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Full text of "Transactions for the years ... of the Essex Agricultural Society for the County of Essex, Mass"

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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
AT AMHERST 




UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Special Collections & Rare Books 




UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



74 

E8E8 

1818-29 



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ADDRESS 



TO IWE 



^ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MAY 65 1818. 
m THE HON. TIMOTHY PICKERING. 

PRESIDENT OF .THE -SOflETT. 



SALEM : 

PRINTED BY THOMAS C. CUSHINO* 
1818* 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Essex AgTicultural Society, to whom, in the necessary ab- 
sence of the writer, the following address was presented, having 
desired that it might be published, he thinks it proper to say, 
that, proposing to offer for consideration some useful facts and 
observations having a direct relation to the great object of the 
association — an improved system of agriculture — he sought to 
exhibit them in plain and familiar language, adapted to the sub- 
ject. Improvements important in their nature will be impor- 
tant in fact, in proportion to the extent to which they are intro- 
duced. Practical farmers must bo satisfied of their reality, to be 
persuaded to adopt them. And they will be the sooner and 
better satisfied, if the accounts of improvements be given in lan- 
guage easy to be understood. Many words familiar to the 
scholar, are to the more practical farmer " an unknown 
tongue." When words of art, not used in popular style, are 
unavoidably introduced into papers intended for his reading, a 
short note might explain their meaning. 

The introduction of lotal words, used and understood only in 
some districts, probably cannot be wholly avoided ; because 
those who use them are not always aware that they are local; 
but they embarrass the reader in another district. To agricul- 
tural gentlemen in Boston and its neighbourhood, so many 
" bucks" or *' buck-loads" of manure, appear to be words famil- 
iarly known ; yet probably were never heard in Essex. To 
an inquiry for their meaning, this answer was given : "A buck," 
or " buck-load," is the load drawn by one pair of oxen, and a 
" double buck" the load drawn by two pair of oxen. 

To interest, in the important object of the institution, a class 
of civizens who are men of reading and science, the writer of 



this address, had he been present at the late meeting of the so- 
ciety, intended to have proposed the inviting and declaring all 
the clergymen in the county to be members ; but exempt from 
pecuniary contributions. Formerly, parsonages (like glebe lands 
in England) were provided for our clergy in the country ; and 
their cultivation was necessarily to depend on the direction, and 
in some measure on the manual labour, of the incumbents — the 
clergy themselves. At this day, many clergymen, from the 
scantiness of their salaries, are required to imitate St. Paul, 
•working with their own hands^ to tninister to their necessities, 
A great proportion of our clergy are the sons of farmers, and in 
early life were acquainted with the practice of husbandry. Its 
principles, as a branch of natural philosophy, cannot fail to in* 
terest them. And were their attention drawn to the subject, it 
■would be in their power easily to obviate the complaint so often 
m3.de— -That practical farmers cannot be persuaded to communicate 
to the public {through agricultural societies^ or otherwise) their suc- 
cessful improvements. Unaccustomed to write, they naturally 
shrink from the task. But it would not cost clergymen much 
time to make themselves acquainted with every improvement 
in husbandry among their parishioners ; nor much labour jto des- 
cribe and communicate them for publication. And I cannot sup- 
pose that such attentions would render them less acceptable to 
their people ; while they would tend to give efficacy to their 
prayers, that "the earth yield her increase." "God helps 
them that help themselves." 



To the Essex Agricultural Society. 

GENTLEMEN, 

HAVING fuggefted to the Truftees, at their 
late meeting, the expediency of preparing fome pro- 
pofitions to be fubmitted to the Society at its ad- 
journed meeting ; by whom, fo far as they appeared 
to embrace ufeful objects and ideas tending to the 
improvement of our Agriculture, they might be 
recommended to the attention of farmers ; and the 
Truftees thinking this might be done conveniently 
in the form of an AddreS, I confented, at their rc- 
queft, td throw upon paper my views of fuch arti- 
cles of hufbandry as ftiould feem proper to engage 
the attention of the Society, at the commencement 
of its operations. 

I fliall prefent my obfervations under the heads of 
Manure — Domeftic Animals, or the Live Stock of a 
farm — Green Food, comprehending Carrots, the 
Great Beet, or Mangel Wurtzel, the Sv/edifh Tur- 
nip, and Indian Corn plants, while abounding in 
fweet juices — Ripened Indian Corn — and Wheat. 

I wave all remarks on the importance of the fub- 
jedl of our inftitution : that is univerfally acknow- 
ledged. How, indeed, are we fed, clothed and 
warmed ? By the produdions of the earth. How 
fliall thefe be rendered abundant ? and moft abund- 
ant ? to fubfift greater numbers than now depend 
on them ? — By improvements in Agriculture, taking 
this word in its largeft fenfe, and comprehending 
every object meriting the attention of the hufband- 
man. 



MANURE. 

New-Lands, cleared of their trees, and the brufli 
and rubbifli burnt on the ground, yield a number 
of crops without other manure But in Efiex, there 
is, I prefume, no land of this fort. All our farmers, 
therefore, depend on common manure for crops that 
will reimburfe the cxpenfe of their culture. But 
the quantity of manure arifing within their farms, 
is extremely limited, and wholly inadequate to their 
wants. And as " dung Is all in all," * it is of the 
higheft interell to every farmer, firft to hufband 
what he has, and next to confider how he may in- 
creafe the quantity. 

It is feventeen years fince, riding from Bofton into 
the country with a friend, and palling a farm con- 
liiling, on one hand, of gentle hills, and on the other 
of a plain^ to which latter part great quantities of 
manure had been applied, but which produced only 
a very tranlient fertility ; — " Thai (he remarked) is 
good land — ibis (the plain) is riddle land.'* After 
we had parted, his expreflion, " riddle land," oc- 
curred to me. " And what (putting the queftion to 
myfelf) is riddle land f' That which is of fo open 
and loofe a texture as to let the rain falUng on it 
pafs through it, as water poured into a riddle or 
iieve, and carrying down with it the cflence of the 
manure below the roots of plants for whofe nourifli- 
ment it is applied. But is it true, that on fuch land, 
or on any land, the fertilizing parts of manure ef- 
cape by fmking beyond the reach of plants ? If they 
do, how happens it, that in lands which have been 
cultivated and manured for ages^ every layer of earth 

* A remark long since made, I think by Arthur Young, a celebrated 
English writtr ou husbandry ; comprehending litter and all other materials 
Usj^sfuUy mi^ol^d with the dung and urine of animals. 



below the cultivated foil is, neverthelefs, found dead 
and barren ? Is it not for this reafon, that farmers 
in general cautioufly avoid ploughing deeper than 
the foil, left by ftirring that dead earth, and mixing 
it with the foil, they ihould lelFen its fertiUty ? The 
refult of a little experiment which I had made prior 
to our revolution then occurred to me. Its reckal 
may in fome other refpedls be ufeful. 

Within a ftone's throw of my father's houfe, was 
a piece of fandy loam, which from its contiguity to 
the dwelling-place of himfelf and anceftors, for up- 
wards of a hundred and thirty years, muft have been 
kept, a large portion of that time, in tillage, and 
confequently have been often manured. Yet the 
coloured foil was no more than five or fix inches in 
depth. This foil I removed from one fpot, with 
three or four inches of the earth next beneath it. 
Of the next, red earth, I then took up as much as 
meafured a peck and a half. Dividing a long box 
into two equal portions by a board, into one 1 put a 
peck of the red earth ; and into the other a half peck, 
intimately mingled and incorporated with half a 
peck of clay — perfect clay to the touch ; but it was 
taken from the edge of a clay-pit holding water, 
where cattle often drank, and a flock of geefe bath- 
ed, during the fummer. Hence the apparent clay 
was doubtlefs impregnated, in fome degree, with 
the droppings from thefe animals. This box I 
placed, on the furface, in a garden. Adjacent to it, 
I funk, to a level with the furface, a fmall earthen 
pot filled with the fame fort of clay. In thefe three 
places I fowed turnip feed, as late as the 20th of Au- 
guft. In a few days I reduced the number of turnip 
plants in each to three. 1 he pot of clay, even with 
the furface, received fufhcient water from rains : but 
I regularly watered the parcels of earth in the box ; 



beftowing equal quantities, and at the fame times, oli 
each divilion. Near the clofe of October, I carefully 
took up the turnips, and waflied them, leaving up- 
on them the fibrous roots and leaves. The three 
vi^hich had grown in the pot of clay weighed ten 
ounces — the bulbs hot to the tafte, ftringy and tough. 
The three from the dead red earth v^^eighed only 
three ounces, and the bulbs vi^ere foft, fpungy and 
infipid. But the three which had grown in the min- 
gled red earth and clay weighed twenty-four ounces, 
and the bulbs were of good texture, and well fla- 
voured. 

From the fads above ftated, I felt authorized to 
infer, that all the loft manure, (that is, all the parts 
not imbibed by the roots of plants, nor remaining in 
the foil) inftead oi finking below the fphere of vegeta- 
tion, rofe into the atmofphere : and that " riddle 
land," (land on which the effeds of manure were not 
lafting) however highly manured, fo foon loft its fer- 
tility, not by letting the effence of the manure fink 
fpeedily through it, but by its incapacity to retain it 
againji the -power of evaporation. 

My own practice, fince, has been conformed to 
this conclufion ; diligently ploughing in all manure as 
foon as fpread ; even fo far as to fpread in the 
morning no more than could be ploughed in before 
the hour of dining ; and while the cattle were eat- 
ing, to fpread only fo much more as they could 
plough in by night. 

Lands kept conftantly in pafture fhow how little 
benefit is derived from dung as dropped from the 
animals depaftured. That of horfes, though in lumps 
two or three inches thick, very flightly enriches the 
fpot where it lies ; and that of oxen and cows, lying 
from one to two inches thick, has no confiderable 
effect. Whereas dung which is fpread and immedi- 



^^r 



9 

ately ploughed in, and in the caurfe of cultivation is 
well mixed with the foil, will produce feveral good 
crops — more or fewer according to the quantity ap* 
plied, and the nature of the foil. Twenty loads of 
winter-made dung, of neat cattle, in which there is 
commonly very little flraw or other litter, each load 
filling the body of a cart drawn from the dung-heap 
to the field, by one pair of good oxen, would be con- 
fidered as a pretty good allowance of manure for an 
acre ; yet, if evenly and clofely fpread, it would form 
a cover but a little more than a quarter of an inch 
thick. Were this thin cover to remain on the fur- 
face, expofed to the fun and air, I fhould doubt 
whether its efFecls would be vifible much beyond 
the crop of the year : although if ploughed in as foon 
as applied, the crops of four or five years would be 
manifeftly improved. I am induced to think the 
fpreading of dung on grafs land, the mofl wafteful 
way in which it can be ufed. Only one exception 
occurs to me : v/here a meadow well laid down in 
good grafs lies fo low, and is fo moift, as to render it 
improper to break it up. 

I take the opinion to be general, that manure 
when ploughed in cannot be kept two near the fur- 
face; on the common idea that its effence will be 
difTolved and carried down by rains below the reach 
of cultivated plants : but if the above theory be cor- 
reel:, this notion is w^holly unfounded. 

So extremely minute are the mouths and vefTels 
of plants, that the nourifhing parts of manure can 
enter them only in a flate of dilTolution by water. 
This element, fuppiied by rain, or otherwiie, to the 
earth, during the feafon of vegetation, is, in a regular 
courfe, afcending. The ellence of manures alcends 
with it, and the portion not intercepted by the roots 
©f plants, efcapes into the air. 

2 



10 

Another Gonlideration forbids me to think that 
manures are loft by their valuable portion finking be- 
yond the reach of plants, as it would then be forever 
loft, and the means of renewing vegetable and con- 
fcquently animal life be fo far diminiflied : a refult 
which would feem to derogate from the frugal and 
admired economy of nature. Whereas, what riles 
into the atmofphere, though loft to the individuals 
who omit the proper means to retain it, is not loft 
to the globe : the air contributing its ftores to pro- 
mote the growth of plants. 

From thefe coniiderations, the inference feems ob- 
vious, that manure ariling from dung, and from all 
animal and vegetable fubftances, ftiould be expofed as 
little as poflible to the fun, the air and waftiing rains ; 
and when applied to the foil, be immediately plough- 
ed in. And further, that the aim of the hufbandman, 
poffeffing a foil from which the effence of his ma- 
nure foon efcapes, fhould be to add fomething which 
will render it more tenacious ; like the foil which, in 
current language, is faid " to hold manure well." 
For this purpofe, nothing, probably, is equal to clay. 
"Were a bank of clay in my own farm, I fhould deem 
it a treafure : becaufe, fubftantially to meliorate fuch 
a foil, fo large a quantity would be required as diftant 
carriage would render too expenfive. Clay marie, 
were it attainable, would be ftill more valuable ; be- 
caufe it would at the fame time fupply a fubftance, 
without which, a diftinguiifhed Britifti writer,* and 
in early life a pradical farmer, pronounces, that foils 
cannot attain their higheft degree of fertility. That 
fubftance is calcarious, or of the nature of lime ; be- 
ing the mouldered or mouldering fhells of animals 
bred in water. Where limeftone is wanting, oyfter 

* The late Dr. James Anderson. 



11 

fliells are often burnt for lime. It has feemed to have 
been the popular idea, in this country, that marie 
was merely a very fine, rich earth : but without cal- 
careous matter mingled with it, there can be no 
marie. 

But however correal and economical may be the 
manner of faving and applying manure, the quanti- 
ty ftill falls vaftly fliort of the farmer's wants. How 
to fupply the deficiency merits the deepeft attention 
of the Society. Dr. Elliot, a highly refpe(^able cler- 
gyman of Connedicut, who feventy years ago wrote 
ElTays on Field Hufbandry, tried this method : In 
the road he made a pen long in proportion to its 
width, in which he confined his cows every night 
during the fummer ; and once a month, taking down 
the end fences, ploughed up the pen. By this pro- 
cefs, he remarks, " the furrow depth of earth was 
become dung," and when applied to grafs and corn 
appeared to equal other dung in its effeds. 

A gentleman of Virginia, one of the greateft and 
moft Scientific farmers in the United States,* recom- 
mends, from his own experience of its benefits, the 
nightly penning of cattle during the fummer. But 
to prevent lofs by evaporation, he, at the end of eve- 
ry two weeks at fartheft, fhifts his fence, and forms 
a new pen ; and immediately fecures the riches of 
the former, by a fingle ploughing. One hundred 
head of ordinary cattle, of the ages common when 
raifed on the farm, and as many fheep, he fays, will 
in this way manure eighteen acres annually, fuiE- 
ciently to produce fine crops of Indian Corn and 
Wheat, followed by clover. This plan, however, is 
impradicable on the fmall farms of Eflex. Nor is 
Dr» Elliot's mode, of forming pens by the fides of 

* Col. John Taylor, of Caroline county. 



the highways, admiflible here. A fubftitute, adapted 
to our fiiiAll farms, may perhaps be obtained in this 
'way : — As foon as all the manure is removed from 
the barn yard, in the ipring, carry into it any kind 
ot earth mofl eafily attainable, and cover it two or 
three inches thick. At the end of every two weeks 
[better if done weekly — but this might be thought 
too minute and troublefome] add another cover of 
an inch or two of earth By the laft of September 
there would thus be collected a mafs of manure from 
eight to twelve inches thick, over the whole barn- 
yard. And while the dung and urine of the cattle 
vi^ould thus be in a good degree fecured againft lofs 
by evaporation, the cattle would always find (what 
they invariably feekfor) a clean bed to lie on. If at 
'^' the times for (owing turnip feed, or winter rye, or 
wheat manure be wanting, it will be in the barn 
yard well prepared for thofe purpofes. A thin coat 
of ftraw. or utlier litter, at the bottom, and a thin 
fprinklinn: of it under every frefh layer of earth, 
micTht be ufeful to prevent the latter being trod into 
hard cake< ; while it would abforb a part of the urine, 
and be itfeU dr>nverted into good manure. The ma- 
nure made by hogs in pens may be increafed and 
preierv@d in the fame way, and by the addition of 
aH the weeds and refufe vegetables which can be col- 
leded. 

LIYE-STOCK. 

In order to encourage the procuring and propa- 
gating (>f improved breeds of cattle, ilieep and fwine, 
the frullees of the State Society of Agriculture have 
infiituted an annual fhow of thefe animals, and given 
premiums for thofe deemed the bcft. I view it as a 
valuable infliiution. But, with great deference,,'-! 



13 

would inquire, whether giving rewards for the 
biggeji and the fatteji is the bed mode of obtaining 
the mojl valuable breeds. Bakewell, the EngHlh cele- 
brated breeder of cattle, flieep and fwine, exerciied 
his genius to produce fuch as were excellent in f(.»rm, 
of fuificient fize, which yielded the greateft quantity 
of meat on the mod valuable joints, and would grow 
and fatten on the fmalleft quantities of food. J'hefe 
circumftances will, I conceive, merit the attention of 
the Society, ftiould it hereafter have the means of 
beftowing premiums of this fort. In the fattening 
of cattle and flieep, there is a point to be attained, at 
which their flefli will be of the bcft quality, and moft 
valuable to the confumer. Is not all beyond this a 
wafte of time and expenfe in their keeping ? 

The quality oP cows is highly interefting to the 
farmer who makes butter and cheefe. Some yield 
little of either, although giving much milk. And 
Dr. Anderfon mentions an inftance of one cow from 
whofe milk no butter could be made. She was pur- 
chafed of a farmer who kept a large dairy, by a per- 
fon who had no other cow ; and thus the difcovery 
was made. Thrown into the general mafs, her milk 
had been ufelefs, and her keeping a dead lofs to the 
farmer. Hence the Doctor judicioufly recommends 
the fetting, in a feparate pan, the milk of every cow, 
to afcertain its quality ; that fuch as give meagre 
milk may be fattened and fent to the flaughter-houfe. 
This experiment will aflift the farmer in felecling the 
cows moft proper to be the parents of his future 
ftock. Cows which, in equal times, make fatter 
calves than others, may be prefumed to give richer 
milk, or greater quantities of a good quality ; and 
the calves of fuch cows may be raifed with a fair 
profped of obtaining an improved breed* 



14i 

1 had often Icen defcriptive marks for a good cow j 
fome appearing rational, others fanciful. 1 once afk- 
ed an ©bferving neighbour, what marks determined 
his choice. *' I look (faid he) to the bag — if that be 
large, and the teats far apart ^ I am fatisfied." I was 
ftruck with this anfwer. A cow's bag confills of 
four lobes, or dugs. If thefe are large, the entire 
bag will be large, and the teats far alunder. After 
the famous Oakes cow had obtained the premium at 
the Cattle Show of 1816, I went purpofely to fee 
her. On approaching near enough, I looked to her 
bag and teats. Thefe were iarther afunder than 
thofe of any cow I had ever feen ; and her bag, of 
courfe, was of an extraordinary fize. But her milk 
alfo was uncommonly rich. Mr. Oakes told me the 
veal of her calves had always been unufually fat. 
Mr. Oakes, not being a farmer, had not raifed any of 
them. Probably the like difpofition to fatten (de- 
pending, doubtlefs, as well on the offspring as on 
the dams) has thrown into the butcher's hands ma- 
ny fine calves and lambs which ought to have been 
faved as the furefl means of obtaining the mofl valu- 
able flock. Bakewell's wonderful improvements in 
live-flock were efFe6led by his always feleding and 
keeping the befl for breeders. 

GREEN FOOD. 

There are fome plants little known, and otliers* 
whole culture may be greatly extended, much to 
the advantage of the farmers in EfTex, in feeding 
their flock. 

Carrots, — Without making accurate experiments, 
it has feemed to me that the fame land will produce 
a much greater quantity of carrots than of potatoes : 
and I as little doubt their fuperior value in feeding 



every kind of live-fiock. The moft diiheartening 
objedion to their cxteiifive cultivation, probably ari- 
fes from the myriads of weeds which fpring up with, 
and almoft fmother, the carrots, fmall and feeble at 
their firft appearance. To obviate this difficulty, 
the ground intended for carrots, being well manur- 
ed, fhould firft be planted with fome crop (as Indian 
corn or potatoes) which, during its growth, may be 
ealily weeded, chiefly with the plough and hoe ; fre- 
quently ufing both, to encourage the vegetation of 
the feeds of weeds, for the purpofe of deftroying 
them ; and by all means preventing any weeds ri^ 
pening their feeds. The next year the weeds will be 
comparatively few, and the culture of the carrots 
eafy. 

The feeds of the carrot being furniflied with beards, 
they do not eaiily feparate in fowing. Rub the 
quantity propofed to be fown, with the hands, until 
the beards come off (a thing of no difficulty) and 
they may be fown by the thumb and finger as expe- 
ditioufly as any other feed. Thus prepared and win- 
nowed, they are fmooth enough to pafs through a 
drilling machine. But if a piece of land in fine tilth 
be thrown, by the plough, into ridges, or beds, one 
quarter of a rod in width, (from the centre of one 
to the centre of another) and harrowed fmooth, and 
two fmall drills, or channels, ten inches apart, be 
made on each bed (by an inftrument like a rake, 
but fet with only two large wedge-fhaped teeth) 
which a man will do. on a moderate walk — another 
man can fow, and by hand, at the rate of an acre in 
four hours. I fpeak with certainty, having made the 
experiment. But cultivated on a large ftale, carrot 
feed fhould be drilled by the inflrument made for 
the purpofe. 



1^ 

The carrot in the field is a much hardier plant 
than the potato ; and, fo far as my experience goes, 
the roots are at leaft as eafily preferved in the win- 
ter. The Truftees of the btate Society decreed a 
premium to the perfon who laft year raifed the great- 
ell quantity on an acre, being eighteen tons ; which, 
at 40 bufliels per ton, would be 720 bufliels per acre. 

T/je Great Beet This plant is better known by 
its German name of Mans:el Wurtzel. I laft vear 
raifed about half a ton. Its cultivation, on good and 
clean land, is eafy, and its produce great. < )n ftrong 
lands in England, forty tons to the acre is not an 
unufual crop. A parcel of the feed will be prcfent- 
ed to the Society, to be diftributed to the members 
who defire to become acquainted with the plant. 
Its feed is not diftinguiftiable from that of the com- 
mon beet ; and, in a fmall experiment, its culture 
may be the fame. If room be allowed them, they 
will grow to three or four, and upw^ards to eight or 
ten, pounds in weight. The field management of 
this plant, in England, is well known ; and may 
hereafter be communicated, fhould its cultivation be 
extended. When full grown, the roots will be found 
with more than half their bulk above ground. Be- 
ing thus expofed to froft, and lefs hardy than the 
carroX, they require a more early harvefting ; for 
which no digging is required. VV hen once tafted 
by horfes, cattle, fheep and fwine, they are greedily 
eaten ; efpecially by cattle. 

The Swedijh Turnip is now . much cultivated in 
England, where, in good hufbandry, they yield thir- 
ty tons to the acre ; fome times I think the crops 
rife to forty tons. Sixteen years ago I raifed a few : 
but the land v^^as too poor, and the feed fown too 
late. To raife them to advantage, the land muft be 
in g(X)d heart, and the izQ^ fown here as early as May, 



17 

The Swediih is a more hardy plant, and a much 
richer food, than the common turnip. 

INDIAN CORN. 

The great damage fuftained by Indian corn in 1 8 1 2, 
and its almoft general deftrudlion in 1 8 16, feemed to 
have produced, in fome perfons, a degree of defpon- 
dency refpeding the cultivation, in future, of this 
moft excellent plant ; and perhaps prompted or in- 
creafed the defire in others, that vi^heat might take 
its place. I was not apprehenfive, however, that 
practical farmers would yield their long experience 
to fond fpeculations on this fubjed:. Yet it may not 
be amifs to prefent to the Society the opinions of a 
few eminent agriculturalifls, of the great value of 
this plant. 

Colonel John Taylor of Virginia (whom I have 
already mentioned) when he commenced farmer — ^ 
perhaps thirty years ago — joined with others in exe- 
crating Indian corn as the murderer of their lands : but 
his experience on an extenfive fcale (planting two 
to three hundred acres annually) has induced him to 
change his opinion ; and not only to pronounce its 
acquittal, but to add, that " Indian corn produces 
more food for man, beaft, and the earth, than any 
other farinaceous plant." Again he fays, " Indian 
corn may be correctly called meal, meadow and ma- 
nure. To its right to the firfl title almoil every 
tongue in the United States can teftify 5 to the fee- 
ond, an exclufive reliance on it for fodder, or hay, 
in a great diftrict of country, during two centuries,* 

* Prior to tlie American Revolution, grass for hay was rarely cultivated 
in Virginia. Their winter fodder consisted of the top-stalks, husks and 
blades of Indian corn. The blades, or leaves, strippt :^ off when ^een, 
were carefully cured, as we do our best hay, 



18 

gives conclufive evidence ;" and hi^own experience 
eflablifhes its title to the third.* His principal ma- 
terial for manure, is the ofFal of Indian corn. But 
his fyflem of hufbandry embraces many contributo- 
ry articles, among which clover and gypfum [plaifter 
of Paris] are confpicuous. Tobacco, wheat, Indian 
corn, in that order of fucceflion, and all without 
manuring, had formerly exhaufted the lands in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland ; fo that ten bufhels of corn to 
the acre was probably a full average crop.f By his 
admirable fyftem. Col. Taylor has reftored much of 
his land to fuch a degree of fertility, that within the 
laft four or five years, '* one field of two hundred 
acres produced a crop of Indian corn averaging fifty 
bufhels an acre." But he alfo raifes great quantities 
of wheat. Mentioning Indian corn and wheat, he 
fays — "No two crops can be fo exadlly fitted for 
advancing a good fyftem of agriculture." 

The late Chancellor Livingfton of New- York, alfo 
a diftinguifhed agriculturift, in an addrefs to the Ag- 
ricultural Society of that ftate, in which he compared 
the advantages of agriculture in Great Britain and 
in the United States, pronounced (as Col. Taylor 
has fince done) that Britain poffeffes no plant for a 
fallow crop, equal to Indian corn. But to this point, 
and to the general excellence of Indian corn, I add 
the teftimony of an Englilhman, of an enlightened 
mind, and who has devoted a long life to the ftudy 
and practice of agriculture. I mean the well known 
Arthur Young. He has been for fome years fecrc- 
tary to the Englifh Board of Agriculture. 

*^ Col. Taylor's Arator, titles, Manure and Indian Corn. 

t Wilhin fifteen years I saw some small fields, as I approached the city of 
Washington, which some of my fellow travellers, practical farmers, estimat* 
ed at only five bushek to an acre. 



19 

Mr. Young, in his travels in France, in 1787, 
1788, and 1789, in which time he vifited every in- 
terefting part of the kingdom, for the purpofe of ob- 
ferving the ftate of its agriculture, mentions the cul- 
tivation of Indian corn (there called maize) in its 
fouthern provinces. " Maize (fays he) is an object 
of much greater confequence than mulberries.* 
When I give the courfes of French crops, it will be 
found, that the only good husbandry in the kingdom 
(fome fmall and very rich diftrids excepted) arifes 
from the pojfejfion and management of this plant. Where 
there is no maize, there are fallows [naked fallows ;] 
and where there are fallows, the people ftarve.'* Vol- 
ume ii. page 41. Again, in page 140, he fays — 
*' The line of maize may be faid to be the divifion 
between the good hufbandry of the fouth, and the 
bad hufbandry of the north, of the kingdom. Till 
you meet with maize, very rich foils are fallowed, 
but never after. Perhaps it is the moft important plant 
that can be introduced into the agriculture of any country 
whofe climate will fuit /V.'*t — " A country whofe foil 
and climate admit the courfe of ift maize, 2d wheat, 
is under a cultivation, that, perhaps, yields moft food 
for man and beaft, that is pofEble to be drawn from 
the land." — In the fame page, Mr. Young fays, that 
in the fouth of France, in Spain, in Italy, the cattle 
are in high order ; which he afcribes to the food af- 
forded by Indian corn ; as it furnilhes " a rich mea- 
dow a confiderable part of the fummer ; the leaves 
being regularly ftripped for oxen, affording a fuccu- 
lent and moft fattening food — in fituations that feem 

* Mulberry trees are grown for the feeding of sUk-worms. 
t Although the climate of England is milder than our own, the heat of 
• summer is insufficient to ripen Indian corn. 



^0 

to deny all common meadows.'* Thefe are burnt up, 
in thofe countries, in the heat of fummer. 

The improving of our hufbandry, in New-England, 
is to be expeded, not from a rejection of Indian corn, 
as the ruin of our lands, but by a better management 
of that crop, in order to render it, as it appears it 
may be rendered, the bed preparation for a crop of 
wheat, and other fmall grain. 

Every farmer knows how eagerly cattle devour 
the entire plant of Indian corn in its green Hate j 
and land in good condition will produce heavy crops 
of it. Some years ago, juft when the ears were in 
the milk, I cut clofe to the ground the plants grow- 
ing on a meafured fpace, equal, as I judged, to the 
average product of the whole piece ; and found that, 
at the fame rate, an acre would yield twelve tons of 
green fodder ; probably a richer and more nourifli- 
ing food than any other known to the hufbandman. 
And this quantity was the growth of lefs than four 
months. The ground was rich, and yielded, at har- 
veft, upwards of fifty bulhels of corn to the acre. 
The green llalks of our northern corn are incom- 
parably fweeter than thofe of the fouthern ftates ; at 
lead when both forts are grown in the north. Per- 
haps the greater and longer continued heats of the 
fouth may give a richnefs to the fame large plants 
which thefe cannot attain in the north. The flalks 
I have grown, rofe to the height of 13 or 14 feet, 
and many of them weighed above five pounds. To 
fupport this height, they are neceffarily thick, and 
woody in their fibres. My cows ate a fmall part of 
them — reluctantly — while they would devour the 
xlalks of our northern corn. It has appeared to me 
that the fort called fweet corn (having a white fhriv- 
died grain when ripe) yields ftalks of richer juice 



31 

than the common yellow corn. It is alfo more dil- 
pofed to multiply fuckers, — an additional recommen- 
dation of it, when planted to be cut, in its green 
flate, for horfes and cattle, and efpecially for milch 
cows ; and its time of planting may be fo regulated 
as to furnifh a fupply of food, juft when the com- 
mon paflures ufually fail. I am inclined to doubt 
whether any other green food will afford butter of 
equal excellence. 

WHEAT. 

Although no idea appears to me more vifionary 
than that " New-England could furnifh bread-ftuff 
for the whole of the United States j" yet I am ready 
to believe that her hulbandry may be fo improved 
as to render her independent of the fouthern Hates, 
for every fpecies of bread of common confumption. 
I fay of common confumption ; becaufe even New- York, 
an exporter of wheat and flour, imports Richmond 
flour for ufe in her cities ; becaufe Virginian wheat 
makes whiter flour, and of a fuperiour quality to 
her own. 

I have fcarcely feen or heard of any fpring wheat 
grown on the fea-board of old Maflachufetts or New- 
Hampfliire, that has not been more or lefs infected 
with fmut; fo as generally to require wafhing to 
fit it for bread. Some Spanifli wheat lately cultiva- 
ted by Nathaniel Gilman, Efq. of Exeter, is the only 
exception. This is a wheat of lingular excellence ; 
and hitherto, Mr. Gilman informed me, has been 
perfectly exempt from fmut and mildew. The fize 
of the grains, and their weight by the bufliel, are 
moft extraordinary — the latter riling (if I miftakc 
not) to 67 or 70 pounds. In the lafl year, he fup- 



pofed one hundred bufhels were raifed in Exeter, 
All proceeded from a fingle ear which an American 
failor plucked in a field near Malaga, and brought to 
Exeter. It fortunately fell into Mr. Oilman's hands, 
by whofe attention its produdl has been thus in- 
creafed. 

In the Diftrid of Maine, efpecially by the aid 
of its new lands, probably much more wheat will 
be grown than will be required for its own con- 
fumption : its climate being better adapted to 
the growing of fmall grain than of Indian corn : 
although I fhould think the fmall Canada corn 
might fucceed in all but the more northern parts, 
or where the foil is clayey and cold. In fomc 
parts of New-York, eaflward of Albany, where at 
the firft clearing oflF the wood fine crops of wheat 
were grown, they now fufFer extremely, or faiL 
The foil is clayey — heaved by the winter's frofts, by 
which, and alternate thaws, the roots of the wheat 
are gradually thrown out, and the plants perifli. 
Such was the information given me by a farmer 
refident there. While the land was frefh, enriched 
and warmed by the coat of vegetable manure which 
for ages had been accumulating on its furface, the 
wheat was exempt from this difafter. The abund- 
ant manures attainable by a greatly improved fyftem 
of hufbandry, may leflfen or prevent the continuance 
of the evil. 

WINTER WHEAT. 

For a year or two after the purchafe of my little 
farm, I effayed the culture of barley and wheat : but 
finding the ground infefted with the feeds of annual 
weeds which fprung up with fpring-fown grain Sj 



S3 

and nearly choaked them, I gave over the purfuit, 
until the condition of the land fliould be changed 5 
growing only a little wheat, rather by way of ex- 
periment than for a crop. 

Winter rye fown early I found fucceeded very 
well. The annual weeds which afterwards vegeta- 
ted, had not time to ripen their feeds. The rye- 
plants got poffeflion of the ground, and fubilantially 
maintained it until the enfuing harveft This in- 
duced a delire to try winter wheat ; hoping that, by 
the like early fowing, it might efcape mildew 
as well as early fown winter rye. And as the Vir- 
ginian white wheat was faid to ripen a fortnight 
earlier than other kinds, I concluded, if it would 
ftand our winter's cold, it would be in little hazard 
from mildew — the formidable evil which, it was 
underftood, had caufed the growing of winter wheat, 
in this part of the ftate, to be long linee abandoned. 
I procured enough for the experiment. It was fown 
in drills, that it might be kept perfectly clean. It 
flouriflied admirably during the autumn -, and not a 
blade was hurt by a fmart froft about the middle 
of November : but in the following fpring, not a 
lingle plant was alive. 

I intended to renew the attempt with fome win- 
ter wheat growing farther north ; and yet neglected 
it until the laft year, when I procured a fmall parcel 
which had grown in New-Haven. Half of this I 
gave away, for an experiment to be made in the 
county of VVorcefter. The refidue I defigned to 
fow in Auguft, at the time of fowing my winter 
rye. It was put in on the 2 2d : but I was neceflari- 
ly abfent, and fpace enough was not left for the 
whole. The remainder was fown the loth of Sep- 
tember 5 the whole in rows, to admit the hoe, to 



keep it dean from weeds. Both parcels look well, 
and begin to ftioot into ftems. Not a plant appears 
to have been hurt by the hard frolls of the laft 
winter. 

Whether we fhall cultivate winter or fpring wheat) 
or both, I prefume no farmer will remain unconvinc- 
ed, that it will be not only compatible with the con- 
tinuance of our Indian corn crops, but that the latter 
are the bed preparative for the former. There is 
certainly much labour in dunging and planting in 
holes for Indian corn ; and fo there is equally for 
potatoes. In Great-Britain and Ireland, they per- 
form an equally hard talk, for potatoes ; they plant 
them in continued rows, not more than three feet 
apart ; and place the manure in the whole length of 
the furrow opened for its reception. So likewife in 
England and Scotland, the farmers who grow the 
large quantities of mangel wurtzel and Swedifli tur* 
nips before mentioned, fow the feeds in drills, under 
which, in furrows opened for the purpofe, the ma- 
nure has previoully been ftrewed. And thefe rows 
are only twenty-feven inches afunder ; a diftance at 
which they find the greateft crops are attained. This 
laborious diflribution of the manure, precifely under 
the rows of the plants to be grown, would feem to 
be the refult of their experience, or general opinion, 
of its greater economy, in the application of that ef- 
fential fubftance. And here I may remark, that on 
the principle firft difcuffed, refpefting manure, this 
economical pradice of the Britifh farmers would 
feem to be well founded. For the effence of manure, 
combined with the water in the earth, which the 
fun's heat and the air are continually exhaling and 
attracting, cannot fail, in its afcent, to meet more of 
the roots of plants to fuck it in, than if the manure 



25 

were fpread over the whole furface of the ground, 
and then ploughed in ; through which whole fpace 
that effence would equally afcend and efcape, by eva- 
poration ; and confequently where no cultivated 
plants, at leaft in the firft ftages of their growth, fent 
out roots fufficient to intercept its flight. \Vhen 
the fame ground is afterwards to be laid down with 
grain and grafs feeds, two ploughings and harrow- 
ings, at leafl, fliould be given, if it were only to fpread 
evenly, and thoroughly mix with the foil, the ma- 
nure applied in holes or drills during the cultivation 
of the tilled or fallow crops. And in Great Britain, 
fuch fallow crops are deemed effential to good huf- 
bandry.* It is a maxim there, among the mofl in- 

* The substituting of fallow-crops for naked fallows is one of the capital 
improrcments in English husbandry. The naked fallow, formerly in uni- 
versal practice, consisted in repeatedly ploughing the land from spring to 
autumn — with two objects in view : one, the destruction of weeds, with 
which their lands became foul by repeatedly cropping them with small grain, 
as wheat, barley, oats, rye, in immediate succession ; for the weeds springing 
up with these crops, and ripening their seeds, the soil, in three or four years, 
was so amply stocked, that some mode of extirpating the weeds became in- 
dispensable. But for many ages, no other than naked fallows seem to have 
occuiTed. The English farmers now grow fallow crops, selected according 
to the nature of their soils ; as beans, carrots, turnips, potatoes, mangel 
wurtzel, cabbages. While these are growing, the j fallow the ground ; that 
is, they stir it repeatedly with the plough or hoe, or both ; by Avhich they 
as effectually destroy the weeds as by the naked fallow ; and at the same 
time benefit their crops, whose products reward them for their labour. 

Naked fallows seem also formerly to have been considered as the means 
of enriching as well as of cleaning the land. The error of their practice, 
in this view, cannot be better illustrated than by the following fact, com- 
municated abo>/e thirty years ago to the Philadelphia Society of Agricul- 
ture, when I was a resident member, and which I well recollect. But to 
prevent circumstantial errors in the recital, I have turned to the Notes on 
Husbandry, by Mr. Bordley, (who was the vice-president of the society,) 
where the case is stated. 

A gentleman of Maryland (Mr. Singleton of Talbot) ploughed up part 
(and this was the richest part) of a clover field, in March, intending to 
plant it with tobacco. It happened, however, that the tobacco crop was 
omitted. So this part was falloived^ that is, it was repeatedly ploughed in 
the summer, and on the first of September, sown with wheat. The residue 
of the clover field was twice mown. In August it was once ploughed, and 
on the same first of September sown with wheat. At harvest, the faJloweo 



26 

telligent farmers, never to put in two white crops 
in immediaie fuccellion. " White crops" are what 
in New-England we mean by the words " Englifli 
grain ;" as wheat, barley, rye, oats. All thefe, in 
England, are called corn, though wheat feems more 
eminently to be fo defignated. Our firft American 
anceflors, ufed to this application of the word corn, 
and finding here, among the Indians, a new farina- 
ceous (meal-producing) grain which could be ground 
and made into bread, like the Englijh corns, called it, 
by way of diflindiion, Indian corn. 
. The very extended modern improvements in the 
agriculture of Great Britain have been efFeded prin- 
cipally by the adoption of the beft practices of dif- 
ferent diftri(^s, in others where they were before 
unknown. Thefe have been communicated by in- 
telligent gentlemen, who vifited the principal parts of 
the kingdom, for the purpofe of acquiring a know- 
ledge of their various hufbandry ; and efpecially by 
the correfpondents of the Board of Agriculture, from 
all or nearly all the counties, giving the ftate of agri- 
culture in each. Their numerous agricultural focie- 
ties have alfo materially contributed to produce the 
fam.e beneficial effects. Similar advantages may be 
hoped for, from the like inftitutions in our own 
country. The utility of ours in EiTex will greatly 

part of the field yielded only 14 and a half bushels to the acre. The other 
part, besides two crops of clover hay the preceding year, now gave 24 and 
a half bushels to the acre. This striking fact admits of an easy explana- 
tion, and in conformity with the principles already advanced. The re- 
peated ploughings of the fallowed part of the field exposed the clover 
plants, roots and tops to the sun and air, by ^vhich they were dried up, and 
nearly annihilated ; while other vegetable food in the soil was also dissipa- 
ted, or greatly reduced, by evaporation. But the clover, turned under by 
a single ploughing, was completely covered with earth, kept moist, gradu- 
ally rotted, and so supphed food to the wheat plants most plentiful!}- 
when most wanted, that is, in the ensuing season, when the wheat was 
attaining its complete growth, and ripening the grain. 



27 

depend on the liberal communication, by our intelli- 
gent farmers, of their own fuccefsful pradices. From 
thefe it will be the bufmefs of the Truftees to feled 
and publifh, for the benefit of all, what may be but 
partially known. 

I intended to have faid fomething on the fubjecl of 
wood for timber and for fuel, of which our lands in 
Eflex are lamentably deficient, and in fome parts 
nearly deftitute : but I have not time to add to what 
may already be deemed too long. It is a fubjed, 
however, which particularly claims the attention of 
the Society, whofe primary views will neceffarily be 
directed to the improvement of the hulbandry of 
Effex. 

May 6, 1818, 



1J1^®(§W®01M5» 



B.EA© BEFOKE THC 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY^ 



IN MASSACHUSETTS, 

FEBRUARY 21, 1820, 

SUGGESTING SOME IMPROVEMENTS IN THE 
AGRICULTURE OF THE COUNTY. 



BY TIMOTHY PICKERIXa 

TRESmENT OF THE SOCIETY. 



SALEIM : 



At u lueetiiig ai the Essex Agiiicuilurai Society, at Topslield, Februarj 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the 
Hon. Timothy Pickksing for his interesting Address, and that he 
bii requested to furnish a copy thereof for publication. 

■ ivttest. 

FREDERICK HOWES, Secretary. 



DISCOURSE. 



GENTLEMBN, 

The Secretary has put into my hands a vote of the Society, 
requesting me " to make to it such communications as may in 
my opinion most conduce to the interest of Agriculture." 

This was an unlooked-for request. I have myself much to 
learn from observing farmers, of longer experience, and whose 
attentions have been exclusively devoted to husbandry. Mine, 
since I became a farmer, have been diverted by other pursuits; 
SQ that at intervals only my thoughts have been turned to this 
subject. 

No one doubts the importance of our profession : and the ac- 
tual formation of our society is a declaration that improvements 
in it are necessary. But the Field of Agriculture is of boundless 
extent ; and though traversed for some thousands of years by 
the greater portion of the human race, yet by no one, nor by all 
combined, has a complete survey been accomplished. Every 
year, and every day, presents something new : and even of old 
things, the practices of ages, there still exist diversities of opin- 
ions. For instance, which is preferable, deep or shallow plough- 
ing? — Should manures be spread on the surface, or be buried by 
the plough? If the latter, at what depth, to produce the great- 
est effect, with the most lasting fertility ? — Should manure be 
applied in its rough, coarse and unfermented state, or, by keep- 
ing and repeated turnings, be more or less rotted? — These are 
points which appear to me deeply to affect the interests of 
agriculture. On these therefore I will give you my opinion, en» 
lightened by the observations of intelligent husbandmen. I will 
then advert to a few other topics which demand your attention ; 
dxoellmg on one of them — Root-Crops for the Food of Live 
Stock — as lying at the foundation of an Improved Agriculture. 



i. ON DEEP PLOUGHING AND MANURING. 

For myself, I enicrlainno doubt of the utilit}' of deep plough- 
ing; not at once, in our lands in general, but by an increase of 
two or three inches at every annual ploughing, until the earth 
be stirred and pulverised to the depth cf ten or twelve inches. 
Indian corn, planted in such a mags of loosened earth, would 
not, I am persuaded, ever suffer by ordinary droughts. Like a 
spunge, it would absorb a vast quantity of rain-water, and be? 
come a reservoir to supply the wants of that and of all other 
plants. Nothing is more common, in a dry summer, than the 
rolling of the leaves of corn ; and that circumstance is often 
mentioned as an evidence of the severity of the drought. This 
rolling of the leaves of Indian corn, is the consequence, in part, 
cf scant manuring, but still more of shallow ploughing. Few, 
perhaps, are aware of the depth to which the roots of plants 
will penetrate in a deeply loosened earth. A gentleman,* much 
inclined to agricultural inquiries and observations, informed me, 
near fifty years ago, that seeing some men digging a well, in a 
hollow place, planted with Indian corn, then at its full growth, 
he stopped to examine how far its roots had descended ; and he 
traced them to the depth of nine feet. The soil was an accu- 
mulation of rich earth which had run or been thrown into the 
hollow. 

The seed of the common turnip, sown in warm weather, and 
on a soil sufficiently moist, I have known to vegetate in about 
eight-and-fcrty hours ; and in only four or the days afterwards. 
I found the plants had sent down roots to the depth of four or 
five inches. 

I have often noticed forest trees blown down by violent winds, 
whose roots, of the same species, were very differently formed. 
Such as had grown in grounds having a hard, impenetrable pan 
of clayey gravel, at the depth of twelve or eighteen inches from 
the surface, exhibited a fiat mass of roots; while others, torn up 
from a deep loam, or loamy gravel, showed downward roots of 
several feet in length, 

'^ Peter Oliver, Esq. then a Judge of the Superior Court of Massachusetts. 



5 

About five months ago, I received from England a pamphlet 
written by one of the most distinguished agricultural writers in 
that country — Arthur Young. It was a Icclurc read, a few years 
before, to the British Board of Agriculture, of which Mr. Young 
ivas the Secretary. Its title is, " On the Husbandry of Three 
Celebrated British Farmers, Messrs. Bakewell, Arbuthnot and 
Ducket,'- — all eminent for genius, enterprise, application, and 
long experience. It was to do honour to their memories, " and 
to bring to recollection the means by which those celebrated 
practitioners, in the first and most important of all arts, carried 
their agriculture to a perfection unknown before," that the lec- 
ture was written and published. And this, Mr. Young observes, 
would be more peculiarly useful, because those men, "confining 
themselves to practice alone, had left no register of their own 
meritorious deeds." I will present to you the substance of the 
information contained in this pamphlet, as in itself very impor- 
lant, and because the practice of Arbuthnot and Ducket has a 
direct bearing on the poifits I am now considering — deep plough-? 

ING and MANURING. 

" Mr. Ducket had sand, and sandy soils, alone, to deal with ; 
but Arbuthnot's land classed among those harsh, wet, tenacious 
loams which are usually called clay, and ought to be esteemed 
such, relative to every circumstance that attaches to difficulty 
and management." Passing by what Mr. Young says of Arbuth- 
not's draining operations, I content myself with mentioning the 
prii.ciple of that improvement : '• Lay your land dry, whatever 
may be the method pursued, before you attempt any thing else." 

•• in respect to tillage, Mr. Arbuthnot carried it to great per- 
fection : He invented a swing plough for a pair of horses and 
the general depth of six inches, and a much larger one with 
wheels, for gaining the depth of twelve, and even of eighteen, 
for some peculiar crops, especially madder. Upon the advanta- 
ges of deep ploughing he never had the least hesitation ; but al- 
ways declared that in all he had read or heard, he never met 
with one argument against the practice that had with him the 
smallest weight." — "In the essential operation of ploughing, he 
considered one earth [that is, one ploughing] well timed, and o^ 



6 

a right depth, as being much more efficacious than that repeti- 
tion of tillage so common in every district."* 

A judicious rotation, or round of crops, has long been consid- 
ered, in England, essential to good husbandry : and so it is by 
skilful farmers in our own country ; particularly in the middle 
States, where clover, so highly important in the rotation, has, 
for more than thirty years, been rendered wonderfully produc-^ 
live, by the application of plaister of Paris. The most usual 
course in England has beeh (excepting on stiff clayey soils) 
first year turnips, manured and kept clean by hoeing; thesecoild 
year barley, with clover seed ; the third year the clover mown 
for hay ; and its second crop, at wheat seed time, ploughed in, 
•and, where necessary to fill the seams, the ground harrowed, 
the wheat sown, and then harrowed in. This is called " wheat 
upon a clover lay." But by the long and frequent repetition of 
clover, (that is, once in four years) in their rotations, lands in 
England became (as they express it) " sick of clover :" and I 
have been informed that some lands in our middle States, long 
subjected to the like application of clover, exhibit like symp- 
toms of disease or failure. But Mr. Arbuthnot introduced clover 
once in three years, without suffering by such more frequent re- 
petition. " He attributed the failure of this plant to shallow and 
ill-executed ploughing : the result (says Mr. Young) justified 
his opinion." 

Mr. Young mentions a lecture he had read to the Board of 
Agriculture, " on the means by which a farm can be made, by a 
right proportion of all the products, to support itself, without 
foreign assistance, in a state of high fertility ; a question depend- 
ing on the quantity or weight of dung resulting from the con- 
sumption in litter of a given weight of straw." This lecture I 
have not seen. But he considers the question as successfully 
decided, in Mr. Arbuthnot's practice, in the following manner : 
134 sheep and 30 lambs were turnip fed, in a pen on a headland, 

* The repetition of tillajre here reprobated, refers, I presume, to the nn- 
merous ploughings given by many English farmers, at that period, prepara- 
tory to the putting in of their crops ; which the single, deep and "effica- 
cious" ploughing of Arbuthnot rendered unnecessary. — Were our plough- 
ing for Indian C'orn and Root Crops alike deep and efficacious^ before 
planting, shallow tillage (called horsc-hoeing) with light ploughs, during 
their growth, would suffice. 



well littered with straw : in six weeks they required nearly 
six tons of straw [to give them clean and comfortable beo's :] 
and in that time made 40 tons of dung-, equal to that broui^ht 
from London [stable dung it is to be presumed.] So every ton 
of litter produced near seven tons of dung. — But this weight 
must have been obtained chiefly by the earth of the headland 
absorbing the urine, of which, when fed on turnips, sheep make 
great quantities, and being finally mixed with their dung and 
litter. This recital reminds me of the recommendation, in my 
address to this Society in May, 1818, to carry earth into the 
barn yard, once in every two weeks, from Spring to Autumn ; 
adding to every layer of earth a coat of litter. I should then 
have advised a plentiful spreading of litter, had I not known 
that our courses of husbandry in Essex yielded very little 
straw. 

In the same communication to the Society, I presented my 
ideas on the proper application of manure ; to wit, al'dcays to bury 
it up quickly^ when carried to the field^ to prevent great loss by 
its exposure to the sun and air ; remarking, that the essence of 
manure was lost, not by sinking into the earth below the roots 
of cultivated plants, but by rising into the atmosphere, and so 
fleeing away. Here, also, I have the satisfaction of seeing the 
theory I had formed nineteen years ago (in the manner suggest- 
ed in that communication) supported by the opinions and practi- 
ces of such eminent Agriculturists as Messrs. Arbuthnot and 
Ducket. After noticing Arbuthnot's cultivation of madder, aa 
article requiring a rich soil and extremely deep tillage, Mr. 
Young says — " there was one circumstance in his management, 
which, being applicable to more important articles, merits a more 
durable attention ; this is, the depth to which he ploughed in 
the dung: his tillage went to that of eighteen inches; and he 
conceived there was no danger of losing, by this circumstance, 
either vegttable or animal manures, as their tendency, contrary 
to all/om/ones, was not to sin/r, but to rise in the atmosphere/* 
Fossil manures are lime, marl, plaister of Paris, and other sub- 
stances dug out of the earth, which increase the productivf^ 
powers of soils. 

Mr. Ducket's manner of applying dung, although his was a 
sand farm, was similar to Mr. Arbuthnot's. '■ Immediately con- 



8 

nected with the depili of tillage, is that to which dung may he 
safely deposited. He [Mr. Ducket] had not the least appre- 
hension of losing it by deep ploughing ; but freely turned it 
down to two or three times the depth common among his neigh- 
bours." Yet Mr. Young says, that farmers (and good farmers 
too) persist in a contrary practice. But he adds — '• Enlight- 
ened individuals, thinly scattered, know better; having con- 
vinced themselves that Mr. Ducket's practice is not only safe 
but beneficial ;" and then names one who " ploughs in his 
dung as deeply as his ploughs can go, turning it in nine inches, 
and would bury it twelve, did he stir to such a depth." 

Confirmatory of the correctness of the practice of these two 
celebrated English farmers, is the fact stated by Sir John Sin- 
clair, President of the British Board of Agriculture, in his ac- 
count of the Improved Scottish Husbandry. He mentions one 
farmer who ridged his carrot ground, and buried the manure 
sixteen or seventeen inches deep, the ridges thirty inches wide. 
This farmer preferred, as a manure, a well prepared compost 
of peat-moss* and dung, ten tons, or double cartloads, per Eng- 
lish acre. " The dung (or compost) being at the bottom, 
makes the top root of the carrot push immediately down, and 
swell to an enormous size ; the roots being often sixteen inches 
in girt, and 18 or 20 inches in length." 

To return to Mr. Ducket. His deep ploughing (says Mr 
Young) was not practised above once in two or three years, 
and the successive tillage shallow. " By such deep ploughing, 
seldom given, Mr Ducket conceived that a due degree of mois- 
ture was preserved in his light land, by means of which his 
crops were flourishing in seasons of drought which destroyed 
those of his neighbours: and no one could more severely con- 
demn the ideas which governed the Norfolk farmers, in leaving 
what they called their pan unbroken at the depth only of four 
or five inches. The operation of ploughing he thought could 
scarcely be given too seldom, provided when given it was done 
effectively : and he always carried this paucity of tillage as far 
as circumstances would permit : thus I have known him put in 
«even crops with only four ploughings." In another part of 



In Scotland, their peat lands are called peat- 



mosses. 



his lecture, Mr. Young says — " If I were to name the circiira*- 
stance which more than any other governed his (Mr. Ducket's) 
practice, I should say that the whole was founded in trench 
ploughing; and that the principle which governed this practice 
(a principle thoroughly impressed upon his mind as well as on 
the minds of those who draw intelligent conclusions) was that of 
giving as little tillage as possible to sandy soils." 

"The next circumstance w^hich I shall advert to (says Mr. 
Young) in the husbandry of Mr. Ducket, is the use of long^ fresh 
tiling, instead of that which in common management is turned 
and mixed till it becomes rotten: and in justice to his memory, 
I shall read the short recital of his practice, as I printed it 
three-and-twenty years ago. " Dependent on the Trench- 
Plough,* is Mr. Ducket's system of dunging. He conceives, 
and I apprehend very justly, that the more dunghills are stirred 
and turned over, and rotted, the more of their virtue is lost. 
ft is not a question of straw merely wetted; but good Zon^ dung 
he esteems more than that quantity of short dung, which time 
will convert the former to. Two loads of long may become one 
^i short ; but the two arc much more valuable than the one. 
Without the Trenching-plougb, however, his opinion would be 
different. If long dung is ploughed in, in the common manner, 
with lumps and bundles sticking out at many places along every 
furrow, which lets the sun and air into the rest that seems cov- 
ered, he thinks, so used, it is mostly lost, or given to the winds : 
in such a case, short rotted manure will be better covered, and 
should be preferred. But with hLs plough nothing of this hap- 
pens ; and it enables him to use his dung in such a state as gives 
him a large quantity instead of a small one. The good sense of 
these observations must be obvious at the first blush.*' Mr. 
Young adds — " The use of tkesh instead of rotten dung, is, in 
my opinion, one of the greatest agricultural discoveries that has 
been made in (he present cr^e." He then states a striking eXperi- 

■■■■ The Trench-Plough of Mr. Ducket's invention was so admirably coii- 
trived as completely to bury whatever was intended to be turned in. Mr. 
Young says he saw him turn down a crop of rye, six feet high, so that not 
an atom was left visible ; and yet the depth did not exceed eight inches. 
Trench-ploughing has sometimes been eftected in this country by a second 
plough follnwinj in the same furrow after the fir-.t, and going a few ianhu?. 
>ieeper. 

g 



10 

ment made by himsell' — 67 small cart-loads of fresh yard dun^^ 
produced two successive crops of potatoes, yielding together 
742 bushels ; at the same time, the same quantity of yard dung, 
after six months rotting, yielded 708 bushels, leaving [to the 
fresh long dung] a superiority of 34 bushels. But had the fresh 
dung been kept as long as the other, it would have required at 
least twice, perhaps thrice as much, to have produced the quan- 
tity used." [That is, twice or three times 67 loads of fresh 
long dung, if kept and often turned and mixed to produce fer- 
mentation and rotting, would have shrunk, or been reduced, to 
67 loads of short rotten dung.] " If the crops therefore had 
been only equal, still the advantage [of the fresh dung] would 
have been most decisive." 

" I shall not quit (says Mr. Young) the Husbandry of two 
mea who carried tillage, on soils so extremely different, to its 
utmost perfection, without remarking the circumstances in which 
they agreed. Both were equal friends to deep ploughing ; both 
rejected the common repetition of tillage, and reduced the num- 
ber of their operations to a degree that merits attention; both 
rejected fallows ; and both ploughed deeply for depositing ma- 
nure, without any apprehension of losing it. These are very 
important points in Practical Agriculture." 

To this account of the successful practices of these two cele- 
brated English Farmers, it may be useful to subjoin a few ob- 
servations. I have thought it proper so far to present them in 
detail, in order to develop principles ; not expecting a precise 
adoption of their practices ; which, indeed, without their or sim- 
ilar superiour ploughs and other implements, would be imprac- 
ticable : but with such instruments as we possess, or may easily 
obtain, we can materially increase the depth of our ploughing, 
and I hope contrive effectually to cover our manure. This 
should be wholly applied to Tillage Crops ; for which the manur- 
ing should be so ample as to insure a succession of good crops 
through the whole rotation, without the aid of any additional 
manure, especially for wheat, rye, barley or oats : for besides 
increasing the seeds of weeds (with which all our lands are too 
m uch infested) such additional manuring, immediately applied to 
ihe small grain crops, renders them more liable to injury from 



11 

iTiildews. Of this I am fully satisfied, as well from numeroafc 
statements of facts which I have seen in books of husbandr)', as 
from the circumstances under which remarkable mildews have 
otherwise been noticed. One of our countrymen, who wrote 
a short essay on the subject prior to the American Revo- 
lution, has given the only solution of the causes of mildews that 
has ever appeared satisfactory to me : perhaps at some future 
lime I may find leisure to show the correspondence of facts 
with his principles.* 

IL ON ROOT CROPS. 

Premiums having been proposed to encourage the raising of 
Carrots, Ruta Baga and Mangel Wurtzel ; and as these articles, 
cultivated extensively, are of vast importance to farmers ; I can 
perhaps in no way better promote the views of the Society, in 
their vote before mentioned, than by describing the methods of 
cultivating those roots, which elsewhere have been practised 
with great success, but to which, and indeed to the roots them- 
selves (carrots excepted) most of our husbandmen are stran- 
gers. 

The introduction of Clover, and subsequently carrying the 
culture of the Common Turnip extensively into the field, mar- 
ked distinguished eras in the improvements of English Husband- 
ry. At a later period. Carrots were cultivated by some farmers ; 
and within a few years past, the Mangel Wurtzel and the Ruta 
Baga have become objects of general cultivation. And now 
these five articles constitute essential branches o[ the highly 
improved Husbandry of Great Britain. 

Common Turnips. These for a long time were raised (and 
perhaps this practice is still very general) by sowing the seeds 
broad-cast, and weeding and thinning them with hoes, till the 
plants stood at from a foot to fifteen inches apart. But the 
most correct practice appears to be that of drilHng the seeds in 
rows, thinning them to the distance of ten or twelve inches in 
the rows, and hoeing and keeping them clear from weeds. 

*This essay, subscribed "A New-England-Man," is published in the 
second volume of the Mrmoirs of the Philadelphia Society q( Ag:riciil1ure. 



12 

And this weak, watery rcot has been the pnncipai food of im- 
mense flocks of store sheep, during the winter : and when 
plentifully given, only with the addition of straw, has served 
to fatten cattle and sheep for the market. 

Carrots. Even these plants, so long after they vegetate ex 
tremely small, were also raised from seed sown broad-cast 
But this awkward practice, [ believe, has generally given way 
to the row-culture, whether the seeds were sown by hand, or 
by the instrument called a drill. In very rich land, great crops 
have been raised where the rows were only from twelve to fif- 
teen inches apart. The great crop of 752 bushels, weighing 
eighteen tons and three quarters, raised on one acre, in Salem, 
by Erastus Ware, in 1817, was in rows about sixteen inches 
apart. The seed was sown the 1 4th of May. But 1 am inclined 
to think a preferable mode would be, to sow the seeds in 
double rows about ten inches apart, with intervals of three feet 
between the double rows, so as to admit a small plough, as well 
as the hoe, in their cultivation. In this case, a deep furroT? be- 
ing opened by the plough, the manure should be regularly 
thrown into it, and covered by four back furrows, so form- 
ing a ridge over the manure ; and this ridge being laid level 
with a light harrow, or with rakes, or if the soil be in fine tilth, 
by a light roller, will then be ready to receive the seed. — As 
soon as the carrots are plainly to be seen, they should be hoed 
and weeded ; or the weeds will soon outstrip the carrots 
(which are of very slow growth at first) and render their 
cleansing va'^tly more troublesome and laborious. They 
should also be thinned, to stand single, and only from three to 
five inches a[)art in the rows ; or the roots will be small, and 
cost much more time in handling and topping (cutting or wring- 
ing oiT the tops) at the time of harvesting them. The entire 
crop, too, will doubtless be smaller than when the plants are 
thinned as here recommended. 

Th*: Mangel Wurtzf.l. This plant yields a much more 
abundant cro}) than the Carrot ; and at the same time contains. 
in the same quantity or v.'eight of roots, a great deal more nour- 
ishmrnt : whence it is natural to suppose that it requires a richer 
soil than Carrots, I have not made sufficient trials to en^ible me 



13 

to express a decided opinion on the best mode of cultivating tlift 
Manuel Wurtzel ; and will therefore lay before you the suc- 
cessful practice, on strong land, in the county of Essex, in En* 
gland, as it is stated, from a recent English publication, by the 
Philadelphia Society of Agriculture.* 

The Mangel Wurtzel is sometimes called the Great, or Im- 
proved Beet, and Root of Scarcity ; but now, more generally, 
Mangel Wurtzel, its German name. The following is the ac- 
count of its culture, at Bedfords, in Essex. 

" It may be proper, in the first place, to state what is meant 
by strong land. The surface soil is loamy, and from four to 
twelve inches deep, upon a bed of strong clay mixed with grav- 
el. It is too heavy, and generally too wet, in the winter, even 
for sheep to eat a crop of turnips on the ground ; and although 
good turnips are raised upon it, it is always necessary to draw 
them for the sheep, stall-fed cattle, or cattle in the yards." 

" In the middle, or latter end of the month of April, the fur- 
rows are set out with the plough, two feet apart, and double 
ploughed ; that is, the plough returns on the [same] furrow to 
the point whence it set out, forming a ridge between each two 
furrows." 

" Double ploughing with a common plough is preferable to 
single ploughing with a double mould board plough, because it 
affords a greater depth of loose earth than the double mould 
board plough would produce." 

'' In these furrows, the manure, which should be in a rotten 
state, is deposited, after the rate of six cubic yards to an acre."t 

" The ridges are then split by the plough, going and return- 
ing the same way as before' mentioned ; leaving the manure im- 
mediately under the middle ef the new ridges. A light roller is 

* Memoirs of the Society, Vol. III. Appendix. 

+ Six cubic yards contain 162 cubic feet, or three cartloads for a pair of 
oxen. A cart body, 7 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet high, in the clear^ 
contains 56 cubic feet; and three times 56 are 168. — I doubt the necessi- 
ty of manure being " in a rotten state," seeing it is to be so deeply buried, 
for this or any other root crop intended for the food of domestic animals ; 
especially for Mangel Wurtzel, which, to obtain a full crop, should be 
sown very early, as soon as the ground is dry enough to be ploughed. The 
powerful fermentation of fresh dung raiglit impart to the soil a salutary 
warmth in the cool spring season. At least it may be worth while to try it/ 



14 

then passed along the ridges,* in the miildle of which the seed 
is dibbled, so that the plants may receive all the benefit which 
can be derived from the maniire."t 

'' The ?eed is deposited about an inch deep, whilst the moist- 
iire is fresh in the earth J and covered by drawing a garden rake 
along the rows. After this, the light roller is again passed along 
the ridges, [to press the earth upon the seeds] and the work is 
finished." 

* These narrow ridges, as formed by the plough, are sharp : by passing 
a light roller over them they are flattened to a breadth of eight or nine in- 
ches. The light roller, drawn by a horse, that walks in the furrow betweeii» 
them, flattens two ridges at a time. Thus rolled, the manure will be cov- 
ered eight or nine inches deep. 

t A dibble is a siraplt- tool, wliich may be of dilTerent sizes and form?, ac- 
cording to the uses it is intended to serve. If for setting (in transplanting) 
cabbages or other like plants, it may be a round stick about an inch and a 
quarter in diameter, shaved down at one end (in a slope of eight or ten in- 
ches long) to a blunt point. An old spade or shovel handle is well adapt- 
ed to the purpose. If much used, the slope may be advantageously cover- 
ed smoothly with iron. But for putting in seeds^ the dibble may be in the 
form of the letter T. To make one, take a piece of wood about three feet 
four inches long, and about an inch and a quarter square. In one of the 
sides bore holes in a line, and insert teeth at the proposed distance of the 
plants in the row: if for Mangel Wurtzel, at ten, eleven, or twelve inches 
apart: and let the teeth be as long (projecting from the head-piece) as the 
proposed depth at which the seeds are to be sown. On the opposite side 
of the head-piece, bore a hole in the middle, large enough to receive a 
handle of convenient length. On the top of the handle fix a cross-piece 
five or six inches long, to be grasped by the band in using the tool. With 
it, as many holes for seeds will be made, at every movement, as there are 
teeth in the head. The handle may require bracing, in like manner as a 
rake handle and its head are braced by means of bows. 

It now occurs to me, that perhaps the li|;ht roller used in levelling the 
tops of the ridges may be set with teeth, and thus perform the additional 
office of making holes for the seed ; and with vastly greater expedition 
than by dibbling. A light roller, long enough to flatten two ridges at once, 
of thirteen inches in diameter, and furnished v/ith two sets of four teeth 
each, to pass along the middles of two adjoining ridges — and the four teeth 
of each set being inserted at equal distances in a circle of the roller, — the 
holes for the seed would be made at the desired distance of near one foot 
from each other. The teeth should be so shaped as to leave the holes 
made by them fairly open. For this purpose they may be an inch and a 
half wide and three quarters of an inch thick, where their shoulders are 
fayed to the roller, and taper tlience to a rounded thick edge at their ex- 
tremities. The same teeth, if not too long, may serve to regulate and ex- 
pedite the sowing of the Ruta Baga seed. 

:{: It is very important f o have seeds of all kinds sown as soon as possible 
after the ground is ploughed and prepared to receive them, and before the 
moisture of the fresh stirred earth is dissipated by tiic sun and drying 
winds: otherwise some may never vegetate, or not till after a fall of rain ,; 
and so precious lime may be lost, and an uneven crop be produced. 



15 

" When the plants are about the size of a radish, thej ai'o 
hoed with a turnip hoe, leaving the plants in the row about 
twelve inches apart. If any of the seeds fail, and there happen 
not to be an even crop, the roots where they are too thick are 
drawn out before the hoeing takes place, and transplanted to 
fill up the vacant places, and insure a full crop ; which is always 
certain, inasmuch as 99 plants out of 100 thrive and do well. 
In transplanting", care is necessary to prevent the point of the 
root from turning upwards." 

"The weeds, while the plants are young, are kept hoed ; 
but after the head of the plant has once spread, no weed can 
live under its shade ; and the expense of hoeing afterwards is 
trifling indeed." 

" The whole of the crop is taken up in the month of Novem- 
ber,* in dry weather. The tops are cut off near the crown of 
the plants, and the plants, when perfectly dr}^, are piled up in a 
shed, and covered with straw sufficiently thick to preserve them 
from the frost. They kept last year till the latter end of March, 
and they would have kept much longer." 

"Where a field selected for a crop of beet [the Mangel Wurt- 
zel] happens to be in a foul state, the seed had better be sown 
in a garden, and the whole field planted with the young beet, 
when of the size of a radish. This will give time for cleaning 
the ground, and fitting it for a crop ; for although the beets are 
destroyers of weeds, it is not meant to recommend sowing them 
on foul ground, or in any way to encourage a slovenly system 
•f farming." 

" The method of cultivating the heet root here recommended 
13 the same as that used in the cultivation of turnips, in Northum- 
berland and other parts of the North [of England] with this ex- 
ception, that the rows there are twenty-seven inches apart. 
There may be reasons in the North for still preserving that 
Fpace ; but in Essex the eflect of it, in the cultivation of the beet 
root, would be, that instead of forty-eight tons per acre, forty- 

* The time of taking vp the Mangel Wurtzel must be regulated by the 
climate. There is sometiiues a frost in the latter part of October, in this 
county, severe enough to injure this root, exposed, as the greater part of ii 
is, above ground. Light frosts, however, will do it no harm, while th»=' 
roots remain iu the ground, and in a dfgree sheltered by therr leaves. 



16 

three tons only would be obtained. Experience has proved, that 
the roots do not get to a larger &ize in rows three feet apart, than 
they do in rows two feet apart. It may therefore fairly be pre- 
sumed, that they would not be larger, in rows twenty-seven 
inches apart ; and if not larger, the weight of the crop, per acre, 
must be less, because the plants decrease in number as the rows 
increase in space." 

To the preceding account of cultivating the Mangel Wurtzelj 
i will subjoin a few ^ 

REMARKS. 

In this mode it is intended that every two feet of ground 
should bear one plant: and as an acre contains 43,560 square 
feet, there will be half of that number of plants on an acre, and 
the roots must weigh nearly five pounds each, on an average, 
to yield forty-eight tons. The land must indeed be strong to 
produce so heavy a crop. If our lands, enriched and prepared 
in the best manner conveniently in our power, can be made to 
yield half as much, we shall have reason to be satisfied : espe- 
cially as ihe Mangel Wurtzel, quantity for quantity, contains 
more than twice as much nutritive matter as the Ruta Baga, and 
even fifty per cent, more than Carrots ; according to the experi- 
ments (by analysis) of a celebrated English Chymist, Sir Hum- 
phry Davy, which he stated to the British Board of Agriculture, 
These experiments were made with the red and white beets ; 
but it is presumed that the Mangel Wurtzel produces as much 
nutriment as any other beet. 

Instead o£six it may be advisable to apply at least twelve, cubic 
yards (that is six such cartloads as were before mentioned) of 
manure to an acre ; and to distribute the same in deep furrows 
four feet apart. This would give four square feet of ground to 
each plant, the plants being at a foot distance one from another 
in the rows : and the rows, four feet apart, would admit the use 
of the common horse-plough in their cultivation. 

Carrots and the Mangel Wurtzel possess one eminent advan- 
tage : that they are not, to my knowledge, annoyed by insects at 
any period of their growth. Whereas the RiUa Baga and other 



47 

^iTiips while ia t\ie ^eed leaf, are injured (in England whole 
fields are often destroyed) by a small black fly : aod the RutA 
Baga (like cabbages) when far advanced in growth, is sometimes 
infested, and in dry seasons half mined, by plant-lice ; as was 
my soiall crop in 1818, 

The Mangel Wurtzcl also possesses one peculiar advantage 
above all other root crops, that as soon as the lops, or leaves, 
are full grown, they may be stiipped off (leaving only the small 
heart-leave* uninjured) and given to cattle and swine. This 
stripping may be repeated once or twice : and it is said that tbe 
roots thrive better for the stripping. If not stripped off, many 
o{ the under leaves perish. — The leaves are pronounced excel- 
lent for increasing the richness and quantity of milk in cows ; 
and so are calculated to supply the deficiency of herbage in the 
common pastures, which generally fail, more or less, by the be- 
ginning of August. An acre twice stripped will yield several 
tons of leaves. 

The Ruta Baga. This root may be cultivated in the manner 
just described for the Mangel Wurtzel ; the ground being pre- 
pared in the same manner. In England, they appear to he most 
commonly grown in rows twenty-seven inches apart, with the 
plants at a foot distance in the rows. But William Cobbett, who 
in a small book, published in New-York, has minutely described 
tiis own practice, both in England and America, asserts, that the 
largest crops are attainable by growing the Ruta Baga in rowfi 
four feet apart, with the plants about ten inches or a foot distant 
from each other in the rows: and that in this mode of culture 
he has raised, in England, thirty tons to the acre. 

For this mode of culture, the manure, l»eing deposited in fur- 
rows four feet apart, is covered by four back furrows, two on 
one side anj^ two on the other, of each line of manure ; by 
which little ridges are formed : and if the ploughing be deep 
(as it ought to be) there will be .a deep gutter between every 
two ridges. — The tops of the ridges being made fine with a 
light harrow, or with rakes, the seeds are sown with a drilling 
machine ; or by hand, which Mr. Cobbett says he prefers to a 
drill. Two men sowed for him seven acres in three days, us- 
ing about four pounces of seed, in tUi? manner : a maia went 



18 

along by the side of each ridge, and put down two or three 
seeds in places at about ten inches from each other, just draw- 
ing a little earth over, and pressing it on the seed^ in order to 
make it vegetate quickly, before the earth became too dry. 
But, he adds, the seven acres might have been sown by one man 
in a day, by just scattering the seeds along on the top of the 
ridge, where they might have been buried with a rake, and pres- 
sed down with a spade or shovel, or other flat instrument. But 
he used a light roller, to take two ridges at once, the horse 
walking in the gutter between. 

The time of sowing the seeds must vary with the climate. 
On Long Island (State of New-York) Mr. Cobbett's trials of one 
year led him to prefer the 26th of June : but in our own coun- 
ty, I would not pass the middle of that month. Indeed I thinkr 
it expedient (in order to ascertain the fittest time) to commence 
sowing the seed as soon as the ground can be prepared after 
the planting of Indian corn, ahd to continue to sow, in small 
plots, weekly, until the middle of June. 

As soon as the plants are fairly up, hoes and the fingers are 
to be used, taking out all the plants but one in each ten or 
twelve inches. As soon as weeds appear, hoeing is to com- 
mence, hoeing the tops of the ridges to the width of about six 
inches, showing the plants distinct and clean. Then the plough 
is introduced, taking a furrow from the side of one ridge, going 
up the field, a furrow from the other ridge coming down, then 
another furrow from the same side of the first ridge going up, 
and another furrow from the same side of the other ridge com- 
ing down. In taking away the last two furrows, you go within 
three inches of the turnip plants. Thus a ridge is formed over 
the original gutter. The next process is, to turn these furrows 
back again to the turnips. This hoeing and ploughing is to be 
repeated, when the appearance of the weeds requires it ; and af- 
terwards, the few weeds which may rise are to be hoed or pull- 
ed up. '■ In this way Mr. Cobbett thinks a thousand bushels of 
Ruta Baga may be raised on an acre that will yield fifty bushels 
of Indian corn. 

In describing the culture of the Mangel Wurtzel, transplanting- 
fvas mentioned, to fill vacant places. The same may be prac- 



tised with the Ruta Baga. But unless those vacant spots be dug 
afresh, the transplanted roots will be much inferior to their iin- 
transplanted neig-hbours ; as I found in my last year's experiment. 
And Mr. Cobbett mentions the like difference in his practice. 
At the same time he. strongly recommends the raising of the 
Ruta Baga, by transplanting^ for entire crops,, as far preferable 
to the sowing of the seeds, and letting the plants g-row where 
their seeds first vegetated. But then he considers it indispen- 
sable to perform this transplanting on ground fresh ploughed. 
And by sowing the seeds in be.ds, to raise plants, as we do for 
cabbages, a month's more time is allowed to prepare the ground 
for their reception. — In the work of transplanting, the plain 
dibble before described is a necessary instrument. The hole 
made by it must be fully as deep as the length of the root ; and 
this being introduced (taking care in putting it into the hole not 
to bend its point) the dibble is thrust down by its side, and by a 
dexterous twist, or circular motion of the hand, the earth is pres- 
sed close against the root, in its whole length. The largest crop 
of Ruta Baga he ever raised in England, Mr. Cobbett says, was 
by transplanting, on seventeen acres, which produced thirty 
three tons to the acre ; the rows (on ridges) lour feet asunder, 
and the plants a foot asunder in the rows. 

In this mode of raising the Ruta Baga, by transplanting the 
entire crop, so much time is gained for preparing the ground, 
that two crops of weeds may be destroyed, by that number of 
ploughings ; the first in the beginning of June, and the second 
immediately before transplanting. But Mr. Cobbett recom- 
mends a previous deep fall-ploughing, and another deep plough- 
ing in April, of the ground intended for the Ruta Baga. The 
like two deep ploughings will be equally proper and beneficial 
for the Mangel Wurtzel and carrots. 

Among the advantages of the transplanting method, mention- 
ed by Mr. Cobbett, one is, " that it saves almost the whole of 
the after culture. There is no hoeing ; no thinning of the plants ; 
and not more than one ploughing between the ridges." 

Harvestixg of Roots. The Mangel Wurtzel, growing chief- 
ly above the surface, and thus exposed to frost, should be taken 
«p the latter end of October or beginning of November, accord- 



ib^ to the nftiure uf the season. The harrestmg ot'Carrols tnaj^ 
follow that of the Mangel Wurtzel ; aud the Ruta Baga succeeiJ 
the Carrots. In the first experimental culture of these root?, 
in which but small quantities are raised, they can be preserv- 
ed in dry cellars n^ot liable to freezing. Where large quDn-- 
tiiies are raised, they may be deposited in heaps, sufficiently 
covered, in a dry field. The common method of heaping and 
covering roots in the field, and which Mr. Gobbett practised 
with the Ruta Baga, is perhaps as good as any. Holes of a 
round or square form are dug alx)ut a foot deep, and about tifty 
bushels are put into each, piling up the roots above the level 
of the surface of the land, sloping to the top : then covering 
them with straw, throw earth over the whole to a depth suffi- 
*cient to guard them from frost. Smooth the surface of this 
earth by beating it close with the back of a spade, or other in- 
strument, the better to cast oiT rain. On Long Island and in 
Pennsylvania, a covering of earth a foot or fifteen inches deep 
has been found sufficient. A greater depth will probably be ne- 
cessary here. In throwing up this cover, a trench will be form- 
ed on all sides of the heap, to receive the water running off it. 
It may be well to sink the bottom of the trench lower than the 
bottom of the hole in which the roots are deposited. — Where 
large quantities are to be thus preserved, several loads may be 
put into one hole : and then oblong heaps will be best, as requir- 
ing less labour in covering them — A quantity of roots, for feed- 
ing cattle till the middle of Peceraber, may be kept in a barn or 
stahle covered with strr.vv or any dry litter. I would begin feed- 
ing with Mangel Wurtzel — follow next with Carrots— -and con- 
clude with Rota Baga ; ior the latter root will keep sound until 
the commencement of the summer succeeding their growth. 

All the roots, especially the Mangel Wurtzel and Carrots, 
should be fully dried before they are housed, or covered in the 
field, to guard them against roiling. 

Roots for Raising Seed. Of the Mangel Wurtzel 1 would 
select large and fair roots, of a red colour, whose bodies have 
grown most above ground, and with a moderate, if not the small- 
est, quantity of leaves; for although these are valuable for strip-^ 
ping, the roots arc much more valuable ; and I am inclined tt 
think those with small tops are least liable to rot-. 



Of Carrots, targ<» «nd fair roots of the deepest yellow colour, 
bkod with the smallest tops in proportion to the size of the roots, 
are to be preferred. 

With regard to the Ruta Baga, Mr. Cobbett says it is apt to 
degenerate^ if the seed be not saved with care. '•^ We in Engl iid 
(says he) examine well to find out those that run least into neck 
and green. We reject all such as approach at all towards a zvhit' 
ish coloiiT, or which are even of a greenish colour towards the 
neck, which there oug-ht to be a little of a reddish cast.''^ 

Varieties of plants of the same kind (the difterent sorts of cab- 
bages, for instance, or of Indian corn) if growing near together 
and bearing seed, will impart to one another their respective 
peculiarities ; and injuriously, whenever it is desired to preserve 
their distinct qualities unmixed, and to prevent an inferior en-- 
gendering with one of superior quality ; the impregnating dust 
of the flowers of plants, falling on the flowers of other plants of 
the same kind, producing effects similar to the crossing of ani- 
mals of the same kind but of diflferent breeds. In a word, the 
sexual system exists in plants as well as among animals ; only io 
plants the male and female are generally united in the same 
plant ; as in Indian corn, the male impregnating dust (the farina) 
is in the tassel or flower, at the top: the ear is the female, and 
from every cell of the future grain proceeds a thread, which to« 
gether constitute what is -called the silk, on which the farina 
falling, causes the cells to fill, and become, when ripe, kernels 
of corn. In most fruits, as the apple and pear, the male and fe- 
male are in the same flower. But in hemp, some of the plants 
are exclusively male, and others exclusively female. 

The Ruta Baga, therefore, when set out for bearing seed, 
should be placed at a distance from every other seed-plant of 
the Turnip or Cabbage kind. So likewise the Mangel Wurtzel^ 
intended to bear seed, should not be set near any other seed-beet 
plants". It may not be amiss to add, that for the same reasons, 
pumpkins, squashes, melons, cucumbers, in all their varieties, 
in order to preserve them in purity, should be planted at some 
distance from each other. 

Pumpkins, as food for domestic animals, seem closely connec-r 
t-ed with the roots before mentioned. Every farmer kno^ve 



their value for milch cows, for fattening^ cattle, and for swine.. 
Their consumption conveniently precedes that of the Mangel 
Wurtzel. 

With ample supplies of the Vegetables whose culture I have 
mentioned and described, our present Stocks may be better fed, 
their numbers enlarged, our coarse fodder be more advantage- 
ously consumed, our manure increased, and pork and beef, and 
the products of the dairy, probably doubled. The latter, in par- 
ticular, are miserably deficient, from the want of juicy food for 
cows, in continuance of the supply yielded by our common pas- 
tures just at midsummer. Pumpkins and the roots, indeed, will 
not be ready to keep up that supply : but oats and barley, and 
above all Indian corn, may be sown and planted, to be cut 
green, and carry along our cows to the last of September, when 
pumpkins will begin to ripen. The consumption of these 
green crops and roots, by producing vast additions to our ma- 
nure, will enable us to enrich our fields, and to make annual ad- 
ditions to the products of our farms. 

The immense importance of providing for cows a full supply 
of food, and of food which they relish, to the extent of their ap- 
petites, has been demonstrated by many examples of very large 
products of milk, butter and cheese, from cows so supplied. 
The following statement from a recent English pubhcation is 
a further illustration of the fact : — "A farmer, some years since, 
kept eighteen cows upon a Common^ and was often obliged to 
buy butter for his family. The Common was inclosed [which 
deprived the farmer of his pasture ;] and the same person sup- 
plied his family am.ply. with milk and butter, from /our cows 
•mell kept.'^^ 

III. ON INDIAN CORN AND AVINTER-GRAIN. 

The ancient, and to this day the general practice, in cultiva- 
ting Indian corn, has been to plant it in squares, and in the 
course of its growth to draw up earth about the stems of the 
plants, forming hills ; under the idea of supporting them against 
strong winds : but the necessity or utility of this practice has 
long been doubted. I liave sometimes cultivated Indian corn 



S8 

without raising any hills about the plant* ; aud, from the re- 
sult, am satisfied that hills are not necessary. If, indeed, 
winter wheat, or rye, is to be sown among the corn, at its last 
dressing, I think the hilling must be injurious : for the rich- 
er mould being drawn up into hills, the intervals are robbed 
of what is requisite to produce an even crop. 

I am aware that some intelligent farmers consider it bad hus- 
bandry to sow winter grain among Indian corn — to double- 
erop the ground. But if this be Wc/?, and in fine tilth by deep 
ploughing before the corn crop is put in, and good and clean 
tillage accompanying its growth, I can perceive no solid objec- 
tion to the practice. With us, the early sowing of winter grain 
is of the first importance, to insure a full crop, early ripe, and 
most secure from mildew. The husbandry of ?flr. Ducket, al- 
ready described, justifies the practice. I know it is already 
common amongst us ; but without the deep tillage which ena- 
bled him to put in seven crops with only four ploughings. With 
such complete tiMage, of a soil so enriched as to yield forty or 
fifty bushels of Indian corn to the acre, grown on a level, with- 
out hills or ridges ; and if, in harvesting the corn, it be cut close 
to the ground ; I see no reason why grass seeds may not proper- 
ly be sown on the winter grain, in the spring. In this way, may 
be obtained a crop of Indian corn the first year — a crop of wheat 
•r rye the second year — and hay the third and fourth years ; 
and all from one deep ploughing, and a handsome culture of the 
Indian corn. 

By the early sowing of winter grain among Indian corn, it 
quickly vegetates, and sends forth numerous branches ; and soon 
coyering the ground, prevents or checks the growth of weeds. 
Probably, too, the plants, acquiring so much strength by early 
sowing (for the roots must multiply and extend in proportion t© 
the growth above ground) are less liable to be winter-killed. 

IV. ON LIVE STOCK. 

I have now to present to your notice the other of the Three 
Celebrated English Farmers, described by Arthur Young — Mr. 
BakewcU— the most distinguished improver of live stock, on 



S4 

principles of his own, in Great Britain. " Th€ pfiocipk^ hf. 
began upon (says Mr. Young) vf ere fine forms ^ small bones<^ mid 
» true disposition to make readily fat, which is indeed inseparaWe 
from small bones, or rather fine bones, and fine forms, or true 
symmetry of the parts." Before BakewelPs day, the rules 
which governed Breeders of Live Stock, Mr. Young pronounces 
" a tissae of absurdities." 

He began his improvement of sheep, by selecting from the 
best in his neighbourhood. And so little had any correct princi- 
ple of improvement been known or regarded, that a guinea or 
Jiaif a guinea extraordinary would give Mr. Bakewell the choice 
of any sheep in any flock. And his uncommon sagacity enabled 
*him, by the best selections and judicious crossings, to form a 
breed distinguished above all others, for the disposition to fatten^ 
■early maturity, a form indicating strength of constitution, weight 
in the most valuable parts, with lightness of offals. Mr. Young 
^expresses his opinion, that there is not a breed of any sort of live 
*tock in Great-Britain, that does not derive its improvement from 
the skill, knowledge and principles of Mr. Bakewell. Another 
eminent Agriculturalist declares (and Mr. Young does not think 
he exaggerates) '' that Mr. Bakewell enabled those who follow- 
ed his ideas, to produce two pounds of mutton where only one 
ivas produced before." 

Mr. Young adds, that Bakewell was the most careful feeder 
of stock that he ever met with, and who made his food go the 
farthest. To horses and cattle in stalls, he did not permit more 
than a handful of hay to be given at a time ; and the same econo- 
my was used in all other feeding. — But his stocks were so large 
as to require on« or more persons to be appropriated to that ser- 
vice. This practice, on our small farms and with our small 
stocks, cannot be fully adopted : but it may be imitated, in some 
degree, during the season (winter) most requiring such atten- 
tion. By feeding them in this manner, the cattle will doubtless 
£at more, but they will waste less: so that while, in the whole, 
no more fodder will be consumed, the stock will be put into 
?nuch better plight. 

Cleanliness, also, will materially contribute to the health and 
•^hriving^ of stock* The common cattle-stalls of our country are 



S5 

3^ ill-contrived, and so straitened in their dimensions, that the 
cattle are constrained to lie down, in part in their own dung. 
This dries and forms a thick coat on their hind quarter?, from 
which they are not relieved till they shed their hair in the 
spring. They are thus rendered unco mf or table : to be uncom,' 
fortahle is to suffer some degree of pain ; and no one will sup- 
pose that animals in pain can thrive, or preserve their plight^ with 
the same food, equally with others perfectly at ease. Even hogs, 
though prone to wallow in the mire, in warm weather, are al- 
ivays pleased with a diy bed, and thrive best when kept clean. 
I have somewhere read an account of an experiment made with 
two, confined in separate pens, and fed exactly alike : one was 
suffered to be constantly foul with the mire of his sty ; the 
other, washed every day, and kept clean, far outstripped the 
former in thriving. 

It may be useful to add some further information on Live Stocky 
from the writings of Sir John Sinclair, President of the British 
Board of Agriculture. He proposed to a gentleman in England,* 
who is eminent for his knowledge and accurate observations re-* 
lative to plants and animals, some questions concerning Live 
Stock. In one of his answers, he says — '' I have found the food 
animals generally require, to keep them in proper condition, is 
much more nearly proportioned to their height and length, than 
to their weight. " In confirmation of this opinion, he adds, that 
one of his neighbours made a comparative experiment with the 
Devon and Hereford cows; and though fond of the former for 
their neatness, he gave them up, because '' they would not near- 
ly live upon the same food which supplied animals stouter and 
more compact^ of the same weight." 

To the question, " What is the best shape for feeding well 
with little food?" Mr. Knight answers — '"The more deep and 
capacious the chest, and the shorter and lower any animal is, 
relative to its weight, the better adapted it will be to live and 
fatten upon little food ; the more labour it will also go through ; 
and 1 have always found the most short legged oxen to be the 
best labourers. Mr. Marshall also observes, in his Rural Econo- 

* Thomas A. Knight, Esqp. 



26 

my of Gloucestershire, that the best labouring^ ox he ever saw, 
had the shortest legs." 

I will detain the Society no longer than to make a few obser- 
vations 

V. ON ORCHARDS. 

I advert to this subject for the purpose of suggesting the utili- 
ty of propagating Sweet Apples. 

After providing a due proportion of apples for the table, and 
the ordinary purposes of cookery, I do not hesitate to express 
ray opinion, that for all other uses, sweet apples are entitled to 
the preference. The best cider I ever tasted in this county, 
was made wholly of sweet apples. They aiford also a nourish- 
ing food to man and all domestic animals. What furnishes a 
more delicate repast than a rich sweet apple baked and eaten 
with milk? — I recollect the observation made to me by an ob- 
serving farmer, before the American revolution, that nothing 
would fatten cattle faster than sweet apples. Mentioning this, 
a few years since, to a gentleman of my acquaintance in an 
adjoining state, he informed me, that he was once advised to 
give sweet apples to a sick horse. Happening then to have 
them in plenty, the horse was served with them, and he soon 
got well : and continuing to be fed with them, he fattened fas- 
ter than any other horse he had ever owned (and he had owned 
many) that was fed with any other food. 

Mentioning to the same gentleman, what I had long before 
heard, that a good molasses might be made of sweet apples, he 
confirmed the fact by an instance within his own knowledge : 
and further expressed his opinion, (and I have not known a man 
whose practical judgment was entitled to more respect) That it 
would not be difficult, by forming orchards of sweet apples, to 
supply molasses for the general consumption of the United States. 
I have never tasted any sweet apple molasses ; but I suppose it 
has not (nor has honey) the rich sweet of molasses from the 
sugar-cane ; yet, for family uses in general, it would be a useful 
substitute for the latter. The process in making it I suppose to 
be very simple. The apples being ground, and the juice (or 
f4der) expressed, at the cider-mill, it is immediately boiled, 



37 

(that is, before any fermentation takes place) and the scum be- 
ing taken off as it rises, the boiling is continued until the liquor 
acquires the consistence of molasses. 

Sweet apples are of different degrees of sweetness. Those 
of the richest kinds should be chosen for the purpose of making 
molasses. But in grafting, the cions should be taken (as they 
ought to be for all kinds of fruit) not from old, worn out trees, 
but from those whose originals are in full health and vigour. 
For it has been satisfactorily ascertained in England (and proofs 
of it are not wanting in our own country) that fruit trees have 
their infancy, (springing from seeds) youth, maturity, and old 
age ; and that when they have reached this last stage, it is in 
vain that attempts are made to continue them. Or if the cions 
take, and grow for a few years, they are unproductive, and 
soon decay. The reason is plain : every cion is a part of the 
tree from which it is taken ; and if this be in a state of decrepi- 
tude, so will be the cion ; and although grafted on a youthful, 
thrifty stock, it will be of no avail. 



ERRATUM. 

Page 3 — for top root, read tap rooto 



THE 



TRUSTEES' ACCOUNT 



•n 



ASV 



OTHER EXHIBITIONS, 



AT TOPSFIELD, 



OCT. 5, 1820. 



SALEM: 

7AJI7TSP BX JOHN D. QVBUJIHB, 
1821, 



d 



TRUSTEES' ACCOUNT, l^c. 



This being the first essay of the Essex Agricultural Society, 
a splendid exhibition was not looked for. The experiment has 
shown the necessity of different arrangements, which shall ad- 
mit of a more convenient and satisfactory inspection of articles 
presented for premiums — of time to consider the merits of each 
— to write the reports thereon, by the various committees, and 
to publish, and deliver to the successful candidates, the premi- 
ums which shall be awarded. The want of such arrangements 
has been the chief cause of the delay in publishing the transac- 
tions of the day. The Trustees subjoin to this account a plan 
which they hope will effectually remedy, in future, the incon> 
veniences which have attended the first essay. 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

No. I. 

WOBKIJ^G OXEJSr JiJ^D J\'EJ1T LIVE STOCK, 

The Committee appointed to examine Working Oxen and 
JVeat Live Stock, and to award premiums, have attended to the 
duty assigned them, and respectfully 

REPORT, 

That the number of large and superior working oxen far ex- 
€eeded their expectations, demonstrating their utility and supe- 
riority in the labours of the husbandman, and the importance of 
the requisites prescribed by the society, to entitle them to pre- 
miums; inasmuch as among the many excellent cattle exhibited, 
and which rendered it in some cases a matter of very careful 
idiscrimination to whom the prize should be awarded, there was 



an obvious deficiency in training them to their highest useful- 
ness, which might otherwise have secured the premium. Under 
these impressions, 

They have awarded the first premium, for the best trained 
working oxen, not less than five yeafs old. 

To Mr. Samuel Wheeler, of Newburyport, for a yoke of oxen 
owned and driven by himself— fifteen dollars. 

To Mr. Samuel Hood, of Topsfield, the second premium for 
his yoke of oxen, five years old, of a deep red colour — ten dol- 
lars. 

The premium for the best bull, not less than one year old, to 
Asa Andrews, Esq. of Ipswich, for his dark brindle bull— fifteen 
dollars. 

The second to Jacob Wilkins, of Marblehead, for his red bull^ 
«^ten dollars. 

The third to Gorham Parsons, Esq. for a dark red bull, from 
his farm in Byfield — five dollars. 

It was a subject of regret to the committee, on examining the 
milch cows, that so few were entered for premiums; as they 
are always a great object to the farmer, both for the dairy and 
his future stock ; and it being so obvious that a first rate cow 
requires no more expense for her support than an inferior one — 
requiring of the farmer only some care in selecting his stock for 
breeding ; for he seldom if ever gives or obtains, in exchange, 
between a superior and a common cow, more than the difference 
of profit for a single year ; always leaving him who takes the 
common one impoverished by the exchange. It is not believed 
that the sample exhibited bears any proportion to this valuable 
animal through the county, cultivated as it is by capable and en- 
terprising farmers. The cause of the deficiency, at this exhi- 
bition, must be attributed to the undue expectations raised on 
this subject — and it cannot be doubted will be remedied at the 
next anniversary .-^They remarked however with satisfaction, 
that those intended for premium were very superior — there 
were also several others exhibited, but not intended for premi- 
um, that were very fine, particularly a cow and her progeny 
belonging to Asa Andrews, Esq. of Ipswich, being the same 
stock of the bull that obtained the first premium, and a cow of 



the famous Bakwell breed, belonging to the Hon. Timothy 
Pickering — and several others. 

They adjudged the premium for the best milch cow to Mr. 
Jacob B. Winchester, of Salem — fifteen dollars ; 

And for the second best to Samuel Farrar, Esq. of Andover, 
— ten dollars. 

For the best bull calf to Mr. Jonathan Berry, of Middleton, 
•> — five dollars. 

For the second best to Samuel Farrar, Esq. of Andover, — 
three dollars. 

For the best heifer calf, to Mr. Simon Smith, of Saugus — five 
dollars. 

For the second, to Hon. Timothy Pickering— three dollars, 
for his calf raised from native stock. 

It was particularly gratifying to see the large number of bull 
and heifer calves, entered for premiums, evincing as it does the 
interest already excited by this exhibition, and the spirit of im- 
provement which is so happily extending throughout the county. 
Should this spirit continue, it is not difficult to anticipate the pe- 
riod not far distant, when the neat cattle of the county of Essex 
will vie with any part of this country for beauty and worth. 
Which is submitted by 

BENJAMIN T. REED, 

Per order of Committee. 



No. II. 

FAT OXEJ>r AJ^D SWIJ^E, 

The Committee appointed to award premiums on Fat Oxen 
and Stsiine^ have attended that duty, and 

REPORT, 

That no fat oxen were offered. 

The Committee award — 

To Mr. George Adams, of Newbury, for the best boar — eight 
dollars. 

To Mr. Samuel Hood, of Topsfield, for the second best boar, 
— five dollars. 





To Mr. Elias Putnam, of Danvers, for the best breeding sow, 
— eig^ht dollars. 

To Mr. Benjamin Savory, of Newbury, for the second best, 
— five dollars. 

To Mr. Ellas Putnam, of Danvers, for the best litter of wean- 
ed pigs — six dollars. 

To Mr. William W. Little, for the second best— four dollars. 

The Committee add, that Mr. Amos Shelden, of Beverly, ex- 
hibited a very fine boar, the breed of which, in their opinion, 
deserves encourag-ement; and that Col. Jesse Putnam, of Dan- 
vers, exhibited four pigs, three of them very fine. 
PAUL KENT, 



. KENT, \ 

WINN, f ^ 

:^HEN ABBOT, (^^'^ 
:. COLMAN, ) 



g^£p;i^';T"'*DT,r.m > Committee. 
JEKE 



No. IlL 

/JW)J^JV CORJ\' AJ^n POTATOES. 

jThe Committee to examine claims, and award premiums, for 

Indian Corn and Potatoes^ have attended to the duty assigned 

them, and 

REPORT, 

That Tristram Little, of Newbury, is entitled to the first pre- 
mium on Indian corn, having raised lOo^ bushels on one acre^- 
fifteen dollars. 

That James and Stephen Hathaway, of Marblehead, are en- 
titled to the second premium on Indian corn, having raised one 
hundred and ninety bushels and seventeen quarts on two acres, 
eight rods and twenty two links — ten dollars. 

That John Dwinell, of Salem, is entitled to the first premium 
on potatoes, having raised three hundred and ninety eight and a 
half bushels on one acre — fifteen dollars. 

That Ool. Jesse Putnam, of Danvers, is entitled to the second 
premium on potatoes, having raised three hundred and ninety 
seven bushels on one acre — ten dollars. 

JACOB B. WINCHESTER, 

for himseifand ^Committee. 

TEMPLE CUTLER, <* 



MtPEIilMEJ^TS WITH IJ^DMJ^T COJUS\ 

Mr. Tristram Little (to whom the first premium was granted) 
states his comparative experiments of planting in hills and in 
double continued rows, in the following manner. 

He selected two acres of about the same quality, the soil a 
dark clay mould, which in 1819 received four cords of manure 
to the acre, were planted with potatoes, and yielded, per acre, 
about two hundred and eighty bushels. 

In May, 1820, he ploughed the whole ahont nine inches deep, 
and about the middle of that month began to plant his corn. 
On one acre he opened double furrows two feet apart, leaving 
a space of five feet between the double furrows. In these fur- 
rows he strewed ten cords of manure, and with a back furrow 
to each, covered the same. He then dropped his corn, the 
grains eight inches apart ; and then, by turning another furrow, 
covered the corn ; which was thus left in double rows two it^t 
apart. 

The other acre he planted in hills, equally distant each way, 
making twenty-six hundred hills in all ; which gave 16f square 
feet to each hill — that is, the hills were a fraction more than 
four feet apart. To this acre he applied six cords of manure, 
of the same quality with that used on the other acre. 

About the 21st of October he finished harvesting his crop. 
The produce in favour of the hills was as 20 to 19 in the double 
rows. He remarks, that when corn is thus planted in continued 
rows, these should run north and south, [that the sun may shine 
equally on both sides.] His run east and west : and he thinks 
the north row was not so good as the south, by one third part. 

The acre planted in hills received sixteen days labour, inclu- 
ding the team : the acre in double rows, two days more. 

The Messrs. Hathaways, to whom the second premium wa« 
awarded, state, that their field was-, in 1817, a common rough pas- 
ture— was broken up in 1818, planted with Indian corn, with a 
common quantity of manure — and yielded a large crop. In 
1819, about the usual quantity of manure from privies wr» 
ploughed in, and corn planted. It yielded 80 bushels to the 
acre. In 1820, twenty cart bodies full of the same kind of ma- 



s 

tiure as in 1819 (that is, night soil from privies) were ploughed 
in, and corn was planted on the 12th of May, in hills three feet 
apart, five grains to a hill, carefully distanced. It was hoed 
twice, but would not admit of a third hoeing, from the crowded 
state of the field : the first hoeing on the 3d of June, the second 
about the 23d. It was harvested the 29th of September, and 
yielded one hundred and ninety-nine bushels and a half of corn. 
The quantity of land two acres, eight rods and twenty-two 
links, or nearly two acres and nine rods j giving ninety-seven 
bushels of corn to the acre. 

The preceding two premiums for Indian corn were all that 
the trustees had proposed to oflfer. But they think it expedi- 
ent to notice the claim of Mr. Samuel Day, of Ipswich. His 
intention appears to have been to plant an acre ; but when 
measured, the piece fell short by seven rods. His product, 
however, was ninety-one bushels — or at the rate of 05 bushels 
to an acre. He states that this piece of land, of a kindly soil, 
was broken up in May, 1819 — furrowed both ways, at the dis- 
tance of four feet seven inches — had ten loads of barn manure 
put in the hills, (the crossings of the furrows) and five grains of 
corn to each dropped on the manure, and covered — that the 
crop was ploughed and hoed three times, and produced forty 
bushels. — That in 1820 the same piece of land was thus managed: 
On the 1st of May the hills were split — the ground harrowed, 
and then ploughed, finishing this operation, on the 2d, in the 
forenoon ; and on the same day he furrowed it deep 07ie rmy 
tnly^ the furrows three feet seven inches apart. On the 3d, 
fifteen loads of barn manure were strewed along the furrow^s* 
On the 4th, the corn was planted, being dropped on the ma- 
nure, three grains in a place, at the distance of 18 or 20 inches ; 
the quantity of seed used, one peck. On the 2d of June, two 
hands ploughed two furrows between the rows, and hoed it. 
On the 20th, two hands ploughed one furrow between the rows, 
and hoed it; and July 6th, two hands, in the afternoon, gave it 
a dressing with their hoes. 

In considering this case, the Trustees are of opinion that Mr. 
Day's experiment merits special notice ; and they award to him 
a premium of eight dollars. 



§ 



E^PERIMEJVTS OJ>r POTATOES. 

Salem^ JYovember 16, 1820. 

8ENTLEMEN*, 

I received your ftivour of the Ist instant, and shall now en- 
deaTour to comply with your request respecting the crop of 
potatoes on an acre of Messrs. Wait and Peirce's lind, in Bridge 
street. 

1st. As to " the quality and stite of the land in 1819." It wa& 
yrass land, and was broken up early in December. — Soil black. 

2d. " The produce and general state of cultivation, and the 
tjuantity and kinds of manure applied to it in that year." The 
produce had always been English grass, since I was first em- 
ployed upon it^ which was nearly thirteen years ago ; and it 
was never broken up during that time, till last autumn. There 
was always a good crop. No manure was put on it in 1819. 

3d. " The quantity and kinds of manure applied to it in 
1820." Nine cart loads, for one yoke of oxen, of bam manure. 

4th. " The quantity of deed used, and of potatoes the sott." 
Twenty bushels of common white potatoes. 

5th. " The times and manner of sowing and planting, weed* 
ing, tilling and harvesting the crop, and the quantity of labour 
employed in its production." Four days labour for myself with 
one yoke of oxen were employed in ploughing twice, harrow- 
ing twice, and furrowing. It was planted early in June, in hills 
three feet (large) apart, a shovel full of dung (from the above 
nine loads) was put into each hole. Three days labour em- 
ployed in planting. It was weeded the latter part of June ; la- 
bour three days. It was ploughed between the hills and half- 
hilled about the middle of July ; labour one and a half days. 
Crop harvested about the 1st of October in the usual way; la- 
bour eight days. The whole quantity of laboiir employed in 
the production of the crop, (besides that of the oxen) was nine- 
teen and a half days. 

6tb. " The amount of the crop, to be ascertained by meas- 
liring or weighing." Three hundred and ninety-eig^ht and a half 
bushels of potatoes. 



Id 

In addition to my own declaration of the foregoing partitu'- 
fars, I enclose to you two certificates showing the measure 0f 
the land and of the crop. 

With great respect, I ana 

Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN DWINELL. 
To the gentlemen composing the committee on com and potatoes. 

I hereby certify that on the fourth day of October, at the re- 
quest of Mr. John Dwinell, I measured a lot of land by Bridge 
street, in Salem, owned by Messrs. Wait & Peirce, having' 
thereon potatoes, and staked out one acre, being part of the 
same lot. JONATHAN P. SAUNDERS, 

Sworn Surveyor. 
Salem, October, 1820. 

We hereby certify that the quantity of potatoes raised this 
year on the acre of Messrs. Wait & Peirce's land, in Bridge 
street, which was measured and staked out by Mr. Jonathan P. 
Saunders, was three hundred and ninety-eight and a half bush- 
els. MOSES PETINGIEL, 

HUGH BOYES. 



Statement of the cultivation and produce of an acre of land planted 
with Potatoes in the year 1820, by Jesse Putnam. 

The land is situated on the eastern side of IngersolPs hill, sa 
called, in Danvers ; the soil is strong ; it is very full of small 
and middling sized stones, so as to much impede the ploughing j 
and a considerable number of stones are so large that it will be 
necessary to blow them before they can be removed. The 
land is moist on the part planted with potatoes. 

There is on it a young orchard of apple trees, of different 
ages, from 12 to 20 years; and there are other apple trees 
around the lot, which shaded it in many places. The principal 
object in ploughing was to benefit the tree?. 






41 

It was broken up in 1819 ; it was then exceec^in^ly rough, ana 
4iad been ploughed but once for more than thirty years. 

In 1819 it was planted with corn and f)otatoes, principally 
with potatoes. There were about four cords of manure put 
upon it. It was hoed the usual number of times, but on account 
of being very rough, it was but imperfectly subdued. It yield- 
ed about one hundred and forty bushels of potatoes, and about 
twenty bushels of corn. 

In 1820 the hills were split early in the spring, two furrows 
in a row ; afterwards it was ploughed once over. The time 
occupied in ploughing was one day with three cattle. 

It was then harrowed with a common iron tooth harrow. It- 
was furrowed one way, the rows four feet apart ; the manure 
was placed in hills two feet apart, and the potatoes were drop- 
ped on the manure, one potato in a hill. Some of the potatoes 
were cut into several pieces ; but those that were not cut 
yielded the best. There were seven and a half cords of ma- 
nure put upon the land, six cords of them made in the cellar 
under the barn; a large proportion of it was made of coarse 
meadow hay and straw, that were thrown under the cattle for 
them to lie on. 

One cord and a half of the manure was taken from a slaugh- 
ter house yard. The potatoes planted on that did not yield so 
much by nearly one half. 

The largest proportion of the potatoes planted on this lot 
were of the red kind, the remainder the common white potato, 
thirty-seven bushels were planted about the 18th of May. 

The potatoes were hoed three times ; twice with ploughing 
and once without ; and the weeds almost entirely destroyed. 
Aboui six days labour were spent in hoeing, together with the 
time taken up in hoeing round the apple trees. The crop was 
gathered about the middle of October; the labour of gathering 
I estimate at nearly three cents per bushel. The number of 
daj'S work I cannot accurately ascertain, on account of their 
having been dug at different times, and a considerable propoF- 
tion by small boys. As to the quality of the potatoes, I know 
xjo difference between the value of the red and white : I hay# 



found in the market the price to be the same. For ieedmg 
cattle and hogs the red is the most valuable. 

The whole quantity produced on the lot as above described 
vvai three hundred and nii^ety-seven bushels. 

JESSE PUTNAM. 

JVovernber 22, 1820. 
I certify that I was present and saw measured all the pota- 
toes, raised on the lot of land above described by Col. Jesse 
Putnam, and that there were three hundred and ninety-sevea 
bushels. DANIEL PRESTON. 

Danvers, November 22, 1820. 
1 hereby certify that I surveyed the field of land before men- 
tioned, as planted with potatoes by Col. Jesse Putnam, on the 
19th day of October, and found it to contain one acre and four 
poles. Also, that there is now growing on this field about fifty 
young apple trees ; and that, in my opinion, the injury arising 
to the crop, from the shade of these trees, was more than suf- 
ficient to balance the extra number of poles above one acre. 

JNO. W. PROCTOR. 



No. IV. 

OJV MJJYURE8, 

The committee appointed to exaniine and report on the ap- 
plications for the premium offered ^' For a statement of the 
best mode and means, in the power of farmers generally, and 
drawn from the claimant's own practice, of increasing the quan- 
tity and improving the quality of manures ; of their effects 
when applied to the land, and of the manner of applying them," 
have considered the two statements which have been presented^ 
one by Benj. T. Reed, Esq. the other by Asa Andrews, Esq. 
s|nd submit to the Trustees the following 



Id 

REPORT. 

The attention of Mr. Reed in collecting materials for hia 
compost manure, the preparation of his low ground, by drain- 
ing, for its reception, and the largeness of his products, being 
about four tons of hay to the acre, including the second crop, 
prove his management to have been judicious. But the com- 
mittee observe nothing in the process which was not already 
known, though too little practised. Some important materials, 
also, kelp, rockweed and eel grass left by the tide, are within 
the reach of only a very few farmers, living on the sea-coast. 
Nevertheless, as the example of such care, diligence and suc- 
cess, may tend to excite others to similar exertions, the commit- 
tee submit to the Trustees the expediency of publishing Mr- 
Reed's letter, together with their thanks for the communi- 
cation. 

The like observations the committee think applicable to 
Mr. Andrews' statement: but his communication being of great 
length, an abstract of it is herewith presented to the considera- 

lion of the trustees. 

T. PICKERING, 

DAVID GRAY, > Committee. 

DANIEL PUTNAM, 
January 4, 1821. 



Marhhhead, October 4^ 1820, 

JftEAR STIR, 

For about eighteen or twenty years past I have made a prac* 
tice of making manure from every article of rubbish and filth 
that was in my way about my house, wharf, &c. 

About twenty-two years smce, a piece of land came into my 
possession, containing about two acres of tillage and five acrea 
of low, moist, flat land, with two water courses passing through 
it, which met and passed off under a town bridge. The passage 
under the bridge was narrow and small, which often caused 
from two to four or five acres of my land to be flowed with 
water for several days together, and a part of it the most of the 
year, so that the grass was very poor, some years hardly wortl\ 



14 

Cftowio* and making, and was often injured in curing:, by its be* 
ing so wet, and for one or two years was overflowed whea 
partly dry. 

1 kept the land in this situation two or three years, and found 
the income of the low part of it small and uncertain. I then 
commenced ditching it, and found it a clay and sand bottom, 
with from ten to fifteen inches of soil. I first made the ditch 
through my neighbour''s land and the passage under the town 
bridge as much wider and deeper as circumstances would allow, 
which then let off the water so as to prevent my land being 
overflowed either in summer or winter. I then began to cart 
the fine dirt and earth from the ditch on to the centre of the 
land, to make it the highest ; and all the sods and coarse part* 
that would not spread and harrow fine, I carried to my manure 
heap. 

At this time I selected a spot near this land, and also near my 
barn, &c. for making compost manure. It was on the south 
9nd east side, near the bottom of a hill. I ploughed and dug off 
the soil &c and made a basin about twenty feet wide and eighty 
feet long, and about a foot or eighteen inches deep, as the hard 
bottom and rocks would allow. I then commenced carting all 
sods, green weeds, &c. from the ditches, all my barn manure, 
dirtj old lime, &c. that vvas about my house and wharf, and also, 
whatever could be scraped together, with kelp, rockweed and 
eel grass, fee. that was left by the tide, as time and opportunity 
admitted, which was all put into my heap and occsisionally sbov- 
eled together, and generally at the end of the year was shovel- 
ed all over and mixed once or twice and sometimes oftener, 
and thrown into a ridge. 

In this manner I have made in the course of a year, from fifty 
to one hundred loads of good manure, and some years more. 

I have generally carted it on as late in the spring as the frost 
would allow, to get it on before the ground was too soft, but 
sometimes I have put it on in July, after mowing, when the 
grass had got considerably started, and I think I have fonnd the 
most benefit from my manure when put on at this time. 

For the first ten years I made a practice of sowing grass seed 
jpretty freely on the manure after it was spread j such ns herd's 






15 

gfas8, red and white clover, and I have thoupi^ht a great part of 
the seed took root and increased the crop. About four or five 
years after this I weighed and sold the hay for one year, which 
amounted to about four tons to an acre. The hay has been 
weighed about two or three difterent seasons since, with an in- 
terval of two or three years, and I think it has averaged over 
four tons per acre including the second crop. 

For the last fifteen years I have been improving this tract 
and sonae other mowing and tillage land, in all about ten acres, 
about five of which is high, and has been ploughed and cultiva- 
ted occasionally and manured from the above mentioned heap. 

In the spring of 1819, 1 built a shed adjoining my barn over 
my dung heap twenty feet wide and forty feet long, (as I 
©ould not have a cellar conveniently) and closed it with a fence, 
to which 1 have since chiefly transferred my materials for ma- 
nure. 

This shed carries off much of the snow and water from the 

poof of the barn, and protects the heap from the sun, wind and 

rain, and leaves it much stronger and better ; and I think a 

cheap shed might be so constructed over every man's barn win^ 

dows, where they throw out the manure, to keep the droppings 

of the eaves, sun, wind, &c. from injuring it, and may be so 

constructed as to be more convenient and less labour in general 

than a cellar, and a few hogs will help the manure as well as 

collect from the green weeds, &c. a part of their food. 

With respect and esteem. 

Your very humble servant, 

BENJAMIN T. REED, 
Hon. Timothy PicKERme, 

President of Essex Jlgriciiltural Society. 



Abstract of the Communication of Am Andreu'i^ Esq. on Manur^i. 

Mr. Andrews remarks, that the barn yard should be proportion- 
ed to the farmer's stock, and dishing iri its form. He considers 
oi)e year i» be necessary in jjoing tW''o«gh the process f«r mak- 



lb 

ing manure. When in autumn the yard is emptied of manul-e^ 
he would fill (bed) it with ihe vegetable matter or substance 
of salt marsh, or fresh meadows, or the earth from low places 
(such as are found on many farms,) or head-lands, and scrap- 
ings of ditches ; and over this bed lay straw, ordinary hay, bot- 
tom stalks of corn, thatch and weeds — any or all of them, as 
they can be obtained. And from the time the stock are put to 
hay, until they are turned out to pasture in the spring, they 
should not go beyond the limits of the barn yard ; within which 
they should be supplied with water. [Then their dung and 
urine will not be wasted in the roads, or uselessly scattered over 
the fields, while they are picking up a pittance of miserable, 
sapless fog, or dead grass.] The cattle are to be kept in the 
barn yard at night, during the summer, or season of pasturing. 

When in autumn, manure is carted to the fields, and dropped 
in heaps, to lie until the ensuing spring, those heaps should be 
hovered with earth, to prevent loss by washing rains and evapo- 
ration. 

In applying his manure, in the spring, Mr. Andrews mixes 
the old with the new, for grass-land broken up for planting : 
but if the land is already in a state of tillage, he spreads the 
new manure (winter dung) and immediately ploughs it in ; 
and puts the old manure in the hills. 

Having on his farm a quantity of wet meadow land, producing 
only coarse grass, he ditched and drained it ; and then, without 
ploughing, spread his compost manure upon it, and sowed 
herd's grass seed. Under this management, he was able to cut 
from two to three tons of good hay to the acre. He gives this 
land a top-dressing of compost manure every other year. The 
soil of this meadow is rich earth lying on a clay bottom. Mr- 
Reed's productive meadow has a like soil, ten to fifteen inchei 
deep, lying on a close bottom of clay mingled with sand. 

W^hen Mr. Andrews ploughs his grass up-land, he puts on 
eighteen or twenty loads of manure to an acre : and harvest* 
from each acre about sixty bushels of corn, and vegetables in 
proportion. 

From twenty head of cattle, two horses, and his swine, with 
■he materials collected and used in the process, as above de- 



scribed, he makes annoally from 220 to 250 loads of manure,, 
each load containiDg abotit forty-five bushels. 



THE DMRY. 

To the TrusUes of the Essex Agricultural Soaiety, 

•ENTLEMEN, 

The committee appointed to consider the claims for the pre- 
miums on Butter, 

REPORT, 

That Mr. Joshua Loyett made upon his farm, in Beverly, 
from the milk of five cows, four hundred and four pounds of 
good butter, in the year A. D. 1820, between the 20th day of 
May and the last day of October. 

The cows were kept in a common pasture from the 20th of 
May until the 1st of October, and afterwards in fall feed, and 
were fed with the thinnings of half an acre of carrots, and the 
green topstalks of an acre of corn. 

The quantity of butter produced from these cows, between 
the 1st day of May and the last day of November, in the same 
year, was five hundred and two pounds ; and there was made 
within that time, from the milk of the same cows, seven hun» 
dred and fifty pounds of cheese. 

This is the only claim which has been made for a premium 
on butter. Your committee are of opinion that Mr. Lovett is 
fairly entitled to the first premium on the article, inasmuch as 
the object of this society is to encourage judicious efforts in ag"- 
ricultural improvements, 

THOMAS STEPHENS, 

Chairman. 
Salem, January 10, J 821. 



18 



OJSr THE FLOUQHIJSTG MATCH, 

'RepoH of the Committee on the Ploughing Match at Topsfieldi 
October b^ 1820. 

Salem, January 6, 1821. 

SIR, 

The committee agreed to award the first premium to the 
Hon. Timothy Pickering, on account of the superior perform- 
ance and superior utility of his plough.* They think also that 
great credit is due to Gorham Parsons, Esq. for the performance 
by his plough from his Byfield Farm, and award to him the 
second premium. 

In behalf of the Committee, 

PAUL UPTON. 
To Frederick Howes, Esq. Secretary "> 

of the Essex Agricultural Society. 3 

* This plough was made by Henry Burden, at Utica, in the 
Siate 0/ New-York. 



<f 



OFFERED BY THB 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

FOR 1821. 



The Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society, to encourage improv?"" 
ments in the husbandry of the county, offer the following 

PREiMIUxMS, 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENTS. 

I. MJIJS'JIGEMEJVT OF A FJRM. 

For the best management of a farm, in its tillage, mowing 
and pasturage : the quaitity of land appropriated to each — the 
manner of making, increasing, preserving and applying manure — 
the respective crops and products — and the management of the 
iive stock — to he detailed ; . . Thirty Dollars. 

For the second best, . . Twenty Dollars,. 

II. GBEEJST CROPS FOR COWS. 

For the best experiment with any kinds of green crops^ 
(turnips and cabbages excepted, which hurt the flavour of milk) 
by which the same cows, not fewer than four, shall be kept in 
milk, with the least diminution of the quantity yielded while 
feeding in their common pastures at midsummer, until the first 
of October ; the cows to be full fed with such green crops, ia 
addition to their common pasturage : Thirty Dollars. 

For the second best, . . . Twenty Dollars. 

0:^ To render this experiment satisfactory, the milk yielded 
4t midsummer (June 21st) must be weighed j and afterwards 



20 

once ia every two weeks, until the first of October, and regu- 
larly set down. Each green crop used, and its effect on the 
quantity of milk, (and on its quality too, if there be any manifest 
difference) is to be specified. 

III. ijyDMJsr coBjsr jj>ri) other crops. 

For the greatest crop of Indian corn on one acre — 
For the greatest crop of potatoes on one acre — 
For the greatest crop of carrots on half an acre — 
For the greatest crop of mangel wurtzel on half an acre — 
For the greatest crop of ruta baga on half an acre — 
nhich shall severally be raised with the least expense of labour 
and manure—for each, . . . Ftfteen Dollars. 

For the second greatest crop of each, and for each. 

Ten Dollars. 
For the most valuable crop, according to the labour and ma- 
nure bestowed upon it, which shall be raised on one acre, 
which crop shall consist of Indian corn, and potatoes, and bush 
beans, or any two of them, to make a mixed crop, in alternate 
rows or hills, and which shall be of value at least equal to the 
best crop of Indian corn, for which the first premium shall bd 

awarded, Fifteen Dollars. 

For the second most valuable mixed crop, and which shall be 
of value at least equal to the second best crop of Indian corn, fop 
which the second premium shall be awarded, Ten Dollars. 
For the best crop of barley on one acre, Ten Dollars. 
For the second best, . . . Eight Dollars. 

IV. SUMAa 

To the person who shall prove most satisfactorily, from ex- 
periment, on not less than half an acre, that either species of 
sumac, (rhus) an article extensively used by the manufacturers 
of morocco leather, can be profitably cultivated in this countVj 
the proof to be give? in the autumn of 1823, Thirty Dollars, 



21 
V. THE DMRY. 

For the greatest quantity of good butter, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing" it, (not fewer than four) made on any 
farm, from the 20th of May to the 6th day of October, 

Fifteen Dollars. 

For the second greatest quantity, . Ten Dollars. 

Vr. CIDER. 

For the best cider, the pure juice of the apple, which shall 
be made in the present year, not less than four barrels, a san** 
pie of it not less than ten gallons, to be produced at the Cattle 

Show in 1829, Ten Dollars. 

For the second best, ...» Five Dollar?. 

The cider to be kept in casks. 

LIVE STOCK 

For the best pair of working oxen, not less than five years 
old, which shall be best trained for labour, be quickest in step, 
and in full working plight, . . . Fifteen Dollars. 

For the second best, . . . Ten Dollars. 

For the best pair of fat oxen, which shall be fattened at the 
least expense, .... Twenty Dollars. 

For the second best, . . Ten Dollars. 

For the best bull, not less than one year old, raised in or 
brought into the county, and there kept four months prior to 
the first of October, 1820, on satisfactory assurance that he shall 
be kept for use in the county twelve months after that day, 

Fifteen Dollars. 

For the second best, .... Ten Dollars. 



For the third best, 
For the best milch cow, 
For the second best, 
For the third best, 



Five Dollars. 

Fifteen Dollars. 

Ten Dollars. 

Five DoUarsL, 



22 

For the best boar, nol exceeding 
five months old, 

For the second best, 

For the best breeding sow, 

For the second best, 

For the best litter of weaned pigs 
less than two months old, 

For the second best, 



wo years, and not less ihdji 

Eight Dollars. 

Five Dollars. 

Eight Dollars. 

Five Dollars. 

not fewer than four, no^ 

Six Dollars. 

Four Dollars. 



FOREST TREES, 

For the best plantation of white oak trees, not less than one 
Qcre, nor fewer than one thousand trees per acre, to be raised 
from the acorn, and which trees shall be in the best thriving 
^taie on the first of September, 1823, Thirty Dollars. 

For the second best, . . , Twenty Dollars. 

For the third best, .... Fifteen Dollars. 

For the best plantations of locust trees, and of larch trees, 
each of not less than one acre, nor fewer than one thousand 
trees per acre, to be raised from the seeds, and which trees 
fjhall be in the best thriving state on the first of September, 
1823, for each and either, . . . Twenty Dollars. 

For the second best, . . . Fifteen Dollars. 

For the third best, ... Ten Dollars. 

For the best plantations of white ash trees and of hickory 
frees (the latter generally called, in Massachusetts, walnut) 
each of not less than half an acre, nor fewer than five hundred 
trees per half acre, to be raised from the nuts and seeds, and 
which shall be in the best thriving state on the first of Septem- 
ber, 1823,— for each and either, . . Fifteen Dollars. 

For the second best, . ... . Ten Dollars. 

For the third best, ^ . . . Eight Dollars. 

The larch tree is a native of Massachusetts and Maine, and 
doubtless of New-Hampshire and V^ermont. It is generally 
known by the name of hackmatack — perhaps the Indian name. 
It is g-rowing in various parts of this county, commonly in low 
and moist grounds. The European larch is plainly different in 
form, and more beautiful; its leaves are of a deeper green, and 



43 

its cones three or four times as large. The wood of both i5 
extremely durable. The value of our larch from Maine is 
akeady well known to aome of our ship-builders. 



To entitle a claimant to any premium under the head of 
Agricultural Experiments, the following particulars must be 
described in writing, with a declaration by the claimant of their 
truth : viz. 

1. The (juality and state of the land in 1820. 

2. The product and general state of cultivation, and Hit 
quantity and kinds of manure applied to it in that year. 

3. The quantity and kinds of manure which shall be applieid-^ 
to it in 1821. 

4. The quantity of seed used, and df potatoes the sort. 

5. The times and manner of sowing and planting, weeding, 
tilling and harvesting the crop, and the quantity of labour emr 
ployed in its production. 

6. The amount of the crop, to be ascertained by measuring 
dp weighing. 

The object of this institution being to promote valuable im- 
provements in husbandry, it will be the duty of the Trustees to 
withhold premiums in cases falling short of that object. At the 
^ame time they will be disposed to encourage every judicious 
effort to make improvements, although not crowned with suc- 
cess ; as such efforts may open the way to those which shall b'e 
really valuable. 



EXPLANATORY OBSERVATIONS. 

The Trustees have thought it expedient to subjoin to t^^ 
Ifet of premiums the following explanatory observations. 

In considering how best to apply the funds of the society, 
they were naturally led to inquire, in what objects of husbandry 
are improvements most wanted, to enlarge our products, either 
hy superior modes of manao^emept and culture, or by tjie istro- 



duction of better domestic animals, and of plants either not kl 
all or not generally cultivated ? 

In old farms, such a« all are in Essex, whose native fertility 
has long since been exhausted, Manure must constitute the es- 
sential means of restoring and increasing their productive pow- 
ers. Consequently, to increase the quantity and better the 
quality of all kinds of manure, within the reach of our farmers, 
merits the first attention, as the basis of all improvements. 
There are some substances not comprehended in the term ma' 
«wrc, in the common sense of that word, which nevertheless, 
when mixed with the soil, cause it to yield greater crops ; such 
are clay, lime and other calcarious matters, and plaister of 
Paris. 

But however abundant may be manures, their most effectual 
operation depends on the manner of using them, and on the 
condition and management of the land to which they are ap- 
plied. 

The design of our institution being universal improvements ia 
the husbandry of the county, the Trustees are of opinion that 
the excitement of premiums should be addressed, as far as prac- 
ticable, to the industrious and enterprising occupants of small as 
well as of large farms j and be extended, in the progress of im- 
provement, to every article demanding the increased attention 
of the husbandman. 

Our common permanent pastures no not yield a sufficient bite 
of grass for cattle earlier than the 20th of May ; and by the 
middle of August — sooner, if the season be dry — they fail to 
such a degree, that cows rapidly fall off in their milk, unless 
the deiiciency be supplied by other kinds of green food. What 
these are, within the power of every industrious farmer to pro- 
vide, it is hoped will be satisfactorily shown, by the claimants 
for the premiums offered on this point. 

The products of butter will be decisive of two important 
points — the goodness of the cows — and the sufficiency of their 
food ; and will encourage farmers to improve their breeds of 
milch cows, by purchase or by raising them, and to provide 
ample supplies of proper food. 



20 

fey ah act of the Icgishtnre, passed on the "SOth of Fohruary. 
4818, *'for the encouragement of agriculture and manufac- 
tures," it is made the "duty of every incorporated agricultu- 
ral society, to offer, annually, such premiums and encourage- 
fiient, for the raising and preserving oaks and other forest trees, 
in such manner, and on such terms, as to their discretion shall 
seem hest adapted to increase and perpetuate an adequate sup- 
ply of ship timber, within this Commonwealth." 

In compliance with this requisition, the premiums for raising' 
oaks and other forest trees are -offered. Small plantations only 
are proposed, because the subject, in America, is perfectly 
new ; although in Europe the practice of planting (the term 
appropriated in England to the raising of forest trees) has long 
been familiar. There the seeds are sown in beds, (like seeds 
in gardens) thence removed to nurseries, and froni the nurs6r 
vies to the grounds where they are to rise into trees. The 
emolument to be derived from plantings for the production of 
timber, is at such a distance, probably beyond the life of the 
planter, as to deter most men from making the attempt : for 
few^ very few, are actuated by the generous principle, that 
'"• It will do somebody good." Yet, as men generally wish to 
acquire and leave property for their offspring, it may be ques- 
tioned whether in any district, so bare of timber as Esso^, 
farmers could better consult the permanent interests of thei^- 
children, than by planting. Grounds so rough and rocky as ta 
be unfit for tillage can in no way be so profitablj^ improved. 
Nor, indeed, is some profit from planting very remote. That 
forest trees may rise straight, and to heights proper for titnber, 
*hey must be set, at first, matiy times as thick as will finally fit 
ihem for timber. Hence their thinnings will, in a few years, 
furnish useful wood ; white Oaks-^ hickories, ash, and perhaps 
ihe larch, for hoops, apd all of them, at larger growths, for 
fuel. 

These hints are thrown out to excite Reflection on this very 
important subject ; and to induce at least the ablest farmers to 
•omaieBce the work o{ planting. The Trustees hope there 
^vjll be many competitors for the offered premiums. Any who 
ihall propose t© make plantations, will, on their applicat-ioo. be 
4 ■ 



26 

iurnished by the Trustees with the best information they caa 
obtain on the subject ; unless a publication (which they con- 
template) should supersede the necessity of individual appli- 
cations. 

In proposing premiuihs for products obtained with the least 
expense of labour and manure, the Trustees have in view an 
improved culture of our farms, by the exertion of superior 
skill and industry, and better tillage to supply the place of more 
ample manuring*. To effect this better tillage, the plants cul- 
tivated must be set at distances which shall admit the free use 
of the plough. 

The fattening of oxen at the least expense will of course in- 
clude the shortest time: for it is well known that all domestic 
animals lay on fat in proportion to the quantity and quality of 
the food they are disposed, or can be induced, to eat, when fed 
to the full. Hence so to feed them is the truest economy, when 
fatting them is the object. 

A premium is ofifered for mixed crops of corn, potatoes and 
beans, on the supposition that the crop of corn may not thereby 
be greatly diminished in quantity, or not in proportion to the 
value of the potatoes and beans, or of one of them. The corn 
plants standing far apart will not injuriously shade the potatoes 
and beans ; while the vines of these will cover the intervals of 
the corn from the scorching rays of the sun. And a covering 
crop is deemed less hurtful than any other— some have even 
been thought to be beneficial. Dr. Eliot, of Connecticut, in his 
fifth Essay on Field Husbandry, published so long ago as the 
year 1754, thus writes — '^ Peas are found to make land mellow, 
to enrich and so well to prepare it for wheat, that I have 
many times known farmers to invite others who had peas to 
sow their land, without paying any rent, merely for the advan- 
tage it would be to their crop of wheat." The Doctor assigns 
the foUowing reason. '^ Peas make a shade ; where the land is 
shaded, the air will be condensed ; and, consequently, make 
room for the rushing in of more air, so that in this shade there 
will be a greater lodgement of nitrous salts, [or whatever in the 
air, which is a compound substance, tends to f-srtilize the earth] 
and consequently the land will be made rich." "The air'" 



27 

(says another writer) is the chief instrument which nature ma1ie> 
use of to enrich the earth.'' 

A premium is offered for the best cider, in the hope that many 
farmers may be induced to make that a pleasant liquor which is 
commonly harsh and sour. Some few make cider which is smooth 
and comparatively sweet to the taste. With equal care, all may 
tlo the same. Such cider would not only be more pleasant, 
but doubtless more wholesome, and it would lessen the con- 
sumption, and ought eventually to supersede the use, of spiritu- 
ous liquors. Cider is generally made without separating the 
ripe from the unripe, and the rotten apples from the sound ones ; 
and no measure is used to check its violent fermentation. Hence 
the meagre and austere cider almost universal in New-England. 
Were grapes, now producing the iSnest wines, managed as we do 
our apples, their juice would yield liquors as little esteemed as 
«ur cider. The following intimations for making good cider 
may be uscful. 

1. Let the apples hang on the trees until fully ripe. Such 
as are then mellow should be at once committed to the mill and 
press. Such as are hard should be laid in heaps not more than 
ten or twelve inches thick,* until they become mellow. For 
apples never attain their highest flavour until mellow. 

2. Separate the rotten from the sound apples ; for the latter 
only can produce good cider. Suppose all the rotten apples 
were to be selected, ground and pressed by themselves, the 
juice would be alike unwholesome and disgusting, and be thrown 
away. Naw, in proportion as rotten apples are ground up with 
the sound ones, will the cider be injured. 

3. Not a drop of water should be put to the cider, not even 
to wet the straw used in making up the cheese. For it will re- 
quire the whole strength of the pure juice to preserve it in 
casks through our hot summers, in the coolest cellars. The 
straw should be perfectly clean and sweet. 

* Many of the most experienced cider makers in New-England house 
*heir apples before grinding by laying them on the flour of the cider house, 
or on the barn floor, taking care to move them often, to prevent their 
heating. 



-as 

\ 

4. Or the great variety of apples in most orchards, those 
should be put together in the same heaps wliich appear alike 
mellow, or likely to become mellow, at the same time. 

6. Every farmer knows, that if his casks are musty, or have 
a soar smell, they will impart an ill flavour to the cider put into 
them. Such casks should be cleansed with boiling water. 
Perhaps tew have adverted to the propriety of thoroughly 
cleansing the cider mills, vats, tubs, and other utensils ; but neat 
and finely flavoured cider is not to be expected without that 
precaution. 

6. The most difficult part of the process in making cider, 
i'5, so to regulate the fermentation as to preserve a sufficient' 
degree of sweetness. If suffered to take its own course, the 
fermentation will continue long, and the cider be changed into 
a harsh, sour and pale coloured liquor. To prevent this, the 
cider must be drawn off: and the time of doing it is, when the 
lighter parts of the pomace have risen to the top, forming a 
brown coat or scum on its surface, and when the heavier parts 
have sunk to the bottom. This state of the cider would be 
clearly manifested, if a quantity were fermented in an open 
vessel. In four or five, or more days, according to the warmth 
or coolness of the air, such a separation of the parts of the pom- 
ace woukl ap[>ear. Just when that brown coat cracks and be- 
gins to show a white froth, is the time for drawing off" the cider, 
taking care that no portion of the scum or leea run out and mix 
with it. After this, some fermentation may again take place, 
and require a second, and perhaps a third racking. If the cider 
be fermented in casks, these shouid want a gallon or two of be- 
ing full. There will be no harm done by exposing so much 
surface to the air, for it will be soon covered with the brown 
pomace ; and then too the precise time for racking will be seen. 

After apples are ground, the pomace should remain exposed 
to the air, in open vats or tubs, about twenty-four hours, before 
it is made into the cheese to be pressed. This is known to 
give not only a better colouv, but to add to the sweetness of the 
eider. 

An eminent nat?iralist and practical farmer, in the greatest 
cider county in England, states, that when the rind ^nd pi>lp pf 



29 

apples are green, the cider will always be thin, weak and cot 
©uriess ; and when these are deeply tinged with yellow, it will 
always possess colour, with either strength or richness. And 
again, that such apples as are yellow, or yellow intermixed with 
red, are alone capable of making fine cider. 

TIMOTHY PICKERING, President 
F. HOWES, Secretary, 
i^amiary 10, 1821. 



♦ FOR THE 

CATTLE SEOIV dA^D PLOUGHUVG MATCH, 

?0R THa 

COUNTY OF ESSEX IN THE YEAR 1821v 

1. It is expected that the society, at their annual meeting 
at Ipswich, on the nineteenth day of February next, will deter- 
mine at what place the cattle and other live stock, to be pre-^ 
sented for premiums, and the ploughing match, shall be exhi- 
bited. 

2. The Trustees will timely appoint the necessary commit- 
lees to examine and report on \he claims for premiums, and as- 
semble with them at the place of exhibition, on Thursday, the 
eleventh day of October next, at nine o'clock in the morning ; 
at which time, all claims for premiums must be presented and 
entered. The committees will then inspect all the live stock, 
and any other articles which may be subjects of premiums, and 
prepare their reports thereon, 

3. On the next day, at ten oxlock in the morning, the trial 
of working oxen will be made ; and be followed, at eleven 
o'clock, by the ploughing match. At twelve o'clock, an ad-; 
dress, on the important subjects of our institution, will be deliv*-. 
ered, by a member of the society. 



JO 

4. At one oxlock, the members of the society will dine to*- 
gether ; and at two o'clock, the reports of the various commits 
tees will be read ; and the prennums awarded be immediately 
paid to the successful candidates. 

5. The live stock and any other articles which may be ex- 
hibited tor premiums, on Thursday, must remain until the next 
day at noon, to be viewed by the members of the society. 

6. Decisions on claims for premiums on Indian corn and root 
crops must necessarily b? postponed, because these may not 
be generally harvested by the time of the cattle show. But 
jail such claims must be sent to the secretary of the society, b}' 
the twentieth day of November next, sealed up. On that day 
the papers will be delivered to the committee appointed to ex- 
amine and report on such claims ; and after that day no claims 
will be admitted. The premiums awarded will be immediately 
paid by the treasurer. 



IJ^TUMTIfWS 

Olf THE 

RAISING OF FOREST TREES. 

in a preceding page, the common English practice is meti^ 
tioned of sowing the seeds in beds, removing the seeding plants 
to nurseries, and thence to the ground where they a^e to re- 
ceive their full growth. But some English writers contend, 
that Oaks in particular attain the quickest and best growths, 
when they spring from the sown acorns, and are never trans- 
planted : because then the young trees receive no check from 
the shortening of the tap root, or the loss of the fibrous roots 
proceeding from it. Where the land to be planted admits of 
culture with the plough, this doubtless is the most eligible 
mode. But the young oaks will not generajly rise more than 
five or six inches the first year, although the tap root may des- 
cend to the depth of from one to two feet. The second year's 
growth will also be small j after which, the removal of the plant* 



31 

to the nursery shouM not be delayed. But this removal may 
be dispensed vviih, by cutting oil tiie tap roots with a long spado 
ground to a sharp edge, and thrust^ in a sloping direction, under 
the plants in the rows, as deep as possible, so as to preserve 
eight or ten inches of the tap root. This is sometimes practis- 
ed in England ; and, it is presumed, will not materially check 
the growth of the trees. For this operation, it is obvious that 
the seed-beds must be a fine loam, frpe from stones or gravel. 

In whatever way the plantation shall be made, the ground 
in which the acorns are sown should be in a state of perfect 
tillagH3, and well cleaned by some tillage crop or crops, admit- 
ting the plough and hoe, and where no weeds have been suffer- 
ed to ripen their seeds ; which will save much labour in the 
Cultivation of the young plants, especially in the first and second.. 
yearvS. The deeper the ground is ploughed or dug for receiv- 
ing the seed, whether in the nursery beds or in the field, the 
better the trees will thrive ; especially by being more secure, 
from the effects of drought. The acorns should be collected 
from the most thrifty trees, sown in drills, or channels, about 
two inches deep, and covered, with some pressure of the earth 
upon them. If dropped in a seed bed, the acorns should be dis«- 
tant not more than an inch and a half, or two inches, in the 
drill. But if planted in the field where it is intended the trees^ 
should grow without any removal, it may be an eligible way 
(after the ground has been brought into a fine tilth, and harrow- 
ed smooth) to mark it out by cross furrows, distant four feet 
from each other, and to plant four or five, or more, acorns at 
the intersections of the furrows. The plantation may then be 
cultivated with as much ease as a field of Indian corn. And 
such cultivation is essential, for preserving tho oakiiugs fron^ 
being smothered by weeds, and for encouraging their growth. 
Every farmer knows the effect of tillage or>' young apple or- 
chards. Nuts for a plantation of hickory (walnut) may be 
planted in the same manner as acorns : and both must be col- 
lected in autumn, and then planted, or preserved in dvy santi 
until the succeeding spring. After two years growth, all but 
one, and that the best, of the. yoT^ng tr^^es should be removed 
from each spot,. 



3^ 

The seeds of the locust tree must be gathered in autumn; 
and preserTed till the ensuing spring, and sown at the time of 
planting earlj beans. Every locust seed is a small bean, and if 
sown on fruK moist earth, will vegetate as surelv as a bean, 
and grow, in a tolerable soil, from t«-o to four feet high the 
tirst year. Doubtless it will be best to sow these, at once, in 
the field where they are finally to grow, as above suggested 
for acorns : polling up, at the end of one year, all but one, the 
most thrifty, in each spot. The supernumeraries, thus extract- 
ed, may be set out to form an additional plantation. 

Larch seeds are found under tCeshells or scales of the cones. 
These must be gathered early in ilarch : for if suflfered to 
remain longer on the trees, and warm and dry weather succeed, 
the scales will rise, and the seeds fall out. If beds be prepared 
for larch seeds, and the cones spread over them, (the cones 
may touch one another) the scales will rise, and upon removing 
the cones with a fine toothed rake, the seeds will fall out. 
These may then be covered with fine earth, from a quarter to 
half an inch deep. As the larch trees, growing in this country, 
are found in low and moist grounds, it is probable that the seeds 
will vegetcte with more certainty in beds prepared of such a 
soil. After the cones have been raked and picked off of the 
first bed, they may be spread over a second, and furnish an ade- 
quate supply of seed. By moving a few in the first bed, it 
will be seen whether a sufficiency of seeds hare dropped out. 
A week, ten days, or two weeks, according to the weather, 
may be required for the discharge of the seeds, on each bed. 

Trees growing four feet apart every way, will give 2722 to 
an acre : and if so great a number grow at that distance, they 
will rise with straighter, cleaner stems. Their thinning? from 
time to time will turn to good accouat. 



at 



TO THX 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



AT THKIR 



FIRST CATTLE SHOW. 



TOPSFIELD, 



OCT. 5, 18M. 



BY ANDREW NICHOLS, ESQ, 



-Venerate the plougb, 



"And o^er your hills, and long withdrawir/g rale; 

" Let Autumn spread his treasures to the sun, 

'• Lrrxwriant and anbounded." Thovsoit. 



SALESi: 
pRTTtkb bt johs d. «riHi:f&. 



ADDRESS, 



Agriculture, the most ancient, the most necessary of Arts*^ 
lias engaged the attention of the strongest and most enlightened 
minds, and employed the pen of the ablest of writers ; and still 
the subject has never been, can never be, exhausted. The in- 
terests of Agriculturalists are inseparable from the permanent 
prosperity of every nation, and closely connected with the wel- 
fare of every individual of the human race. On Agriculture all 
are directly or indirectly dependent for the means of subsistence, 
and towards its improvement all should be willing to contribute. 
This consideration alone has induced me to appear before you. 
Yet it is with no small degree of diffidence, that I presume to 
address this numerous and highly respectable audience, com- 
posed as it is of many, whose scientific and literary acquirements 
are far superior to my own, and of a more numerous collection 
o£ real farmers^ who I well know place but little confidence in 
the essays of professional men, on a subject with which they 
may be supposed to have little, if any, practical acquaintance. 
I was however bred a farmer, and have been personally ac- 
quainted with the toils, pleasures, hopes and disappointments, of 
an agricultural life. I feel a strong attachment to the occupa- 
tion of my ancestors, who from the first settlement of this coun- 
try have tilled with their own hands the soil of Essex. A regu- 
lar course of medical studies embraces much that tends to 
explain the principles of fertility in soils, the phenomena of 
vegetation, the philosophy of Agriculture. InflueaTici oy these 
considerations, and confiding in your candour to excuse uninten- 
tional errors, I shall without further apology oifer such remarks 
as seem to me worthy your attention on this occasion. 

Industry is a most ennobling trait in the character of any class 
of men. In the pursuit pf agriculture it is absolutely necesgary 



3& 

to succce*. But industry is not the only rirtue, that the cultiva- 
tion of the earth pronaotes. Piety, sobriety of conduct, siniplicity 
of manners, hospitality, friendship, and conjugal love, are more 
frequently found in all their purity among- practical farmers than 
among other orders of men. For this there are natural causes. 
The husbandman's employment in the open field, where all is 
sublime, beautiful and harmonious around him, exercises both 
the body and mind in a manner most conducive to health and 
happiness. While sowing bis grain, and nurturing his tender 
plants, he must be stupid indeed not to feel his dependence on 
4he beneficent Parent of Nature, for the warming sun and re- 
freshing showers, without which not a blade of grass can be 
made to vegetate, or an ear of com be brought to maturity. 
" He is independent of popular favour, and exempt from those 
corroding cares, those mortifications, disappointments, jealous- 
ies and responsibilities, which plant thorns in the pillow of the 
professional man. The sources of ill will and secret envy among 
other professions, where one man's loss is another's gain, have 
no existence among' men employed in Agriculture." Free from 
the anxiety attendant on the risks iHseparable from mercantile 
engagements, he unites his fortunes with her'a on whom were 
placed his earliest, his tenderest affections ; and sees, without 
regret, an increasing family, looking to him for bread, instruc- 
tion, and protection. 

An Agricultural life is the natural condition of man. He was 
placed in the garden of Eden to dress and to keep it. When 
driven from paradise, he was commanded to till the ground from 
zi)hich he was taken. And wherever the great body of the peo- 
ple have yielded a willing obedience to this command, and not 
sought to supply their wants by other inventions, the earth has 
ever yielded them the necessaries of life in abundance. It i» 
astonishing to reflect on the immense population which a small 
territory '-^ll cultivated will sustain. '* Egypt once contained 
forty millions of inhabitants, and was then able to supply sur- 
rounding nations with corn. A few years since, when the same 
territory contained only three millions, a French army of twenty- 
five thousand men found it difficult there to subsist. Sicily, 
when it contained in the small territory of Syracuse alone fo.ui- 



37 

times the ameunt of the present population of the whole island, 
was deemed an inexhaustible store-house of corn for others." 
These examples show, that the earth is productire in proportion 
lo the labour judiciously bestowed upon it. They are cited 
from times when that more productive vegetable, the potato, 
which now furnishes almost the whole food of thousands of 
families in Great- Britain, was unknown. Is it therefore too 
much to suppose, that when properly managed " every rood of 
ground -will maintain its man" ? 

If the soil can be rendered so productive, it must be obvious, 
that the agriculture of this county is susceptible of great im- 
provement. 

What are the causes that have hitherto retarded this improve- 
ment? Among these, are, I conceive, the prejudices that exist 
among different classes of men engaged in agriculture. Specu- 
lative and practical farmers have ever been at variance. By spec- 
\ilative farmers, I mean those who have engaged in husbandry, 
either for amusement or from patriotic motives, without depend- 
ing on it for the means of subsistence. The former are gener- 
ally too fond of pursuing visionary schemes, and the latter fre- 
quently t©o much wedded to old practices to adopt the most obvi- 
ous improvements. The speculative is apt to consider the mere 
practical farmer as a narrow-minded, obstinate, perverse man, 
who is determined to plod on in the path his forefathers had 
trodden ; and the practical farmer in his turn laughs at the other 
as a visionary, who, mistaking dreams for realities, pursues plans 
that lead to disappointment and ruin. 

These prejudices are generally carried too far, and are much 
to be regretted, although there is frequently some foundation 
for them on both sides. They too often prevent that social and 
free intercourse which would prove highly advantageous to both. 
The practical farmer, who has had hut little opportunity to be- 
come acquainted with knowledge derived from books, or with 
practices, that have been found most successful in other places, 
would derive many useful hints from the speculative farmer, 
who might often be saved much useless expense by the experi- 
ence and observation of the other. In this society both these 
Cesses ofagrirulturalist^ are uniting their eiTDrts. May \ye not 



38 

confidently hope that the result will be the extinction of th€S4 
prejudices, and the rapid diffusion of useful knowledge, among 
all classes of agriculturalists? 

Another cause, v.'hich has hitherto retarded improvements is 
agriculture, is the low estimation in which the employment ha? 
been held. " In the most flourishing and happy era of the Ro- 
man Republic, the cultivators of the soil were esteemed a supe- 
rior class to merchants and manufacturers." This was probably 
one cause of the great success in agriculture, which at that time 
enabled ^' the small vale of Campania alone (not one twentieth of 
the whole) to furnish subsistence for more people than the 
whole inhabitants of Italy now amount to." It is not however 
good policy for any nation to make invidious distinctions among 
the several classes of her citizens. The honest and industrious 
professional man, artist, mechanic, merchant, or manufacturer^, 
deserves well of his country. 

*' Honour and shame from no condition rise, 
" Act well your part, there all the honour lies." 

But if it be a fact that husbandry has been, in this counlry^ 
hy raan}^, considered a mean or servile employment, it be- 
comes the duty of every good citizen to end3avour to raise its 
reputation to the rank it ought to hold, a rank inferior to none 
in society. Nothing would have a more direct tendency to 
improve agriculture, and raise its reputation, than a more gener- 
al attention among farmers to those sciences, that explain many 
of its principles and operations. *^ Knowledge is power." The 
man, who understands philosophically the operations in which 
he is employed, will perform them with much greater ease, than 
one who has only a mechanical acquaintance with them. It is 
granted that practice alone is much better than theory without 
practice, but it is the union of both in the same individual that 
constitutes the most accomplished and successful operator. 

The opinion has been too prevalent among farmer?, that the 
only learning beneficial to those, who are to get their living by 
cultivating the soil, i^ to be able to read well, write well, and 
answer with facility questions in the most useful rules in arith- 
P)elic. It is aclinowledged, thqt; with these acquisitions onlj 



'39 

ihefe are many who have distinguished themselves both ag agri- 
culturalists and citizens. But it does not follow that the same 
men would not have made greater improvements in husbandry, 
and extended their usefulness as citizens, if they had also studied 
more thoroughly the English language, the mathematical scien- 
ces, geography, astronomy, chemistry, natural philosophy, and 
the several branches of natural history. These and many other 
branches of science and literature enlarge the views, strengthen 
the mind, and greatly multiply objects which afford pleasing re- 
flections. They are therefore peculiarly calculated to beguile 
the cares, and increase the happiness, of labouring men. The 
mind of the naturalist, while at work in the field, is continually 
feasted by the operations of nature going on around him. In 
every cloud that passes over his head, in every fossil turned up 
hy his plough, in every insect that crawls the earth, in eve- 
ry plant that vegetates or blossoms, he reads a story contain'- 
ing truths the most interesting, beauties that never cease to 
please, and sublimity that fills the mind with admiration. The 
mathematical sciences, natural philosophy, and chemistry, may 
be so applied to the art of husbandry, as to render its principles 
less mysterious, its operations more easy, and success more 
<;ertain. 

It will perhaps be objected, that such studies tend to destroy 
that relish for manual labour, which is essentially necessary t© 
success in agriculture, for 

** He, who by the plough would tbrive, 
*' Himself must either hold or drive. ^* 

If this be the case, it is owing not to the knowledge acquirec?^ 
but to ambitious and erroneous notions at the same time im^ 
bibed. These notions are derived either from the injudicious 
complaints, so frequently uttered by farmers themselves, in 
presence of their children, of the hardships of their lot when 
contrasted with the supposed ease and rapid acquisition of 
riches and honours by professional and mercantile men, or from 
the conversation and enthusiastic expectations of those devoted 
to such pursuits with whom they associate at academies and. 
•ther literary institutions. If, iastea^ of swch erraae&us notions. 



m 

Joulh were more generally taught, that the cultivation of the 
fearth is a noble employment — that the farmer's loose home- 
made working dress, it being particularly appropriate to his 
employment, is as respectable as the more costly apparel worm 
by those engaged in less laborious employments, and much more 
so than the fantastic trappings of modern dandies, whether they 
Jire seen spending their time in most fatiguing idleness, employ- 
ed behind the counter, or crowding the avenues that lead to 
either of the learned professions ; if proper pains were takea 
to convince them, that, although in agricultural pursuits they 
cannot calculate on becoming rich, industry and frugality will 
ensure them competence ; while, of those who devote them- 
selves to professional or mercantile employments, some may, by 
industry, the possession of talents peculiarly fitted for the pur- 
pose, or good fortune, become honourably and honestly wealthy ; 
but many will either be reduced to want, or owe their prosperi- 
ty to means at which the honest farmer would revolt, the arts 
of quackery^ chicanery,, or swindling ! Then we should oftener 
see the scholar return to the plough, apply his science to the 
improvement of his favourite art, raise the reputation of agricul- 
ture, preserve the purity of his morals, and become in fine a 
man to whom in times of danger or distress the public might 
look for counsel and assistance, as to a patriot of sound judgment^ 
without partiality, without fear, and without reproach. It is 
not the labours and privations of an agricultural life, that deter 
literary and scientific men from engaging in it; but the belief 
that it would be voluntarily sacrificing all claims to distinction, 
and burying their talents in the shades of obscurity. For suck 
men readily engage in military services, a seafaring life, or the 
most fatiguing travels, with the utmost ardoor, patience, and per- 
severance. 

The present enlightened governor of the state of New-York 
has hinted, in an address on this subject, the establishment of 
agricultural schools for the purpose of improving the art of 
husbandry. And, is it altogether visionary to suppose, that the 
best interests of this county would be promoted by the estab- 
iishment of an agricultural academy, where such studies, as are 
f»o^t calculated to make accomplished an^ scientific farfljer? 



41 

Might be advantageously pursued, and the students required by 
turns to labour one or two days or half days every week, with 
an experienced husbandman and gardener, who should be select- 
ed to manage a farm connected with the institution. Such a 
seminary, well endowed and properly managed, would furnisii 
more useful instructers for town schools in agricultural districts 
than can now be obtained. It would answer all the purposes 
of a pattern-farm, rapidly disseminate knowledge of the greatest 
improvements in the art, and produce the most accomplished 
farmers and useful citizens. 

Another cause of the slow progress that has been made in the 
art of husbandry is the small profit which farmers generally re- 
alize from their labours. This has hitherto induced many of 
our most enterprising citizens to seek more lucrative business^ 
and tended to discourage those who have continued to cultivate 
the soil. To render agriculture, therefore, more profitable, as 
well as more honourable, is a primary object with agricultural 
societies. How can this be accomplished ? By practising, 
among other things, on the following fundamental principles of 
husbandry. 

1. Cultivate no more land than can be thoroughly plough- 
ed, well manured at once, and kept free from weeds. 

2. Never keep land many years under the same crops. 

3. Never lay land into grass, except it be well prepared, 
and in a very rich condition. 

Suppose for example you possess a field of arable land, con- 
taining" eight acres ; how can it be most advantageously man- 
aged? According to the author who lays down the foregoing 
rules, plough up annually, in autumn, two acres. Let it be 
cross ploughed, harrowed, highly mannted, planted with corn or 
potatoes, and well tended the following spring and summer. In 
the spring next following, plough it twice, and sow it with grain 
and clover. In this way, by keeping the land in rotation, one 
year under Indian com or potatoes, one year under English 
grain, and two years under clover, it would produce the most 
abundant crops, and be contitiually growing better, as the large 
'ap roots of the clover especially would greatly ameliorate and 
'Enrich the soil. After going through this routine several times, 

6 



42 

'fciie land would be in an excellent condition to lay into grass, 
thus to remain till another portion of land could be treated in 
the same manner. Keeping in view these pi'inciples, every 
farmer can readily apply them to other crops, which it is there- 
fore unnecessary to mention. 

On mature reflection, I presume it must be generally admit- 
ted that one of the greatest and most frequent errors in the 
management of farms in Essex, is dissipating both labour and 
manure, by attempting to cultivate too much ground. 

By improved management, the same quantity of produce as is 
now obtained might be raised, with the same manure, on half 
the land, with two thirds the labour. One half of the land and 
one third of the labour might therefore be devoted to other 
crops, the whole of which would be clear gain. 

There is a specious objection to improvements in agriculture, 
often suggested by practical farmers, namely, " that in the 
same ratio that crops are increased, their value is diminished, 
for the market is already abundantly supplied." Admitting this 
to be the case, are there no other fruits, esculent vegetables, 
and raw materials for exportation or domestic manufacture, other 
than those which are now generally cultivated, which our soil 
and climate will produce, and towards which the attention of 
farmers may be protitably directed ? 

In taking a survey of the county of Essex, it must I think be 
admitted, that we are deplorably deficient in gardening, and in 
.he cultivation of fruits which are justly ranked among the most 
elegant comforts of life. With very little expense of time and 
labour, it is in the power of every owner of a farm to surround 
his habitation with the most delicious fruits, to furnish a rich 
desert for his table at all seasons of the year, and Hkewise send 
large quantities to market. In many places considerable atten- 
tion has been paid to apple trees, and some flourishing young 
orchards occasionally greet the eye. But we more frequently 
see others in a state of rapid decay. How often, even among 
farmers, are found families destitute of apples fit for the table, 
or culinary purposes, and which, when assailed by sickness, are 
obliged to send to some more provident neighbour for a supply ! 
Pear trees are very generally neglected ; and the greater part 



43 

of good' pears sold in our markets are brougfht from othet 
counties. 

Our decaying Fruit Trkes demand immediate attention, for 
they may yet be saved. Forsyth, the distinguished manager of 
the Kensington gardens, in England, for whose improvements in 
the art of managing fruit trees the British Government paid him 
four thousand pounds sterling, was so successful in restoring de- 
cayed trees, that he computed " an old tree, cut down and pro- 
perly medicated, would yield as much fruit the sixth year after 
that operation, as a young tree planted on the same soil would 
produce in the twentieth year from the time it was planted. 
He thought no tree lost beyond the power of recovery whose 
roots were sound, were it ever so much decayed above ground ; 
provided there was one inch of sound bark upon it, he did not 
despair of recovering it. He frequently exchanged with those 
who were desirous of turning out old trees. If they would give 
him the old tree, he would take it up, and put in its place any 
young tree they might choose from his nursery : for he had 
found that, even after being transplanted, such old trees came 
into bearing much sooner than any young ones that he could 
procure. By the same rule, this experienced gardener, when 
he was obliged to go to a nursery, always chose the oldest plants 
he could find there, were they ever so stubbed or ill looking."" 
By what mighty magic were such wonderful things accomplish- 
ed ? By the application of scientific principles to the improve- 
ment of his art. Following the advice of the vine dreseer in 
scripture, it was his practice to dig round them, nnd dung them, 
and at the season when trees are growing, he cut away all the 
dead wood, and covered the wounds with a composition that 
prevented the exudation of sap, and defended them from the 
air, sun and raino.* 



* Forsyth's composition for healing wounds in frees is made as follows : 
Take lime that has been long slaked, or chalk, half a bushel; wood 
ashes, half a bushel ; sand, two quarts ; pulveri/e and sift them ; add fresh 
cow-dung, one bushel ; and work the whole to a fine mortar ; dilute it 
vrith urine or soap-suds to the consistence of a paint, and apply it with a 
painter's brush ; sprinkle over it a powder, composed of wood ashes, fivfi 
parts, and ashes of burnt bones, one part, and press it gently with the hand. 
Tar and ochre, or pulverized brick, will answer the samo purpose. 



44 

ill this county, pcaclj, plum and cherry trees are much aeg- 
lected ; notwithstanding the latter, if headed down,* and pro- 
perly managed, will soon bear abundantly ; and the former are 
more easily cultivated than most fruit trees. The best kinds of 
cherries, ripening, as they do, at an early season, when there is 
no other kind of fruit in the market, will always command a good 
price. Of these, the birds, which cheer you with their melody 
in the spring, and greatly benefit you by destro}^ing insects dur- 
ing that and the following seasons, will claim a share. Instead 
of declaring war against such good friends, act a more generous 
part ; plant more trees, and rai^e fruit enough for them, your- 
selves and the market. Peach and plum trees are generally 
short-lived : but this is a circumstance of very little importance, 
as they can always be replaced if a few stones be planted annu- 
ally. The better varieties of the plum and peach, which can 
always be raised as easily as any, are delicious fruit, and may be 
preserved in sugar : or, by drying, for culinary purposes ; or 
converted into vinous liquors by fermentation. 

European walnuts are deserving attention, as are our native 
shagbarks. The growth of the timber will pa}'^ for cultivating, 
and the fruit will be clear gain. . The chesnut is a valuable tree,, 
both for timber and its fruit ; it grows rapidl}^ ; and a late dis- 
covery, that the wood is superior to oak bark for tanning, ren* 
ders it highly impostant that it should be cultivated where there 
are such extensive tanneries as in some parts of Essex. 

It has been naid of American farmers, thqt '*• they plant" and 
" they neglect" fruit trees. In this county they seldom do the 
first. Nurseries are almost totally neglected, notwithstanding 
there ought to be one on every farm, containing at least apple, 
pear, plum, peach and cherry trees. At present nothing sells 
more readily, or affords the cultivator a better profit, than young 
fruit or ornamental trees, at an age suitable for transplanting ; 
ti\ii should nurseries ever become so numerous a§ to do away 

* Heading aovp.i. — This method of pruning, Forsyth says, will cause 
trees to bear every year, and produce three fourths more fruit than they 
otherwise would. When the buds begin to swell in the spring, cut the 
principiil shoots down to three or four eyes. In old trees, cut one half of 
such shoots only, in one 3-ear. This prevents the growth of long, naked 
branches, anc] fills the head of the tree with bearing v;ood. 



45 

this inducement, yeunfif trees would still be worth their cost to 
plant 0(jt as opportunities should occur. A principal reason 
why good iruit is not more plenty, is, that few farmers think 
they can spare the money to purchase trees, and to raise them 
from the seed seems too slow a method. They seem to despair 
of living long enough to derive any advantage from such labours, 
and consequently spend a long life, destitute of many riches and 
eomforts which they might have possessed. The best policy 
for agriculturalists, as well as others, is always to act on benev- 
olent principles. Let us plant these trees, should be their lan- 
guage ; tliey will benefit somebody, if we should not live to 
enjoy them ourselves. And, on a dying bed, it is what we have 
done to promote the happiness of others that will afford us the 
greatest consolation. 

Quinces, grapes, gooseberries, currants, &c. might be easily 
cultivated in such quantities, as to supply our citizens with 
wines, preserves and sweetmeats, equally palatable, and far 
less injurious to healthj than such as are now at a great expense 
imported. 

In looking over English books on gardening and cookery, 
who is not surprised that so few of the esculent vegetables, es-^ 
teemed valuable in Europe, are here cultivated ? The difficul- 
ty of obtammg seed is probably the chief cause of this neglect. 
May we not confidently hope, that one of the benefits resulting 
from the establishment of this society will be the more general 
distribution of rare and valuable seeds; and that, by exhibiting 
at our annual shows the productionseither of uncommon plants, 
or of new and better varieties of such as have hitherto been 
cultivated, the attention of farmers will be attracted to means 
of rendering the business profitable, with which they would 
otherwise never have become acquainted ? Might not our an- 
nual meetings in the month of February be rendered more use- 
ful and interestmg, if the members generally would make it an 
object to carry with them for distribution such seeds, roots, and 
also scions of the best kinds of fruits for grafting ? 

It would also be good policy, I conceive, for American farm- 
ers to endeavour to supply the market with such raw materials^ 



4b 

as our soil and climate will produce in perl'ection, as are in de- 
mand, either for exportation or domestic manufacture. Under 
this head I shall call your attention a few moments to flax, hemp 
and wool. 

With the cultivation of Flax, almost every farmer is in 
some measure acquainted. But since cotton goods have be- 
come so cheap, it has been generally abandoned as unprofita* 
ble. Great improvements in machinery for dressing and spin- 
ning it having been recently anounced, it is not improbable 
that it will again be considered one of the most profitable of 
crops. Linen must ever be preferred to cotton for many uses, 
provided it can be afforded nearly as cheap. Expertness in 
manufacturing flax into useful and ornamental articles of dress 
was formerly, and I trust will again, be considered one of the 
most honourable of female accomplishments. It certainly de- 
serves to hold a superior rank to embroidering, tambouring and 
painting. But to enable our ingenious and industrious ladies to 
rival foreigners in the manufacture of laces and fine linen, they 
must be furnished with the raw material in perfection. Our 
patriotic farmers therefore would do well to acquaint them- 
selves with the most improved methods of cultivating and man- 
aging flax.* To the Irish, who have carried the manufacture 
of linen to so great a degree of perfection, we may confidently 
look for instruction on this subject. And as knowledge acquir- 
ed from books, and other sources of like nature, is not alone 
sufficient to ensure success, let such methods as have been 
found most successful elsewhere, be subjected to experiments 
on a small scale here. Nor let failure in the first instance dis- 
courage farther efforts. It is the price that must generally be 
paid for all valuable improvements in any art. 

Hemp is another article in great demand,- for large quantities 
of it are imported, which might be cultivated here as success- 
fully as in any country on the globe. Why then should we 
yield to foreign agriculturalists all the profits of supplying Amer- 

* The thread for which Mrs. Crowninshield, of Danvcrs, received a 
premium from the Massachusetts society, a fev years since, was made of 
flax sowed thick, so as to prevent it from growing rank, was pulled imme- 
diately after the blooms had fallen, and boiled instead of being rotted- 
Water rotting, however, would answei' the same purpose. 



47 

ican shipping with the raw material for cordage and canvas ? 
According to the Hon. Justin Ely's statement, hemp in Hamp- 
shire county has been found to produce from four to eight 
hundred weight to the acre, and from six to nine bushels of 
seed. It is worth, at this time, about nine and a half dollars per 
hundred, and the seed probably a dollar and fifty cents per 
bushel. The labour of cultivating, pulling and rotting it, can- 
not be more than is usually bestowed on an acre of Indian corn. 
An expert workman can dress 3 cwt. in a week. Should it 
ever be raised in large quantities, it might undoubtedly be 
dressed by water, at a much cheaper rate. It must therefore 
I think prove a profitable crop. Were this not the case, it 
would notwithstanding be worthy the attention of American 
farmers, who ought to endeavour to supply the market with 
every thing which they can cultivate, without involving them- 
selves in debt : for by so doing they will plant the seeds of re- 
sources, which some time or other will afford them a rich har- 
vest. 

Wool. I have no wish to renew the merino speculations 
which proved so ruinous to many a few years since. I think 
however that we have much reason to regret the indiscriminate 
destruction of fine flocks which followed. For although I do 
cot believe that it will ever be good policy for the farmers of 
this county to go largely into the raising of wool, a commodity 
more worthy tbe attention of those who inhabit the interior 
and more mountainous parts of our country, still I think that a 
few sheep may be profitably kept on almost every farm. If a 
farmer has plenty of wool in his house, his wife, daughters, or 
female domestics, will generally be disposed to manufacture ify 
although they would not urge him to go and buy it for this pur- 
pose, and would be seldom gratified if he did. Or he might 
make an exchange with the woollen manufacturer, and thus ob- 
tain his clothing easier than he otherwise would, although he 
might, by pa}'ing cash, get cloths at a nominally cheaper rate. 
What kind of sheep, generally speaking, would it be most prof- 
itable to keep for these purposes ? Livingston says, half-blood- 
ed merinoes ; and there is but little reason to doubt his correct- 
ness, when we take into consideration the value of the mutto» 
as well as the fleece. 



48 

Some excellent oljservations on the subject of ploughing — ^the 
best method of increasing the quantity, and improving the quali- 
ty, of manures — and the cultivation of root crops, and other 
green food, for feeding cattle — contained in the addresses of the 
Hon. President of this Society, render it unnecessary for me 
to call your attention at this time to these subjects of primary 
importance to every farmer. 

On the subject of Wheat, to what is said in the above men- 
tioned addresses, I will add a few observations. Although the 
cultivation of this most valuable grain has been generally aban- 
doned on account of the uncertainty of obtaining a crop, it is, I 
must think, still deserving attention. Is it not surprising that a 
plant, which comes to perfection both at the north and south 
of us, cannot be advantageously cultivated here ? Is it not evi- 
dent that the failure must be owing, not to the climate, but to 
some defect in the preparation, or constituent parts of the soil ? 
If so, these defects can be remedied. Perhaps the following 
facts, stated by that distinguished scientific English farmer. Dr. 
James Anderson, will furnish all the hints necessary to ensure 
success. He states, ^' that a field of good arable land, a mellow 
loam, in Aberdeenshire, which had long been under culture, was 
subjected to a thorough summer fallow, to get rid of the weeds ; 
and a moderate dressing of lime and some dung was given it at the 
same time. The whole field was sown wilh wheat at the proper 
season, which sprung up equally in every part of it. For some 
time no difference was perceivable in the appearance of crop 
over the whole. By and by it was observed that the wheat, 
ou a small portion of the field which by accident had not had 
any lime put upon it, became pale and sickly : while the crop 
on other parts of the field advanced luxuriantly, it dwindled on 
this particular patch more and more until about the beginning of 
May : the whole had then died quite out, and not one stalk of 
wheat was to be found upon it, though the weeds, in conse- 
quence of the richness of the soil, grew there with extreme 
luxuriance. Perhaps the proportion of lime did not in this case 
amount to more than one thousandth part of the whole ; yet the 
qualities of the soil were thereby totally altered, insomuch that, 
.though before the application of that dressing the soil was inca- 



49 

pable of producing wheat at all, it was found to be at all times 
after that period well adapted to the rearing^ of this crop." The 
effect of wood ashes on soils, though less durable, is similar to 
that of lime. Will not this accoOnt for the luxuriant growth of 
wheat here formerly, and in those places where the wood has 
been recently cleared off by burning, at this time ? 

The greatest improvements in Agriculture in Great Britain, 
where plaister of Paris, as with us, is found nearly inoperative, 
have been made during the last forty years by the use of Lime. 
And there can be but little doubt that much of the soil in this 
county can be economically improved by the same means. A 
few directions therefore for using quick lime cannot fail of being 
interesting : for this can be more easily obtained by the farmers 
in this county, than any other calcareous earth, except in the 
neighbourhood of soap manufactories, where leached ashes, 
which contain much lime, can be had at a cheaper rate. The fol- 
lowing directions for using quick lime are extracted from some 
of the best English writers on this subject : 

From thirty to three hundred bushels arc usually applied to 
an acre ; but on poor soils, and soils which abound with root:?, 
peat and other insoluble vegetable matter, even sis hundred 
may be used with advantage. Soils thus dressed will be render' 
ed more fertile forever after. 

Quick lime should be reduced to powder by slacking it with 
water, and spread dry, so that it may mix as intimately wilh the 
soil as possible, at least one month before the seed is to be sown. 
In this country, it being necessary to sow grain as early as pos- 
sible in the spring, the lime should be spread the preceding 
autumn. And as the ^eel of cattle are sometimes injured by it, 
it must be suffered to lie on the surface of the ground till it be- 
comes mild, lik6 chalk, which will take place in a few weekSp 
before it is either ploughed or harrowed in. 

Quick lime applied to plants while growing, and of course to 
vegetating seeds, invariably injures them. Quick lime isyures 
all animal manures, and therefore should never be mixed with 
common dung, or applied to llie soil at the same time. When 
Jpnlied to low, boggv soil-', in su/Svient qnan^ities. i? wM destroy 



50 

?ii03S arid the meadow grasses, and fit them for producing the 
most abundant crops of clover, and cultivated grasses. 

Irrigation is another means of fertilizing the earth, that has 
not been duly appreciated in this vicinity. Falls of water have 
been estimated in England to be worth as much for watering 
the land, as for mills and factories. It is well known that even 
the temporary streams formed by the melting snows in the 
spring, if caused to run a few weeks over dry, gravelly soils, 
will render them highly productive of grass the whole season. 
Yet our brooks and rivulets are suffered not only to run to 
waste, but even to render barren extensive tracts of land m 
their vicinity. Wherever there is a fall of water runnmg 
through land suitable for the purpose, let it be divided, and car- 
ried as high on each side as it will run freely ; throw the inter- 
mediate space into ridges about twenty feet wide ; along the 
top of each let a small stream of water be passed occasionally ; 
give the whole a dressing of ashes, or lime ; and it will produce 
the most abundant crops of grass, without any further expense. 
Admitting therefore that the expense of preparing land in this 
manner should amount, in the first instance, to an hundred or 
even to two hundred dollars an acre, it would still prove cheap- 
er than most mowing land, which can be kept productive only 
by frequent expensive manuring. Such land would contribute 
the whole of its productions to enrich the other parts of the 
t'arm ; a consideration of no little importance in estimating it3 
value. 

By mixing different earths, soils may be permanently improv- 
ed. Clayey and sandy lands are frequently found in the imme- 
diate vicinity of each other. By dressing the sandy with clay, 
and the clayey with sand, both, though naturally barren, may 
be rendered fertile. That similar fertility would follow the 
mixture of other earths cannot be doubted. Experiments made 
on chemical principles, will in all human probability develop 
most valuable resources of this kind, which are at present ur^ 
known to agriculturalists. 

To the subject of fertilizing and rendering more valuable pas- 
ture lands, by covering them with Trees, I cannot too strongly 
yrge your attention. Locust trees grow rapidly, and produce 



51 

the most valuable wood and timber. Planted on dry, sandy oi 
gravelly pastures, they greatly fertilize the soil by their abun- 
dance of tender leaves, which, falling on the ground, rot in the 
course of the winter and spring. Cattle arc particularly fond 
of the grass which grows thick and luxuriantly under them, as 
well as of the young trees which are continually springing up 
from their roots. 

Similar advantages may be derived from planting low, rocky 
or boggy lands, which are generally covered with alders and 
other useless bushes, with common willows. These trees not 
©nly produce wood, which when dried is better than white pine, 
faster than most other trees, but greatly meliorate boggy soils, 
and bring in a better kind of grass, which makes excellent pas- 
turage. Of the correctness of these assertions, every one, who 
will take the trouble to examine the land under groves of locust 
and willow trees, must, I think, be fully convinced. They are 
most certainly not the vain speculations of a theorist. Like ma- 
ny other facts contained in this address, they are derived not 
from books, but from the observation, and experience of my 
worthy father, who spent an industrious, useful and observing* 
life in the practice of husbandry. Nor are the above mentioned 
the only advantages derived from covering pasture lands with 
trees. They serve to shelter the cattle, while feeding, from 
the exhausting effects of a burning sun. They prevent rapid 
evaporation, £^nd probably attract showers ; consequently in- 
crease the size of adjacent streams, and thereby fertilize soils 
far beyond the reach of their shadows. Besides, whatever 
grows out of the earth ultimately returns to it again, to afford 
food for other plants which succeed. Consequently the more 
any soil can be made to produce, the more that, or some oiher 
in the neighbourhood, will be enriched. Do any doubt the cor- 
rectness of these theories? Why has Palestine, or the holy 
land, which once flowed with milk and honey, and supported by 
its own produce, on an extent of territory not exceeding that of 
Massachusetts, seven millions of people, become so barren as 
scarcely to be able to preserve a few thousand miserable 
wretches ? Why has the river Jordan, once undoubtedly a no- 
ble s tream rolling through fertile valleys, been reduced to a small 



brook ivintling its waj llirough a sandy desert ? You will per-- 
haps answer, the malediction of the Most High rests upon it. 
True, but the Almighty effects his purposes through the agency 
of natural causes. It was overrun by victorious armies, and 
Yegetation was destro}'ed ; exposed to the direct rays of the sun, 
the soi'. itself disappeared, the springs were dried up, and fer- 
tilizing showers became less and less frequent. The same pro» 
cess is now going on in our naked pastures ; many of which, 
that a ^ew years since were well clothed with grass, now pro- 
duce little or nothing but moss. 

Improving the breeds and condition of Live Stock must also 
increase the profits of Agriculture. One good cow full fed is 
worth more for the dairy than four ordinary half-starved ones.* 
Would it not therefore be for the interest of every farmer to 
keep no more neat cattle than can be well pastured or soiled in the 
summer, and fed on English hay, corn todder, potatoes, turnips, 
carrots, beets, Sic. in the winter, throwing the coarser kinds of 
hay and straw under them to furnish a warm bed, and to be con- 
verted into manure at the same time? By so doing, and by cross- 
ing inferior breeds, and raising the best calves, it is in the power 
of almost every farnier in the course of a few years, without 
involving himself in debt, greatly to improve his stock, and in- 
crease the income of his dairy. I know that this high feeding 
of milch cows is not generally believed to be profitable, notwith- 
standing Mr. Oakes and others have proved so satisfactorily that 
one bushel of Indian corn per week will cause a good cow to 
yield from seven to ten additional pounds of butter. Allowing 
the corn to be worth 62J- cents, the extra butter, at 12^ cents 
per pound, would pay all the additional labour, and afford a good 
profit (on the corn) besides. But this is not all : the cow would 
give milk nearly the whole year, be made good beef at the same 
time, and her calves would be much more valuable. Indian 
corn, however, is probably not the cheapest article to feed cattle 

* If cows aro ever fillowerl to fall very low during the winter, in vnin 
shall you liope to obtain an ahundcint su|)ply of niilk by bringitis; them intoi 
hii^h condition in the summer ; for if a cow be lean hi the time of calving, 
no mun i<;e:ne.it afterivuriis will ever bring her to yield for that season any- 
thing like the quantily of milk that she would have done, had she been all 
the winter in a hi^ ccritUtion* ^^ndtrsqn. 



59 

upon : potatoes, tnrnips, beets, carrots, pumpkins, &c. are much 
more easily raised, and will probably answer the same purpose. 

Farmers generally would make their pursuits more profitable if 
they were careful to send to market the best articles, in the 
neatest order. Good butter, good cheese, good fruit, good cider, 
good pork, beef and mutton, will always sell, even when the 
market is glutted with inferior kinds of the same articles. The 
difference of the expense of raising or preparing the best, and 
the more ordinary kinds of these commodities, is often very 
trifling. The butter, for example, offered for sale, is often bad, 
pancid, and almost worthless. Yet such butter costs almost as 
much, perhaps often more, than it would to have made it of the 
hest quality. Butter should always be made, salted and preserv- 
ed by rule. Despise not, therefore, directions on this subject 
found in books ; for it is impossible always to make good butter, 
if it be carelessly worked over, and salted as chance directs. 
The difficulty of making good butter, and of sending it uninjured 
to the market, in the hottest weather, may be easily obviatedv 
For, with very little trouble or expense, ice may be kept in a 
Common cellar the whole season.* 

In discussing the means of rendering the pursuit of Agricul- 
ture more proiitabJe, Domestic Economy is too important to be 
emitted. 1 am well aware that it is extremely difficult to speak 



* In the middle or one corner of the cellar may be buijt a bin. Thro^y 
flown some boards, and cover the bottom with straw; or, what is better, 
the spent bark of tanneries, generally known by the name of tan, in suffi- 
cient quantity to Jeave it a foot in thickness under the necessary pres- 
sure. !n the month of February or March, ^o to the most convenient pond 
of fre^h water, and obtain a safficient quantity of ice, Ciitting or sawing it 
up in blocks as lare;e as can be conveniently handled, and pile it up 
as compactly as possible in the middle of the bin, leaving a space of 
one foot or more all around it ; fill this space, and cover the v/hoJe with 
tan or straw, and the ice, unless the cellar be uncommonly open, will 
keep the whole summer. Two men, and one pair of oxen, will perform 
all the labour necessary to lay in such a store of ice in one day. Around 
this ice let the pans of Kiilk be set, and place the pots of cream and butter 
upon it. Place two or three pounds of ice in each box, and if conveyed 
thither as expeditiously as from any part of the county of Essex it may be 
done, it will reach the market in the finest order. 

Butter not wanted for immediate use is well preserved as follows : — 
Take two parts of the best common salt, one part of sugar, and one of salt- 
petre ; heat them up together, and blend the whole completely. Take one 
ounce of this composition for every pound of butter, work it well into the 
jnas?, and close it up for use. 



54 

on this subject, without being misunderstood, and giving offence. 
Those who cultivate the soil deserve to live on its best produc" 
tions. It is m^ most sincere desire, that farmers should lire well. 
But the phrase, live wcll^ is to be understood living in such a 
manner as will most promote their happiness, by preserving the 
health of the body, and tranquillity of the mind ; and not living 
in habits of luxury and intemperance, tho^most expeditious means 
of destroying both. I know that it requires greater fortitude 
than many possess to oppose the fashions of the times, and to 
change established habits. I also well know that a man cannot 
always do as he could wish, because his views may*not coincide 
with other members of his family. Still in all cases something 
may be i^one towards retrenching expenses that consume the 
whole ofa farmer's income. So long as those engaged in hus- 
bandry purchase from other nations a large portion of their daily 
food and clothing, so long they will be obliged to labour hard, 
and submit to many real privations, to enable them to defray 
their current family expenses. It therefore becomes an object 
of serious concern to them, to learn some way of more cheaply 
supplying the wants, without diminishing the comforts, of life. 
Let those who feel interested in this subject review a list of 
their expenditures in times past, and they will probably be able 
to discover the means of saving much in future. One exhausting 
drain on the resources of many farmers is the use of ardent spir- 
its, as a common drink. This not unfrequently consumes their 
health, cash, and respectability. If therefore the use of strong 
drinks must be continued, let such as every farmer can prepare 
for himself be substituted for distilled spirits. Cider, wine, and 
strong beer, well made and carefully preserved, will surely an- 
swer every purpose to which spirituous liquors can be usefully 
applied. The art of making these ought therefore to be studi- . 
ed by every person desirous of preserving the health of his 
family, or of husbanding his resources to the best advantage. 
The most successful practices in this art, time will not permit 
me to detail. Let the following hints suffice. 

By selecting good, sound apples, and properly managing the 
liquor during and after fermentation, Cider can be made with- 
out addition, possessing a fine fiavoi2r, and in strength equal to 
abont one fourth its quantity of proof spirit. By the addition of 



55 

* 
nbout twenty pounds of sugar to a barrel of common cider, a^s 

it comes from the press, it will fine itself, keep for years, even 

on the lees, without souring, and be much improved in strength. 

Wine, far superior to most that is imported, either for use 
in sickness or health, may be made from currants, ripe or unripe 
grapes, cranberries, or other subacid fruits, allowing about a 
bushel and a half of fruit, and seventy-five pounds of sugar, to 
the barrel. Good wines made in this manner will cost about 
fifty cents per gallon. They now readily sell for a dollar. A re- 
spectable member of this society, Mr. Caleb Smith, of Danvers, 
shipped some currant wine of his own making to India, a few- 
years since, and there obtained for it over two dollars a gallon. 
This wine was made, and kept perfectly well on this long voy- 
age, without the a<Idition of brandy, or other spirit, a circum* 
stance which greatly increases the value of the experiment, and 
certainly entitles Mr. Smith to the thanks of the community. 

Pou'- bushels of barley malted, and a pound of hops, AviU make 
a barrel of strong and a barrel of Table Beer. These liquors 
should be made in the winter, aod will be found excellent drinks 
in the following summer, free from all the objections which ma- 
ny have to new beer and cider at that season. All the materi- 
als, for composing this best of strong drinks for labouring meo, 
can be easily raised, and all the work, except malting the bar- 
ley, which will cost about twenty cents a bushel, can be per- 
formed, at a leisure season, by the farmers themselves. 

Agriculturalists of Essex ! You possess a territory in which 
are found a great variety of soils; and the means of rendering 
them fertile are every where abundant. Three fourths of your 
borders are wasted by the waters of the ocean, which are continu- 
ally throwing on your shores materials for excellent manure, and 
which afford, without the expense of making canals, all the fa- 
cilities of a conveyance by water for your surplus produce to all 
the most important markets on the globe. The same convey- 
ance will bring lime from distant quarries, if it cannot be found 
at home, at a small advance on its prime cost, to within a few 
miles of your doors. What then is there to prevent this county 
-from becoming one of the most fertile and productive districts 
in New-England '^ Industry is not wanting, and luxury ha? net 



56 

inside greater inroads among' us than it has in most other piafc^s 
in our favoured land. A more general diffusion cf the knowl- 
edge acquired by the experience of individuals, a scientitic ac- 
quaintance with the principles of the art, more enterprise, gene- 
rous emulation, and noble ambition, among farmers themselves, 
are what seem to be most necessary to carry the art of husband- 
ry here to a high degree of perfection. These benefits we 
trust will result from the institution of this society r — An institu- 
tion, in the success of which, every owner of land ought to feel 
particularly interested. Eight or nine hundred dollars more are 
wanted to enable the society to obtain the whole of the bounty 
so generously proffered by the government of the state. Are 
there not many present who are willing to contribute to this ob- 
ject three dollars each, and become members of this society for 
life ? Having done this, another important duty remains to be 
performed; that is, to exert all your powers to render the so- 
ciety respectable, and extend its influence as widely as possible. 
To do this, it is desirable that every member should make some 
^communication of his success, or exhibit something worthy of 
notice, on every occasion like the present. Another important 
duty is, to prevent our annual cattle shows from becoming scenes 
of riot, drunkenness, gambling, cheating, and dissipation. Let 
the "Farmer's Jubilee" be sacred to sober joys ,and temperate- 
festivity, throughout the county ; but let every good citizeh dis« 
countenance every thing of a contrary tendency. Then indeed 
will the farmers of Essex, in unison with every benevolent mind=t 
have reason to bless the institution, and venerate the founders, 
and all who shall distinguish themselves as members, of the 
Essex Agricultural Society, to the latest generation. 



ERRATA. 

Page 5^1, eighth line from bottom, for October, 18.20, read October, 1821. 

Page 29, in some of the copies, for D. Cummins, Secretary, Dec. 7, 
1819, read F. Howes, Secretary, Jan. 10, 1821. 

Page 47, ninth line from be ttom, for gratified i? he ditl, read gratified 
jf they did. 



AN 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



ESSEX AGRICUETURAL SOCIETY, 



AT THE 



^srtctiltural ^pfutjttftsn in ^opjsitcltr, 

OCT. 2, 1822. 



BY PKTER EATON, D. D. 

OF BOXFORD. 



SALEM: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY JOHx\ D. AND THOMAS C. CUSHING, JR. 

1823. 



ADDRESS 



It is evident from the constitution of man, it was the original 
design of Providence, he should derive his subsistence from the 
earth. Want soon impelled him to repair to this nourishing 
parent. Tilling the ground was an art not unknown to the first 
human family. Where man has existed in the most rude and 
savage state, the chase has been a favorite pursuit. This, how- 
ever, affords a precarious and sometimes a scanty support. In 
proportion as civilization has spread, and a knowledge of the 
arts been cultivated, agriculture has claimed attention. Its pro- 
gress was slow and inconsiderable in the early ages. Every 
thing was to be originated. There were no hints by which to 
profit — no rude instrument on which to improve — nothing to 
aid and direct inventive genius. Hence, the instruments of 
husbandry were very imperfect ; yet necessity, the parent of 
invention, led to the discovery of soma of most essential use. 

Sicily was the first state in v/hich agriculture attained any 
considerable improvement. It was here, also, religious rites 
were first instituted in honor of Ceres, the goddess of husban- 
dry. From this country a knowledge of the art was carried 
into Greece and the northern parts of Europe. In the early 
ages of Rome, relaxation from the toils of war was frequently 
devoted to the cultivation of the soil. The high and the low, 
the patrician and the plebeian were united in the same employ- 
ment. All distinctions of rank were lost in the field. Those of 
the first standing in society might be seen toiling with the pea- 
sant. Not only nations the most civilised, but even those the 



4 

least cultivated and improved, have considered agriculture the 
most important of the arts of life, because it provides for the 
support of life. To do honor to the employment, and encour- 
age the pursuit, Roman dictators followed the plough ; and the 
emperor of China, with the grandees of his empire, make an 
annual appearance in the field, to sacrifice to their god, that 
he may be rendered propitious to the labors of the husband- 
man. But it is not my purpose to trace the progress of the art. 
I would contemplate it as it now exist;^. 

Gentlemen, I feel incompetent to the task assigned me, possess- 
ing neither that theoretical or practical knowledge necessary to 
furnish me for the occasion. As I have gleaned but sparingly 
from experience, and not had opportunity to consult the writings 
of those who have attended scientifically to the subject, you 
may expect only a few common-place remarks. 

No country holds out greater allurements to agricultural pur- 
suits than the United States. Nature has obviously designed 
this for a great farming nation. With a population spread over 
a vast extent of territory — blessed with a soil rich and fertile — 
the inhabitants distinguished for habits of industry and persever- 
ance — the country intersected with rivers and canals, opening a 
tree communication with Ihe sea-coast, which skirts our whole 
border — our merchants surpassed hj none ibr calculation and 
enterprise — with ports open to all nations — we have every pos- 
sible encouragement to nourish and improve the arts of agricul- 
ture. It is the life of cur commerce, and commerce richly re- 
pays the industrious husbandman. Too often has there existed 
a spirit of jealousy and rivalship, between the commercial and 
agricultural interests. They are as intimately connected in this 
country as cause and effect. England is a commercial nation, 
but of produce she is often a purchaser. It is her manufactures 
that cherish her commerce. In America, it is the farm which 
gives activity to ccrcmorce, and commerce which makes 
the flirmer rich. Though agriculture is of vital importance 
to the prosperity of our country, }et from its first settlement, 
till a recent period, this art has been left to itself, neglected and 
unencouraged, and been under the management of those who 
retiected nothing more on the subject, than just sufficient to per- 



form the manual labor upon the farm. Either from a want of 
ability or inclination, few have enquired, whether there was any 
defect in our system of husbandry, or whether it was suscepti- 
ble of improvement. Hence the same annual routine of service 
has been performed on the farm — the son following the foot- 
steps of the father, and continuing to cultivate the same field, 
because his father had done it before him. 

We congratulate our country, that societies are forming in 
every section of the Union — that gentlemen of talents and ac- 
quirements are lending their aid to this neglected art, endeav- 
ouring to discover the defects of our sj^stem, and by experiments 
to ascertain the improvements of which it is susceptible. Much 
has already been done, an almost certain evidence more may be 
done, and sure pledge it will not be left undone. 

So inconsiderable is the gain of husbandr}^, so laborious the 
employment, as to present little inducement to young men, of 
talents and knowledge, to engage in the pursuit. The enter- 
prising youth looks around him for the lucrative employment, by 
which he may raise himself to affluence and ease. The only 
reward agriculture promises to the most persevering industry, 
is little more than a bare support. A further discouragement is, 
it has been considered a menial employment, less honorable than 
other occupations; and the sentiment has obtained, that no- 
thing more is necessary to make a farmer, than a vigorous 
constitution and a robust body. Never was there a conclusion 
more erroneous. The inference that any man is qualified to man- 
age a farm, is as absurd, as that any man is qualified to manage 
a ship at sea. It requires careful observation, sound judgment 
and a discerning mind. Tn every other art and trade, practice 
and experience are thought indispensable ; and is no skill neces- 
sary in conducting the complicated concerns of a farm? The 
practical attention now paid to husbandry, the lively interest 
taken in the subject by gentlemen of honorable standing in soci- 
ety, have a tendency to raise the reputation of this too often des-' 
pised profession. 

In commendation of this employment, it may be observed, it 
is favourable to morals, health of body, and vigor of mind. It 
is friendly to morals, not presenting those temptations to de- 



6 

ception and fraud, nor affording opportunities for imposition, nor 
inviting to the practice of that chicanery, to which some other 
employments hold out a lure. The time of the farmer is devo- 
ted to himself. He labors in the clear light of heaven ; and if 
he cheat his farm, he cheats himself Besides, he is habitu- 
ally conversant with objects, which cannot fail to conduct his 
mind to that Being, who superintends, directs and governs all. 

This employment conduces to health of body. Some me- 
chanic arts and manufacturing establishments are debilitating in 
their influence. They produce a sickly body and enfeebled 
mind. The farmer breathes a pure, uncontaminated air ; and 
if his day is toilsome, his rest is sweet. To no one class of 
men are we more indebted for our independence, than the har- 
dy yeomanry of our country. From this class were selected 
some of your ablest generals and bravest soldiers; and on this 
class, more than any, rests our hope for its preservation. 

Nor will it be said that husbandry is unfavourable to mental 
vigor. If we do not find, nor should we expect to find, those 
literary acquirements and general information which obtain 
among some classes in the community, yet where do we meet 
with sounder sense and judgment, and greater intellectual vi- 
gor, than among our industrious farmers? 

The great principles of agriculture are the same in every 
country ; and the plough, the hoe and the harrow are of essen- 
tial use : yet, so various the climate and the soil, as in some re- 
spects to require a different process. One nation cannot adopt the 
precise system of another. Labor is of the first importance in 
conducting a farm. In old countries, with a dense population, 
where it is much cheaper than in America, undertakings may 
be justified, and attempts at improvement made, which might 
prove ruinous with us. The disproportion between the price 
of labor and produce, is a bar in the way of agricultural success. 
The large extent of our unsettled territory, blessed with a salu- 
brious air and fertile soil, where a farm may be obtained for a 
trifle, renders it probable this disproportion will long continue. 
As one country cannot take another for a perfect model in agri- 
cultural pursuits ; in our own, so different our climate and soil, 
that the South and the North cannot adopt the same process ; 



and even in the state of Massachusetts, so rarious our local situ- 
ations, that each section must adopt a system, in some respects 
peculiar to itself. 

The society, which I now have the honor of addressing, 
while desirous of diffusing information and of encouraging the 
interest of agriculture in general; yet in its formation and in 
the progress of its measures, has had a primary regard to the 
advantage of the county of Essex. As every district in the 
Commonwealth has its advantages and disadvantages, the soil 
various, and that article may be cultivated in one, unsuited to 
another ; it would be for the interest of husbandry in general, 
that societies should be as numerous as our districts. Even in 
the county in which we dwell, certain portions enjoy advan- 
tages denied to others. Farms located near populous towns, or 
the sea shore, can be furnished with manure with greater fa- 
cility than in the country. General principles in agriculture 
may be established and recommended, but specific rules are as 
various as the location of farms, which the judgment and discre- 
tion of the manager must search out and prescribe for himself. 

The farms in this county (with exceptions not numerous) 
consist of from forty to an hundred and forty acres of land. In 
experiments and researches, is not special reference to be had 
to the interest of the farmer, and what can be accomplished by 
this class of the community ? A gentleman, with a capital, may 
gratify his taste and curiosity in conducting his farm. With him, 
it is immaterial, in his mode of cultivation, whether he is re- 
munerated for his expense or not. Not so w^th the common 
farmer. In any particular method of manuring and cultivating 
recommended, the first enquiry is, what will be the clear gain, 
and shall I realize it at the end of the first or second year? 
It is to Jbe remembered by our cultivators generally in Essex, 
tliat the farm is their dependence ; nor can they adopt any sys- 
tem of husbandry which will not give tciem an im'nediate profit. 

The gentleman of capital, whose farm is his amusement, may 
wa t years for his reward. The common farmer wants his pay 
down. Plans of improvement have been recommended, practi- 
cable indeed to the man of wealth, but wholly uninteresting to 
the mass of farmers in Essex, because beyond their ability, 



8 

They can adopt no system, which the farm iiJie//" cannot support. 
It is a maxim in husbandry, that no scheme of management is of 
advantage to the community, which will not give a profit ; and 
that is the best which will afford the greatest profit with the 
least labor and expense. In every pursuit, commerce, manufac- 
tures, the mechanic arts and agriculture, gain is the first object. 
Schemes of cultivation have been proposed, but visionary, be- 
cause you would be left in debt. With great expense I may ob- 
tain great crops; but if not remunerated for the labor and ex- 
pense, even my great crops will ruin me. The question is not 
simply. How a great crop may be obtained ; there is a second 
question. Will this great crop pay for itself? It is no valuable 
improvement in husbandry, to increase your productions, if 
your expense is proportionably increased ; because it leaves 
you no additional gain. If, with a certain portion of labor and 
expense, I can obtain forty bushels of corn from the acre, and 
the expense must be increased in proportion to the increase of 
crop to raise an hundred bushels, where is my profit ? It is of 
importance, then, in every proposed improvement, that care- 
ful calculations should be made of the increased expense. The 
great desideratum is, to increase the productiveness of a farm, 
so that the expense may bear a less ratio to the increase. 

The moderate size of our farms in this county renders it ne- 
cessary, that husbandry be conducted on a limited scale. A small 
farm, however, well cultivated, is much more profitable than a 
large one, which is neglected. Many of our farmers have ma- 
terially injured themselves, by endeavors to gratify an insa- 
tiable desire of possessing much land. Nothing gives them 
more pleasure than adding field to field. In justification, it is 
pleaded, their property vested in land is secure. This remark 
may be just ; but you often sacrifice one half to secure the 
other. It is bad management, and a mistaken policy. Admit- 
ting you can purchase land without involving yourself in debt, 
and place it in a state of cultivation, the measure may be judi- 
cious. A more common practice is, to plunge into debt for the 
purchase, and to leave the land half cultivated. The conse- 
quence is, the interest of the money, taxes, and the expense of 
labor, eventually consume the purchase.* How many of our 



farmers complaia they are in debt ! and these debts have prin* 
cipally been contracted by purchasing land they cannot half 
cultivate.* In the country, rarely will you find a field which 
will pay the labor, the interest and the taxes. By purchasing, 
then, you impose a burden on yourself difficult to sustain. 
Many have been impoverished, and not a few have been ruined, 
by possessing themselves of land for which they could not pay. 
The intelligent farmer, be lore he plunges into debt, will not 
fail to attend to this plain question. Will the income of the in- 
tended purchase m-jre than repay the interest, the labor and 
the taxes? If not, you are better without the land. The pos- 
session of more land than can be improved is a tax upon the 
owner. 

It has been said, nor cm it be too often repeated, that manure 
is of the first importance on a farm. Notwithstanding the vari- 
ous ways of collecting it have been pointed out, its utility and 
necessity urged by scientific and practical men, little attention 
is paid to the subject by one half the farmers in the county. 
Nothing more is provided for their fields, than what is collected 
from their hovels in the winter, and the pens of their cows in the 
summer. He who does not attend to this branch of husbandry, 
is not deserving the name of a farmer. Every barn yard, after 
being emptied in the spring, should be immediately replenish- 
ed, either with scrapings from the streets, earth which has 
been collected by wash, or the vegetable soil of low meadows. 
The latter is preferable for warm, dry land. Where cows are 

* Tliis is often the effect of a pardonable pride — that liberty in which we glory — 
liberty for every man to dispose»of his own property as he pleases, or, if he die* 
intestate, the law divides it equally among- his heirs. In England, though tlie 
laws do not forbid a division of their large estates, the eldest son usually pos- 
sesses the soil and titles of his ancestors ; tlie younger branches of the family not 
participating in the landed property. In the U. States, as the law makes an equal 
distribution of property among the heirs, one takes the farm by paying out leg- 
acies. Unwilling to dispose of the paternal inheritance, he commences life with 
a burden of debt ; under the weight of which hfi is often crushed. The child 
who inherits the homestead, is usually envied. More frequently is his tlie harder 
lot. This law, which equalizes property in a family, is productive of one happy- 
effect ; it preserves an equality among our citizens, not known in England ; and, 
so long as this law shall be in force, will forover preserve us from the evils of 
those wide extremes there experienced — overgrown wealth, and abject poverty. 



10 

folded over the night, a most valuahle composition may be pre- 
pared througfh the summer. It is known to every farmer, that 
turning it often with a plough or fork will greatly increase its 
value. Of manure, too much cannot be said. The subject cannot 
too frequently be brought into view, nor too pressingly urged. It 
gives you grass and your grain. Although there is little dan- 
ger of applying too great a quantity to your land, it may be 
used to excess. Indian corn will bear a free dressing; but your 
crop of small grain may be injured by manuring too highly. It 
will either be choked by weeds, or fall down and perish be- 
fore ripe. Even grass land may be manured to excess— causing 
your grass to fall before half grown; or, if it escape this calam- 
ity, is rank and coarse, and not relished by your cattle. On the 
rich bottom lands in the Western States, when first cleared, a 
succession of crops of Indian corn are taken off to reduce the 
land, before wheat is applied. 

Few articles are cultivated with greater profit and success in 
this country, than Indian corn. The valuable uses to which it 
may be applied, are well understood. Yet errors, undoubtedly, 
obtain in its cultivation. It is a general practice with good far- 
mers, to give their corn three hoeings, without regard to differ- 
ent soils, or the state of their land. Whereas, four hoeings are 
more necessary for some fields, than two for others. It is indis- 
pensable that the weeds be kept down, let it cost what labor it 
may. If three hoeings will not do it, apply the fourth. Permit 
them to grow, not only do they injure your present crop, by 
taking the moisture and nourishment from your corn, but suffer 
them to seed, and a foundation is laid f^r a harvest of weeds the 
following year. Indian corn is usually succeeded by small grain : 
and how often have we observed it choked, and, before harvest, 
overtopped, by weeds sown the preceding year, through the neg- 
lect of the husbandman ! In land naturally weedy, when sown 
with small grain, I have sometimes nearly lost my crop by its 
being overtopped by weeds. The evil has been remedied, by in- 
creasing the quantity of seed. Upon the farm on which I was 
born and brought up, (my father was a husbandman) it was 
practised, in planting Indian corn on sward land, to put the sum- 
mer manure into the hill : the winter manure was spread, and, 



11 

us was termed, harrowed in, but not a fourth part was covered ; 
the rest was lost by evaporation. This injudicious practice is 
still continued by many farmers. To our President we feel in- 
debted for many vahiable remarks on tiiis subject.* If corn is 
hoed after it begins to top, the plough ought not to be used. It 
has been found, at this advanced state of the corn, that fibres 
extend four and five feet, near the surface of the ground, in 
search of nourishment. These fibres are cut by the plough ; 
the corn is deprived of much of its nourishment, and your crop 
is injured. If necessary to remove weeds, let the hoe be the 
instrument. It is believed to be of consequence, that attention 
be paid to the form of the hill. Some prefer a large hill, of a 
conical form, as it will preserve the stalks more erect ; and by 
making a large hill, all the manure is brought into the vicinity, 
and the corn will more readily avail itself of the advantage. 
A flat hill, of a moderate size, is unquestionably preferable ; the 
stalks are permitted to spread themselves — are not so easily 
broken by the wind — more readily admit the sun, the dew and 
showers. Nor is a large hill necessary, that the manure may 
be drawn up ; the fibres, which wander so far in search of 
nourishment, will find it, if upon your land. 

Summer wheat, though a most valuable grain, is not adapted 
to the county of Essex. In some of our western districts, it may 
be cultivated with success, while we have sustained from its cul- 
tivation very material loss, within the last thirty years. Not 
oftener than once in three or four years do you obtain a decent 
crop. In the intermediate years, your produce is small. Ave- 
rage your gain for four years, and you find the profits light. 
Still, the farmer lives in hope, and continues the cultivation of 
a grain which but indifferently rewards him for his labor. 
Whereas, barley and oats rarely fail you. Is it owing to our 
proximity to the sea, that our wheat is oftener blasted than in 
more inland counties ? And why is one field, with us, blighted 
like Pharaoh's corn, while another, but little removed, is rank 
and full ? Enquiries into the cause are well worth the atten- 
tion of the philosopher. 

It is very desirable that our wet meadow-land, much of which 

*See Hon. Mr. Pickering's Address to the Essex Agricultural Society, 1818, 
pages 8, 9. 



LVL 

is now almost useless, might be rendered productive. These 
lands we possess to a considerable extent. Is it impracticable 
to introduce the fowl-meadow grass? Has the experiment been 
sufficiently tried? Some meadow land has been improved by 
draining, and carrying on earth. The late Col. Baidvvm, a gen- 
tleman of a truly philosophic mind, gave me the following facts. 
Having occasion to build a barn, he formed the purpose of open- 
ing a cellar under it, for the reception of manure. The plot on 
which the barn was to be erected was a light sandy soil. In 
the vicinity was a boggy meadow, through which he cut wide 
ditches, with sides not perpendicular, but on the principle of 
the inclined plane, to prevent fiilmg. In the winter, when fro- 
zen, the ground was covered w th sand taken iVom the cellar, 
this again with the earth taken from the ditch. Clover and' 
herds-grass seed were then sowed, which grew luxuriantly, 
rising to the height of three or four feet, giving him three tons 
to the acre. It may be questioned, however, whether this was 
the most proper seed to apply. Clover and herds-grass are not 
natives of the bog meadow, and after being introduced by arti- 
ficial means, will degenerate. Had fowl-meadow grass been 
substituted, his success doubtless would have been greater. This 
valuable grass delights in being irrigated, yet will not flourish 
amidst stagnant water. It may be introduced by burning, or 
ditching and carrying on earth. In some parts of Worcester 
county, it has been introduced with great advantage into wet 
meadows, which had been useless. I regret it is not in my 
power, at this time, to make some more particular communica- 
tions in regard to this excellent fodder. 

Change of crops is ever thought of importance by the intelli- 
gent farmer. In every soil there are ingredients suited to the 
nourishment of certain plants. Hence, we see different soils 
spontaneously yielding different trees, roots and vegetables. In 
vain you attempt to raise particular vegetables on certain soils. 
The reason they will not flourish is, the soil does not posssess 
those particular qualities or ingredients necessary for their sup- 
port. Often it is impregnated with qualities which are injuri- 
ous. Useless the attempt to cultivate the willow on the sandy 
desert, while some vegetables will flourish no where else. Ev- 



ery plant has a particular constitution (if I may be allowed the 
expression,) which requires a particular climate, soil and nutri- 
ment, and, ifdenied either, becomes feeble, sickly, and may die. 
Following land with a succession of crops of the same kind, may 
eventually exhaust it of those particular qualities in which they 
delight. A field of potatoes has been reared, of the most luxuri- 
ant growth. In the following year the same crop continued; 
and, though manure was abundantly supplied, it was feeble, and 
of scarce any value. Did not the preceding planting exhaust 
the soil of those particular qualities in which the root delights? 
Succeeded by different seed, the increase was satisfactory. It be- 
ing most evident, there is something in every soil particularly 
suited to nourish certain vegetables, may not these qualities be 
exhausted, and render a change expedient and profitable ? 

A common error we observe in husbandry is, continuing the 
cultivation of the same field, while others, of a better soil, are 
permitted to lie neglected. How often we see the son planting 
and sowing year after year the same spot of ground, for no bet- 
ter reason than that his father did before him ; while by the side 
lie lands of a far richer soil, devoted to grazing. Old worn-out 
lands are followed with the plough and the hoe, affording a very 
scanty increase ; while a rich soil is neglected, because it 
would require some labor to subdue it. The judicious farmer 
will scarcely think of estimating the expense of sbbduing a soil 
naturally rich and fertile, knowing he will be amply remunerat- 
ed by the increase. 

It is believed this is a too prevalent error with our farmers: 
they have a certain set time, in which their sowing and plant- 
ing must be completed ; and do not pay due regard to the sea- 
son, and the slate of their land. The husbandman should be 
carefully observant of the opening and advance of the season, 
and have particular respect to the state of his land in putting in 
his seed. Is your land wet, you must wait till it acquires suffi- 
cient warmth and dryness for the seed to vegetate. Many crops 
have been lost from an impatience to have done sowing and 
planting. 

We cannot refrain from expressing our gratitude to those gen- 
tlemen who originated this society, our satisfaction in the inter- 



14 

est taken by them in the improvement of our husbandry, and 
the success which has attended their measures. Certamly, a 
new impulse has been given to agriculture, and a spirit of en- 
quiry excited. 

You will permit me, in the name of my brethren in the min- 
istry, to express their thanks for that act of civility, by which 
they have been constituted members. This acceptable notice 
is duly appreciated. Being most of us connected with farming 
parishes, bound to our people by the cords of duty and love, we 
cannot but take a lively interest in their temporal prosperity, as 
well as their moral and religious improvement. 

Industry is of the first importance to the farmer. Neglect 
your farm, and your farm will neglect you. Solomon was a wise 
observer, and a practical preacher. His observations on men 
and things, and the lessons he has left us, are of inestimable value. 
The picture he has drawn of the indolent man, is done with 
the pencil of truth : " I went by the field of the slothful, and 
by the vineyard of the man void of understanding ; and, lo ! it 
was all grown over with thorns, and nettles had covered the 
face thereof, and the stone wall thereof was broken down. 
Then I saw, and considered it well : I looked upon it, and re- 
ceived instruction. Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little 
folding of the hands to sleep ; so shall thy poverty come as one 
that travelleth, and thy want as an armed man." With industry 
must economy be united. Every experienced husbandman, who 
has only his farm for his support, has learned that close calcula- 
tion is necessary. In past years, the enhanced price of produce 
could support expenses which now require retrenchment. We 
have pleasure in knowing, our intelligent farmers are learning 
the lesson, and beginning to live within compass. With our in- 
dustry and economy, let us combine a humble dependence on 
that Superintending Power, who has given us a good land, is the 
great parent of the human family, and whose favor we have 
reason to expect, in proportion to our faithful exertions. 



THK 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL 
EXHIBITION, 

AT TOPSFIELD, OCT. 2, 1822. 



In presenting to the public a statement of the doings of the 
Society, the present year, the Trustees have to regret that 
their annual exhibition of cattle, &c. did not equal their expec- 
tations. The experiments on crops are in a good degree satis- 
flictory. They had hoped that the liberal premiums offered, 
added to the intrinsic importance of the subject, would have in- 
duced much greater numbers of our husbandmen to exhibit the 
evidences of agricultural improvements ; thus doing honour to 
themselves and the county, and presenting successful exam- 
ples for others to imitate. Nevertheless, the Trustees will con- 
tinue to hope that the objects of the institution will receive in- 
creased attention ; and that their disinterested efforts for the 
improvement of the agriculture of the county will be seconded 
by its substantial yeomanry ; and thus place its farniing inte- 
rest at least on a par of excellence with that of any other coun- 
ty in the Commonwealth. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES, 



No. I.— ON THE MANAGEMENT OF A FARM. 

The Committee appointed by the Trustees of the Essex Ag- 
ricultural Society, to examine the claims for premium for th#^ 
best Management of a Farm, submit the following 



16 



REPORT : 

That they hare received but four claims on this subject, viz. 
from the Hon. William Bartlet, of Newburyport, for his farm 
in Methuen ; from Col. Jesse Putnam and Capt. Dudley Brad- 
street, of Danvers ; and from Mr. Isaac Dodge, of Hamilton. 

Each of these farms was visited by the Committee in the 
month of July, when vegetation was most flourishing ; and the 
several statements of the claimants annexed to this report have 
been carefully examined. 

The farm of Mr. Bartlet in Methuen is in a very high and su- 
perior state of cultivation. It consists of about two hundred 
acres of land ; is conveniently divided into lots ; and well fenced 
with the best offences, Stone Wall. The order and neatness 
with which all the business of the farm is conducted merits 
high approbation. The lands have been much improved by the 
removal of the stones for the building of wail, and laying cov- 
ered drains, by means of which waste lands have been convert- 
ed into fine cultivated fields. Great attention is paid to obtam- 
ing manure, and an abundant supply is made on the farm. But 
most of all were the Committee pleased with the habits of so- 
briety and temperance inculcated upon the labourers, and with 
the fact, that so large a farm, emploj^ing many hands, was car- 
ried on entirely without the use of ardent spirit at any season of 
the year. Would our farmers generally imitate this example, 
they would soon find themselves relieved from the heaviest tax 
with which they are at present burthened. Your Committee 
are well aware of the advantages, in point of capital, possessed 
by Mr. Bartlet, over most other farmers in the county. Still 
they consider the improvements he has made, such as are with- 
in the means of, and worthy of imitation by, our larmers gene- 
rally ; and they are of the opinion that he is entitled to the first 
premium of thirty dollars. 

The farm of Col. Jesse Putnam, of Danvers, consists of about 
114 acres of land, and is well cultivated. The orchards are su- 
perior to any we have seen in the county, and the management 
of the young trees appears to be excellent. The methods pur- 
sued by Col. Putnam of subduing the rough lands, and reclaim- 



17 

in^ his wot meadows, and turning Ihom to fertile fields, are 
hi<^hly judicious. Great attention ha^ been given on this farm 
to the making- manure ; and miicli b(3nelit has be^m derived from 
the swine in this particular. On the whole, your Committee 
are of the opinion, that Col. Putnam is well entitled to the sec- 
ond premium of tiven(y dollars. 

The farm ofCapt. Dudley Bradstreet, of Danvers, consists of 
about 192 acres of land, and is well cultivated. The careful 
and accurate mode of proceeding pursued by i\Ir. Bradstreet is 
worthy of approbation. The crops on his lands appeared very 
fine ; and his mode of management in general worthy of imita- 
tion. The Committee were particularly pleased with the ex- 
amination of a piece of swamp land, which by the ^kill and in- 
dustry of Mr. Bradstreet has been made to produce an abundant 
crop of English hay. 

On examining the farm of Mr. Isaac Dodge, of Hamilton, the 
Committee are fully confirmed in the opinion expressed in the 
report of the last year. They consider Mr. Dodge v^ell enti- 
tled to the approbation of the Society, for his industry and skill 
in the cultivation of his lands, and the zeal he has manifested in 
promoting its interests. There has not been sufhcient time 
since the last year for hirn to make any essential improvements. 
His crops, the present year, appeared very fine. 

Your Committee cannot close this Report without expressing 
their regret, that there were so few competitors for the premi- 
ums on the management of a farm. They are sensible that 
there are farms in every town in the county that would well 
hear an examination ; and perhaps many that would compare 
well with those they have been called upon to examine ; — but 
as the proprietors did not come forward with their claims, it 
was not in the power of the Committee to bring them into the 
comparison. Should these premiums be continued, it is to be 
hoped that all our good farmers will volunteer their assistance 
in a cause, in which to fail is no disgrace, but to succeed is the 
highest honour. 

JOHN ADAMS, ) r 
TEMi^LE CUTLER. ] ^'^'"^^^"^^ 

Danvers^ /November 20, 1822, 

3 



18 



MR. BARTLETS FARM. 

The Farm in Methuen belonging to William Bartlet, Esq. has 
been under my direction five years ; Mr. Bartlet has all the in- 
come ffom said farm, and pays all the expenses. 

Said farm contams about two hundred acres of land, and is di- 
vided into twenty lots, all which are fenced with a substantial 
stone wall; 13 of the lots have been cultivated, and have pro- 
duced wheat, rye, oats, tiax, Indian corn, potatoes, English and 
Swedish turnips, white beans, timothy, herds-grass and clover 
hay ; 8 lots are at present in grass for mowing ; 5 lots for pas- 
turing ; one lot is woodland and pasture for young cattle ; one 
lot is an orchard of apple trees, in good bearing; and 5 lots are 
under culture for corn, oats, potatoes, English and Swedish tur- 
nips, and winter rye, with a part of some lots for flax and white 
beans ; besides a garden of vegetables for summer and winter 
use for the family. 

The system of rotation of crops is five years. 

The quantity of manure made upon the farm in a year is 
about 200 ox cart loads, of 40 bushels each : this manure is 
made by the neat cattle and swine — about 60 loads by the 
swine : the cattle yard is cleaned up every morning, and the 
manure put into a heap under cover from the sun and rain. 
The swine have the shavings of the fields and brooks, the po- 
mace of the apples, the weeds and other materials thrown to 
them during the summer and autumn, and are kept in their in- 
closure all the time, and in the spring the yard is cleared. — 
The neat cattle are kept In the barn-yards all the night in the 
summer season ; and in the barns and yards all the winter sea- 
son ; the water for their dhnk being brought into the yards by 
an aqueduct. 

About 5 tons of ground Plaster of Paris for each year, have 
been used for several years past, as a manure upon the grass 
land, and the corn and grain for sowing have been mixed with it. 

The product of the farm some years has been greater than 
others, but it produced in 1821 the following articles : 

35 barrels cider, 600 bushels corn, 700 bushels potatoes, 40 
bushels English turnips, 4^ bushels white beans, 475 lbs. flax? 



19 

if) bushels rye, 320 bushels oats, 350 lbs. butter, 2000 lbs. 
cheese, 4000 lbs. pork, 40 cart loads pumpkins, 75 tons English 
hay- 10 cart loads fodder. 

And the present year, 1822, 

70 tons English hay, 10 tons run hay, 30G bushels oats, 1200 
bushels potatoes, 300 bushels Indian corn, 500 lbs. Hax, (this by 
estimation, it not being cleaned) 1 100 bushels English turnips, 
300 bushels ruta baga, 100 barrels cider, 40 bushels waiter ap- 
ples, 20 bushels winter pears, 2400 lbs. cheese, 400 lbs. butter, 
6 bushels white beans, 12 calves, sold at 7 dollars each, 4 fat 
oxen, sold for 294 dollars. 

The stock of the farm consists at present of 1 5 cows, 10 oxen, 
3 yearling heifers, 1 spring calf, 1 late calf, 2 calves for butch- 
ering, 19 swine, 34 sheep and lambs, and 1 horse. 

The labour on the farm is done by myself and wife, with 2 
men and 1 boy, and 2 young women or girls : but in the most 
hurrying times, particularly in getting in hay, as many hands 
are employed to cut and cure it as can work to advantage. And 
the only drink used by the labourers, both transient and sta- 
tionary, is produced by the farm, viz. beer and cider. 

JOi\ATHAN MORSE, 2d. 

Methuen^ September 28, 1 822. 

N. B. This year's produce is added to this statement since 
the description was made out. 
JVewburyport^ November 13, 1822. 

Note. By the " shavings of the brooks and fields," Mr. Morse 
means " the grass and weeds which grow in the brooks & round 
the edges of the fields ;"" which, being unfit for fodder, are 
thrown to the swine. 

The ''ten cart loads of fodder" were the produce of the 
field of oats ; which being seeded with herds-grass and clover, 
and these, after the oats were harvested, growing luxuriantly, 
the field was mown (the oat stubble and young grasses) and 
yielded (as Mr. Bartlet has since stated) " ten bulky loads of 
excellent fodder, almost equal to second crop hay." 



20 



COL. PUTjVMPS farm. 

Col. Jesse Putnam's farm is situated in the North Parish in 
Danvers, about six miles from Salem. It contains about 114 
acres; to wit — 44 of tillag-e — 40 of pasture — and 18 of wet, or 
low-ground meadow. His woodland is not in Danvers. Most of 
his tillage land is covered with orchards of apple trees ; of 
which about 1200 are iarg-e enough to bear fruit ; and 400 have 
been planted, or grafted, from two to six years. He raises his 
own trees in nurseries ; which he renews from time to time, to 
supply his own wants. He considers the spring the best time 
for transplanting trees. In th:s operation he digs the holes four 
or live feet in diameter, and two feet deep ; into which, in 
planting the tree, he introduces rich soil, that the tree may 
sooaer recover from the check it receives in the transplanting* 
By giving such dimensions to the holes, the roots may be regu- 
larly spread out in every direction, without being crowded. 
He disapproves of making nurseries in very rich soils; because 
the}' will generally be transplanted to poorer soils, and so be 
sensibly and injuriously checked in their first growth. He thinks 
it better to transplant from a poor to a rich soil, than from a 
rich to a poor one. Most of his trees are grafted with winter 
fruit, in selecting his fruits, he is careful to choose the kinds 
that are good bearers, as v/ell as of good qualities ; grafting 
over again, with other fruits, such trees as are not sufficiently 
productive. Col. Putnam has found it very beneficial to young 
trees, to w^ash them in the spring with a composition of lime, 
clay, fresh cow dung and water ; as it removes the moss, destroys 
the insects that find harbours in the rough bark, and gives a 
smooth, vigorous and lively appearance to the trees. He has 
found it serviceable to vary the manures applied to his trees, ac- 
cording to the nature of the soil. He has frequently sown bar- 
ley, or other grain, around them, and when 18 or 20 inches 
high, dug it in. This he has thought one of the best modes of 
manuring them; and (as well as every other way of manuring) 
should extend to three or four feet from the tree, all round; 

* In planting trees^ the roots should be covered with earth at no 
greater depth than before their removal 



21 

continuing- this practice at least until the trees have attained a 
^ood size, and are in a good thriving and bearing state. 

For several years past, he has annually broken up three or 
four acres of his pasture land, where principally covered with 
small bushes and mos^, and planted the same with potatoes or 
corn; and when laid down to grass found himself amply com- 
pensated. 

It has been his practice to plough, in the warm weather in 
August, the land intended to be })lanted tlie ensuing spnng ; at 
which time it is cross-ploughed. By ploughing when the earth 
is warm, he says the sod is better rotted, and more easily ren- 
dered tit for tillage crops. Ploughing late in autumn he thinks 
not advantageous. Thus cultivated one or two years, the land 
will be in a good condition for English grain and grass. The 
same land will need to be broken up again, as often as once in 
six or seven years. 

'' The raising and curing English hay (he remarks) occupies 
a large portion of our time ; and rewards our labour as well as 
any thing that is done on the farm; and the object of cultivat- 
ing other crops is, in a good degree, to prepare the land for this 
most important crop. 

The produce of his farm, in 1821 and 1822, as near as he 
could estimate the same, he states as follows : 



182! 



1822. 



English Hay - - - 


24 tons 


- 30 tons. 


Oats for fodder - - 


3 do. 


4 do. 


[Wet] Meadow Hay - 


8 do. 


7 do. 


Barley for fodder 


do. 


3 do. 


Indian Corn - - - 


70 bushels 


- 150 bushels 


Potatoes - - - 


800 do. - 


- 300 do. 


Barley - - - - 


70 do. - 


cut for fodder 


Onions 


do. - 


- 150 bushels. 


Carrots - _ - _ 


40 do. - 


- 90 do. 


Turnips - - - - 


20 do. - 


- 150 do. 


Cabbages - - - - 


10 dozen - 


• 30 dozen. 


White Beans - - - 


2 bushels 


7 bushels. 


Green Peas for the market 4 do. - 


- 50 do. 



22 



Summer Apples 
Winter Apples 
Pork - - - 
Pumpkins - - 



- 130 do. 

- - 600 do. 

- - 2000 lbs. 

- - 2 tons 



150 do. 

600 do. 
2U0O lbs. 
4 tons. 



He kept no particular account of his dairy ; but his cows, six 
in number, had done well. 

Col. Putnam's mode of making manure, he states as follows : 

" In the autumn I clear the barn yard, and carry the manure 
into large and compact heaps, in the fields where it is intended 
to be used. The yard is then covered with turf, loam, or pond 
mud, and such other materials as are found on the farm, suited 
to making m inure. These, together with the droppings of the 
cattle in the winter and summer, and the relics of their fodder, 
are mixed together in the course of the summer, and made into 
fine manure. This I use principally on my grass land ; spread- 
ing it from the cart, after the grass is grown several mches. 

" I have a cellar under my barn, in which the winter dung 
and urine of the cattle are collected. By mixing with these, in 
the cellar, meadow turf [or sod] coarse hay and corn stalks, the 
quantity is much increased. I also carry large quantities of ma- 
terials to my hog pen, which is so situated as to be kept moist; 
and from the industry of the swine in preparing this manure for 
the field, I find more benefit from them than in any other way." 

His usual stock consists of six oxen, eight cows, one bull, 
two horses, and several extra cattle to be sold in the spring, 
and from six to twenty swine. 

Col. Putnam closes his statement as follows : 

" Some of my [wet] meadows have been converted into excel- 
lent English mowing grounds, by carrying about six inches of 
gravel on to them in the winter. In the first place I divide a 
meadow into lots about three rods wide, by ditches— turning 
the turf bottom upwards — and taking care to have the middle 
of the lots the highest, so that they may be a little sloping to- 
wards the ditches. Plough the turf and gravel together, in the 
spring, and plant it one season with potatoes : the crop will be 
as good as in common fields. Then carry on one or two inches 
of top soil, and a good coating of manure ; and from land thus 
prepared, I have obtained my largest and best crops of English 
hay." 



23 



No. II.— ON INDIAN CORN AND OTHER CROPS. 

The Committee appointed to examine the claims for premi- 
ums on Indian Corn and other crops^ have attended to that duty, 
and submit the foliowinsj 

REPORT: 

That the whole number of claims for premiums on these sub- 
jects entered with the Secretary was twenty four; seventeen of 
which were supported by the necessary statements and certifi- 
cates. They reg-ret that these were withheld by any ; for in 
some instances as much instruction may be obtained from trac- 
ing the causes of failure, as of the success, of crops. 

For Indian Corn, the claims were eight, as follows: 

1. Mr. Daniel Burnham, of Newburyport, raised, on one acre 
of land, one hundred and seventeen bushels and a quarter, weigh- 
in'j; fifty lbs. to the bushel. The soil was of middling quality. 
The seed was raised at Coilnc.l Bluff, on the river Missouri. It 
originaily came from the Maha Tribe of Indians. The land 
was well manured, and cultivated with great care and attention. 
Your Committee were highly pleased with the statement of 
Mr. Burnham, and think that he richly deserves the thanks of 
this Society for his interesting experiment; — but as the present 
has been a season uncommonly favourable to the culture of thi& 
kind of corn, they are not fully satisfied that it may be cultivat*' 
ed to advantage in ordinary seasons in this climate. They 
would however recommend further experiments on the same, 
and a gratuity to Mr. Burnham of ten dollars. 

2. Mr. John Lees, of Newbury, raised, on one acre, one hun- 
dred and eight bushels and twenty quarts of Indian corn, weigh- 
ing fifty-nine lbs. to the bushel — seventeen hundred and fifty lbs. 
of pumpkins — one hundred and fifty lbs. of squashes — eighteen 
bushels of turnips, estimated in the whole equal to one hundred 
and eighteen bushels of corn. The land was moderately m-'nur- 
ed, the cultivation good ; the common eight rowed corn was 
used. We are of the opinion that Mr. Lees is entitled to the 
premium of^ fifteen dollars. 



24 

3. Mr. Henry Little, of Newbury, raised, on one acre, one 
hundred and sixteen bushels and nine quarts of Indian corn, 
wei.i^hing 58 lbs. to the bushel, together with some turnips and 
pumpkins. Mr. Little has been, since the commencement of 
this Society, one of the most successful competitors for its pre- 
miums. Ills lands are naturally good, manured in the best man- 
ner, and managed with an ability that will always ensure suc- 
cess. His examples have done much for the benefit of agricul- 
ture, and he is well entitled to the thanks of the Society, as also 
to the premium of ten dollars. 

4. Mr. Erastus Ware, on the Pickman farm, in Salem, on one 
acre raised ninety three bushels and three quarters. The seed 
used was the early eight rowed white ; it was ripe by the first 
of September. The soil was rich, and well manured ; and the 
cultivation and crop are considered very good. 

5. Mr. Richard Crowninshield, of Danvers, raised on one acre 
ninety and a half bushels. The common eight rowed corn was 
used. The soil was good, had been planted with various crops 
for eight years past, and the present year was but slightly ma- 
nured. It was planted late in the season, and hoed but twice. 
Under these circumstances the Committee consider the crop ex- 
traordinary good ; but cannot recommend this careless mode of 
management as worthy of imitation. 

6. Mr. Daniel Mears, on the fi^irm of the Hon. Wm. Reed, in 
Marblehead, raised, on one acre, eighty seven and a half bush- 
els of corn, and about one ton of pumpkins. The soil Avas good, 
had been in grass for several years previous, and was moderate- 
ly manured. " The expense of labour, estimated, except find- 
ing the men, at five dollars fifty cents." The Committee con- 
sider the neat profit of this field as great as any one reported. 

7. Mr. Jacob Gould, of Boxford, raised, on one acre, seventy 
two bushels of Indian corn. 

8. Mr. Isaac Dodge, of Hamilton, raised, on one acre, seven- 
ty bushels, three quarters and five quarts of Indian corn. 

For Barlefj., four claims were entered, and but two statements 
received. The Committee are of the opinion that Mr. Jacob 
Wilkins, of Marblehead, is well entitled to the premium of ten 
dollars, for his crop of Barley, at the rate of fifty bushels to the 



25 

acre. They also recommend that the premium of ei^ht dollars 
be awarded to Mr. Isaac Dodg-c, of Hamiiton, for his crop of 
barley, at the rate ot* thirty three bushels to the acre — not be- 
cause the crop is extraordinary, but to induce others to bring 
their claims forward hereafter. 

For Potatoes^ several claims were entered, no statements re- 
ceived. As the polatoe is one of the most useful and necessary 
articles raised by our farmers, both for the support of man and 
beast, the committee cannot forbear to express their regret, 
that the prfimiums offered on this article should be treated with 
so much neglect. They believe that with proper attention to 
the selection of the kind of seed to be used, and care in prepar- 
ing the land and planting the same, the crops of potatoes may 
easily be made four times as valuable as they now usually are ; 
and that our farmers cannot better appropriate a few acres of 
4heir land, than to the cultivation of this article. 

For English Turnips^ two claims were received. 

1. Mr. Henry Little, of Newbury, raised, on one acre, six 
hundred and eighty seven and a half bushels ; and is entitled to 
the premium of ten dollars. 

2. Messrs. Silas and Joseph Little, of Newbury, raised, on one 
acre, six hundred and fifteen bushels ; and are entitled to the 
premium of eight dollars. 

The expense of raising and harvesting these crops is stated 
to be about thirty dollars to the acre. They are obtained after 
a crop of grass has been taken from the land. Hence may the 
farmer learn how to relieve his anxiety when his crops of hay 
are cut off, or his expectations not realized. By a little extra- 
ordinary industry, applied in proper season, an abundant supply 
of vegetables may be obtained for the consumption of his cattle, 
and at small expense. 

For Carrots^ but one claim was received. 

Mr. John Dwinell, of Salem, raised, on one hundred and 
eleven and a half rods of land, eight tons three hundred weight. 
Considering the season was unfavourable to the cultivation of 
this article, the crop is good, and Mr. Dwinell is entitled to the 
premium o^ eight dollars. 

For Beets and Mangel Wurtzel.) two claims were received. 
4 



26 

1. Mr. John Dvvinell, of Salem, raised, on one hundred and 
four and one third rods of land, twenty nine tons one quarter 
and twenty five pounds of beets. The land was the same on 

r which Mr. Dwinel obtained a premium for potatoes the last 
year. It was highly manured, and well cultivated. The crop 
is considered very extraordinary, by far exceeding any known to 
have been raised in this vicinity, and well entitles the claimant 
to the first premium of ten dollars. 

2. Mr. David Little, of Newbury, raised, on one acre, nine 
hundred and seventy and a half bushels of mangel wurtzel, two 
bushels of carrots, and one hundred and seven cabbages. The 
land was highly manured, and well cultivated. Expense of cul- 
tivating the acre, twenty-four dollars. Mr. Little is entitled to 
the premium of eight dollars. 

For Riita Baga^ but one claim was received. 

Mr. David Little raised, on one acre, four hundred and eigh- 
ty one and a half bushels. Es:pense of cultivation, about twenty 
dollars. This crop is not extraordinary, but in the opinion of 
the Committee entities the claimant to the premium of eight 
dollars. 

For more particular information on green crops, the commit-' 
tee would refer to the statements of experiments hereunto an^ 
nexed. All which is respectfully submitted, by 

DANIEL ADAMS, 3d, 
JACOB B. WINCHESTER, 
NATHAN FELTON, 
JESSE PUTNAM, 
DUDLEY BRADSTREET, 
AMOS PERLEY, 
Oanvers^ Kovemher 20, 1822. 



DANIEL BURNHAM'S STATEMENT. 

Sir, 

1 beg leave to offer to the consideration of the Trustees of 
the Essex Agricultural Society the following statement of the 
cultivation of an acre of Indian Corn. The seed was raised at 
Council Bluff, oh the river Missouri. It was? received at that 



Committee. 



2? 

^iace, Irom the Mnha nation of Indians. — The kernel is large, 
free from flint, and filled with a sweet while flour. It is gene- 
rally eight rowed, though some ot it is ten and twelve rows. 
It was brought to this quarter late in May 1821. I received a 
few kernels of it, and planted it the last of May or the first of 
.Tune. Such was its promise through the season, and such its 
bounty at harvest, that I thought it might become a valuable 
acquisition to this region, and 1 determined to ni;\3te an experir 
ment of a field of it. Accordingly, the last spring, I took a 
piece of land, such as is called common tillage ground, with a 
light soil, inclining a little to gravel, and having a north hang- 
ing : this is its character, given by those I have consulted, and 
who arc considered good judges. The land had lain to grass 
for the two years previous, without manure ; but either frjjm 
the failure of the grass-seed, or some other cause, the cropS: 
were quite scanty. The sward wa,s so tender, and broken, and 
the plough clogged so much, that it could not be turned so well 
as was wished. As soon as turned up, a harrowing succeeded, 
then the holeing, at the distance of four feet one way and three 
the other. Five cords of common barn manure (about half new 
and half old) was put in the holes in a very coarse state. The 
greater part of the manure, 1 think, ought to be called strong: 
some of it, however, was very feeble. Three kernels were 
placed in a hill ; nine quarts of seed were put on an acre and 
a quarter. It was my intention that the planting should be done 
as well as it could be ; but from circunistances beyond my con- 
troul, I consider the whole process of planting to have been 
badly executed. The ploughing aod planting were done from 
the 4th to the 7th of May. Immediately after planting, the 
ground became so parched with drought, that much of the seed 
failed. To supply the deficiency" of standards, about the 25th 
of May I placed seed in drills, from which, when large enough, 
I transplanted into the field, say from 450 to 600 plants. As it 
is the opinion of many, that transplanted corn does not succeed 
v«rell, perhaps it may not be thought amiss, if I observe, that 
from earing time to harvest the transplanted could not be dis- 
tinguished from the other. The corn was hoed, in the course 
of the season, four times, without ploughing between the rows : 



28 

the fourth time was merely loosening the surface of the sfround^ 
and destroying the weeds. The appearance of the corn was 
rather unpromising until the rains had wet the manure. It then 
exhibited a very remarkable growth, and its luxuriance became 
go great, that it was apprehended by many that the crop was 
much at hazard. I planted some of this com in the drill meth- 
od : the standards were from fifteen to twenty inches asunder, 
and 1 believe (if I may reg'ard this small experiment) that if 
the field had been planted in this form, the crop would have 
been more abundant. This method would give sun and space 
to the shoots, from which much of the crop may be expected : 
but ihey were so crowded by being in hills, that they could not 
have proper expansion. For this reason 1 think this corn re- 
quires the drill method much more than our common corn. 
The height of the stalks is not greater than much of the com- 
mon com, but above and below the ears they are much larger. 
It was not uncommon to see from three to five large shoots^ 
from a kernel, and from a shoot two good ears. The last sea- 
son, 1 suspected that the best and most abundant crops might 
be obtained from the mixed-seed ; this year, since harvest, I 
am fully convinced that this will prove the fact. This is like- 
wise the opinion of practical farmers who have examined itj 
and bespoke some of the mixed-seed. I expect to plant, the 
next season, another field ; in which case 1 shall surely make 
use of mixed-seed, and without apprehension of its not coming 
to maturity; and shall plant in the drill method, leaving the 
standards at least fifteen inches from each other. What I mean 
by mixed-seed is, when the kernel has become in a degree flin- 
ty, from receiving the pollen (or farina) from the stalks of our 
flinty com. My field became much mixed, from the corn in sur- 
rounding gardens. This I do not at all regret, for 1 am confi- 
dent that 1 had on the same space a heavier crop, than where I 
had pure seed, on ground much better, and much better pre- 
pared, than the field was ; and this pure seed was fully ripe and 
taken in the 24th of October. 

The fodder on the field was abundant. It seems the sobei 
estimate of the best judges, that from the tops and bottoms, on 
fin acre and a quarter, it was fully equal to two tons of English 



29 

hay. The time and labour in cutting and curing them wfts, 1. 
fully believe, three times as much as on common fields of the 
same size. The harvesting, which was done by cutting up the 
bottom??, was about in the same proportion. The topping of the 
corn was done about the 20th of September; the harvesting 
from the 18th to the 24th of October. In husking, two qualities 
were made. Of the prime corn there was one hundred and tea 
and a half bushels ; of the inferior, there was seven bushels, 
making in the >vhole one hundred seventeen and a half bashels< 
I am decidedly of opinion, that had the field been planted with 
any of our common seed, under the same circumstances, from 
fifty to sixty bushels would have been the extent of the crop. 
On this question I have consulted with those who are considered 
the most judicious farmers, who are acquainted with the land, 
and with the manner of its cultivation this season ; and but one 
has given an idea of more than fifty bushels. It may seem very 
extraordinary, to make so great a difference between this, and 
that of our common seed ; but should I do otherwise, I should 
trespass on my judgment. Much of the labour in the cultiva- 
tion was done in broken time, and in connection with the other 
part of the field (half an acre, which was corn and potatoes,) so 
that 1 am prevented from that accuracy in the exact expense 
which I wish. I dare not say that the expense was less than 
gixty-five dollars, and this is the sum at which I fix it, including 
manure, land rent, and every other expense. The field was in 
the middle of the town, and much exposed : it was robbed of 
some of its best ears. It is thought that a loss was suffered in 
this way of at least three bushels, but this loss can neither be 
ascertained, nor brought into the account. All I have hitherto 
said has been in favour of this corn. I will now revert to the 
other side. Although it came to maturity the last season, and 
has done the same this, and although i believe that most of our 
seasons will give it its full growth, yet I think from the pure 
seed in some seasons the corn would be in danger of injury, as 
corn is commonly placed after husking. The reason for this 
opinion is, that I believe the cob to contain more moisture than 
that of our common corn. If I am right here, it reduces the 
value of the pure seed for common cultivation. As an experi- 



3ii 

raent, 1 planted this season, on the 20th of June, pure seed lu 
fifty or sixty hills, some of it in cold, and some in vv.irm ground; 
it was taken in Oct 25th — it was well grown, and apparently 
ripe, and keeps well in trace, yet the cob Avas so full of mois- 
ture that I am confident it would injure, as corn is usually placed. 
I am far from considering the mixed-seed as liable to the above 
objection. 

• But if it could be made certain that the pure seed would in 
all seasons come to maturity as fully as our common seed, yet 
I think the mixed-seed is to be preferred for the heaviest crops ; 
from the mixed seed I believe much more may be expected 
than from any corn we have among us. In saying this, I am 
aware to whom I am addressing myself, and that I ought to be 
diffident, and to think that a more competent judge than I know 
myself to be, might give a different opinion. Another objection 
is its weight. I weighed some of it as soon as taken from the 
cob ; it was fifty eight pounds to the bushel — it was then thor- 
oughly cured by kiln-drying, and its weight was then exactly 
fifty pounds. Here, perhaps, it is just to recollect its freeness 
from flint. After drying, it was ground into meal, and tried in 
various ways for bread, and the result was much in its favour. 
It requires of boiling water, to wet a pound, six and a half gills — 
at the same time, trial was made of some of our yellow meal, 
from the last years corn, and it required only four and a half 
gills to the pound. 

I have now, to the extent of my observation, traced this ex- 
periment, from the receipt of the seed to its conversion into 
bread. If I have been minute and prolix to tediousness, 1 must 
find my apology in the responsibility 1 have felt, from presum- 
ing that no other field of corn of this description is offered to 
your notice. 

I am, sir, with much respect. 

Your humble servant, 

DANIEL BURNHAM. 
J^ewburyport, November 18, 1822. 

John W. Procter, Esq. Secretary of the 
Essex Agricultural Society. 



31 



JOHN LEES'S STATEMENT. 

Kewhury^ JVovember 19, 1322. 
To the Committee on Indian Corn and other crops. 
Gentlemen^ 

In the summer of 1821 one of my fields, generally known by 
the name of Boynton Field," which had been for eight or ten 
years adapted to mowing, not exhibiting so good an appearance 
as usual in grass, I thought of making up the deficiency by rais- 
ing a crop of potatoes ; consequently, in the latter part of June, I 
mowed about three quarters of an acre, the produce of which as 
near as we could judge by appearances was a ton of hay of an 
excellent quality. I then broke up the land and planted the 
common white potatoes, putting a small shovel full of compost 
manure into each of the hills. The manner of ploughing, plant- 
ing, hceing, &c. was much the same as practised by the farmers 
in this vicinitj'^ ; and in autumn the crop of potatoes was rising 
two hundred bushels. This success induced me to try what I 
could do with Indian corn ; and late in autumn I carted on thir- 
teen cart loads of compost manure, which lay in small heaps un- 
till the following spring, when more of the field was broken up, 
and this manure spread over the land and ploughed in — then 
ploughed again and harrowed. The hills were made three and 
a half feet one way and three feet the other distant from each 
other, then a shovel full of manure, partly compost and part 
from the hog yard, was placed in each hill, and five kernels of 
the common eight rowed corn dropped in each hill. At the 
time of the first hceing it was discovered that a red headed 
worm, measuring from a half inch to one and a half inches in 
length, was committing sad depredations ; it was the opinion of 
many respectable men, that nearly one half was destroyed. 
This was replanted, but still the worms continued the destruc- 
tion ; and the season being far advanced, the defective hills were 
planted again with pumpkins, squashes, turnips, &c. The piece 
was hoed three different times, and at the second time the 
plough was used to facilitate the hoeing ; and in autumn I har- 
vested from one acre, measured and staked out by Mr. John 
yN'orthener, one hundred and eight bushels and twenty quarts «i' 



32 . 

cvoiti, weighing fifty nine pounds to the bushel ; seventeen hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of pumpkins, one hundred and fifty pounds 
of squashes, and eighteen bushels of turnips. As to the precise 
times of hoeing, ploughing, planting, &c. I cannot ascertam, in 
consequence of my principal workman being deprived of his 
labour by indisposition, and the multiplicity of my cares made it 
impossible for me to pay that attention which was necessary : 
suffice it to say that my mode of management was much the 
same as that of farmers in general. 

I am, gentlemen, with much respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN LEES, 



HEJSRY LITTLE'S STATEMENT. 

Newbury^ JVov, 5, 1822. 
To the Committee on Green Crops. 
Gentlemen^ 

The following is a statement of the cultivation and produc- 
tion of one acre of Indian Corn raised by the subscriber in 
Newbury: The soil is a dark clay loam, and in 18'^1 was 
planted with beets and carrots, and manured with six cords of 
manure made by a brewer in Newburyport, and produced about 
400 bushels to the acre. In May, 1822, the land was twice 
ploughed and planted in hills, 3 and a half feet apart, wiih 5 cords 
of compost manure put in the holes ; four grains of corn were 
put in each hill on the manure and covered with a hoe ; the 
corn is the eight rowed kind, and weighed, when harvested, 58 
pounds to the bushel. The green, or unripe corn, was not 
measured : it was hoed three times, and late in the season ; the 
few weeds that came up were destroyed. The stalks were 
topped the middle of September; it was harvested in October, 
and drawn to the granary and measured, and there were two 
hundred and thirty-two and a half bushels of ears, and a fraction 
over. By shelling four bushels of ears, the estimate was, that 



33 



there was one hundred and sixteen bushels and nine quarts of 
shelled sound corn. 

The expense, of cultivating^ the above acre of corn, calculat- 
ing labour at four shillings. 

Rent of Land g9 00 



Manure 
May 3. 
9. 
10. 

June 7. 
12. 



14. 

25. 
July 15. 
Oct. 7, 8. 



Ploughing I 

Cross-Ploughing - - - - 1 

Planting and putting the manure in the 

holes . i - . - 2 
Hoeing ----- i 

Transplanting or filling up the vacant 
hills, calculating to have three stalks 
in each hill - - - _ 
Hoeing the second time - - 1 

Hoeing the third time - - - 
Destroying Weeds - 

Harvesting and Measuring - - 5 



00 
50 
50 



00 



67 
00 
67 
33 
33 



Yours, respectfully, 

HENRY 



g38 75 



LITTLE. 

N. B. The time of topping the stalks and getting in the bot- 
tom or butt stalks, not in the estimate. The value of the stov- 
er, [the stalks and husks] I think equal to one and a half tons of 
hay. 



JOHN DWmELVS STATEMENT-^ON BEETS. 

.The following statement of a crop of Beets, with the man- 
ner of tilling the land, is submitted with the claim for the soci- 
ety's premium, viz. 

The land in 1821 was in good heart and produced a crop of 
potatoes, and is part of the lot which enabled the present claim- 
ant to obtain the second premium the last year. A reference to 
the statement then made, will give the committee a full knowl- 
edge of it. 

The present year the land was ploughed May 1st and ^d. 



4i^A- 



^ ^ 



34 

eight inches deep, with one yoke of oxen, which occupied one 
day and a half; after which it was harrowed, and fitted for re- 
ceiving the seed, which occupied one day. The remainder of 
the time was four days sowing, two days weeding, two days 
hoeing, and eleven and a half days digging, topping, weighing 
and housing the crop ; in all twenty two days labour. 

The quantity of manure was one and a half cord, and the 
quantity of seed two and a half pounds. 

The crop, which was weighed, amounted to 29 tons, hund. 
1 quarter &. 25 lbs.— or 580 hundred, 1 quarter &i 25 lbs. 

All which is respectfully communicated. 

JOHN DWINELL: 

Salem^ JSTovember 11, 1822. 



HENRY LITTLE'S STATEMEKT—ON TURJVIPS. 

Newbury^ Nov, 5, 1822; 
To the Committee on Green Crops. 
Gentlemen,^ 

The following is a statement of the cultivation and produc- 
tion of a lot of English Turnips, raised by the subscriber, in 
Newbury. The soil is a clay loam, and had been down to grass 
six or seven years ; in 1821 cut about one ton of hay to the acre ; 
the last of June, 1822, it was mowed, and cut about half a ton 
of hay ; the ground was then ploughed, and ten cords of compost 
manure (the principal part of the compost was marsh sod,) 
spread on and harrowed in, then it was ploughed in shallow 
ridges, three feet apart, and the seed sowed, with a machine, on 
the ridges, then a roller was made to pass over the same, and 
the sowing was finished. It took one pound of seed to the acre ; 
they were thinned to the distance of one foot apart in the row ; 
they were twice ploughed and hoed, and harvested the last of 
October, and the crop was six hundred and eighty seven and a 
half bushels. 

The expense of cultivating one acre of turnips on the above 
mode, calculating labour at four shillings per day. 



35 

June 28, 20. Ploughing, harrowing, and sowing, J^ 6 67 

Sowed July 1. Seed and manure, - - - 20 50 

Thinning, hoeing, kc. - - 5 33 

Harvesting, - - - - 3 33 



$3b 83| 
The quality of the crop. They were large, but in conse- 
quence of the drought they are fit only for stock. 
Yours respectfully, 

HENRY LITTLE. 



SILAS AjYD JOSEPH LITTLE'S STATEMENT— ON 
TURMPS. 

JVewbury^ Kovember 14, 1822. 
To John W. Proctor, Esq. Secretary of the Essex Agricultural 

Society. 
Sir, 

We have this year cultivated an acre of common turnips on 
our farm in Newbury, and as we hope to obtain the Society's 
premium, we are bound to make a particular statement of the 
mode of cultivation. 

A small part of this acre was sown with turnips the last year; 
the other part has been grass ground five or six years. This 
year, that part which was used for turnips we sowed with flax, 
after putting on it about five loads of manure, and pulled the 
flax as soon as the blowing had fallen ofl"; then ploughed it, to- 
gether with the grass ground, so as to make an acre, and after 
iiarrowing in part, carried on nineteen cartloads of compost ma- 
nure, mostly sandy loam, to mix with our cUiy loam. The one 
part we spread on half the ground, and then ridged it with a 
small double-mouldboard plough, about two feet and nine inches 
apart. The other part was furrowed with the plough, and the 
manure put in the furrows at a like distance (the produce how_ 
ever was about equal,) and ridged as above, which covered all 
the manure. One pound and a half of seed was sown on the 
acre, one row on a ridge, and after the turnips were out of the 



36 

way of the flies they were thinned at the distance of 10 or 12 
inches, then hoed twice, and ploughed once. 

The time of harvesting hegan the 281h of October, and ended 
the first of November ; and there were six hundred and fifteen 
bushels, trimmed fit for the market, besides five or six bushels 
defective or rotten and unfit. — The weight of a bushel 59 lbs. 
Expense of cultivation. 

Ploughing and harrowing - - - g 3.00 

Manure 13.00 

Seed - 50 

^^ Ridging and sowing - - - - 2.00 

Thinning - - - . - - - 2.75 

Hoeing ------- 2.50 

Harvesting 5.00 

$28.75 
Sir, we are yours, with great respect, 
rj" SILAS LITTLE, 

JOSEPH LITTLE 



DAVID LITTLE'S STATEMENT-^ON MANGEL 
WURTZEL. 

JVewhury^ November 18i^, 1822. 
To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society. 
Gentlemen^ 

The following is a statement of the situation, cultivation, and 
production, of a lot of land cultivated with Mangel Wurtzel, on 
my farm. The situation is as follows : a swell inclining southwest- 
erly, and of a rich yellow loam; in 1821 was cultivated with 
beets, manured with about three cords of compost manure, and 
produced about five hundred and thirty bushels ; 1822, May 9th, 
ploughed, 10th, harrowed and furrowed three feet apart, four 
and a half cords of compost manure was put in the furrows, and 
was covered with a plough, then a harrow was drawn length- 
ways of the ridges, to smooth the ground ; the seed was then 
sowed, one row on each ridge, with four pounds of seed, (I think 
less than half would be sufl5cient) ; commenced ploughing be- 



37 

twixt the rows, and weedins^, June 10th; continued weeding' 
and thinning at ditierent times till they stood ten or twelve inch- 
es apart in July 16th. The work was done principally by boys, 
estimating two boys to be equal to a man. Oct. 31, and Nov. 
1st, and 2d, they were harvested by men and boys, and produc- 
ed nine hundred and seventy and a half bushels of mangel wurt- 
zel, two bushels of carrots, and one hundred and nine cabbages. 
Six swine were mostly fed with the thinnings, from the begin- 
ning of weeding till about the first of October ; there were fruit 
trees on the above lot, sufficient, in my opinion, to produce twen- 
ty one barrels of fruit. The land, that I supposed to contain an 
acre, when it was measured by the surveyor fell short about ten 
or twelve rods, and I was obliged to make out the acre by tak- 
ing a small piece which adjoined the same, which was sowed 
late in the season, and produced a small crop, and also a piece 
of about five rods which adjoined, were transplanted in vacant 
places among carrots, on account of which my crop was much 
less. The above lot you will see has been divided by the 
surveyor, staked off in half acre lots. No. 1, and No. 2. No. 1 
produced five hundred and twenty three and a half bushels. 
No. 2 produced four hundred and forty seven bushels of mangel 
wurtzel, two bushels of carrots, and one hundred and nine cab- 
bages. 

The expense of cultivating the above lot of mangel wurtzel, 
oalculating labour at four shillings per day. 

Ploughing, May 9th, - - - - J 1.50 

Harrowing, - - - » . 50 

Furrowing, ---.-. 50 

Manure, - - - - • - - 9.OO 

Ploughing a ridge over the manure, and harrowing 1 .00 

Seed, 3.00 

Sowing, 67 

Weeding, 3.33 

Harvesting, 4.46 



dols. 23^96 
I am, gentlemen, with respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

DAVID LITTLE 



38 



DAFID LITTLE'S STATEMENT— OK RUTA BAGA. 

Kewbury, November 18, 1822. 
To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society. 
Gentlemen^ 

The following is a statement of the cultivation and produce of 
two half acres of land, adjoining each other, cultivated with Ruta 
Baga, on my farm — No. 1 h 2. The soil is a light sandy loam. 
In 1821 it was planted with corn, and manured with about two 
cords of manure to the acre. The crop was small. June, 1822, 
the land was ploughed, harrowed, and furrowed three feet 
apart. Three and a half cords of yard manure was put in the 
furrows. The manure was covered with a plough drawn by a 
horse, by turning a ridge upon it. The seed was then sowed, 
one row on each ridge — one pound of seed. July 4th it was 
ploughed between the rows, and I began weeding and thinning, 
and continued at intervals till August 8th, leaving them 10 or 
12 inches apart in the rows. They were twice ploughed and 
hoed. There were about forty four rows ; ten of them were 
sowed with seed that I bought in New-York, represented to be 
ofCobbett's raising, but on account of age, or some other de- 
fect, but few vegetated. The 6th of July they were sowed 
over again ; but it being late, and the season unfavourable, the 
crop amounted to almost nothing, though occupying the best 
part of the land. The land was measured and staked off in two 
half acres — No. 1 and No. 2. Lot No. 1 was harvested Nov. 4, 
and produced 254^ bushels. No 2 was harvested the 7th, and 
produced 227 bushels. 

Expense of cultivating the above lot of ruta baga, calculating 
labour at 4s. per day. 

June 3. Ploughiag, - - - - Dolls. 1 ,50 
Harrowing and Furrowing, - 33 

Manure, 10,50 

Covering the Manure, - - - 33 

Seed, 75 

June 6. Sowing and covering Seed, - - 67 

Amount carried forward. 1408 



3d 

Amount brought forzvcfrd^ - - - H,OS 

Ploughing, weeding and thinning - 2,79 

Harvesting 3,34 



Dolls. 20,21 
I am, gentlemen, with respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

DAVID LITTLE. 



No. III.— ON THE DAIRY. 

The Committee appointed to consider the claims for the pre- 
alliums, 

REPORT : 

That Mr. Joshua Lovett made on his farm, in Beverlj, from 
the milk of six cows, (one of them a heifer three years old, 
came in the 12th day of January last) five hundred and twenty 
one pounds of good butter, in the year 1822, between the 20th 
day of May and the 1st day of October, and from the milk of 
the same cows, was produced seven hundred and fifty pounds of 
cheese, between the 20th day of May and the last day of Sep- 
tember. The cows were kept m a common pasture from the 
20th day of May until the 12th day of September, afterwards Iq 
fail feed, and fed in August once a day with the suckers from 
corn. The milk was preserved in earthen pans, and the cheese 
made in the common manner. Your Committee are of opinion 
that Mr. Lovett is entitled to the first premium of fifteen dollars. 

Also that Capt. Stephen Abbot made on his farm, in Andover, 
from the milk of seven cows, two hundred and ninety six pounds 
of good butter, in the year 1822, between the 20th day of May 
and the 1st day of October, and from the milk of the same cows, 
during the same time, was produced seven hundred and ninety 
seven pounds of cheese, one hundred pounds of it made of new 
milk, and the rest of good quality. The cows were kept in 
a common pasture to the 23d day of September, afterwards in 
fall feed. The milk was preserved and the cheese made in the 
common manner. As no other application was made, your Com- 



40 

mittee are of opinion that Mr. Abbot is entitled to the second 

premium of ten dollars. 

THOMAS STEPHENS, 

Per order of the Committee. 
Topsfield, October 2, 1822. 



No. IV.— ON FAT OXEN AND SWINE. 

The Committee appointed to examine the claims for premi- 
ums " on Fat Oxen and Swine" submit the following 

REPORT: 

That there was but one pair of fat cattle exhibited. These 
were offered by Mr. Benjamin Savary, from the farm of Gor- 
ham Parsons, Esq. in Newbury. They were the same that ob- 
tained the premiums for ploughing and working cattle the last 
year. They were nine years old, and continued to labour until 
the 9th of March last. From March to July they fed on hay 
and potatoes ; after this time they had a full supply of Indian 
meal. Your committee consider these cattle of very fine qual- 
ity, and well entitled to the first premium of ff teen dollars. 

The exhibition of swine was much inferior to that of preced- 
ing years. This is to be attributed in part to the mistake in 
printing the premiums offered ; it being intended to include 
weaned pigs from two to six months old, instead of from two to 
four months old, as printed. 

Six boars were offered for premium — some of them of good 
quality. The committee have awarded to Mr. Samuel Hood, 
of Topsfield, the 1st premium, six dollars. To Mr. Benjamin Sa- 
vary, of Newbury, the second premium, /owr dollars. The com- 
mittee have also awarded to the Hon. Samuel Putnam, for a 
breeding sow from his farm in Danvers, the first premium of six 
dollars. The other swine exhibited did not come within the 
description, for which premiums were offered, and of course 
could not be entitled to any premium. 

PAUL KENT, 

Per order of the Committee. 

Topsfield, Oct. 2, 1822. 



41 



No. V,— ON CIDER. 

The Committee appointed to examine the claims for premium 
on Cider, submit the following 

REPORT : 

That but two parcels of ten gallons each were presented for 
examination, viz. by Mr. Aaron Perley, of Boxford, and by Capt. 
Dudley Bradstreet, of Danvers. 

Mr. Perley's cider " was made of apples, known by the name 
of Perley Everlasting. They were gathered about the 20th of 
October, and kept Under cover until near the 10th of Novem- 
ber. They were then ground in a nut mill and made into cider, 
which was put into new casks, and racked off on the first of 
March following. Care was taken to have the apples when 
ground free from rot, and perfectly clean, and also to have the 
trough and press well cleaned before the making was commen- 
ced. Mr. Perley has four barrels of this cider at the present 
time. Your committee consider it of very superior quality, and 
well entitled to the first premium of ten dollars. 

The cider presented by Capt. Bradstreet was of good quality; 
but in consideration of his having but ten gallons of this cider 
at th3 present time, your committee are of the opinion that his 
claim does not come within the description, for which the pre- 
miums were offered, and therefore cannot award a premium. 

STEPHEN BARKER, 

for the Committee-. 

Topsfield^ Oct. 2, 1822. 



No. VL— ON NEAT LIVE STOCK. 

The Committee appointed to examine the Live Stock, and 
award premiums, have attended to that service, and 

REPORT : 
That they have awarded the first premium for the best Bull 
to Col. Jesse Putnam of Danvers. - - twelve dollars. 

6 



42 

The second best do. to Sam'l Chadwick of Bradford eight dollars. 
The first best Milch Cow, to John Torrey of Newbury, 

twelve dollars. 
The second best do. do. to Rich'd Crowninshield 

of Dfinvers, eight dollars. 

The best S-years old Milch Heifer, to Gideon Fos- 
ter, Esq. of Dan vers, - - - eight dollars. 
The best pair of 4-years old Steers, to Billy Em- 
erson, of Topsfield, - - - - ^ere dollars. 
The best Merino Ram, to Benj. Savary, of Byfield, six dollars. 
The second best do. do. to Richard Crowninshield, 

of Danvers, four dollars' 

The fonr best Merino Ewes, to Benj. Savary, of 

Byfield, six dollars. 

The second best do. do. to Tristram Brown, 

of Ipswich, ----- four dollars 

The best lot of Ewes, mixed blood, to Tristram 

Brown, of Ipswich, - - - - six dollars. 
Two Heifers, owned by Richard Crowninshield, one thirteen 
tbe other twenty-three months old, were very nice, but not en- 
titled to a premium on account of their age ; and two Bulls, 
one owned by Messrs. Putnam and Tucker of Salem, the other 
by the Hon. Wm. Bartlet of Newburyport, were considered by 
your Committee to be very valuable j as was likewise a Heifer 
owned by Mr. I. Lock of Andover. 

Your Committee considered the Bull offered by Isaac Osgood, 
Esq. the handsomest built animal of the kind they had ever 
seen ; >but as he did not come within the terms on which the 
premiums were offered, no premium was awarded. The one- 
owned by Samuel Chadwick, Esq. was a very handsome built 
Bull, and of a beautiful colour. 

It was a subject of regret to your Committee, that so few 
Cows were entered for premium, they being of so much impor- 
tance to our farms. The one owned by John Torrey is a Cow 
of no remarkable appearance ; but from the statement given of 
which we had no reason to doubt, she is an uncommonly good 
Cow ; her keeping was no ways extraordinary ; yet the net in* 
come amounted to about seventy dollars for the last year, the 



43 

ihe milch was valued as if wholly sold for one shilling per gal- 
lon ; the principal part was actually sold at that price. 

The other Cow was far superior in appearance, but not so well 
reported to your Committee. 

MOSES WINGATE, per order. 



No. VII.— ON THE PLOUGHING MATCH. 
The Committee on the Ploughing Match 

REPORT: 

That there were only four competitors for the premiums : 
these were, Benjamin Savary, of Newbury, from the farm of 
Gorham Parsons, Esq. John Brocklebank of Rowley, Mose^ 
Bradstreet of Topsfield, and Joel Wilkins of Danvers, from the 
farm of Samuel Putnam, Esq. 

The trial was on a piece of grass-land, laid off in lots, each of 
one quarter of an acre. The land seemed never to have been 
ploughed with a deep furrow; and being gravelly, and harden- 
ed with the long continued drought, it was found necessary, af- 
ter some furrows had been turned, to alter the gages of the 
ploughs, to enable them to penetrate to the requisite depth. 
Under these circumstances, the Committee consider all the 
ploughing to have been well executed. They recommend the 
premiums to be awarded as follows : 

To John Brocklebank, ploughing with one yoke of oxen and 
a driver, 31 furrows, in 43 minutes, the first premium 

sixteen dollars. 

To Benjamin Savary, ploughing with one yoke of oxen, with- 
out a driver, 30 furrows, in 45 minutes, the second premium, 

twelve dollars. 

To Joel Wilkins, ploughing with two yoke of oxen and a dri- 
ver, 29 furrows, in 38 minutes, the third premium, eight dollars. 
For the Committee, 

T. PICKERING, 

Chairman, 



44 



EBENEZER BERRY'S STATEMEjYT-^OJV DEEP AND- 
SHALLOW PLOUGHING. 

To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Having learned that you had offered a premium, the present 
year, for the most satisfactory experiment in ascertaining the 
relative advantages of deep and shallow ploughing," I have 
been induced to offer for youF examination the following 
statement. 

In the autumn of 1821, my field was ploughed by the teams 
that contested for the premiums of your Society. It was laid 
out in lots of one quarter of an acre each. The land is level, 
and free from rocks. The soil is gravelly, and shallow, and 
only of middling quality. It had been in grass four years pre- 
vious, and never had been highly manured. The common bur- 
den of grass produced upon it was not more than one ton to the 
acre. The whole field ploughed contained two acres and a 
half, one acre of which was ploughed in the spring of the pre- 
sent year ; and on this part was the best crop. That which was 
ploughed in the preceding autumn at the ploughing match, was 
well harrowed in the spring, and furrowed, eight rows to the 
lot, two rods wide. Twelve ox loads of manure were put 
to the acre, in the holes. The manure was a mixture of the 
droppings of horses and neat cattle, in about equal quantities, 
taken from the barn yard. The ground was planted with Indian 
corn, from the 10th to the 12th of May. The eight rowed corn, 
and that which is commonly cultivated in this vicinity, was the 
kind planted. It was hoed three times in the usual manner. 
Every part was managed as nearly similar as possible. Each 
lot was gathered and accurately measured by itself Lots No. 2 
and 3, were the most gravelly, and most exposed to the drought ; 
and the whole field suffered considerably for want of moisture. 
I am of the opinion that it would have been highly beneficial 
to have cross-ploughed the land in the spring. The following 
is the product of each of the lots. 

No. 1 , ploughed by 28 furrows, 4^ inches deep, situate on the 
western side, yielded twenty and a half bushels of ears. 

No. 2, ploughed by 28 furrows, 6 inches deep, yielded i?ine« 
teen bushels of ears. 



45 

No. 3, ploughed by 22 furrows, 8 or 9 inches deep, yielded 
twenty-three bushels of ears. This ploughing was apparently 
deeper than the soil ; but in the latter part of the season the 
crop suffered much less by the drought than either of the lots; 
and had the soil been as good, the crop would have been much 
superior. 

No. 4, ploughed by 28 furrows, 61 inches deep, yielded twen- 
ty-two and a half bushels of ears. 

No. 5, ploughed by 28 furrows, 6 inches deep, yielded twen- 
ty-one bushels of ears. 

No. 6, ploughed by 36 furrows, 6i inches deep, yielded twen- 
ty-two and a half bushels of ears. The soil of this lot was rath- 
er better than the other parts of the field. 

From the result of this experiment, my opinion is decidedly 
in favour of ploughing our lands much deeper than is usually 
practised by our farmers. Especially is it beneficial on lands 
liable to be injured by the drought. 

EBENEZER BERRY. 

Danvers^ Kovemher 19, 1822. 

I certify, that I assisted in measuring the before mentioned 
corn, and that the foregoing statement is correct. 

JONATHAN DUDLEY. 
Essex ss. Nov. 19, 1822. The above named Ebenezer Berry 
and Jonathan Dudley, declared the statement by them sub- 
scribed to be the truth, before me, 

JOHN W. PROCTOR, Jus. Pacis. 

Salern^ Jan. 1, 1823. At a meeting of the board of Trustees, 
Voted, that a premium of fifteen dollars be awarded to Mr. Ebe- 
nezer Berry for his experiment in endeavouring to ascertain the 
relative advantages of deep and shallow ploughing. 

Attest, JOHN W. PROCTOR, Secretary. 



No. VIII.— ON WORKING OXEN. 

The Committee on Working Oxen report, that the number 
of competitors for premiums were less, and the cattle offered, 
inferior to those in years past 



46 

Your committee do award to Mr. John Brocklebank, of Row- 
ley, the first premium o^ fifteen dollars. 

To Mr. Joseph Osgood, of Dan vers, the second premium of 
ten dollars. 

They would further remark, that the four-year old steers of 
Mr. Jeremiah Hathaway, of Marblehead, were very large, and 
worked in a manner highly acceptable to the committee. 

That the steers from the farm of Hon. S. Putnam, in Danvers, 
were handsome and worked well. 

And that the same may be said of the steers owned by Mr. 
Billy Emerson, of Topslield. 

It is to be regretted, that our farmers should pay so little .it- 

tention to the training of their cattle. The object in offering 

premiums is rather to produce skill in management, than 

strength of Muscle. Nature gives the one, art the other. 

For the Committee, 

BENJ. T. REED, 

Chairman. 
Topsfield^ Oct. 2, 1822. 



No, IX.— ON DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 
The Commiitee on Domestic Manufactures respectfully 

REPORT : 

That the articles exhibited for their inspection were gene- 
rally of good quality, and superior to those of the same kind 
produced the last autumn. The number of articles exhibited 
were so small, that the Committee did not feel at liberty to 
award the full amount in premiums authorised by the Trustees 
on this subject. They were much pleased with some cloths ex- 
hibited from Crowninshield's Factory in Danvers. In the col- 
ouring and finish they were very superior. 

For articles of domestic manufacture, they have awarded the 
following premiums: 

To Mr. James Howarth, of Andover, for Flannels of very su- 
perior quality, equal to any imported, a premium Cff six dollars. 



47 

To widow Jane Swan, of Methuen, for a piece of Table Linen, 
distinguished for its superior bleach and beauty, the first premi- 
um of six dollars. 

To Susan Young, of Byfield, for a piece of Table Linen, of 
aimilar manufacture, second ipremium, five dollars. 

To Mrs. Crowninshield, of Danvers, for several pieces of 
goods of the same kind, third premium, /our dollars. 

To do. for a quantity of Linen Yarn, a premium of three dolls. 
To do. for a small quantity of water-rotted Flax, very neatly 
prepared, a premium of two dollars. 

To Betsey Merrill, of Salisbury, for twenty-five bunches of 
White Linen Thread, neatly manufactured, a premium of three 
dollars. 

To Mrs. Hannah Perley, of B oxford, for a piece of Vesting, a 
premium of two dollars. 

Mrs. Abigail Bricket, of West Newbury, for a Yarn Shawl, a 
premium of two dollars. 

To John Hale, of Boxford, for a pair of Pegged Shoes, sub- 
stantially made, a premium of one dollar. 

To Mr. Ebenezer Burnham, of Ipswich, for a Drab Kersey 
Wrapper, of good manufacture, a premium of two dollars. 

The Committee had hoped to have had the pleasure of ex- 
amining other articles of domestic manufacture than those ex- 
hibited ; particularly straw bonnets and hats, and carpetinga. 
They are sensible that these articles have received considera- 
ble attention in the county, and would have been pleased to en- 
courage further attention by awarding premiums, had opportu- 
nity offered. They believe it to be the best interest of our 
country to encourage manufactures of this kind, and hope that 
on future exhibitions, the number of articles will be in propor-r 
tion to the importance of the subject. 
For the Committee, 

BENJAMIN PARKER, 

Chairman, 
Topsfield, JVov. 2, 1822^ 



PREMIUMS 



OFFERED BY THE 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

IN 

The Committee of the Trustees appointed to propose objects 
for premiums, adverting to the original design of the institution, 
— the improvement of the general husbandry of the county — 
have thought it advisable, at this time, to depart materially 
from what seems to have been a leading principle, in all the 
Agricultural Societies of the country — that of offering premiums 
chiefly for certain specific articles of husbandry, instead of the 
combined improvements of entire farms. 

Since the formation of the Essex Society, specific premiums 
have produced valuable effects ; by demonstrating, that with 
high manuring, and good culture, some former usual crops may 
be doubled, trebled, and even quadrupled. But the important 
question is — not what small lots in or near market towns, and 
abundantly supplied with manures, may be made to yield ; but 
how the productive powers oi^ farms can be essentially increas- 
ed : and this can be effected only by a better management in all 
articles of husbandry. With this in view, the Committee pro- 
pose to extend the encouragement heretofore given for general 
improvements ; and offer the following premiums. 

1. MANAGEMENT OF A FARM. 

For the management of a farm, in its tillage, mowing, or- 
charding and pasturage : the quantity of land appropriated to 
each — their cultivation— the means and the manner of makings 
increasing, preserving and applying manures — their quantities — 



49 

the respective crops and products — the quantity and manage.- 
ment of the live stock — and the quantity of labour employed — 
to be detailed. 

For the best thirty dollars. 

For the second best - - twenty Jive dollars. 

For the third best - - - - t's)enty dollars. 

the fourth best ... fifteen dollars. 

II.— DAIRY STOCK— SOILING. 

For experiments in feeding; m?lch cows on green crops, from 
the middle of June to the middle of October, by supplying them 
to the full with those crops, in their stables, without turning 
them to pasture. Feeding cattle in this manner is called m/in^. 

For (he best, - - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best, - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best, - - - ten dollars. 

The whole process to be detailed. 



REMARKS. 

The green crops may be rye fsown the preceding year) oats, 
barley, millet, Indian corn, clover and various grasses. Any 
sorts of grain sown to produce fodder for soiling, after being 
harrowed in, should be rolled, to make the surface and the 
ground smooth for mowing. The clover and upland meadow 
grounds, destined for soiling, will be better for rolling, with a 
heavy roller, to make a smooth bottom, without which the 
mowing cannot be close; and if not close shaven, the thickest 
part of the grass will remain uncut. 

If the soil be rich and the surface smooth the grass may be cut 
when only three or four inches high, and will then yield a good 
swarth. Such ground well set with the grasses which pro- 
duce what is known among us as English hay, and inclined 
to moisture, may in this manner be mown three or four times 
in a season. The cutting of the rye, oats, barley and millet 
should commence as soon as they will yield a good swarth, and 
be finished Jbefore they have passed the flowering state. If 
mown before they flower, they will shoot again ; and if the 
growth be rich, yield second crops. 



50 

Indian corn will be well grown for soiling b}? the 10th or loth 
of July ; anil will continue green, and in full sap until the last 
of August. And in order to continue a supply of this rich green 
food— to which probably no other vegetable of our country is 
equal, especially for milch cows. Pieces of land may be plant- 
ed in succession, so that some may be in full sap to the last of 
September, when, in Essex, frosts usually strike the blades, and 
greatly lessen their value. 

If there be a piece of rich mowing land in the farm, its sec- 
ond or third crop will furnish green fodder to the middle or 
last of October. Perhaps late sown oats, hardier plants than 
Indian corn, may supply the place of grass. Pumpkins, also, 
during this month and the next, will furnish a most valuable 
food. 

All the sorts of fodder above mentioned, like the young grasses 
of the spring, naturally dispose cattle to a degree of looseness, 
though probably without injuring them. But if any of them 
operate to an excess, a little good hay will furnish a useful cor- 
rective. 

After November, potatoes, mangel wurtzel and carrots, ad- 
ded plentifully to iheir dry fodder, even, ifthisboonly barley, 
or oat straw, or wet or low ground meadow hay, will doubtless 
keep cows in milch till within a few weeks of their calving.* 
Cows, during the time of their going dry, and other stock at 
all times, fully supplied with ruta baga, or common turnips, 
with the same poor dry fodder, may be kept in high condition. 
In England, cattle intended for beef are often fattened on wheat 
straw and turnips, giving of the latter as many as they will eat. 
They commence feeding in this manner in Autumn, and by the 
spring the cattle are fat for the market. The cattle thus fatten- 
ed, and in so short a time, are of moderate sizes. 

Rye, oats, barley and millet, when destined for soiling, should 
be sown twice as thick as when intended to ripen their seeds. 



* An observing farmer, long ago expressed to me the opinion, that cows should go 
dry five or six weeks before calving, to give time for the milk vessels to be dis- 
tended, and the bag enlarged ; in the language of farmers, for the springing of the 
bag. It was his opinion that the greater increase of milk after calving, would amp- 
ly compensate the loss of going dry sO long- 



51 

In like manner, Indian corn may be planted in continued row^ 
only so iar apart as to admit a small plough in its culture, and 
with the plants only four or five inches apart in the rows. The 
surface of the ground should be smooth in the rows, so as to ad- 
mit of mowing the corn. 

The farmer who shall pasture some of his cows, and soil the 
others, will add to the value of the experiment, by keeping 
their milch separate, and noting their relative quantities from 
cows of equal goodness, and the quantity and quality of the but' 
ter made from each set. 

III. THE DAIRY. 

For the greatest quantity of good butter, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing it, (not fewer than four) made on 
any firm, from the 20th of May to the 20th of November, twen- 
ty-six weeks, and the quantity of butter averaging not less than 
seven pounds per week for each cow, twenty dollars. 

For the second greatest, - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third greatest, - - - ten dollars. 

The kinds of food and the management of it to be detailed. 

REMARKS. 

The object of Agricultural institutions, as already observed, is 
improvement : and in Essex, none seems to be more wanted than 
in milch cows. If the society were to continue their premiums, 
during any length of time, merely for the greatest quantity of 
butter, they would not enforce any improvement in the quality 
of those animals. Seven pounds of butter a week, for each cow, 
is less than half what the Oakes cow of Danvers produced, in 
the same time. The seven pounds a week, therefore, are very 
attainable by every farmer who will improve his breed of cows^ 
and feed them to the full with juicy and highly nourishing food. 
The Committee trust they do not entertain a groundless hope, 
that the premiums here offered will have claimants ; and that 
in some future years, the Trustees will be justified in contining 
these premiums to cows yielding ten, twelve, and fourteen, 
pounds of butter a week, for twenty six weeks in the year. 



J2 



IV. TURNING IN GREEN CROPS AS A MANURE. 

For the best experiment of turning in green crops as a ma- 
nure, on not ler* than one acre, - - fifteen dollars. 
For the second best, - - - - ten dollars. 
For the third best. . . - - five dollars. 



REMARKS. 

The claimants must give a particular account of their res- 
pective processes, and the results. The object aimed at is, to 
ascertain whether land can be manifestly improved by turning 
under green crops, and to what degree enriched. Each experi- 
menter will follow his own judgment in his process ; but the 
following intimations may merit his attention. 

The turning in of green crops is a very ancient, though not a 
very general practice. Its utility has lately been called in ques- 
tion. Hence the desire to bring it to the test of fair experiment. 
Take an acre of land, so far exhausted at the last crop as to 
render it inexpedient to introduce another without a good ma- 
nuring. Plough it in the spring, and sow it with oats, barley, 
buck-wheat, or millet — and not be sparing of the seed. When 
the crop shall be full grown, but still in blossom, plough it in, 
and sow it again. When this second crop shall be full grown, 
plough it in. The next year repeat this process — again plough- 
ing in two crops ; the last by the beginning of October. It may 
then be sown with winter rye, to produce a crop of grain at the 
next harvest — sowing five or six pecks, because sown so late. — 
Or it may lie till the ensuing May, and then be planted with In- 
dian corn. The product, compared with the last of the same 
acre, prior to the commencement of the experiment, especially 
if a crop of the same kind, will show the value of the green 
crop ploughed in. 

ANOTHER MODE. 

The acre being divided lengthways into two equal parts, plough 
the whole uniformly in the spring. Sow on one part two bush- 
els of oats or of barley, or a bushel of buck-wheat, or three or 



53 

four half pecks of millet; and harrow the whole acre alike, and 
so as duly to cover the seed which has been sown. When the crop 
has attained its full growth, but is still in blossom, plough it in ; 
ploughing the vacant half acre at the same time, and to the 
same depth. Sow the first half acre again immediately, and har- 
row in the seed, harroAving the other half in the same manner. 
The next year rejieat the same precess. Then I'he whole acre 
may be sown with winter rye (3 pecks on each half;) or the land 
may lie (as in the process first proposed) to be planted with In- 
dian corn the ensuing spring. In the third year, the crop put in 
rtiust stand to ripen. The produce of each half acre (both be- 
ing sown or planted, and cultivated in the same manner) must 
be kept by itself, and accurately measured. The difference be- 
tween them will show the value of the green crops ploughed in. 

Every experimenter will perceive that no manure whatever 
is to be used — the crops sown, and the weeds ploughed under, 
excepted. 

Until ploughs constructed for the purpose of completely turn- 
ing*in green crops shall be introduced, it will be necessary to 
roll flat the green crop before ploughing, or it cannot be duly 
covered. Perhaps a small roller, or what is called a foot^ only 
of a large size, may be attached to the fore end of the plough 
beam, to press down the crop to the ground, and thus cause it 
to be effectually covered. Such a roller, or foot, will serve as 
a gage for the depth of the furrow in which the crop shall be 
buried. 

v.— CIDER. 

For the best cider, the pure juice of the apple, which shall 
be made in the present year, not less than eight 
barrels, - ten dollars. 

For the second best - . . . ^^.g dollars. 

The greater part of the cider may be sold, if the owner 
please, only reserving one cask, of which a sample is to be 
produced at the Society's public exhibition in 1824; with good 
evidence that the casks sold were equal to that reserved. If 
sold, the claimant will state when, to whom, and at what prices ; 
nnd describe his whole process in collecting, sorting and keep- 



54 

ing the apples, in making the cider, conducting the fermenta- 
tion and tining, if any artificial lining be used, and in preserv- 
ing the cider in the cask. 

For some information of an eligible process in making and 
managing cider, the Committee refer to the intimations contained 
in the Explanatory Observations subjoined to the list of premi- 
ums for 1821. 

VI. FOREST TREES. 

The same premiums that were offered in 1821 and 1822; to 
which intended claimants are referred. And they are desired 
to give notice of their proposed claims to the Secretary, John 
W. Proctor, Esq. in Danvers, before the first of July next. 

VII. POTATOES. 

Numerous experiments have been made, to increase the pro- 
ducts of this root, and premiums have been awarded for the 
greatest ; but no measures for improving their qualities have 
fallen under the observation of the Committee. It is well known 
that the seeds in the apples or green halls^ which grow on the 
tops of potato stalks, will produce potatoes, which, planted for 
one year, and their produce a second year, will yield well sized 
potatoes. — It is from these small seeds that all the varieties of 
potatoes have been produced. It was in this way that a distin- 
guished farmer in Ireland — a country so famous for the culture 
of potatoes — obtained excellent kinds. From the numerous seeds 
in every ball, a variety of potatoes may be expected ; some eai^ 
ly, some late in ripening — some yielding small, and others abun- 
dant products — some watery, and others mealy and well fla- 
voured. 

Expectations have often been formed of raising potatoes of 
the best qualities, by plaijting those brought from the British 
Isles ; but disappointment is the common result : the products of 
the first year have scarcely borne a resemblance to the fine ori- 
ginals. It is very possible, and not improbable, that some sorts 
superior to any in cultivation among us, may be obtained from 
the small seeds found in the green balls. To encourage the 
necessary experiments, the following premiums are oifered, 



55 

For the l»est and most valuable potatoes, taking them for all iu 
all, raised from the seed of the apples or green balls, samples of 
which shall be produced at the Society's public exhibition in 
1825, 'ten dollars. 

For the second best, - - - - seven dollars. 

For the third best, - - - - - jive dollars. 

The claimants are to detail their whole processesj and state 
the results. 

REMARKS. 

Some sorts may be of superior excellence for their mealiness 
and flavour, but moderate in their product; some, not so well 
flavoured, may be very abundant in quantity, and highly valu- 
able for feeding live stock ; some, very early ripe ; some, grow- 
ing compactly, and so expeditiously harvested. The sorts 
which, combining most of these good qualities, shall be judged 
the most valuable, will be preferably entitled to the premiums, 
without excluding claims for potatoes of highly superior good- 
ness, although less productive. To facilitate the execution of 
these novel experiments, the Committee offer the following 

DIRECTIONS. 

The experimenter, having determined with what sorts of pota-- 
toes he will make his trials, will gather the balls when the stalks, 
by their drying, indicate a ripeness in the seeds ; and if they 
are not quite soft, so that the seeds will easily separate from 
the pulp, they may be laid by (out of the way of frost) until the 
pulp becomes soft. Then mash them with the hand, and with 
the aid of water separate and wash the seeds clean. These, 
being dried, may be preserved like garden seeds, until the en- 
suing spring. Then sow them in rows, in a bed of rich garden 
earth, just as small garden seeds are sown. The rows may be 
ten inches apart ; and the plants, when grown enough to be 
thinned, may stand four or live inches asunder. Keep them 
clear of weeds, and stir the earth between the rows. The su- 
pernumerary plants, arising from the thinnings, may be trans- 
planted, if needed, to another bed. 



56 

In Autumn, or when the stalks become so far dried that the 
roots cease to grow, dig these up carefully, so that the potatoes 
growing on the same plant may be saved by themselves ; for it 
may happen that each distinct plant may produce a sort differ- 
ent from the rest. The bulbs, or roots, of the first year, will 
be very small. In the next spring choosing a piece of rich 
ground, plant each sort in a hill by itself The product of this 
year will furnish bulbs big enough to be boiled. And this will 
be the time for selecting the best. Many sorts may not de' 
serve any further attention; but some maybe of excellent qual- 
ities, as to time of ripening, texture, flavour and productive- 
ness. Their several qualities should be carefully noted , and 
again be separately preserved, and planted another year ; when 
they will probably have attained all the perfection of which 
their natures admit. 

Lancashire, a western county of England, as well as Ireland, 
is distinguished for producing good potatoes. Ireland is remark- 
able for the moisture of its climate ; and the western is more 
moist than the eastern coast of England. Both are many de- 
grees farther norlh than Massachusetts; and are exempt from 
the burning heats and droughts of our summers. These circum- 
stances suggest the propriet}^ of our planting potatoes on moist 
and cool grounds ; thus assimilated, in some measure, to the soils 
of Ireland and Lancashire. 

VIII. PLOUGHS AND PLOUGHING. 

Some ploughs are of easier draught, and make better work, 
than others ; and some oxen draw or plough extremely well 
without a driver. The design of ploughing matches is to attain 
all possible perfection in both. The premiums, therefore, un- 
der this head, will be confined to efficient ploughs of easiest 
draught, drawn each by one yoke of oxen without a driver, 
ploughing one quarter of an acre, and turning the best furrow, 
at least five inches deep, and in the shortest time compatible 
with a continuance of the labour to complete the ploughing of 
an acre, if that were required. 

For the best plough, team and work, - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best, . . - - twelve dollars. 

For the third best, _ - . - eight dollars. 



bi 



IX. SUMAC. 

The premium for this article is continued of course, as the 
claim is to be presented the en?uing autumn. 

GENERAL REMARK. 

The Committee repeat — and desire it may be remembered-^ 
that premiums claimed are not to be awarded, unless the sub- 
jects of the. claims are decidedly meritoiSous. That is, the re- 
spective experiments must be so conJncted as to exhibit results 
worthy of encouragement and imitation — or decisive of a ques- 
tion of which the sglution is sought. 

Where a premium has heretofore been awarded to any per- 
ion, he is not to receive another for the same object. And 
where any plough has obtained a premium, another is not to be 
awarded for the same plough, nor for one of the same mould 
Some important improvement can alone justify an appropriation 
©f the Society's funds, in cases of this nature. 

To allow time for enterprising farmers to make preparations 
for becoming competitors for the premiums now offered, the 
Committee are of opinion that there should be no public exhi- 
bition in the present year. The disposable funds of the Society 
will thereby be increased, to reward successful candidates for 
premiums the year following. But whether there shall, or shall 
not, be a public exhibition in the present year, the Society, at 
their approaching annual meeting, will determine. As, howev- 
er, some claims were to be made in the present year, these may 
be sent to the Secretary of the Society, to be laid before the 
Trustees, for their decision thereon. 

The Committee propose no premiums for the greatest quanti- 
ties of any kmd of crops. The experiments already made have 
demonstrated what is practicable ; and if those known examples 
of success are insufficient to stimulate general exertions, the usual 
premiums must prove ineffectual. 

Essex not being a county for grazing and fattening cattle muck 
beyond the farmers own wants, this article also is discontinued 
in the list of premiums. 

8 ' • 



58 

As to the usual live-stock — working oxen, milch cows, young 
cattle, sheep and swine — they are to be considered as compre- 
hended in the Management of a Farm, additionally to the pro- 
visions under the heads No. Ill and No. VIII, rciating to the 
Dairy and Ploughing Matches ; and to the following article. 

X. FOR IMPROVING OUR NATIVE BREED OF NEAT 
CATTLE. 

The first most celebrated breeder of live stock, in England, 
was the late Robert BakewelJ ; to whom, Mr. Arthur Young 
says, that country is indebted for just principles of breeding. And 
a later eminent breeder says, that " before Mr. Bakewell's days, 
we had no criterion but size ; nothing would please but ele- 
phants and giants." And " he declares that Bakewell enabled 
those who followed his ideas to produce two pounds of mutton, 
where only one was produced before." The following were 
the points to which Bakewell specially attended : " fine forms, 
small bones, and a true disposition to make ready fat : which 
indeed is inseparable from small bones, or rather fine bones and 
fine forms, or true symmetry of the parts." 

But BakewelPs prime object, in improving cattle and sheep, 
was to render his animals most profitable in beef and mutton. 
And he succeeded in obtaining forms indicating strength of con- 
stitution — a disposition to fatten., and at an early age — weightiness 
in the most valuable parts — with lightness of offals. If there was 
deficiency in any point, he would cross his animal with one that 
was amply supplied in that part ; and if any point of his ani- 
mal was too heavy, by an opposite cross he would reduce the su- 
perfluity. By such management, diligently pursued, he at 
length gave to his stock the shape and qualities he desired. 

So far as we breed domestic animals in this county — and the 
observation will apply to our whole state, and generally to all 
New-England, we must extend our views beyond beef and mut- 
ton ; and with the former combine milk., butter and cheese., and 
a fitness for labour ; and together with mutton aim at the great- 
est quantity of the most useful wool. 

If Bakewell could alter the shape of his cattle, and lay flesh 
and fat on the most valuable joints— as was the fact — can it be 
doubted that, by similar attention, the quantity and quality of 



59 

the milk of our cows may be increased and enrjched ? But 
to obtain this improvement, calves should be raised from such 
cows only as excel in these two particulars. 

It seems to be the best opnion, that of the different breeds 
of live stock, those of the largest size are not the most protita- 
ble. The breed of cattle, however, should be such as to pro- 
duce oxen a single pair of which, at their full growth, should 
have strength sutlicient, on proper tillage land, with well form- 
ed ploughs, to open a furrow to the depth of live, or even of 
six inches. As to the form of the different kinds of live stock, 
an eminent naturalist and farmer in England has thus expres- 
sed his opinion :— '' The more deep and capacious the chest, 
and the shorter and lower any animal is, relative to its weight, 
the better adapted it will be to live and fatten on little food, the 
more labour it will go through ; and I have always found the 
most short-legged oxen to be the best labourers." 

The foregoing rules of breedmg, and description of good live 
stock, being the result of the experience of eminent English 
farmers and breeders, merit the particular attention of all who 
shall attempt to improve upon our present races of domestic ani- 
mals; and are here introduced to furnish them with usetul in- 
formation. And in the hope and expectation that such im] rove- 
ments will be undertaken, the foilowmg premiums are ohered : 
To the person who shall produce at the publx exhibition of 
the Society, in the year 1828, any number of milch cows, not 
less than four, of our native breeds, showing manifest imj rove- 
ments therein, by an important increase in the quantity^ and 
maintaining, at least, if not improving, the good quality ot mtik — 
the latter to be tested by the quantities of butter made in the 
six months next preceding the exhibition — 

For the best - - - - thirty dollars. 

For the next best - - - twenty-five dollars. 

For the third best - - - twenty dollars. 

For the best pair of working oxen, or well grown and well 
trained steers, improved on the principles above stated, and ex- 
hibited at the same time— 

For the best pair . _ , twenty dollars. 

For the second best, - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best, - - - ^ ten dollars. 



60 

It will readily be admitted that our live stock demand great 
improvements; and no one will question whether such improve- 
ments are practicable. They ought then to be attempted. It 
will avail little to bestow premiums merely for the best that 
shall be produced ; for such premiums might be given for a cen- 
tury, without effecting any real improvements ; and thus, as to 
live stock, defeat the object for which the Society was formed. 
The known excellency of some oxen and cows, of our native 
breed, give assurance to judicious and enterprising farmers, that 
their numbers may be multiplied by observing the well-tried 
rules of breeding. The Oakes cow has probably not been sur- 
passed in any country. By some she was judged to be under 
the size of our common cows. Her short legs probably gave 
rise to that opinion. There are, however, many larger cows in 
the county. 

The best bulls and cows do not always produce a progeny 
equal to the parents; but experience has shown, that from such 
only the highest improvements may be expected. The same 
observation applies to all other kinds of live stock. 

Farmers who shall effect great improvements in live stock, 
while they render a lasting benefit to their country, will lay a 
foundation for advancing their own interest, in the demand, and 
consequently increased prices, of their improved breeds. 

Reflecting farmers, who shall become candidates for premi- 
ums, will be aware, that if their exertions should not obtain the 
honour of a prize, they will not pass unrewarded; as all the 
improvements they make will either give them immediate pro- 
fits, or add to the value of their farms. The direct object of 
premiums is not to excite merely trials of skill, but to add to 
the solid interests of farming; and he, who shall show how we 
may add most to that solid interest, will obtain the highest prize. 

In behalf and by order of the Committee, 

T. PICKERING, 

Setlem^ January 22, 1823. 



AN 



adb:b:^^^ 



TO THE 



ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



^t 2L04Ji5ficItr, 



Oct. 6, 1823, 



Br FREDERICK HOWES, Esq. 



SALEM: 

Tr.lNTED FOn THE SOCIETY BY ^V. &; P. E. IVES 

1824. 



ADDRESS. 



Agriculture is a subject on which it is difficult to say any 
thing that has the merit of being both original and useful. In 
England about seven hundred different volumes have been pub- 
lished on this subject within the last thirty years. Though 
our own country has not been so prolific in agricultural publi- 
cations, yet more has been written than most farmers have 
time and inclination to peruse. It is not with the expectation 
of communicating any original information on this topic, that 
I have been induced to comply with the request of the Trus- 
tees to make some remarks on this occasion, but from a wish 
to call your attention to this most important of all arts, to some 
of the means by which it may be improved in this county, and 
to some of the motives to make spirited and vigorous exertions 
for that purpose. 

In a poem on Agriculture, and one of the finest ever written 
on any subject, we are told that it was not the will of the 
Deity that the mode of cultivating the earth should be easy, 
but that it should require art and labour to sharpen the minds 
of men by the cares and difticulties attending it.* Though this 
is the sentiment of a heathen poet, every practical farmer is 
convinced that it is no fiction. 

In sacred writ we are informed that the earth was cursed 
for the transgression of man, that it should bring forth thorns 
and thistles, and that man should eat bread in the sweat of his 

*Pater ipse colendi 
Haud facilem esse viam voluil, primusque per artem 
Movit ag;ros, curls acuens mortalia corda. 

Georgica I. 121. 



brow, it is supposed by some tbat after the flood this curse 
was removed when the Supreme Being- said lie would no more 
curse the earth for man's sake. Others suppose the earth to 
be still under the influence of this malediction. We must 
leave this question to be settled hy learned divines. It is suffi- 
cient for 'is as practical farmers to know that man must -till 
get his bread by the sweat of his brow, that to the slothful the 
earth still brings forth thorns and thistles, but that she abun- 
dantly rewards the cares and labours of the active, industrious, 
and skilful husbandman. Our beneficent Creator has placed us 
here to cultivate the earth, and all the seeming difficulties and 
hardships attending it are tempered with much kindness, and 
many mercies. They quicken and invigorate the corporeal 
and mental powers, and may in their ultimate consequences be 
real blessings. 

One of the most important objects for the attention of a far- 
mer is, by what means the soil can be rendered sufficiently 
fertile for the production of good crops, and where it is already 
fertile, by what means its fertility can be continued or increa- 
sed. It is unfortunately the case in many parts of the United 
States, especially those bordering on the Atlantic, that lands 
originally fertile, have been so exhausted by a succession of 
crops in tillage with little or no manure, as to be of small 
value. In some of the Southern states this system of killing 
land as it is termed by one of their best farmers has been car- 
ried to such an extent, that there are many tracts of land Vi^hich 
once produced great crops, now entirely exhausted and con- 
verted into a barren sand. In our own state and county per- 
haps there are not many instances whore the impoverishment 
of the soil has been so extreme, but I apprehend that the fer- 
tility of a considerable portion of our land has been diminished, 
that in many instances it is now on the decline, and that there 
is much land in New-England, that will not produce more than 
one half of what it formerly did. 

This practice cannot be too much reprobated. It is dis- 
graceful and ruinous to the farmer, a criminal abuse of the 
bounties of nature, and if universally carried to the extent to 



which it hiis been in some instances, would render the earth 
little better than an uninhabitable desert. The powers drawn 
from the soil by the production of crops, shouUl be restored to 
it by manures in some shape or other. The farmer whose hus- 
bandry thus exhausts his land of its fertility ought not to be cal- 
led a cultivator of the Earth, but a robber of the soil, a robber 
of the public, and of future generations. This sort of robbery 
has been ton thousand times more hurtful to the prosperity of 
the community, than all the highway robberies committed in 
New-England from its first settlement to the present time. 

A good farmer would not only endeavour to preserve the 
original fertility of the soil, but to increase it, till it was car- 
ried to the highest degree of which it is susceptible, consistent 
with his interest and profits. It is a most important inquiry 
by what means can a sufficient quantity of manure be obtained, 
what kinds will be most beneficial in proportion to the ex- 
pense, what are best adapted to the soil of his farm, and what 
will be the most beneficial application of them ? Here the most 
learned man and the most skiful fiirmer, will find ample occa- 
sion for all the knowledge they have derived froai study and 
practice, science and experience. 

Barn or stable manure is one of the best means of enriching 
land where it can be procured in sufficient quantities; but accord- 
ing to our present modes of farming this can seldom be done, 
except in the vicinity of large towns, and even then, 1 doubt 
whether farmers can afford the high prices for stable manure 
at present demanded. It is not difficult for a man of fortune 
who regards not the expense, to enrich bis land so as to pro- 
duce great crops. But the question with farmers in general 
is, and ought to be, how it may be profitably done. If the ex- 
pense exceeds the product, it will not do for them. It is not 
sufficient that the crops are large, but do they afford a net profit. 
The true object of the farmer is to cultivate his land in such 
a manner as will afford the largest profit, after deducting 
rents, taxes, labour, and all expenses of cultivation. 

The manure from the barn I believe might be very much 
increased, perhaps doubled or tripled, if the yard were cov- 



ered with earth, turf, or vegetable matter to a depth sufficient 
to absorb all the liquid manure. Every part should be secured 
as much as possible from exhalation by the heat of the sun. 

It seems to be generally agreed by English Agriculturalists, 
that stable manure by fermenting, loses a great part of its 
value. Mr. Coke, the great English Commoner and Agricultu- 
ralist, says, that by using his manure fresh, it went twice as far 
as it did formerly, when used after fermentation. As a general 
rule it cannot be doubted that it is much better to apply ma- 
nure to land in tillage than in grass. In the latter case a great 
portion of it is lost by evaporation. 

Mineral Manures. It seems very desirable that the mineral 
manures should have a much more effectual and extensive tria 
than they have ever had in Ibis county. The virtues of lime 
have been so highly extolled, and it has been in fact so pow- 
erful a fertilizer of land in other countries, that it deserves a 
full and fair experiment here. Experience seems to have 
shown that lime when applied in so small a quantity as twenty 
bushels to the acre, may alter the texture and constitution of 
the soil, and render it fit for the production of crops of which 
it was before incapable. 

A late and excellent writer on agriculture says, "it is inconcei- 
vable what eflfect lime has on the productiveness of the earth. 
Philosophers have investigated its nature and properties to find 
out the secret spell by which it works, and while some have 
attributed the effect to its power of decomposing putrescible 
matter, or to its affinity for carbonic acid, others have ascribed 
it to the change effected on the constitution of the soil. All 
however are agreed that no land after its first and natural 
richness has been exhausted by cropping, can continue fertile 
without a mixture of this fossil. Its use was the first thing 
which revived English agriculture after it had long languished 
in the most abject state, and the first thing which raised Scot- 
land to opulence and independence. Lime as a manure has 
found its way into France and Germany, and it is blended with 
the soil along the shores of the Baltic. In Southern latitudes 
this mineral manure is more generally applied, either incor- 



porated with clay in the shape of marl, or combined with sul- 
phuric acid in that of gypsum." * 

There is one circumstance which seems to render the bene- 
ficial effect of lime in our county very probable. The soil of 
Essex with very few exceptions, is either what Geologists call 
the primitive rocks, earth resulting from the decomposition of 
these rocks, or of alluvial, the washings and depositions of the 
primitive. We have I believe no limestone, and the quantity 
of lime in our soil must of course be much smaller, than in a 
soil resting on lime stone. The less we have in our soil, the 
more beneficial would'its application probably be, and greater 
in such a soil as ours, than in one of a different formation. An 
additional incitement to the use of it is, that in Pennsylvania, 
where probably more lime has been used for manure than in 
all the other states, a much smaller quantity has been found 
sufficient than is frequently applied in England and Scotland, 
probably owing to the greater portion of calcareous matter 
contained in the limestone used in this country. Thus though 
lime might be dearer here, in proportion to its bulk than in 
Great-Britain, it might be cheaper as a manure on account of 
its superior strength, or in other words, the greater portion of 
pure lime in our limestones. If twenty, thirty or forty bushels 
of lime applied to an acre will produce a great and permanent 
improvement in the constitution of the soil, and contribute by 
its solvent powers to render animal and vegetable manures 
more efficacious, then lime may prove one of the most effectual 
modes of enriching our lands. 

Gypsum or Plaster of Paris. This mineral has in many 
parts of our country produced a wonderful effect, and contri- 
buted perhaps more than any other cause to the improvement 
of agriculture in those places. It is supposed that near the 
sea coast it has little or no effect, and has in some instances 
been tried without success. It appears to me that further 
trials are desirable. It is a manure so cheap, so small a quan- 
tity as one or two bushels being sufficient for an acre, has pro- 
duced such great crops elsewhere, that it seems expedient to 
* Letters of Agricola. 



tnake additional experiments to ascertain whether it maj not 
be beneficial for some kinds of soil in our county, or perhaps 
for some particular crops. The reason assigned by that emi- 
nent chemist, Sir Humphrey Davy, why gypsum produces little 
or no effect on some soils, that those soils probably contain it 
already in sufficient quantities, does not appear satisfactory. 
The mode in which it operates is not well understood, but if 
our soils already contain gypsum enough, why does it not dis- 
play its powers in the production of good crops here, as well 
as in the lands in Pennsylvania, and on Connecticut River ? 
The experiment should be made on light sandy soils, or on a 
dry loam. On clay or on wet soils, gypsum it is said does not 
succeed. 

&and and clay operate as manures for each other. Where 
there is an excess of sand in the soil, clay is one of the most 
beneficial manures, and on the other hand, where there is an 
excess of clay, it is remedied by the application of sand. The 
improvement of the soil in these cases is lasting, and not like 
that produced by vegetable and animal manures exhausted after 
a few crops. A permanent change is produced in the texture 
and constitution of the soil, it becomes bettter adapted for the 
reception of manures of a different kind, and will render them 
much more efficacious. 

In this county, from the dryness of the atmosphere, and the 
nature of our soil, we suffer more from dry seasons than wet 
ones. But a small proportion of our lands require draining for 
tillage, and especially for grass. There are however some 
tracts of land in various parts of the county, which must 
be drained to be productive. These are often composed of 
rich earth, washed in a long course of years from the higher 
lands adjacent, and of vegetable matter the accumulated pro- 
duct of centuries, and if rendered sufficiently dry, would pro- 
bably produce large crops. It is well known to every practical 
farmer, that the first requisite to the successful cultivation of 
such lands, is to lay them dry, that till this is done labour, til- 
lage, manures, and all efforts to render such land productive, 
will be in a great measure fruitless. The facility of draining 



bore is generally much greater than in EnglanJ, and it will 
seldom be necessary to res«rt to the covered drains so com- 
mon in that country, and so expensive. 

An essential requisite of good husbandry is, that the soil 
should be kept free from weeds. In this particular there 
are among us great deticiencies. We are the less excusable 
in not keeping our lands free from weeds as we have one 
crop which is peculiarly favorable to that object, I mean 
Indian corn or maize. This alone gives us a great ad- 
vantage over those countries where it is not cultivated, 
that is over almost all Europe. Perhaps we are not fully 
aware of the value of this noble plant. The celebrated Arthur 
Young considers it as the test of a good climate for agricul- 
ture. In Great-Britain and the larger part of France, it will 
not come to maturity, the climate is too cold. In the south of 
France and in some par^s of Italy it is cultivated to a consider- 
able extent. Mr. Young says, the only good husbandry he 
found in France was in those districts where maize was pro- 
duced. Wherever this plant was cultivated, there was an 
abundant supply of food for man and for domestic animals. 

Our soil and climate are well adapted to the growth of 
maize. It produces a much larger quantity of food on the 
same space, than any other kind of grain ; forty, fifty, sixty 
bushels an acre, are not an uncommon crop, and several expe- 
riments shew, that one hundred bushels may be obtained in 
ordinary seasons, from a single acre. The stalks and husks af- 
ford a nutritive food for cattle equal on an acre to half a ton of 
hay, when the corn is good. 

It affords an excellent opportunity for enriching land, so that 
no manure may be lost by evaporation. All kinds of manure, 
animal, vegetable, or mineral, and in any condition if turned 
under the soil are beneficial, and may be applied without dan- 
ger. I mentioned it in the first instauce as a clean crop, that 
is a crop that enables the farmer to keep his land free from 
weeds, and prepare it for another. In England where 
turnips and beans are used as crops for cleaning land, the value 

2 



10 

of the crop is much less than that of Indian corn, and the ex- 
pense of cultivation much greater. 

In order to obtain the full benefit from the cultivation of this 
crop, the land should not only be rich, but kept entirely free 
from weeds. The propriety of doing this is so obvious, that 
the remark may seem unnecessary, yet if we take a survey of 
the cornfields in this county, I apprehend we shall find fre- 
quent violations of this rule. In many instances, after wa- 
ging a warfare during the season, the weeds have finally 
obtained the ascendency, their seeds have been allowed to 
come to maturity, and prepare the soil for a still more abun- 
dant crop of weeds the ensuing year. From the appearance of 
some fields in tillage, it might be imagined, that the object of 
the farmer was to bestow just so much cultivation as should 
produce a plentiful crop of weeds, who, as if they had a right 
as being the original occupants of the soil, are allowed to re- 
tain posi?ession and repel any intruders. By allowing weeds to 
remain till their innumerable seeds ripen, we not only injure 
ourselves but our neighbours. The heavier seeds intrude upon 
their frontiers, and the winged kinds matured in our neglected 
grounds, fill the air like the noxious locusts of other regions, 
and either choke the crops of our neighbours, or make work 
for their hoes. 

Our soil is well adapted to grass, both for pasturage and 
mowing land, and the climate is generally very favourable for 
making hay. In the vicinity of large towns, few crops are 
more profitable than grass, and few are obtained with so much 
ease. So long as lands thus situated will produce a good crop 
of grass, perhaps as a general rule it is not expedient to apply 
them to any other use. But most of our mowing lands fail in 
a few years, and it becomes necessary to break them up for 
tillage, and on almost every farm of any magnitude it is neces- 
sary to combine tillage and grass husbandry, in order to keep 
the land in good condition. The laying of land to grass is an 
important part of the farmer's business. The two grasses, 
whose seed is commonly sown, clover and herds grass, are both 
good, but it might be expedient to try other kinds, especially 



11 

in lading down pasture lands. If pasture as well as mowing 
lands were always laid to grass in a rich condition, with plenty 
of the kinds of seed adiipted to the soil, many pastures would 
produce double the quantity they do at present, and be also in 
a better state for tillage when broken up. But no farmer 
should puS his plough into grass land unless after a course of 
crops in tillage, he can lay it to grass in a condition at least as 
good us it was before. 

In ploughing hilly land it is very important to prevent the 
soil from being washed away by rains. Much injury has been 
done to lands of this description, by the wasting effect of rains, 
the land gullied, the vegetable mould and richest earth washed 
away, and the soil either irretrievably injured, or to such a 
degree, that its fertility could be restored only at a great 
expense. The method of horizontal ploughing practised in 
some parts of Virginia, seems the most effectual security 
against this evil. 

As an instance of what may be done by an active, 
and skilful farmer, I will mention the case of that celebrated 
English farmer. Robert Bakewell. Mr. Bakewell was a tenant 
occup^dng a farm of four hundred and forty acres, about one 
fourth arable, and the rest grass. On this farm, and from the 
produce of it, he kept one hundred and fifty horned cattle, 
four hundred sheep, and sixty horses. These animals were all 
well fed, in an excellent condition, and many of them the best 
animals of the kind in the kingdom. Mr. Young, who visited 
this farm, and who gives this account of it, says, the cattle 
were all as fat as bears. If the live stock on a farm of one 
hundred acres were in the same proportion, there would be 
thirty four neat cattle, ninety sheep, and fourteen horses. This 
was undoubtedly an extraordinary instance, but it proves how 
productive the soil may be rendered by judicious cultivation. 

I am of opinion that by skilful management, it is practicable 
to keep a farm in a condition of constant improvement for an 
indefinite time, to render it from year to year, the season 
being equally good, more productive ; — and that this may 
be done from the resources of the farm, without any great 



SI 

expense in the purchase of materials to enrich it from abroad. 
Among the means necessary for this purpose, would be, I ap- 
prehend, a due proportion of grass, and tillage husbandry, ma- 
king as much manure as possible, a diligent search for, and ap- 
plication of all kinds of manure, whether mineral, vegetable, 
or animal, tvhich may be procured without any great expense, 
a judicious rotation of crops adapted to the soil and the proba- 
ble state of the market, a thorough and complete tillage of the 
arable land, and the destruction of all weeds, so that 
the powers of the soil should be wholly applied to the produc- 
tion of useful crops. 

One great defect common in the husbandry of this county, 
the want of root crops, has been pointed out in this place, in 
former addresses, and the great advantage of these crops for 
live stock described and demonstrated in the most satisfactory 
manner. Among these I believe the Mangel Wurzel, or great 
beet, and carrots, are preferable to any crops of the kind 
that have been tried here. They afford a much more nutri- 
tive food for cattle, and a larger produce (especially the Man- 
gel Wurzel) to the acre, than any turnips with which we are 
acquainted. It seems well ascertained that the Ruta Baga, 
when given to cows, communicates a bad flavour to the milk, 
though it may be good food for other live stock. Our long 
and severe winters, render it necessary to lay in store 
so much food for cattle, and the tap-rooted plants when well 
cultivated, afford so much, and of such an excellent quality, 
that no farmer who is able to cultivate his farm in a husband- 
like manner, should be without a plentiful supply of these 
vegetables. 

One principle which cannot be too strongly recommended 
to every farmer, is to have his live stock, and all the products 
of his farm the best of the kind, the best kinds of hay and grain, 
the best butter, cheese, fruits, cyder, potatoes, and other vege- 
tables, for the market. The difference in point of expense in 
the production is very trifling between very good, and ordi- 
nary or bad, but in the price of these commodities, and the 
profits to be derived from them, the difference is very 



13 

great. Articles of the best qiiality will always command a goed 
price, while those of an inferior quality, though produced at 
nearly or quite the same expense, perhaps cannot be sold at 
all, or fold only at a loss. 

Perhaps we may derive some encouragement for spirited 
and vigorous efforts to improve our own agriculture, if we 
compare it for a moment with that of England, and take a view 
of some of the advantages and disadvantages of the English and 
American farmer. In England, agriculture is carried to a 
much higher degree of perfection than in other countries, with 
the exception perhaps, of Flanders, Lombardy, and some parts 
of Switzerland, and Scotland. This is not owing, as is well 
known, to any superiority of soil or climate, enjoyed by En- 
gland over many other countries of Europe. Arthur Young, 
an excellent judge, after making his agricultural tours over 
France and England, says, that both in soil and climate, France 
has the superiority over England, but the produce of the latter 
country by the acre, was on an average, nearly or quite double 
to that of France, owing to superior cultivation. Our own 
agriculture is probably inferior to that of England ; there are 
no doubt exceptions to this remark, but as a general position 
it is unquestionably true. What are the causes of this superi- 
ority? What are the advantages of soil, climate, or political 
institutions, which the English enjoys over the American far- 
mer ? Or is the difference owing to the superior industry, skill 
and liberal application of capital in English agriculture? 

In England the greater mildness of the weather in winter, 
enables a farmer to prepare his land earlier for a spring crop, 
to feed his turnips on the ground, and prosecute some opera- 
tions in agriculture which the severity of our winters renders 
impracticable. The winter is both milder and shorter, the 
atmosphere being more moist, is in some respects more favor- 
able to vegetation, and they suffer less from drought than we 
do. Vegetation is however more rapid here, than in England, 
and though our spring is later, our harvest is sarlier. Hay is 
also cut earlier here, and owing to the superior dryness of our 
atmosphere is much mere easily made than in England. Indian 



14 

liorn gives us a great advantage over the English farmer, as 
has been already mentioned. 

With respect to the soil, a skilful observer, Chancellor Liv- 
ingston, after an attentive examination, is of opinion, that the 
soil of the United States is not inferior to that of France, Oreat 
Britain, Ital}'^, Flanders and Germany. The soil of our own 
county is not so good as that of some parts of the United States. 
Ji. very considerable portion of Essex, however, is naturally 
fertile, and if agriculture does not flourish more with us, it 
cannot, I think, be justly ascribed to any defect in our soil or 
climate. 

In the article of fruit trees, we have a great superiorit}' over 
the English farmer, the most valuable fruits, as apples, pears, 
l)lQms, are produced here with much greater ease, and in far 
greater abundance. 

In the cheapness of labour the English farmOr may have 
some advantage over those American farmers who hire a con- 
siderable portion of the labour on their farms. 

Mineral manures as lime and marie are probably obtained 
with greater facility in England. Those parts of the United 
States where gypsum is used with success, have an advantage 
over England. This however is not the case with us. 

The taxes to which farmers in England, are subjected, are 
far heavier than any known here, and would be thought by us 
intolerable, and such I trust as will never be attempted. — 
Tithes and poor rates in England fall wholly on real 
estate, and are estimated to amount to ten shillings sterling an 
acre, on all the cultivated land in England, that is more than 
two dollars an acre, so that the English farmer in addition 
to his rent and taxes on a farm of two hundred acres, is 
compelled to pay about four hundred dollars for tithes and poor 
rates. Taxes on the necessaries of life, on leather, soap, beer, 
salt, and on almost every article of consumption, foreign or 
domestic, increase the burdens o' agriculture. In addition to 
these, there are regulations which promote the interest of the 
manuficturer at the expense of the farmer, as the prohibition to 
export wool, though it would often command a much higher 



15 

pfjce on the Continent tlian in England, and the prohibition ia 
import many commodities from abroad, in order to give their 
own manufacturers a monopoly of the market. 

The activity, enterprize and skill of the English farmers 
have triumphed over all these dilhculties, and carried the art 
to a higher degree of perfection than any other nation : They 
have been much aided by a liberal expenditure of capital, and 
by the discoveries and improvements in science and the useful 
arts. 

On a fair comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of 
the English and American Farmer, I do not think the result 
will be found against us. We have as great encouragement to 
improve our lands, and render them more productive as the 
farmer in England, or any part of Europe. We have many of 
the same facilities for the cultivation of the seil, and some that 
are peculiar to ourselves. We are free from some very heavy 
burdens to which the English farmer is subject, and if agricul- 
ture is not improved in a high degree, the cause is not in our 
soil, climate, or political institutions ; it must be sought else- 
where. 

In some parts of the United States, the climate m«y be mil- 
der, the soil more fertile, and cultivated with less labour, more 
favourable to the production of grain, or have the advantage 
of some great staple, as cotton, rice, or tobacco. But if we 
consider the general salubrity of our climate, the numberless' 
springs and streams which afford such an abundance of water 
to every partj£»f New-England, the goodness of our roads, the 
advantages of our markets, the fertility of a considerable 
portion of our soil, the facilities for enriching it, we shall have 
no reason to covet the more fertile plains of the south. 

If we reflect on our institutions of every kind, especially our 
parishes and public schools, which have existed from the first 
settlement of our country, and have diffused the benefits of in- 
tellectual, moral, and religious instruction through every town 
and village of New-England, and have contributed so essen- 
tially to form that character of industry, activit}^, enterprize, 
intelligence, and those correct moral habits, for which her in- 



16 

habitants have ever been distinguished, and which arc not less 
necessary to individual and social happiness, than to national 
prosperity, we shall pause before we quit the soil of our an- 
cestors for an imaginary paradise in the south or the west. 

In order to prosecute agricultural improvements with suc- 
cess, theory and experience, science and practice must be united. 
We must avail ourselves of the discoveries in science, and the 
inventions and improvements in the arts. No employ- 
ment has a more intimate connexion with the most important 
sciences, and the most useful arts, and there is none which ad- 
mits of a greater variety of interesting experiments. In some 
countries of Europe, the study of agriculture is an essential 
part of a liberal education. Several distinguished Universities 
have a professorship to teach both the theory and practice of 
agriculture. In the countries where it has been most success- 
fully cultivated, it is one of the most popular employments, 
and most interesting subjects of conversation, among men of the 
highest rank and attainments. The mo t distinguished chemist 
in England delivered a course of Lectures annually for many 
years, on this subject before the \grlcultural Society. Indeed 
no art so well deserves the national patronage, as none is so 
essential to national security, prosperity and power. No 
employment is on the whole so favorable to good morals, social 
order, and to the promotion of those objects in which the true 
interest of a nation consists. It is not expected that all far- 
mers should be philosophers, or men of science, but it is desi- 
rable that they should have some knowledge of those sciences 
nnd arts which have a close connexion with the cultivation of 
the soil, and have contributed so much to its improvement. 
Such an acquaintance with chemistry, mineralogy and botany, 
as would render a man able to analyze the different soils and 
ascertain their constituent parts, and the nature and properties 
of the plants commonly met with, might often be highly 
beneficial. Wealthy farmers might give their sons an oppor- 
tunity of acquiring this knowledge w^ithout any sensible incon- 
venience, and thus at once promote the welfare of their fami- 
lies, and advance the interests of their country. 



PREMIUMS 

OFFERED BY THE 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

AND TO BE AWARDED IN OCTOBER, 

1824. 

I. MANAGEMENT OF A FARM. 

For the management of a farm, in its tillage, mowing, or- 
charding and pasturage : the quantity of land appropriated to 
each — their cultivation — the means and the manner of making, 
increasing, preserving and applying manures — their quanti- 
ties — the respective crops and products — the quantity and 
management of the live stock — and the quantity of labour em- 
ployed — to be detailed. 

For the best thirty dollars. 

For the second best - - twenty-Jive dollars. 

For the third best - . - - twenty dollars. 

For the fourth best _ _ - fifteen dollars. 

N. B. All claims for these premiums on the management of 
a farm, must be entered with the Secretary of the Society, on 
or before the 7th of May next. The Committee appointed by 
the Trustees to view the Farms, will attend to this duty on the 
fourth week in June, and the first week in September. It will 
be expected, that each claimant will furnish as particular an 
account of the produce of his farm in 1823, as may be practi- 
cable ; — and an accurate account of the produce in 1824. — 
Temple Cutler, Benjamin Parker, Aaron Perley, Daniel Ad- 
ams, and Nathaniel Felton, jun. Esquires, have been appointed 
viewing committee for the year 1824. 
3 



18 

II. DAIRY STOCK-SOILING. 

For experiments in feeding milch cows on green crops, from 
the middle of June to the middle of October, by supplying 
them to the full with those crops, in their stables, without 
turning them to pasture. Feeding cattle in this manner is cal- 
led soiling. 

For the best, - - - - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best, - - .. . fifteen dollars. 

For the third best, - - - - - ten dollars. 

The whole process to be detailed. 

N. B. Claims for these premiums must be entered with the 
Secretary on or before the day of the Annual Meeting of the 
Society ; — and the statements must be forwarded to him in the 
month of October. 

III. DAIRY. 

For the greatest quantity of good butter, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing it (not less than four) made on any 
farm, from the 20th of May to the 20th of November, twenty- 
six weeks, and the quantity of butter averaging not less than 
seven pounds per week for each cow, - twenty dollars. 

For the second greatest, - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third greatest, - _ _ ten dollars. 

The kinds of food and the management of it to be detailed. 

N. B. Statements of claims for these premiums must be 
forwarded to the Secretary, on or before the first of December, 
A, D. 1824. 

IV. TURNING IN GREEN CROPS AS A MANURE. 

For the best experiment of turning in green crops as a ma- 
nure, on not less than one acre, - - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best, - - _ _ ten dollars. 

For the third best, - - . - fi-^e dollars. 

N. B. Statements of claims for these premiums must be 
forwarded to the Secretary, on or before the first of Decem- 
ber 1824. 



19 

V. CIDER. 

For the best cider, the pure juice of the apple, which shall 
have been made in the year 1823, not less than eight bar- 
rels, - ' ten dollars. 

For the second best, - . . jii^e dollars. 

A description of the whole process, in collecting*, sorting and 
keeping the apples, in making the cider, conducting the fer- 
mentation and tining, if any artificial fining be used, and in pre- 
serving the cider in the cask, will be required. Claims for 
these premiums must be entered with the Secretary on the 
day of the public exhibition. At which, a sample of not less 
than eight gallons is to be produced, with satisfactory evidenct 
as to the remainder. 

VI. FOREST TREES. 

The same premiums that were offered in 1821 and 1822 j to 
which intended claimants are referred. 

VII. POTATOES. 

The premiums on this subject are stated in the pamphlet 
published the last year, and will be awarded in 1825. 

VIII. PLOUGHS AND PLOUGHING. 

The premiums on this subject, will be limited to efficient 
ploughs of easiest draught, drawn each by one yoke of oxen 
without a driver, ploughing one quarter of an acre, and turning 
the best furrow, at least five inches deep, and in the shortest 
time compatible with the ploughing of an acre, if that were 
required. 

For the best plough, team and work - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best - - - twelve dollars. 

For the third best ... - nine dollars. 

For the fourth best .=.-.- six dollars. 



20 

IX. FOR IMPROVING OUR NATIVE BREED OF NEAT 
CATTLE. 

The premiums on this subject are stated in the pamplet 
published the last year, and will be awarded in 1828. 

X. LIVE STOCK. 

For the best imported Bull, not less than two years old, oa 
satisfactory assurance being given, that he shall be kept for 
use in the County at least one year from the day of exhibi- 
tion, thirty dollars. 

For the best bull, raised in the Countj^, not less than one 
year old, on satisfactory assurance as above, twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - - ten dollars. 

For the best bull calf not less than six months old, 

eight dollars. 

For the second best do. _ _ . Jive dollars. 

For the best milch cow, - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. - . _ ten dollars. 

For the best heifer that has been in milk three months or 
more, -_--_._ ten dollars. 

For the. second best do. _ . . seven dollars. 

For the best heifer, not less than one year old,^De dollais. 

For the best pair of working cattle not less than five years 
old, ----_._ twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. - - fifi^^^^ dollars. 

For the third best do. - - - - ten dollars. 
For the best pair of four year old steers, fifteen dollars. 
For the second best do. . . _ ten dollars. 

For the best boar, . _ _ . Jive dollars. 

For the best breeding sow, with not less than four pigs 

eight dollars. 
For the second best do. - - - Jive dollars. 
For the best litter of weaned pigs, not less than four in num- 
ber, eight dollars. 

For the second best da. . _ - Jive dollars. 



21 

For the best merino ram, - - - eight dollars. 

For the second best do. _ - . ^^e dollars. 

For the best lot of merino ewes not less than eight in num- 
ber, ten dollars. 
For the second best do. - . - eight dollars. 



In offering the foregoing list of premiums, amounting in the 
whole to more than six hundred dollars., to be paid in 1824, the 
Committee have had special regard to the present state of 
Agriculture in the County of Essex; and have endeavoured to 
select such subjects, as would be most interesting and useful 
to our farmers generally. They have not proposed premiums 
for the greatest quantities of any kinds of crops ; believing that 
the funds of the Society, for the present, can be better applied 
than in such premiums. And that the cultivation of entire 
farms is a much worthier subject of premiums, than that of 
small parcels or single acres of land. For it too frequently 
happens, in cherishing the favourite acre, the remainder suf- 
fers through negleot and want of nourishment. 

The Committee repeat and desire it may be remembered 
that premiums claimed are not to be awarded, unless the sub- 
jects of the claims are decidedly meritorious. 

For further illustration of the subjects of the foregoing pre- 
miums, the Committee would refer to the explanatory remarks 
annexed to them in their pamphlet published the last year. 

We have proposed many and liberal premiums, with the 
hope of awakening the attention of the Farmers of Essex to 
their best interests ; and of inducing them to come forward in 
a cause so interesting to themselves and their Country. 
By order of the Board of Trustees, 

TIMOTHY PICKERING, 
ICHABOD TUCKER, 
JOHN W. PROCTOR, 

Committee. 



OFFICERS 

OF THE 1 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



Hon. TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Salem, President 

Hon. John Heard, of Ipswich, ^ 

IcHABOD Tucker, Esq. of Salem, f rr- p • 7 . 
Dn Benjamin Parker, of Bradford, ? '^'^ ^resiaents. 
Capt. Paul Kent, of Newbury, j 

Benjamin R. Nichols, Esq. of Salem, Treasurer. 
John W. Proctor, Es^. of Danvers, Cor. and Rec. Sec^y. 

TRUSTEES. 
Hon. Thomas Stephens, of Beverly. 
Hon. Nathaniel Hooper, of Marblehead. 
Hon. Benj. W. Crowninshield, of Salem^ 

Asa Andrews, Esq. of Ipswich. 

John Adams, Esq. of Andover. 
Mr. Aaron Perley, of Boxford. 
Hon. Hobart Clark, of AndoTer. 

Daniel Putnam, Esq. of Danvers. 

Temple Cutler, Esq. of Hamilton. I 

James Gardner, Esq. of Lynn. f\ 

Capt. Edmund Bartlett, of Newburyport |i 

Col. Daniel Adams, of Newbury. ^ 

Nathan Felton, Esq. of Danvers, 
Capt. Eliphalet Chaplain, of Rowley. 
Col. Ephraim Wildes, of Topsfield. 
Col. Jesse Putnam, of Danvers. 

James H. Duncan, Esq. of Haverhill. 
Hon. David Cummins, of Salem. 

Asa T. Newhall, Esq. of Lynnfield. 



23 



Capt. Stephen Abbott, of Andover. 
Capt. Hector Coffin, of Newburyport. 
Mr. Samuel Tenney, of W. Newbury. 
Hon. Benj. Osgood, of Methuen. 
Mr. Enoch Tappan, of Newbury. 



At the Annual Meeting of the Essex Agricultural Society, 
Oct. 6, 1823, at the Hotel in Topsfield,— 

Foted., that the public exhibition in 1824, be at Topsfield, 
at such time as the Trustees may appoint. 

Voted^ to appoint a committee, consisting of one member of 
the Society from each town in the County, to determine on a 
suitable place for the permanent public exhibitions of the So- 
ciety, and to report at the next meeting. 

Voted^ that this committee be named by the President ; and 
that the Secretary notify them of the time and place of their 
first meeting. 

Attest, J. W. PROCTOR, Sec'y. 



Essex Agricultural Society. 



AOCOUNT OF 



PRE3IIUMS AWARDED IN 1825, 



AND A LIST OF 



PREMIUMS OFFERED IN 1826; 



ACCOMPANIED WITH 



REMARKS & EXPLANATIONS 



FOR THE INFORMATION 



OF THE 



FARMERS OF THE COUNTY. 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

FEBRUARY, 1826. 



SALEM. 

W. U S. B. IVES, PRINTERS OBSEKVER OFFICE. 

1826. 



REPORTS 

OF THE 

^mtv SCuvicuUutiil Soc(ctj> (n 1825. 

I. ON PLOUGHING. 

The Committee on Ploughing — 

REroRT, That three teams, each of two pairs of oxen, with a 
driver, and one team of one pair of oxen, entered on the ground 
with their ploughs. The work of all of them was performed with 
great steadiness, without hurry, in ploughing each one quarter of 
an acre, in from 48 to 53 minutes. — Each plough was furnished 
with a thin roller, or small wheel, under the fore part of the beam, 
to regulate the depths of the furrows, and three of them with 
each a circular revolving cutter, fixed under the beam, between 
the coulter and the roller. The great benefit of the cutters were 
particularly observable in the actual state of the ground ; it being 
very sparingly turfed, and much softened by the heavy rain of 
the prec ceding day. The furrow slices, nevertheless, were 
straight and smooth at their edges, and turned over with great 
regularity : whereas the other plough, unprovided with a cutter, 
was embarrassed with the tufts of grass rising before the coulter 
and clogging it ; which, besides increasing the labour of the 
ploughman, produced a degree of roughnes in the surface, and ir- 
regularities in the furrows. 

The ploughing by Col. Jesse Putnam's team of four oxen was 
done with distinguished accuracy, in the straightness of the fur- 
rows, and complete subversion of the soil; and to him the Com- 
mittee award the first premium, being twenty dollars. 

To Mr. Perley Tapley the Committee award the third pre- 
mium, being ten dollars; for the ploughing done by his team of 
feur oxen, in a very handsome manner. 



To Mr. Nathaniel Smith the Committee award the fourth pre- 
mium, being five dollars, for the Ploughing done bj his four oxen; 
for although the surface of the ground was left rough, and the 
furrows were disordered, from the causes above mentioned (a 
I'ery partial turf, the softness of the soil, and want of a cutter to 
his plough) yet the depth of his ploughii^g, and the power and 
training of his oxen manifested afterward, when drawing a heavy 
load in a wagon, — well entitle him, in the opinion of the Commit- 
tee, to the premium awarded; and to this notice of the causes 
which prevented a performance that would probably have autho- 
rized a claim to a higher premium. 

To Mr. Perley Tapley, though without a competitor in plough- 
ing, with one yoke of oxen, without a driver, the Committee 
cheerfully award the highest premium allotted to the performance 
with a single team, — being fifteen dollars. — This yoke of oxen 
was of a size perfectly adapted to the farmer's service — in that 
state of flesh which gave vigor and force to their movements — 
and so admirably trained, that no part of their force was lost by 
irregular motions; and hence their walk with the plough was with 
singular ease — almost without the appearance of exertion. 

T. PICKERING, Chairman. 

October 5, 1825. 



II. ON LIVE STOCK. 

Report of the Committee on Live Stock. 
The Committee regret exceedingly that so few animals were 
exhibited, and those of ordinary quality. They are fully persua- 
ded that if the farmers of Essex would exert themselves as they 
ought on these occasions, that it is in their power to make an ex- 
hibition of stock, that would well compare with those made in 
other counties. It is not the want of material, but the want of an 
active zeal in the cause, and hesitating views as to the advanta- 
ges to be derived from it, that have hitherto operated against our 
shows of cattle in this county. The unfavorable state of the 
weather yesterday and this morning, probably prevented many 



coming forward with their cattle, who had otherwise intended it. 
The Committee recommend the following premiums to be awarded. 

To Moses Thurlow of West Newbury, for his bull 17 months 
old the 3d premium, ^5 

There were several other bulls exhibited but none that deser- 
ved a premium. Of that most valuable of all animals on a farm, 
a milch cow, none were entered in season for premium. But one 
was exhibited, and she not of a quality to demand a particular 
notice. 

To Moses Wildes of Topsfield, for a heifer two years old, a 
premium of $5 

To David Evans of Newbury, for a heifer 18 months old, a 
gratuity of fS 

To Joseph Emerson of Topsfield, for a very superior pair of 4 
years old steers, the 1st premium ^15 

To Asa Tapley of Danvers, for do. 2d premium ^10 

To Frederick J. Merriam of Topsfield, for a pair of 4 years 
old steers, 3d premium ^5 

Of this species of stock there was a very good exhibition. 

To Michael SpofTord of Rowley, for a fine bull calf, a gratuity 
of $3 

To Thomas Balch of Topsfield, for his bull not entered in sea- 
son, a gratuity of ^2 

Of swine the exhibition was not so numerous, nor equal to 
those in preceding years. For those exhibited the following pre- 
miums are recommended. 

To Moody Andrews of Topsfield, for a boar the 1st premium 

$5 
To Asa Tapley of Danvers, for do. 2d premium ^3 

To do. for breeding sow, 2d premium ^3 

To do for four weaned pigs about 5 months old, very hand- 
some, 1st premium J8 
To Samuel Hood of Topsfield, for his pigs 2d premium §5 
For the Committee, 

BENJ. T. REED, Chairman. 



III. ON RAISING POTATOES FROM THE SEED. 

The Commiitee of the Essex Jlgriculiural Society y on raising pota- 
toes from the seed, and on cider, ask leave to 

Report — that they have awarded the premiums for raising po- 
tatoes from the seed as follows 

To Mr. Daniel Putnam of Danvers, the 1st premium ^10 

To Col. Jesse Putnam of Danvers, 2d premium of $7 

To Mr. Asa Perley of Boxford, 3d premium of $5 

The process is contained in the statements of the claimants an- 
nexed. From them it will appear with how much facility this 
useful vegetable may be renewed from the seed. Many if not 
most of the potatoes brought to our market are of so bad a quali- 
ty as to be scarcely eatable. Few objects are more deserving 
the attention of the practical farmer than their improvement, and 
perhaps none of equal importance can be so easily accomplished. 
By renewing them once in ten or fifteen years from the seed, and 
selecting the best kinds thus obtained, according to the practice 
in those countries where the best potatoes are found, we may 
hope to improve the quality of this article to a degree hitherto 
unequalled. 

The Committee regret that no cider was offered for the pre- 
mium the present year. No article produced on a farm more 
needs, or is more susceptible of improvement, or will better repay 
the care and industry of the farmer. 

F. HOWES, ) 

J. TOWNE, JUN. ) Commiitee. 

J. NEWHALL, ) 

Topsfield, Oct. 5, 1825. 

Mr. Daniel Putnam'' s account of his manner of raising potatoes from 

the seed. 
In the fall of the year 1823 I gathered some balls which grew 
on the stalks of the potatoes called the Long Reds, separated the 
seeds from the pulp and preserved them until the spring of 1824. 
I then sowed them like garden seeds in rows about one foot apart, 
on a piece of land about three feet square prepared for gardening. 
The produce was about three quarts^ from the size of cranberries 



to that of hen's eggs. In the spring of 18 "25 they were planted 
in forty hills about four feet apart, and the produce was three 
bushels and four quarts. 

The greater part of the potatoes bore a strong resemblance to 
the original stock from which the seeds were taken. There were 
apparently eight or ten different kinds, some of them of very fine 
form and qualities. I have preserved the several kinds and shall 
plant them separately another year. Some of the potatoes were, 
of a large size and would weigh a pound or more. 

Danvers, Oct. 4, 1825. DANIEL PUTNAM. 

Col. Jesse Puinam'^s account of his manner of raising potatoes from 

the seed. 
The potatoes offered by the subscriber for the premium were 
raised from the seed gathered in the autumn of 1823 and planted in 
the year 1824, in two rows about ten feet long and two feet apart, 
and produced nearly half a peck of potatoes. In the spring of 
1825 these were planted on less than two poles and three fourths 
of land, and produced three bushels and a half of potatoes, which 
are much larger than any common potatoes. I tliink the produce 
not more than one half of what it would have been in a common 
season for potatoes. The seeds were taken from the balls of the 
white potatoes. We have boiled some of them and find them of 
a superior qualitv. I think there are as many as six different 
kinds, though I send but four. JESSE PUTNAM. 

Danvers, Oct. 4, 1825. 

Asa Perley^s account of raising potatoes from the seed contained in 
the green balls. 
In the autumn of 1822 I collected four or five clusteers of green 
balls from the potatoe vines, and in the spring of 1823, on the 
19th of April I sowed the seeds which I obtained from them ; the 
bed in which I sowed them was prepared in a manner similar to 
the one which is usually prepared for soAving carrot or beet seed. 
The bed was eight feet in length and two in width and produced 
nine different kinds of potatoes, which measured one pint. They 
were very small, some of the kinds were ripe early, others con- 
tinued to grow until nipped by the frost. 



8 

In 1824, April 9tli I planted the potatoes raised from the gveefi 
balls in a bed richly manured, the bed was twelve feet in length 
and three in width. I planted them in rows crosswise of the bed, 
and one foot apart, and was careful to plant each kind by them- 
selves ; when they were about two inches high I wed them, and 
was particularly careful to keep them free of weeds through the 
season, and I occasionally watered them. — After the vines were 
dead, I dug the potatoes, some were of a middling size, others 
were small, some kinds yielding a quantity threefold greater than 
others ; the whole measured one peck and a half. 

April 9th, 1825, I planted one peck of the largest which I took 
from the several kinds, in seventy-seven hills three feet apart in 
one direction and two and a half in the other. The soil was 
loamy, the manure was spread on the ground and ploughed in. 
The potatoes Avhen they had attained a suitable height were wed 
and every attention paid necessary to bring them to maturity. 

Sept. 30, 1825, I dug and measured the potatoes ; there was 
one and a half bushels and three quarts. I boiled a few of each 
kind, some of them were remarkably good flavored, others ap- 
peared watery. I think that as many as four or five kinds are 
worthy the attention of the farmer, not merely on account of 
their productive quality but for being mealy and of good flavor, 
among which are the small white ones ripe in June, the largest 
kind ripe in August, and those which are in a growing state when 
pulled, and the kind which resembles the blue noses ripe in July. 

ASA PERLEY. 



IV. ON MANUFACTURES. 

The Committee appointed to examine and report on the applications 
for premiums offered for Domestic and Household Manufactures, sub- 
mit the following^ to ivit : 

To Miss Hannah Abbot of Andover, for a piece of yard wide 
Carpeting, twenty-seven yards, the second premium of five dol- 
lars ^§J5 

To Mrs. Elizabeth M. Harding of Haverhill, for a piece of 
yard wide Carpeting, twenty-one and an half yards, a premium 
of five dollars $5 



To Mrs. Elizabeth M. Harding of Haverhill, for a Cotton 
Counterpane, the second premium of two dollars ^2 

To Mrs. Charlotte Page of Newburyport, for a Cotton Coun- 
terpane, the first premium of four dollars ^4 

To Miss Elizabeth Barber of Newburyport, for a cotton coun- 
terpane, the second premium of two dollars ^2 

To John P. Webber of Beverly, for his specimen of ground 
mustard from the common American black mustard seed, a gra- 
tuity of two dollars ^2 

To Caleb Webster of Salem, for his specimen of hats, manu- 
factured from merino wool, a gratuity of three dollars |,3 

To Miss Joanna Adams of Newbury, for a knit woolen shawl, 
a gratuity of two dollars g2 

To 3Irs. Mary Little of Danvers, for an imitation of Valencia 
mantle, a gratuity of two dollars ^2 

To Miss Lucy E. Pulsifer of Newburyport, for a hearth rug, 
wrought at Mrs. Page's school, a gratuity of three dollars g3 

To Miss Sarah Ann Barber of Newburyport, for a hearth-rug, 
wrought at Mrs. Page's school, a gratuity of one dollar fifty 
cents $1,50 

To Miss Martha W. Nichols of Newburyport, for a hearth-rug, 
wrought at Mrs. Page's school, a gratuity of one dollar fifty 
cents ^1,50 

To Miss Abigail Gragg of Boxford, for twenty yards of linen 
diaper, the second premium, two dollars ^2 

To Miss Charlotte Andrews of Ipswich, for a lace veil, a gra- 
tuity, two dollars g2 

To Miss Mary Dennis of Ipswich, for a lace veil and cap, a 
gratuity, two dollars g2 

To Mary Anthony of Salem, for a patch-work counterpane, 
containing 9592 pieces, completed before she was nine years old, 
a gratuity of two dollars g2 

The committee regret that so many subjects of improvement 
in agriculture, as well as in household manufactures, for which 
premiums are offered, have been overlooked, or have not excited 
sufficient interest in the community to produce competition. 

ICHABOD TUCKER, Per Order. 

Topsjield, Oct. 5, 1825. 
2 



10 
V. COL. PUTNAM'S STATEMENT OF BUTTER, Sie. 

To the Trustees of the Essex ^Agricultural rociely. 

Gentlemen, — The subscriber would submit to your considera- 
tion the following statement of facts in support of his claim for 
the premium ofiered by you on the Management of a Dairy, in 
the year 1825. 

The premium is thus stated : 

*' For the greatest quantity of good butter, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing it (not less than four) made on any 
farm from the 1st of June to the 1st of November ; and the quan- 
tity of butter averaging not less than seven pounds per week for 
each cow, — twenty dollars," &c. 

My farm is situated in the North Parish in Danvers, and con- 
sists of about one hundred acres. My whole stock of cows is 
eight, all of the common native breed ; from these I selected five 
for the purpose of ascertaining the quantity of butter that could 
be made in the time above-mentioned. They were kept and fed 
through the season separate from the other stock ; and their 
milk was entirely used for the making of butter. During the last 
wintet" my cows were fed on barley straw, salt hay, corn fodder, 
fresh meadow hay, with some of the common flat turnips. They 
were thus fed on coarse and cheap fodder until about the 10th of 
March, after which they were fed with Enghsh hay, and receiv- 
ed about one pint of Indian corn, on the ears, a day, to each cow, 
imtil about the middle of May. — From this time they fed in the 
pasture ; — and through the whole season, in addition to the feed 
there obtained, received between four and five quarts of Indian 
meal per day for each cow. In September when the feed of the 
pastures was nearly dried up, they were fed with the suckers of 
about two and a half acres of Indian corn ; after this, for a num- 
ber of weeks they received about one bushel of mangel wurtzel to 
a cow, a day, — one half in the morning and the other at night. 
These are all the kinds of food they have received, and the quan- 
tities are stated as near as they could be ascertained, — my direc- 
tions having been to supply them with these quantities, neither 
more nor less. 

It will be recollected that the season in this vicinity has been 
unusually dry and warm. In consequence, common pasture land 
iias yielded much less feed than usual. This was pecuharly the 



11 



case with my pastures, which are a light, g-ravelly soil, of ordina- 
ry quality And lor the same reason my fall feed, or the feed 
from my mowing lands after the first crop was taken off, was 
much less than usual. 

The extreme warmth of the weather was very unfavourable 
for the making of butter, some part of the time, as will be seen 
from a comparison of the products in different weeks. And my 
cellar was not as well constructed as 1 could have wished, and as 
I intend to have it for keeping the milk and cream cool. 

As to the quahty of the butter, I can only say, that my cus- 
tomers, who are among the most particular in the choice of this 
article of any in Salem, always expressed themselves entirely sat- 
isfied with it, and cheerfully gave the highest market price 
through the season. 

Tne following is the quantity of butter furnished for the mar- 
ket from these live cows in the several weeks as numbered, com- 
mencing June 1st, and ending October 31st. 

1st week 50' I 12th week 35} 

s^ 

41 
401 
45i 
45 
(si:^: days) 38 
38i 
37i 
41 

The whole amount in the above time is 88 1| pounds, being 
more than 8 pounds per week for each cow. 

I have also kept an account of the produce of these cows in the 
month of November, and find the same to have been 157' pounds; 
making a total in six months from five cows, of 1038^ pounds, 
or 208 pounds to a cow nearly. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 
Danvers, Dec. 1, 1825. JESSE PUTNAM. 



2 




3 




4 




5 




6 




7 




8 




9 




10 




11 





50' 


12th 


week 


48 


13 


li 


47 


14 


u 


431 


15 


u 


38^ 


16 


a 


31' 


17 


u 


35' 


18 


u 


35 


19 


u 


36 


20 


i( 


37 1 


21 


a 


37- 


22 


u 



Then Jesse Putnam made oath that the foregoing statement 
by him subscribed, is correct and true, before me 

J. W. PROCTOR, 
Justice of the Peace. 



12 

The Committee appointed by the Trustees of the Essex Agri- 
cultural Society, to examine the claims for premiums on the 
Dairy, have examined the foregoing statement made by Col. 
Jesse Putnam, of Danvers, being the only one submitted to their 
consideiation, and are of opinion that he is entitled to the first 
premium ou this subject, being twenty dollars, and recommend 
that the same be awarded accordingly. 

THOMAS STEPHENS. 

JAMES GARDNER, S Committee. 

ABIJAH CHEEVER, 



INS,^ 



At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Essex Agricultu- 
ral Society, February G, 1826, the foregoing Report of the Com- 
mittee Avas unanimously approved. 

Attest, J. W. PROCTOR, 

»Sec'i/ Essex Agri. Society. 



PRESENT STATE OF THE FUNDS OF THE 
ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Cash deposited in Salem Savings Bank 

Income since October 22d, 1823, - 

A Promissory Note of Hand with sufficient sureties for 

Interest due on the same since Oct. 26, 1824, 

Six Shares in Merchants Bank, valued at 

Twelve shares in Exchange Bank do. 

Eleven Shares in Commercial Bank do. 

Three Shares in Salem Bank do. 

Amount - - $4450 00 

$ 2627 00 of this money was procured by subscription of mem- 
bers, in a manner that entitles the Society to a dividend of 20 
per cent a year upon this amount, from the State; — the remain- 
der is the accumulated income of this fund. 

Attest, B. MERRILL, Treasurer. 

Snlpm, February 28, 1826. 



$271 


30 


28 


70 


' 500 


00 


40 


00 


750 00 


1320 


00 


1210 


00 


330 


00 



13 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE BOARD OF TRUS- 
TEES. 

*^l a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Essex Agricultural 
Society, Fcljruai^j 6th, Jl. D. 1826 — Present seventeen members: — 

Voted, unanimously. That the next Annual Meeting and Public 
Exhibition of the Society, be at the South Parish in Danvers, on 
Thursday the 12th day of October next. 

Voted, That the President and Secretary be a Committee to 
prepare and pubhsh a hst of premiums to be offered the present 
year. 

Voted, That Nathan Felton, Jesse Putnam and John W. Proc- 
tor, be a Committee of Arrangements for the next Exhibition. 

Voted, That Messrs. Pickering, Tucker, Howes, Proctor and 
Putnam, be a committee to procure a suitable, plate to be engrav- 
ed, for a certificate of Premiums. 

Voted, That the Secretary be authorized to subscribe for ten 
copies of the current volume of the JVew-England Farmer, to be 
distributed as premiums at the next Exhibition. 

Voted, That the expenses incurred by certain individuals in 
Topsfield, in building permanent Cattle Pens for the use of the 
Society, to the amount of $108 85 cents, be refunded by the 
Treasurer of the Society. 

Attest, JOHN W. PROCTOR, Sec'y. 



14 
PREMIUMS OFFERED IN 1826. 

The Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society present to 
the consideration of the Farmers of Essex^ the following list of 
Premiums, for which they will be happy to find many competi- 
tors. It is to he understood, where no particular time of pay- 
ment is specified, that they will be paid the present year, if a 
suflficient number of meritorious claims shall be presented. 

I. MANAGEMENT OF A FARM. 

For the management of a farm, in its tillage, mowing, orchard- 
ing and pasturage : 

For the best - - _ ihirty-Jive dollars. 

For. the second best - - - thirty dollars. 

For the third best - - - twenty-Jive dollars. 

For the fourth best _ - - twenty dollars. 

For the fifth best - - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the sixth best - _ *. ten dollars. 

The quantity of land occupied in each of the above branches of 
husbandry, and its mode of culture — the means and the manner 
of making, increasing, preserving and applying manures, and 
their quantities — the respective crops and products — the num- 
bers, kinds, and management of five stock — and the quantity of 
labour employed — to be detailed. 

|j-p The above premiums are to be awarded and paid the pre- 
sent year, to those claimants whose superior management shall 
entitle them to such distinction. The claims already entered are 
few. In the hope that the number may be increased, the Trus- 
tees have extended the time of entering claims until the first day 
of June next. In the course of that month, the viewing commit- 
tee will visit the farms of the claimants; and again in September. 
The Committee are Timothy Pickering and Frederick Howes of 
Salem, Paul Kent of Newbury, Asa T. Newhall of Lynnfield, 
Jacob Osgood of Andover, Aaron Perley of Boxford, James H. 
Duncan of Haverhill^ and John W. Proctor of Danvers. 



15 

There will doubtless be some farms in the comity whose own- 
ers may not be claimants of the premiums, but Avhose superior 
management, in some branches of husbandry, or even of their en- 
tire farms, may well deserve attention and imitation. Upon no- 
tice that their visits will be acceptable, the committee will view 
such farms, to obtain information that may be usefully communi- 
cated to their brethren through the County. Such notice may 
be given to John W. Proctor, the Secretary of the Society, or to 
any one of the viewing committee, who will communicate the 
same to the Secretary. 

The same premiums are now offered to be awarded in the year 
1827 — of which this notice is given, that farmers, who shall be 
inclined to becoT-e competitors for them, may make their ar- 
rangments in due time, and give notice of the same to the Secre- 
tary, on or before the 1st day of June in 1827. 

It Avill be expected of each of the claimants, that they forward 
to the Secretary, a written statement of all the particulars re- 
quired on this subject, as early as the 1st day of December in 
the year for which they claim a premium. These statements, or 
the substance of them, will probably be published by the Society. 



II. DAIRY STOCK. SOILING. 

For experiments in feeding milch cows, not fewer than four, on 
green crops, comprehending all juicy vegetables, from the first of 
June to the first of November, by supplying them to the full with 
those crops in their stables, without tvirning them to pasture; — 
feeding cattle in this manner is called soiling. The kinds of green 
crops used, the expense of raising them, and the comparative va- 
lue of diflferent crops as food for cattle, together with the whole 
process pursued, to be detailed: — 

For the best _ - - - tivenfij dollars. 

For the second best - - - fijl^en dollars. 

For the third best - - - ten dollars. 

N. B. Notice of intended claims for these premiums must be 
entered with the Secretary, on or before the day of the annual 
meeting; and a written statement of facts forwarded by the 20th 
of November 



16 
III. DAIRY. 1. BUTTER. 

For the greatest quantity of good butter, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing it, (not less than four) made on any 
farm from the first of June to the first of November; and the 
quantity of butter, averaging not less than six pounds per week 
for each cow, _ _ - - twenty dollars. 

For the second greatest _ - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third _ - - - ten dollars. 

|c3^ Claims for these premiums on butter must be entered with 
the Secretary on the day of the next annual meeting of the So- 
ciety. A detailed statement of the management of the dairy — 
the breed of cows — their kinds of food, and how long each kind is 
used during the five months; — the number of pounds of milk given 
by the cows on the^rst day of each month, &c. — must be forwarded 
to the Secretary on or before the 20th of November next; — and 
a sample of the butter, not less than ten pounds, must be produ- 
ced to the committee by each claimant, on the day of the annual 
exhibition. 



2. CHEESE. 

For the best produce of new milk cheese, in proportion to the 
number of cows producing it (not less than four) made on any 
farm from the first of June to the first of November, a sample of 
which, not less than one hundred pounds, to be produced at the 
public exhibition - _ _ t^venty dollars. 

For the second best - - - ten dollars. 

ICF'A similar statement with regard to the management of the 
Dairy, Stc. will be required in this case, as is mentioned above 
for butter. 



IV. TURNING IN GREEN CROPS AS A MANURE. 

For the best experiment of turning in green crops as a manure, 
on not less than one acre, the experiment to be made in 1826, 



17 

••uul a detailed account of it to be given in 1827, and forwarded to 
llie Secretary on or before the 20tii of November 

fifteen dollars. 
For the second best - - - ten dollars. 

N. B. Similar premiums were offered the last year, to be 
awarded the present year; — but no claims have as yet been en- 
tered. 



V. FOREST TREES. 



For the best plantation of white oak trees, not less than one 
acre, nor fewer than one thousand trees per acre, to be raised 
from the acorn, which trees shall be in the most thriving condition 
in September, 1828, _ _ _ thirty dollars. 

For the second best - - iiventy dollars. 

For the third - - - _ ten dollars. 

For the best plantation of Locust trees, or of Larch trees, or 
of White Ash trees, or of Chesnut trees, each of not less than one 
acre, nor fewer than one thousand trees per acre, to be raised 
from the seeds, which trees shall be in the most flourishing condi- 
tion in September, 1828, - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - _ fifteen dollars. 

For the third - - - _ ten dollars. 

N. B. Claims for these premiums must be entered with the 
vSecretary of the Society on or before the first day of June in 
1828, that the Committee on Farms may have an opportunity of 
viewing the plantations for which premiums are claimed. — If 
these premiums should not be awarded in 1828, the Trustees will 
renewedly offer the same for the years 1829 and 1830. As it 
was a special object with the Legislature, in extending their pa- 
tronage to Agricultural Societies, to encourage the raising of 
Forest trees, it is hoped our enterprising farmers will avail them- 
selves of this favorable opportunity of trying the experiment. 

3 



18 

VI. IRRIGATION. 

For the most satisfactory experiment for increasing the crops, 
upon not less than one acre of land, by irrigation, (that is turning 
water from its natural current so as from time to time to overflow 
the land) with a detailed account of the manner, expense, and 
benefits produced _ _ _ twenty dollars. 

N. B. Claims for this premium must be entered with the Se- 
cretary, so that the Committee for viewing Farms may have an 
opportunity of examining the crops while growing. If not awar- 
ded the present year, it will be continued for the next, and so on 
until 1830, in the hope of producing some valuable experiments 
on this subject. 



VII. PLOUGHS AND PLOUGHING, AND WORKING 

OXEN. 

For the best performance in ploughing with teams of two yoke 
of oxen ----- twenty dollars. 

For the second best - _ _ fifteen dollars. 

For the third _ - . fen dollars. 

For the best performance in ploughing with teams of one yoke 
of oxen without a driver - - fft^^'^ dollars. 

For the second best _ _ - ten dollars. 

For the third _ _ _ fii^e dollars. 

ICP In awarding these premiums, the best work, with least 
expense of labour, will be the test of merit. The construction of 
the plough used, — the discipline of the cattle employed, — and the 
skill of the ploughman and driver, — will all be taken into view. 
The double team will be expected to plough not less than seven 
inches in depth;— the single team, not less than^ye inches. The 
Trustees are very desirous of having the most improved and best 
constructed ploughs brought into general use; and they therefore, 
will be particularly attentive to the kind of plough used, and the 
manner in which the work is performed, in awarding the premi- 
ums. As these are the only premiums to be offered for working 



19 

cattle, the committee on ploiigliino:, will test the discipline and 
training of the cattle, by the draft of loaded wagons, or in any 
other manner they may think proper. And the premiums are to 
be awarded to those, which, taking all things into consideration, 
are most deserving. 

That suitable preparations may be made for the competitors, 
it is necessary that it should be known before the day of exhibi- 
tion, what number are expected. It is therefore to be under- 
stood, that no person will be entitled to receive a premium, un- 
less he shall have given notice to the Secretary, by letter or oth- 
erwise, on or before the Monday next preceeding the day of 
Exhibition, of his intention to engage in the Ploughing Match. 

The expense of keeping, such teams as may come more than 
ten miles for this purpose, on the night previous to the trial, 
whether successful or not in the competition, will be paid by the 
Society, on calling on the Secretary for the same. 



YIII. COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD 
FOR CATTLE. 



For the most satisfactory experiment upon a stock of Cattle, 
not less than four in number, in ascertaining the relative value of 
the different kinds of fodder used for the cattle, as compared with 
English hay, with a detailed account of the fodder used and the 
expense of raising the same; the experiment to be made in the 
three winter months of 1825 and 1826, - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - fif^^^^ dollars. 

For the third - - - - ten dollars.. 

|t3^ These premiums were offered the last year, to be awarded 
the present year. 



IX. CIDER. 

For the best cider, the pure juice of the apple, which shall have 
been made in 1826, not less than four barrels; a sample of eight 



20 

«i;allons orwliich to be presented to the Society at the jdihhc exhi- 
bition in 1827, when the premiums will be awarded, ten dollars. 

For the second best _ _ _ jli^^, dollars. 

A description of the whole process of making and preserving 
the same, in the casks, will be required. 

ICP' It seems expedient to repeat, with some additions, the in- 
timations for making good cider, which were published by the 
Trustees in their pamphlet in 1821; and which are recommended 
to the consideration of farmers. 

1. Let the apples hang on the trees until fully ripe. Such as 
are then mellow should be at once committed so the mill and press. 
Such as are hard should be laid in heaps not more than a foot in 
depth, and if practicable under cover, but where the air will cir- 
culate, until they become mellow — if the season admit the keeping 
of them so long: for as apples do not attain their highest flavour 
until mellow, so, if ground earlier, they will not, probably produce 
the highest flavoured cider. 

2. Separate the rotten and partly rotten, from the sound ap- 
ples; for the latter only can yield fine cider. 

3. Not a drop of water should be introduced, not even to wet 
the straw used in making up the cheese. For the whole strength 
of the pure juice of the apple will be required to preserve it in 
casks, through our hot summers, in the coolest cellars. The 
straw should be clean and sweet. 

4. If amid the great variety of apples, in most orchards, there 
be no one sort sufficient for a cheese, let those sorts be put to- 
gether which appear alike mellow. 

5. In the proposed experiment it will be desirable to use new 
white oak barrels. These should be scalded with boiling water; 
and when emptied, turned bung-hole down, to become thoroughly 
drained and dry. — If old casks are used, they also should be 
scalded with boiling water, with the addition of a small quantity 
of unslacked lime: in both cases, in the latter especially, the 
casks to be well shaken. ICF'But be careful not to be in the 
way of the bung, which may be violently forced out by the steam, 
during the agitation. 

6. The cider-mill and press should be made perfectly clean; 
and for this end, after being swept and brushed;, be washed with 



1 



21 

Ijoiling water. In a word, to produce the finest flavoured cider, tlie 
farmer must be neat in his operations, as his wife is in her dairy. 

But although all the precceding rules should be carefully obser- 
ved, in gathering, mellowing, sorting and grinding the apples, and in 
pressing out the cider, — success is not to be expected, unless par- 
ticular attention be given to the first fcrmeniation. — If the cider- 
maker were to put thirty gallons of cider directly from the press, 
into a tub, he would see a scum of pomace rising to the surface, 
in a few days (more or fewer, according as the weather is cool or 
warm) and forming a close crust. This crust will soon after 
crack, and show a white froth at the cracks. Immediately the 
cider must be separted from this crust, either by skimming off 
the latter, very carefully, to avoid precipitating any of it down 
through the cider, — or, (what is better, by drawing off the cider 
without touching the scum) by a tap previously fixed near the 
bottom of the tub; taking good care, also, that no part of the lees 
run off: for while the lighter parts of the pomace rise to the sur- 
face, the heaver sink to the bottom. — If the cider be fermented 
in casks, these should want a gallon or tw^o of being full. No 
harm will be done by exposing so much of its surface to the air; 
for, as in the open tub, it will soon be covered with a scum or 
crust; which being inspected at the bung-hole, the precise time 
for racking may in like manner be seen. Should a fresh fermen- 
tation occui', a second drawing off will be requisite. In Decem- 
ber, or whenever the cider shall appear perfectly quiet, the bung 
may be introduced. In the fore part of March, the cider should 
be again drawn off, and with special care that no part of the lees 
mix with it. Then it is to be closely bunged up, in full casks. 

After apples are ground, the pomace should remain exposed to 
the air, in open tubs or vats, about twenty-four hours, before it 
is made into the cheese to be pressed. This is known to give not 
only a better colour, but to add to the richness of the cider. This 
was strikeingly shown by that practical farmer and eminent na- 
turalist, Thomas A, Knight Esq. 'now President of the London 
Horticultural Society. He says — '' I have often extracted, "by 
means of a small hand-press, the juice of a single apple, without 
having previously bruised it to pieces ; and I have always found 
the juice, thus obtained, to be pale, and thin, and extremely de- 
fective in richness, though the apple possessed great merit as a 



22 

cider-fruit. I have then returned the expressed juice to the 
pulp, which I have repressed after it has been exposed, during a 
few hours, to the air and hght; and the juice has then become 
deeply tinged, less fluid, and very rich." — [KnighVs Treatise on 
the Apple and Pea)', Cider and Perry. ^ 

If the cider made according to the preceeding intimations, 
prove of a very superior quality, it will sell at a price so high as 
abundantly to compensate the farmer for all the extra care and 
labour bestowed upon it. 

The cider-premiums offered last year will be awarded, if meri- 
ted, at the next pubhc exhibition in October.* 



* The importance of a strict attention to the first fermentation of cider was 
strong:ly impressed on my mind by the following fact. — When I was a young 
man, my father received two cartloads — each load containing eight barrels — 
of cider, directly from the press. According t© his usual practice, these were 
discharged into hogsheads and tierces, in his cellar ; excepting about half a 
barrel of each load. These two parcels I threw into a tub, placed on the 
cellar floor. I inspected it daily. A thick scum, forming a brownish crust 
very soon covered the cider. About the 5th day (I believe late in October) 
the crust began to open in cracks, showing at ^every opening a white froth. 
No provision haviiag been previously made for drawing it off, 1 could separate 
this crust only by skimming it off. This I did with great care, to prevent the 
sinking of any part of it. With like care, I then laded the cider into a new 
white oak barrel — leaving the lees in the tub. — At this time, the cider in the 
hogsheads and tierces made a hissing noise, at the bung-holes. The next day, 
I looked at my barrel— the bung, (as was the case with every hogshead and 
tierce) being out. I found it as still as water ; while the hissing, at all the 
other casks, w^as loud as on the preceeding day. These, of course, remained 
with their bungs out, to give vent to the violent fermentation, lest the casks 
should burst. My barrel continuing perfectly quiet, I introduced its bung, 
but not tightly. Some time in February or March following, I drew it off; 
and was gratified with finding the cider of a fine vinous colour, mellow, well- 
flavoured, and fit for bottling.— The cider in the other casks, which fermented 
without any check, was pale, hard and harsh : in a word, like the rough, un- 
pleasant cider generally to be met with in farmer's houses, where the fermen- 
tation is disregarded— ill England, according to English writers, as well as ia 
New-England. T. PICKERING. 



23 
X. POTATOES. 

For the best and most valuable potatoes, taking them for all in 
ally raised from the seed of the apples or green balls — samples to 
be produced at the Society's pubhc exhibition in 182G, 

ten dollars. 

For the second best - - - seven dollars. 

For the third - _ - - J^t-c dollars. 

The Trustees presume that some farmers have already begun 
their experiments; and, consequently, will have samples of ncAv 
potatoes to offer in the present year. The same premiums will 
be continued to be awarded, in 1827 and 1828, to meritorious 
claimants. * 

REMARKS ON POTATOES. 

In Great-Britain and Ireland, their best sorts, of potatoes, af- 
ter a few years, are found to degenerate; and hence they have 
recourse to seeds in the apples or green balls, to obtain new 
kinds. Seeds from the same ball have produced a great variety — 
some early, some late — some yielding a small, some a large pro- 
duct — some watery, some mealy and well flavoured — some very 
moderately prolific, may be of so superior qualities as to be well 
worth cultivating. The judicious planter will select, to be offered 
for premiums, such sorts as upon the whole he shall think worthy 
to be cultivated. 

In 1823, the Trustees offered premiums to encourage farmers 
in Essex to plant the seeds found in the green balls, in the hope 
that some new sorts of potatoes "might be obtained, superior to 
those generally cultivated: and at the last public exhibition (in 
October, 1825) they were gratified with the sight and taste of 
several new sorts, meriting the premiums. But believing greater 
improvements to be very practicable, they have renewed the pre- 
miums. And to prevent errors and mistakes in prosecuting ex- 
periments, every intended claimant is desired to take notice — 

1. That seeing the seeds in the same ball will produce various 
sorts of potatoes, it will be indispensably necessary that each 



24 

young plant grows at the dstance of eight or ten inches from any 
other. 

2. That in autumn, or as soon as the vines, or stems of the 
plants die, and the young potatoes are dug up, those of each plant 
are to be saved by themselves; and it will be easy to put each 
sort in a separate paper bag. These potatoes will be very small, 
perhaps from the size of a pigeon's down to that of a sparrow's 

3. In the ensuing spring, the potatoes of each sort, that is, 
the potatoes in each bag, must be planted by themselves; and if 
not in distinct rows, then stakes, driven into the ground, should 
mark the divisions of the several sorts in the same row, leaving a 
space of about two feet between one sort and another, to guard 
against any mixture. 

4. In the time for harvesting them in the second year, the po- 
tatoes, if grown in a good soil, will be large enough to be boiled, 
to ascertain their qualities. Each sort must be tried by itself. 
Such as are watery, or ill-flavoured, may be at once thrown 
aside, for the use of live-stock. Every other sort, so valuable as 
to be thought worth cultivating, must be kept unmixed, by put- 
ting each kind into a separate bag, box or cask. And such of 
these as the Experimenter thinks may fairly entitle him to a pre- 
mium, he will bring a sample of — not less than half a peck of 
each sort — to the place of pubUc exhibition. 



ICJ^ Some farmers may think the exactness above proposed 
and required to be unnecessary. But let such recollect, that 
these experiments are proposed, not to gratify curiosity, but to 
obtain several sorts of potatoes of superior excellence, to be im- 
parted from farmer to farmer, throughout the county; of whom 
some may prefer one improved sort, some another, for their oAvn 
tables, and to supply their customers in the market towns, who 
may have like preferences. Such exactness in keeping the pro- 
ducts from each original plant is the more necessary, because 
they may possess very different quahties from the products of 
other plants, which may have the same appearance in size, shape 
and colour. 



26 
ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON POTATOES. 

Formerly it was supposed, and the opinion remains with many, 
that to insure a crop of good potatoes, it was only necessary to 
plant good kinds; such, for instance, as were brought from Erg- 
land, Ireland, Nova-Scotia, or, sometimes, the most eastern part 
of Maine: but disappointment has been the general result. Near 
sixty years ago, I received a small parcel just brought from Pas- 
samaquoddy. At that time I had never tasted any so good, and 
since then, never any better. They were small, yet so mealy 
that it was difficult to boil them without their falling to pieces. 
In the ensuing Spring, I planted them on what would be called a 
dry, sweet spot of ground, in an old tillage field. The manuring 
was moderate. They were properly cultivated during the sea- 
son. When ripe, in autumn, the produce was of potatoes gener- 
ally much larger than those I had planted, the bigger ones hollow 
in the middle, and all watery and not well flavoured. 

Within the last five-and-twenty years, I have planted various 
kinds of potatoes, from England and Ireland; but without obtain- 
ing any valuable products. 

Now-and-then, a good potatoe from Nova-Scotia, has yielded 
potatoes resembhng, though not equal to the originals. Such was 
a small blue potatoe from that country, whose product continued 
of a good quality, if planted on newly h^oken up grass-land; but the 
sort was only moderately productive. 

It has seemed to me, that while potatoes from the more north- 
ern climes degenerated, those from more southern regions gradu- 
ally improved, in quality. This, I believe, has been generally 
perceived in the case of the long red potatoe, now almost univer- 
sally cultivated, and the most productive of any sort at present 
known amongst us. It is sometimes called the River Plate potato. 
But while it has been improving in quality, it has, as far as iliy 
observation extends, become less productive. The best early 
potatoes I ever planted sprung from a handful of small ones I 
brought from Maryland, many years ago. They became mealy 
and well flavoured. 

It was formerly the prevailing opinion, that dry, warm lands, 
?uch as sandy loams, were the best for producing good potatoes. 



26 

I have long been satisfied that they were the worst; at least 
when no farther north than Massachusetts. — Lancashire, a wes- 
tern county in England, and Ireland, are distinguished for pro- 
ducing line potatoes. Ireland is remarkable for the moisture of 
its climate; and the western coast of England is more moist than 
the eastern. Both are many degrees farther north than Massa- 
chusetts; and are exempt from the droughts and burning heats of 
our summers. These circumstances suggest the propriety of our 
planting potatoes on moist and cool grounds; thus in some mea- 
sure assimilated to the soils of Ireland and Lancashire; and I 
may add, of Nova-Scotia and New-Brunswick. — Two or three 
years ago, early in May, dining with the late Governor Brooks, 
at Medford, I mentioned the superior goodness of his potatoes; 
and asked him on what sort of ground they were raised. He an- 
swered — It is now under water. — The late Dr. James Anderson of 
Great-Britain, ?ias written largely on Agricultural subjects. In 
the early part of his life, he was a practical farmer in Scotland. 
In some of his works, read long since, I recollect his saying, that 
in one season uncommonly dry, in Scotland or England, or in 
both, the crops of potatoes were unusually small, and poor in 
quality. In the next season — a moist one — the crops were abun- 
dantj and of excellent quality. 



From the preceeding remarks, it seems just to infer, — That iu 
Massachusetts (and further south it must be more important) we 
may expect to raise our best potatoes on moist and cool grounds; 
and better on newly broken up grass land than on such as had 
been long in tillage, as the latter may not be sufficiently produc- 
tive without a greater portion of manure. — And further, that as 
no rehance can be placed on fine potatoes raised in more northern 
and cooler and moisture climates than our own, for producing po- 
tatoes equally good in our own, — it is highly expedient to try the 
experiment, proposed by the Trustees, of raising new sorts, from 
the seeds of the potato apple; some of which, thus originating in 
our own chmate, may prove superior to any imported ones; es- 
pecially if the most proper soils be selected for their cultivation. 



27 

XI. FOR IMPROVING OUR NATIVE BREED OF 

CATTLE. 

|c3^The following premiums were oiTered in 1 823, to be awar- 
ded in 1828. Similar premiums were offered in 1825, to be 
awarded in 1829 and in 1830. They are thus stated. 

To the person who shall prodiice at the public exhibition of the 
Society, in either of the years 1828, or 1829, or 1830, any num- 
ber of milch cows, not less than four, of our native breeds, show- 
ing manifest improvement therein, by an important increase in 
the quantity, and maintaining, at least, if not improving, the good 
qualihj of milk; the latter to be tested by the quantities of butter 
made in the five months next preceeding the exhibition — 

For the best _ - - - thirty dollars. 

For the next best - - - twenty-five dollars. 

For the third _ - - - twenty dollars. 

To the person who shall produce as aforesaid, the best pair of 
working oxen, or well grown and well trained steers, raised in 
the County, and improved on the principles hereinafter mention- 
ed, ----- tiventy doUa^^s. 

For the second best - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third - - - - ten dollars. 

To the person who shall produce as aforesaid, the best bull of 
our native breed, raised in the County, and improved on the same 
principles, _ - - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third _ - - ten dollars. 



NATIVE BREED OF CATTLE. 

REMARKS. 

It should be constantly borne in mind, that the Society has 
been formed for the purpose of effecting imiwovements, in every 
branch of husbandry. Chance in breeding, or a lucky purchase, 
may give a farmer a superior cow; hut unless her offspring he rai- 
$edy we shall make no advance; and fifty years hence, the quahty- 



28 

of our neat cattle will not be improved. It is true, that fine cows 
and fine bulls do not alwmjs produce an offspring equal to them- 
selves; but the high probability is in their favour. Hence the 
high prices given for the improved imported breeds; like gencralhj 
producing like. 

Many are willing to raise a cow-calf from a superior cow; while 
they are regardless of a bull calf: But to an improving farmer, the 
latter is more valuable than the former. The offspring of the 
female is very limited; whereas the male may be the sire of hun- 
dreds. — The heifers from fine cows so often prove worthless, be- 
cause the cows are put to wortfiless bulls. — How different is the 
conduct of breeders of horses ? No one expects a fine colt, un- 
less from a good mare, and more especially from a stallion of dis- 
tinguished excellence. The same rule and practice must be ad- 
opted ill the raising of neat cattle, if we expect fine cows and bulls. 

|C3^For these reasons, the Trustees expect, that farmers, for 
their own interest, as well as from their desire to contribute to 
the improvement of the stock of the county, will raise both the 
male and female calves from cows which they offer for premiums, 
as animals of superior excellence. 



Xn. IMPROVEMENT OF WET MEADOW LANDS, 

For the best experiment in improving, by draining, gravelling, 
or otherwise, not less than one acre of wet meadow or swamp 
land, the experiment to have been fully tested by 1828, when the 
premium is to be awarded, - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - - ten dollars. 



XIII. ANIMALS TO BE PRODUCED AT THE NEXT 
PUBLIC EXHIBITION, 

Which is to be near the South Meeting- House in Danvers, on Thurs- 
day the 12th day of October, 1826. 

For the best bull, of our native breed, not less than one year 
old, raised in the County, on satisfactory assurance being given 



29 

that he shall be kept for use in the County, at least two years 
from the day of exhibition, - - fif^^^^^ dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do. - - ten dollars. 

For the best bull of any other breed, not less than one year old, 
on satisfactory assurance being given as aforesaid, 

fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do, do. do. - - ten dollars. 

iCP'NoTE. As these premiums for bulls are liberal, and as 
the object in offering them is to promote improvement in our 
breed of stock; the Trustees have thought it proper to direct, 
that the persons who may receive the premiums shall sign an ob- 
ligation, to be left with the Secretary, that they will observe the 
conditions on which the premium is offered, or forfeit the same 
for the benefit of the Society. 

For the best milch cow, not less than three nor more than ten 
years old, with satisfactury evidence, as to the quantity and qua- 
lity of her milk, and the manner in which she has been fed, 

fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. do, do. - - ten dollars. 

For the third best do. do. do. - - five dollars. 

For the best heifer, that has been in milk, three months or 
more, with satisfactory evidence of the quantity and good quality 
of her milk, - _ . . ten dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do - - five dollars. 

For the best pair of four year old steers - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. - - ten dollars. 

icZP' Note. In determining the premiums on steers, regard 
will be had not only to their size and appearance, but to the man- 
ner in which they have been trained, and their power in the yoke; 
and the committee will test these qualities in such way as they 
may think proper. 

|C3^ To encourage the farmers of Essex to raise the offspring 
of their best stock, the Trustees have thought fit to offer to the 
owners of the cows that may obtain the premiums, further simi- 



30 

lar premiums for their offspring respectively. That is, such off- 
spring, whether bull or heifer, shall be entitled to the same pre- 
mium that was awarded to its dam; the offspring to be exhibited 
at the Cattle Show next after it shall have attained to the age of 
one or two years, accompanied with satisfactory evidence of its 
identity; and on this further condition, that if such offspring show 
such marks of superior qualities, as in the opinion of the Trus- 
tees to be capable of materially improving the neat cattle of the 
county, if retained as breeders, — the same shall he retained ac- 
cordingly, within the county. Note. The latter requisite will 

not prevent the sale of such improved offspring, provided it be i6 
some farmer or farmers of the county. 

For the best litter of weaned pigs, not less than four in num- 
ber, from two to eight months old, - - ten dollars. 
For the second best do. do. do. - seven dollars. 
For the third best do. do. do. - - Jive dollars. 

|C3*'NoTE. The Trustees have varied their form of offering 
premiums on swine the present year, believing that the improve- 
ment of the breeds of this animal will be as well or better promot- 
ted by giving premiums on pigs only, as in the manner formerly 
practised. 

Oi!rNo animal will be entitled to receive more than one pre- 
mium. Animals that have received one premium from the So- 
ciety, will not be entitled to another, unless it be of a higher 
order. 

Should any animals of fine quahty, be presented at the public 
show, for exhibition, they will receive such notice from the Trus- 
tees, as by their merits they are entitled to. And should they be 
of extraordinary quality, such gratuities will be tendered, as may 
reward their owners for exhibiting them. 



ft^ The Regulations to be observed at this Exhibition, will be 
published in due season, by the Committee of Arrangements. 



31 

XIV. MANUFACTURED ARTICLES, TO BE PRODUCED 
AT THE NEXT PUBLIC EXHIBITION. 

To encourage Household Manufactures, the Trustees' offer the 
following premiums. 

For the best yard wide carpeting, not less than twenty yards 
to be exhibited - - - - ten dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - - Jive dollars. 

For the best stair carpeting, not less than twenty yards to be 
exhibited ----- Jive dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - three dollars. 

For the best specimen of straw or grass bonnets Jive dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - three dollar's. 

For the best piece of flannel, not less than twenty yards to be 
exhibited _ _ _ _ Jive dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - three dollars. 

For the best knit woolen hose, not less than six pairs in num- 
ber - - - - - three dollar's. 

For the second best do. do. - - two dollars. 

For the best men's half hose, (woollen,) not less than six pair 
in number - _ - _ tivo dollars. 

For the best piece of linen diaper, not less than twenty yards 
to be exhibited, - - - - three dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - - ftvo dollars. 

For the best piece of linen cloth, (for shirting or sheeting) not 
less than 7-8ths of a yard in width, and not less than twenty yards 
to be exhibited, - - _ - Jour dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - - tico dollars. 

For the best wrought Counterpane - four dollars. 

For the second best do. - - _ ti^o dollars. 

For the best wrought hearth rug, having regard both to the 
quahty of the work, and the expense of the material, 

four dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do. - three dollars. 

For the third best do, do. do. - - two dollars. 

And should any other articles of domestic manufacture be ex- 
hibited, that discover industry and ingenuity, a proper notice will 
be taken of them, and suitable premiums awarded. But it is to 



32 

be remembered with regard to all the subjects of premium, that 
no premiums will be awarded, unless the articles offered are o 
superior quality. 

For the encouragement of other useful branches of Manufac- 
tures, the Trustees offer the following premiums, to be awarded 
at the next Exhibition. 

For the best tanned sole leather, not less than ten sides to be 
exhibited, with a statement of the process of tanning the same, 

ten dollars. 
For the second best do. do. - - Jive dollars. 

For the best tanned and dressed calf skins, not less than 
twelve to be exhibited, with a statement as aforesaid. 

Jive dollars. 
For the second best do. do. - - three dollars. 

For the handsomest and best made men's hats, of merino wool, 
the fur nap excepted, not less than five to be exhibited, with an 
•account of the process of making and expense of the same. 

Jive dollar^s. 
For the second best do. do. - - three dollars. 

0::^ Claims for Premiums, to be awarded the present year, 
must be entered with the Secretary of the Society, on or before 
9 o'clock, A. M. of the day of Exhibition. 

All persons, whether members of the Society or not, will be 
admitted as competitors. 

Ten copies of the current volume of the JS'ew- England Farmer, 
will be awarded as Premiums at the next Exhibition, in such 
manner as the Trustees shall think proper. 1 hose who obtain 
the premiums for the best management of a Farm, or succeed 
best in Agricultural Experiments, will probably have the prefer- 
ence. 

A certificate of premiums, with a suitable engraving, will also 
be given the present year. 

By order of the Trustees. 

T. PICKERING, \ Committee of 
J. W. PROCTOR, ] the Trustees. 



I 



33 

OFFICERS 

OF THE ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

CHOSEN OCTOBER 5th, A. D. 1825. 



TIMOTHY PICKERING, of Salem, President 

IciiABOD Tucker, of Salem, ^ 

Benjamin Parker, of Bradford, f y^. „ -j , 

Paul Kent, of Newbury, ( Vice-Presidents. 

Solomon Low, of Boxford, ) 

Benjamin Merrill, of Salem, Treasurer. 

John W. Proctor, of Danvers, Cor, and Rec. Sec^y. 

Trustees. 
Thomas Stephens, of Beverly. 
Benjamin T. Reed, of Marblehead. 
Benj. W. Crov/ninshield, of Salem. 
Hobart Clark, of Andover. 
David Cummins, of Salem. 
James Ayer, of Haverhill. 
Stephen Barker, of Andover. 
Aaron Perley, of Boxford. 
James Gardner, of Lynn. 
Daniel Putnam, of Danvers. 
Daniel Adams, of Newbury. 
James H. Duncan, of Haverhill. 
Nathan Felton, of Danvers. 
Frederic Howes, of Salem. 
Asa T. Newhall, of Lynnfield. 
Jesse Putnam, of Danvers. 
Edmund Bartlett, of Newburyporf. 
Stephen Abbott, of Andover, 
Moses Newhall, of West-Newbury. 
Jesse Kimball, jun. of Bradford. 
Jacob Towne, jun. of Topsfield. 
Temple Cutler, of Hamilton. * 
John Choate, of Ipswich. 
Abijah Cheever, of Saugus. 



$ 



Essex Agricultural Society. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES, 



AND 



PRBMXUl^S AWARDED Z2T 18ft9; 



AND A. LIST OBf 



©m^nawisi ©ffifums® w asi© 



« 



WITH 



REMARKS AND HINTS TO FARMERS, &c* 



PAMPHZiST 2fo. ZX; 132d« 



PUBLISHED BY ORDER OP THE BOCIETY.... MARCH, 18S0. 



SALEM: 

W. t 8. B. IVES, PRINTERS....OBSERVER OFFICE. 
1830. 



REPORTS 

OP THE 

^umv ^avituUnval Socletfi in 1829. 



I. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF FARMS. 

The Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society for viewing 
farms, entered for premiums in 1829, have attended to that ser- 
vice and submit the following 

REPORT. 

Six farms were entered for premiums, viz : — 
The farm of Amos Gould, of Ipswich ; 

Moses Litttle, of West Newbury ; 
Daniel Putnam, of Danvers ; 
John Adams, \ 
David Gray, > of Andover. 
James Stevens, ) 
These farms were examined by the Committee the first part of 
July, and again in September. 



The farm of Mr. Gould is situated in the north part of Ipswich, 
near Topsfield, and contains about three hundred acres, viz. 
8 acres Corn and Potatoes 
6 do. English grain 
Upland mowing 
Meadow and Salt Marsh 
Pasture 
Waste land. 

The first 100 acres of this farm Mr. Gould purchased nineteen 
years ago, and the rest he has added at different times since. 
The committee were much pleased with the improvements made on 
this farm, by its present owner. These have been prosecuted with 
uncommon industry and perseverance. A great portion of this 
farm is a light gravelly soil, and the general aspect by no means 



20 


do. 


35 


do. 


200 


do. 


13 


do. 



4 



promising. When Mr. Gould came into possession it was in a bad 
condition— had been occupied many years by tenants and the land 
exhausted, producing not more than three tons of English hay 
and 20 tons of meadow and salt hay in a year. Mr. Gould has 
built on it 700 rods of good substantial stone wall ; planted 700 ap- 
ple trees, a great portion of which bear fruit ; has reclaimed three 
or four acres of wet meadow, and converted it into very productive 
grass land ; besides erecting convenient barns and out houses for 
the use of the farm. He keeps from 20 to 30 head of cattle, and 
in summer takes 15 or 20 to pasture for others. This farm and 
the improvements, and stock on it, free from all debts and incum- 
brances, are entirely his own acquisition — the fruit of the industry 
and economy of himself and family. 

The farm of Mr. Little, in West Newbury, consists of about 100 
acres. Twenty-four acres are improved for mowing and tillage, 
about 7 acres of which are in tillage annually ; and two acres of 
fresh and salt meadow. His orchard, occupies about 10 acres ex- 
clusive of the trees by the fences inclosing his tillage land, and is 
used as a pasture for sheep and horses. There are 33 acres of pas- 
ture and 11 acres of wood-land. He has 50 pear trees, raised from 
the seed and grafted with various kinds of summer, autumn and 
winter pears — all of them in a bearing state; and 30 peach trees, 
which produce about 10 bushels annually. The soil on this farm 
js in general very good, and a great portion of it well cultivated, 
and produces good crops. Since the farm came into the possesson 
of Mr. Little, the produce has been nearly doubled. This has been 
done chiefly by making large quantities of manure, frequent plough- 
ings, and top dressings where ploughing is not practicable. He 
cuts about 45 tons of hay — 25 of which are good upland hay ; and 
raises about 160 bushels of corn, 25 of wheat and 20 of oats. The 
buildings on this farm are convenient and well placed. M». Little 
is an ingenious mechanic, aa well as a good farmer, and many of 
his farming utensils, as well as some of his buildings, are his own 
workmanship. 

Mr. Daniel Putnam's farm was so fully described, in the report 
of last year, that it is unnecessary to go into particulars the present. 
The committee remarked the steady and judicious course of 
raan-dgcmeut on this farm. Mr. Putnam observes the rule which 
every farmer should keep in mind, but which some enterprizing 
farmers forgot, viz : not to attempt more than he can perform, not 



to try to subduG more land than he can cukivatd thoroughly and 
manure well, so that it will bear good crops. The produce of his 
dairy from 8 cows, was 1127 pounds of butter, besides furnishing 
milk for a very large family, perhaps equal to the milk of two cows. 
The most effectual means used in the improvement of this farm, are 
the making and judicious application of large quantities of manure. 
This is a subject which the committee think more than any other 
requires the attention of the farmers of Essex. 

The farm of Mr. David Gray has been repeatedly described in 
the Reports of this Society, and he has more than once obtained the 
premium offered for farms. It is sufficient to state, that Mr. Gray's 
farm exhibits proofs of the same persevering industry and good 
management, which have distinguished it before ; that he continues 
the same judicious course of improvement, and is gradually render- 
ing his farm more productive. Every farmer in New England 
knows that abundance of manure is necessary to the continued 
production of good crops. Mr. Gray is of opinion that every far- 
mer has the means of making manure sufficient for his land. The 
committee think there is much truth in this, and his own experience 
tends to confirm it. 

The farm of John Adams, Esq. in Andover, consists of about 
113 acres of improved land, and 119 acres of woodland. The pas- 
turage amounts to 54 acres, most of which has been ploughed and 
improved. He has 19 acres of natural meadow and swamp land in 
good grass, and about 35 acres in alternate husbandry for corn, 
English grain, and grass. In tillage from 10 to 12 acres annually, 
producing about 200 bushels of grain and 350 of potatoes. His 
average number of cattle is 25, including 6 or 8 oxen and 10 
cows. He has a large number of apple trees, and makes about 100 
barrels of cider annually. Mr. Adams hag considerably improved 
the condition of his farm and his operations seem to have been con- 
ducted with skill and success. The soil of this farm appears in 
general good, but it is hilly and in some places rocky, and a large 
proportion of it more suited to pasture than tillage. 

The farm of Mr. James Stevens, in Andover, contains about 90 
acres, exclusive of woodland, viz : — about 12 acres in tillage, 3G or 
oS acres of mowing, and the rest pasture. The land is in general 
level, the soil somewhat moist and cold, but strong, and when well 
cultivated, capable of producing great crops of most kinds, especial- 
ly of grass. Mr. Stevens has done much to improve it, and tli« 



produce now ia double the amount it was ten years ago. Much 
however remains to be done, and few farms afford a better field for 
improvement. Perhaps no farmers in the county have a stronger 
inducement to an active and enterprizing cultivation than those of 
Andover ; as no place in the county affords a better market for ag- 
ricultural commodities. Mr. Stevens has made a great improve- 
ment in ten acres, of what was formerly pasture land, but so cold 
and wet and so much covered with bushes, as not to yield feed 
enough for two cows. The last season the produce of this field was 
11 tons of English hay of the first quality, 90 bushels of corn, and 
150 of potatoes. 

The committee recommend that the premiums be awarded as 
follows : — 

To Daniel Putnam, the third premium, ... ^24 

" Amos Gould, the fourth premium, - - • • 21 
** Moses Little, the fifth premium, - •- - - -18 
" John Adams, the sixth premium, - - - - 15 
** James Stevens, seventh premium, - - «- - 12 

The committee were of opinion that no farm offered was entitled 
to the first or second premium. 

The committee would suggest, as very desirable, that candidates 
for the premium on farms should in future furnish a more particular 
and exact statement of the soil, modes of cultivation, different kinds 
of produce, the labour employed and the amount and value of each 
crop. The description required by the Massachusetts Agricultural 
Society in their offer of a premium for the best cultivated farm, is 
recommended to the attention of tho farmers of Essex, who may 
claim a similar premium for this county, not however as being in- 
dispensable in every particular, but as a useful guide to them in 
making their statements. 

Respectfully submitted, by the Committee, 

FREDERICK HOWES, 
DANIEL ADAMS, 
JESSE PUTNAM, 
JOHN ADAMS, 
JAMES H. DUNCAN, 
MOSES NEWHALL, 
JOHN W. PROCTOR. 
December 28, 1S29. 



7 

AMOS GOULD'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society on Farms, 

Gentlemen— My farm is situated in Ipswich, near Topsfield, 
and contains in the whole about three hundred acres of land. I 
cultivate annually about eight acres with corn and potatoes ; — about 
six acres with English grain. I have annually about twenty acres 
of English mowing, and about thirty-five acres of mcjadow and salt 
marsh. I have about eighteen acres of wood land, and about two 
hundred acres of pasture land. 

The stock on my farm usually consists of one horse, between 
twenty and thirty head of horned cattle through the year ; in the 
summer, I take in from fifteen to twenty head of cattle to pasture — 
twenty sheep through the year,— and about the same number taken 
in to pasture in the summer. 

This farm I purchased about nineneen years since ; it then con- 
tained about one hundred acres — the other parts I have added to it 
at different purchases made since. At the time I purchased, it had 
been tenanted for many years, and was entirely run out — the fences 
were in a bad condition, and it did not yield more than three tons 
of English, and twenty tons of meadow and salt hay, in a year. 

Since that time I have been gradually endeavouring to improve 
the farm, by such means as were in my power ; and these were my 
own labour, and the produce of my land. What I have, I have 
earned myself, and what I possess, I own without any incumbrance, 
or claims from any one to my knowledge. 

I have made upon the farm seven hundred rods of good and per* 
mauent stone walls. I have set out and planted, seven hundred 
apple trees, many of which are now in a thrifty and bearing condi- 
tion. I have ditched and drained several acres of the wet meadow 
lands, and raised the same ; so that this is now my most productive 
grass land. I have added to, and enlarged my buildings, so that 
they are now convenient for the purposes of my farm. 

Manure. I make from eighty to one hundred loads of manure 
annually, in my barn yard, and hog pen, by hauling in loam, and 
other materials collected from ditches, and about the farm. This, 
together with the droppings from the cattle, make about 150 loads 
in a year ; I mix the two kinds together, before I use it upon the 
land, — thinking that more benefit is obtained by thus applying it. 



8 



Dairy. We hare!' usually kept ten or twelve cows, and used the 
milk for the making of butter. The present year we have had but 
8 cows. We have sold more than 400 pounds of butter, and made 
600 pounds of cheese, besides the milk used by a large family. I 
kept less cows the present season than usual, in consequence of my 
my assistance in the house, being less ; and thinking it as well to use 
my land for feeding of cattle, as to hire additional help in my 
family. 

Labour. Myself and one man through the year — another man 
five and a half months — two boys, one 14 years old, another 12 
years old — have hired 12 days work. Have worked out with my 
team to the amount of about one hundred dollars. 

The produce of my farm, as near as I can ascertain it, is as 
follows : — 



1828. 


1829. 


English Hay, - • - - 30 tons 


20 tons 


Meadow and Salt Hay, - - 50 tons 


40 tons 


Indian Corn, - - - - 059 bushels 


175 bushels 


Potatoes, - - • - 250 bushels 


300 bushels 


Cider, a small quantity in each year — 




Pork, » . « - - 1400 pounds 


1700 pounds 


Beef, 2000 pounds 


1000 pounds 


Rye, - - 


40 bushels 


Oats and Barley cut for fodder, . • *. 


2 tons. 



Nine calves, sold for forty-five dollars, at four weeks old. 

Had I have known in the early part of the season, that a minute 
account of my produce would have been expected, I could have 
been more particular — I have endeavoured not to over rate it. 

AMOS GOULD. 

November tiOth, 1829. 



MOSES LITTLE'S STATEMENT. 



To the Committee on Farms for 1829. 

Gentlemen — Agreeable to your request, I transmit to you the 
following account of the management of my farm. My farm is 
situated in West-Newbury, and contains about one hundred acres, 
twenty-four of which I improve as mowing and tillage ; of this I 
plant from four to five acres with corn and potatoes annually, and 



sow from two to three acres, the remainder I use for mowing. I 
lalso mow twenty-two acres of fresh and salt meadow. I have about 
ton acres of orcharding, exclusive of those trees which are by the 
fences, that inclose my tillage land, the most of which I have raised 
from the seed, and I use the land where my trees are, chiefly for 
pasturage for sheop and horses. I have eleven acres of wood land, 
and thirty-three of pasture land. I havo fifty pear trees, the most of 
which I havo raised from the seed and ingrafted them with various 
kinds of summer, fall, and winter fruit, and all of them are in a 
bearing condition ; I also have thirty peach trees, the average crop 
of which is ten bushels. — The stock, which I keep, consists of from 
sixteen to eighteen head of neat cattle. I have seven cows, four 
oxen, and five young cattle, two horses, from twelve to fifteen sheep, 
and from four to seven swine. 

Manner of making Manure. During the winter months, I 
litter my barn yard with meadow hay, where I yard my stock, 
which remains there until about the last of November, occasionally 
replenishing it with meadow mud and stufT, which is gathered from 
under fences and other places on the farm. I carry into my hog 
yards wash from the road, meadow mud, and the droppings from 
my horses, that th« same may be mingled together by them and re- 
cieve their fertilizing properties. The quantity of manure which I 
make in this manner is about ono hundred and fifty common carts 
full, sixty of which are made in winter, about fifty are made during 
the summer and fall months in my barn yard, and about forty which 
I take from my hog yards annually. 

Manner of preparing Mr Tillage Land. I plough up my 
grass land in the spring, but a short time before I want to plant it, 
then harrow and furrow it about three feet a part, and manure it in 
the hills with hog and sheep manure for potatoes ; — the next year I 
plant it with corn. I spread from twenty to twenty-five common 
carts full of my winter manure on an acre, then plough and harrow 
it, and furrow it about four feet a part, and put from ten to twelve 
common carts full of my summer manure, which is placed on the 
ground the autumn before in the hills ; the next year the land is in 
good order to lay down to grass. Then I give it a small dressing 
with fine manure, plough it, and sow it with wheat, or oats, and 
herds grass seed only. In this manner, I go over with my field 
land once in four or five years ; except a few acres, which is of a 
heavier soil. I usually top diess, with fine manure and materials 
Q 



10 



which are gathered from my watering places, once in four or five 
years. 

Since I have had the management of this farm, (which is about 
twenty years) I have made six acres of ray field land out of a rough, 
stoney and almost barren pasture. Five acres of my orcharding are 
on land which I took in its natural state, covered v;ith trees, bushes 
and full of small stones, the produce of which land was scarcely any 
thing. 

The stone wall which I have built is five hundred rods, the stones 
for whicli, some of them were near, and some of them at the dis- 
tance of half a mile ; the most of this I have done at intervals, with 
the ordinary labor which has been employed to manage the farm. 
I have my farm now alt fenced with a good stone wall, on the out 
side ; my cross fen-ces anrd the fences round my orchards are stone 
wally with the exception of about fifty rods. 

Since this farm came into my hanils,. I have, by paying attention 
to making manure, stiring the soil oftsn, and where it has not been 
practicable to plough, top dressing made the faim to produce nearly 
double that it formerly did. 

The produce of my farm the present year is : — 
English Hay, - 25 tons 

Salt and Fresh Hay, 20 " 
Indian Corn in the ear, 317 bush. 
Wheat, - - 25 *' 

Oats, - - - 20 " 
Pears, - - 8 " 

Onions, - - - 3 " 
English Turnips, - 3 " 

This is the produce of my farm the present year, besides peas, 
beans, and vegetables of all kinds sufficient for two families. 

I have since the third day of last March, raised twenty-nine 
pigs, which sold from two dollars to two dollars fifty cents each. 

The produce of seven cows is as follows : — 

Cheese 900 pounds, mostly new milk. 

Butter 299 pounds, besides the milk used in two families, one 
consisting of seven,, the other of five persons. 

The labour employed to manage the farm, from the first of De- 
cember, 1828,. to the first of December, 1829, is myself and son ; — 
I have paid for labour twenty-one dollars and seven cents; — labour 
done by myself and son at mechanical business, amounts to sixty 
seven dollars and fifty cents. 

MOSES LITTLE. 



Beats, 


3 bushels 


Beans, 


5 '^ 


Squashes, 


- 800 pounds 


Pumpkins, 


12 carts full 


Cider, 


- 11 barrels 



Winter Apples, - 33 '' 
Cabbages, - 10 dozen 
Pork, - 1000 pounds. 



11 

DANIEL PUTNAM'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee on Farms^ of the Essex Agricultural Society, 

1829. 

Gentlemen — For an account of my farm, as to the quantity of 
land which it contains, the quantity which is tilled, the quantity 
pastured, and for an account of my trees, stock, and means and 
manner of making manure, I would refer to the statement made by 
me last year ; — which may be found commencing on the 23d page 
of the pamphlet published in 1829. 

I have only to add to that statement, that I have this year been 
preparing about three acres of rough pasture land for tillage. 
The products of ray farm this season have been as follows : — 
English Hay, - -. - - - • 20 tons 

Meadow Hay, 8 ** 

Second Crop, - - - - - ^ ^h " 
Indian Corn, 380 baskets, each weighing 43 pounds, 
making in the whole IG^O pounds ; allowing 80 
pounds for a bushel, we have 204 bushels and 
one peck- 
Barley, ...---- ^ 35 bushels 

Potatoes, f 530 *' 

Turnips, 265 " 

Pears, -.--.-- 8 " 

Summer Apples, - - ^ -^ - - 40 ** 
Winter Apples, - - - - . 40 barrels 

Cider, - - 10 " 

Cheese, (two meal) - - - - 115 pounds 

Milk sold, - - - ^ - ^ 60 gallons 

Butter, .-,..- ^ 1127^ pounds 

Pork, -.----, 2000 pounds 

Calves, (eight) from the cows, sold for - 44 dollars. 

Besides the above, the farm has yielded peas, beans and vegeta- 
bles of all kinds, sufficient for the use of a family which consisted 
during 4 months of the season of 20 persons, and at no time of less 
than 12. I would say here that the quantity of winter apples on the 
farm, both the last year and this, has been less than usual ; the 
average crop is from 80 to 100 barrels. I have had 150 barrels in 
a year. 



A particular nccuunt of the proceeds of the Dairy. 

In March we made - - - 10 lbs of butter. 

April 3 ... 6 

10 - - - - 19 

17 . . - 21 

24 ... - 23i 



Oct. 



9 
16 



May 1 - - - 24^ 

8 - - ^ - 29,i 

15 . . , 35 

22 - - - - 41 

29 ... 30 



June 5 > - - - 40i 

JO ... 49^ 

19 - - - - 46 

36 - - - 44^ 



July 3 - • - - 40 

10 . - , 40 

17 - . - - 33 

24 . - > 324 

31 ... - 28 



Aug. 7 , - - 33 

14 - . - - 31i 

21 - . - 32 

28 - - - ' 34 



Sept. 4 - - - 32 

11 . . - . 32i 
18 - - - 31 

25 - - , - • 29i 



33 

3U 

35 



23 . - - - 3U 
30 - • - 32i 



79i 



160 



•180i 



173i 



.130i 



1241 



•\t^ 



13 

Proceeds of the Dairy — amount brought over 1005^ lbs. 

Nov. 6 - - - - 26 

13 - - - 28i 

20 . . - - 3Ii 

30 ... 30 



.122i 



Total, - 1127ilbs. 

I have had this season eight cows. During the summer months, 
four or five of the family were accustomed to use milk both at 
breakfast and supper ; and I suppose that we used in the family the 
milk of two cows or more. 

Quantity of Labour from the first of November, 1828, to the first 
of November , 1829. 

Myself the whole year — One man 10 months— Another man 9 
months — And another man 5 months. Besides my own labour, 
there were C24 days work done upon the farm, and in the manu- 
facture, that is, the cutting and preparing for those who make them 
of 13,000 pair of shoes — The shoes, (taking the estimate of Messrs. 
Putnam and Preston given in the pamphlet above referred to, page 
26, as correct) would require the labour of one man for 375 days. 
Deducting these 375 days from the above 624 — we have left for 
labour on the farm 249 days for one man, in addition to my own 
labour. 

DANIEL PUTNAM. 

Danvcrs, November 30M, 1829. 



JOHN ADAMS'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee on Farms. '^ 

Gentlemen — The number of acres of land I improve is 113. 
Pasturage about 59 acres — the most of which has been ploughed 
and improved. My tillage land for raising corn, grain and grass, 
comprises about 35 acres. Natural mowing, meadow and swamp 
land includes 19 acres. "Woodland, (principally young wood) is 
about 119 acres. I improve as tillage, for corn and grain from 10 
to 12 acres annually. I raise from 40 to 50 bushels of corn upon 
an acre, and generally put my manure in the hill. I raise all th© 



14 

different kinds of small grain— such as wheat, rye, barley and oats — 
generally not far from 200 bushels in all annually. When I lay 
down my ground to grass, I carry on my winter manure and plough 
it in. My average number of horned cattle is about 25 ; two horses, 
and twenty sheep. My stock usually consists of from six to eight 
oxen, and ten cows — remainder young cattle. I generally sell, six or 
eight loads of English hay. I carry upon my farm about 120 loads 
of manure; 60 of which I put upon my corn hills. I raise about 
350 bushels of potatoes a year. I have set out and engrafted a 
large number of apple trees, which are beginning to bear the best 
kind of fruit. My average number of barrels of cider is about one 
hundred a year. I pay for labour, which I hire, about 140 dollars 
annually. 

JOHN ADAMS. 
Andovcr, November 27th, 1829. 



DAVID GRAY'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of Farms in 1820. 

Gentlemen — My farm, situate in the South Parish of Andover, 
contains about one hundred acres — about thirty acres is used for 
tillage and mowing — the remainder for pasturing. For a more par^ 
ticular description of my lands, I refer to my statements heretofore 
published by the Society. 

I have planted the present year six acres, with corn and pota- 
toes — the produce is as follows : — 

Indian Corn in the ear, - - - - 463 bushels 

Potatoes, 200 

Pumpkins, -.---• 9 carts full 

Round Turnips, ----- * 20 bushels. 
I sowed, the last spring about one and a half acres, with barley, 
oats, and flax, and obtained a good crop of each. 

Stock. I usually keep four oxen, eight cows, and a number of 
young cattle — making my stock on an average about twenty -six 
head of horned cattle — one horse, and fourteen sheep. This stock 
is fed with the fodder obtained from about twenty-five acres mowed 
annually ; — and I usually sell from two to four tons of English hay. 
I cannot state the number of pounds of butter and cheese made, 
not having kept a particular account of the same ; — but can say. 



15 

that I have found my dairy, when well attended to, one of the best 
sources of income, on my farm. 

Orcharding. I have a large number of young and thrifty ap- 
ple trees, in a bearing condition. They produce as well as any 
other trees that I have seen, and this without any extra expense of 
cultivation. They are scattered in different parts of my tillage 
and pasture land ; and generally placed in the best soil, and where 
they would be most likely to grow. I have obtained from them 
about fifty barrels, of fall and winter apples, and about sixty barrels 
of cider the present season. 

Labour. Two men and one bay have been employed on the 
farm. Mfe have occasionally done labour with our teams off of the 
farm — ^jjiounting to half of the labour of one man, through the 
season. 

For my methods of making manure, — clearing my lands of rocks, 
of which I have a plenty ; — and fencing them with stone wall, at 
which I have done much, — I would refer to the statements before 
mentioned. 

DAVID GRAY, 

Andovcr, Nove.y.ber 27tJi, 1829. 



JAMES STEVENS 2d's STATEMENT. 

To the Committee on Inarms. 

Gentlemen, — According to the best of my knowledge I give 
you an account of my farm and the management. My farm con- 
tains about ninety acres, exclusive of woodland. It is divided 
nearly as follows — about forty acres of pasturing, and the remainder 
mowing and tillage. I usually sow from four to six acres, and plant 
from six to eight acres, annually. The manner of preparing the 
land for the seed is as follows : — After the crop of grass is taken 
from the field, as soon as convenient I plough the ground, let it re- 
main till spring, then I cross plough it. I usually plant the same 
land two years in succession. I then sov/ it with barley or oats, 
and lay it down to grass. My manner of applying manure to this 
land is, after the first ploughing in the spring I spread the green 
manure, made at the barn during the past winter, and plough it in 
deep so as to prevent evaporation. Manure that is made in the 



16 

barn-yarJ, during the summer months, I cart out in the month of 
November, and lay it in large heaps. In the spring I cart out from 
my hog-yard all the manure to the same heaps taken from my 
barn-yard ; I then have it all thrown over and mixed together ; 
it is then prepared for the hill. I then put a large iron shovel full 
in a hill ; and in this way, with a common season, I have a good 
crop of corn, generally from forty to fifty bushels to the acre. 

Making Manure. I cart into my barn-yard a quantity of green 
sods, such as I get from the sides of the road, and muck taken 
from low wet places, this, together with what my cattle make during 
the summer months, is about forty loads. I also cart of the same 
material into my hog-yard at several different times, so as io enable 
my hogs to have a fresh supply of earth. My hog-yard ig so con- 
structed as to receive all the manure from my horses, and with the 
aid of ray hogs I am able to take from the hog-yard about fifty loads 
in a year. 

Grass Land. I have a variety of this kind of land. On ray 
plough-land I generally get, three or four of the first seasons after 
sowing, from one and a half to two tons to the acre. It is generally 
ploughed once in about seven or eight years. I have not been in 
the habit of giving this kind of land a top-dressing. The last year, 
on about three acres, I spread thirty loads of manure from my barn- 
yard, and I was satisfied that it very much increased the crop of 
grass the present season. I have for a number of years put a top- 
dressing, composed of rich soil, wash, &c., on a number of acres 
not capable of being ploughed, and increased not only the quantity 
but also the quality. I think there is double the quantity of hay 
cut on my farm now that there was ten years ago. 

Pasturing. This kind of land is generally cold, flat and much 
inclined to bushes. The improvement on this kind of land has 
principally been confined to about ten acres, Vv^ith the exception of 
cutting bushes on the remainder. This ten acres, eight yeara 
since, would not yield feed sufficient to keep two cows through the 
season. It was principally covered with killamb, blue flag, &lc. 
I have ploughed it, and part of it is left in ridges with ditches suffi- 
cient to drain it. The last season, according to the best of my 
judgment, without weight and measure, eleven tons of the first 
quality of English hay, about ninety bushels of corn, and about one 
hundred and fifty bushels of potatoes were taken from it — which. 



17 

together with the labour may be Talued at the moderate price 'of 
ten dollars per ton, - - - - $110 00 

Ninety bushels of corn, at 75 cents per bushel - 67 50 
One hundred and fifty bushels potatoes at 25 cents 

per bushel, • - - . - 37 50 



Total value of the produce, labour included, - 215 00 

On the above ten acres I have set out about seventy young ap- 
ple trees ; about fifty of them are grafted with the best of winter 
fruit. The orcharding on the rest of my farm is scattered. Many 
of the trees have within a few years been grafted. 

My stock generally consists of one horse, sometimes two, and 
about fifteen head of neat stock, composed of four oxen, five cows, 
and the remainder young cattle, I commonly have from six to ten 
swine. I think I can estimate the labour on my farm not to exceed 
that of one man and a boy, with the exception of the hay season, 
when an additional man is necessary. 
I am, very respectfully yours, 

JAMES STEVENS, 2d. 

Andover, November 2oih, 1829. 



II. IMPROVEMENT OP WET MEADOW LANDS, 

The Committee on the Improvement of Wet Meadow Land, sub- 
mit the following 

REPORT :— 
Parcels of improved meadow or swamp land were offered for ex- 
amination to the Committee by 

Mr. Jacob Osgood, of Andover ■ 
Col. Jesse Putnam, of Danvers ; 
Rev. Henry Colman, of Salem, on his farm in Lynn. 
Mr. Osgood has reclaimed about two acres of a bog meadow, so 
soft and spungy that it was very difficult to walk over it without 
sinking into the mire. The improvement, begun about fifty years 
ago, and continued from time to time since, has been by draining 
it, — then putting on sand to the depth of an inch and a half, and 

3 



18 

adding a small quantity of manure. By this process it has been 
converted into good mowing land. For a particular description of 
the process of reclaiming wet meadow land, in this and the follow- 
ing instances, the Committee would refer to the statements accomn 
panying this report. 

Col. Putnam has at different times reclaimed about two acres and 
three-quarters of wet meadow — the last acre and a quarter in 1627, 
23 and 29 — by ditching and carrying on sand in large quantities. 
Loam he thinks will not do for this purpose. The expence has 
been large, but the net income of the meadow since the improve- 
ment has amounted on an average to twelve dollars an acre an- 
nually. Both Mr. Osgood and Col. Putnam have in turn obtained 
the first premium offered by this Society for the besl cultivated farm. 

Mr. Colman's reclaimed meadow on his farm in Lynn, near 
Salem, was examined by the Committee. Several acres of wet 
land, nearly worthless before, have been effectually drained and 
and now produce large crops in grass and tillage. This improve- 
ment has been made by means of covered drains, excepting the 
main drain, and the operation seems to have been conducted in a 
very judicious and ecoiiomical manner. The Committee think the 
mode adopted by Mr. Colman a very good one, and perhaps the 
best where it is practicable. For a very satisfactory account of this 
improvement they would refer to his statement. This farm has 
been but three or four years in the possession of Mr. Colman ; 
and the Committee are not acquainted with any farm in the Coun- 
ty where greater improvements have been made in so short a 
time, or prosecuted with more judgment and on a better system. 

The farm of the late Col. Pickman, of Salem, now owned by his 
family, and occupied by Mr, Erastus Ware, was visited by your 
Committee. This farm, which 'is known to be among the largest 
and best cultivated farms in the County, has been described in a 
former report to this Society. Agriculture is carried on by Mr. 
Ware with skill and success, and the farm is becoming gradually 
more rich and productive. 

As only a part of the Committee were able to visit and ex- 
amine the Meadows entered for premiums in two instances ; your 
Committee think it may be more satisfactory to refer the award of 
the premiums altogether to the decision of the Trustees. 
Respectfully submitted, 

F. HOWES, Chairman. 
December 30, 1829. 



19 

At a meeting of the Tru?tees of the Essex Agricultural Society : 
the premiums on the Improvement of Wet Meadow Lands wera 
awarded as follows : — 

Rev. Henry Colman, 1st premiurn, •• - 20 dollars. 

Col. Jesse Putnam, 2d premium, - - • 10 " 



HENRY COLMAN'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society on Reclaimed 

Meadow. 

Gentlemen — The reclaimed meadow which I propose for tho 
examination of the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society 
contains more than one acre and a quarter. 

In the fall of 1S27 I began clearing it. There were many bushes 
to be cut down and it was covered with coarse grass and rushes. 
A large part of it was constantly overflowed or filled with water, 
presenting a deep, miry, peaty soil, and scarcely in some places 
passable for a man, much less for cattle. In some parts the peat 
soil is deep ; but in most cases at the distance of three or four feet 
we reach a hard bottom of clay and gravel. 

I began the improvement of it by making a drain of three feet 
deep and about two feet wide in the centre for the whole length of 
the meadow to a place, where by cutting through a very rocky 
piece of ground, which formed a kind of embankment, there was a 
sufficient descent to take off the water. Then by forming drains of 
less dimensions round the out side of the meadow at the foot of the as- 
cending ground, I cut off effectually all the springs, which flowed into 
it from tho neighbouring hills ; and by connecting the side drains 
with the main drain by lateral branches have turned all the water 
into the centre drain, and thus led it off from the field. The drains 
are covered excepting the outlet to the main drain. A channel of 
about four or six inches square was laid on the bottom of each ditch 
with such stones as we could find in the vicinity ; they were then 
covered with the flattest or most suitable stones, which presented 
themselves; a quantity of small stones was then thrown in pro- 
miscuously ; a layer of thatch or Btraw placed on these, and enough 
dirt returned to fill it up ; and the whole levelled and smoothed off. 
The top stones of the drain were always kept ao far below the sur- 
face as not to interfere with the plough. 



20 

My meadow is completely drained. It was ploughed in the 
spring, and promises to yield a good crop of potatoes.* No water 
now stands upon it and none remains after rains longer than upon 
aay other part of the farm, which is as level. I design to plant it 
one year more, when I think all the sods and hillocks will be com- 
pletely crumbled and then lay it down in grass, confident of success 
from the result of a similar experiment on a piece of land about one 
fourth of an acre, which from being impassable, worthless, and filled 
with skunk cabbage and other noxious weeds, is now the best piece 
of grass land on the place; and though drained and laid down after 
one summer's fallow with manure and with sowing only a few tur- 
nips, with hoeings sufficient to break the sods to pieces and after- 
wards sown with grass seed and carefully rolled, has this year 
yielded two abundant crops of excellent hay. 

I have applied sea sand to wet land, ploughing it in, but perhaps 
from using it too copiously thought that the land was impoverished 
fey it. I have seen meadows made hard by covering them with 
gravel ; but besides the expense deem it of doubtful expediency to 
cover land with a perfectly barren and inert substance. My own 
experiments in this way kave not been satisfactory ; and as the late 
intelligent President of the Essex Agricultural Society remarks,"!" 
**if meadows admit of being thoroughly drained by ditching, I 
would never carry on gravel or sand, absolutely barren substances." 
In most cases of meadows reclaimed by gravel the produce has been 
of a very ordinary quality ; and filled with plants accustomed to wet 
and soaked lands, which afford an herbage neither savory nor nu- 
trious to cattle. 

The drains formed as above, where stones are near and abund- 
ant are not expensive ; and if well made will stand, according to 
the best writers, for half a century. An intelligent English farmer 
recommends that whenever made, they should be laid down on a plan 
of the farm, so that if occasion should require they may be found 
and repaired without difficulty. They should be sufficiently nu- 
merous and capacious to take off' all the water that is likely to be 
led into them without much delay ; otherwise as it is sometimes 
termed they become blown, that is, the water forces itself up on 
the top of the ground. I have several acres of wet land, of little 

• The crop was planted in very wide rowc and measured about one hundred 
and fifty bushels — November, 1629, 
1 Col. Pickering. 



21 

value before, which have been laid dry in this way, and arc now 
under easy cultivation, bearing good crops of grass, potatoes, and 
Indian Corn. 

I am, Gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

HENRY COLMAN. 

September 30, 1829. 



JESSE PUTNAM'S STATEMENT. 

To the Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Gentlemen — Having observed for several years past, that premi- 
ums were oifered by your Society for the improvement of wet 
meadow lands ; — and not having learned that any persons have pre- 
sented claims for these premiums, in years past, I am induced to 
state for your consideration, the manner in which I have dealt with 
my meadows, as I have had opportunity. It will be a source of 
satisfaction to me, if my mode of management shall be found to 
meet your approbation. It was not done with a view to obtaining 
any other premium, than that which I expected to find, rn the im- 
proved produce of the land, both in quantity and quality ; — and in 
this I have not been disappointed. 

My first experiment was made on about three-fourths of an acre 
of land in 1807 and 8. It was a miry, wet meadow; spongy, and 
impossible to be carted on, except when frozen. It yielded very 
little but polypod, and very little of that. We considered what 
grew on it, as of scarcely any value. I commenced by carting 
about two hundred loads of stubble stones, and spreading the same 
upon the surface of the meadow, when it was frozen. I then ditch- 
ed it, with ditches about three feet wide, and between two and three 
rods apart, and spread the materials that were taken from the same 
over the stones. I then carried on gravel and loam sufficient to 
cover the stones, and make the surface smooth. Where there were 
no stones, the gravel was carried on from four to six inches in 
depth. After this I put on a coating of soil and compost manure, 
about one inch thick, mixed together. Sowed it down with herds- 
grass, red top, and clover, with oats. The first year it yielded a 
fair crop of oats, that were mowed for fodder. The second year, it 
produced at least two tons to the acre ; and has continued to pro- 
duce as much as that, each year since. In addition to the first 



22 

crop, I have every year mowed a second crop upon it. I have cal- 
culated to put the same value of compost manure upon it in each 
year, as I obtained second crop from it in the preceeding year. I 
have spread upon it, from six to eight loads of compost manure an- 
nually — but these would not average to contain more than one 
chord of real manure annually. The second crop has paid for all I 
have done to the land since it was first prepared. I have sowed 
grass seed upon it about every third year. 

In 1811, I made another experiment on about half an acre of 
meadow, by carrying coarse rocky gravel upon it. The gravel was 
laid upon it from six to twelve inches thick. Experience has prov- 
ed that too much gravel was carried on. It has not answered my 
expectations. 

In 1821 and 2, I made another experiment on about three- 
fourths of an acre of wet, miry meadow, situate to the east of my 
house, near the road. I commenced here by turning the soil up- 
side down, and throwing it into ridges between two and three rods 
wide — the materials taken from the ditches were thrown upon these 
ridges. The meadow was flowed in the autumn — and upon the ice 
in the winter, I carried on sand and spread it upon the ridges about 
four inches deep. In the spring I planted these ridges with pota- 
toes, dunged with coarse manure, ajid obtained about a middling 
crop. The next winter I carried on a coating of soil and compost 
manure — and in the spring sowed it down with oats, herds-grass, 
red top and clover. The crops since have been the largest grass I 
have had upon the farm, and of a quality that commanded as good 
a price as any that I had to sell. I have each year mowed a good 
second crop also. I have put a dressing of compost manure on it 
each year. 

In 1827, I reclaimed about half an acre of meadow, at the lower 
end of my field in the same way 

In 1828 and 1829, I have also brought in about three-fourths of 
an acre more of my meadow land in the same way. 

This kind of land requires manuring and dressing each year — and 
the second crop it produces will usually pay for this dressing. 

I have found sand the best material to carry upon meadows. 
The ditches should be kept clear, that the water may run off— other- 
wise the meadov/ grass will return. It will not do to carry loam 
upon meadows — if you do, it will all become meadow again, in a 
few years. 



23 

The expense of doing what I have dono to my meadows, would 
have cost me one hundred dollars an acre if I had have hired it 
done, and had to pay for the labour. But I have done it, at such 
times as I had leisure for my workmen and teams; and when I could 
not have earned more than fifty dollars, in any other way. I there- 
fore estimate the expense to me about fifty dollars an acre. And I 
think the net income of this land has averaged at least twelve dollars 
an acre annually. I have found my labour as well applied here, as 
in any part of my farm. 

JESSE PUTNAM. 

Danvers, December 28, 1829. 

Essex, ss. Dec. 28, 1829, — Subscribed and sworn to before me, 
John W. Proctor, Justice of the Peace. 



JACOB OSGOOD'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society on Farms. 
Gentlemen — 

I have on my farm about two acres of improved meadow land, 
which at the time I began to cultivate, it was merely a bog meadow, 
so spungy and soft, that one could not walk over it but with the 
greatest caution, without sinking in the miie. The produce was 
of little or no value. I commenced about fifty years since my im- 
provement of this meadow land by draining it ; after which I carted 
on sand about one inch and a half in depth, and then put a small 
quantity of manure upon it, and sowed in redtop, herdsgrass 
and some clover seed, and so continued to do until it was well cov- 
ered with English grass. The manure I used was sand, which 
had lain one year in a yard, where I had some dry cattle. As I 
have no cellar under my barn, I put sand where I throw out my 
winter dung. My sheep house and yard are well supplied with 
sand — all of which I annually cart on to my cultivated meadow 
land. The labour of improving this land has been performed, at a 
season of the year when other labour on the farm is not pressing, to 
wit, in the winter, after the meadow is frozen enough for carting 
over, and before the earth is covered with snow. The expence of 
the cultivation cannot therefore be accurately estimated. But after 
two or three of the first years, the annual improvement of the pro- 



24 

duce amply repaid the annual labour. I consider it now as profita- 
ble grass land as any on the farm. I have pursued this course, for 
the time mentioned, and the produce of this meadow land for the 
three last years, has been more profitable than in any of the pre- 
ceeding years, although the quality of the grass has rather depre- 
ciated, yet the quantity has increased in a greater proportion, and 
it is now good stock hay. 

Yours respectfully, 

JACOB OSGOOD. 
AndoveVf Novemher %ith, 1829. 



III. ON PLOUGHING—DOUBLE TEAMS. 

The Committee upon Ploughing with two yoke"of Oxen 

Report : — 
That seven teams were entered for premiums— and performed the 
work in the following manner ; — 

No. 1. Enos Kendrick, of Amesbury, 30 furrows in 58 min. 

** 2. Moses Kimball, of Boxford, 

** 3. John Bricket, jr. of Haverhill, 

" 4. Richard Jaques, of Newbury, 

" 5. Perley Tapley, of Danvers, 

** 6. Isaac Osgood, Esq. of Andover, 

*' 7. Robert Stewart, of Haverhill, 

The Committee award premiums as follows : — 

To Enos Kendrick, the first premium, 

*' Perley Tapley, the second premiumj 

" John Bricket, jr. third premium. 

The whole work, by all the teams, was performed so well, that 

the Committee had difficulty in deciding among the claimants, and 

therefore take the liberty to recommend that a gratuity be awarded 

to Richard Jaques, Isaac Osgood, Esq. and Robert Stewart, of four 

dollars each, instead of awarding the fourth premium to any one of 

them. 

The team of three horses, by Rufus Slocum, of Haverhill, per- 
formed its work with skill and dispatch — to wit, in 45 minutes \ and 



28 


<« 




71 


23 


<( 




50 


28 


(< 




64 


28 


n 




64 


28 


ct 




61 


24 


t< 




64 


s : — 




16 dollars. 


- 




12 


(< 


. 




S 


(( 



25 

as well as the average of the Ox-teams ; but as no premium was 
oflfercd for horse teams, the Committee recommend a gratuity of 
three dollars to be given to Mr. Slocum. 
All which is submitted. 
Haverhill, Oct, 1, 1829. I. TUCKER, Chairman, 



ON PLOUGHING— SINGLE TEAMS. 

The Committee on Ploughing with Single Teams, Report i — 
That four teams were entered for ploughing — That the lots were 
drawn as follows : — 

Lot No. 1. Jonathan J. Porter, of Boxford, ploughed one fourth 
of an acre in 54 minutes, with 38 furrows. 

Lot No. 3. Henry Martin, of Salem, ploughed one fourth of an 
acre in about 54 minutes, with 46 furrows. 

Lot No. 3. Daniel Putnam, of Danvers, ploughed one fourth of 
an acre in 58 minutes, with 42 furrows* 

Lot No. 4. Perley Tapley, of Danvers, ploughed one fourth of an 
acre in 54i minutes, with 47 furrows. 

The ploughing was, in the opinion of the Committee, performed 
in a more workmanlike manner and with less labour than in any 
former year. The ploughs used by Tapley and Putnam laid the 
furrow slice the closest, and a majority of the committee are of 
opinion that this ploughing is preferable in common cases. 

The plough used by Henry Martin went apparently with much 
ease, and performed the work well ; but in the opinion of the commit- 
tee is better adapted to seed sowing, than to ploughing sward ground. 
The plough used by Jonathan J. Porter was of bad construction, 
for any use, there not being sufficient depth under the beam to ena- 
ble it to keep itself clear. It was however drawn by a superior pair 
of oxen and held by an experienced driver, and with a plough of 
good construction he would probably have done work equal to 
either team. 

Taking every thing into account, the Committee have awarded the 
1st premium of 12 dollars, to Perley Tapley, of Danvers. 
2d premium of 9 dollars, to Daniel Putnam, of Danvers. 
3d premium of 6 dollars, to Henry Martin, of Salem. 
4th premium of 3 dollars, to Jonathan Jo Porter, of Boxford, 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

DANIEL ADAMS, 3d, Per order. 
4 



26 
ON WORKING OXEN, AND BEST PLOUGH. 

The Committee appointed to award the premiums offered for the 
best Plough, and the best working Oxen, consisting oV Jesse Put- 
nam, Moaes VVingate, Daniel Fuller and Stephen Abbot, have at- 
tended to that duty and Report : — 

That they examined the cattle as they worked upon the plough, 
and also with a loaded waggon up and down hill, and in backing 
such loads. Many of the cattle were of good size and well trained. 
The Committee were unanimous in the opinion that the premiums 
for the best working oxen be awarded to Perloy Tapley, of Danvers, 
for his brindle oxen six years old. 

The whole number of ploughs used in the field was twelve, but 
eight of which were entered for premium. 

The construction of these ploughs was various, some of them hav- 
ing cast iron mould boards, with cast iron chips, and wrought iron 
shares — some with cast iron chips, mould boards, and shares, and 
some the iron work all wrought. 

The Committee were divided in the opinion as to the utility of 
having the chips of cast iron. The ploughs used by Mr. Putnam 
and Mr. Tapley, of Dan vers, were considered the best in the field. 
These ploughs were made by Messrs. Pike and Spaulding, of 
Danvers. The Committee, after much deliberation as to which 
should have the preference, have agreed that the premiums be 
awarded to Mr Daniel Putnam, for his plough, with cast iron mould 
board, wooden chips, plated and wrought iron share. 

The ploughs that made the best work, wore furnished with a 
wheel under the beam, and a revolving cutter. These additions 
the Committee consider essential improvements in the construction 
of the breaking up plough. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JESSE PUTNAM, Per order. 

Haverhill, Oct. 1, 1829. 



IV ON LIVE STOCK. 

The Committee for awarding the premiums on the Animals ex- 
hibited this day at the Cattle Show in Haverhill, Report as follows: 



27 

Dulls. 

TI1C7 ivwanl tlie prcniium for the best bull, two yettis old, lo 
Samuel Pecker, of Haverhill, - - . - 15 dollars. 

The premium for the second best bull, two years old, to James 
11. Duncan, of Haverhill, .... 10 dollars. 

To Billy Emerson, of Topsfield, for a fine bull calf, exhibited by 
him, the Committee recommend a gratuity of - 5 dollars. 

Two bulls, three years old, one owned by Samuel Pecker, the 
other by B. Walker — were offered to the view of the Committee. 
They were largo and well formed animals, but considering their 
age, the committee did not think either of them entitled to a 
premium. 

There were also two fine bulls, seventeen months old — one own- 
ed by Samuel Bailey, the other by Noah J. Noyes. 

Milch Cows. 

The premium for the best milch cow, the Committee award to 
Jeremiah Stickney, of Rowley, - • - • 16 dollars. 

The premium for the second best, to John E. Goss, of Brad- 
ford, -- 10 dollars. 

For the third best, to John Torrey, of Newbury, 5 dollars. 

Mr. Stickney's cow was remarkable for the quantity and quality 
of her milk, and the large size of her calves. Kept only on hay 
last winter, she gave milk to the time of her calving in April, and 
her calf then weighed 93 pounds ; at six weeks old, 190 pounds; 
and at five months and three days old, 424 pounds. The average 
quantity of her milk in June, July and September was upwards of 
16 quarts per day. For a more particular account of this cow, 
which must be interesting to all farmers concerned in the dairy, 
the Committee would refer to the statement of Mr. Stickney which 
accompanies this report. 

The Cow of Mr. Goss, [during the present season, from April 
IGth, to September 30th, gavo 375 gallons of milk, weighing 3902 
pounds. Four gallons of the milk made 1 pound 14 ounces of 
butter. 

Heifers. 

The Committee award the premium for the best heifer, to James 

Ayer, of Haverhill, 10 dollars. 

For the second best, to Rev. Abiel Abbot, of Andover, 5 dollars. 



28 

Mr. Ayer's hcifef was two years old in April last ; calved May 
6th, and gave during June and July, 11 quarts of milk per day ; 
and at this time about Gh quarts. Her only food was what she ob- 
tained from a very high and dry pasture. 

The heifer of Mr. Abbot was three years old — her milk of a good 
quality, about 9 quarts per day during the best part of the season, 
and held out much better than that of his other cows, especially in 
the winter. 

Two very fine heifers, belonging to William P. Endicott, of Dan- 
vers, were exhibited, but not for a premium ; one of them was 15 
and the other 16 months old. 

Two good heifers were also offered to the view of the Committee 
by Mr. John Torrey. 

Steers. 

For the best pair of two year old steers, the Committee award 
the premium to James Ayer, of Haverhill, - - 5 dollars. 

For the best pair of three year old steers, a premium of 10 dollars 
wag offered by the Trustees. The Committee after some hesitation 
recommend, that it be divided between two of the candidates, as 
follows. 

To David Gray, of Andover, for his pair of three year old 
steers, ..,..--- 5 dollars. 

To Jesse Putnam, of Danvers, for his pair of three year old 
steers, »*-.---- 5 dollars. 

To William P. Endicott, of Danvers, for a fine pair of yearling 
steers, sired by Admiral, the Committee recommend a gratuity 
of-. *-- 6 dollars. 

A pair of twin steers, 5 months old, belonging to Mr. Endicott, 
were at the exhibition, and were very beautiful and promising 
animals. 

A large and well formed pair of four year old steers, belonging to 
Rev. Abiel Abbot, and another similar pair, to Moses Clark, were 
exhibited, but not for a premium. 

A remarkably large ox, of a fine form, eight years old, and 
altogether a noble looking animal, raised by Moses Newell, of West 
Newbury, was exhibited by him. The weight of the ox was 2223 
poundsi For this ox the Committee recommend to Mr. Newell a 
ffratuitv of --------7 dollars. 



29 

To Moses Clark for a pair of yearling steers, deemed very good, 
the Committee recommend a gratuity of - - 3 dollars. 

The number of cattle at the Show, was not so great ae in some 
former years, but they were perhaps not inferior in quality. The 
milch cows were considered very good. The Committee regretted 
hat so icw cows and oxen were seen at the exhibition, except the 
oxen at the ploughing match, where the teams were more numerous 
than usual. It is true that the farmers in Essex do not raise so 
much of their own stock as those in other agricultural counties. 
But Essex can and ought to excel in the products of tlie dairy, in 
the number and excellence of its milch cows, and in its working 
oxen. No articles, which the farmer brings to market, command a 
moro ready sale than butter and cheese, especially the former. 
None have better sustained their prices during an almost universal 
depression of agricultural produce, as well as of other commodities. 

In Worcester, and in some other counties, great numbers of the 
best working oxen are brought together on these anniversaries. If 
the patriotic farmers of Essex would imitate this example, it would 
add much to the interest, as well as to the utility of these exhibi- 
tions. Few counties possess greater advantages for raising good 
oxen, or a soil on which they can be more profitably employed, or 
can furnish a more ready sale for them, whether in the condition of 
working oxen or fat ones. 

The Committee are of opinion, that there are many animals in 
this county equal if not superior to some which obtained the 
premium. If the owners choose to keep them at home, and suffer 
the premium to be given to their neighbours, for inferior animals, 
they have nobody but themselves to blame. 

FREDERICK HOWES, Chairman. 
Haverhill, Oct, 1, 1829. 



JEREMIAH STICKNEY'S STATEMENT. 

The cow offered, by the subscriber, was purchased by him in the 
spring of 1828. She was bred in West-Newbury, and was eight 
years old last spring, as appears by an accompanying certificate. 
This Cow was considered by her former ov/ner, as very remarkable 
iox the calves she brought, and for the quantity and quality of the 
milk she gave. She gave, kept only on hay, milk up to the time of 



30 

her calving, last spring, which was on the 25th day April, when 
ghe brought a cow calf, whose weight at its birth was 93 pounds. 
At the age of six weeks, its weight was 190 pounds. The weight 
of the calf at the age of five moni-bs and three days was 424 pounds. 
The calf has taken half the milk of the cow — has fed on grass, and 
has eaten some provender (shorts and meal.) The calf was sired 
by a Bull of the Sandwich Breed. 

The keeping of the cow, the past season, has been in a common 
pasture, with a small qaantity of shorts and meal daily. The calf 
has been taken from the cow entirely, several days, at different 
times, for the purpose of ascertaining the quantity of milk she 
would give, and the following is the result : — 

On the 2d day of June, 18 qts. beer measure, weighing 46 lbs. 
" " 15th, " " '♦ 18 qts. " " " 46 " 

" *♦ 26th, " " July, 14 qts. " " " 36 " 

" « 6th, " " Sept. 16f qts. " « '* 39i " 

As above stated, the calf has taken half the milk from the cow, 
and my family, which has consisted tha past season of five grown 
persons and six children, have used the milk freely, as I have kept 
no other cow. 

The following is the quantity of Butter made from her milk, after 
supplying her calf and my family, as above, viz : — From April 25th 
to September 26th, 1829, being 22 weeks, - 88 pounds. 

In the month of June, were made • - 25 j pounds. 

The calf, I exhibit with the cow, on account of its size and 
beauty. 

JEREMIAH STICKNEY, 

Rowley y Sept. 29, 1829. 

I, the subscriber, do hereby certify, that I raised a heifer c^lf and 
kept her till she was four years old, and then sold her to Mr. 
Charles Tidds, of Rowley ; she was of good breed, very good for 
milk, a;id brought very fine calves; one calf at four weeks old the 
quarters weighed 101 pounds; she had a calf at two years old. 

JACOB EMERY. 

West-Newbury, Sept. 30, 1829. 

I hereby certify, that I purchased of Mr. Jacob Emery, of West- 
Newbury, a large red white faced cow, four years old, in the sprijig 
of 1825. I kept her three years, and she is now owned by Mi% 



31 

Jeremiah Stickney, of Rowley. Sho produced, while I owned her, 
remarkably large and fine calves, one of wlijch weighed at its birth 
ninety-eight pounds ; I kept one other cow at the same time, which 
was as good as cows will average, but which did not give more than 
half the quantity of milk and of a quality much inferior, afforded 
by the cow above described. The cows were both kept alike and 
ou nothiug more than common keeping. The milk of this cow was 
of a very rich quality. 

SAMUEL C. TIDDS. 
Rowley, Sept. 22, 1829. 



V. EXPERIMENTS ON RAISING POTATOES. 

The Committee appointed to award Premiums on Potatoes, con- 
sisting of Paul Kent, Nathaniel Felton, jr. and David Gray, have 
attended to that duty and Report : — 

That claims were entered for the premiums offered, for the best 
conducted experiment in the raising of potatoes, &c. 
By Jesse Putnam, of Danvers ; 

Daniel Burnham, of Newburyport ; 
Thomas Payson, of Rowley. 
The committee have awarded the first premium on the subject to 

Jesse Putnam, * 15 dollars. 

The second premium to Daniel Burnham, - 10 dollars. 

The committee were well pleased with the accounts of these ex- 
periments, and would recommend that the same be published in 
connection with the Report. 

The committee have awarded also the first premium of ten dol- 
lars to Mr. Daniel Burnham, for his experiment in raising potatoes 
from the seed of the green balls, &.c. 
Submitted by 

PAUL KENT, Per Order. 
November, 1829, 



32 

JESSE PUTNAM'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society on Experi- 
ments in the raising of Potatoes. 
Gentlemen — I submit to your consideration the following ac- 
count of a lot of land planted with several kinds of Potatoes in the 
season of 1829. The parcel of ground contained about one hun- 
dred square rods, being eleven rods in length and nine rods wide. 
The soil is a dark loam, naturally rocky, but now chiefly cleared of 
stones ; and is of good quality. It was situate on the eastern side 
of IngersolPs Hill, in Danvers, near the Newburyport Turnpike. 
The land was planted in 1S2S with potatoes, and lightly manured, 
with manure made principally from meadow hay. In the spring of 
1829, the land was twice ploughed — the first time coarse, and the 
seeond time fine — the ploughing was on an average about sis inches 
deep. On the 23d day of May the land was planted, the rows be- 
ing across the lot, nine rods long. The manure was of a coarse 
quality, taken from the barn cellar, made from the litter and drop- 
pings of the cattle — three fourths of the bulk appeared to be meadow 
hay — it was placed in the hills, and covered with the seed. The 
rows were furrowed four feet apart, and there were planted sixty- 
six hills in a row, leaving the hills about twenty-seven inches apart, 
on an average. Three cords of manure was put upon the land the 
present season. Four different kinds of seed were planted : — 

1. The long red, or River La Plate Potatoes. 

2. The speckled blues, a kind that has been well approved by 

several of our farmers, for a number of years. 

3. The Richardson Whites, with small specks of blue upon them. 

4. A white potatoe raised from the seed of the green Balls by my- 

self 
Each kind were planted in three or four different ways. The 
manner of the planting and the produce is thus stated : — 

1. Long Red Potatoes. 

bushels 
No. 1. 2 rows — one large potatoe in a hill, yielded - 10 J 

2. 2 rows — one large potatoe, cut in four pieces, 

placed in a hill, cu« side up, yielded - 11 1 

3. 2 rows — one large potatoe, cut in four pfcces, 

placed in a hill, cut side down, yielded - 11 f 



33 

Bushels. 
Long Red Potatoes — amount brought up - SS^ 

No. 4. 2 rows — middling size potatoes, two in a hill, 

yielded - - - - - - - llf 

16. 2 rows — one large potatoe in a hill, yielded - lOjj 

17. 2 rows — only 43 hills long, ono large potatoe in a 

hill, yielded - i ... - 7g 

18. 2 rows — same number of hills — middling size po- 

tatoes, three in a hill, yielded - - - 9^ 

22. 2 rows — same number of hills — middling size po- 

tatoes, two in a hill, yielded . « - 8^ 

23. 2 rows — same number of hills, only the stem end 

used, two pieces in a hill, yielded - - 6j 

24. 2 rows — same number of hills — the seed end used, 

about one third part of the potatoe, two pieces 

in a hill, yielded ^ . - - - 8| 



Twenty Rows of this kind yielded - bushels 96| 

2. Speckled Blues. 
No. 5. 2 rows — one large potatoe in a hill, yielded - 8f 

6. 2 rows — one large potatoe, cut in four pieces, 

planted in the hill, yielded - - - 9| 

7. 2 rows — two potatoes in a hill, equal to one large 

one, yielded - - - ^ - - 9^ 

8. 2 rows — one large potatoe in a hill, under the 

dung, yielded .----- 8| 

9. 2 rows — one potatoe, cut in four pieces, under the 

dung, yielded _.-.-- 9| 
10. 2 rows — middling size, two in a hill, yielded - 8i 



Twelve rows of this kind, yielded - bushels 54|| 

3. Richardson Whites, 
No. 11. 2 rows — one large potatoe, with prongs, in a hill, 
and only one or two prongy potatoes raised from 
the whole number of hills, yielded •• - 6 J 

12. 2 rows — one large smooth potatoe in a hill, yielded 6J 

13. 2 rows — one large potatoe, cut in four pieces, 

yielded ------- 6| 

5 



34 

Bushels 
Richardson Whites — amount brought over 20§ 

Nu. 14. 2 rows — middling size, two in a hill, yielded • 6 
15. 2 rows — middling size, three in a hill, yielded - 7| 



Ten rows of this kind yielded - bushels 33| 

4. IMiite Potatoes, raised from Seed of Green Balls. 
No. 19. 1 row — <)6 hills, with the eyes of one large potatoe 

only, planted in each hill, yielded - - 2| 

20. 1 row — 66 hills, one large potatoe in a hill, yielded 3| 

21. 2 rows — 132 hills, one large potatoe cut in four 

pieces, planted in each hill, yielded '• - 6t 



Four rows of this kind yielded - bushels 12j^ 
Whole amount - 197 J bushels. 

With regard to placing the potatoes upon or imder the dung, I 
eonld perceive no difference in the yield. I v^-as disappointed in 
finding that the cut potatoes, and middling sized potatoes, yielded 
better than the large potatoes that were planted whole. I could 
discover that the produce of the large potatoes, that were planted 
whole, were generally of a larger size than the others, but not so 
numerous, or near so valuable for the table. The pieces of the po- 
tatoes that were cut, were placed in the hills about eight inches 
apart. The middling sized potatoes were placed about the same 
distance apart. There was nearly the same quantity of Potatoes, 
in each kind, planted in a row. I am of the opiaion, that it w^ould 
have been well to have spread a part of my manure upon the land, 
if it had been fmo enough for that purpose. And think it would 
have been well to have put one third part more seed on the land. 
I used between fourteen and fifteen bushels of seed in planting. 

JESSE PUTNAM. 

Danvers, Dec. 1, 1829. 

Essex, ss. Dec. 2S, 1829. Then Jesse Putnam made oath, 
that the foregoing statement by him subscribed, is to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, correct and true, before me, 

JoRN W. Vroctoj^, Justice of the Peace. 



.-55 

1)ANIEL BURNHAM'S STATEMENT. 

To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society ^ on Experi- 
ments in the raising of Potatoes. 
Gentlemen — I ofier for your inspection twelve sorts of Potatoes, 
the second season from the seed of the balls. As I have found no 
cause for amending my process of cultivation, and as I have repeat- 
ed it, and you have it on record, I thought it useless to recapitulate 
it. No. ], is excellent, its fair product has been a bushel, to seven 
hills. No, 2 is at full maturity 25th July — its quality is quite good, 
and for an early potatoe, is an abundant bearer. — No«. 3, 4 and 5 
are ripe from the 10th to the 25th of August — their quality is good — 
in no previous year have I succeeded so well in obtaining early 
sorts. — No. 6, is very delicate, but not prolific. No. 7 is good, and 
a middling bearer. No. 8 is a good bearer, but rather inferior in 
quality. Nos. 9, 10, 11 and 12, I should not introduce to your no- 
tice, but to comply with the requisition — I have no value for them. 
Last year I gave it as my opinion, from a number of years experi- 
ence, that it was useless to reserve the product of the first season, 
unless it bore some distinct mark of promise — this year I am fully 
confirmed in that opinion — I should not put by for future planting 
the fruit of a plant, unless the largest was at least, as large as a 
pigeon's eggy and not then, if the small ones were numerous. I 
have invariably found, that when the small ones were many, that I 
could not, by repeated plantings, draw them from this propensity. 
As there hsj been complaint that the seed of the balls, does not 
readily vegeticC, perhaps it may be of some service to say that it is 
quite neces;: ary, that the ground in which it is sown, should be 
very well pulverized — if it is not, there is danger, (the seed is so 
small,) that it will not come in contact with the ground, bo as to 
vegetate. It is well to sow the seed in shoal drills, and when cov- 
ered to press or roll it down. I will likewise say that this season I 
sowed the seed of 1823, and it appeared to take as well as the seed 
of the last year. I observed to the Committee the last Autumn, 
that with me, the fruit of the plants, inclined to take the shape, 
and the shade of those from which the balls were taken — I find that 
it does the same this season, and as the round white potatoe is the 
most popular, is it not best to seek th© balls from the largest and 
best, of this shape and colour. 



36 

Will you allow me, gentlemen, respectfully, to express my sur» 
prize, that the gentlemen farmers belonging to the Society, are re- 
conciled to the Trustees offering a premium, for these experiments, 
and yet that so few of them, are inclined to execute them. Al- 
though they will find, that they require care and thought, yet they 
would find them easy, and very interesting, and would they not, in 
a i'ew years be richly rewarded, by having the community, and 
themselves, well supplied with a large variety of genuine seed, as- 
similated to the climate, and the necessity of offering premiums 
precluded. 

Gentlemen — I further present to your notice, a small field of po- 
tatoes, consisting of 1798 hills. It is a dry declivity, of clayey 
loam — this is the third season it has been cultivated with potatoes. 
The middle of May four cords of common barn manure was ploughed 
into it — It was then harrowed, and holed four feet each way, from 
the centre of the hills — The holes were made very broad, flat, and 
shoal, that the seed might have an equal depth and space. The 
seed was cut lengthways, and two potatoes put in each hill, in four 
pieces, one foot apart — in placing the seed, great care was taken, 
that the cutsides should be uppermost, as in a previous dry year, by 
not attending to this circumstance, those that were put, cut side 
down, did not rise from the ground until near July. My design, 
was not the most abundant, but the most valuable crop — had it have 
been the former, I should have chosen the long red, or River Plate 
potatoe, or some other prolific bearer. I sought for those of the 
most superior quality, that I knew. I therefore took Nos. 1 and 2, 
which are four seasons from the seed of the balls, and for which 
your Society awarded a premium in 1827 — their quality is very 
good, one of them, No. 1, is very superior. For the third, I chose 
the black potatoe, the excellences of which are, that it is a good 
bearer, of good quality, and retains its value through the Summer 
into September, better than any kind I know — it is particularly val- 
uable for long voyages. For the fourth I took the chenango, or as 
it is called in Pensylvania, from whence it came, the Mercer pota- 
toe, and where it commands near double the price, of those com- 
monly received from the North. The form of placing the seed 
brought the plants in the different rows within three feet of each 
other. Four or five of the tall Marrowfat pea, were planted directly 
in the centre of each hill, from which fifteen bushels of green ones 



37 

were produced, which brought in the market 80 cents the bushel, 
except two or three of the last bushels, which commanded only 67 
cents. I believe that more than double the common time was spent 
in p'-^.nting — in do'i.j which, the hoeing was so far executed that 
little was afterwards done, except to move the surface of the ground 
and keep it clear of weeds. Great caution was taken, not to 
raise a high hill, and to leave a bason in each, to collect r id retain 
the rains. The promise of the field was very great, until it was 
checked by severe drought — soon after the rain fell, the rust seized 
the potatoes, and another drought soon following, urged those on 
the higher ground, to full and premature maturity. I have no 
doubt, but you will have before you, a much larger quantity from a 
moist field, and more extended experiments; but I have no tremors 
from the thought, that I shall be exceeded in the cultivation and the 
quality of the crop. The last year, when common potatoes were 
selling from 25 to 30 cents, the black, and chenango readily com- 
manded from 45 to 50 cents. Those from the seed of the balls, I 
had none to part with then, nor shall I have this season, any to dis- 
pose of except for seed entirely. I have an unhesitating belief, 
that these sorts combine as great a degree of excellence, as can be 
found in this region in the same number of sorts. If this may be 
thought an expression too emphatic, I shall be gratified, if the 
movements of the day will admit of their being rightly cooked, that 
it may be done. If it may not be thought too stern a pressure for 
favor, I will add my full conviction, and that of better judges than 
myself, that the form of planting gave at least a quarter part more 
crop, than the [common loose method, and that the crop is from a 
quarter to a third less, from the drought and rust, that the field had 
to encounter. It has been often repeated, that small potatoes were 
as prolific for seed, as the larger size. Last Autumn when I took 
Nos. 1 and 2 from the ground, their quality was such, as induced 
me to select for seed all the fair ones as large as a pigeon's egg — 
they were planted in distinct rows, in the midst of the others, and 
the result is, that the crop from them is a sixth part less, and the 
small ones much more numerous than from the large seed. If I 
shall be present at your meeting, I shall be pleased, to be closely 
interrogated on both my experiments. 



38 

The produce of the several kinds were as follows : 
No. 1, - 4 bushels planted, product 57 bushels — hills 63S 
No. 2, - 2 " " " 25i " " 261 

Black Potatoe, 4 " '* " 42 " " 529 

Chenango or ^ ^ .. ,, „ o.^^ ., ., 3qq 

Mercer Polatoe '^ 



I2h 147 1798 

I am, gentlemen, with respect, your ob't serv't, 

DANIEL BURNHAM. 
Newhunjport, Sept. 29, 1S29. 



THOMAS PAYSON'S STATEMENT. 

This may certify, that the subscriber planted, last May, 105 rodg 
of ground with potatoes; the land was a sandy loam, which had 
been planted one year and sowed the next, in succession for up- 
wards of one hundred years, as my ancestors have stated. 

In April, I turned out the corn roots with a plough, in May, I 
spread about two cords of manure on the same, which was taken 
from my hog yard — ploughed it 16th — Planted it from the 20th to 
the 26th of May, with eleven bushels of potatoes, as follows ; viz : — 

Planted one row, 80 hills, one large red potatoe in a hill, weight 
21i pounds, produced 370 pounds, equal to about 17h from one. 

One row, two pieces in a hill from large potatoes, weight 21 1 
pounds, produced 428 pounds, equal to 19j from one. 

One row, three pieces in a hill, weight 20 pounds, produced 424 
pounds, equal to 21 from one. 

Planted in one row the most prongy red potatoes I could select, 
when gathered proved as fair and as sizeable as those in the ad- 
joining rows. 

Cut out one pound of eyes, planted 56 hills, 6 eyes in a hill, pro- 
duced 120 pounds. 

The above where red potatoes, imported from Belfast, Maine, last 
spring. 

Planted one row, 80 hills, with largo white potatoes, one in a hill, 
weight 201, produced 305 pounds, equal to 14j from one. 

One row, t\vo pieces or halves in a hill, weight 20^, produced 
330 pounds, equal to 16 from one. 



39 

One row, three pieces in a hill, weight 19| produced 288 pounds, 
equal to 14i from one. 

One row, four pieces in a hill, weight 23^ pounds, produced 327 
pounds, equal to 14 from one. 

Planted several more rows promiscuously with large, small and 
cut potatoes — they produced similar to the two last mentioned rows. 
The seed was imported as above stated. 

Planted one bushel of large white potatoes of my own raising, 
weight 63^ pounds, planted 206 hills, produced 13 bushels. 

One bushel of very small potatoes, weight 62^, planted 420 hills, 
produced 26 bushels. 

The other part of the field was planted with seed taken from the 
pile, without selection, the result was similar to that of the last 
mentioned bushel. 

Planted eleven ounces of potatoes, produced from the seed of the 
potatoe balls in 1828, on forty-three hundredths of one square rod 
of land, when gathered weighed 75 pounds, equal to 91 budhels 
from one bushel of seed, allowing G3 pounds to tha bushel. 

THOMAS PAYSON. 

Roicley, Sept. SO, 1829. 



VI. DAIRY. 

The Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society on the Dairy, 
ask leave to Report :— 

Tliat four parcels of butter were presented for their examination ; 
only two of which came within the notice of the Committee as sub- 
jects for premium ; the others not being conformable to the condi- 
tions prescribed by the Trustees, which require the whole produce 
of at least four cows for the 20th of May to the 30th Sept. to be ex- 
actly reported, and samples of at least twenty pounds to be exhibit- 
ed at the Show. 

The Committee are unanimous in the opinion, that Jesse Curtis, 
of Marblehead, is entitled to the Society's first premium of twenty 



40 



dollars, for the best produce of butter in proportion to the number of 
cows producing it, having made, from seven cows, from the 20th May 
to the 30th Sept. 1829, 796 lbs. 1 oz. and from the 27th March 
to the 20th May, 120 lbs. making a total during the present season 
of 916 lbs. 1 oz. and the sale of his calves from the same cows hav- 
ing produced him the sum of $24 56. The Cows are all of our 
native stock and have had no extra feeding whatever. The butter 
was of a superior quality and made up in pound lumps with exem- 
plary neatness. 

The Committee agree to award the second premium of fifteen 
dollars to Edward Toppan, of Newbury, having produced from four 
cows from 20th May to 1st July and five cows from 1st July to 30th 
September, nearly 400 lbs. of butter and 90 lbs. of two meal cheese. 
The cows are all of native stock. Their winter feeding was of 
coarse and cheap fodder until March and then until turning to pas- 
ture with the best English hay. The summer feeding was a very 
ordinary pasture. The butter was of good quality, and neatly done 
up in small printed lumps. 

Two other parcels of butter were presented : 

One by Sally Bradley, of Haverhill, which was of very good quality. 

One by Samuel Bailey of West Newbury, packed in a wooden 

firkin amounting to 21 lbs. from 3^ days milk of 8 cows, which 

was of a good quality, though considered by your committee as too 

strongly salted. 

Your Committee award to Sally Bradley a gratuity of three dol- 
lars ; and to Samuel Bailey a gratuity of two dollars; and this with 
a view to encourage a competition in this valuable article of agri- 
cultural produce, and of inducing the farmers of this County to send 
to the Show specimens of their best butter. 

No samples of Cheese were offered either for exhibition or 
premium. Your committee regret this, as they knov/ from personal 
observation, that samples might have been sent from some farms in 
the County, which would do honor to any dairy. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN ADAMS, Chairman of the Committee. 
Haverhill, Oct. 1, 1829. 



41 



JESSE CURTIS'S STATEMENT. 



To the Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society ^ on the Dairy, 
Gentlemen — I subjoin hereto, agreeable to your requisitions, an 
account of the produce of my Dairy of seven cows during the pre- 
sent season, from the 27th March to 30th September, for your con- 
sideration. We confme ourselves to the making of butter, which is 
marketed once or twice a week in the town. 



Butter made from 27th March 1829, to 14th May 
May 21, 

28, . 
June 4, - - 

11, - 

18, 

25, - 

9 



July 

9, 
16, 

23, 
30, 

Aug. 6, 
13, 
20, 
27, 

Sept. 3, 
10, 
17, 
24, 
28, 



Total, 

The ages of my Cows are as follows : — 
One is 9 years old last spring. 
Two are 8 " 
One is 7 " 
One is 4 '' 
Two are 3 " 
They are all of our native stock ; four of them were raised on the 
farm ; the other three in Middleton in this County. Their winter 

6 



lbs. 


oz. 


r, 120 




39 


4 


41 




46 




54 


6 


62 




60 


4 


54 




47 


2 


43 




40 


4 


37 




31 


6 


30 


4 


30 




31 


3 


30 


5 


33 


9 


32 


7 


19 


8 


33 


3 


lbs. 916 


loz 



42 



kcssffi^ sitttfl Xnck vats fii^iBk Bmj of a ijili i — sH^ ? ^^^^ 
lliJcSi dkey had ike bRSI ^Bifi^ oT Bi^Ui Hay udl tiae 'IKth Mslt 

iMi mfkevkail^. Frmi 30lh Avgmsi to BiUle of Sep- 

tAcy iwj c itg J oae fcjJ i ig of greea oan stalks per dm j. aad 

d^fiBB to fke lauLiBl tkeyktve k»d d» frll feed iatke 



of sx pento^twoof 

alva^ beoi aaed to HU de Ivead fer tke fewly. 
fe kEPe a ciiod duiy odhr; liai as we «re vkhodl Ike adwaa- 
ve poTW Jtu qw Ae ioor etoy day to reader it cooler. 
Tke Kik B kept aboie stain vBtfl Jane ; §nm Jne vslil October 
mAecde:. Tke Hflkdtnds faefere it ii AiMBed fiom fawr to 
sx — »*« ; geaenSr si. ^^^ rr^ caicfid to diaai all Ae 
^sBatkecBCOBai iir i.-^ -iiwrd ; aad Ike creaa b t 

-^wbiekre-dastke 
-f Iks aemm we 
swioe ia a ««ek : iim; aad Ike 



■ :-:- -:- : v of 

SaytotiheC 



■eof : 
Aydl.aadc 



SStAs-atlT: 
Tofdato: 

fe: 



JESSE CCRTIS- 
Og. J. ie&J&. 



43 



P. S. Tbreeof 
3d of April; tvoca tbe IsHIl 

aadaHiMUtfcefkai 



to tae 



Eacx, M. Oct. 1. 



^^tktP€ 



EDWARD TC^PA^i^ «"> flTATSafEXT. 



Fro 


.lby30ikiDJ^iM.fi>rea^ 


Si 1^ 




JiiiielattoJ«ljljl.fi»eoii^ - 


vbk 




Jalj Isi to AigBit Ijl, five cows. 


Sfe 7 




A^gMtljt to rum Willi lit. 


. es 




fi Hill Mill 1 Irt to Ouybn IM, 


io - 




r:>4 .- 


T- 


:_ ic^AkM anfe : 





5 



EDWARD TC^PAX 



. Of*. 13. Is*:*. 



44 
VII. ON MANUFACTURES. 

The Committee on Domestic Manufactures have attended to the 
examination of the various articles exhibited for premiums, with an 
interest, which the importance of the subject would naturally ex- 
cite. They havo seen with much pleasure the gradual increase of 
this important part of domestic economy. They view the articles 
manufactured in families not merely as valuable in themselves, 
but as giving employment and encouraging industry and enterprizo 
among those who without such employment would perhaps remain 
idle. Articles of domestic manufacture, whether designed for the 
various parts of clothing or intended for ornament, may be consid- 
ered as much gained to the community, because they are produced 
without interrupting the ordinary pursuits of agriculture. Among 
such a variety of articles exhibited, and in some instances so much 
competition in the same, it may well be presumed that the com- 
mittee have not in all cases come to a determination without diffi- 
culty. And although in instances they may have erred, yet they 
have endeavoured to exercise their best judgment. 

The following is a list of most of the articles exhibited and pre- 
miums awarded by the Committee : — 

28 yds.^carpeting, by Sally B. Sawyer, Amesbury, 1st prem. $5 
A square list carpet 4 yds. by 3J, by Mrs. Fox, Newburyport, 
2d premium -.-----*, 3 

22 j yards of carpeting by Mrs. Frances Smiley, Haverhill. 
43f yds. stair carpeting, by Miss Sally Little, Newbury, prem. 3 
27 yds. stair carpeting, by David Emery, Newbury. 
Grass bonnet, made from meadow grass, of very delicate 
manufacture, by Mrs. Rebecca Jenkins, Bradford, 1st pre- 
mium ---------- 

Palm leaf bonnet, by Phebe G. Jaques, 2d premium - 3 

Bonnet made of the down of milk weed, by Ann P Hale. 
Hearth rug, Mrs. Mary and Miss Sarah Smith, Danvers, 1st 
premium --------- 

Hearth rug, by Mrs. Alice Moody, Newbury, 2d premium - 3 

** *' Ann Harris, Newbury. 

" *• Abigail March. 

" " Mrs. Tafts. 

** *' Miss Ann B. Sumner. 



5 



5 



45 

Hearth rug, by Abiah Spafford, Andover. 

2 ps. " " Mrs. Mehitablc Steel, HavGrhill. 

'* *^ Miss Catharine Little, Newbury. 

*"' *' Handsome, painted on velvet by Miss Cathar- 

ine Breckway, Newburyport. 

" ** Mrs. Mary Stickney. 

" " Mrs. Fox, Newburyport. 

20 yds. woollen cloth, by Richard T. Jaques, Newbury, 

ist premium, --.-----$5 

A piece of woollen plaid, by Abigail Morse, Bradford, 2d prem. 3 

4G yds. flannel, by Wm. Sutt«)n, Esq. of Danvers, ) „ „ _^ -. i- 

26 vds. *' " " it i^ gratuity o 

One pair of woollen hose, by Mary Cram, Haverhill. 
One pair of three threaded linen hose, by the same. 
These hose were excellent, but not of sufficient number to ob- 
tain a premium. 
4 yds. table linen, by Miss Lucy Duston,^^HaverhilI. 
Wrought counterpane, by Miss Elizabeth W. Swan, Methuen, 
1st premium --------4 

Coverlet, by Meriam Emery, of West Newbury, 2d premium 3 
*' Jane Smith, Haverhill. 

" Mehitable Carlton, Dracut. 

" Miss Lucy Duston, Haverhill. 

Bedquilt, by Ann Knight, Newbury. 
3 lace veils, by Miss Mary W. Emerson, Haverhill. 
1 ** " Miss Betsey George, Haverhill. 

1 " " Mira White, Methuen. 

1 ^* " Mary B. Bradley. 

1 " " Maria Caldwell, Newbury, 1st premium - 8 

1 ** " Elizabeth Marshall, West Newbury. 

1 " " Mary Jane Bachelor, Haverhill, 2d premium 2 

1 " " Elizabeth Barbour,, Newburyport. 

1 " " Mary W. Hale, Newbury. 

1 " ** Sarah Jane Brown, Newburyport. 

Thread lace cap, by Maria C. Howe, aged 8 years, Haverhill, 

1st premium --------3 

Thread lace cap, by Harriet Maria Hammond, aged 8 years, 

2d premium ---... --Q 

One pair blankets, manufactured by Mehitable Carlton, 

Dracut. The committee consider these as well deserving 

a premium had they been manufactured within the County. 



46 

Silk watch chain, by Hannah Woodman, Haverhill, gratuity $1 
Sampler, by Sarah E. Slocura, Haverhill, gratuity • - j 

Two beaver hats, by Nathan Webster, Haverhill. 
Grecian pembroke work table, by Capt. Charles Short, Ha- 
verhill. 
A mahogany looking glass frame, by the same. 
A chaise of very elegant construction, by Brown and Davis, 
Haverhill. 

The Committee were much pleased with, the exhibition of a 
quantity of Hosiery, manufactured by the Newburyport Hosiery 
Company. It is understood that this Society does not offer premi- 
ums for articles manufactured by Incorporated Companies. The 
Committee however, take great pleasure in recommending this 
Company to the favorable notice of the public. 

The Company exhibited eighteen pair of Stockings, of nine dif- 
ferent qualities, v/hich the Committee consider equal if not superior 
to any Hosiery imported into the country. 

The Committee would have been pleased had the culture of Silk, 
been enumerated among the articles for which premiums are award- 
ed by the Society. They consider the culture of this article so im- 
portant, that they would urge the members of the Society in the 
strongest terms, to awake to this important subject of national in- 
diistry. It is well ascertained that every part of the United States, 
and particularly New-England, is well calculated for the growth of 
the Mulberry tree ; and wherever this tree will grow there the silk 
worm may be reared. By a report of the late Secretary of the 
Treasury, it appears, that in 1825 silk of the value of more than 
ten millions of dollars was imported into the United States. It is 
stated on high authority as a fact, that five small towns in the State 
of Connecticut produced in one season, nearly two tons and a half 
of raw silk, and of the value of more than twenty thousand dollars^ 
The town of Mansfield, in that State, containing a population of 
about 2500, produced 2430 lbs. of silk, while the staple of the 
South is cotton, rice and tobacco. May not our staple, ere long be 
silk ; and is not the time at hand, when the culture of silk and its 
manufacture will be a portion of the wealth of New-England. 

The Committee have been led to these remarks, from the circum- 
stance that Mr. Enoch Boynton, of Newbury, has exhibited to the 
Committee a quantity of silk made by worms, reared by himself, 



47 



prepared in a manner to form a favourable comparison with foreign 
silk. He has devoted much attention to the subject for several 
years, and is annually increasing in the quantity of silk produced, 
as his means enable him to extend his operations. Mr. Boynton 
also exhibited a machine for winding silk, which is understood to 
be ingenious and useful in the culture of this article. He also pre- 
sented the statement, annexed to this Report. 

Tlie Committee recommend a gratuity to Mr. Boynton of 85 
J3y order of the Committee^ 

E. MOSELEY, Chairman, 



ENOCH BOYNTON'S STATEMENT. 

An account of a specuncn of Silky the growth of the year 1829. 

Silk-worm eggs began to hatch 22d and finished hatching 27th 
of May, 1829. 

Silk-worms began to silk 21st of June and finished silking July 
9th, 1829 ; there were but few idle or slow spinners, and but {e\w un- 
healthy, all unhealthy worms were taken away and made no use of. 

On branches of the oak tree, with the green leaves on, the worms 
made the best silk, with the least floss ; and did congregate the 
most among the leaves and made the fewest double balls (double 
balls are those in which two silk worms work together.) 

The eggs which were laid on green leaves by the silk miller, and 
scraped off before hatching, were the best : green oak leaves and 
green rushes are better than paper for the silk miller to lay her eggs 
on, for the eggs can be separated with ease and spread on paper, 
and stirred about two or three times a day, which \v\\\ give every 
part of each egg a better chance for life. 

Sixteen hundred knots of raw silk, weighing 8 ounces, were drawn 
from 1258 silk balls (cases or coccoons) which have 83 yards in 
length in each knot ; the balls were taken without choosing as they 
came to hand. 

Six silk-worm threads were drawn to make one raw silk thread, 
making 633 yards of silk-worm thread, to each ball of the 1258 
silk balls which were made into half a pound of raw silk. 

Neichury, Byfcld, 1829. ENOCH BOYNTON. 

N. B. The best way to take hold of any art or science is io 
earn the leading principles, and work them out m detail by practice. 



48 
KEPORT OP COMMITTEE of the LEGISLATURE--1829, 

Report of a Committee, of the Legislature, on the Culture of Silk. 

JANUARY SESSION, 1829. 

Your Committee are unanimous in the opinion, that it will be 
for the interest of this Commonwealth to extend the Grant to Agri- 
cultural Societies, made by an Act passed in the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and nineteen, for the further time of 
live years, for the encouragement of the objects named in said Act, 
and for the encouraging the culture of Silk. For several years 
past, the culture of Silk has excited a good deal of attention in dif- 
ferent parts of our country, and great exertions have been made by 
patriotic individuals to bring this subject to the notice of the Agri- 
culturalists ill almost every State in the Union. The Congress of 
the United States, so late as the year one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty-five, directed its views towards this source of National 
wealth, and on motion of Mr. Miner, the Secretary of the Treasury 
was requested to prepare a manual, containing the best practical in- 
formation, that could be collected on the growth and manufacture 
of Silk. The subject was taken up by the Secretary with the zeai 
and ability, which it demanded, and his letter to the Committee on 
Agriculture, together with the treatise of De Huzzi^ on the culture 
of Silk in Germany, and on the plantation and management of Mul- 
berry Trees, were published by order of Congress, and have been 
extensively circulated throughout the several States of the Union. 

Your Committee refer to those works, as containing full informa- 
tion on this important subject. 

As to the practicability of introducing the culture of Silk into 
this Commonwealth, your Committee are of opinion that no dfficulty 
whatever exists. The white mulberry (morus alba) flourishes lux- 
uriantly in this climate ; is easily raised irom seed ; is not injured by 
our winters ; and may safely be transplanted to almost any soil. 
The kindest soils, however, are dry, sandy or stony ; these soils are 
preferred to low, rich and moist land. Your Committee believe 
that there are, on almost every farm, barren spots, rocky pastures, 
and uncultivated tracts, upon which this tree could be planted at a 
trifling expense, and would afford another means of a profitable pro- 
duction, to those which the farmers of the Commonwealth already 
possess. These trees may be planted in the most eligible situation 



49 

as standard trees, Or in hedges, which latter mode is considered 
more convenient for gathering the leaves. 

This tree continues to flourish many years. So early as the year 
1492, the very year of the discovery of America, a white mulberry 
tree was introduced into France from Italy, by Guy Papo, of St. 
Auben, and was flourishing so late as 1802, more than three cen- 
turies after it was planted. Leachaux, to evince his respect for this 
monument of agriculture, and parent of all the white mulberry trees 
in France, had built a wall around it. Nor is there any thing to 
fear from tlie cold of more northern climates ; for the white mul- 
berry tree flourishes in Sweden, and also at Pekin in China, although 
the thermometer descends, in this latter place, almost every winter, 
twenty degrees below zero. It appears to your Committee that ex- 
periments have been made in the vicinity of this capital, by which 
it is shown, that the tender plants of the white mulberry, raised 
from the seed, havo withstood the cold of our winters with perfect 
security. 

The seed of the white mulberry may be easily procured to any 
required extent. The growth of the plant is rapid, and if suitable 
encouragement be given, may be multiplied and spread over the 
Commonwealth, so that in four or five years the means of feeding 
the silk worm, and of producing an abundance of silk, may be 
brought to the door of every farmer in the State. As the work of 
feeding the worms can bo attended to by the domestic part of every 
family, without interfering in the least with the ordinary business of 
the farm, it is believed by your Committee, that a new and rich 
source of wealth may be, with little expense, created for the people 
of Massachusetts. 

Your Committee do not feel it necessary, at this time, to go into 
an elaborate historical review of the introduction of the culture of 
silk into the different nations of Europe, nor to advert, generally, to 
the labours of patriotic individuals, and societies, by whose efforts 
this source of wealth has been introduced into France, Italy, Ger- 
many, and several of the States of this country. But your Commit- 
tee will take the liberty of adverting to the course pursued in a 
neighbouring State in relation to this subject. The culture of silk 
was commenced in tho State of Connecticut as early as 1760, by 
Mr. N. Aspinwall, who planted large nurseries of the mulberry tree 
in New Haven and the town of Mansfield. This patriotic individual 
was active in obtaining of the Legislature of Connecticut, an act, 

7 



60 

granting a bounty for planting mulberry trees ; a measure in which 
he was zealously seconded by the celebrated Dr. Stiles. The pre- 
mium allowed by that State was ten shillings for every hundred 
trees which should bo planted and preserved in a thrifty condition, 
for three years ; and three pence for every ounce of raw silk which 
the owners of such trees should produce from cocoons of their own 
raising within the State. The result of this provision of the Legis- 
lature is seen at this day, in the flourishing condition of this branch 
of domestic economy in several towns of that State. We are in- 
formed by Mr. Rush, the Secretary of the Treasury, that three 
fourths of the families in Mansfield are engaged in raising silk, and 
are making annually, from five to fifty pounds in a family. One or 
two individuals have made each one hundred pounds in a season. 
It is believed that there are annually made in Mansfield, and the 
vicinity, from three to four tons. 

The first step to the introduction of this culture must be the 
planting of mulberry trees. When these shall have arrived to a 
growth of four or five years, sufficient quantity of leaves will be at 
hand for the feeding of the worms. When a sufficiency of nutri- 
ment is thus provided, the eggs of the most approved breeds can 
easily be procured, either from our own country or Europe, and 
distributed throughout the State. 

Your Committee feel it unnecessary at this time to enter into a 
minute detail of facts relating to this interesting subject. The most 
complete instruction on the management of the worms, can easily 
be supplied, and from the simplicity of the process may be learned 
even by children. The time the worm takes in completing its la- 
bours, from the egg to the perfecting of its task, is only six weeks. 
The care of feeding them is rather an amusement than a labour, 
and when it is recollected that a valuable article of commerce is im- 
mediately produced, your Committee cannot doubt that the culture 
is worthy the attention of this government. 

ABEL WHEELER, Per order. 



51 
VIII. CIDER. 

Tub Committee on the article of Cider, ask leave to Report : — 

There were three samples of Cider only exhibited, none of which 
came within the rules of the Society in awarding premiums. 

Mr. Jeremiah Stickney's cider was made out of the Common- 
wealth, of course not entitled to premium ; besides it was refined 
with cider brandy, which was very perceptible to the taste. 

It was fine in appearance and the taste was agreeable. 

Mr. Samuel Bayley's specimen of cider had a musty taste, and 
^vas not fine in appearance, and the liquor was obtained from freez- 
ing a larger quantity. 

Mr. Benjamin Greenleaf exhibited a sample of cider in bottles ; 
the quantity he made was only two barrels in 1828. It was not 
racked off before bottling which was the first of March and was not 
fine in appearance ; there was added to the cider about one quart 
of cider brandy to each barrel. It was made from sound fruit of 
various qualities — the flavour was pleasant and it has a good body. 

The Committee would have been quite happy to have been pre- 
sented with many samples which they could have approved of, but 
excuse it in part by the crop of apples being so very small the lasl 
year, but hope that in future years the farmers will be blessed with 
good crops and pay more attention to the manufacture of this arti» 
cle, it being one of the essential and staple articles of the New-Eng- 
land farmers. 

STEPHEN BARKER, Per order of the Committee. 

Haverhill, Oct. 1, 1829. 



IX. SWINE. 

The Committee appointed to award premiums for Swine, exhib- 
ited at the Cattle Show, &,c. of the Essex Agricultural Society, at 
Haverhill, October 1, 1829, Report :— 

That they have awarded to Mr. John Chase, of West Newbury, 
the first premium of six dollars, being for his four weaned pigs, six 
months old this day. The Committee regret that these were the 



62 

only swin€ entered for premium. There was one boai pig in one of 
the pons, of common quality, but the Committee were unable to as- 
certain the name of the owner. 

For the Committee. 

JACOB TOWNE, Jii. Chairman, 
Haverhill, Oct. 1, 1829, 



LATE PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Committee appointed to procure and present to the Honour- 
able TIMOTHY PICKERING, a suitable MEDAL, with appro- 
priate emblems, expressive of the high estimation in which the So- 
ciety hold his services as President, he having sustained this office 
since its first organization in 1818, Report ; — 

That before they had an opportunity of executing the wishes of 
the Society, expressed in the above vote, the lamented death of the 
Hon. Mr. Pickerino had occurred. This Qvent occasioned delay 
on the part of the Committee. They were of opinion however, 
that they should best execute the objects of the Society by com- 
pleting what they had originally intended, and by presenting it to 
his eldest Son and Executor, the Ron. John Pickering. Having 
understood that our iato venerable President had privately expressed 
an opinion, relative to such testimonials of approbation and respect, 
your Committee ventured to substitute a CUP for the Medal voted 
by the Society. The Committee transmitted the Cup to the Hon. 
John Pickering, of Boston, accompanied by letter, of which the fol- 
lowing is a copy : — 

Newbunjport, Sc^t. 23, 1829. 
Hon. John Pickering, 

Sir — The Essex Agricultural Society, at their last annual 
meeting, on occasion of the resignation of their respected President, 
your venerated Father ; after passing a vote expressive of their 
thanks for his *' long, faithful and arduous services as President of 
the Society" — " Voted,ih^t Messrs. Moseley,, Adams and Duncan, 



53 

be a Committee to procure and present to the Honourable Timothy 
Pickering a suitable Medal, with appropriate emblems, expressive 
of the high estimation in which the Society hold his services as Pre* 
sident." The Committee wore preparing to execute this charge 
(substituting a Cup for the Medal, from respect to an opinion ex- 
pressed by Col Pickering in relation to the form of such compli- 
ments) when his long course of active usefulness was suddenly ter- 
minated. On his lamented decease the Committee deemed that 
they should best fulfil the intention of the Society by presenting to 
you, his eldest surviving Son and Executor, the compliment design* 
ed for your respected Father : — They therefore, in behalf of the 
Essex Agricultural Society, present to you this Cup, end at the 
same time would express their respect for those talents and virtues 
which make you the worthy inheritor of your Father's honors. 
We are, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

EBENEZER MOSELEY, 
DANIEL ADAMS, 
JAMES H. DUNCAN. 



MR. PICKERING'S ANSWER. 

To Ebenezer Moseley, 
Daniel Adams, and 
JAaiES H. Duncan, Esquires, 

Committee of the Essex Agricultural Society. 

Boston, Sept. 28, 1S29. 
Gentlemen — I have received, with those feelings which the oc- 
casion could not but excite, the Donation on behalf of the Essex 
Agricultural Society, which was originally intended for my father, 
as their late President. Had he survived to have received it him- 
self from his friends, and associates, who constitute that respectable 
body, this testimonial of their respect and of the value attached to 
his efforts in promoting the honourable and important objects of the 
Society, would have been highly grateful to him. The affectionate 
remembrance of myself, on this occasion by that Association of in- 
telligent citizens, whose names will ever be honourably connected 
with the history of my native County, and whose partiality has new 
conferred on me this additional mark of the personal regard which 



54 

was so often manifeated during my residence among them, again 
calls for my warmest and most respectful acknowledgements, which 
I request you to communicate to the Society. 

I have the honour to be, gentlemen, with the highest regard, 
your obedient servant, 

JOHN PICKERING. 



KnscriiJtfon on the Qtnv. . 

PRESENTED TO THE 

HON. TIMOTHY PICKERING, 

BY THE 

ESSEX AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
OP HIS IMPORTANT SERVICES AS THEIR FIRST PRESIDENT. 



Elected February 16, 1818. 

Resigned September 25, 1828. 



Per order of the Committee, 

E. MOSELEY, Chairman 
Haverhill, Oct. 1, 1829. 



65 
PREMIUMS 

OFFERED DY THE 

fBnmv ^svltnUnvnl Soctets in 1830, 



The Trustees of the Essex Agricultural Society offer to the 
Farmers of Essex, the following list of Premiums, amounting to 
more than six huTidred dollars^ to be paid the present year, if a suf- 
ficient number of meritorious claims shall be presented. 



I. MANAGEMENT OF A FARM. 

For the best cultivated Farm - - thirty dollars. 

For the second best - - twenty -seven dollars. 

For the third best - - twenty-four dollars. 

For the fourth best - - twenty-one dollars. 

For the fifth best - - eighteen dollars 

For the sixth best - • - fifteen dollars. 

For the seventh best ... twelve dollars. 

Persons, claiming these premiums, will be required to state in 
writing, an accurate description of their farm, specifying the quan* 
tity and quality of different kinds of soil, and the means that have 
been used to bring the same into their present condition ; — the pro- 
portions suitable for tillage, mowing and pasturing ; — the number of 
acres planted the present year, with corn, grain, or vegetables, 
specifying the kinds of each, and their respective products, the 
quantity and kind of manure used for each crop, and the times and 
manner of applying it ; — the number of acres mowed the present 
year, and the kind of grass and quality of hay thereon ; — the num- 
ber of apple trees on the farm, the proportion grafted, the quantity 
of fruit, treatment of the trees, and the manner of making and pre- 
serving cider ; — the number and description of stock kept on the 
farm through the year, and the quantity of butter and cheese made, 
and the methods practised in making the same ; — the quantity of 
pork raised ; — the labour employed in carrying on the farm. 



56 

And it is expected that the claimants will state the kind of crop, 
if not able to state the quantity, raised on the several parcels of til- 
lage, mowing and pasture land described in their statements, for 
two years next preceeding the present. 

These statements must be forwarded to the Secretary of the So- 
ciety on or before the last day of November, the present year. 

Persons intending to claim these premium.s must give notice 
thereof to the Secretary, on or before the first day of June next. 

The Committee appointed to examine the Farms and to award 
these premiums, are Jesse Putnam of Danvers, Henry Colman of 
Salem, Joseph Kittridge of Andover, Moses Newell of West New- 
bury, Jeremiah Colman of Newburyport, William B. Breed of Lynn, 
William P. Endicott of Salem, and John W. Proctor of Danvers. 



11. DAIRY. 

1. For the best produce of butter, in proportion to the number 
of cows producing it (not less than four) made on any farm within 
the county, from the 20th of May to the 30th of September, in the 
present year, - - - . twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. do. fifteen dollars. 

For the third best do. do. ten dollars. 

2. For the best produce of new milk cheese, in proportion to 
the number of cows producing it (not less than eight) made on any 
farm within the county, from the 20th of May to the 30th of Sep- 
tember, in the present year, ... fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. do. ten dollars. 

For the third best do. do. five dollars. 

d^A sample of the butter, of not less than twenty pounds ; and 
a sample of the cheese, of not less than one hundred pounds ; must 
be exhibited to the Committee and the Society on the day of the 
Annual Exhibition. 

Each of the claimants for these premiums will be required to fur- 
nish the Committee on this subject, or the Secretary of the Society, 
with a statement in writing of the entire management of their 
dairy ; — specifying the number, age, and breed of their cows ; — the 
manner in which they have been fed through the year ; — their pro- 



57 

duce each month distinctly ; — the manner and times of making the 
butter and cheese, and the method practised of preservmg and tak- 
ing care of the same. These statements must be forwarded on or 
before the 20th of October next, verified by the oath of the claimant, 
or other satisfactory evidence. 



III. TURNING IN GREEN CROPS AS A MANURE. 

For the best experiment of turning in green crops as a manure, 
on not less than one acre, the experiment to be made in 1830, and 
a detailed account of it to be given in 1831, and forwarded to the 
Secretary on or before the 20th of November - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - - ten dollars. 



IV. FOREST TREES 

The premiums heretofore oifered to encourage the cultivation of 
Forest Trees, are ordered by the Trustees to be continued for five 
years next ensuing, to wit : — 

For the best plantation of IVhite Oak Trees, raised from the 
seed, not less than one acre, nor less than one thousand trees, in 
the third year's growth, - - - thirty dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - twenty dollars. 

For the third best do. - - ten dollars. 

For the best plantation of Locust Trees, with the same condi- 
tions, ----- twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. * - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best do. - - - ten dollars. 

For the best plantation of Larch Trees, with the same condi- 
tions, .---,* twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best do. - - - ten dollars. 

For the best plantation of White Ash Trees, with the same con- 
ditions, ----- twenty dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best do. - < - ten dollars. 

For the best plantation of Chcsnut Trees, with the same condi- 
tions, - - • - - twenty dollars. 

8 



58 



For the second best do. - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third best do. • _ r> - ten dollars. 

Iccp* Claims for these premiums may be entered with the Secre- 
tary of the Society. The plantations will be examined by Ebene- 
zer Moseley of Newburyport, Andrew Nichols of Danvers, David 
Cummins of Salem, Benjamin Osgood of Methuen, and John 
Choate of Ipswich, a special committee for this purpose, in the 
third year after they are planted. A statement in writing of the 
entire process of cultivation will be required from the claimant. 



V. CULTIVATION OF WHITE MULBERRY TREES FOR 
THE MAKING OF SILK. 

For the best nursery of white mulberry trees, raised from the 
seed, or from cuttings, in the second or third year of their growth, 
not less than one thousand in number, - twenty -five dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - twenty dollars. 

For the third best do. do. - - fifteen dollars. 

For the fourth best do. do. - - ten dollars. 

For the fifth best do. do. - - - five dollars. 

05=^See the Pamphlet of 1829, for some interesting remarks on 
this subject. 

Claims for these premiums may be entered with the Secretary of 
the Society ; and the Committee on Forest Trees will examine the 
same. 

VI. IRRIGATION. 

For the most satisfactory experiment for increasing the crops, 
upon not less than one acre of land, by irrigation, (that is turning 
water from its natural current so as from time to time to overflow 
the land) with a detailed account of the manner, expense, and ben- 
efits produced - - - - twenty dollars. 

N. B. Claims for this premium must be entered with the Secre- 
tary, so that the Committee for viewing Farms may have an oppor- 
tunity of examining the crops while growing. If not awarded the 
present year, it will be continued for the next, and so on for five 
vears, in the hope of producing some valuable experiments on this 
subject. 



59 
VII. PLOUGHS AND PLOUGHING. 

For the best performance in ploughing with teams of two yoke 
of oxen, - - - . - sixteen dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - twelve dollars. 

For the third best do. - - - eight dollars. 

For the best performance in ploughing with teams of one yoke of 
oxen, without a driver, - . - twelve dollars. 

For the second best do. - .» - nine dollars. 

For the third best do. - - six dollars. 

For the best constructed plough that shall be produced at the 
Exhibition, - - - - * five dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - three dollars. 

For the best pair of working oxen at the Exhibition, 

eight dollars. 

For the second best do. • • - five dollars. 

REMARKS. 

C^y^ Double teams will be required to plough not less than seven 
inches deep ; — single teams not less than five inches deep ; — and 
each one quarter of an acre of land. The work is not to be done 
in a hurry ; — but in such a manner as the teams would work three 
hours together, without extraordinary fatigue. The best work, with 
lerist expense of labour, will be the test of merit — Particular regard 
will be had to the construction of the plough used ; — as it is a pri-i 
mary object in offering these premiums, to introduce to common 
use, ploughs of the best construction. 

Persons intending to be competitors for these premiums, will give 
notice of the same to Joseph Kittridge, of Andover, or the Secretary 
of the Society, on or before the Monday next previouscto the day of 
Exhibition. Land will be procured for the accommodation of six- 
teen teams. If more should enter, those first entered will have the 
preference. — The expense of keeping teams that may travel more 
than ten miles for this purpose, whether successful or not in the 
competition, will be paid by the Society, provided it shall not exceed 
tivo dollars for one team. 

The Ploughing Match will take place at 11 o'clock, A. M. on the 
day of the annual exhibition. 



60 

VIII. COMPARATIVE VALUE OF CROPS AS FOOD 
FOR CATLLE. 

For the most satisfactory experiment upon a stock of Cattle, not 
less than four in number, in ascertaining the relative value of the 
different kinds of fodder used for the cattle, as compared with Eng- 
lish hay, with a detailed account of the fodder used and the expense 
of raising the same : the experiment to be made in the three winter 
months - - - - . twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - , fifteen dollars. 

For the third best - - . ten dollars. 

05^ These premiums are offered, to be paid whenever a m.erito- 
rious claim is presented to the Trustees, and will be continued for 
five years. 



IX. CIDER. 

For the best barrel of Cider that shall be produced at the Exhibi- 
tion in 1830, a premium of - - - ten dollars ; 
and $5 more will be given for the cider for the use of the Society. 

For the second best, a premium of - five dollars. 

()I/**These liberal premiums are offered for cider, with the hope, 
that farmers will be ambitious to obtain the same. They will not 
be awarded unless the article offered, is of a superior quality. A 
description of the whole process of making and preserving the same, 
in the casks, will be required to be presented to the committee. 
Only one barrel will be required to be kept, until the time of the 
Exhibition. This will obviate the objections that have heretofore 
been made tosthe offer of these premiums, when four barrels have 
been required to be kept through the year. 

These premiums will be continued for the next year. 



X. POTATOES. 

1. For the best conducted experiment in the raising of potatoes, 
on not less than half an acre of land, having regard to quantity and 
quality ; a detailed statement of which is to be furnished the com- 
mittee in writing - - , - - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. do, - - - ten dollars. 



61 



2. For the best conducted experiment in the raising of Potatoes, 
from the seed of the apples or green balls — samples of not less than 
four quarts from each seed of the second year's growth, and the 
produce of not less than six seeds, to be produced at the Society's 
Exhibition in 1830 - - - - ten dollars. 

For the second do. do. - - - five dollars. 

03^ For some interesting instructions on this subject, see the 
pamphlets heretofore published by this Society ; and several cora» 
munications in the New England Farmer — a valuable work, that 
should be in the possession of every Farmer. 



XI. FOR IMPROVING OUR NATIVE BREED OF 

CATTLE. 

To the person who shall produce at the public exhibition of the 
Society, in either of the years 1830, or 1831, or 1832, or 1833, or 
1S34 — any number of milch cows, not less than four, of our native 
breeds, showing manifest improvement therein, by an important in- 
crease in the quantity ^ and maintaining, at least, if not improving, 
the good quality of milk ; the latter to be tested by the quantities 
of butter made in the five months next preceeding the exhibition — 

For the best - - - . thirty dollars. 

For the next best - - - twenty-five dollars. 

For the third - - - - twenty dollars. 

To the person who shall produce as aforesaid, the best pair of 
working oxen, or well grown and well trained steers, raised in the 
County, and improved on the principles hereinafter mentioned, 

twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third - - - - ten dollars. 

To the person who shall produce as aforesaid, the best bull of 
our native breed, raised in the County, and improved on the same 
principles, ... - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - - - fifteen dollars. 

For the third - - - - ten dollars. 

Cl/*For instruction on this subject, and the particular conditions 
on which these premiums are offered, see the Pamphlet of 1829. 



62 
XII. IMPROVEMENT OF WET MEADOW LANDS. 

For the best experiment in improving, by draining, gravelling, or 
otherwise, not less than one acre of wet meadow or swamp land, 
the experiment to have been fullj tested by 1830, Vvlien the pre- 
mium is to be awaided, - - - twenty dollars. 

For the second best - . - ten dollars. 

05^ Note. This preminm will be continued from year to year, 
until some satisfactory experiment shall have been made. 



XIII. ANIMALS TO BE PRODUCED AT THE EXHIBI- 
TION IN ANDOVER, on Thursday, September 30, 1830. 

For the best bull, not less than one year old, on satisfactory as- 
surance being given that he shall be kept for use in the County, at 
least 22 months from the day of exhibition, - fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do. - - ten dollars. 

For the third best do. do. - - - five dollars. 

00° As the object in offering these premiums is to promote im«- 
provement in our breed of stock, the Trustees have thought it pro- 
per to direct, that persons who may receive the premiums shall sign 
an obligation to be left with the Secretary, that they will observe 
the conditions on which the premiums are offered, or forfeit the 
same for the benefit of the Society. 

For the best milch cow, not less than three nor more than ten 
years old, with satisfactory evidence, as to the quantity and quality 
of her milk, and the manner in which she had been fed, 

fifteen dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do. - - ten dollars. 

For the third best do. do. do. - - five dollars. 

For the best heifer, that has been in milk, three months or more, 
with satisfactory evidence of the quantity and good quality of her. 
milk . _ r • - ten dollars. 

For the second best do. do. do. - - five dollars. 

For the best pair of three year old steers - ten dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - five dollars. 

For the best pair of two year old steers - five dollars. 

The Trustees have thought proper to renew their premiums upon 
swine, and offer the following the present year: — 

For the best boar - - - - five dollars. 



63 



For the second best - - - three dollars. 

For the best breeding sow - - - five dollars. 

For the second best - - - three dollars. 

For the best litter of weaned pigs, not less than four, from two 
to six months old - - " - - six dollars. 

For the second best - - - three dollars. 

0^ The person receiving a premium for a breeding sow, will be 
required to obligate himself to keep the animal for this purpose, at 
least one year from the time of Exhibition. 

No animals will be entitled to receive more than one premium. 
Animals that have received one premium from the Society, will not 
be entitled to another, unless it be of a higher order. 

Should any animals of fine quality, be presented at the public 
show, for exhibition, they shall receive such notice from the Trus- 
tees, as by their merits they are entitled to. And should they be of 
extraordinary quality, such gratuities will be tendered, as may re- 
ward their owners for exhibiting them. 



XIV. DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 

For the best piece of carpeting, a yard wide, and not less than 
twenty yards to be exhibited, - - five dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - - three dollars. 

For the best piece of stair carpeting, not less than twenty yards 
to be exhibited, ... - - three dollars. 

For the best straw or grass bonnet, - - five dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - three dollars. 

For the best wrought hearth rug, having regard both to the 
quality of the work, and the expense of the material, three dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - two dollars. 

For the best piece of woollen cloth 7-8ths of a yard wide, and 
twenty yards in quantity, - - - five dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - three dollars. 

For the best piece of flannel, a yard wide, and twenty yards in 
quantity, . . - , . four dollars. 

For the second best do. do. - - two dollars. 

For the best wrought woollen hose, not less than four pair, 

two dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - one dollar. 

For the best men's half hose, not less than four pair, one dollar. 



64 

For the best silk hose, not less than three pair, two dollars. 

For the best piece of linen cloth, not less than twenty yards, 

four dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - two dollars. 

For the best piece of linen diaper, not less than twenty yards, 

three dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - two dollars. 

For the best wrought counterpane, having regard to the quality 
and expense of the materials, - - four dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - two dollars. 

For the best specimen of wrought laee, - three dollars. 

For the second best - - . two dollars. 

For the best specimen of work, performed by a child under twelve 
years of age, exhibiting industry and ingenuity, three dollars. 

For the second best do. - - - two dollars. 

And should any other articles of domestic manufacture, be exhib- 
ited, worthy of attention, a proper notice will be taken of them, and 
suitable premiums awarded. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

All claims for premiums, to be awarded the present year, must be 
entered with the Secretary of the Society, on or before 9 o'clock, 
A. M. of the day of Exhibition. 

Articles of domestic manufacture must be at the place of Exhi- 
bition as early as 9 o'clock, A. M. ; and must remain there until 
3 o'clock P. M. 

Premiums on animals (excepting Bulls and Milch Cows) will be 
confined to those raised within the County of Essex. 

No animal on which a premium has heretofore been awarded by 
this Society, will be entitled to a second premium ; except it be for 
an entirely distinct premium, and for qualities different from those 
for which the former premiums were awarded. 

No animal will be entitled to have more than one premium awar- 
ded for it, at the same Exhibition. 

With regard to all the subjects, for which premiums are offered, 
it is to be distinctly understood, that the Trustees reserve to them- 
selves the right of judging of the qualit?/ of the animal or article 
offered ; — and that no premiums v.'ill be awarded, unless the objects 
of them are of a decidedly superior quality. 

By order of the Board of Trustees^ 

FREDERICK HOWES, 1 
EBENEZER MOSELEY, | 
ANDREW NICHOLS, }Commiitee. 

WILLIAM P. ENDICOTT, | 
JOHN W. PROCTOR, J 

March, 1830. 



I 



65 



AGRICULTURE. 

Meeting of the Essex Agricultural Society, at Haverhill, Octo- 
ber 1, 1S29 : — It was proposed by Ichabod Tucker, Esq. of Salem, 
That the Trustees, be requested to appoint Committees, to take 
into consideration the following subjects connected with this insti- 
tution, and to report thereon in writing, at the next Annual Meet- 
ing, viz :— 

1. Manure, including the materials of which it is composed, 
and the best mode of applying it. 

2. Forest Trees — for Timber, Fuel and Ornament, tho best 
mode of cultivating, &c. 

3. Fruit Trees — Fruit, Orchard, Nursery, preservation from the 
Canker Worm, the Borer, and from all insects and diseases. 

4. The Garden, deserving the careful attention of every farmer, 
and mechanic and men of all professions. 

5. The Manufacture of Silk, in connection with the cultivation 
of the White Mulberry Tree. 

6. Irrigation and Draining Land. 

7. Improving our Native Breed of Cattle, for the Dairy, for La- 
bor, Travelling, Food, &:c. — Horses, Mules, Cows, Oxen, 
Sheep and Swine. 

8. Pasture Land, can any thing be done to restore barren pas- 
ture, which cannot be ploughed. 

9. Improvement in Farming Tools. 

10. Buildings and Farm-steads. 

11. Division of the Farm into Garden, Tillage, Mowing, Pas- 
ture, Orchard, Wood, and Roads. 

12. Fences, Live Hedge, &c. 

13. Feeding Cattle, cooking Food by Steam, &,c. Soiling, &lc. 

14. Grasses, best adapted to various soils, for Mowing and for 
Pasture. 

15. Agricultural Chemistry. 

16. Agricultural Catechism, including Interrogatives upon all 
branches of Rural Economy. 

9 



66 



17. Bees — cliaracter, modo of treatment, what crops cultivated 
for them, <fcc. 

Wliercupon, it was voted by the Society, " That the com- 
munication from Ichabod Tucker, Esq. relative to the appoint- 
ment of Committees, on several important subjects relating to Ag- 
riculture, with a view to preparing reports or dissertations thereon, 
ta be communicated to the Society, — bo referred lo the Trustees ; 
and that they be requested to adopt such measures in relation to the 
same, as will best promote the object in view." 

Attest, J.-W. FROCTOR, Secreian/. 



HINTS 



AUDUESSt:]) TO Tiir, 



FARMERS or ESSEX COUNTY 



Whatever may be said of other countries and climes, the in- 
habitants of Essex County have no just reason to complain of the 
location which Providence has assigned them. Whoever traverses 
this County will see perhaps as few marks of poverty as in any parts of 
the country, which have been as long settled, and fewer than in many 
parts, whose settlement has been more recent. If he does not find 
many examples of great wealth, especially in our rural estabish- 
ments, he may observe numerous indications of thrift, comfort, and 
substantial independence, and the reasonable rewards of enterprise, 
perseverance, frugality, and industry. The general aspect of the 
County is diversified and broken, and on that account favorable to 
health. On a comparison of the bills of mortality in those places, 
where they have been so kept that this comparison could be properly 
made, as in Ipswich for example with Breslaw in Europe,* a place 
deemed the most healthy on the continent, the result was greatly in 
favor of the longevity of this County. We should not know where 
to look for a population more respectable for its general intelligence, 
public order, and good morals. These are eminent blessings, and 
should produce grateful contentment and a rational use of our ad- 
vantages. 

We have no extraordinary fertility of soil ; no rich alluvion ; no 
deep intervale on the borders of the streams by which the County 
is watered. We have little sandy land, but a great deal of a thin, 
hungry, gravelly surface, and a considerable extent, in scattered 
parcels, of low and wet swamps abounding with peat and capable of 
being drained and converted into productive meadow, at an expense, 

' ^lemoirs of American Academy, Vol. I., p 505. 



68 



if well managed, which may be fully remunerated by two or three 
pf the first crops. Besides this, we have considerable quantities of 
superior land ; a good soil resting upon a clay or hard pan and reten- 
tive of the manure which is put upon it. Our bogs and swamps in 
the interior of the County furnish abundant means of increasing our 
manure and enriching our uplands ; and as a large part of the County 
is washed by the sea, the grounds in its vicinity are benefitted by the 
saline atmosphere ; and the means of greatly increasing their fer- 
tility by muscle bed and sea-wreck are within our reach. Of these 
advantages many of the farmers in the neighborhood of the ocean 
avail themselves, and the products of some of the farms in the 
County, both in the interior and on the sea-board, are highly credit- 
able to their industrious and intelligent cultivators. 

We have authentic statements, by which it appears that the fol- 
lowing amount of crops have been raised at different times in differ- 
ent parts of this County : — 

Of Wheat — 24 bushels, and 28 bushels to the acre.* 

Of Indian Corn— 70 bushels; 72 bushels; 71^ bushels: 90J 
bushels; 93f bushels; 105 bushels 6 quarts ; 110 bushels; 113^ 
bushels ; 115 bushels ; 1 17^- bushels.t 

Of Barley — 50 bushels ; 51J- bushels ; 52 bushels and 18 qts. 

Of Potatoes— 518^ bushels. 

Of Carrots— 849 bushels ; 864 bushels ; and 378 bushels, at 5G 
lbs. per bushel ; and 900 bushels. 

Of Mangel Wurtzel — 924 bushels ; and 1340 bushels to an acre, 
at 56 !bs. per bushel. 

Of Ruta Baga — 688 bushels. 

Of Beets— 783 bushels. 

Of English Turnips— 636 bushels : 687 bushels ; 672 bushels ; 
751 bushels ; 814 bushels. 

Of Onions— 651 bushels.t 

We know of a lot of six acres from which thirty tons of Hay, ac- 
tually weighed, were gathered in one season ; and another field of 
about forty acres, from which, according to the statement of respect- 

* The average produce of wheat and ryo in Great Britain is 18 bushels to 
the acre. Sec Armstrong's Treatise on Agriculture, p. 31. 

■t Mr. Burnham's crop of 117 ^ bushels was rated at 50 lbs. to a bushel. 
Messrs. Little's of 115 bushels at 5G lbs. to a busliel. Rating Messrs. Little's 
crop at 50 lbs. per bushel, it would be equal to 134 bushels to the acre. 

X The above statements are to be found in the Memoirs of the r«rassachusett3 
Agricultural Society, and the Reports of the Essex Agricultural Society. 



69 

able and disinterested individuals, the yearly crops have averaged 
more than one hundred and twenty tons, or three tons to an acre. 
We can point to a small dairy establishment,* the produce of which, 
when all circumstances are considered, is probably not surpassed in 
the State, where seven of our native cows, with no extra feed what- 
ever, have averaged a yield of 160 lbs. each of butter in a season ; 
and another| where with high feeding five cows have produced 208 
lbs. in a season to a cow. 

We may likewise refer to the Salem Alms House farm, as an er- 
ample of successful husbandry, which for the size of the farm, we 
believe is not surpassed in the country. We admit that they have 
every advantage both of labor and manure ; but it is honorable so 
successfully to avail themselves of these advantages. We here sub- 
join an account of the last year's produce, (1829) which, as we have 
received it from the clerk of the establishment, may be entirely 
relied on ; *' the same being as near the quantity produced as can 
be ascertained, without actual weighing and measuring." 
75 tons of English hay, 
3 " salt hay, 
600 bushels corn, 
4000 " potatoes, 
200 " barley, 
500 " turnips, 
200 " beets, 
600 " onions, 
100 " carrots, 
50 ^' pease in pod, 
30 " beans do. 
10 tons squashes, 
10 " pumpkins, 
300 dozen cabbages, 
200 lbs. sweet marjorum, 
300 *' sage, 

200 ** balm and other herbs, 
40 '' garden seeds, various sorts, 
50 bushels cucumbers, 
3 tons melons, 

• Of Jesse Curtis of Marblehead. See Report on the Dairy for this year. 

t Of Jesse Putnam of Danvers. See Report of Essex Agricultural Society 
for 182t>. 



70 



100 bushels radishes, 

Broom corn for 12 dozen brooms, 
500 roots celery, 
800 fowls, 
11600 lbs. pork, 
10 calves, 
200 cords manure, 

Apples, plums, peaches, cherries, &c. but few — say 10 
bushels. 
Stock kept on the farm, — 

Oxen, average number - _ _ _ lo 

Cows " " - . . . 10 

Horses -- 2 

Bull 1 

Hogs of all ages, ----- 80 

35 acres of ground were cultivated, 
50 " " '' mowed. 

This farm contains now probably about 110 acres, several of 
which being ledge, are incapable of cultivation. 

These statements are honorable to the County ; and if, any 
person would see what judgment, industry, and perseverance 
can effect under almost every disadvantage, let them visit the 
farm of Ichabod Nichols, Esq. on the Salem Turnpike, a place so 
aptly denominated by a traveller "the abomination of desolation ;" 
where, in the midst ot rocks and bogs, upon which a man must have 
had the courage of a hero to look with the thoughts of subduing 
them, we find productive meadows, and well cultivated fields ; and 
a milk establishment of upwards of thirty cows, alike creditable to 
the perseverance and productive to the pocket of its indefatigable 
proprietor. 

The farms in the County can none of them be called large ; and 
many of them have been subdivided to an injurious extent. If a 
man has a large family of children to establish, and wishes to form 
them to the honorable and industrious habits of an agricultural life, 
we advise him to emigrate into those new countries, where land is 
fertile and cheap ; and he can form a sort of patriarchal colony 
around him. The homestead with us is too small to admit of farth- 
er division. If he wishes to engage largely in the raising of Live 
Stock, or in the cultivation of Hemp, he is promised, in the fertile 
alluvions of the Western States, advantages, which are not to be 



71 

found here. But if, on the other hand, it is his main object to obtain 
a comfortable support, and, for a man of moderate desires, a decent 
independence, what is an inhabitant of Essex County to gain by 
emigration!. To say nothing of the expenses of removal and the 
numerous privations and hardships incident to a settlement in a 
new country ; in point of pecuniary profit we believe that the ad- 
vantage is on our side. If on the banks of the Ohio he may obtain 
eighty bushels of Indian corn to an acre, we may easily produce 
fifty, f he eighty bushels, if he is so fortunate as to find a market, 
may bring him twenty cents per bushel, equal to sixteen dollars per 
acre. His fifty bushels here will ordinarily bring him seventy cents 
per bushel, which is thirty fivo dollars. Labor is nearly as dear in 
Ohio as it is here, though without doubt the lands are of much 
easier tillage. One great difference is in the expense and trouble 
of manuring our lands, for which there will be more than an equiva- 
lent in the increased value of the crop. Let the farmers of Essex 
then, according to the French proverb, " if they stand well, stand 
still" ; and instead of complaining of the hardships of the times and 
the small profits of farming, let them make the best use of the 
means of comfort and of bettering tbetr condition, which they pos- 
sess ; and look considerately on the peculiar blessings of that im- 
proved state of society in which they live, instead of being dazzled 
by the bright visions of more fertile soils, and abundant products 
without labor, which have deluded so many to their ruin. 

It must be admitted that the farmers of Essex County have sin- 
gular advantages from their proximity to good markets. Their pro- 
duce they ca-n easily sell for cash.. Haverhill, Andover, Lowell", 
Amesbury, Newburjport, Sakm, Marblehead, Lynn, and Boston, 
furnish opportunities for the disposal of our produce at as good 
prices as are to be obtained in any part of the country. With all 
this however the agriculture of Essex County is not in an improved 
condition. Very little is accomplished compared with what may be 
done. We shall refer to some prominent defects or faults in our 
husbandry ; and with a proper respect for the judgment of those 
more competent than ourselves to treat this subject, we will hazard 
a few hints as matters of inquiry and reflection. 

It must be admitted, in the first place, that there is a great want 
of system in our agricultural operations. Few farmers lay down 
any regular plan of cultivation or pursue any regular rotation of 
crops ; bat appear to be governed rather by accident, or caprice, or 



72 



hereditary custom, than by any well matured plan having in view 
the gradual and permanent improvement of the whole farm. We 
know instances in which Indian Corn has been planted in the same 
spot upwards of ten years in succession and potatoes nesjily as long. 
The consequences are the gradual inpoverishmentof the soil, dimin- 
ished crops, and the neglect of other and valuable parts of the farm, 
which are doomed to the product of a sour or scanty herbage or to 
perpetual barrenness and neglect. It does not now remain to be 
proved that good husbandry requires a change and alternation of ^^^j 
crops ;* that crops of the same kind on the same land should not 
immediately succeed each other ; that it is a wasteful husbandry, 
which year after year spends the manure of the farm on the same 
pieces of land to the neglect of other parts of the farm ; and that a 
skilful farmer will aim by a regular course and in succession to go 
over the whole of his farm, which is capable of being subjected to 
the plough, and bring it all both arable and pasture into as good a 
condition as he can. The intelligent husbandman should look at 
his whole farm to decide what should be done ; determine the quan*- 
tity to be cultivated by the amount of labor and manure, which he 
can apply to it ; and then arrange his rotation of crops so as to 
take up one part after another in succession, that in the end the 
whole shall be brought under a regular and systematic course of im 
provement. 

We shall speak next of our improvident or unskilful management 
of manure. Manure is essential to successful husbandry ; yet in 
few instances is halt the amount made, which with little trouble 
might be made. Of what is made a large portion is wasted by ex- 
posure to the sun and rains. — We shall say nothing of the advan- 
tages of barn cellars and vaults because they are deemed expensive. 
But we will suggest a few simple rules, which every farmer may ob* 
serve. Litter your stock with whatever of coarse fodder or refuse 
hay or leaves you can procure, for their comfort and your interest. 
The best farmer that Switzerland ever produced (Kliyogg) took 
care that his cattle should stand knee deep in litter. — Fill your pig 
styes and barn yards with litter, or mud, or loam drawn from the 
sides of the roads, or wherever it can be taken without injury to the 

* " For more than half a century the rotation s^^stem has formed the true 
test of agricultural improveraont in overy variety of soil and climate. When- 
ever it has been adopted the art is found in a state of prosperous progression ; 
whenever neglected or rejected it is cither stationary or retrograde." Trea- 
tise on Agriculture, p. 81. 



73 

farm. Confino your cattle as much as possible when at home to 
your l)arn yard ; and never suffer them to be in the roads ; or to 
waste their manure at their watering places. In the morning throw 
tlie droppings of every night into a heap and cover it with a light 
coat of soil. It is a better plan to house your cattle every night as 
much in summer as in winter, unless the weather is extremely hot. 
In general, if tlie barn is well ventilated they will be as comfortable 
in doors as out, and in this way your manure heap will be greatly 
increased. Take care of the contents of your privy, and save the 
refuse of your sink by throwing it upon a compost heap, or making 
the deposite whore it can easily be removed. The privy and sink 
on many farms are most offensive places, and are sometimes so situ- 
ated that they compel one to think that their owners have scarcely 
made an approach to a state of civilization.* We should copy the 
extreme carefulness in this respect of the Chinese and the Flemish 
farmers, who suffer nothing to be lost. A good farmer should look 
upon manure of every description as money, which he may place at 
once at compound interest, and the payment of which is sure. 
There is no provision of nature, which is adapted more to strike 
the reflecting mind with grateful astonishment, than that by which 
the most offensive substances, instead of remaining to pollute the air 
and destroy the health and comfort of man, are converted into the 
means of fertilizing the earth and return to bless him in all the 
varied forms of beauty and utility, in flowers and fruits and the 
more substantial products of esculent vegetables and grain. Ma- 
nures decidedly improve each other by being mixed in compost 
rather than applied singly. For almost all crops they are of much 
greater value applied green than kept over the year ;f and where a 
farmer cannot form a cellar under his stables, he will find his ac- 
count in erecting a cheap and rough shed over his manure heap to 
preserve it from the wind and sun and drenching rains. The ex- 
pense of it when attached to the barn need not be great, and will be 
much more than compensated by the advantages gained by it. 

* We trust we shall be excused the plainness of these hints, but they concern 
health, comfort, and interest. A vault walled with stone is to be preferred, but 
if you have not this, place under the necessary a wooden box with or without 
a bottom, about two and a half feet deep, and let it extend three or four feet 
behind the building, having; a close but moveable cover; and then having a 
load or two of loam placed near, by throwing a few shovels full in every two or 
three days, you will effectually prevent the place from being offensive both 
within and without ; and the contents may be easily removed at any time to 
tlie compost heap witliout disgust or inconvenience. 
t See note A. at the end. 

10 



74 

We speak next of the winter keeping of our Stock. Though 
tliere are numerous honorable exceptions, our cattle do little credit 
to their owners ; and when spring arrives it often happens that our 
cows, and 3K)ung stock especially, are lean, dirty, and hide-bound, 
and indicate pretty strongly the neglect and hardness of their mas- 
ters. In many cases, if the farmer can get them through the winter 
alive upon salt or fresh meadow hay, he congratulates himself on 
having performed his duty and saved his money. But it is a false 
economy, and the farmer as well as his cattle arc sufferers by such 
neglect and hard usage. We do not require of the farmer to give 
much English hay to his cattle, excepting to his milch cows in the 
spring, because it is too expensive a feed ; and it is in general the 
principal article of produce upon which he depends for the payment 
of his labor and the pecuniary wants of his family. His meadow 
hay should be well cured and salted ; at least half a bushel of salt 
to a load. His corn fodder, both top and bottom stalks, should be 
cured and saved with as much care as his English hay. So too 
with his barley, rye, and wheat straw. He should lay in a quantity 
of salt hay if his situation admits of it. To these he should by all 
means add a plentiful supply of vegetables ; mangold wurtzel, Swed- 
ish turnips, carrots, or potatoes. The three former, when planted 
on ridges formed by turning a back furrov^^ the manure being de- 
posited under the ridge, being once thinned carefully and after- 
wards cultivated by a plough or drill harrow, may be raised, taking 
into tho account the cost of twenty-five bushels of seed potatoes to 
an acre, at as little expense as potatoes; and with cultivation, which 
will give 200 bushels of potatoes, you may ordinarily calculate upon 
500 bushels of carrots, Swedish turnips, or mangold wurtzel. 

An acre of carrots yielding six hundred bushels, and nine hun- 
dred have been obtained in this County, allowing to a horse throe 
pecks per day, in which case he would require no grain and very 
little hay, which might be coarse hay, would be equal to the keeping 
of a horse for a term of two years ; but as horses are ordinarily kept 
besides the grain which they require, a liorse to be kept in good 
condition would need for a year more than four tons of good hay or 
more than eight tons for two years ; now allowing one ton and one 
quarter of hay to an acre, which may be considered as a fair aver- 
age, the produce of an acre of carrots, as far as and while it can 
be applied to the feeding of a horse, is equal to more than six acres 
of land in hay. The manure made from succulent vegetables is 



76 

doubtless preferable to that from coarse dry food ; the health of the 
aijimals fed upon them is much better. 

Swedish turnips are easily raised and arc a valuable food for cat- 
tic. One of the most eminent farmers and breeders* in England, 
at a public meeting in November last, declared that after several 
years experience he deemed them for feeding stock superior to 
every other species of vegetable. Mangold Wurtzel is a more pre- 
carious crop ; it does not keep so late, and is much more likely to 
be injured by early frosts. It is said likewise, and some instances 
within our own observation seem to fayorthe belief, that where it is 
given abundantly to milch cows, while it increases the quantity of 
milk, it tends to reduce their flesh. We have found the Swedish 
Turnips a nutritious and excellent root for neat cattle and sheep. 
Swedish turnips have been kept perfectly free from frost, even dur- 
ing this inclement winter, by being placed in a vacant mow and se- 
cured top and sides and bottom with a thick covering and flooring of 
refuse salt hay. Another advantage of this root is that it may be 
kept in a sound state until June. Jesse Buel, Esq. of Albany,! ^^^is 
raised good crops for several years by planting them on land from 
wliich the same year he had taken a crop of grass. Good crops of 
nearly four hundred bushels to the acre have been obtained in this 
County, on land broken up after mowing and planted the ISth of 
July. The fall however in this caso was unusually favorable ; and 
the crop would doubtless have been better, if the planting had 
been earlier. 

We will not quit this part of our subject, without calling the at- 
tention of farmers to the value of boiled carrots as food for swine. 
By several accurately conducted experiments, for which he receiv- 
ed the Agricultural Society's gold medal, Arthur Young, the distin- 
guished English farmer, demonstrated that boiled carrots as food for 
rearing and fattening swine were greatly superior to boiled potatoes. 
If then, as we have grounds to believe from repeated experiments, 
500 bushels of carrots can bo raised at as little expense as 200 of 
potatoes, the farmer will fmd no difficulty in making an inference 
most important to his interests. Wo have a detailed account of 
these several experiments in relation to boiled carrots, but have no 
room for their insertion. 

We remark in the next place upon a practice too common among 

* The Rov. Ilcnry Berry, British Farmer's Magazine, Nov. 1820. p. 481. 
t See Note B at the end. 



76 



our farmers, and prejudicial to their interests ; — we mean the prac- 
tice of permitting our teams so often to lie idle. It has grown into 
a proverb with the English farmers, that if a farmer does not keep 
the plough going he will fail. To every single or double team in 
English farming a ploughman or driver is attached, whose sole bu- 
siness it is to take care of his horses and keep them always at w^ork. 
In general, on farms where labor is hired, if the farmer can afford 
to keep a team he can afford to keep a teamster, who should be 
constantly employed with that team ; ho should no more consent to 
let his team lay idle day after day, than to let his hired men lay idle 
day after day. We should therefore plough much much more land 
than we do ; and when the team is not otherwise occupied it should 
at least be employed in procuring and carting to the compost heap 
materials for manure ; or in removing stones, or in carting gravel 
on to meadows, if that is deemed the best method of reclaiming 
them ; or in other purposes, which the circumstances of the farmer 
may suggest. At any rate as a yoke of oxen or a horse cannot be 
kept but at very considerable expense, their labor should not be 
lost, where, as in most cases, it is possible to apply it. This can be 
best done by having a man, who shall be attached to a team, and 
whose business it shall be, except in cases of extraordinary demand 
for his labor in other services, to employ this team. 

The gains ot husbandry, even under the most successful cul^ 
tivation, must be small, and in our system of farming must arise 
from small sales and small savings. But if the gains are small the 
risks are proportionably small ; and if there are none of the extra- 
ordinary and splendid accumulations there are none of the painful 
anxieties and the extreme risks of commercial life ; and men are 
secure from those habits of inordinate speculation in which if they 
do not, as is very com.mon, in the end lose all their property they 
too often purchase success at the expense of all honor and principle. 
We have often heard it remarked by intelligent merchants in Bos- 
ion, that of those engaged in trade from one cause or another more 
than three fourths become bankrupt or die insolvent. We have no 
doubt of this fact ; and it ought to restrain the anxiety and morbid 
ambition which prevails so generally among parents, to place their 
children in trade and to bring them up in the expensive habits of 
city life. A good farm well managed will yield a fair compensation 
for labor ; and there are no situations among us more truly inde- 
pendent than that of the man, who, to the advantages of a well 
managed farm, adds the profits of some handicraft trade, which gives 



77 



him cm})loymcnt in inclcmont weather ; and during the long vaca- 
tion iVojn agricultural labors, which winter brings with it. Two 
great drawbacks upon the fanner's prosperity have hitherto been the 
use of ardent spirit and the extravagant price of labor. The former 
evil, is vastly diminished ; and we believe that more than one half of 
the farms in this County will this year be managed without the use 
of a drop of ardent spirit ; in truth, it is becoming quite disreputable 
to use it, and no custom can stand long against public opinion, 
when it is once thoroughly set against it. The price of labor is 
stiil inordinate, but this must come down. The price of labor 
ought to be regulated by the price of bread and clothing. Former- 
ly wages were considered ample when a man could earn a bushel 
of corn or grain in two days ; now he can often obtain two bushels 
in one day ; formerly the laborer was well paid if he could earn the 
cloth for a shirt in three days, and now he can obtain the cloth for 
three shirts by the labor of one day. The price of all mechanical 
labor, of which the farmer must sometimes avail himself, is most 
exorbitant, such as that of the carpenter, the wheelwright, the black- 
smith,' the mason. The blacksmith charges you a dollar and a 
quarter or a dollar and a half for shoeing your horse, and two dol- 
lars or more for shoeing your oxen. The materials of iron and coal 
for the horse cost about thirty four cents, and for the oxen not twice 
as much, and the time employed does not exceed two hours for 
each animal. Other articles of the labor are equally dear. The 
mason charges you two dollars and sometimes two dollars and a 
quarter per day ; that is, in a trade in which their is no mystery, for 
labor which is not harder than common farm labor, and where the 
tools cost almost nothing, he must receive enough per day to pur- 
chase more than four bushels of corn, or nine bushels of potatoes, 
and more then twenty yards of good cotton cloth for sheeting or 
shirting. Wo begrudge no man his honest gains ; but while every 
effort is made to grind down the farmer to the lowest possible price 
for his products, we can but hope that the time will come when the 
price, which he himself is obliged to pay for labor, will bear a juster 
relation to the compensation which the community is willing to 
make him for his own. These, as we observed, are great draw-backs 
upon the farmer's success ; they compel a prudent man to forego 
many improvements which he would otherwise make, and to hus- 
band his resources with an extreme frugality. 

We inquire in the last place to what sources may a farmer look 
for a remuneration of his labor. The farms in the County, as we 



78 

hare remarked, are small ; the system pursued therefore must be 
adapted to this fact. The raising of stock, cither neat cattle or 
horses or sheep, must be left to those parts of the country, where 
land is cheap, pasturage abundant, and hay finds no market. It is 
not certain however that cattle may not be fattened here to advan- 
tage^ or as the butchers term it topped offer finished ; that is, pur- 
chased in the autumn in good condition and sold improved in the 
spring ; and the increase of weight and of price be a fair equivalent 
for the cost of provision. This will be finding the best home mar^ 
ket tor our farm produce, and the valuable manure obtained will be 
more than a compensation for the attendance. There is nothing so 
much against this system as the great profits or commissions of the 
butchers. The experiments of several farmers in this matter ia a 
small way have been such as to favor rather than to discourage 
further trials ; although the extraordinary depression in the Brighton 
market the last year has occasioned a serious loss to some extensive 
feeders in the interior. 

The Essex farmer must make two inquiries for himself. The 
first what can he produce on his farm for the necessary consumption 
and support of his own family ? The farming produce, which goes 
without waste to this account, is always disposed of to the best pro- 
fit. Here by the way let us ask what is the reason that throughout 
the country there is not one farmer in ten, perhaps in forty, who 
has any thing like a good kitchen garden ; the principal labor of 
which might be done by his own children, or domestics, and which 
would contribute greatly to the support, the health and the luxury 
of his household, by a bountiful supply of early and various vegeta- 
bles and fruits. Under this head too we will suggest only one rule, 
which is, that he should as much as possible rely upon the produce of 
his farm for his support, that is live as far as possible upon its pro- 
ducts — A good farm may be made to yield a plenty of meat, milk, but- 
ter,cheese, poultry, eggs, bread, vegetables, cider, fruit, honey, and 
wool ; — and when a man can have ail these in abundance, need he 
complain of want ; and will he not be as comfortable and his chil- 
dren as healthy to be fed upon good bread and milk as upon tea, 
colTec, and sugar, which are such a drain upon our earnings ; and 
ought he not to beware, above all, of the consuming moth of a butch- 
er's bill, who must furnish over overloaded tables with meat at least 
three times a day ; and the expense of foreign and superfine flour, 
instead of the substantial brown wheaten loaf or Indian bannock, 
with which our fathers were satisfied. 



79 

The next inquiry, which the Essox farmer should make, is what 
can he raise to sell? 

Hay is one of the first articles, and will yield ordinarily a fair pro- 
fit. We have this advantage, that there is not a town in the county, 
which may not find a market for its hay. The Ipswich farmers 
have for years found a profit in transporting vast quantities to Bos- 
ton market by land in spite of the competition of the neighboring 
tov\ns, and the screwed hay from Maine. 

J'ruit is another article for which a ready market is generally 
found. The produce of the orchard of one farm in West Newbury" 
has been equal for several years, before the two last, when the owner 
is suffering from the canker worm, to six or eight hundred dollars 
per year. 

Indian Corn is the next crop which should claim the farmer's at- 
tention. This crop is the greatest blessing that ever was bestowed 
upon any country. It is not a more exhausting crop than potatoes 
or any other crop, as may be ascertained from the result on those 
places where it has been raised for years in succession on the same 
ground, with tolerable success. The cost of the seed is a mere 
trifle. The labor of cultivation will be greatly lessened when we 
learn to use the horse plough and the drill harrow more and the 
hoc less, and renounce the old and useless systems of hilling and 
half hilling — The best product has been obtained by planting it in 
drills from north to south, that it may have the full benefit of the 
sun. A successful trial, we are told, has been made the last year 
at the Alms House, in Haverhill, of cultivating it on a level surface 
without hilling at all, with a horse harrow, and not putting a hoe to 
it after the planting, the children of the establishment having been 
employed to weed among the plants. The produce of corn fodder 
from an acre for the feed of any neat stock, if well cured and chop- 
ped, is nearly equal to a ton of English hay. There is no crop 
which returns so much to the ground ; potatoes return nothing 
where the crop is sold. The fodder from an acre of corn when the 
crop is good, in the opinion of Chanceller Livingston of New- York, 
will pay the labor of cultivation ; and if the manure is furnished by 
the iann the grain may be considered as clear profit. 

The Dairy should be the next object of an Essex farmer. All the 
butter and spare poultry wliich the County can produce may be 
sold as fast as it is made and reared in the several towns and villaijea 



o 



'^ Statement of Willium Tlmrlow— Estcx Reports for l&2d— p. 21>, 



80 

which are accessible to diflercnt parts of the County. These are 
articles therefore for which the farmer may command ready money. 
By the way however we greatly object, unless it is very near, to the 
farmer himself going onco a week to the market* where he is most 
likely to be tempted to waste a whole day and to incur needless ex- 
pense. We recommend therefore that our farmers should do as is 
done in many parts of Worcester county, where some established 
market man goes once or twice a week to Boston and sells the pro- 
duce of his neighbors in poultry, butter, eggs, &c. on a fair commis- 
sion. The profits of a Dairy under the best management will not 
be great — but may be a fair compensation, especially if the cows 
are well fed in winter and succulent food is provided for them as it 
may easily be in summer, by the raising of corn sown for the pur- 
pose of cutting green and keeping up their milk, when the pastures 
fail. 

The next object is the fattening of pork. We cannot in Essex 
County raise our pigs so cheaply as we can purchase them from 
New York and Vermont ; but if we purchase them at a suitable age 
and of a good kind, why may they not be fattened here without loss 
and perhaps with a small gain? If there is no loss, the manure ob- 
tained and the consumption of the offal of the Dairy and farm is of 
great moment. We are aware that much must depend on the ac- 
tual price of corn here, for on that we must mainly rely for fattening 
them ; but this is always as low on the seaboard as it is one or two 
hundred miles in the interior. On this subject we do not presume 
to speak with confidence ; but we propose it as matter of fair and 
accurate experiment to some of our intelligent farmers, feeling a 
strong persuasion, especially if boiled carrots are as beneficial as 
they are represented to be,'|" that the result will be favorable. 

We shall speak of but one subject more, in which we call upon 
our female readers, should any such honor our remarks with a 
perusal, to aid in the labors of husbandry and to share likewise lib- 
erally in its profits. 

The town of Mansfield, in Connecticut, produces annually, as 
appears by authentic statements, from forty to fifty thousand dollars 
worth of silk ; almost the whole of which from the hatching of the 
worms to the reeling of the silk is the produce of female and child- 
ren's labor. The expense of capital, required to begin an establish- 
ment on the Connecticut plan is, we are told, very small indeed. 

♦• See Note C. i See Note D. 



81 

Is not Essex County as favorable as any part of Connecticut to the 
raising of silk ; and arc not our wives and daughters as intelligent 
and as well disposed to be useful and industrious as any ? We 
throw out these hints on a subject, on which we do not profess to 
have any experimental knowledge, for their consideration. 

We have extended these observations further than wo had design- 
ed ; at the same time we have very cursorily glanced at many sub- 
jects, upon which wo might refer to numerous facts, if we had the 
opportunity, in proof of our remarks. We address them to an intel- 
ligent and industrious community, in hopes that they may excite to 
inquiry and reflection with others. We look upon the cause of ag- 
riculture as essentially that of humanity, public happiness, good 
morals, and religion. Whatever serves to increase the means 
of subsistence and comfort concerns humanity. Whatever con- 
tributes to make the country more beautiful and more bountiful, 
promotes both individual and public happiness. Whatever leads' 
men to be industrious and frugal, essentially concerns their morals. 
Whatever increases our attachment to our homes, and strengthens 
our domestic affections by making our homes comfortable and hap- 
py, must make us more sensible to God's goodness. More than 
this. Practical Agriculture must lead a man constantly more and 
more to study the works of nature and to contemplate with wonder 
and gratitude the miracles of divine providence, which are present- 
ed to his observation in tho beautiful progress of the seasons and 
their appropriate and various products. ** Nature is God's earliest 
revelation" and it is full of instruction. Our Saviour bade his dis- 
ciples strengthen their faith in the protecting providence of God 
by looking at the birds of the air and the flowers of the field. The 
enlightened and reflecting farmer, in surveying the products of 
his labor, the various operations in which he is called to perform 
his part, and the brute animals, who gratefully acknowledge his 
care and look up to him as the almoner of the divine bounty to 
them, will find constant and powerful incitements to think of cmd 
to honor God, the great husbandman, whose rain enriches, whose 
sun warms the earth ; and \vho in his goodness has placed man in 
his vineyard that he may till and dress it. 

11 



NOTES. 



NOTE A. 
MANURE. 

For the application of manures see the quotations from Arthur 
Young's prize essay on manures, in Memoirs of New York 
}3oarci of Agriculture, Vol. II. p. 264. He gives the authority of 
upwards of twenty most intelligent and experimental farmers, who 
are decidedly in favor of applying manure in a green or unrotted 
state to all crops, which admit of being hoed. 

" With respect to laying on manure, says Mr. Wilkes, I have ex- 
perienced that dung carried from the stable yard at not more than 
three days old, and laid directly on the land both in summer and 
winter (that is in England) has an advantage of twenty per cent 
over that dung, which is kept from nine to twelve months." 

" It has become a pretty well settled principle among good farmers 
(says Jesse Buel, Esq. of Albany, one of the best farmers in the 
country) that we should never delay applying manure because it is 
unfermented or unrotted ; but on the contrary that they are the 
most profitably applied before fermentation commences, or while it 
is in an incipient state." — N. Y. Memoirs^ Vol II. p. 220. 

*' Our eyes and nose, without the aid of chemistry, are sufficient 
to inform us, that farm yard manure loses one half, if it be kept 
twelve months; and in proportion if it be kept a shorter time, while 
the season favors decomposition." — Lorain^ s Hushandry , p. 100. 

" Those parts of a field to which short dung was applied gave the 
best crops the first year, but those on which the long dung had 
been laid, gave the best crop tho second and third years ; a fact 
which authorises the conclusion that if we wish to obtain one great 
crop the rotted dung is best ; but when we look to more permanent 
improvement the long dung is to be preferred." — Armstrong's 
Treatise, p. 65. 

" It is a common practice amongst farmers to suffer the farm yard 
dung to ferment till the fibrous' texture of the vegetable matter is 
entirely broken down, and till the manure becomes perfectly cold, 
and so soft as to be easily cut by the spade. There are many ar- 
guments and facts which show that it is prejudicial to the interests 
of the farmer. 

" During the violent fermentation, which is necessary for reduc- 
ing farm yard manure to the state in which it is called shoj^t muck, 
not only a large quantity of fluid but likewise a gaseous matter is 
lost ; so much so that the dung is reduced one half or two thirds in 
weight ; and the principal elastic matter disengaged, is carbonic 
acid with some ammonia, and both these if retained by the mois- 
ture in the soil are capable of becoming a useful nourishment for 
plants." — Sir Humphrey Davy's Lectures, p. 209. 



83 

" Within tho last seven years Mr. Coke (perhaps the greatest far- 
mer in tlic world) lias entirely given up the system formerly adopt- 
ed on his farm of ap[)lying fermented dung; and he informs nie, 
that his crops have been since as good aa they ever were, and that 
his manure goes nearly twice as far." — Ibid. p. 272. 

NOTE B. 
SWEDISH TURNIPS. 

Mr. Buel's experiments are fully detailed in the Memoirs of New 
York Agricultural Board, Vol. II. p. 249, and Vol- III. 83. Those 
who know the character of this gentleman know how entirely his 
statements may bo relied on. We subjoin an extract from his se- 
cond communication. — Vol. III. p. 83. 

" The second experiment was upon a lay, partly of lucerne, too 
thin to be worth preserving, and partly of clover. The first was 
cut twice for green food, and the latter once for hay. The ground 
having been manured was ploughed and harrowed, and the seed 
drilled in, at the distance of three feet between the rows, the 28th 
June. The crop was cleared, thinned, and hoed in the usual way ; 
and the product was between fiva and six hundred bushels, or about 
sixteen tons on the acre. 

" Encouraged by this success, I this year put in two and a half 
acres. Being short of pasture, I fed off the clover in June, instead 
of cutting it for hay ; manured, ploughed, and harrowed the ground. 
A man was employed half a day in putting in the seed with a drill- 
liarrow. The crop was between 1300 and 1400 bushels. Some of 
the roots weighed betv/een 15 and 16 lbs. each. The tops nearly 
equal in bulk to an ordinary crop of grass were fed to my cows in 
November and December, with great benefit to their milk as well 
as llesh. The roots were pitted in the field." 

NOTE C. 
MARKETS. 

*' The weekly attendance on markets is a great loss to small far- 
mers, whose individual labor in many instances is an object, but 
whose personal superintendence must always be material. "When 
stated as a period of relaxation, I am always ready to make great 
allowances; but fifty-two idle days, or the sixth part of a year, is a 
sacrifice, a prudent man would hesitate about. It is probable that 
not one farmer in twenty is aware of the sacrifice.— Cwrwe^j's 
Hints f p. 245. 

Let us state the account as nearly as we can rate it. 

62 days at 50 cents, .... $26 00 

Loss of the work of a Horse, 50 cts. per day, 26 00 
Expenses, tolls, &c.— 40 cents per day, - $20 60 

$72 80 



84 

NOTE D. 

FEED FOR SWINE. 

From Arthur Young's Prize Essays on Rearing and Fattening 
Hogs. 

Experiment II. 
" At the same time (March, 1765) with the preceding trial, four 
lots of pigs, that had been weaned three months, were equally drawn 
from my farm-yard, five in each lot. They were confined as be- 
fore, each lot to a stye, and cleaned at the same time ; their food 
was as follows :— 

No. 1. Bran (v?heat) mixt with milk. 

2. Boiled Potatoes. 

3. Boiled Carrots. 

4. Raw Carrots. 

They were kept to this food thirty days, and then viewed them 
as before w^ith the same person. 

No. 3. Much the best, — boiled carrots. 

1. Next, — bran and skim milk. 

2. Next, — boiled potatoes. 
4. Worst, — raw carrots. 

Boiled carrots appeared very clearly on this trial to be an admira- 
ble food for hogs of this age ; — Boiled potatoes appear also a good 
food, &c. 

Experiment VI. 
The month of December, 1766, twenty pigs, that had been 
weaned a month, were draughted into four parcels, and kept that 
month, separately in the following manner. 
No. 1. Boiled carrots. 

2. Boiled potatoes. 

3. Boiled turnips. 

4. Boiled cabbages. 

At the end of the month they were turned out and viewed atten- 
tively. The result was :— 

No. 1 . The best, — boiled carrots. 

2. Next, — boiled potatoes. 

3. and 4. Equal, — all nearly dead. 

Carrots continue in every trial superior to all common vegetable 
food. I am not at all surprised at the ill success of turnips and cab- 
bages.'^ 

There are many other Experiments detailed, giving similar re- 
sults, of which our limits forbid the insertion. 



85 



EXTRACTS 

From Washington's Agricultural Notes — written in IT^'J. 



*' It is the indispensable duty of liim, who is employed to over- 
look and conduct the operations of a Farm, to take a prospective 
and comprehensive view of the whole business, whicli is laid before 
him, that the several parts thereof may be so ordered and arranged, 
as that one sort of work may follow another sort in proper succes • 
sion, and without loss of labor or time ; for nothing is a greater 
waste of the latter, and consequently of the former, (time produc- 
ing labor, and labor money,) than shifting from one thing to another 
before it is finished, as if chance, or the impulse of the moment, not 
judgment and foresight, directed the measure. It will be acknow- 
ledged, that weather and other circumstances may at times inter- 
rupt a regular course of proceedings, but if a plan is well digested 
before hand, they cannot interfere long, with a man who is acquaint- 
ed with the nature of the business, and the crop he is to attend to." 

** Every attentive and discerning person, who has the whole bu- 
siness of the year laid before him, and is acquainted with the nature 
of the work, can be at no loss to lay it out to advantage. He will 
know, that there are many things which can be accomplished in 
winter as well as in summer ; others, that spring, summer and 
autumn only are fit for ; in a word, to use the wise man's saying, 
that " there is a time and a season for all things," and that unless 
they are embraced, nothing will thrive or go on smoothly. There 
are many sorts of in-doors work, which can be executed in hail, 
rain, or snow, as well as in sunshine ; and if they are set about in 
fair weather, (unless there be a necessity for it,) there will be noth- 
ing to do in foul weather ; the people therefore must be idle. The 
man of prudence and foresight will always keep these things in 
view and order his work accordingly, so as to suffer no waste of 
time, or idleness. These observations apply with equal force to 
frozen ground, and to ground too wet to work in, or which if work- 
ed will be injured thereby." 

" Nothing but system and method are required to accomplish any 
reasonable requests." 

" Economy in all things is as commendable in the manager, as 
it is beneficial and desirable to the employer. This manifests itself, 



86 

in the taking care of the crops, that no part of the same is wasted ; — 
in not permitting the ploughs, harness, and other implements of 
husbandry, to be unnecessarily exposed, trodden under foot, run 
over by carts, and abused in othsr respects. More good is derived 
from attending to the minutia3 of a farm, than strikes people 
at first view ; and examining the farm yards, fences, and look- 
ing into the fields to see that nothing is there, but what is allowed 
to be there, is often times the means of producing more good, or at 
least of avoiding more evil, than can be accomplished in any other 
way." 

" There is much more in what is called head work, that is, in 
the manner of conducting business, than is generally imagined. 
Take two managers, and give to each the same number of laborers, 
and let the laborers be equal in all respects. Let both these mana- 
gers rise equally early, go equally late to rest, be equally active, so- 
ber, and industrious, and yet, in the course of the year, one of them, 
without pushing the hands under him more than the other, shall 
have performed infinitely more work. To what is this owing ? 
Why, simply to contrivance, resulting from that forethought and 
arrangement, which will guard against the misapplication of labor, 
and doing it unseasonably. In ploughing, for instance, though the 
field first intended for it, or in which the ploughs may actually have 
been at work, should from its situation, be rendered unfit (by rain 
or other cause) to be worked, and other spots, even though the call 
for them may not be so urgent, can be ploughed, this business 
ought to go on, because the general operation is promoted by it. 
So with respect to other things, and particularly carting, where 
nothing is more common, than, when loads are to go to a place, and 
others to be brought from it, though not equally necessary at the 
same moment, to make two trips, when one would serve. These 
things are only mentioned to show, that the manager, who takes a 
comprehensive view of this business, will throw no labor away." 

The intrinsic good sense in the foregoing remarks, as well as tht 
authority from which they come, will commend them to the favour- 
able notice of every farmer, who is at all aware, that *' Time is 
Money," and that he that makes the best use of the one, will be 
most likoJy to accumulate the otJtcr. 



87 

OF THE 

ELECTED OCTOBER, 1829. 



FREDERICK HOWES, of Salem, President. 

Ebenezer Moseley, of Newburyport, '] 

Solomon Low, of Boxford, I yr. t> -^ * 

y r< c T r Vice' Jf residents, 

James Gardner, oi Lynn, f 

James H. Duncan, of Haverhill, J 

Andrew Nichols, of Danvers, Treasurer. 

John W. Proctor, of Danvers, Cor. and Rec. Sec't/. 

Trustees. 
John Adams, of Andover. 
Abijah Cheever, of Saugus. 
Jonathan Ingals, of Andover. 
Stephen Barker, of Andover. 
Daniel Putnam, of Danvers. 
Daniel Adams, of Newbury. 
Henry Colman, of Salem. 
Asa T. Newhall, of Lynnfield. 
Jesse Putnam, of Danvers. 
Stephen Abbot, of Andover. 
Moses Newell, of West Newbury. 
David Gray, of Andover. 
Richard Stewart, of Haverhill. 
Jacob Towne, jr. of Topsfield. 
Thomas Payson, of Rowley. 
Jeremiah Colman, of Newburyport. 
William P. Endicott, of Danvers. 
Erastus Ware, of Salem. 
Jeremiah Spafford, of Bradford. 
John Choate, of Ipswich. 
Hector Coffin, of Newburyport. 
Francis Peabody, of Salem. 
Daniel Weed, of Amesbury. 
Daniel P. King, of Danvers. 



88 



TJie following names, have been added to the list of Menibers- 
since Uie last publication. 

Nathan Webster, of Haverhill. 
Rufus Slocum, of Haverhill. 
Richard Jaques, of Newbury. 
William Ives, of Salem. 
Pickering Dodge, jr. of Salem. 
Enoch Silsby, of Boston, 



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