept in goal for want of 
sureties to keep the peace. On the day after Norton had 
appealed the mayor, Norton made great efforts to speak with 
Wilkins, sending the gaoler his signet, and desiring that the 
prisoner be brought to his house secretly by night. The 
gaoler refusing, Norton sent divers messages by Wilkins's 
wife. Then, as though he were capital governor of the town, 
having authority surmounting the justices, Norton ordered 
the gaoler, on pain of 500 marks, to take off Wilkins's irons, 
though in fact Wilkins wore no irons until he committed an 
outrageous assault upon another prisoner a few days before. 
The King's consideration of these facts is therefore prayed. 
In addition to the above letter, the sheriff and Common 
Council addressed others to the Marquis of Dorset, Lord 
Rivers, my Lord Richard the Queen's son, the Bishop of 
Worcester, and Lord Dacre, praying for the continuance 
of their favour. Armed with these documents (and probably 
furnished with pecuniary means to gratify the cupidity of 
underlings), the deputies carried up Wilkins to Court, and 
the prisoner was no sooner brought before the King in 



282 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Council than he confessed the falseness of his accusations. 
Norton was also examined, and could allege nothing against 
the mayor, whereupon three more royal letters were sent 
down to the same effect as the previous ones, and Wilkins 
was sent back to gaol. 

Norton, however, was not yet silenced. In a "Bill" 
presented to the King, in which he styled himself Customer 
of Bristol, he complained that the mayor, to avenge his old 
malice against the writer, had caused him and other lovers of 
the King to be " indicted of retainours," although this charge 
had been already heard and •dismissed. He (Norton) by 
virtue of his office had appointed two men to search all cloths 
carried by land out of the town uncustomed, which was 
never done before his time, to the great loss of the Crown. 
These searchers seized nine cloths belonging to the mayor 
that were being secretly conveyed away, and when Norton 
refused a hogshead of wine proffered as a bribe by the 
mayor, the latter took a malice against the searchers, and 
indicted them for wearing Norton's livery, though he had 
merely given them two gowns for their wages. Wherefore 
he prayed that justice should be done. He further alleged 
that, owing to the tides of the sea at Bristol, ships came up 
every hour of the night as well as by day, taking advantage 
of which the merchants craftily shipped off much goods 
uncustomed, having wild and unruly seamen to help them ; 
that Norton had sought to prevent this by getting other 
lovers of the King to help him ; and that thereupon the 
subtle mayor had indicted him and the said King's lovers 
for illegal night watching. Taking advantage, too, of a 
simple night affray in the fee of St. John [Temple Street], 
by which the bailiff there and another man got broken heads, 
the mayor had gone with great power into the fee, taken the 
innocent lovers of the King out of their beds, haled them to 
prison, and had now indicted them for riot. Their discharge 
from this malice is also prayed for. 

Hearing of this charge, the recorder journeyed to 
Windsor, and found the King good and gracious, and 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 283 

taking no consideration of Norton, but ordered that the 
grudges should be appeased. On May 21st the recorder 
returned to Bristol, bearing a letter from the King to the 
mayor, stating that, by the advice of his Council, he had 
dismissed Norton's accusations and retained the mayor in 
his good will, but required the grudges to cease — all which 
he had showed at length to the recorder, who was also 
"general attorney to our dear son the Prince," and whom 
he appointed to sit in his name for a final conclusion of the 
matter. Norton, it was added, had received a similar 
command, and if he or any other, " boldly by cover of our 
service," hereafter offended against the laudable laws of 
Bristol, the mayor and his successors were directed to 
proceed to their lawful punishment without delay. 

Nevertheless, says the civic record, though the mayor 
was ready to comply with the King's request, and the 
recorder gave due attendance to carry it out, Thomas 
Norton, drowned in presumptuous obstinacy, set aside 
the King's commandment, and came not to Bristol until 
the following Michaelmas, of which the recorder informed 
the King, " and it is like that convenient remedy will 
thereupon be purveyed." 

The "Remembrance" thus closes, somewhat abruptly, 
and no further mention of Thomas Norton is to be found in 
the city records. Possibly some reference to him may turn 
up in the State Papers of the period, but they are still 
uncalendared. It may be surmised that he retained the 
valuable office of Customer and his place at Court, as his 
dismissal would scarcely have failed to be noted by the 
civic scribes. William Spencer lived in high honour and 
respect for several years after his persecution, and one of his 
last acts of liberality, long cherished by civic dignitaries, is 
also recorded in the Great Red Book. At a meeting of the 
Common Council on October 5th, 1492, " the right worshipful 
William Spencer, merchant, remembering the great charges 
borne by the mayor and bailiffs in their offices," gave the 



284 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

Corporation the sum of ^87 6s. 8d. (equivalent to about 
£1000 in modern currency), £10 of which were to be 
delivered to every mayor, and ^67 6s. 8d. to the bailiffs 
upon their entering office, on their giving good security 
for the repayment of the loan on the following Michaelmas 
Eve. In consideration of this boon, the bailiffs were 
required to pay two shillings weekly to the chaplain of 
St. George's Chapel in the Guildhall, which he was to 
distribute amongst the poor. 

Almost contemporary with the proceedings of Thomas 
Norton, another event occurred in the city of a sensational 
character. Early in the century, a youth, named William 
Bird (often spelt Byrde and Brydd), migrated from a parish 
near Gloucester to Bristol, and having in the course of a few 
years become a prosperous merchant, he was elected a 
member of the Common Council. In 1463 he was chosen 
one of the bailiffs, a post, as has been seen, involving 
considerable personal outlay; in 1469 he was appointed 
sheriff; and in 1475 he was elevated to the chief magistracy. 
But in the closing months of 148 1, whilst living in the 
enjoyment of general esteem and respect, the citizens were 
astounded by the announcement that he had been, or was 
about to be, claimed as a "villein" by Lord de la Warre, 
who threatened to recover him by action, like a runaway 
beast, and who, if the claim could be established, would be 
entitled to take possession of his property, and degrade his 
wife and children into serfs. Measures, however, were 
speedily taken by the worthy merchant and his friends to 
disprove the allegations of the great landowner's agents, and 
on the 18th March, 22nd Edward IV. (1482), another remark- 
able entry was made in the Great Red Book. In substance, 
it reads as follows : — 

A Remembrance never to be put in oblivion, but to be 
had in perpetual memory for a president (sic) to all slanderous 
persons having their tongues more prompter to speak wickedly 
than to say truth. Some such have maliciously of late 



Some Curious Incidents in Bristol History. 285 

slandered the worshipful person William Byrde, merchant, 
alleging him to be a bondman born, and of bond birth 
(extraction) and by descent a natifis (iiativus) of Lord de la 
Warre as of one of his manors in Gloucestershire, to the 
shameful vilipendie of the said worshipful man. Howbeit 
the contrary is evidently proved by the testimonial sent to 
Bristol by certain kinsmen, lovers, and friends of Byrde, 
which was read this day in the Compter before the mayor 
{John Forster) and his brethren. 

The "testimonial" referred to is dated December 16th, 
1481, but the collection of the signatures doubtless occupied 
several subsequent weeks. It bore the autographs of Sir 
Simon Mountford, William Berkeley, Esq., William Byr- 
myngham, Esq., lord of Byrmyngham, twelve other 
esquires, five yeomen of the Crown, the master of the 
guild of Byrmyngham, and other residents there, and a 
number of persons living in Worcester, Coventry, and other 
places. The signatories certify that Phelepott Byrde, 
grandfather of William, was born in Birmingham, and had 
a free place in the same town by lineal inheritance of his 
ancestors ; that Phelepott in his youth, having committed a 
certain offence, fled to Bridleyp (Birdlip), Gloucestershire, 
in the days of Richard II., and there wedded, and had 
divers children ; but that the other Byrdes remained at 
Birmingham, and had done so time out of mind, as free 
men. 

The threatened action was never raised. Mr. Bird died 
in 1484, and was interred in the crypt of St. Nicholas, to 
which church he bequeathed a rich cloth of gold ; and 
twenty-one priests, with twenty-four men in frieze coats, 
bearing torches, attended his funeral. He left a considerable 
estate to his family, including a very large quantity of woad, 
then a valuable article of commerce, and much silver plate. 



THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 
BY THE EDITOR. 



The present state of the Transactions of the Society 
cannot be considered altogether satisfactory. The volumes 
are in arrear, members complain that they do not obtain 
the volumes to which they are entitled, and secretly 
or openly they talk about the Editor. The Editor, on the 
other band, finds himself in the position of the Israelites 
under the Pharaoh of the oppression, desired to produce 
results without a due supply of the necessary material. On 
the one side is the impression — " Ye are idle " ; on the other, 
the obvious answer lies ready to hand — " The fault is in thine 
own people." 

And the evil is no new one. When the present Editor 
first undertook the charge of the Transactions about five 
years ago, the volumes were in arrear, and there was a great 
lack of suitable material for publication ; so much so, that it 
had become necessary to publish large extracts from the 
"Pedes finium" in the Record Office. But this again was far 
from being a satisfactory arrangement, the material itself was 
more suited for a Record Series, and it gave a very dry and 
uninteresting appearance to the Transactions. 

The truth is that our Society is failing to accomplish a 
very important part of the office which it was formed to fulfil. 
The number of members who are so far interested in its 
work as to help practically by contributions to the Trans- 
actions is far too small. Members seem to fail to realise 
that if they wish for volumes of Transactions they must 
themselves contribute the necessary material for publication. 
Ex nihilo nihil fit. It is not enough to send subscriptions 
to the Treasurer without also sending contributions to the 
Secretary or the Editor. 

One reason for this condition of things no doubt lies in 



The Transactions of the Society. 287 

the fact that the Society is now passing through one of the 
testing points of its history. It was formed at a meeting 
held at the Bristol Museum on April 22nd, 1876, nearly a 
quarter of a century ago ; and though some of those present 
at that meeting are still with us, such as the Lord- Lieutenant, 
who took the chair, the Venerable Bishop of Gloucester, Sir 
Brook Kay, and the Rev. E. A. Fuller, most of those who 
took an active part in local Archaeology at that time have 
passed away : such as Sir W. V. Guise, the first President 
of the Society ; Sir John Maclean, whose care and skill as 
Editor made the Transactions what they were ; Archdeacon 
Norris ; Bishop Clifford ; Messrs. S. H. Gael, John Taylor, 
J. H. Nichols, W. George, and others. The old men — the 
pioneers and founders — have passed, or are passing, and 
there seems to be difficulty in finding younger people to 
supply their places. 

Moreover, it may seem that much of the more obvious 
work of the Society has been done. Most of the places of 
chief Antiquarian interest in the two shires which form the 
district of the Society have been visited, not a few more than 
once. A reference to the lists of contents of the volumes of 
the Transactions would seem to show that much interesting 
ground has already been covered, not a little of it by writers 
who would leave but scant gleanings for those who would 
follow them. But there are periods and subjects and places 
which are almost untouched. 

For periods, those of the Wars of Stephen, the Black 
Death, the Wickliffite Movement, the Wars of the Roses, 
and the Reformation would well repay careful study, and 
not one of them has as yet been at all adequately treated 
from a local point of view. 

For subjects, little has yet been done with regard to the 
systematic study of the Architecture of the two shires. Yet 
how much might be learned and recorded in a district where 
the tenth-century church at Deerhurst is still in use ; and 
which is so rich, not only in remains of great churches, but 
also in small churches of unusual interest, especially on the 



288 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

hills. Though Somerset far surpasses Gloucestershire in the 
magnificence of its village churches, this very magnificence 
has been dearly purchased at the cost of much that was 
ancient and must have been beautiful : the little Cotswold 
church possesses in its lowly Norman doorway a thing of 
beauty which its greater neighbour to the south has too 
often lost. The way is still open for someone to do for the 
Gloucestershire and Bristol churches what Mr. Freeman did 
for the churches of Somerset. Gloucestershire affords at any 
rate far greater variety of style. 

So with the castles of the district ; there is no good 
account in the Transactions either of Bristol or Gloucester 
Castle, though the former was one of the mightiest fortresses 
in the kingdom. Berkeley Castle has been well treated; but 
there is still room for good work with regard to the smaller 
fortresses. 

There is no really good paper as yet on the speech of the 
Cotswolds. Of course, the subject of the West Saxon tongue 
has been treated generally in many books and papers ; but 
there is room for a paper by a resident of the hills who 
knows their speech as his mother tongue. The northern 
boundary of this speech is an interesting question. My 
impression, drawn from school work, is that it did not cover 
the extreme north of the shire. Is it gaining ground, or is it 
receding to the south ? Is it dying out altogether before the 
efforts of Her Majesty's Inspector, or do the children only 
become bi-lingual ? 

For centuries the growth of wool was the mainstay of the 
population of the hills, and the cloth-trade the main industry 
of the valleys. When and under what circumstances did 
these industries grow up ? How far were they dependent in 
the first instance and subsequently on the immigration of 
foreigners ? 

Our Society has existed for a quarter of a century without 
any clear answer being returned to these questions ; will not 
some member from the wool or cloth districts work out the 
matter and supply an answer ? 



The Transactions of the Society. 289 

Domesday Gloucestershire contained a larger proportion 
of serfs than any other English shire; and as late as 1574 
Queen Elizabeth issued a commission "to enquire into the 
lands and goods of her bondmen and bondwomen in 
Gloucestershire and the shires to the south-west of it, in 
order to compound with them for manumission." 1 Is it 
possible to trace the process of emancipation ? 

With regard to places, very little has yet been done to 
throw light on the history of the smaller towns in the shire. 
Cirencester is a notable exception, chiefly owing to the work 
of the Rev. E. A. Fuller; and the paper by Mr. Russell James 
Kerr on the "Borough and Manor of Newnham" shows how 
very much may be learned and told in a most interesting 
and helpful way about these small towns, if only people will 
undertake the work. 

Tewkesbury must have a history at least as interesting as 
that of Cirencester. Will no one arise to do for the abbey 
and town of Tewkesbury what Mr. Fuller has done for 
Cirencester ? Tetbury and Thornbury, Chipping Sodbury 
and Winchcombe, would no doubt yield as interesting a story 
as that of Newnham. There are plenty of members of the 
Society living near those towns, will they not undertake 
the Antiquarian duty that lies nearest to them ? Sparta was 
but a mere collection of villages, yet the old proverb had its 
force : " Spavtam sortitus es, hanc oyna." 

It is no excuse for members of the Society to say they 
are too busy to undertake any extra work. Mr. Fuller was 
Vicar of a large and poor Bristol parish when he wrote his 
earlier papers ; and Mr. Russell Kerr was Chairman of Quarter 
Sessions when he wrote his paper on Newnham. 

The truth is that an outside interest like Archaeology 
instead of being a hindrance to a man in his life-work is 
a very real help to him. It is well known that Sir John 
Maclean took up the study of Archooology late in life as a 
relief under very heavy official work. He was advised by 
his doctor that the best relaxation for him would be, not 



Vol. XXII. 



1 Encyc. Britt., Ed. VIII., Vol XX., p. 320. 
20 



290 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

cessation from work, but change of work. I well remember 
that a candidate for holy orders, twenty-seven j'ears ago, 
was strongly recommended by Dr. Woodford, then Vicar of 
Leeds, afterwards Bishop of Ely, always to have some 
regular work on hand, apart from his ministerial duties, to 
keep his mind fresh. 

But if the men-contributors to the Transactions are few, 
the women-contributors are fewer still. Yet the Transactions 
have been enriched during many years past by a series of 
papers written by the hand of a lady in the Forest of Dean, 
which for accuracy of description and interest of style are 
surpassed by none in our volumes. We have within our 
district, in the Ladies' College at Cheltenham, one of the 
very best girls' schools in England, and there are other 
similar schools of almost equal repute which must be 
sending forth year by year numbers of well-educated women, 
some of whom might well take an interest in the history of 
the district in which their lot is cast. Considering the 
important place which the teaching of history now occupies 
in women's education, it is not too much to hope that some 
of this teaching will in the future bear fruit near home. 

Another point in which the Transactions do not fulfil 
their purpose is this, that they do not supply year by year a 
record of discoveries of Antiquarian interest in the district. 
Things are found and are lightly examined, or are not 
really examined by any competent authority at all, and 
are forgotten. 

Or excavations are made, and no proper record is pre- 
pared and left of what has been seen, and an opportunity 
is irrecoverably lost. Cases in point are afforded by Mr. 
Medland's paper on the remains found in 1893-4 on * ne s ^ e 
of the Wilts and Dorset Bank at the Cross in Gloucester, 
and the paper by Mr. Wilfred J. Cripps on the Roman 
Basilica at Cirencester. In each case the digging revealed 
objects of very great interest, which if they had not been 
seen and described at the moment by a competent observer 
could never have been described at all. There are local 



The Transactions of the Society. 291 

Secretaries of the Society at Bristol and in all parts of the 
county, and it would be well if members and others who may 
be interested in antiquities would always inform the local 
Secretary of the district of any discovery of antiquarian 
interest which may be made. And it would be most helpful 
also if the local Secretaries would regularly send reports of 
discoveries of general interest to the General Secretary or the 
Editor for insertion in the Transactions. It is to be feared 
that at present not a few things which ought to be recorded 
escape notice. 

Articles relating to the Archaeology of the district will 
always be welcome, which either set forth new facts or throw 
new light on things already known ; the one thing absolutely 
necessary is accuracy, and as far as possible clearness of 
statement. There must be many members of the Society 
who have not yet contributed to the pages of the Transac- 
tions, but who are quite capable of doing really good work. 
It is most desirable, from every point of view, that the 
number of working members of the Society should be 
increased ; and it is much to be hoped that the beginning of 
a new century, and of the second quarter-century of the life 
of the Society, will be marked by a revival of interest in its 
work, and that a real effort will be made to secure a wider 
range of contributions to the Transactions. This, however, 
can only be done by the efforts of the members generally ; 
there is plenty of good work yet to be done, and it cannot be 
doubted that there are people quite capable of doing it, if 
only they would set their hands to the task. We may not 
claim to be the equals of our Founders, but we ought at least 
to try to follow in their steps. 



Hotkcs of publications. 



ANNALS OF BRISTOL IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

By John Latimer. Bristol : William Georges' Sons. 1900. 

Air. Latimer has continued his most useful work as Centuriator 01 the 
Annals of Bristol, and has now reached a point where both in its likeness 
and its unlikeness the story affords a most interesting parallel to the life of 
the city of to-day. The setting of the picture is the ancient city that we 
know so well : the same churches ; the same streets ; the same city 
officials ; for the most part also the same branches of trade and commerce ; 
but with just enough unlikeness to prevent the tale from being dry and 
monotonous. It is quite possible for one who has known the city well to 
put modern names on the ancient characters, and to see them fulfil their 
parts in the slightly altered scene with life-like exactness. With regard to 
the points of difference, the first thing that claims attention is the very 
great power and influence of Master Mayor and his brethren. Nothing 
was too high for their control and nothing too small for their interference. 
From the provision of sermons in the parish churches to the removal of 
dungheaps, all things came under their ken. In 16S1 the Council 
desired that their chief magistrate should develope into a lord mayor : 
that official has recently had that high honour thrust upon him ; but it is 
quite certain that, though he may have gained something in dignity, he is 
hardly equal in practical importance to his predecessor of two centuries 
ago. That ancient mayor was clad with modified magnificence: a hat of 
crimson velvet trimmed with gold lace was provided for him in 1621, and 
two robes of scarlet and fur were provided for the new and old mayors at 
a cost of £25 14s. and /14 in 1633 ; but about the same time a bequest of 
£150 for the purchase of a gold chain was refused by the Council, and it was 
resolved that " in lieu thereof £100 for the poor was more requisite." His 
salary varied from £40 in the early part of the century to nothing in 1644, 
but for the greater part of the century the salary was £104 and double 
during a second year of office. 

The industries of the city were under the direct control of the Council. 
"No shopkeeper could deal in goods made by men of other trades. No 
carpenter could work as a joiner. No butcher could sell cooked meat. No 
victualler could bake bread for sale. No one but a butcher could even 
slaughter a pig. The hours of work, the rate of wages, and the number of 
journeymen employed by a master were peremptorily fixed." A "foreigner" 
was a person to be promptly suppressed ; if he traded with another foreigner, 



Notices of Publications. 293 

the goods were confiscated ; he could only trade with citizens at Back 
Hall ; if he opened a shop, his windows were nailed down. But the 
freedom was given on easy terms to strangers exercising arts unknown in 
the city, who would therefore be useful to the community. Towards the 
end of the century, however, it evidently became difficult to enforce this 
exclusiveness, and in 1676 the Council was scandalised by the conduct of 
one who had been nominated by the mayor for a gift of the freedom, but 
who afterwards in saucy and impertinent language contemned and despised 
the same; and though fines for admission to the freedom were exacted till 
quite the end of the century, in 1703 the by-law against the intrusion of 
foreigners was omitted from the city code. Mr. Latimer seems to under- 
rate the average standard of comfort of the citizens in the period under 
review ; certainly the many large sums raised during the period 1640 — 1660 
would seem to imply a considerable diffusion of wealth, and the rapidity 
with which prosperity returned and luxury arose would seem to show that 
the community was by no means impoverished. But the place must have 
been inconceivably filthy : the advent of Queen Anne of Denmark was the 
signal for a general removal of dunghills from the streets ; in hard times 
one of the first economies was the suppression of the salary of the 
scavenger, never a highly paid official ; it became so frequently necessary 
to open the water-pipes for the removal of dead cats which stopped the 
supply, that in 1679 the springhead of the Quay pipe was covered in. 
There is no wonder that visitations of the plague were frequent and sharp. 
The most notable phases of ecclesiastical life were the poverty of the 
clergy and the disputes of which the cathedral was the centre. These 
disputes in the early part of the century raged around a gallery which had 
been set up in order that the councillors and their wives might hear the 
sermons, and afterwards on the question whether the mayor's sword 
should go in procession standing up or lying down. An attempt by the 
Chapter to withdraw the cathedral precincts from the jurisdiction of the 
city was no doubt a result of these squabbles. Nearly all the city churches 
had been appropriated to religious houses, and after the Reformation, 
when masses and offerings ceased, there was no sufficient income for the 
ministers. At various times during the century attempts were made to 
obtain an Act of Parliament to rate the citizens for the support of the 
clergy, and it is a very remarkable thing that the only attempts which 
were successful were made under the Commonwealth. Acts of ! 'arliami 
were passed for the purpose in 1650 and 1657, but they could not be 
worked. Mr. Latimer thinks, no doubt correctly, that the Presbyterian 
ministers were not illiterate men as they have been represented by some 
local historians. Indeed the Presbyterian and Independent ministers 
numbered many learned men in their ranks, and apart from the disturb- 
ance caused by the Civil Wars, learning at the Universities docs not seem 



2g4 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

to have suffered. On June 3rd, 1679, while the Baptist congregation meet- 
ing at Broadmead were still subject to interruptions in their worship, Mr. 
Edward Terrell gave a considerable amount of property in lands and 
houses, the income to be applied, /50 annually to ten poor persons, the 
remainder for the " use and subsistence of a holy learned man, well skilled 
in the tongues, to wit Greek and Hebrew, ... as a pastor and teacher 
to the congregation aforesaid," and for the maintenance of poor students 
for the Baptist ministry. And he thus laid the foundation of the endow- 
ments which make Broadmead Chapel one of the wealthiest places of 
worship in the city. He also gave a " study of books," 200 in number, of 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English authors, for the use of the minister 
and students. It is a very great mistake to suppose that the founders of 
Protestant Nonconformity despised either endowments or learning. 
Judging from the Wardens' accounts of St. Thomas the Martyr the fabrics 
of the churches were kept in sound repair, though such things as " tables," 
surplices, and organs fared badly. Bristolians of to-day will find this a 
most interesting book. And perhaps they will not find themselves far from 
home as they read of the good old muddly Bristol of two hundred years 
ago; with its wealth and its untidiness; its comfort indoors and its dirt 
without ; its good fellowship and its squabbles ; its party spirit and its real 
efforts after the public good. At any rate, they will find clear evidences 
of the vigour and industry which have made Bristol for the last eight 
hundred years ever a greater city at the end of the century than it was at 
the beginning, and which we trust will not fail to maintain the same 
steady growth in prosperity for the time to come. 

THE COMMUNE OF LONDON AND OTHER STUDIES. By 
J. II. Round, M.A. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Co. 
1899. 

This is a collection of fifteen papers on various subjects ranging from the 
settlement of the English to the fourteenth century, and as Mr. Round is 
within the period which he has made his own they are well worth careful 
study. The ghost of Mr. Freeman does not often appear, but Mr. Oman 
bids fair to take his place. The two papers which seem to be of most 
general interest are the first on the " Settlement of Sussex and Essex," and 
the one which give its name to the volume. The first is really a valuable 
contribution to the study of place-names. Mr. Round finds that the 
-hams in Sussex follow the course of the rivers, while the -tons are on 
the uplands, and he draws the conclusion that the district was settled by 
people who ascended the streams in boats, that the -hams are the earlier 
settlements, and that the -tons are later in date He does not, however, 
mention the meaning of the word ham in such forms as " Keynsham hams," 
where it is applied to land by a riverside, and of which Canon Taylor 



Notices of Publications. 295 

writes thus: — * " It means primarily the ham or knee of an animal, and 
seems to be also used to denote the bend or curve of a river. Where, in 
the bends of a winding river like the Ouse near Bedford, we find a number 
of villages with names ending in -ham, which are hemmed in by successive 
curves of the stream, there is a presumption that this may be the meaning." 
We have not many -hams in this district, but Conham, Hanham, and 
Keynsham, Newnham and Arlingham, if not Tidenham, Churcham, 
Highnam and Cheltenham, would fall under Canon Taylor's presumption ; 
at any rate they are all riverside places, though we know that this district 
was not settled from the west, but by invaders from the east after the 
battle of Dyrham. There is nothing to show that the suffix -ton in 
Gloucestershire denotes a late settlement. Rather the distribution is local. 
Such names occur, on the west of Severn, north of a line from Gloucester 
to Northleach, along the Wiltshire border and south of Thornbury ; there 
are hardly any between Gloucester and Thornbury. The district west of 
Severn includes the Forest of Dean, and that south of Thornbury was 
occupied by the forests of Kingswood and Horwood, and settlement in 
these parts was very likely late, but the explanation does not cover the 
whole of the shire. No doubt there was some reason, but it is not apparent. 
Air. Round gives two very useful words of counsel with regard to the 
study of place-names. First, that all names in a district should be con 
sidered, and not only those of villages and parishes ; for example, Henbury, 
Shirehampton and Westbury would imply a purely English district, but a 
more careful study would discover in Penpole, Penpark, Coombe, and the 
"pills" along the Severn shore, a considerable survival of British names. 
Secondly, that the existing forms of the names must be critically considered 
and probably corrected before they can be used for purposes of comparison ; 
for example, Calmsden is a name with no apparent meaning, but the form 
Calmundesden shows that it meant Calmund's valley : Barnsley, near 
Bibury, is shown to be Bearmod's lea, while the form Bituinacum, "the 
place between the eas " or rivers Severn and Avon, is now Twining. 

The paper on the " Commune of London " is interesting, as possibly 
throwing light on the obscure question of the way in which a mayor came 
to Bristol. Mr. Round could find no mention of a mayor of London 
before the spring of 1193. The first mayor of Bristol appears in 12 17. 
Henry III. was crowned at Gloucester on October 28, 1216, ami held a 
council at Bristol on November 11 ; it is likely enough that the burgesses 
seized the opportunity to obtain liberty to choose a mayor, and that the 
constitution of the City of London was followed ; at any rate, in lati i 
days Ricart, Town Clerk of Bristol, wrote thus: •" Forasmoche as this 
worshipfull Toune of Bristowe hath alueis used comenly to execute his 
iraunchisez and libertees accordinge in semblable wise as the noble Citee 

1 Nanus and their Histories, ed, 1 (96, p. 370. 



296 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

of London hath used, and a grete part hath take his president of the said 
Citee in exercising the same," therefore Ricart made copious extracts from 
the constitutions of the City of London, which are contained in the 
Camden Society's edition of his Calendar, pp. 93 — 113. In the article on 
" Bannockburn," Mr. Round gives a much needed caution with regard to 
the inflated numbers stated by Mediaeval Chroniclers. The Index is full 
and well arranged. 

THE ENGLISH CHURCH IN THE FOURTEENTH AND 
FIFTEENTH CENTURIES. W. W. Capes. London: Macmillan 

AND Co. igOO. 

This is the third volume of a projected history of the Church of 
England, which is to cover the whole period from its foundation to the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, in seven volumes, each by a different 
writer. The first volume, covering the period before the Norman Conquest, 
appeared some time ago, the second has not yet been published, and the 
third appears before it. The incident marks both the strength and weak- 
ness of composite work of this kind ; there may be more special knowledge 
of each period on the part of the writers, but there cannot be the same 
unity of design and purpose. The book covers the period from the 
Accession of Edward I. to that of Henry VIII., and the failure of Volume 
II. to appear becomes a great and lamentable breach of continuity. For 
instance, we very soon come to the refusal of the clergy, under the 
influence of Archbishop Winchelsey in 1296, to grant an aid towards the 
expense of the King's French war. The reason alleged was the publication 
by Pope Boniface VIII. in the preceding February of the Bull— " Clericis 
Laicos," in which he forbade the laity to exact or the clergy to pay secular 
charges on Church property. But it would be quile safe to say that it 
would never have entered the mind of an Archbishop of Canterbury before 
the Conquest to refuse aid to the King on such a ground ; there is a whole 
world of difference between the position of the Pope with regard to the 
English Church at the earlier and the later period, and the difference is, 
so far as the present work is concerned, as yet quite unexplained, a con- 
dition of things has grown up which is quite unaccountable. Again, the 
present volume covers a period which is on the whole one of moral and 
spiritual decay, ending in the generation which produced in the statesmen 
who ruled under Henry VIII. and Edward VI. the vilest crew to whom 
the destinies of the English people have ever been committed. And there 
is nothing to show how the English Church had reached the position which 
she occupied under Edward I., for the golden period of Lanfranc and 
S. Anselm, of S. Thomas of Canterbury and Stephen Langton, lies in the 
omitted volume. So far however as Mr. Capes' own volume is concerned, 
it can honestly be said that he has done his work thoroughly well. He 



Notices of Publications. 297 

does not deal with his subject in chronological order, but as a series of 
subjects, taking one after another various incidents and aspects of Church 
life and work, such as "The Black Death," "The Mediaeval Bishop and 
his Officials," "The Cathedral Chapters and their Staff," "The Clergy 
and Parish Life," " Schools and Universities," and so forth. So that a 
careful reader will form a very clear idea of what the Church said and did 
in her relations with the people. It was a period of much outward 
magnificence ; all that is beautiful and noble in Decorated and Perpen- 
dicular architecture belongs to it, and the bare walls as we now see them 
give but a faint idea of what the buildings were when they were clothed 
with the most beautiful ornaments which English wit could devise or 
English wealth could buy. But the King's daughter was not all glorious 
within, though her clothing was literally of wrought gold : the more 
carefully the period is studied, the worse, morally and spiritually, it will 
appear; it was a time of decay. The book docs not often touch on local 
matters, though Bristol is mentioned with Oxford, London, and Leicester 
as one of the chief centres of Wyclifnte influence in the last year of the 
Reformer's life. No reason is given for the power of the movement in 
this district, and the origin and nature of the connection of Wycliffe's 
influence with Bristol and Gloucestershire have yet to be worked out. He 
was only Canon of Westbury College for a fortnight. The book is care- 
fully written, and gives a life-like picture of the work of the Church in all 
its relations, from the Church ales and the guild meetings of the parish- 
ioners, or their carving of the rood screen as at Yatton, or as we know the 
screen at Banwell was carved by a parishioner, to the life of the monastery 
or nunnery or Bishop's household ; it tells of the rise and discipline of the 
Universities, and of the discipline and organisation of the Mediaeval 
Diocese, and all in a very interesting way. There is a satisfactory Index, 
and at the end of each chapter is a list of authorities for the period or 
subject which has been under consideration. 

THE RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS. London : Elliot Stock. 1S90. 

This book is really the case for the Heralds' College put shortly from 
the College point of view ; no other point of view is regarded as worth a 
moment's consideration. But as giving a clear and concise statement of 
the case for the College, it is of great value from a popular point of view, 
and all the more because it gives a series of documents, with transl 
for the benefit no doubt of the ignoble bearers of bogus coats of arms- 
relating to the foundation and prerogatives and methods of procedure of 
the College and its officials. From an historical point of view the most 
interesting fact that emerges is the very short-lived existence of the 
Heralds' Office as a court of control of coat-armour. The earliest 
document issued by a king of England regulating the general use of arms 



298 Transactions for the Year 1899. 

was a writ of Henry V., dated June 2nd, 1417 ; it isaddressed to the sheriffs 
of counties, directing them to compel all persons who bore arms to justify 
their use before officers, to be appointed by the King, on pain of having the 
arms and coat-armours stripped off and broken up. 

In the reign of Richard III. the heralds, of whom Norroy is mentioned 
as far back as the time of Edward I,, were incorporated into a college, 
under the presidency of the earl marshal ; the first regular visitation was 
held in 1528, the last in the reign of James II., and there were three 
principal visitations throughout the whole of England, about 1580, 1620, 
and 1666. After the Revolution, the coercive powers of the earl marshal's 
court fell into disuse, and the period during which visitations were held 
only extended over about 160 years. A form of summons is given, issued 
by Thomas May, Esq., Chester Herald, and Gregory King, Rouge Dragon, 
to the Bailiffs of the Hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, commanding 
them to summon certain baronets, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, who 
were named, and any others of like degree, to appear at the Swan Inn in 
Cirencester, before 9.0 a.m., on August iSth, 1682. If, however, any of 
those named could not conveniently bring their evidences, the earl 
marshal's official would repair to his house as soon as he conveniently 
might. There seem to have been no precise rules to guide the heralds in 
these visitations, and nothing except the omission of arms from the 
heralds' register happened to anyone who stayed away. He was excom- 
municated from the society of the Heralds' College, but excommunication 
had begun to lose its power, and if he was a man of assured position in 
the county it is not likely that anyone thought worse of him. Certainly 
no instance can be produced of the infliction of a money penalty. Still 
there is no doubt that the evidence of the heralds' visitations for the 
period which they cover is of great positive value ; if a man is entered as 
entitled to bear arms, there is little doubt that the verdict was founded on 
good evidence. But many people would think that the converse is by no 
means equally true, and that it is likely enough that the lists do not 
exhaust the number of those entitled to bear arms. Again, the main 
contention of the book is without doubt correct, that a coat of arms is an 
estate of inheritance which no man can assume, that it is as much a man's 
possession as a field or a house, so that no one may take another man's 
arms, and that if a man wants a coat of arms he can only get it from the 
fountain of honour, the sovereign acting in this instance through the earl 
marshal and his subordinates. It is a purely artificial system of no great 
antiquity, and the book will by no means convince the gainsayers. The 
British Philistine will continue to revert to the original type of seven 
centuries ago, and assume such bearings as seem to him good; further, if 
he thinks about the matter at all, he will say he pays the Queen for them 
every year like an honest man on his tax-paper. The writer of the book 



Notices of Publications. 299 

hints only too delicately that the Duke of Norfolk, Clarencieux, Rouge 
Dragon, and the rest are willing in the fulness of the powers committed to 
them to confer (for a consideration) coat-armour, nobility and gentility 
upon all and several. He would have done much to further his purpose if 
he had stated the amount of the consideration. Many of the Philistines 
are not poor, and only need clear instruction ; they would do the right 
thing in the matter if they only knew the way to do it. 



MRS. DENT, OF SUDELEY. 

Mrs. Dent, who died on February 22nd, 1900, at the age of 77, was 
a daughter of Mr. John Brocklehurst, of Macclesfield, and she 
married, in September, 1847, Mr. John Croucher Dent, of Severn 
Bank, Worcester. She found a beautiful heritage awaiting her. 
Messrs. John and William Dent, uncles of her husband, had pur- 
chased the Sudeley Castle estates from Lord Rivers and the Duke 
of Buckingham, and restored the main fabric of the castle. Mr. 
and Mrs. Dent went to Sudeley in 1857, on the death of their last 
uncle, and at once began the restoration of the chapel, under the 
direction of Sir Gilbert Scott : it was re-dedicated to the service of 
God by the present Bishop of Gloucester in August, 1863. In 1877 
she published a most interesting book, Annals of Winchcombe and 
Sudeley, to a very great extent an outcome of the loving and reverent 
care with which she had watched and guided the work of the com- 
pletion of the castle, and of gathering the collection of treasures 
which it contains. In 1S85 her husband died, and henceforward the 
lady of Sudeley lived alone, for she had no children. But hers was 
not a life that could be self-contained. In 1887 she provided at her 
own expense a water supply from St. Kenelm's Well for the town of 
Winchcombe, and afterwards a swimming bath. She was a thought- 
ful and munificent contributor to the work of beautifying the parish 
church of Winchcombe, of which she was patroness. At the west 
end she placed a stone screen and statues of Kings Kenulf and 
Henry Vlth, and she placed a new clock in the tower; and at the 
east end she placed a fine oak screen within the choir. She gave 
also a new pulpit and font cover, and restored the churchyard 
cross. At her expense the site of Winchcombe Abbey was explored , 
and the position of the church was ascertained ; and here she 
erected a cross in the centre of the tower. She took a lease of the 
land surrounding the barrow at Belas Knap, and built a wall so as 
to secure the barrow against dilapidation. The two Roman villas 
on her estate, those at Spoonley and in the Wadfield, were excavated 
at her expense ; she built substantial sheds over the tesselated pave- 
ments, and surrounded the Wadfield villa with a wall. Among 



In Memoriam. 301 

other good works for the town of Winchcombe, she preserved from 
destruction the beautiful Jacobean house which is one of the 
ornaments of the place, she enlarged the almshouses and heated 
them throughout, and built a large class-room for the girls' school. 
The closing years of her life were saddened by partial failure of 
sight ; but this did not check her interest in her beautiful home, or 
her care for the welfare of those around her. Her health had failed 
about six months before her death, which followed at last on an 
attack of influenza. 



MR. C. J. MONK. 

By the death of Mr. Monk another of the founders of our Society 
has passed away. He was present at the Inaugural Meeting at the 
Bristol Museum, on April 22nd, 1876, as M.P. for the city of 
Gloucester, and as Chancellor of each of the dioceses of Bristol 
and Gloucester. He proposed the resolution nominating the 
various officers of the new Society, about fifty in number, and after 
reading the names he observed that in his opinion they had been 
chosen with great judgment and care. Mr. Monk was best known 
as M.P. for the city of Gloucester, for which constituency he was 
first elected in 1859, and which he represented also in the last 
Parliament, declining re-election when that Parliament came to an 
end, only six weeks before his death. He was born at Peterborough, 
of which cathedral his father was Dean from 1822 to 1830, and he 
was educated at the College School, Gloucester, at Eton, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1S47, after a 
most brilliant University career. He was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1S50. During the whole of his long and honour- 
able career, Mr. Monk showed the greatest interest in all that 
concerned the welfare of the city of Gloucester. He began the 
movement which resulted in the building of St. Catherine's Church. 
When the College School was revived he gave £1000 for the 
endowment of Scholarships in his old school ; and he was a most 
liberal benefactor to the Cathedral Restoration Fund, the School of 
Art, the Infirmary, and to other local charities. Mr Monk, who 
was a life member of our Society, died of heart seizure on \'ovcml» r 
9th, 1900, in his 76th year. 



302 In Memoriam. 



MR. WILLIAM GEORGE. 

Mr. William George, one of the promoters and founders of this 
Society, died at his residence in Durdham Park, Bristol, on the ioth 
January, 1900, within a few days of completing his 70th year. He 
was a native of Dunster, to which his family had removed from 
Hampshire in the previous century. Having lost his father when a 
boy, he was sent to Bristol by Mr. T. Fownes Luttrell, of Dunster 
Castle, and was apprenticed to his uncle, Mr. William Strong, of 
College Green, at that time the most extensive bookseller in the 
city. Through the death of that gentleman before his term of 
servitude had expired, the youth was thrown upon his own resources, 
and forthwith commenced business on his own account in Bath 
Street, where he soon acquired repute amongst book collectors. 
He subsequently removed to more extensive premises in Park 
Street, and eventually retired from an active career about twenty- 
five years ago, owing to failing health. From an early period Mr. 
George was a keen and indefatigable student of the history and 
bibliography of Bristol and the adjoining counties, in which pur- 
suits he was aided by a memory of facts, dates, names, and family 
connections that was often the marvel of his friends, and he left 
behind him a vast store of valuable manuscript material and many 
literary and artistic rarities. As his peculiar talents became known, 
appeals for information flowed in upon him from inquirers in all 
parts of the kingdom, as well as in Canada and the United States, 
and the labour he ungrudgingly bestowed in responding to such 
demands made inroads on his time that seriously interfered with 
his own literary projects. A devoted admirer of Chatterton, he had 
planned a work intended to deal exhaustively with the unhappy 
poet's life in Bristol, and to throw much light on his local contem- 
poraries ; but after a few preliminary sheets had passed through the 
press the design was abandoned. Besides his contributions to the 
Transactions of this Society, Mr. George was an occasional con- 
tributor to the Transactions of the Somerset Archaeological Society, 
and more frequently to the A thenceum, Notes and Queries, Gloucestershire 
Notes and Queries, and the Bristol and Somerset newspapers, and the 
information thus afforded was always novel and often valuable. 



In Memoriam. 303 

Some of these essays were the fruits of long research, and were 
printed in a pamphlet form for distribution amongst his friends. 
He also supplied many items, directly or through others, to the 
Dictionary of National Biography. His best known production, 
" Some Account of the Oldest Plans of Bristol," originally appeared 
as a contribution to the fourth volume of this Society's Transactions, 
and was subsequently published separately in an extended form, 
accompanied by three rare illustrations. By his first wife Mr. George 
left three sons and a daughter. His second vife, who survives him, 
is childless. 



INDE X 



Abbenes, Richard de, 202, 203 
Abbewei, Land, 184 
Ablington, Ancient Name, 62 

Lands at, 62 

Manor, 65 

Manor House (illus.), 62, 65, 66 
Arms in, 147 

Built by Cornelius Jansen, 66 
Inscription at 65, 67 
Old Oak at, brought from Bibury 

Church, 65 
Portraits at, 65 

Old Manor House (illus.), 67 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on, 65 
Abury, Church Windows, 65 
Acchecumbe, Land at, 226 
Acholte. See Kingswood 
Acre, Crusaders at, m 
Acton, John de, 217, 219, 235 
Adee, S within, 139 

Family, Arms of, 139 
Adrian, Symon, 158, 176, iyi 
Aelhun. See Alhwin 
Agodeshalve, Geoffrey, 158 
Aguillon, Margaret d', 147 

Sir Robeit d', 117 

Family, Arms of, 147 
Ainge, Family, Arms of, 143 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Curia ot King Richard 

at, 106 
Albini, Philip de, 87 
Alcester, Robert, Abbot of Hayles, 259 
Alcock, John, Bishop of Worcester, 281 
Alderley, Manor, 27 

Aldred, Subregulus of the Iluiccians, 61 
Aldrinctun, Grange, 232 
Aldwine, Bishop of Lichfield, 61 
Alexander IV., Pope, 105, 107 
Alexander, Brother, 214 
Aleynghurst, 253 
Alfonso of Aragon, Constance, widow 

of, III 
Algar, 19,38 

Alhwin, Bishop ot Worcester, 61 
Alitor, Osbern d', Parson of Hastleach 

Turville, 119 
Alkerton, Lord ot the Manor of, 128, 130 

Manor of, 130 
Almain, Earl of Gloucester, 119 
Almaine, Henry of, Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, and, 1209— 1272, by St. 
Ci-air Baddeley, 86—114 
Almaine, Henry of, 102, 103, 107—113,258 

Anns of, 113 

Burial of, 112, 113, 258 

Constance, wife of, in 

Funeral Mass for, at Norwich, 113 

Knighted, 106 

Made Prisoner in France, 108 

Murder of, no, 112, 258 
Almeries— Bibury, 65 

Quenington, 60 

Southrop, 55 
Almundestre, Roger de, 184 



Vol. XXII. 



Alphonse, Count of Poitou, 93, 102 
Alwyn, 24 

Ameneye, William of, 171 
Ampney Crucis, Ancient Name, 23 

Church, Arms in, 13S — 139 
Description of, 24 
Window, 2j 

Cross, Description of (illus.), 24 — 26 
Crucifix on, 51 

Domesday Extent of, 23 

House, Elizabethan Chimney-piece 
at, 26 

Land in, 23 

Manor, 24, 26 

Manors in, 24 

Park, Ceiling and Mantelpiece at, 26 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on 
the Church and Manor, 23 — 26 
Ampney St. Mary, Church, 26 

Manor of, 26 
Amyand, Family, Arms of, 142 
An.ii< \v, 198 
Anesleye, John de, 239 
Anford, John de, 161 

Juliana de, 161 
Anguillara, Count of. See Rosso 
Anian I., Bishop of St. Asaph. 1 1 
Anjou, Court of. See Charles 
Anne, Queen, 12, 129, 134 
Annesdene, Land, 250 
Ap Adam, Thomas, 9 

Family, 9 
Ap Gronow, Lloyde, Arms of, 138 
Ap Owen, Evan, 1 }8 

Family. Arms of. 1 
Aperle, Nicholas of, 170 
Appleby, Family, 62 
Aquitaine, Deputation ot the Nobli 

to Henry III., 87 
Archci , Philip, 168 

Thomas le, 236, 25 \ 
Ardarne, Richard and Matilda bis wife, 

Grant of Land to, 249—252 
Aries, Potteries at, 6p 
Arlingham, Township of, 153 
Armorial Bi ; — 

Ablingti 'ii House, 147 

Ampney Crucis Church, 138—139 

Bibury Church, 146 

Bibui y Coui t, 147 

Oh H 1 26, i ( t 

Coin St. Aldwyn's Church, 1 16 
Hou e, 1 15, 146 

Cri] 1 '■ ' ■ '3<j 

1 ,i 1 b rch. 40, 140, 

Fai 1 ingdon, I ittle, ( nurch, 5<>, mi 

Hatherop 1 hurch, 145 
House, 1 11 

Hayles Abbey, 111, 148—149,265—266, 

I angford Church, 143—144 
Lechlade Church, 45, 47, 142 — 143 
Meysey Hampton Church, 30, 139— 

I|o 



21 



306 



Index. 



Armorial Bearings in (continued)— 

Quenington Church, 145 

Southrop Church, 53, 54, 144 

Winchcomb Church, 148 
Armorial Bearings of — 

Adee, 139 

Aguillon, 147 

Aiuge, 143 

Almaine, Henry of, 113 

Amyand, 142 

Ap Gronovv, 138 

Ap Owen, 138 

Arnold, 138, 139 

Ashley, 141 

Atkyns, 142 

Austin, 140 

Baker, 145 

Barrantyne, 149, 265 

Bathurst, 142 

BayliSj 148 

Beach, 145 

Beale, 133 

Beauchamp, 40 

Beauchamp, Thomas de, Earl ot 
Warwick, 269 

Bessborough, Earl of, 144 

Blagrave, 139 

Blomer, 144, 145 

Bouchier, 63 

Bowen, 138 

Broderwick, 143 

Browne, 145 

Burgh, de, 14C 

Chute, 142 

Clare, de, 30, 268 

Clarke, 140 

Colston, 140 

Compton, 149, 266 

Conway, 144 
Sir Thomas, 53 

Cooke, 142 

Cooper, 144 

Copley, 144 

Corbett, 141 

Cornwall, 147 
Earl of, 268 

Courcy, 147, 

Courtenay, 147 

Coxeter, 142 

Coxwell, 146, 147 

Creswell, 146 

Creuikere, 144 

Dalingruge, 147 

Den, de, 147 

Dennis, 141 

Despencer, 40, 269 

Driver, 17 

Eleanor of Castille, 269 

England, 268 

Estcourt, 146 

Evesham Abbey, 149, 266 

Ferrers, 111 

Fettyplace, 143 

Fitz-Alan, 265 

Fowler, 10, 126 

Freeman, 138 

Gorges, 141 

Grevill, 141 

Grey, 149 

Hall, 146 

Hamersley, 143 

Hastings, 269 

Hauteville, 140 

Hawes, 148 

Hayles Abbey, 100, 271 

Head, 146 

Herbert, 138 

Heton, Bishop of Ely, 140 



Armorial Bearings or (continued) — 
Heytesbury, 147 
Hicks, 145, 146 
Hick?-l'each, 146 
Hinson, 138 
Hobby, 146 
Hodges, 1 (3 
Horton, 140 
Huddleston, 149, 265 
Hungerford, 147 
Hussey, 147 
Hutchins, 149 
Ireton, 145 
Jenner, 139 
Keble, 54, 144 
Knox, 142 
Lloyd, 138, 139 
Loder, 143 
Lygon, 141, 
Lynde, 140, 147 
Lyttleton, 140 
Margaret of France, 2C9 
Margetson, '44 
Marshall, 92 
Mauley, 145 
Meysey, 29, 30 
Milward, 142 
Mitchell, 146 
Moncaster, 14S 
More, 140 
Morgan, 141 
Mortimer, 269 
Murray, 148 
Neville, 147 
Oldisworth, 140 
Pennington, 148 
Percy, 148, 266 
Perrot, 68 
Peverel, 147 
Plantagenet, 143 

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 271 
Pleydell, 139, 143 
Ponsonby, 144 
Powle, 145 
Poynings, 149, 266 
Prunes, 143 
Reason, 139, 143 
Redy, 140 
Renshaw, 148 
Roche, 144 

Romans, King of the, 26S 
Russell, 141 
Sackville, 146, 147 
St. Maur, 29, 30 
Sanchia of Provence, 114, 268 
Saunders, 139 
Savory, 141 
Shirley, 149 
Simons, 142 
Stapleton, 265 
Stephens, 10, 123, 126, 1 1 1 
Symons, 142 
Tame, 40, 141 
Toney, 269 
Tracy, 140, 1 |S 
Trotman, 148 
Turner, 143 
Twinyhoe, 46, 47, 141 
Tyriugham, 141 
Uchdryd, 139 
Vaughan, ijS 
Vaux, 140 

Wakefield, Henry, Bishop of Wor- 
cester, 269 
Warneford, 746, 147 
Warwick, Earls of, 40 
Watkins, 139 
Webb, 139, 144, 145 



Index. 



307 



Armorial Bearings of (continued) 
Whittington, 140 
Williams, 148 
Winchcomb, 148 
Wotton, 146 
Yorkist, 40 
Zouche, 29 
See also Heraldry 
Arnald, William, 249 
Arnold, Family, Arms of, 138, 139 
Ashbrook. See Ainpney St. Mary 
Ashley, Lady Barbara, 57 
Family, Arms of, 144 
Ashley-Cooper, Anthony, Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, 57 
Ashton Hall, 123 
Assart, Meaning of, 219 
Asschemerseye, Land, 249 
Asscliemeslad, Land, 249, 250 
Asshe, Thomas, Yeoman of the King's 
Chamber and Comptroller of the 
Port of Bristol, 277, 279 
Asshel worth, Robert de, 242 
Aston, John de, 177 
Athold, Manor, 256 
Atkyns, Family, Anns of, 142 
Atte Mere, Walter, 247, 249, 250, 251 
Atte Slype, Margaret, 170 

Ralph, 170 
Aubeny, Lord d', 65 
Auckesbury. See Hawkesbury 
Aula, Jordan de, 218 
Austin, Family, Arms of, 140 
Avene. See Avon 
Avening, Barrow, Long, at, 20 
Church — 
Altar of the Holy Rood, 17 
Bells, 19 

Destroyed by Fire, 14 
Font, Norman, 16 
Hagioscope, 17 
Lady Chapel, 14 

Early English, 14, 15, 18 
Norman Doorway, 15, 16, 18 
l'arvise, 15, 18 
Piscina, 14, 17, 18 
Recluse's Cell, 17 
Rectors, 19 
Rood Screen, 16 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 12 — 20 
Windows, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 
Lord of the Manor of, 18 
Manor, 19, 20 

Nailswoi th Chapel a Chapelry of, 21 
Prehistoric Stone Chambers at, 20 
Avon, River, 12, 13, 164, 166, 167, 170 
Aylward, 253 

Baa, Leuina de, 178 

Baddiilkv, St. Clair ; Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, and Henry of Al- 
maine, 1209 — 1272, h6 — 1 1 i 

Bagge, Nicholas, 162 

1 la rstone, Grange, 232 

Bagpatb, Land, 237, 238 

Baker, George, Anns of, 115, 147 
Margery, 172 

Baldwin, 24 

Balle, Richard, 181 

Bammeswet, Ralph, 170 

Banc, Baitholoinew la, 182, 185, 186, 190, 
nil, '96, 204, 206 

Bancs, Gilbert Cissor de, 157 

Bank, Ralph le, 213 

Banni byre, Joan de, 171, 172 

Banner, William, Yeoman, 27G 

Barbe, William, 1-1 



Bardeney.Symonde, Mayor of Bristol, 138 
Bareball, T., 199 
Baret, Adam, 184 
Alured, 184, 191 

Roger, 182, 186, 191, 203, 204, 205, 216, 
221 
Barker, Mr., 27 
Barker's Brook, Stream, 43 
Barlychhulle, Land, 250 
Barlynghull, Land, 247 
Barnewell, John, 249 

Roger, 249, 250, 251 
Barnsley Church, Description of, 68 
Font, 68 
Norman Horseshoe Chancel Arch, 

68 
Windows, 68 

Norman light at, brought from 
Daglinworth, 68 
Manor, 67, 68 
Notes on the Manor and Church, 

67—68 
Park, Built by Henry Perrot, 68 
Barrantyne, Mary, 149, 266 
Sir William, 266 
Family, Arms of, 149, 265 
Barre, Humphrey de la, 214, 218 
Barrow, Long — Avening, 20 

Rodmarton, 21 
Bartfield, Richard, 273 
Barton, Matthew de, 165 
Baskerville, William de, 112 
Basset, Fulk, Bishop of London, 103 

Family, 65 
Bat, Roger, 162 
Bath, Henry de, 178 

John de, 178 
Bath Abbey, 40 

and Wells, Bishop of. See Bitton, 

William de; Saturn 
Altar found at, dedicated to the 
Sulevae, erected by Su inus,6g,70 
Inscription on, 70 
Bathurst, Lawrence, 142 
Mary, 142 
Family, 44 
Arms of, 142 
Battle Abbey, Dedication of, 169 
Bazeley, William ; The Abbey of St. 
Mary, Hayles; Brief Sketch of 
its History and Report of the 
Excavations in 1899 and ig , 

257—271 
Notes on the Church and Manor of 

Ampney Crucis, 23 — 26 
Notes on Calcot Barn, 2 
Notes on the Manor and Church ol 
Fairford, 37 — 42 
Bazley, Garhnkk S. ; Stained and 

Painted Glass (illus.), 73—85 
Bayeux, Bishop of. Sei • 
Baylis, Family, Arms ot 
Beach, Family, Arms of, 145 
Beaga, 62 

Beale, Catherine, 123, 136 
Arms ol. 
Robert, Clerk to Queen Elizabeth, 
1 ii. 136 
l'.citi 11 < ol l'i uvence, 9S. 
Beam camp, Mai an t, .'69 

Thomas de, Fail ol Warwick, Arms 
of, 269 

Willi. iin. 

Family, 38 
Arms, 1 
Bcauflur, Ralph, 1 9 
Walti 
William, 



3 o8 



Index. 



Beaufort, Edmund II., Duke of Somerset 

and Marquis of Dorset, 281 
Beaulieu Abbey, 257 

Abbot, See Hugh 

Dedication of, 99 

Estates of, 47 

Founded by King John, 88 

Grant of Land to, 49, 53 

Isabella, Countess of Gloucester and 
Cornwall, buried at, 92 
Discovery of Tomb of, 92 

Monks of, 99 

Visit of Richard Plantagenet, Earl 
of Cornwall, 99 
Beaumont, Family, 65 
Bedwell, Family, 27 
Beel, John, 162 
Beettesest, Land, 247 
Beidunesslade, Land, 184 
Belasyse, Barbara, 57 

John, Lord, 57 
Belchere, Hugh, 168 
Bell, Richard, 175 
Benecumbe, Robert de, 226 
Bercham, Richard de, 158, 1C8, 178 
Bereman, Alan, 159 
Berenger, Raymond, Count of Provence, 

89 
Berewyke, Henry de, 175, 176 
Berkeley, Adam de, 216, 218, 220 

Elizabeth, 256 

Henry de, 243 

John, Lord of Dursley, 256 

John de, 243 

Lords of, 159 

Maurice de, 224 

Lord Maurice de, 253 

Oliver de, 185, 186, 190, 193, 202, 203, 
204 

Philip de, 206 

Robert de, 224, 242, 2 r 3 

Roger de, Lord of Dursley, 9, 242, 256 

Thomas, Lord, 3, 5, 9, 255 

Thomas de, 162, 224, 225, 253 
Court of, at Radeclyve, 170 

William, 285 

William, Lord of Dursley, 256 

Family, 9 
Berkeley, 239, 240, 242 

Borough of, 155 

Hundred, 153, 155, 157 

King's Hundred of, 9 

Vicar of, 215, 217, 219, 221 
Berham, Walter de, 158 
Berkham, Richard de, 163 
Berkhampstead, 89, 114 
Berman, Robert, 1O4 

Sely le, 166 
Bernard, Henry, son of, 191, 192 

Henry, 205 

John, 248, 249, 250 

Walter, 186, 203, 205, 231 
Bertun, Walter de, 190 
Berwick, 114 

Besill, Thomas, Clerk of, 219 
Bess, Sir John, no 
Bessborough, Earl of, Arms of, 144 
Best, Adam, 170 
Bethlesdene, Monks of, 205 
Beumund, Joan 178 
Beversalevelde, Land, 183 
Beverston, Castle, 4 

Barbican (illus.), 8 

Barn near, 9 

Besieged by the Parliamentary 

Forces, 9 
Built by Maurice de Gaunt and 
Thomas, Lord Berkeley, 5 



Beverston, Castle (continued)— 
Chapel, 7, 8 
Piscina, 7 
Sedilia, 7 
Window, 7 
Devastated by Fire, 7 
Colonel Oglethorpe, Governor of, 9 
Possessors of, 9 

Visit of the Socieiy, and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 5 — 9 
Church, Berkeley Chapel, 3 
Font, 4 
Hagioscope, 3 
Piscina, 4 

Picture of S. Christopher, 4 
Rector of, 228 

Rood Screen, Restoration of, 4 
Sculpture, 3 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 2 — 5 
Wall Paintings, 4 
Windows, 3, 4 
Earl Godwin, Harold and S weyn at, 9 
Land, 183 
Manor, 9 
Bibury, Ancient Name, 62 
Church, 62 
Almeries, 65 
Arms in, 146 
Jurisdiction of, 62, 64 
Old Oak at Ablington Manor House 

brought from, 65 
Piscinas, 65 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of, 64, 65 
Windows, 64, 65 
Court (illus.), 62 
Arms in, 147 

or Manor House, built by Sir 
Thomas Sackville, 64 
Lands at, 62 
Manor, 64, 67 
Extent of, 62 
Norman Villa at, 65 
Visit of the Society, and Notes on, 
(illus.), 62 — 65 
Bigoi re, Count of. See Chabannois 
Bilesby, Henry de, 214, 215, 217, 218, 242, 

243 
Bird, Phelepott, 285 

William, Bristol Merchant, claimed 

by Lord de la Warre as villein, 

284-285 
Buried in the Crypt of St. Nicholas, 

Bristol, 285 
Birdlip, 2S5 
Birdwood, 157 

Birmingham, William, Lord of, 285 
Birmingham, Master of the Guild ot, 2^5 
Bisley, Mathew de, 219 

W. de, 215, 219 
Bisley, Parish of, 202 
Bitton, William de, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 103 
Blackwell, Samuel, 24 

Family, 59 
Blagrave, Arms of, 139 
Blakeford, Alice de, 171 
Blakenaker, Land, 229 
Blakers, Walter, 167 
Blakingrove, Land, 184 
Blaye, Henry III. and English Army at, 

97 
Bley, Roger de, 232 
Blomer, John, 55 
Mary, 55, 144 
Family, 55, 119 
Arms ol, 144, 145 



Index. 



309 



Blund, John le, 220 

Richard le, Bishop of Exeter, 99, 103 
Bohun, de. Family, 67, iog 
Boilond, Richard de, 219 
Bollecote, Land, 207, 208 
Bolre, Richard, 165 
Boltere, Robert le, 166 
Bond, Richard, 278 
Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

98, 114 
Bonilace VII., Pope, 112 
Bonsergiant, John, 161 
Bordeaux, Bishop of, 87 

Convent at, 97 

Wine-merchants of, 107 
Bosworth Field, Battle of, 27 
Boteler, Adam le, 164 

Hereward le, 164 
Bottelavv Hundred, 157 
Bouchier, William, 68 

Family, 68 
Arms of, 68 
Bowcot. See Bollecote 
Bower,, Family, Arms of, 138 
Boxwell, Rector of, 131, 133, 134 
Boys, William de, 166 
Brachel, John, 230 

Walter de, 205 
Bradenstoke, Priory of, founded by 
Walter d'Hvreux, and Sybilla 
de Chaworth, his wife, 55 
Bradeston, Robert de, 208, 225 
Bradley, Henry de, 203 

William de. 103, 203, 204 
Bradley, Hundred uf, 157 
Bradpen, 253 

Bradstonesforlang, Land, 184 
Braneford, 279 
Brasses, Monumental, at — 

Coin St. Aldwyn's, 146 

Fairford Church, 42, 141 

Inglesham Church, 48 

Langford Church, 143 

Lechlade Church, 46 

Quinton, 17 
Bracks, MONUMENTAL, of — 

Clopton, 17 

Grevill, hi 

Pleydell, 143 

Prunes, 143 

Reason, 143 

Tame, Sir Edmund, and Alice his 
wile, 42, 141 

Townshend, John, 46 

Twinyho, 46, 141 
Braybrok, William, 165 
Brech, La, Land, 250 
Bredebrug', Henry de, 234 
Brerigarston, Land, 184 
Bi et, Robert le, 175 

Breteuil, Roger de, Earl of Hereford, 59 
Brethe, Land, 192 
Brctun, William, 203 
Hi ian, .Sk Poynings 
Brictric, 19, 38 
Brid, John, 159 

Randolph, 167 

Robert, 159, 167 
i ; id 1 , Henry, Monument of, 18 
Bridleyp. See Birdlip 
Bi inton, Adam de, 175 
Bristilton, Robert of, 171 
Bristol], W. de, 217 
Bristol, Arras Tower, 171 

Avene Marsh, 175 

Castle, 166 
Champayne, John, Gatekeeper of, 
177 



Bristol (continue!) — 

CastJe, Chapel, Dedication of, 169 
Churches — 

All Saints', 159, 161, 165 

Brethren of Mount Cai 

Brethren of the Sack, 168, ioj 

Friars' Preachers, 1 

Grey Friars, 278 

Holy Trinity, 159, i6j, 161 

St. Augustine the Greater, 163 

St. Augustine the Less, 165, . 
William, Vicar of, 175 

St. James, 163, 162, 167. 169 

St. John de Bradeforde, 167 

St. John de la Redcclyve, 159, 168 

St. Leonard, 173 

St. Martin, 169 

St. Mary de la Redeclyve, 159, 16;,, 
167, 170, 171 

St. Nicholas, Crypt of, William 
Bird buried in, 285 

St. Owens, 159, 162 

St. Peter, 15 1, 163, 167 

St. Philip and St. Jacob, 166, 170 

St. Thomas, 168, 171 

St. Werburge, 165 
Compter, 276, 285 
Council House, 273, 277 
Dean of, Christianity of, 161, 178 
Englishry, Charter of Exemption 

from, 171 
Fines for, 151, 152 
Gaol Delivery of, 178 
Great House in St. Peter's Church- 
yard, 272, 273 
Guildhall, 280 

St. George's Chapel in, 2S4 
Hospitals — 

St. Bartholomew, 178 

St. John, Stephen, Master of, 174 

St Mark's, 165 
Jordan of the Malthouse, 173 
Kings' Hundred of, 177 
Lafiorde's Gate, 177 
Lands in, 274 
Market, 177 

fohn, the Clerk of the, \f>z 
Marshal of, 194 
Municipal Records — 

Great Red Book of the Corpor- 
ation of, 272, 2S3, 284 
Document in, relating to 

Trial of Thomas Norton, 

275—283 
Remarkable Entry in, relati ig 
to William Bird, 2^4—21:5 
Pipe Lane, 174 

nvn at, 1 i Bdward I., 
by E. A. Fuller, 150—178 
Pi ison, 163 
Redclifl Stn et, 171 
Court of Thomas de Berkeli 

170 
Prison of Thomas de Berkeley 
in, 159, 162 
St. Augustine's Abbey, John, the 

Cook of the Abbut of, I 
St. James's, Pi ioi v of. 1 1 rsi 

iald de, I tiaplain of , 1 9 
Rob 1 "i thi ! 

ol, 166 

St. Michael's Hill, 157, 171 
St. Petei 's Cburcb 
Savoy, ^78 

Sri . I -| 

S0111 leuts in 1 

History, by J. Lati 
-J85 



21 A 



3io 



Index. 



Bristol (continued) — 

Temple Fee, 277, 282 
Trial by Combat at, 173 
Tolzey, 274 
Brittany, Expedition of Henry III. 

to, 87 
Broadwell Church, Font, 68 
Broderick, Francis, 143 

Saphina, 143 

Family, Arms of, 143 
Brodesierd, Land, 113, 184 
Brokeleyesflad, Land, 238 
Brome, Agnes, 236 

Laurence de, 236 
Grant of Land to, 237, 238 
Bronderuppe. See Eastleach 
Browne, Family, Arms of, 145 
Brucetus, Sulinus, son of, 70 
Bruerne, Abbey, Monks of, 119 
Bruges, John of, and Clarice his wife, 174 

William de, 176 
Bruggeaunt, William de, 234 
Brun, John, 176 

Thomas, 161 
Brunegrove, Sampson de, 214 
BruseJaunce, John, 157 
Bruth, John le, Lord of Weston, 230 
Bruton Priory, 10, 122, 129 

Cell of, at Horsley, 129 
Brydd. See Bird 
Brydewode. Sec Bridvvood 
Bryselaunce, John, 175 
Buccleugh, Duke of, 47 
Buchine, La, Land, 204, 231 
Buckhurst, Robert of, 147 
Budeford, Geoffrey de, 235, 236 

Jordan de, 235, 236 
Buledene, Land, 183 
Bull, George, Rector of Avening and 

Siddington, 19 
Bunz, Henry, 235 
Burdon, John, 248 
Burgh, Hubert de, Justiciar, Fall of, 87 

Jane Adeliza Clementina Hussey de, 

137 
Family, Arms of, 146 
Burgred, King of the Mercians, 38 
Burifeld, Land, 241 
Burthorpe. See Eastleach Martin 
Burton, G. de, 219 
Butevillain, William, 184, rgt, 192 
Butine, La. See Buchine 
Buxvvell, Robert de, 220 
Byfloid, Mill of, 253 
Byndedevel, Roger, 159 
Byrde. See Bird 

Caen, Abbaye aux Dames, Grant to, 19 
Cairo, Sultan of, 94 
Cake, Richard, 169 
Calchushull, Land, 241, 242 
Calcot, Hugh de, 207, 209 

W. de, 192 
Calcot Barn, Built by Henry, Abbot of 
Kingswood, 2 
Carved Stone at, 2 
Inscription in, 2 
Partly Destroyed by Fire, 2 
Visit of the Society, and Description 
of, 2 
Caldicote Grange, 206 
Abbot of, 197 
Monks of, 230 
Land, 227, 236 
Calfhage, Roger de, 203 

■ m III., Popi 
Calne, John de, 160 
Richard de, 176 



Cam, Hamlet of, 239, 240 
Camberlanus. See Chamberlain 
Cambridge, Friars of the Sac at, 169 
Camerarius, William, 184 
Camme, Henry de, 225 

Ralph de, 208 
Cantilupe, Walter de, Bishop of Worces- 
ter, 100, 103 
Canterbury, Archbishops of. See Boni- 
face ; Langton ; Rich 
S. Thomas of, 116 
Canynges, William, Mayor of Bristol, 

274. 275. 278 
Capel, John, 240, 242 

William, 242 
Caperun, Geoffrey, 226 

P., 220 
Caposalvi, Signor, Architect, 113 
Cardiff, John de, 158 
Carpenter, David the, 172 
Philip the, 217 
Robert the, 173 
Silvester the, 173 
Thomas, 235 
Walter the, 169 
Wililam the, 169 
Carter, T., 196, 198 
William le, 247 
W., 196 
Catherine of Arragon, Queen, 44 
Cementarius. See Mason 
Chabinnois, Agnes, in 
Constance, in 

Eskivat de. Count of Bigorre, m 
Chalelege, W. de, 196 
Chamberlain, William, 191 
Champayne, John, gatekeeper of Bristol 

Castle, 177 
Chandos, Edmund Lord, 27 

John, Lord of Sudeley, 18 
Chaplin, Major, 126 
Charles I., 40, 130 
Execution of, 131 
and Queen Henrietta, Traditional 

Visit to Hatherop Castle, 57 
Trial of, published in a book called 
"England's Black Tribunall," 132 
Charles II., Restoration of, 131 
Charles of Anjou, King of Naples and 
Sicily, 103, no, in, 113 
Taken prisoner by the Sultan, 102 
Charlton, Adam de, 182, 183, 185, 186, 191, 
192 
Richard de, 252 
Roger de, 186 
Charlton, Land, 183, 185, 186 
Charteshull, Roger de, 11,6, 198 
Charteshull, Grange, 232 
Chausi, Gi-:>tln y de, 1^1, : 4, 207, 201 
Chavenage, Notes on Chavenage and the 
Stephens Family, by W. H. 
Silvester Davjes, 128—135 
Chavenaue House, by W. Howard 
Seth-Smith, 121— 127 
Manor House, 128 
Arms in, 123, 126, 133 
Bedstead, Carved, 129 
Chapel at, 17 
Chimney-piece, I2fi 
Distinguished persons connected 

wiih, 129 
Fin place iillus.), 12 
Flemish Glass, 12 
Gothic Work in, 122 
Jacobean Screens, 125 
Knocker at, 123 
Legend of, 131 — 132 
Minstrel Gallery, 125, 126 



Index. 



3" 



Chavenage, Manor House (continued) — 
Picture of Oliver Cromwell at, 129 
Priest's cell at, 126 
Robert Harley's Room at, 134 
Sale of Antiquities at, 135 
Sir Philip Sydney's Room at, 127 
Tapestry, 12, 125 
Tapestry Room, 129 
Visit of the Society and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 9—12 
Windows at, 10, 122, 123, 124, 125 
Manor of, 129 
Chavenage, Poem called, by Rev. R. W. 

Huntley, 131, 133 
Chavvorth, Sybilla de, 55 
Cheddre, John le, 176 
Chelder, Richard, 256 
Cherington, Adam de, Grant oi Land 
to, 190, 191 
Henry de, 190 
Lord and Lady of, 239 
Luke de, 2:15, 206 
Cherington, 17 

Church Bell sto'en by Avening 

Ringers, 19 
Land in, 190, 205 
Cherleton. See Charlton 
Chesterfield, Battle at, no 
Chichester. Bishop of. See YVich 
Chippenham, Bailiff of, 215 
Chirechesdun. See Churchdown 
Chirintun. See Cherington 
Chiryeinedon, Land, 250 
Chok, Sir Richard, Justice, 278 
Cholmondeley, Anne, 133, 134, 136 

Sir Hugh, Governor of Scarborough, 

12, 132, 133, 134, 136 
Lord, 133 
Mary, 136 
Chuich Plate, Chalice, Pre-Reformation, 

at Langford Church, 53 
Churchdown, R. de, 222 
Chute Family, Arms of, 142 
Cirencester, Walter, Clerk of, 216 
Cirencester Abbey, Abbots. See Rod- 
merton 
Lamp of St. Mary, 230 
Altar and Reliefs found at, Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 69 — 72 
Inscription on, 70 
Church, 153 
Cripps' Mead, Arms in, 139 

Museum at, Visit ol the Society, 
and Notes on, 68 — 72 
Finds in Ashcroft, 63 
Hundred of, 157 
S. John's Church (illus.), 72 
Cistercian Order, Abbots of, at the 
Lateran, 187 
Attempt of Henry III. to Extract 

Money from, 98 
Endowment of Schools by, 102 
Possessions of, 101 
Citeaux, Abbey, Nun of, 88 
Clappe, Gilbert, 227 

Clare, Alicia de, Countess of Gloucester, 
108 
Gilbert de, Earl of Gloucester and 
Hertford, 87, no, 258 
Isabel, his wife, 87 
Margaret de, 258 
Richard de, Earl of Gloucester, 53, 

88, 90, 107 
Richard de (Strongbow), Earl of 

Pembroke, 130 
Family, Earls of Gloucester and 
Hertford, 38, 53 
Arms, 30, 268 



Clarence, Duke of. Sec Plantagenet 
Clarke, Simon the, 175 
Clarke Family, Arms of, 140 
Cleihulle, Land, 183 
Clement IV., Pope, in 
Clencham, Stephen, 248 
Clergy, Requisiiion upon the, 87 
Clerk, Hugh, 198 

John le, 175, 176, 178 

John the, of the Market of Bristol, 
162 

Nicholas, 235 

Richard de, 1 = 8 

Symon the. Sec Bardeney 

Walter, 235 

William le, 178, 198 
Clermont, Alice de, 53 
Clifford, Roger de, 108 

Rosamond, 55 

Walter de, 118 
Clifton, Seward of, 162 
Clitheroe, John, Abbot of Haylcs. 26 1 
Clyvare, John le, 175 
Cnigt. See Knight " 
Cobbler, John, 178 
Cokhil, Henry, 235 
Colewiche, Richard de, 236 
Colkerton. See Culkerton 
Cclle, Adam, 172 
Coin, River, 37, 43, 61, 65 

Ancient Name, 62 
Coin St. Aldwyn's, Church, Advowson, 
62 
Arms, 146 
Brass, 146 

Derivation of Name, 61 

Manor, given by Aldred to St. Peter's 
Abbey, Gloucester, 61, bz 

Manor House (illus.), 61, 62 
Arms in, 145—146 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on, 
61—62 

and Williamstrip, Lands in. >>.: 

Williamstrip House, 62 
Cologne, Archbishop of. See Conrad 
Colston, Alexander, Arms ol, 140 
Comare, Adam le, 160 

Mai gery, 160 
Compton, Sir William, Governor of 
Sudeley Castle, 266 

Gift to Hayles Abbey, 266 

Family, Arms of, 149, 266 
Conrad, Archbishop of Cologne, 106, 114 

258 
Conradin, Nephew of Manfred, 105 
Constance. See Gd 
Constaunce, Henry, 231, 248 

William, 249, 250, 251, 252 
Conway, Sir Thomas, Arms of, 53 

and his Lady, I 1:. 1. of, in 
Southrop Church, 53, 54 

Family, Arms of, 114 
Cook, Alice, 178 

John, 

Richard le, 161, 164 

Susanna, 142 

W.iliii ■ ( 1 

Cooke, Family, Arms of, 1 1 : 
Cooper, Family, Anns of, 1 1 1 
Copley, Family, Ai ms of, 1 1 1 
Corbeti, Mai garet, 1 1 1 

I iniily, Al HIS ol, I4I 
Corfe c 

Corne, John, 272 
Cornishman, Thomas the, 167 
Conin Waltei le, 

Corowaleis. Ci 1 

Rich. Lid le, 17.3 



3 I2 



Index. 



Cornwall, Earl of. Arms of, 268 
See Plantagenet 

Family, of Burford, 114 

Family, Arms of, 147 
Cornwall — Cornish Mines, 88 
Coscombe House, 260 
Cosyn. See Cook 
Coteland. See Eastleach 
Cotiler, Walter le, 161 
Cottenhulle, 227 
Courcy, Alice de, 117 

Family, Arms of, 147 
Courtenay, Family, Arms of, 147 
Coverturwrythe, John le, 178 
Coxeter, George, 142 

Family, Arms of, 142 
Coxwell, Charles, 146 

John, 62,65 

Portrait of, at Ablington Manor 
House, 65 

Family, Arms of, 146, 147 
Crawlegh, Thomas de, 242 
Credewel!, Richard de, 160 
Cremona, 95 
Crennel, John, 253 
Cresswell, Richard, 146 

Thomas Estcourt, 146 

Family, Arms of, 146 
Crests. See Armorial Bearings 
Creuikere, Family, Arms of, 144 
Cringley, Manor, in 
Ci'ipps, W., Museum of, at Cirencester, 
Visit of the Society, and Notes 
on, 63 — 72 

Potteiy in, 68 
Crisp, John, 214 

Cromweli, Oliver, Lord Protector, 12, 30 
Picture of, in Chavenage Manor 
House, 129 

Thomas, 267 

Family, 131 
Crossbowman, Alice, 159 

Peter the, 159 

William, 159 
Crosses — Ampney Crucis, 24 — 26, 51 

Eastleach Martin, 118 

Eastleach Turville, 119 

Inglesham, 49 

Runic or Saxon, 15 
Croxden, Abbey, 101 
Crusade, Money co:lected for, 100 
Crusaders, Vows of, 93 
Cu. See Cook 
Cudake, Stephen, 162 
Cuif, William, iSj, 184 
Culkerbrugge, Land, 248 
Culkertun, Colin de, 190, 113, 198 

Henry de, 184, 185, 1S6, 191, 192 

Nicholas de, 182, 185, 186, 203, 205, 214, 

221 

W. de, 218 
Culkerton, Land in, 181, 1S2, 189, 191, 192, 
203,204, 231, 247, 219 

Vill of, 248 
Culling, John, 214 

lllver Llk-uone, 19 
Cumb, Cristina de, 2H 

Elias of, 219, 226, 236 

Henry de, 216, 217 

Richard de, 215, 217, 219, 221 

Willi 1111 de, 232—234 

Vvo de, 236 
Curteneci undle, Land, 183 
1 1 In. See Cook 
Custance. See Geoffrey 

1 Lord, 281 
Dagan, Hugh, 197 



Daglingworth Church, Early Sculpture 

at, 51 
Norman light in Barnsley Church 

brought from, 68 
Dale, William, 158, 176 
Dalingruge, Sir John, 147 

Margaret, 147 
Family, Arms of, 147 
Damascus, Sultan of, 94 
Dainietta, Louis IX., and French Cru- 
saders at, 102 
Dante, Alighieri, his description of 

Simon de Montfort, 113 
Davies, W. H. Silvester; Notes on 
Chavenage and the Stephens' 
Family, 128 — 135 
Deae Matres. See Sulevae 
Deerhurst Priory, Expulsion of Monks 
from, 102 
Rights over, purchased by Richard 
Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall, 102 
Del West, Land, 192 
Den, Hela de, 147 
Ralph de, 147 
Robert de, 147 
Family, Arms of, 147 
Dene, John de, 178 

William de, Lord of Lassebrewe, 226 , 
237, 238 
Dennis, Eleanor, 141 
Sir Gilbert, 141 
Richard, 10, 129 
Sir Walter, io, 122, 129 
William, 141 
Family, Arms of, 141 
Dent, Mrs., of Sudeley, In Memoiiam, 

300—301 
Deodand, Forfeit called, 154 
Derby, Earl of. See Ferrers 
Derwentwater. See Radcliffe 
Despencer, Family, 38, 43, 67 

Arms, 40, 269 
Devereux, Robert, Earl of Essex, Colonel 
of the Parliamentary Forces, 
12, 128, 129 
Dichforlang, Land, 183, 184 
Didbiook Church, Rebuilt by William 
Whytchurch, Vicar, 260 
Inscription in, 260 
Reconciliation of, 260 
Dikere, William, 162 
Dilston, 57 
Dimmok, W., 217 
Di Vico. See Vico 
Dode, John, 162 
Dodington, Benedict de, 235 
Dollyng, Agnes, 163 

John, 163 
Dominicans, Sent by Pope to Procure 

Funds for Crusade, 93 
Donhurst, Matilda de, 169 
Dorset, Marquis of. See Beaufort 
Doughton, John de, 213 
Richard de, 183 
Robert de, 184, 191 
Roger de, 185, 186, 190, 196, 206 
Doughton, 184 

1 lover, Port of Departure for Felons, 152 
Dowdeswell, Robert Alccster, Abbot of 

Hayles, buried at, 259 
Down, Thomas, 230, 251 
Downe, Jo!m, Viscount, 24 
Draicote, John, 240 
Draper, Richard le, 158, 175, 176 
Driver, John, 17 

Family, of Aston, 17 
Anns, 17 
Pedigree, 17 



Index. 



3 T 3 



Droys, Adam le, 246 
Druez, John, 278 
Duck, Richard le, 2c6 

William le, 248 
Ductune. See Doughton 
Dudley, John, Duke of Northumber- 
land, 64 
Dunning, 55 
Dunning, Ralph, 176 

William, 164 
Durand, 26, 67 
Diirer, Albert, Fairford Windows said 

to have been designed by, 40 
Durobrivte, Pottery from, 68 
Dursley, Henry de, 217 
DyrnDck, 157 



Karstfield, Family, 9 
Eastington, Church, 134 
Rector of, 134 
Lord of the Manor of, 128, 130 
Manor of, 130 

Manor House, Fire at, in 1778, 
Family Papers destroyed in, 128 
View of, 128 
Eastleach Martin, Notes on the Parishes 
and Churches of Eastleach 
Martin and Eastleach Turville, 
by W. H. T. Wright, 115— 120 
At time of Survey, 53 
Church, 116 
Bellcote, 118 
Building of, 115 
Cross, 118 

Dedication of, 116, 117 
Description of, 118 
Norman Doorway at, 118 
Windows, 118 
Cote Farm at, 118 
Cruel Hill, 117 

Flint arrowheads found at, 118 
Manor of, 115 
Monks' Cellar near, '18 
Rectory, 120 
Eastleach Turville, Notes on the Parishes 
and Churches of Eastleach 
Martin and Eastleach Turville, 
by W. H. T. Wkight, 115 — 120 
At time of Survey, 53 
Blomer's Mead, 119 
Church of St. Andrew, Description 
of, 118, IIQ 
Early English Chancel, 119 
Norman Doorway at, 118 
Parson of, 119 
Windows, 119 
Cross, 1 19 

Grant of land at, 119 
Joined with Eastleach Martin, 119 
Land at, 119 
Manor, ■)■;, 119, 120 
Edgeworth, Peter de, 182, 202, 203 
Edmund Crouchback, King of Sicily, 101 
Edward the Confessor, King, 43 

Shrine of, in Westminister Abbey, 

113 
Edward I., 91, 97 

At Hayles, 259 
Edward IV'., Badge of, in Lecblade 

Clmrch, 46 
Edward VI., 55 
Effigies of — 

Conway, Sir Thomas, and his 

lady, 53, 34 
Tame, John, and Aliri. his wife, 12 
Vaulx, James, his wives and chil- 
dren, 29, 30 



Effigies at— 

Fairford Church, 42 

Meysey Hampton Church, 29, 30 

Soutlmp Church, 53, 54 
Egeton. John de, 242 
Egge, Gilbert del, 2 1, 202 

John del, 201, 202 
Egge, Grange del', 253 

, La, Land, 202, 207, 208, 224 

W( ie, Peter d ( 
Eggewurth. See Edgeworth 
Eghammore, Land in, 241, 242 
Egwin, Bishop of Worcester, Founder of 

Evesham Abbey, 266 
Eleanor of Castille, Queen, Arms of, 269 
Eleanor of Provence, Queen, 89, 98, 107, 

108, 257 
Elias, William son o' 
Elizabeth, Queen, 43, 128, 129, 133, 261 
Elkstone Church, Culver or pigeon- 
house, 18 

Parvise at, iS 
Elwy, 24 

Ely, Bishops of. See Heton ; Norwold 
Englisliry in Gloucestershire, 155, 1 I 

. J 57 

Lincolnshire, 156 

Warwickshire, 156 

Yorkshire, 156 
Ennyse, Hugh le, 165 
Ergleys, Coroner of Bristol, 158 
Erlingham. See At lingham 
Ernald, Brother, 198 
Ernisius, Monk of Malvern, 117 
Esbroc. See Ampney St. Mary 
Especar, Gilbert le, 1-1 
Essex, Earl of. See Devereux 
Estcourt, Elizabeth, 146 

Thomas, 2 

Sir Thomas, 146 

Family, Arms of, 146 
Estfelde, Land, 204 
Eston, William de, 176 
Estoria, Henry de, 182 
Estrange, Hamon 1', 
Eudo, 67 
Everard, 183 
Everard, Thomas, 213 
Eversone, John, 173 

Richard, 173 
Evesham Abbey, Arms of, 149, 266 

Founded by Egwin, Bishop of 
Worcester, 266 
Evesham, Battle of, no, 112 
Evesque, Hake le, 168 
Evreux, Ela, 55 

Patrick d', (1) Earl of Salisbury, 55 

Walter d', 55 

Sybilla de Chaworth, his wife, 55 

William 'i', 12) Earl of Salisbury, 55 
Excommunication ot England bj 

Innocent IV., 99 
Exeter, Bishop of. See Blund 



Fairford Church, 38 
All. 11 Comb . \2 
Arms, i'>, 140 — 142 
Br.iss, \z, 141 
1 description of, 38 — 42 
Effigii -, t2 

Founded bj |ohn Tame, 37 
Gurgi 

Lady Chapel, 1: 
Monument, \a 

PI. in of, 

Windows, it, ;;-, 
84. 8; 



3 J 4 



Index. 



Fairford Church, Windows (continued) — 
Age of, 76 

Glass ot, preserved by Sir John 
Oldisworth, 42 
Croft's Hall, 140 
Derivation of Name, 37 
Earliest Mention of, 38 
Grant of Land at, 38 
Graves, Discoveries at, 38 
In Saxon Times, 38 
Manor, 38 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on 
the Manor and Church, 37 — 42 
Falkenstein, Beatrice von, 114, 258 

Dietrich, von, 114 
Farley, Prior of, 177 
Farley, Robert de, 165 

William de, 175 
Farringdon, Little, Church, Almery, 50 
Arms, 50, 143 
Clerestory, 49 
Glass, Early English and Flemish, 

49 
Piscina, 50 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 49 — 50 
Window, 49, 50 
Formerly in Berks, now in Oxford- 
shire, 49 
Granted by King John to Beaulieu 
Abbey, 49 
Fatte, John the, 160 

Margaret the, 173 
Fauconner, John le, 165 
Fernhamthorne, Land, 247 
Ferrars, Henry de, 43 
Isabel de, 44 
Margaret, 269 

Robert de, Earl of Derby, no 
William de, 269 
Family, Arms of, in 
Fettyplace, Sophia, 143 

Family, Arms of, 143 
Fiennes, Ingelram de, French Knight, ic8 
Fieschi.Sinibaldo. See Innocent IV., Pope 
Filhida, Land in, 117 
Fiscleshole, Land at, 229 
l-'itz Alan, Agnes, 265 
Brian, 265 
John, 109 

Family, Arms of, 265 
Fitz Hamon, Robert, 26, 38 
Fitzbardinge, Robert, 9 

Robert, surnamed Weare, 9 
Fitz Herbert, Peter, 44 

Family, 67 
Fitzpaine. See Poynings 
Fitzpons, Drogo, 53, 115, 118 
Osbert, 53 
Osborn, 115 

Richard, 53, 115, 116, 117 
Deed of gift of, 115 
Mathildis, wile of, 116 
Simon, 53, 115 
Walter, 53 
Family, 54 
Fitz Rolf, Turstin, 24 
Fitz Stephen, Captain, 129 

Ralph, High Sheriff of Gloucester- 
shire, 129 
Robert, 130 

William, High Sheriff of Gloucester- 
shire, 129 
Fitzwarin, Fulco, 177 
Fitzwilliam, William, Earl of South- 
ampton, 47 
Flambard, Adam, 196 
William, 168 



Flaxley, Abbey, 101 

Abbot of, 193, 215 
Fleetwood, Family, 9 
Flint Implements — Eastleach, 118 
Florenz V., Lord of Holland, Zeeland, 

and Vriesland, 106 
Foix, Agnes de, in 

Count de, m 
Foliot, Gilbert, Abbot of Gloucester and 
Bishop of London, 116, 117 

James, 231, 232 
Fonts at — 

Avening, 16 

Barnsley,68 

Beverston, 4 

Broadwell, 68 

Inglesham, 48 

South! op, 54, 55 

See Crosses, &c. 
Ford, Hugh de la, 214 

John le, 167 
Fordham, John, Prior of Worcester, 254, 

255 
Forester, John le, 176 

Juliana de la, 178 

Family, 59 
Fornere, Eva la, 167 
Forshew, Family, 27 
Forster, John, Mayor of Bristol, 285 
Fountains, Abbey, 101 
Fowler, Joan, 10, 136 

Richard, 10, 136 

Family, Arms of, 10, 126 
Fox, Richard, 171 
Fragnum, Land, 238 
Frampton, John de, 217 

Robert, Bishop ot Gloucester and 
Rector of Avening, 19 

Walter de, 203 

William de, 235 
France, Invasion ot, by Henry III., 96, 97 

Potteries in, 69 
Franceis, Edward le, 174, 175 

Everard le, Mayor of Bristol, 158, 176 

Peter le, 176 

Richard le, 176 

R. le, 199 

Walter le, 158 
Franciscans, Sent by Pope to procure 

funds for crusade, 93 
Frankeleyn, John the, 153 

Richard, 168 
Frederick II , Emperor of Germany, 
and King of the Romans, 86, 89, 

94, 95 

Excommunication of, 102 
Freeman, Henry le, 231 

Roger le, 231 

Thomas le, 248 
Freeman, Bakeley, Family, Arms of, 138 
Fretherne, Lord of the Manor of, 130 
Frocester, Vicar of, 214 
Froggaputtesfurlang, Land, 183 
Frome, River, 158, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165 
Fromund, Robert, 163 
Froude, Huirell, 120 
Fuller, E. A.; Pleas of the Crown at 

Bristol, 15 Edward I., 150—178 
Fuimer, Le, Widow, 214 
Fuiness Abhey, 101 
Furnival, William de, in 
Fyfield, Hamlet of, 115 

Manor, 118 

Manor House, Windows at, 119 
Fynet, Henry de, 174 

Galgano, Cistercian Abbey of, 112 
Gange, Nicholas, 176 



Index. 



3i5 



Garston, or Gaerstun, Meaning of, 183 
Garstona, Land, 183, 250 
Gascony, Rights over, 97 

Deputation of the Nobles of, to 

Henry III., 87 
Governed by Simon de Montfort, 104 
Gaudy, Robert, 196 
Gaunt, Maurice de, 5 

Family, 9 
Gaywoode, John, Sheriff of Bristol, 274 
Gaza, French Crusaders deieated near, 94 
Geg, Walter le, 249, 251 
Gendlac, Richard, 169 
Geoffrey, son of Constance, 186, 190, 191, 

192, 203, 205, 206, 216 
George, William, In Memoriatn, 302—303 
Germany, 102, 108 

Revenues of Richard Plantagenet, 

Earl of Cornwall, in, 106 
War with the Frisians, 105 
Giffard, Godfrey, Bishop of Worcester, 
*77, 258 
John, Lord of Brimpsfield, 109, 177, 
220, 221 
Girston. See Garstona 
Glass, Stained and Painted, by Gardner 
S. Bazley (iMws.)i 73—85 
Age of, Tests for determining, 81 
Aventurine, 74 

Colouring, Methods of, 76—80 
Modern Methods of, 81 — 83 
Discovery of, 74 

Painted, at Hayles Abb -y, 270, 271 
Difference of, from Pictures, 83 
Renaissance, 76 
Glastonbury, William of, 175 
Gloucester, Earl of. See Clare; Montfort 
Gloucester, Milo de, Earl of Hereford, 67 
Richard de, 214 
Walter, the Baker of, 168 
Gloucester, Abbey, 55, 119 

Abbot of. See Foliot; Serlo 
Richard, Archdeacon of, 117 
Grants to, 38, 59 
Lands and Possessions of, 61 
S. Peter's Abbey, Monks of, 59, 
117, 118 
Gloucester Cathedral — 
Bishops of, 64 
Chapter House, Walter de Laci 

buried in, 59 
Dean and Chapter of, 118 
Lady Chapel, 40 
Early English, 65 
Church of St. Oswald, Grant of 
Land to, 1S1-2 
William, Prior ot, 182 
Castle, Sir John Huddleston, Gover- 
nor of, 265 
Honour of, 26, 38 

Hospital ot St. Bartholomew, Brother 
Adam, Prior of, 226, 227, 228 
Grant of Land to, 226, 227 
-Gloucestershire, Englishry in, 155, 156, 

. 15 l 
Fines ior, 151 

Sheriff of, 103, 19*) 

W. Clerk ot the, 198 

See Meysey ; Puti 't 
High Sheriff of. See Fit/. Stephen ; 

Stephens 
Godchild, John, 162 
Godescroft, Land, 237 
Godeshalve, Geoffrey, 176 
Godfrey, Brother, 198 
Godwin, Earl, 9 
Gorbrodelond, Land. 237 
Gores, Le, Land, 249, 251 



Gorges, Eleanor, 141 

Family, Arms of, 141 
Gourde, John, 161 
Gournay. See Gurney 
Grant, John le, 167 
Gray, Lord Walter, Archbishop of York, 

Primate of England, 1S2, [87 
Gregory the Great, Pope, 4 
Gregory IX., Pope. 88, t88 
Gregory X., Pope, 112 
Gretethorn, Land, 183 
Grevill, Agnes, 141 
Sir Edward, 141 
Isabel, 149 
Jane, 141, 149 
Family, Arms of, 141 
Brass of, 141 
Grey, Peter le, 172, 173 
Sir Ralph, 149 
Robert le, 213 
Sir Thomas, 149 
Family, Ai ins of, 149 
Griswald, Margaret, Memorial Stone to, 
in Meysey Hampton Church, 29 
Grosseteste, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, 
86, 100, 103, 104, 107, 257 
Tomb of, 105 
Grove Myle, 257 

Grumbold's Ash, Beadles of, 217 
Guager, Simon, 162 
Gurnard, Robert, 171 
Gurney, Thomas, 170 

Family, 9 
Gyleinyre, William, 242 

Iladdon Hall, 121 
Hadenhulle, Land, 183 
Hagioscope — Avening, 17 

Beverston. 3 

Meysey Hampton, 30 

Southrop, 54 
Hagley, 103 

Hagoday. See Knocker 
Hailes. See Hayles 
Hale, Isabella, 170 

Sir Matthew, 27 

William, 170 
Haleweye, Agnes de, 162 

Sampson, 162 
Hall, Family, Arms of, 146 
Ham, Hamlet of, 239, 240 
Hamekyntone, John de, 232 
Hameldene, Tfiomas de, Mayor of 

Bristol, 158 
Hamersloy, family, Arms of, 143 
Hampton, William de, 175 
Handelo, Family, 62 
Hannes, Sir Edward, Physician to 1 
Anne, 129, 131, 137 

Temperance, 137 
Elopement oi, 131 
llapulf, John, 21;, 219, 221 
1 [ardewme, 1 leni y, 206 
Hauling, Robert, 213 
Hare. John le, 
Harebui ne, I .and, 183 
Haresfield, John di 
Hail... Ibi iil.133 

Sn Edward 133 1 6 

Robert, Earl "t I ixford, 12, 131 
Harold, King, 9 
Haselcote, Ni ;el di 

Richard de, ^1 1, 228 

S\ -1111111 de, G 

Thomas de, 238 

111 o( I and io, ia8 

Haselcote, Hamlei of, 

Haseld, John do. 21 



3i6 



Index. 



Haselgrovethornes, Land, 237 
Hastings, Family, Arms of, 269 
Hatherop Castle, 57 

Traditional Visit of Charles I. and 

Queen Henrietta, 57 
Yew Tree Avenue, 57 
Church, Advovvson, 55 

Arms, 45 
House, Arms in, 144 
Manors, 55 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on, 
55—56 
Hauteville, Family, Arms of, 140 
Haive Park, 180, 253 

Conduit at, 221, 225 
Hawes. Family, Arms of, 148 
Hawkesbury, Land in, 235 
Haybstabularius, John, 210 
Haye, Walter de la, 163 
Hayles, 106 

Hayles Abbey. The Abbey of St. Mary, 
Hayles; Brief Sketch of its 
History, and Report of the 
Excavations in 1899 and 1900, 
by W. Bazei.f.y, 257 — 271 
Hayles, Abbey of S. Mary, 87 
Abbot of, 104 
See Alcester ; Clitheroe ; Hendley 
Hugh ; John ; Jordan ; Melton 
Richard ; Sagar ; Stafford 
Whytchurch 
Apse, 114, 268 
Arms of, 100, 271 

Arms in, in, 148 — 149,265 — 266,269 
At the Dissolution, 260, 261 
"Blood of Hayles," Relic of the 
Holy Blood, possessed by, 104, 
114, 258 
Shrine of, 262 

and Cross, Shrine of, Visited by 
Pilgrims, 267 
Bones of Henry of Almaine, buried 

at, 113, 258 
Bosses, Carved, found at, 263, 264 
Bracket, Carved, 270 
Burial of Edmund Plantagenet at, 

259 
Burial of Richard Plantagenet and 

Sanchia his Wife at, 114 
Chapels, 268, 270 
Chapter House, 163 

Tiles found in, 260 
Chronicle of Hayles, 257, 267 
Cloister, 262, 263 
Rebuilt by Abbot Whytchurch, 
259 
Confused with Hales Owen Abbey, 

257 

Cost of Building, 103 

Cross, Fragment oi the, possessed 
by, 104 

Cross, Golden, of, 259 

Dedication of, 100, 103—104 
Henry III. at, 103 

Doorways, 262, 264 

Erection of, 101 

Exhortation from the Pope to 
Repair, 260 

Fires at, 262 

Flood at, 259 

Foundation of, by Richard Plan- 
tagenet, 43, 86, 99, 257 

Gift of Sir William Compton to, 
266 

Glass, Painted, 270, 271 

Infirmary, Building of, 259 

New Work, Dedication of, 258 

Partial Destruction of, 113 



Hayles, Abbey of S. Mary {continued)— 
Plague at, 259 
Plan of, 270 
Presbytery, 26S, 269 
Re-built and extended, 114 
Re-dedication of, 114 
Robbery at, 259 
Roof of Bisley Church said to 

have come from, 43 
Seal of, 267, 263 

Inscription on, 267, 268 
Stone Vessel, 269, 270 
Tiles, 264, 268, 269 
Tomb of Edmund Plantagenet, 

Earl of Cornwall, 268 
Tomb of Richard Plantagenet. 
Earl of Cornwall, and Queen 
Sanchia, 268, 269 
Views of, 261 

Vow of Richard Plantagenet to- 
Build an Abbey at, 98 
Castle, 87, 88, 89, 103 

Built by Ralph de Worcester, 258- 
Norman Church, 103 
Parish Church of, 87, 88 
Built by Ralph de Worcester, 25S 
Cost of Building, 257 
Dedication of, 257 
Restored by William Hobby, 261 
Manor, 261 
Hayrun William, 214, 220 
Hayward, Richard the, 170 
Head, Eleanor, 146 

Family, Arms of, 146 
Hebed, 234 

Hedacre, Le, Land, 249, 250, 251 
Heilmundestre, Land, 184 
Henbury, Bailiff of, 177 
Hendley, William, Abbot of Hayles, 259 
Henrietta, Queen, 57 
Henry, Prince, son of James I., 130 
Henry I., 24, 26, 256 

Children of, drowned in White Ship. 
129 
Henry II., 9, 55 

Henry III., 86, 87, 88, 92, 93, 95, 96, 109, 257 
and his Queen at Winchcomb and 

Hayles, 103 
Attempt to extract money from 

Cistercian Order, 98 
Committee formed to regulate the 

Royal Expenditure, 100 
Edmund Crouchback, son of, ior, 1 ig 
Edward, son of, 107, 108, in, 112 
Invasion of France by, 96, 97 
Married to Eleanor of Provence, 83 
Money lent to, 105 
Offer of Pope Alexander IV. to, 105 
Quarrel with Richard Plantagenet 

over Gascony, 97 
Rising of Richard Plantagenet 
against, 90, 91 
Henry IV., 254, 255 
Henry VII., 38, 68 
Henry, Abbot of Kingswood, 2 
Henry, Master, 196 
Henry, son of Bernard, igi, 192 
Henry, Walter son of, 181 
Heraldry of the different Churches, etc., 
visited by the Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society during 
their visit to Fairford, August 
9th to nth, 1899, by F. Wei 1 

I3S— I ( r, 

Herbert, Family, Arms of. 138 
Hereford, Earl of. See Brcteuil ; Glou- 
cester 
Hereford, See of, 116 



Index. 



3 1 ? 



Hereward the Wake, Rebellion of, 43 

Hereward, Ralph, 191 

Hertford, Earl of. See Gloucester 

Hesding, Ernulph de, 55 

Heton, Bishop of Ely, 140 

Heued, Richard, 1G2 

Hevedlond, Land, 1S3 

Heytesbury, Family, Arms of. 147 

Hibrdun, 232 

Hicks, Family, 9 

Arms of, 145, 146 
Hicks-Beach, Family, 59 

Arms of, 146 
Hillesley, Walter, clerk of, 204 
Hinson, Family, Arms of, 138 
Hinton, Manor of, 224 
Hiwoldesdene, Land, 184 
Hobby, William, 261 

Family, Arms of, 146 
Hodelston. See Huddleston 
Hodges, Family, Arms of, 143 
Hodgkins, Henry, 261 
Holacra, H. de, 198 
Holand, Thomas de, Earl of Kent, 68 
Holcroft, Gilbert, 227 
Holford, Family, 9 
Holland and Vriesland, Earl of. See 

William 
Holland, Zeeland and Vriesland, Lord 

of. See Florenz 
Holte, Matilda le, 178 
Home, Adamde la, 206 

William de la, 243 
Home, La, Land, 243 
Homelonde, Le, Land, 237 
Honorius III., Pope, 1S7 
Hook, Roger, 213 

Simon, 168 
Hope, Richard, 214 
Hordeston, Land, 251 
Hore, Geoffrey le, 169, 178 

William le, 178 
Horncastel, Henry, 151, 158 
Horsefeld, Reginald de, Chaplain, 173 
Horsley, 9 

Church, 10 

Church, Cell of Bruton Priory at, 

129 
Lord of the Manor of, 130 
Manor, 10, 129, 130 
Priory, 10, 122. 123, 124, 126, 127 
Horton, H. de, 217 

" Philip," wife of James Yaulx, 29 
Family, Arms of, 140 
Hosmareleyeclive, Land, 238 
Howille, Adam de, 168 
Howman, Canon, Rector of Barnsley, 6S 
Huddleston, Sir Anthony, 149, 265 
Ferdinand, 149 
Joan, 265 
John, 265 
Sir John, Governor of Sudeley and 

Gloucester Castles, 265 
Mary, 2C6 
Sir W., 149 

Family, Arms of, 149, 265 
Hugh, Abbot of Beaulieu, 88, 99 
Hugh, Abbot of Hayles, 258, 259 
Hugh, Monk of Malvern, 117 
Hugh, son of Nigel, 191 
Hull, Philip de la, 231 
Hull, Grange, 232 
Humphrey, 195 

Humphry, the Chamberlain, 24, 26 
Hunyerford, Barbara, 147 
Sir John, 27 
Family, Arms of, 1 17 
Hungersforlong, Land, 237, 238 



Hunte, Hugh le, 176 

Nicholas le, 160 
Huntley, Ann, 1 ; 1, 137 

Rev. Richard, Rector of Box well, 

i3t, 137 
his Poem called Chavcnage, 131, 

133 
Hursley, John Keble, Curate of, 120 
Hussey, Family, Arms of, 117 
Hutchins, Family. Aims of, 149 
Hyldebrondesslad, Lan.d, 237 
Hyne, Richard, 158 
Hyneton. See Hinton 



Ingelby, Maurice de, 167 
Inglesham, Church, Brass, 48 
Font, 48 
Hour-glass, 48 
Interior (illtts.), 47, 48 
Jacobean Pulpit, 48 
Rood Screen, 48 
Sculpture, 44, 48 
Sundial, 48 

Visit of the Society, and descrip- 
tion of, 47 — 49 
Window, 48 
Cross, 49 

Manor and Church, given by King 
John to the Cistercian Abbey 
of Beaulieu, 47 
Inhokum, Meaning of, 204 
Innocent III., Pope. 187 
Innocent IV., Pope, 103 
Death of, 105 
Excommunication of England by, 

99 
Inscriptions.— In Ablington Manor 
House, 65, 67 

At Bath, Altar to the Sulevae, 70 

In Calcot Barn, 2 

At Cirencester, Altar to the Sul' 
70 

In Didbrook Church, 260 

On Hayles Abbey Seal, 267, 268 
Ireland, David of, 167 
Ireland, Invasion of, 130 
Ireton, General Henry, 12, 129, 130, 133 

Henry, 62, 145 

Family, 59, 131 

Arms of, 145 

Ireys, John le, 164 

Nicholas Iggelbei t le, 164 

Roger le, 166 
Isabella, Empress of Italy, 94 

Death of, 95 
Islevvorth, Manor of, plundered, 109 
Italy, 105 



J 



acketts, Christian, 28 
acob, Thomas, 220 

Walter, 21 1 
affa, Crusaders at, gt 
ames I., 26, 29 
ansen, Cornelius, Buildei ot Ablin 

Manor House, 65 
< nnei . Edit! 
i nily, "i M 
Family Ai ms of, 1 
in, Ci usadei s 
civ. An on the, 160 
ews, 1 > ovei . given t" Rii hard 

Plantagenet, Earl o( Cornwa 1 
by 1 ii in v 1 1 1 
Requisition from 1I1 
ofne, Bai tholomew le, 15N, 163 

OglUT, llunili y I' 



3i8 



Index. 



John, King, Beaulieu Abbey founded by,88 
English predominance in Aquitaine 

lost by, 87 
Grants to Beaulieu Abbey, 47, 49, 53 
John, Abbot of Hayles, 259 
John, the Clerk of the Market of Bristol, 

162 
John, the Cook of the Abbot of St. 

Augustine, 173 
Johnson, Ralph, 68 
Jordan, Abbot of Hayles, 257 
Jordan of the Malthouse of Bristol, 173 
Julin, John de, 87 



Karat, Emir of, 94 
Katherine, Dame, 215, 218 
Keble, Sir Henry, Lord Mayor of 
London, 55 
John, 43, 120 

Born at Fairford, 38 
Thomas, 144 
Family Arms, 54, 144 
Monument of, 54 
Kele, 232 

Kemeys, Philip le, 161 
Kempley, Robert, Dean of, 193 
Kenepel. See Kempley 
Kenilworth Castle, gr, no 
Kent, Earls of, 43, 67 

Sic Holand 
Kent, Mossy of, 168 
Kerdif, John de, 175 
Kermai dyn, David of, 165 
Keu. See Cu 
Keveran, S., Rector of, 88 
Kibbel, Richard, 185 
Kilmaynam, Robert de, 176 
Kingscote, Amice. 228 
John Richer de, 227 
Nigel de, 225, 229, 238 , 

Petronella, 225 
Richard, 228 
Richard, Lord of, 229 
William, 228 
Kingscote, Hamlet of, 239 

Land in, 228, 242 
Kingston, Sir Anthony, 59 
Kingswood, Nicholas de, 184, 191, 192 
Kingswood A^jbey. Documents relating 
to the Cistercian Monastery of 
St. Mary, Kingswood, by V. R. 
Perkins, 179 — 256 
Kingswood Abbey, Abbots of, 177, 188, 
196, 197, 198, 200, 215, 216, 217, 
218, 219, 221, 222, 254, 255 
Abbot of. See Henry; Richard; 

Thomas 
Accounts of Brother William de 
Climb, Warden of the Grange 
of Charteshull, &c, for 1288—9, 
232 — 234 
Account of the Cellarer of Bagg, 

131 1, 244—246 
Account of the Cellarer, 1315, 246— 

247 
Account of BrotherWalter, Granger 

del'Egge, 252—253 

Arrears ol the Bursars of, 1241, 
199 — 201 

An ears of \V., Cellarer ot, 1240, 
193—199 

Enquiry into Lands and Tene- 
ments held by, 251 

Foundation of, by William Berke- 
ley, 256 
Sold bj Elizabeth Berkeley, 256 

Grant of Alms to, 235, 236 



Kingswood Abbey (continued) — 

Grant of Land to, 183 — 4, 185, 186, 
189, 191. 192, 201, 202, 203, 204, 
205, 2c6, 207, 208, 225, 226, 227, 
228, 231, 23+, 235, 236, 237, 243, 
244, 256 
Grant of Liberty to, 192, 193 
Grant of Ren.ts to, 224 
Land Granted by, 205, 206, 226, 

227, 228, 229, 230, 247, 249 — 252 
Monks of, 188, 189, 190 
Petition to the King and Council 

from, 239 
Prior, 221, 247 
Receipts and Expenses, 1262 — 1263, 

213 — 223 
Sale of Lands to, 182 
Tumbrell of, 237 
Wages of, 1255 — I2 5°\ 209 — 213 
Wynch of, 229 
Ancient Name of, 256 
Parish Church, 254 
Manor, 256 
Kirby, Ann, 136 
William, 4.1 
Knewton, Mr., Notes on Kingswood 

Abbey, 256 
Knight, William, 193, 214, 220, 230, 234 
Knights Hospitallers, 53 

Preceptory of, at Quenington, 59 
Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in 

England, 163 
Quenington Manor held by, 59 
Stephen, Master of the Hospital of 
St. John, at Bristol, 174 
Knights Templars, ico, 165 

Meysey Hampton Manor farmed by, 

26 
Quarrel of, with French Crusaders, 

93 

Knocker, Chavenage House, 123 

Knox, Earl ot Ranfurly, Arms ol, 142 

Koke, John, 176 

Kokerel, Elias, 232 

Ku. Sec Cook 

Kuttede, Nicholas le, 178 

Kyllecote. See Calcot 

Kyneltre, Stephen, 240 

Kyngeswood. See Kingswood 

Kyngton, Agnes de, 220 

Labanc. See Banc 
Laceby, Alice, 160 

Margery, 160 
Lacheford, Adam de, 197, 198 
Lacock Abbey, Grant ot Land to, 55 
Lacy, Felicia de, 172 
Hugh de, 59 

John de, Earl of Lincoln, 90, 91 
Matilda, 90 
Roger de, 55 

Possessions of, 59 
Waiter de, 59 

Buried in the Chapter House at 
Gloucester, 59 
William de, 166 
Family, 59, 119 
Lambard, Jacob de, 249 
Lancyng, Richard, 231, 246, 249 
Lane, Richai d In la, 230 
Lanfford, Hugh, Grant of Land to, 247, 

248 
Langel', Geoffrey de, 182 
Langford, Church, Almery, 53 
Arms, 143 — 144 
Brasses, 143 

Buttresses, Elizabethan (illus.), 52 
Chalice, pre-Reioi niation, 53 



Index. 



3 I( J 



Langford Church (continual) — 

Crucifix, pre-Norman (illus.), 51 
Early English Doorway, 52, 53 
Parvise, 53 
Piscina, 53 
Porch (illus.), 50 
Pulpit, Jacobean, 53 
Rood, 50 

Staircase Turret, 52 
Stone, Carved, 53 
Sundial, 53 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of (illus.), 50 — 53 
Property in, granted to Beaulieu 
Abbey by King John, 53 
Langfurlnng, Land, 184 
Langthol, Milo de, 208 
Langton, Stephen, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, Cardinal of the Holy 
Church of Koine, 187 
Lanthony, Prior of, 194, 214, 218 
Lasceles, Laurence de, 18; . ;^6, 191, 197, 

205 
Lateran, 1215, 187 
Lat'mer, J. ; Some Curious Incidents in 

Bristol History, 272 — 285 
La Trappe, Monastery of, 135 
Launsyngeslond, Land, 250 
Lecce, Manors called, 53 
Lechlade, 119 
Chapel at, 44 
Church, Almery, (6 
Anns, 45, 47, 142—143 
Badges ot Edward IV. and Duchess 

of York in, 46 
Brasses, 46 

Candelabra, Georgian, 47 
Chantry, 44, 46 
Clerestory, 46 

Description of (illus.), 44 — 47 
Piscina, 46 
Pulpit, 4G 

Sculptured Stone, 46 
Vicar, 44 

Windows, Tudor, 45 
Derivation of Name, 43 
Hospital founded at, by Isabel de 
Ferrars and her husband Peter 
I-'itz Herbert, 44 
Leland's mention of, 44 
Manor, .1 1, 4 [ 

Priory of Augustinian Canons, Dis- 
solution of, by Duchess Cecily, 44 
St. John's Bridge built, 44 
Statue in Rectory Garden, 47 
Visit of the Society, and Notes on the 
Manor and Church (illus.), 43 — 47 
Leicester, Earl of. See Montfort 
Leicester, Lord, 12, 129 
Leicester, Roger de, 176 
Leicester, Friars of the Sac at, iGj 
Leland, John, at Lechlade, 44 
Lench, Letitia, 153 
William de, 53 
Leppa, Earl, 62 

Beaga, his daughter, 62 
Leppegete, Nicholas de, 206 
Lesingnan, Aymer de, Bishop of Win- 
chester, 106 
Leueric, 26 
Leverych, Henry, 167 
Levy, Abraham, 164 
Lewes, Battle of, 108, 109, no 

Song of, 1 10 
Ley, John le, 175 
Robert de, 166 
Family, 59 
Leycestre. See Leicester 



Leygrave, John of, 177 
Leyhtonacre, La, Land, 237 
Lichfield, Bishop of. Set Aldwine 
Ligon, Roger, and wife, Altar-tomb of, 

in Fairford Church, 12 
Lincoln, Bishop of. See Grosteste 
Lincoln, Earl of. See Lacy 
Lincoln, Friars of the Sac at, 169 
Lincolnshire, Famous for its Sheep, 180 

Englishry in, 156 
Lindsey, 180 

Linez, Henry de, 204, 207, 209 
Lippiette, La, Land, igo 
Litegrom, William, 163 
Little F.trringdon. See Farringdon 
Llewelin, Brother, 217 
Lloyd, George, 24 

George Looyde, 139 

Family, Arms of, [38, 139 
Lloyde ap Gronow, Family, Arms of, 138 
Loder, Family, Arms of, 1 ( ; 
Lof, William, 162 
Lokere, John le, 161 
Lokforlong, Le, Land, 250 
London, John de, 178 

Ralph the Cook of, 170 
London, Bishop of. Sec Basset ; Foliot 
London, 90, 95 

Aldersgate, 169 

City of, Requisition from, 87 

Mai y de la Stronde, Parish of, 255 

St. Paul's Cathedral, 100 

V, estminster Abbey, Holy Blood 
at, 100 
Longemed, Le, Land, 240 
Longespee, William, Earl of Salisbury, 

55. 87. 89 
Long Turville, ng 
Lonwesmere, Roger de, 232 
Longe, William le, 240 
Longemede, Land, 241, 242 
Longinus, 26 

Longocampo, Isabele de, 181, i8z 
Loo, Ela, 27 

Sir John de, 27 
Looyde. See Lloyd 
Loria, Ruggiero di, Aragonese Admiral, 

"3 
Loriner, 214 
Lotcsgareshale, Prior and Brethren of, 

226 
Louis IX., King of Fiance, 93, 96, 97, 102, 
103, 109, no, in 

and his brother Tristan, Burial 
of, 112 

Taken prisoner by the Sultan, 102 
Love), Lord, of Kari, 27 

Muriel, 27 
Lower Haycroft, Land, 237 
Lubbock, Jane, 134 

Richai d, 134 
Lugg, Alice, 130, 136 

Edward, 130, 136 

Jane, 137 

Richard, 137 
Lung, Geoffrey de, 174 

Jordan le, 175 
Lydechei t, fohn de, 1C3 
Lydherd, [ohn, May 01 of Bristol, 158 
1 11, William, 1 1 1 

I unily, Ai mis of, 1 1 1 
Lyme, Port "t, 168 
I in h, I .an. I, 1 LQ. 

Lynchefoi lane, 1 and, 247 

Lynde, Juan de la, 147 

Waltei de la, 1 1 < 

Family, Ai ma "t. 1 1 o, 147 
Lynn, li iai i "t the Sai at, 169 



320 



Index. 



Lyons, Council of, 169 

Roman Court at, 102 
Lypiatt, Manor, 130 
Lyttleton, Family, Arms of, 140 
Lyuns, Thomas de, 164 
Lyveden, Lord, 137 

Mabilia, 185 

Macherlyng, William, 252 

Mackworth Praed, Family, 59 

Macy, John, 161 

Magna Charta, 86, 107 

Mahel, Walter, 220 

Malmesbury Abbey, Abbot of, 216 

Malmesbury, Richard of, 170 

Malmesbury, Seneschal of, 196 

Malmesbury, 9 

Malvern, Great, 120 

Priory of, 115, 116 

Dedication of, 116 

Monks of, 117 

Prior of. StYThomas;'Walcher ; 
Wick 

Seal, 116, 117 
Manfred, King of Naples and Sicily, 105 
Mangodesfeld, Richard de, Mayor of 

Bristol, 158 
William de, 159 
Maniword, Margaret, 163 
Manley, Peter de, 86 
Mansel, John, 97, 108 

Roger, 178 
Mara, de, Family, 59 
March, Earls of, 43, 68 
Marche, Isabella, Countess de la, 96 
Mare, Peter de la, 158, 166, 167, 198 
Margan, W. de, 221 

Margaret of France, Queen's Arms of, 269 
Margaret of Provence, Queen of France,9S 
Margetson, Family, Arms of, 144 
Marine, William de la, 172 
Mariotathe Water-carrier, 164 
Marlow, 114 
Marshal, Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, 89, 

90 
Isabel, wife of Richard Plantagenet, 

Earl of Cornwall, 107 
William, Earl of Pembroke, 86, 

87, 100 
Family, Arms of, 92 
Martyn, John, 176 

Robert de Combe, 163 
Maryot, Richard, 178 
Mason, Frater Johannis, Architect of 

Beaulieu Abbey, 99, 100 
Massey, Colonel, Governor of Glouces- 
ter, 9 
Mathcurnbe, Henry de, 229 
Matilda, Queen, 19, 38 
Maude, Empress, 256 
Mauley, Family, Arms of, 145 
Maunsel, William, 188, 189, 190, 219, 220, 

236 
May, William le, 221 
Mayn, Margery, 169 
Meddene, Land, 183 
Mei, Richard, 181 
Melemuth, John le, 172, 173 
Melrose, Abbey, 101 
Melton, Anthony, Abbot of Hayles, 260 
Mendip, 163 
Mercator, Ralph, 234 
Merton, Thomas, 68 

Dorothy, his granddaughter, 68 
Messor, Richard le, 216 
Metingham, Justice, 150, 151 
Meysey, Eva, 29 

Eva or Eleanour, 27 



Meysey (continued) — 

John, 27 

John de, 217 

Robert de, Sheriff of Gloucester, 27- 

William, 27 

Family, 27 
Arms of, 29 
Meysey Hampton Church, Altar-tomb, 

29.31 
Arms, 30, 139-140 
Built by Knights Templars or de 

Clares, 27 
Description of (i;lus.), 27 — 31 
Hagioscope, 30 
Lectern, (illus.), 29 

Jacobean, 28 
Monument, Jacobean, with Effigies 
of James Vaulx, his Wives, and 
Children, 29, 30 
Piscina, 31 
Sedilia, 31 
Windows, 27, 28 
Lord of the Manor of, 27 
Manor, 26, 27 

Farmed by Knights Templars, 26 
Visit of the Society, and Notes on 
the Manor and Church, 26 — 31 
Middleforlong, Land, 249 
Midelton, Richard de, Justice, 155 
Miller, Andrew, 227 
Milo, Earl of Hereford, 67 

Margery and Lucy, his daughters, 67 
Milward, Family, Arms of, 142 
Mineriis, Henry de, 181 

William de, 190 
Mingnot, Nicholas, 193 
Minsterworth, 157 
Mire, Leo le, 164 

Mossy, 164 
Missenden, Monks of, 92 
Mitchell, Family, Arms of, 146 
Mixenhulle, Land, 251 
Moncaster, Family, Arms of, 148 
Monk, C. J., In Memoriam, 301 
Monmouth, Robert de, 157 
Montague, Ralph, Lord, 47 
Monte, W. de, 215 

Montfort, Amaury de, Earl of Gloucester, 
119 
Guy de, no, 112, 113, 258 
Henry de, 107 

Simon de, Earl of Leicester, 86, 89, 
91, 92, 97, 98, 100, 104, 107, 108, 
109, no, 112, 113, 258 
Dante's description of, 113 
Death of, no 
Marriage of, 90 
Family, 108 
Downiall of, no 
Montgomerie, Hugh, 26 

Roger de, 26 
More, Family, Arms of, 140 
Morgan, Family, Arms of, 142 
Mortimer, Family, Arms of, 269 
M01 tone, Walter de, 225 
Moslem, Truce with, in 
Mountford, Sir Simon, 285 
Mucator, See Mercator 
Mulecot, Robert de, 202, 203 
Muller, Andrew, 229 
Mulvain, Lady, 193 
Munday, Maj.-Gen. Pierrepont, 137 
Murray, Family, Arms of, 148 
Musard, Ralph, 182 
Musardere, Clement de, 182 
Muscegros, John de, 158, 162 
Musgrave, James, 68 
Muschet, Robert, 191 



Index. 



321 



Mydewinter, 17S 
Myndep. See Mendip 
Myre, Ralph le, 164 
Samuel, le, 168 



Nailsworth, Walter de, 207, 209 
Nailsworth, Chapel and priest's house 
is.), 20, 21 
A Chapelry of Averring, 21 
Naples, 94 
Neel, John, 232 

Thomas, 249, 250, 251 
Nereford, E., 232, ^34 
Netley, Abbey, 101 
Netterstone, Lands in, 240 
Neville, Hugh de, 147 

Joan de, 147 

Pnilip, 1 17 

Richard, Earl of Warwick, 281 

Family, 38 
Aims of, 147 
Nevouz, Richard le, 214, 218, 220 

Robert le, 215, 216, 219, 221 
New, John le, 204 

R. de, 215 
Newcastle, Friars of the Sac at, 169 
Newent, Robert de, 161 
Newington, Lady of, 237 

Lord of, 227 

Nicholas de, 207 

Roger de, 206, 207, 208 
Newington Church, Rector of, 227 

Land in, 206, 226, 229, 244 

Manor of, 207, 208 
Nevvinnton Bagpath, 2 
Ney, Conrad, Vicar of Lechlade, 44 
Neylesworth. See Nailsworth 
Nicholas, son of Ralph, 225 
Niddrewelleslade, Land, 185 
Nigel, Hugh son of, 191 
Noble, Philip le, 169 
Northampton, Marquis of. See Parre 
Northampton, Oath taken by Richard 
Plantagenet and Crusaders at, 93 
Northfield, Land, 237 
Northleach. at time of Survey, 53 
Northumberland, Duke of. See Dudley 
Northumberland, Earl of. See Percy 
Norton, Agnes, 279 

Isabel, 273 

Richard, 279 

Thomas, Customer of Bristol, 272 

Thomas, 273, 279, 284 

Document relating to the Trial of, 

275— 2S3 
Walter, 272, 273, 279 
Will of, .74, 275 
Norwich, iOj 

Bi hi <]> "i See Suthfeld 
Funeral Mass, for Henry of Almaine, 
at, 113 
Norwold, Hugh de, Bishop of Ely, 103 
Noyait, Mabilia la, 16S 



Ochoure, Land, 183 
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, 169 
Odo, Brother, 193 
Oily, Robert d', 62 
Oldehulle, Land, 247, 251 
Oldisworth, sir Willi, mi, Monument ot, 
in Fairford Church, 42 

Family, Arms of, 140 
Olepenne, Bartholomew de, 208, 217 

John de, 208 
Olepenne, Land, 226 

Lord of, 226, 227 



Olledene, Land, 183, 184 

Olverstone, Lands in, 240 

Olyver, Adam, 160 

Omenie. See Ampney Crucis 

Osbert, 1N3 

Osleworth. Sec Ozleworth 

Osmund, Ralph, 165 

Richard, 176 
Osney, Monastery, 62 
Otry, Peter, 176 
Otto, the Legate, Cardinal of San 

Niccolo, 90, 91, 187 
Oxford, Earl of. See Harley 
Oxford, Friars of the Sac at, iGj 

Henry III. at, 87 

Provisions of, 107 
Ozleworth, Lady of, 199 

Xi^el de, 190, 198, 204 

Thomas de, 194 
Ozleworth, 180, 

Lands in, 204 

Manor of, 21 2, 243 



Packer, Anne, 134, 137 

Elizabeth, 134 

John, 134, 136 

Matthew le, 176 
Page, William, 164 

m, John, Bishop of Worcester, 62 
I akkere. See Packer 
Panes, Reginald de, Mayor of Bristol, 158 
Parchment-maker, William the, 170 
Paris, Endowment of Schools at, by 
Cistercian Order, 102 

S. Denis, Abbot ot. 
Pane, William, Marquis of Northampton, 

261 
Parsons, Dr., Chancellor of Oxford, 40 
Parvise — Ave ring, 15, 18 

Elkstone, 18 

Langford Church, 53 
Passelewe, Henry, 231, 249, 250, 251,252 
Grant of Land to, 230 

Robert, 191, 203, 205, 24S 
Passemir, John, 239 

William, 239 
Paternoster, William, 161 
Patrick, Monk of Gloucester, 117 
Pedigrees— Stephens, 130, 136-7 
Pelliparius. See Skinner 
PemDerti n, Elizabeth, 134, 136 

Sir Francis, Lord Chiul Justice of 
England, 134, 136 
Pembroke, E, ul ot. Set M.11 I1.1l 
Pende, William, 170 

Pennington, 1 U idget, 149 
Family, Arms of, 148 
Percy, 1 teni y, 109 

Henry, Eai I of NorthuinU 1 land, 266 
Family, Arms of, 148, 20G 
Peris, Hem y, n;! 

Perkins, V. R. ; Documents relating to 
Cisten 1 in Monastei j of St. 
Mary, Kingswood, 179 — 256 
Pi rol Cassandra, 1 
1 lent v. 68 
Family, Arms, 68 

I i|, 250, 251 
1 hi le, 178 
Mai lin le, 178 

x>3 
Pet ilia, l 'an" ■ 

el, ] imily, Arras of, 147 
i ell, Thon Bishop ol Won 

25-1 



322 



Index. 



Peyner, Mary, 27 

Thomas, 27 
Philip III., King of France, in 
Philip the Carpenter, 217 
Pigeon-house. See Culver 
Pilewyne, W.,214 
Pill, John, 2 
Pipereman, Simon, 160 
Piscinae— Avening, 14., 17, iS 

Beverston Castle, 7 

Beverston Church, 4 

Bibury, 65 

Farringdon, Lktle, 50 

Langford, 53 

Lechlade, 46 

Meysey Hampton, 31 

Southrop, 54 
Pistor, Adam, 235 

Gilbert, 160 
Planke, Thomas de la, 203 
Plantagenet, Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 
101, 104, iog, no, 114, 258, 259 
Tomb of, at Hayles Abbey, 26S 

George, Duke of Clarence, 281 

Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily, 
Duchess, 43, 44, 68 

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 43, 86, 92, 

257 r 
Arms of, 271 

Beatrice, Wife of, 114 

Burial of, at Hayles, 114 

At the Crusade, 94 

Curia of, at Aix-la-Chapelle, 106 

Death of, 113, 259 

Departure for the Holy Land, 92, 

Elected Emperor of Germany and 

King of the Romans, 106, 257 
Founder of Hayles Abbey, 86, 99, 

257 
Illness of, 101 
Imprisonment of, no 
In France, 96. 97 
Income of, 106 
Isabel Marshall, wife of, 87, 107 

Death of, 92 

Buried at Beaulieu Abbey, 92 

Discovery of tomb, 92 
Isabella, daughter of, 114 
John, son of, 114 
Marriage of, 100 
Nicholas, son of, 92 
Oath taken by, 93 
Philip, son of, 114 
Quarrel with Henry III. over 

Gascony, 97 
Return to England, 95 
Richard, son of, 114 
Rights over Deerhurst Priory pur- 
chased by, 102 
Rising of, against Henry III., 

90, 91 
Countess Sancbia, wife of, 44, 98, 

100, 101, 102, 104 
Tomb of, at Hayles Abbey, 268, 

269 
Travels of, in Europe, 94, 95 
Visit to Beaulieu Abbey, 99 
Visit to Pontigny, 101 
Vows to build an abbey at Hayles, 

98, 99 
Family, Arms of, 143 
Pleydell, Robert, 26, 139 
William, 139 
Family, 24 

Arms of, 139, 143 
Brass of, 143 
Plumer, Gilbert le, 175 



Poitou, 97 

Deputation of the Nobles of, to- 

Henry III., 87 
Earldom of, 93, 96 
Pockelchurch. See Pucklechurch 
Pokhampton, Ville of, 224 
Pole, Robert de la, 165 
Pons, Reginald, Lord of, 96 
Pons, Henry III. and the English Army 

at, 96 
Ponsonby, William Francis Spencer, 
Baron de Mauley, 57 
Family, 120 
Arms of, 144 
Pontigny, Cistercian Abbey of, 101 
Popethorne, Land, 229, 237 
Portesheved, John de, 175 

Sarra de, 178 
Portsmouth, Port of, 171 
Pottery, Anglo-Roman, in W. Cripps' 
Museum, Cirencester, 68 
Samian Ware, in W. Cripps' 
Museum, Cirencester, 68 
Powell, William de, 175 

Family, 59 
Powle, Catherine, 145 

Henry, Rt. Hon., Master of the Rolls, 
and Speaker in the House of 
Commons, 62, 145 
Family, Arms of, 145 
Poynings, Eleanor, 266 

Brian and Fitzpaine, Robert Lord, 

266 
Family, Arms of, 149. 266 
Poyntze, Family, 9 
Prepositus. See Steward 
Pretender, The. See Stuart 
Prior's Cotes. See Eastleach 
Prude, Ralph le, 175 
Prunes, Walter, 143 

Family, Arms of, 143 
Brass of, 143 
Prusteland, Land, 184 
Publilond, Le, Land, 251 
Pucklechurch, Elias of, 162 
Puncius, 115, 116 

Richard, son of, 117 
Purlewent, John, 240 
Puseforlang, Land, 184 
Putot, William de, Sheriff of Gloucester, 

182 
Pye, Sir Charles, 136 
Pype, Walter, 175 



Quarer', Le, Land, 250 
Quenington Church (itlus.), 59 

Almery, 60 

Arms, 145 

Carved Doorways, 60 — 61 

Earliest mention of, 59 

Foundation of, 59 

Given to Gloucester Abbey, 59 

" Treasure-stone," 61 

Visit of the Society, and Descrip- 
tion of, 60 — 61 
Court Farm, 6 1 
Derivation of Name, 58 
Manor, 59 

Granted to Sir Anthony Kingston, 

59 

Held by Knights Templars and 
Knights of S. John or Hospi- 
tallers, 59 

Possessors of, 59 
Preceptory of Knights Hospitallers 
at, 59, 60 



Index. 



323 



Quenington (continued)— 

Visit of the Society, and Notes on the 
Manor and Church, 58 — 61 
Quinton, Clopton Brass at, 17 



Radcliffe, James, Earl of Derwentwater, 
and Anna Maria, his wife, 57 
Execution of, 57 
Ragenilda, 185 

Ralph, Monk of Gloucester, 117 
Ralph, Nicholas son of, 225 
Ralph the Cook of London, 170 
Ranfurly, Earl of. See Knox 
Ras, Nicholas de, 162 
Reading, 92 

Abbey, 114 
Reason, Agnes, 139 
John, 139 

Family, Arms of, 139, 143 
Brass of, 143 
Redy, Alexander, 140 

Family, Arms of, 140 
Reeve, Edith la, 249 
Edmund le, 250 
John le, 250 
Roger le, 247 
Reginald, Lord of Pons, 96 
Reinbald, 26 
Reiner, Brother, 196 
Renshaw, Family, Arms of, 148 
Reveward, Sanekyn, 158 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, Stained Glass 

Window d' signed by, 80 
Ribbeford, Henry de, 184, 1S6 

Tristram de, 185 
Ricardescroft, Land, 241, 242 
Riccherweye, Le, Land, 250, 251 
Rich, Edmund, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 92, 93, 100 
Richard III., 27, 281 
Richard, Abbot of Hayles, 259 
Richard, Abbot of Kingswood, 247 
Richard, Brother, 196 
Richard, of St. Augustine's, 216 
Richard the beater, 198 
Richard, John, 229 
Rievaulx, Abbey, 101 
Riforlang, Land, 184 
Ripariis, Richard <le, 172 
Rivers, Earl of. See Wydeville 
Rixwell, Land, 184 
Robert, Duke of Normandy, 59 
Robert, the Mower of the Prior of St. 

James, Bristol, 166 
Rocdecroftes, Le, Land, 239 
Roche, Family, Anns of, 144 
Rocheiord, Cecile de, 214, 216, 218, 220 
Robert de, 190, 192 
Thomas de, 226, 242, 243 
William de, 215, 216, 217, 218 219, 221, 
222, 243, 
Roches, Peter de, Bishop of Winches- 
ter, 91 
Rochester, Bishop of. See St. Martin 
Rocwood, Land, 202, 203 
Rodborough, Thomas de, 206 
Roddyng, John, 171 
Rodeneye, Richard de, 247 
Rodmarton, Henry, parson of, 191 
William, Lord of, 231 
William de, iSj, 185, 186, IOI, 
205, 206, 2j2 

Rodmarton, Land at, - 1 
Rodmarton, Roger de, Abbot of Ciren- 
cester, 214, 218 
Roger, Brother, 215 
Roger the beater, 19c 



Roman Remains— Cirencester, Altar and 
Reliefs found at, Description of 
(illus.), 69 — 72 

In W, Cripps 1 Museum, at Ciren- 
cester, 6S — 72 
Romans, King of the, Arms of, 268 
Rome, 95 

Church of S. Francesco, m 

Church of San Sylvestro, in 
Picture at, 113 
Romeneye, Ralph, 158 
Rondoune, Land, 250 
Rood — Langtord Church, 50 
Rop, W., 217 
Roper, Richard le, 176 
Ros, Le, Land, 207, 208 
Rosamond, Fair. See Clifford 
Roscelyn, Juliana, 164 

William, 164 
Rosso, Aldebrandino, Count of Anguil- 

lai a, 112 
Rotherewey, Land, 247 
Rous, Reginald le, 164 
Rubel, John, 250 
Ruccadene, Land, 1S4 
Rucherweye. See Richerweye 
Rudhall, Abraham, Bellfouml. 
Ruffus, Nicholas, 193, 204 
Rugweye, Le, Land, 206, 237 
Rupe, Ralph de, 235 
Rus, Ro^er le, 164 

William le, 158 
Russell, Margaret, 141 

Roger, 214 

Sir Theobald, 141 

Family, Arms ol, 141 
Rylond, La, Land, 251 
Rythie, La, Land, 250 



Sac, Friars of the. 169, 
Sackville, Elizabeth, 14O 

Henry, 146 

Henry, High Sheriff, Gj 

Sir Jordan, 147 

Thomas, 147 

Sir Thomas, 64, 1 r 

Family, Anns of, 146 
S.igar, Oiho, Vicar of Warmfield, 260, 
2C8 

Stephen, Abbot of Hayles, and 
King's Chaplain, :'■ 
Saham, Justice, 150, 151 
St. Asaph, Bishop of. See Ani.m 
St. David's, Sic of, to 

Bishop of. See Welch a 
St. Loe. Edward, 1 (< 

Margaret, 
St. Maur, Alice, 27 

Lawrence de, 27 

N tch is, l.oi d, 2: 

Richard, 27 

Thomas, 27 

Family, 27, 31 

Anns, 29, 

Saint. ill. and En li b 

.a, 91 
I 
Salford, Nichola 
Salisbury, Bishop fork 

1 euz; Longi 
Saltl I 1 1 

-57 

Arms of, 1 1 1 

Bui ial of, at Hayl . 1 1 1, 257 

M.11 1 ii d to Rii hai 
Sancto Laudo, John 
Sandputti . Land, 



3 2 4 



Index. 



Sarum, Roger of, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 99 
Saunders, Edward, 139 

Susan, 139 

William, 27 

Family Arms of, 139 
Savory. Family, Arms of, 142 
Savoy, Peter of, 114 
Scai, Adam, 184 

William, 184 
Scarborough, Governor of, 133 
Scilly Islands, 97 
Sclat, Roger, 197 
Sebentone, Robert de, 165 
Selyman, Robert, 167 
Senlac, Battle of, 163 
Senyse, Peter Cof de, 165 
Seppestall, Land, 183 
Sepulture, Tripartite, 112 
Serjeaunt, Joan, 239, 240, 241, 242 

John le, 240, 241, 242 
Serlo, Abbot of Gloucester, 55, 59 
Seth-Smith, W. Howard; Chavenage 

House, i2i — 127 
Severn, River, 102 

Fishery in, 239 
Seymour, Edward, Duke ot Somerset, 65 

Sir Thomas, Admiral, 10, 129, 261 
Seynt, John de, 157, 175 
Seyorthforlong, La, Land, 230 
Shaftesbury, Earl of. See Ashley-Cooper 
Sheen, 279 

Sherington, Sir W., 55 
Shelley, P. B., Poem written at Lech- 
lade, 47 
Sheppard, Joan, 279 

John, Mayor of Bristol, 272, 273, 275, 
279 

Philip, 19 

Samuel, 18 

Family, 20 
Shipton, Clerk of, 222 
Shipward. See Sheppard 
Shirley, Family, Arms of, 149 
Shute, Alice Elizabeth, 135, 137 

Henry Richmond, 135, 137 

Richmomd, 137 

Mrs. Richmond, 135 
Sicily, 113 

Sidney, Sir Philip, 12, 129 
Simon, 193 

Simon, Bishop of Worcester, 116, 117 
Simons, Family, Arms of, 142 
Simundeshale. See Symondshall 
Siptune. See Shipton 
Siston, Adam de, 157 
Sitheston, Henry de, 175, 17G, 178 

Mabel, servant of, 178 
Siward liar, 43 
Skay, Robert le, 216, 218, 220 
Skay, La, Land, 213 
Skey, John de, 253 
Skinner, Reginald, 21 1 
Skrevyn, John, Sheriff of Bristol, 276, 

277, 278 
Slauhterslade, Land, 237 
Slepareshulle, Land, 237 
Sley, Peter de, 178 
Smallcumbe, Mill of, 190 
Smalthorn, Land, 231, 249, 250 
Smetheleyc, Walter de, 170 
Smith, N. the, 198 
Smith, Simon the, 162 
Smythesweye, Land, 2.19 
Soana, Castle of, 112 

Ibury, Land in, 235 
Sodbury Little, Rector of, 131 
Somerset, Duke of. See Seymour 



Sorstan, John de, 217 
South, John, 169 
Southfield, Land, 237 
Southam-de-la-Bere, Built by Sir John 
Huddleston, 266 
Hayles Tiles at, 264 
Southampton, Earl of. See Fitzwilliam 
Southende, La, Land, 253 
Southrop, 120 

At time of Survey, 53 
Church, Almeries, 55 
Altar-tomb, 54 
Norman Apse, 54 
Arms, 144 

Description of, 54, 55 
Early English Doorway, 54 
Effigies of Sir Thomas Conway 

and his lady, 53, 54 
Font, Description of, 55 
Font (il'.us.), 54 
Hagioscope, 54 
Norman Doorway, 54 
Piscina, 54 
Windows, 54 
Land in, 53, 118 
Lords of the Manor. 53 
Manor, held by Wadham College, 

Oxford, 53 
Manor House, Remains of a very 
Early Dwelling in, 53 
Norman Doorway, 54 
Visit of the Society, and Notes on 
the Manor and Church, 53 — 55 
Southurne, Walter le, 227 
Southwyk, John de, 168 
Spelly, Elias, Mayor of Bristol, 272, 273 
Spencer, William, Mayor of Bristol, 274, 
275, 278, 283 
Accused of Treason, 276 
Imprisonment of, 277 
Release from Prison, 280 
Spicer, Gilbert le, 158 
Spilemon, William, 214 
Squint. See Hagioscope 
Stabler, Peter le, 221 

Robert le, 193 
Stafford, Anthony, Abbot of Hayles, 260 

Robert de, 164 
Stamford, Covesleye, 164 
Lys de, 184 
Ryke, 164 
Stanhulle, Land, 204 
Stanmere, Land, 250 
Stanmereswei, Land, 192 
Stanmerlies, Land, 250 
Stanton Fitzwarren, Font, 55 
Stapleton, Agnes, 265 
Gilbert, 265 
Joan, 2C5 
Sir Miles, 265 
Family, Arms of, 265 
Stapleton, Township of, 178 
Stenethulle, Land, 183 
Stepenhulle, Land, 251 
Stepforlong, Land, 237 
Stephen, King, 9 
Stephens, Abigail, 133, 136 
Anne, 136 

Colonel, 12, 125, 131 
Catherine, 136, 137 

Arms of, 123 
Cholmondeley, 136 
Edith, 136 
Edward, 1 ), 122, 128, 130, 136 

Joan, his wile, 128 
Elizabeth, 136, 137 
Hanua, 136 
Henry, 130, 133, 134, 135. 136. 137 



Index. 



325 



Stephens (continued)— 
Colonel Henry, g 
Hester, 131 
James, 130, 136 
Margaret, 136 
Mary, 137 
Nathaniel, 137 
High Sheriff of Gloucestershire 

134, 136 
Colonel, M.P. for Gloucestershire, 

12, 125, 131, 133, i34> 136 
Legend of, 131-2 
Richard, i?i, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 

127, 130, 133, 134, 136, 137 
Robert, 131, 133, 136 

Rector of Eastington, 134, 137 
Sarah, 136 
Thomas, 130, 136 
Stephens, Family, Notes on Chavenage 
and the Stephens Family, by 
W. H. Silvester Davies, 

128—135 

Family of Eastington, 10 

Family, 129 
Arms, 10, 123, 126, [4 1 
Pedigree of, 130, 136-7 
Steward, William the, ibi 
Stinchcomh, Hamlet of, 239, 24 1 
Stok, John, 166 
Stoker, Edith, 167 
Stondingeston, 227 
Stone, Ann, 136 

Elizabeth, 130 

Elyanora de, 242 

John, 130, 136 

Robert de, 208 

Robert de la, 170 

Thomas de, 240, 241 
Stone, Lands in, 241 
Stonhull, Land, 231, 250 
Strange, Robert, Mayor of Bristol, 272 
Strode, Henry de la, 202, 203 
Strongbovv, Earl. See Clare 
Stroud, Parish Church, 130 
Stuart, James Edward, the "Pretender," 

57 
Sub bosco. See Underwood 
Sudeley Castle, Sir John Huddleston, 
Governor of, 265 
Sir William Compton, Governor 
of, 266 
Suffield. See Suthfeld 
Sulevas, at Cirencester (Ulus.), 69 
Altar dedicated to, at Bath, 70 
Altar dedicated to, at Cirencester, 

69—72 
Dedication to, at Bath, 72 
At Colchester, 69 — 72 
In Europe, 72 
At Rome, 72 
Sulinus, son of Brucetus, Altar at Bath, 
erected by, 70 
Altar at Cirencester, erected by, 

70—72 
Son of Maturus, Altar dedicated by, 
to Sul-Minerva, 72 
Sul-Minerva, god at Bath, 71 

Altar to, dedicated by Sulinus, son 
of Maturus, 72 
Sultan, Prisoners taken by, during 
Crusade, i"2 

Snmeri, William, 196 
Stindon, Beds., b8 
Suth, John, 231 
Walter, 231 
Suthfeld, Walter de, Bishop of Norwich, 

100, 103 
Sweltenhulleshide, Land, 250 



Swetenhullested, Land, 249 
Sweyn, 9 

Swinheye, Land at, 253 
Swonhunger, Alice, 240, 241, 242 

John de, 240, 241, 242 

Thomas de, 225, 239 

William de, 239, 241 
Symons, Family, Arms of, 142 
Symondshall, Church, 226, 227 

Manor, 202, 224 



Taillcburg, French and English Armies 

at, 96 
Tame, Sir Edmund, 38, 141 

and wife Alice, Brass of, in Fair- 
ford Church, 42 
John, 38, 40 
and wite Alice, Effigies of, in 

Fairford Church, 42 
Founder of Fairford Church, 37 
Thomas, 141 
Family, Arms of, 141 
Brass of, 141 
Tanur John le, 159 

Ralph le, 158 
Taunton, William de, 213 
Taverner, Robert le, 176 

Roger le, 158, 164, 175 
Taylur, Richard the, 174 
Tedepenne. See Tettepenne 
Templersquarer, Land, 250 
Tenterne. See Tintern 
Tetbury, H. de, 219 
John de, 1S4 
Philip de, 185, 186, 190 
Tetbury, Parson of, 214 

William, Parson of, 191 
Tetes, Lady of, 200 
Tettepenne, Adam de, 227 

William de, 226, 227 
Tewkesbury Abbey, Grant of Lands to, 24 
Geraldus, Abbot of, 26 
Heart of Isabella, Countess of 
Gloucester and Cornwall, buried 
at, 92 
Tewkesbury, Battle of, 260, 279 
Thames, River, 43, ng 
Thomas, Abbot of Kingswood, 190, 191 
Thomas, Brother, 215 
Thomas, Prior of Malvern, 116, 117 
Thomas, Wiiliam, 239 
Thornbui y, Vicar of, 135 
Throckmorton, John 

Elizabeth, his wife, 130 
Thunnack, Manor of, 114 
Thurid, 1S5 
Thurkild, Widow, 213 
Tickhill, Manor of, 108 
1 iene, R ilph de, 182 

I mill 11 Abbey, 101, 180 

Abbot of, 194, 256 

eh 1 1 iter House, 256 

< rant 1 if Land to, 256 

Pi ior of, 215 
Toddington House, 270 
To.v 1 I. VI. 1111, 172 

Elena, 172 
Toki, Alice, 
Tolsude, John de, 162 

I I ima e, Peter de, 163 
Tonbrid ■ 

Tonr.vi Hi . Land, 238 
Toney, Family, Aims of, 

["oppi , Dl 1 1 1 1 1 . and his wilr P Holhy, )( 

I 1 1 ir', 53 
Tovey, fohn, 176 

1 



326 



Index. 



Townsend, Alice Gertrude, 137 

Geraldine Henrietta, 137 

Henry John, 135, 137 

John, Brass oi, in Lechlade Church, 
46 

Rev. Maurice Fitzgerald, Vicar oi 
Thornbury, 135, 137 

Thomas, 140 

Sarah, wife of, 140 
Tracy, Sir John, Viscount, 261 

Lord, 262 

Thomas Charles, Lord Viscount, 270 

Family, 26S 
Arms of, 140, 148 
Trapani, in Sicily, 94 
Tredelaz, 213 

Tremleye, Water-mill at, 170 
Tresham, Adam de, 192 

William Scai de, 192 
Tresour, John, 158 
Tristam, Brother of Louis IX., m 

Burial of, 112 
Troham, William de, 202, 203 
Tropyn, John, 175 
Trotman, Family, Arms of, 148 
Truant, Elena, 178 

Nicholas, 178 
Trylly, Robert, 238 
Tudenham, William, 253 
Tumbrel I — Kingswood Abbey, 237 
Tunis, Crusade at, m 
Turbeville, Hugh de, 158 
Turner, Family, Arms of 143 
Turtle, Stephen, 158, 176 
Twinyho, John, Recorder of Bristol, 
276, 282 

John, Brass of, in Lechlade Church, 
46, 141 
Arms of, 46 

Family, Aims of, 47, 141 
Twyford, Railway Accident near, 154 
Tyard, William, 175 
Tykys, Richard, 172, 173 
Tynuhurst, Nonni I. de, 217 
Tyntai ne. See Tintern 
Tyringham, Elizabeth, 141 

Family, Arms of, 141 
Tysun, Wakelin, 193 

Uchdryd, Family, Arms of, 139 
Uley, Peter de, 206, 207, 209, 226 
Uley, Land at, 207, 208 
Ulward, 55 
Underwood, Gregory, 213 

Simon, 213 
Upchurch, Pottery from, 68 
Uphill, Hugh de, 175 

W., 197 
Upton, Robert de, 196, 207, 209 

Walter de, 185, 186, 190 
Urban, Pope, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 258 
Urswycke, Christopher, Almoner of Henry 

VII , 266 
Uuilfrith, Bishop of Worcester, 62 

Vaccar, Adam de, 213 
Vachell, Family, 59 
Vandyck, Sir Anthony, 40 
Vaughan, Family, Arms of, 138, 139 
Vaulx, James, his Wives and Children, 
Monument ami Effigies of, in 
Meysey Hampton Church, 29, 30 

Yaux, Family, Arms of, 140 

Veel, Robert le, 216, 219, 220, 236 

Vernon, Courienay John, 137 

Vico, I >i. Family, IV fects ol Rome, in 



Viterbo, no, in 

Cathedral of, 112 

Church of Santa Maria dei Gradi, 258 
Church of San Sylvestro, 258 
Picture at, 113 

Wadberwe Land, 248 

Wadham College, Oxford, Southrop Manor 

held by, 53 
Waismer, Brother, 217 
Wake, Agnes, 164 

Reginald, 164 
Wakefield, Henry, Bishop of Worcester, 

Arms of, 269 
Walcher, Prior of Malvern, 116 
Waleys, Henry le, 158 
Wall, Luke, 171 
Wallingford, 89 

Bead'e of, 217 

Castle, 92, 104 

Granted to Richard Plantagenet, 88 
Wallrand, Robert, 219 
Walter, Clerk of Cirencester, 216 
Walter, Clerk of Hillesley, 204 
Walter, son of Henry, 181 
Walter the Baker of Gloucester, 168 
Wanswell, Lands in, 241 
Wapley, Vicar of, 134 
Ware, Robert la, 158, 168 
Warewyche, Walter de, 166 
Wanner, Henry le, 252 
Warmfield Church, Inscription, 260 

Otho Sagar, Vicar of, 260, 268 
Warne, Osborne, 256 
Warneford, Anne, 146 

Edmund, 146 

Family, Arms of, 146, 147 
Warre, Jordan de la, Lord of Cnolle, 216, 
217, 243 

Lord de la, 284, 285 
Warwick, Earls of, Arms of, 40 

Lands of, 279 

S-e Beauchamp ; Neville 
Warwickshire, Englishry in, 156 
Waryn, John, 162 
Waters, John le, 167 
Watkins, Ann, 139 

Richard, 139 

Family, Arms of, 139 
Waucham, Peter de, 215, 217 
Waunton, John de, 236 

William de, 225 
Waverley Abbey, ioi, 180 

Abbot of, 216 
Wawes, Le, Land, 250 
Wayte, John le, 214 
Weare, Robert, 9 
Webb, Sir John, 57, 144 

Sir Thomas, 57 

Family, 120 
Arms of, 139, 144, 145 
Webley, Milo de, 169 
Welchman, Thomas the, Bishop of St. 

1 (avid's, 103 
Wellop, William, 160 
Wells Cathedral, Library, Manuscript in, 

• 257 • 
Welric, William le, 176 

Wenscerd, Land, 183 

WERE V. ; Heraldry of the different 
Churches, &c, visited by the 
Gloucestershire Archaeological 

Society during their Visit to 
Fairford, August 9th to nth, 
1899, 138-149 
West, Henry, 249, 250, 251 
Richard, 2.17 



Index. 



3 2 7 



Wi stbury Hundred, 156 

Westcote, William de, 2 

Westfelde, Land, 204 

Westlangfurlang, Land, 1S3 

Westminster Abbey, Henry VII. 's Chapel, 
40 
Shrine of Edward the Confessor at, 
113, 258 

Weston, Nicholas de, 160 
Thomas de, 175 

Westrop, William de, 191 

Westwood, W., Lord ol Bibury Manor, 64 

Whalley, Abbot of Hayles. See Sagar 

Whalley, Abbey, 101, 260 

White, Thomas Ie, 240, 241 

Whiteheved, William, 163 

" White Ship," 129 

Whiting, Walter, 234 
William, 214 

Whiuington, Family, Arms of, 140 

Whytchurch, William, Abbot of Hayles, 
259, 260, 263 

Wich, Richard de la, Bishop of Chiches- 
ter, 99, 103 

Wick, Thomas de, Prior of Malvern, 116 

Wike, Peter de, 216 
Stephen de, 193 

Wilberforce, Robert, 120 

Wilecryk, John, 249, 250, 251 

Wilfrith. See Uuilfnth 

Wilkyns, William, 280, 281 

William I., 43, 129 

William II., 24, 38, 59 

William, Earl of Holland and Vriesland, 

. . IO S 
William, son of Elias, 186 

Williams, Isaac, 120 

Family, Arms of, 148 
Willington, Ralfh de and Olympias his 

wife, 65 
Willi*, Harriet, 137 

Henry, Rector of Little Sodbury and 
Vicar of Wapley, 134, 137 

Henry Hannes, a Monk, 135, 137 

John, 134, 137 
\\ inchcomb Abbey, Monks of, 103 

Church, Arms in, 148 
Piscina, 148 

Henry III., at 103 

Hundred, 87 

Township of, 154 
Winchester, 86 

Bishop of. Nii- I.esingnam ; Roches 
Windows. See Glass 
Windsor, Andrew Lord, 20 
Windsor, 282 
Witflur, 213 

Wodemannesthorn, Land, 250 
Wodewclle, 226, 227 
Wokemewcye, Land, 250 
Wombestrong, Richard, 167 
Wong or Wang, Meaning of, 184 



Woodford, Lands in, 240, 241 
Woolbeater, John the, 165 
Reginald the, 165 
..is Ie, 17? 
Worcester, Ralph de, 87 

Hayles Castle and Church built 
by, 258 
Worcester, Cathedral Churchof St. Mary, 
.62, 25+ 
Bishop of, 67, 161, 178 
Bishops of. .Scf Afcock : Allium ; 
Cantilupe; Egwin; Giffard; Pag- 
ham : Peverell ; Simon ; Uuilfrith ; 
Wakefield 
Chapter, 254, 255 
Prior. See Fordham 
Friars of the Sac at, 169 
See 1 
Wotton, Joan de, 214 
Lady of, 2 id, 220 
Mary, 146 
Samuel, 146 
I iiniiy, Anns of, 146 
Wright, W. H. T. ; Notes on the 
Parishes and Churches of East- 
leach Martin and Eastleach Fur- 
ville, 115— 120 
Wriothesleys, Family, 47 
Wuung, Land, 184 

Wydeville, Anthony, Earl of Rivers, 281 
Wylecryk. See Wilecryk 
Wymbervile, Walter de, 219 
Wynch, John, 242 
Wynchcombe. Sit Winchcomb 
Wyndemullefeld, Land, 241, 24.' 
Wyneman, Ralph, 175, 17'' 
Wynton, hmma, 178 

Philip de, 178 
Wyssey, John, Mayor of Bristol, 15S 
Wytehulle, Emma de, 178 



Vate, Kykon of, 170 

Yet, Robert de, 234 

Ygete, 213 

York, Archbishop of. Set (liny 

Duke of. See Plantagenet 

Duchess of, Badge of, in Lechlade 
Church, 46 

William of, Bishop of Salisbury, 1 13 
Yorkshire, Englishry in, 156 
Yrcumbe, 237 
Yvenok, William de, 159 
Ywelega, Set Uley 



Zouche, Helen de la, 27 
John (7) Lord, 27 

William (5) I ird, of 1 [arynworth, . 
William (6) Lord, 27 
Family, Arms, 29 



©rtstol anb (Bloucestcrsbirc 



^rcijoeolocrtcrtl gtocizhj. 



JANUARY, 1901. 



President : 
F. F. Fox, Esq., Yate House, Chipping Sodbury. 

President of Council : 
Sir Brook Kay, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Cheltenham. 

Hon. General Treasurer: 
G. M. Currie, Esq., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 

Hon. Editor: 
Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset. 

Hon. Local Secretary for Bristol : 

John E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A., Guy's Cliff, Sydenham Road, 

Bristol. 

Hon. General Secretary : 
Rev. William Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 



YICE-PRESIDENTS, MEMBERS OF COUNCIL, AND 
LOCAL SECRETARIES. 

January, 1901. 

City of Bristol. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the Lord 
Mayor of Bristol! ; The Master of the Society of Merchant Venturers! ; 
The Right Rev. The Bishop of Bristol. Council Proper : James Baker, 
F.R.G.S. ; A. E. Hudd, F.S.A. ; F. F. Tuckatt, F.R.G.S. ; A. T. Martin, 
M.A., F.S.A. ; John Latimer. Local Secretary : John E. Pritchard, F.S.A. 

City of Gloucester. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the 
Mayor of Gloucester!; Rev. S. E. Bartleet, M.A., F.S.A. Council Proper: 
H. W. Bruton ; H. G. Madan. M.A. ; Oscar W. Clark, M.A., MB. 
Local Secretary: F. S. Waller, F.S.A. 

Cirencester Division. — Vice-Presidents ; Rev. Canon Bourne, M.A., 
F.S.A. ; Wilfred J. Cripps, C.B., F.S.A. ; Rev. D. Royce, M.A. Council 
Proper : Christopher Bowly. Local Secretaries : Stow-on-the-Wold — 
Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, M.A. Tetbury— Rev. E. W. Evans., M.A. 
Chipping Campden — 

Forest of Dean Division.— Council Proper : Rev. W. Bagnall- 

Oakeley, M.A. ; C. Bathurst, Junr. ; Douglas J. Wintle. Local Secretaries : 

Lydney— G. W. Keeling. Chepstow— Godfrey Seys. 

Stroud Division.— Vice-Presidents : F. A. Hyett, M.A. ; W. Leigh. 

Council Proper: W. St. Clair Baddeley ; A. J. Morton-Ball. Local 

Secretaries: Stroud— W. J. Stanton. Dursley— Rev. W. Silvester 

Davies, M.A. Nailsworth — A. E. Smith. 
Thornbury Division. — Vice-President : F. F. Fox. Council Proper : 

Rev. W. T. Blathwayt, M.A. ; Rev. Canon Ellacombe, M.A. Local 

Secretaries: Berkeley— Rev. J. L. Stackhouse, M.A. Wotton-under- 

Edge — Vincent R. Perkins. 
Tewkesbury Division. — Vice-President: Sir J. E. Dorington, Bart., 

M.A., M.P. Council Proper : G. S. Blakeway, T. Dyer-Edwardes, M.A. ; 

E. S. Hartland, M.A., F.S.A. Local Secretary : Tewkesbury- 
Cheltenham.— Vice-Presidents ; The Worshipful the Mayor of 

Cheltenham!; R. V. Vassar-Smith ; G. B. Witts, C.E. Council 

Proper: A. le Blanc; C. E. Gael; H. A. Prothero, M.A. Local 

Secretary : G. M. Currie. 
Not Assigned : Vice-Presidents: John Beddoe, M.D. ; J. G P. 

Palmer Hallett, M.A. Council Proper: C. H. Dancey ; Rev. J M 

Hall, M.A. ; H. Medland ; Rev. W. Symonds, M.A 

+ Wh» a Member of this Society. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS, 1901. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type. 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1900- 1. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 

Adams, J. W., Commercial Road, Gloucester. 

Adams, W. Avery, The Guildhall, Bristol. 

Adlam, William, F.S.A., D.L., Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol. 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., 36 Ampthill Road, Fulwood Park, 

Liverpool. 
Alston, Rev. W. T., 12 St. Paul's Road, Gloucester. 
Archer, Lieut. -Col. G. W., R.E., The Rookery, Frensham, Farnham. 
Armitage, W. H., Lyley House, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Arrowsmith, J. W., 6 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Ashman, Sir Herbert, Cooks Folly, Stoke Bishop, near Bristol. 
Atherton, Rev. W. Bernard, B.A., Taynton House, Taynton, near 

Gloucester. 

*Baddeley, W. St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 
*Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. W., M.A., Tre Cefn, Monmouth. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs. W., Tre Cefn, Monmouth. 
Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Henbury, Bristol. 
Baker, Miss E. M., 8 Vyvyan Terrace, Clifton. 
Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 
*Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. 
Baker, W. Proctor, Sandhill Park, near Taunton. 
•Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 
Banks, C, Longford, Gloucester. 
Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford Heath, 

Herts. 
Barker, W. R., 106 Redland Road, Bristol. 
Barnsley, A. E., Pimbury Park, Cirencester. 
Barstow, H. C, M.A., 2 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
•Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., F.S.A., Dursley Rectory, Gloucestershire. 
*Bathurst, Charles, Junr., 3 Stone Buildings, Lincolns Inn, London. 
Batten, Herbert Cary George, Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Clifton, 

Bristol. 
*Bazeley, Rev. William, M. A. , Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Ho ber.) 

(Hon. General Secretary and Librarian), 
Bazley, Gardner S., M.A., Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Glos [ VY C 
Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Winterdyne, Chine Crescent R 

Bournemouth West, Hants. 
Baxter, Wynne E., D.L., Granville Cottage, Stroud. 
Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 
Coin St. Aldwyn's, Fairford. 



Beaufort, Her Grace the Duchess of, c/o Ward Soame, Esquire, Estate 
Offices, Badminton, Chippenham. 
•Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford-on-Avon. 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, c/o T. Wohlleben, 46 Great Russell Street, 
London, W.C. 

Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 

Biddulph. Michael, M.P., Ledbury. 

Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 

Birchall, Miss Lanesfield, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham. 
*Blakeway, G. S., Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester. 

Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrham, Chippenham. 
♦Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Park, Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Lieut. -Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheaston, Bath. 

Blood, John N., 3 Berkeley Street, Gloucester. 

Blosse, Rev. R. C. Lynch, Tiddenham Vicarage, Chepstow. 

Bodleian Library (E. W. Nicholson, Librarian), Oxford. 

Bonnor, G. R., Probate Court, Gloucester. 
♦Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester. 

Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath. 

Bramble, Lieut. -Col. James Roger, F.S.A., Seafield, Weston- 
super-Mare. 

Bravender, T. B., 96 Oakfield Road, Anerley, London, S.E. 

Briggs, William, Exchange, Bristol. 

♦Bristol, The Right Rev. The Bishop of (G. F. Browne, D.D , F.S.A.), 
The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 

Browne, Rev. A. H., D.D., Kempsford Vicarage, Fairford, Glos. 

Brownlow, The Right Rev. W. R., D.D., Bishop of Clifton, The Bishop's 
House, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bruton, H. T., 4 Alexandra Terrace, Gloucester. 
"Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Bruton, James, Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 

Bryan, John, The Lealands, Minchinhampton, Glos. 

Bubb, Henry, Ullinwood, near Cheltenham. 

Burges, P., The Ridge, Chipping Sodbury. 

Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 23 Bridge Street, Bristol. 

Bush, Edward, The Grove, Alveston, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

Bush, G. de L'Isle, Standish House, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Bush, John, 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bush, R. C, 1 Winifred's Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath. 

Bush, T. S , 20 Camden Crescent, Bath. 

Butt, Rev. Walter, Minety Vicarage, Malmesbury. 



Calcutt, Robt, Avening Lodge, Stroud. 

Cardew, C. E., A.M.I.C.E., Insein, Lower Burmah. 

Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 

Cave, Sir Charles D., Bart., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton 

Park, Bristol. 
Cave, Charles H., B.A., Rodway Hill House, Mangotsfield, Glos. 
Cave, Daniel C. A., F.S.A., Sidbury Manor, Sidmouth, Devon. 
Chance, T. H., Journal Office, St. John's Lane, Gloucester. 
Cheesman, Rev. A. H., Salford House, Derby Road, Gloucester. 
Cheltenham College (A. A. Hunter, Bursar). 
Cheltenham Public Library (Librarian, W. Jones, Cheltenham). 
Cheltenham Permanent Library, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Child, Mrs. Robert, Chosen Hill, near Cheltenham. 
Chilton, George Horace David, 14 Cambridge Park, Bristol. 



Church, A. H., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Vicar's Close, Wells, Somerset. 
♦Clark, Oscar W., M.A., M.B., S. Luke's House, Spa Road, Gloucester. 
Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 
Collett, John M., Guy's Cliff, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Cockshott, Arthur, 7 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Cockshott, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross. 

Codrington, Rev. R. H., D.D., St. Richard's Walk, Chichester. 
Cornock, Nicholas, 7 Marjorie Grove, Clapham Common, London, S.W. 
Cornwall, Rev. Allan Kingscote, M.A., Burghope, Worsley, 

Bradford-on-Avon. 
Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, S. S. Buckman, Hon. Sec, Charlton 

Kings, Cheltenham. 
Crawley-Boevey, A. W., 24 Sloane Court, London, S.W. 
Crawley- Boevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, 

Gloucestershire. 
Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R , MA, Duntisborn Abbot's Rectory, Cirencester. 
Crewdson, Theodore, Norcliffe Hall, Handford, Manchester. 
Cripps, Henry Kater, Redcliffe, Clifton Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Cripps, Wilfred J., C.B., F.S.A., The Mead, Cirencester. 
Croggan, Edmund, 4 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cruddas, C. J., Oakfield, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Cullimore, J., Christleton, Chester. 
Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Barnwood, Gloucester. 
*Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham (Hon. Treasurer). 



•Dancey, Charles Henry, 6 Midland Road, Gloucester. 

Daubeny, Capt., 10 Pitville Lawn, Cheltenham. 

Davies, E. Jenner, Haywardsend, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, 

London, N. 
*Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., Horsley Vicarage, Stroud. 

Davis, Cecil Tudor, Public Library, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 

Dawber, E. Guy, 22 Buckingham Street, Adelphi, London, W.C. 

De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham. 

De Sausmarez, F. B., M.A., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 

Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. 

Denton, Rev. Sydney, M.A., 5 Rokeley Avenue, Redland, Bristol. 

Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 96 Lancaster Gate, London, W. 

Dickinson, Miss, Cricklade, Wilts. 

Dickinson, J. L., Park House, Eastfield Park, Weston-super-Mare. 

Dix, J. W. S., Hampton Lodge, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham. 

Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Springhill, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bri itol 

Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehons,-, Cloucester- 

shire. 
•Dorington, Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt Park, Stroud. 

Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., M.A., Bushley I'arsonag<\ Tewkesbury. 

Drew, Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., F.R.S., Tortworth 
Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 

Duke, Col. J. C, Southern House, Pittville Crescent. Cheltenham. 

Dulau & Co., for British Museum, 37 Soho Square, I .ondon, W 
•Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, M.A., Prinknash Park, Tain -wick, St 1 



8 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 

Eberle, J. Fuller, 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Edwards, Rev. E. W. F The Rectory, Avening, Stroud. 

Edwards, Sir George W., 2 Sea-wall Villas, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Edwards, Herbert G., 5, Perceval Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol. 

Ellicott, A. B., His Honour, M.A., (The Chancellor of the Diocese), The 
Culls, Stroud. 

Elliot, Major-Gen., 1 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 

Ellis, T. S., 6 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Emeris, Rev. William, M.A., Taynton Vicarage, Burford, Oxon. 

Evans, Arnold, 4 Litfield Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Evans, Rev. E. W., M.A., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 

Evans, J. B., 20 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 



Fawcett, Miss E. G., Southfield, Painswick, Stroud. 
Fear, W. Lyne, 9 South Parade, Clifton, Bristol. 
Fenwick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham. 
Fisher, Major C. Hawkins, The Castle, Stroud. 
Flower, Edgar, Middle Hill, Broadway, Worcestershire. 
Flux, Edward Hitchings, 144 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 
Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley. 
Ford, Andrew, Wraxall Court, Wraxall, near Bristol. 
Ford, Roger, Kensington Lodge, Kensington Park, Clifton. 
Foster, R. G., 2 Spa Villas, Gloucester. 
*Fox, Francis Frederick, Yate House, Chipping Sodbury. 
Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton Charterhouse, Bath. 
Fraser, Surgeon Major-General D. A. Campbell, Chadnor Cottage, Douro 

Road, Cheltenham. 
Fry, Francis J., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, Somerset. 
Fry, Lewis, The Right Hon., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol. 
Fryer, Alfred C, Ph.D., M.A., 13 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
Fuller, Rev. E. A.,8 George Street, Carlisle. 



» 



Gael, C. E., Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Gainsborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Campden House, Chipping 

Campden. 
Gardner, Rev. G. L., All Saints Vicarage, Cheltenham. 
George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 
George, Frank, 7 Ellenborough Crescent, Weston-super-Mare. 
George, Rev. P. E., M.A., St. Winifred's, Bath. 
George, W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset. 
Giller, William Thomas, 16 Tisbury Road, Hove, Brighton. 
Glazebrook, Mrs., The School House, Clifton College, Bristol. 
Gloucester, The Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o 

G. S. Blakeway, Esq., Guildhall, Gloucester. 
Godfrey, F. W., Junr., Tewkesbury. 
Godfrey, Miss M. M., The Greenway, near Cheltenham. 
Golding, Mrs., Tudor Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Gresley, Rev. Nigel W., M.A., The Rectory, Ozleworth, Wotton-under- 

Edge. 
Griffiths, John, M.R.C.S., 25 Redland Park, Bristol. 
Guise, Sir W., Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 
Gurney, W. Gerald, 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 



Haines, Basil John, Manor House, Queen Charlton, near Bristol. 

Hale, Maj.-Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge. 
*Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud. 
♦Hallett, J. G. P. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Harding, E. B., Chasefield, Upper Knowle, Bristol. 

Harding, Rev. Canon John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 

Harford, William H. J., Oldown, Tockington, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

Harford, Edmund, 3 Priory Street, Cheltenham. 

Hartland, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member). 
♦Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 

Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Triibner & Co., Paternoster House, Charing 
Cross Road, London, W.C. 

Harvey, Edward A., 26 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hasluck, Rev. E., M.A., Little Sodbury Rectory, Chipping Sodbury. 

Hawkesbury, The Right Hon. Lord, F.S.A., Kirkham Abbey, 
Yorkshire. 

Hayward, The Venerable Archdeacon, M.A., College Green, Gloucester. 

Heberden, Rev. H. B., Oddington Rectory, Sto\v-on-the-Wold. 

Helps, Arthur S., Barton Street Gloucester. 

Herapath, Howard M., 12 St. John's Road, Clifton. 

Herbert, Arthur Grenville, Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Herbert, W. Hawkins, Paradise House, Painswick, Glos. 

Hermessen, F. W. Newmerland, Chepstow Road, Newport. 

Higgins, Henry, The Castle, Willsbridge, Bristol. 

Hill, Col. Sir E. S., K.C.B., 1 Herbert Crescent, London, S.W. 

Hirst, Francis J., 12 Westbury Park, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Shaw Well, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 

Holmes, James G., Thorne Lodge, Oakfield Grove, Clifton, Bristol. 

Horlick, James, Cowley Manor, Cheltenham. 

Howard, Edward Stafford, M.P., 9 Egerton Place, London, S.W. 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, N. 
•Hudd, Alfred E., F.S.A., 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hutton, Rev. W. H., The Great House, Burford, Oxon. 
"Hyett, F. A., B.A., Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Isacke, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 

James, Rev. H. A., B.D., The School House, Rugby. 

Jebb, Mrs., The Oaklands, Brock worth, Gloucester. 

Jefferies, A. G. W., Ash Lodge, Pucklechurch, near Bristol. 

Jenkins, Frederick A., 58, St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse, 

Gloucestershire. 
Johnstone- Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory. Wotton, Gloucester. 
Joicey, James, Poulton Court, Fairford, Glos. 
Judge, Frederick, 90 Richmond Road, Montpellier, Bristol. 

•Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham 
(President of Council). 

Keble, Rev. Canon Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, near Stroud. 
•Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Kennedy-Skipton, H. S., 30 Montpellier Villas, Cheltenham. 

Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 

Kerr, W. G. W , Prestbury Court, Cheltenham. 

King, Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Kitcat, Rev. D., M.A., Weston Birt Rectory, Tetbury. 



IO 

Landale, Dy. -Surgeon-General, Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham. 
"Latimer, John, 3 Trelawny Place, Cotham, Bristol. 

Law, Ernest, The Pavilion, Hampton Court Palace, London. 

Lawrence, R. Gwynne, Middleton Hall, Llanarthney, South Wales. 
*Le Blanc, Arthur, The Hayes, Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 
* Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse, Glos. 
f Leigh, E. Egerton, D.L., Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Lewis, Archibald M, 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis, Harold, B.A., Mercury Office, Bristol. 

Little, E. Caruthers, Tracy House, Pittville Lawn, Cheltenham. 

Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud. 

Little, Brown & Co., Boston, U.S.A., c/o Sampson Low & Co., Fetter 
Lane, London, E.C. 

Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 

Llewellin, John, C.E., Hazeland, Devizes, Wilts. 

Llewellin, W. M., 15 King Square, Bristol. 

London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

Long, Col. William, Woodlands, Congresbury, R.S.O., East Somerset. 

Long, The Right Hon. Walter H., D.L., M.P., Rood Ashton, Trow- 
bridge, Wilts; and n, Ennismore Gardens, London, S.W. 

Loveridge, P. B., 12 Oxford Place, Cheltenham. 

Lowe, C. J., 8 St. Stephen's Street, Bristol. 

Lynes, Rev. W., M.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham. 

Macdonald, Maj.-Gen. John, 31 Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham. 

Machen, C. E., Bicknor, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

Maclaine, William Osborne, D.L., Kineton, Thornbury 

Macpherson, J., Sorrento, San Diego, California, U.S.A. 
*Madan, H. G., M.A., F.C.S., Bearland House, Gloucester (Hon. Librarian). 

Manchester Library (Charles W. Sutton, Sec), Manchester. 

Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud. 

Marshall, Mrs., The White House, Newent. 

Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud. 

Marrs, Kingsmill, South Park, Saxonville, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
•Martin, A. T., M.A., F.S.A., Rodborough House, Percival Road, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

Martin, C. T., B.A., F.S.A , Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London, 
W.C. 

Martin, R. B., M.P., Overbury Court, Glos. 

Master, Mrs. Chester, Knowle Park. Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 

Matthews, J. A., Lewishurst, The Spa, Gloucester. 

May, Arthur C, Avon House, Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 

McCall, H. B., F.S.A. Scot., Barton End Court, Nailsworth. 

Meadway, G., South Lawn, The Park, Cheltenham. 
*Medland, Henry, Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Meredith, W. Lewis, 7 Midland Road, Gloucester. 

Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Hawkesley, Exmouth, Devon. 

Miles, Rev. H., The Rectory, Huntley, near Gloucester. 

Mills, H. Hamilton, Sudgrove House, near Cirencester. 

Mills, J. Elliott, 13 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Mitchinson, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., The Lodge, Pembroke 
College, Oxford. 

Mitford, A. B. Freeman, C.B., Batsford Park, Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Moffatt, H. C, Goodrich Court, Ross. 

Moline, William, 19 The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 

Morgan, Miss, Cherith, 2 Beaufort Buildings, Gloucester. 

Morris, R. Groves, 5 Beaufort Buildings, Spa, Gloucester. 

Moxley, "W. S., 9 Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Mullings, John, Cirencester. 



II 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M.A., Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury. 

Newton, Lieut. -Col., Thoresby, Cheltenham. 

New York Library, c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, 

London, W.C. 
Norman, George, Alpha House, Bayshill, Cheltenham. 
Norman, George, 12 Brock Street, Bath. 
Norris, Herbert E., The Market Place, Cirencester. 



Oman, C. W. C, M.A., F.S.A., All Souls' College, Oxford. 
Oman, Mrs., Avalon, St. George's Road, Cheltenham. 
Osburn, Miss, The Edge House, near Stroud. 

Owen, Rev. Canon Richard Trevor, M.A., F.S.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry, 
Salop. 

Parker, Rev. Canon Charles J., M.A., Upton Cheyney, Bitton, Bristol. 

Pass, Alfred Capper, Hawthornden, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, U.S.A., c/o Messrs. B. F. Stevens & 
Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 

Pearson, H. W., Woodland House, Tyndall Park, Bristol. 

Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth, Northumberland. 

Percival, E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester. 

Percival, Mrs. L., 4 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
*Perkins, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Perry, John F., 3 Downside Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M.A., B.C.L., 124 Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 

Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath. 

Pike, G., Hempsted Court, Gloucester 

Pike, Mrs., Hempsted Court, Gloucester. 

Pippet, Rev. W. A., The Rectory, Clifford Chambers, Stratford-on-Avon. 

Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A., Monkton Combe Vicarage, Bath. 

Pitt, Theophilus, 143 Minories, London, E.C. 

Playne, Arthur T., Longfords, Minchinhampton. 

Pollock, Erskine, Q.C., 74 Queen's Gate, London, S.W. 

Ponting, Albert J., Tocknells, Painswick, Stroud. 

Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts. 

Power, Edward, F.S.A., 16 Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 

Prankerd, P. D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 
*Pritchard, John E., F.S.A., Guy's Cliff, Sydenham Road, Bristol. (Hon. 
Local Secretary for Bristol). 

Protheroe, Frank, 11 Alfred Place, West Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 
"Prothero, H.A., M.A., 13 Promenade, Cheltenham. 

Pruen, G. G., Lewisfield, Cheltenham. 

Purnell, Rev. R. H., M.A., Staverton Vicarage, near Cheltenham. 



Reid, Walter, The Woodlands, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Ringer, Surgeon-General, 20 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Bobbins, Rev. J. W. E., 23 Campden Hill Square, London, N. 
Robertson, J. L., 13 Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Rogers, Lieut. -Col. R., Battledown Court, Cheltenham 
Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plympton. Devon. 
"Royce, Rev. David, M.A., Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham. 
Salwey, Edward R., The Court, Stonehouse, Glos. 



12 



Sawyer, John, Glevum Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

Scears, Charles, Sunnymeade, Keynsham, Bristol. 

Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 

Scobell, Rev. Canon E., M.A., Upton St. Leonard's Rectory, Gloucester. 

Scott, Charles, Beaufort House, Spa, Gloucester. 

Scott, Rev. G. M., The Vicarage, Nailsworth. 

Selwyn-Payne, Major J. H., Badgeworth End, near Cheltenham. 

Sessions, Frederick, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., Monkleighton, Alexandra Road, 
Gloucester. 

Sessions, Herbert, Quedgeley Court, Gloucester. 

Sewell, Edward C., The Beeches, Cirencester. 
*Seys, Godfrey, Wirewood's Green, Chepstow. 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23 Caledonian Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

Sheringham, Rev. H. A., M.A., 50 St. George's Square, London, S.W. 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A., 17 Norfolk Crescent, Bath. 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 

Simpson, J. J., Osborne House, Cotham Park, Bristol. 

Sinclair, Rev. J. S., The Vicarage, Cirencester. 

Skrine, Henry Duncan, Claverton Manor, Bath. 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., The Pynes, Keynsham, Bristol. 
"Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth. 

Smith, Richard Henry, The Kestrels, Rodborough, Stroud. 

Sneath, Rev. T. A., The Lawn, Woodchester, Stroud. 

Sneyd, Rev. G. A., Chastleton Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful the Master of the, Bristol. 

Stables, Mrs., 2 College Lawn, Cheltenham. 
*Stackhouse, Rev. Canon, The Vicarage, Berkeley. 

Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A., Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., Field Place, Stroud. 

Stanton, J. Y , The Leaze, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Stanton, Rev. W. D., Toddington Vicarage, Winchcombe, Glos. 
*Stanton, Walter John, Stratford Lodge, Stroud. 

Stephens, Albert J., 29 Denmark Road, Gloucester. 

Street, Ernest E., C.E., Leny, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Stubs, Peter, Blaisdon Hall, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Sturgeon, Wentworth, 4 King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, W.C. 

Swann, E. J., D.L., The Gables, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M.D., 74 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Swayne, Miss, 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Sherston Vicarage, Malmesbury. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., 26 College Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
Tarr, F. J., Roseneath, Willsbridge, near Bristol. 
'Taylor, Rev. C. S., M.A., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset. 
Taylor, Edmund J., Town Clerk, Council House, Bristol. 
Thompson, Mrs. Endcliffe, Henbury, Bristol. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Osborne House, Frocester, nr. Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 
Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Tibbitts, John, 5 Theresa Place, Gloucester. 
Tinson, C. J., The Cleevelands, Marie Hill, Cheltenham. 
Tombs, R. C, 32 Durdham Park, Bristol. 
Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Trapnell, Alfred, 15 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Trenfield, J. D. B., Hill House, Chipping Sodbury. 
Trower, G. Oakeley, Meldon Lodge, Cheltenham. 



13 

Truman, Edwin, The Home Field, Putney Hill, London, S.W 
Tryon, Stephen, 5 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Tucker, Miss, The Studio, Sheepscombe House, Stroud. 
"Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, near Bristol 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 

Vassall, R. L. Grant, Oldbury Court, Fishponds, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 
•Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. 
Venner, Capt, The Reddings, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis, B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham. 

Wait, H. W. K., Woodborough House, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
♦Waller, Frederick S., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 18 College Green, Gloucester. 

Warren, Admiral, Longcourt, Randwick, Stroud 

Warren, Robert Hall, F.S.A., 9 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Webb, R. B., Down House, Ashley Down, Bristol. 

Welch, Miss, Arle House, Cheltenham. 

Wells, Charles, F.J. I., 134 Cromwell Road, Bristol. 

W'enden, James Gordon, The Chantry, Dursley. 

Were, Francis, Gratwicke Hall, Barrow Gurney, Flax Bourne, R SO., 
Somerset 

Weston, St. Aubyn, Didbrook, Winchcombe. 

Whitcombe, George, The Wotton Elms, Gloucester 

Whitfield, G. T., Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Whitwill, Mark, 1 Berkeley Square, Bristol. 

Williams, Rev. Augustin, 17 Birchfield Road, Phippville, Northampton. 

Williams, Oliver, Battledown House, Cheltenham. 

Williams, P. Watson, M.D., 1 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wilkinson, Rev. L., M.A., Westbury-on-Severn, Newnham, Glo'stershire. 

Wills, Sir Frederick, Bart., M,P., Manor Heath, Bournemouth. 

Wilson, Robert, M.B., Millbrook, Nailsworth. 

Wingfield, E. Rhys, Barrington Park, Burford. 

\\ instone, Benjamin, 53 Russell Square, London, W.C. 

Wintle, Charles, 57 Queen Square, Bristol. 
•Wintle, Douglas J., The Old House, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S., 11 Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 

Wise, William Henry, The Council House, Bristol. 

Wiseman, Rev H. J , M.A., 1 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Witchell, E. Northam, Lansdown, Stroud. 
*Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
♦Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, M. A. .Upper Slaughter Manor, Lower Slaughter, 
R.S.O., Glos. 

Wollaston, G. H., M.A., Wotton-under-Edge. 

Wollaston, Mrs. S. C, Wotton-under-Edge. 

Wood, Fred Augustus, Highfield, Chew Magna, Somerset. 

Wood, Walter B., 12 Queen Street, Gloucester. 

Woodward, Miss E. K., M.A., High School, College Green, 
Gloucester. 

Woodward, J. H., 2 Windsor Terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 

Woolright, Captain, U.S. Club, Charles Street, London, S W 

Yabbicom, Col. T. H., C.E., 23 Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Young, C.E.B., Daylesford House, Chipping Norton, Oxon 

Zachary, Henry, Cirencester. 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society : 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 

London, W. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Edinburgh. 
The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 

Hanover Square, London. 
The Birmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section, Birming- 
ham. 
The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London, W. 
The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S A. 
The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., 94 

Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
The Cambrian Archaeological Society, 28 Great Ormond Street, London, 

W.C. 
The Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, Hon. Sec, S. S. Buckman, Esq., 

Ellborough, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
The Royal Institute of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 
The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby. 
The Essex Archaeological Society, The Lawn, Coggeshall, Essex. 
The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 
The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 
The Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society, Hon. Sec, F. Goyne, 

Esq., Dogpole, Shrewsbury. 
The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 

Taunton. 
The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Hon. Sec, V. 

B. Redstone, Esq., Woodbridge, Mill Hill, Suffolk. 
The Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guilford. 
The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes, Sussex. 
The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec, Major-Gen. 

The Hon. G. Wrottesley. 
The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts. 
The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. 

Librarian, E. K. Clarke, Esq., 10 Park Street, Leeds. 



TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members for a Composition of £5, and an Admission 
Fee of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volume of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 1st of January, and the 
Hon. Treasurer, Mr. G. M. Currie, will be obliged if members 
will send their subscriptions to him at 26 Lansdown Place, 
Cheltenham. 

By order of the Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as members to be made to one of the 
Hon. Local Secretaries, or to the 

REV. WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A., 
Matson Rectory, 

Gloucester, 

Hon. General Secretary. 



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