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M . M. ^v 








MEETINGS IN 1889—1841 












Instituted May, 1839- 


His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. 


The Bight Honourable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of London. 

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Ely. 

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Hereford. 

The Right Reverend the Bishop of Nova Scotia. 

The Right Honourable the Lord Lyndhurst, High Steward of the University of 

"The Honourable and Reverend the Master of Magdalene College. 
The Reverend the Master of Clare Hall. 
The Reverend the Provost of King'*s College. 
The Reverend the Master of Downing College. 
The Very Reverend the Dean of Peterborough, Regius Professor of Divinity. 


The Venerable Thomas Thorp, Archdeacon of Bristol, Tutor of Trinity College. 


John Mason Neale, Esq., Downing College. 


Arthur Shelly Eddis, Esq., Trinity College. 


Benjamin Webb, Esq., Trinity College. 
James Gavin Young, Esq., Trinity College. 


The Illustrations to Paper XV. have been delayed from 
accidental circumstances. They will be issued subsequently. 

Page 207, line 7, fw Vienna and Poligno, rtad Sienna md Foligno. 


No. I. On St Peter^s Ohureh^ Cambridge: by the Bev. John James Smith, M.A. Fellow 

and Tutor of Oonmle and Oaius Oollegey Vice-Presid&nt. 


No. II. On Chantry Altars: by Matthew Holbbche Bloxam, Esq. Buffby^ Honorary 


No. III. On the Crypts of London^ Part I: by Benjamin Webb, Esq., Trinity College^ 

Honorary Secretary. 

No. IV. On the Crypts of London^ Part II: by the same. 

No. V. On the restoration of St NicholaSy Old Shoreham^ Sussex: by John Mason Nealb, 

Esq., B.A., Downing CoUege^ Chairman of Committees. 

No. VI. On St ApctUne^s Chapel^ Guernsey: by William Collinos Lukis, Esq., B.A., 

TrinUy College. 

No. VII. On an eoopedMon to LiMe Oidding^ Huntingdonshire: by Gharlbs Oolson, Esq., 

B.A., Fellow of St John's College. 

No. VIII. On the Tower of St Benediefs Churchy Cambridge: by Matthew Holbbche 

Bloxam, Esq., Eugby^ Honorary Member. 

No. IX. On the Church of St Michael the Archangel^ Ouemsey : by William Gollinos 

Lukis, Esq., B.A., Trinity College. 


No. X. On the EceUiiastical Antiquities of Afyylbhire^ Ni, I. Introductory: hjf John 

Saul Howson, Esq., M.A., Trinity OoUege. 

No. XI. On the EeeUsiastieai Antiquities of Argyllshire^ No. IL Parochial Ohapels: hy 

the same. 

• • 

No. XII. On the Ecclesiastical Antiqitities of Argyllshire, No. III. Cathedral Churches: by 

the same. 

No. XIII. On Foliated Wooden Boo/s: by Philip Freeman, Esq., M.A., Fellow and 

Tutor of S. Peter's College. 

No. XIV. On the Original Cappings of Norman Towers; 2y Edward John Carlos, Esq., 

London^ Honorary Member. 


No. XV. On the Church of S. Mary, Astburtfy Cheshire: by the Rev. Philip 

Freeman, M.A., Fellow and Thitor of S. Peter's College, 

No. XVI. On the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Argyllshire. No, IV. Religious 

Houses: by the Rev. John S. Howson, M.A., Trinity College. 

No. XVII. On the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Argyllshire. No. V. Stone Crosses: 

by the same. 

No. XVni. On the Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Argyllshire. No. VI. Sepulchral 

Monuments : by the same. 

No. XIX. On Vaulting: by C. J. Ellicott, Esq., M.A., Fellow of S. John's 


No. XX. On the Adaptation of Pointed Architecture to Tropical Climates; by 

the Rev. Benjamin Webb, M.A., THnity College, Honorary 

No. XXI. On the Ecclesiology of Madeira ; by the Rev. John Mason Neale, 

M.A., Trinity College, Honorary Secretary. 

No. XXII. On the Study of Gothic Mouldings; by the Rev. Philip Freeman 

M.A., Fellow and Tutor of S. Peter's College. 


No. XXIII. On the Church of S. Mary the Virgin^ commonly called Great S. Mary^s, 

Cambridge ; by the Rev. E. Venables, M.A., Pembroke HalL 

No. XXIV. Documents from the Parish Register of 8. Mary's, Steeple Ashton, 

Wilts; communicated by the Rev. William C. Lukis, M.A., 
Trinity College. 

No. XXV. The Consecrations of S. Sampson, S. Philip, and S. Saviour, Guernsey ; 

translated and communicated by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, M.A., 
Trinity College. 


A Paper read be/ore the Cambridge Camden Society , an Saturday y November 9, 1839: by 
the Rev. John James Smith, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius 
Oollepej one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society. 

At sight of a church in ruins the spectator is moved to serious 
reflection on the perishableness of material things, the mutability of the 
condition of men ; or he is grieved at the thought that the ruin of out- 
ward ** delectable things" has been -preceded by the extinction of that 
inward spirit which kindled the delight, and that there may be but a 
small remnant to complain in the words of the Church's prayer; "our 
holy and our beautiful house where our fathers praised thee, yea, all 
our pleasant places, are laid waste\" But the spectacle of a disused, 
closed church, and that crowded by thick-set habitations of men, is an 
anomaly so striking, that the first sudden chill on the feeling is checked 
by the impulse of wonder at what can have been the cause of this 
phenomenon. Such a sensation would justify an enquiry into the case, 
if there were nothing in the edifice attractive enough to awaken interest 
in its history. Whether these alone or more than these reasons influenced 
the writer in the present instance is immaterial ; the result of his 
researches will, he hopes, afford some gratification. 

The authorities for most of what follows are the MSS. of "Cole in the 
British Museum, and of Bowtell in the Library of Downing College. In 
these writings lie hid copious stores of information respecting the 
churches of this county; the one contains a description of all those 
in Cambridge, and a history of each parish; in the other many of the 
county churches are described and abundantly illustrated. One may be 

^ Isai. buy. 11. 


pardoned the wish that Mr Boissier's slender octavo upon the Cambridge- 
shire churches had been at the outset swelled to dimensions more worthy 
of the subject, though the fulfilment of that wish would have narrowed 
the field of our Society's exertions. 

The Parish of St Peter's is the smallest in extent out of fourteen 
which make up the town of Cambridge. It was a portion of the old 
Roman city, and '' the very soil itself hath for ages been regarded with 
some degree of yeneration by all diligent investigators of interesting 
antiquities^." R. Parker mentions many relics being found there ; '' a 
sort of gigantic bones, and Roman coins'." 

This church, which was dedicated by commission dated August S, 
1349, stands upon a hill near the Castle, and is commonly called St 
Description. Petcr's ou thc hill, or by the Castle ; also St Peter*8 ad castra or ad 
castellum, versus castrum, juxta castrum, ad castrum, juxta castellum, 
ultra pontem\ These additions cgre found in old deeds, and were 
employed to distinguish it from the other parish of St Peter, the church 
of which was after appropriated to the Hospital of St John, and, when 
the chancel which had fallen was rebuilt in 1352, was dedicated afresh 
to the Virgin, and called St Mary the Less, extra portam, or extra 
Trupipington gate, now Little St Mary's. It gave its name to the College, 
and then lost it itself. The ground was, according to Mr Essex, the site 
of a temple dedicated to Diana. The church was originally built out of 
Roman materials, of which some traces appear in the walls, and was 
consecrated to St Peter and St Paul. It ''consists of a Nave, Chance], 
and South Porch, all of which are tiled, and a handsome stone Tower 
at the West end, on which stands a neat steeple of the same materials: 
in it hangs only one Bell; and near the Belfry on the North side is the 
Font. curioiis stone Font, of great Antiquity, having Gothic Figures all round 
it, grotesque figures conjoined by extortion, and the angles thereof occu- 
pied by their faces and bodies*." On the bell are these words, **Ricardu8 
Bowler me fecit 1603." In the seventh volume of Cole, at p. 176, is a 
sketch in which the upper part of the bason is represented as cut off: 

' Bowtell MSS. 8. * See Cole, ii. 49. * Begist. Lide, fol. 26. 

* Cole MSS. ii. 41. This account bea^ date March 23, 1742. Bowtell's MS. 







it was taken® by Mr Haistwell, a Fellow of the Antiquarian Society, who 
with Messrs Gough, Tyson, and Nasmith of Bennet College^ also Fellows 
of the Antiquanan Society, visited Mr Cole at Milton, and there " held 
a Chapter of their Society." He says the representation is of "persons 
holding something like horns." This will scarcely be assented to. It is 
thus described in BowtelPs MS.: '^of a solid block of stone: 2ft. Sin. 
square: the bason 21 in. in diameter; is circular, and has a foramen to 
let off the water." The dimensions were designed of course to allow 
immersion according to the ancient practice. The shaft and the bason 
together stand 3 ft. 3^ inches in height. 

A much better and more perfect representation is in the 3d Volume of 
Bowtell's MSS., and a rude engraving of it in Lyson's Cambridgeshire, at 
p. 60. There "formerly was a S.lsle which is now demolished and ye side 
closed up. It is only a Curacy'' in ye gi/i of the Bp. ofEfy^ but antiently 
belonged to the Prioty qf BarntoeUy and is in the Deanery qf Camhridgej 
and is annexed to the vicarage qf St Giles, which stands almost opposite 
to it on the other side of the Street: ye present Curate is ye Set. Dr 
Zachary Grey, Rector of Houghton Conquest in Bedfordfshire, who offici- 
ates in ye morning at one of these Churches, and in the afternoon only 
prayers at ye other ; and so by turns. The AUar is neither railed in nor 
on any Ascent; nor are there any Inscriptions either in ye Chancel or Nave, 
tho' a great many Stones for both. The Nave is separated from ye Chancel 
by a Screen on which are the Arms of iT. James IP. ye Pulpit stands under 
ye Screen against the S. WaU; and opposite to it in the N. Wall is a 
pr of Stone Stairs up to the Rood Lqft; but yie Hole above is stop'd up 
close by ye Screen. In ye middle of ye Ntive of ye Church lies an old 

hlewish marble which has the Figuris of a (man in a gown)^ on it, with a 
string qf Beads, on one side of him and 3 of ye 4 evangelists at each 
corner in brass, but ye Inscription at his feet is gone. At ye Head 
of this is another marble which had also Brasses for ye Cup and Wttfer 

• Jime 24, 1772. 

7 In Ecton's Thesaur. p. 101, ed. 1768, the value is given at £9, and as "not in 
chafge.''^ The woids printed in italics aie underlined in ColeV MS. 

^ The word " Priest **" is carefully erased, and the words in the text added. Blomfield 
says, "in armour^: he surveyed the Chuich in 1724. 



and Inscription under them which is disrobed. There is no painted Glass 
of any sort in the windows. In ye Churchyard are 2 Altar monuments^ one 
near the Buttress about ye middle of ye Church on ye S. side has this 
Inscription on ye top 

Here lieth ye Body of Peter Betson late Alderman of this 7W», who departed 

this Life Sept. 1709, aged 68 years. 

At ye foot stone is this further Inscription, but ye bottom part buried 
too far under ground to come at it: 

Here lieth the Body of Mary Betson who was buried ye 5th of January. 

On a handsome Freestone AUar Tomb at ye S. Corner of ye Chancel 

are these Arms at Top^ viz. a chevron ermine inter 3 Escallops for 
^Townsend ; under them is this Inscription : 

Here lyeth interred ye Body of Thomas Townsend who departed this life ye 11 of 
February^ 1714, in ye 37 year of his age, in hope of a joyfiill Resurrection. 

Here lyeth ye Body of Edward Townsend who departed this life Dec. 28, 1733, 
aged 53 years. 

Blomfield gives two rather quaint specimens from the collection of 
epitaphs in the churchyard. One is on a head stone : 

In memory of Henry Aymes, who died 17 Sept., 1713, aged 54. 

Weep not, my friends, alas ! for why ! 4^ 

All flesh, you see, is bom to die. ^ 

There is also a stone now^ in fragments, which was found about six feet 
below the chancel floor, bearing this inscription in antique letters. 

Hie jacet Johannes de Gantabrig., obiit VI 

die Maii, Anno ab Incamatione Dei 


^^ On ye S. WaU of ye Chancel between ye two windows is a good and 
neat mural monument of Stone, with these Arms at top, yiz. G. a Saracen's 

^ Cole conjectures him to have been a butler of Magdalene CoUege, who kept a 
large grocer'^s shop opposite to it. 

*® The account is continued from Vol. vii. p. 176. Oct. 20, 1745. 



Head erased at ye neck ^ in Fronts with a Wreath dbt his Head. A, ^ S. 
ye head ppr for Wynne ; on the Table is this Inscription : 

H. S« £• 
Bobertus Wynne 
CoU^ Magd. Ahmnus 
FUius Boberii Wynne 
de Dyffnn Aled 
in Gomitatu Den- 
bigh Armigeri. 
Obiit 13 JuUi 
Anno Domini 1745. 
iEtatis 19. 

On a handsome Freestone underneath in ye Middle Isle^^^ between ye Pews 
on each side^ and about 11 or 12 feet fr the E. Wall is this wrote : 

Bobertus Wynne 
Filius Boberii Wynne 

de Dyflfrin Aled 
in Gomitatu Denbigh. 

Also now on the east wall a mural monument to 

Thos, Smith, Esq., Alderman and Mayor 

in 1733 . . 1754 : 
he died 1759. 

In 1760 "the roof was entirely dropt in, and the windows demolished";" 
> ^h^?^^ a^d i^ 1772 Cole writes, "This Church" (disused in 1749) "is now a 

Ruin, with no roof or piece of glass about it, and has been suffered to 

^ lye thus these 15 or 16 years.^' There is in Bowtell's MS. a strong com- 

\ ment on the neglect which suffered this building to go into ruin, and 

i the writer justly reproaches the want of spirit in this r^ned nation and 

the supineness of Church governours in that generation which allowed such 

sights as this to be exhibited. Censure of this kind is common^ in 

Cole's MSS., and there is far too much ground for it even in the 

Dwttgnofre. prescut day. "There is talk," he continues, "of a Brief for it and a 

" Now in the Church; 1889. 
»« Cole, vii. 176, 


design to repair or rebuild it: as also to pull down St Giles' just oppo- 
site to it and to consolidate or unite them." The Brief was obtained 
and read in Milton Church in 1773. 

In February 1780, two Graces were proposed in the Senate House, 
one to give £50 towards rebuilding this dilapidated church, the other to 
lend £500 to support the navigation of the river Cam; the last was 
granted, the former thrown out, " by those who probably would have 
voted £50 to build a conventicle." It is stated further that there was a 
report of an intention to pull down the walls of this church and appro- 
priate the materials to the repair of the back-road up the Castle Hill, 
"for that Mr Whisson of Trinity and a person of St John's College 
were vehement against the grant of £50." By this opposition the worthy 
design was defeated^ and the liberal intentions of several persons dis- 
appointed. Amongst these is most worthy of commendation the handsome 
conduct of the architect, Mr J. Essex, who relinquished the usual profit 
on the transaction: and the considerate forethought of the patron, 
who had reserved from the sale of effects at the ancient Ely Palace in 
Holbom '' the elegant pulpit and Altar piece," with the express purpose 
of placing them in the restored church. The bishop, though nothing 
further was done, insisted oil the repair of the tower and steeple. The 
old weathercock '^ bearing the letters A. P, remains in the church, 
dethroned from its proper eminence. 

Another note adds that the plan of rebuilding was agitated in October, 
1780, and again defeated; and assigns as a cause, a lamentable one 
enough, that "the incmnbent (it was supposed) threw cold water on it, 
expecting double duty and no advance of salary." 
5h?n7cSSut. I* ^^ however "rebuilt with the surplusage of a scanty brief, on 
a very diminutive scale, so that, if it may be called a church, it is at 
this time one of the smallest in the kingdom, being only 41 ft. 4 in., 
including the steeple." St Lawrence's in the Isle of Wight, which is 
only 20 ft. by 12 ft., and Buttermere church in Cumberland, may both 
contest with it this pre-eminence. The rebuilding was effected by 
petition of the vicar and churchwardens, made to the patron, the 

'^ Of which see an anecdote, Cambridge Portfolio, p. 338. 




bishop, with the view of its serving for a vestry room ' and other uses\ 
and executed in 1781, not so much with a view to restore the church, 
as to commemorate the site. 

There was a Grild, under the patronage of the two Saints to whom the 
church is dedicated, in Cambridge; the statutes of which are transcribed 
in Baker's MSS. Vol. xxv. p. 366, and BowtelPs MSS. VoL iii. p. 757. 

The Register of this church commences at the year 1586; the begin- 
ning is a specimen of handwriting for its elegance worthy of a public 
document: the state of decay into which exposure to damp and rude 
handling has brought it is discreditable to the public keeping of it in 
former times. Extracts are exhibited in Cole, Vol. xii. 74, and Hi. p. 74: 
and in Bowtell's MSS. iii. 753. In the latter is a list of officiating curates 
from a rather early date to the period of its union with St Giles. 





William Buston. 


Adam Siddell. 


Edward Scarlet. 


Wm. Burton. 


William Smith. 


Edward Scarlet. 


John Snell. 


Wm. Smith. 

John Heyne. 


-25 as in Bowtell's till 


Thomas Wood. 


George Watts. 


William Redgrave. 


George Henton. 


Greorge Henton. 


Edward Greene. 


Edward Greene. 


Ro. Harvey. 

Robert Paradine. 


Mr Paradine. 


Theodore Waterland. 


Theodore Waterland. 


Mr Barnard. 


Zachary Grey, LL.D., pre- 
sent Curate, 1747. 

At the present time the building is used as a vestry room, and no better 
care taken of it than when it was a church ; so much for public spirit. 
The interior is dusty and dirty, because a broom is not allowed by the 
parish authorities, and the walls seem to have begun again to crumble 

^* Between this and the next date the entries are signed by the two churchwardens 



and incline to falL The scaling off of the plaister at several places 
has disclosed the material, which consists partly of brick, apparently 
Roman. The South porch door- way is worth notice, being a double 
semicircular arch standing out from the wall, with intermediate borders 
of tripartite ornament sparingly laid on. The west window and the belfry 

arch are elegant specimens of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles 


respectively; and it may be hoped that they wiU, as well as the south 
door, be worked into the intended new building: for the lover of the 
Church and of Church architecture will be delighted to hear that the 
design, rejected by an unworthy age, is now likely to be carried into 
execution, under the influence of zeal, liberality, and good taste. A 
handsome structure in one of the more ancient styles, corresponding 
to the commanding site and its many antiquarian associations, will be 
a striking addition to the beauty of Cambridge. 


A Paper read hefore the Cambridge Camden Society^ on Saturday^ March 28, 1840 
by Matthew Holbbghb Bloxam, Esq., of Rughy^ an Honorary Member of the Society. 

d^'^tS^e*"* ^^^ various injunctions issued in the latter part of the sixteenth century 

High Aiun. £j^^ j.|^^ removal of the ancient stone Altars out of our churches were but 
partially carried into operation, and in the year 1643 such Altars and 
Tables of stone as had been suffered to remain were, by an ordinance 
of the House of Commons, ordered to be demolished; and so effectually 
was this command obeyed, that ancient stone Altars are now of very 
rare occurrence in the English churches, and I have never met with, 
or am aware of, any church in this country, in which the ancient High 
Altar still remains. 

chwitrjrAitan. ju somc iustauces however the Chantry Altars, which before the 
Reformation were very numerous, have been preserved, but those remain- 
ing are few in number. 

S^AUw.*^*^ The Altar was often, perhaps generally, but not always, constructed 
of a solid * mass of stone masonry, in one part of which, called the 
Sepulchre, relics were required to be deposited when the Altar was con- 
secrated, and on this mass of masonry was fixed a slab or table of stone, 
marked on the surface with five crosses, emblematical of the wounds of 
our Saviour ; one in the centre and one near each angle. In those Altars 
which I have personally inspected, and which I am about to describe, 
I hbve remarked this slab or table of stone to be of considerable thick- 
ness, not less than six inches. But sometimes the table or Altar was 
not sustained by a mass of masonry, but supported by brackets pro- 
jecting from the wall or by pier shafts. Both of these kind of Altars 

were immoveable, and to a certain extent built into the wall. 



Altar at Cheri- 
ton, Pembroke- 

At Benge- 



At Enstone, 


An ancient stone Altar, one I believe hitherto little known or noticed , 
is still existing in a small chantry chapel, adjoining the chancel of Cheri- 
ton church, Pembrokeshire. This Altar, as far as I can now remember, 
is rudely constructed, and composed of a mass of rough masonry, covered 
or overlaid by a large stone table or slab, and I do not think the crosses 
are visible; but it is now some years since I met with it, and I am 
describing it from recollection rather than from notes. 

At the east end of the north aisle of Bengeworth church, Evesham, 
Worcestershire, a small stone Altar still remains in a perfect state, with 
the exception of the crosses on the covering slab, which have been obli- 
terated or filled up with lime wash. This Altar is composed of a mass 
of masonry supporting a stone slab of considerable thickness, and is 
three feet four inches high. The admeasurement of the surface of the 
table or slab is three feet three inches, by one foot four inches. It is 
singularly placed at the south-eastern comer of the aisle; and close 
adjoining, in the south wall, is its accompanying piscina, ogee headed, 
with a credence shelf across it. From the cavetto or bold hollow cornice 
moulding in front of the Altar, I should conceive it to be of the fifteenth 

At the north-east corner of the south aisle of Enstone church, Oxford- 
shire, is an ancient stone Altar, consisting of a mass of roughly plastered 
masonry, sustaining a slab or table; the latter is seven feet four inches 
in length, and the height of the Altar is three feet eight inches. The 
crosses are not now visible on the slab, which appears to have suffered 
from, rude violence, and to have been purposely broken. At the back of 
this Altar is a panelled reredos, three feet in width, and two feet high, 
with small projecting brackets, one in each panel or recess, on which 
small statuary figures appear to have been formerly placed ; and over 
the reredos is a window of three lights, on either side of which is a 
canopied recess. 

The ancient Altar reredos of the fifteenth century is not uncommon; 
we meet with it however in a state more or less mutilated, and some- 
times find remains of the painting and gilding, and fragments of the 
statuary which adorned it ; but I have never yet met with any reredos, 
except that at Enstone, with the ancient Altar remaining. 


Aitmrat In the chapel of Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire, is an ancient stone 

?Yd^^^^^^' Altar, consisting- of a large slab, six feet in length, two feet two inches 

in width, and six inches in thickness, supported by three massive brackets 

or corbels worked into and projecting from the wall. 

At WMminp- On the north side of the chancel of Warmington church, Warwick- 
ton, Warwick- ^ 

Bhire. shire, is a chantry chapel, access to which is obtained through an ogee 

headed doorway in the north wall of the chancel down a descent of 
three steps. Projecting from the east wall of this chapel and under a 
window is an ancient Altar, consisting of a slab of stone six feet in 
length, in front, and six inches thick, the under edge being worked into 
a cavetto or hollow moulding. Three of the five crosses are still 
plainly visible on the horizontal surface of the slab, and it is supported 
by three plainly moulded brackets projecting from the wall. Near to it 
in the east wall is a piscina. Over this chantry chapel was a chamber, 
intended, as I imagine, for the residence of the Chantry Priest, and 
access was had to it by means of a flight of stone steps at the south- 
west angle of the chapel ; but the roof of the chapel and flooring of this 
chamber have been removed. In the west wall of the chamber is a fire- 
place, in the north-west angle a closet, and in the south wall a small 
pointed window of decorated character, by means of which the chancel 
and High Altar could be overlooked'. 

Nortoj^Sx? A chantry chapel with a chamber over it, exhibiting in its general 
features an arrangement similar to that at Warmington church, but of 
somewhat later date, exists on the north side of the chancel of Chipping 
Norton church, Oxfordshire. The entrance to this chapel, which Is now 
used as a vestry, is through a square headed doorway in the north wall 
of the chancel. Partly built into and projecting from the east wall of 
this chantry is a table of stone, the ancient Altar, formerly supported 
in front on two angular shafts, one only of which now remains. This 
Altar table is six feet ten inches in length, two feet six inches wide, 
and three feet two inches high; the thickness of the slab is six inches. 
On the surface of this Altar three of the five crosses are plainly visible ; 

^ An altar, very similar in construction to that at Warmington has been lately 
removed in the church of Shottswell, a very short distance from Warmington, and in the 
same county. 

2 — 2 



and projecting from the east wall, a little to the north of the Altar, is 
a fine and boldly sculptured bracket, representing the head of a bearded 
man ; which, I apprehend, was designed as a stand for a lamp ; and in 
the wall near the south-east comer of the chantry chapel is a rich ogee 
headed piscina, the head of which is- foliated, and the canopy crocketted. 
In the west wall of this chapel is a flight of stone steps leading to the 
chamber above, through apertures in the walls of which both the chancel 
and north aisle of the church could be watched. I have met with other 
churches in which are chambers apparently for the accommodation of a 

utcof Panriac. Chautry Pricst, and the parvise or room over the porch was probably 
often used for a like purpose. 

wSiock^"** In the Abbat's house at Wenlock, Salop, an interesting specimen of 

®*^®P- domestic architecture of the fifteenth century or earlier, a very perfect 

stone altar still exists in a room which appears to have been formerly 
fitted up as the Abbat's oratory or private chapel. The front of this 
altar is covered with arched trefoil headed panels, on which vestiges of 
painting are still discernible ; it is elev&ted on two steps, and is placed 
within an arched recess obtusely pointed, the soffit and sides of which 
recess are panelled; and at the back of this altar is a window of two 
lights, with a four centred arch. The size of the altar table is six feet 
two inches, by two feet nine inches ; the thickness of the slab is seven 
and a half inches; and the height from the raised pavement on which 
the altar stands to the slab or table with which it is covered or finished 
is two feet ten inches. This is the finest specimen of a stone altar I 
have hitherto seen. 

In the curious and very early Anglo-Saxon crypt beneath the chancel 

At ReotoD, of Repton church, Derbyshire, some portion of the mass of masonry is 
still left which once formed the altar at the east end ; and this, if coeval 
with the structure which incloses it, and there is nothing to indicate it 
as of later date, exhibits vestiges of perhaps the most ancient Christian 
Altar in the kingdom. 

^•* ■°?^^- The Piscina or Lavacrum is commonly the only visible indication of 

quity of Pisci- •' •' 

°'^* the former locality of an Altar. The introduction of the piscina into our 

churches was gradual, and Durandus is the earliest writer I know of 
who alludes to it. We find very few Norman piscinae, I mean such as 


are coeval with the twelfth century. Two however occur in the Norman 
conventual church of Romsey, Hampshire ; the one broken and lying with 
its perforated shaft in the choir» the other, without any fenestella or niche, 
projecting from the south wall of an apsidal chapel. I have however 
met with piscinsB of the thirteenth century, after-insertions in the walls 
of churches of Norman construction. This latter fact, I think, tends to 
prove that piscinae did not generally prevail as appendages to Altars 
earlier than the thirteenth century : used as they were for a double 
purpose, namely, for the reception of the water after the ablution of 
hands at the sacrament, a rite of earliest antiquity in the Church, and, 
secondly, for the water with which the chalice was rinsed after the 
communion, and also for the sacramental elements themselves in case 
they had become by any means defiled, the design of the double piscina 
we so frequently meet with is explained. In one instance only, namely 
in Rothwell church, Northamptonshire, I have met with a triple piscina, 
the three water drains being placed in a row. The use of the third 
bason I am at a loss to explain. 


iper read before the Cambridge Camden Society j an Saturday^ M 
by Benjamin Webb, Esq., Trinity CoUege^ Honorary Secretary. 

^^J^n'U^f"* Perhaps no event was ever more destructive to the objects of anti- 
quarian study in general, than the Great Fire of London; in which of 
Ecclesiastical buildings alone no fewer than eighty seven parish churches 
besides the cathedral church of St Paul were totally destroyed. It is 
true that pious and diligent men had minutely described much in these 
that was curious, and that the labours of Dugdale and Stow have left 
us less reason for regret: but the few churches which escaped the general 
ruin are so rich in monumental antiquities, and so good (as might have 
been expected) in Architectural details, that we seem only able to esti- 
mate our loss by contrasting these with the showy heartlessness (if I 
may be allowed the expression) and general faulty arrangement which 
their modern Wrennian neighbours present. 

Churches The visitor will indeed be sad when he turns to such buildings as 

which sunrived " 

thcFJre. these from the majestic grandeur of the White Chapel or St Bartholo- 
mew's the Great, the solemtaity of the Temple Church, the graceful 
elegance and dignity of the chapel of St Etheldreda, or the stately 
proportions of the now desecrated chapel of the Austin Friars : and will 
wonder that men who were too ignorant to emulate should have been 
too proud to imitate the masterpieces of a more skilful age. 

Rebuilding of Thcrc is howcvcr in the plan upon which London was rebuilt yet 
another subject of regret to members of our Society : who combine 
with the feelings of an antiquary or architect that love for the consti- 
tution of the Church, and for the full development of her parochial 
system, which becomes a churchman: and who will see in the custom 



which then obtained of uniting two or more parishes together, and 
assigning only one church to each such union, a niggardly parsimony 
very different from the spirit which had led pious men of old to plant 
so thickly the houses of God. Yet, even then, the cemeteries of the 
dead were respected : and a quiet churchyard in the heart of London 
still marks the site of every lost church. It has remained for our days 
to see churches sacrificed without hesitation, almost without an effort to 
save them, to imaginary schemes of public improvement or private gain. 
ittSJSii^Sf Wit'^^^ ^ very few years the three churches of St Katherine by the 
Tower, of St Michael, Crooked Lane, and of St Christopher le Stock, 
have been utterly removed. St Clement's, Eastcheap, would have suffered 
the same fate, had not some opposition been offered: but this happily 
was effectual, and the church still stands, offering no impediment to the 
'* improvements" for which it had been destined to. make way. Alas! 
for the faithless and degenerate age, which would destroy holy houses 
of God in order to build in their stead temples of Mammon, which 
would violate the sleeping dust of the dead to make broad streets or 
handsome thoroughfares for the living! And what limit may we assign 
to the present progress of destruction? While I now write, the sentence 
has gone forth for the entire demolition of St Bartholomew's church by 
the Exchange, and for the mutilation of the neighbouring St Benedict's. 
In this latter case the ruin of the body must almost necessarily follow 
that of the tower, which alone is now condemned \ Nor do the destroyers 
confine themselves to the temples of the Church. The chapel, built on 
the site of the ancient hospital of St Anthony, which the French pro- 
testant congregation have been allowed to occupy ever since the time of 
King Edward the Sixth, is already threatened; and fears are entertained, 
seemingly not without reason, for the safety of St Mildred's in the 

^ Since the above paper was written, (April, 1840) many of the anticipations therein 
expressed have been realised. St Benedict's is to be entirely destroyed ; as also the French 
place of worship. Surely there were many out of the thousands who witnessed the sight, at 
once so novel and painful, of two churches within a stone's throw of each other at the same 
time in course of violent and wanton destruction, whose hearts sunk within them, as if they 
had lost some dear thing, and who could but pray that the guilt of sacrilege might not as 
heretofore be followed by its punishment. 


Poultry, and of St Martin Outwich. The fact of these buildings having 
been solemnly consecrated to God should have been enough for a reverent 
mind in our own days ; would have been more than enough for our holier 
forefathers. But now even that mysterious dread which attaches to the 
Surch*«^i"^ dead and their quiet graves seems to have lost its influence. For would 
you know what treatment in these demolished churches befalls the ashes 
committed, as was fondly but vainly hoped, to their final resting place? 
Some few, claimed by friends or children, who are either rich enough, or 
who have not learnt to forget the dead and the love which once they 
bore them, are removed elsewhere : but the bones of the poor and the 
forgotten are ejected, are sold, are burnt, are scattered as manure! 

Quis talia fando 
Temperet a lacrymis! 

These remarks may not appear out of place when addressed to a society, 
which may be expected soon to possess such influence as to be able in 
some cases at least to check, perhaps to prevent, similar abuses. Had we 
been in existence, and in even our present position, it is not unreasonable 
to hope that a well timed interference and remonstrance on our part, 
coupled with some pecuniary grant, would have prevented that disgrace 
St Mary to our agc, thc destructiou of the nave of St Mary Overy. In vain did 
a few energetic and generous antiquaries then strive to avert the evil by 
their own exertions, and by calls on those of others. But the same 
persons had succeeded shortly before in raising funds to restore the Ladye 
Chapel, and one contribution seemed more than enough to those to whom 
they applied. So they failed, and the worse than Puritan destroyers 
commenced their task. It may encourage and animate you as much as 
it did myself to hear that one of the gentlemen referred to, (a member 
of the Committee for the preservation of St Saviour's), has hailed the 
formation of the Cambridge Camden Society as the dawn of brighter 
prospects, and augured good from our limited attention to Ecclesiastical 
Architecture and Antiquities, and from the strength which -union gives us. 

i^'^SYISdon' ®^*» ^^8P°S your indulgence for these introductory remarks, I will 
come to my more immediate object; to give some account of the Crypts 
which remain in London. Their situation in not a few cases preserved 
them from the ravages of the flames, and they have often served for 


^cir present t^g foundations of more recent structures. Unfortunately the purposes to 
which they are now applied, are base and sacrilegious; most frequently 
they are in the possession of private persons, and are used for the recep- 
tion of merchandise. Hence, besides the impropriety of such use, access 
to them is with difficulty obtained, and when obtained, disagreeable. 
This abuse however is not peculiar to modem times. A writer shortly 
after the reformation, among numerous distressing instances of disrespect 
shown to old St Paul's, says : 

"We find that a way hath been cutt through the wall of St Panic's 
church into an auncyent vault belonginge to the said church, which 
containeth in breadth twelve foote, and in length fifty foote. This 
vaulte wee conceive was aunciently employed for buryall of the deade, 
but is now used for a wine cellar." 

The*shrowdeii' While WO are speaking of the undercroft of St Paul's, or as it 

of old St r o 

Paul's. ^j^g called, " the shrowdes," it will not be irrelevant to our present 

paper to observe that Wren left no part of the old structure remaining, 
even in the foundations; although the commissioners strongly wished 
these to be preserved. So fearful had been the violence of the flames, 
that it was found to be impossible. The falling piers had in many 
cases even broken through into the subterranean church of St Faith. 

ler^stpT" ^^^ situation of this church gave point to many a saying in that age 
of smart things ; and every opportunity of noticing it seems to have been 
eagerly embraced. This may be seen in most of those strange versified 
effusions, both Latin and English, which the Great Fire called forth. To 
quote one passage from the '' Short and serious narrative of London's 
Fatal Fire, &c. 1667:" 

^' At length a horrid general blaze appears, 
With eager course onwards towards Paulas it steers; 
And there it rallyM all its force and power, 
And with extended jaws gapM to devour 
At once that stately Temple, which did stand 
So firmly propt by Faith^s supporting hand.'^ 

Birfiop Corbet, In 1620 Bishop Corbet had said of St Paul's Cathedral in his own 

his sajring. * 

quaint style, when pleading for money to carry on the restoration under 

Bishop Laud : 

'' St Faith keeps her up, I confess. Oh that works were sainted to keep her upright.'*^ 


In 1666, St Faith failed too. 

But if St Faith kept up St PauFB, St Paul's was not behind in return- 
ing the favour. For what says the proverb of the former church ? 

" This church needs no repair at all, 
For Faith's defended by St Paul.'' 

It is painful to read over the minutes of the proceedings after the fire. 
At one time we read of ''twelve pillars of St Faith being beaten down 
by a battering ram headed with an iron triangle ; *' at another we 
see items of monies paid for destroying the beautiful rose window at the 
east end of the choir, or for blasting the bases of piers. 

The present ''Ecclesia S. Fidis in Cryptis" therefore is not, as has been 
sometimes asserted, ancient. It is merely the east end of the north aisle of 
the later undercroft. The old St Faith's is said to have had three rows 
of massy clustered pillars and a vaulted roof. It had also chantries and 
monuments; and at its east end Edward de Lacie, Earl of Lincoln, 
(1312) built chapels of ''our Lady and St Dunstan." But to this subject 
we may have occasion to recur. 
cryptoremahi. Of the Crypts which escaped the flames in the Great Fire many 

ing in Jjondon* 

have since been destroyed, and many more probably lost sight of. The 
following are perhaps the most interesting of such as remain: 

One beneath the chapel of St James on the Wall. 
One beneath St Mary le Bow church. 
One in Aldgate, beneath a private house. 
One in Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street. 
One beneath the chapel of St Etheldreda. 
And one beneath Gerard's Hall, Basing Lane. 

This last I shall in the present paper briefly describe. 

The only notice which Stow gives of this Crypt is as follows : 
The Crypt at ** Qu the south sidc of this lane is one great house, of old time builded 

Genrd'i Hall. 

upon arched vaults of stone, with arched gates, brought from Caen in 
Normandy. The same is now a common ostrey for the receipt of 
travellers, commonly and corruptly called Gerard *s Hall, of a giant said 
to have dwelt there." He then gives an amusing account of this fancied 



Family of 


giant, who was twenty-eight feet high, and whose pole ^'lacked half a 
foot of forty in length, and was fifteen inches in compass." This pole 
and a ladder wherewith to reach the top of it were long preserved. 

John Gisors, Mayor of London in 1245, was owner and probably builder 
of this mansion; among his successors are mentioned Sir John Gisors, 
Knight, Mayor of London and Constable of the Tower, 1311 ; and William 
Gisors, who served the office of SheriflT in 1339. It remained in the 
same family till John Gisors made a feofment thereof in 1386. It is then 
called in the deed, ^^the messuage of Gisors' Hall." This has become 
corrupted into Gerard's Hall. In our university is another curious 
instance of the changes which names undergo. The site of the ancient 
Gerard's Hostel is now marked by the bridge vulgarly called Garret 
Hostel Bridge. The corruption of language can be influenced by no 
fixed rules, or else the Londoners, having already changed Gisors into 
Gerard, would have followed the example of their Cambridge brethren, 
and changed Gerard into Garret. 

The only portion of this mansion of the Gisors now remaining is the 
Crypt, over which probably stood the great hall. This, though not itself 
ecclesiastical, yet serves very well to illustrate the undercrofts of churches, 
since it resembles them minutely in fashion and arrangement. 

It is divided into two aisles, running from north to south; between 
them are four Early English circular bearing shafts, from which spring 
the several ribs. Hence there are ten vaulting compartments; the area 
of each of which is nine feet four inches, by eight feet nine inches. 
The vaulting is sexpartite, and in excellent preservation. On the east 
and west sides, corresponding with the detached shafts in the centre, are 
respectively four half-shafts, much smaller than the former in diameter. 
Hence a tradition which is preserved, that formerly the Crypt extended 
a considerable distance to the east, seems to be groundless. On the west 
a door has been cut through to some modern cellars, in which we are 
enabled to see the thickness of the original wall. It is four feet three 
inches : so that the Crypt could not have extended further in this direction. 

To return to the bearing shafts. The circumference of these is about 
three feet two inches, and the height of their capitals, from the present 
floor, is four and a half feet. My guide assured me that the bases of 



the columns were twenty feet below the present level. This of course 
was impossible ; and, soon after my lantern discovered in the north-west 
corner a descent of a few steps to a small iron door, opening into an 
apartment walled off from the rest, which I will shortly describe. These 
steps revealed the base of one of the piers, just fifteen inches below 
the present surface. The whole height therefore of each pier may be 
taken as seven and a half feet, capital and base being included. The 
shaft alone measures only five feet nine inches. 

mTm^to*^^' The small chamber to which I just alluded seems contemporary with 

^^^^ the Crypt, and the iron door bears every mark of age. I can only con- 

jecture that it must have been used for a dungeon. There is a tradition 
that a Duke of Lancaster was confined here for a night, and next day 
removed to the Tower. The dimensions are very small, and the roof 
low. The form of the roof is that of half a waggon vault, and some 
parallel ribs rise from the spring of the arch on the south, and are 
abruptly, with the vault itself, cut short by the north wall of the whole 

At the north end of the eastern aisle is a small window with a Tudor 
arch. This, the top of which must have opened into Basing Lane, is now 
blocked, and seems to have been so for many years. 

The whole Crypt, now used for the wine-cellar of the Gerard's Hall 
Tavern, is divided into three unequal compartments by rough wooden 
partitions ; so that the effect of this beautiful specimen, viewed as a 
whole, is entirely lost. 

origittof There seems little reason to doubt that, as in the present instance 

the object of this vaulted apartment was to make the hall above it 
more dry, so in churches the Crypt served a similar purpose. Crypts 
seldom are found to extend, I believe, further than the choir of a 
cathedral, or the chancel of a church. Of course, the. greater part of 
the service being performed in the chancel, it was important to make it 
as free from damp as possible. Hythe Church, in Kent, may be cited 
as an example of the elevation of the chancel, over a Crypt, several feet 
above the surface of the ground. 

wJSSiffS*^* Though however such may have been the original object of Crypts, 
yet undoubtedly many, if not all of them, were used for divine service. 

pKBrfonned in 


as well as sepulture, for which latter purpose they were eminently 

I mentioned above several chantries which were founded in the 
Crypt of St Paul's; in these of course service was performed. Till 
within a very few years the Crypt at Canterbury was used as a place of 
worship for the French Protestant congregation, founded there by King 
Edward YI. Again in Rochester Crypt, the piscinae at the east ends of 
the central and side aisles shew plainly that the Mass used to be there 
celebrated; whether regularly or only occasionally we cannot say. 
iraS'ofwk- ^" ^^ t^® instances of Crypts which remain the visitor cannot but 
"™*° ^' be struck with their architectural propriety and beauty. Thie gloomy 
darkness which reigns in them seems not to have served as a pretext 
for less attention to details, only to be examined by artificial light; or 
for neglect of the rules of proportion and elegance, never perhaps to be 
appreciated, till the ruin of the incumbent edifice shall have exposed 
its subterranean foundation to the light of day. 

Let us look at their vaulted roofs. The ribs are mighty, to support 
the huge weight above them; but not the less finished and complicated. 
The piers are massy, but their capitals stand in relief with characteristic 
mouldings, and their bases are exquisitely sculptured according to the 
justest rules of art. 
^g^mi^^' Such were the temples which our ancestors builded to the honour of 
^' their God: elaborate, faultless, beautiful. It is painful to contrast them 
with the churches of our own time : in which vileness of taste, contempt 
of acknowledged rules of architecture, the extremest parsimony, and the 
greatest expedition in building, combine to form structures, which for the 
few years they will last, will be mere deformities, instead of studies 
of art and models of beauty. Indeed our fathers seem to have expended 
more money, more labour, more taste, in building a dismal Crypt, than 
do we in ^' running up *' (as the phrase goes) a whole church. 


No. II. A Paper read he/ore the Cambridge Camden Soeiety^ an Satwrday^ November 7, 1840 

2y Benjamin Webb, Esq., Triniiy College^ Honorary Secretary. 

In a former paper, which was the first of a series on the Crypts still 
remaining in London, some remarks were offered on the probable origin 
(h^ and use and use of ecclesiastical undercrofts: the necessity namely, for obtain- 
ing the greatest possible dryness for the raised chancel, where the chief 
part of diyine service was performed ; and the obvious adaptation of the 
vaulted chamber thus obtained for the purpose of sepulture. The occur- 
rence of piscinae and other altar appurtenances confirms the historical 
statement that chantries were sometimes founded in Crypts: but it is 
also likely that besides these private offices public worship was some- 
times celebrated in those dim and solemn aisles, which, to one at all 
conversant with the symbolical spirit of ecclesiastical antiquity, will not 
unaptly shadow forth the penitential gloom of the Lenten season, or it 
may be gently lead him to meditate on the sorrows, the dens and caverns, 
of the persecuted early Church. 
jM?w*onLon ^ shall proccod at once to give some account of a small but inter- 
don Wall, esting Crypt beneath the chapel of St James on London Wall : one not 
generally accessible, and from its simplicity of arrangement affording a 
convenient subject of comparison with two specimens of domestic under- 
crofts, which I shall afterwards describe. 
TheHcnnitagc Closc to the ouly remaining bastion of London Wall, in the church- 
yard of St Giles Cripplegate, was built on the wall itself the Hermitage 
of St James. The date of the original foundation seems uncertain but 
we find that the cell was at one time in charge of the Lord Mayor, 
from whose hands it passed into those of the constable of the Tower. 


In 1299 (27 Edw. I.) it fell to the Abbey of Gerendon, in Leicestershire, 
which body in 1347 sent two chaplains to pray for the souls of Aumere 
de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, and the Lady Mary his wife, thus con- 
stituting it a chantry chapel. Other accounts say that' King Henry III. 
founded the chantry chapel. However, in 1543, at the dissolution, it was 
^[^1^ given to William Lambe, a clothworker of London, and a member of 
the king's choir. This good and charitable man, besides many other 
public benefactions, founded the noble alms houses called Lambe's Col- 
lege, and gave the old Hermitage on the Wall for the chapel of his 
foundation. A few years ago the college as well as the chapel was 
rebuilt by the Clothworkers' Company, the trustees of the charity : and 
we have reason to regret that the architect has thought it necessary to 
destroy the symmetry of the old Crypt by a massy brick substruction 
to the new chapel above. 

I may here perhaps be allowed to interrupt these drier details by 
quoting the latter lines of the epitaph which marked the monument of 
Lambe in the shrowdes of old St Paul's ; lines of much beauty and piety, 
and curious as showing how the older prayer for a Pater Noster,— 

For Jesu^s love, pray for me : I may not pray now ; pray ye 
With a Pater Noster and Ave, that our paynys released may be,*— 

became modified after the reformation. 

Lttnbe*s «« O Lombe of Gh)d, which sinne didst take away, 

epitaph. ' •'' 

And as a Lambe wast offered up for sinne: 
Where I, poor Lambe^ went firom Thy flock astray, 
Yet thou, good Lord, vouchsafe Thy Lamhe to winne 
Home to Thy fold, and holde Thy Lambe therein: 
That at the day when goats and Lamhee shall sever, 
Of Thy choice Lamhee^ Lambe may be one for ever. 
I pray you all, that receive bread and pence, 
To say the Lord's Prayer before ye go hence.'" 

Dwcription of The form of this Crypt below the chapel on the wall is an oblong, 
the greater side running from east to west. *The length from east to 
west is 26 feet; the breadth from north to south is 20 feet. This area 
is divided into four similar vaulting compartments by a bearing shaft 
in the center, from which spring four circular arches at right angles 
to the respective sides, in the middle of which they are received by 


corresponding half-vaulting shafts. From the same central pier are thrown 
four diagonal ribs resting on four nook shafts at the angles of the Crypt. 
Of these nine shafts however only six now remain ; the north and north 
west having disappeared, and the central one being concealed by the above 
mentioned mass of brickwork. The vaulting is of the ordinary Norman 
character, and the ribs are all plain, square, and heavy, excepting the 
diagonal rib from north east to south west of the north east vaulting 
compartment, which is ornamented on both sides with a double chevron 
moulding up to its intersection with the other diagonal on the north side ; 
and the longitudinal rib from the west half shaft, which is decorated 
half way in the same manner. Under the abaci the capitals are square 
at the top, diminishing so as to become circular, just above a band at 
the top of the shaft. The shaft is circular, and only about one foot 
and a half high. The base is also circular. The square parts of the 
capitals are ornamented in panel, and the sloping part with stiff flowers, 
and in the north east one with a sort of volute. The entrance is by a 
door to the north west, which is reached by a descent of ten or twelve 
steps. And we may here observe that stairs, as we have them now, in 
the interior of buildings, are by no means so uncommon in very early 
architecture as has sometimes been imagined. Indeed the winding stair- 
case, instead of being the ordinary plan, was perhaps never used but 
when required for strength, or made necessary by want of space. In the 
west side of the south west compartment is a shallow arched recess; its 
probable use I cannot tell. Several modem lights have been inserted 
under the spring of the arches. The stone of which the Crypt is built, 
seems to be a sort of reddish freestone. 
Sr'uS^uth ^^ almost exactly the same dimensions as the Crypt we have just 
described, was one which perished with many other deeply interesting 
remains during the constructing of the approaches from the Southwark 
side to New London Bridge \ This, which measured twenty seven feet 
ten inches from east to west, by twenty one feet ten inches from north 
to south, was most probably the sub-hall of some hostelry. It was 
divided into four compartments by a bearing shaft, singularly massy, and 

* See an interesting account of this Crypt, by a member of our Society, in the Gentle- 
mane's Magazine for October, 1832, from which these particulars are taken. 



remarkable for having its capital scarcely, if any, larger than the shaft. 
The transverse ribs were square and broad; the diagonal groins were left 
without any ornament whatever. The arches rested on broad pilasters 
in the exterior wall, having only a square abacus, with the lower 
edge bevilled off. The longitudinal arches were segmental, the trans- 
verse stilted. 

r2]^^^L1^ The use of such an apartment in English domestic buildings would 
seem to have been derived from an imitation of the Cavaedium of the 
Romans, an entrance-hall, sustained generally on four pillars. Mr Lysons, 
in his *' Account of Roman Antiquities discovered at Woodchester," re- 
ferring to such an apartment says, ^^This room was no doubt the cavae- 
dium tetrastylon of Vitruvius. It is probable that part of the roof was 
formed by diagonal vaultings, resting on the four columns." As the 
Anglo-Saxon style in ecclesiastical architecture, and, after a progressive 
modification, the Norman would seem to have been produced by a rude 
imitation of existing Roman remains, so perhaps the same process took 
place in domestic architecture. Nor it may be should we be far wrong 
if we looked for the origin of the Crypt of the church in the sumptuous 
entrance-hall of the mansion. But to proceed with our examination of 
the cavaedium. At Warnford, in Hampshire, there exists a very early 
imitation of the Roman hall : and many other vaulted domestic apart- 
ments are known, differing more or less from this supposed prototype. I 
would on this subject refer you to a paper by Mr Gage, in the Archaeo- 
logia, xxiii. 299, on the Crypt of the Hostelry of the Prior of Lewes, in 
Southwark; a building which was at no great distance from the Crypt 
now before us. While on this point I will quote a passage from his 
article, which sets forth the chief features of early domestic architecture, 
and may lead us to a more complete inspection of that very curious 

lch^^*c!mi. building, Pythagoras' School, than it has generally, though so near us, 
received. " I am struck," he says, " with the resemblance of the general 
features of this Hostelry (viz. the Lewes Hostelry) to those of the Manor 
House of Boothby Pagnell, Moyses' Hall at St Edmund's Bury, and 
Pythagoras' School at Cambridge : a building of two stories, the lower 
vaulted, without a communication with the upper; no fire-place in the 
lower ; a fire-place in the upper : an external staircase to the upper, with 



the addition of a porch to the lower chamber/' I believe the only re- 
maining instance of this ''external staircase" is that in the close at 
Canterbury, leading to what is now called the Stranger's Hall. A more 
beautiful specimen we could not have desired. 

The kindness of my friend, E. J. Carlos, Esq. one of the honorary 
members of our Society, has enabled me to lay before you some account 

gTHjl^^ Corbet of another Crypt, situated in Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street, of which 
no account has ever yet been made public. I should add that, owing 
to its being full of wine, it was with the greatest difficulty any accurate 
idea could be formed of its plan or details. The shape of this is nearly 
a square, with a sort of porch to the south east, which I will notice 
afterwards. It is divided into two aisles by two piers from north to 
south. Again each half is subdivided into three vaulting compartments, 
by cross springers from the piers to the east and west walls. This 
arrangement is very uncommon, the vaulting compartments being turned 
as it were the wrong way. The arches from pier to pier, instead of 
being the longitudinal, are in this case the transverse : while the two 
aisles have the compartments in the direction of their breadth instead of 
their length. The ribs are quite plain, and the piers were so originally : 
but these have been subjected to a very remarkable process: they have 
been, as it were, Elizabethan ized : originally oblong, they have been 
grooved and bevilled till they resemble the fantastic pilasters of the 
monuments of the seventeenth century. At the south of what we may 
call the east aisle, there is another, a fourth^ compartment, but less 
broad than the other three by about a third. This is also lower than 
the others, insomuch that the longitudinal waggon vault does not meet 
the transverse one at the crown of the arches. On comparing this apart- 
ment with one in the often described Crypt discovered at St Saviour's, 
Southwark, it would appear that it must have been intended for either 
a porch to the exterior, or a staircase to the upper rooms of the building. 
The present entrance to this Crypt is by a modem passage cut through 
the south wall of this additional compartment, and of a higher level 

wdi near this than the floor of the Crypt. A little way from the south of the Crypt 
is a well, probably coeval with it. It seems to have been originally 
a dipping well, as the old coping is yet to be seen, at some distance 



below the present brim. It is now carried up higher and furnished 
with a pump which is in an adjacent court. I have not been able to 
identify it with any of the famous wells of London : but though less 
celebrated than St Bride's well, the well of St Agnes, or the Clerk's 
well, it probably might boast of greater antiquity. Whether this Crypt 
was ecclesiastical or domestic seems uncertain. In the absence of all 
positive testimony I should conceive that the singularity of its arrange- 
ment, the presence of the porch or additional chamber, and the prox- 
imity of the well, were arguments in favour of the latter supposition, 
cry^^tou- ^^ * conversation which was originated by my former paper mention 
was made among others of a Crypt at St Mary de Crypt, Gloucester. 
The following details, therefore, taken from a hasty view, may be not 
uninteresting. The length of the Crypt, which contrary to the usual 
arrangement is under the nave of the church, is in length from east to 
west forty-two feet, in breadth twenty-five feet. The height to the top 
of the vaulting is six feet two inches. It is divided into two aisles by 
two square Norman piers, two feet ten inches by three feet, and two half 
piers. The vaulting is remarkable, there being neither longitudinal nor 
transverse ribs: each aisle has a long waggon vault intersected by three 
similar vaults, and so the diagonals to' each compartment are formed. 

I hope on a future occasion to be able to lay before the Society some 
account of the Crypt beneath the chapel of St Etheldreda, Ely Place. 
The singular beauty of the chapel itself recommends it most strongly to 
our early notice as a specimen of Ecclesiastical Architecture: while our 
local connexion with the legend of St Etheldreda will give the subject 
an additional interest in the other branch of our twofold object, the 
study of Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 



A Paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society ^ on Saturday^ November 7, 1840, Jy 
John Mason Nealb, Esq., B.A., Downing College^ Chairman of Committees. 

We have often been told, when meeting in this place, of the strength 
which our existence as a body may give to the exertions of individual 
members ; it has been said, and said truly, that our influence may be 
exerted unconsciously to ourselves, and at a distance from our more im- 
mediate sphere of action, and that as vigorously and as efficaciously, 
as if the work to be done, or the barbarism to be hindered, had Iain 
beneath our own eyes. 

One example is better than a thousand precepts; and such an ex- 
ample, with the society's leave, I propose now to lay before it. 
Situation of The villagc of Old Shoreham, Sussex, is situated in the rape of 

Old Shoreham. " ■* 

Bramber, and hundred of Fishergate, at the eastern side of the wooden 
bridge across the Adur. There having been in former times a celebrated 
ferry here, the church is with great propriety dedicated to St Nicolas, the 
patron of fishermen and sailors: a dedication under the like circumstances 
very common, whether the church be situated by the sea, as at the 
neighbouring parishes of Portslade and Brighton, or by a river, as at 
NiSioiV^ St Shepperton, Middlesex, to this day a celebrated resort of anglers. The 
reason why this Holy Confessor, whose name our Church still retains 
in the Calendar on the sixth day of December, is esteemed the patron of 
''those that go down to the sea in ships, and occupy their business in 
great waters," is briefly related in the Benedictine Breviary. " When 
he had dedicated himself wholly to God, he departed into Palestine for 
to see the Holy Sepulchre. And it came to pass that when he had 


taken ship in fair weather, he foretold to the shipmen a mighty wind 
and tempest ; which so happened as he had said ; and the vessel being 
now in great jeopardy, he stilled the waves by his prayers, and there 
was a calm." 

SrSfJ^ of rpjjg church of Old Shoreham was cruciform, without aisles or porches, 
but with north and south chapels to the chancel; a low tower, with the 
pyramidal head so usual in Sussex, rises at the intersection. It is 
(as Mr Rickman justly observes) a fine specimen of the most enriched 
Norman ; the four belfry arches are especially admirable. The nave 
' arch has on its western side a triple chevron, surmounted by a moulding 
which I have never seen elsewhere, a series of limpet-like projections 
alternately plain and eight ribbed. 

moSkSj!*^^ I know that by many the idea of seeking for any meaning in what 
are usually termed the wild and grotesque ornaments of the Norman 
age will appear fanciful, and from some may even receive a harsher 
name. But the opinion is becoming more and more widely spread, that 
there is some foundation for the theory that mouldings are symbolical ; 
and if Mr Lewis, in his history of Kilpeck church, has failed to 
establish all that he endeavours to prove, he has at least proved so 
much that it requires a very considerable degree of scepticism to assert 
the total unmeaningness of Norman enrichments. In the ^* Practical 
Hints*" published by our Society we are told that some representation 
of faith is frequently found in the chancel arch of a Norman church ; 
and the remark seems to me true in the present case. 

The mouldings I have described ; the arch rises from a tripartite 
abacus : the meaning symbolised I conceive to be this : — by faith in the 
Holy Trinity the Blessed Martyrs underwent their torments. Every one 
must have observed how very rarely an abacus is anything but tri- 
partite; and when we consider how usual it was with our ancestors to 
symbolise the Trinity, whether by the device engraved in the Illustra- 
tions of Monumental Brasses, part i. page 27; or by the well-known 
triangular monogram, exhibiting at once to the eye the relations of the 
Three Persons in One God; by the three fingers dropped and one 
erect in the uplifted hand of a bishop, or the steps to an altar ; 

* Hints on the practical study of Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 


it requires no great discernment to see that this threefold ornament 
is probably indicative of the same great doctrine. From the abacus 
springs the limpet-shaped moulding above described. And why should 
this signify faith? Because by the writers of that age, who lose no 
opportunity of setting forth the glory of God in his meanest works, 
by S. Bernard, by S. Anselm, by S. Thomas of Canterbury, that little 
shell-fish is expressly used as an emblem of faith. '^As the shell cleaves 
to the rock," says the Abbat of Clairvaux, " so should the Christian cleave 
to his God." And indeed the same type was employed more than a 
thousand years before, though the thing signified was different'. Now if 
the great doctors of the Church did not consider the habits of the 
limpet too mean an illustration of the doctrine, why should we imagine 
that the ecclesiastic who reared the fabric we are considering would be 
more fastidious ; especially when the type must so often have been 
presented to him in the estuary of the Adur? 

No one can have considered attentively the various mouldings which 
distinguish Norman architecture, without being struck with the reference 
which almost all bear to various methods of martyrdom. The saw- 
toothed, the nail-head, the reticulated, the chain, the cable, tell a plain 
tale as to their derivation, and others which may at first sight appear 
more obscure, are in reality as emblematic as the above. The chevron 
may well symbolise either impalement or exposure to the teeth of wild 
beasts, and thus we deduce the meaning, which I ventured to attach 
above to the mouldings in our church. 

There is one objection to the theory I have just mentioned, which 
seems at first sight plausible, but admits of a very easy answer. Why, 
it may be asked, do various styles, say for example Norman and Early 
English, symbolise various ideas, and not the same idea in various ways? 
To this it may be answered; (1) that the objection is not always true; the 
chevron in Norman, and the toothed in Early English, do symbolise the 
same idea: (2) that no reason can be imagined why each style should 
not select cognate ideas, rather than the very same, if they found the 
symbolical representation thus to agree best with their own general cha- 

^ See the Vespse of Aristophanes, line 105 : 

wirtrep Xcvrav vpoce'^ofjLevKK Tip kiovc. 


racter respectively: (3) that the same objection might be raised against 
what we know to have been a fact in Grecian architecture, that the 
metopes were intended to represent the sculls of sacrificed oxen, on the 
ground that that ornament chiefly occurs in Doric. 

Description. But wc must uot digrcss too far from our original subject. The 

entrance to our church was by a door on the north side of the nave, 
and by another on the west of the south transept. Both these were rich 
Norman. The font seems to me to have been of the same date. The tran- 
septs opened by a fine Norman arch into the north and south chapels. 
The chancel is of later date, and has been a fine specimen of the earliest 
Decorated. There is a plain trefoiled piscina, and a recess under an obtuse 
arch, which appears to have been the Easter sepulchre, on the south 
side, a position not unusual in Sussex churches. This however, with a 
painful disregard to propriety, has been nearly filled by a marble altar 
tomb, which from a mural brass above appears to have been erected in 
memory of Captain Richard Poole, who died September 7, 1652, aged 
ninety-four years, and of Thomas his son, who died November 15th of the 
same year, aged sixty. The dripstones of both this and the piscina are 
unusually bold. The rood-screen \% simple, but curious, from its being 
a specimen of Early English ; there is a beam across the chancel which 
presents a row of excellent tooth work on each side. The tower is arcaded 
of three; each arch being subdivided into two circular headed lights. 
There is one bell. 

Such was the state of the church in its original glory. We must 
now turn our view to its condition when the restorations were commenced. 

Pment sute The two chapcls had been destroyed Ions before the memory of 

of the church. ^ J © ^ 

man: that on the south, I am inclined to believe, perished when the 
present chancel was built. Nothing remains to mark the site of that on 
the north, but a trefoiled piscina on the outer wall of the chancel. The 
east window was destroyed, and two nondescript lights with circular 
heads were inserted in its place : a window on the north was blocked 
by a modern monument, but to supply sufficient light a square hole was 
cut in the wall, which being unglazed was in wet weather plugged up 
with a corresponding piece of wood, a cheap and original invention. The 
north transept was in ruins, and separated from the church by an erection 


of brick, so contrived as to conceal half the beautiful arch leading to it. 

The arcades of the tower were nearly concealed by the coating of rough 

Circular holes cast with which they had been loaded; the circular perforations under the 

in earlf towen. ^ ^ r 

eaves were, from the action of the weather, almost ruinous. It would lead 
us too far from our present subject to enquire what might be the use of 
these openings ; they occur in Saxon work, as at St Benedict's, Cambridge, 
and not unfrequently in Norman : it has been suggested that they might 
be intended to allow the bell to be more distinctly heard : but this 
could hardly be the case, since sometimes, for example at New Shoreham, 
we find them at the east end of the chancel. — ^The nave was filled by 
pews of all sorts and sizes : the walls were reeking with moisture ; evei^ 
moulding had been clogged with plaister or whitewash : the pulpit had at 
first stood on the north side of the chancel arch, and the abacus had 
been knocked away to make room for it; it had then been removed to 
the southern side, and the same accommodation had been made for it 
there : the Norman door in the transept had been blocked and was now 
half concealed by the earth piled against it : and a door opened opposite 
to it, faced with brick. The damp earthy smell which pervaded the 
building, the green mould which hung on the walls, and the broken and 
uneven state of the pavement would have led the visitor to imagine that 
he was descending into the dungeon of a criminal, rather than going up 
to the house of the Lord. 
SowSon?^ re- Such was the state of things in September last, when the present 
excellent churchwarden, with a spirit worthy of an earlier age, and a zeal 
prodigal alike of money, labour, and time, determined on thoroughly 
repairing the building. And no one who had, as I had, the pleasure of 
seeing the work proceed from the beginning, need ever despair of com- 
pleting the restoration of any church. A parish, the rental of which does 
not exceed £1300, did not seem likely to be able to furnish £500 for 
such an object. Yet this money, I make no doubt, will have been col- 
lected by the time the restoration is completed, as nearly four-fifths of 
it have been already subscribed. 

The first step was not a successful one. The zeal displayed was not 
according to knowledge. Three square headed windows with wooden 
frames were removed from the south side of the nave, but it was only 


to make way for three circular headed lights, intended for, but bearing 
a most remote resemblance to, Norman. They have since been somewhat 
amended, but are even now anything but beautiful or correct. 

Haying at this time been requested by Magdalene College, Oxford, 
the patrons of the living, to superintend the restorations, I can give you 
a minute account of them, as I was on the spot nearly every day. 
ProgrcM of The earth was first removed from the southern side of the nave 


and chancel, and the few graves too close to their precincts were 
put further back. In the progress of this work a small bell was found, 
which I have great pleasure in presenting to the society, and which is 
apparently the same as is described in one of the Constitutions of 
Archbishop Winchelsea as one of the necessary ornaments of a 
church, under the title of ** a hand bell to be carried before the body 
of Christ in the visitation of the sick." There was also found an arrow 

The Norman door was then restored bit by bit, as it had been much 
decayed by the south west winds so prevalent on this coast; the violence 
of which was probably the original reason of its having been blocked 
up. The modern door will be again closed. All the restorations were 
made in Caen stone, of which the church is built. 

The rough cast having been stripped from the arcades which surround 
the tower, such of the abaci and other parts as were found to be de- 
cayed, were restored. 

Then began the great work, which is not yet completed, the restora- 
tion of the north transept. The piers and abaci of the eastern arch 
were exactly copied from the nave arch. The arrangement of the north 
and south windows in the two transepts is curious: they are Early 
English, of one light, inserted in the middle of a buttress. This arrange- 
ment, though with somewhat richer details, occurs in the church of 
Clymping, near Arundel : and the model for the restored windows will 
be taken from this. 

I should have mentioned that the pews at the west end rose like the 

pit in a theatre: these being pulled down were found to conceal three 

altar tombs, executed in the parsimonious style of the time of William of 

Orange: fair marble slabs at the top, and stone sides where they can 



be seen 9 conceal brickwork where the erection does not meet the eye. 
They belonged to the family of Blaker : the inscriptions have been given 
in the Gentleman's Magazine. Such miserable economy prevailed in the 
erection of the pews by which they were concealed, that the rafters were 
not fixed into the wall, nor attached to any upright, but simply laid on 
the top of the tombs I 

The east window being opened, many fragments of the interior window 
arch were discovered: they were of a very beautiful Early English cha- 
racter; the circular shafts and over-hanging capitals were worked with a 
degree of delicacy which could hardly be surpassed. 

At this time we had the advantage of the advice and assistance of 
Mr Buckler, the architect of Magdalene College: who was requested by 
the Patrons to examine and report on the chancel, and to furnish plans 
for its restoration. Its southern windows, which are early Decorated, 
of two ogee cinqfoiled lights, though much mutilated, are sufficiently 
perfect to be restored : the east window will be nearly the same as 
that of St Mary Magdalene, Oxford, (see the Glossary of Architecture, 
pi. 100. fig. 31), except that it will consist of four lights instead of 

Had the remarks of our President, in his first address, on the moral 
effect produced in a village by the restoration of its church needed any 
further confirmation, they would have received it abundantly in the present 
case. The villagers, and especially those who begun the good work, have 
not ''offered unto the Lord of that which cost them nought:" and you 
will I am sure join with me in the wish, to the fulfilment of which you 
have all contributed as a society, and many of you as individuals, that 
their exertions may be finally successful, and that ''the glory of this 
latter house may be greater than that of the former !" 

[It may be proper to itaUy that it has been found neeeaeary to make eome (dterattana in 
the above paper ^ frtym the eirewnstance of the restorations having considerably advanced since 
it vxu read before the Society.] 



A Paper read before the Cambridge Oamden Society^ on Saturday, November 7, 1840 

by W. C. LuKis, Esq., Trinity College. 

Of the many ancient chapels which existed in this island before the 
erection of the parish churches, that of St ApoUine is the only one 

Antiqaitvof Standing entire. Nothing is known respecting the date when this building 
was erected, nor are there any traditional accounts of it amongst the 
inhabitants. The rudeness of the masonry, and especially of one of its 
windows, would lead us to consider it of very early antiquity, but beyond 
this we have nothing to enable us to determine the century in which 
to place its erection. We can only arrive at a probable date by examin- 
ing the early historical accounts of this island. 

convewionof The first stCD towards the donversion of these islands to Christianity 
was taken about the year 520, when Sampson, Archbishop of St David's, 
giving up his ecclesiastical preferment in England, went over to Brittany 
and obtained the Bishopric of Dol ; to which Childebert, King of France, 
added the Channel Islands. The copy of this grant may be seen in a 
manuscript in the archives of Dol. This prelate visited Guernsey soon 
after, and is said to have landed in that part of the island which bears 
his name, where he built a chapel. Sampson was succeeded in the 
bishopric by Maglorius, who held these islands as his predecessor had 
done, and who, visiting them about the year 565, preached the gospel 
to the pagan inhabitants. 

This holy man built a chapel in the parish of the Vale, but it has 
long since gone to decays There was a chapel built by him in the 

* In 1837, wishing to determine the spot on which this chapel stood, I commenced 
digging in a field which was pointed out to me as its probable site, the field having the 



Island of Jersey, of which the ruins remain, and he also founded a 
monastery in the Island of Serk, which was in being in the reign of 
Edward the Third, as appears by a record entitled " Conyentui Sancti 
Maglorii in Insula Gargiensi" in the Remembrancer's Office in London, 
respecting an annual allowance paid by the crown to the conyent. 

As the light of the gospel gained ground, and the inhabitants in* 
creased, chapels were built in different parts of the island near the sea 
shore, and the priests who officiated in them were allowed for their 
subsistence the tithe of all the fish that was caught ; which custom has 
continued ever since. These chapels were ten in number, namely, St 
Jaques, St Julien, and St Catherine in the town parish; St Clair and la 
chapelle d'Anneville in St Sampson's parish; St ApoUine in St Saviour's 
parish ; St Anne and St George in the C&tel parish ; la chapelle de Puliau 
in the Vale parish; and St Brioc* in the parish of St Pierre du Bois. 
These islands continued for about 350 years under the see of Dol, and 
then were transferred to the Bishopric of Coutances. This is all we 
know concerning these chapels, or even of the early history of the 
islands ; which were so little known, or thought of so little consequence, 
that but slight notices of them are to be found in the works of the old 

Let us now examine the building itself, and endeavour thence to 
arrive at some probable conclusions. 
Description of Thc ChaDcl uudcr notice consists of a chamber twenty-seven feet 

St ApoUine 8. * "^ 

three inches long, by thirteen feet nine inches wide, and twelve feet high, 
covered by a ponderous vaulted roof. In the east wall is a narrow 
square-headed opening or loophole; in the south a segmental arched 
doorway about six feet high, and a narrow square-headed window divided 
into two parts by a transom; and in the north a smaller segmental arched 
door and a narrow square-headed window. 

name of " St Magloire,"^ or " St Mauliere,"'' and soon struck upon a wall composed of 
large stones. Finding the ground throughout the field covered with slates, tiles, and 
rubbish, I was satisfied that I had discovered the spot, and desisted from the work. 

* Saint Breock, or Brioc, was patron of a church in Cornwall, as also of one in 
Ouemsey. He was a native of Ireland, and became a Bishop in Armorica, where the place 
of his residence is distinguished by his name. Gilbert's History of Cornwall, 


An examination of the south window will shew that the knowledge 
of architecture was at that time at a low ebb. Its construction is as 
follows. A horizontal rough granite block thirty-two inches in length, is 
elevated about four feet from the ground ; upon the extremities of which 
stand as jambs two similar blocks twenty-two inches in lengthy and four 
inches in breadth, supporting another horizontal round-edged stone nearly 
of the same dimensions as the first, and upon which is again raised a 
similar structure. The whole thus forms a window of forty-eight inches 
by thirteen inches, divided into two parts by a kind of transom. The 
angles of the jambs being slightly chamfered, and the lintel being a 
little cut out so as to increase the opening, are the only departures 
from the extreme rudeness of the whole. 

This window, and the general character of the masonry throughout the 
building, point to a very early date. No attention seems to have been 
paid to the size, form, or order of the stones, but all are put together as 
they came to hand, large and small promiscuously. The* other windows 
are as rudely formed, but are without transoms. In various parts of the 
walls are large blocks of stone, some of which must weigh from one to 
two tons and upwards, giving a sort of mottled appearance to the build- 
ing. The walls are two feet six inches in thickness, and the mortar is 
composed of lime, sand, and sea shells, chiefly of limpets, some of which 
are burnt and others unbumt and perfect. 

The interior of the Chapel consists of a plain chamber covered with 
a pointed vaulted roof. The sides of the walls and roof appear to have 
been once adorned with fresco paintings'; and several figures of saints, 
flowers, and ornamented borders are distinctly discernible. I am told by 
the proprietor that on the east wall are some inscriptions which he 
could not read; but as the Chapel is filled with furze and will not be 
emptied until next March or April, I shall not before then have an 
opportunity of examining them. 

On the summit of the east gable there was a sun dial, which was 
reihoved a few years since; also a stone cross, a small portion of which 

' On the north wall of the chancel of the Gatel Church, in this island, rude paintings 
have lately been discovered. One represents the last supper, another the last day, and 
a third a hawking scene. 


is in the possession of the proprietor of the chapel ; and on the west 
gable was a bell, the clapper of which is also to be seen. 

The south door appears to have been originally secured by a beam 
of wood, which slid into the wall, the hole for its reception being about 
six feet deep, and about six inches square. 

Haying given a short description of the building, we have now to fix 
its probable date. Tradition places this long before the erection of the 
parish churches, and as we know with certainty the dates of the building 
of all of them, we are sure that this must be before the twelfth century ; 
St Sampson's church, the first erected, having been consecrated in the year 
1111. We have then a space of 591 years between the first introduction 
of Christianity into these islands, and the consecration of the first parish 
church. I do not know how far back we are to take the practice of 
vaulting, more especially the pointed kind ; but from the general opinion 
respecting these chapels and the character of the south window, I 
Date of the should bc inclined to place the erection of this chapel in the eighth or 
ninth century. The size of the chamber would not admit of more than 
from thirty to forty worshippers; and this additional circumstance, in 
the absence of more direct proof, may carry us back to the time when 
but few converts had been made to the faith. 

The silver-gilt chalice belonging to the chapel is in the possession of 
the Lieutenant Bailiff; upon whose property stood a chapel of about the 
same date as this, called the chapel of St George, whjch was perfect a 
few years back, but was pulled down by his father for the following 
reason. It had been the custom for the feudal court of the Fief du 
Comte to hold its annual meetings in this chapel; and not being him- 
self a member of that court, and feeling annoyed because these persons 
trespassed once a year on his property, this gentleman with true gothic 
spirit set to work to destroy the edifice, and built a small room in 
another part of his grounds for the accommodation of the court. I have 
been told that one of its windows was precisely similar to the south 
window of St ApoUine. We have great reason to deplore the above 
barbarous act, as this chapel was in a very good state of preservation, the 
former proprietors having been at much pains to preserve it from going 
to decay. The brass altar-candlesticks are in Mr Guille's possession, 


although the ornaments have nearly disappeared, under the influence of 
the weekly scouring to which they have been for years subjected in 
company with the usual accompaniments of a kitchen dresser. 

Round the bowl of the chalice are the words '' Sancte Paule ora pro 



A Paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society^ on Saturday^ December 5, 1840 
by Charles Colson, Esq., B.A., Fellow of St John's College, 

NichoiMFcr- In bringing before you any thing which has to do with Nicholas Ferrar 
and the family at Little Gidding, I fancy I am only calling to your 
minds thoughts and matters which are no strangers there. For to those 
who have not seen the larger accounts of this remarkable man by Peckard 
and Turner^ the few pages of Izaak Walton will have made him a familiar 
acquaintance; and who does not own himself a reader and lover of 
Walton's Lives ? 

It was the wish to find out what traces there were left of Ferrar and 
his household, which led a party of four members of this society a few 
days back to ride over to Little Gidding; of that party having had the 
pleasure to be one, it has fallen on me to give a short account of our 
visit; and though I have but little to say of the architectural branch of 
our society's pursuits, yet in our character of Church antiquaries, and still 
more as churchmen^ we are not I think unconcerned in it. 

HisfamUyat As howcvcr vou wiU carc little to hear what is left there now, unless 

liittle Gidding. ^ 

you know what was there at first, you will perhaps bear with me, while 
in as few words as I can I give you an account of this the only instance 
of a Protestant Monastery in England. What adds to its interest at the 

present time is, that it was founded while, as now, the cry of Popery 


was lifted up against all, who in common with Nicholas Ferrar and our 
society professed to love Church principles, and Church antiquities; we 
trust that, as the wickedness of those slanderers was presently shewn by 
their after deeds, so thinking men will now shun their example. 


1m%otw *^**^ The son of a rich English merchant, in the time of King James the 
First, Nicholas Ferrar seems to have been one of that small body of men, 
who, though surpassing their neighbours in talents and wealth, are yet 
unenyied ; he was a Fellow of Clare Hall in this University, where, as 
well as in his travels abroad, he was the object of general respect. Re- 
turning home, he was much employed in public affairs, as well in the 
transactions of the Virginia Company, as also in the business of the House 
of Commons; but though others thought him wrapt up in, and pleased 
with, his public duties, he himself, so Walton tells us, found ''the man* 
ners and vanities of the world to be a nothing between two dishes," and 
therefore determined to pass the rest of his days in prayer and charity. 
To this end he chose the Hall at Little Gidding about ten miles from 
Huntingdon, then on sale, as a fit place for his plans, being both close 
to the church and also very private, and certainly in this last matter 
we can bear witness to his choice. To this place then with his mother, 
brother, sister, and their children, making in all a family of about forty 
people, he came in 1625. He himself was ordained deacon by Laud, 
i^t that time Bishop of St David's, and here for the rest of his days he 
lived in the continued use of prayer and religious worship. 

i!*t"^ddm ^^® ^^®' ^^' ^^® *^ P^' '^® church in order, which had been long 
Church. yggj g^g ^ barn : and here I will, as this is my chief excuse for laying 

this paper before the society, quote at length the words of Dr Peckard, 
taken from a MS. of Ferrar himself. 

*^ Many workmen having been employed near two years, both the 
house and church were in tolerable repair, yet with respect to the 
church Mrs Ferrar was not well satisfied, she therefore new floored and 
wainscotted it throughout; she also provided two new suits of furniture 
for the reading desk, pulpit, and communion table, one for the week*-days, 
the other for Sundays and other festivals. The furniture for week-days 
was of green cloth, with suitable cushions and carpets. That for festivals 
was of rich blue cloth, with cushions of the same, decorated with lace 
and fringe of silver. The pulpit was fixed on the north, and the^ reading 

^ In 8fnaU churches at least one cannot well see the use of that cumbeniome piece of 
Airniture, the reading desk and clerk^s seat : the communion table would be a far fitter 
place for the clergyman; and it may be hoped that when people have come to leam the 



deek over against it on thie south side of the church, and both on the 
same leyel» it being thought improper that a higher place should be 
appointed for preaching than that which was allotted for prayer. A new 
font was also provided, the leg, layer, and cover all of brass, handsomely 
and expensively wrought and carved ; with a large brass lectern, a 
pillar and eagle of brass for the bible. The font was placed by the 
pulpit, and the lectern by the reading desk. 

*^ The half pace or elevated floor on which the communion table stood 
at the end of the chancel, with the stalls on each side, was covered with 
blue taffety and cushions of the finest tapestry and blue silk. The space 
behind the communion table under the east window was elegantly 
wainscotted and adorned with the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, 
and the Apostle's Creed, engraved on four beautiful tablets of brass, gilt 

'^The communion table itself was furnished with a silver patin, silver 
chalice, and silver candlesticks with large wax candles in them; many 
other candles of the same sort were set up in every part of the church, 
and on all the pillars of the stalls. And these were not for the purposes 
of superstition, but for real use, which for great part of the year the fixed 
hours of prayer made necessary both for morning and evening service. 
Mrs Ferrar also, taking great delight in church music, built a gallery at 
the bottom of the church for the organ. Thus was the church decently 
furnished, and ever after kept elegantly neat and clean." 
Thetithcsrc- jfor did shc think it enough thus to take care of the church, but, 
' almost immediately after buying the estate, the tithes which had been 
impropriated were again restored to their proper owner'; she made 
known her intention in a very simple and beautifiil letter to Bishop 
Williams to obtain his ratification, which we may be sure was not re- 
fused; and so pleased was the Bishop with the letter and its contents, 
that he presently came over to visit the family, and put an end to the 
clamour which had been raised against them in the neighbourhood by 

duty of public prayer, the clerk may be safely banished. The lectern would then again 
become useful. 

' Sir Balph Hare about the same time, 1622, convinced by Sir H. Spelman'^s book 
of the sin of holding these impropriations, gave the great tithes of Cherry Marham in 
Norfolk to St John^s College for the support of thirty poor scholars. 




preaching at Little Gidding, and in his sermon {>ublicly declaring his 
delight in their doings'. 

And now perhaps I ought to stop, but yet I think you will not be 
sorry to hear the rules and arrangement of the house, taken from th^ 
same book. 

AiTjin^ent The housc being very large^ and containing many apartments, he 
allotted one great room foi: their family devotion, which he called the 
oratory; and adjoining to this two other convenient rooms, one a night 
oratory for the men, the other a night oratory for the women; he also 
set out a separate chamber and closet for each of his nephews and 
nieces, three more he reserved for the schoolmasters ; and his own lodg- 
ings were so contrived that he could see conveniently that every thing 
was conducted with decency and order; without doors he laid out the 
gardens in a beautiful manner, and formed them in many fair walks. 

Houreof The whole family rose at four, at five they vrent to the oratory to 

prayers, at six said the Psalms of the hour, (for every hour had its 
appointed Psalm with some portion of the Gospel, or Mr Ferrar's Har- 
mony) then they sang a short hymn, repeated some passages of Scripture, 
and at half-past six went to church to matins. At seven they said the 
Psalms of the hour, sang the short hymn, and went to breakfast. Then the 
young people went to their respective places of instruction. At ten to 
church to Litany, at eleven to dinner, at which parts of the Scriptures or 
Fox's Book of Martyrs were read ; then recreation was allowed till one. 
Instruction till three, church at four for evensong, supper at five or 
six, diversions till eight, then prayers in the oratory, afterwards all re- 
tired to their respective apartments, except that there was a watch of 
at least two men at one end, and two women at the other end of the 
house, beginning at nine and ending at one; in which time they were to 
repeat the whole book of Psalms, and pray for the life of the King and 


' Bishop WiUiams, the mimifioent benefactor of St John^s Gollege, was ever the steady 
friend of the Gidding family; and he seems to have been prudent, as well as zealous, in 
his friendship. Two of the Nuns once came to him to take an oath of celibacy before 
him; he very wisely sent them home again unsworn: one of them afterwards shewed that 
he was in the right by manying. 




Charity of the 

his sons; at one o'clock they retired and called up Mr Perrar, who then 
rose to prayer and meditation. 

Such were the domestic habits of the family at Gidding: their em- 
ployment between prayers was to study, to teach the surrounding poor, 
to attend to the sick and distressed, for which purpose there were in- 
firmaries, school-rooms, and schoolmasters appointed. 

It is not for me, neither is this the place, to defend their manner of 
life; it may be enough to say that what Laud and Williams, Cosin and 
Herbert, praised and admired, should at least be treated with respect; 
it may suit little with the active religion of the present day, but it was 
what Leighton longed after, and he will be an authority^ with those who 
would be inclined to gainsay. To those that would call it popish it 
may be answered, that Nicholas Ferrar devoutly believed the Pope to 
be antichrist, and next to the Bible valued Fox's Martyrs; which even 
with the stoutest anti -papist of the present times would be a very pass- 
able Shibboleth. 

* The inscription which was himg in their parlour would perhaps be their best defence; 
it was as follows: 

I. H. S. 

He who (by reproof of our errors and 
remonstrance of that which is more per- 
fect) seeks to make us better is welcome 
as an angel of GkxI. 

and < 

He who (by a cheerful participation 
of that which is good) confirms us in 
the same is welcome as a Christian 
^ friend. 


He who any ways goes about to disturb 
us in that which is and ought to be among 
Christians, (though it be not usual in the 
world) is a burden whilst he stays, and 
shall bear his judgment whosoever he be. 


He who faults us in absence for that 
which in presence he made shew to approve 
of, doth by a double guilt of flattery and 
slander violate the bands both of friendship 
and charity. 

Mazy Ferrar, Widow, 

Mother of this fiEunily, 

aged fourscore years 

(who bids adieu to all hopes and fears of this world 

and only desires to serve Ood) 

set up this table. 


tom^^lt There id one more fact connected with Gidding, which I cannot for- 
""^'bear mentioning. King Charles the First, in his way to deliver himself 
to the Scotch army, came here at night for shelter ; Nicholas Ferrar and 
his mother were then dead, but his brother John received him with all 
dutiful love and loyalty, and took him to a place of safety in the 
neighbourhood. And thus it happened that the last friendly house in 
which our martyred king was received was the Monastery of Little 
Gidding ; a fit place for such a king, all will agree, both friends and 
LiSSiddinJ^ ^ could willingly linger yet a while in Little Gidding as it was^ but 
I have already well nigh overpassed my bounds, so I will at once hasten 
to what it is. And in the first place, the house, sad to say, has been 
entirely pulled down within the last thirty or forty years, and with it 
of course has gone much of the interest of the place ; the church how- 
ever is still standing, and excepting that the west end has been beauti- 
Jied^ and an elegant addition has been made of a vestry at the east end, 
communicating^ with the church by a door at the back of the altar, is 
I should think almost entirely in the same state as before; at first sight 
we could not help all wishing that there had been a Camden Society in 
those days, the church being a small red brick building, with nave and 
chancel, as ugly and grotesque as need be, with plain oblong windows, 
and in short without a feature of interest outside. The west front, as 
I said, has been beautified, that is, made a little more grotesque than 
it probably was before; over the door however is a small brass plate, 
put up no doubt by Ferrar, with this inscription, "The House of Prayer," 
and over this, either newly put up when the front was altered, or copied 
from an old inscription : 

This is none other than the House of God, this is the Gfate of Heaven. 

* Here again the strange taste of modem time shews itself. Surely the practice of 
1700 years should in itself be enough to make men pause, ere they altered a custom which 
they thought wrong; but why, in a matter by themselves allowed to be indiflerent, they 
should so oifend the prejudices (if th^y please to call them so) of so great a number 
of their fellow Christians, seems unaccountable. Our own town, I am sorry to say, will 
soon furnish an example of the thing here found fault with. The building Churches north 
and south is another instance of this wanton and useless spirit of change. 


Jhwcr^^^*** The pleasant walks and fair gardens have vanished of course with the 
house; but the inside of the church is very curious. There are no 
pewsS and the heavy Elizabethan clumsy oak panelling all round makes 
it look very dark and strange, and quite unlike any church we had 
seen before; the half- pace for the chancel, the eagle desk, (a very fine 
one), and the brazen font still remain ; the candlesticks, since the church 
has relinquished the superstitious practice of daily prayer to adopt the 
more orthodox custom of one service on the Sunday morning, are of 
course useless and are gone ; there are also other improvements, (we 
call them so by courtesy,) the old pulpit and reading desk have dis- 
appeared, and are replaced by a huge pulpit in the center of the church, 
the eagle desk being made use of for the prayers. The organ, as being 
popishly melodious, was burned by CromweU's soldiers, and some stolen 
sheep roasted by its fire; but the other alterations have been made very 
lately. The Commandments are still left. 

tii?F^mn^^ Of Nicholas Ferrar himself no traces remain, though tradition points 

out the place of his grave; the tomb of his brother and sister, Mrs 
Collett, (an impression of whose brass monument is now exhibited to the 
Society,) may still be seen, and a piece of tapestry, the work of the Nuns 
of Gidding, is shewn by the sexton; the carpet too for the communion 
table is supposed to be their work. Since the principles of this good man 
have been lost sight of in the place, one would scarcely expect to find 
any remembrance of him left; and accordingly the little that we could 
hear of him there was I fear rather gathered from former visitors, than 
handed down by a grateful people. 

There is a very amusing letter^ from a Mr Lenton to a friend, giving 
him an account of a visit he made to Little Gidding, in order to find out 
the truth of the reports he had heard about it. It is far too long to quote 

' All churchmen will be delighted with the general feeling which seems to be rising 
against these practical infringements of the common saying, that in the House of God all 
both rich and poor, meet on ah equal footing. 

^ There is in this letter a remarkable instance of straining and misunderstanding Scripture. 
Mr Lenton writes, ^^ I said, if they spent so much time in prayers they would leave little 
for preaching, vouching the text : He that tumeth away his ear firom hearing the law, even 
his prayer shall be abomination. Prov. xxviii. 9.**^ 


here. The writer appears to have been somewhat inclined to puritanism ; 
and his testimony is therefore the more valuable, which shall be my 
excuse for giving one short passage of the letter ; he says : '* They 
are extraordinarily well reported of by their neighbours, namely that 
they are very liberal to the poor, at great cost in preparing physic 
and surgery for the sick and sore, (whom they also visit often), and that 
some sixty or eighty poor people they task with catechistical questions ; 
which when they come and make answer to, they are rewarded with 
money and their dinner, by means of which reward of meat and money 
the poor catechumens learn their lessons well, and so their bodies and souls 
too are well fed. I find them full of humanity and humility, and others 
speak as much of their charity, which I also verily believe, and therefore 
am far from censuring them of whom I think much better than of myself." 

This letter was made, when garbled and added to, the foundation of a 
bitter pamphlet called, "The Arminian Nunnery at Little Gidding." 

But I have already taken up too much of your time, and that too I 
fear with matters which you will think unsuited to our present meeting. 
I have only therefore in conclusion to tell of the end that was put to the 
services and customs of Gidding, and this last I cannot do better than 
in the words of Bishop Hacket, in his life of Archbishop Williams. 
Si'SSJiT!^ "But nor they, nor the rest, staid (at Gidding) many years after in 
that godly repute; it was out of season to confine themselves to holy 
rest, when civil dissensions began to flame and there was no rest in the 
land. *In those days there was no peace to him that went out, nor to 
him that came in, but great vexations were upon all the inhabitants of 
the countries.' (Chron. xv. 5.) Religion and loyalty were such eyesores 
that all the Ferrars fled away and dispersed, and took joyfully the spoil- 
ing of their goods. All that they had restored to the Church, all that 
they had bestowed on sacred comeliness, all that they had gathered for 
their own livelihood and for alms, was seized on as a lawful prey taken 
from superstitious persons. 

Procrin habe, dixit, qubd si mihi pirovida mens est, 
Non habuisse voles. 

What will the cruel and the covetous say when God shall require 
it at their hands?" 




A Paper read be/are the Camhridge Camden Society^ on Saturday^ December 5, 1840: by 
Matthew Hqlbeche Bloxam, Esq. of Rttgbyj Honorary Member. 

di^ttt*©/" '^"^ tower of this church is apparently the most ancient structure in 
st^B^SSucfs Cambridge, and the masonry and architectural details evince it to belong 
to the not very numerous class of edifices now in existence, which are 
presumed to be of earlier date than the middle of the eleventh century, 
to which period, and rather before the Norman invasion, the commence* 
ment of the Norman style may be assigned. 
Late removal Thc coat of stucco or mortar which formerly covered the external 

of the coat of •' 

stucco. surface of the walls, and concealed the peculiar features of the masonry, 

(in the same manner that similar coats of mortar still continue to hide 
much probably of like ancient work in the church towers of Lavendon 
and Clapham, Bedfordshire, of Stowe, Northamptonshire, of Wyckham, 
Berkshire, and others seemingly of coeval antiquity,) has lately been 
judiciously removed, at «the expence and under the superintendence 
of the Cambridge Camden Society, and one of the most complete and 
interesting specimens left of Anglo-Saxon masonry has thus been disclosed 
to view, 

DencriptioD of The walls, which are about three feet in thickness, are chiefly con- 

the masonry. '' 

structed throughout of rag or rubble, strengthened at the angles from 
the base to the summit by parallelogram-shaped blocks of ashlar or 
hewn stone, disposed vertically and transversely in alternate courses, an 
arrangement known by the denomination of '^ Long and Short work.'' This 
kind of work is the most common feature peculiar to Anglo-Saxon masonry; 
and, whether it may have originated from a rude attempt at decoration, 


or, which is perhaps more probable, from certain principles of construction, 
in accordance with which the ashlar work was thus disposed in order to tie 
together or bind the walls of rag masonry at the angles of which it is 
found, is a question which deserves consideration « The courses of ashlar 
at the angles of this tower are more regular than we sometimes find to 
be the case ; for the stones at the angles of the tower of St Michael's 
church, Oxford, apparently of the same era with this, are very irregular 
in size and shape, though the same general arrangement is observed. 
SSSS^r About midway between the base of the tower and the summit, the first 

external division is formed by a plain square edged projecting string course 
running horizontally across the building on each side. The square edged 
string course is a feature which may be considered indicative of early date, 
for in the Norman style the plainest string course has the under edge 
bevilled or chamfered ; and this is sometimes the case also in presumed 
Anglo-Saxon remains. Below this string course no indications of original 
windows or of a doorway occur. In the stage above, which is in height 
one-fourth of the tower, the wall retires or lessens a little in size, and, with 
the exception of the long and short blocks of ashlar disposed in alternate 
courses at the angles, presents an entire plain and unbroken surface of 
rag masonry on each side. This stage is again divided by a plain hori- 
zontal square-edged string course from the uppermost or belfry story. 
The latter, in external appearance, is the most curious portion of the 
tower. On each side in the middle of the wall, and resting on the string 
course, is a double window with semicircular-arched heads and divided 
by a balluster shaft; this shaft is encircled about the middle of its height 
by annulated mouldings, which serve to divide it into two parts, each of 
which exhibits the entasis or swelling found in other window shafts of 
coeval date, and forming one of the peculiar features of the style. The 
shaft thus described sustains a plain projecting square edged impost or 
abacus, of an oblong form, which appears to extend through the whole 
thickness of the wall : the double window arches are hewn out of a single 
block, and rest on the impost or abacus of the balluster shaft, and the 
projecting abaci of the window jambs, which latter are of ashlar. 

On each side of these double windows, but higher up, is a plain semi- 
circular-headed window with straight-sided jambs, and in the wall above 


u^'i^the"' ^ch ^^ these, but not disposed quite regularly, is a circular orifice or 
aperture formed in a square block of fitone, the use or meaning of which 
is not very apparent, but semicircular apertures or lights of larger 
dimensions appear in the ancient tower of the ruined church within the 
precincts of the castle of Dover; and little circular windows or round 
holes are to be met with in some few Norman churches. On each side 
of the belfry story a narrow pilaster strip or rib of stone work is carried 
vertically up from the stone forming the head of the double window to 
the plain horizontal coping or blocking course with which each side of 
the tower is finished; a somewhat similar disposition of rib work occurs 
on the exterior of the upper story of the tower of Stow church, North- 
amptonshire, a structure apparently of the same early date as the tower 
of the church of St Benedict ; and also on the exterior face of the upper 
part of the walls of the chancel of Repton church, Derbyshire, an edifice 
seemingly of the same antiquity. The walls are unsupported by buttresses, 
the absence of which is another feature observable in towers of Anglo- 
Saxon construction. 

The west wall has been broken through for the introduction of a 
modern doorway, by means of which immediate access to the interior 
has been obtained. Like other Anglo-Saxon towers this is devoid of any 

Description of oriffinal staircase. The arch under the east wall of the tower, and which 

the Belfry ® 

Arch. connects it with the nave of the church, is the most curious feature within 

the tower ; the wall in which it is constructed and the soffit of the arch 
are three feet in thickness, the width of the arch at its spring is eight 
feet two inches, the arch is single-faced, and on the east side round the 
head of the arch and at the distance of sixteen inches from the edge of 
the soffit is a plain semicylindrical moulding five inches in diameter ; 
beyond which is a channel sunk even with the face of the arch, and then 
occurs that peculiar label of square edged pilaster strip or rib work, pro- 
jecting barely two inches from the face of the wall and about five inches 
and a half in width, which we so frequently find in Anglo-Saxon remains. 
The semicylindrical torus, sunk channel, and pilaster strip work, form, 
as it were, one continuous hood-moulding, which, together with the arch, 
springs on each side from a capital consisting of several members or 
mouldings, totally dissimilar however to the abacus and mouldings which 


Rude Sculp, are found in Nonnan churches. Above each capital and just beneath the 

turet on the x v 

Capitals, hood-moulding is the figure of an animal rudely sculptured in low relief. 
These sculptures, as specimens of Anglo-Saxon art, are exceedingly curious 
and rare; they are however so rudely designed and executed, that it is 
difficult to make out what animals they were intended to represent. 
Mouldings similar to those round the arch are continued downwards in a 
straight line for some distance, till they merge at the height of about 
seven feet from the ground in a plain pilaster about sixteen inches 
broad, with a projection from the wall of three inches, and the inner 
edge of the pilaster is rounded ofi*. The total height of each pilaster from 
the ground to the capital is about twelve feet. On the west side of the 
arch and within the tower similar pilasters, fluted and worked like the 
hood-mouldings, are continued down much lower than those on the east 
side, till they each merge in a broad flat face of shallow projection ; 
the same architectural features in the mouldings of the capitals are to be 
found on this as on the east side, but there are no sculptured has reliefs. 
With respect to the latter, it may be remarked that, though the greater 
part of existing Anglo-Saxon remains are totally devoid of any thing like 
sculptured representations, the Anglo-Saxons occasionally made use of 
sculpture in the decoration of their churches, and the exterior of the 

Other exam, towcr of Bamack church, Northamptonshire, still exhibits some remains 

pies of An^o« *' 

&«onicuJp. of Anglo-Saxon sculpture in relief. Richard Prior of Hexham, who 
flourished towards the close of the twelfth century, in his account of the 
celebrated church of St Andrew at Hexham, built by St Wilfrid, A.D. 
674, describes the capitals of the columns as decorated with imagery and 
sculptured figures projecting from the stone. 

As the earliest and perhaps only existing edifice in Cambridge erected 
prior to the Norman invasion, this tower, with its rude yet peculiar 
features, both of construction and decoration, deserves to be fully and 
carefully noticed in detail. The rag masonry, the long and short ashlar 
work at the angles, the square edged string courses which form the ex- 
ternal divisions, the double belfry windows divided by the balluster shaft 
of singular, yet in Anglo-Saxon work not uncommon, design, the straight 
sides of the window jambs without a splay, and the narrow strip or rib 
of slightly projecting masonry, running up from each double belfry window 

7 — ft 


to the blocking course which forms the coping of the walls, the absence 
of buttresses, and in the interior of the tower the absence of a staircase, 
the single-faced arch and the hood-mouldings over, are features we find, 
in detail perhaps a little dissimilar, in general resemblance the same, in 
other buildings of like ancient date. Defective as this notice is in many 
points, it may at least contribute to a further and more minute exami- 
nation of this interesting specimen of Anglo-Saxon antiquity. 




A Paper read he/are the Cambridge Camden Society^ on Saturday^ Febrvaary 27, 1841 : Zy 

William Gollinqs Lukis, Esq., BA., Trinity College. 

It was my original intention to give the society a full and particular 
account of this church ; but my leaving the Island earlier than I antici-^ 
pated, and before I completed my examination of the church, will I trust 
be a sufficient reason for not fulfilling a promise which I had made. 

I can in this paper therefore only give a general description of the 
church ; but I shall lay before the society an account of the form of con<^ 
secration used in the twelfth century, which will I think prove not 
altogether uninteresting to the members. 

This church was the second erected in this Island, as we find from 
an interesting document still extant, which describes the consecration 
of all our parish churches. A knowledge of architecture could have sup- 
plied in some measure the place of these accounts, inasmuch as by it 
we could with tolerable accuracy have assigned dates to the different 
parts of the buildings, but they are valuable for other reasons. We find 
in this document, which bears the title of '' The Dedications, Situations, 
and Foundings of the Temples and Churches of this Island of Guernsey, 
heretofore called the Holy Island," not only the exact dates of the con- 
secrations and the names of the Bishops who performed the ceremonies, 
but the names of many of the principal* inhabitants of the Islands of 
Guernsey and Jersey, ancestors of families still in existence, living at the 
present time in the same parishes and on the same estates. 

The following is a translation of an extract made from an ancient black- 
letter manuscript in the possession of the Bishop of Coutances, and entitled 
"Le livre noir de V ^v6ch^ de Coutances.'* 


^n«!S»tion^f " ^^ ^^^ ^^*^ ^^y ^^ *^® month of September, in the year of our 
chiUlh!"^* salvation and grace 1117, on the day of St Michael the Angel and Arch- 
angel, SheriflT of Paradise, the honourable persons hereafter named were 
convoked and assembled for ardent prayer with great devotion, and were 
assembled in the abbey of the said archangel at the Vale, in the blessed 
Holy Island, called Guernsey the blessed, for the purpose of dedicating 
and consecrating a certain temple and burial-ground blessed of God, built 
to the north or thereabout of the chapel of the said abbey, (the pro- 
cessional way being between the two) ; which temple and burial-ground 
appertain by right to the noble and pious parishioners of the said parish. 
In the first place, there were present, the honourable Caliste de Ganne, 
vice Regent; the honourable Alexander Revengier, Bishop of Coutances, 
and Friar Mathias Remain, Abbot of Mount St Michael; the noble 
Reynold Montsauvage, Captain and Govemour of the castle and parish 
of the Yale ; Michael de Beauvoir, Nobleman ; Sire Peter Labarette, 
Minister of the chapel of the " Monte Tomba'' ; the honourable Lady 
Martine du Valle, Abbess of Caen ; the honourable Michael Le Boutillier, 
Abbot of Blanchelande ; Friar Pinard the younger. Abbot of Rouen; 
Friar Francis Tranche Montague, Hermit in the Island of Herm; then 
there were Sire Brandin Hesiton, Govemour of the Island of Jersey 
called the Holy Harbour ; John Brigett, his Lieutenant, Gentleman ; 
Sire Peter de Mille Bordage, Gentleman; the Noble Anthony de Rozel, 
Gentleman ; the Noble Abraham de St Ouen Matthew de St Helier, 
Barachois de Handois, Blainboize de Hamptonne, Sire Martin Dierlo- 
man, Walter de Yinchelais, Peter de Clairmont, Rowland de Brelade, 
Gentlemen ; and many other honourable persons, all of the Island of Jersey 
called the Holy Harbour. Lastly the noble Sampson d' Anneville, 
William de Sausmarez, Douet Le Marchant, Rowland de Garis, Gentle* 
men; Nion Benverie, Michael Phillippe, James de France^ Robert 
du Gaillard, Esquires ; the honourable Peter Le Gros, and John Le Gros 
his brother; the honourable Robert Hallouvris; the honourable Hamon 
Capelle ; the honourable Martin Le Prevost ; the honourable Phillippe 
Du Prey ; the honourable John Bregart ; the honourable Julian Cousin ; 
John Le Pelley, Merchant; John Capelle, Merchant; John Hamelin, 
Peter Le Maistre, Osmond de Beauchamp, John Maingy, John Corneille, 


Stephen Coquerel, John Le Miere, Rowland de St Clair, Martin Solor 
mon, William Agenor, John Giffart» John de la Rividrep John de 
Beaumis, John Falla, John Covoni, Robin Allaire, Geffrey Henrip Noel 
Emery, Geffrey Du Bat, Thomas Haupin, Oste de Grand Maison, 
Lucas Jehan, Jourdain Hubert, James Savary, Richard Robert, John 
Sarre, John Robin, John de Cocagne, Michael Le Yiel, Julian Le 
Perre, all Merchants : and many other pious and kind persons, both 
of the parish and of many other places and countries ; all of whom made 
large presents and offerings to the said place, (not a small quantity in 
all), and, whilst the organs were sounding and other instruments of music 

cwmonici playing, prostrated themselves with great devotion and with humble 
prayers, their hands joined upon the ground and their knees naked, both 
as many as were within the said Temple as in the burial-ground. Then 
a ship's page ascended the pinnacle of the said Temple, having a sponge 
filled with water and oil, and who, at the command of the said Bishop, 
poured the phial or sponge filled with water and oil, one half on the 
pinnacle of the Temple, and the other half in the burial-ground. 

The Buhop'i Then the Bishop said, praying, " Parochial Temple, may God bless 
and preserve thee from every evil ; and in His holy name I bless, dedicate 
and consecrate thee for the holy and sacred service and glory of God, 
in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; and 
thou shalt bear the name of St Michael the Angel and Archangel, Sheriff 
of Paradise, beseeching Gt)d that His holy and sacred word may resound 
in thee purely and holily, and that the holy sacraments may there be 
faithfully administered, for the great salvation and profit of bodies and 
souls, both of the pastors and of the hearers/' And all the people said 
Amen ! '' Beseeching the great and powerful God that all those who shall 
require burial in this sacred place, and shall be buried here, may have 
this grace of Thee to rise again at the end of the world, in the resurrection 
of an eternal and blessed life." And all the people said, Amen ! '' En- 
trusting thee into God's care, and that all those who shall from time to 
time succeed may remember that thou be maintained, preserved, and en- 
larged, with thy sacred ornaments ; and that thou be secured and preserved 
from thunderbolts and thunder, tempests and storms, from excessive winds, 
from sinking of the earth, or other adversities, from enemies visible or 



of me above 

invisible, which could or would conspire against thee, or resolve thy de- 
struction and that of thy sacred ornaments, or would wish to demolish, 
ruin, or destroy thee." And all answered and said, Amen ! 

Then the said page placed the weathercock on the pinnacle of the 
said Temple, testifying that the pastor should have a care of the salvation 
of his flock, even as the cock takes care of his hens« Then was placed 
on the pinnacle of the Temple, the silk standard of the noble Reynold 
Montsauvage, with ringing of bells, organs, drums and trumpets sounding, 
with great rejoicing, for the space of forty days and forty nights without 
ceasing, and all the people, giving glory to God, went away with great 
joy and thanksgiving.'^ 

This valuable and interesting account requires some little explanation, 
and for this purpose I shall take a brief review of it. 

The Archangel Michael, we are here told, holds an official situation 
in Paradise as Sheriff or Provost. This title is as curious as it is novel. 

The Abbey alluded to was founded in the year 962 by the Benedic- 
tine monks, who were driven from the Abbey of Mount St Michael in 
Normandy when its revenues were reduced. This Abbey, which was of 
an immense size, was situated on the summit of a lofty rock called 
'*St Michael in periculo maris," or **St Michael de Monte Tomba," in 
the extensive bay of Cancalle. The monks of this Abbey led irregular, 
riotous and debauched lives, and for this reason either Richard I. third 
Duke of Normandy turned them out, or they fled to escape punishment 
and disgrace to Guernsey. Near where the church now stands these 
fugitive priests founded a monastery which they called the Abbey of St 
Michael. These Benedictines prevailed upon the inhabitants to clear and 
cultivate the land, and, although they had themselves been driven from 
Normandy for their irregular lives, they rapidly reformed their manners 
and became by their zeal and piety examples of every virtue to the un- 
polished inhabitants. The report of their religious lives reached England 
as well as the continent, and they were visited by devout persons from 
SSiSdAcHoiy^^*^ countries. From this, Guernsey acquired the name of ^*the Holy 
Island," by which it has always been designated in the Pope's bulls 
and in the charters granted to it by the Norman and British monarchs* 
There was no regular grant of land from the Duke of Normandy to 

Abbey of St 
Michael de 
Monte Tomba. 



the Abbey, but the Abbot assumed a property in the Vale parish for 
its maintenance till the year 1082, when Robert, the father of William 
the Conqueror, granted about one fourth of the cultivated part of the 
island to the monks, by the appellation of the fief St Michael, which 
grant William the Conqueror confirmed in 1061. These lands were 
enjoyed by the monks of the Abbey till its dissolution by Henry YIII., 
since which time the edifice has been sufiered to run into decay. It 
is now converted into a farm house, about which segmental arches and 
buttresses of two stages are visible. 

The names of the Bishops of Coutances who consecrated these 

churches are not to be found in the list of the Bishops of that place, 

The^chMmei from which I concludc that they were sufiragan Bishops. The Channel 

dSSii^**'* Islands were transferred from the diocese of Coutances to that of Win- 

that^wii! Chester by a bull of Pope Alexander VI. 


It appears that several of the monasteries in Normandy possessed 
lands in these islands, which were no doubt granted to them by the 
reigning Dukes. One estate in Guernsey belonged to the monastery of 
Blanchelande, and still bears that name. 

The Jersey men and Guemseymen present on the occasion, whose 
names appear in the manuscript, were ancestors of existing families. Many 
of them are living in the same parishes, on the same spots, and relate 
traditional stories referring to those early and even to prior times. 
Thcfefd'An. Sampsou d' Anneville for his military services was rewarded by 
William the Conqueror with one fourth of the Island. This fief d' Anne- 
ville escheated to the crown in the reign of Stephen, and continued so 
until the reign of Henry III., who sold it to William de Cheney. The 
Lord of this seigniory is next in rank after the clergy, and is obliged 
to attend the King's courtd three time in the year, and is also bound to 
attend the King as his Esquire whenever he visits the Island. The old 
manor-house is still to be seen, and is in a most dilapidated condition, 
although inhabited by the Lord of the manor, who annually holds his 
courts in the porch of it. This is one of the remaining feudal courts in 
the Island, whose powers have been lievertheless much curtailed. At 
this court all the tenants of the fief d' Anneville are obliged to appear 
and answer to their names as they are called over by the Clerk; in 


default of which they are liable to a fine for each of the two first neglects* 
and the third time their lands are seized for the lord and kept in his 
possession for one yiear. 

We may also notice that the weathercock was planted for a different 
purpose than merely that of telling the direction of the wind. 

In the account of the consecration of St Sampson^s church in the 
year 1111, we find, besides "from storms, rough winds, impetuous floods 
and thunder," this curious addition, '' from flying dragons in the air and 
from celestial fires/' 
th^hwcr^^ The church of St Michael consists of a chancel, nave, north aisle, 
and a low tower and spire at the west end of the nave.* 

The chancel is the oldest part, and is in fact that building of which 
the foregoing describes the consecration. It is of the Norman style and 
is vaulted with a pointed stone roof, strengthened by diagonal ribs con- 
sisting of plain roll mouldings. 

The ohancel arch is. semicircular and is ornamented with the chevron 

On the south side of the east wall is a plain semicircular-headed 
aumbrye. The east window is modern. 

The vaulting piers are round and have plain round capitals with 
volutes, as if in rude imitation of Ionic capitals. 

The south windows are small, segmental-arched, and have the sides 
simply chamfered inwardly, with a plain roll moulding round the edge. 

The nave is quite plain and vaulted with a pointed roof. The south 
windows are small and modernized. 

The north aisle is also quite plain and vlaulted. 

The east window is of the Flamboyant style and divided into three 
lights. The branching of the tracery represents an elegant device, taking 
the form of a lyre. 

The western half of this aisle appears to have been added to the 
eastern: for its north wall is about two or three feet out of the line, 
and more to the north of the wall of the east end: and so in vaulting 
it was found necessary to project a bracket fix>m one of the pier arches 
frpm which the vaulting springs. The two or three western piers also 
partake of this irregularity, and are out of the line of the others. 


In the east wall is a very elegant piscina, of the Flamboyant style, 
crocketted and finialled, and the shelf has beneath it a moulding of 
leaves and animals. 

There was formerly in this aisle a brass representing a layman or 
merchant and wife with five children, but it has long since disappeared. 

The tower is square, low, having a round pinnacle supported on four 

short round pillars at each angle, and is surmounted by an octagonal 


The bells are three in number, and are the oldest in the Island. There 

is a Latin verse on each bell, but no date. I have only been able to 

decypher one verse, in consequence of the , letters being imperfectly cast 

and much worn. Round the largest bell is the following verse: — 

iB0t mit^i tollatnm i^t i0tulr nomen amatum. 



OF TttE 


I. a jetted of HlwHtatioMt of monumental UxMW$if 


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Lady Ha lsh am— /rom West Chinstead^ Sussex. 

A Mbrchant of thb Staplb, and a ENiGHT^/rom Standon^ Hertfordshire^ 

A Pribbt— ^f^wi North Mimms, Hertfordshire. 

Sir Boobb Db Trumpinoton— ^om Trumpington, Oambridpeshire. 

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Sir Thomas Clifford and Lady— ^rom AspedeUy Herts. 

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Sir John Wantele— /rom AtnJberlejfy Sussex. 

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. and John Hbnbt Parkbb, Oxford. 





MEETINGS IN 1841—1842 








Imtituted May, 1839. 


His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Ganterburt. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G. LL.D. S. John^s GoUege ; Chancellor 

of the University of Cambridge. 
The Bight Honourable the Lord High Chancellor of England, LL.D. Trinity CoU^, 

High Steward of the Univerbitt. 
His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Armagh. 
The Bi^t Beverend the Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Lincoln. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Exeter. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 
The Bi^t Beverend the Lord Bishop of Bangor. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Ely. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Hereford. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Norwich. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Worcester. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Down Connor and Dromore. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of Nova Scotia. 
The Bight Beverend the Lord Bishop of New Zealand. 
The Bight Beverend the Bishop of Boss and Argyll. 
The Bight Beverend the Bishop of Edinburgh. 
The Big^t Beverend the Bishop of New Jersey, U.S. 
The Honourable and Beverend the Master of Magdalene College, M.A. 
The Beverend the Master of Clare Hall, D.D. 
The Beverend the Provost of King^s College, D.D. 
The Beverend the Master of Downing College, M.A. 
The Very Beverend the Dean of Westminster, D.D. S. Catharine's Hall; Begius 

Professor of Divinity. 


The Venerable Thomas Thorp, B.D. Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College ; Archdeacon 
of Bristol. 

The Beverend John Mason Neale, B.A. Trinity College. 

The Beverend Frederick William Collison, M.A. Fellow of S. John's College. 


Benjamin Webb, Esq., B.A. Trinity College. 

Frederick Apthorp Pa ley, Esq., M.A. S. John''s College. 





A Paper read before the Ca/mhridge Camden Society^ an Monday February 7, 1842: by 

J. S. HowsoN, Esq., M.A., Trinity College. 


BETTER. — Pinterton. 

Great lost of re. It is Well knowu that Scotland has sustained much greater loss than 

cofdii in Scot- 

land; England, in the destruction of the documents which would illustrate the 

earlier periods of its civil and ecclesiastical history. To omit the men- 
tion of minor causes, the wars of the fourteenth century, the spoliation 
of the sixteenth, and the civil turmoil of the seventeenth, furnish to the 
antiquarian a ready explanation of a deficiency of materials which he is 
continually forced to lament. Again, as regards the history of religion, 
there seems to prevail in Scotland an unfortunate indifference to all that 
is anterior to the Reformation : and this has had a deplorable effect in pre- 
venting the examination of many points, the explanation of which might 
otherwise have been quite familiar. 

especially in Thcsc causcs, prevalent over the whole of Scotland, appear in the 

ArgylUhire. * ' * 

Western Islands to have been associated with others of a local nature. 
It is said that the synod of Argyll actually destroyed the early records 
which came into their possession': and it is not difficult to imagine how 
great must have been the loss of valuable papers in the disastrous wars 
of Argyll and Montrose. But whatever the influence of these or other 
causes, there is no doubt that of all the dioceses of Scotland, the old 
dioceses of Argyll and the Isles are illustrated by the smallest amount 

^ Sacheverell^B Icolmkill, p. 141. We cannot wonder at the vexation with which he says 
he left the island, after learning this. 


of authentic records. The valuable papers treasured at lona seem to be 
utterly lost. And Bishop Keith, in the Appendix where he exhibits the 
rentals of religious houses as taken from the Books of Assumption^ is 
forced to lament that ''the part of the work containing the Western 
rentals is altogether lost, or lying in some corner where we have not 
heard of it as yet*." 

MhCT^te.^^ Nor is this want of documentary evidence compensated for by any 

"*^'' accurate pictorial representation, or by the publication of any systematic 

antiquarian researches. No such book exists for the Western Highlands 
as Morton's Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, or Sir Walter Scott's Picturesque 
Antiquities of the Lothians. Grose's work on the Antiquities of Scotland 
contains but one meagre sketch of a ruin in Argyllshire : and Cordiner's 
book, though it has good notices of many remains in Ross, Moray, and 
Sutherland, pays no attention to this county, which is as interesting as 
any of them. We owe more to the Welsh Pennant than to all other 
writers put together. It is indeed, as Dr Maculloch^ says, "not very 
creditable to those who might have done it long since, that lona — >the 
day spring of savage Caledonia — should so long have remained an object 
for wandering tourists to tell of; unhonoured, undescribed by those who 
owe to it the deep debt of civilization, of letters, and of religion... lona 
has long demanded a volume — a book of its own." 

subjecuofthu Such being the dearth of information concerning the early ecclesiastical 
condition of Argyllshire, I hope I shall be excused, if, in presenting to 
the Society some notices of the antiquities of that county, I devote this 
introductory paper — ^first to an outline of the leading features of its early 
history, civil and ecclesiastical, so far as they are discoverable, — and 
secondly, to a few general remarks on the Christian Architecture north of 
the Tweed. 

principal The leading epochs in the early history of Scotland are the middle 

of the sixth, the middle of the ninth, the end of the eleventh, and the 
end of the thirteenth centuries. 

' App. p. 180. Tke Bental of the BislM^nick of the Idea and Abbey of IcolmkiU was 
discovered in 1834, in the Gharter-cheBt of Sir J. Campbell of Airds, and printed by the lona 
Olub in the GoDectanea de Rebus Albanicis. It appears to have been a eopy made in the 
reign of James VL, from the certified Rental drawn up in 1561. * iv. 147. 



p^^- (!•) Ii^ the year 503 a small party of Irish strangers landed on the 

coast of Argyllshire,-*-an incident hardly less trivial in its appearance, 
or less eventful in its consequences, than the landing of Hengist and 
Horsa a few years before on the coast of England. The Highlanders 
are as autochthonic as the Athenians ; and the colony of Scotti, to which 
their country owes its name, has been the subject of much unavailable 
controversy. After wandering long among the mazes of quotations re- 
quoted, and suppositions re-supposed, it is most refreshing to fall back 
upon the plain words of an ancient historian. What Bede says of Ireland 
near the beginning of his history* is what is now agreed on among careful 
antiquarians: H€BC autem proprie patria Scottorum est: ah hoc egressi^ ut 
dicimusj tertiam in Britannia Brittonibus et Pictis gentem addiderunt. This 
tertia gens was destined to give its name to the whole district which lies 
north of the Tweed. And the middle of the sixth century may be taken 
as the epoch at which the Scottish kingdom had made for itself a paint- 
d'appui in Argyllshire, from which it steadily gained upon the Pictish king- 
dom, until in three hundred years it had absorbed or destroyed it^ 

Second. (2.) In the person of Kenneth M^ Alpine, about the year 850, the Scot- 

tish and Pictish monarchies were united. How far this union was effected 
by conquest or by treaty, it is not necessary here to inquire: but from 
this time Forteviot was the seat of the monarchy, in place of Dunstaffnage: 
and Albin was now Scotland. The interval between Kenneth and Mal- 
colm Caen More is called the Scottish period by Chalmers, in contrast 
with the Pictish which went before it, and the Scoto-Saxon which suc- 
ceeded it. This interval is marked by the invasion of the Northmen, 
and the formation of three several Scandinavian kingdoms, which have 
left behind them effects among the Highland population, not always suffi- 
ciently appreciated. The first was advanced as far as the Grampians, 
by Thorstein and Sigurd, but lasted only from 894 to 900; the second, 
that of Sigurd II., was less extensive, but lasted froin 988 to 993; the 
duration of the third, under Thorfinn, was for thirty years, from 1034 to 
](064, and it extended as far as the Tay^ 

* i.i. 

' Some historians say that all the Picta were extirpated by Kenneth M® Alpine. Scott, i. 

' Skene. Sagas in CoU. de B. Alb. 



Thw. (3.) From the end of the 11th century the royal race of Scotland, 

and the predominant character of the nation was no longer Keltic, but 
Teutonic. How far from a Teutonic one it was in the commencement of 
the reign of Malcolm Caen More is shewn by the circumstances of a 
council, in which all the clergy spoke Gaelic only, the Queen Saxon 
only, and the King was interpreter. But Malcolm's connexion with 
England, and the influx of Saxons into Scotland after the Norman con- 
quest, laid the foundation of that change of policy which was matured 
by his successors. Malcolm's residence was at Dunfermline, on the verge 
of the Saxon civilization : David I. transferred the royal seat to £dinburgh\ 
Edgar's reign may be fixed on as the period when the population of 
Scotland assumed the form which it has since presented. The Saxons of 
the South, and the Scandinavians of the East, coalesced into one Gothic 
population; as strongly distinguished by national peculiarities from the 
Kelts of the North and West, as the Lowland country was divided from 
theirs by that well-known range of mountains, which has witnessed so 
many scenes of plunder, war, and ferocious hatred. This seems to be the 
period of the formation of the Clan-system. The absence of the Court, 
and consequent deficiency of authority, rendered some sort of organization 
necessary to control the lawlessness of the Gaelic population : and it seems 
to have unconsciously moulded itself into that system in which there is so 
much of what is beautiful and what is hateful, of high and generous 
feelings, and of fierce and cunning ferocity. 

Fourth. (4.) The latter part of the 13th century is the last epoch which has 

been alluded to. In 1266 the Hebrides were ceded to Scotland, having 
been, during more than three centuries, under Norwegian rulers, at times 
tributary to Norway, at times independent. The Alexanders, having sub- 
dued Galloway, had made continued efibrts to reduce the inconvenient 
power of the Scandinavians in the Western Seas ; and the defeat of Haco 
at Largs resulted in the above-mentioned treaty. Every one knows what 
disasters fell on Scotland after the death of Alexander III. The contests 
of Bruce and Balliol need not here occupy our attention, though they 
were probably not without an important bearing on the history of religion, 
and even of church-building, in the county of Argyll. 

^ Scott, I. 



Epochs for Ar- 





These four epochs are, of course, not less important for Argyllshire in 
particular, than for Scotland in general. There are certain local reasons 
which give them a peculiar interest as regards this county. 

(1.) In reference to the first, — I need only remark that Argyllshire 
was itself the cradle of the Dalriadic monarchy ; and that the fortunes of 
the kingdom of Scotland may be said to have existed in germ in that 
colony which, in the sixth century, landed on its shores. 

(2.) The second epoch requires a more particular notice : for the date 
of the consolidation of the united kingdom of Kenneth M^ Alpine was 
exactly the time when the Norwegian power fastened upon the Western 
Islands. — ^The latter half of the ninth century was an eventful period to 
the Scandinavian Peninsula: for then first the powers of the vikingr were 
united into one monarchy by Harold the Fair-haired. He pursued those 
who opposed him even to the islands where they had taken refuge, — 
'' following them (to quote from one of the Norse Sagas) one summer with 
his army, westward over the sea^" Sigurd was established as Earl in Ork- 
ney, and Ketil Flatnose in the Hebrides— who forthwith made himself in- 
dependent^ Passing over a dark period of softie 200 years, we come to 
Godred the White-handed^ the undoubted ancestor of that long line of 
Island princes which terminated in Magnus in 1265. In the time of 
Godred the dominion of Norway was re-established, but only for a time, 
by Magnus Barefoot 

(3.) We are now brought to our third period. — Not long after the com- 
mencement of the twelfth century Somerled appears on the stage of the 
Hebridean history. He was son of the Lord of Argyll, — married the 
daughter of King Olave the Red, — ^fought a battle in 115B, against Olave's 
successor, Godred the ^2ac/r,— and by that victory tore from the Nor- 
wegians a vast portion of their power ; finally, he was slain at Renfrew, 
in 1164, in battle with the king of Scots^^. Such was Somerled,— the 
ancestor of the McDonalds and IVf^Dougals, the families named De Insulis 
and De Ergadia^ the Lords of the Isles and Lords of Lome. The period 
which succeeded the death of Somerled was full of important changes. 

* Ynglinga Saga, in Ck)ll. de B. Alb. 

' lalands Landnamabok. Ibid. 

'* Gregory. Godred the Black^s descendants continued to reign in Man. 


The Chranican Mannue speaks with melancholy but simple emphasis of 
his victory over Godred, on that night of the Ephipany, 1158, — and 
dates the ruin of the kingdom of the Isles from the time when sd fair a 
portion of it was ceded to his sons^^ 
Fourth. (4.) The history of the descendants of these sons, down to the last of 

the above-specified epochs, is the history of Argyllshire. More especially 
this is the case with the great family De Insulis^ — ^those princes who^', 
"exercising sovereign power, and frequently asserting a royal style, ap- 
''pear in history, at long intervals, treating almost on equal terms with 
"the greatest crowned heads, while, in the intermediate times, their remote 
"existence is marked only by the ravages of their followers on every 
" coast where a prey was to be taken." — We have seen that in 1266 the 
Isles were delivered from feudal subjection to Norway :«~and every reader 
of Scott's celebrated poem is aware that the Lord of the Isles, with Sir 
Neill Campbell, espoused the cause of Balliol, and the Lord of Lome 
, that of Balliol. Thus we understand at once how the occurrences at the 

end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth century, depressed 
the M^'Dougals, — increased (for a time) the ascendancy of the McDo- 
nalds, — and laid the foundation of that power which the Campbells gained 
in succeeding centuries. The mention of these individual families is in 
no way a digression from the subject before us : for of the Highlands it 
is peculiarly true, that their history cannot be understood without some 
attention to genealogy ; and I think it will be found that no one fact has 
been mentioned which has not an important bearing upon the illustra- 
tion of churches, chapels, crosses, and tombstones. 
EcdesiMticai I tum uow to thc considcratiou of the History of Religion in Argyll- 
gyushire. shirc. lu this respect, also, the middle of the sixth century is found to 
be the most important epoch, not only for the Western Islands, but even 
for the whole of Scotland. For the introduction of Christianity was due 
to the invasion of the Scots. Ninian, indeed, had converted the Britons 
of Valentia, whom Bede calls the Southern Picts, about the beginning 
of the fifth century, which is the date of the conversion of Ireland ; he 
is said to have founded a bishoprick at Whitherne, and to have built 
there a stone church (inusitato Britannia more); and in many places in 
" Chr. Man. Johnstone. " Pasl. Cart, preface. 



Scotland his name still lingers^^ But the first effective establishment of 
the Church in North Britain accompanied the foundation of the Scottish 
kingdom. Together they were founded in a small settlement on the 
western coast, and together they spread and increased, till, in three hun- 
dred years, they had absorbed the East and the North. 

St Kieran. yj|g gj.g|. Christian teacher is said to have been St Kieran, who came 

from Ireland with the sons of Eric in 503^^ His memory is still retain^ 
ed in the Gaelic name of Campbeltown, which is Cean-loch-Kieran ; in 
the burying-ground of Kilkerran, in which a parochial chapel formerly 
stood ; and in St Kieran 's cave, where it is said that a cross is still to be 
seen, engraved upon the rock. It is said of him that he was founder of 
the monastery of Clon on the Shenan, and that he was one of the instructors 

STCoLUMBA.of St Columba, the great Apostle of Scotland^*. St Columba was to 
the Ficts what St Augustine was, a few years later, to the Saxons. I do 
not know that the date of his mission can be better impressed on the me- 
mory, than by bearing in mind the two consecutive sentences which appear 
in the last chapter of Bede, under the years 565^% and 596. — '' Anno DLXV 
Columba presbyter de Scottia venit Britanniam ad docendos Pictas, et in insula 
Hii numasterium fecit: and then immediately after: Anno DXCVI, Gre- 
gorius papa misit Britanniam Augustinum cum monachis^ qui verbum Dei 
genti Anglorum evangelizarenV. Columba is said to have made a vow 
that he would not rest until he should arrive at a spot from which he could 
not see Ireland : and this is probably true, for such a notion has still a 
place in the traditions of the Highlanders. At length he rested in Hy or 

i^n, lona "the Holy Island"" — and then, with the twelve followers who had 

'* Chalmers, x. The Irish form of his name is Ringan, ^^ Chalmers. 

*' Stat. Ace. V. X. The Irish saint to whom Perranzabuloe in Cornwall is dedicated, was 
also St Kieran or Queianus, of which Pieran or Piranus is a British version. He however was 
bom in 352. Perranzabrdoe^ by Mr. Collins, p. 7. — See Smithes Life of St Colmnba, where the 
beginning of an ode by him on St Eieran'^s death is quoted from Colgan : 

Quantum, Christe ! apostolum, 
Mundo misisti hominem ! 
Lucema hujus insula, &c. 
^' In more than one of the editions of Bede there is an error of the press in this date. 
'' Bede. 

'* li-shona ' the sacred isle," pronounced ee-h<ma, the siUlant being mlent before the aspi- 
rate. Maclaine^s Hist. Ace. of lona, p. 4. 


accompanied him in the voyage, spent two years in constructing huts and 
a Church**. These holy men seem to have been wonderfully prospered in 
their work. The king of the Picts was converted ; cells were established 
in the Hebrides ; churches were built far and wide ; and numerous monas- 
teries were founded, all of which are spoken of as subject to the Abbot of lona. 
Here we find ourselves brought into contact with a controversy, which 
(as it seems to me) would have caused less difficulty and perplexity, if 

Cuidees. authors had calmly rested on original authorities. I allude to the Culdees. 
An enquiry into the peculiarities of their institutions would probably not 
be foreign to the objects of this Society: but it is only necessary at 
present to notice two facts, which go far to clear the controversy; (1) that 
the term Culdee is not found in Nennius, Adomnan, or Bede, in fact, not 
in any writer before the year 800^; (2) that the name is not limited to 
Scotland, but is also found in Ireland, England and Wales". Some de- 
rive the name from Cuildeach^ a name still given to persons who dislike 
Society", others, with more probability, from GilU-De "the servant of 
God";" and I have seen the Culdees called in Latin, by a curious al- 
literating correspondence, Colidei. There is ho doubt that they were 
Keltic monks, living under a rule, whether brought by Columba from 
France**, or drawn up by himself, or introduced with other institutions 
from the Eastern churches, — at all events, difiering from the rules of those 
strictly Roman orders, which began to supersede them about the year 1200, 
and gradually supplanted them entirely. The Culdees had establishments 
at Abernethy, Dunkeld, and many other places : and to them we ourselves 
owe no meagre gratitude, for they were the means of converting the Saxons 
of the north, and Bishop Aidan came from Lindisfame. As Bede says, the 
Irish were far kinder in teaching the Anglo-Saxons than the Welsh were. 
I apprehend, however, that on the West coast and in the Western 

Hermits. Islauds the inhabitants were converted rather by means of hermits and 
hermitages, than by monks and monasteries. This I infer from the na- 
ture of the country, which would require the presence of individuals scat- 
tered at wide intervals, and from the local traditions and memorials which 

»• Chalmers. ~ Lloyd. '* Chalmers. 

" Bev. Mr Campbell, of MuU, in Stat. Ace. 

" Smithes Lifb of Columba ; and Maclean. 

** Before he left Ireland he had been much in France. 



Character of 
the ancient 

The North, 

Still remain attached to the names of particular saints. Almost all the 
old churches are dedicated to Scoto-Irish Saints; about ten might be 
enumerated in Argyllshire and the Hebrides which are named after Co- 
lumba; — and the burying-grounds are innumerable which bear the name 
of some of these holy men**. 

, It is very pleasing to come so frequently upon the footsteps of these 
ancient saints, and to be reminded at every turn of their faith and their 
good deeds, their patient love and exalted self-denial. " These holy Men," 
to quote the words of an old writer, "such as Columba, Kentigern, Comin, 
Cibthac, and many more, too numerous to be here inserted, liv'd retir'd 
from the world and its vanities, without ambition, covetousness, or pride, 
intent upon nothing but the service of God, and the yet unspotted church. 
They never stir'd abroad, but to gain souls. They preach'd more by 
example than word of mouth. The simplicity of their garb, gesture, and 
behaviour, was irresistibly eloquent. They did good to every body, and 
sought no reward. Preferments, cabals, intrigues, division, sedition, were 
things unknown to them. There were bishops among them, but no lords ; 
presbyters, but no stipends, or very small ones ; monks, truly such, hum- 
ble, retir'd, poor, chast, sober and zealous. In a word, they were, in 
a literal sense. Saints**." 

The incursions of the Northmen were at first attended with disastrous 
consequences to the religious institutions of the west of Scotland. It is 
important to have some general notion of the progress of Christianity among 
these wild invaders, before we can speak with confidence of the Eccle- 

" The prefix Kil^ which is explained by the Highlanders to mean ^ a burying-ground,^ is 
probably the Latin CeUa^ and, with the term EpliSj ^'a church'*'* (ecclesia), introduced with 
Christianity. Icohnkil, the well known name of lona, is ^' the island of the Cell of Columba,'*'* 
—or ^' of Columba of the CeU,'*'* as indeed we are told by Bede himself, v. 9, Colwmha nunc 
a nonullis composito a cella et Columha nomine ColwmcelU voccUur. Kil is the Llcm of the 
Cambro-Britons (Chalmers), and Eglis means 'a church^ in Welsh, as well as in Gaelic. 
And I think we may discover a parallel example of the introduction of a Christian term in the 
word tiampley which in the Island of Lewis is applied to certain remains of ruined hermitages. 
Sc. Ant. Soc. I. 289. The same may be said, I presume, of the names still lingering in lona, 
as mentioned by Dr. Smith; Cnoc-ainpeal, ''The Angels^ Hill,'*'* p. 31. Ttdach nan Salm, 
** The Hill of Psalms,'' p. 66. . Clagh nam Martireach, " The Martyrs' burying-place," p. 130. 
I hope I shall be forgiven by Gaelic scholars if I write these words incorrectly. 

■• Dr. P. Abercrombie Mart. Ach. of Scotland, i. 106. 


siastical Antiquities of this tract of country. At their first appearance, 
ni^^n^i^^ about the year 800, it is clear enough that they were utter heathens, from 
the merciless cruelty with which they attacked the religious houses, and 
slew the brethren. In 793 they burnt the monastery of Lindisfarne ; and 
soon afterwards Beverly, Ripon, Jarrow, and others, shared the same fate*': 
and the Scoto-Irish Church on the 'West buffered as severely as the Saxon 
Church on the East. If we look into the Ulster Annals, we find brief and 
expressive entries, such as the following : — 702. All the coasts of Britain 

ravaged by the Gals'".— 801. I-coUum-Kill burnt by the G&ls 839. The 

G&ls left Loch-na-Caoch, and carried ofi* the Bishops, Clergy, and learned 
men. — 880. The oratory of St Kieran plundered by the G&ls. — 985. The 
Gals slew the abbott of lona^. 
Christian in Qu the Other hand, it is clear, that, at the time of Haco's unsuccessfiil 

the thirteenth 

century. expedition in the thirteenth century, the Norwegians were entirely and 
thoroughly Christian. Each incident in that expedition is, in the Nor- 
wegian narrative, associated after a beautifiil manner with some festival 
of the Christian Church. One of the original complaints made to Haco, 
in 1262, was that the Earl of Ross had burnt churches in the Isle of Sky. 
When the expedition was at Gudey (Gigha) an abbott of a monastery of 
Grey-friars came to beg protection for their dwelling and the Holy Church. 
At the same place Father Simon, who accompanied the fleet, having been 
very sick, died and was buried in Kintyre. Haco, before his death in 
Orkney, visited the shrine of St Magnus, and received extreme unction 
on the eve of the feast of St Lucia. 

When con. Such was the religious state of the Norwegians at the two periods of 

which I speak: the question arises, — How did the change proceed in the 
intermediate time ? Now it is known that Reginald, the son of Somerled, 
founded Saddel Abbey about 1150^; and from the form of certain char- 

■^ Ghurton, x. 

" Gal means stranper. The Gals were divided into the Fiongdl^ or white strangers, and the 
lyuhh Odl^ or black strangers, supposed to be the Norwegians and the Danes respectively. 

*• Ulster Annals, as edited by Mr. Johnstone. The invasions of the Vfldngr were indirectly 
also a cause of great loss to lona. The churches of G^oway had been under its patronage, but 
after it was ahnost ruined by the Vikingr, William the Lion gave these churches and chapels 
to the monks of Holyrood. Chalmers. "^ Spotswood. 



ters extant in the Cbartulary of Paisley Abbey, reaching back to the 
same date, and granting Churches in Argyllshire to that house, it seems 
impossible not to infer that Christianity possessed a full and complete 
organization in that district. Again, the Ulster Annals (which for such 
an inference may be safely trusted) shew clearly that even in the tenth 
century, the Vikingr retained their utter disregard for sacred places and 
sacred things. Hence the time within which we must suppose Chris- 
tianity to have been fully established among this part of the Hebridean 
population, is limited to the two centuries between 950 and 1150. Thus 
we might a priori fix upon the year 1000, as expressing that time with 
sufficient accuracy. But further: this is exactly the truest and most cor- 
rect date which could be fixed on for the establishment of the True Re- 
ligion in the Scandinavian kingdoms themselves. Pinkerton tells us, that 
St Amsgar'^ was to Scandinavia what St Columba was to Scotland : and 
this is probably true. It seems most likely that the Archiepiscopal See 
at Hamburgh, established by Lewis in 833 to centralise his missionary 
exertions, continued after his death to exert a powerful and increasing 
influence upon the shores of the Baltic : but, until the time I have men- 
tioned, the Paganism of the North continued to exert a determined resist- 
ance. In Norway, Haco the Good was unable to introduce the religion 
into which he had been baptized at the Anglo-Saxon Court ; nay, so 
grievous was his own vacillation, that he is said to have exclaimed before 
his death, '' As a heathen I have lived : as a heathen, not as a Christian, 
must I be buried^." Again, in 949 the establishment of Christianity was 
proposed to the diet; but in vain. It remained for Olave Tryggiason, 
about fifty years later, to convert his subjects, as the historians say, '^ at 
the point of the sword®/' In Denmark^ about the year 950, king Harald, 
at the instance of Otto the Great, used great efibrts in the cause of reli- 
gion, and erected a cathedral at Roskild, and churches in various parts 
of his dominions : but Paganism was not rooted out till about the year 
1020, when Canute, with the introduction of feudalism, built cathedrals 
and cloisters, and provided them with Saxon priests^. Sweden^ as well 
as Norway, owed Christianity to Saint Olave. It seems to have been the 

'* Or Anacharius. Pref. to Hist, of Scotland. " Wheaton^s Hist, 

•• Wheaton and Mosheim. ** Wheaton. 



latest of the three kingdoms in the commencement of every good insti- 
tution : and its Church had to oppose Paganism till the days of St Eric, 
in the middle of the twelfth century**. Thus the year 1000 may be taken 
as the date of the establishment of Christianity in Scandinavia; and^ bear* 
ing in mind the connexion continually kept up with the maritime depen* 
dencies, we shall have no difficulty in believing that its establishment in 
the Hebjides was nearly contemporaneous. Besides, we are distinctly in- 
formed, that Olave sent missionaries at this time to Iceland and Green- 
land^; and we have a curious narrative of his visit to Earl Sigurd, in 
Orkney, when he offered the alternative of baptism or death". Nor must 
we forget the influence which would certainly be exerted by the existing 
Christianity of the conquered Scots, in proportion as the two tribes be- 
came amalgamated into one people. Count Rollo obtained Normandy as 
a heathen, but immediately with his followers adopted the religion of his 
feudal superior. Such would be the case with the Vikingr in the He- 
brides, so soon as their new possessions became to them a home. How far 
their Christianity was due to missionaries from the North, — or how far 
they were taken captive by the religion of their subjects, — ^it is not very 
easy to determine: but such investigations as that we are now engaged 
in, may ultimately contribute something towards the answer of such an 
Subsequent From the eleventh century, then, we may consider Christianity as com- 

Hitionr of the 

Church. pletely rooted among all the tribes of Western Scotland : nor does the 
history of the Church in that country appear to differ thenceforward, in 
its general features, from its history over the whole of Europe. The re- 
ligious orders, — the Papacy, — the disputes of the regular and secular 
clergy, — the warrior-bishops and the lawyer-bishops, — ^the See of York, 
and its claims of supremacy, — finally, the Crown and its assumption of 
patronage, — ^these are the topics which fill the subsequent period of the 
History of the Church in Scotland. 

One event, however, requires a special notice, — the supplanting of the 

The Roman CuMcc mouks by rcHgious orders immediately in connexion with Rome, — 
the Augustinians and Benedictines, and subsequently the Dominicans and 

"* Bell's Tables. *• Wheaton. '^ Torfseus, quoted in Arch. Sc. iv. 





8t Andrew. 


Franciscans. This was completely effected about the thirteenth century^. 
Like the Easter controversy of the seventh century, this occurrence will 
be viewed in different lights, according to the different predilections of 
historical students. As in the former case, some would consider it an 
act of pious obedience to the Church, when "Egbert, that man of God, 
" corrected the monks of Hy to the Catholic pascha and the ecclesiastical 
"tonsure^, — some would consider their previous resistance as a noble pro- 
test against Romish usurpation; — so, in the latter case, some might view 
the foundation of religious houses on stricter rules and with a more com- 
plete organization, in place of the earlier monasteries, as the introduction 
of a more effective and beneficial system, — others would consider it as the 
rivetting of all that was dangerous and erroneous. As regards lona, the 
piratical invasions were the first events which weakened its vigour and 
lowered its commanding position. In 849 a church was built at Dunkeld 
by King Kenneth, and a Culdee institution at that place held the highest 
post in the Church of Scotland; and at the beginning of the tenth 
century, St Andrew's succeeded to that position, — and St Andrew became, 
what St Columba had been before, the patron Saint of Scotland. At this 
place the Canons Regular were subsequently introduced, and after various 
disputes with the Culdees, entirely supplanted them*^ The same was the 
case at Scone, Lochleven, Abernethy, &c. The reign of David I. was the 
great epoch of these religious changes*\ — and after that of Alexander II. 
the Culdees disappear from history. 

The early condition of the episcopal sees has often been spoken of 
as though it were different in Scotland from what it was in other countries. 
The principal difference, however, seems to have been — that the geographi- 
cal arrangement of jurisdictions, ^nd especially the metropolitan system, 
were completed later than elsewhere". So late as the eleventh century 

*• Smith, 163. "• Bede. *^ Chalmers. 

*' He was especially a patron of the Canons Beg. of St. Augustine, and of the Bernardlne 
Cistertians. Tytler, ii. 177. 

^ See Holinshed for a complete account of the formation of Bishopricks. King Kenneth is 
said to have translated to the church of St Bud, to be called St Andrew^ the Bishoprick 
which had been at Abernethy during the Pictlsh kingdom. He was afterwards called Primtts 
ScoUorum Episccpus. Kenneth is said to have paid great attention to churches, oratories, &c. 
Again, Malcolm II. built at Mortlack, out of an old chapel dedicated to St Moloch, a cathedral, 
and founded an Episcopal See, afterwards translated to Aberdeen, Abercrombie. 


it does not appear that bishopricks w^re locally settled in all parts of 
Scotland. Even in 1188 the seal of the Bishop of St Andrew's bears 
the inscription ^^Scottorum Episcopus." David I. restored the bishop- 
ricks of Glasgow and Aberdeen, and founded those of Dumblane, Brechin, 
Dunkeld, Mory, Ross, and Caithness^. The erection of St Andrew's and 
Glasgow into archiepiscopal sees took place (as is well known) at periods 
considerably later, the first in 1471, the second in 1488. 
gpochiiof I have twice had occasion to speak of king David I.; and now, in 

'"^' turning to the subject of Ecclesiastical Architecture, his reign (like the 

almost contemporary reign of Henry II. in England^) is to be noticed 
as the greatest epoch of church-building. He it was who built the 
Abbeys of Holyrood, Kelso, Jedburgh, Dryburgh, &c.^: and therefore it 
was that James I. said of him that he had been '' a sair saunt to the crown." 
Perhaps the next great epoch of church-building is the first half of the 
fourteenth century, as the country was reviving from time to time after 
the wars with England : and of this epoch we have a glorious monument 
in the ruins of Melrose". The last is probably the latter half of the 
fifteenth century, — when so many collegiate churches were erected, as 
foundations for secular canons: for instance (to illustrate from existing 
remains in the county of Mid Lothian) Corstophin about 1430, Crichton 
and Roslin about 1450, the Trinity college about 1460, St. Giles' about 
1470, and Dalkeith about 1500. Dr. Abercrombie says, that Hawthornden 
observes (pp. 178, 179, &c.) of the reign of James III., that "the rarest 
frames of chapels, churches, halls, palaces and gardens, were mostly raised 
about his time ;" and goes on to remark on the improvements introduced 
by him in music and Divine service, observing that this king ''had as 
few faults as any except Malcolm and St David*'." 
styiesofscotch As regards the discrimination of styles in Scotland, — this, I appro- 

Architecture. ^ ^ ^ * 

hend, is a subject of considerable difficulty, and it is certain that, as yet, 
it has received no adequate attention. If we compare the English with 
the continental architecture, it seems that, after the Pure Romanesque, 
which, throughout all Europe was marked by the same characteristics, — 
there emerged in England, a perfect and unique style (the Early English), 

^ Chalmers. ^ Whitaker's Bichmondshire. ^ Scott. ^ Morton. 

^' II. 486. James I. seems to have been the first to introduce organs into Scotland, ii. 277. 


presenting features far more self-consistent than appear in the contem- 
porary buildings on the Continent; that the Perfect Gothic, the Decorated 
style of EJngland, was not materially different in its forms in the various 
countries of Europe ; and that after this period, the Gothic fell away into 
various national styles, — as the Flamboyant in France, and the Perpen- 
dicular in Britain. A general, though somewhat vague impression, left on 
my mind by the Scottish buildings is, that they will be found to vary 
from the English, if compared in the order of Chronological sequence, — 
but to vary according to a different law, from the above. I think that 
the Early-Scotch Grothic is almost as self-consistent a style as the Early- 
English Gothic, and extremely similar, — ^that the Middle-Scotch never 
worked itself so free from early forms as the Decorated in England, — 
and that the Later-Scotch exhibited in many points the character of a 
return upon the Earliest Gothic. Mr. Rickman has more than once re- 
marked the lingering of early forms with late details^^, and on the symp- 
toms of French influence, which we should be prepared to expect from 
the manifold points of contact between the histories of France and Scot- 
land : — but he has not presented us with any principles, generalised from 
extensive observation. The notion expressed above is thrown out merely 
as a hint which may possibly contain some portion of truth. I feel that 
no general conclusions are warranted by so meagre a collection of par- 
ticulars as I have been able to make; and that a careful enumeration 
of the scanty remains of one county is likely to contribute far more 
towards the elucidation of Scottish Architecture, than a precocious theory, 
however ingenious. 
ch^^ch * ^^^ County of Argyllshire suggests at once to our minds the thought 

ArgyUsWre. ^f jjj^ earlicst buildings of Scotland, — the monasteries founded by Columba, 
the churches built through his influence, and the cells of Culdee hermits. 
We are irresistibly tempted to ask of what materials these were con- 
structed, and whether any remains of these sacred and ancient edifices 
are yet left us. Now, though the author of the life of Kentigern called 

^ I have observed the round-headed doorway lingering to a late period, as at lona ; — and 
square edges in late and richly ornamented piers as at St. GiW, Edinburgh ; — also in the latter 
building a great profusion of the roll and fillet-moulding. 


the monastery of lona a ghriosum ccenobium*^^ and though we seem to read 
in Adomnan of a bell which rang for prayers**^, of carriages with wheels, 
of orchards, and of glass utensils, of a hortulanus and a /cAer among 
the brethren", — yet we find ourselves forced to believe that the buildings 
were principally constructed of mud and wicker-work. We can hardly 
avoid the conviction that the archiccenohium of lona was closely similar to 
the monastery of Lindisfarne ; and there we are told by Bede, that St Finan 
built his church more Scoiorum^ non de Lapide, sed de rohore secto et arundim^'. 
Adomnan too, himself, mentions a dispute in lona, between the monks and 
the proprietor of some land, where stakes and wands had been cut for re- 
pairing their houses ; we can hardly flatter ourselves therefore that any 
fragments remain of what was built by the hands of these saints, — save 
perhaps such earthen walls as are found in the Island of Lewis, and tradi- 
tionally said to be the relics of hermitages^. But indeed, if there were rea« 
son to suppose these buildings of more durable materials, it is hardly 
possible that any part of them could have survived the cruel and repeated 
violence of the Northern Pirates. Thus we are forced down to the eleventh 
century as the commencement of our architectural enquiries: and here I 
would make two remarks of a general nature, which may conveniently 
conclude this paper. 

First, we ought not to lose sight of the possibility that Scandinavian 
fn^flU^^e^**" taste may have exerted an influence, or even Scandinavian workmen have 
been employed, on the buildings or sculptures in Argyllshire. This will 
be pointed out more particularly when the crosses and monumental stones 
come to be noticed. In the mean time it is enough to say that the 
bishops of the Isles were for some time consecrated at Drontheim'^^, — ^that 
an archiepiscopal see was fixed there about 1150, with supremacy over 
Man, the Hebrides, Orkney, Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands, — 
that about 1200, Bishop Eistein began a Metropolitan Church, which was 
to rival the best Gothic edifices in Europe, and completed the choir, — 

*• In illo glorioso coenobio quod in insula Hy construerat. Smith. 

^ When king Aidan was going to battle — Sanctua subito ad suum dicit ministratorem 
' cloccam pul8a\ Cujus sonitu fratres incitati ad ecclesiam ocius cumint. Ibid. 
" Smith 80. " i". 25. See Moore's Ireland. 

" Arch. Sc. I. 209. " Pennant. 

PoMibility of 


and that the maia body was finished in 1248*^ by Archbishop Sigurd, who 
employed Anglo-Norman architects. 
Importance of The sccond remark I have to make is> what was hinted at before, viz. 


that, in these enquiries, we must not underrate the importance of genea- 
logical information. As the antiquities of Paisley Abbey ought not to be 
studied without attention to the history of the Stewart family,— nor the 
antiquities of Beauley Abbey without attention to that of the Lovat fa- 
mily ; — so ought not the ecclesis^stical remains of the Western Islands to 
be investigated without a careful recurrence to the fortunes, first of the 
McDonalds, and then of the Campbells. The history of a rude age is to 
be found in the biography of great and heroic and religious characters ; 
such characters have not been rare in Scotland: and of ancient Scottish 
worthies, those sprung from the Western Islands have not been the least 
influential, or the least memorable. 

•* Wheaton. 





A Paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society^ on Monday February 7, 1842 : ly 

J. S. HowsoN, Esq., M.A., Trinity College. 

Tavaypa7oi vofxicrai rd es roi/9 Qeov^ x€iXXf<rTa SokoSciv 'EkX^vwv. y(wpii /liv yap 
oi oUiai atfuaiVf ^wpl^ Si to, iepd vwep avra? iv KcSap^ re itrri Kat eicros avBpwirwv. 


Plan proposed. I FIRST propose to givc a brief description of the ancient Parochial Chapels 
in Argyllshire, then of the Cathedral Churches, the religious houses, the 
Crosses and Monumental Remains, in their order. In connexion with the 
Parochial Chapels such other antiquities will be noticed as do not con- 
veniently fall under any of the other heads : and my plan will be to com- 
mence with the southernmost of the parishes, and follow them seriatim to 
the north, and then to return to the islands. 
Hwjwyo^" It is important, in the first place, to ascertain how soon the parochial 

fryiiihire, system was formed in Argyllshire. It is likely enough that some parishes 
were constituted at an early period in the Saxon part of Scotland : for there 
were parishes in Northumberland before the time of Bede. But it seems 
clear that, if such subdivisions prevailed at all in the northern districts of 
Scotland during the Pictish and Scottish periods, they owed their existence 
to private individuals, not to public authority. From the commencement, 
however, of the Scoto-Saxon period (1097) parishes were systematically 
formed. They undoubtedly existed under Malcolm Caen More; and in 
the reign of Alexander II. they were generally prevalent. The western 
parts of the Highlands probably formed an exception, or at least were the 
last to be submitted to this important arrangement. This we should be 
inclined to expect, not only from the nature of the country and the irregular 
habits of the population, but also from the general character of all Keltic 
tribes, which differs so widely from the strong tendency to organization 
and subdivision, which marks every people of Saxon origin. But we have 



a further reason to believe this from the history of the constitution of 
Sherifiwiks. Though they were in course of formation from the reigns 
of Alexander I. and David I., yet (as we learn from Chalmers) Galloway, 
Argyll, Ross, and the Western Isles, remained, till a very recent period, under 
the ancient policy of Gaelic times. In fact, as the same author observes, 
Sheriffwiks gained as the Scoto-Saxons gained on the Gaels: and it was 
not till the reign of James IV . that it was enacted that justices and sheriffs 
be made for the isles\ Thus, I think, it may be concluded that the formation 
of that thorough parochial system, which existed in Argyllshire at the time 
of the Reformation, was not completed till a comparatively late date ; though 
there is little doubt (as we shall see presently) that certain benefices were 
endowed, and their territory defined by individual men of power, especially 
of the family de Insults, 

Parishes »t the At the Reformation, many parishes were united, and the churches suffered 
to go into decay. In 1810 the whole number of parishes in Scotland was 
897 : three hundred years before there were perhaps twice as many. And 
in parishes, where there are now only one or two places of worship, there 
used to be a large number. In the island of Harris, for instance, it is said 
that there are the walls of twelve, with the remembrance of others ; in 
Tiree and Coll the traces of fifteen*. With the causes of this we have 
at present nothing to do, any more than with the efibrts since made to 
remedy the evil. In enumerating the chapels which are left in Argyllshire, 
it will be sufficient to take the parishes as found in the Statistical Account 
published at the beginning of this century, though some of them have 
been since subdivided. 

Southend. I commcucc with the parish of Southend. This includes the island 

of Sanda and a portion of Kintyre. In each of these there is a chapel 
remaining. That which is on the mainland is in a burying-ground called 
Kilcolmkill, — dedicated therefore to S. Columba. Its proportions are very 
extraordinary; for it measures 24 yards by 5. There is on the north 

^ Chalmers and Tytler, ii. 204, 2nd edit. See also u. 245, on the subject of commerce. 
*^ The progress of improvement is directly commensurate with the gradual pressing back of the 
Celtic population into the remoter northern districts, by the more industrious race of the Saxons 
and the Anglo-Normans.'"' 

' Chalmers. 



side some trace of a junction in the wall. It might be conjectured that 
the east end only was used for worship, and that the rest was the dwell- 
ing of a priest» as was the case elsewhere. Another explanation, which 
I have heard suggested, is, that the original chapel might have been 
elongated because of the occasional concourse of Norwegians and Islanders: 
for it is well known that the island of Sanda was a rendezvous for their 
fleets. The walls are low, but strong and in good repair, and have been 
in parts renewed. The East window is built up. The others are of 
Norman shape, with a deep splay, plain, but not mean : and the doorway 
Is similar* Near it is a fragment of what was probably an Aspersorium. 
It appears that, besides this chapel dedicated to S. Columba, there was 
formerly another on the mainland dedicated to S. Blaan^ .The chapel 
on the Island is called Kil*ma-Shenaghan. This is smaller than the 
former; and has projecting from the wall either a piscina or a benatura: 
I forget its position. The saint Shenaghan is said to have come from 
Ireland, and to have been left by Columba in charge of Kilcolmkil. On 
a small island near are traces of another building; and on the southern 
coast of Sanda of a third, which is associated with traditions of the 
hero FingaK 
Campbeltown. xhc parish of Campbeltown is made up of four united parishes, Kil- 
Kerran, Kil-Michael, Kil-Chouslan, and Kil-Coivin* Of the saints he^e 
indicated the last is supposed by Dr. Smith^ to be S* Clement. A 
few traces of the building which bears his name are still to be seen. 
The first is the celebrated saint, whom I have mentioned as the first 
preacher of Christianity in the Highlands. The burying*ground dedicated 
to him remains, though the chapel is gone: and he is further commemo- 
rated by the traces of a cross and rude altar in a cave which bears his 
name\ The chapel of Kil-Michael is, I believe, quite destroyed : but the 
walls of Kil-Chouslan remain entire* It is in the direction of Saddel 
Abbey, on a rocky eminence overhanging the sea, with the usual en* 
closure, containing tombstones, ancient and modern. It is in dimensions 
similar to the others which are described in this paper, but the windows 
are flat-topped, 

* Stat. Ace. iii. * Stat. Ace. x. * Anderson, 372. 



Notwithstanding, however, that little remains of these four chapels^ 
there are certain documentary authorities extant, which may go far to 
elucidate the history, not of these only, but of all the Parochial Chapels 
in the county. These are the charters relating to Argyllshire, and 
especially to the family de InsuUs^ which occupy more than thirty pages 
in that Edition of the Chartulary of Paisley which has lately been so 
accurately printed by the Maitland Club. They are chiefly concerning 
grants made to the Abbey of Paisley, by certain lineal descendants of 
Somerled, of the lands and patronage of Kilkerran^ Kilcolmoneh and Kil- 
Jinan; — to the Abbey of Paisley, rather than to others in the immediate 
neighbourhood (as has been reasonably conjectured), because Somerled fell 
in battle near Paisley. Our concern is with Kilkerran. We find among the 
above-mentioned charters the gift of Engus Jilii Dovenaldi super eccUsia Sancti 
Querani in Kentyir^ with the confirmation of Bishops Alan and Laurence, 
witnessed by James the Seneschal of Scotland, pro salute (as the donor says) 
domini mei Alexandri illustris regis Scotie^ et pro salute Alexandri Jilii ejMy 
et pro salute mea propria et haredum mearum. Then follows a gift of the 
same per Alexathdrum de HyU^ which is in fact a ratification by the son 
and heir of the above-mentioned Angus, with the seals afiixed of Bp. 
Laurence, and domini Roherti Brus' comitis de Carrie; and next a Donatio 
per Alanum Episcopum of the said Church o( Kilkeran (for so it is spelt), — 
i.e. an authoritative ratification, which he had given to the Paisley 
Monastery, altendentes^ as he says, hospitalitatem et alia dona misericordie que 
in dicto monasterio fiunt et crescunt quotidie. An ordinance follows against 
the rector, Malcolm, for not paying the pensio to the Abbey, by Bp. Alan. 
Lastly, there is a presentatio ecclesie de Kylkeran; which gives an account 
of a cause between the Abbot and Convent of Paisley on the one hand, 
and Bp. Laurence ou the other, -^who appeared per magistrum Nicholaum 

rectorem ecclesie Sancti Modaui procuratorem suum in ecclesia majori Glas* 

guensi before the Bp. of S. Andrews, delegate of the papal see. The 

result was that Angus, qui se gerehat pro vicario in eadem ecclesia, was to 
resign, on the understanding that the Abbot was afterwards to present 
him. It must be observed that the date of all these deeds is between 
1250 and 1300. I have been thus minute in enumerating the particulars, 
and quoting the words of these documents, because everything is important 


which may tend to bring into view the religious state of the Highlands, 
in a period the features of which we find it difficult to realise. Thus much 
we cannot doubt (and this is what mainly concerns us at present), that, 
if definite parishes were not formed in this latter half of the 13th century, 
yet benefices were endowed, and churches built, where we know them to 
have existed ever since the Reformation. And what was true of Kintyre 
was no doubt true of many other parts of Argyllshire, especially where 
the family of the Isles held sway. This we shall see more fully shewn 
hereafter. Meanwhile, I content myself with saying generally, that I think 
I?w ciSmIs *^® remaining Parochial Chapels of Argyllshire were mostly of the J 8th 
the^uf/ei?- century, (1) because their architectural appearance makes this probable, 
and all are much alike: (2) because we find (as in the case before us) 
that churches were existing then on the exact spots where the ruins are 
found : (3) because the family of the Isles were then in great power 
and wealth, and where we find them interested in some churches, they 


would probably be so in others. 

KiichSiric^ The united parish of Killean and Kilchenzie, or S. John and 

S. Kenneth, runs up the western coast. Some very imperfect remains 
of Kilchenzie are still to be seen. But further to the north is the chapel 
of Tyanloam, with the walls quite perfect. The windows are in ap- 
pearance Norman, and well shaped: at the east end are two, divided by 
a narrow strip of wall. Tyanloam is sometimes said to have been a mo- 
nastery, but I do not know on what authority. 

cifl?**"** '^^^ islands, off the coast of this part of the county, Gigha and Cara, 

form another parish, which is thought to have once been part of the parish 
of Killean, and also of Jura and Colonsay. Dean Monro speaks of *' ane 
little iyle, with a chapel in it, callit Caray:" and accordingly the writer 
in the Statistical Account says, there is ''a chapel 26 feet long, with a 
gothtc arched doorway on the north side%" The Dean tells us also of 
''ane paroche kirk in Gigay." Martin says: *' There is a church in this 
island called Kil-chattan, and it has an altar in the East end, and upon 
it a font of stone which is very large, and hath a small hole in the middle 
which goes quite through it^." It seems almost certain that a piscina is 
here spoken of: but the writer in the Statistical Account appears, in tl^e 

• viii, ' Martin, p. 228. 


following passage, to speak of a reial font : '' The chapel is 33 feet by 

14^ .there is a long narrow window at the East, and a font nearly 

octagonal, of two feet diameter without, and one and a half within, eight 
inches deep, and four inches thick at the bott6Ai^" I very much regret 
that I have not been able to visit this island. If there is really a font 
still remaining, it is probably the only one in the county of Argyll. 

saddeiand Ou the East wc havc the united parish of Saddel and Skipness. 

kSSSt."^ These two parishes were in 1753 disjoined from the parishes of Killean 
and Kilcolmonel, and made into one. In the Saddel district there is nothing 
worthy of notice which is not elsewhere described : but our attention must 
be given, in an especial manner, to the Skipness district, particularly in 
its connexion with Kilcolmonel, — not so much because there is a chapel 
there in tolerable preservation, as because we are there brought again in 
contact with the Chartulary of Paisley. The Chapel near Skipness Castle 
is about the same size as those to be hereafter described, and appears most 
like what we should call Early English. The East window is of two lights. 

Before quoting from the record above alluded to, it will be desirable to 
bring under our consideration the neighbouring parish of Kilcolmonel and 
KiLBEBRY. Part of the ancient and extensive parish of Knapdale seems 
at the Reformation to have been annexed to Kilcolmonel*: where, as well 
as at Kilberry , there were no doubt Parochial Chapels, but I believe they 
ar6 quite destroyed. A bell, however, called St. Barry's bell, with the 
sainfs name in Latin and Saxon characters, but without a date, is said to 
have been used some forty years ago, as the dinner-bell at Kilberry. The 
writer in the Statistical Account, from whom I have borrowed the last piece 
of information, quotes a couplet which associates certain patron-saints with 
particular clans : 

Cohum^y Clan A gorry : Barry , Clan Muraohie ; 
Mae Ckarmaipy Clan Neile: Martin^ Clan Donachie. 

It is an enquiry well worth pursuing, whether the same custom subsisted 
generally, which we see in regard to these four Argyllshire saints; and 
whether each clan had a patron-saint, as each had a tartan and badge of 
its own*®. 

 viii. • Stat. Ace. xiv. 

^* Each clan had a fish, a fowl^ a beast, and a vegetable of its own, as is commonly said. 


I turn now to the Paisley Chartulary. Here we find first a Donatio 
super jure patronatus Sancti Colmanelij per Lhffgallum JiUum Syjyn" in Kentyr^ 
with the assent of John his heir, cum eapeUa (as the deed goes on to say), 
Sancti Columhe que sita £st juxta castrum meum de Schepehinche^ post decessum 
Clementis rectoris efusdem ecclesie. It is annexed as a condition, that the 
body of the donor is to be buried at Paisley : and the deed is dated on 
Palm Sunday, 1261. Here then we have evidence that a chapel existed 
in the middle of the 13th century near the Castle of Skipness, where we 
now find one of architecture resembling the English buildings of that 
period, — that this chapel was dedicated to St Columba, — ^and that it was 
dependent on the neighbouring church of Kilcolmonel, with which it was 
given to Paisley Abbey. We find a confirmation in the following year, 
by Walter the seneschal, of what was given, he says, by the above 
Dugal, priusquam terram suam de Schyphinche mihi contuUt: so that it seems 
that a transference of the proprietorship of Skipness was made about this 

The above Dufgallus JUius Sewen is one of the witnesses, and the deed 
is signed apud parcum de Irschyn. Then we have the grant ratified in 
1261 by Alanus £piscopus Ergadiensis, cum capelUs et omnibus justis perti* 
nentiisj Yfiilk certain reservations, as for instance, the portio ticarii^ and the 
frusta for the bishop's table. Among the witnesses is GUbertus Archi^Ka- 
conus Ergadiensis. It is evident therefore that there were several chapelries 
dependent on this mother-church of Kilcolmonel : and this was no doubt 
the case in other districts. An interesting enquiry immediately suggests 
itself, as to how we are to distinguish the fabric of a mother-church from 
its dependent chapels, in pursuing the investigation of these parochial 
antiquities. There afterwards follow a testimony to these deeds by Robert 
Bishop of Glasgow, and a confirmation of them at Lyons by Innocent IV, ; 
and finally, a permission to the Abbey to take possession of Kilcolmonel, 
et capelle de ChypehincMb de eadem ecclesia dependentis^ granted in 1284 
by Bishop Laurence, and testified by Maurice capeUanus parochiaUs ecclesie 
Sancti Finani, a church, as we shall see, in which we are interested. I may 
mention here another deed occurring further on, which might have been 
mentioned in connexion with Kilkerran, since it refers to it also. It is 
one in which Johannes de Yle comes Rossie et dominus insularum gives to 


Paisley rectarias ecclesiarum Sancti Kylkerran et'Colmaneli in Kyntire et 
Knapdal. Datum apud Clean daghaUagan in Kndpadal.^^ Here 
we still see the Lord of the Isles appearing as a chief of power, and 
confirming the gifts which his ancestors bestowed 200 years before. Jt 
was not long after this, before his possessions, both in Knapdale and in 
Kintyre, became the property of the Campbells. 
Knapdale. ^fe havc alrcadv entrenched upon the district of Knapdale, that large 

area which lies between Loch Tarbert and the Crinan Canal. With the 
exception of Kilcolmonel, this whole district was one immense parish, until 
in 1734 they were divided into the two parishes of North Knapdale and 
South Knapdale. These I proceed, as is most natural, to describe together. 

The parish or district of Knapdale was called Killvick Ocharmaig, — 
after an Irish Saint M^'Ocharmaig or M^Cormac, who lived on the island, 
which is variously called Eilan More or Inch Cormac More^% and who 
founded several chapels on the mainland. The chief parochial minister 
seems to have lived always in the cell on this island, and to have made 
periodical excursions to his different '* preaching places.'' Such is the 
opinion of the writer in the Statistical Account ^^: and it harmonises with 
the curious traditions which the Highlanders still retain concerning this 
sacred island. It is said that after the defeat of the Danes at Largs this 
parish was given to the family of Eglinton": which circumstance (if cor- 
rect) shews that until 1266 this benefice belonged to some one connected 
with an independent or tributary Scandinavian power. The family of 
Eglinton would appear to have given the tithes and patronage to the Abbey 
of Kilwinning in Ayrshire : for they were possessed by this house at the 
Reformation^\ At this period part was annexed to Kilcolmonel, and the 
rest became a parish, having about six places of worship, where itinerant 
preachers officiated, — until it was divided, as we have seen above, into South 
and North Knapdale. 

One of the chapels is at Cove, on Loch Killisport, founded (as the tradi- 
tion is) by S. Columba, who left it for lona, finding that he was not yet out 

" There is also a letter, dated 1464, in which Scyhvnehe is mentioned among the dependent 

• churches of the Abbey. And so, I 8iq)po6e, it continued till the Beformation. 

^' Incorrectly called by Bickman ^^Inch Gorman.^^ 

*• V. vi. '' IWd. " V. vi. and xiv. 




of sight of Ireland. Near the end of the chapel is a cove or eave^ from 
which the place derives its name, where an altar, font, (piscina?) and cross, 
are cut in the rock". Another chapel was removed by M*^ Alister of Cean- 
Loch-Killisport. There is, or was, another at Kilduslan, on the shore of 
Loch Gilp : and possibly there were two others at Kilmalisaig and Glen- 
nakille, where burying-grounds remain to be seen^^ 

The Chapels which I have myself visited are at Eilan More, at Kiels, and 
at Kilmory : and these I proceed to describe. The first of these places is 
an island off the mouth of Loch Swin, the other two about seven miles 
distant from it, Kilmory on the main line of the Knapdale coast, and 
Kiels on a tongue of land on the other side, in the direction of Jura. The 
sacellum on Inch Cormac More is nearly the most curious place I ever 
saw. The building is divided into two apartments, the one 5 yards by 4, 
the other 4 yards by 4^; the difference being caused by the different 
thickness of the walls. The first or western part would seem to have 
been the dwelling of the priest. The present doorway is square-headed, 
but there are marks of a round-headed one built up. In the upper part 
of the wall are marks of recent work: there are traces of a chimney and 
a ceiling, and above one of the windows part of a tombstone is built into 
the wall. It is very likely that the hermit's room has been at one time 
converted into a residence for some person who superintended the farm 
on the island, while the chapel was used for a byre. The whole building 
is now thus used, and has accordingly a fence adjoining it. The chapel 
is entered by a doorway from the other apartment. The roof is a plain 
waggon-vault, springing from a very low point, from which recesses open 
on each side, one low one on the south, under which the remains of a 
recumbent effigy ^^ are to be seen, and two higher ones on the north, the 
eastern one of which is pierced for a window. The aperture is of Norman 
shape, rudely made and very small; but even this is not open, but is 
filled with a slate, which is pierced with a small foliated opening. The 
two eastern windows, which are deeply splayed inwardly, are of the same 

^* V. XIV. 

*^ V. xiv. Some small tombs are mentioned as fomid near Loch Killisport. 
** In Anderson's Guide Book, p. 367, it is said that it is the effigy of a priest. I regret 
that at the time I went to the island I did not observe this and other remains more minutely. 


construction, except that the opening in one is foliated, in the other not. 
Whether this arrangement was adopted to deepen the gloom of the cell, 
or as a protection against the storms, I will not attempt to decide. There 
is, I think, nothing more to be mentioned concerning this singular build- 
ing; the crosses which are found near it being described elsewhere. It is 
clear that some very sacred feelings have been attached both to this is* 
land and to some individual hermit who dwelt there. One tradition is, 
that if anything was stolen from the island, the culprit was always forced 
to put back by the violence of the waves. At Kiels and Kilmory, the two 
associated places of worship, the chapels are of precisely equal dimensions, 
14 yards by 6. In the former the east window is of Norman shape, but 
the three others are fiat-topped: there are the remains of two aumbryes 
or other recesses. In the latter the two East windows are of Norman 
shape, and there also an aumbrye, if it be not a piscina, may be seen in 
the southern part of the East wall. 
KUfinui. From Lochgilphead it will be convenient to pass over at once to Kil- 

FiNAN, at the southern extremity of Cowal. Though there are no ecclesi- 
astical remains here except the foundation of a chapel, mentioned in the 
Statistical Account as visible in a field called Ardmarnock (whence it is 
reasonable to conclude that the chapel was dedicated to S. Marnoc), yet 
it will be remembered that Kilfinan, with Kilcolmonel and Kilkerran, is 
prominently brought before our notice ill the Paisley Chartulary. And though 
this chapel is destroyed, and S. Mary's Chapel at Lochgilphead, with 
which it is mentioned, is, I believe, cut away by the Crinan Canal, yet 
this record may fairly be held to illustrate the history of those other 
chapels which do remain, and which were probably extremely similar. 
First we find that Duncan the son of Fercher, and his nephew Laumannus, 
the son of Malcolm, grant to Paisley, about the year 1240, ecclesiam de 
Killinan^ and with it illam nummatam terre de Kilmor que jacet super 
Louchgilp, cum capeUa Sancte Marie in eadem terra /undata^ and also certain 
lands at Kilmun, with the patronage of the church there. One of the 
witnesses is Nechten rector ecclesie de Killinan. Next we have a charter 
given by the above-mentioned Laumannus, granting ecclesiam sancti Finani 
que Kylfinnan appellatur. Among the witnesses are Radulph the king's 
chaplain, and the Dt^fgallus Jilius Syvin^ whom we have before seen as the 


granter of Kilcolmonel and Skipness. In 1270 there is a confirmation by 
Engus, Duncan's son^^ There is also an %mtitutio...per Mauricium offictalem 
Ergadie^ de mandato episcopi corporalem possessionem ecclesie de 
Kyllinan^ dated 1250, and witnessed by Johannes capellanus de Kilmodan 
(an adjoining parish), Georgius persona de Kyllivinor (perhaps Kilninver 
in Mull), Elias persona de Arasech (probably Arisaig in Inverness-shire, not 
far from its junction with Argyllshire), and David canonicus de Lismor. 
Next comes a Donatio by Bishop Alan in 1253, and about the same time 
a confirmation per Stephanum episcopum Sodorensem^ who is called ecclesie 
Lismorensis per dominum Papam cure-gestor. I cannot account for the Bishop 
of the Isles exercising the functions of the Bishop of Argyll, except on the 
supposition of a quarrel with the Pope ; for no interval seems to have 
occurred between Bishop Alan and his successor Bishop Laurence*^. In 
this deed the place is called Kylinan in Kethromecongal; and we find a 
mention of Mauricius ejusdem ecclesie vicarius. Among the witnesses are 
dominus Cristinus archidiaconus Lesmoriensis^ and Robertus de EUesham per- 
sona de Inverkelan (Inverchaolan, a neighbouring parish). In 1295 a charter 
of Malcolm, son and heir of Laumannus, is witnessed by Finlay, chaplain 
to James the Seneschal of Scotland, perpetuo vicario de Kylinan. I have 
been thus minute in quoting clauses from these ancient deeds, in order 
to point out how entirely the localities of the cures correspond with the 
parishes of the 16th century and of the present day, — and how effective and 
complete the ecclesiastical superintendence was in this county, whether 
or not there was a strictly parochial subdivision. 

It is interesting to observe how we come upon the names of the Camp- 
bells, in a deed of the 15th century relating to this place. John 
Lawmond (nohilis vir Johannes Lawmond de eodem^ Lamont of that Ilk) had 
quarrelled with the Abbot of Paisley concerning the patronage ; the dis- 
pute was settled by a reference to papers, and the business acta in ecclesia 
capitulari monastetni in the year 1406. Among the witnesses was James 
Campbel, son and heir-apparent of John Cambell, lord of Lowdon. 

The concerns of these three Churches of Kilkerran, Kilcolmonel, and 
Kilfinan, occupy several other deeds in the Chartulary. Thus we have a 

** And further on is a Scriptum saisine et possessionis^ granted by the same person. 
" Keith, p. 286. 


Donatio of all three in 1269, by Bishop Laurence, when they are spoken 
of as prascripta tres matrices ecclesie cum capellis suis ; and a confirmatio of 
all three, given by Bishop Andrew at his Cathedral Church in 1327'\ 

I might collect from the deeds in this part of the Chartulary some curious 
illustrations of the evil which resulted from the collisions of the secular 
and regular clergy, and the interference of the Papacy with the rights of 
Diocesan Episcopacy : — ^but it will probably be thought that I have lin- 
gered suflEiciently in what some might call the lumber-room of monastic 
records. I will merely say that in 1268, Malmor, the perpetual vicar of 
Killinan, was compelled to restore the Abbey -land at Lochgilp, which he 
was considered to have usurped, — ^that in 1351 Bishop Martin having 
appropriated certain rights touching the three Churches, the Abbots of 
Cupar, Dunfermline, and Newbottle, were appointed Papal delegates in 
behalf of the Monastery, with enormous powers, and that in 1362 the 
Bishop was suspended for not appearing before them in the Cathedral 
Church at Glasgow, but restored in consequence of an agreement which 
took place in the same year, — and that in 1488 a similar quarrel and a 
similar reconciliation, on the subject of the three Churches, took place 
between the Abbot and Bishop Robert Colquhoun. 
D^^ "m. ^^ *^® opposite side of Cowal from Kilfinan is the united parish of 
Jh^Si, steS^" KiLMUN and Dunoon, where was the residence of the bishops of Argyll, 
ucMm. ^^ after they left Lismore". Between Kilfinan and Kilmun is included the 
parish of Kilmadan (S. Modan's), or Glendaruel. North of this is the 
parish of Inverchaolin, called a prebendary in Bishop Keith's List ; falling 
in between the united parishes of Strachur and Stralachlan on the west, 
and LocHGoiLHEAD and Kilmorich on the north. The first of these was 
made into a parish in 1650, Strachur being detached from the then parish 
of Lochgoilhead, and Stralachlan from Inverchaolin. The first was formerly 
called Kilmaglan, the second Kilmory : and therefore I presume that the 
chapel in the burying-ground of the M^'Lachlans, the ruins of which 
still remain, was dedicated to S. Mary. This chapel seems to have been 

" As he says, ampatienUB vestre communis mense wm modice paup&rtatiy que non sufficity 
praut (useritisy ad vestram 8usteni<Uionem in dimnis obseqmis et ad respondendum de hospi- 
taUtate et aUis oneribus inewnbentibus, sieut lea exigit caritatis. 

•» Stot. Ace. ii. 


like the others which I have described, but has evidently undergone alter- 
ations. At Strachur there are some singular tombstones ; and it is probable 
that there was a chapel there also, dedicated to S. Maglan. If so, there 
can be no doubt that these two benefices respectively were in the patronage 
of the two families of Af'Lachlan of Af^Lachlan, and Campbell of Strachur", 
just as we have seen Kilfinan in the patronage of the Lamonts. The 
early date from which these families have been in possession of their 
estates, is proved by a custom of a very beautiful kind, which subsists to 
this day. It is said that the lords of Strachur and M^'Lachlan were 
at the Crusades together, and that each made a solemn promise to bury 
the other in his family burying-place, if he should fall in the war: 
and ever since it has been a religious custom, that when Strachur or 
M^'Lachlan dies, the survivor lays his neighbour's head in the grave. 
A tradition embodied in a continuous custom is far more trustworthy than 
a tradition orally transmitted, — ^indeed, can hardly be quite false. And 
the antiquarian is warranted in discovering in this particular custom a 
confirmation of the belief that benefices were from an early period endowed 
in these two Highland glens, by the families of whom we have spoken. 
The parish of Lochgoilhead and Kilmorich (or Kilmuarich, CeUa MauriH^) 
runs round the top of Cowal, from the head of Loch Goil to the head of 
Loch Fyne; and so brings us back to the main line of Argyllshire. 
The writer in the Statistical Account*^ says, that Lochgoilhead was an 
archdeaconry, supported by other parishes; that at the Reformation two- 
thirds at least of the places of worship were suppressed, and that in 1649 
an Act was passed in pursuance of which this enormous parish was dis^ 
membered, as we have seen above. 
Giaswyand Botwcen the Crinan Canal and the upper part of Loch Fyne the 

Inveraray. m. r m. j 

two parishes of Glassary and Inveraray intervene. In the burying-ground 
at Crarae, in the former, it is said that there was formerly a chapel ; and 
there is still an edifice which used to be the place of interment for the 
Lochnuy family: whence it may be conjectured that they were the 
founders and patrons. The present place of worship is at Kirkmichael, 
or Kilmichael. In Bishop Keith's list of Parishes we find Inveraray^ alias 

" Said to be the oldest branch of the Campbells. 
■* Keith's List of parishes. " lii. 


KUmaUeu: and still Kilmalieu is the parish cemetery, but no one remembers 
any chapel there. -It is probably dedicated to S. Lupus: for I find in 
Mr. Sachevereirs book on the Isle of Man a church mentioned as dedi- 
cated to that saint, called Kilmalew^. There is nothing more to be said 
about these two parishes, as parishes : but it may be well to mention here 
a curious relic which was found in Glassary parish in 18 14, and which 
will be more particularly alluded to when I come to speak on the subject 
of Stone Crosses. This was a bell and bell-case (such it is considered by 
the writers in the Scotch Archaeologia) ; the former being ornamenjed with 
a crucifix, a hand in the attitude of benediction, and various Runic 
devices; — the latter reduced to a thin iron plate, and wrapped in a piece 
of woollen cloth. They were discovered along with a Maltese cross and 
brass chain, in a place of concealment about five miles from Kilmartin. 
A similar bell and case are described in some Historical Memoirs of 
Armagh, and said to have been presented to the Bishop about the year 
1092. Dr. Hibbert, who mentions this circumstance, is of opinion that 
the relics found in Argyllshire are to be traced to some Scandinavian 
missionary; in confirmation of which view, he states that the Maltese 
form of the cross is frequently to be found on those monuments in Norway 
which belong to the time of the introduction of Christianity ; and that in 
the same country a peculiar sacredness was attached to bells ; and further, 
he gives a curious sketch, where the ringing of a bell is represented, 
and a group of figures is surmounted by a large cross of this particular 

Kamartin. Beginning with Kilmartin, I follow towards the north the parishes 

which lie to the westward of the two last. Kilmartin is said to have 
been an occasional residence of the Bishops of Argyll. There are several 
burying*grounds, to which it is probable that places of worship were 

craignuh. attached'\ In the parish of Ceaionish, which lies to the westward, there 
is nothing which calls for any remark : nor, I believe, in that which succeeds 

Kiininver and it to the uorth, the uuitcd parish of Kilninver and Kilmelfort, Inland 

KUchnnanand is the uuitcd paHsh of KiLCHRENAN Rud Dalavich, iucludiug a considerable 

Dalavich. '^ ^ 

portion of the celebrated Loch Awe. On an island near the castle of 

«• P. 120. 

** Stat. Ace. viii. The writer says that the church and pulpit were erected in 1601. 


Inch-Connel, called Inch-eraith, there used to be the remains of a chapel 
and burying-ground, and on another island, called Eilai> n' tagart or Priest's 
Isle, the traces of what was considered to have been the priest's house"'. 
In the northern part of this Loch is another still more sacred island, 
oi^i^V^^ called Innishail. The parish, which is named after it, was in 1618 
conjoined with that of Glenorchy, separated in 1650, and conjoined again 
by the rescissory act at the Restoration. A fragment of wall is all that 
remains of the old chapel, which was the parochial church till 1736. The 
old chapel in Glenorchy parish was not, so far as I could gather from my 
informants, within the limits of the present churchyard, but either on the 
hill above Dalmally or to the. north of it. 
i^*M^t- Passing over the parish of Kilbrandon and Kilchattan, as containing 
^Kii^dt. nothing of note, we come to that of Kilmore and Kilbride, on the west 
coast. Kilmore is ho doubt simply ** the great church." The writer in 
the Statistical Account says that it was a Cathedral church before the 
Reformation. I cannot tell what to make of this, and can only conclude 
that the word Cathedral is loosely and inaccurately used. There is near 
Kilbride a well, called Tober-Espic, or the Bishop's well. Kilbride is the 
church of S. Bridget. She was a saint venerated in Scotland and Ireland 
almost equally with S. Columba and S. Patrick, as is exemplified by the 
well-known couplet, written by one of those who say that Columba was 
buried in Ireland: for his burial-place has been the subject of almost 
as much controversy as the birthplace of Homer. The lines are : 

Hi tres in Duno tumulo tumulantur in uno, 
Brigida, Patrioius, atque Columba pius. 

The Church at Kilmore is quite obliterated ; but the traces of that at 
Kilbride are still visible. In this parish is the Chapel near Dunstaffnage, 
which is so famous for its echo. It deserves our attention, not for this 
reason, but because its architectural decoration is of a much more elabo- 
rate kind than that of any other chapel in the county. From a mere 
inspection of its style one would infer that it was built in the thirteenth 
century, and therefore when the M^Dougalls, lords of Lome, of the family 

" Stat, Ace. vi. 


de Ergadia (a member of which founded the neighbouring Priory of 
Ardchattan), were in the plenitude of their power, and resided in the 
castle of Dunstaffnage. Sir Walter Scott, when speaking of this ruin, 
makes a remark to this effect, that the alterations in ecclesiastical build* 
ings in Scotland seem as if they had been made with the express inten* 
tion of disfiguring them as much as possible : and never was a ruin more 
calculated to provoke such an observation than this ancient Chapel at 
Dunstaffnage. On approaching it from the wood we come to a modern . 
square doorway with flat pilasters, and through this we enter a room 
about eight yards by six, with modern tombs and several strange funereal 
devices. This room is stuck against the chapel-wall, and so conceals an 
east window, or windows, which seem to have been very beautiful. The 
windows have been of strictly Early English form, with banded shafts, 
and the dog-tooth ornament. Internally on the east we see a douUe row of 
moulded dog-tooth, a shaft in a square recess, and a circular base resting on 
a square plinth. On the north side there still remains on one of the shaft§ 
a band ornamented with a small toothed beading; — and there is also an 
abacus with a simple ornament running round. On the south side one 
of the windows has the toothed moulding externally. The actual Chapel 
measures 24 yards by 8. All round is a triple tablet running under the 
windows : and the traces remain of vaulting, which seems to have been 
well executed. 
Aidchuua In the united parish of Ardchattan and Muckairn two chapels re^ 

and M uckaim. ^ ' ^ 

main. The first is Balmhaodan, dedicated to S. Modan"*, situated not far 
from the priory, on a hill which commands a view more beautiful than 
can easily be described. The Chapel measures 19 yards by 7^. There are 
two aumbryes. The Chapel must have been extremely dark : for there is 
but one window on the east and west, none on the north, and only one and 
the door on the south. These windows are all flat-topped. Not far off there 
is a beautiful spring of water, called S. Modan's well. The other Chapel 
is at Muckairn, said to have been under Dunkeld, and anciently called 
Killespickarral, Cella Cyrillic or rather Cdla Episcopi Cyrilli. It has evi- 

"* The writer in the Stat. Ace. says it ib dedicated to S. Bede. I am informed by 
the Bev. Mr. Fraser that thia is incorrect. 



dently been altered in modern times. There remain the east and part of 
the south wall, with one window on the east, and two on the south, all 
flat-topped. There is an aumbrye in the southern part of the east wall; 
and a semicircular arch in the south wall, either a tomb or a piscina, 
with a small illegible inscription above. The older masonry appears to 
have been plain and good. 
LUmoreand Xhc remaining parishes on the mainland are Lismore and Appin, 

Appin, Arana- of ' 

^Jll^^'ii^ ^i^i>NAMURCHAN, MoRVEN, aud KiLMALiE. Though Something might be 
said concerning the antiquities of these districts, I am glad to pass them 
over rapidly, in consequence of the length to which this paper has pro- 
ceeded. Kilmalie and Ardnamurchan are, each of them, partly in Inver- 
ness-shire; and in the latter there used to be the ruins of a Chapel at 
Keppoch in Arisaig. 

For the same reason, and because in this part of the county I have had 
fewer means of observation, I do not say much concerning the island 

KiiDinian, parishcs. Mull is divided into, first, Kilninian, where are the ruins of 

Kiiwwile'^.^ seven or eight small chapels; secondly, Torosay; thirdly, Kilfinichen 
and KiLvicEUEN, where a remarkable cave is said to exist, with a cross 
cut on the rock, called Inimore, or the Nun's Cave. This parish included 
at the beginning of this century lona, or Icolmkill. But before the Refor- 

TireeandCou.|nation it was attached to the parsonage of Sorobie in Tiree. This last 
island afterwards formed one parish along with Coll : and the numerous 
remains of chapels which once existed makes it very probable that the 

j^* »"<* ^^ derivation so often proposed (Tir-Y, or the Land of lona) is correct. Jura 
and Colons AY is a parish more particularly to be noticed when I come 
to the subject of Religious Houses. I only mention here that the whirlpool 
of Corryvreckan received, as Martin tells us, ^'its name from Brekin, said 
to be son to the King of Denmark, who was drowned here, cast a shoar 
in the north of Jura, and buried in a cave, as appears from the stone tomb 
and altar there^.'' In Adomnan's Life of Columba it is called Clutrybdis 

IjJchwnM^jj JBrwaitt. The island of Islay is divided into Kilchoman, dedicated to S. 

Riimm^^ Chomanus, a missionary sent from lona, and containing vestiges of several 
chapels; Kildalton, containing similar remains; and lastly, Killarrow 


P. 288. 


and KiLMENY, constituting one parish. I have only now to notice the parish 
snuiiidet. of Small Isles, comprehending Eig, in Inverness-shire, and Rum, Canna, 
and Muck, in Argyllshire. There is a Chapel in Eig, dedicated to S. Donan, 
which is spoken of by Martin and others ; but none, that I have seen noticed, 
in the three islands belonging to the county under our examination. 

The parochial history of this county might be pursued through a 
very interesting period, down to the time when vigorous efforts were made 
by the excellent Bishop Knox to improve the religious condition ,of the 
Diocese of the Isles. But it will probably be thought that I have already 
introduced too much of history, where an essay on Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tecture was expected: nor could I excuse myself for transgressing longer 
on the time of this Society, by pleading (what is very true) that the 
history of men is more enticing than the history of their buildings. 

IS— « 



A Paper read be/are the Cambridge Camden Society^ on Monday February 7, 1842 : iy 

J. S. HowsoN, Esq., M.A., Trinity CoUege, 




in^AmiShS ^^ *^^ north and south coasts of Mull are two small islands, which, for 
a considerable period, contained two cathedral churches and the resi- 
dences of two bishops. The first of these is the island of Lismore, lying 
half-enclosed between those two branches of the main land, which formed 
the chief part of the diocese of the Bishop of Argyll ; the second is the 
island of lona, situated in the direction of those western islands, which 
lay under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of the Isles. 

g«tory of the Until the first year of the thirteenth century, the districts of Argyll, 
Lorn, Kintyre, and Lochaber, formed a part of the diocese of Dunkeld. 
In this year John the Englishman, Bishop of Dunkeld, obtained permission 
from the Pope to disjoin the portion of his diocese which subsequently 
constituted that of Argyll, and to erect it into a see for his chaplain 
Eraldus. The reason assigned was that he wished it to be superintended 
by one who understood the Irish tongue ^ The mention of this occur- 
rence disposes us to reverence this good bishop; and it is interesting to 
quote the simple record of Abbot My In, the biographer of the Bishops 
of Dunkeld : — Hie divisit diocesim Dunkeldensem^ et per literas suas a Papa 
obiinuitf ut Eraldus ejus capeUanus Ergadiemis fieret episcapus. Tandem 
plenus virtutibus in senectute bona mariturj anno Domini*. Thence- 
forward the successors of Eraldus had their episcopal residence and 

^ Keith, p. 284. The poor see of Argyll was endowed with more lands by King Alex. II. 
Chalmers^ Caledonia, Vol. i. 
 Myb, p. 9. 



cathedral church in the island of Lismore ; and were variously entitled 
BipUccpi ErgadienseSj or Episcopi Lismarensesj as may be seen, for instance, 
by various documents in the Chartulary of Paisley. 
Hutoiyortbe The Diocese of the Isles might fairly be spoken of a^ of the oldest 

Dioeewof ^ .^ x 

The Isles, j^ Scotland; though, as we have seen, a strictly geographical arrange- 
ment of jurisdictions was not completed till an epoch comparatively recent. 
We find names of Bishops of the Isles from a date so early as the fourth 
century^ But into this possibly somewhat mythical series, it is beyond 
my present purpose to examine. And, — since I have already mentioned 
the principal circumstances which relate to the introduction of Chrisr 
tianity into the Western Islands, and to the connexion of those islands 
with the Scandinavian conquerors, — it is sufficient for me to remark — 

(1) That from the end of the eleventh to the end of the fourteenth century 
(that is, from the time when the Norwegians conquered the Isle of Man 
to the time when it fell under the English,) the dioceses of Man* and 
the Isles were united under one bishop, whose cathedral church was the 
church of S. German in Man, and who bore the various titles of JEpiscapw 
SodarensiSf Episcopus jEbudarum^ and Episcopus Manniie et In&ularum^ 

(2) That after Edward III. took the Isle of Man from the Scotch, (a$ 
Dean Monro expresses it, *' sen the tyme the bishops of the lyles were 
expulsed out of the Isle of Man%") the united diocese was divided into 
a Scotch and English one, the first subject to the Bishop of the Isles, 
subsequently a sufiragan of the see of Glasgow, and always retaining 
the name of Episcopus Sodorensis\ — the second to the Bishop of Man, then, 
as now, attached to the province of York, and still improperly termed 
^Bishoprick of Sodor and Man.' 

* Keith, p. 296. 

^ For a considerable time the bishops seem to have been consecrated at Drontheim. 
Pennant. ' Monro. 

' I do not quite understand what is meant by the following extract from the Privy Seal 
Register, given by Mr. Maclean in his Historical Account of lona : — 1489, April. A letter 
passed under the privy seal of James IV. ''to the Pape, and ane to the Vice-Chanoellor, for 
the erection of the Abbacy df Call|im Cilia in the Bishope^s sete of the Ilis, quhiU his prin- 
cipal kirk in the Isle of Man be retenit fra Englishmen — sollioitdt per comitem de Ergile.'Z 
Beg. S. S. 5. V. I. f. 81. 1 presume it i& a letter for procuring the confirmation of an arrange- 
ment previously adopted. 


Origin of die Here I may^ without leaving the subject of Ecclesiastical Archeology; 

notice the curious mistakes which have been made as to the derivation 
of the term ^ Sodor' Not to mention the authors that talk of a British 
king, who lived in a city called Sodora, and was converted by Joseph of 
Arimathea. — Sacheverell, in contending that the bishoprick of Man is 
more ancient than that of the Isles, says that the Bishop of the Isles 
was called SodarensiSj from a village where he resided named SodoTj 
acyoining to the monastery of lona: and he quotes Camden, as saying 
that the Bishops were called Sodarensis when consecrated at Sodar\ 
In his visit to lona, the true Fanum Sodorensej he tells us, that he dili-» 
gently looked for this village of Sodor, and at last discovered, in the 
collection of houses near the Nunnery, that which had been as much 
sought for as the source of the Nile. "The Dean," he concludes, "was 
absolutely of my opinion^'' It was, I believe, first pointed out by Mac- 
pherson* that the term arose from this circumstance; — ^that the islands 
to the south of the point of Ardnamurchan were called Sodor- Eys^ or 
Southern Islands, to distinguish them from those which lay to the north, 
the Narder-Eys. Bishop Keith acquiesced in the belief, that the Church 
in lona was dedicated to the Saviour^^ 2tt»rf;p; and that from this was 
derived the term Sodarensis^K And the determined manner in which this 
mistake has, from time to time, emerged, is only one among many proofs 
of the truth, that an error refuted is not an error destroyed. 

lona both a But to rcturii to the consideration of Cathedral Churches. That 

Monastic and 

chwX^ i^ ^^^ 1^1^ ^^ ^^^ remained, as before, the mother-church of the diocese 
of Man. But the Abbey Church of lona became now the Cathedral 
Church of the See of the Isles ; and the bishop had a residence assigned 
to him on the north of the Monastery", while the Abbot, as it appears, 
resided on the west. Thus it is allowable to consider the Church of lona 
under the head of ' Cathedrals;' while its other buildings are considered 
under that of 'Beligious Houses.' 

' P, 110. • P. 135. 

^ See Pennant. In Hie None Sagas the word Budrejfi is employed for the Hebrides in 
contnidistincticm to the Orim^. 

'' The Church was really dedieated to S. Mary. Martin, 266. 

'' See Bufisel's History, i. 127. " See Usher and Pennant 


I proceed now to give some description of the remnants of these two 
Cathedral Churches* confessing, however, that my examination of the latter, 
and infinitely the more important, ruin, was too brief to allow me to offer 
more than a meagre sketch. 
cathedimiof I. The surviving part of the Cathedral of Lismore, now used as the 

parish-church, stands in a bare place near the centre of the island, on 
the verge of an elevated burying-ground. The choir of the Cathedral is 
that which remains. It certainly had no aisles; nor do I think it has 
ever had a nave or transepts. There are buttresses on the east and 
south, — thin and plain, with set-offs, apparently belonging to the Deco- 
rated period. On the west and north are no buttresses; but on the 
north-east are ground-marks of a small enclosure. The windows are all 
modernised. The doorways are two ; one to the west, in a wall which 
has evidently undergone some changes, with a pointed arch ; the other 
to the south, with a semicircular arch and dripstone. The building was 
roofed about 80 years ago, when the walls were raised". Thus far of 
the exterior. — On entering the interior, the arch of the last-mentioned 
doorway is found to be segmental, with a dripstone. Opposite to it is 
a doorway of Decorated appearance, plain but well worked, with a 
narrow-pointed arch having an architrave and dripstone. This dripstone 
rests on two well-cut heads ; the one of a female, the other of a bishop. 
The dripstone opposite rests also on two heads; but these are meagre and 
angular in the extreme. The three dripstones consist of the same moulding. 
The interior doorway on the north side (now built up) led undoubtedly to 
the above-mentioned enclosure, which has been a chantry, called improperly 
in the Statistical Account a confessional, as the piscina is improperly 
called a font^^ The piscina is a plain recess having a pointed arch, the 
further end being pierced in a very small trefoiled arch, apparently for 
a shelf. One part, and that the most remarkable, remains to be de- 
scribed ; namely, the three sedilia. These are in their usual position, 
immediately to the west of the piscina : the arches are semicircular^ with- 
out mouldings ; the eastern one wider and higher than the other two : the 
mouldings of the sides and partitions consist of the roll-and-fillet, those 

• Stat. Aoc. Vol. I. ** Vol. 




of the bounding sides set in at the angle between two hollows, so as not 
to project from the surface of the wall; the partitions run inward from 
the top, and die below into the further wall : the side-mouldings both rest 
on a base of round mouldings; the western one has a capital made up 
of a succession of bands, the eastern no capital at all. This Church 
does not appear to have possessed any peculiarly beautiful parts. It is 
about 56 feet by 28. If the roU-and-fillet moulding is to be considered 
a chairacteristic of the Decorated period, ^he appearance of the sedilia, 
added to that of the buttresses and the north door-way, may permit us to 
^oOTiingiu coiyccture its date to be the middle of the fourteenth century. It can- 
not be earlier, I am not aware of anything which can guide us further 
than this; unless we may be allowed to think it probable that the edifice 
is due to the influence of Martin de Ergail, a branch of the old house of 
Lome, who possessed the see from 1342 to 1362", and who may be sup-^ 
posed to have been a man of energetic character, from the determined 
quarrel which he maintained with the Abbot of Paisley ^^ The church is 
dedicated to S. Muluag, or Molochus, a saint of the seyenth century". 
As regards the chantry mentioned above, the antiquarian may again be 
allowed to amuse his imagination, in the absence of authenticated facts. 
It is said that one of the Stewarts of Invernahyle, called ^ Donald of the 
Hammers,* is buried here. This might seem to connect the chantry with 
that family of Stewarts, who possessed the lordship of Lome at the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century, and of whom the Invernahyle Stewarts 
were a branch '^ Again, the female head which supports one side of the 
dripstone of the chantry-door might lead us to suppose that the chantry 
had been erected by a lady. And our conjectures seem to be directed 
to that heiress of the old house of Lome, and relation, therefore, of Bishop 
Martin of Ergail, through whom the lordship of Lome passed into the 
hands of the Stewarts. 

" Keith, 287. See some remarks on this bishop, and his connexion with the family of 
Lome, in the notes on Bag. BoD in App. to Nisbett^s Heraldry. 

*• Char. Paslet. *' Stat. Ace. Vol. i. 

'* The Stewarts of Invernahyle are cadets of the Stewarts of Appin, who are descended 
from a natural son of the last Stewart Lord of Lome, whose daughter carried that lordship 
into the family of Campbell. This latter lady might have been the foundress of the chantry. 
The dates of the two marriages are about 1350 and 1450. V. Gregory and Skene. 


The bishop's residence was the Castle of Auchindown, a few miles 
south-west of the Cathedral. It is now a ruin» and, as I am informed, 
presenting no great appearance of beauty or antiquity. On a tongue 
of land near it is a burying-ground, to which formerly a chapel seems to 
have been attached^. 

I must not omit to mention in conclusion, that the bishop's crozier 
is still in existence. The office of bearing it before the bishop appears 
to have been hereditary; and to this office was attached the hereditary 
possession of a small freehold estate. This estate is still in the hands of 
that family, called Livingstone, who for centuries had the charge of the 
baculum more*^ or big staff. It is now held under a deed granted in 1543 
by the Earl of Argyll, which guarantees to them the estate in the same 
way as it was granted to their forefathers : and accordingly the crozier is 
preserved, as if to verify the right. I was not able to see it ; but Mr. 
Livingstone described it as a plain curved staff, formerly ornamented at 
the top with silver, but now bare. The freehold was of some twelve acres 
in extent, but was long ago diminished to six, in times of lawless aggres- 
fona*^"^^^ II. The Abbey Church of the Cluniac Monastery of lona and Cathe- 
dral of the Isles is a cross Church, measuring internally 115 feet from 
east to west, and 70 from north to south. The choir and nave are of 
equal length, and about 23 feet in breadth. The transepts are 17 feet 
in breadth. At the intersection is a tower. (1) This Tower (which once 
possessed a fine peal of bells)'* is square and plain, without any panelling, 
with a string running round at about half its height, and a plain 
cornice above". Between these two parts are windows, one on each side, 
which are among the most remarkable parts of the Church. They are 
strictly square openings, filled with beautiful, but each with different, 
tracery, which seems to indicate their date to be in the Decorated period. 
That to the south is peculiarly beautiful. The square is described about 
a circle, in which, from a sexfoil in the centre, six volutes run off in a 
flamboyant form, enclosing six others in the intermediate spaces. At one 

"• Stat. Ace. Vol. I. « Ibid. " Sacheverell, p. 131. 

** An engraying of lona, taken in 1761 (in Lord Buchan^s account), shows a plain corbel- 
table both in the tower and the choir. Sc. Arch. i. 234. 



corner of it is a detached window of very small dimensions, with two quatre- 
foil lights. In the interior, the opening for the windows is divided 
by a shaft with a capital and two bands, not unlike those which are 
thought to characterize Saxon Churches. It might be conjectured, that 
the tower and its openings are of very early date, and that the tracery 
was introduced in the fourteenth century ; more especially as the shafts 
from which the transept arches spring have an ancient appearance. 
(2) Of the Transepts, the southern has the remains of a Decorated 
window; in the northern. Pennant's sketch exhibits two Early English 
ones. There are no aisles, but in the north transept the remains of a semi- 
circular arch. The capitals of the above-mentioned shafts are ornamented 
with grotesque figures, — one group said to represent an angel weighing 
souls, and Satan crouching near. The arches are pointed. (3) The Nave 
is very much dilapidated, with a trace of a round arch in one place, — 
and buttresses which (as those in the south transept) are narrow, and 
die upon the wall at a small elevation. The western doorway is small 
and plain, having a dripstone, and moulding running continuously to the 
ground. (4) It is not easy to ascertain the original appearance of the 
Chair. At the east end is a good Decorated window, and there are 
Decorated windows in the north and south wall, on each side of it. There is 
no other window in the north wall, which in one part exhibits two Early 
English arches, with the toothed ornament, springing from round piers with 
somewhat rude capitals. These arches are quite built up in the wall, 
which however shews marks of recent work. Below them is a doorway of 
elaborate but singular form, semicircular and trefoiled. On examining 
the engravings of Pennant, I find that in his time these arches were 
free, and seem to have opened into a chapel which was attached to 
the north side of the choir. This prepares us for considering the south 
side, where there seems to have been something of a similar arrangement. 
Here are three round piers, about 10 feet high and 9 feet in circumference, 
with capitals covered with grotesque figures'*, and pointed arches with 

'* I transcribe the following explanation of these figures from a MS., which I saw in lona, 
drawn up I know not by whom. '^ The first figure on the south side pillar is an angel weighing 
souls, but according to the light of the Grospel, and differing from the figure in the transept, 
who only typified Christ to come ; the second, Christ riding to Jerusalem ; the third, an unicorn 
and a griffin feeding their young, signifying the duty of parents to attend to the nurtiure of 


several mouldings"^. The easternmost pier is square, with a square abacus. 
To these piers are attached overarching buttresses (if so they may be 
called), which formerly have been roofed over, thus constituting a species 
of quadrantal aisle. The whole is walled round, with an elegant window, 
apparently Decorated, to the east; and a breast-wall is built between 
the piers themselves. It is probable that what at first sight seems to have 
been an aisle, has really constituted one or more chapels; and that Dr. 
Sacheverell speaks accurately, when he says, that *' on each side of the ' 
choir are two little chapels, the entrance to them opening with lai^e pillars, 
curiously carved in basso relievo *•." 

There remain three well-worked sedilia, of Early English appearance, 
formed with trefoiled ogee arches, under connected dripstones, which run 
out afterwards into a horizontal tablet, and have at each apex the remains 
of what seems to have been a sculptured head. The principal altar seems 
to have remained until a late period. Sacheverell, who saw it in 1688, 
says it measured 6 feet by 4*'. Martin, whose Tour was written in 1702, 
uses these words: ''The altar is large, and of as fine a marble as ever 
I saw**." And it must have existed in 1772, since Pennant says that he 
and his companions contributed to diminish it^. He says it was of white 
marble, veined with grey. 

Pennant merely notices the remains of the Bishop's Palace ; and now 
I believe there are but slight traces of it. Sacheverell tells us** that it 
consisted of a large hall open to the roof, of a chamber into which he 
supposes it must have been necessary to ascend by a ladder, and under 
this chamber a buttery. The ofl&ces were probably, according to custom, 

their children ; fourth, the band of soldiers apprehending Christ, Peter cutting off Malchus^ ear, 
and an archangel playing on a harp, comforting Christ in his sufferings ; fifth, Samson conquer- 
ing the lion ; and last, Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise by an angel holding a flaming 

'* I do not remember whether those in the transepts are moulded like these in the choir. 
Pennanf s drawing exhibits a few small clerestory windows in the choir, of Norman appearance. 
He has given engravings of some of the sculptures on the capitak. The best engraving of the 
cathedral I am acquainted with is in Jamieson^s History of the Culdees. 

•• P. 131. ^ P. 132. - P. 256. 

" In the engraving in Dr. Jamieson^s work are two or three small clerestory windows on 
the south— one with tracery. ** P. 135. 




outside. He says it put him in mind of the inscription on Bishop Rut* 
ter's tomb in the Isle of Man : — 

Vide et ride Palatium Epiaoopi. 

Jf*the^ch^ok!* ^^ ^® ®^ obvious that this Church has been patched and blocked up 
in many places since it became a ruin, that a minute examination would 
be necessary before a confident opinion could be pronounced on the date 
of all its parts. But when the windows in the tower and in the choir are 
considered, there can be no doubt that a great portion is of the fourteenth 
century. Some Norman work to the north of the Church, — possibly also 
the piers, the buttresses, the shafts in the tower, and the toothed ornaments 
in the choir, might indicate that the shell of the building was a century 
earlier, or even more. Nothing can be more probable than that the 
Abbey Church was originally erected by some of the Island chieftains 
in their days of power, that it was dismantled during the troubles at 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, and repaired in more tranquil 
years which concluded it, — perhaps about 1380, when it became an 
Episcopal as well as a Monastic Church. 

At the time when this was written I was not aware of any records 
which would assist in fixing the date; and I was so convinced that early 
forms lingered to a late period in Scotch architecture, that I could place 
very little confidence in an examination so slight as I had been able 
to bestow upon these interesting ruins. But I have since found among 
my notes an extract from Dean Myln's Lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, 
elsewhere quoted at length, which speaks of certain sums being granted 
for the construction of the choir, by Bishop W. Sinclair, when he con- 
firmed the Abbacy of lona to Abbot Finlay. This must have been be- 
fore 1337: for, though the list of Bishops of Dunkeld is somewhat confused, 
he certainly did not live later than this year'^ Thus it seems that we 
may conclude with some confidence, that the more prominent portions 
of the choir of lona were of the fourteenth century, but erected 40 or 50 
years earlier than the above mentioned date. 

'' Keith Gat. and Myln. 


r read before the Oambridge Camden Sodetyy on Mandayy November 8^ li 
Philip Freeman, Esq., M.A., FeUaw and Tutor of B. Peter's OoUege. 

The article entitled ''Open Roofs," which appeared in a recent Number 
of the British Critic S has drawn the attention of lovers of Gothick Archi- 
tecture to this particular branch of it: it can hardly have failed to in- 
spire, at the same time, a deep admiration of the skilful and beautiful 
structures there described and represented, or to excite an earnest wish, 
that a method of roof-making so unaccountably disused may speedily be 
returned to. My residence in the very land of these roofs, — ^the county 
of Suffolk, — during the summer months, has put it in my power to visit 
and examine many of them. In now making them the subject of a Paper 
before this Society, I am actuated, partly by the desire of communicating 
to others some portion of the enjoyment I have myself derived from them — 
partly by the hope of contributing, in however humble a degree, towards 
their revival, by increasing the number of their admirers. 

It may be thought, perhaps, that after so elaborate and able a dis- 
sertation as that above mentioned, it has become needless to dwell further 
on the subject: the writer, however, by no means professes to have 
exhausted it; on the contrary, he expressly invites other labourers into 
the field, which he must be allowed the merit of having first broken up, 
after it had lain fallow for some three centuries. In such of my audience, 
therefore, as have read that article, I may hope that the interest excited 
by it is yet fresh and unsated: while to those who have not, the subject 
has at least the recommendation of novelty, a quality in which eccle- 
siological disquisitions at the present day, when everybody studies church 
architecture, are sometimes deficient. And though what I have to say 

* No. Lviii. April, 1841. 


may seem, to the initiated and enthusiastic admirer of ''open roofs/' to be 
tame and unworthy the subject; while others again may think the sub- 
ject itself not worth the talking about, from my inability to convey an 
adequate idea of what a glorious thing an open roof really is; I shall 
still not regret my pains, nor you, I hope, your patience: for the thing 
spoken of is, I am convinced, well worthy of the consideration of all of us. 
I shall at least have the satisfaction of bringing the subject before the 
Society, as a Society, for the first time: and feebly as I may myself 
advocate the cause of these noble specimens of the constructive science 
of the fifteenth century, I shall cherish the hope that others will be found 
more able to do it justice, who " will not willingly let it die." One diffi- 
culty I have in the outset : that, as the subject is entirely new to many 
present, I run the risk of speaking unintelligibly to them, if I use with- 
out explanation the technical names of the various parts of these fabrics ; 
at the same time, it is not incompatible with the plan of this Paper, 
minutely to describe them at the outset, my purpose being to trace the 
steps through which they attained their ultimate form. In order, there- 
fore, meanwhile, to enable all to follow what is about to be said, and to 
give some idea at starting of the appearance of these roofs, I would beg 
attention to a drawing exhibiting part of one of the more simple kind 
of them, in which each member has its name written upon it'. Those 
who have looked into the article in the British Critic, will recognize this 
as a '' large-paper copy" of the model roof there given : and to the same 
source I am indebted for the other rough drawings exhibited by way 
of illustration this evening, having enlarged them by scale from the en- 
gravings which illustrate that paper. 

I shall not, I believe, trench much upon the ground occupied by that 
writer. To him I leave the discussion of the mechanical principles involved 
in the construction of these roofs, the fearless assertion of the feasibility 
of reviving them at the present day, and the suggestion of practical 
hints to the mason and carpenter. To him I refer you also for a biography 
of the brief but not inglorious career of the Open Roof : it cannot be un- 
interesting to note how it grew apace from its very birth, as if it knew 

t ts 

See Plate. 

Tratisactu>'>jBf^u.€ti«iiridffiCkTndenS«{-i<^ Vol T. p f06 Tlaa.2 


it had but a short time to grow in; how it rose in its youth to such 
a height of perfection, that it may truly be said of it, 

O early ripe ! to thine abundant store 
What could maturer years have added more! 

how in this its early prime and vigour it fell asleep, like the far-famed 
Rip Van Winkle, in the " Sleepy Hollow'* of an unarchitectural period, — 
how that slumber has remained unbroken, save by the crash of the axes 
and hammers of Will Dowsing, for three long centuries. Let me add, 
that it shews some symptoms of re-awakening now. The open roof of 
the Jifteenik century is young no longer — (" sed cruda Deo viridisque 
senectus") — but we may hope, that on its awakening now, after a lapse 
of ten generations of men, it may, like the hero to whom it has just 
been compared, look upon its second self,— ^upon an offspring of its own, 
and no mean counterpart of itself, as it was in its early day,— in the 
Open Roof of the nineteenth century. 

But this by the way. I was about to speak of the particular line 
of discussion which I propose to take in this Paper. Its object will be 
twofold: — ^first, to develope the theory which I conceive must be the 
basis of all church-roofing in wood — (a theory to which the Open Roof 
is pre-eminently faithful); — and, secondly, to point out certain respects, 
both of configuration and ornament, in which the Open Roof is beyond 
all other wooden roofs graceful, and gothick, and ecclesiastical : — to claim 
for it, in fact, the foremost rank among its fellows, both as to correct- 
ness of theory, and adaptation to the end proposed. 

I. First, then, as to the theory which should be made the basis of 
the construction of all wooden roofs. It will, I think, be readily admitted, 
that in all sciences, constructive or otherwise, there is one grand con- 
sideration which should never be lost sight of-— viz. a due regard to the 
nature of the material it has to work upon. The axiom* Kara rtiv vtroKeifiivtiw 

' Some hopeful symptoms have aLheady appeared : more than one ancient Suffolk roof has 
been restored, partially or completely, to its original beauty : and a new one is in preparation for 
Archdeacon Manning'^s parish-<;hurch in Sussex. All these works are carried on by an able 
ecclesiastical carpenter and carver, Mr. Bingham, of Ipswich, by whom the drawings in the 
British Critic were made. ^ Arist. Eth. Nicom. I. i. & vii. 


vXfiu is again and again urged as a caution by the great Stagyrite : he 
warns us against aiming at that kind of perfection in ethical which is 
attainable in mathematical demonstration, and against seeking the same 
exact rectangularity in the squaring-tool of the carpenter, as in the defi- 
nitions of Euclid. And he hints pretty significantly that the neglect of 
this fundamental rule can lead to nothing but failure and disappointment. 
We would try then all the varieties of wooden roofs by this standard: 
and those which are found not to abide the test, we shall venture to 
pronounce false in theory. Under this class will be found to come all 
coved wooden roofs whatsoever. In what respect, then, are these wanting 
in a due regard to the nature of their material ? 

The projectors of the coved or vaulted wooden roof did violence to the 
genius of their material, in that they attempted to imitate with it what they 
saw done in stone, and that, too, in a department where the latter was solely 
suitable. In order that the nature of this error of theirs may be clearly 
understood, it will be necessary to elucidate what is the distinctive genius 
of wood and stone respectively, as applied to roofing. To read our lesson 
aright we must repair to the forest and the quarry. Wood, we observe, has 
a very decided grain : stone comparatively little. Again, trees (considered 
as timber) extend longitudinally with no great breadth : quarries, (as much 
of them at least as is generally opened at one time) breadthways, with no 
great depth. The consequence is, that timber, with abundance of length, 
is deficient in thickness : stone with abundance of thickness, is deficient in 
length : in other words, timber is found in planks or beams ; stone in slabs 
or blocks. Occasionally, indeed, we see or hear of some giant tree whose 
timber may be said to grow in blocks rather than in beams : or read of stone 
quarried out in beams (trabes Hymettiae) rather than in blocks, as for 
instance in the building of Solomon's temple : but these are evidently excep- 
tions to the general rule. Now, so long as the fabric to be wrought out of 
these materials involves only plane surfaces, and vertical bearings, means 
may be found to place either pretty much on a par with the other: their 
differences, as to natural texture or proportions, either creates no difficulty, 
or such as may easily be remedied. Thus the difficulties arising from the 
coarser grain of wood, as compared with stone, may be provided against, 
in a great measure, by seasoning, caution in working, &c. So also, in 


fabrics of the kind specified, the difference of natural proportions fbund 
to exist between wood and stone may be compensated, in the case of either 
material, by repeated juxtaposition or superimposition, according as it is 
the dimension of breadth or length that is defective. Beams of timber may 
be placed side by side to any required breadth : blocks of stone set one 
on the top of another to any required length. Accordingly, no panelling 
or tracery in stone, so ample in surface or complex in ramification, as not 
to have been successfully imitated in the rich panels and mazy tracery 
of the rood-screen : while on the other hand, the tall pillars of wood, 
which doubtless were the earliest kind of column known (such as the '' four 
rows of cedar pillars," each 30 cubits in height, in Solomon's "House of the 
Forest of Lebanon," 1 Kings vii. 2), have long since been surpassed in 
altitude by the columns of Trajan or Antonine, or by the shafts of Gothick 
Architecture. But there are limits, as we have already hinted, to the 
possibility of thus compensating the natural disabilities of either of these 
materials as compared with the other: there are cases in which wood 
cannot do the work of stone, nor stone of wood. We have seen that stone 
can successfully rival wood in producing lengthy where vertical bearings 
only are involved, as in the case of a column. But suppose a case where 
great length is required, and the bearings are to be horizontal — as, for 
instance, in bridging over a ravine where there is no space for the imposts 
of an arch — here the superiority of wood for the purpose required is 
manifest ; in such a case a single plank of sufficient length were worth 
all the blocks of stone in all the Pyramids of Egypt. Again, we have 
seen that wood is scarcely less capable of producing breadth than stone, 
where plane surfaces only are involved. But what if curved surfaces of 
considerable extent are to be produced ? We shall find that wood will be 
as decidedly at a disadvantage in this case as stone was in the instance 
supposed just now. Stone admits of being hewn from the quarry in 
blocks or slabs of great breadth and thickness: neither has it a coarse 
grain : hence it is adapted for producing curved surfaces of great extent. 
Its great natural superficies saves us the inconvenience of using an inordinate 
number of pieces of the material in order to effect our purpose, while its 
thickness, combined with its freedom from any liability to split or warp, 
allows it to be hollowed without materially weakening it. Herein then, 


(which is the point I have been aiming at) we see the admirable fitness 
of stone for the purposes of Gothick vaulting : by combining a moderate 
number of these hollowed blocks or slabs on the principles of arcuation% 
a shell of stone-work is thrown over a vast space from wall to wall, self- 
supported, abounding in graceful and natural flexures, and affording ample 
opportunity for the richest embellishment. Another admirable feature in 
these vaults is their lightness — not only to the eye, before which ^' whole 
quarries are suspended in mid air with all the lightness of the fleecy cloud, 
or the forest's leafy screen" — ^but also in a mechanical sense: this shell 
of stone-work not requiring to be of more than a very moderate thickness, 
resembling in this respect Nature's tiny but perfect exemplification of 
a vault— the shell of an egg. Turning now to wood, we find it possessing 
none of these qualifications for forming curved surfaces, and therefore none 
for the purposes of Gothick vaulting. The only conceivable means by 
which wood can be applied to this purpose, is by hollowing the surfeces 
of timber of immense thickness ; but then the mass of timber employed 
must be exceedingly great, and contrasts most disadvantageously with 
the thinness and lightness of the vault of stone. Warping of spars may 
be resorted to, but the process is difficult, and the result precarious. Thus 
then it appears, that the genius of wood is decidedly adverse to the pro- 
duction of vaults such as stone is so admirably adapted for ; and on this 
ground it is that the projectors of coved or vaulted wooden roofs were 
wanting in a due regard to the nature of their material. 

It must, however, be admitted, that theirs was a '' noble error,'' arising 
as it did from a desire to give a wider range to one of the grandest pro- 
ductions of Gothick architecture — the vaulted roof — by working it in a more 
generally accessible material than heretofore. Nor can we deny them the 
praise either of consummate (though misdirected) ingenuity in overcoming 
the formidable obstacles above stated, so as to make a vaulted wooden 
roof at all ; or of consummate skill, in the execution of details. A wooden 
roof, in which the form and features of the vaulted roof of stone are 
exactly copied, covers the chapel of Brasenose College, Oxford : an en- 

* See Pugin^B Two Lectures on the True Principles of Ohriatian or Pomted Architecture, 
Liectiure I. 


graving of which is given in the British Critic, and in Le Keux's Memorials 
of Oxford. In this roof, the " pendent semicones*," covered with fan- 
tracery — the diagonal groining-ribs — the central pendents, with which 
we are so familiar in stone vaulting, — all are imitated; and doubtless at 
the cost of infinite pains. It is justly characterized in the article referred 
to as ** curious and elegant ; but containing too great a confusion of the 
ideas of wood and stone.'' The impression it leaves on the whole is, that 
it is over-artificial — unreal — unnatural. ''Roman cement'' was, in those 
days, happily not invented: but such an attempt as this to do stonework 
in wood, must have been as unsatisfactory to lovers of reality and genuine- 
ness, as are at the present day the ''Gothic ornaments*' manufactured 
out of the " cheap and elegant preparation" above mentioned. And if all 
other proof were wanting, that the construction of such roofs out of such 
materials, was, so to speak, against the grain, we should find abundant 
evidence of it in the exceeding rarity of attempts of this nature. Less 
ambitious and elaborate than this kind of roof, yet still, like it, proceeding 
on the idea that vaulting was not foreign to the nature of wood, we may 
next notice the simpler kinds of coved roofs. We have a specimen of 
the plainest sort covering the cloisters of New College, Oxford : it may 
be described as a mere waggon-vault, (only that it is slightly pointed,) 
composed of a series of bent ribs, not unlike the inverted hull of a ship.. 
The existence of this roof may seem to throw a doubt on the statement 
above made, as to the unfitness of warped spars for vaulting : but it must 
be observed, that the small scale of this roof makes all the difference : it 
remains still to be proved that this expedient could be acted upon with 
safety or success for the wider span and greater weight of a church-roof. 
And here again the non-existence of church-roofs thus constructed is a 
presumptive argument against the practicability of them. Another variety 
is, where the timbers are placed not transversely, but longitudinally — in 
the position not of a ship's ribs, but of its planks, so as to look like 
the long voussoirs of a long-drawn arch or vault. I have not seen a 
specimen in which a plain waggon-vault is formed by this arrangement; 
but there is one upon the chancel of Hitcham Church in Suffolk, which 

' See Bloxam^s Architecture, p. 131. 4th Edit. 



is a decided improyement on the plain form, and has the merit of pre* 
senting in its transverse vertical section a good Gothick outline. This 
section resembles the trefoiled head of a window*light : the roof itself, 
therefore, consists of a long semi-cylinder in the middle, supported on 
either side by a quarter cylinder. The groins or intersections of these 
are covered with mouldings running lengthwise, adorned at intervals with 
well*carved bosses. What, then, it may be asked, is wanting in this roof 
to entitle it to our regard? Have we not here a vaulted wooden roof, 
and such a one as we may not well despise? 1 answer, that there is 
one thing wanting, viz. reality ; and this want is fatal to the pretensions 
of the roof altogether. It does not bear close investigation. 1 have said 
that the timbers were so arranged, that they looked like the voussoirs of 
the arched sur^ce in which they occur. But let it not be supposed 
that they really performed the functions of voussoirs : common sense for- 
bids us to suppose it possible, inasmuch as the least warp — a thing almost 
unavoidable where there is so much length — would disarrange the whole 
fabric. Besides, the exterior and interior pitch of the roof were so widely 
different, as to lead to the same conclusion. It was clear, that what met 
the eye from within was not a roof, but a ceiling — ^not a compages by 
which the covering of the building was upheld, but mere wooden tapestry 
suspended from the braces and collars behind it, which constituted the 
real frame of thd roof. The coved surfaces were no arches; the mould- 
ings at their intersections were no purlins: these features were placed 
there but for show, and were doing no duty: hence they were unsatis- 
factory and unarchitectural. Nor could I forgive this ceiling-like covering, 
for concealing above and behind it so large a portion of the natural con- 
tent of the vault — that all-important element in a Gothick interior : it was 
spreading a veil of clouds where one would fain have had at least some 
glimpses of the sky beyond. 

II. It ought to be observed, that the various instances of vaulted 
roofs which I have described and venture to speak of as erroneous in 
conception, belong generally not to the palmy days of Gothick architecture, 
but to the days of its debasement : the Brasenose roof being of the seven- 
teenth century ; the Hitcham roof late in the fifteenth. The architects of 
better days appear to have had a juster perception of the genius of wood, 


thim to do it such violence as we have charged the coved-TOof-makers 
with inflicting upon it. If we try by the test proposed the kinds of 
wooden roof in use among them, we shall find that they can better abide 
it. One of these is the panelled roof, which I take next in orda to the 
coyed species, as being a sort of approach to it in appearance. It was 
not, however, to the same degree, radically faulty in theory. No — to 
produce curved surfaces in wood was not attempted here; and indeed we 
may look upon every panelled roof in the land as a Standing confession 
of the impracticability or unnaturalness of wooden vaulting : it would else 
have been preferred by the olden architects. A panelled roof, as seen 
from the inside of a building, consists of boarding placed longitudinally 
in strips, making a uniform angle with each other, so that its transverse 
vertical section is half a regular polygon, the number of sides varying 
in different specimens. The idea seems to have been, that people would 
goodnaturedly consider this as an arched surface, as being the nearest 
approximation which could be made in wood to that everyway-desirable 
but confessedly-unattainable contour. Now, though mathematicians inform 
us-*and there appears to be no reason for doubting the statement — that 
a regular polygon, if its sides be multiplied, and their size diminished 
indefinitely, will ultimately become curvilinear — a circle in fact: yet I 
know not that we can be called upon to recognize a curve in a semi- 

polygon whose sides vary from 3 to 10 feet, ~ being at the same time 

small. And this being the case with the section of most panelled roofs, 
I cannot but look upon their affinity to the vaulted roof as exceedingly 
remote. Their pretensions, therefore, to Gothick contour, are small indeed : 
so that, while we acquit them of being at variance, in their construction, 
with the genius of their material, I fear that, beyond this negative praise, 
we cannot speak highly of them — at least as to their larger features. In 
detail it is not to be denied that they have many beauties worthy of a 
better field for their display: particularly their panels and bosses, on 
which much exquisite workmanship is often lavished. Other objections 
to them must not be omitted — ^for instance, (the same that has been alleged 
already against the coved roof at Hitcham,) — their taking no part in the 
consiructive of the roofing, and their concealing, as they must dp, a conr 


siderable space of vault behind them. Another observation, which applies 
alike to the coved and the panelled roof» is, that even were they as per- 
fect in design and effect as they are faulty and unsatisfactory, there 
would still be an insuperable objection to their general adoption in 
church-building: viz. the very limited size which they can attain at the 
utmost. Having no tie-beam, their rafters are held together either by the 
collar only, or by such braces as can be concealed between the coved 
or panelled face, and the real slopes of the roof: and it is obvious that 
this would be a very insufficient stay for a roof of great span and 

2. Another kind of wooden roof employed by the old architects — 
indeed the most generally used — was the tie-beamed roof. Of the two 
former kinds of roof already spoken of — the vaulted and the panelled — 
the former boldly, or rather rashly aimed at an effect beyond the powers 
of its material, the latter presented us with a sort of mockery of that 
effect. Now what is the lesson which these failures teach ? If the genuine 
vault be unattainable, and the quasi-vault contemptible, what is to be 
done ? The answer is, abandon the notion of vaulted or quasi-vaulted 
surfaces altogether. Desist from thus attempting ^'naturam expellere fure&:" 
aim at no more than wood is by its nature capable of performing : your 
fabric will thus be more natural, and therefore more really pleasing, though 
perhaps less ornamental. So long as you oppose Nature, you are sure to 
meet with obstacles at every step : but walking obediently within the limits 
she prescribes, you not only are safe, but are also in a fair way to arrive 
at better results than you anticipate. Recurring then to what we found to 
be the natural capabilities of wood, we observe that its natural bearing 
is lengthways, with but slight breadth ; and observing also that the real 
framework of a wooden roof mostly consists of a succession of transverse 
vertical frames, called trusses, on which the covering is placed, we are 
naturally led to pitch upon these as the legitimate sphere of the wood- 
roofer, seeing that he is excluded from the vault as a whole. The truss 
seems to be his natural province; within its limits he may exercise his 
utmost skill without fear of doing violence to his material. This appears 
to be the true theory of all genuine wood-roofing, and upon it the adopters 
of the tie-beamed roof seem to have proceeded. Neglecting either entirely 


or comparatively the broad interior surface of the roof, they made it their 
object to give to the truss such comeliness as it appeared to be capable 
of. But they were sorely fettered by the tie-beam. The outline which^ 
together with the sloping principal rafters it produces, is a fatal obstacle to 
giving an effect that shall harmonize with a Gothick interior. That outline 
is a triangle ; and how to relieve its stiffness of effect is a problem indeed. 
The matter is not much mended when it is divided and sub-divided by 
king-post and queen-post, collar and strut, into a tissue of triangles 
'^ similar to the whole triangle and to one another.'' However, the older 
architects did the best they could towards giving it something of an 
ecclesiastical effect ; they filled it with muUions, foliations, &c. : but after 
all, especially if the triangle is low, it conveys the somewhat incongruous 
impression of a Grecian pediment tricked out with Gothick tracery. Besides 
all this, the necessary effect of the tie-beam is to interrupt and mar that 
openness which, as before observed, is so necessary to interior Gothick 

3. The question then naturally arose, and assumed considerable 
importance, Could the tie-beam be dispensed with? The architects of 
the 13th and 14th centuries evidently thought that it could not, as they 
have left us no specimens without it, at least of large roofs. But in the 
next century men had learnt better. The knowledge of how to do with- 
omt the tie-beam may be considered ds the first great step made towards 
perfection in ecclesiastical wood-roofing; this was the firstfruits which 
ensued upon its setting out on a sound theory, by the recognition of the 
province to which it was limited by its material. ^^The first genuine 
attempt,'' says the British Critic^ "to make the frame of the roof lighter 
and more in accordance with the rest of the building, was the substitution 
of a wooden arch for the tie-beam." By the term ** wooden arch" he 
here means the quasi-arch formed of several straight sides : for the exam- 
ple he gives is the nave of Ely Cathedral. " In this roof the inner line 
is five-sided, the two lower sides being formed of the feet of the rafters, 
the two next by braces passing obliquely from rafter to rafter, and the 
upper or horizontal side by a collar joining these two last." Of course, 

' P. 444. 


this quasi-arch is open to the same objection as to outline, as the quasi-* 
vault of the panelled roof. But its recommendations over the tie-beamed 
roof are manifest ; since, while it is on a par with it as to the recognition 
of the natural uses of wood in roofing, and in its constructive character, it 
is superior to it in that it throws open the roof from end to end, and from 
wall-piece to collar. There remained but one more step to be made to 
complete the theory of roofing in wood ; this was, the giving a really arched 
form to the truss, by using curved instead of straight braces. These, of 
course, might be formed by hollowing the edges of a plank of more than 
ordinary width; and generally they are so formed. By this step then we 
arrive at the kind of roof which I would designate as perfect in theory; 
we at length come in sight of what have been called **the far-famed 
Suffolk Church Roofs" — the proper subject of this Paper: and if we have 
been brought together by a somewhat lengthy route, let it be remembered 
that our having passed under review the various forms of error will enable 
us more thoroughly to appreciate productions which have truth and correct 
theory for their basis. 

For the sake of clearness, it will perhaps be as well distinctly to 
define the positions taken up by the architects of the Perfect Wooden 
Roof: — to re-state the distinctive idea of roofing in wood, which they, 
and they alone, fully grasped and steadily carried out to perfection. 
It was not that they did no violence to the genius of their material — 
attempted no impossible vaulting— -in this the tie-beamed roof had set 
theni an example: nor again, was it that they threw away the tie-beam, 
and trusted to less unsightly resources for supplying its place in the 
construction ; this merit may be claimed by the coved roof. But their 
distinctive merit was this, that by a nice eclecticism they adopted the 
good and rejected the evil of both these kinds: with the former they 
abandoned all thought of vaulting, but did not, like it, retain the tie-beam ; 
with the latter, they threw away the tie-beam, but did not, like it, attempt 
vaulting; they preserved the former's correctness of construction without 
its inelegance, — the beauty of the latter without its faultiness of construc- 
tion. And as compared with the panelled and the straight-braced roof, 
their roof has the merit of presenting not a mockery, but the reality of 
a Gothick outline. The process by which they arrived at this sounder 


theory may be thus briefly traced. The analogy of Ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture pleaded eloquently in favour of the arched form, and their own 
perception of the limited capabilities of wood in this department bade 
them confine themselves to the transverse section : there was but one way 
of combining these two elements, viz. to adopt the arched Jbrmy but restrict 
it to the transverse section or truss. 

III. Having now developed the proper theory of Church-roofing in 
wood, and shewn that the open roof is pre-eminently faithful to that 
theory, 1 proceed, to point out certain respects both of configuration 
and ornament, in which this kind of roof is among the most graceful and 
characteristic productions of English Ecclesiastical Architecture. 

1. I cannot better enter on this part of the subject, than by quoting 
from a little work already well-known, but not yet sufficiently so, a passage 
very much to my present purpose^ The author is speaking of the "long- 
drawn" effect of a Gothick as compared with a Classical interior. " Surely," 
he says, "some part of the effect of a gothick Cathedral resides in that 
excess of length over breadth, affording a long perspective, directing the 
eye towards the altar through an avenue of oft-repeated similar parts, 
and creating as it were an artificial infinite. The roof, as well as the walls, 
of a Gothick building, is so composed as to help this effect to the utmost. 
Groin beyond groin, boss beyond boss, is seen : first of all, each distinct and 
clear, but by degrees approaching and touching one another in the per- 
spective, and at last lost in the complexity — not confusion, but complexity — 
of the whole." Let us see how this view bears upon our subject. We have 
seen our architects acquiescing in the propriety or necessity of confining 
themselves to the arched line as the legitimate field for the exercise of their 
art ; deliberately ceding all the rest of the vault as beyond their province. 
The arched surface is acknowledged by them to be the undisputed dominion 
of stone ; all that wood can do is to divide with it the empire of the 
arched line. 'But,' it may be said, *how poor a shift is this — how sorry 
a substitute for the continuously vaulted surface! How can this arched 
line, or a succession of such lines at considerable intervals, make even 
the most reniote approximation to compensating for the entire vaulting, 

• " Two Lectures on the Structure and Diacorations of Churches, by the Rev. G. A. Poole." 
See also, ^' The Appropriate Character of Church Architecture,'*'' by the same Author. 



any more than a few threads, drawn out at intervals from a richly woven 
web, could be considered as approaching in appearance to the web itself?' 
To these objections the passage just quoted suggests the reply. What is 
there said of the point of view from which a Gothick roof should be esti. 
mated, appears to me to be as just as it is beautiful and religious. It cannot 
be intended that the spectator should take his stand immediately under the 
middle of a vaulted roof, and thence look directly upwards at the small 
extent of it his eye can take in: rather, as there suggested at one end 
of it ; thence to view it stretching away from him as far, to all appearance, 
as eye can reach. Assuming this then to be a true account of the proper 
mode of viewing a roof, as forming part of a Gothick interior, — ^the substi- 
tution in it of the arched line for the arched surface appears under a new 
character. If the fen-traceried roof of stone is chiefly to be admired as 
'' an avenue of oft-repeated similar parts,'' then the open wooden roof 
with its ''arch behind arch in endless perspective," will in fairness come 
in for no small share of admiration too. And though it be true that in 
a perspective view of this latter roof from one end of the building, the 
spaces between the nearer trusses will look bare, being indeed intentionally 
left so ; the more distant ones will more and more overlap one another, 
so as at length to conceal the bare spaces altogether : thus the further end 
of the avenue, on which the eye principally rests, will appear as richly 
clothed with ornament as any part of the avenue of stone. An excellent 
instance of this is furnished by Mackenzie's view of the magnificent wooden 
roof of S. Mary's, Bury St. Edmunds. And the writer just quoted has in 
some degree made an application of his view of the true method of judging 
of a stone roof, to the timber roof also. '' The effect of the timber roof is 
not to be estimated from the view upwards only. View it in perspective, 
and you have the artificial extent derived from the repetition of similar 
parts, which is utterly wanting in the plain flat /veiling. You have the 
conical-^the undeterminate — the repeated — the vista." This then is one 
very important respect in which our arched wooden roofis claim to be 
recognized as Gothick and Ecclesiastical ; viz. that taken as a whole, and 
viewed as Gothick interiors ought to be, they approach nearly (all things 
considered,) in harmony of effect to the more gorgeous structures of 


2. Again, the trusses of these roofs have hitherto been spoken of 
merely as arched. Nothing has at present been said of any particular 
ornaments with which the trusses are set off, nor of any modification of 
the arch itself. And in fact there are not wanting instances of the arched 
roof thus plain and unmodified : in some churches in Norfolk and Suffolk 
the trusses are merely equilateral arches slightly moulded. But the 
genuine Suffolk Roof, if I may so call it, was of a much more artificial and 
ornamental character. Such a roof as has been just described has indeed 
the merit of giving a grand and church-like though simple effect, without 
doing violence to the genius of its material. But it was not the way of 
the architects of that day to rest content with negative excellence — with 
having violated none of the first principles of art. When they had once 
conceived — as generally they were not slow to conceive it — the true genius 
of a given material as applied to a given purpose, they rested not until, 
as Mr Pugin^ says, '^they turned the natural properties of that material 
to their full account,'* and that too both in the constructive and the deco- 
rative department. Much yet remained to be done in these two respects. 
Our architects in abandoning vaulted surfaces, and limiting themselves to 
arched lines, of course surrendered a large class of ornamental details to 
the exclusive possession of the roofers in stone. They made over to them 
all right and interest in all lines divergent from the corbel, all diagonal 
ribbing or groining, with the central bosses or other ornaments appertain- 
ing to it — all foliation or other panelling of curved surfaces. The stone- 
roofer might luxuriate in the boundless capabilities of magnitudes of tu^o 
dimensions : they must do their best upon magnitudes of one. And in 
good truth not much scope was, at first sight, left to them. There was 
the corbel for heads, saintly or grotesque, — ^the arch for mouldings and 
spandrel-work, — the intersection of the arch and ridge for bosses: but 
these were all. What, then, was to be done? Could any modification of 
the mere arch be perchance devised ? — and such a one as would render 
it, if possible, even more purely ecclesiastical? And might the form thus 
given to the truss add to it new elements both of beauty and stability? 

• Two Lectures, &c. 


Might it further afford them many a '*coigne of yantage*®" for the dis- 
play of characteristic ornament, for which their field was at present so 
limited? Might it, finally, enable them to accomplish wood-roofing of 
such an enlarged and gigantic span, as stone itself had scarcely ever sur- 
passed? It might seem much to hope for all this; but I think we shall 
find that no less than this was done by them. 

For a matter-of-fact description of the truss thus devised by them, 
1 would refer to the British Critic, and the drawing of a model-roof there 
given '^ /*It may be described as a combination of the appearance and 
actual strength of the arch in various degrees with the principle of frame- 
work or cpmpagination. The tie-beam is either partly or wholly cut away, 
there never being left more than about a quarter of its length projecting 
from each side. Its place is supplied by spandrels and braces pinned 
to the rafters and collar so as to form virtually one piece. The strength 
of the tie-beam is as it were carried by braces round the angles of the 
rafters and collars." If I understand aright the mechanical part of this 
description, it is meant that for supporting superincumbent weight of lead 
or any other covering, the truss has the qualifications of an arch : while, 
by way of tie, each rafter is firmly bound to it0 opposite by the con- 
tinuous framework which lies between them. Whether it is really on 
these principles— on one or both of them — that these roofs hold together, 
I pretend not to say : certain it is that quocunque tandem modo^ the truss 
in question is so effective, that the roofs in which it occurs have stood 
the test of centuries; witness ^'the stupendous roof of Westminster Hall, 
decidedly the grandest in the world"," erected a. d. 1399. The same 
Hall is described in the British Critic*' as "one of the largest rooms in 
the world, [about 240 feet by 70,] in a very exposed situation, covered 
by one of these roofs, which, for four centuries and a half has received 
the wind and weather on its vast slopes without requiring one bit more 

*" Shaksp. Macbeth^ I. vH. No jutty frieze, buttr^, 

Nor coigne of vantage, but this bird hath made 

His pendent bed. 
" Pp. 445, 460. 
•• Pugin's Two Lectures, &c. " P. 449. 



repair than if it had been bonded with fifty tie-beams, or propped by an 
hundred pillars." In p. 460 of the same article will be found a complete 
list of the various parts of the structure of the truss, and an explanation 
of the use of each. But as the most accurate description of the anatomical 
structure of the human body would be most defective as an account of 
man, so this catalogue of the bones and sinews of the roof- truss fails to 
convey a picturesque (so to speak) and distinctive idea of the thing meant 
as a whole. We do not carry away thence a recognition of any one ele- 
ment which is its pervading idea — around which all its other features are 
clustered — to which all its other properties are referred as subordinate. 
There is one term which conveys a better idea of its contour, and of the 
arrangement and meaning of its parts, than would pages of detailed de- 
scription ; I mean that the truss of this kind of roof is Foliated. It is 
not a little singular that this characteristic of it appears to have escaped 
the observation of the writer in the British Critic Probably his theory of 
this kind of roof having grown out of the pillared hall of three aisles (from 
which I venture to dissent in toto^) blinded him to it. Be that as it may, 
I feel assured that it need only be pointed out to be recognised without 
hesitation. Take for instance the roof of Admeston Hall, given in the 
Glossary of Architecture. Every truss is a most graceful trefoil. In this 
specimen, the absence of all ornament at either cusp or spandrel, leaves the 
true foliated outline clean and sharp. But the foliated character does not 
less really, though somewhat less obviously, belong to the other roofs of this 

Now of Foliation it may safely be asserted that " tota nostra est" — it is 
the growth of Gothick architecture alone. Other features of our architecture 
find their prototypes in the classic styles out of which our own sprung — 
these we have but imitated and modified — Foliation we created. It is not 
difficult to perceive that it grew out of the first cautious departures from 
the single and simple Early English lancet-window. We find it first in 
windows of a single light with a trefoiled head. The Early English archi- 
tect, in venturing to make his window broader than he had hitherto done — 
a step which the introduction of stained glasses and consequent diminution 


See Bentham's Ely Cathedral. 



of light, had rendered in some degree necessary — ^was careful to preserve its 
lanceoliite character as much as possible. Accordingly, the old lancet point 
was retained at top, supported on either side by a semi-lancet arch : thus 
was produced the trefoiled window-light, and from it subsequently, by 
a repetition of the same process, the cinque-foiled. Hence the correctly 
lancet-like curves observable in the very earliest specimens of Foliation — 
very different from those of somewhat later date, when a bold sweep was 
given to the foils, thus producing those sharp cusps which became so pro- 
minent a feature in the window-light. The difference will be clearly seen 
by a comparison of some of the 13th century foliations of windows, 
given in the Oxford Glossary, with those of the 14th and 15th. Hence, 
too, by the way, we may see the utter impropriety of broad window- 
lights without foliations, as if this were a purely arbitrary feature, to be 
dispensed with at pleasure; whereas, in fact, it was the sole and indis 
pensable condition on which window-lights broader in proportion to their 
length than the original slim lancet were ever admitted into Pointed 
Architecture : it is only by retaining this that the windows of subsequent 
styled preserve the memory of that up ward- tending and slender-pointed 
aperture out of which they took their rise. But to return to the natural 
history of Foliations. Once invented, — ^whether arrived at through the 
above steps or otherwise — it is almost impossible to overrate the import- 
ance of it, estimating this by its prevalence, and the influence it exercised 
in every style of (genuine) Gothick architecture. I speak not now of 
window-lights only. Of these there are on a moderate computation some 
half million in England alone, and in every one of them Foliation is the 
one indispensable and never-failing element. But this, though very exten- 
sive, was but a single and a small province of the dominion to which 
Foliation was born. The earliest stage of its development involved, as we 
have seen, the detachment of the lancet-head from the lancet-body, and 
the placing it as it were on new shoulders. Thus the lancet-head had 
acquired a separate and independent existence. When therefore windows 
of two lights were introduced it was natural to fill the circular or other 
space above them with a combination of these lancet-heads, hence arose 
the foliated circle, whether trefoiled, quatrefoiled, or multifoiled, the several 
lancet-heads being rounded, so that they came to resemble leaves rather 


than kmcet-heads-''^bUa than laneeoUe^^. Foliation having now found its way 
into the circle, was not long confined to that figure: it was soon taught 
to adapt itself to the varied and graceful loops which resulted from the 
ramifications of decorated tracery, as exhibited in windows or other parts 
of a building; nay, more, tracery was held to be intolerable without it. 
Thenceforth it may be truly said that Foliation became the alphabet of 
Gothick ornament. All that wonderful language by which Ecclesiastical 
decoration speaks to the eye, is but the result of ever-varied combinations 
of the few and simple elements with constitute Foliation. All elaborate and 
mazy window-tracery — all fair niches— ^11 richly fretted tabernacle-work — 
all panelling — all goi^eous fan-tracery of *' high embowed roofs," — owe their 
truest beauty and purity of Gothick character to an unsparing and bound- 
less use of Foliation. It may be doubted whether the introduction of the 
Pointed Arch worked a more complete revolution in the Constructive than 
did that of Foliation in the Decorative of Ecclesiastical Architecture. 
What a world of heavy masses and clumsy contrivances were superseded 
by the one; what a host of zig-zag and billet-mouldings put to the rout 
by the other! And admirable as these two were in their separate excel- 
lence, they were truly wonderful and matchless in their combination. The 
one the element of manly strength and grandeur — ^the other of feminine 
gracefulness and delicacy — united, they presented such a spectacle of 
perfect Construction wedded to perfect Ornament, as the world never saw, 
nor will see its like again. 

I have been anxious thus to point out the pure Gothick descent, and 
to dwell on the all pervading use of Foliation in Ecclesiastical buildings, 
in order that the taste and judgment of those who adopted it into the 
wooden roof may be fully appreciated. That the foliated contour is 
distinctly to be recognised in the roofs under our consideration is, I think, 
undeniable. As little can we doubt how it came there. Surely it cannot 

'* The Uunied laneeola becomes a foUinmj just as, converaely, the sharpened foKwn becomes 
a laneeola — ^in botany, for instance. Thus the poet Macer, — a sort of Darwin under the 
Emperors, — speaking of the herb plantain, 

Altera vero mincn*, quam vulgo hnceokUam: 
Dicunt, quod foliia, ut laneea, surgat acutis. .>> 


be thought merely a happy accident! Had some one or two^ or even 
some dozen of these roofs only possessed the feature, it might, perhaps, 
be doubted whether it was intentional : but when we find it common to 
hundreds and hundreds of them, differing in size, in plan, in accessary 
ornament — in all else indeed but this — then to doubt that it is the result 
of design, appears to me to be about as reasonable as to believe that the for- 
tuitous concourse of atoms is sufficient to account for the existence of the 
world or the Iliad. Let us not then deny our Architects the praise which 
is so justly their due, of having intentionally adopted into their roofs a 
feature so ecclesiastical, and so associated with all that is graceful in 
Pointed Architecture, — adopted it too with such felicity, that you are at a 
loss to say whether it contributes more to the beauty or to the strength 
of the fabric. Besides, the amplification of the principle, which they 
effected, was in itself a noble idea. This feature had never before been 
attempted on so gigantic a scale. The largest known instances of Folia- 
tion were perhaps the Early English and Decorated doorways of some of 
our Cathedrals: and, perhaps, the powers of stone "could no further go" 
in that direction; if so, here is an instance parallel to that cited above, 
of the occasional superiority of wood over stone in certain departments of 
construction. Certain it is, that these specimens of Foliation sink into 
insignificance as to size, when compared with the vast foliated arch-ways 
which bestride such a span as that of Westminster Hall, or the cleres- 
tories of larger churches in Suffolk, such as St. Mary's, Bury St. Ed- 
munds ^% Woolpit, and others. Each truss of Westminster Hall is a huge 
equilateral arch (or nearly so) struck with a radius of near 70 feet, and this 
arch being trefoiled, the chord of each foliating arc is about 30 feet: — 
in churches, from 20 to 30 feet is a common radius for the truss-arch. 
This then is a second respect on which this kind of roof claims our ad- 
miration, viz. the adoption, on a scale of unexampled magnificence, of 
that truly Go thick and Church-like feature — Foliation. 

3. Of course, Foliation once adopted as the ruling feature of the 

"^ These two foliated roofs are particularly worthy of a visit, as furnishing an excellent study 
on the subject ; the former trefoUed, the latter cinquefoiled. The former is remarkable as having 
its trusses alternately plain and trefoiled, twenty in number. 


truss, drew with it all those rich and varied ornamental accessories which 
naturally cluster around it, — such as the moulding of the curves and 
enriching of the cusps and spandrels, so abundant in rood-screens and 
other elaborate specimens of foliated work ; and the amplified scale on 
which it now first appeared allowed of the introduction of new ornaments — 
new either in kind or in their proportions. Of these it may suffice to 
notice the two most remarkable. The corbel or springer very frequently 
consists of a carved figure of a bishop or saint, standing on a pedestal 
and under a rich canopy. But the second I have to mention is by far 
the most remarkable. It will be perceived by a glance at any foliated 
roof-truss, that the cusp of the foliation coincides with the end of the 
hammer-beam. Instead then of ornamenting this cusp, as in the smaller 
specimens of rich foliation, with a head, flower, or heraldic device, the 
happy thought suggested itself of terminating it with a figure of the size 
of life— the large scale of the foliation admitting of this ; while at the same 
time, the horizontal bearing of the coincident hammer-beam appeared to 
suggest the proper position for such figure, — in fact, it was most com- 
monly carved out of a continuation of the hammer-beam. Carrying out 
this idea, our architects produced what I cannot but think one of the 
most glorious creations of their art. Figures springing thus boldly for- 
ward into mid-air, apparently unsupported, were hitherto almost unknown, 
or occurred only as an exterior feature, as gurgoyles; thus having no 
more dignified employment assigned them than that of spouting water 
out of their mouths. Now, however, they were to be admitted to the 
interior, and made to bear a high and holy meaning. The form given 
to the figures whose positions and posture have been described above, 
was mostly that of angels, with folded or outspread wings. Now we are 
familiar, in the semi-classic styles, with painted representations of mul- 
titudes of floating angels on domes or soffits; — ^but there is, I think, 
something much more imposing in the somewhat unearthly aspect of 
these larger and more palpable forms, thus solitary and self-suspended*— 
for the appearance is as if they were balanced on their wings in mid-air. 
Nor can the beautiful meaning which they convey for a moment escape us. 
They are placed, as I have already hinted, either horizontally with their 


faces looking downwards, or else" leaning forward from their airy height, 
as if in deep contemplation of what is passing, or should be passing, below. 
Thus they finely symbolize that deep and mysterious interest which Scrip- 
ture informs us is felt by angels abovie in the salyation, and therefore in 
the spirituar services, of saints below: they are vivid embodying of those 
words of St Peter — words whose meaning a translation can scarce fully 
set forth — ^in which he speaks of these as things eU a imdvfioSo'iv ayyeXoi 
irapaiw^ai — ^^ things which angels desire and delight to stoop from heaven 
to gaze upon." 

Such lofty conceptions as those I have just spoken of will go &r, 
I hope, towards making good the third ground on which admiration is 
claimed for these roofs as specimens of Sacred Architecture — ^viz. the ap- 
propriateness and splendour of the ornaments adopted, together with the 
foliated form, or created expressly for this new application of it. 

In leaving the subject of Foliation and its accessories, I venture to 
propose, that, as these roofs have as yet received no really distinctive 
name, they should be called, from this ruling and peculiar characteristic 
of theirs, — Foliated Roofs: a title which will clearly distinguish them 
from all other roofs whatsoever, whether of wood or stone. 

4. Nothing has hitherto been said of the longitudinal features in 
these roofs, but only of the transverse. As might have been expected 
from the nature of that theory on which I conceive their builders to have 
proceeded, there is not much to observe on these features, unless it be 
their remarkable plainness and simplicity. The longitudinal members, or 
those which run from end to end of the vault, are these — ^the ridge, cor- 
nice, purlins, and boarding. It is unnecessary to observe, that in none 
of these was vaulting, or any of its features, attempted — such as fan- 
tracery, &c. The boarding, which constitutes the great expanse of the 
interior surface, is generally perfectly plain: the entire absence of all 

^' " Ye too, when lowest in the abyss of woe 
He plunged to save his sheep, 
Were leaning from your golden thrones to know 
The secrets of that deep.'^ 

Christian Year, Saint Michael and All Angels. 


ornament evinces the steadiness with which the architects adhered to the 
fundamental axiom » that the transverse section or truss, and that alone, 
was their true province. In some few cases the boarding is ornamented 
with painted stars, or partially under-drawn by arched and foliated purlin 
braces: but these rare and questionable exceptions only strengthen the 
general rule. In the ridge, cornice, and purlins, greater latitude was 
taken : these are always moulded, boldly indeed, but simply, except the 
cornice, which is generally exceedingly elaborate. This last, however, 
may be considered rather as ornamental of the junction-line of the walls 
and roof, than of the roof itself. Or, if a reason must be assigned why 
the architects ornamented these longitudinal features at all, after having 
given abundant proof in other ways that they knew the truss only was 
properly theirs for this purpose, it may be said, that they were only 
intended to serve as so many bridges for the eye to travel over from one 
richly-adorned truss to another: hence it became necessary to distinguish 
them by some slight degree of ornament, from the bare and barren tracts 
which they traversed. With this account of the longitudinal parts of this 
kind of roof, I close the second division of my subject. 

And briefly to sum up the main points which have been insisted 
upon — ^they are these. That this kind of wooden roof is pre-eminently 
true to the genius of its material ; — and that, too, without either limiting 
itself as to size, or sacrificing amplitude of vault to safety — to one or other 
of which objections all other wooden roofs lie open. That, viewed as 
Gothic interiors ought to be, it presents a glorious vista only second in 
effect to the richest groined roof of stone. That, for the outline of that 
yista, it adopts a form consecrated by the use of ages to the purposes 
of ecclesiastical decoration — viz. the Foliated. That, lastly, such orna- 
mental features as by the theory of its formation are admitted into it, are 
both graceful and appropriate, and, in some instances, are made to con- 
vey a beautiful and sacred meaning. 

Such are the grounds on which I would advocate the claims of this 

kind of Roof to rank of all Wooden Roofs the highest, for ecclesiastical 

buildings: and it will be a great satisfaction to me, should anything that 

has been here said, tend to forward the revival of such roofs in the 

erection or restoration of our Churches. 

17— s 



A Piy^er read before the OamMdffe Oamden Society on Satwrdag^ February 27, 1841 
by Edward John Cablos, Esq. of London^ an Honorary MenAer. 

Obsebting in the address in fayour of the restoration of Old Shoreham 
church a statement that it was proposed to remove the present triangular 
head of the Tower for the sake of giviiig to it again the original parapet, 
I beg to call the attention of the Society to the question whether the present 
covering, or the proposed parapet, is the most proper finish to the structure 
in accordance with the architecture, and the ancient practice of covering 
the summit of towers of the Norman period. 

It might be difficult to adduce an existing Tower of Norman or Saxon 
architecture in this country, which could be positively shewn to possess its 
original finish in an entire state. In the lapse of seven centuries a member 
of a building, which by its elevated situation would be peculiarly exposed 
to the operation of rain and wind, and the efiect of lightning, would necessarily 
stand in need of frequent repairs, and, sometimes, even of reconstruction : 
and these causes would in themselves be sufficient to account for the 
destruction, in many instances, of the original materials ; in others it may 
have afforded an excuse for the substitution of some other mode of covering. 
Still it may have happened, that in many examples the primitive form 
has been retained although its constituent members may have been from 
time to time entirely renewed. To ascertain then, what was the form of 
the original Norman and Saxon Towers it will be necessary, previous to 
making a reference to actual buildings, to examine the contemporaneous 
representations of similar structures which exist in ancient drawings. 

As a preliminary to the better understanding the object of these remarks, 
it will be necessary to observe, that all structures which bear roofs are 


afe finished in two modes. The One is by a roof or covering overhanging 
the side walls, so as to shoot off the rain from its surface, and resting on 
e cornice, which is known by the technical name of ''eaves/' If this 
covering is simply of timber and tiles, the ends of the beams are exposed 
at the eavies. In more important buildings a stone cornice is substituted^ 
but the idea of the ends of the timbers is kept up, either by blocks carved 
with the heads of animals, or by cantilevers or modillions. This mode 
of construction is equally to be met with in the cornice of the Greek Doric, 
the Tower of the Norman and Early English church, and the dwelling-house 
of the architecture of Wren. 

The other mode of finish is by a parapet, or low wall, raised on the 
cornice, evidently borrowed from the blocking course of Greek architecture. 
In ancient structures in this country, of the 15th and 16th centuries, 
the parapet is usually seen with embrasures cut through its coping; in 
earlier buildings it is generally a plain parapet. In both modes the actual 
roof is sometimes a lead flat, in others, a low-pitched tiled or shingled 
roof, masked by the parapet, the water from the roof being collected in 
gutters, and discharged through holes above, or in, the cornice, having 
conduits of lead or stone, termed '' gurgoyles." I believe that in the earlier 
examples the primitive covering is preserved in common with the parapet ; 
in late ones, the lead flat is almost universal. 

The mode of covering to which this paper is more particularly directed 
is the pyramidal form. In our old churches there is, first, a square pyramid 
of different degrees of altitude, as at Old Shoreham, where it is low, or at 
Porchester, Hants, and other examples, where it is higher^; it afterwards 
takes an octangular form, and forms the base of a low spire, as in numerous 
examples in Kent, but still retaining the original idea of a roof or covering 
to the Tower ; and previously to a reference to actual existing speciqiiens, I 
solicit the attention of the Society to the sketches which accompany this 
paper, representing the coverings of ancient Towers as shewn in drawings. 
The first three subjects are taken from a series of engravings published by 
the Society of Antiquaries, from the illustrations to Casdmon's Metrical 

^ A notable example is seen in Lower Halstow, Kent, where a church originally of 
Norman, or perhaps earlier, architecture has been rebuilt or altered in the time of 
Edward III., and yet stiU retains the pristine finish to its tower. 


Paraphrase of Scripture HiBtory^ a MS. of the 10th century, in the Bod- 
leian Library. 

No. 1 is designed for a church, and is taken from a group representing 
the burial of the patriarch Mahalaleel : allowing for the distortion of the 
drawing, it is a fair representation of a Saxon church, consisting of a 
tower, nave, and chancel (the latter being apsidal.) The tower, it will 
be seen, is square in plan, and is capped with a low spire, and covered 
with tiles or shingles. 

No. 2 is the tower of a secular building, apparently intended to 
represent the gate of the city of Enoch: here is seen a tower crowned 
with a pyramidal covering of tiles. 

No. 3, another square tower, having apparently a covering of lead 
or other metal, is taken from a representation of Noah's Ark. 

The three examples are chosen almost at random from the numerous 
turrets shewn in the fifty-three plates to the above work. The number 
might be increased to a greater extent by consulting other MSS. of the 
Saxon age, in which towers are constantly seen covered like the above 
with a dwarf spire, having its outer case of tiles or metal, and affording 
evidence that such were the common, if not universal, coverings of all 
kinds of towers and turrets during the Saxon period. I shall next endeavour 
to shew from the same description of authorities that a similar mode of 
covering was used by the architects of the Norman edifices. 

No* 4 is a tower or gateway taken from a drawing in a Cott. MS. in 
the British Museum, (Claudius, B. iv.) of the time of Henry I. The roof 
appears to be covered with metal, and scarcely differs from those seen 
in the Saxon MS. The dome over the small tower is also worthy of 

Fig. 5 is taken from the seal of Kenilworth Priory. Here a church 
is shewn with nave and aisles, transept and choir, possessing a central 
and western tower ; the former is square, the latter circular, or polygonal ; 
in both the coping is pyramidal, and covered with metal. 

The five examples which succeed are from the Bayeux Tapestry, and 
are selected from above one hundred specimens. Fig. 6 is designed for 
the central tower of Westminster Abbey. It will be seen that it is crowned 
with a doque, and that the attached turrets are finished with small spires. 


Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, are coverings of other towers ; and on one a dome similar 
to that shewn in the Cott. MSS. appears. 

It would be useless to multiply examples, as, on reference to authorities 
of the description I have referred to, it will be seen that in every representa- 
tion of an ancient tower the covering appears to have been a low spire or 
roof of metal or tiles, resting upon the walls of the tower, and having 
eaves; but in no instance do I find that a parapet has been applied as 
a finish to any tower. 

It will now be necessary to examine some of the existing towers of 
Norman architecture in this country, for the purpose of ascertaining if 
they possess any roof or covering at all assimilating with those shewn 
in the ancient drawings I have adduced. 

In the existing Norman and Early English towers, to which a parapet 
has not been added at a period subsequent to the date of the original 
architecture, the finish is seen to be, either a low pyramidal roof of tiles, 
keeping the plan of the tower and rising to a point in the centre, or a 
more lofty structure of shingles or lead, in both caseis resting on the walls 
of the tower ; and if a more enlarged view is taken of towers and turrets, 
as well ecclesiastical as others, it will be seen that a pyramidal capping 
of some form constitutes the finish of almost every early building of the 
kind. It is equally the finish of the Round Towers of Ireland and those 
of Norfolk and the neighbouring counties. The same description of roof 
which is seen on the circular structures at Snoring' and at OckendenS 
is found as the covering of the church of San Stephano Rotondo at 
Rome, one of the oldest churches in the Christian metropolis, having been 
consecrated by Pope Simplicius, a.d. 468; and the same idea, improved 
by curvature of the lines, may be traced through the domes of Byzan- 
tium, to the cupolas of Brunelleschi and his followers. It will be readily 
seen, that, by whatever means it was effected, the roof or finish of the 
structure was at first dictated by necessity, and adopted for its utility. 

From the similarity in style between the actual roofs of existing 
structures and the representation of such objects in ancient drawings, 
and by analogy with similar coverings found upon ancient buildings, in 
different styles and in various localities, it is fair to infer, wherever a low 

• Norfolk. • Essex. 


pyramidal roof is found upon a Nonnaa tower in this country, that it is 
the original finish of the edifice ; or if a more modern reconstruction, with 
respect to materials, that the original form has not been departed from* 

A parapet is met with in comparatively few instances; and when it 
is seen, yery commonly it is embattled, and very often constructed of 
brick or other materials, so modern as to leave no doubt of its being an 
addition to the original structure. I need only to point out the towers 
of St Michael's, St Peter's and Iffley, Oxford; St Cross and Christ 
Church, Hants; Stewkely and Upton, Bucks; Tewkesbury; Bramber, 
Sussex ; Melbourn, Derbyshire ; the Round churches at Cambridge and 
London, and a multitude of others in which the parapets are manifest 
additions of comparatively modern formation. Meopham church in Kent 
is an example, in which a parapet with embrasures has been within the 
last four or five years substituted for a base of a low spire. 

It may however be inferred, that I equally contend for the originality 
of the lofty spires seen upon so many Norman towers ; and to avoid any 
misunderstanding upon that point, I submit two other examples of spires 
of frequent occurrence in Norman and Early English churches, and I 
mention the latter style, as it closely assimilates in its principal features 

with the Norman. These two examples I consider to be improvements 
upon the low pyramidal roof, which I have considered as the original 
covering of the earliest towers. 

Fig. 13 is the spire of an Early English or rather Transitional church, 
Merstham in Surrey ; it is covered with shingles and rests on a cornice of 
carved blocks. I have little doubt that it is the original covering of the 
tower to which it appertains, and the structure belongs to a style so near the 
pure Norman, that I can only look upon it as an improvement in form and 
altitude upon the primitive Norman roof. 


Fig. 14, the spire of Godalming, Surrey, is constructed of timber covered 
with lead, and although this example exhibits a still farther improvement, 
it keeps close to its prototype, and like that, it has eaves at its base, and 
covers the area as well as the walls of the tower. The former spires 
of Rochester and Hereford Cathedrals were also of this description. 

My object has been to shew in what manner the lofty spire grew out 
of the low pyramid, still retaining its primitive character and use; and it 


Tra-njaiti^ns ^ tii ^aJHJrufye Camlen. SocUtr. Til. Iji I3Z Pla» 3 



(as It now appaug) 


Jfateaifi k Fmbfur, Litktg Ctmtridf, 


is by such gradations that the pointed style itself arose from a solitary 
arch to the highest state of perfection to which it attained under Edward 
III.; on which subject I cannot help quoting the concluding sentence of 
the Rev. Dr Milner's judicious Essay on Gothic Architecture, which details 
with much brevity and clearness the rise and progress of this style. '^ A 
pinnacle of a large size became a spire ; accordingly such were raised upon 
the square towers of former ages, where, as at Salisbury, the funds Of the 
Church and other circumstanced would permit. Thus we see how naturally 
the several gradations of the pointed architecture arose one out of another, 
as we learn from history was actually the case, and how the intersecting of 
two circular arches in the church of St Cross may perhaps have produced 
Salisbury Steeple." (Coll. of Essays published by Taylor, p. 133.) 

I will now proceed with some observations on the immediate subject 
of this paper, the church of S. Nicholas, Old Shoreham. 

It is observable that this edifice is situated in a district rich in ancient 
churches, many of which have retained a great portion of their primitive 
design in a fine state of preservation. The present church, although some 
of its important members have been rebuilt, exhibits a fine specimen 
of a Norman Tower retaining most of its original features in a state of 
great perfection. On each face of this Tower is an arcade, at present 
partially obscured by modem alterations, above which the first stage of 
the elevation is marked by a break : a low wall or fascia succeeds, which 
has somewhat the appearance of a parapet ; it is however perforated with 
circular windows, shewing clearly that it was not so, and just above the 
windows the whole structure is covered with a low roof of tiles. If this 
covering is not a copy of the original, (tlie actual roof was put on, I be- 
lieve, in the course of the last century), it would be difficult to account 
for the circular windows ; but if it be, then the windows have their use^ 
in giving light to the interior, otherwise quite dark. The roof or dwarf 
spire closely resembles the covering of the Norman Tower shewn in 
Fig. 4, and more closely the roof of that exhibited in Fig. 5; indeed, 
so near is the resemblance between the actual building and the repre- 
sentation, that the one confirms the authenticity of the other, and fully 
wiarrants the conclusion, that the present covering of the Tower in form at 
least is original. If this conclusion be rejected, the testimony of ancient 


drawings as representations of architectural subjects must be entirely set 
aside. What then becomes of the same authorities as evidence of cos- 
tume, in which respect they have always been received without question 
of their accuracy ? 

A similar feature to that which bears a resemblance to a parapet in 
this Tower, is also seen in the example from Godalming, (Fig. 14); which 
also, like the present specimen, is crowned with a roof and eaves. 

I now beg to direct the attention of the Society to the Tower of another 
church in the neighbourhood of Old Shoreham, which is that of Broad- 
water church. In Fig. 11 I have endeavoured to give an idea of what 
was the former finish of this Tower, assisted by a view kept in the church, 
and in Fig. 12 of the present finish, which was added in a repair of the 
structure which took place not many years since. 

The contrast afforded by the two sketches, will, I think, suffice to prove 
the superiority of the pyramidal finish over the parapet ; the former gives 
to the structure an idea of loftiness greater than that which it really 
possesses, the latter reduces the edifice in apparent height, and gives tp 
it an air of clumsiness, much like a modern piece of imitative fortification, 
resembling nothing so closely as the tower which a sign-painter places on 
the back of an elephant. 

If the present covering be removed from Old Shoreham, the Tower 
will be much in the condition of Broadwater; and I leave it to the 
good taste of the Society to decide, whether the picturesque appearance 
of the Tower will be improved by the alteration. 

Mr Scoles, the architect of the Roman Catholick Chapel at Havant, 
erected by him in the Norman style, has finished a square tower with 
a pyramidal covering in exact conformity with the ancient examples ; and 
many other towers of modern architecture in other styles, might be ad- 
duced to shew the prevalence of a taste at the present time for a similar 
style of finish. If I recollect aright, the tower of the modern Town Hall 
at Worthing has a covering with eaves, and Brixton church Steeple in 
Surrey, which has an octagonal cupola, possesses a similar roof: both these 
erections are of Greek architecture, and the authority for the covering of 
the latter building is the ancient structure at Athens, popularly named the 
Tower of the Winds. 


I trust that I have shewn that ancient authority and modem practice 
combine in the support of the present roof of Old Shoreham Tower in pre- 
ference to a parapet; but should the funds suffice to place a covering of 
lead in lieu of the tiles, it would of course be an alteration to be desired. 

Having occupied so much of the time of the Society, I should now con- 
clude the observations I have deemed it right to submit, without further com- 
ment ; but I trust it will not be out of place to add a few observations on 
the superiority of the style of covering for which I contend over that of a 
platform and parapet. This kind of roof will always throw off the wet and 
snow from the tower, owing to its form and to the absence of a parapet or 
blocking-course to act as a dam. If a parapet is introduced, the lead flat, 
which will supply the place of the roof, owing to its horizontal position, is 
more likely to retain the wet ; added to which the chance of the gutters 
being stopped, the probability of the platform sinking in consequence of 
the slightness of the timbers, or in case the lead should be of the description 
generally used in modern buildings, would be so many causes conspiring to 
render it a very insufficient protection against wet and damp reaching the 
interior of the building ; an occurrence the more particularly to be guarded 
against at Old Shoreham, where the Tower is situated above the centre 
of the church. 

I have gone to a greater length than I at first anticipated, but I trust 
the object which has given rise to these remarks will excuse the length 
of them. It is pleasing to see so excellent a work as the restoration of 
this antique church proceeding so favourably under the auspices of the 
Society; and it would be painful to reflect, that the restorations should 
be marred by an alteration so opposite to ancient practice, as the removal 
of the present covering to the Tower. The aim of this paper is to urge 
the Society to exercise its influence to preserve this ancient structure in 
its integrity, and not to allow an alteration to be made which cannot 
have any other effect than to destroy the originality and efface the pri- 
mitive character of the structure. 


north aisle, with the part of the clerestory which surmounts it : aha Fig. 4 the 
east end of the same aisle, as seen from the east. Fig. 2 also contains 
two of the tower-windows, marked Ay B. 

Enough of the features of Astbury church is disclosed, I should suppose, 
by these partial views of it, to give any person even moderately skilled in 
ecclesiology, a tolerable idea of what it is. He will have detected in it the 
characteristics of each of the three principal styles of Gothic architecture : — ^Early 
English in the north wall of the north aisle in Fig. 3, especially in the windows, * 
buttresses, and dog-toothed string-course above : Decorated in the westernmost of 
the same windows, and in the spire of the tower : Perpendicular — of late charac- 
ter — in the great western front (in Fig. 2), in the vast yet meagre and over-lighted 
clerestory. (Figs. 2 and 3), and in the window inserted in the east end of the 
north aisle in.Fig. 4. I may add that the tower to a certain height is Early 
English : the interior pillars and arches, and nearly all the windows not eidubited 
here. Decorated: and the great east window Perpendicular. The length of the 
interior of the church is 102 feet : of its breadth I shall speak presently. As to 
its plan, it consists of nave and chancel, both having aisles, therefore not ve^ 
easily distinguishable from each other ; north and south porches ; a western 
galilee, rising as high as the clerestory ; and a north-west tower. 

I proceed to point out the anomalies to which I wish, in the first place, to 
direct your attention. 

I. The first is — the position of the church. It is crowded into one comer 
of a very spacious churchyard, and (which is especially deserving of notice) is 
very close to the south boundary of it. This latter circumstance is directly at 
variance with what we usually find. Let any person call to mind any half-dozen 
parish-churches, that he happens to be acquainted with, and he will find that in 
five out of the six cases the church is perceptibly nearer to the north than to the 
south <stde of the church-yard : or, howev^, he will very seldom find it perceptibly 
the contrary, unless there be some local cause for it. Thus, e.g.y at S. Edmunds- 
bury, S. Mary's church is indeed almost extenor to the south side of the vast 
church-yard, which is common to it and its neighbour church of S. James : but 
this explains itself; — ^they could not both be at the north side of the church-yard ; 
— and whatever reason there was for wishing to have a good part of the church- 
yard south of a church, it is here fully satisfied by one of the two churches 
being as close to the north boundary as the other is to the south. We can be 


be not unique* I am aware that irregularity of ground-plan, of a certain kind, 
is so. far from being foreign to Gothic architecture, that it is ahnost a cha- 
racteristic of it : but that irregularity is confined, with Uttle exception, to a 
certain licence in the disposition of the several parts with reference to each 
other — the parts themselves are, as a general rule, perfectly regular, — ^I may say 
rectangular. For instance, the tower may be thrown out -as bcddly as you will; 
and ancient precedent will bear you out in it. But there is a limit even as 
to its position ; for instance, it must not be set on anglewise : still more as to 
its form — ^it must not be a triangle or a trapezium. The deviations from this 
rule are few and sUght. Sometimes a porch may be observed to form an acute 
ai^le with the wall to which it is attached ; e. ^. at Coddenham, in Suflfolk, 
where the object appears to have been to bring it in a line with the porch of a 
religious house which stood about a hundred yards distant: such at least is 
the tradition of the place, as to the cause of this irregularity. But a more 
important, though generally less observable form of deviation from rectangu- 
larity, is the well-known one of the chancel. It has been asserted that perhaps 
'' a fourth of the churches in England present a deviation between the Mm, of the 
chancel and that of the nave" (Preface to Durandus, p. Ixxxvii.) Now whenever 
this is the case, it is obvious that if the nave is rectangular, as it is most 
likely to be, the chancel cannot be so. It is however, even in the most 
marked cases, too inconsiderable to be compared with the instance before us, 
which is no other than that of a church of vast size visibly converging to a 
point. Examples of this are, I conceive, exceedingly rare.^ An ingenious 
paper on architecture which appeared in the Q^arterly Review — I believe by 
Professor Sewell — lays down this feature of convergency^ whether in elevation or 
ground-plan, as a characteristic of £^yp^n architecture — and Egyptian it may 
be, but Gothic certainly it is not. 

m. The next peculiarity I have to point out respects the position of the 
Tower with relation to the church. Now the church-schemes in possession 
of the Society testify to a great variety of positions having been chosen in 
various instances for this feature of a church. The middle of the west end of. 
the nave, whether there are aisles or not ; the north-west or south-west angle 
of the nave, (and so leaning against the nave-wall,) whether there are aisles or 
not ; the middle of the nave on the north or south side, (and still leaning 

^ Something similar oocon in the plan of Whith^ Ahbey, Yorkshire. 


against the nave-wall,) where there are no aisles ; — ^these positions for the 
tower in parish-churches are of more or less frequent occurrence, and come' 
nearest to the present instance. But the present instance is distinguished 
ftom them all by this circumstance, that here the Tower is separated from the 
nave by an aisU^ and so does not lean upon any wall of the nave, whether north, 
south, or west. And this I believe will be found to be a case of very rare 
occurrence. I have been unable to recal an instance to my own recollection, 
though I am aware that a tower altogether detached from the church not 
unfrequently occurs, in some districts especially : a notable example is at West 
Walton, in the Marshland, Norfolk, where the tower stands full twenty yards 
south of the middle of the church ; and a noble specimen of Early English work 
it is. The reason why the tower in most instances touches the nave, even when 
it stands as a termination not of the nave but of an aisle, is obvious : the tower 
by this means deriving a certain degree of support from the nave, besides that 
this arrangement gave scope for a loftier and nobler arch of commimication 
between the tower and the church than the juxtaposition of tower and aitf/e-wall 
would admit of. A reference to the ground-plan (Fig. 1), and to the view of the 
whole western front, tower and all, in Fig. 2, will give a very clear notion of the 
position of the Tower relatively to the rest of the church. 

IV. There is another anomaly in which the Tower is also concerned, — 
making the fourth that has now come under our notice. A glance at the 
ground-plan will shew how very small the Tower is in proportion to the whole 
chnrch. , The western view in Fig. 2 does not perhaps so immediately suggest 
this observation as from the groimd-plan we might have expected ; but it is to 
be borne in mind, that in that view the Tower is nearer to the eye than any 
other part. When seen from any other point, the difference would immediately 
appear. And small as it is, it was once much smaller in one respect. For 
there is sufficient evidence, I think, to shew that originally it reached only to the 
height of the buttresses now attached to it, and whether it had a spire even is 
uncertain. I beUeve the present spire to have been added, as well as the upper 
story of the Tower, in the Early Decorated period, whereas the lower part of the 
Tower is Early English. As a specimen, the window marked A in Fig. 2 is one 
of the lower tower windows seen from the inside ; the peculiar square head on 
round shoulders is of itself almost sufficient to bespeak it Early English ; and 
the string-course round the Tower, as well as the wall, 4 feet 10 inches in thick- 


ness, are in character with such a date. On the other hand, B in tibe same 
drawing represents one of the upper two-light windows of the TowcoTi and this 
I take to be Decorated, though early in that style ; and I should speak vStill more 
unhesitatingly of the spire loop-holes, with their ogeed and crocketed oe^ippies. 
However, I may confidently appeal to the ground-plan for the truth of the 
assertion that the Tower is very diminutive for so large a church. 

And having touched on the subject of Early Decorated spires, I csuonot 
resist the temptation to go out of my way for a moment, to endeavour to set at 
rest a question that has been raised respecting the supposed existenoe of one on 
an interesting chiirch in this neighbourhood — that of Trumpii^on. In the 
account of this churqh recently published by the Society, the foUowjoig curious 
passage is quoted from Cole's MSS. (vol. viii. p. 5L) "There are two Verses 
in everybody's Mouth, on seeing the Tower of the Church topping the lolty 
Trees which surround it on every side, said to be Chaucer's : — 

Trompington, Trompington, God be thee with. 
Thy Steeple looks like a Knife in a Sheath.'' 

On this the writer of the account observes : — " The pertinency of the com- 
parison we must confess to being quite unable to perceive ; there is not, to our 
eyes, the slightest resemblance in the tower of the church to the object above- 
mentioned. We can only presume, in justice to the poet, that the character of 
the steeple has been altered since the writing of this distich." But I believe 
that we need not have recourse to any such supposition as this in order to 
perceive the pertinency of the comparison, if we only attend to the clew 
which Cole has given us for und^^tanding it aright. The error into which the 
historian of Trumpington church has fallen is, that he has gone close up to the 
tower, to see if he could trace in it any resemblance to a knife ; — and it is no 
wonder that he found none — ^much less to a knife in a sheath. But let any 
one call to mind the appearance which this tower presents as seen in 
approaching the village from London, — which I beUeve Cole to have meant, 
as he had just said that the village is *• surrounded with delightful groves, 
and on a fine Turnpike Road'': — and the description of Chaucer, as inter- 
preted by Cole, will appear not only just but natural. There is the church- 
tower, " topping," as he says, ** the lofty trees which surround it on every side" — 
just shewing its head above them, but not much more ; and so closely and 


snugly ensconced in them, as to suggest the idea of its having been plunged 
into them as a knife is plunged into its sheath. Thus sheathed then in the 
surrounding trees, and no longer like a knife, nor required to be so, save in 
respect of this sheathing, — ^thus embosomed in and environed by them, it 
inspires the poet to call down a blessing upon it, quaint indeed, but free from 
irreverence, and reminding us of that which was prompted by the situation of 
Jerusalem : " The hills stand about Jerusalem : so standeth the Lord round 
about his people." This I believe to be the true account of Chaucer's 
comparison, and the benediction he connects with it : — and if so, the conjecture 
which would place a decorated spire on Trumpington church on the strength 
of that distich, falls to the ground — for, it is clear, the supposition will 
not help out the comparison, but rather mar it, by depriving the tower of its 
character implied in that comparison, of just appearing above the trees. And 
though in an ordinary case we might be glad to be certified of a spire having 
anciently existed where now there is none, as strengthening the argument for the 
necessity of this beautiful feature for perfect church-building, — ^yet in this 
particular instance I think we are gainers by the loss, inasmuch as it certifies us 
of something scarcely less interesting, namely, that the church-tower which we 
have now at Tnunpington is not a whit changed, but is in all respects the same 
as when Chaucer took such pleasure in looking upon it. 

But to return from this digression. — I have now directed your attention to 
four unusual phenomena in and about Astbury church — ^viz. I. Its position in 
the church-yard ; so unusually close to the south side of it. 11. The shape of 
the ground-plan of the church ; as being considerably wider at the west end than 
at the east. III. The position of the Tower ; as having an aisle interposed 
between it and the nave-wall. IV. The size of the Tower; so totally 
disproportionate to that of the entire church. 

To these may be added some minor circumstances, which though snmll items 
in themselves, help to swell the sum total of anomaly discoverable in this church. 
One of these relates to the lychnoscope (so called), a small trefoil-headed 
aperture, which may be observed in the drawing in Fig. 3, occurring in the north 
wall of the north aisle, imder the fourth window from the east. All that 
is at present known on the subject of these curious apertures will be found, I 
believe, in a note to the preface to Durandus, lately pubUshed by two of our 
members, p. xciv. 


The present specimen presents no remarkable di£ference in its character from 
those there described, nor does it in any way militate against the ooncludon 
there arrived at, that " the use of them must have been to look out of the church, 
for whatever purpose, and that they may have been in some way connected with 
the ringing of the bells, or of the Sancte Bell/' But in one or two respects it 
&ils to harmonize with the deductions there drawn from a survey of known 
examples, viz. — " That smaller buildings rather than larger are marked with this 
feature ; that it seldom occurs where there are aisles to the chancel ; and that if 
it occurs in the north wall it will be found in the south also :'' — ^for here we find 
it in a building certainly rather large than small, and that too having aisles to the 
chancel ; neither is there any corresponding aperture in the north wall. I have 
only to add, that this aperture was never glazed, nor intended to be ; but it is 
strongly barred with iron. 

Another circumstance worthy of remark, is the manner in which the door in 
the north aisle (see Fig. 3) is allowed to influence the architectural arrangements 
in its vicinity. Not only does the interior string-course rise to make way for it, 
but the window above it is shortened for the same purpose, and made of a 
different character from the others : all this would seem to indicate that this was 
the ''priest's door:" and yet there is a south door just opposite to it, which 
might have been expected to have had a preference for that purpose. Again, we 
cannot but remark upon another suspicious circumstance — the high finish, 
comparatively speaking, bestowed on the east end of the north aisle ; to such a 
degree, that when there was an entire church in this style, finished in proportion, 
it must have been a gorgeous Early English structure indeed. I allude more 
particularly to the buttresses of this north aisle — all having a chamfer terminating 
in a trefoil above (see Figs. 3 and 4), while those at the east end are of remark* 
able height and^ beauty, besides bearing traces of additional ornamental work ; 
to the elaborate series of alternate dog-tooth and notched-head mouldings set 
in a deep horizontal cavetto above the windows ; the double string-course above 
and below the windows, inside and out (Fig. 3) ; to which we may add traces 
of a triplet of lancets. And besides, in the interior furniture of this eastern part 
of the north aisle there is something very remarkable — ^it has altar-steps, piscina, 
aumbrye, symptoms of sedilia, and of two niches in the east wall, &c. Now in 
all this there is a completeness — an airapxtia, — such as I think is not very 
commonly found in mere chantries. 


What I have just said will perhaps have given some hint of the point to 
which we are tending. Be this as it may, I now proceed to shew that all the 
various and seemingly imconnected phenomena which have been successively 
pointed out, find their solution in a certain theory, or rather in one ascertainable 
£sict. There is a well-known optical illusion, in which buildings, trees, and other 
objects, are drawn on paper in a distorted form — the buildings out of the 
perpendicular, the trees and men lying flat on the ground, and the like : but yet 
there is a certain point viewed from which they will all appear in their natural 
positions. In like manner, I beUeve I can suggest a point of view from which all 
"the anomalies above-mentioned will disappear from Astbury church. I can 
point to a time when the church occupied the north-side of the church-yard ; 
when its ground-plan was rectangular, the breadth of the east end being equal 
to that of the west ; when the tower occupied its proper position, and availed 
itself of the support of the nave-wall ; and was in size proportionate to the rest 
of the building. 

The fact is — that what now appears before us (in the ground-plan. Fig. 1) as 
a north aisle, or rather as a nave-aisle and chancel-aisle, was at one time all 
that existed as Astbury church : that Nave-^aiale was no other than the Nave, 
that ChanceUaisle no other than the Chancel, of the Astbury church of the 
thirteenth century. 

It may not be obvious at first sight that this fact, or call it theory if you 
will, will account for all the incongruities above-mentioned ; but on appUcation 
of it, it will be found to be so. Before however I apply this key to unlock 
our riddle, I wish to point out some considerations entirely independent 
of the above-mentioned phenomena, sufficient, as I think, to place beyond 
a doubt, the correctness of the fact itself. The position which I have 
to establish is this — that originally, that is, in the 13th century, this church 
consisted, not, as now, of a nave and chancel, each having aisles, but of a nave 
and chancel only, neither having aisles : that the 13th-eentury Nave coincided 
with the present northern nave-aisle^ and the 13th-century Chancel with 
the present northern chanceUaisle. Now in the first place, there is not a 
vestige of Early English work discoverable southward of the present north 
aisle ; the stratum which contains the Early English is separated by a definite 
line from the adjoining Decorated stratum, nowhere running into it in the 
smallest degree. Within the Umits marked out Early English occurs in every 


form — ^beyond them not a trace of it. The negative evidence is therefore 
satisfactory. Again, there is a imiformity and symmetry in the several parts of 
this north aisle which almost bespeaks it built by itself and for itself. The 
walls are of miiform thickness, three feet throughout. Contrast this with what 
meets us the moment we step beyond its precinct into a nave or south aisle. 
There the walls are nowhere of this thickness, but are at most two feet six inches 
thick. This confirms the position just laid down, of there being no Early 
English work south of this aisle ; for had we foimd walls of three feet thickness 
in any of these parts, it might perhaps have been said that they proved the 
existence of an Early English nave and south aisle, coinciding with the present 
Decorated ones. — And as the walls are of one thickness, so is the north aisle 
itself of one breadth throughout. This we might have passed by as natural in 
any other case, but it becomes remarkable when we look at the adjacent nave 
and the south aisle, and see them both broader at their western than at their 
eastern end; the irregularity of ground-plan before noticed being confined to 
them, as I shall have occasion to remark presently. Does not this difference 
indicate something working in the minds of those who thus built nave and 
south aisle to which the builder of this north aisle was a stranger? Is it 
IQcely that the Early English architect built one-third of this church uniform, 
symmetrical, and soUd; the other two-thirds motley, irregular, and slender? 
Is it not clear that the church on its present plan originated solely with the 
Decorated architect? An examination into particular features brings us to 
the same result. In Plate II. Figs. 3 and 4, two buttresses, placed at an angle 
to each other, are seen to support the north-east comer of the north aisle ; at 
its south-east comer (see Pig. 4) but one buttress is visible ; but a friend who 
has examined the building since I saw it assures me that the base of a second 
buttress, exactly corresponding to the second buttress at the north-east comer, 
is distinctly visible in the corresponding position at the south-east comer, 
though now worked into the east wall of the nave : and the string carried round 
the buttress which is entire, also remains on the mutilated one. But further, — 
on going into the present nave, this same string-course, with its plain imder- 
bevil, is seen to run along what is now the interior surface of the north wall of 
the nave, but was formerly the exterior smface of the south wall of the chancel : 
and its weather-beaten appearance testifies to its original exposure. 

Taking this then as an ascertained fact, let us apply it as a key to unlock our 


riddle : the accuracy with which it is found to fit into the intricacies of it will, 
I think, further, convince us that it is the right one. 

1 . It was remarked, in the first place, that the church is unusually near 
the south side of the church-yard. At the bidding of our theory it draws in^ 
" coeli justa plus parte recedit" — and if it does not take up a position actually 
niearer the north than the south of the church-yard, it yet leaves " ample room 
and verge enough" for the dead to repose on the south side of the church, 
whether for the sake of the genial b^ams of the siin, or for love of the cross that 
once stood there : — ^and doubtless many graves of the ancient dead of Astbury, 
which were formerly in the church-yard, are now inclosed within the precincts of 
the church. It may be added, as serving to clear up this point stiU more 
completely, that there is some evidence of a considerable addition having been 
made to the church-yard .northwards. Thus then the original Astbury church 
may have been, for aught we know, actually nearer to the north than to the 
south of the church-yard. And if it be asked how the Decorated architects 
came to violate this rule, by building so far south, I can only answer, that 
the temptation of having a tower and north aisle ready built to their hand, 
joined to the desire of preserving what had been a beautiful chancel, would seem 
to have been irresistible: and that, on the supposition just mentioned, they 
made amends, as far as might be, by giving an increase of burial-ground towards 
the north. 

2. It was remarked, secondly, that the church is broader at its west than 
at its east end. Our theory sends us back to a time when this was not so— 
when Astbury church was a fair and even structure throughout — ^when its 
northern and southern sides did not converge to a point — when it was not a 
trapezium, but a parallelogram. For, as has been already observed, the defect 
of rectangularity is confined strictly to the nave and south aisle of the present 
building : the present north aisle — (sometime nave and chancel) — ^is of the 
uniform breadth of 20 feet throughout. How the irregularity of the irregular 
parts is to be accounted for, will form the subject of a distinct inquiry presently. 
For the present, I content myself with pointing to a time when no such 
irregularity existed. 

3. It was remarked, thirdly, that the position of the Tower of Astbiuy 
church ia unusual — ^that it has an aisle interposed between it and the nave, and 
so does not avail itself of the support of the nave waU, nor leave scope for a lofty 

20 — 2 


arch of communication between itself and the church. Our theory restores it 
to its rightful position ; exalts the so-called interposing aisle into a contigiums 
nave; and so exhibits the tower leaning on the nave-wall. Moreover, it is 
satisfactory to observe that we can point to an arch of communication 
as actually existing ; viz. in the southern face of the tower. This arch, 
though of no great height in comparison with the church as it now exists, is 
sufficiently high to have been the original belfry-arch ; and its simple Early 
English mouldings sufficiently distinguish it from the Decorated insertions. It is 
further curious, and confirms the notion of the tower having been originally 
indebted in some degree to the nave-wall for its support, as well as that of the 
present upper story and spire of the tower having been added in the Decorated 
enlargement, — ^that the eastern half of this belfry-arch is filled up, as may be 
seen in the plan (Fig. 1), with a vast and solid mass of masonry, which can have 
been placed there for no other purpose than to give the tower that support which 
the nave, then lowered into an aisle, could no longer afibrd, and which the 
additions made to the upper part of the tower further conspired to render 
necessary. The position which the tower is thus made to assimie will be 
recognised as one of frequent occurrence in the case of a smaU church without 
aisles — viz. at the north-west comer of the nave, and leaning against it. 

4. It was remarked, fourthly, that the Tower of Astbury church is so small 
as to be totally disproportionate in size to the rest of the building. Our 
theory, though it does not alter the absolute size of it, or only to render it still 
smaller, yet brings it, relatively considered, into due proportion. All that vast 
array of nave and south aisle, and yet vaster clerestory and western galil^, 
which weighs like an incubus on the diminished tower, leaving it a mere 
projection as seen in the ground-plan, and reducing it to a subsidiary feature of 
the western elevation (Fig. 2), disappears altogether; while in its stead, and on 
the site of the present north aisle, imagination sees a fair and well-proportioned 
nave standing in due subordination to the tower, which thus assumes its natural 
pre-eminence in height, and bears its due proportion in size to the entire 
building. It may be asked, how came the enlargers of the church in the 
Decorated period to acquiesce in the retention of so small a tower? They 
could not be blind to its insufficiency — and we have seen that they did their 
best to magnify it to a more passable size by the addition of a spire and one story, 
but it is probable that they contemplated the addition of a suitable tower at some 


future time. And if I mistake not, they who in the Perpendicular period made 
those further additions which are such prominent features in the western view 
(Fig. 2), advanced one step further in this design — ^for what I have called the 
western galilee may very well have been designed by them in the first instance 
to be made into a tower; though it is now nothing more than a porch of 
three stories. 

5. The minor anomalies noticed fall into order in like manner. The 
lychnoscope, contemplated as a feature in the Astbury church of the 13th 
century, ceases to run coimter to any canons on the subject: it no longer 
occurs in a large church, in a church with chancel-aisles, nor indeed in one with 
any aisles at all ; and, for aught we know, it may have had another opposite to 
it. The north door we are no longer surprised to find exercising so large an 
influence over the other arrangements of string-course and windows, interior and 
exterior — for it now comes before us as the priest's door of a highly finished 
Early English chancel ; and this we know was an object of great attention with 
the ancient church-builders. An example in which precisely the same thing 
has been done under the same circumstances, presents itself to our hand — that 
of the priest's door in the chancel of Cherry-hinton, where the string-courses 
outside and in are carried over it, and the couplet of lancets shortened above it. 
So again the high finish of every part of the east end of the present north aisle 
is at once accounted for, when we have raised it to the dignity, and so to the 
architectural honours, of a chancel. 

It only remains to suggest a reason for the irregular ground-plan of the nave 
and south aisle. The conjecture which I have to offer takes for granted the truth 
of the position I have been advancing as to the original Umits of the chiu'ch. I 
may pass by with sUght consideration one or two hypotheses which might be offered 
— ^as e. g. that the necessities of construction led to this anomaly. It is not very 
conceivable that the nature of the groimd could require this departure from 
rectangularity — a deviation repeated by the divergence of the south aisle wall 
from the line of the south piers, the line of those piers itself diverging from 
that of the original church (see Fig. 1) ; whereas one would rather have expected 
to find the deviation corrected in the second line than augmented. Nor can 
it be attributed — as Mr. Poole attributes the deviation in the choir of York 
Minster — ''to a desire for evading the old foundation lines of a former 
church, which might induce the builders to deviate from a straight line. 


rather than encounter the difficulty of removing that ohstacle" : as well for 
the reasons given in the preface to Durandus, p. 87, viz. that ^* such an 
expedient is not at all in the character of the church architects of those 
days" ; as for the yet more cogent one, that there was no former church 
having foundations in this position — as I hope has been proved satisfactorily. 
And if these grounds of constructive necessity be thus untenable, what can 
we have recourse to ? — for the obstinate fact still remains as a thing to 
be accounted for. It then becomes not unreasonable to attribute to design 
that which we cannot conceive to have had its origin in necessity. And 
when again we cast about for a possible object to be answered, we find it 
easier to predicate what it was not than what it was. Certainly, convenience 
could have had no share in the matter — ^for of all conceivable shapes for a 
church, such an one as this is the most inconvenient. The roof, for instance, 
must have been made convergent. Again, before fixed seats were placed in 
churches, the inconvenience would be less felt— but when they are introduced, it 
becomes immediately perceptible. For instance, the seats in the nave must either 
themselves become gradually shorter as you advance from west to east, or leave 
the central passage convergent, and that visibly. The only alternative left us, I 
believe, is to suppose that there was something significant in this peculiar arrange- 
ment : for if it was not of necessity, but by design, and if, again, the design was 
not use, it must have been meaning. And here we are very much restricted by 
the circumstances of the case in our search after a significance for this airange- 
ment. For example, it might occur to us to attribute it to a desire to symbolize, 
in a new respect, the well-known analogy between the church and a shqi, from 
which some derive the term nave. It has been remarked that the clerestory- 
walls of many chiux^hes slope gradually outwards from the bottom, and that (as I 
have been assured by an experienced builder of church<-roofs) not owing to the 
thrust of the roof, as is generally taken for granted, but to design in the first 
builders of them ; and some conjecture that the object of this was to represent 
the sloping sides of a ship. It might be said that in like manner the tapmng 
form of a ship was represented by this convergency of the church toward the 
east end, no less probably than by the curved apse of the ancient Basilica and 
later Romanesque church. But there are two fatal objections to this and the like 
symbolical reasons in this instance — 1st, the uniqueness of the form in question, 
whereas all symbolisms that are not more or less pervasive are questionable ; 


2nd, that it would have been much more natural to have tried such a novel 
symbolism in the case of an entirely new church, than in a mere enlargement 
like this. It appears, then, that we are restricted in our choice of a significance 
to acknowledged symbolic modes of expression. Accordingly, the theory I have 
to ofier assigns the anomaly under consideration to an established symbolism, 
which the stoutest impugners of such things cannot dispute : it is only here 
applied in a peculiar manner owing to the peculiarity of the present case.' 

Orientation^ or the pointing of aU our churches more or less towards the east, 
is, both as a feet and as a symbolism, indisputable. Further, there is a traditio- 
nal belief universally prevalent, — a '* vetus et constans opinio," such as ought to 
be respected unless it can be disproved — that the variation perceivable in the 
Orientation of difierent churches is to be accounted for by the fact, that each was 
directed towards that point of the heavens in which the sun rises on the day of 
its patron saint.' — ^It is with the help of this consideration that I propose to solve 
the phenomenon before us. — I must premise that historical records^ inform us, 
that about the year 1200 the advowson of Astbury was conveyed by Sir William 
Venables to the Abbey of S. Werburga of Chester; that in 1259 Sir Roger de 
Venables disputed the claim of the Abbey to present, and in 1261 gained 
possession of it ; but, on his dying within the year, his son, another Sir WUliam 
Venables, thinking his father's death a judgment from God for unlawful possession, 
again quit-claimed the advowson to the Abbey ; nor was the possession of it again 
disputed till the year 1390, when it was once more tried before Humphrey duke 
of Gloucester, and the right of the Abbey again confirmed. Now these 
particulars shew, that from 1200 a.d. till 1390 — i. e. from a date long anterior to 
the erection of the original Early English church at Astbury, down to one long 
posterior to the Decorated enlargement of it, the living of Astbury was in the 
gift of the good monks of S. Werburga at Chester. I incline to fix the date of 
the Early English erection shortly before or after the first suit between the Vena- 
bles' family and the Abbey, i. e. somewhere between 1240 and 1263: the 

* It may be worth while to remark with reference to the symbolisms here mentioned, that a 
church at Rome, built by Honorius a.d. 630, has its walls curved like the ribs of a ship, 
and that the Apostolical Constitutions refer the oblong form of a church expressly to its 
resemblance to a ship. See a note to the Pref. to Durandus. 

 See Wordsworth's Poems, Vol. v. p. 44. * Lysons's Cheshire. 


Decorated additions, judging from the section of the window-mullions, are to be 
referred to 1300, or thereabouts. — I may add, while on the subject of the 
church's history, that the present Late Perpendicular window in the north aisle 
was inserted in 1493, as was also the vast east window (not seen in our drawings), 
as well as the whole of the additions of Perpendicular work ; as appears from an 
account and sketch of the stained glass in them, preserved in the BLarleian MSS. in 
the British Museum, and drawn up in the reigns of Elizabeth and James the First. 
All this stained glass, and we know not how much more, was demolished a.d. 
1643, by a Parliamentarian detachment under Sir W. Brereton, when on his way 
from Nantwich in pursuit of the royalist Lord Brereton, who had entrenched 
himself at Biddulph Hall, in Staffordshire. 

But to return to the earlier period we are now concerned with. — ^We have 
seen enough to prove to a certainty that the Early English church of Astbury 
was built by the monks of S. Werburga. It also appears that it vms a parish- 
church, not collegiate, which confirms by the way the observation, that 
lychnoscopes generally occur, (Durand. Pref. p. 75, note,) not in collegiate, but 
parochial churches. Now there are indications in existing records that this first 
church was dedicated to S. Werburga : for they speak doubtfully of the Patron 
Saint of the later edifice, calling it sometimes S. Mary and sometimes 
S. Werburga. But it is certain, both from parish-records, and from the letters 
M . A . R . I . A. carved and wrought in every part of the nave and south aisle, that 
the existing church is dedicated to S. Mary. I gather hence that the older 
church was dedicated to S. Werburga — as is natural, considering who built it : 
but that when the monks of the same abbey reconstructed it, in a manner, in the 
Decorated period, they dedicated the whole to the Blessed Virgin. Such a 
change of dedication is by no means without a precedent : for example, the 
church of S. Mary the Less, in this town, was formerly dedicated to S. Peter — 
whether the change was at its Decorated re-erection I do not know. Supposing 
this then to be the case, the question would arise — ^how could the Orientation of 
the re-constructed church be adapted to its new Dedication^ consistently with the 
retention of the old nave and chancel as a north aisle ? Had they built a new 
church altogether, there would have been no difficulty : — or, had they been only 
rebuilding nave and chancel, they might have given the new part the requisite 
deflection from the old ; but here they were to build, not at the end but 
alongside, the retained part — ^and there was but one conceivable way of effecting 


their purpose. A glance at the points of the compass drawn out in Fig. 1 will 
shew the nature of the task before them. On S. Werburga's day, the 3rd of 
February, the sun rises some degrees south of east-— I believe about 20 degrees, 
or rather less, as there marked. This then was the existing Orientation of the 
old church, part of which they were about to adopt in their new one. Again; 
the sun rises on Lady Day, or the Annunciation, very nearly due east — ^as is also 
marked. This then was the required direction for the Orientation of the new 
church. The problem before them therefore was, to turn the church about, if so 
it might be, through an angle of rather less than 20 degrees. And this, according 
to my conjecture, they efiected by giving the new walls of their re-constructed 
church that deflection from the entire line of the old which is under our 
consideration. I do not say that the deflection amounts to the required 20 
degrees, but so far as it goes it is in the right direction : it puts the whole church 
about J so to speak, to a point considerably eastward of that to which in its first 
state it was directed, and thus, proximately at least, efiects that which was to be 

And now, perhaps, the question may be asked — ^whither does aU this tend ? — 
what is the object proposed by these investigations ? And for the satisfieu^on of 
such as incline to insist on an immediate and tangible return for outlay of 
labour and patience, whether in speaker or hearer, I have a suggestion to ofier, 
arising out of the investigation just concluded, which may possibly be turned to 
practical account — possibly , I say, for perhaps a case for its application is but 
seldom likely to arise, and even when it does, there may be some objection to 
adopting it, — ^it is therefore offered with all diffidence, and deference to the better 
information of others. In a pamphlet entitled '' Hints on Church Enlargement," 
published by this Society, various allowable methods of adding to an existing 
church are specified. But we have this evening been considering a very ancient 
specimen of church enlargement, on a plan not there contemplated, — ^viz., the 
adoption of the original chancel as a chancel-aisle to the enlarged structure ; the 
original nave being at the same time remodelled to serve for a nave-aisle^ and 
th^ original tower retained with little alteration. Now it is conceivable that a 
case might occur again in which this method of adding to an ancient church 
might be preferable to any other. For instance, suppose the not uncommon case 
of an exquisitely finished Decorated chancel, with a nave of meagre Perpendicular 


work — or perhaps even of Debased character : and let it be further supposed 
that much additional church-room is imperatively required, and that local 
circumstances plead strongly in favour of retaining the ancient site ; e. g. the 
amplitude of the existing church-yard — ^the difficulty of procuring another 
equally adapted for the purpose — ^to which in all cases must be added, old 
associations. In such a case, who would not be glad to retain the best parts of 
the ancient building? who would not mourn over the demolition of the fair 
Decorated chancel, or who would bestow a regret on the loss of the meagre 
Debased nave? Now by following the example here set by the monks of 
S. Werburga of Chester, and in no other conceivable way, the desired enlargement 
might be effected, without sacrificing any part of the ancient structure worth 
keeping. And there are some collateral advantages belonging to this plan. 
The most hallowed part of the building, which would else have been rudely 
levelled to the ground, will be preserved inviolate; chancel once, it will be 
chancel stUl, and, in a sense at least, still the scene of the celebration of the Holy 
Mysteries. Of course, it would not necessitate the erection of a corresponding 
chancel-aisle on the other side, and so would not lay the new structure open to 
an objection which has been brought against the aisled-chancels so frequent in 
the Perpendicular period — viz. that they obliterate to outward view the dis- 
tinction between chancel and nave. And if, further, a definite use be sought 
for such chancel-aisle, over and above the service it renders by adding to the 
beauty of the church and the dignity of the chancel, I am prepared to suggest 
one. If ever the time shall come — ^if it be come in any degree now — when the 
Christian men and women of England shall not think scorn to learn a lesson 
from what meets their eyes in foreign lands, under a faith less pure than their 
own : when we shall not be ashamed, after the example of Herbert and Hooker, 
to enter into our parish-church (its '* gates being open continually, and not shut 
day nor night.'' Isaiah Ix. 11. Revel, xxi. 25), and there make our secret 
prayer to God, as holy men did of old here in England as elsewhere ; then I 
conceive that that part of the sacred building, of which I am speaking, might 
well be thought to have that about it which would commend it to us as the most 
appropriate spot for such devotions — even for its proximity to the altar, stDl 
more for its ancient associations, it might command such a preference. On so 
solemn a subject I need, not particularize ; but I cannot but think that the 


remembrance of men and generations who have knelt there before us, in the 
exercise of the highest act of faith, would not be without its influence at such 
a time. 

But, as I have already hinted, I do not admit that it is necessary to be able 
to point to some practical and tangible result of investigations such as the 
present, as an excuse for making them. Truth is to be valued for its own 
sake, though we may not see what to do with it, nor feel sure of what has been 
asserted, that "all truth is sure to be wanted some time or other."* 
Discovery^ whether of laws in nature, or of facts in the history of the past, is 
intensely interesting for its own sake : nay, investigation itself is pleasurable. 
And that something of this nature has been aimed at, though of an 
unpretending kind, will, I think, be admitted. The inquiries or suspicions 
which certain unusual phenomena about an ancient and sacred edifice naturally 
awakened, have led to a closer examination into the whole, and the result 
arrived at, independently of one or two matters of subordinate interest, which 
from time to time have arisen in the process, has been, that we have ascertained, 
and in manner reconstructed for ourselves, the form and features of " a holy 
and beautiful house where our fathers worshipped," some 600 years ago, and 
whose brief existence men had been ignorant of for nearly that period : for no 
written memorial of it remained, and that only language, Eoclesiology, in 
which any record of it survived, had been as completely lost and forgotten, as 
the language of any nation which has perished from the face of the earth, until 
these times, for which it was reserved once more to decipher its characters. 
Let it not be said that time is misspent in holding now and then such com- 
muning as this with the buried past. It is admitted that it is well to commune 
with it through the mediiun of history, or by the contemplation of its paintings, 
or poetry, or music, or sculpture, — and why not in this way? Be it 
remembered — ^and the remark applies to the entire pursuits of our Society — 
that of the ages in which those architectural revolutions were cast, of which 
some specimens have now come before us in the case of a single parish-church, — 
that of these we have scarcely any other memorial than the surviving remains of 
their Ecclesiastical architecture. The fates which denied them other arts for 

* Dr. Araold. 



the expression and transmission of thought and feeling, yet gave them this 
noble vehicle for it — " Hig tibi erunt artes*^ : and we shall not do well to refuse 
to hold converse with them through this only medium allowed for it. For 
myself, I cannot stand in such a spot as the sometime chancel of Astbury 
church, without feeling that I have found, and hold by the hand for the 
moment, one or more of my fellow-men of past ages, of whose existence I should 
have been as ignorant as I still am of their names, had not a fragrant memory 
of it survived in these monuments of their skill, their taste, and their piety. 


The House belonged to the order of Bemardine Cistertians; and its situation 
harmonizes well with the pious taste of the Abbat of Clara Vallis. " Believe me," 
said he, "you will find more lessons in the woods than in books. Trees and 
stones will teach you what you cannot learn from masters."* 

The remains of Saddel Abbey are in a green and silent spot, on the banks of a 
soUtary stream. These remains are very few, — so few, that it is impossible to 
ascertain the dimensions or arrangements of the buildings. That the church was a 
large one may be inferred from a curious traditional way of describing it, viz., 
that they would be preaching at one end of the church, and singing at the other,^ 
and the one party would never ken what the other was doing.'' There are the 
traces of a building still, called " the study-room." In a neglected comer are 
a few tombs, two of them with effigies in relief; one of a Mc Allister, called 
Gled-Ronald, with a small figure at the head and feet ; another of a Mc Donald, 
who is said to have been a great coward, and never to have slain a man. The 
demoUtion of the buildings is so great, that it is utterly impossible to ascertain the 
architectural character of any portion of the monastery. The apertures of the 
windows are narrow, and appear to denote an Early English character ; but 
the hewn-stones were taken by an ancient proprietor of the estate, to build 
the House of Saddel. 

From this desolate monastery on the inner coast of Kantyre, crossing the 
coimtry to the north-west. 

In pilgrimage I wend my way. 
To lone Ardchattan's Abbey grey. 

Ardchatten The Abbey, or rather the Priory of Ardchattan, was connected with the family 

Priory. . . 

de Ergadia, as the former was with that de Insulis. Its founder was Duncan Mc Coul, 
or Mc Dougal, a relative of the Lord of Lorn, in or about the year 1230.® It 

• Churton's Early English Church, p. 333. 


' I extract the following statement from Anderson's excellent Guide-book; but I do not know 
whence it is obtained. *' Its length is 136 feet, that of the transept 78 feet, and the breadth 24 feet ; 
and it had cloisters arranged in a square on one side : but there is little of any part to the fore." (P. 375.) 

* Nisbet, i. 286. It is important to remark, that these Mc Dougals are to be distinguished from 
the Mc Dougals or Mc Dowalls, Lords of Galloway, who were a different family. They too were 
bountiful friends to the Church. They founded five abbeys and five priories ; Tongland, New-Abbey, 
Souls' Seat, Kilconquhar, and Glenluce; Holy Cross, loncluden, Lesmahago, S. Mary Isle, and 
Whithem. Nisbet, i. 283. 

Some say that Ardchattan was founded by John Mc Coul ; but this seems to have been a mistake. 


stood. The arrangement appears to have been such, that the church and prior's 
house should face the Loch and open country to the south ; and the traveller along 
the opposite shore of Loch Etive may well conceive how much religious calmness 
must have been thus associated with one of the most beautiful scenes in 
Argyllshire. It is a melancholy thought to reflect, that so much of evil was 
mixed with so much that was good. Nor is this thought arbitrarily suggested, or 
wilfully called up by an angry dislike of monastic institutions, but, on the contrary, 
forced into the mind by docimientary evidence of the state of this religious house 
shortly before the time when the Scotch Reformation, in rebelling against the evil, 
did not spare the good, of former generations.^' The priory house is remaining entire, 
and is the residence of the present proprietor, — Campbell, Esq., of Ardchattan, 
who indeed is still sometimes called ** the Prior." The house is not large, and the 
rooms are small; the main stair is of a peculiar marble, of a purplish-brown 
colour ; the only thing (as far as I know) which would contribute towards fixing 
the date, is a vaulted chamber, called '' the prior's chamber" ; but this is used as a 
wine-cellar, and I was imable to see it. Among the offices may be traced two 
doorways, in a direct line with the western door of the church ; one of them 
enriched with many mouldings, and of a very obtuse arch , but it is half concealed 
by walls, and the stone has been knocked away for sand to scour the floors, so that 
neither the shape of the mouldings, nor the degree of the curvature, can be 
accurately ascertained. The church has not been a cross church, nor does it 
appear to have been interspaced by piers and pier-arches. Its dimensions are 
twenty-two yards by nine. The piscina remains entire, and has the appearance of 
having been constructed in the thirteenth century. Its form is unique. It consists 
of three unequal Early English arches, overarched by a round arch, (I have 
already alluded to the late continuance of the round arch in Scotland,) which has 
had several mouldings, the outermost resting on corbels ; one of these is remaining, 
and seems to be a lion with a band round the body. In the centre arch is a basin 
with a water-drain, in each of the two side ones a shelf, all projecting abruptly from 
the wall. There is also a square aumbrye at the south-east comer. The tombs 
and the relic of the stone cross are elsewhere mentioned. Between the priory and 
the point where the hill rises abruptly from the plain, is a wide extent of pasture 
ground, level, green, and richly luxuriant ; it is called the " Monks' Garden." 
lona. Nothing has hitherto been described of the remains at lona, except the Abbey 

^ ^ Note from Rev. Mr. Fraser. 


thirty in breadth ; on pne aide of the altar ia a has relief of tibe Blessed Virgin, and 
behind it Ues a little bell, which, though cracked, and withput a clapper, has 
remained there for ages, guarded only by the venerableuess of tfa^ place. The 
groimd round the chapel is covered with gravestones of chiefs and ladies, and stiU 
continues to be a place of sepulture. "*• 
The Abbey. . Jt is now time that we proceed to the other extremity of the sacred causeway, 
and examine the antiquities of the Cluniac Monastery. It does not appear to be 
known when the Clxmiacenses superseded the Culdees at lona: b^t probably it 
was in the reign of William the lion ; for in his reign this monaiatery lost the 
benefices cum cura animarum which they had form^ly possessed in Galloway. 
** They were bestowed on the canons of Holyrood House, in Edinburgh, the 
Benedictines not being allowed by their constitutions to perform the duties and 
functions of a curate."^ It must be observed, by the way, that Holyrood wa^ 
founded by David I. It is remarkable that the Chartulary of Paisley, a house 
belonging to the same order, contains no docum^its which elucidate the history 
of lona. That the Abbat of lona was a mitred abbat, as well as the Abbat of 
Paisley, may be inferred from the tomb which exists in the church.*^ In Dean 
Myln's lives of the Bishops of Dunkeld, I find the following remarkable passage 
in the account of Bishop W. Sinclair, who came to the see in 10 1 2. Apyd hunq 
pontificem tunc Tyhermur^ (Tippermuir) wmmorafUem venit Dominus Finlaiua 
monachus de Y Callumkill monaaterioy in abbatem electua pro confirfMiLtiQn^ ordina/ria ; 
quern Regis Roberti precibus in Abbatem confiimavit, et cuicunque episcapo eum (?J 
benedicendi facultatem concessit^ obligationemqw moffoaterii (AUffiuit pro s&fftie^ 
viginti mards ad chori fabricam solvendis.'^ It was, I believe, usual to grant tQ w 
tA)bat the power of pronouncing the blessing in the absence of a bishop ; but 
what is meant by this passage, I am at a loss to understand. Nor is it 
easy to say why the ordinary confirmation should be obtained firom the 
Bishop of Dunkeld, and not from the Bishop of the Isles ; though we might 
readily conjecture that the influence of Bruce might procure some extraordir^rj/ 
confirmation from the Bishop of Dunkeld, if Bishops Allw or G^bert of the 

^^ The bell and altar remained till the beginning of this centuiy. Stat. Aoo» xiv. 
•® Spotswood. 

* 1 A Brianus, Abbas de S. Colme, is mentioned in Ragman's Boll, but probably he waa Abbat 
of S. Colme's Inch, in the Forth. Vide App. to Nisbet. 

" P. 13. 


Isles were implicated in the English interest.^ Like the Priory of Ardchattan, 
the Abbacy of lona vms annexed to the Bishoprick of the Isles, in 1617. The 
church having been already described^ there r^nains very little else deserving of 
notice. Hie monastic buildings were situated to the north of the church, and, 
fr6ni a Norman arcade 'which still t^mains, it may be inferred that this is part ot 
the older building. T^e chapter house is said to have been here, and the college^ 
still, in Lord Buchan's time, exhibiting traces of the students' rooms.'^ At the 
west comer oJT the college is the grave of S. Columba, and his servant Diarmid. 
A hill to the west of the convent is pointed out as the Abbats' mount ; and beneath 
it was situated the convent garden, in a comer behind the cathedral there used 
to be some celebrated black stones^ (entire till 1830,) which Yrere held so sacred, 
that oaths were sworn, and contracts ratified upon them. Martin says, that to 
" King Mack Donald " an oath on these stones was as a seal given by his 
hand.'^ There seem to have been three or four chapels attached to the monastery. 
One, dedicated to S. Mary, is mentioned by Pennant as being to the south of the 
choir ; but the principal one is S. Oran's Chapel. It stands over the grave of 
S. On^i ot S. Odran,^ who died first of Columba's party, and who gave the 
name to Reilig oraitiy or " S. Oran's burying^ground." It is remarkable for its 
westem doorway, which is a Norman arch, having the beak-head ornament, but 
lighter and flatter than most Norman arches in England. It contains a tomb in 
the south wall, imd^ a wdl-worked canopy, which is an obtuse arch, and looks 
like a Decorated one. Its dimensions are about the same as those of the 
Nunnery Chapel. 

Tlie monks, whom I have hitherto mentioned here, eJl belonged to thecrusay, 
Benedictine order. The houses I have next to mention belonged to Canons couT^^y.*'* 
Regtdar of the rate of S. Augustine. These are in Crusay, Oronsay, and 
Cdonsay, islands in the open sea to the south of lona. The first two are said to 
have been founded by S. Columba; indeed, Oronisay is said to have been the 
place where the saint first landed. But, whatever may have been the history of 
the Culdees in these islands, it is certain that they were afterwards occupied by 

''Is it allowable to conjecture that Icolmkill was part of the old Diocese of Dunkeld, until it 
was found necessaiy to assign it as a residence for the Scotch Sodorensian Bishop, — and that the 
privilege of confirming the Abbacy of this place remained with the Bishop of Dunkeld, after the 
Diocese of Argyll was separated from his jorisdiction ? 

*^ Sc. Arch. i. 234. •» Martin, 256. '« Smith, 120. 



canons brought from Holyrood House, probably by some of the Lords of the 
Isles^ ; and it is thought that Colonsay contained the abbey of which the priory 
stood in Oransay.^ The latter only remains. The church measures sixty feet by 
eighteen. In Pennant's sketch it has an Early English character ; and attached to 
it is a side-chapel, containing the tomb of Abbat Mc Duffie or Mc Fie, one of a 
clan, it may be observed, which possessed these islands till a comparatively late 
period. There is a cloister which, if one may judge from Pennant's sketch, is 
worthy of a very careful examination, since it is partly surrounded by triangular 
arches, presenting the character of what is generally held to be Saxon architecture. 
It measures externally forty-one feet, and internally twenty-eight ; one side is 
ruined : on another are five small round arches ; on the two last are seven low 
triangular arches, one seven feet high. The court seems to have been covered 
over. Martin's description is not quite consistent with that of Pennant. He 
says that '' three sides of it are built of small pillars, consisting of two thin stones 
each, and each pillar vaulted above with two thin stones tapering upwards. There 
are inscriptions on two of the pillars, but few of the letters are perfect. "*• The 
church is, of course, dedicated to Oran, the friend of Columba ; and Colonsay^ 
contains a ruin called S. Oran's Cell. 
KUmund. The last place to be described here is Ealmun or Kilmund, situated on the 

Holy Loch in the district of Cowal, and almost on the banks of the Clyde. This 
was one of those collegiate churches founded for sec^ar canons under a provost, 
of which so many were established about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
It was founded in 1442 by Sir Duncan Campbell of Lockow, the first Lord 
Campbell.'* Part of the grant is given by Spotswood; and he says that it was 
confirmed by James 11. at Perth, in MdO.** It seems that Robert Duke of Albany 
had granted lands at Kilmun to Sir D. Campbell.*' We find ourselves here brought 
into contact with a third powerful family of Argyllshire, which rose to greatness 
after the ruin of the Mc Dougals, and continued to advance as the Mc Donalds fell 

'* See Spotswood and Pennant. Some say that the order was Cistercian. See Jamieson's 
History of the Culdees. 

' * Stat. Ace. y. xii. The author says that the Ahhey was torn to pieces not long before his time. 
••P. 246. •» Colon is mentioned as a saint also. Stat. Ace. v. xii. 

•> Called "Y« Lord Camille" in a charter of 1451. Doug. »• Spotswood. 

'' App. to Nisbet. It is said there that the charter is in the Register. 




HJEC EST CRUX NOBiz^iuM viRORUM. — Iwierwray Cro$9. 

PsitHAFs thfe knoi^t interesting of all the ecclesiastical remains in Aigylbhire are 
th^ Stone Crosses. The ornlanetits which are sciilptured upon them^— the fidiage, 
die animals, tixe interlacing lined,-^^-^u« in each case veiy peculiar ; and in most 
instances it is difficult to aaoertain the antiquity of these monuments^ or the 
ciroumstances tinder which they Were erected. 
Reaaons for We kiiDw mauT oauscs which, rightly or wrongly^ hate led to the raising %d 

their erection. 

^iilarB of this descriptron. In Uie first place, it has been very common for atones 
6re<;ted in the times of heathenism ^oid for the purposes of pagan worship to be 
dirist^ned (if I may use the term) by being worked into the form of a cross. 
Tlius Pope Sixtus V. conisecMted tlie Antonine Column in 1 586, and dedicated it 
to S. Paul,— K)r, according to the actual inscription) Ornd invictte ObeUscum 
Vaticanuv^ ah impura Superstitiane ea^mttunt, justius et fdidw conseeruvU.^ In the 
same way there is little doubt that certain stones in Cornwall and Wales, terteted in 
the reign of Druidism, have been dedicated to Christianity.* And similar instances 
are to be found in many parts of Scotland; as in the parish <^ Ruthwell in 
Dumfriesshire, and that of Eccles in Berwickshire.' Crosses also have been 
frequently set up as terminiy as that which still remains near the 'Spital on 
Stainmoor ; — ^and as victory-stoneSy to conunemorate some great battle, as Nevilles 
Cross near Durham. Still oftener they have been set up as sepulchral memorials, 
perhaps to remind the living to pray for the dead, — shewing by the poni curavit 

' Astle, Arch. xiii. ' Borlase. 

^ Sc. Antiq. vols. i. and iv. Martin speaks of Bowing-Stones in the Hebrides, p. 88> and mentions 
one at Barron, round which the inhabitants still take a religious turn, after thf Druid fashion, P. 97. 


that they were erected by the individual whom they comnmnxm'^% or by the pmi 
rogavit that his death had iatervened.^ Such> it is probabte, are the rude <^li9k9 
still to be seen in the church-yard of Penrith» and the shaft which once e:dste!d in 
that of Lancaster/ In such cases it seems that they were sometimes erected on 
the spot, where the body of some gr^t man rested on it^ way to the grave. This 
is thf account which Martin gives of a monument which will he notic^ in tJw 
paper»^-r-Me Duffie's Cross in the Isle of Qtonsay, where he says that the corpse 
was laid for some momeKits, when any great member of the family of Mc Xhiffifi 
was carried to interment. 

But before speculating on the origm of the Stone Crosses in Argyllshire^ ijt will 
he desirable to give an enumeration of them» and a general description of th^ir 
appearance. The ord^ of parishes will be adopted, as before. 

1 , 2, 3, 4. In the burying-ground of Kilcomkil, in the parifdbt of Sou^thend, i^J^^'and 
I found among the weeds what appears to have been the top of ^ cross-flory. It is ^^^^ 
pierced through the centre, and otherwise so broken that it i« unnecessary to 
desmbe it more minutely. In the burying-ground of Kilkerran near Campbditon, 
the base of a shaft is still standing, to the height of about two feet, having on it 
the figure of a horseman with a spear. Among' the scanty ruins of Sacj^el Abbey 
a fragment, precisely similar, is lying on the ground; and it is reasonable to 
suppose that both the one and the other owe their erection tQ the family of the 
Isles. But at Campbelton there is a cross with its beauty unimpaired, still erect Tn 

^ Campbslton 

in the middle cxf the town. It does not ^eem to be known whence it ca^le : but ceoss. 
the inscription points to a connection with the island of Isla. 

It?(* Mrt* crux. Somint. THuLxi. M. A* foi^j^snta* (uontyam. 
mtovto* lye. itsrican. tt. liomcnt. ULn^x. natu tm. ISitttoxii. 
lie. Itttooman. quf* ^ant. txuti. UtxU tatittat^ 

I have been informed' that it was brought from the island of Isl^ : but do not 
know what the reasons are for supposing this to be the case. The intersection of 
the parts of the Cross is in the middle of a circle, which is not, however, pierced, 
like the well known Cross at lona. The whole is covered with scroll-work of 
es;treme beauty and the most complicated arrangement. The only engraving of it 

^ Astle. ^ Church of Engknd Quaxtorly Review, Oct. 1841. « FtennaDt. 

V By W. F. Campbell, £sq., of Isla, late M.P. for the County. 


1 am acquainted with, is in some published views of Campbelton ; where howevei" 
it is only represented as a subordinate feature of a general view of the town^ 
GighiL 5i 6. Martin and Pennant each speak of a Cross in the island of Gigha. 

From the Statistical Account® it would appear that there are, or were, two. Near 
the chapel and burying-place of Kil-chattan, says the writer on that parish, are 
some stones nearly in a line, and one of them is a cross< Also at a narrow place^ 
called Tarbat, there is another burying-ground, containing a Cross, " witli one of 


the arms and part of the top broken, neatly cut, six feet long, ten inches broad, 
and five inches thick." • 
inchComwe 7, 8, 9, 10. The ucxt Crosses which come to be mentioned are in South 


Knapdale. I have ahready requested attention to the interesting island called Inch 
Cormac More. On this island are the remains, of two Crosses, — one still in a 
vertical position, which seems to have been little more than a plain slate stone, cut 
into the form of a cross and slightly ornamented with waving lines, — the other a 
mere fragment, lying on the ground, but evidently the remnant of a much more 
elaborate work of art« This remnant is the circle in the intersection of the cross, 
and has on it a figure of our Saviour, with some well executed foliage. It seemd 
to have closely resembled the Cross at Kilmory, which I have now to describe. 
Mc MiLLAN*8 This Cross was drawn in 1 745 by Mr. Anstis, and a very rude engraving is given 
Ki^oJT. with a paper of Mr. Astle's in the seventeenth volume of the Archaeologia, where 
it is incorrectly spoken of as the Cross at Ealavoir. It has since been very 
beautifully and accurately engraved (but, I believe, not published) in illustration of 
a paper, which I have been permitted to see,** read by J. W, Wilson before the 
Society of Scottish Antiquaries. It is appealed to by Mr. Skene" in his argument 
against the antutartan-ists — (to employ a word coined by Dr. Mc Culloch), — ^where he 
contends that the inscription is of the fourteenth century, and that one of the 
figures represented as hunting is clad in the kilt. Whilst sceptical in regard to 
the latter supposition, I have little doubt that he is substantially correct as to the 

• Vol. viii. 

<* It should be remembered that the Mc Niels were long the possessors of this island. Martin 
says of the church here^ ** There are several tombstones in and about this Church ; the fiimilj of the 
Mack Niels^ the principal Possessors of this isle, are buried under the tombstones on the East side the 
Church, where there is a Plot of ground set apart for them. Most of all the tombs have a two-handed 
sword engraven on them, and there is one that has the representation of a man on it." P. 228. 

*® By James Dennistoun, Esq., of Dennistoun. ^' i. 226, ii. 219. 


iNvImrEA 'J^'^®^'"*'™y t^®^ is a beautiful Cross, which is well known to tourists, but which (so 
CE088. far as I know) has not been the object of much antiquarian research. It is 
commonly said to have been brought from lona; but I never met with any 
historical proof that this was the case. The stone crosses and sculptured tomb- 
stones in Argyllshire are commonly called lona Crosses and lona Stones ; and it is a 
prevailing beUef that they were all brought from that celebrated place of sepulture. 
But as to the Crosses, — ^it can be proved that some of them never came from lona ; 
and if aU the tombstones of the same character were collected there, they would fieur 
more than fill even S. Oran's burying-ground. I have little doubt that the 
Inveraray Cross stood in the old town, near the old chapel. It was, until late years, 
lying at the entrance of the great beech-avenue ; and it is now erected on the edge 
of the Loch, at the end of the main street. In shape it might be called a cross- 
flory. The upper part of the south side is overrun with foliage, moving in very 
ciq[)ricious lines and passing below into a trefoiled arch, which seems to have been 
meant for a figure or inscription. Below this is a complicated arrangement of 
^similar foliage, falling into two divisions, the stems of which become the taila of 
two fantastic animals. Under these animals are four others, on one side a pig and 
a dog, on the other apparently a larger and a smaller monkey. Under them again 
is a horseman ; and at the base of all a rectangular space inclosing the end of the 
inscription, which with its earlier portion covers the west side of the Cross: This 
inscription is as follows, in Lombardic characters.^^ 

lUm. nt. nrux. no&tltum. btrorum. bAelctet. JBonlicant. 

mu . Vattrtct . %xii . |anc . tvxmx . fievt • Cocubat * 

I believe nothing is known of the personages here mentioned. I once saw a curious 
paper, in possession of one of the parish school children, containing a translation 
in Englishi French, Gaelic, and Greek, where Mc Eichgyllichomghan is turned into 
Cunningham : but I apprehend this is merely a conjecture. It is to be observed 
that the leaves in the foliage are mostly double, a larger and smaller ; and this is 
the character of the ornament of the east side. The north side is covered with 
foUage of a different and still more beautiful character. 
Strath- 13, 14. On the opposite side of Loch Fyne, two Crosses are to be found in 


he burying-ground of Strath-Lachlan. The one is a fragment of what seems to 

^^ Incorrectly given in Lumsden's Steam-boat Companion. 


have been merely a small slate-stone cut into a cruciform shape, and raised probably 
over a grave ; the other large and very observable, as being different from all the 
other large crosses in the county. The shaft is roughly hewn, and quite unoma* 
mented, having merely the figure of a pair of shears cut near the base, — a sign 
probably that the Cross was erected in memory of some one deceased. It stood 
upon a large coarsely-worked octagonal pedestal. The head is very much broken, 
but it appears to have been foliated and cut into four panels, like the Cross at 
Perranzabuloe described by Mr. Collins,'* except that the stone is not pierced 
through. The Cross in Strath Lachlan was thrown down within the memory of 
a man who lately died, who also remembered that fairs were held near it. Thus it 
seems to have united the characters of a monumental-cross and a market-cross 
(not a solitary case, perhaps) ; and there is little doubt that it was erected by the 
Mc Lachlans of Mc Lachlan, who have inhabited and possessed this glen for several 
continuous centuries. 

15. In the priory church at Ardchattan a broken stone is lying, which has Ardchattan. 
usually been taken for a tomb-stone, with an inscription, in the Grothic character, 
illegible except in two places, where the provoking words Ardchata and apud 
Ardchata obtrude themselves. The fracture passes near the figures in the date : 
but it is certainly either 1400 or 1500. I observed that one end of the stone 
tapered, as if it had stood in a socket ; and on timiing it over I found figures, 
which convinced me it was the shaft of a cross. These figures are extremely 
grotesque, — one a lion and the other some nondescript creature, — in a rampant 
position like the lions at Mycenae, and enclosing a galley between them. There can 
be no doubt that the group is an heraldic device : and one is tempted to inquire 
what family it may indicate. 

This then is a convenient place for introducing a few remarks on such armorial h^SS^^" ^^ 

bearings of Highland families, as may bear on the history of existing monuments. D«^ic«»* 

In the first place, a lymphad or one-masted galley with oars was borne by certain 

families who had possessions on the coast, as a mark of feudal service; — for 

instance, by the Earls of Arran, Orkney, and Caithness.'^ So a lymphad was borne 

for the lordship of Lorn. This was quartered by Stewart of Innermeath, who 

xoarried the heiress of Mc Dougal, Lord of Lorn : and in this case the lymphad had 

:flames of fire issuing from the hind and fore parts of the vessel, and from the top 

^' Perranzabuloe; 2nd edit. ** ii. 74. See i. 414. 



of the mast.'^ When about 1450 this lordship passed into the family of Campbell, 
they quartered the lymphad, — ^but, as it seems, without the flames." But a galley 
is also quartered in the arms of several other families in the west of Scotland. 
The Mc Donalds, Lords of the Isles, had an eagle displayed, surmounted with a 
lymphad sable.** So the Mc Leans, Mc Lachlans, and Mc Neills,** all Argyllshire 
families, have a galley in their arms. But I believe there is this difference, that in 
these cases the oars are erect in galleys, — ^in the case of the Campbells, they are in 
action. If this distinction is always observed, it may be at once decided whether a 
tombstone or cross having the heraldic galley does or does not appertain to one of 
the clan Campbell ; and clearly the shaft at Ardchattan does not. — ^As regards the 
supporters represented in this particular monument, (if indeed they be supporters,) 
I do not know whether they can be taken as a safe guide : for I think they vary 
considerably in different families of the same clan. Lions are the supporters in 
the present Argyll arms. And a lion rampant is quartered in the shield of the 
Mc Dougals, Mc NeiUs and Mc Lachlans, but not the Mc Leans.'' It may not be 
out of place to mention another quartering found in the arms of many families in 
this part of Scotland, — the cross-crosslet JitchS. An amusing account is given of 
this, as regards the Mc Donalds, — namely, that one of their progenitors assisted 
S. Patrick to propagate the Christian faith in Ireland, and to reduce the barbarous 
people there to civility and Christianity, and therefore that their ensign was a hand 
holding the cross.*" This, of course, is as true as the story that Dunbuck and 
Dumbarton and Ailsa Craig were stones thrown at the saint on his missionary 
voyage. There is however a real ecclesiastical interest connected with this device ; 
since (besides the aid it may render to the antiquary) it seems to associate such 
families as the Mc Donalds, Mc Alisters, Mc Lachlans, and Mc Naghtens with 
pilgrimages or crusades.^ The true origin of the cross fitche is, that it was carried 


*' Commonly called S. Anthony's fire, says Nisb. i. 49> See these arms^ and many others, 
admirably engraved in Lindsay's Heraldry. 

»• ii. 88. >• i. 338, and 414. 

'^ So the Mc Phersons. i. 414. The Mc Leods have the arms of Mar in the shield, as of 
pretension, i. 264. Pennant says the sails furled indicate Norwegian origin — f* g., the Mc Leods. 

>* i. 414. «• i. 263. 

' ' See the Paper on Monumental Remains for the connection of the Mc Lachlans with the Crusades. 
Dr. Abercrombie speaks of crosses on castles as denoting the part taken by the owners in crusades. 





ai to their 

of two or three other Crosses ; two in S. Oran's burjring-groimd ; one to the west 
of the church, nearly entke ; another (if it be not the same) called by Martin 
'' S. Martin's Cross/' and described as eight feet high, of a hard and red stone 
with a mixture of grey, having on the west side a crucifix, on the east a tree^ ; and 
another in S. Oran's chapel, called '' Mc Kinnon of Mc Kinnon's Cross," with the 
following inscription : 

Jl^aec* tat. nrux* lauctlanu £BU. JTingon. ft. tiu». filtu 
So^MUia. MAUtiB. lie. Ilfi. JTocta. Am JBom. M^- tttthxix. *^ 

24, 25, 26. Three Crosses in the island of Isla seem to be spoken of by 
Anderson,^ two at Kildalton and one at Eallarow. I have been favoured^ with 
a slight sketch and description of one of the former, — ^the same apparently as the 
Cross near Port Escok (Port Askaig) mentioned by Martin."^ It has a ring like 
Mc Laine's Cross, and is eleven feet and a half in height. On one side it has a 
ball-ornament at the intersection, with various devices in compartments ; on the 
other a Virgin and Child and scroll-pattern. 

27, 28, 29, 30. The last monuments of this class which have to be noticed 
are those in the island of Oronsay.'^ Martin" speaks of the fragments of two, on 
the east and west side of the church ; of one, (the same probably with that described 
by Pennant,) a large one sixteen feet high on a pedestal of three steps, with a 
crucifix on one side with an illegible inscription, and on the other the figure of a 
tree ; and of another, called " Mc Duffle's Cross,"** at a cairn about a quarter of a 
mile south of the church. 

It is impossible to examine these crosses witliout being convinced that there is 
something peculiar about their origin. We might at first sight be inclined to refer 

•• P. 256. 

' ^ It should be observed that Mc Kinnon or Mc Fingone are the same names. The tomb of 
Abbot Mc Kinnon is elsewhere mentioned. Pennant incorrectly calls the monmnent, here mentioned, 
a tomb. 

■• Guide Book, p. 359. 

'* By W. F. Campbell, Esq., of Isla. The inhabitants of Oronsay also lay claim to it, as I am 
told, and shew the pedestal where it stood. 

» « 240. See Stat. Ace. vol. xi. 
^ ^ ^ I think I remember having seen an upright stone, with a cross cut on it, near what is called 
S. Peter's chapel, in Tiree. 
' ?« 246. 

*' The Mc Duffies or Mc Fies (lor they are the same name) were possessors of Colonaay and 
Oronsay to a late date. 


would probably enable us to assign the greater number to the clans to which they 
Their general But to rctum to the general characteristics of the art which these remains 


exhibit. Though they are very similar to the rude figures and devices of Anglo- 
Saxon and Anglo-Norman work, — yet there is a something about them in which they 
seem to differ ; though it is not very easy to say in what the difference consists. 
The stone of which the crosses and tombs are worked, is mostly a tough kind of 
mica-slate. A plain moulding, boldly and clearly cut, usually runs round the edge; 
but sometimes there is found one which closely resembles the tooth-moulding. The 
animals are of very various forms. Somethnes we have a huntmg scene, as on the 
cross at Kilmory, and a tomb at Lismore : sometimes a mounted horseman : and 
these devices are intelligible enough. But more frequently it is impossible to say 
what the figures are, and what they are intended to represent, — ^whether they are 
religious symbols or family devices, or merely to satisfy the vagaries of a wild 
fancy. One of the most remarkable things is the strange way in which the legs 
and tails become metamorphosed into complicated scroll-work, and trails of wander- 
ing foliage. Nothing is more common than, when two animals, dogs for instance, 
are arranged face to face, to see their legs or tails suddenly whirl off into some 
intricate foliage, which never stops till it has run round the whole stone. A tomb 
at Strachur may be mentioned in illustration, where two greyhounds are standing 
together, and like Baucis and Philemon, find themselves suddenly changed into 

** Frondere Philemona Baucis, 
Baudda conspexit senior frondere Philemon.'"* 

The foliage itself is of a singular appearance, — sometimes like vine-branches, 

sometimes having a kind of double leaf, as at Inveraray, — sometimes formally 

arranged, so as to hang from above like French lace. It is generally stiff, but 

always well cut, and almost always beautiful. 

This kind of Such is a meagre description of the characteristic appearance of this kind of art. 

art probably of i t j t 

ScandinaTian We havc already seen that it lingered to a late period. We have now to ask what 

origin t 

was its origin. I have little doubt that the answer to the question is, that it came 
from the Scandinavians. The mere fact of these monuments existing in this 
district, and not generally elsewhere, — not, (I think) in the Lowlands of Scotland, — 

«« Ovid. Met. viii. 714. 



Since the above was written^ I have had the opportunity of examining the CroBses in this island. 
That at Kirdalton is situated near the north-east comer of a ruined chapel. It is a wheel-cross. On 
the west side there is a ball in the centre, and four others at the points ; above and below, animals in a 
couchant posture, looking upwards ; at the sides two in a passant posture, looking towards the centre. 
The parts below I do not know how to describe better than by saying that they represent globular 
flowers or firuit, with serpents among them. On the east side are four figures at the foor points,-— at 
the lowest apparently a Virgin and Child. The rest is scroll-work. 

There is also a large Cross, with an unpierced circle at the intersection, at Kilchoman. The west 
side exhibits foliage, with a bead-moulding between two plain mouldings at the edge. On the east, 
there is, at the base, a man on horseback, within a round*headed trefoiled arch ; above this, foliage ; 
then above this, the inscription ; then two figures in an attitude of prayer, within an arch of simflar 
shape, but without cusps ; then the crucifix with figures of angels, &c. — At the same place there is 
another small Cross, which bears a crucifixion within a circle, and where the figure of our Blessed Lord 
seems to have had an inscription on the breast. Two small Crosses also remain in the fields to the 
east and west, and there was another to the northward, at a place still called ''Cross Mohr^' : and the 
tradition is that within these limits there was a sanctuary. 

Nor are these the only places where Crosses are found. There are the remains of one at KUmeny,'—' 
and another at Kiels, — from which place also the Cross was removed, which is now at the ''batteiy" 
near Isla House. Lastly, the shaft of one will be found on Hand Tera, with a figure in armour in high 
reUef, having a sword on the left side, and a battle-axe in the right hand. There has been a crucifixion ; 
and the inscription is entire. But 1 4X>uld decipher only the first words — 

Jl^arc f0t crux lUginaRrt Slfofiannus • * • . 

(November, 1842.; 


lona. And first lona, which we have already considered in its monastic and diocesan 

Rbilig character, demands our attention. The great area, called Reilig Oraiuy or S. 

Oran's burying-ground, which lies between the cathedral and the nunnery, is a spot 

of deepest interest to all who care for Scottish history. It is literally paved with 

tombstones. It is the resting place of saints, and kings, and warriors. 

Yon never tread upon them, but you set 
Your feet upon some rererend history. 

It is much to be wished that some one would undertake a minute examination 
of these monuments, and illustrate them with drawings, before they are worn away 
and obliterated by the feet of strangers. Dr. Sacheverell says, after an enumeration 
of some of the most remarkable : — " The Dean of the Isles, Mr. John Frazier (an 
honest Episcopal Minister) who since made me a visit, told me that his father, who 
had been Dean of the Isles, left him a book with above three hundred inscriptions, 
which he had lent to the late Earl of Argxle^ a man of incomparable sense, and great 
curiosity, and doubts they are all lost by that great man's afflictions.'" 
The Tombs of It secms to be pretty well agreed among historians that, between the great 

the KiDgs. 

epochs of Kenneth Mc Alpine and Malcolm Caen More, lona was the burying- 
ground of the Scottish kings. Even before the time of Kenneth and the union of 
Pictish and Scottish kingdoms, the kings of the Dalriadic Scots seem to have been 
buried here ; but after that of Malcolm the place of royal sepulture was fixed at 
Dunfermline, where the remains of Bruce were discovered no long time ago.' 
Macbeth was the last king buried at lona. Concerning the royal personages buried 
in lona, and their tombs, there has been so much reiteration of the same quotations, 
while so little is known, that I think it best to transcribe the words of Dean Monro, 
written in 1549. '' Within this Isle of Kolmkill there is ane sanctuary also, or 
kirkzaird, called in Erishe, Relig Orain^ quhilk is a very fair kirkzaird, and weill 
biggit about with staine and lyme. Into this sanctuary, there are three tombes of 
staine, formit like little chapels, with ane braide grey marble, or quhin staine in the 
gavill of ilk ane of the tombes. In the staine of the ane tombe there is written in 
Latin letters. Tumulus Reoum ScoxiiE, that is, the tombe or grave of the Scottes 

• P. 132. 

' The kings of the Dalriadic Scots seem to have i>eeii buried here from the earliest period. A 
list of them may be seen in Maclean's Hist. Ace. of lona. King Aidan was an exception ; buried at 
Kylkerran, Contrary to the custom of his predecessors, in 653. Abercrombie, i. 105. 

Tomb of a 


In the same place, a tomb of the " Mac Leodus" is mentioned by Sacheverell, in 
which the image and inscription had been in massy silver set in marble.* This 
seems to have been in the cathedral, and the tomb of Mc Leod of Mc Leod. 
Ecdcrilstics Ecclesiastics were also buried here. I venture to take an inscription from 
Pennant, which he himself took from an informant. 

JH^tc iocent quatuor 9vm$» it JUs, ex una natume^ b: St^anrun, 
jH^ugontujs, |Patrtctu0, m ystcxttin oltm ISoealartud ; alter jH^ugontus^ 
qui obttt an. Bom. MiltB^ qutngentesstmo. 

This record, commemorating the names of three priors of lona, all of one clan, 
though apparently not quite authentic, may become of historical importance, and 
skould not be forgotten. 

The nunnery chapel contains a prioress's tomb and effigy, which is figured in 
Pennant. Across the stone is the legend Sancta Maria ora pro me. The following 
is the inscription : — 

JH^tc iacet Somtna Enna Sonaltit STrrlett filta quontiam Vxmms, 
lie iona^ quse o&ttt ano. m> i^ xt"« eiu0 antma Elttjsstmo commenliamuB. 

Sacheverell describes the sculpture as representing a lady as far as the knees, in an 
episcopal habit, with a mitre, and at the other end the same lady with a nun's habit, 
the head being where the feet should be.^ Pennant considers one half of the figure 
to represent the Prioress, the other the Blessed Virgin. It appears that, until very 
lately, it was customary to bury the men who died in the island near S. Oran's 
chapel, and the women near the nunnery chapel.*^ 

In the cathedral is another tomb, drawn by Pennant, — that of Abbat Mc 
Kinnon, whose cross was previously mentioned. As described by Martin, " his 
statue is done in black marble, as big as the life, in an episcopal habit, with a mitre, 
crosier, ring, and stones along the breast."" The inscription is as follows : — 

fiit facet ^of)anne0 Mt dTtngone EUas lie ?l|s, qui oiiit anno 
IBomtnt Millmxao qutnfientestmo euiuB antmse ]iT:o]itttetur IBeu0 
Eltt00tmu0. Amen. 

Here I leave this celebrated place of sepulture, in the hope that a detailed 
account of its valuable memorials will some time be laid before the Society. 

Tomb of an 

• P. 135. 

» P. 137. 

*® Stat. Ace. vol. xiv. 

> > Martin, p. 256. 


in a stone, through which a hole is made to hold it." This is perhaps the stone 
ornamented with foliage, stag, hounds, and ship in full sail, which Pennant has 
figured, and which bears the name of Murcltardua Mac-dufie de Collonsa^ and the date 
1539. Along with this we find an engraving of Abbat Mc Duffie's tomb, which 
seems to have been placed in the side chapel. 

In the choir of the priory-church at Ardchattan, are two tombs which demand 
Ardchattan. our attention. The first is imder the north wall, near the altar ; and the stone 
coffin remains. It has six figures in relief, each under a crocketed canopy of that 
peculiarly stiflf form, which at once fixes the date of the tomb to be not very long 
anterior to the Reformation. Above these are two female figures, and between 
them the effigy of Death, with a toad between the knees ; below, two armed figures, 
and between them an ecclesiastic. The inscription runs round in Roman letter : — 


On the opposite side, imder the piscina, is another tomb with a single effigy, and 
the inscription in Gothic letters : — 

fiit i^tt bennralitltd et egregtus btr V^tibtniusi IHltxaxibxi ISector 
qtionliam JFunnani insute qui obttt anno Som. . . 

* • • 

It seems that the monument was made before his death, and that the date was never 
filled up. The place alluded to under the name of Funnani Insulse, is near 

It is important to mention that the bmying-places of the two families of Camp- 
bell of Lochnell, and Campbell of Ardchattan, are here inclosed ; and that in the 
former is a tomb on which is a cross of rather peculiar form, ornamented with 
scroll-work and figures of animals. It seems to be of considerable antiquity, and 
probably conmiemorates an ecclesiastic. In another place is a fragment of an 
effigy of an ecclesiastic, of the natural size, in which the crossing of the stole is 
distinctiy visible. 

There are two other mommiental inscriptions here, which must not pass 
unobserved. The first I have carefully copied ; but am unable to decipher it, or 
even to know the character in which it is written. As regards the second, a 
Cambridge Society may be allowed to be interested by an inscription written on his 

1 > For these two inscriptionB I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Fraser, of Ardchattan. 


Colkitto's men were murdered by General Leslie after a surrender at discretion) ; 
who was afterwards educated by the Stewarts of Bute, and married a lady of that 
family, and came to the possession of his property in Sanda. The story relates 
that his nurse fled from the Castle with the child in her arms. She was met by 
Campbell of Craignish, who interrogated her about the child, and when she said it 
was her own, exclaimed that " whose child soever he might be, he had the eye of a 
Macdonald in his head." So saying, he divided his plaid with his sword, and, 
giving her one half as a garment for the child, bade her hasten away. And thus 
the young Macdonald was saved.'" 
Taicof Donald The Icgcud of " Douald of the Hammers," whose tombstone has already been 
Hammers. spokcu of, is uot Icss remarkable. It tells how the two families of Stewart of 
Invemayle and Campbell of Dunstaffhage were at deadly feud;— nhow Campbell 
siuprised Stewart when sleeping on a soUtary island, and slew him with all his 
children, save the youngest, who was with his foster-mother, the wife of a black- 
smith; — how the young laird was taken by the good blacksmith away into 
Ardnamurchan, and became so famous at the trade of his reputed £sither, that he 
was called '' Donald of the Hammers," seeing that he could use two hammers as 
other men might use one ; — ^how the blacksmith, observing that Donald's gentle 
birth would not be concealed, told him his whole history, made for him a sword, 
and bade him be avenged on the murderers of his father ; — ^finally, how the young 
man took twelve companions, and landed at Corpach, where he made twelve 
swords, one for each of his companions, and took a bloody vengeance for the 
massacre which had been so cruelly conunitted.*' Whether this anecdote he 
literally true or not, it possesses a real legendary truth ; and accurately exhibits 
the savage fierceness and strong attachments of the old Western Clans. 
Law of King I do uot kuow how to choosc a better quotation, wherewith to conclude these 

Kenneth. , , _ 

desultory notices of the monuments of Argyllshire, than the following Law** of 
Kenneth Mc Alpine : " Esteem every sepulchre or gravestone sacred, and adorn it 
with the sign of the Cross, which take care you do not so much as tread on." 

^ ^ The present proprietor is his great-grandson. This whole story I heard from a farmer in the 
island of Sanda. 

'* I had this story from the Rev. Mr. Mc Gregor of Lismore. 

'® Quoted somewhere hy Grough. 


Perpendicular, we may safely venture upon an open-work wood-roof: if the style 
be earlier, no sound principles can be found to justify the adoption of an ornament 
which only came to maturity many years afterwards. In consequence of this, the 
interiors of one or two modem Decorated churches built by a celebrated architect 
look naked and incongruous. For while, on the one hand, good judgment has 
suggested the use of a Decorated wood-roof in a Decorated church, the enrichments 
and extent of the building, on the other, claim a covering of greater durability and 
costliness. I need hardly say that Decorated wood-roofs are very scarce; yet 
wherever they do exist, they are generally plain and unpretending. The roofs of 
Adderbury church and Byfield church may be suitable for the extent they cover, 
but they would look meagre and unsatisfying in a larger structure. I need only 
ask you to picture to yourselves the alteration that would have been effected in the 
nave of Ely Cathedral, if the rich Decorated vaulting, which seven years afterwards 
was adopted in the Lady Chapel, had been destined to have supplied the place of 
the present dark structure of wood. 

Having, I think, shewn the necessity for vaulting in the larger and richer imita- 
tions of the early styles ; I will now describe, first, the construction, and secondly, 
the chronological sequence of these noble monimients of the skill and piety of our 

If we turn our thoughts backward to the earliest origin of covering a space with 
a stone roof, we as it were intuitively select the plain round arch as the first and 
simplest element : a succession of these of equal diameter would generate a cylinder, 
and thus the barrel roof would at once be produced. 

It would take a vast effort to advance beyond this point ; and we can only 
conceive it to have been effected by slow degrees. Probably the next step was to 
pierce the walls on which the vault rested: then an archway might be formed 
having its apex below the junction of the wall and cylinder; secondly, it might 
entrench upon the cylinder, and the result would be, what is now called, a Welsh 

This would naturally suggest the principle of elevating the aperture to the same 
height as the vault, and forming it of the same dimensions as the original archway. 
An arch would then be thrown over the aperture in the side-wall, its apex being 
exactly on a level with the apex of the original cylinder. This arch would be 
extended till it met the section of the original vault and the whole was covered in ; 
thus two edges or groins would be formed at the junction of the two vaults : if the 


diagonal groin must necessarily be an ellipse, with its smaller axis parallel to tbe 
supporting cx)lmnns. This of course would have presented many difficulties to the 
early architects : they would have probably had no fixed system by which they 
could describe the diagonal groin: and supposing them to have had recourse 
to wooden centerings, over which they spread a coating of plaster and rubble, it is 
still manifest that the work would be weak, unsightly, and ill adapted for covering 
any large space. 

This fact alone would have led them at a very early period to have endeavoured 
to have formed the diagonal rib upon some fixed principle. A semicircle would 
have been the most natural form, and their object would have been to have made 
the other portions of the bay of vaulting conform to it. And here even in the 
simplest case, — a square bay of vaulting, — an insurmountable difficulty would have 
arisen. If the top of the vault was to have been flat, and the. diagonal groins 
semicircles, the forms of the four ardies by which the bay was to be entered could 
not possibly be semicircles also, as their radii, which would in this case be the 
proper measures of their heights, would have been less than that of the diagonal 

It will be convenient to term two of these four entrance arches, the longitudinal 
arches, as being parallel to the direction of the vaulting or length of the building : 
the other two may be termed the transverse arches. In all our churches, therefore, 
the longitudinal arches run from West to East and East to West. 

This, however, was not the only difficulty with which the Norman architect had 
to contend : the necessity for vaulting a parallelogram must have soon presented 
itself ; as small square bays might have been very suitable for side aisles, but very 
inappropriate for the nave or choir of a large church. When the bay was square, 
the condition of the ridge being horizontal was in some way satisfied by placing the 
centre of the diagonal groin below the level of the imposts; and making the f 
transverse and longitudinal arches perfect semicircles. But when the area was an ^ 
oblong, having its longer side in the direction of the vaulting, it was then necessary , 
to elevate the centre of the transverse arches above the level of the imposts, f 
proportionately to the excess of the span of the longitudinal arch over that of the ^ 
transverse arch. This was efiected two ways : first by stilting the transverse arch, 
and secondly by making it greater than a semicircle : both of these methods beiiW 
equally clumsy and unsightly. An example of this may be found in the aisles / 
the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. : 







shire, as a perfect specimen in the Anglo-Saxon style, and he also mentions vaults 
beneath the Minster of Ripon and Hexham, which are as early as the seventh 
century. Upon this I can pretend to give no opinion : I have not visited any one 
of the three, and I have not been able to obtain any ficcurate descriptions of their 
constructions. This remark only I would hazard, that the Anglo-Saxon style is 
necessarily very uncertain and unfixed : and that rudeness of work is too often 
mistaken for antiquity. It is well known that triangular-headed apertures (the 
distinctive Anglo-Saxon feature) are found in work of an indisputably Norman 
date. Barrel vaults are stated by Professor Whewell to be very common in the 
churches of Cornwall. It would be well for those members of our body who have 
the opportunity, to make careful notes on the structure of these vaults and the date 
of the supporting piers, with any other accessaries that might serve to determine 
their chronology. 

Norman Vaulting may be divided into two classes. The first class will com- 
prehend a short period subsequent to the Conquest. The bays of vaulting were 
commonly square, and divided into four equal vaulting cells ; the transverse and 
longitudinal arches were alone of cut stone, the diagonal being only a sharp edge 
produced by the meeting of the surfaces. The shell was composed of rubble work, 
and was very weak and roughly shaped. An example may be found in the crypt 
of S. Peter's, Oxford. The crypt at Canterbury Cathedral, generally supposed to 
have been built by Archbishop Lanfranc at the close of the eleventh century, is 
also a very perfect instance of this style of vaulting, and is admirably suited for a 
comparison with later styles found in the same cathedral. Bishop Gundulph's 
Chapel in the White Tower is also another specimen. 

As might have been expected, this style was soon deserted for more substantial 
methods of constructing the groins. And frequently it would appear that ribs were 
afterwards added to secure the stability of vaults of this nature, as in the aisles of 
the transepts of Winchester, where diagonal ribs of cut stone were added. These 
ribs did not always follow the exact line of the groin, which was strictly elliptical, 
but were arcs whose centre was beneath the level of the imposts : the consequence 
was, that a space was left between the groin and the rib midway between the impost 
and the apex, which was filled with mortar and plaster. The same additions are 
said to have been made in the chancel of S. Peter's church, Oxford, and it would 
be advisable to scrutinize very closely the vaulting in the earlier Norman chancels, 
as probably more examples of this curious want of union between the rib and the 
groin may easily be discovered. 


The great overwhelming £siult of this first system was the weakness of the 
rubble masonry. 

We need not now wonder that, toward the close of the eleventh century, the 
Norman architect exclusively adopted the use of diagonal ribs, and sought out 
other remedies for the defects under which the first system laboured. 

In the second system, this diagonal rib was exclusively used : and we are able 
to trace very distinctly the architectural progress by observing the different forms 
these diagonal ribs assimied : at first they were simply square-edged, and rudely 
abutted against each other at the crown of the vault: the edges were then chamfered, 
finally they became moulded, and so progressively advanced to the character of 
elastic rods, which was the latest development of this second or late Norman 
vaulting. Frequently, too, as at Stewkeley church, Buckinghamshire, they were 
ornamented with the zig-zag and mouldings peculiar to the style. The transverse 
and longitudinal arches were also similarly decorated; and began to assume the 
appearance of ramifying from the piers, which also, at the latest period of the style, 
lost much of their massive character. The ribs seem to have been thus successively 
changed : first they were square-edged, secondly rebated (in which state they could 
hardly be left), thirdly those edges were chamfered, fourthly the chamfers were carved 
into rolls, and we have then the ribs in the state in which they appear in the aisles of 
the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. The church of the Holy Sepulchre in this 
town is an excellent instance of the struggle between the square-edged and the more 
ornamented rib, and seems fully to bear out the supposed date of its consecration. 

Many principles were now beginning to develop themselves ; among the most 
remarkable of which is the stone placed at the intersection of the diagonal ribs. 
In the earUer examples of this class of vaulting, one diagonal rib was erected, and 
the other was built up to meet it from the other two opposite piers, and left, as 
Professor Willis remarks, to shift for itself. 

In our own Round Church we may trace the germ of a boss in the small flat 
flower just carved upon the intersection of two square-edged diagonal ribs: it 
gradually comes into greater prominence in the nave of Durham Cathedral, the 
Chapter House at Bristol, and the Chapel of the Nine Altars at Durham. It was 
discontinued for a short time at the commencement of the succeeding style, after 
which it was resimied with great eagerness, and forms a very important feature in 
the later vaults. The employment of a large stone provided with beds for the 
reception of the ribs was indeed a vast improvement upon the previous fortuitous 


arrangement. Another important feature in this class of vaulting was the attempt 
to cover an unequal-sided bay. The combining three arches of equal height, and 
the appUcation of semicircular diagonal ribs, were two principles which were in 
continual collision with one another. This was, as I have shewn in my former 
remarks, overcome by stilting the transverse arch, as at Peterborough, or forming 
it into a horseshoe, as at Romsey Abbey church. The difficulty was increased 
tenfold when the space was an unequal-sided figure. Professor Willis mentions an 
instance at the eastern end of the crypt at Gloucester, in which the two diagonal 
arches do not intersect at their crowns, but considerably lower down. The 
eastern end of the Cathedral of Canterbury would probably supply another instance 
of distortion. At S. Sepulchre's, in this town, the difficulty is most ingeniously 
• evaded by the position of the corbels, so that in reality the figure vaulted over is 
not a trapeziimi, but a rectangle. 

A good example of this style may be foimd in the crypt under the phoir of 
York Cathedral. This was commenced by Archbishop Roger in the year 1 171, and 
completed in his life-time. The nave of Diu-ham is very late in the style, and belongs 
more properly to transition ; yet this is but one of the many instances in which the 
vaulting seems to precede the style. I shall pass rapidly over the transition, 
merely repeating my observation, that it may be seen to perfection in the choir of 
Canterbury Cathedral, which we know to have been completed between the years 
1175 and 1178. 

The Third Class, or Early English vaulting, is, in its early stages, remarkably 
light and simple. It may, like the Norman vaulting, be conveniently divided into 
two portions, early and late vaulting; and there is quite sufficient difierence 
between the two divisions to warrant such a classification. 

In the early part of the Early English vaulting, the diagonal rib was made a 
semicircle, the transverse and longitudinal becoming pointed, an arrangement that 
was foimd to be so strong, simple, and elegant, that even in the vaulting of small 
square compartments the semicircle was entirely discarded in the side arches>. 
The boss at the intersection sometimes appears in early work of this class ; it was a 
point, probably, on which we can make no certain canon, as in several buildings 
about the commencement of the thirteenth century, contemporary within five years, 
the boss is sometimes found and sometimes omitted. This, however, is another 
point worthy of examination, as probably its absence or presence would depend 
upon the different mouldings of the intersecting ribs. 


this early period. A ridge-band found in the north transept is considered a 
subsequent addition ; the boss at the intersection of the diagonal ribs bearing marks 
of having been cut away to make room for the intruder. This portion of the 
cathedral is exceedingly useful for showing the method in which the work was 
conducted. The springing both of the shell and of the ribs was first put up ; then 
the entire shell was formed ; lastly the ribs were put up beneath the shell. 

The vaulting beyond the choir at Winchester Cathedral ascribed to Bishop de 
Lucy in 1204, is also plain quadripartite. The north aisle at Chichester, the crypt 
under the choir at Rochester, (built before the year 1227,) and lastly, the finished 
and most complete specimen of the style at Salisbury Cathedral, are all worthy of 
the most minute observation. I shall briefly recapitulate the points most par- 
ticularly claiming an attention. (1) The vaulting shaft, (2) the moulding of the 
ribs, (3) the wall rib, (4) the position and magnitude of the boss, and lastly, any 
appearance of a ridge-beam. 

The second class of Early EngUsh vaulting may more properly be considered a 
transition to the decorated. 

The chief additional feature is the longitudinal ridge-band. The choir at 
Worcester Cathedral is an example in point : it is supposed to have been vaulted 
in the year 1269. Lincoln choir has also a longitudinal ridge-band : of this vault 
however I speak with some hesitation, as its date has not been accurately 
made out ; it is moreover an exception to the ordinary method of quadripartite 
vaulting, and has been termed by Professor WheweU, alternately semuquadripartite^ 

A set of careful observations upon this vault would be a great service to 

As we travel onward tov the Decorated style we meet with several remakable 

We may conveniently divide the vaults of this style into two classes. 

In the first division a ridge-beam was also added in a transverse, as well as 
a longitudinal direction. This gave great security to vaults which were probably 
found unsteady and liable to distortion without some connecting ridge-band. The 
diagonal ribs were now slightly pointed (as indeed were some in the Early English 
style), especially in narrow aisles. Owing to this the ridge-band is sometimes 
found to deflect from the top of the diagonal to the top of the transverse arch, or 
the vault is sUghtly domical : this is owing to the employment of the same curve 
for the transverse arches as for the diagonal, retaining the centres of both on the 

198 ON vaulting: 

beams upon the diagonal and intermediate ribs : short ribs, which we may con- 
veniently call '* tie-ribs,** connected these with the bosses on the xidgd : and by 
this^ means simple and elegant figures were traced on the shell of the vaulting. 
Of this the Lady Chapel at Ely is an admirable specimen. I think the Cloisters 
bt Worcester Cathedral may be also considered of the same class : here a simple 
octagonal figure is formed by the tie-ribs. As the Perpendicular style advanced, 
this kind of vaulting was eagerly practised, and it gradually proceeded from the 
simple figures on the vault over the nave at Winchester to the more complex 
in the nave of Canterbury, until the tie-ribs wandered aimlessly over the vault, 
as in the Lady Chapel at Gloucester, and finally all distinctions of ribs were 
lost, amid the gorgeous entanglement which adorns the roof of the Chapter House, 
at Canterbury. 

For the other branch of vaulting, fan tracery, we have only to add more 
intermediate ribs, and place a groin behind them: the soUd spandrel, along 
which the ribs run, passes from a simple trapezoidal to a many-sided and finally 
to a semiconical figure ; and thus the simple fan tracery began in the branching 
cloisters of Gloucester ; and continued its coiu'se, in Cardinal Beaufort's Chantry, 
in Peterborough Cathedral ; and in Bishop Alcock's Chapel, until it culminated in 
the roof of King's College Chapel. 

Thus the two important systems of the perpendicular style arose from the same 
common source by exclusively and separately enriching the upper and lower 
members of a plain Decorated vault. 

It remains for me now only to conclude my paper with the hope that, if my 
remarks have not had the merit of novelty, they may at least be instrumental in 
stimulating others to fresh labours in this interesting department of Ecclesiology. 


peculiarly his own. Aiming at such a standard, Overbeck and his followers could 
no more go back to Cimabue, than those who set before their eyes the unknown 
designer of Cologne could recur for imitation to an imperfect transitional style. 

The other objection, namely, that the Pointed style has not adapted itself to a 

southern climate, is one which seems at fii^t sight to have a great show of truth. 

But when we consider the matter more attentively, we shall see that the fact of 

2J7 Go^c Gothic not fixing itself in Italy is not more astonishing than that it so soon 

in the South, degenerated in England and Germany into the mean Perpendicular or cinque cento. 

Indeed, is it not more remarkable that the designers of Wells and Cologne had so 

few worthy successors, than that Arnolfo, or Giotto, or Orgagna, could not push 

Pointed Architecture further south than Sienna or Assisi ? Whatever may have 

been the sinister influence which checked, or rather crushed, Christian art in its 

different branches in the fifteenth century, it equally overpowered opposition in all 

quarters. The reUgious orders, which had introduced Gothic into Italy, could not 

secure its final victory. Paganism in Painting as well as Architecture prevailed m 

spite of the preaching of Savoranola. 

But as the southern career of Gothic was thus prematurely cut short, — the 
style not even having been deteriorated so much as with us before its disuse, — ^it 
may be fairly urged that its revival is as possible in Italy as with ourselves. And 
the lover of Pointed Architecture may still hope that Grothic has in itself the 
elements for becoming an imiversal Christian style, expanding itself to meet every 
Gothicjhow condition of climate or coimtry; I propose in. the present paper to consider how 
adaptation to far the Poiutcd style can be made to adapt itself to the necessities of hot climates : 

npt dimates. ^ "^ -^ 

examining, first, how much is to be learnt, (from existing churches, or from 
recorded buildings, in coimtries so circumstanced,) of principles essential for 
tropical architecture; next, what rules may be gained a priori from the consideration 
of the theory of the style ; and lastly, what indications Pointed buildings, more 
particularly those of the north of Italy, do really present of a development and 
adaptation to the necessities of a warmer cUmate. 

It appears to be necessary, however, to make some* preliminary observations on 
the type of a Christian church : the fundamental conditions, which every church, 
to be a church, must fulfil. 
^ Type of a That there exists a type of a Christian church cannot reasonably be doubted. 
Prom whatever source it may have been derived, it may be traced historically to 
have existed firom the first, A chancel to contain the altar and its attendant 


Clei^, duly separated from the other part, a nave, to hold the faithfrd worshippers, 
and furnished with the font, for the ministration of the other great Sacrament: 
behold every essential of a church. We may add to these the pastophoria of the 
ApostoUcal Constitutions ; the exedrse and apsides of the basilics, the atrium or 
the narthex; aisles and transepts, towers and chapels, sacristies, porches, or 
cloisters ; — ^but the nave and chancel remain the only vital parts of the whole. The 
vast pile of Ely is no more a church than S. Mary's, Stourbridge ; the little oratory 
of Perranzabuloe with its altar, well, nave, and chancel, is as much a church as 
the Lateran Basilic. To describe the different ways in which this elementary idea 
of a church has been exhibited materially from the first age till now ; and to shew 
how its first embodiment prepared for and was superseded by the full development 
of the Christian style ; this is nothing more nor less than the History of Church 

Unfortunately however Church Architecture has never been viewed altogether mie of charch 
in this light by its historians. They have traced carefully enough the first intro- hitherto im. 
duction of the arch springing from its piers ; have theorized upon the origin of the ndered. 
pointed arch, and have classified mouldings : but we still want a comparison of 
the different ways in which different people and cUmates embodied their type of a 
church: how for they simultaneously advanced, or where stopped: why the 
Northern Architecture, — ^if it can be so called, when the pointed arch is perhaps 
after all Saracenic, — did not root itself more firmly in the South : why, in a word, 
a style which, as it seems to so many, is worthy to be called exclusively Christian^ 
has not extended itself over the Christian world. Had Church Architecture been 
so treated, our present subject would not have been so obscure as it is. We should 
then have seen what sort of churches had been built from the first ages in every 
kind of climate : whether the churches of Africa had peculiar features, and why : 
whether those in Abyssinia. We should know whether the many churches in the 
burning plains which are subject to the CathoUc of Chaldaea were the same as those 
of the Patriarchate of Alexandria. We should then know more of the churches 
of the Christians of S. Thomas in Malabar than we can now glean from meagre 
hints in the Researches of Buchanan. 

This will be the place to give a hasty summary of what seems to have been 
the general history of Sacred Architecture, considered as to the chief localities of 
the principal styles. 

Roman architecture must at first have prevailed over the whole of that vast 



Roman Archi- 
tecture at first 

Rise of the By- 
zantine style. 


against taking 
the Byzantine 
style as a 

empire; and the earliest churches could not have but been Roman in general 
features. Then the basilics, at the conversion of Constantine, becoming churches, 
gave a sort of distinctive character to the architecture of the Church. From these, 
probably, descend all the varieties of the Romanesque of Europe. Meanwhile, 
Justinian, at Constantinople, rebuilt S. Sophia, from which springs the Byzantine 
style. This style extended widely over the Eastern empire: it pervaded every 
Mohammedan coimtry, spread itself over Russia, and made many aggressions on 
the West. S. Mark's at Venice, S. Vitale at Ravenna, S. Ciriaco in Ancona, 
S. Fosca in TorceUo, the Duomo at Pisa, S. Caterina in Istria, Charlemagne's 
chmrch at Aix-la-Chapelle, S. Front, Perigueux, in the south-west of France, are 
all pure Byzantine churches, scattered in the country of Romanesque ; while 
Sicily, Africa, and Spain exhibit the same type, with many Moorish additions. 
Thus the Byzantine and Romanesque existed contemporaneously, until a new rival, 
the Pointed style, arose in the North. With great rapidity it spread over the whole 
north of Europe, except Russia. It reached Seville, and even passed the Guadiana. 
In Italy it prevailed for a short time in Lombardy, shewed itself in Naples and 
Sicily, but failed in establishing itself in Rome, in which city but few specimens, 
and those unimportant, were ever erected* Then came the Retmissance, and all 
Christian art succumbed to semi-Paganism. 

Of the two great divisions then of early Christian architecture, the Romanesque 
and the Byzantine, it is in the latter, as being found in the east and south, that we 
ought to look first for adaptation to a hot cUmate. But I do not know that 
anything more can be learnt than this, that these churches have, and always had, 
distinct nave and chancel ; they follow, that is, the one type. Indeed, nothing more 
could be expected from any branch of the Eastern Church. That conmumity has 
remained for centuries without change. Who could tell a Greek painting of 
yesterday from those ungracious Byzantine types from which Giotto freed us? 
The small carved cross, just brought from the convent of Athos, is the fac-simile 
of one which Leo the Isaurian might have broken. Nor, again, is there much to 
be learnt from the religious architecture of the Arabs, which was the same style 
modified by new circimistances. The followers of the false prophet took their 
architecture from the nations which they conquered ; and thus the Byzantine style, 
says M. Lenormant, (quoted by De Caumont, Ant. Mon. part iv. p. 206, in 
Serradifalco, p. 83,) became the primordial type of the Moorish. They borrowed 
from the Greeks cupolas and cloisters ; and the Mosque of Amrou, at Cairo, a 


work of the seventh century, is a kind of copy of a Greek church. From Persia 
they are said by some to have copied the pointed arch, which appears in a mosque 
built by the Caliph Omar in 637, at El-Haram, near Jerusalem. The peculiar kind 
of ornament called Arabesque, is supposed to have come from Hindostan. In Sicily, 
Africa, and Spain, the Moorish remains all exhibit marks of the Byzantine origin of 
the style.' Insomuch, that when Gothic was extended into Spain, it was not found 
that the Moorish variety of Byzantine was any more abhorrent to the new style 
than the Romanesque or Byzantine of the rest of Europe. The Byzantine style, 
both in its Christian original, and in the Mohammedan variety, was not only more 
widely extended than the Romanesque, but was employed in more southern regions, 
promising, almost, to supply us with what we now require, an architecture which 
(like this) could be used from Spain to India, from Africa to Aix-la-Chapelle, and 
which was suited to tropical cUmates. And further, while the Romanesque is 
without doubt a dead style, the Byzantine is still Uving and in use ; Uving on, 
that is, in continuance and reproduction; but neither aiming at, nor perhaps 
capable of, development, which is the only proof of real life. 

So that, in spite of all these advantages, Byzantine must be set aside as a model 
for our adoption ; and we are compelled, as also in duty bound, to examine the 
peculiar architecture of the Western Church, which expanded from the Basilic into 
all the varieties of the Pointed style, and gave, as we think, promise of still farther 
and more glorious development, which, however checked now for four or five 
centuries, may hereafter, perhaps, triimiphantly advance. 

As the Romanesque however scarcely prevailed south of the Alps except in goUuc, how 
Italy, we have a much smaller field in which to examine its suitableness for hot employed in 

. i.i-rfc . Ti !• i»-n ^^^ climates. 

countnes than m the case of the Byzantme. In short, we are dnven but of Europe, 
and are forced first to consider the earUest churches built in America or India by 
the Western Missionaries. But it was in so late a stage of Gothic as that of 
Spanish and Portuguese conquests, that the missionaries of Spain and Portugal 
can scarcely be expected to have done much towards developing the adaptation of 
Pointed Architecture to tropical cUmates. Something might be learnt in Goa, At coa : 
where the churches are numerous and magnificent, though, unfortimately, for 
the most part finished after the Renaissance; and it is smprising that the 
churchmen of India do not seem to have thought of gaining any hints from that 

^ M. Coste asiserts, that at CordoTa one would say the Moorish buildings were quite Byzantine. 





Brazil : 

Funchal : 

What can be 
gathered from 

remarkable city on a point which is one of confessed difficulty to themselves. In 
the other Indies, certain churches, such as those of N.S. de Guadaloupe, and the 
Cathedral of Mexico, are quoted as examples of wonderful magnificence and size. 
In these the chancel screens are reported to be of soUd gold and silver, and the 
value of some of the shrines is great almost beyond belief. The mere village 
churches are said to be of surprising grandeur of size, with enormous platforms for 
the foundations, and of prodigious thickness in the walls. Examples are — ^Tekoh, 
with two lofty towers ; the still more immense pile of Ticul, and the churches of 
Jalacho and Nolicabah ; all monuments of Franciscan piety and Franciscan genius. 
Again, the churches built by the Jesuits in South America are also remarkable, as 
I have been informed by travellers, for huge size, and solidity, and costliness. In 
these also is to be observed the same peculiar and lavish decoration of the interior, 
which is to be seen in every Jesuit church in Europe, and which testifies at once to 
the self-sacrifice and unity of purpose which have ever distinguished this Order. 
Of the cathedral at Funchal, and the highly interesting remains of Pointed work in the 
smaller churches of Madeira, this Society has already had an account from a far more 
able hand. Area, soUdity, and costliness, and fewness of windows, were seen to be 
the prominent characteristics of these specimens of colonial Portuguese architecture.' 
There is not, then, very much to be learnt from these churches for our present 
purpose ; but it will be observed, that all these instances, if not in themselves examples 
of an entirely successful adaptation of Pointed Architecture to burning climates, by 
reason of the great admixture of renaissance character to be seen in them, yet throw 
some light on our investigation, in that they exhibit, one and all, certain characteristics 
evidently impressed upon them by new conditions of building. Increased area, 
increased height, increased soUdity of walls, and increased internal gloom, may be 
inferred, I believe, from these cases alone, to be necessary to a tropical church. 

Inasmuch, then, as we can learn Uttle from records of buildings, or from existing 
churches, we must apply ourselves more to consider the theory of the subject. 

In the revival of the taste for Pointed Architecture among ourselves, we were 
accustomed to study so much the truthfulness and reality of the stj'^le, and to mark 
so carefully its beautiful adaptation to the wants of our cUmate, that many have 
learnt to take a somewhat narrow view of the subject, and to mistake for essentials 
what are merely accidents. It cannot be denied that it is well for us to take our 

* The writer is also indebted to the Rev. J. M. Neale for several examples and illustrations 
in this Paper. 



climates ? It is most true that in the North there is a great practical advantage in 
a high roof : the same featm'e in the South would be in the same degree a disad- 
vantage. In our climate a high-pitched roof throws off snow and rain, and may be 
held to be a proper finish to every building. 

Probably many an Ecclesiologist going for the first time into Switzerland has 
been astonished at the low roof of every cottage, and still more at the flat tops, 
laden with stones, of every shed. He would have expected to find roo& higher 
thap with us, — ^more than equilateraly — to throw off the snow. But when it is 
remembered that the winds among the mountains would certainly carry away a roof 
which should present a high broadside to their force ; and again, that the snow there 
is not occasional, and but of short continuance, as with us, but Ues for many 
months and is itself a protection from the cold ; the flat loaded roof of the Swiss 
valleys designed to retain the snow shew an example of that very appropriateness 
which we have so justly admired at home. 

Again, beyond the Alps, we find other circumstances and other adaptations. 
There the violent rains carry themselves off from even a fiat surface by their own 
force ; and the same level roof becomes, from the necessity of the climate, the most 
desirable resort in the whole house for air and coolness. 

Consequently, those magnificent cathedral churches of Florence and Milan, to 
mention no other Pointed buildings in Italy, have roofs on a slope, no higher than 
sufficient to cover the interior groining : of a lower pitch, e. 9., than that of King's 
CoUege Chapel. It seems to me, however, that no one would venture to decry this 
as a fault in those subUme designs ; nor can I think it possible that the most critical 
English observer would feel the want of a high roof in regarding these cathedrals. 
But if this be true for the north of Italy, how much more true must it be for 
tropical climates. We need not to be told that fiat roofs have always been used in 
such regions: and it would seem an unsound theory which could sanction the 
building a very high-pitched roof under such circumstances. 
man°anditei" '^^ foUowiug cousidcration is curious. The Romanesque architecture, 
trrooff^^' ^^"^8 of Italian origin, shews signs of its southern descent in the fiat 
roofs of its earlier examples north of the Alps. Thus in the early towers of 
S. Bartholomew, and Sainte Croix, liege, the sides have pedimented heads 
nearly classical in their fiatness. But as the style advanced, there were pro- 
duced such spires as Bonn and Antwerp, and such a pitch of roof as the Dom 
of Cologne. In course of time, when Germany paid back her debt to Italy by 



giving her the Pointed style, the Italian architects found it most difficult to treat 
properly the roof, which during its sojourn north of the Alps had become so high. 
Great masters, indeed, like Amolfo and Nicolo Pisaiio, at once lowered it to suit 
the climate ; but the Pointed remains in Italy shew several examples of less happy 
adaptation. Thus Giovanni Pisano, the son of Nicolo, was betrayed into sham 
high roofs in the Madonna della Spina of his native city ; and Mr. Hope has 
observed that " the high-pitched pediments of Vienna, of Orvieto, of Poligno, and 
of Monza, so far from growing connectedly out of the body of the front, and 
from fitting to the ends of the roof, are mere walls or screens, that without any use 
or purpose rise unsupported far above the summit of the building." (ch. xxxviii.) 
We have thus before our eyes the difficulty of Italian architects, and have seen how 
the best of them resolved it. In this case, then, it may be asserted, (1) that a priori 
one would not build a high roof in a hot climate, (2) that one would a priori build 
a flat one, and (3) that Pointed Architecture as it neared the south did really lose its 
high roof, without, however, forfeiting any essential of the style. 

Next we must consider Windows, which are with us a most important feature in windows. 
Middle Pointed architecture. I am not aware that anything very satisfactory has 
ever been alleged to explain why the size and number of windows were so much 
increased in northern climates. At first here, as in the nave of S. Sepulchre's, and 
in most Romanesque churches in the north of Europe, the windows were very small 
and very few. This again was probably, in the first instance, owing to the circum- 
stance that the Romanesque came fix)m the south, where as we shall see very few 
windows are wanted. The scarcity of glass will hardly accoimt for the fact that the 
windows continued to be so small in our Rrst Pointed, the next style ; for the 
Romanesque windows in the aisles of S. Etienne, Caen, are of very great size, 
although built far earlier, indeed about the time of the Norman Conquest. Nor 
again, perhaps, can the mere wish for more light explain the gradual enlargement of 
the windows : for much Ught was not essential for the ancient worship, and dark 
crypts were used during part of the year for many offices under the very buildings 
which had the large windows in the upper church. It does not seem probable 
either that the wish to provide a broader field for the display of stained glass could 
ever have been a reason for increasing the size of the windows ; for it must be 
remembered that they could not enlarge the window without diminishing the 
space of wall which would otherwise have been devoted to decorative painting. 

Be this as it may, the small round-headed Romanesque light grew into the tall 


lancet of the first stage of the Pointed style, and from that into beautiful traceried 
windows, such as may be seen in S. Mary the Less in Cambridge, or on a still 
grander scale in those wonderful examples of York and CarUsle. The next 
development was to the extravagantly large windows of King's College Chapel, 
or to that monstrous phenomenon the east end of Gloucester Cathedral, the whole 
of which is one huge network of glass and monials. 

It must be allowed that the northern Middle Pointed possesses a singular pre- 
eminence in this particular. Nothing can more beautiful, per se^ than a window of 
graceful tracery ; not to speak of the opportunity afforded by it of reading many 
a lesson in symbolical language. 

At the same time, inasmuch as a large window is absolutely inadmissible in a 
very hot climate, this feature must be sacrificed if we are adapt the style to tropical 
churches. Accordingly, we shall find upon examination that the Gothic of Italy 
does vary in this particular from that of the north of Europe ; and I hope to shew 
from a few examples of the different ways in which this difficulty was met, that 
Gothic may lose even its traceried windows without becoming less truly Gothic. 
How treated Few thiugs are more strikingly solemn than the gloom of an Italian church. As 
churches, in quc pushcs asidc the heavy curtain which excludes at once the light and heat which 
the huge western door would otherwise admit, one is only conscious at first of 
dark space, so great is the contrast to the bright sun without. When the eye 
becomes used to the darkness, you will be struck with the circumstance that few 
or no windows can be seen. In the north, the spectator is conscious of many 
windows of elaborate tracery, and glowing with rich colours. Here, on the contrary, 
he cannot tell whence the Uttle fight there is proceeds. With us the windows form 
an important part of the design ; with them they are quite subsidiary, and, as it 
were, accidental. The light in fact is admitted by very small single windows, set 
high up in the side-wall of a lofty aisle ; or by small windows irregularly dis- 
posed in the transepts, or by Ughts at the very top of a dome or lantern : so that 
in any case the eye is arrested by the mass of the piers and arches, the great 
area, and the frescoed expanse of walls, rather than by the windows at all as such. 
For example, in S. Ciriaco, at Ancona, there is a regular clerestory space without 
a single window in it. Again, there are often no windows at all in the eastern 
apsis, as in the Capella Regia ; or but one small light, as in the Duomo at Cefalu, and 
at Monreale. There is no window in the apse of S. Clemente, at Rome ; nor in the 
Duomo, Verona. In the earlier churches indeed these small windows appear to be 



At MiUd, 



However, even in Milan, the stained glass is so dark that the large windows do 
not succeed in making the interior Ught ; but in Florence the dimness is much 
more striking. On a sunny morning in this cathedral may be seen a lamp with a 
reflector used to light the antiphonary on the great lettem under the dome. And 
yet towards the west end of the nave, the two windows north and south of the 
aisles are blocked up : I say blocked up, for I cannot beUeve that Amolfo would 
have designed sham windows, nor that Dante would have admired them. I had 
no opportunity of examining them closely enough to decide this point. The 
aisle windows of this Duomo are many ways remarkable. In the inside they 
are merely small obtuse single lights, rather broad for their height ; the glazing is 
in the thickness of the wall ; on the outside you see a monial and some tracery, 
forming part of the elaborate panelling of the whole exterior. 

The architect of S. Petronio, at Bologna, appears to have copied the Duomo 
at Florence in many particulars, especially in the caps and mouldings. But he has 
chosen to insert much larger windows, which, though corrected by deeply-tinted 
glass, make the vast interior of that church in some degree unsatisfactory. 

It is also weU worthy of observation that we can prove the smallness of the 
windows in the Duomo of Florence to have been adopted intentionally by Amolfo ; 
for in 1284, fourteen years before the laying of the first stone of the cathedral, the 
same architect had designed the Orsanmichele, an exquisite Gothic vaulted building 
intended for a corn-market ; in which the apertures of the windows are particularly 
large. But in 1337, Taddeo Gaddi turned the market into a church ; and in 1348, 
after the great plague of Florence, so great a reverence was felt for the Blessed 
Virgin, in connexion with a statue of her in this building, that Orgagna was 
employed to build a very costly shrine. One or other of these architects was 
then obUged in conducting the alteration to block up part of the windows to 
exclude some of the Ught which had been allowed under the former destination of 
the Orsanmichele, but was deemed too great for a church.' 

We have thus examined two very important particulars in which a church to be 
built in a tropical climate must differ from our own architectiure. Some may think 
that a church with few windows, and those small and plain, and with a flat roof, must 
be very unchurchlike. Yet this is by no means the case. The churches which 

^ Mr. Hope (chapter xlii.,) incorrectly assigns the year 1 337, as the date of the first building. 
Professor Willis (p. 169,) says it was built as a granary by Amolfo, in 1284; was oonyerted into a 
church by the tracery, &c.> in 1337, by Taddeo Gaddi ; and that the Chapel of Our Lady was finished in 
1348, by Orgagna. The dates in the paper were given on the authority of Fantozzi> in his excellent 
Guide to Florence (p. 330.) 


have been adduced are one and all peculiarly solemn buildings. Yet they do not 
affect the mind in the same way as the basUics, or Romanesque, or Byzantine 
churches. You feel that they are Pointed churches. The piers have lost all 
appearance of Pagan mouldings in caps or bases ; the Pointed arches carry up the 
eye uninterruptedly, and the groining, or the open wooden roofs which are some- 
times found, as in Santa Croce, have a distinct Pointed character ; their great height 
from the ground making up perhaps for their own comparatively low pitch. It 
would seem then to be this verticality in which the essence of Grothic resides ; the 
Pointed arch, to the exclusion, at least to the perfect subjection of the round one, 
will make a church Christian. Some other particulars, in which a difference may 
be remarked between southern Grothic and our own, remain to be noticed. 

It has been already observed that a much greater area is found in foreign size as gamed 
churches than with us. Probably great space conduces much to coolness : — ^it is "«"» 
found to be so, I believe, with a disadvantage in the case of our own S. Paul's : — ^and 
this may perhaps account for the favour with which domes have always been 
regarded in hot climates. Whether the dome could have been harmoniously 
adopted into Gothic, it would be hard to say. Most unfortimately Amolfo did not 
live to cover in the vast central octagon at Florence. Brunelleschi's stupendous 
dome, though its curves are those of a Pointed arch, and not segments of circles 
like S. Paul's, certainly does not seem to be much in keeping with the style. 
However, a central lantern or octagon, upon any scale, would be clearly admissible, 
and would answer the same end. 

Internal space is gained in several ways. The area of the churches is often im- 
mense, not only the parts being very large, but the ground-plan exhibiting frequently 
double aisles, and a line of chapels beyond these. This effect, so rare with us, and 
only partial where it does occur, as at Chichester, and on a small scale at Trump- 
ington, is quite common in Italy. Internal space is also gained by making the 
level of the church lower than that of the outside. There is a striking example 
in the Basilic of S. Zenone, Verona. Tlie plan was probably common in the 
earliest churches even in this country ; but now we have, perhaps wisely, con- 
sidering our liability to damp, adopted the contrary rule. But the hint might be 
available for tropical churches. 

Again, space may be gained by internal height as well as by area ; accordingly and height 
not only do we find Italian naves higher than with us in England, but the aisles, 
even when double, are very often of equal height with the nave. I may mention 



as instances, S. Anastasia, Verona ; the Chiesa de' Eremitani, at Padua ; and 
S. Petronio, Bologna. The Duomo, at Genoa, is a remarkable example ; for it 
has miusually low piers, and a triforimn range above them, which is unconnected 
with any aisle roof. That is, the triforium range is seen as well from the aisle as 
from the nave. The same thing, on a small scale, is sometimes seen in England. 
At S. Mary's, Overbury, Worcestershire ; and S. . . . Sundridge, Kent, the aisles 
have been raised, and the original clerestory left inside the church. 

Many must have remarked that our own cathedrals are altogether of less height 
than those even of the north of Europe. Westminster Abbey is our highest, and 
that measures only 102 feet. Mr. Hope asserts that the west front of York might 
stand under the choirs of Beauvais, Aix-la-ChapeUe, and Cologne. We have no 
cathedral approaching in width to Antwerp, Paris, or Milan. But from this latter 
method of gaining internal space : namely, by making the aisles quite or nearly as 
high as the nave, follow two other distinctive pecuUarities ; the entire absence, or 
the very small development of the clerestory, and the very great height of the 
external side-walls to the aisles. In our own architecture it has often been made 
almost a canon to keep the side-walls as low as possible ; here, on the contrary, 
the greatest possible height is aimed at. But this height is a very great further 
advantage in that it allows the windows to be set at a high level ; an arrangement 
which seems in a hot climate almost universal. For example, the ordinary village 
churches of Italy, of the very meanest style and material, have very high side- 
walls, constructed in a series of segmental-headed panels, of which only the top fan, 
like what is called with us a stable window, is glazed. Thus they combine very 
small windows, and those at a high level, with a kind of cheap external decoration. 

Let us, then, picture to ourselves a church with low roof and few small windows, 
disposed irregularly at a great height, and as much out of sight as may be ; also with 
Necessity of great breadth and with very lofty aisles. It is obvious that a great difficulty will 
pa1^g7^ arise as to the best method of ornamenting or relieving the great area of plain wall 
which will be presented. With us the low walls are easily relieved by an arcade 
at the bottom, a window in beautiful proportion to the wall, or a string judiciously 
applied. These cannot be used in the other case. But the want is more than 
supplied by Decorative Painting. In the Campo Santo of Pisa thousands of feet 
of plaistered wall without a single moulding or window, seem all too little, when 
we look upon the marvellous paintings they display. The church of S. Francesco 
at Assisi is thus entirely covered with painting ; and so is Giotto's chapel at Padua, 


the Bentivoglio chapel at Bologna, the choir of Santa Croce, in short every Italian 
church which has been fully completed. It is, perhaps, this absence of architectural 
mouldings — ^wliich indeed would seem intrusive did they interfere with the frescoes — 
that has compelled Italian architects to study so great plainness in the shell of 
their interiors. Neither caps nor bases nor ribs are so rich or varied as with us. 

But the height of the side walls, if thus treated in the interior, offers a still more 
difficult task without. I would indeed venture an opinion that the treatment of high 
external walls in Southern Gothic is the greatest difficulty which that variety of the 
style presents. 

For here again the fewness and smallness of the windows must prevent their Difficulty of 

^ managing the 

becoming of much avail towards the decoration of the wall. Nor, of course, can exterior. 
painting be employed on the outside. Besides, from whatever reason, the Italian 
Gothic has, as a rule, no visible buttresses. Such an elevation as the north or 
south side of King's Chapel is in most violent contrast to an Italian facade : 
which, for the most part, as at Florence, is as flat as the side of Mr. Cockerell's 
new Library. 

In many cases, where there is a row of chapels beyond the aisles, the buttresses 
are concealed by them : as at King's College chapel, if the chapels were of equal height 
with the body, the buttresses above would be no more seen than they are at the 
foot. But I suspect the Italian school would in any case have been very unwilling to 
break their fa9ade with buttresses ; probably because the bays formed in the exterior 
by the projections would have even been more difficult to manage (supposing, for 
instance, there were no window in the bay) than the whole surface. Even above the 
aisles the buttresses are very rarely flying as at Milan, but are more generally soUd 
blocks resting on the walls which divide the chapels. At Milan, where we do find 
flying buttresses, there are also regular buttresses to the external walls, though of 
smaller projection than is common in the north. Both these facts are accounted 
for when we remember that the architect was a Tedesco. Of course the greater 
general thickness of the walls makes buttresses less necessary. 

In curious contrast to our own spires^ Giotto's exquisite campanile at Florence, 
though of great height, has no buttresses whatever, on any side. But this might 
not be from the genius of the style so much as from the vicinity of Amolfo's 
cathedral, except that Giotto's chapel at Padua is also without buttresses. 

The way however in which high external walls are treated is this. There are 
very elaborate basement mouldings, reaching to a considerable height, as at S. 


Anastasia, Verona ; a stirface arcading, or panelling, as vertical as possible, up to the 
eaves ; and different coloured marbles are used throughout. In this panelling, the 
great difficulties are to avoid a predominance of horizontal lines, and to terminate 
the vertical divisions at the top. At Florence, the judicious use of principal and 
secondary pilasters, and the casings of the windows (which alone, as I have already 
remarked, are traceried), themselves finished in pinnacles and pedimental canopies, 
combine to produce a vertical effect ; while at Milan the innumerable pinnacles 
rising from the eaves, each tapering off into a statue, entirely subdue the horizontal 

External verticality, then, must be attained chiefly by height, and the lines of 
the detail. I do not profess to understand, however, how so entirely vertical an 
effect is obtained in Giotto's Tower, — which is a square building in horizontal stories, 
j^ far from tapering that the top is of the same area as the base, and to which the 
spire was never added, — except it arise from the unequal height of the stages them- 
selves. Again, the towers of the Badia and Santa Maria Novella, also in Florence, 
which have low spirelike cappings, produce a beautifrd Pointed effect, although they 
do not taper, and have no buttresses at the base to aid in giving them a pyramidal 

Tineas of Thickuess of walls, as it is necessary in northern countries as a protection 
against the cold, is no less useful in the south against the heat. The meatif the wall 
substantial without superfluity, solid without unwieldy bulk, with its matter cuxmingly 
distributed between walling and buttresses, seems to be confined to the perfect 
architecture of our own temperate climate. We have already seen that the early 
Christian churches in the West Indies have very thick walls; so also the 
imperishable pagodas of Hindostan. In Europe as we near the south, the general 
massiveness of walls, in Gothic, is found to increase. 

Coone to be You havc uow heard enumerated nearly all the important differences between 

ponued in de- 
signing a tropi- our own and southern Gothic which I have been able to observe. 

cil church. ^ 

It will remain to say a few words on the course which an architect would pursue 
if called upon to design a church for a hot climate. f 

First, he will have no difficulty about the plan : in this he must have every f 

essential part, and may add whatever he pleases to it; aisles single or double, ^ 


possible area for every part. Unusual thickness of walls will be highly desirable. . 
With respect to the piers and arches, and groining, he must keep them strict^ 





retro-choir, towers, porches, or cloisters. He wiU merely aim at gaining the lai*gest 



to the Pointed style. Probably he ought to study great simplicity of moulding ; but 
perhaps there is no reason why he should not, if the local stone is fevourable, Pten. 
particularly in an Anglo-tropical church, imitate our peculiar richness and beauty 
of detail. 

The roof may be groined in stone, or may be of open wood, generally of a low Roof, 
pitch, but not necessarily very flat ; for examples, as at S. Fermo, Verona, and the 
small parish church of Altedo, exist of a moderately high wooden roof. 

Great internal height will be studied. The inside level may be lowered to increase internal 

^ height. 

this. The side walls, on the contrary, must be heightened, and the aisles generally 
made very lofty. The architect must carry his high walls up boldly, even though 
they present an uniform blank surface. His windows must be quite subsidiary ; a 
low clerestory, and one or two small single lights irregularly placed high up in the 
side walls, with a small circular window almost in the gable of the west front may 
suffice to light the whole nave and aisles: at the east end he may employ tall 
traceried windows in all or some of the compartments of the apse. Buttresses he 
will probably avoid, even in his towers, to which he wiU aim at giving a vertical 
effect rattier by skilful disposition of their stages, than by their own pyramidal form. 
With pinnacles, statues, and canopies he will endeavour to subdue the horizontal 
lines of his exterior; and he will gladly avail himself of peculiar boldness in 
basement mouldings, and of every opportunity of breaking the external surfaces by 
the different planes of elaborate panelling. 

Thus starting with the type of a church, he wiU in clothing it adapt himself to 
every condition which the circumstances of climate may impose, taking care to 
make his details, as they arise, truly Gothic in character. For instance, if an 
external ambulatory should be deemed necessary, let him boldly add a loggia. 
There are many such in Italy ; as at S. Mark's, Venice, and San Sepolcro, Pisa : 
and what are our own cloisters but ambulatories ? At last, if the result he unlike 
an English church, what will that matter, provided we have a building correct in 
plan and detail, and accurately suited to the particular climate? To illustrate 
what has been said more clearly, I may be allowed perhaps to refer to two modem 
examples in which English architects, called upon to design for hot climates, have 
begun precisely at the wrong end, and have both therefore, as it seems to me, failed 
in their task. They read the problem thus. Given, an English church, to fit 
it for the tropics. Instead of. Given, the tropics, and such and such principles of 
architecture, to build by the latter a church to suit the former. 


^rfltTBCl^^ ^ discredit u^ot^ ^^ 

-tot tW** " oast*'* * ^o*aV, , CK*"*"^ „elX»»t° . 1*4 
^''' "" Iw\e. ^^ ^^'lle VaS^ ^tes • Vive ^^^^^^l^, co^V^^^ ^"f _t>xe 



it does not matter if the outside is as perplexingly irregular as S. Antonio at 

The same lesson may be useful at home. How often is a sacristy taken out of an 
aisle or tower, or from behind the altar in the chancel, instead of being irregularly 
added outside. Whereas the inside ought to be mviolate : the outside, addressed 
chiefly to our own eyes, may be altered as necessity may advise. 

In conclusion. The question, In what style ought churches m very hot or Conclusion. 
tropical climates to be built ? is one which must possess a high mterest. for all 
Christians : for what is there connected with the worship of Gon by the faithful in 
any land or age in which every child of the Catholick Church has not some part ? 
But to members of our communion the point is now one of fax nearer concernment. 
Our countrymen have gone out into all lands : and the English Ritual is used in 
every quarter of the globe. How grievously we have failed m converting the 
heathen, and even in maintaming the faith of our own exiled countrymen, this is 
not the place to enlarge upon. Without clergy and without churches for a long 
period, our colonists have in many cases well-nigh lost all religion : but what is 
more to our present purpose, they have lost altogether the traditional type of a 
church. They did not carry out with them any vivid notion of what a church 
ought to be : and our missionaries, unlike S. Wilfrid, had no architects or masons 
in their company ; or if in any case they were better provided, the tradition has 
been interrupted, and the art lost. It is no exaggeration to say that our colonial 
churches are almost without exception disgraceful : without correct ground-plan, 
of mean materials, badly arranged, of debased or unsuitable character. 

Now had there been in the first instance any general appreciation of the simplest 
canons of church architecture, such a state of things could never have come to 
pass. Is it too much to say that, as every Jew must have understood the signifi- 
cance of the parts of the Temple or the Tabernacle, so every instructed Christian 
would know what every part of a House of Gtod is designed to teach ? It was so 
of old. At Glastonbury they built the first oratory in wattles : S. Paulinus built 
his first church in wood. These mean materials sufficed till better could be found : 
but the material was of small consequence, when the type was right. And so we 

^ Neither of these designs will be executed. The Alexandrian church is giyen up from a difficulty 
about its chancel: the Colabah one from its utter unfitness for the climate and its great estimated 
cost. Upon the latter, see a Report from the Committee of the Oxford Architectural Society in 
the Ecclesiologist, N. S. toI. i. p. 174. 



need not have complained of the wooden fabrics of Nova Scotia or Newfoundland, 
if they were but designed on a right type. 

The question now seems to be whether we can help the colonies to recover 
some true principles of church-building. This Society has already been called 
upon for assistance from the Canadas, Bombay, Ceylon, Sierra Leone, the Mauritius, 
the Himalaya, Tasmania, Guiana, Australia and New Zealand, and Newfoundland, 
from Egypt, and from Hong Kong. It must be confessed little has been done as 
yet to supply the want which is beginning to be felt. We have no Freemasons to 
send out, who, well grounded in the principles of architecture, could adapt them to 
varying circumstances. I cannot imagine a more useful study at the present time 
than the way in which the demands of our fellow-churchmen in the Colonies can 
be satisfied. It is from a persuasion of the importance of this subject that I have 
made these remarks this evening. I would earnestly caU upon our members to 
assist in discovering some principles which may be laid down for church-building 
in all varieties of climate. Whatever has been done already by this Society has 
been done by deductions drawn from numerous examples collected from every 
quarter. If the members will contribute facts and instances bearing upon this 
subject, we may hope for further results. 

The question briefly stated is. The Adaptation of Pointed Architecture (assumed 
to be the Christian style) to every climate. In arctic or antarctic countries, indeed, 
there is perhaps little difiiculty : not so in tropical. If the writer should but have 
succeeded in tracing some indications in the Gothic of southern Europe of a 
development to suit a stiU hotter climate, and have ascertained the most elementary 
rule for designing to meet such new conditions, he will be more than satisfied. 


are acquainted. My principal sources of information are three. The first is a folio 
volume, entitled Ecclesiastical Memorials of the Bishoprick of Funchal. It was 
extracted, I believe clandestinely, some years ago, by one of the noblemen of the 
island, from the Records of the Cathedral ; as those Records are now destroyed, its 
value to a Portuguese antiquary is inestimable. Yet such is the general apathy of 
that nation, that at the sale of the above-named nobleman's library, this volume 
was ofiered for Is. lOd.^ My second authority is the MS. history of Dr. Gaspar 
Fructuoso, ¥nritten in 1 590, but never published : the feith, naivete, and homely 
old Portuguese of this author strongly remind one of the Chronicles of Froissart. 
The third is a MS. account of the Island of Madeira, purporting to have been 
written in 1579. 

I shall attempt a brief Ecclesiastical History of this country, describing, as I 
proceed, the churches erected at different epochs, till the final loss of Christian Art. 

The Society may be aware that the Madeiras, that is to say, the Great Madeira, 
Porto Santo, and the Desertas, which are umnhabited, together with Arguim, a now 
deserted factory on the western coast of Africa, form one Diocese in the Patriarchate 
of Lisbon, which takes its name from Funchal, the capital. Madeira was discovered 
in the year 1344, by an unfortunate Englishman, Robert Machim. Attached to 
Anna d'Arfet, a lady of higher rank than himself, he formed the design of carrying 
her off to France. They embarked, with a few of Machim's friends, at Bristol, and 
being unversed in navigation, were carried by the wind to a port in Madeira, since 
called, from the name of its first discoverer, Machico. Machim, his bride, and a 
few of his companions, tempted by the beauty of the land, passed the night on 
shore; a storm arose, carried the vessel to sea, and drove it on the coast of 
Morocco ; and the strangers, on waking, were reduced to despair at finding them- 
selves destitute of provisions, and alone in an uninhabited island. Anna d'Arfet 
died on the third, Machim on the fifth, day ; his friends buried them together, 
rudely carving an inscription at the foot, and placing a crucifix at the head, of each : 
they also left a written document, beseeching those who might hereafter be driven 
to the same place, to sing, for the love of God, requiem for the souls, and to build 
a church over the remains, of the departed. They then made a raft, committed 

^ I am infonned by Padre Sk, one of the Curates of the Cathedral, that in the records contained 
in the Library was a minute account of the expenses incurred in building that church, — and a mention 
of the architect's name. The abstract from which I quote does not unfortunately touch on either 
of these points. 


derived the name of Funchal. He then returned to Lisbon with the news of his 
discovery. The king published an edict, giving all his subjects leave to emigrate to 
the new island, and dividing it into two Captaincies, that of Machico, and that of 
Funchal. A vaUant knight named TristSo was appointed to the first; Zargo 
himself to the last. The same Franciscans who had said Mass over the tomb of 
Machim accompanied the second expedition. 

Trist&o experienced comparatively Uttle difficulty in the settlement of his 
division. The eastern part of the island was neither so rugged, nor so overgrown 
with wood, as the western. Zargo, on the contrary, had to set fire to the 
underwood in Funchal; and it burnt for seven years. The method pursued, as 
respects the Church, by both commanders, was the same. Dom Henrique was 
was appUed to for secular priests ; as he happened to be Master of the Order of 
Christ, he requested the Prior of Thomar to supply as many as were wanted : and, 
as not only being the discoverer of the island, but the provider for its spiritual 
need, Dom Henrique is held in veneration, and Mass is said for his repose in every 
parish church of Madeira, weekly, on Saturday. 

The parochial subdivision now went on in earnest ; and the manner in which it 
proceeded in the captaincy of Machico, (which we will take as the earliest settled,) 
was this. Two towns were immediately founded, — ^Machico, and Santa Cruz : and 
the first building raised in each was the church. But for the rest of the coimtry, 
too thinly populated to be formed into parishes, wherever two or three houses 
stood together, an ermiday or hermitage, or, as we should call it, oratory y was built. 
When, in process of time, the population round the ermida increased to a hundred 
and twenty families, or, as the Portuguese say, a hundred and twenty hearths^ 
Royal licence was obtained to convert the ermida into a freguesta^ or separate 
parish. In some cases, a parish was formed within a few years after the oratory 
had been built : so, for instance, Ponta do Sol was parochialised before 1 559 ; in 
others, the population did not require a parish church for several centuries : so the 
Currdl was not made a parish till 1 790. In the mean time, the emddas were served 
by stationary priests, or, to adopt the language of the early Roman Church, by 
cardinals ; and Mass was said in them on Sundays and the principal festivals. As 
a specimen of the form of parochialisation, I give the title of the Edict for the 
erection of the ermida in which these pages are written, that of Santa Luzia, into a 
separate parish. 

" Charter of Dom Pedro the Second, Dec. 28, 1676, giving to the Bishop, Dom 


other instances the nave is also walled in. The windows, of which there are not 
more than two or three in all, consist of one long, narrow, circular-headed light. 
The chancel arch and the western door are the only parts on which any ornament 
is bestowed; and these consist of a multiplicity of orders, just as in Late 
Perpendicular piers, and a shallow broad soffit, filled in some instances with flower- 
work, in others with animals. Most of these are now ruinated ; one of the best is 
to be seen at Santa Cruz, just out of the town on the Funchal road ; it may have 
been the original Ermida for the parish, and if so, cannot well be later than 1430.^ 

^ The foUowbg is a list of such churches or chapels in Madeira as contain work of Flamhoyant 
date: — 

1 . Machico. Good bold FlamboTant : two rich canopied tombs on the north of the nave and of 
the chancel. Tower destroyed in the deluge of 1842. 

2. Machico^ Capella de N. S. da Visits^, commonly called the Misericordia. A small Ermida : 
rich western door. Here the remains of Machim and his bride are interred ; and a very small portion 
of the cedar cross that originally stood oyer their grare is also shewn. 

3. 4. Two other small chapels near the last. 

5. Santa Cruz. Naye excellent Flamboyant: choir poorer: canopied tombs as at Machioo. 
Piers octagonal : yeiy bold and good. 

6. Santa Cruz, Misericordia. Poor. 

7. Santa Cruz, Franciscan Conyent. A yery rich Founder's tomb to the north of the high altar. 
A singnlar lawsuit is at tins moment carrying on between Groyemment and the Founder's heir« In the 
deed of foundation it was stipulated, that, should the Friars eyer fail to meet the heir of the Founder, 
when landing, in procession, the property should reyert to him. The Dissolution has rendered the 
fulfilment of this clause impracticable ; and the Founder's heir, yery justly, reclaims the property. 

8. That at Santa Cruz mentioned in the text. [It was destroyed in the winter of 1844.] 

9. An Ermida about half-way between Funchal and Canifo ; and on the right-hand side of the way. 
I cannot learn its invocation. 

10. N. S. das Neyes, on Cape Garajao. A good specimen of a late Ermida. 

11. The church of the Incarnation Convent. Very small, but containing some good vaulting. 

12. The church of the Santa Clara Convent. Almost entirely modernised. 

13. The church of the Franciscan Convent of Sao Bernardino at Cam a de Lobos. Remarkable 
for possessing, by special priyilege, a chapel under the invocation of Pedro de Guarda, founded when his 
canonization was expected. 

14. EsTREiTO DE Calheta. It has a good Flamboyant font. 

15. EsTEiRA, now ruined, near the latter; and said (though falsely) to have been the first church 
erected on the island. 

In the Island of Porto Santo, 

16. The church of S. Salvador, lately rebuilt, has the original south transept. 

17. The Ermida of S. Sebastiao, now used as the Chapel of the Cemetery, is unaltered^ and 
contains a very pretty Flamboyant west door. 

The reader will, perhaps, feel obliged to the fair hand that has sketched, for this paper* some 
of the best of the above details. 


." - • 


But HOW to speak of Zargo. In 1427, the underwood being cleared and the 
fire extmguished, he began to foimd the City of Funchal. He, in the first place, 
built, towards the eastern extremity of the future town, a church, which was after- 
wards known by the name of Nossa Senkora de CalhaOy Our Lady of the Strand, 
because it stood on the beach. This church was generally called the oldest in the 
island, and putting the Ermidas out of the question, it was so. The body of the building 
was swept away in the deluge of 1 803 ; the tower was pulled down to make way for 
some '* modem improvements ;" for these, since the passing of the Constitution, 
are as common in Portugal as at home. This being done, — I am now translating 
firom Fructuoso, — " the Captain determined to make his dwelling on a height above 
Funchal, as in sooth he did ; and in front of his lodgings, he founded a church of 
Our Lady of Conception,* intending it for his resting place. For, like a prudent 
man as he was, he looked to the end before he began. '^ This church was afterwards 
made conventual by his son, under the invocation of Santa Clara, in 1492 ; his 
sister, the daughter of Zargo, was the first Abbess. The church has been so much 
altered, that it is hardly possible to guess at its original character ; its outside 
appearance at present resembles a second-rate manufactory. The inside is gorgeous 
in the extreme ; the walls are inlaid with Dutch tiles from top to bottom ; the 
ceiling painted, and the whole, though in miserable taste, superbly rich. But the 
north door is a fine specimen of Flamboyant ; the best, though not the richest, in 
the island ; its fault is, that it is twice as large as it ought to be. At the west end 
of this church, to the north, is the mural and canopied tomb of Martim Mendes 
Vasconcelhos, son-in-law of the great Zargo ; the date is not precisely known. Of 
this I have forwarded a drawing to the society. Mass was said alternately in this 
church, and in that of N. S. de Calhfio, for some time. The first vicar of the latter 
church was Francisco Nuno CSo, the first secular priest who came to the island. 
He was instituted to this parish in 1437, and sixty -seven years later, became first 
Dean of the Cathedral church. 

Constanta, the wife of Zargo, founded, says Fructuoso, " as being very much 
devoted to the Blessed Saint Catherine, a church of this Saint in the place where the , 
Captain had first fixed his dwelling : and there she made, like a holy woman as she 
was, many houses for the reception of women of good life, poor people who should 

* This must not be confounded with the present church, or convent, of that name, which stands 
further to the east. I was told by an intelligent merchant, that he perfectly remembers the house of 
Zargo, on the site of which a modem quinta has been erected. 



pray for her soul ; and to them she left alms for ever/' This church has been 
rebuilt. A small convent of Franciscans was founded at the same time, which we 
shall notice presently. 

During the government of the son of Zargo, named like him, JoSo Gonsalves, 
the prosperity of Funchal increased prodigiously. Probably, a hunchred years after 
its foundation, it was the richest city, for its size, in the world ; and the remains of 
its former glory are sufficiently attested by the portals and archways, the terraces 
inlaid with tiles, and rich fountains which still remain. As I am not writing a 
history of the island, it will be sufficient to say, that its commercial importance 
arose, partly from the production of that wine which is known to all, but principally 
from the importation of the sugar-cane from Sicily ; in token of what it owes to the 
latter, the arms of Funchal are five sugar-loaves. 

The perpetual administration of the island had been granted, in things spiritual, 
to the Order of Christ, in gratitude to Dom Henrique, the founder. Grand Master 
of that order. But the Bishop of Tangere, tempted by the accounts which he 
received of the fertiUty and increasing prosperity of the island, obtained a bull frota 
Pope Eugenius IV., to annex it to his own see. Donna Beatrice, as guardian to her 
son Dom Manoel, Master of the Order of Christ, wrote to the two Captains, 
requiring them to pay no manner of attention either to the bull, or to the Bishop's 
claim, and informing them that the king proposed to create Madeira into a separate 
see. This, however, was not done till many years later. It was in the year 1 508, and 
in the captaincy of Simon Gonsalves, grandson of the first Zargo, that King Manoel, 
sumamed the Fortunate, sent from Lisbon an architect, and masons, and carpenters, 
to build a Cathedral for the friture Bishop ; the expense being supplied from the 
privy piuTse. The church, which is under the invocation of Our Lady, was six 
years in building, and consequently finished in 1514. Manoel then obtained a bull 
from Pope Leo the Tenth, constituting Funchal an Episcopal see ; and on the 12th 
of June in that year, Dom Patricio Lobos was named the first Bishop, and CSo, of 
whom I have already spoken, was made first Dean." But this prelate was much, after 
I the evil customs of the times, occupied in stale afiisdrs, and was imable to leave 
Portugal. He therefore dispatched another Prelate, Dom Duarte, Bishop of Angra, 
who gave orders, and consecrated the Cathedral church with great pomp, on S. 
Luke's Day, 1516. To compare it with English edifices of the same date, I may 
remind the Society that King's College chapel, Louth church, and the tomb of 
Henry VII. were completed in or about that year. 

' It is an odd coincidence that while the Dean's name signifies dog, the Bishop's means wolf. 



The foundation was on a truly liberal scale. Some increase was afterwards 
made: and in the time of its glory the cathedral contained and supported the 
following dignitaries : — ^Bishop, Dean, Archdeacon, Precentor, Treasm^er, Master of 
the School, fourteen Canons, four Minor Canons, or, as the Portuguese call them, 
half Canons, Vicar General, Provisionary, Professor of Theology, Penitenciary, 
AljubeirOy or Penitenciary for Ecclesiasticks, two Curates, four Chaplains, Master of 
the Chapel, Master of the Ceremonies, Sub-chanter, Sacristan, Bell-ringer, Altar- 
guardian, Organist, Host-bearer, Scribe, and two Preachers ; in all forty-six Eccle- 
siasticks, besides six children of the choir. If we compare what the Portuguese 
then thought necessary for the Ecclesiastical provision of an infant colony, and 
what our Ecclesiastical Commissioners deem sufficient for the cathedrals of our own 
rich country, the advantage will not be altogether, I think, in our favour. And be 
it remembered, that if a cathedral like Funchal requires fifty Ecclesiasticks, one of 
our own would need, reckoning in the same proportion, 200 or 300. 

At the same time, and by the same architect, Dom Manoel erected the Custom 
House, and it must have been a very fine building. But it is now much modernised, 
and one or two Flamboyant doors only remain to tell what it was. 

Before describing to you the Cathedral as it is now, I shall read you the descrip- 
tion which Fructuoso gives of it in 1590. " It is a church very well situated, and 
well provided with Ecclesiasticks ; it has a lofty and beautiful tower of ashlar, with a ' 
fine spire covered with Dutch tiles, which, when the sun shines upon them, appear 
of silver and gold ; in which is a large bell, of magnificent tone, which may be heard 
two leagues ; and lower down in the tower are three windows, in which are fifteen 
bells. The church is built on an ascent of ten steps ; it hath a spacious churchyard 
around it, and lies east and west. It has nine altars, garnished with gold and azure ; 
three rich chapels ; the choir has costly seats, carved in excellent style ; and the 
Epistle and Gospel are said at the Great Cross. It has many dignitaries of good 
and delicate voices, and possessed of an excellent income, though not so excellent as 
they deserve, being Doctors and Priests of such eminent merit." 

The Cathedral is a cross church, with aisles to the nave : a north aisle and south 
chapel to the choir : a presbytery and sacristy, on the north of the choir aisle : the 
tower is at the north-east of the north transept. 

To begin with the choir. The east end is almost entirely blocked up within and 
without. The roof is groined, the vaulting extremely compUcated, but good, and 
richly painted, though unfortunately in the style of the seventeenth century. The 




which is, beyond measure, frightful. The west end of the nave has two large 
windows, resembling a perpendicular window of two lights, cleared of its tracery ; 
they are, however, original, as the jamb shafts shew. Between these is a small, but 
very elegant rose. The western door is a magnificent specimen of Flamboyant ; 
it is deeply recessed, of eight orders ; the flowered capitals are singularly well 
worked. It is a pity that the outer limb of the arch runs up ogee-wise at the top, 
to support a crown and the arms of' Portugal. The view of this door, as seen 
through a long avenue of trees planted at the west end of the Cathedral, is very 
fine. The inscription, on each side, bears, — 

*' Praised be the Most Holy Sacrament, and the Immaculate Conception of our Lady the Virgin." 

The north-west extremity of the nave forms the baptistery, separated off on the 
south and east by an arch like that of the western door, although much poorer and 
smaller. The font is very large ; it is circular, on a low cylindrical stem. There 
is a chapel answering to the baptistery on the other side. 

The north transept forms the Chapel of S. Antony of Padua ; the altar is 
plated with silver, on which is embossed the legend of the saint. The south transept 
is the Lady Chapel ; both are Ughted by a window like those of the clerestory, 
only larger, on the west, and by two roses nearly similar to that already described, 
on the north and south respectively, and like that, unglazed. The only window of 
two lights in the island churches, occurs on the eastern side of the north transept : 
it is now blocked. The roof of the nave and transepts is trigonal, and of very low 
pitch; it is, however, composed of the finest cedar, and panelled in quatrefoUs. The 
pulpit stands on the west side of the north transept arch ; it is cut out of a solid 
piece of red granite. Its form is a voluted cylinder ; the stem is octagonal, bevilled 
off into a square base. The details of the whole, its banisters, and steps, are as good 
as anything in the Cathedral. The outside of the banisters is inscribed, in several 
places, with a cross and the letter R ; the meaning of this is not known. 

Answering to the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament is the north aisle of the choir, 
leading to the various rooms connected with the sacristy. The Bishop's sacristy 
forms a chapel of S. Gregory the Great ; but both this and that of the Canons are 
completely modernised. The room for the " Fabrica " is evidently original. It is 
just at the back of the High Altar, at an elevation of a few steps, very low, and 
floored and ceiled with til. 

We will now take a view of the outside. The tower is about a himdred and 
thirteen feet in height to the top of the battlements, and at least twenty more to 


the summit of the spire. It has two adjacent circular-headed belfry windows on the 
north and east respectively, and one on the south and west. It is embattled of 
five ; and in the middle of the roof rises the ZimboriOy a word to which we have no 
corresponding term. It is a square erection of two open and very good arches on 
each side, which support and terminate in a stumpy spire, covered with Dutch 
tiles. The iron work of the cross is very rich. The sixteen bells, of which 
Fructuoso speaks, disappeared in the invasion of the Huguenots, of which more 
presently, and are now replaced by four, small, but very sweet ; they were cast in 
1814. They are named S. Augustine, S. Arete, Nossa Senhora de PSo, and 
N. S. do Monte, and are hung in the north and east windows ; a disused sancte 
bell-cot exists in the usual place. The bell chamber is vaulted quadrupartitely 
from flowered corbels, and floored with stones; so is the apartment below it, 
occupied, which it assuredly ought not to be, by the sacristan and his family. The 
whole side of the winding staircase has been glazed. 

The only exterior part of the Cathedral on which much labour and ornament 
has been bestowed, is the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament. There is a pierced 
battlement, consisting of a series of crescent- shaped floriations ; and the pinnacles 
are curiously formed by voluted cones. The above description, not very perfect in 
itself, may perhaps serve to convey some idea of a building which has not received 
so much attention as it certainly deserves. 

There was once, as I am informed by one of the curates, a well in the middle of 
the nave, as well as one or two porches ; these have been long since removed. 
The greater part of the floor is covered with the wooden lids of vaults ; and the 
same thing is the case in every church in the island ; the harmful and irreverent 
practice of burying in the churches having been only lately discontinued. There 
are but one or two monuments of the slightest interest. Of one of these, a brass 
by the north door, I send a rubbing. It evidently represents a merchant and his 
wife, and must be nearly coeval with the foundation of the see. The artist was 
plainly a Belgian; and I am informed that the records of the city prove the 
intercourse between the island and Belgium to have been very close. 

Another mutilated brass consists of a legend in Roman letters running round a 
large stone ; the evangelistick symbols occupy the comers, and a merchant's mark 
the middle. The most perfect of the former I send ; it will be observed, that the 
pecuUar form of the shield on which they are represented is the same with that so 
well known in England. 

With respect to the interior decorations and furniture, there is very little to 


say. They are principally in that style which the Portuguese call the Maria- 
Primeira, and of which the famous church of the Estrella at Lisbon is the principal 
example. It is a bad imitation of the taste of Louis XIV. 

The reredos is composed of several pictures, framed into the wall. They were 
the gift of Manoel the Fortimate, but do not possess much merit. The same king 
gave the altar cross, which, amidst much debasement, is still beautiful. It is a 
crucifix botonn^ey the material silver gilt, with the exception of the figure of our 
Blessed Lord, which is not gilt. On the ends are represented various scenes from 
the Passion. On the other side of the cross is a figure of Our Lady, and the arms 
are sculptured in various legends. The stem is richly crocketed and niched, and 
ornamented with little figures of the Apostles. 

There is a chalice, possibly also the gift of Manoel, at least of that date. Its 
material is silver gilt ; the knob is inlaid with enamel, and the cup and base fiilly 
come up to CathoUck requirements. It is curious, as having possessed silver bells 
round the basin, to give notice of its elevation. 

I may also mention the monstrance, although in the Maria-Primeira style; 
because the grapes and ears of wheat which, apparently bound together by a chain 
of precious stones, surround the glass, are not only well executed, but the precise 
embellishments which are the fittest for such a position. The material is 
pure gold. 

I have yet to speak of the material used for the Cathedral. There are but two 
building stones employed in the island ; and both are of much the same nature. 
They, as being a volcanic formation, cannot be completely smoothed, nor are they 
capable of a polish ; rough indentations are still visible after the greatest pains have 
been taken in reducing them. The one is of the colour of very dark brick-dust ; 
and of this the walls of the Cathedral are formed ; the other is somewhat paler than 
common slate, and is used in the common houses, and in the details of the churches. 
But part of the stone employed in the Cathedral and Custom House came from 
lisbon ; and in Porto Santo a limestone is very successftdly used. 

The organ of the Cathedral, which is raised on a gigantic table at the south-west 
of the choir, is a wretched instrument. There is a frightful gallery at the west end, 
cutting the last arch in half, and forming a kind of outer vestibule. It 
communicates with the balcony seen in the west view. 

But to proceed with our history. I have already said that Bishop Lobo never 
came to the island. He was succeeded by Dom Martinho de Portugal ; and Pope 

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coming is very instructive. It is the feshion to speak of the Huguenots as an 
inoffensive and persecuted set of people ; if they were persecuted, the history of 
Madeira shews that they knew how to persecute. In October, 1566, three dhips» 
manned by French Calvinists, besieged and took Funchal, and remained in 
possession of the dty fifteen days. They sacked it and pillaged the houses and 
churches at their pleasure ; and on their departure took with them gold and silver 
to the amount of £200,000. The churches felt this blow severely ; I will quote a 
few passages firom Fructuoso respecting it. The French assaulted the great Fran- 
ciscan Convent : " The Sacristan hied him to the Bell Tower of the said Monastery: 
and after him went Brother Rodrigue de Portalegre : and they defended themselves 
as long as they might, casting stones and tiles from the top. But finally the stones 
and tiles fiadled; and Brother Rodrigue was taken and carried into the cloister. 
Then did they inquire of him concerning the silver and gold of that Monastery and 
House, and he constantly affirmed that he knew nothing thereof. They instantly 
demanded, that he should deliver the same into their hands, which he as resolutely 
denied to do. Wherefore they 'slew him, and cut him in pieces, and put his 
quarters on posts, and set them on the wall ; but his head they took with them. 
Thus did this Father willingly suffer martyrdom, and such a death, rather than 
surrender the vessels and crosses dedicated to God and His worship to the faithless 
Lutherans.'' Dr. Fructuoso, of course, means Calvimsts. He proceeds — 

'' Then going into the Cathedral, they burst open the doors of the sacristry, and 
throwing every thing in it this way and that, yet found they no treasure. After 
that they fell to digging in the choir: they tore up the tomb-stones, and more 
particularly that wherein the Dean had been buried six months, imtil they came at 
the body. But finding nothing, they passed to the other side, where the Treasurer 
had been buried a few days before ; but forasmuch as they foimd nothing here 
neither, they did not look between the two graves. Now the Sacristan had tied up 
aU the gold and silver of the see" (so the Portuguese always term their cathedrals) 
'' in a curtain pertaining to a certain picture, and laid it between the said coffins ; 
and they seeing the end of the curtain took it for a pall of some other dead body 
and left it. For the Lord was pleased not to deliver it into filthy and infernal hands. 
The frontals, copes, vestments, ornaments of brocade and silk, all these had been 
taken aforehand on beasts to the Serra. And the French finding nothing of that 
they searched for, raged like lions, and broke the images that they found. There 
was one of S. Roque^ in the north side of the roodscreen, whereof they lopped off 


the legs and arms ; and the Scribe of the Cathedral, whom they held prisoner, looked 
that they should have done as much for him. Then went they to the chapel of the 
Blessed Sacrament, and tore down its iron screen ; and going in they found a little 
coffer of marvellous workmanship, the gift of Dom John III. ;" (the successor of Dom 
Manoel the Fortunate, the founder ;) '' this coffer had been brought from India, 
and was made of precious ivory, and inlaid with many jewels, and contained many 
relicks which Pope Paul III. had sent to the island. But forasmuch as it was not of 
silver or gold, they would not be at the pains of undoing the hooks and eyes 
wherewith it was fastened, but dashed it against the wall, and broke it. The relicks 
feU to the ground, at which the Scribe was very sorry. But they thought that it 
had been the Blessed Sacrament which had fallen, and thereupon spake like accursed 
wretches many blasphemies. The Scribe knew what it was ; and besought licence 
to gather up the relicks ; and they gave him leave with all their heart, saying, * Yea, 
yea, keep them for thyself.' So he gathered them up with tears, and putting them 
in what remained of the coffer carried them off. Then they went to the altar of S. 
Roque, and found there the organist of the see, and demanded where the treasure 
lay. Now he knew well, but he told them that it was carried off to Fayal, speaking 
gaily and jovially, as if he agreed with the Lutherans." Time will not allow me to 
proceed further with this account. It may suffice to shew what the Huguenots, 
when allowed to display themselves in their own colours, really were ; and it led to 
the event of which I was speaking, the estabUshment of the Jesuits in this island, 
to supply the place of the murdered ecclesiasticks. The building which they 
occupied, and its church, could never have been very excellent, and have been 
partly rebuilt. The church is excessively gaudy, but as very a preaching house as' 
it is possible to conceive. The only thing which it contains worthy of mention, is i 
contemporary portrait of Dom SebastiSo, its founder, and one of the most Catholicf 
princes that ever filled a throne. j 

In its last age Flamboyant began to imitate, as in France it sometimes does, Normaf 
But of this I have seen no trace in any church ; there are windows in private houi 
of the date of 1 600, which are very fair imitations of Norman belfry lights, (r 
pretty instance of the symbolism of this period may be mentioned. In one of f 
wildest gorges of the Ravine of S. Roque, immediately under a black and di^ 
precipice, over which, in the rainy season, pours a cascade ; and among uptom i^ 
and boulders is the ermida (now ruined) of N. S. da Crussinha — Our Lady qf 
little Cross. On the top of the other side of the ravine, among chesnut woof 







A Paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society, November 7th, 1844; by the 
Rev. Philip Freeman^ M.A.^ Fellow and Tutor of S. Peter^s College, 

The object of this paper will be to furnish some brief hints oa a particular 
department of Architectural Drawing, considered as a handmaid to the study of 
Ecclesiology . It may safely be affirmed that, after a certain point, no real progress 
can be made in that study without calling in the aid of the pencil. The larger 
characteristics of the several styles, such as the forms of tracery, of arches, or of 
piers, may be learnt by the help of works on the subject, joined to inspection of 
actual examples ; but those minutuB, which are at least equally distinctive of the 
styles with the features just mentioned, require a closer examination. Now, in 
what way can they receive this otherwise than by the student's making drawings for 
himself? This, however, will effect the desired object in two ways; first, by 
familiarising the eye, during the process of drawing, with the various outlines ; and 
secondly, by affording opportunities for examination and comparison. 

It is proposed, therefore, in these pages to lay down some simple rules for 
copying with some degree of accuracy the mouldings used in Grothic architecture. 

By copying is here meant making imitative drawings by the ejre, as distinguished 
from tracing the mouldings, or '^taking them off,'' as it is called. There are 
several well-known methods of doing the latter, viz., by means of lead- tape, casts 
in clay or plaister (called '* squeezes"), or an instrument such as Professor Willis's 
cymograph.^ And of course, when outlines of the real size are wanted, (e. g., in 
order to produce fac-similes of ancient mouldings,) they must be obtained by actual 
tracing in some one of these ways. But it should be clearly understood, that it is 
not the purpose of this paper to suggest methods of drawing for practical purposes, 
but simply to put into the hands of Members of our Society, or other students of 
Ecclesiology, a means of perfecting their own acquaintance with the subject. 

« ^ See Fale/s Manual of Gk)ihic Mouldings, p. 21. 


horizontal direction, since it must be at right angles to the bearing of that 
moulding; — of a horizontal moulding, in a vertical direction; — while that of a 
curvilinear moulding must be in a line with the radius describing the curve at 
that point. 

The rules for copying the sections of mouldings are founded on a consideration 
of the origin of moulding in general, and of the steps through which it passed from 
its simpler to its more complex forms. 

Now moulding was originally an expedient for relieving the heaviness of a 
square edge of any kind, by removing portions of it lengthwise. Even in the 
classic styles it appears to have originated in this manner, though we cannot point 
to a progressive development of the principle. In Gothic Architecture, however, 
the successive steps may be traced with some degree of certainty and regularity. 

The primary and simplest forms, then, of moulding, are these : 

1 . The bevilling off of one or both angles of a square edge by a plain slope or 

2. The removal of rectangular strips from the comers of the square edge, so as 
to leave receding angles, called re-entering angles.* 

3. A combination of these two modes ; when the re-entering angles having been 
first formed, as in 2, all the projecting angles are bevilled off by the chamfer, as in 1 . 

It has been stated that these are the primary forms of moulding ; it is not 
meant, however, that they are found only in the earliest styles ; on the contrary, 
their great simplicity, and the consequent facility of working them, caused a 
constant recurrence to them at all periods : hence there is scarcely a parish church 
in the kingdom which will not be found to contain specimens of them, and thus 
furnish an elementary lesson in copying a Gothic Moulding. 

The process of copying the sections of such mouldings as these is, of course, 

' It is supposed by others that the process by which the re-entering angle was originally 
generated was the addition of a sub-arch of narrower width to the main jamb of a doorway. 
But even admitting this, I should still conceive that the purpose with which such sub-arch was 
prefixed, as it were, was to give a lightness and relief to the otherwise heavy plain edge, only that this 
was effected by adding to the original block, not taking from it. And certainly, subsequently, the 
re-entering angle was formed by removing rectangular strips, as I have described ; indeed, in horizontal 
features, as string-courses, &c., as the sub-arch principle of course cannot enter in^ this is the only mode 
in which the re-entering angle could be produced, either in theory or practice. I have not thought it 
necessary, therefore, to modify the account I had given, either of the original object of moulding, or of 
the manner in which it was effected. 


very simple ; still, as they are fundamental to the more complex specimens, it is 
of the utmost importance to be perfectly adept at taking them. Let us then 
consider the method to be pursued. Suppose it to be the left jamb of a door-way, 
which is moulded as in 3, viz., with re-entering angles and slope. The student 
must place himself outside the doorway, and opposite to the jamb whose section is 
to be taken. (It will be convenient to call the surface of the wall the fojce^ or the 
wall-plane^ and the surface at right angles, to which the door would be attached, 
the soffit : terms which may be retained in speaking of the corresponding surfaces 
ol any other moulding.) A line drawn parallel to the foot of the paper, and from left 
to right, will represent the /ace, or wall-plane ; its length is optional ; but from the 
point where it terminates, a line must be drawn diagonally upwards, still towards 
the right ; the angle which it should make with the line representing the wall-plane 
may be ascertained by applying a jointed rule to the door-jamb itself, and tracing 
from it ; or it may be guessed by the eye. It will be well to take notice whether 
the two sides of the re-entering angle are equal (which they generally are) ; as in 
that case the upward slope must be drawn at an angle of 45"" with an imaginary 
continikation of the line representing the wall-plane. This sloping line, then, will 
represent the chamfer. Its length will be regulated by the size which it is intended 
the section should be. From the point where it terminates, a line drawn vertically 
upwards (at right angles, of course, to the wall-plane-line) will represent the soffit. 
It only remains to observe the situation of the re-entering angles, and, in inserting 
them, to make their two sides parallel to the wall-plane and the soffit respectively. 

But let it now be required to copy the section of some less simple moulding 
than the three above specified. It will probably present at first sight a succession 
of curved and flat surfaces, apparently placed at random, and not according to any 
fixed rule of arrangement. But the point to be taken notice of, as mainly 
facilitating the copying of such a moulding as this, is, that it will be found to be in 
reaUty no more than a modification of some one of those simpler forms. However 
varied the curves or flat surfaces in detail, the contour of the whole will be found 
to accord with some one of those outlines, and even the details to be referable to 
this as tiie governing principle of their direction. Whether the several members 
be plane, convex, concave, or inflected ; fillet, or bowtel, or hollow, or ogee ; all 
will be found to conform, as to their direction on the whole, to some one of the 
principal Unes which enter into the composition of the primary forms of moulding 
above described. 


I shall content myself with mdicating this law of Gothic mouldings, leaving it 
to the student's own industry to verify it by reference to actual examples, with the 
assistance of such works as have issued from the press on the subject,' and proceed 
to subjoin a sort of praxis upon what has been said. 

The sole object of these remarks, as has been already said, is to induce 
students of Church Architecture to make more use of the pencil than they have 
hitherto done ; and, moreover, to make use of it in a somewhat different way, and 
for a different purpose. In a different way, as far as patient following with the 
eye, and tracing out with the hand, the ins and outs of a section, differs from 
copying the perspective appearance of architectural features ; and for a different 
purpose, that purpose being not the carrying away representations which may 
convey to themselves and others an idea of the object drawn, but simply the 
familiarising of the student's own eye with the characteristic contours of so 
important a feature in Gothic architecture as mouldings. But as an example of 
the manner in which a distinctive idea of the several styles may form itself in the 
mind, from even a very brief practice of this method of investigation, I venture to 
subjoin a view which has strongly forced itself upon me in the course of the few 
researches I have had occasion to make for the preparation of this paper. How 
far there is any good foundation for the view in question I undertake not to say, 
but, such as it is, it will be evident that it has been suggested solely by the practice 
of copying and comparing sections of mouldings belonging to various styles. 

If it be admitted, on the one hand, that the Decorated Style may justly claim the 
title of Perfect Gothic (a point, I believe, pretty generally conceded in our Society at 
least) ; and if, on the other, it be true that beauty, in architecture as in other things, 
is not a mere matter of caprice, but is referable, at least to a great extent, to certain 
standards, and may be tried by certain tests ; — then it is reasonable to expect to 
find the elements, if any such there be, which constitute beauty, entering more 
largely into this same Perfect Style than into any other. 

Now in Hogarth's ^' Analysis of Beauty," it is well known, the attempt is made 
"to fix,'* as he expresses it, " the fluctuating ideas of Taste," by pointing out 
certain contours without which there can be no Beauty, but the presence of which 

' I would refer more pardcolarly to the Manual of Gothic Mouldings, by F. A. Paley, Esq., 
Honorary Secretary to the Society, in which some definitions, &c., have been adopted, with the present 
writer's full concurrence, from this paper. To the same work the reader is referred for fuller 
information on the method of copying mouldings, and much other valuable information. 


ensures, according to the degree of it, a beautiful effect. And without subscribing 
to, or professing quite to understand, all his notions, I cannot but think that there 
is much in what he advances. Now it would be unreasonable to expect to find 
exhibited in so stubborn a material as stone, all those elements which he requires 
in a perfectly beautiful and graceful contour, and of which he points out examples 
in natural objects, or in the human form ; — ^but it is surprising how nearly Gothic 
Architecture comes to satisfying his definitions, and the Perfect Style of it more 
especially. For instance, his types of beautify and of grace (for he distinguishes 
between them) are — of beauty ^ "the waving line, composed of two curves con- 
trasted" — of gracey " the serpentine line (or spiral) waving and winding at the same 
time," like a cornucopia. Now, that his " line of beauty" enters more largely into 
Gothic, and especially into Decorated contours, than into those of any other styles 
of architecture, may very easily be established : and even the " line of grace" is 
not wanting in the Perfect Gothic, though I believe it is unknown to every other. 
Those projecting-ogee canopies of which the Lady Chapel at Ely presents such 
numerous examples, and whose exquisite gracefulness must be admitted by all, 
evidently answer to the "serpentine line waving and ¥miding at the same time." 
And if, as has been thought, even the Perfect Gothic might have attained a more 
perfect development, had not some sinister influences checked it ere it reached its 
culminating point, there is no saying but that this first dawning of a conformity to 
the " line of grace" might have been carried on to perfection, and thus the precept 
of Michael Angelo to his scholar realized in architecture no less than in painting, 
viz. " that he should always make a figure pyramidal, serpent-like, and multiplied 
by one, two, and three." (Hogarth, p. v.) Hogarth seems to understand by this a 
triangular pyramidal outUne, on a square base ; with a waving and winding or spiral 
contour. The former element is familiar to us in architecture : the latter only in 
the instance just mentioned, and even there in a nascent state only. 

My present object is to shew that the sections of Decorated mouldings conform, 
more than those of any other style, to the rules laid down in Hogarth's work for 
judging of beauty of outline. If this can be established, then a fresh reason will be 
added to those on which we are accustomed to ground our preference for this style. 
It will then no longer be open to the fanciful architect or amateur to say that it is a 
mere matter of taste, — and that if they choose to consider Early English or Perpen- 
dicular the better style, it is so : for our intuitive perceptions will henceforth be 
capable of something like demonstrative confirmation. 


A few definitions from Hogarth will clear the way to estahlishing our point. 
He first briefly remarks on the sufficiency of the sectional mode of representing 
surfaces on paper. '^ The surfaces of objects," he says, '^ may be considered as so 

many shells of lines closely connected together Hence the constant use 

made of lines by mathematicians as well as painters in describing things on paper. 
We may set out, then, with saying in general, that the straight line and the circular 
line, together with their different combinations and variations, bound and circum- 
scribe all visible objects whatsoever, thereby producing such endless variety of 
forms as lays us imder the necessity of dividing and distinguishing them into 
general classes, viz. 

" First, Objects composed of straight lines only, as e. g. square capitals, or of 
circular lines, as shafts. 

" Secondly, Those composed of straight and circular. 

" Thirdly, Those composed of straight lines, circular lines, and waving lines : — 
this latter line being more productive of beauty than any other, whence we shall 
call it the Line of Beauty." 

He further observes, that the comparative beauty of different classes of lines 
may be measured by the degree in which they admit of variation. 

Thus straight lines (Hogarth, p. 40,) vary only in length, and are therefore least 
ornamental ; — curved lines can " be varied in their degree of curvature, as well as 
in their length, and therefore are one degree more ornamental than straight lines ; — 
while the waving line^ varying still more," as having two curves each capable of 
variation, both in themselves and relatively to each other, "becomes still more 
ornamental and pleasing." 

" Now the way of composing pleasing forms," he proceeds in another chapter, 
" is first to make choice of variety of lines, as to their shapes and dimensions, and 
secondly, to vary the situations of these with respect to each other. In a word, 
the art of composing well is the art of varying well." But then it may be asked, 
Are there any rules for varying well, as to the juxta-position of the lines of which 
you have made choice? There is one rule in particular, which is nearly all- 
sufficient. He thus enimciates it. " SimpUcity in composition, or distinctness 
of parts, is ever to be attended to, as it is one part of beauty. What I mean by 
distinctness of parts is this .... When you would compose an object of a great 
variety of parts, let those several parts be distinguished by themselves, by their 
remarkable difference from the one next adjoining, so as to make each of them, as 


it were, one well-shaped quantity or part." One more rule, and I have done with 
his definitions. " If the general parts of objects are preserved large at first, they 
will always admit further enrichments of a small kind, but then they must be so 
small as not to confound the general masses or quantities. Thus variety is a check 
upon itself when overdone, as begetting a confusion to the eye." 

We are now to try Gothic, and especially Decorated mouldings, by these 
rules and tests. 

But I cannot forbear remarking, that Hogarth himself, though a profound 
admirer of Sir Christopher Wren's architecture, is here and there forced, in 
spite of himself, to admit the excellence of Grotliic architecture, even when tried by 
his rules ; and nothing can be more amusing than the condescending patronage he 
extends to it in consequence, imless it be the manner in which he taxes his 
ingenuity to account for a phenomenon ct priori so highly improbable. " Have not 
many Gothic buildings," he exclaims, " a great deal of consistent beauty about 
them ? perhaps acquired by a series of improvements made from time to time by 
the natural persuasion of the eye, which often very near answers the end of working 
by principles, and sometimes begets them." Again, after an elaborate eulogium on 
the beauty of the new London churches, he remarks, that " their shapes will be 
found to be particularly beautiful. Of these, and perhaps of any in Europe, 
S. Mary-le-Bow is the most elegantly varied. S. Bride's, in Fleet Street, 
diminishes sweetly by elegant degrees, but its variations, though very curious 
when you are near them, not being quite so bold or distinct as those of Bow, 
it soon loses variety in the distance." (!) 

" Some Gothic spires are finely and artfully varied, particularly the famous steeple 
of Strasburg." Again : " Westminster Abbey is a good contrast to S. Paul's," (i. e., 
as a foil to the latter,) " with regard to simplicity and distinctness; the great number 
of its filligrean ornaments ^ and small divided and sub-divided parts, appear confused 
when nigh, and are totally lost at a distance; yet there is, nevertheless, such a 
consistency of parts altogether in a good Gothic taste, and such propriety relative to 
the gloomy ideas they were then calculated to convey, that they have at length acquired 
an established and distinct character in building.^* Thus far our author. He did 
not, however, carry his complaisance so far as to test any Gothic buildings by his 
rules of beauty or grace ; had he done so, he might possibly have arrived at results 
which would have surprised him. But to return from this digression to our proper 




The aspect under which Decorated outlines and contours present a conformity 
to the principles of heauty above enunciated, appears to be stated, though only 
partially developed, in Mr. Petit's Remarks on Church Architecture (vol. i. 
p. 1 74, &c.) Having observed that the transition from Early English to Early 
Decorated was marked by ^^ the substitution for that roundness which prevailed as 
weU in the sections of mouldings as in the forms of tracery, of a certain sharpness and 
angularity t which might produce .... the contrast of light and shade, and the 
varieties of line, so necessary to give richness of effect ; . . . . that the cylindrical 
shaft being not thought sufficient to give this contrast, even with the help of deep 
hollows in each side of it, they made use of a shaft with a sharp edge, and the like 
expedients,'* he then justly remarks that " still, in every case, the circle in this 
transitional period prevailed over the angle^ and marked the character of the design : 
and as justly discriminates between this and the perfectly developed Decorated 
which followed: where the circular arc became subordinate" He does not, 
however, point out in detail in what sense this is true, or what specific changes 
were wrought in the contour of mouldings by the establishment of the new 
principle. We shall find on examination that the uniform tendency of them was 
to assimilate the sections more and more to the standards of beauty above 
insisted on. He justly represents the transformation which went on in the world 
of mouldings between the old Early English and the Complete Decorated, as a 
struggle between the circular arc and another element which contested the pre- 
eminence with it. That element he calls the angle. He should have said, I think, 
the straight line. Not of course that the utter extinction of either by the other 
was contemplated, which would have been " chaos come again," leaving almost no 
mouldings at all ; but the question was, how far the claim of the new element (the 
line) to limit and modify the dominion of the old (the arc) should be allowed ; it 
was intuitively seen that such modification was desirable — ^the only question was 
qtuitenv^. The result was accordingly a fusion of the two elements, not a conquest. 

The nature of the change thus brought about will be clearly seen by a reference 
to any collection of sections of mouldings belonging to the respective periods. 
First we have the old Early EngUsh, belonging for the most part to the period 
when the threatened revolution had as yet scarcely began. The bold and circular 
bowtely and the equally bold and circular hollow follo¥mig each other in rapid succes- 
sion, and (which is to be observed) in inmiediate juxta-position, thus producing 
what Hogarth reprobates as " too bold and S-like swellings ;'* — the straight line 


scarcely admitted, or chiefly as a fillet ; and even any stiffening into a more direct 
bearing on the part of the curves stoutly resisted ; — ^the contrary flexures so violent, 
that they must be resolved into two distinct members: — these are in brief the 
characteristics of the Earlier English moulding. On the other hand, passing 
over such specimens as are more or less Transitional, we have in the Perfect 
Decorated specimens the straight line admitted in a very great degree ; not now in 
petty fillets merely, but in expanses of some breadth ; moreover, the violence of 
the flexures is diminished, and the inflected members have clearly an existence of 
their own, having stiffened more towards a straight line; and the entire bearing of 
the most extensive series of moulding approximates much more to the straight line 
than in the Early English period ; while simply circular arcs are greatly reduced 
both in extent and number. 

Thus, I say, may the hint in Mr. Petit's book be amplified into a distinctive 
sjrstematization of mouldings of these two styles. But I was to shew that in the 
later system a decided advance had been made to true beauty of outline, according 
to Hogarth's definitions on the subject. — A recurrence to these definitions will 
easily establish this ; and that in two respects ; viz., first, as to the forms selected 
for the lines, and secondly, as to the disposition of them relatively to each other. 

first : It will be remembered that objects composed of straight lines and 
circular lines were laid down as being more beautiful than those composed of 
circular lines only: and again, that objects composed of straight lines and 
circular lines, with the addition of the waving line, are still more beautiful. On 
these grounds, then, the superior beauty of the Decorated contours is clearly 
established by what has been already said ; indeed, that nothing is wanting, as to 
detaili to make objects so composed a model of beauty but a proper disposition of 
them with respect to each other. This was the second test which I proposed to 
apply. Nor does it fieiil us. His rule of composition, it will be remembered, was 
to ensure simplicity in it, by preserving distinctness of parts, — by letting the 
several parts be distinguishable, by the remarkable difference of each from the one 
next adjoining it. Now this is the pre-eminent characteristic of Decorated 
moulding. The entire series divided into distinct groups by the weU defined re- 
entering angle : — the two sides of the re-entering angle itself separated from each 
other by a bold three-quarter hollow : — the flowing ressant (or ogee) set off by the 
straight quirk — the roll and fillet by the quirk straight and circular, and itself 
composed of a flat between two curved members, with the same purpose, as it 


should seem, of producing contrast ; — ^the double ogee and the wavy, (as workmen 
call it,) which by their nature cannot be quirked, flanked by a fillet on either side : 
— these and other rules of arrangement which farther observation would educe, 
obviously conform to the principle of composition above laid down. Scarcely ever, 
that I am aware of, is the principle violated. Even the line of Beauty, great as 
must have been the temptation to introduce it unsparingly for its own proper 
gracefulness' sake, is here never used without due contrast. The double ogee, roll 
and fiUet, and wavy, are the only combinations of it in which the Decorated style 
indulged. Thus, for instance, there is such a thing as a double wavy, and that too 
in Decorated work — ^but it is of very rare occurrence. The limitations here spoken 
of appear to be founded in the curious truth that the eye, no less than the mind, 
soon wearies of unsparing and injudicious repetition, even of that which is itself 
most admirable. 

We can only glance very briefly at Perpendicular moulding in connexion with 
what is here advanced. Its characteristic contours, however, may be thus 
briefly enumerated. The absence of the deep circular hollow, and substitution of 
the shallower semi-elliptical kind; — the over- frequent occurrence of straight lines, 
and that too in juxta-position ; — the disappearance, for the most part, of the 
roll and fiUet, and bowtel, and the retention of the double-ogee and wavy in more 
meagre forms; — the approximation of the bearing of the whole series of members to 
a straight line, and the absence of projection or depth ; — these are so many symptoms 
of declension in the Perpendicular style from that model to which the Decorated 
has been proved to conform. And, it is remarkable, they are just the reverse of the 
errors of Early EngUsh. Early EngUsh was guilty of the more " noble error,'' in 
the too lavish use of the bold circular arc, and the too stern rejection of the straight 
Une, or any approach to it however graceful ; the Perpendicular was chary enough 
of bold curves of any kind, and only too servilely clung to the straight line and all 
kindred forms : while in point of combination, both erred alike in the juxta-position 
of like members, which disfigured the one with imgracefiil swellings, the other 
with petty and paltry angularities. 

In beautiful contradistinction to these, on the one hand and on the other, 
stands the Decorated system of moulding. Bold without roundness, for it prefers 
the roll and fillet to the bowtel; — ^flowing without contortion, for it preserves the 
Une of beauty; — in detail varied, yet not intricate, for the members are marked 
each from the others by contrast, and the groups by re-entering angles ; — in entire' 



Thb following pages are the substance of a paper read at a meeting of the Cambridge 
Camden Society, held on the evening of the 13th of February, 1843. They have no 
pretension to be considered a complete history of the University church, which is 
far too large a subject for a single paper of a Volume of Transactions, and to be 
treated properly would demand a book of no inconsiderable size. My purpose has 
rather been to illustrate the history of the arrangement of the Interior of the 
church, and the various changes it has undergone in conformity to the mutations 
in the religious creed of the party predominant in the affairs of the University, 
during the eventful period lasting from the middle of the sixteenth to the end of 
the seventeenth centuries: — a most fiiiitful source for such illustrations being 
afforded by the records of the Parish, contained in the churchwardens' books, the 
University annals, and other contemporary documents. To this I have added an 
account of the thorough re-arrangement of the whole interior, which took place 
towards the middle of the eighteenth century — an alteration so sadly characteristic 
of that dreariest period of English history ; by which our holy and beautiful house 
wherein our fathers worshipped was degraded from its true and high purpose as 
" a house of prayer," and made to become, as far as was possible with the work of a 
Catholick architect, a mere preaching house : when the rising columns and arches 
were loaded with huge galleries thrusting their cumbrous bulk between them, and 
cutting in twain the windows, from which the elaborate tracery had been carefully 
removed and replaced by work of a very inferior character, — ^when the glorious 
arch, which divided the nave from the hallowed precincts of the chancel, was 
blocked up with a vast pagan structure, containing seats for the accommodation of 
the Doctors and Professors, entirely excluding the altar from all view of the con- 
gregation, and forcing those who occupy its un^iviable elevation to turn their backs 


sanctioned in any license" by her *' strangely anomalous arrangement." Is it too 
much to hope in these days, when we are beginning to recover long-lost :prittetpte8, 
and are awaking to something like a perception of the true character which a church 
ought to bear, that Alma Mater will not be the very last to put her hand to the 
glorious work of blotting out the disfiguring traces of ajsensual and latitudinarian 
age, and restoring the magnificent temple with which the piety of her sons enriched 
her of old, to some likeness, dim and distant though it be, to the gorgeous 
splendour which, as will be seen from the subsequent pages, characterised it, in the 
age of abundant devotion which saw its erection. 

I can hardly venture to hope that the following historical attempt will have 
much weight in influencing the future conduct of the rulers of our University with 
regard to the church entrusted to their keeping ; yet should it happen to be perused 
by any who now are, or hereafter may be, called to take a part in the Academical 
Council, and should lead them to reflect more seriously on the character of the 
authors of the changes here recorded, and the tendency of the principles which 
brought about those alterations which we now so universally lament, and thweby 
render them more favourably disposed towards any plan for its restoration to its 
original plan, my work will not have been altogether in vain. 

chancel is concealed from view by the seat fai which the heads of houses and professors turn their badcs 
on the Lord's Table ; where the pulpit stands the central object on which erery ^e is to be fixed ; and 
where erery thing betokens, what is in fact the case, that the whole congregation are assembled solely 
to hear the preacher. Surely a Uniyersity church ought not to offer such an example of the 
verkehrte welt,*' 




The church of S. Moryjuxta Forums as it was formerly termed, was, we learn 
from the Barnwell Chartulary,* "much defaced with fire'* in 1291, it was supposed 
at the instigation of the Jews, who were then ordered to quit the town, where they 
had a large synagogue. After this accident the church was repaired, but appears 
not to have been completed for many years, as in 1315 Alan de Wellis, burgess of 
the town, bequeathed half a mark to the guild of S. Mary, and a mark to the 
building of the church.* We may suppose that the work was not completed much 
to the satisfaction of the University, being probably only a patching up of the half- 
ruined walls ; for in 1478 it was found necessary to rebuild it entirely from the 
foundations, the first stone of the new edifice being laid on the 1 6th of May, at 
forty-five minutes past six p.m.* "All church work is slow," says Fuller; "the 
mention of S. Mary's mindeth me of church work indeed, so long it was fit)m the 
founding to the finishing thereof." And well might he say so, for notwithstanding 
all the exertions made by the University to obtain contributions, and the large sums 
voted by them from their own funds, it was not until the year 1608 that the 
topstone of the tower was laid. Fuller simis up the history in his usual quaint 
manner in the following words : 

"Begun May 16, 1478, when the first stone thereof was laid in the 17th of 
Edward the Fourth. 

" The church ended (but without a tower or belfry) 1519, in the 11th of Henry 
the Eighth. 

" The tower finished 1608, in the 6th of King James." 

" So that from the beginning to the ending thereof were no fewer than an 
hundred and thirty years. There was expended in the structure of the church 
alone, seven himdred, ninety-five poimds, two shillings and a penny, all bestowed 
by charitable people for that purpose. Amongst whom Thomas Barrow, Dr. of 
Civil Law, Archdeacon of Colchester, formerly FeDow of King's Hall, and 
Chancellor of his house to King Richard the Third, gave for his part two hundred 
and forty pounds." • 

» Fufler's Hist. Camb. p. 77. Baker's MSS, ix. 94. -* Coles* MSS. ix. 54. 

• Caii Hist. Acad. p. 89. • FuUer, Hist. Univ. Camb. p. 180. 



A list of the principal contributors is given by Baker, in the twenty-fourth 
volume of his MS. Collections -J after Dr. Barrow, Bishop Alcock was the largest 
benefactor; he gave £70, King Henry VII. 100 marks, or £66. 13«. 4ci. ("a fair 
sum in that age," says Fuller, " for so thrifty a prince")? and the Lady Margaret 
£20. In addition to his gift in money, the King presented the University mth an 
hundred oaks towards the framing of the roof, which was set up in 1 506 ; and in 
1 507 instituted a solemn yearly obit to be kept for him in this church.* 

In addition to these benefactions coming in from various sources, the University 
itself expended on the sacred edifice, between the years 1478 and 1519, nearly 
six hundred pounds;^ of which a yearly account exists among Abp. Parker's 
MSS. in Corpus Christi Library, which has been printed by Dr. Lamb in his 
interesting collection of Documents.'® Little seems to have been done until 1487, 
when £93. 6^. %d. was given, and £57. 6«. 8c2. in the follovdng year ; from which 
time until 1 503 the work seems almost to have been at a stand-still, for though in 
1493, (as we learn from an amusing entry in the University books,) the zeal of the 
governing body led them to hire three horses at a charge of twenty shillings and 
send forth the Proctors" mth letters written expressly by the Vicar of Trumpington, 
who received 6«. 8d. for his labour, to collect for the church, yet when they 
returned after three weeks' absence, galled and jaded mth their long excursion, 
they must have had the mortification of reporting their journey a complete failure ; 
for since five pounds, two shillings, and twopence-farthing was all that was furnished 
by the University this year from every source, small indeed mtist have been the sum 
they succeeded in gathering. The next payment occurs in 1499, but is only three 

' Hemicus Septimus centmn Quercus ad extniendas sacras nostras eedes Marianas elargitns est 
1506 : ut patet per Literas Universitatis ipsi Begi et D>^* Rustallo Regis Secretario datas, scriptas 
k Joh«* Philippo Beginali Socio et quondam Procuratore Acad, et & Job"- Igulden Regin. 

* '' Idem Henricus VII. Funus celebre instuit 1507j quod ut diligenter perageretur 10"^* annuatim 
Acad, dedit, et ut magnificentius omnia perfioerentur Pallium etiam Funebre ^regium illud et 
sumptuosum elargitus est." — Baker^s MSS. 

• £bbb. 28, \d. 10 Page 7. 

^^ Proctors' Accounts, 1493. Wben tbey went witb letters for S. Maries ''pro scriptione 
literarum, Vicario de Trumpington, v*« viij*'*" 

'' Expensse factae pro itinere Procuratorum cum Uteris pro fabrica Ecclesise B. Marias, pro tribus 
equis in itinere pro yiginti diebus, xx*- " 

Notwithstanding the failure of bis eloquence on this occasion, the learned derk seems to have been 
employed as the Uniyersity letter-writer for some years subsequent to this period ; in the Uniyersity 
accounts, a.d. 1499, we find, "Solut. Vicar de Trumpiton pro Uteris ad Matrem Regis delatis, xx*- ;" 
"pro scriptione aUarum, vj<«- ;" 1500, "pro scriptione trium Uterarum, 16'" 


which cost £6. ISs. lOd., thoagh the entry m the same year, "payd to two men 
for half a day werk to bord y* stepill to keep oute byrds vj**' shews that it must 
stiU have been in a very unfinished state. In 1544, iiij^ was paid to one " Father 
Rotheram for vewing the steeple," which in this and the following year advanced 
several feet, though at the expense of other sacred edifices, the timber and stone 
coming from the Black Friars,*^ and the slate, which was now at last substituted 
for the mean covering of thatch, from S. Botolph's church, and the Austin Friars/* 
The following entries in the Parish Books furnish records of this period. 

1 545. It. of W"- Meere for y* stone at y* Blacke Fryers . . xl'- 

It. for the reede of the steple iv*' 

It. for caryage of 20 lodes of slate from the late Austen Fryars iij*- iv** 

It. to W"' Mere for 4 pecys of great tymber conteyning 64 foot x^* viij**' 
It. for two lodes of l3rme from the late White Fryers . iv*- 

It. to Wyse of Hynton for 5 fodder of lyme . . xvj^ viij^ 

It. for caryage of 4 lod of slate fh>m Botolphe chirche . . x^ 

The present most incongruous west door, of pagan design, with the miseirable 
half-obliterated daub above it,^^ date back as far as 1576, when we find Lady 
Bui^hley and others contributing money, and Sir W. Mildmay, the Puritanical 
founder of '' the House of pure Emmanuel," 20 tons of freestone towards its 
erection. This said portal seems, from the following entry, to have been costly as 
well as ugly.** " M° that from the beginning of the above-mentioned Dore unto 
20 Jan., 1576, there was expended and laid forth about the said works by the 
hands of Mr. Dr. Peme, as appereth particularly by his Boke, £1 13- 4«. 2d." The 

^^ The Black or Dommican Friary stood on the site of Emmanuel College. It was founded 
A.D. 1280 by Alice Countess of Oxford, and purchased in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, of one Sherwood, 
into whose hands it came at the Dissolution. 

^ ^ The house of the Austin Friars stood on the site of the present Botanick Grarden : in Cole's 
time some fragments of the buildings remained, which hare been since takea down to erect lecture-rooms. 
He giyes a rude sketch of them, yol. xliii. p. 261. 

^ ' As it is now perfectly impossible to discover the subject of this painting, I subjoin the following 
description of it, for the benefit of the curious, from F. Blomfield's Liber Inscript. MSS. Gough, 
Bibl. Bodl. *' A woman in loose robes lying along viewing an open book, a lamb at her feet, a pair of 
doves by her hand. 2 Coats cut in y« stone work. Vert 2 Stags passant, proper, atdred or. On a 
fess between 3 Cocks heads erased sable armed or, a mitre of the last. Bp. Aloock." 

1 « Baker MSS. xxiv. 


completion of the fabrick of the church, I will turn to that which is the more 
especial object of this paper : the furniture and fittings of the interior, together with 
the many vicissitudes to which they have been subjected during the many shiftings 
of belief of the ruling parties during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, of 
which the documentary evidence contained in the parish books, and other 
contemporary accounts, preserve a most interesting record. 

As was to have been expected in the principal religious edifice of such a body 
as the University of Cambridge, the church of S. Mary's was more than usually 
rich in jewels, plate, and vestments, for the due performance of all sacred rites : 
accurate catalogues of its possessions still remain in the parish books, and strike us 
with astonishment at the immense amount of wealth here dedicated to God's 
service, testifying to the readiness mth which, in those early times, our forefathers 
offered of their silver and their gold to Him the Supreme Giver of all. 

It were very much to be desired that the limits of this paper would permit me 
to give an accurate copy of the whole of these lists ; they are most curious and 
valuable, and afibrd a most interesting record of the religious services of the 
sixteenth century: I can however only give two or three of the entries. The 
following are from the inventory of the vestments belonging to the altar of 
the B. V. Mary." 

Imprimis a vestament of blew sarsenet w^ a crosse of rede w^oute stole and 

phanonne w^ albe. 
Item, a vestament of white bustian, olde w^ all th' apparell. 
It. a vestament of white chamelet w* all th' apparell of the gifte of Tho 

Jakenet, and an outer clothe w^ a ffiynge of the said white chamlet. 
It. a blewe sarcenet firoimte, w^ a ffiynge. 
It. a chdeyse w* a patent parcel gilte, pond.*' xiij™*'' 

It. a cote of tawney damaske purfullyd w* ffelewet,** apperteyning to our Lady. 
It. a rede sateyn coote w* two payre of beds of blakke geat,'* apperteyning to 

her Sonne. 
It. two outer clothes of lynnjni clothe of the gifte of Bic. Hilderston. 
It. a coote of red sateyn purfiU'd w^ grene damaske. 

^ * Besides this Altar and the High Altar, there were four others — ^that of the Holy Trinity, of 
S. Andrew, of S. Laurence, and of Doomsday, all most richly furnished. 

»» Weighmg. "o Velyet. •* Jet. 


It. a coote for her Sonne of the same sateyn, purfill'd w* blakke velvet w* 
spangills of golde. 

These are a few of the more cmious articles selected firom the catalogue of 
jewels :^ — 

Imprimis f a crosse of silver and gilte w^ Mary and John. 

It. a staSe of copir and gilte to the same. 

It. a crosse clothe to the said crosse of rede silke w^ th' Assumpcion ste]med. 

It. a challise double gilte w^ a crucifix upon the ffoote and a spone of silver 

and gilte to the said chaUise. 
It. a Sonne" of silver for the sacrament. 

It. two shipps" of silver, parcell gilte w^ the spons of silver to the same. 
It. a relique, called a box of silver, w* th* oyle of Seint Nicholas. 
It. another litill box of silver w^ a bone of Seint Lawrence. 
It. a paier of organs. 
It. a shoo of silver for the ymage of our Lady w^ v peeces of silver, and a pece 

of a peny, weying all— twoo unces and 1 quarter in a boxe. 
It. a parcell of the mounstr'^ for to sett in the hoste w^ two cristall stones set 

in silver in a boxe w^ a claspe of a booke of silver. 
It. an ymage of our Lady and her Sonne of copir and gilte w^ a cristall stone. 
It. a coler of gold for to hange abowt oure Ladiis nekke off ix lynks in the 

coler, of the delyvery of Doctor Jubbys, the whyche Mast' Potycary" had 

recevyd when the chapell of oure Lady was takyn doune. 
It. an howche of sylver and gylte w^ xi branches and iiij stones and v perles. 

The new church seems to have been gradually supplied mth font, oigans, rood- 
loft, seats, and all the more permanent portions of sacred ecclesiastical furniture. 
In the above list we find "a paier of organs ;" and, in 1514, 16d. is paid to " a 
Blak Fryer in Estir Holidays for to pley atte orgayns ;" and in the same year 2d. is 
given " for a lokke for the Fonte." 

In 1519 occurs the first notice of seats in the church, for which a collection 

' * Probably a box of crystal set round with rays, to contain the Blessed Sacrament. 
•• Vessels to contain Incense. "^ Monstrance or "ostensorium.** 

' ' While Our Lady's Chapel was rebuilding this collar seems to haye been entrusted to the custody 
of "Master Potycary," who deliyers it to " Doctor Jubbys" to restore the Altar. 



appears to have been made-^'Mt, gathered for stoolyi^ or fixmg stalls in the body 
of the clurche this year, the sum of vij"' xvij*- V* ;" and 30s. was paid to William 
Whjrte for the " myddyl stalls, for the ftdl contentacyon of the paryssche parte of 
payment of the sayd stalls." 

In the inventory of church furniture drawn up in 1506 we find, " It. a clothe 
for the Rood Lofte steyned w^ Moses ;" this velum must have belonged to the rood- 
loft of the old church, as the first mention of this part, so essential to the 
completeness of a church, occurs in 1518. "It. payed towards makyng of the 
Rodelofte 10"**-" This was only a subscription towards its erection, as it was not 
commenced until the year 1521, when the Indenture for its building, still existing 
in the parish chest, was drawn up. The Document is so excellent a specimen of 
agreements of this description, now so rare, whi^h throw so much light upon 
our medieval architecture nomenclature, that I am induced to give it entire, 
especially as it has never before been printed. 

" Thys Indenture made y* last day of June in the xij yere of y* reign of our 
soueraigne lord Kyng Henry viij, bytwen Petir Cheke gentilman and Rob** Smith, 
wex-chaundeler chirche wardyns and kepers of y* goods and catells of y* s** p*ishe 
chirehe of Seyn* Marye next the Markett of Cambrigge, M'* W*- Butt Doctor of 
physike, M'- Henry Hallched, Richard Clerk, Rob*- Hobbys &c. with other mor 
parochianers of y* s* parisshe un that oon parte, And John Nunn of Drynkeston and 
Roger Belle of Ashfild in y* countie of Suffolk, kervers, on that other parte, 
Wittnessyth that the s** John Nune and Roger Belle covenaunt and graunte and 
also bynden them, ther heyres, and executors by theise presents, that they schall 
make and cause to be made a new Roodde lofte mete and convenyent for y* s*" 
Chirche of Seyn' Marye stretchynge in lengthe throughoute the same chirche, and 
the lies therof, correspondent to a dore** made in a walle un y® Southe side of y* 
8** Chirche, all y* Howsyngs, Crests, Voults, Orbs, Lyntells, Vorcers, Crownes, 
Archebotyns, and Bacs for y® small Howsyngs and all y* Dores, fynyalls, and 
gabeletts therof, schall be of good Substancyall and hable wajniescote : And all 
y* pryncypall Bacs and Crownes for y* great howsyngs therof and y* Archebotyns 
therunto belongyng, schal be of good and hable oke withoute sappe, rifte, 
wyndestrukk, or other deformatiff hurtefull.*^ 

• * Evidently the door of the Rood Turret, still remaining on the south side of the church. 
' ' Thanks to the diligent inyestigation of Professor Willis, the precise meaning of these architectural 
terms has now heen brought out, so that we are able to assign to each its proper signification. By 


" And y* briste of y* seyd new Roodde Lofte schal be after and accordyng to y* 
briste of y* Roodelofte within y* p'isshe Chirche of Tripplow in all maner housyngs, 
fynyalls, gabeletts, formes, fygures, and rankenesse of Werke as good or better in 
ev'ry poynte. 

" And y* briste of y* sayde new Roodelofte schal be in depnesse viij foots, and y* 
soler^ therof schal be in bredith viij foots with suche yomags** as schal be ad- 
vysed and appoynted by y* parochyners of y* said p'isshe of Seynt Maryes And the 
Trenitie, after y* Roodelofte of y* perclose of y* quyer with a double dore, y* 
percloses of y* ij chappells eyther of y" with a single dore. The bakkesyde of y* 
sayd Roodelofte to be also lyke to y* bakkesyde of y* Roodelofte of Gassely or 
better, wyth a '^poulpete into the mydds of y*" quyer. And all and ev'ry of these 


premysses schal be after and accordyng to the Trenitie, the Voulte, the dores, y* 

percloses and y* werks of y* Roodelofte of y* Chirche of Gassely in y* 

countye of Suffolke, as good or better in ev'ry poynte, and to agree and accord for 

y* " of y* sayde Chirche of Seynt Mary after y* best workmanschippe and 

proporcon in eury pojrnte. And all y* Tymber of the same Roodelofte schal be fiill 
seiasoned tymber. And all y* ""Yomags therof schal be of good pyketurs, fourmes, 
and '"Vicenamyes without Rjrfts, Crakks, or other deformatyvys. The pillours 
therof schal be of full seisoned oke. 

" The housyngs, entayles, lyntells, fynyalls, and gabeletts, schal be Waynschott, 

reference to his late most interesting work on the " Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages," 
forming Part IX. of the puhUcations of the Camhridge Antiquarian Society, we find that they stand 
for " the elementary parts of tahemacle and canopy work of the richest description, similar to that which 
crowns the monuments, stalls, and altars of this period." Housings (called also fnaisons and hovels) 
stand for tahemacles, or niches ; crests are the pierced battlements, or other ornamental finishing ; orbs 
(fenestra orba) stand for blank panelling ; lintells for the upper portion of windows ; vorcers (called also 
voussures, volsura, vesuntj are vaults ; crowns are, probably, almost synonymous with canopies ; archbotyns 
are flying buttresses ; bacsfor the small housings, are the bases, or pedestals for the images in the smaller 
niches ; while, lastly, the Jinials or gabeletts are the pinnacles, and the ornamented canopies of the niches, 
the former word never being appUed in the middle ages, in its present restricted sense, to the bunch of 
foliage at the top of a pinnacle or canopy, which now usurps the name. 

' " The floor of the Loft or gallery containing the Rood. 

«» Images. '^ Pulpit. 

* * In the copy of this Indenture in Bowtell's MSS., from which the present transcript has been 
made, since the original cannot be found in the parish chest, this blank is filled up with the word Rume, 
marked however as doubtful : I am unable to guess what the true reading is. 

*' Physionomies. 



And also schal set up a Berne whenipon y* Roode schall stonde lyke unto y* Berne 
within y* sayde Roode of Gassely as good or better as y* sayd beme of Gassely, met 
and convejiyent for y* said Chirche of Seynt Marye. And also schall make a 
Candyllbeme mete and convenyent for our Ladye Chappell mthin y* sayd Chirche 
of Seynt Mary. All theise premysses after and accordyng to the best werkman- 
schipp and proporcon as good as the patrons afore rehersed be, or better in eu'ry: 
poynte, to be habled and juged in tyme convenyent after y* be made and %nisshed 
by two indifferent persones, wherof oon schal be chose by y* foresaide chirchewardens 
and parochianers of Seynt Mary p'isshe : thodir by y* sayde John Nunn and Roger 
Bell. And y* saide John Nimne and R. Bell covenaunt and graunte by these, 
presents that they schall cleyly and holly fiynysshe all and eu'ry of y* sayde 
premysses accordyng as ys afore rehersed, byfore y* ffest of pentycost, whiche schal 
be in y* yere of our lord god m* d* xxij. For whyche premysses so. to be accpm* 
plysshed and don, the sayde Chirchewardens and parochianers afore-named by. 
th' assent and consent of all y* parochianers of y* said parisshe, covenaunt, and 
graunte, and also bynde them, and ther Executors, by these presents, to pay 
therfore and cause to be payed unto the sayde J. Nunne . and Roger to ther. 
Executurs and assignes Ixxxxiy* Uj'- viij*** sterling, wherof jr* saide J. Nunne and 
Roger knowlegge themselffs well and truly to be content and payed and therpf dothe 
utterly acquyt and discharge y^ saide Chirchewardens and parochjraners ther 
Executors and Assignes by theise presents. 

'* And xl. sterling resydue of y* say^ summe schal be payed unto y* sayde 
J. Nunne and Roger to their hers Executors and Assignes, in maner and forme 
folowyng ; That y* to Wytte atte y* fest of y* Natyvyte of Seynt John Baptist next 
coumyng, after y* date herof, xx^* sterling. And atte suche tyme as the sayde 
J. Nunne and Roger have clerly and holly fynysshed all y* premysses other xx*' 
sterling in full payment and contentacon of the foresayd sume of Lxxxxij^ iij'* viiij*"' 
To y^ which couenaunt payments graunts and articles aforesaid and eury of them or 
eyther parte of the foresaid partyes well and truly to be obserued performed and 
kept, eyther of y* sayde parties bynde them to thodir ther hers and Executors in 
y* sume of an c^ sterling by these presents. 

" Into Witnesse wherof y*" parties aforesayde to theise Indenturs Interchangably 
haue putte ther Sealls. Goven the day and yer abovesaid. 

" per me ROGERUM BELLE, 
" per me JOHN NUNE." 


of payments made to one John Capper, for " watchyng of the Sepulchre, settyng it 
up and tskynge it down" ; his ordinary fee was two shillings, besides lOd. for " hys 
meat and drynk.'* 

Notices of seats became now more frequent ; and in 1 537 we find a very early 
instance of the pernicious practice of letting sittings in the house of God, and de- 
manding pa3rment for the unaUenable right of every parishioner to worship God, 
without let or hindrance, in his own parish church. " It. Rec** of the Materasse 
Maker in the Pety Curi, for the incumbe of a Seate, xvij^" In 1538 the Side 
Chapel was erected, and seats made in it " at y* charge of xxxvij*- iiij***," and " 2 new 
Seatts made in the Chirche," for the "bord and tymber*' of which 13s. 4d. was 
paid to one Leonard Johnson : one of these was '^ underpined with stone and 
morter,*' and must, therefore, have been a permanent erection — a dangerous 
precedent, which was soon very largely followed. In the same year sixpence is 
paid " for makyng a poly to drawe up y* Vale before y* Roode." 

Our extracts from the parochial annals have now brought us down to the 
Reformation. We might naturally expect the records of an University Church at 
this moipentous period to be highly interesting ; and in the oft quoted registers we 
shall find contemporary notices of the rise and progress of the Reformation, bearing 
most valuable testimony as well to the good effiected, as to the evils which followed 
close in its train, making their pages too frequently a memorial of impiety, sacrilege, 
and rapine. 

The first notice which hints at a change in ecclesiastical matters occurs in 1 538, 
when a copy of Miles Coverdale's translation of the Bible was purchased to be set 
up in the church for general perusal. The entry in the parish book, from which we 
see that they were not able to purchase the whole at once, is — 

1538, halflf the byble ij'- vi^* 

1539, do. ... if 

The next year, in obedience to the Royal injunction. Archbishop Cranmer's edition, 
commonly called " the Great Bible," was bought ; and we find the entry — 

half y* gret byble . . . ix*' 

At the same time the Holy Altar is taken down, and, losing its Catholick appella- 
tion, is termed God's board.'* 

'' See the Rubricks in the Comxnimion Office of 1549. " Then shall the Priest tnrning him to 
God's board, kneel down." So also in 1552, 1559. 


1539- It. for Godds boorde . . . ix«- x"' 
1540. It. resceuyd at Godds borde'^ . xiiij'* 

The papal supremacy had been now for some years formally abrogated by Act of 
Parliament (a.d. 1534) ; and since in 1536 the University had required an oath, 
renouncing his authority from all who were admitted to any degree, they now seem 
to have thought it necessary to destroy every visible monument of the existence of 
such an authority, and in 1541 paid fourpence "To the Glasyer for takyng downe 
off the Byshopp of Roomes Hede." In the same year we see the commencement 
of the sad work of spoliation, which continues almost unrestrained for the next ten 
years. Some few articles were sold during the latter part of Henry the Eighth's 
reign " be the consent of most pte of y' parochioners" (a.d. 1541), as, for instance, 
" a monstre silver and gilte, ponderyng 66 uncys," for which £14 was received, 
" after 4'- the imce" ; but it was not till the accession of Edward the Sixth that the 
spirit of avarice and sacrilege was allowed to take its free unbridled course, scatter- 
ing abroad all the precious things with which men of old had loved to enrich the 
house of God, but with which their sons chose rather to enrich themselves. 

Some few entries of this date may be given as examples of the rest. 

1 550. Sold to Doctor Blyethe, a pyllow covered w* velvet and gold, and 1 9 

flowers of gold, v*- 
Item. Sold 2 pillows to M'- Smythe, on of sattyne of Bryg, and on of 

tyssew, viij*' viij*** 
Item. 2 Valiants of the Sepulchre, xi'* 
It. Sold the Clothe y' went ov' the Quyr in Lent, and 3 paynted Clothes y* 

was of the Sepulchre, yj'* 
It. payd for the wryghtyng of the invyntory of o' chyrche goods and Jewells 

to delyver to the kyngs majesties commyssyners, xvij*** 
It. for mete and drynke for theme that mett together for y* weying of y* 

chyrche playte and vewynge y* other goods of y* chj^rche to put y"* to y* 

invytory, acording to y* kyngs commaundment, yj'* 

In the same year we meet with the first notice of English service, for which, " at 
the fyrst tyme" of its celebration, " two Prymers*' are " bought,*' costing 16 pence.. 

3 ^ Eyidently an Eucharistick collection. 


The obedience of the University to the Royal mandates appears to have been some- 
what tardy in this and other particalarSi for they now for the first time purchased 
" a booke of omylys," " 2 books of the servys for the conmiimyon/' and " do. of 
the Paraffrys of Erasmus/''^ all of which had been published and ordered to be pub- 
lickly used three years before, in 1547. 

The High Altar we have seen was taken down in 1539 ; and now those in the 
chapels share the same fate ; and thieir slabs, together with that which had hitherto 
remained in the church, are ejected and sold for nine shillings, while seven shillings 
is paid for '^ pavyng the chapells wer the alters stoode, and stoping holies in the 

The images,"^ also, are now thrown down, and sixpence given '' for makyng of the 
wall were Saynt George stood in the chyrche," while the paintings of isacred story, 
with which we can have little doubt the waUs were decorated, are concealed under a 
dreary shroud of whitewash, in which the church has ever since been ^* constrained 
to do penance," the monotony of the white being at that time partially bix>ken by 

texts inscribed on theni. 

... I 

It. pay** for Wythynge y^ Chyrch . xx** iiij** 

It. payd for wryghtynge of y* Chyrch walls with scriptures iiij*** iij'- iiij*"' 

On the 28th of February, in this year, Bucer, who (in accordance with that 
unhappy leaning to foreign Proteistantism which characterised the short reign of 
this Sovereign, of which* we still trace the influence in our Eucharistick 
office) had been invited to fill the divinity chair in this University, died, and two 
days after was buried in the chancel of S. Mary's, "the vice-chancellor, doctors, 
graduates, and scholars, with the mayor and townsmen (in all, three thouisand per- 
sons), attending his funeral. After the accustomed prayers, a sermon was preached 
by Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, and an oration made 
by Dr. Walter Haddon, Publick Orator. On the following day the University and 

*^ By the injunctions of Edward VI., 1547, the "panons, i^cara, and other curate^y'' aie oidiered 
" within twelve months next after this visitation to provide'^ the Paraphrasis *' of Erasmus also in 
English upon the Gospels, and the same set up in some oonvenient place within the said church that 
they have care of, whereas their parishioners may most oommodioualy resort unto the same, and read 
the same." Cardwell. Docum. Ann. i. 9. 

** See ''Mandatum ad amovendas et delendas imagines." 2^ Edward VI., 1547. Cardwell. 
Docum. Ann. i. 38. 



Town again assembled at S. Mary's, where more than 400 persons received the 
Eucharist ; after which, Dr. Redmayne, Master of Trinity, preached* Last of all, 
the learned men of the University made their epitaphs in his praise, lajdng them on 
his grave." In consequence of the great concourse of people on this occasion, there 
seems to have been no small confusion in the church, insomuch that it was foimd 
necessary to repair the seats which had been then broken down. 

It. for Nails to mend the Seats in the Chyrche when M'* Doctor Barsur was 

buryed, ij*** 
It. for a Borde to mend Doctor Meers Seat, iij**- 

In 1 553 was published the first revised edition of our Common Prayer Book, 
usually called the Second Book of King Edward VI., which was immediately 
adopted in S. Mary's, as we see by the following entry : — 

It. for y* copye of y* servys in Englyss set out by note, iij** iiij. 

It. for iij Salter bokes in yngleeyse to sing or say y* salmes of y* servys, vij'* 

These are among the last entries in King Edward's reign, for in this year, on 
July 6, he died, and was succeeded by his sister Mary, whose sincere devotion to 
the doctrines of the Roman Church led her to make it her great object to undo 
all that her father and brother had for the last twenty years been endeavouring 
to effect ; to this the parish books bear interesting testimony, e.g. : — ^ 

It. for a fayre mess boke and legent .... idiij*' 

for oyl and creme'* iuj** 

for wachyng y* Sepulker vj** 

for crepyn to y* crosse on Good Friday and ester daye . xj*** 

The Rood, which had been injured and defaced^ is again repaired, and we find — 

s. Qd. 


p** for paynting of jr* Rode 6'- 8 

for 7 yards of Canvass for the Rode . . 4*- 8 

p* to Carpenters for makyng the Frame for y* Rode 2 

for 5 Candyll Stykks for the Rode .... 8 

Payd to Barnes for mend]rng over the Rode and over the Altar 

in the ChapeU, and for washing oute the Scriptures . . 4'* 4 

»» Chrism. 



In the month of January, 1 556-7, Cardinal Pole, as Legate from the See of 
Rome, appointed a commission to visit the University, with the view of the more 
complete re-establishment of the Roman Catholick faith ; one of the first acts of 
which was to interdict the two churches of S. Mary and S. Michael, on account of 
the burial of Bucer and Fagius within them. On the 12th of January^® '^ the 
Heddes met in the scholes where and by whom it was concluded that for as myche 
as BucER had byn an arche heretycke teachynge by his life time many detestable 
heresies and errors, sute should be made unto the Visitors by th' University that he 
myght be taken up and ordered according to the law, and lykewyes P. Fagius." 
There was no difficulty made in granting a petition so agreeable to the wishes of the 
visitors; and after different formalities gone through in citing, hearing mtnesses, &c., 
they were publickly condemned on the 26th, in S. Mary's church, where the Vice- 
Chancellor, the University, and the Mayor were gathered together, the visitors also 
being present*' " in a lytic skaffolde made for them within the quere." Then the 
Vice-Chancellor coming " before them without the quere door" made the third 
citation, and the Bishop of Chester (Cuthbert Scott) pronounced sentence on Bucer 
and Fagius as hereticks, commanding their exhumation. 

This was carried into effect on the 6th of February, and on Sunday, the 7th, the 
Church was reconciled by the aforesaid Bishop, as is recorded in Meres' Diary. 
" On Sunday myslyinge rayne. It. at vii my L. of Chester came to S. Marys and 
almost half an houre before to hallow the churche, and hallowed a great tubbe full 
of water and put therein salt, asshes and wyne and went onse round abowte withowt 
the churche and thryce within, the M' of Xts College, M" Percyoell and CoUing- 
wood were his Chaplens and wayted in gray Amyses and that don Parson CoUing- 
wood sayde Masse, and that don my seyde Lorde preched, wherunto was set my L. 
of Lynkolne and D. Coll, the Datary tarying at home and my L. of Chychester 
being syck." This reoonciliation of the church is thus recorded in the Parish 
Books : — 

Item, payd for new halloweing or reconcylyng of our chyrche beyng Inter- 
dycted for the buryall of M. Bucer, and the charg therunto belongeing, 
frankensens, and swete purfumes for the sacrament and herbes, &c., 
viij**' ob. 

*• Meres' Diary. Lamb's Cambridge Documents, p. 201. ^* Ibid. 


The following day the Blessed SacrameDt was borne in a solemn procession, of 
the University and Corporation, round the town to S. Mary's church, where, for 
the first time since the interdict, " masse was songe by the Vic. with deacon and 
subdeacon in p'iksong and organs." 

There are many more entries of great interest, which belong to this period, but 
my limits oblige me to pass over the remaining years of Queen Mary's reign, 
contenting myself with the preceding examples, which will suffice to shew their 

Queen Mary breathed her last on November 17, 1558, her cousin and 
coimsellor, Cardinal Pole, the Chancellor of our University, dying a few hours after 
her. He was succeeded by Elizabeth's favourite statesman. Sir W. Cecil, after- 
wards Lord Burghley, under whose government the University began speedily to 
reassume the character it had had in the time of Edward VI. Of the changes 
immediately set on foot, by which it was sought to bring back the services of our 
Church to the Ritual as established by the Second Book of King Edward, we find, 
as usual, valuable entries in S. Mary's Parish books. The Altars are forthwith 
removed by the order of the visitors,^^ and a Communion Table substituted in the 
room of the High Altar, and English Service Books provided to supply the place 
of those destroyed in the preceding reign. 

It. payd for takyng down the altars , . . , 2'- S"** 
It. payd for the communyon table .... 6'- 

It. payd for takyn downe the tabernacle . 10**- 

Payd to W"' Pryme for carrying of formes and a table 

for the visetoors 4** 

*^tem for two communyon books lO**, for 8 psalters 16'-, a byble bosed 

13'' 4**-, a paraphrasis 12"*, the homelyes 13"*-, register booke 10** 

^" Among these we find Matthew Parker, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury; Cecil; May, Dean 
of S. Paul's ; Home, Bishop of Winchester ; and Pilkington, Bishop of Durham. 

•19 << Also, that they shall provide within three months next after this visitation, at the charges of 
the parish, one book of the whole Bible of the largest volume in EngHsh ; and within one twelvemonths 
next after this said visitation, the Paraphrases of Erasmus, also in English, upon the Gospel, and the 
same set up in some convenient place within the said church that they have care of, whereas the 



Archbishop Parker was a determined enemy to Roodlofts, which he endeavoured 
to destroy throughout the whole of his province ; as appears from an inquiry in his 
Visitation Articles, in 1569,** " whether the roode lofte be pulled downe according 
to the order prescribed." The loft in S. Mary's had fallen beneath his ban some 
years before the publication of those articles, and was pulled down by his orders in 
1562," as is recorded by Strype in his life of the Archbishop.** From the parish 
records we find " a booke" was sent them down for which they had to pay " iij^," 
being probably a copy of Archbishop Parker's Injunctions, in obedience to which 
they hired " Goodman Dowsey*'' and one W"* Jenner" to pull down the gorgeous 
structure of " housings, gablets, orbs, forms, and vaults," which had so few years 
before been erected at the charges of the parish by the skill of ** Jhn Nonne and 
Roger Belle kervers" ; while divers " carpyndores" were employed to mend y** seatts," 
i. e, the quire stalls, disturbed and broken by the violence of the said Goodman 
Dowsey, and his fellow, in executing their commission, and also '' to tacke down" 
the Rood beam, or " pisse y* y' Roode stood on." However ready Masters Henry 
Clarke and Thomas Briven, Churchwardens, were to obey My Lord Archbishop's 
orders in removing monuments of superstition, they seem to have been in no hurry 
to satisfy the claims of their workmen, inasmuch as it was not till the year 1 569, 
that Goodman Dowsey and his companion were paid the pitiful sum of four 
shillings which was owing to them for their labour on this occasion : the parish 
indeed would appear to have deferred payment until they had disposed of the 
fragments of the structure they had demolished, as in the same year appear entries 
of receipts to the amount of twenty shillings for various pieces of timber from 
the Roodloft. 

parishioners may most commodiously resort mito the same, and read the same, out of the time of common 
service." Q. £liz. Injunctions. 1559. Cardwell Docum. Ann. Vol. i. p. 181. 

** Cardwell Docum. Ann. Vol. i. p. 322. *» Strype's Parker (book i. c. 1.) 

^ ^ The Roodloft indenture printed above is thus endorsed : — 

"The indenture for makyng of y« Roodlofte which cost 4 score 12**- 6"- and 8^- and the patume 
taken by y« church of Gassley in Sowffefolck and done by Jhn Nonne and Eoger Bell carvers. This 
notyd y« 22 day of December 1 562 by Henry Clark and Thomas Briven churchvrardens that then was 
charged to puU y* down." 

*' Probably this was the same with one Nicholas Dowsey, who in 1574 was allowed the freedom 
of the town for a fine of 13*. 4rf., but it was at the same time stipulated that "if he should many 
Margaret Smart, widow, he should pay a further fine of £4. 6s. 8rf." Had the citizens a grudge against 
Widow Smart, that they made it so costly a matter to wed her ? 


The entries in the parish books are as follows : — 
1562. It. payd for a booke y* was sent us for y* pullyng down of y" 

Roodelofte iij*** 

It. to carpyndores to mend y* seatts and to tacke downe y* 

pisse that y' Hood stood on ij"* i**- 

1569. It. of M'- Raye for part of y* Tymber of the Roodelofte 8'- 1** 

It. of M'- Foxton for Fragments of the Roodelofte . . 6'- 8*** 

It. of M''- Pooley for 4 peces of Tymber of the same . . 5'- 6*- 

The demolition of the Loft did not, we must carefully observe, include the 
destruction of the screen ; this was kept up with most religious care, as a most 
essential member of ecclesiastical arrangement, and it is most instructive to see how 
carefully in their Injunctions Parker and Grindal, neither of whom, more especially 
the latter, was ever suspected of any bias toward superstitious observances, guarded 
against that desecration of the chancel, which must necessarily follow when the 
Cancellif which its very name shew to be an integral part of its structure, are 
removed. Parker, for example, in the sentence immediately following the inquiry 
concerning the destruction of Roodlofts quoted above, asks: "K the partition 
between the chauncell and the churche be kepte" ? And Grindal in his Injunctions 
for the Province of York, A.D. 1571, ordains, "That the churchwardens shall see 
.... that the roodlofts be taken down and altered, so that the upper boards 
and timber thereof, both behind and above where the rood lately did hang, and also 
the seller (soler ?) or loft, be quite taken down unto the cross beam, whereunto the 
partition between the choir and the body of the church is fastened, and that the said 
beam have some convenient crest put upon the same."*® 

It is therefore most probable that the screen at S. Mary's was preserved, and 
though we shall hereafter see that a new one was necessary in Cosin's time, it would 
seem that this was erected after the demolition of the Doctors' gallery, which had 
then been allowed for a short time to fill up the chancel arch, as unhappily it 
does at the present day. 

No smaU injury would appear to have been done to the church in Elizabeth's 
days; in 1568 the few poor remnants of the rich sacred furniture of former days 
were sold, e. jr., 

^' Grindal's Remains. Parker Society, p. 134. 


Resseived of M'- Cuthbert, Stationer, for all the books in N*** 9, 

small and great lO** 6"*" 

It. of M'- Howell for 1 5 toppes of Candlestiks of latten used 
for the roode lofte, and the larape, weying all 50" with 2 
candlestiks of latten for the altar at 3*** ... 12'- 6** 

It. of one William, a singing man, the Image of our Ladye 
which was taken of the blew velvet alter clothe by the com- 
mande of the Archdeacon 6*- 

And at the same time the magnificent painted windows, the work of the same artist 
to whom we owe the glorious Imagery of King's College chapel, James Nicholson,*^ 
and recording on their brittle tablets the names of the various benefactors towards 
the sacred edifice," which had already been injured in the reigns of Henry and 
Edward, were still further defaced, e. g. 

1566 — 8. For washynge oute Images in the windows xij**' 

1569. For repaireing the glasse and putting owte y** Imygas . vij'* 

For ij fete of new glass in the same wyndows . . . xij*** 

To WiUiam Pryme for wasshing oute images oute of the 

glasse windowes iv**- 

Among the more interesting miscellaneous entries belonging to this period are 
the following : — 

1 56 1 . Pay* to the basket maker for lattes to lattys the great windowe 

at the west eand of the church vii'* 

^^ 1516. It. payed for the biere of a man to rjde to London for a glasier that shuld 

have glased the wyndowes and others for his labor in that behalf . iiij'- 

1519. P* to James Nycolson the glasier for windows in Seynt Marys . . vii***'- o o 

1520. It. to y« glasyer for mendyng of iii holys in y« glasse of y« clerestory . ij*- 
It. peyd to James Nycolson glasyer> for removing of a wyndow^ and 

mendyng the holes in y® glasse vi"* viij, 

< <' Postremo ipsee fenestree si non omnes, illarum tamen plurimse etiam hodie loquuntur sese factas 
vitreas per academiam et eos qui id temporis academise priyilegiis nixi sub preesidio ejusdem erant." — 
Lamb's Documents, p. 8. 




1563 — 5. For viij yerds of canvasse for the Roode to paynte iij*' iiij'*' 

For payntyng of xxiij yerds to Nasche y" paynter . xx' 

1562. For Fraakynscense to perfume the chirche . 1 

For do. 2^' 

1573. It. for Perfumes and Frankincense for the church 8**' 

Shnilar entries to these last two frequently occur at this time and are very 
important, as hearing witness to the fact which is not so commonly known as it 
should be, that the use of incense for warming and perfuming our churches, was 
continued for many years subsequent to the Reformation; being considered a 
seemly and reverent custom, not necessarily involving any superstitious meaning," 
and often most essential to counteract infection, when contagious sicknesses were 
more common than happily they now are. 

In the year following the date of the last entry we have the first probable trace 
of a close pue in the church ; nor can we be surprised that notices of these ** eye 
sores and heart sores" should now begin to crowd thickly upon us, when we call 
to mind how completely Calvinistick was the complexion of the prevailing theolo- 
gical teaching of the University at this time. The notorious Thomas Cartwright 
had been for some years heading the torrent of ecclesiastical disaffection, which 
Andrewes, Whitgifl, and Overall, were vainly endeavouring to stem. As early as 
1565, the members of S. John's had, at his instigation, openly thrown aside the 
surpUce, and made some innovations in the mode of administering the Holy 
Eucharist, and their example had been followed by Trinity (where only three 
fellows were found constant in their obedience to the Church) and the other 
Colleges." And though these external marks of disorder were before long put 

' ' It is well known for instance that " the divine Herbert" describes hb country pastor as taking 
care that his church is perfomed with incense on all high festivals. I subjoin one or two similar entries 
irom church books : — 

Allhallows Steyning, 1563. In the time of y« sicknesse. It*m forgennepore (Juniper) 

ffor the cherche ij*- 

1625. The tjme of Gods visitation. If m pud for x^* of ffrank- 

insence at 3*- p* pound *00, 02*, 06 

1665. Paid two several times for Beniamin (gum Benzoin, the 

principal ingredient in Incense) to bum in the church . 02% 06 

Jesus College Chapel, 1588. Juniper to air the Chapel on S. Marks day. 

' * An amusing story is told by Strype (Annals i. xliv.) in connexion with the dissensions caused by 
these '' fanatici superpelliciani et galeriani/' of ''a sophister of one of the colleges, that lately came into 


down by ecclesiastical authority, and the first author of the dissensions, Cartwright, 
deprived of his professorship, and expelled the University, by Whitgift^s strenuous 
exertions, the seeds of heresy and schism had been scattered with a bountiful hand 
in a soil too kindly to allow them long to remain dormant. The records of this 
time teem with sad proofs of the Calvinistick taint which was now beginning so 
fatally to infect our University, spreading so widely that in a few years it was no 
longer the Puritan who was called to account for the attacks made by him on the 
doctrines and discipline of our Church, but the orthodox preacher, who dared to 
follow the authority of the Fathers, and the distinctive teaching of the AngUcau 
Church, in opposition to the dogmas and systems of the Genevan Reformer. In 
1595, William Barret, Fellow of Caius, having impugned the doctrines of '^ final 
perseverance," ** assurance," and the like, and having spoken in harsh terms of 
Calvin, in a sermon preached in S. Mary's pulpit, was convened, and obliged to 
read a form of recantation ; while but a few months later, Baro, the Lady Margaret 
Professor, was civilly made to understand that on account of his non-compliance 
with the order which imposed " the Lambeth Articles" for subscription, it was 
expected that he should give up his position : which he did, saying to a friend, who 
inquired the reason of his resignation, " Fugio ne fiigarer,"*' This being the state 
of theological opinion in the University generally, we cannot wonder at seeing those 
sure outward signs of the prevalence of low uncatholick teaching, high, close pues, 
fast usurping the place where men had of old loved to pray in common to their 
common Father. Notices of this kind begin to crowd thickly upon us, and surely 
it may be regarded as a fact by no means devoid of significance that the entry 
immediately preceding that wherein an enclosed pue is first spoken of, should be 
" It' for an Englishe Geneva bible xvij"-" The entry in question is, " It' payd for 
mending the Jemalls" (i. e. the hinges) " to the seat where th'aldermen sytt iij**-" 
The mention of the hinges immediately leads us to suppose the seat must have had 
doors, whereby the civick authorities, always remarkable for their punctilious 

the quire, and placed himself among the thickest of the rest of the company, all with their surplices on, 
hut he alone without one. And when the censor of the college had called him, and censured him for 
this irregulfirity, he answered modestly, laying the cause on his conscience, which would not suffer to let 
loose the reins to such things ; when at length the true cause was known to be that he had pawned his 
surplice to a cook, to whom he had run in debt for his belly/' 

" Fuller's History of Cambridge, p. 288. ''His departure was not his free act, but that where- 
nnto his will was necessarily determined : witness his own return to a friend, requiring of him the cause 
of his withdrawing : ' Fugio,' saith he, ' ne fugarer,' I fly for fear to be driven away." 


stickling for the privileges of their office, sought to fence in their dignity, from the 
rude touch of the common rahhle. Another example of this feeling, which would 
be amusing were it not most painful to see men contending for precedence in 
GoD*s Holy Sanctuary, is to be found in Wiokstede's Thesaurus.^^ 

" In 1607, the Judges being in Cambridge," (Lord Coke and Judge Daniell) "and 
coming to S. Maries Ch. to the sermon, upon Sonday in the forenoon, and cominge 
to sitt in the Maior his seate, where he then did sitte, the Maior offered them 
very kindly to sitt in y* seatte under hym, unto w''** the L* Coke a Utle stayed, as 
seeminge his place was supreme above the Maior, but in th'end, both the Justices 
did sitt in the ^ame seate, under y** Maior,, and M'- Justice Danyell ate his goeing 
away comended the, Maior for his corrage therein, allowyng y* to be right in hym." 

A few years later we find these same functionaries having a Uttle surplus cash 
in hand, engaged in erecting a new seat for their accommodation ; the plague raging 
in the town, the ordinary publick supper could not be given, whereupon it was 
resolved with most prudent economy that the money which could not be spent on 
their bodily comfort in the usual way, should be made to contribute to it in another, 
and that a stately pue should therewith be erected. Not however that this was 
carried into effect without some difficulty and considerable delay, caused by the 
objections of the University, which it is truly gratifying to observe still raised an 
ineffectual protest against these fatal innovations. 

The story of these seats is told in the following entries : — 

1610. The town was visited by the Plague, and in consequence of the danger 
of contagion the Mayor and Bailliffs resolved that the Supper which was 
accustomed to be made at their charge on S. Bartholomews day, should not 
take place, but that the money they were bound to expend on it should be 
laid out in erecting a new Seat in S. Mary's for their accommodation.''^ 

1612. This yeare was the Aldermans seats building, but the Vice Chancellor** 
stayed them. 

1613. Th*Aldermans seats set up.*'' 

•* MSS. Downing. " Cooper's Annals, iii. 40. 

' ^ The name of this worthy deserves to he recorded with honour ; it was Clement Corhet, Master 
of Trinity Hall; Archhishop Harsnet was Vice-Chancellor in 1613. 
»» Baker's MSS. xxxrii. 226. 



It is now time that we shoiild record the first introduction of that most misightly 
excrescence, which tends more than any other of the existing deformities to rob 
S. Mary's of its due ecclesiastical character — ^the Doctors' Gallery. It appears 
from the oft-quoted register — our invaluable guide — that for the prototype of the 
present erection we are indebted to the Vice-Chancellorship of Dr. Duport, a.d. 
1610. The entry is as follows : — 

1610, 21"* March. The Dockters Galerie was sett up, uppon which Daye M'- 
Dockter Dueporte V. C. did give his Worde and Faithfull Promise, that at 
the nexte Congregation at the Scooles it should be decreed, that noe Scoller 
under the Degree of a M* of Arte or Batchellor of Lawe should not presume 
to sett in any Seate in S** Maries Churche in Searvice or Sermond Tymes. 
The Pfirste of Julye 1610 M*- D"^- Dewporte w^^Docters did ffirste sett there : 
against that Daye the Pulpitt was rassed, and M** Jy- Richardson of Christe 
Collidge preached. 

Tins notice is most valuable, not only from the information it affords us, with 
regard to the erection of the gallery, but also from the proof that it furnishes, that 
in those more self-denying times, it was considered no great hardship, for at least 
the younger members of the congregation, to stand during the delivery of the 
sermons ; which were then, let it not be forgotten, of a much more formidable 
length than in these days. Indeed we see fh)m an University order** of the year 
1586, that to sit in S. Mary's, was deemed a grave offence in any under the degree 
of Master of Arts, to be visited with fine, or corporal castigation, according to the 

'* The following is the order referred to ahove, extracted from Bedell Ingram's Book, among the 
Gough MSS. in the Bodleian Library (Camb. 46), p. 37 :— 

'' Jannarii 13^ 1586. It'm it is lykewise ordered that no Bachiler or Scholer shall p'sume to sitt by 
aine M^ of Arte in aine church at Sermons or aine lecture in the Scholes or before the fourmes before the 
puUpitt in St. Maries church or upon the seates before M'- Maior or seates in the quire nor stande upon 
the seates fourmes stalles and deskes in the comon scholes at aine scholasticall exercise : nor shall in aine 
soholastical acte or reading, knocke hisse or [make] aine nojse to disturbe let hinder or breake of sine 
scholasticall acte w^ by order of the scholes is left to the discrecion of the Senior of that companie and 
the bedells upon paine that eVy of the offenders in aine of the p'mises being Adultus shall p'sently 
paye iij"- iiij^* and being not Adultus to be openly corrected in the comon scholes w^ the rodde. 

'' Psentibus et consentientibus 

" D. CopcoT PROCANE, D. Pearne, D'- Goad, &c." 


age of the delinquent ; so that, until the early part of the seventeenth century, the 
larger portion of the area of the church must have been vacant and free from all 
incumbrance, presenting the same goodly spectacle, now to be seen only in the 
churches of the unreformed communion. 

The influence which was at this time exercised by Wren, Cosin, and other men of 
the same deep-rooted attachment to the now half-forgotten principles of the Anglicap 
Church, did not allow the existence of this gallery to be very long : it deformed the 
church for only six years, being taken down in 1616, during the Vice-Chancellor- 
ship of Dr. Hills, Master of S. Catherine's Hall. In 1618 the old pulpit was sold 
to the same " Mr. Dr. Richardson" who had preached the first sermon in it after 
its being elevated to allow of the Doctors, then for the first time snugly ensconced 
in their gallery, to see and hear with convenience ; and on Sunday the 30th of 
August " the Newe Pulpitt," which was a gift of Mr. Atkins, Alderman of Lynn 
Regis, being "sett up: M** Bellcanke** of Pembrook Hall, preached the first 
sermond in it."** At the same time, however, the pues were getting higher and 
higher, and more and more numerous, so that in 1628 we find the entry, '* P' for the 
seatts and pewes raiseing and mending on the south syde of the church, w^ the 
parish consented should be done, and because they were not formerly done the 
churchwardens were presented, x*, xix, viii**" 

We now enter upon a most stormy period, when the tempest which had been 
gathering ever since the commencement of the century, was preparing to break 
forth with that destructive fury which for a time overwhelmed both the throne and 
the altars of this land. At this time Archbishop Laud, moved no doubt by the 
continual representations made to him, of the disaffection to ecclesiastical and 
civil government, so rapidly and fatally spreading, and the notorious disregard of 
all church order, and open irreverence in the churches and chapels of the 
University, signified his intention of visiting Cambridge metropolitically. His 
right to this jurisdiction was keenly contested by the Vice-Chancellor and heads of 

99 Probably Dr. Balcanqual, Fellow of Pembroke, is intended. See Sir D. Carleton's Letters, 
p. 317. 

99 Town Book. Baker's MSS. xxxvii. 223. See Bishop Wren's Autograph MS. Catalogue of Pembroke 
Hall Library, p. 31. " Qui (D*- Atkins) non contentus Amoris Venerationis que suee magnificum sane 
testimonium jampridem (tn novo illo Templi B. M. pulpitoj Bonis hteris Religdonis que posuisse ; etiam et 
privatim in isto Pembrochianarum Musarum xfi/xi}Xiap;^/» nomen adfectumque suum pari sponte qsepit 



the University, until at length it was mutually agreed that the decision of the matter 
should be referred to the King. Charles, by the advice of the Privy Counoil, 
determined in favour of the Archbishop's claim, but the storm of rebellion so rapidly 
thickened, and matters of so much more serious importance begun to press so 
heavily on Laud, that he was never able to carry out his desire. However, in 
anticipation of his proposed visitation, a detailed account of the more special 
disorders in the University was forwarded to him, Sept. 23, 1636, drawn up probably 
by Gosin, or Sterne, Master of Jesus. 

This document not only throws much Ught on the melancholy condition of 
ecclesiastical matters throughout the University, with the exception of a few 
colleges still under the government of persons well affected to the established order 
of the Church,** but affords a sad though curious pictiu^ of the state of the church 
which is the subject of our more immediate inquiry ; and as the whole document 
has never yet been printed ,** I shall subjoin those portions which relate to 
S. Mary's. 

Spedall Disorders in y* Church and Chappells. 

" S*' Mary's Church at every great Commencement is made a Theater and the 
Prevaricatours Stage, wherein he Acts and setts forth his prophane and scurrilous 
jests besides diverse other abuses and disorders then suffered in that place. All the 
year after a parte of it is made a Lumber House for y* Materials of y** Scaffolds, for 
Bookbinders dry Fats, for aumerie Cupboards, and such like implements, which they 
know not readily where else to put. The West windows are half blinded up with a 
Cobler's and a Bookbinder's Shop.** At the East end are Incroachments made by 
diverse Houses, and the Vestry is lately unleaded (they say) with purpose to let 

^ ' As Peter House under Cosin ; Jesus under Sterne ; Pembroke under Lany. 

^* The only copy I am aware of is in Baker's MSS. vi. 152. Some extracts from it have been 
in Dean Peacock's most valuable and interesting ''Observations on the Statutes/' pp. 62 — 65. Since 
this paper was read the whole document has been printed by Mr. Cooper in his Annals of Cambridge : a 
work of deep research for which every Cambridge Antiquary must feel most grateftil to its accurate and 
painstaking compiler. 

^ ' These most unseemly and dangerous neighbours to the sacred edifice are noticed as early as 1587, 
and then appear to have been nuisances of long standing. The following is an entry in the parish books : 
''18 May, 29 Eliz. Whereas Trinity College has demised to Thomas Bradshaw their Two Shops at the 
W. end of St. Marys Church for 1 9 y" which are to be builded anon by the said Thomas, who did goe 
about to stop up the windows, and made his frame in the Church Wall to the prejudice of the same 
without the consent of the Ch. wardens, and was therefore by them discharged from building there, now 


it roine or to pull it down.^^ The Seats many of them are lately cooped up high 
with wainscot. 

" The Service Pulpit is sett up in the midst, a good distance below the 
Chauncell, and looks full to the Belfrie, so that all Service, second Service^^ and all, 
(if any be) is there and performed that way. 

" The Service there (which is done by Trin. Coll.) is commonly posted over and 
cut short at y*^ pleasure of him that is sent thither to read it. 

" When the University comes in for the Sermon the chancell (the higher part 
of it) is filled with boyes and Townsmen, and otherwhiles (thereafter^ as the 
Preacher is) with Townswomen also, all in a rude heap betwixt y* Doctors and y* 
Altar. In y^ Bodie of the ch. Men Women and Scholers thrust together promis- 
cuously, but in y* place onely before y* Pulpit, which they call y' Cock Pitt, and 
which they leave somewhat free for masters to sitt in. The rest of y* churche is 
taken up by the Townsmen of y* Parrishe and y' families, w** is one reason among 
others y^ many Scholers pretend for not coming to this churche. Tradesmen and 
prentices will be covered when the University is bare.*^ 

" Upon dayes when the Litany is there solemnly to be sung by y* Universitie 
we have not above 3 or 4 Masters in their habit that come to assist at that Service 
in y* Quire, y* rest keep their places, below for the Sermon, To which Sermon 
every Day we come most of us D"* and all, without any other habit butt the Hatt 
and the Gowne. 

on his earnest request they have granted leave on condition he pays 5«- per an. to the Church.** The 
shops appear in Lo^;an's view of the church nestling under its shade. They were finally removed in 
1^78. That it was no uncomftion thing for sacred huildings to receive considerable detriment from 
the houses erected near and against them, may be seen from the Presentments with regard to the state 
of S. Paul's Cathedral quoted in Malcolm's JLondinium Redivivum, (iii. 71,) from which it appears that 
one man had contrived a way through one of the windows into the steeple, where he stored his goods, 
while another baked bread and pies in an oven formed out of one of the buttresses ! 

** The present vestry was purchased of the parish by the University, in 1663, for ^50, and was 
afterwards wainscotted by them at a cost of ^30 more. Baker's MSS. xl. 60. 

•• i. e. the Service of Holy Communion. ** i.e. according. 

^ ^ Strange as it may seem to us, to cover the head at sermon time was a privilege of Masters of Arts, 
and other superior degrees. In the 42nd volume of Baker's MSS. we find a paper entitled " Divers 
disorders rectifyed in the University of Cambridge ;" of which one of the articles orders " that Batchellors 
of Arts and Inferior Students give place to y' betters^ and that they do not presume to cover y»* Heads 
at Sermons, or other publick meetings whatsoever ; except such only as are privileged by the Statutes, viz, 
Sonns of Noblemen and Heirs apparent of Knights. Roger Goad, V. C. 1595." 


** Before our Sermons the forme of bidding prayers appointed by the Injunctions 
and the Canon is not only neglected but by most men also mainly opposed and 
misliked. Instead whereof we have such private fancies and several prayers of 
every man's own making (and sometimes sudden conceiving too) vented among us 
that besides y" absurdities of y* language directed to God himself our young 
Schollers are thereby taught to prefer the private spirit before y* publick, and their 
own invented and unaproved Prayers before all the liturgie of y* Church. Awhile 
since one of them praying for y** Queene added very abruptly, * And why do the 
people imagine a vain thing, Lord, thou knowest there is but one Religion, one 
Baptisme, one Lord. How can there then be two Faiths/ After praying for 
Helkiah the High Priest and Shaphan the Treasurour, and Azakiah the King's 
Squire &c. presently he added * And whoever Lord shall mistrust providence yet 
let not y" great Men upon whose armes Kings do leane contemn Elisha's Sermons,' 
which being questioned by some of was defended by other some for a most Godly 
Religious and Learned Prayer. To such liberty are we come for want of being 
confined to a strict forme." 

By means of this document we are enabled to set before our readers a very 
correct picture of the arrangement of the interior of S. Mary's at the commence- 
ment of the Great Rebellion, and very painful is the conviction which is forced on 
our minds by an examination of it, that if much was found in the condition of the 
Church at that time which deserved condemnation, how far more reprehensible 
would its present state have been considered by those bulwarks of the discipline of 
our Church — ^Laud and Cosin ; since nearly all that was then censured has been 
retained, or restored, and many more offensive features added. It was then a 
matter of complaint that a portion of the seats had been " cooped high up with 
waniscot," but now, alas, nearly the whole area of the church is incumbered with 
lofty close pues ; the intrusion of the townsmen and their families on the University 
services, which was then noticed with blame, has now become an established custom, 
and the main body of the students, driven thereby from their proper position in the 
aisles of the church, have been compelled for more than a century either to occupy 
lofty galleries, to their obvious religious disadvantage, or to absent themselves from 
the publick services of the University altogether : the " service pulpit" is still " set in 
y* midst" of the nave, not only " a good distance below the chancell," but quite at 
the furthest extremity of the church, and though its position has been so far 


by Mr. F. Martin. In a work of this period we must not look for the correct- 
ness of detail we should require in an earlier work, but S. Mary's Font, though 
of a decidedly debased character in detail, yet partakes, in common with many 
works of this brief period of the revival of true Church principles, of a 
Catholick spirit and feeling, in its general conception, which would do credit 
to a purer age. At first sight it strikes you as a large and handsome specimen 
of Fonts of the Third Pointed Style, nor is it until you come near and ex- 
amine it that you perceive its exceeding faultiness in everything save form and 

The entries in the parish books are the following : — 

Of M'* F. Martin 3^^' towards a new Font to be built according 

to directions from M'- D'* Porter. 
1632. To G. Tompson for the makeing the ftmt . .200 

a barrel of Lint seed oyl to painte the fonte, the porch 

and Churche doors 14*- 4*** 

To David Blisse for paynting y* fonte and finding colors 1 * 

In 1640, we learn from the diary of Dr. Dillingham,* a new Rood screen was 
erected under the authority of Cosin, who was then Vice-Chancellor ; whether the 
former screen had been removed at the time of the first building of the Doctors' 
Gallery, and had not been replaced, or whether Cosin was simply desirous of 
shewing his zeal for the Lord's Sanctuary by ornamenting it with a new and 
splendid specimen of carved work, is uncertain: very stately and magnificent, 
however, his erection seems to have been, from the pictures drawn of it in 
the (Querela Cantabrigiensis, and other contemporaneous notices. A few years 
before the chancel had been wainscotted all round, and " adorned with Spire work," 
so that the outward appearance of the church must have been much more seemly 

^ ^ This Font now stands under the staircase leading to the Doctors' Galleiy ; in consequence of 
its haying heen banished to this distant comer it is seldom or ever used : four years ago the Sacrament 
of Bi^tism was administered from a white Wedgwood-ware basin^ placed on a morable stand with a 
long leg hooking into the Clerk's seat. Whether this arrangement still continues I am not aware. 

<^» Baker's MSS. xv. 129. '' Oct. 1640. The New Screen at S^- Maries betwixt the Church and 
Chancel set up. Jo. Cosin Procan." Baker onlj gives a few extracts from tliis most interesting journal^ 
nor does he afford anj hint as to where the original is to be found ; it is a matter which well deserves 


than it had been for many years, though, from the notices of the time, we have too 
good reason to conclude that the congregations continued to be of the same mixed 
and disorderly character,^* and the pulpit made one day the scene of a treasonable 
invective against the established order of ecclesiastical and civil government, while 
the next would see the place occupied by one of those divines who sometimes gave 
too much ground for the remark mentioned by Fuller, that in those days " he 
who in his sermons could preach near popery, and yet no popery, there was 
your man.'*^* 

The improved appearance of our University church is probably to be 
attributed in no small degree to Archbishop Laud's interposition, seconded by the 
zealous co-operation he met with in Cosin, Wren, and Sterne; for though he 
never actually visited the University, he was ever on the watch to do what he 
could towards checking the growing spirit of licentiousness and disorder. In his 
annual account of his province to the King, in 1639, he complains " that in most 
of the Chancels of the churches in Cambridge there are common seats over high, 
and unfitting that place in divers respects," for which he says, "I think if an 
admonition would amend them it were well given. But if that prevail not, the 
High Commission may order it if your Majesty so please" ; whereupon the King 
writes in the margin, " C. R. It must not bee. You are in the Right ; for if faire 
meanes will not, power must redresse it." 

Another instance of the same kind of abuse is found in the following extract 
from the proceedings at the Archbishop's Visitation in S. Michael's Church in 
1638, copied in the sixth volume of Baker's MSS. " Some of y* Parishioners" of 
Great S. Andrew's " being presented for not kneeling at the Sacrament, alledged, 
y* they received in y' Seats, Yf^ are so strait that being filled they cannot kneel ; 
and the Communion Table is not railed in. The Chancel is almost all of it walled 
up, and but a little part of it left for y' Communion Table to stand in, and that so 

^ ^ . We have this incidentally confirmed by a story related in a volume of jests collected by Sir 
Nicholas L' Estrange, first Baronet of Hunstanton, Norfolk, elder brother of the more notorious 
pamphleteer Sir Roger L'Estrange. It is found MSS. Harl. 6395, and some few selected jests have 
been printed, with Illustrations, by the Camden Society. The story in question relates how " a Fellow 
commoner coming into S. Maries late was thrust into a Toume Pve, and rebufPt by a handsome wench ;" 
he therefore reviling her "was ordered by M'- Vice-Chancellor to aske her forgiveness in her Pue, 
nexte Sundaye, openly," which he did, but in such ambiguous terms as to increase rather than diminish 
the offence. 

»» FuUer's Hist. Univ. p. 316. 



indecently railed in, and y^ Commissioners appointed it to be altered fior the 
present, and afterwards the Chancel to be sufficiently repaired and well glazed and 
paved, and y® partition to be taken away, and y* Communion Table to be placed at 
y* east end of y* s^ Chancell, and the Pewes in the Chancell to be taken away, and 

decent seats to be made there The Maiors and Aldermans and some other 

seats are over high." 

The ameUoration in the arrangements of S. Mary's was, however, of very short 
duration ; for here the notices of Church-reparation cease, and those of Church- 
desecration begin. For in 1641, the very next year after the erection of Cosin's 
screen, there came down an order from the Parliament, " to remove the Conunimion 
Table from the east end of all collegiate churches or chapels in the University," 
in confoihnity with which mandate we find in the parish accounts, " Paid for taking 
down the Communion rails and levelling the Chancel £2. 7$. Od." The following 
passage from Prynne's '' Canterburies Doom" will shew that this altar had been for 
some time a mark for jealous puritanical eyes ; the passage is from the evidence of 
Wallis (the femous Professor of Geometry at Oxford) on Archbishop Laud's trial. 
'' That in the Universitie Church of S^ Maries there was an altar railed in to which 
the Doctors, Schollers and others usually bowed. That these Altars, Crucifixes, 
Candlesticks, Tapers and Bowing to Altars continued till after this Parliament, 
and were brought in since the Archbishops time by means of Byshop Wren, Doctor 
Cosens, D^' Martin and others all Canterburies great favorites." The Heads of the 
University would seem to have made a determined stand against the execution of so 
sacrilegious an edict, but as was too commonly the case, with little or no effect. Tlie 
name of Dr. Howe, Fellow of Trinity, is handed down to us by the testimony of a 
malignant accuser, as one of those who boldly dared to come forward to resist the 
all-usurping powers of the ^'Commons House"; doubtless many more such are 
forgotten from want of record. The passage is as follows : — 

" Articles against D'* Cheney Rowe, Parson of Orwell, and Fell, of Trin. before 
the Committee for Scandalous Ministers sitting in Trin. Coll. Jan. 14, 1644." 

" Stephen Fortune of Cambridge Haberdasher sworn sayth, ' that at such time 
as the Ordinance of Parliament for takyng away Rayles and Steps in churches, came 
forth, this Deponent being ch. warden and about to execute' that ordinance by 
taking away the Stepps and Rales in G*- S. Maries church in Cambridge, D'- Row 
came to the church to this Deponent, and thretened this Deponent, that if he went 


he never had loved. This fact appears from that most cmious, though saddening 
docmnent, " Will Dowsings Jom-nal/' wherein he relates how he wandered from 
one sacred edifice to another, and records with glee how he did in one chapeF^ 
" brake downe 120 Superstitions of Saints and Angells" — how in another^ he 
" digged up the steps for 3 hours" while none of the fellows he feelingly laments 
would " put on their Hatts ;" while in a third,'^ his godly soul seems much pained 
because the superstitious master, Dr. Brownrigg, would not puffer the " Communion 
Plate to be used for no other use," and " manifested more reverence due to the 
place called Church than any other place." But though he is generally accurate 
enough in the enumeration of the superstitions destroyed by him, in the other 
churches and chapels, he is quite silent as to S. Mary's, of which the entry is 
simply as follows : — 

" Great Maryes. Jan. and Dec. 27. M** Haweyward Churchwarden." 

We have already seen that the work of destruction, though not immediately 
commenced, was only postponed until the arrival of Cromwell himself, its rich 
ornaments being preserved with the same jealous care that is taken of pheasants 
before a grand " battue^'^ and for as worthy an object, — to afford grown-up children 
the pleasure of wholesale destruction. 

From further records of this dismal time, we learn that the crosses which sur- 
mounted the steeple and the eastern gable of the chancel were removed, and the 
scanty remnants of painted glass which had survived so many reUgious broils, 
dashed from the windows ; while the Common Prayer Book was openly torn by 
Cromwell's soldiers, as is thus feelingly recorded in the Querela. " And that 
ReUgion might fare no better than Learning, in the University church (for perhaps 
it may be Idolatry now to call it Saint Maries) in the presence of the then Generall 
our Common Prayer-book was tome before our faces, notwithstanding our Pro- 
tection from the House of Peeres for the free use of it, some (now great one) 
M. Cromwell. encouraging them in it, and openly rebuking the University Clerk'" 
who complained of it before his soldiers. "''^ 


^ * Jesus Chapel. ' « Queen's Chapel. ' ' S. Catharine's Hall. 

'• In the register of Baptisms of Great S. Mary's parish, after the entry ''Edmund Porter 
christened 1592," there is the following ohsenration^ "Was he not the parish clerk, when Cromwell 
ordered the Prayer-hook to be torn?" — Cambridge Portfolio, Vol. II. p. 387. 

f ^ Querela Cantab., p. 1 1 . 


painted upon banners, and thrust out of churches, while * the order of the moriiing 
and evening sacrifice and the beauty of the temple were quite forgotten' by men 
who turned ' religion into rebellion and faith into faction.' " 

I shall give one more quotation from the parish records of this time, before we 
finally leave it ; it is I think the most shocking of the many painful entries which I 
have met with in parochial annals of this period. 

1650. Paid to Persyvall Seksle the clarke for the ringers, by an 
order from the maior, on 30 Jan. being a day of thanks- 
giving . . 2* 

There is something more than ordinarily flagrant in the wickedness of the 
hypocritical spirit which could set apart this day, the anniversary of one of the 
most crying sins whereby our nation was ever polluted, as a day of publick 
thanksgiving to the Almighty, and devote the day whereon our blessed Sovereign, 
Charles I., was martyred, to the publick expression of the gratitude of the nation 
for the success of those impious arms, which were still directed against thdr lawful 

On the eleventh of May, 1 660, Charles the Second was proclaimed King, in 
various places in the town of Cambridge, and we immediately see in the parochial 
annals evidences of the newly restored order both in Church and State : the Rebels^ 
Arms, as they are now termed by men who a few years before were celebrating a 
day* of thanksgiving on the 30th of January, were taken down, and those of the 
King set up in their room : while a number of hassocks, or " Communion 
Cricketts," as they are termed, are provided at the expense of the parish, for the 
parishioners to kneel on at the time of the reception of the Holy Eucharist. 

The following are the entries belonging to this period : — 

1660. Paid for taking down of Rebels arms, and setting up the 

Kinges 6*- 

for Communion cricketts to kneel on at Commxmion 1 6'' 6"*' 

for matts for the same 7^' S^' 

matts for M'- Sedgwicks seatt . . . I'- 2?- 

* ^ The 30th of January was set apart by order of Ptolioment as a day of thankagmng for the 
success of the arms of the Commonwealth by sea and by bind, especially the rendition of the Caatle of 
Edinburgh, and the defeat of the Scots forces in the West of Scotland by Lambert. Parliam, Hist, of 
England, xix. 451. The victory at Dunbar is thus noticed in the parish accounts ; " for reading y« boke 
of narradon of victory over y« Scots^ 6»"" 


privileges made by the townspeople, had so completely vanished, that they seem to 
have felt it no degradation to purchase a right to admission within the sacred walls, 
mainly erected by the mimificence of their own body, by a concession to the evil 
passions of pride and exclusiveness, which were now permitted to exercise almost 
undisputed sway within our churches.®' 

These alterations are thus noticed by Cole in the account of this church, in 
1 745, contained in the ninth volume of his MS. Collections. 

" There are 4 beautiful and lofty Pillars which separate the Nave fr y* side 
Isles. The Modem Pulpit and Desk of fine carved Work done by M'* Essex" 
which cost y* University " (unfortunately he omits the sum, which must 

the Uniyersity to have a definite part of the church set apart for their especial use. In 1639 we fin4 
" an attempt made by D"*- Cosen V, C. to deprive the parish of the mid Isle or Alley," but they " resolved 
not to submit to such usurpation, but to defend their rights and privileges, at the common charge of the 
parish." In the parish books we see ''payd for y® coppey of an order, wherein the Universite claymeth 
the vse of the church, and y« parishenors never would condesend to it, !•• 6*-** 

"' We obtain an amusing glimpse of the state of the interior of S. Mary's, in 1714, from the 
Music Speech of Roger Lon^, Master of Pembroke, recited at the public commencement, then, to the 
disgrace of the University, held in this church. The Ladies, it appears, had on previous occasions of 
this kind, been accommodated in a temporary gallery built for that purpose ; but the Vice-chancellor 
this time refused them any such convenience, and was determined cogere cancellia, i. e,, to shut them up 
in the chancel. The speech opens — 

" The humble petition of the Ladies who are ready to be eaten up with spleen. 
To think they are to be locked up in the Chancel, where they can neither see nor be seen, 
But must sit in the dumps, by themselves, all stew'd, and pent up. 
And can only peep through the Lattice, like so many chickens in a coop ; 
Whereas last Commencement the Ladies had a gallery provided near enough 
To see the Heads sleep, and the Fellow Commoners take snuff." 

Taylor and Long's Music Speeches, London, J. NichoUs, 1819. 

'^ Essex was very much employed in Cambridge about this time, but, unfortunately, his works 
are for the most part such as we should now most gladly see undone, being generally in the miserably 
insipid Italian taste, then so fatally prevailing. The New Combination Room at Trinity, which so sadly 
disfigures that beautiful court, was built by him ; he, too, was guilty of destroying the picturesque 
gables of Neville's Court, represented in Loggan's view, substituting the flat unbroken line which 
seemed so beautiful in the eyes of that dreary uniformity-loving age. See Coles' MSS. vol, xxxviii. 
His works in the Pointed style, though weak and meagre, shew infinitely more appreciation of it than 
was general at that time. The Reredos in King's Chapel, and the Organ Screen at Ely, are among the 
best examples. The open parapet of the central tower of Lincoln cathedral also deserves favourable 


have been a very considerable one, the work being really good and costly of its 
kind) " ab* 6 years ago, stands at y" Entrance into y" Pitt, with a Pair of Stairs in it, 
y* Back to y* Organ, and fronting y* Vice-Chancellor. The Pit was done about 
y* same Time and y* old Stones w*''* lay in y* old Pit were then taken up, and laid in 
various parts of y® Church, and y* modem Pit floored and raised a step higher than 
the Chancel." 

"The old curiously carved Pulpit," which we remember was erected in 1618 
by a M'- Atkms, Alderman of Lynn,®* " stood against the South Pillar ; but when y* 
Gralleries were erected by the Benefaction of M"^* Worts to y* University round y® 
Church against the Pillars, and over y* two side Isles, it was necessary to remove 
it, or y® Preacher must have been overlooked." 

In the chancel, however, we still see a better feeling prevailing, and the arrange- 
ments were yet in all essential points as in the days of Bishop Cosin, the " beautiful 
and lofty Screen, with a Canopy and Spire Work " still remained " under y" Noble 
large Arch," separating the Chancel and Nave, while stalls were arranged along 
the sides of the Chancel, in two rows, for about half its length, " in which sett only 
y* Heads of Colleges, Doctors of all Faculties, Noblemen, Professors, and Bedles." 
"The Vice-Chancellor sets in y* 1"* Stall on y* S. Side under y* Screen, and y* 
Heads of Colleges according to their seniority in y* University by him on the same 
side. The Noblemen, Bishops, and other Doctors and Professors in y* Stalls on 
the N. Side according to their Dignity and Creation." The Eastern portion being 
divided off by a " door across from the Stalls, and wainscoted all roimd very high, 
with handsome Wainscote and a Canopy adorned with Spire work, and 1 633 in 
various Places to shew its Date." 

Such, just a century ago, was the arrangement of the church of S. Mary's ; 
would that it had never been altered ; but the fatal error of admitting galleries 
for the undergraduates having been once committed, it was soon found absolutely 
necessary to follow the fatal precedent, and set up one for the heads of the Uni- 
versity. It is not uninstructive to mark the gradual steps by which the church 
was reduced to its present lamentable condition of misarrangement : first, galleries 
were erected over the aisles ; this rendered necessary the removal of the pulpit from 
its old accustomed place by a pillar on the south side, to its present most anomalous 
position ; the preacher being, in consequence of this change, removed so far from the 
Doctors, that they must have had great difficulty in hearing his voice, they therefore 

•» Cole's MSS. vol. ix. p. 26. 



in a short time desire for themselves a similar elevation to that of the jimior members 
of the University, and hence arose the existing " Doctors' Gallery," or " Golgotha," 
as it is wittily but somewhat irreverently termed. 

" It has been talked of lately," says Cole, " to alter the Form of y* Chancell and 
make it more comodious for y* Doctors, by raising y' stalls one above another ^ for at 
present they that sit on y" lower Range of Stalls on either side are perfectly hid." 

Would that the alteration had only been of the simple unobjectionable nature 
referred to, we should then have had Uttle fault to find with the arrangement of the 
Chancel. But, alas ! no ; on pursuing the history contained in his amusing pages a 
little farther, we find to what this love of innovation led, viz., to that vast blot which 
has for so long a time marred the effect of one of the finest interiors in England. 

Writing in 1757 he says, " By the advice and contrivance of my worthy friend 
James Burrough, late one of y^ Esquier Bedels, and now Master of Gonville and 
Caius College,*^ the Chancel is quite altered, and y* Church appears to much less 
advantage than it used to look :for the Stalls and fine Screen are taken down'' (Qy. 
what became of them ?) ^* in the Chancell^ cmd a Gallery built with an arched top of 
Wainscotj highly ornamented indeed with Mosaic carving, but very absurd in y* 
Design: both as the Doctors who sit there are generally old men, sometimes 
goutifiedy and not well able to get up stairs, and also are made to turn their Ba^ks 
on y* Altar y w*'^ is not so decent especially in an University. The old Wainscote is 
pulled down w""*" went all round y* chancel, and a new one but lower is added, w** 
also runs behind y" Altar Piece, w*"** is Plain Wainscote, it is railed in on 3 black 
steps ; there are also sort of Stalls or Benches placed round under y* Walls, and 
under the said gallery, w*^** was thus finished last year." 

This was the last alteration of any moment in our University church,®^ and with 
this, as the last, so the worst of all the many melancholy instances of church 
desecration, under the specious names of church repair, and church purification, 
which the Annalist of this church has to record, I take my leave of the reader ; 
with the expression of my earnest hope that in the space of a very few years, 

** The Architect of Clare Chapel and the Senate House, as well as of the North building in the 
Fore-court of Peter House. 

* ^ In 1 766 the stone work of the windows of the aisles was renewed, and the rich Perpendicular 
tracery represented in Loggan's view replaced by very meagre intersecting mulHons. Two-thirds of the 
expense was borne by the University, one-third by the parish. 



A Paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society y March 13, 1843, by the 

Rev. W. C. Lukib, M.A., Trinity College, 

The following Chancellor's Commission, bearing date November, 1636, relating 
to certain alterations in the position of the " Minister's reading place" and pulpit, 
in the Parish church of Steeple Ashton, Wilts, and the Vicar's reply, are forwarded 
to the Society with a hope that they will prove useful and interesting. They are 
extracted from the old Account Book belonging to the Parish ; in which are several 
other ciuious entries, a few of which I shall subjoin : — 

The Coppye of y* Comition. 

** Marmaduke Lynne, Doctor of Lawe, Chauncellor of the Dioces of Saru, To 
all to home these p'sents shall come, greetinge. Whereas wee are informed that the 
Pulpitt and the Ministers readinge place, in the parish Church of Steeple Ashton in 
the Dioces aforsaid, ar not fitt and convenient nor fitly and conveniently placed, 
and that by some late ereccon of new Seates in the said Church, the accustomed 
ways and passages to certaine old and auncient seates in the said Church are stopt 
upp, and that some other things in that Church about the seates there, are out of 
order and fitt to bee reformed. Knowe yee, that wee not being nowe able to travill 
thither in our owne parson, and yet much desiring the premises to be rightly 
ordered, trusting therefore one the discreet and circumspect carraige of M'- Henry 


Carpenter Vicar there, have authorised and by these presents doe authorize him, 
by and with the advise of the Churchwardens of that parish, to remove the said 
Pulpitt and reading place, and to make and place the same otherwise, and in some 
other place or places of the said Church, where the Minister may more conveniently 
and in more fitt and decent manner execute his office in preachinge and reading of 
God's Word unto the people, and by removing those new erected Seates or other- 
wise as he in his gc^od discrecon, by and w^ the advise aforesaid, shall thinke fitt, 
to open the said heretofore accustomed passages to those auncient Seates, and alsoe 
to reforme and putt into good order such other thinges as are amiss and out of 
order about the Seates in the same Church, and to doe all other things requisite and 
necessary in and concerninge the premises as fully as wee our selves might doe if 
wee were psonally present. Provided not w^'^standing that this our commission 
shall not extend to give power to the said M'* Henry Carpenter, nor to aney other, 
to take away, remove, straighten, or alter any auncient Seates w^^'out the consent of 
the present possessors, and not so much to streighten the allies or passages in the 
said Church, and what shall be done herein wee appoint the said M'- Henry 
Carpenter to certifie us at or before Easter nex. In witnes whereof wee have caused 
the Scale of our office to be affixed to these presents. Dated at Sarum this fower 
and twentith day of November in the yeare of our lord god one thousand six 
hundred thirty six.** 

THO», SADLER (R. grarius.) 

The Coppie ofy' Oirtificate. 

" To the Right Wor*. Marmaduke Lynne, Doctor of Lawe, Chauncellor of the 

Dioces of Sarum. 
*' May it please your Worshipful, by vertue of your Com°° hereunto annexe, 
bearing date at Saru, imder the Scale of y" office the 24**" daye of November 1636, 
I, Henry Carpenter, Vicar of Steeple Ashton in the Countie of Wilts, and Dioces of 
Saru, having duly published and taken uppon mee the execucon of your said 
Com"", have, by and with the advise of the Church Wardens there, removed the 
Minister's Readinge place out of the body of the Church wher it stood before in 
the middle ally and comon passage, and placed the same conveniently in the North 
fiide of the Chauncell, and have set the Pulpitt a Uttle further in to the bodie of 


the Church then it was before, for the better hearing of the people, and make the 
Preachers way to the pulpitt mor convenient then here to fore it was, and whereas by- 
one M'* Tristram Fflowers late ereccon of a new seate in the auncient way or passage 
to the seates of John Bennett and his wife to theire seates situate betwixt the said 
waie or passage and the passage or way out of the middle ally in to the Chauncell, 
they have been hindered from comeing to the said seates throughe that their 
auncient way or passage, I have, by and w*** the advise aforessad, caused twentie 
Inches in breadth and fower foote in length of the said new erected seate next 
adjoyning to the seates of the said John Bennett and his wife, to be sev'ed w^ 
waynescott and pted from the residue of the said newe erected seate, to be and 
remaine for a passage to the seates of the said John Bennett and his wife, and that 
into each of their seates a doare be made through the same passage, and another 
doare in to that passage wherof the said John Bennetts children and other sittinge 
psons of his familie male make use att service or sermon time. All w^ I humbly 
certifie to your wor"* and In witness wherof I have hereunto sett my hand and 
scale this eight day of Aprill 1637.'' 


JOHN BENNETT, 1 , .,, , 

EDW. TUCKER, jCh^^eh Wardens. 

In another part of the Book the following entry occurs : — 

THO». CROOKE, ' ^^'^'"^^ Wardens. 

" In y* time of these Churchwardens was y* old pulpit taken away, and in y* 
place thereof was a more decent, new, and comely pulpit placed." 

Whence it appears that these are the churchwardens who were guilty of the 
innovation, and whose taste is condemned by the Chancellor about thirty years 
afterwards, for erecting in place of the old pulpit, in their opinion " a more decent, 
new, and comely" one, in " y* middle ally or comon passage," but in his, one " not 
fitt and convenient, nor fitly and conveniently placed." 


Inventory of goods 8fc, belonging to y' parish Church of Steeple Ashton in y' County 
of WiltSj made December xxxi'* in y' xxxiv*^ year of y* reign of Henry viii. 

" In the xxxi day of December and in the xxxiiii*** yere of the Reign of Kynge 
Henry the viii*^, by the grace of god of Inglond firaunce and Irelond Kynge 
Defender of the ffaith and in Earth nexte and Immediately under god of the Churche 
of Inglond and also of Irelond Supreme head. A pfect and a true Inventorye taken 
and made by the consent of the hole pishe of Steple Ashton of all and singuler goodes 
lewels and Implementes belongyng or beyng w*n the pishe chirch aforsaid and D** 
into the custodye of Willm Stilman and Roberte White beyng churchewarden as 
here after folowethe — 

Imprimis one chalis pcell gilte conteyning xviii. [oz.] 

It™ i pere of vestmentes of blewe velvet and a cope w* albe and ames to 

the sme. 
It"* of blewe Sattyn of bridggis i cope. 
It" of Red velvet one pere of vestmentes. 
It" of Red velvet one cope w*'* albe and ames to the same. 
It" of grene velvet . . . pere of vestmentes w* albe and ames to the same. 
It" of white Damaske i pere of vestmentes w* albe and ames. 
It" of blacke silke one hole sute of vestmentes w* a cope. 
It" of purpull silk one cope. 
It" of grene silke one cope. 

It" iii corporas casis of silke and i of them embrodered w* gold. 
It" of grene syDce and sepulchere clothe. 
It" of sad silke i aulter clothe. 
It" for corporacis vi kercheifes. 
It" in the Tower there be v grett belles and one smale bell and a cloake." 

Further Extracts from the Account Book. 

1559. P* for pulling downe of y" Roode . . • . iiij 
P* for pulling downe of y" Alter .... viii 




1558. Rec* for smoke fiarthins ..... vij*. iij 


1586. Rob*- Longe hath things belonging to y* Church. 

Roger Martine hath an hoUe water potte and a brasen stafFe. 
Anthony Griffin hath a cup boorde. 
Bob. Hancocke hath a Table. 

1587. Agreed by y* consent of y* Parish that W° White y* clarke shall keep 

y* clocke, belles, make cleane y* church, sweepe y* leddes, and 
ringe y* bell for Couerfue and Day, and shall have yearlie for his 
labour xiij** iiij** 

Inventory of y' goods belonging to jf Churche. 

1581. Imprimis one Communyon Cuppe pcell gillt wayinge xvi oz.* 
Item, one Surplys. 

Item, i Bybell and one bocke of errasms. pErasmus's Paraphrase.] 
Item, ij Bockes of Common Prayer. 
Item, j pylpitt clothe and ij poles of bras. 

Inventory of y* goods 8fc. belonging to y* Church. 

1609. Imprimis for y® Communion Table a Carpet and Table Cloath. 
Item, a silver cup or chalice. 
Item, a peuter flagon. 
Item, for y* pulpit a cushion of blew silke. 
Item, a surplice. 
Item, a great Bible with y* Booke of Common Praier and y* Booke 

of Cannons. 
Item, y* two Volumes of y* acts and monuments of y*' Church. 
Item. Erasmus Paraphrase uppon y® Evangelists. 
Item. In y* Tower five greater Bells and a Uttle sance Bel. 
Item. Certaine old pipes and fragments of y* organs, (sold 1 620 for 

* Is this difference in weight to be accounted for by the purloining of jewels, and abrasure of figures ? 



[translated from the black book of the bishop of coutances.] 

A Paper read be/ore the Cambridge Camden Society, March 13, 1843, by the 

Rev. W. C. Lukis, M.A., Trinity College. 


" On the 22* day of May in the year of our Salvation and grace by the holy 
and sacred name of the Great King of Glory, our Lord and only Saviour Jesus 
Christ, one thousand one hundred and eleven, at the request and supplication of Friar 
Claude Panton, hermit in the Island of Herm, and of his holy Brethren joining with 
him in the holy and sacred service of prayer, the most noble Prince and lord Julien 
de Pracle, governor and lord of the Isles, for this purpose, gave his consent, and 
likewise did the principal inhabitants of the parish of S. Sampson and of the 
rest of the Island ; namely. Sir Richard D'Anneville, gentleman by name and by 
birth, captain and governor of the said parish ; Enoch Dupr^, his lieutenant ; 
Romain CapeUe, Peter Bergauft, Michael Nicholas, Peter Le Petit, George Le Gras, 
Robert Hallouvris, Richard Hallouvris, Michael Du Port, John Selle, Michael 
Le Gobetel, Peter NicoUe, John Griselaine, John Le Clercq, John Le Sauvage, 
Jonas Roland, Stephen Genar, Roland du Mortier, Guilbert Beverie, Martin de 
Lalande, John Efiart, Massy Blondel, Peter des Rats, Luke La Perre, Thomas 
Quertier, Philip Jehan, Walter Le Sauvage, Peter Geffrey, Rollin Jehan, Martin Le 
Cocq, and James Le Bnm ; all of whom assembled together and with one accord, at 
the request of the Reverend Anthony de Suzan, Bishop of Coutances, for the pur- 
pose of consecrating a certain temple and burial-ground belonging to the said 


parishioners, built and adorned at 'le port Marin.' At the command of the said 
Bishop all the people prostrated themselves with great devotion on their bare 
knees and with joined hands. Then the Bishop said * Moustier Templum Domini. 
May Grod bless and keep thee from every evil and danger henceforth and for 
ever, may He bless and defend thee by His almighty power from all enemies visible 
and invisible ; and in His holy and sacred name I bless, dedicate, and consecrate 
thee for His holy service, that the holy word may be heard and understood, and 
piu^ly preached, within thee, and His praises worthily sang and His holy sacra- 
ments purely administered ; and in the name of the Father and of the Son and 
of the Holy Ghost thou shalt bear the name of S. Sampson, on account, and for 
the love, of the noble Sampson D'Anneville, Son of the noble lord Richard 
D'Anneville of the aforenamed parish ; praying God that a Uke blessing may be on 
thy burial-ground, holy ground ; beseeching Thee, O God Almighty, that all those 
who shall be buried within the temple and within the burial-ground, may have this 
grace of Thee to rise, at the end of the world, and at the last day, and at the 
appearing of the Great God and Saviour of all the world, in the resurrection of 
an eternal and blessed life. Praying God that thou be maintained, supported, and 
enlarged, from time to time, to be used to the glory of Thy heavenly grace. 
Likewise we beseech Thee, good Lord and Creator of the universe, that it may 
please Thee to guard and defend it from thunderbolt, thunder and Ughtning, 
winds, tempests and storms, flying dragons in the air, fire falling from Heaven, 
encroachments of the sea, and from all enemies, visible or invisible, whether in 
time of peace or war, even to the second coming of Jesus Christ ;' and all the 
people said. Amen ! Then humbly repeating the * Pater Noster,' the noble silk 
standard, ornamented and bearing three doves, then borne on the arms of the 
noble lord Sir Richard D'Anneville, was planted. Then the company dispersed, 
after having made gifts and presents, each according to his incUnation, giving 
thanks to God, bells, trumpets, organs, and other instruments sounding and 
resounding to the Lord, giving Him honor and praise, as to Him who is the King 
of the world. Amen !" 



" On the 4*^ day of November in the year of our salvation and grace, and of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, one thousand one hundred and thirty, appeared Sir George 
Bellicabe, governor of the Island of Jersey, called the Holy harbour, for the purpose 
of dedicating and consecrating a certain parochial temple or church in the parish 
of Torteval, duly founded by a noble gentleman and merchant of the Island of Jersey, 
named Philip De Carteret; and this, for a vow and promise to God when he 
besought Him that he might reach a place of safety, being tossed on the waves of 
the sea, assailed by great and hard winds, tempests and storms, wherefore God 
hearing him, guided him, and he arrived about midnight, on Saturday the 13^ of 
September in the year 1129, straight in the harbour of Rocquaine in this Island. 
The said noble and really charitable PhiUp De Carteret and founder of the said 
temple, therefore, in the presence and with the consent of Ilarion Carey, governor 
of the said parish, and the principal parishioners ; namely : Peter Brocquart, John 
Hamel, Girard De Beauvoir, Thomas Le Clercq, John Brouard, William Gallienne, 
George Brehant, Hilary Allez, Michael Dm, Michael Gallienne, Michael De HaiUa, 
Peter Le Mesurier, Robert Tougris, Andrew Le Moigne, Collas Brehant, and 
many other noble and charitable persons, both of the parish, and of other places and 
countries ; at the request of whom Friar Anthony De Belicq appeared, authorised 
by the holy Bishop of Coutances ; who caused all the people to fall on their knees, 
both as many as were in the temple as in the burial-ground. Then commencing 
his office he said these words : ' Temple of Torteval, may God bless and keep 
thee from every evil and from all perils, and in His holy and sacred name I bless, 
dedicate, and consecrate thee for the holy and sacred service and glory of God, in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; and thou shalt 
bear the name of S. PhiUp, who baptized the Eunuch in the river ; beseeching God 
that His holy word may there be duly published and His sacraments administered, 
and that His praises may there be sung to the great salvation of bodies and souls 
both of the pastors and of the flock ; and beseeching God that every one may do 
his utmost that thou be maintained, supported and enlarged, from time to time, 
upon thy good foundations and pillars ; and generally we beseech Thee, good God 
Almighty, Governor of Heaven and earth, that all persons who shall be buried in 
this church, and in its burial-ground, may have this grace of Thee, to rise at the 



end of the world and the consummation of all things in the resurrection of an 
eternal and blessed life for the sake of Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ, and the blessed 
Holy Ghost ; and finaUy that God may preserve, guard and defend thee from all 
enemies, visible and invisible, from thunder-bolts, thunder and Ughtnings, winds, 
tempests and storms :' and all the people said, Amen ! Then afterwards, each of 
the assembly departed with great joy, and giving praise to God ; and after giving 
each according to his Uberality ; the bells ringing, and other musical instruments 
sounding with great rejoicing, blessing God the author of all good works. Amen !" 


" On the 30*** day of May in the year of Grace one thousand, one hundred and 
fifty four, the dedication and consecration of a certain temple and burial-ground in 
the parish of S. SavioTur was made, at the request and supplication of the honorable 
persons hereafter mentioned, name after name, who ofiered dedicated and conse- 
crated to God the said temple after it was finished, built and adorned for the 
inhabitants of the said parish ; namely — the most noble Lord, Sir Walter Duncher, 
deputed and authorised by the high and powerful prince the Duke of Normandy, 
being governor of the Holy Island called Guernsey the Blessed ; the noble Martin 
Blondel, seneschal and chief judge of the coiut of the Abbey of S. Michael at the 
Vale : Richard Henry, Geoffrey Massy, Peter De Ler^e, PhiUp Martel, John Vallfe, 
Merchants ; John Saint, Richard Hue, Perot Brouard, Michael Du Port, Rollin de 
France, John De Graris, Peter Saint, John De La Salle, Toussaint Robert, Walter Le 
Musnier, John Bonamy, Hilary Brehant, Richard PhiUippe, Hilary De Beauvoir, 
Simon Le Cucuel, Hilary Allez, Jourdain Allez, Peter Le Clercq, Nicholas 
Beauvalet, Moses Simon, Peter Le Coquerell, John Le Ray, Nicholas de la Hougue, 
Thomas Leufestey, Robert Dumont, Stephen Henry, John de la Bauque, James Le 
Brun, and many other charitable persons from numerous places, at whose request 
appeared Friar Berard le Franche, Abbat of the Priory of the Holy Archangel 
S. Michael at the Vale, authorised by the holy Bishop of Coutances, who, in the 
name of God, commenced his office, having first commanded the whole assembly to 
join their hands and to fall on their knees with great devotion, and praying, said: 
' Holy Father, Creator of heaven and earth, and governor of the whole world, may 
it please Thee to direct otut souls and bodies from henceforth and for ever, both in 


this life present and mortal, and in the life to come, and to bless all our works, 
likewise this temple, for which we are here gathered together. Happy Temple, the 
Lord bless and preserve thee from every evil and all adversity, and in His holy, 
venerable and inviolable Name, I bless thee, and thy bnrial-gromid, to serve to 
the glory and the heavenly grace, and I baptise thee in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and thou shalt bear the name of our Lord S. 
Saviour, Saviour of all the world, beseeching Grod that His most holy and precious 
word may resound within thy nave and chancel, and in thy vaults, with the songs of 
His holy praises, and that thy holy Sacraments may there be purely administered 
to the great salvation and happy repose of the bodies and souls, as well of pastors, 
as of hearers. Beseeching Thee also in the name of Tliy dear, venerable, and only 
Son Jesus Christ our Saviour, and SavioTur of the whole world, that His holy will 
and great mercies may be, that all who shall be placed, buried, and entombed in thy 
burial-ground, may have this grace of Thee, (which is that in which all the faithful 
have, or should have, their hope of salvation) to rise in the end, and at the last day, 
in a glorious resurrection, both of bodies and souls, to be for ever partakers of an 
eternal and blessed Ufe. Praying also that each person may see, and take care that 
thou be maintained and enlarged from time to time, for the true service of the 
great Almighty Grod, and of His only Son Jesus Christ, and of the blessed Holy 
Ghost, Whom we beseech that it may please Him to guard and defend thee from all 
dangers, from enemies visible or invisible, from winds, tempests, storms, thunder- 
bolts, thunders and lightnings, from bright fires in the heavens, from violent winds, 
from flying dragons in the air, from all diaboUcal enemies who would wish to 
destroy thee, ruin or demolish thy sacred ornaments \ and all the people with one 
voice said. Amen ! * Also we beseech Thee that it may please Thee to bless, 
govern, and direct all those who are appointed to instruct Thy people, that they may 
be so enlightened of the Holy Ghost as to discharge their duties justly and loyally 
to Thy glory, to their good, salvation, and joy, and to the happiness of their flocks. 
Amen !' Then at the command of the said Deputy, thirteen silk banners were 
planted on the tower of the said temple, with the sound of bells, drums, trumpets, 
organs, and all other sorts of musical instruments sounding, with great joy, giving 
glory to Grod, and thanking Him as the Author of all good works, and, after each 
had given according to his liberality, they broke up the assembly with joy and praises, 
giving glory to God. Amen !" 





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Cambntise Camlien ^octet^. 


patron Jbafnt, 


I. efifrounb $Ian. 

4.' Kth } of Transepts. { 

II. Intetfor. 

i. Chancel, 

1. East Window. 

2. Altar Screen. 

3. Piscinae. 

4. Sedilia. 

5. Easter Sepulchre. 

6. Windows, /g- 

7. Chancel Arch. 

//. iV. Transept. 

1. Windows, 

2. Transept Arch. 



127. 8. Transept. 

1. Windows, i E. 


2. Transept Arch. 

Name of Visitor. 

> Nave < 



Aisles I 
















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